WorldWideScience

Sample records for resident intestinal bacteria

  1. [Transformation and expression of specific insecticide gene Bt cry3A in resident endogenetic bacteria isolated from Apriona germari (Hope) larvae intestines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhongkang, Wang; Wei, He; Guoxiong, Peng; Yuxian, Xia; Qiang, Li; Youping, Yin

    2008-09-01

    Transforming the specific insecticidal gene Bt cry3A into the dominant resident endogenetic bacteria in intestines of Apriona germari (Hope) larvae to construct transgenic bacteria that can colonize and express the insecticidal gene Bt cry3A perfectly in intestines of Apriona germari (Hope) larvae. We isolated and identified the dominant resident endogenetic bacteria by traditional methods and molecular method based of 16S rDNA analysis. Two Escherichia coli--Bacillus thuringiensis shuttle plasmid pHT305a and pHT7911 which contained specific insecticidal gene Bt cry3A were transformed into two resident endogenetic bacteria Brevibacillus brevis Ag12 and Bacillus thuringiensis Ag13 isolated from A. germari larvae intestines respectively by electro-transformation. Eighteen species of bacteria have isolated and identified from Apriona germari larvae intestines and two of them (Brevibacillus brevis Ag12 and Bacillus thuringiensis Ag13) were selected as starting bacteria to recieve the Bt cry3A. The 4 transgenic engineering strains Ag12-7911, Ag12-305a, Ag13-7911 and Ag13-305a were obtained successfully and validated by testing the plasmid stability in recombinants, transformants vegetal properties, crystal poisonous protein observation, expressional protein SDS-PAGE. The Bt cry3A gene had been transformed into Brevibacillus brevis and Bacillus thuringiensis. Both bioassay and examination of the engineering strains in intestines after feeding them to larvae showed that all these transformant strains (Brevibacillus brevis Ag12-305a, Bacillus thurigiensis Ag13-305a, Brevibacillus brevis Ag12-7911 and Bacillus thurigiensis Ag13-7911) could colonize and express 65 kDa protoxin in intestines of A. germari larvae and had insecticidal activity. We obtained four transgenic bacteria that can colonize and express the target insecticide gene Bt cry3A in A. germari larvae. They may be developed as a new insecticide.

  2. The friendly bacteria within us Commensal bacteria of the intestine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The friendly bacteria within us Commensal bacteria of the intestine: Roles in health and disease B.S. Ramakrishna Professor & Head Gastroenterology & Hepatology Christian Medical College Vellore · Slide 2 · Intestinal bacteria: the hidden organ · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · The normal bacterial flora prevents GI disease · Slide 7.

  3. The friendly bacteria within us Commensal bacteria of the intestine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) are main source of energy for colonic epithelial cells · SCFA – role in colonic disease · SCFA prevent mucosal inflammation · Immunoregulation by gut bacteria · Balance of bacterial species in the gut · Immunosensory detection of intestinal bacteria · Pathogenic bacteria release interleukin-8 ...

  4. [Metabolism of mangiferin by human intestinal bacteria in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huixue; Tan, Zhenyuan; Deng, Jiagang; Liang, Qiuyun; Nong, Yumei; Song, Nianmei

    2011-02-01

    To study the metabolism of mangiferin by human intestinal bacteria in vitro. Human intestinal bacteria and mangiferin were incubated under anaerobic conditions in vitro. The metabolite was separated and purified by D101 macroporous resin column and preparation high performance liquid chromatography, and its structure was identified by MS and NMR. After 12 h incubation with human intestinal bacteria, the content of mangiferin metabolite reached the maximum, and it was determined as 1, 3, 6, 7-tetrahydroxyxanthen by MS and NMR. Mangiferin can be metabolized in vitro by human intestinal bacteria into its aglycone (1, 3, 6, 7-tetrahydroxyxanthen).

  5. Prevalence of intestinal parasites and bacteria among food handlers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No intestinal parasites were detected from fingernail contents. Forty six (23%) stool specimens were positive for intestinal para¬sites. Giardia lamblia 18 (9%) was most frequent among the 10 different types of detected intestinal parasites followed by Entamoeba histolytica 9 (4.5%). No pathogenic bacteria were detected in ...

  6. Bacteria, bile salts, and intestinal monosaccharide malabsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracey, Michael; Burke, Valerie; Oshin, Ademola; Barker, Judith; Glasgow, Eric F.

    1971-01-01

    Intestinal monosaccharide transport was studied in a series of rats with a self-filling jejunal blind loop using 3mM arbutin (p-hydroxyphenyl-B-glucoside) or 1mM D-fructose as substrate in vitro and 10 mM arbutin or 5mM D-fructose in vivo. These results were compared with changes in the bacterial flora and state of conjugation of intraluminal bile salts in those animals. Observations were also made of the microscopic and ultrastructural appearances of the small-intestinal epithelium. In the small intestine of blind-loop rats intestinal monosaccharide transport is impaired, and in vitro is most marked in the blind loop, less so in the efferent jejunum, and not significantly altered in the afferent jejunum. A similar pattern of disturbed monosaccharide absorption was demonstrated by perfusions in vivo. The degree of the transport defect correlates closely with the luxuriance of the anaerobic flora, which averaged 108 per millilitre in the blind loop, 107 in the efferent jejunum, and 106 in the afferent jejunum. A similar pattern of abnormality of bile salt conjugation occurred. In the blind loop the ratio of free to conjugated bile salts was grossly abnormal; this disturbance was somewhat less marked in the efferent jejunum and considerably less in the intraluminal contents of the afferent jejunum. An irregularly distributed lesion, consisting of swelling and vacuolation of microvilli and intracellular organelles, was demonstrated in the small-intestinal epithelium of blind-loop animals. Impaired absorption of monosaccharides is a further consequence of bacterial contamination of the upper gut. It is suggested that this defect is caused by the presence of high levels of deconjugated bile salts produced by an abnormal anaerobic bacterial flora in the small intestine. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:4329096

  7. Intestinal bacteria and the regulation of immune cell homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David A; Artis, David

    2010-01-01

    The human intestine is colonized by an estimated 100 trillion bacteria. Some of these bacteria are essential for normal physiology, whereas others have been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple inflammatory diseases including IBD and asthma. This review examines the influence of signals from intestinal bacteria on the homeostasis of the mammalian immune system in the context of health and disease. We review the bacterial composition of the mammalian intestine, known bacterial-derived immunoregulatory molecules, and the mammalian innate immune receptors that recognize them. We discuss the influence of bacterial-derived signals on immune cell function and the mechanisms by which these signals modulate the development and progression of inflammatory disease. We conclude with an examination of successes and future challenges in using bacterial communities or their products in the prevention or treatment of human disease.

  8. Response of resident bacteria in a tropical detergent effluent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteria were isolated from a tropical detergent-polluted stream, and their responses to linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) were investigated. The responses of the resident bacteria were assessed in terms of their ability or failure to grow in the presence of LAS and of their potential to degrade the surfactant. Eighteen ...

  9. Isolation and identification of intestinal bacteria from Japanese tree frog (Hlya japonica) with the special reference to anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benno, Y; Izumi-Kurotani, A; Yamashita, M

    1992-08-01

    The bacteria in the large intestines of eight Japanese tree frogs (Hlya japonica) were enumerated by using an anaerobic culture system. The microorganisms at approximately 3.1 x 10(9) bacteria per g (wet weight) of intestinal contents were present in the intestine of all the frogs tested. No difference of the total bacteria in the frog intestine was observed between two different incubation-temperatures (room temperature and 37 degrees C). Eleven genera and 16 species were isolated from the frog intestine. In most frogs, Bacteroides (B.) caccae and B. vulgatus were detected as the predominant organisms. Escherichia coli was also present in greater numbers in the intestine. Other bacteria isolated at high dilutions were strict anaerobes, including Fusobacterium and Clostridium. Enterococcus faecalis was frequently isolated from the frog intestine. However, four genera of Bifidobacterium, Eubacterium, Peptostreptococcus, and Lactobacillus were not isolated from the frog intestine.

  10. Adhesion Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Intestinal Mucin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita Nishiyama

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are Gram-positive bacteria that are natural inhabitants of the gastrointestinal (GI tracts of mammals, including humans. Since Mechnikov first proposed that yogurt could prevent intestinal putrefaction and aging, the beneficial effects of LAB have been widely demonstrated. The region between the duodenum and the terminal of the ileum is the primary region colonized by LAB, particularly the Lactobacillus species, and this region is covered by a mucus layer composed mainly of mucin-type glycoproteins. The mucus layer plays a role in protecting the intestinal epithelial cells against damage, but is also considered to be critical for the adhesion of Lactobacillus in the GI tract. Consequently, the adhesion exhibited by lactobacilli on mucin has attracted attention as one of the critical factors contributing to the persistent beneficial effects of Lactobacillus in a constantly changing intestinal environment. Thus, understanding the interactions between Lactobacillus and mucin is crucial for elucidating the survival strategies of LAB in the GI tract. This review highlights the properties of the interactions between Lactobacillus and mucin, while concomitantly considering the structure of the GI tract from a histochemical perspective.

  11. Intestinal T-cell responses in celiac disease - impact of celiac disease associated bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Sjöberg

    Full Text Available A hallmark of active celiac disease (CD, an inflammatory small-bowel enteropathy caused by permanent intolerance to gluten, is cytokine production by intestinal T lymphocytes. Prerequisites for contracting CD are that the individual carries the MHC class II alleles HLA-DQ2 and/or HLA-DQ8 and is exposed to gluten in the diet. Dysbiosis in the resident microbiota has been suggested to be another risk factor for CD. In fact, rod shaped bacteria adhering to the small intestinal mucosa were frequently seen in patients with CD during the "Swedish CD epidemic" and bacterial candidates could later be isolated from patients born during the epidemic suggesting long-lasting changes in the gut microbiota. Interleukin-17A (IL-17A plays a role in both inflammation and anti-bacterial responses. In active CD IL-17A was produced by both CD8(+ T cells (Tc17 and CD4(+ T cells (Th17, with intraepithelial Tc17 cells being the dominant producers. Gluten peptides as well as CD associated bacteria induced IL-17A responses in ex vivo challenged biopsies from patients with inactive CD. The IL-17A response was suppressed in patients born during the epidemic when a mixture of CD associated bacteria was added to gluten, while the reverse was the case in patients born after the epidemic. Under these conditions Th17 cells were the dominant producers. Thus Tc17 and Th17 responses to gluten and bacteria seem to pave the way for the chronic disease with interferon-γ-production by intraepithelial Tc1 cells and lamina propria Th1 cells. The CD associated bacteria and the dysbiosis they might cause in the resident microbiota may be a risk factor for CD either by directly influencing the immune responses in the mucosa or by enhancing inflammatory responses to gluten.

  12. Commensal Bacteria and Epithelial Cross Talk in the Developing Intestine

    OpenAIRE

    Rautava, Samuli; Walker, W. Allan

    2007-01-01

    Indigenous intestinal microbes have co-evolved with the intestinal immune system to form a symbiotic ecosystem. In the postnatal period, intestinal microbes provide the developing gut with stimuli that are necessary for healthy maturation of the intestinal immune system. Cross talk between the host and commensal microbes is an essential component of gut homeostasis mechanisms also in later life. During recent years, innovative research has shed light on the molecular mechanisms of these inter...

  13. Efficacy of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB supplement in management of constipation among nursing home residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jung

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Constipation is a significant problem in the elderly, specifically nursing home and/or extended-care facility residents are reported to suffer from constipation. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as diarrhea and constipation effect. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of this LAB supplement in the management of nursing home residents. Methods Nineteen subjects (8M, 11F; mean age 77.1 ± 10.1 suffering with chronic constipation were assigned to receive LAB (3.0 × 1011 CFU/g twice (to be taken 30 minutes after breakfast and dinner a day for 2 weeks in November 2008. Subjects draw up a questionnaire on defecation habits (frequency of defecation, amount and state of stool, and we collected fecal samples from the subjects both before entering and after ending the trial, to investigate LAB levels and inhibition of harmful enzyme activities. Results were tested with SAS and Student's t-test. Results Analysis of questionnaire showed that there was an increase in the frequency of defecation and amount of stool excreted in defecation habit after LAB treatment, but there were no significant changes. And it also affects the intestinal environment, through significantly increase (p p Conclusion LAB, when added to the standard treatment regimen for nursing home residents with chronic constipation, increased defecation habit such as frequency of defecation, amount and state of stool. So, it may be used as functional probiotics to improve human health by helping to prevent constipation.

  14. Bacterial antigens alone can influence intestinal barrier integrity, but live bacteria are required for initiation of intestinal inflammation and injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydora, Beate C; Martin, Sarah M; Lupicki, Maryla; Dieleman, Levinus A; Doyle, Jason; Walker, John W; Fedorak, Richard N

    2006-06-01

    Intestinal flora plays a critical role in the initiation and perpetuation of inflammatory bowel disease. This study examined whether live fecal bacteria were necessary for the initiation of this inflammatory response or whether sterile fecal material would provoke a similar response. Three preparations of fecal material were prepared: (1) a slurry of live fecal bacteria, (2) a sterile lysate of bacterial antigens, and (3) a sterile filtrate of fecal water. Each preparation was introduced via gastric gavage into the intestines of axenic interleukin-10 gene-deficient mice genetically predisposed to develop inflammatory bowel disease. Intestinal barrier integrity and degrees of mucosal and systemic inflammations were determined for each preparation group. Intestinal barrier integrity, as determined by mannitol transmural flux, was altered by both live fecal bacterial and sterile lysates of bacterial antigens, although it was not altered by sterile filtrates of fecal water. However, only live fecal bacteria initiated mucosal inflammation and injury and a systemic immune response. Fecal bacterial antigens in the presence of live bacteria and sterile fecal bacterial antigens have different effects on the initiation and perpetuation of intestinal inflammation.

  15. Zonulin Regulates Intestinal Permeability and Facilitates Enteric Bacteria Permeation in Coronary Artery Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chuanwei; Gao, Min; Zhang, Wen; Chen, Caiyu; Zhou, Faying; Hu, Zhangxu; Zeng, Chunyu

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have reported an association between enteric bacteria and atherosclerosis. Bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene belong to Enterobacteriaceae have been detected in atherosclerotic plaques. How intestinal bacteria go into blood is not known. Zonulin reversibly modulate intestinal permeability (IP), the circulating zonulin levels were increased in diabetes, obesity, all of which are risk factors for atherosclerosis. It is unclear whether the circulating zonulin levels were cha...

  16. [Interaction between humans and intestinal bacteria as a determinant for intestinal health : intestinal microbiome and inflammatory bowel diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Dirk; Hörmannsperger, G

    2015-02-01

    Recent scientific results underline the importance of the intestinal microbiome, the totality of all intestinal microbes and their genes, for the health of the host organism. The intestinal microbiome can therefore be considered as a kind of "external organ". It has been shown that the intestinal microbiota is a complex and dynamic ecosystem that influences host immunity and metabolism beyond the intestine. The composition and functionality of the intestinal microbiota is of major importance for the development and maintenance of intestinal functions. Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are characterized by dysregulated interactions between the host and its microbiota.The present contribution summarizes current knowledge of the composition and development of the intestinal microbiome and gives an overview of the bidirectional interaction between host and microbiota. The contribution informs about insights regarding the role of the intestinal microbiota in IBD and finally discusses the protective potential of microbial therapies in the context of IBD.

  17. Lactic Acid Bacteria and the Human Intestinal Microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douillard, F.P.; Vos, de W.M.

    2015-01-01

    The great interest in the human microbiome has revived attention paid to LAB presence in the human intestine. This chapter first discusses the LAB associated with the human intestinal microbiota and their potential roles in health and diseases. It then addresses recent metagenomic studies that

  18. Woody forages effect the intestinal bacteria diversity of golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Biao; Gao, Liu-Ling; Pan, Qing

    2018-02-27

    To understand the effect of woody forages on golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) intestinal bacteria diversity and exploit new aquafeed ingredients, the diets of Moringa oleifera Lam (MOL), Broussonetia papyrifera (BP), Neolamarckia cadamba (NC) and Folium mori (FM) formulated with 70% of reference (Ref) diet and 30% of the four woody plants leaves were fed to golden pompano with initial body weight of 34.4 ± 0.5 g for 56 days, respectively. Bacteria diversity of golden pompano intestine and tank water (W) samples were analyzed using high-throughput illumina sequencing and the result indicated that the dominate phyla of golden pompano intestine were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Fusobacteria. Proteobacteria in BP was significantly higher than those in NC (P forages and Ref diet presented higher similarity and the bacteria community of golden pompano intestine were clearly distinguished from those of W. Phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states showed that the intestinal bacteria dominant metabolism pathways of golden pompano fed with woody forages and Ref diet were biosynthesis of amino acids and carbon metabolism. Overall, the present study first successfully characterized the intestinal bacteria diversity of golden pompano.

  19. A study on bacteria associated with the intestinal tract of farmed yellow seahorse, Hippocampus kuda (Bleeker, 1852): Characterization and extracellular enzymes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tanu; Deobagkar, D.D.; Khandeparker, R.; Sreepada, R.A.; Sanaye, S.V.; Pawar, H.B.

    the digestibility of food and making nutrients available to the fish. Selective enhancement of resident gut bacteria could assist in feed formulation for mass-scale rearing of seahorses. In addition, isolates showing multienzyme activity could be a good source... associated with the intestinal tract in farmed seahorse. Further studies on the composition of gut microflora from different life stages of seahorses reared under different feeding regimes and their enzymatic activities would assist in understanding role...

  20. Ecophysiology of novel intestinal butyrate-producing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, Thi Phuong Nam

    2016-01-01

    The human intestinal tract harbours a trillion on microbial cells, predominantly anaerobes. The activity and physiology of these anaerobes is strongly associated with health and disease. This association has been investigated for a long time.However, this has not been fully understood. One of the

  1. Biotransformation of Food Dyes by Human Intestinal Bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotransformation of food dyes (Tartrazine and Quinoline yellow) by Streptococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli isolated from human intestinal microflora was investigated. Decolourisation of the media containing the dyes was used as an index of biotransformation. Biotransformation was higher under aerobic than under ...

  2. Associations between common intestinal parasites and bacteria in humans as revealed by qPCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Brien Andersen, L.; Karim, A. B.; Roager, Henrik Munch

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have shown associations between groups of intestinal bacterial or specific ratios between bacterial groups and various disease traits. Meanwhile, little is known about interactions and associations between eukaryotic and prokaryotic microorganisms in the human gut. In this work, we...... set out to investigate potential associations between common single-celled parasites such as Blastocystis spp. and Dientamoeba fragilis and intestinal bacteria. Stool DNA from patients with intestinal symptoms were selected based on being Blastocystis spp.-positive (B+)/negative (B-) and D. fragilis...

  3. Effect of Caenorhabditis elegans age and genotype on horizontal gene transfer in intestinal bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portal-Celhay, Cynthia; Nehrke, Keith; Blaser, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) between bacteria occurs in the intestinal tract of their animal hosts and facilitates both virulence and antibiotic resistance. A model in which both the pathogen and the host are genetically tractable facilitates developing insight into mechanistic processes enabling or restricting the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes. Here we develop an in vivo experimental system to study HGT in bacteria using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model host. Using a thermosensitive conjugative system, we provide evidence that conjugation between two Escherichia coli strains can take place in the intestinal lumen of N2 wild-type worms at a rate of 10−3 and 10−2 per donor. We also show that C. elegans age and genotype are important determinants of the frequency of conjugation. Whereas ∼1 transconjugant for every 100 donor cells could be recovered from the intestine of N2 C. elegans, for the age-1 and tol-1 mutants, the detected rate of transconjugation (10−3 and 10−4 per donor cell, respectively) was significantly lower. This work demonstrates that increased recombination among lumenal microbial populations is a phenotype associated with host aging, and the model provides a framework to study the dynamics of bacterial horizontal gene transfer within the intestinal environment.—Portal-Celhay, C., Nehrke, K., Blaser, M. J. Effect of Caenorhabditis elegans age and genotype on horizontal gene transfer in intestinal bacteria. PMID:23085995

  4. Intestinal bacteria condition dendritic cells to promote IgA production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna C Massacand

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin (Ig A represents the predominant antibody isotype produced at the intestinal mucosa, where it plays an important role in limiting the penetration of commensal intestinal bacteria and opportunistic pathogens. We show in mice that Peyer's Patch-derived dendritic cells (PP-DC exhibit a specialized phenotype allowing the promotion of IgA production by B2 cells. This phenotype included increased expression of the retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (RALDH1, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, B cell activating factor of the tumor necrosis family (BAFF, a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL, and receptors for the neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP. The ability of PP-DC to promote anti-CD40 dependent IgA was partially dependent on retinoic acid (RA and transforming growth factor (TGF-beta, whilst BAFF and APRIL signaling were not required. Signals delivered by BAFF and APRIL were crucial for CD40 independent IgA production, although the contribution of B2 cells to this pathway was minimal. The unique ability of PP-DC to instruct naïve B cells to differentiate into IgA producing plasma cells was mainly imparted by the presence of intestinal commensal bacteria, and could be mimicked by the addition of LPS to the culture. These data indicate that exposure to pathogen-associated molecular patterns present on intestinal commensal bacteria condition DC to express a unique molecular footprint that in turn allows them to promote IgA production.

  5. Status of intestinal helminthic infections of borderline residents in North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shunyu; Shen, Chenghua; Choi, Min-Ho; Bae, Young Mee; Yoon, Hiwon; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2006-09-01

    The present authors investigated intestinal parasitic infections among North Korean residents and refugees in China in 2003. The Kato-Katz method was applied to 236 residents and soldiers in a town on the North Korea-China border and to 46 people at a refugee camp in China. Only eggs of Ascaris and Trichuris were detected, with egg positive rates of 41.1% and 37.6%, respectively. The total egg positive rate was 55.0% and most of those who were egg positive were only lightly infected. Women of 61.2% and men of 53.1% were egg positive. The refugees from rural areas showed higher egg positive rates than those from urban areas. The present investigation confirmed high prevalence of soil-transmitted intestinal helminths in rural borderline areas of North Korea.

  6. The potential for Probiotic Bacteria from milkfish intestine in reducing mercury metals in skimmed milk media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyana, Zaraswati; Priosambodo, D.; Haedar, N.; Erviani, A. E.; Djabura, A. K.; Sukma, R.

    2018-03-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the heavy metals that is harmful to humans. The accumulation of mercury in the body is generally derived from food. Several types of bacteria from intestine of milkfish are known to reduce mercury concentration. People can take advantage of this bacterial ability by eating it through probiotic foods. This research conducted to figure out the potential for probiotic bacteria from milkfish intestine in reducing mercury. Isolation from probiotic bacteria from milkfish intestine conducted with grown the isolates in MRSA medium with addition of 1% CaCO3. Twelve isolate were obtained from milkfish intestine. Mercury resistance tested was performed by measuring cell density using a spectrophotometer at concentrations of 10, 15 and 20 ppm respectively in skim milk media. Probiotic tests (gastric acid, bile salts and antimicrobial activity) for MRSB media was also conducted. Results showed that seven isolate were resistant to mercury in all concentrations and potential as probiotics. All resistant isolate then tested for skim milk media with addition of 5, 10, 20 ppm mercury acetate respectively. Result showed that only one isolated was able to reduce the concentration of mercury (Hg) in all variations on concentration and potential as mercury reducer probiotic bacteria.

  7. [Markers of antimicrobial drug resistance in the most common bacteria of normal facultative anaerobic intestinal flora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavsić, Teodora

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria of normal intestinal flora are frequent carriers of markers of antimicrobial drug resistance. Resistance genes may be exchanged with other bacteria of normal flora as well as with pathogenic bacteria. The increase in the number of markers of resistance is one of the major global health problems, which induces the emergence of multi-resistant strains. The aim of this study is to confirm the presence of markers of resistance in bacteria of normal facultative anaerobic intestinal flora in our region. The experiment included a hundred fecal specimens obtained from a hundred healthy donors. A hundred bacterial strains were isolated (the most numerous representatives of the normal facultative-anaerobic intestinal flora) by standard bacteriological methods. The bacteria were cultivated on Endo agar and SS agar for 24 hours at 37 degrees C. Having been incubated, the selected characteristic colonies were submitted to the biochemical analysis. The susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs was tested by standard disc diffusion method, and the results were interpreted according to the Standard of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute 2010. The marker of resistance were found in 42% of the isolated bacteria. The resistance was the most common to ampicillin (42% of isolates), amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (14% of isolates), cephalexin (14%) and cotrimoxazole (8%). The finding of 12 multiresistant strains (12% of isolates) and resistance to ciprofloxacin were significant. The frequency of resistance markers was statistically higher in Klebsiella pneumoniae compared to Escherichia coli of normal flora. The finding of a large number of markers of antimicrobial drug resistance among bacteria of normal intestinal flora shows that it is necessary to begin with systematic monitoring of their antimicrobial resistance because it is an indicator of resistance in the population.

  8. Inhibitory activity spectrum of reuterin produced by Lactobacillus reuteri against intestinal bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duboux Marc

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reuterin produced from glycerol by Lactobacillus reuteri, a normal inhabitant of the human intestine, is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent. It has been postulated that reuterin could play a role in the probiotic effects of Lb. reuteri. Reuterin is active toward enteropathogens, yeasts, fungi, protozoa and viruses, but its effect on commensal intestinal bacteria is unknown. Moreover reuterin's mode of action has not yet been elucidated. Glutathione, a powerful antioxidant, which also plays a key role in detoxifying reactive aldehydes, protects certain bacteria from oxidative stress, and could also be implicated in resistance to reuterin. The aim of this work was to test the activity of reuterin against a representative panel of intestinal bacteria and to study a possible correlation between intracellular low molecular weight thiols (LMW-SH such as glutathione, hydrogen peroxide and/or reuterin sensitivity. Reuterin was produced by Lb. reuteri SD2112 in pure glycerol solution, purified and used to test the minimal inhibitory (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC. Hydrogen peroxide sensitivity and intracellular LMW-SH concentration were also analysed. Results Our data showed that most tested intestinal bacteria showed MIC below that for a sensitive indicator Escherichia coli (7.5–15 mM. Lactobacilli and Clostridium clostridioforme were more resistant with MIC ranging from 15 to 50 mM. No correlation between bacterial intracellular concentrations of LMW-SH, including glutathione, and reuterin or hydrogen peroxide sensitivities were found. Conclusion Our data showed that intestinal bacteria were very sensitive to reuterin and that their intracellular concentration of LMW-SH was not directly linked to their capacity to resist reuterin or hydrogen peroxide. This suggests that detoxification by LMW-SH such as glutathione is not a general mechanism and that other mechanisms are probably involved in bacterial tolerance

  9. Probiotic characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from swine intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Balasingham

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A study was conducted with the objective to isolate probiotic microorganisms from swine intestine. Materials and Methods: In this study 63 isolates (24 caeca, 24 colon mucosal scrapings, and 15 rectal swab samples were collected from Large White Yorkshire pigs. The isolates were inoculated and grown in de Man Rogosa Sharpe broth at 37°C with 5% CO2 for 48 h and subjected to morphological identification. Colonies having Gram-positive rods were selected for further physiological and biochemical identification tests, which were conducted in triplicate in two runs for each of the selected isolates using a standard protocol. Probiotic properties among the identified species were determined through the implementation of several tests related with pH tolerance, bile tolerance, and antimicrobial activity. Results: Morphological identification revealed that only 23 isolates were Gram-positive rods. Physiological tests performed on these 23 isolates further revealed that four of them did not exhibit any growth, at all conditions studied. The rest 19 isolates were, therefore, selected and subjected to biochemical tests. Six isolates were rejected because they were oxidase and nitrate reduction positive. From the 13 isolates subjected to sugar fermentation tests, speciation of only two isolates could be ascertained, one of the isolates showed characteristics for Lactobacillus acidophilus and the other for Lactobacillus plantarum. These two isolates were assessed for the strain possessing maximum probiotic property, and it was inferred that both - L. plantarum and L. acidophilus could tolerate a wide pH range (2-9, a wide bile concentration (0.05-0.3% and revealed antimicrobial activity toward Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter spp. Conclusion: L. plantarum and L. acidophilus were isolated from swine intestine and were found to have good probiotic properties.

  10. Sulfate-reducing bacteria slow intestinal transit in a bismuth-reversible fashion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, N L; Lin, D M; Wilson, M R; Barton, L L; Lin, H C

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) serves as a mammalian cell-derived gaseous neurotransmitter. The intestines are exposed to a second source of this gas by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Bismuth subsalicylate binds H 2 S rendering it insoluble. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that SRB may slow intestinal transit in a bismuth-reversible fashion. Eighty mice were randomized to five groups consisting of Live SRB, Killed SRB, SRB+Bismuth, Bismuth, and Saline. Desulfovibrio vulgaris, a common strain of SRB, was administered by gavage at the dose of 1.0 × 10 9 cells along with rhodamine, a fluorescent dye. Intestinal transit was measured 50 minutes after gavage by euthanizing the animals, removing the small intestine between the pyloric sphincter and the ileocecal valve and visualizing the distribution of rhodamine across the intestine using an imaging system (IVIS, Perkin-Elmer). Intestinal transit (n=50) was compared using geometric center (1=minimal movement, 100=maximal movement). H 2 S concentration (n=30) was also measured when small intestinal luminal content was allowed to generate this gas. The Live SRB group had slower intestinal transit as represented by a geometric center score of 40.2 ± 5.7 when compared to Saline: 73.6 ± 5.7, Killed SRB: 77.9 ± 6.9, SRB+Bismuth: 81.0 ± 2.0, and Bismuth: 73.3 ± 4.2 (Pfashion in mice. Our results demonstrate that intestinal transit is slowed by SRB and this effect could be abolished by H 2 S-binding bismuth. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Investigation of the interactions between Chrysanthemum morifolium flowers extract and intestinal bacteria from human and rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jin-Hua; Duan, Jin-Ao; Qian, Yi-Yun; Qian, Da-Wei; Guo, Jian-Ming

    2016-11-01

    Flos Chrysanthemi, dried flower of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat, has drawn much attention recently owing to its potential beneficial health effects for human. Flos Chrysanthemi products are usually taken orally and metabolized by intestinal microflora. However, there has been no investigation of the comprehensive metabolic profile of the Flos Chrysanthemi extract by intestinal flora owing to its chemical complexity and the limitations of analytical methods. In this paper, a rapid, sensitive and automated analysis method, ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry including MS E technology and automated data processing Metabolynx™ software, was developed and successfully applied for the biotransformation and metabolic profile of flavonoids in the Flos Chrysanthemi extract by intestinal flora from human and rat. A total of 32 metabolites were detected and tentatively identified in human and rat intestinal bacterial samples. These metabolites indicated that hydrolysis, hydroxylation, acetylation, methylation, hydrogenation and deoxygenation were the major conversion pathways of flavonoids in the Flos Chrysanthemi extract in vitro. Furthermore, the effects of the Flos Chrysanthemi extract on the growth of different intestinal bacteria were detected using an Emax precision microplate reader. Certain pathogenic bacteria such as Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Clostridium and Bacteroides were significantly inhibited by Flos Chrysanthemi, while commensal probiotics such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were moderately promoted. Our observation provided further evidence for the importance of intestinal bacteria in the metabolism and potential activity of the Flos Chrysanthemi extract. The results will also be helpful for the further pharmacokinetic study of Flos Chrysanthemi and to unravel how it works in vivo. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Biodiversity of Intestinal Lactic Acid Bacteria in the Healthy Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikelsaar, Marika; Sepp, Epp; Štšepetova, Jelena; Songisepp, Epp; Mändar, Reet

    2016-01-01

    The complex ecosystem of the gastrointestinal tract involves tight interrelations among host cells, diet, and billions of microbes, both beneficial and opportunistic pathogens. In spite of advanced genomic, metagenomic, and metabonomic approaches, knowledge is still quite limited regarding the biodiversity of beneficial microbiota, including Lactobacillus spp., and its impact on the main biomarkers of general health. In this paper, Lactobacillus biodiversity is demonstrated through its taxonomy, function, and host-microbial interactions. Its prevalence, composition, abundance, intertwined metabolic properties, and relation to host age, genotype, and socioeconomic factors are reviewed based on the literature and original research experience. The species richness, e.g., the biodiversity of gut microbiota, provides the host with a variety of metabolically active species and strains that predict their response for different health conditions and extrinsic interventions. Metabolically active and safe Lactobacillus species and specific strains with particular functional properties increase the biodiversity of the whole intestinal microbiota. The elaborated principles for effective application of probiotics are discussed, aimed at regulating the composition of microbiota simultaneously with blood and urine biomarkers at the borderline of normality. This approach targets the impact of probiotic strains to maintenance of health with anti-infectious, cardiovascular, and metabolic support.

  13. Comparison of intestinal parasitic infection in newly arrived and resident workers in Qatar

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    Abu-Madi Marawan A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid growth of Qatar in the last two decades has been associated with an enormous expansion of building programs in its cities and in the provision of new service industries. This in turn has attracted a large influx of immigrant workers seeking employment in jobs associated with food handling, domestic service and the building industry. Many of these immigrants come from countries in the tropics and subtropics where intestinal parasitic infections are common. Methods We analyzed intestinal parasitic infections recorded in 2008 among immigrant and long-term resident workers in Doha city, Qatar (n = 1538. Stool examinations were carried out at the Hamad Medical Corporation and at the Medical Commission in Doha using standard procedures. Results Overall, 21.5% of subjects were infected with at least one of the species recorded (8 helminth and 4 protozoan species; the highest prevalence was for hookworms = 8.3% and there were strong regional effects on prevalence of helminths, with subjects from North East Africa and Nepal showing particularly high prevalence. Most helminths declined in prevalence in subjects that acquired residency status in Qatar, especially among female subjects, but there was a marked exception among male Nepalese workers, who continued to harbour helminth infections (notably hookworms after they became residents. Contrary to all other regional groups the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis was higher among Nepalese residents compared with new arrivals, while Blastocystis hominis infections were more common among residents of all regions, and especially among North East Africans. Conclusions Our analysis has identified male Nepalese workers as a particular risk group continuing to harbour hookworm infection and G. duodenalis as residents, and subjects from North East Africa are as particularly likely to acquire B. hominis infection after settling in the country. These conclusions have important

  14. The role of intestinal microflora and probiotic bacteria in prophylactic and development of colorectal cancer

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    Ewa Wasilewska

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota comprises a large and diverse range of microorganisms whose activities have a significant impact on health. It interacts with its host at both the local and systemic level, resulting in a broad range of beneficial or detrimental outcomes for nutrition, infections, xenobiotic metabolism, and cancer. The current paper reviews research on the role of intestinal microflora in colorectal cancer development. Especially a protective effect of beneficial bacteria and probiotics on the risk of cancer development is highly discussed. There is substantial experimental evidence that the beneficial gut bacteria and their metabolism have the potential to inhibit the development and progression of neoplasia in the large intestine. Most of the data derive, however, from experimental and animal trials. Over a dozen well-documented animal studies have been published, wherein it has been clearly revealed that some lactic acid bacteria, especially lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, inhibit initiation and progression of colorectal cancer. Studies on cancer suppression in humans as a result of the consumption of probiotics are still sparse. Nevertheless, some epidemiological and interventional studies seem to confirm the bacterial anticancerogenic activity also in human gut. The mechanism by which probiotics may inhibit cancer development is unknown. Probiotics increase the amount of beneficial bacteria and decrease the pathogen level in the gut, consequently altering metabolic, enzymatic and carcinogenic activity in the intestine, decreasing inflammation and enhancing immune function, which may contribute to cancer defense.

  15. Fermentation of D-Tagatose by Human Intestinal Bacteria and Dairy Lactic Acid Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Bertelsen, Hans; Andersen, Hans; Tvede, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A number of 174 normal or pathogenic human enteric bacteria and dairy lactic acid bacteria were screened for D-tagatose fermentation by incubation for 48 hours. Selection criteria for fermentation employed included a drop in pH below 5.5 and a distance to controls of more than 0.5. Only a few of the normal occurring enteric human bacteria were able to ferment D-tagatose, among those Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium and Lactobacillus strains. D-Tagatose fermentation seems to be comm...

  16. Intestinal commensal bacteria mediate lung mucosal immunity and promote resistance of newborn mice to infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jerilyn; Oehrle, Katherine; Worthen, George; Alenghat, Theresa; Whitsett, Jeffrey; Deshmukh, Hitesh

    2017-02-08

    Immature mucosal defenses contribute to increased susceptibility of newborn infants to pathogens. Sparse knowledge of age-dependent changes in mucosal immunity has hampered improvements in neonatal morbidity because of infections. We report that exposure of neonatal mice to commensal bacteria immediately after birth is required for a robust host defense against bacterial pneumonia, the leading cause of death in newborn infants. This crucial window was characterized by an abrupt influx of interleukin-22 (IL-22)-producing group 3 innate lymphoid cells (IL-22 + ILC3) into the lungs of newborn mice. This influx was dependent on sensing of commensal bacteria by intestinal mucosal dendritic cells. Disruption of postnatal commensal colonization or selective depletion of dendritic cells interrupted the migratory program of lung IL-22 + ILC3 and made the newborn mice more susceptible to pneumonia, which was reversed by transfer of commensal bacteria after birth. Thus, the resistance of newborn mice to pneumonia relied on commensal bacteria-directed ILC3 influx into the lungs, which mediated IL-22-dependent host resistance to pneumonia during this developmental window. These data establish that postnatal colonization by intestinal commensal bacteria is pivotal in the development of the lung defenses of newborns. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from the Gastro-Intestinal Tract of Chicken: Potential Use as Probiotic

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    S Harimurti

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria have been suggested to have several beneficial effects on human and animals. These bacteria, indigenous to the gastro-intestinal tract, are important in regulating the balance among the desirable and undesirable intestinal microflora and in controlling enteric pathogenic infection in the host. Objectives of this research are to obtain lactic acid bacteria isolates from gastro-intestinal tract of chicken and to screen their ability as a probiotic agent i.e., their antagonistic against pathogenic bacteria, their survival at low pH and high concentration of bile salt. In this research, 74 samples used as sources of bacteria, and among them only 11 samples could be isolated as lactic acid bacteria with the total number of isolates of 61. Based on the preliminary screening i.e., their antagonistic factor against pathogenic bacteria, 20 isolates was further studied. Based on the identification scheme, these isolates belong to three species, i.e., Lactobacillus murinus, Pediococcus acidilactici, and Streptococcus thermophilus. The result showed that most isolates grow well in the media with the initial pH of 5.5, but their growth were retarded when the initial pH 3.5. Only one isolate Streptococcus thermophilus Kp-2 showed its growth at initial pH of 3.5. All isolates did not show any growth at initial pH 2.5, though their viability still high. The result based on the isolates resistance to bile salt showed that most isolates could grow at media with 0.20% of bile salt. Their growth was inhibited with the increasing bile salt concentration. However, few isolates could grow well at media with 1% of bile salt. Based on their characteristics three isolates i.e., Lactobacillus murinus Ar-3, Streptococcus thermophilus Kp-2, and Pediococcus acidilactici Kd-6 were selected as probiotic agents for the continuing research. i.e. production of biomass and its application to chicken production. (Animal Production 9(2: 82-91 (2007 Key Words

  18. The role of intestinal colonization with gram-negative bacteria as a source for intensive care unit-acquired bacteremia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdijk, E.A.; Smet, A.M. de; Kesecioglu, J.; Bonten, M.J.; Kalkman, C.J.; Joore, H.C.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Pickkers, P.; Sturm, P.D.J.; Voss, A.; et al.,

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Selective digestive tract decontamination aims to eradicate gram-negative bacteria in both the intestinal tract and respiratory tract and is combined with a 4-day course of intravenous cefotaxime. Selective oropharyngeal decontamination only aims to eradicate respiratory tract

  19. [Survey of infection situation of intestinal parasites of rural residents in plain area of Shandong Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Feng; Zhang, Ben-guang; Wang, Yong-bin; Bu, Xiu-qin; Zhang, Dian-bo; Kong, Xiang-li; Zhao, Chang-lei; Chen, Xi-xin; Xu, Yan; Liu, Xin

    2015-08-01

    To understand the current situation of infections of intestinal parasites of rural residents in four cities namely Dongying, Weifang, Jining and Heze of Shandong Province. Twenty-four villages were randomly selected as study areas. The Kato-Katz technique was applied to test the stool samples of adult residents and the cellophane tape anus method was applied to test the infection of Enterobius vermicularis of children aged 12 years or below. Fifty families were randomly selected from each village and surveyed with questionnaires for the general situation of the family, and the knowledge of prevention and control of parasites, and healthy behaviors of the family members. Totally 8,227 adult residents and 1,313 children were investigated and the total infection rate of intestinal parasites was 0.55% (45 cases). The infection rates of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Trichuris trichura, E. vermicularis and Clonorchis sinensis were 0.15% (12 cases), 0.06% (5 cases), 0.09% (7 cases), 1.37% (18 cases) and 0.04% (3 cases), respectively. Totally 3,767 residents were surveyed with questionnaires, and the awareness rate of the knowledge of prevention and control of parasites was 28.72% (1,082 cases), the formation rates of washing hands before meal, washing hands after toilet, washing fruit and vegetables before eating, and never drinking unboiled water were 60.66% (2,285 cases), 50.17% (1,890 cases), 48.71% (1,835 cases), and 87.07% (3,280 cases), respectively. In the plain area of Shandong Province, the infection rates of A. lumbricoides, hookworm, T. trichura and C. sinensis are low but the infection rate of E. vermicularis of children is relatively high; the awareness rates of the knowledge of parasites as well as the formation rates of healthy behaviors are low. Therefore, the health education and promotion should be strengthened.

  20. Zonulin Regulates Intestinal Permeability and Facilitates Enteric Bacteria Permeation in Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanwei; Gao, Min; Zhang, Wen; Chen, Caiyu; Zhou, Faying; Hu, Zhangxu; Zeng, Chunyu

    2016-06-29

    Several studies have reported an association between enteric bacteria and atherosclerosis. Bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene belong to Enterobacteriaceae have been detected in atherosclerotic plaques. How intestinal bacteria go into blood is not known. Zonulin reversibly modulate intestinal permeability (IP), the circulating zonulin levels were increased in diabetes, obesity, all of which are risk factors for atherosclerosis. It is unclear whether the circulating zonulin levels were changed in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients and modulate IP. The 16S rRNA gene of bacteria in blood sample was checked by 454 pyrosequencing. The zonulin levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods. The distribution of zonulin was detected by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. Bacteria and Caco-2 cell surface micro-structure were checked by transmission electron microscopy. A high diversity of bacterial 16S rRNA gene can be detected in samples from CAD patients, most of them (99.4%) belong to Enterobacteriaceaes, eg. Rahnella. The plasma zonulin levels were significantly higher in CAD patients. Pseudomonas fluorescens exposure significantly increased zonulin expression and decreased IP in a time dependent manner. The elevated zonulin increase IP and may facilitate enteric translocation by disassembling the tight junctions, which might explain the observed high diversity of bacterial 16S rRNA genes in blood samples.

  1. Intestinal parasitism prevalence amongst children from six indigenous communities residing in Cali, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo-Cifuentes, Mercedes; Florez, Ofelia; Bermúdez, Amparo; Hernández, Luzmila; Araujo, Cristina; Bolaños, María V

    2012-01-01

    Establishing the prevalence of intestinal parasitism in children aged 5 to 14 years of age from six indigenous communities residing in the city of Cali. A cross-sectional, descriptive epidemiological study was carried out in six indigenous communities residing in the city of Cali; it consisted of making a direct serial and concentration coproparasitological examination of a randomly selected sample of fifty-seven 5 to 14 year-old children. Of the 57 samples obtained, 84 % of the children were infected with parasites; protozoa (98 %) predominated over helminths (16.7 %) and mixed parasitemia was found in 14.6 % of the samples. Monoparasitism appeared in children over 10 years of age and biparasitism (10.4 %) and polyparasitism (52.1 %) in children under 10 years of age. Regarding occult blood determination, 6 % were observed to be positive in all the samples analysed; 4 % of these results were associated with E. histolyticaldispar. The simple parasitism index (SPI) reflected a high degree of infestation amongst the children included in the study. The prevalence of intestinal parasitism in indigenous infants was higher than that reported nationally in the overall adolescent and school-aged children population in the same age group. Mono- and polyparasitism prevailed in the positive samples. The infestation load was not randomly distributed amongst the communities.

  2. Quantification of intestinal bacteria, operating cost and performance of fingerlings Nile tilapia subjected to probiotics

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    Nilton Garcia-Marengoni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of microorganisms of the genus Bacillus in aquaculture is a nutritional management practice that is rapidly expanding in regions with intensive fish farming. This study aimed to quantify the total bacteria and total coliforms from the intestinal microbiota and estimate the partial operating costs and growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus of the GIFT strain. A total of 1,200 post-larvae (24.7 ± 0.50 mg were distributed into 24 aquaria (0.03-m³ capacity within a completely randomized design in 2 x 3 factorial (phase x bacteria, with four replications. Each aquarium, containing 50 post-larvae (sex reversal phase or 30 fish (fingerlings phase, it was considered to be an experimental unit, consisting of three treatments (diet+Bacillus subtilis C-3102, diet+Bacillus cereus var. toyoi and diet without probiotic addition. The quantification of the total bacteria and total coliforms of the intestinal microbiota of tilapia were influenced (P 0.05 by adding probiotics in the diets and no effect of the interaction between phase and bacteria was observed. The weight gain, average daily weight gain, specific growth rate and apparent feed conversion were not affected (P > 0.05 by inclusion of probiotics as part of the diets. The inclusion of B. subtilis and B. cereus as part of diets for Nile tilapia promotes intestinal colonization and improves the survival rate without negatively influencing the feed intake, total biomass, gross revenue and partial operating costs and net revenue. Therefore it recommends the use of these probiotics to growth of tilapia fingerlings Nile, GIFT strain.

  3. Characterization of microbiota in Arapaima gigas intestine and isolation of potential probiotic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Vale Pereira, G; da Cunha, D G; Pedreira Mourino, J L; Rodiles, A; Jaramillo-Torres, A; Merrifield, D L

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the intestinal microbiota of pirarucu (Arapaima gigas) in different growth stages (adult and fingerlings) and to isolate and identify potential probiotic bacteria. High-throughput sequencing analysis of the intestinal contents revealed that the majority of sequences belonged to the Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria and Firmicutes phyla. At the genus level, the greatest number of sequences belonged to Bradyrhizobium in adult fish, while Cetobacterium was the most abundant in juvenile fish. Twenty-three lactic-acid bacteria (LABs) were isolated on MRS agar from healthy juvenile fish. The isolates were tested in vitro for probiotic properties. Two isolates (identified as strains of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Enterococcus faecium) displayed antagonism against all 10 pathogens tested, were nonhaemolytic and maintained good viability for at least 3 weeks when supplemented to fish diets. The presence of a number of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), conferring resistance to erythromycin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol, was investigated by PCR. The absence of ARGs investigated the potential to antagonize pathogens, and favourable growth and survival characteristics indicate that these autochthonous isolates have the potential to be considered probiotics, which will be studied in future in vivo experiments. This study has demonstrated, for the first time, the normal microbiota in the A. gigas intestine during different life stages and the presence of LAB strains. It also demonstrated LAB antibiotic resistance and antagonistic behaviour against pathogens isolated from the same fish. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Prevalence and risk factors for intestinal protozoa infection in elderly residents at Long Term Residency Institutions in Southeastern Brazil

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    Katymilla Guimarães Girotto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the prevalence of intestinal protozoa in Long Term Residency Institutions for the Elderly (ILPI in elders, nurses and food handlers, identifying the risk factors associated with the infections. Stool samples taken from the elderly (n = 293, nurses (63 and food handlers (19 were studied. Questionnaires were used with questions related to sociodemographic variables, health, behavior and health characteristics. Stool samples were examined using the techniques of Faust and Ziehl Neelsen, and the prevalence of G. duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., E. histolytica/dispar in the elderly was 4.0%, 1.0% and 0.3% respectively. Nurses and food handlers showed 4.8% and 5.2% positivity only for G. duodenalis, respectively. The origin of the individuals and contact with domestic animals has been associated with infection by G. duodenalis in the elderly, and contact with domestic animals was considered a risk factor for infection. The last stool examinations were related to Cryptosporidium spp.. None of the variables were associated with E. histolytica/dispar. The frequency of hand washing was significantly associated with G. duodenalis among nurses. The frequency of positive samples of G. duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., E. histolytica/dispar showed that ILPIs environments are conducive to this occurring due to contact between the elderly, nurses and food handlers, which are often poorly trained in hygiene procedures and food handling.

  5. PCR-DGGE analysis of intestinal bacteria and effect of Bacillus spp. on intestinal microbial diversity in kuruma shrimp ( Marsupenaeus japonicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huaide; Liu, Mei; Wang, Baojie; Jiang, Keyong; Jiang, Shan); Sun, Shujuan; Wang, Lei

    2010-07-01

    In this study, the intestinal microbiota of kuruma shrimp ( Marsupenaeus japonicus) was examined by molecular analysis of the 16S rDNA to identify the dominant intestinal bacteria and to investigate the effects of Bacillus spp. on intestinal microbial diversity. Samples of the intestines of kuruma shrimp fed normal feed and Bacillus spp. amended feed. PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses were then performed on DNA extracted directly from the guts. Population fingerprints of the predominant organisms were generated by DGGE analysis of the universal V3 16S rDNA amplicons, and distinct bands in the gels were sequenced. The results suggested that the gut of kuruma shrimp was dominated by Vibrio sp. and uncultured gamma proteobacterium. Overall, the results of this study suggest that PCR-DGGE is a possible method of studying the intestinal microbial diversity of shrimp.

  6. Bioaccumulation of Vanadium by Vanadium-Resistant Bacteria Isolated from the Intestine of Ascidia sydneiensis samea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaidi; Ueki, Tatsuya

    2016-06-01

    Isolation of naturally occurring bacterial strains from metal-rich environments has gained popularity due to the growing need for bioremediation technologies. In this study, we found that the vanadium concentration in the intestine of the vanadium-rich ascidian Ascidia sydneiensis samea could reach 0.67 mM, and thus, we isolated vanadium-resistant bacteria from the intestinal contents and determined the ability of each bacterial strain to accumulate vanadium and other heavy metals. Nine strains of vanadium-resistant bacteria were successfully isolated, of which two strains, V-RA-4 and S-RA-6, accumulated vanadium at a higher rate than did the other strains. The maximum vanadium absorption by these bacteria was achieved at pH 3, and intracellular accumulation was the predominant mechanism. Each strain strongly accumulated copper and cobalt ions, but accumulation of nickel and molybdate ions was relatively low. These bacterial strains can be applied to protocols for bioremediation of vanadium and heavy metal toxicity.

  7. Effects of nonpathogenic bacteria on cytokine secretion by human intestinal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borruel, Natalia; Casellas, Francesc; Antolín, María; Llopis, Marta; Carol, Monica; Espíin, Eloy; Naval, Javier; Guarner, Francisco; Malagelada, Juan R

    2003-04-01

    The human intestine harbors a complex microbial ecosystem, and the mucosa is the interface between the immune system and the luminal environment. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether host-bacteria interactions influence mucosal cytokine production. Macroscopically normal colonic specimens were obtained at surgery from eight patients with neoplasm, and inflamed ileal specimens were obtained from two patients with Crohn's disease. Mucosal explants were cultured for 24 h with either nonpathogenic Escherichia coli ECOR-26, Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001, L. casei DN-114 056, L. casei ATCC-334, or Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB-10. Each study included blank wells with no bacteria. Tissue and bacteria viability were confirmed by LDH release and culture. Concentration of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha, transforming growth factor beta1, interleukin (IL)-8, and IL-10 was measured in supernatants. In parallel experiments, neutralizing anti-TNFalpha antibody was added to the culture. Co-culture of mucosa with bacteria did not modify LDH release. Co-culture with L. casei strains significantly reduced TNFalpha release, whereas E. coli increased it. These effects were observed both in normal and inflamed mucosa. In combination studies, L. casei DN-114 001 prevented TNFalpha stimulation by E. coli. L. casei DN-114 001 also reduced IL-8 release via a TNFalpha-independent pathway. L. casei DN-114 056 or E. coli increased IL-10 release in the presence of neutralizing anti-TNFalpha. Nonpathogenic bacteria interact with human intestinal mucosa and can induce changes in cytokine production that are strain specific.

  8. The effect of early initiation of colostrum feeding on proliferation of intestinal bacteria in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojofeitimi, E O; Elegbe, I A

    1982-01-01

    One hundred eighty normal neonates with an average weight above 2.50 kg and having no feeding difficulties were divided into two groups and randomly assigned to either colostrum or to glucose water feeding regimens during the 3-day stay at the maternity ward. The effects of the feeding regimens on intestinal colonization were studied by examining the stools of the neonates. All bacteria recovered were identified quantitatively and biochemically. Of the 180 mothers, 105 complied with the instructions on feeding regimens. The majority of the neonates receiving colostrum had significantly lower bacterial counts than those on glucose water (p less than 0.001). The results of the preliminary study indicated that early initiation of colostrum feeding to neonates where potable water is not readily available will suppress the proliferation of bacteria in the neonates.

  9. Changing trends in intestinal parasitic infections among long-term-residents and settled immigrants in Qatar

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    Doiphode Sanjay H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid socio-economic development in Qatar in the last two decades has encouraged a mass influx of immigrant workers, the majority of whom originate from countries with low socio-economic levels, inadequate medical care and many are known to carry patent intestinal helminth and protozoan infections on arrival in Qatar. Some eventually acquire residency status but little is known about whether they continue to harbour infections. Methods We examined 9208 hospital records of stool samples that had been analysed for the presence of intestinal helminth and protozoan ova/cysts, over the period 2005-2008, of subjects from 28 nationalities, but resident in Qatar and therefore not recent arrivals in the country. Results Overall 10.2% of subjects were infected with at least one species, 2.6% with helminths and 8.0% with protozoan species. Although hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Hymenolepis nana were observed, the majority of helminth infections (69% were caused by hookworms, and these were largely aggregated among 20.0-39.9 year-old male subjects from Nepal. The remaining cases of helminth infection were mostly among Asian immigrants. Protozoan infections were more uniformly spread across immigrants from different regions when prevalence was calculated on combined data, but this disguised three quite contrasting underlying patterns for 3 taxa of intestinal protozoa. Blastocystis hominis, Giardia duodenalis and non-pathogenic amoebae were all acquired in childhood, but whereas prevalence of B. hominis rose to a plateau and then even further among the elderly, prevalence of G. duodenalis fell markedly in children aged 10 and older, and stayed low (Entamoeba coli, E. hartmanni, Endolimax nana and Iodamoeba buetschlii peaked in the 30.0-39.9 age group and only then dropped to very low values among the oldest subjects examined. A worrying trend in respect of both helminth and protozoan parasites was the

  10. Is there any change in the prevalence of intestinal and urinary parasitosis among "non-permanent resident" students in Tunisia ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Sonia; Bouchakoua, Myiram; Aouinet, Amira; Sellami, Amira; Khaled, Samira

    2012-07-01

    Intestinal parasitosis are cosmopolitan affections, often related to the fecal peril. However urinary bilharziosis is a disease eliminated in Tunisia. As part of monitoring the emergence and re-emergence of intestinal parasitosis and urinary bilharziasis, foreign students benefit from parasitological systematic monitoring stool and urine during their enrollment to the University. To study the prevalence of various intestinal parasitosis and urinary bilharziasis among non permanent resident students in Tunisia. A retrospective survey was carried at the Laboratory of Parasitology- Mycology of Charles Nicolle Hospital of Tunis during the inscription period of 6 university years 2005-2010. 328 students profited from a parasitological examination of stool and urine. 144 students (43.9%) harbored intestinal parasites. More than one parasite was detected in 69 students (47.9%). Intestinal protozoa were the majority of identified parasites (96.9%). 9.7% of identified parasites were pathogenic. Three cases (0.91%) of urinary bilharziasis were diagnosed. The prevalence of intestinal and urinary parasitism among the "non-permanent residents" students in Tunisia has not changed. This justifies a systematic parasitologic monitoring for students coming from areas of high endemicity of parasitosis in order to avoid the introduction of these.

  11. In-vitro activity of solithromycin against anaerobic bacteria from the normal intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Andrej; Rashid, Mamun-Ur; Nord, Carl Erik

    2016-12-01

    Solithromycin is a novel fluoroketolide with high activity against bacteria associated with community-acquired respiratory tract infections as well as gonorrhea. However, data on the activity of solithromycin against anaerobic bacteria from the normal intestinal microbiota are scarce. In this study, 1024 Gram-positive and Gram-negative anaerobic isolates from the normal intestinal microbiota were analyzed for in-vitro susceptibility against solithromycin and compared to azithromycin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone, metronidazole and levofloxacin by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Solithromycin was active against Bifidobacteria (MIC 50 , 0.008 mg/L) and Lactobacilli (MIC 50 , 0.008 mg/L). The MIC 50 for Clostridia, Bacteroides, Prevotella and Veillonella were 0.5, 0.5, 0.125 and 0.016 mg/L, respectively. Gram-positive anaerobes were more susceptible to solithromycin as compared to the other antimicrobials tested. The activity of solithromycin against Gram-negative anaerobes was equal or higher as compared to other tested agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Viability of lactic acid bacteria coated as synbiotic during storage and gastro-intestinal simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilah, It; Priyani, Nunuk; Lusia Natalia, Santa

    2018-03-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been added to various food products as a probiotic agent because it has been known to provide beneficial health effects in humans. In the application of LAB, cell viability often decreased as influenced by environment stresses. Encapsulation technique is one of the cell protection techniques using a coating material. Effective coating material is required to produce maximum protection of LAB cells. In this study, candidate of probiotic LAB (isolate US7) was encapsulated with alginate-mung bean flour and alginate-gram flour with inulin prebiotic by extrusion technique. Viability of encapsulated LAB cells were able to survive by up to 108CFU g‑1 after 4 weeks of storage at 4 °C. Beads were incubated in simulated liquid gastric acid (pH=2) for 2 hrs and simulated intestinal fluid (pH=6) for 3 hrs at 37 °C. The results showed that encapsulated LAB cells maintained the survival rate of 97% with the number of cells at 9.07 Log CFU g‑1in the simulated liquid gastric acid and then followed by releasing cells in simulated intestinal fluid. In general, this study indicates that encapsulation with alginate-mung bean flour and alginategram flour with inulin successfullyprotect probiotic bacteria against simulated human gastrointestinal conditions.

  13. Ability of Intestinal Lactic Acid Bacteria to Bind and/or Metabolise Indole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisława Libudzisz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal microbiota can contribute to the development of colon cancer by the production of many substances playing a role in carcinogenesis. Metabolites of protein fermentation in the colon, such as ammonia, amines, indole, phenol, skatole and their derivatives are toxic. On the other hand, lactic acid bacteria (LAB existing in the colon may exert an anticarcinogenic action, but the mechanism is still poorly understood. In the present study, the aim is to determine the ability of intestinal lactobacilli to adsorb or metabolise indole in vitro. Lactobacillus strains were cultivated in MRS and a modified MRS broth with reduced concentrations of nitrogen and carbon. Indole concentration in the media was from 2 to 20 μg/mL. The decrease in indole concentration was from 1 to 10 μg/mL after cultivation in MRS broth, and from 4.3 to 6.7 μg/mL after cultivation in a modified MRS broth. It was shown that the higher concentration of indole in the medium, the higher reduction of its level. Killed bacteria displayed slight binding capacity. After the interaction of alive lactobacilli with 10 μg/mL of indole, it displayed a lower genotoxicity, as evaluated by the alkaline comet assay. The phenomenon did not depend on the decrease of indole concentration, but on the culture medium and the strain of LAB and ranged from 7 to 96 %.

  14. Evaluation of the intestinal colonization by microencapsulated probiotic bacteria in comparison with the same uncoated strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Piano, Mario; Carmagnola, Stefania; Andorno, Silvano; Pagliarulo, Michela; Tari, Roberto; Mogna, Luca; Strozzi, Gian Paolo; Sforza, Filomena; Capurso, Lucio

    2010-09-01

    Beneficial findings concerning probiotics are increasing day by day. However, one of the most important parameter which affects the probiotic activity of a microorganism is its survival during the gastroduodenal transit. Some microencapsulation techniques could be applied to bacterial cells to improve this parameter. A comparison between the intestinal colonization by microencapsulated bacteria and the same not microencapsulated strains has been conducted in a double blind, randomized, cross-over study. The study (April to July 2005) involved 44 healthy volunteers. In particular, participants were divided into 2 groups: group A (21 participants) received a mix of probiotic strains Lactobacillus plantarum LP01 (LMG P-21021) and Bifidobacterium breve BR03 (DSM 16604) in an uncoated form, group B (23 participants) was given the same strains microencapsulated with a gastroresistant material. The not microencapsulated strains were administered at 5 x 10(9) colony forming units/strain/d for 21 days, whereas the microencapsulated bacteria were given at 1 x 10(9) colony forming units/strain/d for 21 days. At the end of the first period of treatment with probiotics a 3 weeks washout phase has been included in the study protocol. At the end of the washout period the groups were crossed: in detail, group A had the microencapsulated and group B the uncoated bacteria. The administered amounts of each strain were the same as the first treatment. The quantitative evaluation of intestinal colonization by strains microencapsulated or not microencapsulated was made by fecal samples examination at the beginning of the clinical trial, after 10 and 21 days of each treatment period. In particular, fecal heterofermentative Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria have been counted. A statistically significant increase in the fecal amounts of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria was recorded in both groups at the end of each treatment compared with d0 or d42 (Pstrains to colonize the human gut, either

  15. Ethanol production by selected intestinal microorganisms and lactic acid bacteria growing under different nutritional conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad M.F. Elshaghabee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To gain some specific insight into the roles microorganisms might play in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, some intestinal and lactic acid bacteria and one yeast (Anaerostipes caccae, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bifidobacterium longum, Enterococcus fecalis, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Weissella confusa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae were characterized by high performance liquid chromatography for production of ethanol when grown on different carbohydrates: hexoses (glucose and fructose, pentoses (arabinose and ribose, disaccharides (lactose and lactulose, and inulin. Highest amounts of ethanol were produced by S. cerevisiae, L. fermentum and W. confusa on glucose and by S. cerevisiae and W. confusa on fructose. Due to mannitol-dehydrogenase expressed in L. fermentum, ethanol production on fructose was significantly (P < 0.05 reduced. Pyruvate and citrate, two potential electron acceptors for regeneration of NAD+/NADP+, drastically reduced ethanol production with acetate produced instead in L. fermentum grown on glucose and W. confusa grown on glucose and fructose, respectively. In fecal slurries prepared from feces of four overweight volunteers, ethanol was found to be produced upon addition of fructose. Addition of A. caccae, L. acidophilus, L. fermentum, as well as citrate and pyruvate, respectively, abolished ethanol production. However, addition of W. confusa resulted in significantly (P < 0.05 increased production of ethanol. These results indicate that microorganisms like W. confusa, a hetero-fermentative, mannitol-dehydrogenase negative lactic acid bacterium, may promote NAFLD through ethanol produced from sugar fermentation, while other intestinal bacteria and homo- and hetero-fermentative but mannitol-dehydrogenase positive lactic acid bacteria may not promote NAFLD. Also, our studies indicate that dietary factors interfering with gastrointestinal microbiota and

  16. Bloom of resident antibiotic-resistant bacteria in soil following manure fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udikovic-Kolic, Nikolina; Wichmann, Fabienne; Broderick, Nichole A; Handelsman, Jo

    2014-10-21

    The increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a global threat to public health. Agricultural use of antibiotics is believed to contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance, but the mechanisms by which many agricultural practices influence resistance remain obscure. Although manure from dairy farms is a common soil amendment in crop production, its impact on the soil microbiome and resistome is not known. To gain insight into this impact, we cultured bacteria from soil before and at 10 time points after application of manure from cows that had not received antibiotic treatment. Soil treated with manure contained a higher abundance of β-lactam-resistant bacteria than soil treated with inorganic fertilizer. Functional metagenomics identified β-lactam-resistance genes in treated and untreated soil, and indicated that the higher frequency of resistant bacteria in manure-amended soil was attributable to enrichment of resident soil bacteria that harbor β-lactamases. Quantitative PCR indicated that manure treatment enriched the blaCEP-04 gene, which is highly similar (96%) to a gene found previously in a Pseudomonas sp. Analysis of 16S rRNA genes indicated that the abundance of Pseudomonas spp. increased in manure-amended soil. Populations of other soil bacteria that commonly harbor β-lactamases, including Janthinobacterium sp. and Psychrobacter pulmonis, also increased in response to manure treatment. These results indicate that manure amendment induced a bloom of certain antibiotic-resistant bacteria in soil that was independent of antibiotic exposure of the cows from which the manure was derived. Our data illustrate the unintended consequences that can result from agricultural practices, and demonstrate the need for empirical analysis of the agroecosystem.

  17. Chemotaxis Increases the Residence Time Distribution of Bacteria in Granular Media Containing Distributed Contaminant Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adadevoh, J.; Triolo, S.; Ramsburg, C. A.; Ford, R.

    2015-12-01

    The use of chemotactic bacteria in bioremediation has the potential to increase access to, and biotransformation of, contaminant mass within the subsurface environment. This laboratory-scale study aimed to understand and quantify the influence of chemotaxis on residence times of pollutant-degrading bacteria within homogeneous treatment zones. Focus was placed on a continuous flow sand-packed column system in which a uniform distribution of naphthalene crystals created distributed sources of dissolved phase contaminant. A 10 mL pulse of Pseudomonas putida G7, which is chemotactic to naphthalene, and Pseudomonas putida G7 Y1, a non-chemotactic mutant strain, were simultaneously introduced into the sand-packed column at equal concentrations. Breakthrough curves obtained for the bacteria from column experiments conducted with and without naphthalene were used to quantify the effect of chemotaxis on transport parameters. In the presence of the chemoattractant, longitudinal dispersivity of PpG7 increased by a factor of 3 and percent recovery decreased from 21% to 12%. The results imply that pore-scale chemotaxis responses are evident at an interstitial fluid velocity of 1.7 m/d, which is within the range of typical groundwater flow. Within the context of bioremediation, chemotaxis may work to enhance bacterial residence times in zones of contamination thereby improving treatment.

  18. Antioxidant properties of caroot juices and their impact on intestinal and probiotic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Duda-Chodak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in non-dairy probiotic products. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of juice prepared from 15 various cultivars of carrot on the growth of representatives of human intestinal microbiota (Bifidobacterium catenulatum, Escherichia coli and probiotic strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5, Lactobacillus casei 01. Carrot juice was added to liquid medium at a final concentration of 5.0% and their impact on the bacteria number was assessed by measurement of the turbidity after 24 h of culture. The number of cells was expressed as % of positive control (medium without juice addition. Juices prepared from all tested cultivars of carrot inhibited the growth of Bifidobacterium catenulatum, and the strongest inhibitory effect was observed for juices obtained from the 'Kongo F1' cultivar (3.40 ±2.85% of positive control, 'Rumba F1'(4.17 ±2.27% and 'Broker F1' (5.35 ±2.14%. The majority of tested juices also inhibited the growth of E. coli, but those prepared from the 'Niland F1', 'Napa F1', 'Afro F1'and 'Samba F1' cultivars stimulated the growth of this bacterium. The probiotic strains were less sensitive to carrot juice impact than intestinal species, however both stimulation and inhibition could be observed. Juices made from the cultivars 'Kongo F1' and 'Deep Purple F1' acted negatively on the growth of both probiotic strains, while juice from 'Bangor F1' cultivar inhibited L. casei 01 growth, but stimulated the growth of LA-5. The obtained results suggest that 'Kongo F1' and 'Deep Purple F1' cultivars are not suitable as an additive or raw material for the production of probiotic products, because of their inhibitory properties against probiotic strains. Concluding, carrots can be used as raw material for the production of probiotic beverages, however both the cultivar of carrot and the strains of probiotic bacteria used for the production should be selected carefully. The most suitable for production of

  19. Kinetic properties of growth of intestinal sulphate-reducing bacteria isolated from healthy mice and mice with ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kushkevych

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease including ulcerative colitis are complex multifactorial diseases of unknown aetiology. Sulphate-reducing bacteria are often associated with the occurrence of the disease. The physiological properties of intestinal sulphate-reducing bacteria including kinetic characteristic of their growth have never been reported. The aim of this research was to evaluate the presence of sulphate-reducing bacteria isolated from the intestines of mice, study their growth, calculate and compare the kinetic growth properties on the model of dextran sulphate sodium induced ulcerative colitis in the mice. The number of viable intestinal sulphate-reducing bacteria from the bowel lumen of mice with ulcerative colitis was higher (P > 0.05 by 22% at 12 h of cultivation compared with cultures of sulphate-reducing bacteria from the bowel lumen of healthy mice. The sulphate-reducing bacteria from mice with colitis also had a slightly higher generation time (14.29 h and exponential growth phase (22.24 h compared with cultures from healthy mice. The time of lag-phase was 2 × shorter (P > 0.01 in the cultures of sulphate-reducing bacteria from mice with ulcerative colitis. The described research is new and important for the prediction of the sulphate-reducing bacteria number in the gut and their rate of dissimilatory sulphate reduction. The kinetic characteristic of their growth is important for further clarification of the mechanisms of sulphate reduction and accumulation of hydrogen sulphide, which is toxic for epithelial cells of the intestine and can cause bowel diseases both in humans and animals, in particular ulcerative colitis.

  20. Oregano Essential Oil Improves Intestinal Morphology and Expression of Tight Junction Proteins Associated with Modulation of Selected Intestinal Bacteria and Immune Status in a Pig Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oregano essential oil (OEO has long been used to improve the health of animals, particularly the health of intestine, which is generally attributed to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. However, how OEO acts in the intestine of pig is still unclear. This study was aimed at elucidating how OEO promotes the intestinal barrier integrity in a pig model. Pigs were fed a control diet alone or one supplemented with 25 mg/kg of OEO for 4 weeks. The OEO-treated pigs showed decreased (P<0.05 endotoxin level in serum and increased (P<0.05 villus height and expression of occludin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1 in the jejunum. These results demonstrated that the integrity of intestinal barrier was improved by OEO treatment. The OEO-treated pigs had a lower (P<0.05 population of Escherichia coli in the jejunum, ileum, and colon than the control. This is in accordance with the greater inactivation (P<0.05 of inflammation, which was reflected by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, protein kinase B (Akt, and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB signaling pathways and expression of inflammatory cytokines in the jejunum. Our results show that OEO promotes intestinal barrier integrity, probably through modulating intestinal bacteria and immune status in pigs.

  1. Lactic Acid Bacteria May Impact Intestinal Barrier Function by Modulating Goblet Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chengcheng; Dokter-Fokkens, Jelleke; Figueroa Lozano, Susana; Zhang, Qiuxiang; de Haan, Bart J; Zhang, Hao; Faas, Marijke M; de Vos, Paul

    2018-01-15

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are recognized to promote gastrointestinal health by mechanisms that are not fully understood. LABs might modulate the mucus and thereby enhance intestinal barrier function. Herein, we investigate effects of different LAB strains and species on goblet cell genes involved in mucus synthesis. Gene expression profiles of goblet-cell-associated products (mucin MUC2, trefoil factor 3, resistin-like molecule β, carbohydrate sulfotransferase 5, and galactose-3-O-sulfotransferase 2) induced by LAB or their derived conditioned medium in human goblet cell line LS174T are studied. Effects of LAB on gene transcription are assessed with or without exposure to TNF-α, IL-13, or the mucus damaging agent tunicamycin. LAB do impact the related genes in a species- and strain-specific fashion and their effects are different in the presence of the cytokines and tunicamycin. Bioactive factors secreted by some strains are also found to regulate goblet cell-related genes. Our findings provide novel insights in differences in modulatory efficacy on mucus genes between LAB species and strains. This study further unravels direct interactions between LAB and intestinal goblet cells, and highlights the importance of rationally selecting appropriate LAB candidates to achieve specific benefits in the gut. © 2018 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Efficiency of the intestinal bacteria in the degradation of the toxic pesticide, chlorpyrifos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harishankar, M K; Sasikala, C; Ramya, M

    2013-04-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CP) is the most commonly used pesticide throughout the world. Its widespread use in agriculture and its potential toxicity to humans from ingestion of CP contaminated food have raised concerns about its risk to health. Human intestinal microflora has the ability to degrade pesticides, but the exact mechanisms involved and the metabolite end-products formed are not well understood. The primary objective of this work was to analyse the in vitro degradation of CP by five model intestinal bacteria namely Lactobacillus lactis, L. fermentum, L. plantarum, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. Plate assay results revealed that L. lactis, E. coli and L. fermentum could grow with high concentrations of CP (>1,400 μg/mL), whereas E. faecalis and L. plantarum could grow with concentrations as low as 400 and 100 μg/mL, respectively. The best three CP degraders were therefore used in further experiments. The degradation of CP-induced organophosphorous phosphatase (OPP) production and that OPP concentration were higher in the supernatant (extracellular) rather than inside the cells by factor of up to 28. L. fermentum degraded 70 % CP with 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) detected as the end product. L.lactis degraded up to 61 % CP with chlorpyrifos oxon detected as the end product, whereas E.coli degraded a lesser concentration (16 %) to chlorpyrifos-oxon and diethylphosphate.

  3. Isolation of dextran-hydrolyzing intestinal bacteria and characterization of their dextranolytic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Kyoung; Shin, So-Yeon; Moon, Jin Seok; Li, Ling; Cho, Seung Kee; Kim, Tae-Jip; Han, Nam Soo

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate dextran-hydrolyzing bacteria from the human intestines and to identify their dextranolytic enzymes. For this, dextranase-producing microorganisms were screened from fecal samples by using blue dextran-containing media. Colonies producing a decolorized zone were isolated and they were grouped using RAPD-PCR. 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis revealed the isolates were Bacteroides (B.) thetaiotaomicron, B. ovatus, B. vulgatus, B. dorei, B. xylanisolvens, B. uniformis, and Veillonella (V.) rogosae. Thin layer chromatography analysis showed that the dextranases exhibit mainly endo-type activity and produce various oligosaccharides including isomaltose and isomaltotriose. Zymogram analysis demonstrated that enzymes localized mainly in the cell membrane fraction and the molecular weight was 50-70 kDa. When cultured in a dextran-containing medium, all strains isolated in this study produced short-chain fatty acids, with butyric acid as the major compound. This is the first study to report that human intestinal B. xylanisolvens, B. dorei, and V. rogosae metabolize dextran utilizing dextranolytic enzymes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Lactobacillus protects the integrity of intestinal epithelial barrier damaged by pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua eYu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pathogens invade intestinal mucosal barrier through phagocytosis of antigen presenting cells (dendritic cell, microfold cells, or through the invasion into the intestinal epithelial directly. Some pathogens could damage the cell junction between epithelial cells and use the paracellular pathway as an entrance to invade. Moreover, some Lactobacillus could inhibit the adhesion of the pathogens and protect the integrity of the cell junction and mucosal barrier. This research focused on the potential therapeutic effect of Lactobacillus fructosus (L. fructosus C2 to attenuate ETEC K88 or S. typhimurium SL1344 induced changes to mucosal barrier. The results demonstrated that treatment of polarized Caco-2 cells with L. fructosus C2 reduced the permeation of dextran, and expression of IL-8, p-ERK and p-JNK when cells were infected with pathogenic bacteria. The findings indicated that L. fructosus C2 exerted a protective effect against the damage to the integrity of Caco-2 cells by ETEC or S. typhimurium infection.

  5. Interactions between bacteria and the gut mucosa: Do enteric neurotransmitters acting on the mucosal epithelium influence intestinal colonization or infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The intestinal epithelium is a critical barrier between the internal and external milieux of the mammalian host. Epithelial interactions between these two host environments have been shown to be modulated by several different, cross-communicating cell types residing in the gut mucosa. These include ...

  6. Impact of 6 different intestinal bacteria on broiler breeder sperm motility in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, M D; Parker, H M; McDaniel, C D; Kiess, A S

    2013-08-01

    Male fertility is often evaluated by measuring sperm parameters, including concentration, viability, and motility. This is important because after copulation occurs, sperm must overcome many barriers in the female reproductive tract to fertilize the ovum. In mammalian species, sperm have been shown to have reduced motility when bacteria are present. In male broiler breeders, bacteria have been associated with spermatozoa, but their effect on motility has not been investigated. The sperm quality index is a modern rapid method of evaluating avian sperm motility. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use the sperm quality index to determine if broiler breeder sperm motility is reduced when semen is exposed to various bacteria. In this experiment, semen was collected from 20 broiler breeders to obtain a pooled neat semen sample. Six different intestinal bacteria, Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium bifermentans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium animalis were cultured overnight. For each bacterium, 50 µL of semen was diluted in 450 µL of saline, sterile broth, or the overnight culture, creating 3 treatments. The experiment was repeated twice. In each treatment, 3 replicates were evaluated at 0 and 10 min postinoculation, creating a completely randomized design with a split plot over time. Also, the pH was measured for each treatment at 0 and 10 min. The results indicated that all broths containing bacteria immediately reduced broiler breeder sperm motility when compared with the controls (P < 0.0001), but broths containing Bifidobacterium or Lactobacillus virtually made sperm immotile. Although broth containing Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Bifidobacterium immediately reduced sperm motility, the reduction did not change over time. Broths containing E. coli, Clostridium, and Lactobacillus reduced sperm motility immediately, but over time motility continued to decrease. However, pH was increased when semen was

  7. [Studies on the biotransformation of escin Ia by human intestinal bacteria and the anti-tumor activities of desacylescin I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiu-Wei; Zhao, Jing; Cui, Jing-Rong; Guo, Wei

    2004-02-01

    To study Biotransformation of escin Ia by the crude enzymes of human intestinal bacteria and Lactobacillus brevis, determine the structures of biotransformation products and assay the inhibitory effect of desacylescin I on the tumor cell growth. The escin Ia was incubated with crude enzymes of human intestinal bacteria and Lactobacillus brevis in vitro, respectively. The biotransformation products were isolated and purified by the chromatographic methods and the structures were determined by the spectroscopic techniques. Escin Ia was converted into isoescin Ia, desacylescin I, 21beta-O-tigloylprotoaescigenin and protoaescigenin by crude enzymes of human intestinal bacteria and Lactobacillus brevis. Desacylescin I showed potentially inhibitory effects on tumor cell growth of mouse sarcoma-180, hepatic carcinoma H(22) and lung carcinoma in vivo. The results suggest that Escin Ia was a prodrug and its structure can be converted by human intestinal bacteria and Lactobacillus brevis. Desacylescin I as a biotransformation product showed potentially inhibitory effects on mouse tumor, and a potential candidate for anti tumor agents.

  8. Dietary fibres modulate the composition and activity of butyrate-producing bacteria in the large intestine of suckling piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mu, Chunlong; Zhang, Lingli; He, Xiangyu; Smidt, Hauke; Zhu, Weiyun

    2017-01-01

    Dietary fibres have been shown to affect early-life microbiota colonization in the large intestine of suckling piglets, however, much less is known as to whether they also modulate the composition and activity of butyrate-producing bacteria. Here, we investigated the effect of dietary fibres on the

  9. The genus Romboutsia : genomic and functional characterization of novel bacteria dedicated to life in the intestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, J.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Romboutsia: genomic and functional characterization of novel bacteria dedicated to life in the intestinal tract

    PhD thesis Jacoline Gerritsen, 2015

    Abstract

    Humans, like other mammals, are not single-species organisms, but they

  10. Establishment of tolerance to commensal bacteria requires a complex microbiota and is accompanied by decreased intestinal chemokine expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen; Metzdorff, S. B.; Zeuthen, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Intricate regulation of tolerance to the intestinal commensal microbiota acquired at birth is critical. We hypothesized that epithelial cell tolerance toward early gram-positive and gram-negative colonizing bacteria is established immediately after birth, as has previously been shown for endotoxin...

  11. The genus Romboutsia : genomic and functional characterization of novel bacteria dedicated to life in the intestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, J.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Romboutsia: genomic and functional characterization of novel bacteria dedicated to life in the intestinal tract

    PhD thesis Jacoline Gerritsen, 2015 Abstract Humans, like other mammals, are not single-species organisms, but they constitute in fact

  12. Development and validation of an automated, microscopy-based method for enumeration of groups of intestinal bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, GJ; Wildeboer-Veloo, ACM; Tonk, RHJ; Franks, AH; Welling, G

    An automated microscopy-based method using fluorescently labelled 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes directed against the predominant groups of intestinal bacteria was developed and validated. The method makes use of the Leica 600HR. image analysis system, a Kodak MegaPlus camera model 1.4 and

  13. Toxicity of graphene oxide on intestinal bacteria and Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trang H D; Lin, Mengshi; Mustapha, Azlin

    2015-05-01

    In recent years, novel nanomaterials have received much attention due to their great potential for applications in agriculture, food safety, and food packaging. Among them, graphene and graphene oxide (GO) are emerging as promising nanomaterials that may have a profound impact on food packaging. However, there are some concerns from consumers and the scientific community about the potential toxicity and biocompatibility of nanomaterials. In this study, we investigated the antibacterial properties of GO against human intestinal bacteria. The cytotoxicity of GO was also studied in vitro using the Caco-2 cell line derived from a colon carcinoma. Electron microscopy was used to investigate the morphology of GO and the interaction between GO flakes and Caco-2 cells. GO at different concentrations (10 to 500 μg/ml) exhibited no toxicity against the selected bacteria and a mild cytotoxic action on Caco-2 cells after 24 h of exposure. The results show that weak adsorption of medium nutrients may contribute to GO's low toxicity. This study suggests that GO is biocompatible and has a potential to be used in agriculture and food science, indicating that more studies are needed to exploit its potential applications.

  14. Lead biosorption of probiotic bacteria: effects of the intestinal content from laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Sicheng; Wang, Jie; Liang, Juan Boo; Jahromi, Mohammad Faseleh; Zhu, Cui; Shokryazdan, Parisa; Laudadio, Vito; Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Liao, Xindi

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated the effects and the possible mechanisms of intestinal content (IC) from laying hens on in vitro lead (Pb 2+ ) biosorption of four probiotic bacterial strains (Bifidobacterium longum BB79, Lactobacillus paracasei Kgl6, Lactobacillus pentosus ITA23, and Lactobacillus acidipiscis ITA44). The total Pb 2+ removal capacity of the four probiotic strains, with and without capsule polysaccharides (CPSs), increased in the presence of IC compared to the control (without IC). SEM imaging revealed certain unidentified particles from the IC adhered on the surface of bacterial cells sorted out using flow cytometry. Follow-up experiment showed an overall trend of increase in the Pb 2+ removal capacity of the sorted bacteria, but statistically significant for L. pentosus ITA23 and B. longum BB79 after incubation with IC, particularly with the suspended solid portion of the IC. In addition, the Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer data showed that functional groups such as C-H, O-H, C=O, and C-O-C which possibly associated with Pb 2+ binding were mainly presented in the suspended solid portion of IC. Putting the above together, we postulated that the enhanced Pb 2+ binding capacity the probiotic bacteria incubated in IC is due to the adherence of the yet to be identified particles which could much exist in suspended solid portion of IC containing negatively charged functional groups which bind with the positive Pb 2+ ions.

  15. Always one step ahead: How pathogenic bacteria use the type III secretion system to manipulate the intestinal mucosal immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchès Olivier

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The intestinal immune system and the epithelium are the first line of defense in the gut. Constantly exposed to microorganisms from the environment, the gut has complex defense mechanisms to prevent infections, as well as regulatory pathways to tolerate commensal bacteria and food antigens. Intestinal pathogens have developed strategies to regulate intestinal immunity and inflammation in order to establish or prolong infection. The organisms that employ a type III secretion system use a molecular syringe to deliver effector proteins into the cytoplasm of host cells. These effectors target the host cell cytoskeleton, cell organelles and signaling pathways. This review addresses the multiple mechanisms by which the type III secretion system targets the intestinal immune response, with a special focus on pathogenic E. coli.

  16. Diversity, Biocontrol, and Plant Growth Promoting Abilities of Xylem Residing Bacteria from Solanaceous Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauri A. Achari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eggplant (Solanum melongena L. is one of the solanaceous crops of economic and cultural importance and is widely cultivated in the state of Goa, India. Eggplant cultivation is severely affected by bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum that colonizes the xylem tissue. In this study, 167 bacteria were isolated from the xylem of healthy eggplant, chilli, and Solanum torvum Sw. by vacuum infiltration and maceration. Amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA grouped these xylem residing bacteria (XRB into 38 haplotypes. Twenty-eight strains inhibited growth of R. solanacearum and produced volatile and diffusible antagonistic compounds and plant growth promoting substances in vitro. Antagonistic strains XB86, XB169, XB177, and XB200 recorded a biocontrol efficacy greater than 85% against BW and exhibited 12%–22 % increase in shoot length in eggplant in the greenhouse screening. 16S rRNA based identification revealed the presence of 23 different bacterial genera. XRB with high biocontrol and plant growth promoting activities were identified as strains of Staphylococcus sp., Bacillus sp., Streptomyces sp., Enterobacter sp., and Agrobacterium sp. This study is the first report on identity of bacteria from the xylem of solanaceous crops having traits useful in cultivation of eggplant.

  17. Effects of BmCPV Infection on Silkworm Bombyx mori Intestinal Bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenli Sun

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota has a crucial role in the growth, development and environmental adaptation in the host insect. The objective of our work was to investigate the microbiota of the healthy silkworm Bombyx mori gut and changes after the infection of B. mori cypovirus (BmCPV. Intestinal contents of the infected and healthy larvae of B. mori of fifth instar were collected at 24, 72 and 144 h post infection with BmCPV. The gut bacteria were analyzed by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. 147(135 and 113(103 genera were found in the gut content of the healthy control female (male larvae and BmCPV-infected female (male larvae, respectively. In general, the microbial communities in the gut content of healthy larvae were dominated by Enterococcus, Delftia, Pelomonas, Ralstonia and Staphylococcus, however the abundance change of each genus was depended on the developmental stage and gender. Microbial diversity reached minimum at 144 h of fifth instar larvae. The abundance of Enterococcus in the females was substantially lower and the abundance of Delftia, Aurantimonas and Staphylococcus was substantially higher compared to the males. Bacterial diversity in the intestinal contents decreased after post infection with BmCPV, whereas the abundance of both Enterococcus and Staphylococcus which belongs to Gram-positive were increased. Therefore, our findings suggested that observed changes in relative abundance was related to the immune response of silkworm to BmCPV infection. Relevance analysis of plenty of the predominant genera showed the abundance of the Enterococcus genus was in negative correlation with the abundance of the most predominant genera. These results provided insight into the relationship between the gut microbiota and development of the BmCPV-infected silkworm.

  18. Isolation of Human Intestinal Bacteria Capable of Producing the Bioactive Metabolite Isourolithin A from Ellagic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selma, María V; Beltrán, David; Luna, María C; Romo-Vaquero, María; García-Villalba, Rocío; Mira, Alex; Espín, Juan C; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

    2017-01-01

    Urolithins are intestinal microbial metabolites produced from ellagitannin- and ellagic acid-containing foods such as walnuts, strawberries, and pomegranates. These metabolites, better absorbed than their precursors, can contribute significantly to the beneficial properties attributed to the polyphenols ellagitannins and ellagic acid (EA). However, both the ability of producing the final metabolites in this catabolism (urolithins A, B and isourolithin A) and the health benefits associated with ellagitannin consumption differ considerably among individuals depending on their gut microbiota composition. Three human urolithin metabotypes have been previously described, i.e., metabotype 0 (urolithin non-producers), metabotype A (production of urolithin A as unique final urolithin) and metabotype B (urolithin B and/or isourolithin A are produced besides urolithin A). Although production of some intermediary urolithins has been recently attributed to intestinal species from Eggerthellaceae family named Gordonibacter urolithinfaciens and Gordonibacter pamelaeae , the identification of the microorganisms responsible for the complete transformation of EA into the final urolithins, especially those related to metabotype B, are still unknown. In the present research we illustrate the isolation of urolithin-producing strains from human feces of a healthy adult and their ability to transform EA into different urolithin metabolites, including isourolithin A. The isolates belong to a new genus from Eggerthellaceae family. EA transformation and urolithin production arisen during the stationary phase of the growth of the bacteria under anaerobic conditions. The HPLC-DAD-MS analyses demonstrated the sequential appearance of 3,8,9,10-tetrahydroxy-urolithin (urolithin M6), 3,8,9-trihydroxy-urolithin (urolithin C) and 3,9-dihydroxy-urolithin (isourolithin A) while 3,8-dihydroxy-urolithin (urolithin A) and 3-hydroxy-urolithin (urolithin B) were not detected. For the first time

  19. Isolation of Human Intestinal Bacteria Capable of Producing the Bioactive Metabolite Isourolithin A from Ellagic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María V. Selma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Urolithins are intestinal microbial metabolites produced from ellagitannin- and ellagic acid-containing foods such as walnuts, strawberries, and pomegranates. These metabolites, better absorbed than their precursors, can contribute significantly to the beneficial properties attributed to the polyphenols ellagitannins and ellagic acid (EA. However, both the ability of producing the final metabolites in this catabolism (urolithins A, B and isourolithin A and the health benefits associated with ellagitannin consumption differ considerably among individuals depending on their gut microbiota composition. Three human urolithin metabotypes have been previously described, i.e., metabotype 0 (urolithin non-producers, metabotype A (production of urolithin A as unique final urolithin and metabotype B (urolithin B and/or isourolithin A are produced besides urolithin A. Although production of some intermediary urolithins has been recently attributed to intestinal species from Eggerthellaceae family named Gordonibacter urolithinfaciens and Gordonibacter pamelaeae, the identification of the microorganisms responsible for the complete transformation of EA into the final urolithins, especially those related to metabotype B, are still unknown. In the present research we illustrate the isolation of urolithin-producing strains from human feces of a healthy adult and their ability to transform EA into different urolithin metabolites, including isourolithin A. The isolates belong to a new genus from Eggerthellaceae family. EA transformation and urolithin production arisen during the stationary phase of the growth of the bacteria under anaerobic conditions. The HPLC-DAD-MS analyses demonstrated the sequential appearance of 3,8,9,10-tetrahydroxy-urolithin (urolithin M6, 3,8,9-trihydroxy-urolithin (urolithin C and 3,9-dihydroxy-urolithin (isourolithin A while 3,8-dihydroxy-urolithin (urolithin A and 3-hydroxy-urolithin (urolithin B were not detected. For the first time

  20. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells mediate intestinal selection of commensal bacteria-specific CD4+ T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepworth, Matthew R.; Fung, Thomas C.; Masur, Samuel H.; Kelsen, Judith R.; McConnell, Fiona M.; Dubrot, Juan; Withers, David R.; Hugues, Stephanie; Farrar, Michael A.; Reith, Walter; Eberl, Gerard; Baldassano, Robert N.; Laufer, Terri M.; Elson, Charles O.; Sonnenberg, Gregory F.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory CD4+ T cell responses to self or commensal bacteria underlie the pathogenesis of autoimmunity and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), respectively. While selection of self-specific T cells in the thymus limits responses to tissue antigens, the mechanisms that control selection of commensal bacteria-specific T cells remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that group 3 innate lymphoid cell (ILC3)-intrinsic expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) is regulated similarly to thymic epithelial cells, and that MHCII+ ILC3s directly induce cell death of activated commensal bacteria-specific T cells. Further, MHCII on human colonic ILC3s was reduced in pediatric IBD patients. Collectively, these results define a selection pathway for commensal bacteria-specific CD4+ T cells in the intestine, and suggest that this process is dysregulated in human IBD. PMID:25908663

  1. Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus reuteri and metabolites of intestinal bacteria as therapeutic agents in acute diarrhea in children

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tláskal, P.; Kokešová, A.; Schramlová, J.; Tlaskalová, Helena; Adamus, J.; Bubáková, D.; Kočnarová, N.; Kopecký, J.; Mucková, M.; Pacovská, J.; Sládková, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2007), s. 67-74 ISSN 1555-1431 Grant - others:CZ(CZ) 00000064203/6041; CZ(CZ) 00064203/6309 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje ; V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : acute diarrhea * metabolites of intestinal bacteria * probiotics Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  2. Effects of Achyrocline satureioides Inflorescence Extracts against Pathogenic Intestinal Bacteria: Chemical Characterization, In Vitro Tests, and In Vivo Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Suzana Moresco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three Achyrocline satureioides (AS inflorescences extracts were characterized: (i a freeze-dried extract prepared from the aqueous extractive solution and (ii a freeze-dried and (iii a spray-dried extract prepared from hydroethanol extractive solution (80% ethanol. The chemical profile, antioxidant potential, and antimicrobial activity against intestinal pathogenic bacteria of AS extracts were evaluated. In vitro antioxidant activity was determined by the total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP assay. In vivo analysis and characterization of intestinal microbiota were performed in male Wistar rats (saline versus treated animals with AS dried extracts by high-throughput sequencing analysis: metabarcoding. Antimicrobial activity was tested in vitro by the disc diffusion tests. Moisture content of the extracts ranged from 10 to 15% and 5.7 to 17 mg kg−1 of fluorine. AS exhibited antioxidant activity, especially in its freeze-dried form which also exhibited a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity against intestinal pathogenic bacteria greater than those observed by the antibiotic, amoxicillin, when tested against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of AS extracts seemed to be positively correlated with the present amount of flavonoids. These findings suggest a potential use of AS as a coadjuvant agent for treating bacterial-induced intestinal diseases with high rates of antibiotic resistance.

  3. Dietary fibres modulate the composition and activity of butyrate-producing bacteria in the large intestine of suckling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Chunlong; Zhang, Lingli; He, Xiangyu; Smidt, Hauke; Zhu, Weiyun

    2017-05-01

    Dietary fibres have been shown to affect early-life microbiota colonization in the large intestine of suckling piglets, however, much less is known as to whether they also modulate the composition and activity of butyrate-producing bacteria. Here, we investigated the effect of dietary fibres on the abundance, composition, and activity of butyrate-producing bacteria in suckling piglets. Piglets were fed a control diet or creep feeds containing alfalfa, wheat bran, or pure cellulose, respectively, from postnatal day 7 to 22. Large intestinal digesta and mucosa samples were collected for quantitative analysis of bacterial group-specific 16S ribosomal RNA- and butyrate production-related genes, and digesta samples for quantification of short-chain fatty acids. The alfalfa diet increased (P butyrate production (butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase, butyrate kinase), and butyrate concentration compared to the wheat bran diet in the digesta of the proximal colon. In the distal colonic digesta, animals fed the alfalfa diet had the highest number of butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase gene copies (P butyrate concentration, albeit not significant (P > 0.05), compared to other groups. In the distal colonic mucosa, the cellulose diet increased (P butyrate-producing bacteria in the large intestine of suckling piglets, and that a moderate supplementation of alfalfa and cellulose may benefit early-life gut health through the delivery of butyrate to the mucosa.

  4. Alcaligenes is Commensal Bacteria Habituating in the Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue for the Regulation of Intestinal IgA Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunisawa, Jun; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Secretory-immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) plays an important role in immunological defense in the intestine. It has been known for a long time that microbial stimulation is required for the development and maintenance of intestinal IgA production. Recent advances in genomic technology have made it possible to detect uncultivable commensal bacteria in the intestine and identify key bacteria in the regulation of innate and acquired mucosal immune responses. In this review, we focus on the immunological function of Peyer's patches (PPs), a major gut-associated lymphoid tissue, in the induction of intestinal IgA responses and the unique immunological interaction of PPs with commensal bacteria, especially Alcaligenes, a unique indigenous bacteria habituating inside PPs.

  5. Lactic Acid Bacteria Protects Caenorhabditis elegans from Toxicity of Graphene Oxide by Maintaining Normal Intestinal Permeability under different Genetic Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunli; Yu, Xiaoming; Jia, Ruhan; Yang, Ruilong; Rui, Qi; Wang, Dayong

    2015-11-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is safe and useful for food and feed fermentation. We employed Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate the possible beneficial effect of LAB (Lactobacillus bulgaricus) pretreatment against toxicity of graphene oxide (GO) and the underlying mechanisms. LAB prevented GO toxicity on the functions of both primary and secondary targeted organs in wild-type nematodes. LAB blocked translocation of GO into secondary targeted organs through intestinal barrier by maintaining normal intestinal permeability in wild-type nematodes. Moreover, LAB prevented GO damage on the functions of both primary and secondary targeted organs in exposed nematodes with mutations of susceptible genes (sod-2, sod-3, gas-1, and aak-2) to GO toxicity by sustaining normal intestinal permeability. LAB also sustained the normal defecation behavior in both wild-type nematodes and nematodes with mutations of susceptible genes. Therefore, the beneficial role of LAB against GO toxicity under different genetic backgrounds may be due to the combinational effects on intestinal permeability and defecation behavior. Moreover, the beneficial effects of LAB against GO toxicity was dependent on the function of ACS-22, homologous to mammalian FATP4 to mammalian FATP4. Our study provides highlight on establishment of pharmacological strategy to protect intestinal barrier from toxicity of GO.

  6. Identification of glucose-fermenting bacteria present in an in vitro model of the human intestine by RNA-stable isotope probing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egert, M.; Graaf, A.A. de; Maathuis, A.; Waard, P. de; Plugge, C.M.; Smidt, H.; Deutz, N.E.P.; Dijkema, C.; Vos, W.M. de; Venema, K.

    2007-01-01

    16S rRNA-based stable isotope probing (SIP) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy-based metabolic profiling were used to identify bacteria fermenting glucose under conditions simulating the human intestine. The TIM-2 in vitro model of the human intestine was inoculated with a GI tract

  7. Production of enterodiol from defatted flaxseeds through biotransformation by human intestinal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Zhi; Ma, Xiao-Qing; Yang, Dong-Hui; Guo, Zhi-Rong; Liu, Gui-Rong; Zhao, Ge-Xin; Tang, Jie; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Ma, Miao; Cai, Shao-Qing; Ku, Bao-Shan; Liu, Shu-Lin

    2010-04-16

    The effects of enterolignans, e.g., enterodiol (END) and particularly its oxidation product, enterolactone (ENL), on prevention of hormone-dependent diseases, such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases, hyperlipemia, breast cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer and menopausal syndrome, have attracted much attention. To date, the main way to obtain END and ENL is chemical synthesis, which is expensive and inevitably leads to environmental pollution. To explore a more economic and eco-friendly production method, we explored biotransformation of enterolignans from precursors contained in defatted flaxseeds by human intestinal bacteria. We cultured fecal specimens from healthy young adults in media containing defatted flaxseeds and detected END from the culture supernatant. Following selection through successive subcultures of the fecal microbiota with defatted flaxseeds as the only carbon source, we obtained a bacterial consortium, designated as END-49, which contained the smallest number of bacterial types still capable of metabolizing defatted flaxseeds to produce END. Based on analysis with pulsed field gel electrophoresis, END-49 was found to consist of five genomically distinct bacterial lineages, designated Group I-V, with Group I strains dominating the culture. None of the individual Group I-V strains produced END, demonstrating that the biotransformation of substrates in defatted flaxseeds into END is a joint work by different members of the END-49 bacterial consortium. Interestingly, Group I strains produced secoisolariciresinol, an important intermediate of END production; 16S rRNA analysis of one Group I strain established its close relatedness with Klebsiella. Genomic analysis is under way to identify all members in END-49 involved in the biotransformation and the actual pathway leading to END-production. Biotransformation is a very economic, efficient and environmentally friendly way of mass-producing enterodiol from defatted flaxseeds.

  8. Production of enterodiol from defatted flaxseeds through biotransformation by human intestinal bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Miao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of enterolignans, e.g., enterodiol (END and particularly its oxidation product, enterolactone (ENL, on prevention of hormone-dependent diseases, such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases, hyperlipemia, breast cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer and menopausal syndrome, have attracted much attention. To date, the main way to obtain END and ENL is chemical synthesis, which is expensive and inevitably leads to environmental pollution. To explore a more economic and eco-friendly production method, we explored biotransformation of enterolignans from precursors contained in defatted flaxseeds by human intestinal bacteria. Results We cultured fecal specimens from healthy young adults in media containing defatted flaxseeds and detected END from the culture supernatant. Following selection through successive subcultures of the fecal microbiota with defatted flaxseeds as the only carbon source, we obtained a bacterial consortium, designated as END-49, which contained the smallest number of bacterial types still capable of metabolizing defatted flaxseeds to produce END. Based on analysis with pulsed field gel electrophoresis, END-49 was found to consist of five genomically distinct bacterial lineages, designated Group I-V, with Group I strains dominating the culture. None of the individual Group I-V strains produced END, demonstrating that the biotransformation of substrates in defatted flaxseeds into END is a joint work by different members of the END-49 bacterial consortium. Interestingly, Group I strains produced secoisolariciresinol, an important intermediate of END production; 16S rRNA analysis of one Group I strain established its close relatedness with Klebsiella. Genomic analysis is under way to identify all members in END-49 involved in the biotransformation and the actual pathway leading to END-production. Conclusion Biotransformation is a very economic, efficient and environmentally friendly way of mass

  9. Effect of cheese on intestinal transit time and other indicators of bowel function in residents of a retirement home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykkänen, H M; Karhunen, L J; Korpela, R; Salminen, S

    1994-01-01

    Effects of increased intake of cheese on intestinal transit time and other indicators of bowel function were studied in 21 retirement home residents (18 women and 3 men; age, 68-87 years). The study was divided into four succeeding periods: 1) 1-week basal period (usual diet); 2)3-week cheese period (extra cheese was offered as such on bread or used in cooking); 3) 3-week no-cheese period (all cheese on bread was replaced with cured meats and cold cuts, and no cheese was used in cooking); 4) 3-week follow-up period (usual diet). During the last week of each period a questionnaire was filled out on fecal frequencies, consistency of feces (soft, normal, hard), and occurrence of abdominal pain and flatulence. Use of laxative medications and therapeutic foods (prunes) was registered. Eleven of the 21 subjects collected fecal samples for the determination of fecal wet weight and intestinal transit time by means of radiopaque Sitzmark capsules. Intakes of cheese, fiber-containing foods, and fluids by these 11 subjects during meals offered in the cafeteria were recorded on a prefilled questionnaire. In spite of a 10-fold increase in the intake of cheese no change in intestinal transit time, fecal frequency, fecal wet weight, consistency of feces, and occurrence of gastrointestinal symptoms was observed. The use of laxative medication was higher during the cheese period, but no change in the combined use of laxative medication and therapeutic foods (prunes) was observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Gastro-Intestinal Tolerance and Renal Safety of Protein Oral Nutritional Supplements in Nursing Home Residents: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Wee, P; Kuhn, M; van der Woude, H; Van De Looverbosch, D; Heyman, H; Mikušová, L; Fouque, D

    2016-01-01

    High protein oral nutritional supplements (ONS) are regularly prescribed to undernourished patients; however usage of these in older adults is being discussed, as their renal function might have declined with age. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of 8 week long consumption of high protein ONS on the renal function of nursing home residents in need of supplementation. Furthermore, within the same setup, differences in gastro-intestinal tolerance between a standard and a more concentrated version of an ONS were investigated. Randomized, controlled, single-blind, parallel-group, multi-country trial (NTR2565). Nursing home. 67 nursing home residents in need of ONS (energy-dense, small volume group n=32; standard volume group n=35). Protein supplementation was provided by either a standard (200ml, 300kcal, 20g protein) or an energy-dense, small volume (125ml, 300kcal, 18g protein) ONS during the 8 week long study. Primary outcome was gastro-intestinal tolerance, assessed by daily stool frequency and consistency, and occurrence and intensity of self-reported gastro-intestinal symptoms. Safety was measured via the occurrence of (serious) adverse events, vital signs, as well as liver- and kidney function monitoring. No clinically relevant and, except for flatulence, no statistically significant differences in gastro-intestinal tolerance were observed between groups. No significant difference between groups was found for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio at baseline and week 8, nor for the changes from baseline. Adverse events and the changes in monitored renal parameters over the study period did not point to a deterioration of renal function. High protein ONS seems to be well-tolerated and safe; there is no indication that it affects renal function in nursing home residents, including patients with stage 3 chronic kidney disease, under the conditions tested. Results did not suggest a

  11. The mucin degrader Akkermansia muciniphila is an abundant resident of the human intestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derrien, M.M.N.; Collado, M.C.; Ben-Amor, K.; Salminen, S.; Vos, de W.M.

    2008-01-01

    A 16S rRNA-targeted probe, MUC-1437, was designed and validated in order to determine the presence and numbers of cells of Akkermansia muciniphila, a mucin degrader, in the human intestinal tract. As determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization, A. muciniphila accounted more than 1% of the total

  12. Butyrate Produced by Commensal Bacteria Potentiates Phorbol Esters Induced AP-1 Response in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepelska, Malgorzata; Cultrone, Antonietta; Béguet-Crespel, Fabienne; Le Roux, Karine; Doré, Joël; Arulampalam, Vermulugesan; Blottière, Hervé M.

    2012-01-01

    The human intestine is a balanced ecosystem well suited for bacterial survival, colonization and growth, which has evolved to be beneficial both for the host and the commensal bacteria. Here, we investigated the effect of bacterial metabolites produced by commensal bacteria on AP-1 signaling pathway, which has a plethora of effects on host physiology. Using intestinal epithelial cell lines, HT-29 and Caco-2, stably transfected with AP-1-dependent luciferase reporter gene, we tested the effect of culture supernatant from 49 commensal strains. We observed that several bacteria were able to activate the AP-1 pathway and this was correlated to the amount of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced. Besides being a major source of energy for epithelial cells, SCFAs have been shown to regulate several signaling pathways in these cells. We show that propionate and butyrate are potent activators of the AP-1 pathway, butyrate being the more efficient of the two. We also observed a strong synergistic activation of AP-1 pathway when using butyrate with PMA, a PKC activator. Moreover, butyrate enhanced the PMA-induced expression of c-fos and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, but not p38 and JNK. In conclusion, we showed that SCFAs especially butyrate regulate the AP-1 signaling pathway, a feature that may contribute to the physiological impact of the gut microbiota on the host. Our results provide support for the involvement of butyrate in modulating the action of PKC in colon cancer cells. PMID:23300800

  13. Crohn's disease intestinal CD4+ T cells have impaired interleukin-10 productionwhich is not restored by probiotic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Christian L; Kelsen, Jens; Agnholt, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    /ml+/-standard error of the mean 1.1 ng/ml) but low levels of IL-10 (0.7 ng/ml+/-0.1 ng/ml). In contrast, HV intestinal T cells produced less IFN-gamma (3.9 ng/ml+/-0.8 ng/ml, p=0.06) and more IL-10 (4.6 ng/ml+/-0.9 ng/ml, p=0.0001) than CD intestinal T cells. Co-culture with Lactobacilli failed to revert...... a pro-inflammatory cytokine profile with impaired production of the regulatory cytokine IL-10. Tolerogenic bacteria (Lactobacilli) failed to restore this regulatory defect....

  14. The interplay between intestinal bacteria and host metabolism in health and disease: lessons from Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C. N. Wong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available All higher organisms negotiate a truce with their commensal microbes and battle pathogenic microbes on a daily basis. Much attention has been given to the role of the innate immune system in controlling intestinal microbes and to the strategies used by intestinal microbes to overcome the host immune response. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that the metabolisms of intestinal microbes and their hosts are linked and that this interaction is equally important for host health and well-being. For instance, an individual's array of commensal microbes can influence their predisposition to chronic metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. A better understanding of host–microbe metabolic interactions is important in defining the molecular bases of these disorders and could potentially lead to new therapeutic avenues. Key advances in this area have been made using Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we review studies that have explored the impact of both commensal and pathogenic intestinal microbes on Drosophila carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. These studies have helped to elucidate the metabolites produced by intestinal microbes, the intestinal receptors that sense these metabolites, and the signaling pathways through which these metabolites manipulate host metabolism. Furthermore, they suggest that targeting microbial metabolism could represent an effective therapeutic strategy for human metabolic diseases and intestinal infection.

  15. A strain of Lactobacillus plantarum affects segmented filamentous bacteria in the intestine of immunosupressed mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuentes Enriquez de Salamanca, S.; Egert, M.G.G.; Jimenez-Valera, M.; Monteoliva-Sanchez, M.; Ruiz-Bravo, A.; Smidt, H.

    2008-01-01

    Segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) are present in the gastrointestinal tract of mice from weaning until the maturation of the immune system. Probiotic bacteria also have an effect on host immunity. To study the relationships established between these bacteria, samples from a mouse model fed with

  16. The and Lactic Acid Bacteria Probiotics Influences Intestinal Mucin Gene Expression, Histomorphology and Growth Performance in Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R. Aliakbarpour

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of commercial monostrain and multistrain probiotics in diets on growth performance, intestinal morphology and mucin gene (MUC2 expression in broiler chicks. Three hundred seventy-eight 1-d-old male Arian broiler chicks were allocated in 3 experimental groups for 6 wk. The birds were fed on a corn-soybean based diet and depending on the addition were labeled as follows: control-unsupplemented (C, birds supplemented with Bacillus subtilis (BS and lactic acid bacteria (LAB based probiotics. Each treatment had 6 replicates of 21 broilers each. Treatment effects on body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and biomarkers such as intestinal goblet cell density, villus length, villus width, and mucin gene expression were determined. Total feed intake did not differ significantly between control birds and those fed a diet with probiotics (p>0.05. However, significant differences in growth performance were found. Final body weight at 42 d of age was higher in birds fed a diet with probiotics compared to those fed a diet without probiotic (p<0.05. Inclusion of Bacillus subtilis based probiotic in the diets also significantly affected feed conversion rate (FCR compared with control birds (p<0.05. No differences in growth performance were observed in birds fed different types of probiotic supplemented diets. Inclusion of lactic acid bacteria based probiotic in the diets significantly increased goblet cell number and villus length (p<0.05. Furthermore, diets with Bacillus subtilis based probiotics significantly increased gene expression (p<0.05, with higher intestinal MUC2 mRNA in birds fed diet with probiotics compared to those fed the control diet. In BS and LAB probiotic fed chicks, higher growth performance may be related to higher expression of the MUC2 gene in goblet cells and/or morphological change of small intestinal tract. The higher synthesis of the mucin gene after probiotic

  17. Intestinal bacteria in bioaerosols and factors affecting their survival in two oxidation ditch process municipal wastewater treatment plants located in different regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanjie; Li, Lin; Han, Yunping; Liu, Junxin; Yang, Kaixiong

    2018-06-15

    Samples from two oxidation ditch process municipal wastewater treatment plants (MWTPs) (HJK and GXQ) in two regions of China were analysed for bacteria, particles, total organic carbon, and water-soluble ions in bioaerosols. Diversity and potential pathogen populations were evaluated by high-throughput sequencing. Bioaerosol sources, factors affecting intestinal bacterial survival, and the relationship between bioaerosols and water were analysed by Source tracker and partial least squares-discriminant, principal component, and canonical correspondence analyses. Culturable bacteria concentrations were 110-846 and 27-579 CFU/m 3 at HJK and GXQ, respectively. Intestinal bacteria constituted 6-33% of bacteria. Biochemical reaction tank, sludge dewatering house (SDH), and fine screen samples showed the greatest contribution to bioaerosol contamination. Enterobacter aerogenes was the main intestinal bacteria (> 99.5%) in HJK and detected at each sampling site. Enterobacter aerogenes (98.67% in SDH), Aeromonas sp. (76.3% in biochemical reaction tank), and Acinetobacter baumannii (99.89% in fine screens) were the main intestinal bacteria in GXQ. Total suspended particulate masses in SDH were 229.46 and 141.6 μg/m 3 in HJK and GXQ, respectively. Percentages of insoluble compounds in total suspended particulates decreased as height increased. The main soluble ions in bioaerosols were Ca 2+ , Na + , Cl - , and SO 4 2- , which ranged from 3.8 to 27.55 μg/m 3 in the MWTPs. Water was a main source of intestinal bacteria in bioaerosols from the MWTPs. Bioaerosols in HJK but not in GXQ were closely related. Relative humidity and some ions positively influenced intestinal bacteria in bioaerosols, while wind speed and solar illumination had a negative influence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Anthrax lethal toxin disrupts intestinal barrier function and causes systemic infections with enteric bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Sun

    Full Text Available A variety of intestinal pathogens have virulence factors that target mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways, including Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax lethal toxin (LT has specific proteolytic activity against the upstream regulators of MAPKs, the MAPK kinases (MKKs. Using a murine model of intoxication, we show that LT causes the dose-dependent disruption of intestinal epithelial integrity, characterized by mucosal erosion, ulceration, and bleeding. This pathology correlates with an LT-dependent blockade of intestinal crypt cell proliferation, accompanied by marked apoptosis in the villus tips. C57BL/6J mice treated with intravenous LT nearly uniformly develop systemic infections with commensal enteric organisms within 72 hours of administration. LT-dependent intestinal pathology depends upon its proteolytic activity and is partially attenuated by co-administration of broad spectrum antibiotics, indicating that it is both a cause and an effect of infection. These findings indicate that targeting of MAPK signaling pathways by anthrax LT compromises the structural integrity of the mucosal layer, serving to undermine the effectiveness of the intestinal barrier. Combined with the well-described immunosuppressive effects of LT, this disruption of the intestinal barrier provides a potential mechanism for host invasion via the enteric route, a common portal of entry during the natural infection cycle of Bacillus anthracis.

  19. Ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 positive macrophages and HO-1 up-regulation in intestinal muscularis resident macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Hanne B; Huizinga, Jan D; Larsen, Jytte O

    2017-01-01

    Small intestinal muscularis externa macrophages have been associated with interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). They have been proposed to play various roles in motility disorders and to take part in a microbiota-driven regulation of gastrointestinal motility. Our objective was to understand...... the reaction of resident macrophages of the musculature to a pro-inflammatory stimulator, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mice were injected with LPS or saline and sacrificed after 6 hours. Whole mounts were stained with antibodies toward CD169, ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (iba1) (microglial/macrophage...... marker) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Cell densities were measured using unbiased stereology. RESULTS: iba1(pos) cells showed an overall higher density than CD169(pos) and HO-1(pos) cells. Most HO-1(pos) and iba1(pos) cells were positive for CD 169 in serosa and at Auerbach's plexus (AP). At the deep...

  20. Isolation and characterization of cultivable fermentative bacteria from the intestine of two edible snails, Helixpomatia and Cornu aspersum (Gastropoda: Pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAR YVONNE CHARRIER

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota of the edible snails Cornu aspersum fSyn: H. aspersa, and Helix pomatia were investigated by culture-based methods, 16S rRNA sequence analyses and phenotypic characterisations. The study was carried out on aestivating snails and two populations of H. pomatia were considered. The cultivable bacteria dominated in the distal part of the intestine, with up to 5.10(9 CFU g -1, but the Swedish H. pomatia appeared significantly less colonised, suggesting a higher sensitivity of its microbiota to climatic change. All the strains, but one, shared ≥ 97% sequence identity with reference strains. They were arranged into two taxa: the Gamma Proteobacteria with Buttiauxella, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Kluyvera, Obesumbacterium, Raoultella and the Firmicutes with Enterococcus, Lactococcus, and Clostridium. According to the literature, these genera are mostly assigned to enteric environments or to phyllosphere, data in favour of culturing snails in contact with soil and plants. None of the strains were able to digest filter paper, Avicel cellulose or carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC. Acetogens and methanogenic archaea were not cultivated, so the fate of hydrogen remains questionable. This microbiota could play important roles in the digestive process (fermentation and the energy supply of the snail (L-lactate, acetate. The choice of cereals and plants by snail farmers should take into account the fermentative abilities of the intestinal microbiota

  1. Multiple-unit tablet of probiotic bacteria for improved storage stability, acid tolerability, and in vivo intestinal protective effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee Jun; Lee, Ga Hyeon; Jun, Joonho; Son, Miwon; Kang, Myung Joo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to formulate probiotics-loaded pellets in a tablet form to improve storage stability, acid tolerability, and in vivo intestinal protective effect. Bacteria-loaded pellets primarily prepared with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate were compressed into tablets with highly compressible excipients and optimized for flow properties, hardness, and disintegration time. The optimized probiotic tablet consisted of enteric-coated pellets (335 mg), microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH102, 37.5 mg), and porous calcium silicate (25 mg) and allowed whole survival of living bacteria during the compaction process with sufficient tablet hardness (13 kp) and disintegration time (14 minutes). The multiple-unit tablet showed remarkably higher storage stability under ambient conditions (25°C/60% relative humidity) over 6 months and resistance to acidic medium compared to uncoated strains or pellets. Repeated intake of this multiple-unit tablet significantly lowered plasma level of endotoxin, a pathogenic material, compared to repeated intake of bare probiotics or marketed products in rats. These results, therefore, suggest that the multiple-unit tablet is advantageous to better bacterial viability and gain the beneficial effects on the gut flora, including the improvement of intestinal barrier function.

  2. Multiple-unit tablet of probiotic bacteria for improved storage stability, acid tolerability, and in vivo intestinal protective effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park HJ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hee Jun Park,1 Ga Hyeon Lee,1 Joonho Jun,1 Miwon Son,1 Myung Joo Kang2 1Dong-A Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Yongin, Gyeonggi, 2College of Pharmacy, Dankook University, Cheonan, Chungnam, Korea Abstract: The aim of this study was to formulate probiotics-loaded pellets in a tablet form to improve storage stability, acid tolerability, and in vivo intestinal protective effect. Bacteria-loaded pellets primarily prepared with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate were compressed into tablets with highly compressible excipients and optimized for flow properties, hardness, and disintegration time. The optimized probiotic tablet consisted of enteric-coated pellets (335 mg, microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH102, 37.5 mg, and porous calcium silicate (25 mg and allowed whole survival of living bacteria during the compaction process with sufficient tablet hardness (13 kp and disintegration time (14 minutes. The multiple-unit tablet showed remarkably higher storage stability under ambient conditions (25°C/60% relative humidity over 6 months and resistance to acidic medium compared to uncoated strains or pellets. Repeated intake of this multiple-unit tablet significantly lowered plasma level of endotoxin, a pathogenic material, compared to repeated intake of bare probiotics or marketed products in rats. These results, therefore, suggest that the multiple-unit tablet is advantageous to better bacterial viability and gain the beneficial effects on the gut flora, including the improvement of intestinal barrier function. Keywords: probiotics, multiple-unit tablet, bacterial viability, acid resistance, intestinal barrier function

  3. Severity of atopic disease inversely correlates with intestinal microbiota diversity and butyrate-producing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nylund, L.; Nermes, M.; Isolauri, E.; Salminen, S.; Vos, de W.M.; Satokari, R.

    2015-01-01

    The reports on atopic diseases and microbiota in early childhood remain contradictory and both decreased and increased microbiota diversity have been associated with atopic eczema. In this study, the intestinal microbiota signatures associated with the severity of eczema in 6-month-old infants were

  4. Plasmid-mediated gene transfer between insect-resident bacteria, Enterobacter cloacae, and plant-epiphytic bacteria, Erwinia herbicola, in guts of silkworm larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, K; Sato, M

    1998-11-01

    Five strains of Enterobacter cloacae isolated from several species of plants and insects were able to grow in the guts of silkworm larvae. A much larger population of Ent. cloacae strains was detected in the insect guts and feces collected 3 and 6 days than in samples collected 1 day after feeding artificial diets contaminating these bacteria. Furthermore, insect-origin strains of Ent. cloacae were mated with a donor strain, epiphytic Erwinia herbicola, harboring RSF1010 and pBPW1::Tn7 plasmids in the insect guts by introducing these bacteria through separate artificial diets administered at different times. A number of transconjugants, Ent. cloacae strains which had acquired RSF1010 plasmid, were detected from guts and fecal samples at transfer frequencies of 10(-2) to 10(-3) per recipient. Thus, gene transfer between epiphytic Er. herbicola and insect-resident Ent. cloacae strains in the insect guts was confirmed. These findings may provide significant information about the role of "in insecta mating" in the evolution of these bacteria.

  5. Resilience of small intestinal beneficial bacteria to the toxicity of soybean oil fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rienzi, Sara C; Jacobson, Juliet; Kennedy, Elizabeth A; Bell, Mary E; Shi, Qiaojuan; Waters, Jillian L; Lawrence, Peter; Brenna, J Thomas; Britton, Robert A; Walter, Jens

    2018-01-01

    Over the past century, soybean oil (SBO) consumption in the United States increased dramatically. The main SBO fatty acid, linoleic acid (18:2), inhibits in vitro the growth of lactobacilli, beneficial members of the small intestinal microbiota. Human-associated lactobacilli have declined in prevalence in Western microbiomes, but how dietary changes may have impacted their ecology is unclear. Here, we compared the in vitro and in vivo effects of 18:2 on Lactobacillus reuteri and L. johnsonii. Directed evolution in vitro in both species led to strong 18:2 resistance with mutations in genes for lipid biosynthesis, acid stress, and the cell membrane or wall. Small-intestinal Lactobacillus populations in mice were unaffected by chronic and acute 18:2 exposure, yet harbored both 18:2- sensitive and resistant strains. This work shows that extant small intestinal lactobacilli are protected from toxic dietary components via the gut environment as well as their own capacity to evolve resistance. PMID:29580380

  6. Bloom of resident antibiotic-resistant bacteria in soil following manure fertilization.

    OpenAIRE

    Udikovic-Kolic Nikolina; Wichmann Fabienne; Broderick Nichole A; Handelsman Jo

    2014-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria is a global threat to public health. Agricultural use of antibiotics is believed to contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance but the mechanisms by which many agricultural practices influence resistance remain obscure. Although manure from dairy farms is a common soil amendment in crop production its impact on the soil microbiome and resistome is not known. To gain insight into this impact we cultured bacteria from soil before...

  7. Modulation of pathogen-induced CCL20 secretion from HT-29 human intestinal epithelial cells by commensal bacteria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sibartie, Shomik

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) secrete the chemokine CCL20 in response to infection by various enteropathogenic bacteria or exposure to bacterial flagellin. CCL20 recruits immature dendritic cells and lymphocytes to target sites. Here we investigated IEC responses to various pathogenic and commensal bacteria as well as the modulatory effects of commensal bacteria on pathogen-induced CCL20 secretion. HT-29 human IECs were incubated with commensal bacteria (Bifidobacterium infantis or Lactobacillus salivarius), or with Salmonella typhimurium, its flagellin, Clostridium difficile, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, or Mycobacterium smegmatis for varying times. In some studies, HT-29 cells were pre-treated with a commensal strain for 2 hr prior to infection or flagellin stimulation. CCL20 and interleukin (IL)-8 secretion and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: Compared to untreated cells, S. typhimurium, C. difficile, M. paratuberculosis, and flagellin activated NF-kappaB and stimulated significant secretion of CCL20 and IL-8 by HT-29 cells. Conversely, B. infantis, L. salivarius or M. smegmatis did not activate NF-kappaB or augment CCL20 or IL-8 production. Treatment with B. infantis, but not L. salivarius, dose-dependently inhibited the baseline secretion of CCL20. In cells pre-treated with B. infantis, C. difficile-, S. typhimurium-, and flagellin-induced CCL20 were significantly attenuated. B. infantis did not limit M. Paratuberculosis-induced CCL20 secretion. CONCLUSION: This study is the first to demonstrate that a commensal strain can attenuate CCL20 secretion in HT-29 IECs. Collectively, the data indicate that M. paratuberculosis may mediate mucosal damage and that B. infantis can exert immunomodulatory effects on IECs that mediate host responses to flagellin and flagellated enteric pathogens.

  8. Determination of Lactic Acid Bacteria Viability in the Small Intestine of Catfish (Pangasius djambal by Using the 32P Radioisotope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sugoro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The viability of probiotics is important to be determined, as is its probiotic potency in the small instestine of fish. The result can be used as a basis to determine the feeding frequency of the probiotics to the fish.The aim of this study is to gain information about the viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB in the small intestine of fish by using the 32P isotope technique. Catfish (Pangasius djambal was used as a test fish, and the LAB with the code of P2.1 PTB was the subject of the experiment. Before its viability was tested, the LAB had been labelled with radioisotope 32P, then mixed into catfish feed. Its viability could be determined by counting the activity of 32P. The results showed that the percentage of LAB viability in the small intestine of catfish declined until day 7. The percentage of LAB viability was decreased at an amount of 30% at day 3. Based on this result, the feeding frequency of LAB P2.1 PTB is every 3 days.

  9. Determination of Lactic Acid Bacteria Viability in the Small Intestine of Catfish (Pangasius djambal by Using the 32P Radioisotope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sugoro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The viability of probiotics is important to be determined, as is its probiotic potency in the small instestine of fish. The result can be used as a basis to determine the feeding frequency of the probiotics to the fish.The aim of this study is to gain information about the viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB in the small intestine of fish by using the 32P isotope technique. Catfish (Pangasius djambal was used as a test fish, and the LAB with the code of P2.1 PTB was the subject of the experiment. Before its viability was tested, the LAB had been labelled with radioisotope 32P, then mixed into catfish feed. Its viability could be determined by counting the activity of 32P. The results showed that the percentage of LAB viability in the small intestine of catfish declined until day 7. The percentage of LAB viability was decreased at an amount of 30% at day 3. Based on this result, the feeding frequency of LAB P2.1 PTB is every 3 days. Received: 04 October 2014 Revised: 26 March 2015; Accepted: 05 April 2015

  10. A survey on the developmental intestinal microbiota research in China: The history, funding, and frontiers of gut bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui Min; Liu, Xiao Wei; Sun, Rui Juan; Fang, Jing Yuan

    2015-08-01

    Up to 100 trillion bacteria are harbored in the human intestine with a mutualistic and interdependent relationship with the host during a long period of co-evolution. The so-called intestinal microbiota (IM) fulfill important metabolic tasks and the impaired stability may lead to IM-related diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), colorectal cancer (CRC), metabolic syndrome (MS), liver diseases, and so on. Here, we review the past and development of IM research in China, including the achievements that Chinese researchers have made both in basic and clinical scientific field. Moreover, we evaluate the contributions of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), the 973 National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program), the 863 National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863 Program), and funds from the public health industry in the field of IM research. © 2015 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Diversity, vitality and activities of intestinal lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria assessed by molecular approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaughan, E.E.; Heilig, G.H.J.; Ben-Amor, K.; Vos, de W.M.

    2005-01-01

    While lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria have been scientifically important for over a century, many of these are marketed today as probiotics and have become a valuable and rapidly expanding sector of the food market that is leading functional foods in many countries. The human

  12. Modulation of the Interaction of Enteric Bacteria with Intestinal Mucosa by Stress-Related Catecholamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Mark P

    2016-01-01

    Stress associated with parturition, transport or mixing has long been correlated with enhanced faecal excretion of diarrhoeal zoonotic pathogens in animals such as Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli. It may also predispose humans to infection and/or be associated with more severe outcomes. One possible explanation for this phenomenon is the ability of enteric bacterial pathogens to sense and respond to host stress-related catecholamines. This article reviews evidence of the ability of catecholamine hormones to modulate interactions between Gram-negative diarrhoeal pathogens and intestinal mucosa, as well as the molecular mechanisms that may be at work.

  13. [Seasonality of parasites and intestinal bacteria in vegetables that are consumed raw in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, R; Chinchilla, M; Reyes, L

    1996-08-01

    In Costa Rica, a total of 640 samples from eight different vegetables used for raw consumption, were analyzed for the presence of intestinal parasites and fecal coliforms. Eighty samples of each vegetable were analyzed, forty during the dry season and forty in the rainy. A greater, but unsignificant (p > 0.05) level of fecal coliforms was found during the dry season. Levels of Escherichia coli, were higher (p vegetables. The greater percentage of positive samples was found during the dry season, although these relation was only corroborated (p parasites and fecal coliforms.

  14. Relationship between oral bacteria count and pneumonia onset in elderly nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikutani, Takeshi; Tamura, Fumiyo; Tashiro, Haruki; Yoshida, Mitsuyoshi; Konishi, Kiyoshi; Hamada, Ryo

    2015-04-01

    Oral bacteria, which are a source of infection for aspiration pneumonia, were examined in frail older adults with the aim of establishing a standard bacteria count that indicates the risk of pneumonia onset in this group. A survey of bacteria count in the saliva using a simple instrument for measurement of the number of oral bacteria, along with factors including swallowing function and nutritional status, was carried out in 691 elderly individuals requiring care (137 men; mean age 82.6 ± 8.3 years; 554 women; mean age 88.0 ± 7.1 years; total mean age 86.7 ± 7.8 years) at 16 nursing homes in Japan. All participants gave their consent for inclusion in the present study. During a 6-month follow-up period, participants who developed pneumonia were identified, and relationships between the factors measured at the start of the period and pneumonia onset were examined. During the 6-month follow-up period, 33 participants (4.8%; 5 men, 28 women; mean age 88.3 ± 7.4 years) developed pneumonia. Pneumonia onset was significantly associated with reduced activities of daily living, swallowing dysfunction and undernourishment. Logistic regression analysis identified a saliva bacteria count of 10(8.5)  colony-forming units/mL as an independent explanatory factor for pneumonia onset (P = 0.012, RR = 3.759). Oral bacteria count of 10(8.5)  colony-forming units/mL saliva in an elderly person requiring care was identified as a risk factor for pneumonia onset. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  15. The Role of Intestinal Bacteria Overgrowth in Obesity-Related Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia M. Ferolla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the most common chronic liver disease worldwide. It is a progressive disorder involving a spectrum of conditions that include pure steatosis without inflammation, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, fibrosis and cirrhosis. The key factor in the pathophysiology of NAFLD is insulin resistance that determines lipid accumulation in the hepatocytes, which may be followed by lipid peroxidation, production of reactive oxygen species and consequent inflammation. Recent studies suggest that the characteristics of the gut microbiota are altered in NAFLD, and also, that small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO contributes to the pathogenesis of this condition. This review presents the chief findings from all the controlled studies that evaluated SIBO, gut permeability and endotoxemia in human NAFLD. We also discuss the possible mechanisms involving SIBO, lipid accumulation and development of NASH. The understanding of these mechanisms may allow the development of new targets for NASH treatment in the future.

  16. An in vivo comparison of intestinal pH and bacteria as physiological trigger mechanisms for colonic targeting in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Emma L; Short, Michael D; Basit, Abdul W

    2008-09-10

    Targeting the colon for site-specific oral delivery can exploit one of two main physiological triggers; the intestinal pH changes or the increase in bacterial numbers in the distal gut. This study aimed to assess how these triggers compared in vivo to determine which concept provides better colon-specific release. Pellets were prepared using theophylline (model drug) and coated with methacrylic acid/methylmethcrylate co-polymer (Eudragit S [a pH-responsive polymer which dissolves above pH 7]) or amylose/ethylcellulose (a polysaccharide/polymeric mixture which is partially digested by colonic bacteria). The immediate release (uncoated) and the two sets of modified release (coated) pellets were administered to eight healthy fasted volunteers in a three-way crossover study. Drug levels were measured in the plasma, and the transit of the modified release pellets was followed by gamma scintigraphy. The immediate release pellets had T(max) values ranging from 0.5-2 h and bioavailability (AUC) ranging from 24.8-50.7 mcg h/ml. The pH-responsive pellets released drug in seven out of eight subjects. In those subjects in whom drug release occurred, the pellets had variable in vivo performance (T(max) ranging from 5-9 h; AUC 8.8-55.0 mcg h/ml) and drug release started in the small intestine for these pellets. The bacterially-triggered pellets (T(max) 8-10 h; AUC 16.5-47.9 mcg h/ml) were colon-specific; drug was detected in the blood only when the pellets reached the colon and release was more sustained than the pH system. The use of the bacterially-triggered delivery concept provided improved colonic delivery over the pH approach.

  17. Fermentation properties of low-quality red alga Susabinori Porphyra yezoensis by intestinal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraoka, Toshihiko; Ishihara, Kenji; Oyamada, Chiaki; Kunitake, Hiromi; Hirayama, Izumi; Kimura, Takeshi

    2008-07-01

    Susabinori (Porphyra yezoensis), a red alga, is cultured and processed into a sheet-style dried food, nori, in Japan. But significant amounts of cultured susabinori, which has a low protein content is discarded because of its low quality. The protein content of nori has been reported to be correlated inversely with the carbohydrate content. In this study, we examined the relationship between the protein content and the fermentation of nori by means of bfidobacteria. nori with a low protein content (25% on dry base) was strongly fermented by bifidobacteria, whereas nori with a high protein content (41% on dry base) was not. nori with a low protein content contained large amounts of glycerol galactoside (GG, floridoside: 2-O-glycerol-alpha-D-galactoside, isofloridoside: 1-O-glycerol-alpha-D-galactoside), more than 10% w/w in the dried condition, and GG was the main substrate for fermentation by bifidobacteria. GG was not digested by digestive enzymes, and was not absorbed in the small intestine. These results suggest that GG can be used as a substrate for fermentation by bifidobacteria, and possibility of GG as a prebiotic.

  18. Improvement of Intestinal Immune Cell Function by Lactic Acid Bacteria for Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonori Kamiya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB form a major component of gut microbiota and are often used as probiotics for fermented foods, such as yoghurt. In this study, we aimed to evaluate immunomodulatory activity of LAB, especially that of Lactobacillus bulgaricus ME-552 (ME552 and Streptococcus thermophilus ME-553 (ME553. In vivo/in vitro assay was performed in order to investigate their effects on T cell function. After oral administration of ME553 to C57BL/6 mice, the amount of both interferon γ (IFN-γ and interleukin 17 (IL-17 produced by cluster of differentiation (CD 4+ T cells from Peyer’s patches (PPs were significantly enhanced. On the other hand, ME552 only up-regulated the production of IL-17 from PP cells. The extent of induction for IFN-γ production differed between ME552 and ME553. These results suggest that LAB modulate T cell effector functions and mucosal immunity.

  19. Health risk to residents and stimulation to inherent bacteria of various heavy metals in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Wang, Li-Hong; Yang, Jun-Cheng; Liu, Hui; Dai, Jiu-Lan

    2015-03-01

    The toxicities and effects of various metals and metalloids would be misunderstood by health risks based on their concentrations, when their effects on bacterial and ecological functions in soil are disregarded. This study investigated the concentrations and health risks of heavy metals, soil properties, and bacterial 16S rRNA gene in soil around the largest fresh water lake in North China. The health risks posed by Mn and As were higher than those of other heavy metals and metalloids. Mn, As, and C were significantly correlated with the bacterial species richness indices. According to canonical correspondence analysis, species richness was mainly affected by Mn, Pb, As, and organic matter, while species evenness was mainly affected by Mn, pH, N, C, Cd, and Pb. Covariable analysis confirmed that most effects of metals on bacterial diversity were attributed to the combined effects of metals and soil properties rather than single metals. Most bacteria detected in (almost) all soil were identified as Gammaproteobacteria. Specific bacteria belonging to Proteobacteria (Gamma, Alpha, Epsilon, and Beta), Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Cyanobacterium, Nitrospirae, and Fusobacterium were only identified in soil with high concentrations of Mn, Pb, and As, indicating their remediation potency. Bacterial abilities and mechanisms in pollutant resistance and element cycling in the region were also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Intestinal bacteria in charge of radiation-induced inhibition of tumor metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, K.; Matsumoto, T.; Koike, S.

    1984-01-01

    The authors previously reported that caecal irradiation prior to an i.v. challenge of tumor cells inhibited lung metastases formation. The authors here identified bacteria in charge of the radiation effect and reported kinetics of bacterial flora after abdominal irradiation. C3Hf/He male mice in either SPF, germ-free or gnotobiotic condition received abdominal irradiation with /sup 137/Cs γ-ray of 12 Gy and received an i.v. challenge of 10 fibrosarcoma (NFSa) 7 days thereafter. Gnotobiotes which were mono-associated with Enterobacter cloacae(Ent. cloacae) showed significantly smaller number of lung metastases than germ-free mice while monoassociation with Bifidobacilli failed to exert any inhibition. In SPF mice, Ent. cloacae translocated to mesenteric lymph nodes at day 5 to 7 of irradiation while Bifidobacilli and Lactobacili were detectable only at day 14. Considering that Ent. cloacae possess endotoxin while Bifidobacilli and Lactobacilli do not, abdominal irradiation probably releases endotoxin from caecum to the rest of the body, resulting in stimulation of the host defence mechanism against metastases

  1. Epidemiology of infections with intestinal parasites and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among sugar-estate residents in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontanet, A. L.; Sahlu, T.; Rinke de Wit, T.; Messele, T.; Masho, W.; Woldemichael, T.; Yeneneh, H.; Coutinho, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections could play an important role in the progression of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), by further disturbing the immune system whilst it is already engaged in the fight against HIV. HIV and intestinal parasitic infections were investigated in 1239,

  2. Selective growth-inhibiting effects of compounds identified in Tabebuia impetiginosa inner bark on human intestinal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byeoung-Soo; Kim, Jun-Ran; Lee, Sung-Eun; Kim, Kyoung Soon; Takeoka, Gary R; Ahn, Young-Joon; Kim, Jeong-Han

    2005-02-23

    The growth-inhibiting activity of anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid and lapachol identified in the inner bark of taheebo, Tabebuia impetiginosa, toward 10 human intestinal bacteria was evaluated by using a paper disk diffusion bioassay and compared to those of seven lapachol congeners (1,4-naphthoquinone, naphthazarin, menadione, lawsone, plumbagin, juglone, and dichlone) as well as two commercially available antibiotics, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid exhibited very strong growth inhibition of Clostridium paraputrificum at 1 microg/disk while 100 microg/disk of lapachol was needed for moderate growth inhibition of the same organism. These two isolates exhibited weak inhibition of Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli at 100 microg/disk while no adverse effects were observed on the growth of Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium infantis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Lactobacillus casei at 1000 microg/disk. Structure-activity relationships indicate that a methyl group in the C-2 position of 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives might play an important role in antibacterial activity.

  3. The prevalence of overgrowth by aerobic bacteria in the small intestine by small bowel culture: relationship with irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyleris, Emmannouil; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J; Tzivras, Dimitrios; Koussoulas, Vassilios; Barbatzas, Charalambos; Pimentel, Mark

    2012-05-01

    Many studies have linked irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), although they have done so on a qualitative basis using breath tests even though quantitative cultures are the hallmark of diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to underscore the frequency of SIBO in a large number of Greeks necessitating upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract endoscopy by using quantitative microbiological assessment of the duodenal aspirate. Consecutive subjects presenting for upper GI endoscopy were eligible to participate. Quantitative culture of aspirates sampled from the third part of the duodenum during upper GI tract endoscopy was conducted under aerobic conditions. IBS was defined by Rome II criteria. Among 320 subjects enrolled, SIBO was diagnosed in 62 (19.4%); 42 of 62 had IBS (67.7%). SIBO was found in 37.5% of IBS sufferers. SIBO was found in 60% of IBS patients with predominant diarrhea compared with 27.3% without diarrhea (P = 0.004). Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the most common isolates within patients with SIBO. A step-wise logistic regression analysis revealed that IBS, history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and intake of proton pump inhibitors were independently and positively linked with SIBO; gastritis was protective against SIBO. Using culture of the small bowel, SIBO by aerobe bacteria is independently linked with IBS. These results reinforce results of clinical trials evidencing a therapeutic role of non-absorbable antibiotics for the management of IBS symptoms.

  4. Isolation of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Malaysian Non-Broiler Chicken (Gallus gallus Intestine with Potential Probiotic for Broiler Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Haziyamin Tengku Abdul Hamid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic supplement can function as substitute for antibiotics especially in the broiler chicken feeding which can form an integral part of organic farming. Broiler forms one of an important protein source in South East Asia. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are important inhabitants of animal intestine and are useful source of probiotic microorganisms. Non-broiler chicken could be an ideal source of probiotic microorganisms that can be utilized for large scale broiler feeding. Our studies have successfully identified, through morphological and biochemical tests, 11 LAB isolates from gastrointestinal tract of local non-broiler chicken (Gallus gallus. These isolates have the ability to utilize lactose as part of their metabolism process and all showed negative reactions on catalase test. Out of the eleven (11 isolates, three (3 isolates were Gram-positive cocci and remaining isolates were of Gram-positive bacilli. Three isolates (E4, E11 and E17 showed at least 10 mm inhibitory effects on disc diffusion test against pathogenic bacteria Salmonella typhimurium. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that one isolate (E17 has 89% similarity with Lactobacillus rhamnosus. These LAB strains isolated from Malaysian domestic non-broiler chicken gastrointestinal tract can potentially be used as a component for probiotics formulation in poultry feeding.ABSTRAK: Makanan tambahan probiotik boleh berfungsi sebagai pengganti antibiotik terutamanya dalam pemakanan ayam pedaging yang akan membentuk bahagian kamiran dalam penternakan organik. Ayam pedaging merupakan sumber protein penting di Asia Tenggara. Bakteria asid laktik (lactic acid bacteria (LAB merupakan penghuni penting dalam usus haiwan dan merupakan sumber penting dalam mikroorganisma probiotik. Ayam bukan pedaging sesuai dijadikan sumber mikroorganisma probiotik agar dapat digunakan sebagai pemakanan ayam pedaging secara besar-besaran. Kajian telah berjaya mengenal pasti, melalui kaedah morfologi dan

  5. Effect of lactic acid bacteria on the intestinal production of lactate and short-chain fatty acids, and the absorption of lactose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, H; Nordgaard-Andersen, I; Mortensen, P B

    1994-01-01

    (10) cells), but did not influence the concentrations and productions of DL-lactate and short-chain fatty acids in the ileostomic outputs and incubates. Large amounts of ingested lactic acid bacteria (4.2 x 10(10) cells) did not ameliorate lactose malabsorption measured by the breath-hydrogen test in 12...... lactose malabsorbers. This study shows that ingested lactic acid bacteria are indeed present in the colon, but it does not support the theory that they change the pattern of colonic fermentation or the degree of intestinal lactose malabsorption....

  6. Effects of intestinal bacteria-derived p-cresyl sulfate on Th1-type immune response in vivo and in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Takahiro; Kawakami, Koji; Sasaki, Takashi; Makino, Ikuyo; Kato, Ikuo; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Uchida, Kazumi; Kaneko, Kimiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Protein fermentation by intestinal bacteria generates various compounds that are not synthesized by their hosts. An example is p-cresol, which is produced from tyrosine. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) accumulate high concentrations of intestinal bacteria-derived p-cresyl sulfate (pCS), which is the major metabolite of p-cresol, in their blood, and this accumulation contributes to certain CKD-associated disorders. Immune dysfunction is a CKD-associated disorder that frequently contributes to infectious diseases among CKD patients. Although some studies imply pCS as an etiological factor, the relation between pCS and immune systems is poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the immunological effects of pCS derived from intestinal bacteria in mice. For this purpose, we fed mice a tyrosine-rich diet that causes the accumulation of pCS in their blood. The mice were shown to exhibit decreased Th1-driven 2, 4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced contact hypersensitivity response. The concentration of pCS in blood was negatively correlated with the degree of the contact hypersensitivity response. In contrast, the T cell-dependent antibody response was not influenced by the accumulated pCS. We also examined the in vitro cytokine responses by T cells in the presence of pCS. The production of IFN-γ was suppressed by pCS. Further, pCS decreased the percentage of IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells. Our results suggest that intestinal bacteria-derived pCS suppressesTh1-type cellular immune responses. - Highlights: • Mice fed a tyrosine-rich diet accumulated p-cresyl sulfate in their blood. • p-Cresyl sulfate negatively correlated with contact hypersensitivity response. • The in vitro production of IFN-γ was suppressed by p-cresyl sulfate. • p-Cresyl sulfate decreased the percentage of IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells in vitro

  7. Effects of intestinal bacteria-derived p-cresyl sulfate on Th1-type immune response in vivo and in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiba, Takahiro, E-mail: takahiro-shiba@yakult.co.jp; Kawakami, Koji; Sasaki, Takashi; Makino, Ikuyo; Kato, Ikuo; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Uchida, Kazumi; Kaneko, Kimiyuki

    2014-01-15

    Protein fermentation by intestinal bacteria generates various compounds that are not synthesized by their hosts. An example is p-cresol, which is produced from tyrosine. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) accumulate high concentrations of intestinal bacteria-derived p-cresyl sulfate (pCS), which is the major metabolite of p-cresol, in their blood, and this accumulation contributes to certain CKD-associated disorders. Immune dysfunction is a CKD-associated disorder that frequently contributes to infectious diseases among CKD patients. Although some studies imply pCS as an etiological factor, the relation between pCS and immune systems is poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the immunological effects of pCS derived from intestinal bacteria in mice. For this purpose, we fed mice a tyrosine-rich diet that causes the accumulation of pCS in their blood. The mice were shown to exhibit decreased Th1-driven 2, 4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced contact hypersensitivity response. The concentration of pCS in blood was negatively correlated with the degree of the contact hypersensitivity response. In contrast, the T cell-dependent antibody response was not influenced by the accumulated pCS. We also examined the in vitro cytokine responses by T cells in the presence of pCS. The production of IFN-γ was suppressed by pCS. Further, pCS decreased the percentage of IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells. Our results suggest that intestinal bacteria-derived pCS suppressesTh1-type cellular immune responses. - Highlights: • Mice fed a tyrosine-rich diet accumulated p-cresyl sulfate in their blood. • p-Cresyl sulfate negatively correlated with contact hypersensitivity response. • The in vitro production of IFN-γ was suppressed by p-cresyl sulfate. • p-Cresyl sulfate decreased the percentage of IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells in vitro.

  8. The use of lactic acid bacteria isolated from intestinal tract of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, as growth promoters in fish fed low protein diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurilio Lara-Flores

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect as growth promoter of five lactic acid strains (Enterococcus faecium, E. durans, Leuconostoc sp., Streptococcus sp. I and Streptococcus sp. II, isolated from intestinal tract of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, was evaluated. Eight isocaloric diets were formulated: one containing 40% of protein as positive control, and seven with 27% protein. Five diets with 27% protein were supplemented with one of the isolated lactic acid bacteria in a concentration of 2.5x10(6 cfu g-1 of diet. A commercial probiotic based on S. faecium and Lactobacillus acidophilus was added at the same concentration to one 27% protein diet as a comparative diet, and the last diet was not supplemented with bacteria (negative control. Tilapia fry (280 mg basal weight stocked in 15 L aquaria at a density of two per liter were fed for 12 weeks with experimental diets. Results showed that fry fed with native bacteria supplemented diets presented significantly higher growth and feeding performance than those fed with control diet. Treatment with Streptococcus sp. I isolated from the intestine of Tilapia produced the best growth and feeding efficiency, suggesting that this bacteria is an appropriate native growth promoter.

  9. Supplementation of a Blend of Beneficial Bacteria and Antibodies on Growth Performance, Intestinal Mucosa Morphology and Right Heart Failure of Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan Mehraei Hamzekolaei

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early nutrition of chicks with beneficial bacteria might help in occupying the inner surface of the intestinal tract. Interference of pathogens in intestinal microbiota is well known as barrier effect, bacterial interference, and competitive exclusion. Objectives: It was hypothesized that competitive exclusion in Japanese quails with a blend of beneficial bacteria (Aquablend Avian® probiotic would enhance quails’ growth performance and intestinal mucosal morphology. Furthermore, the study was performed at 2100 m above sea level at Shahrekord University, so another hypothesis was the capability of the probiotic for inhibiting right heart failure. Materials and Methods: One hundred fifty-six Japanese quails were divided into 4 groups: 2 groups (Aquablend and control at standard environmental temperature and 2 (Aqua-stress and Cont-stress at cold-hypoxic environmental situation. Aquablend groups received the probiotic in the first 3 days of life in drinking water (0.5 g/100 birds/day. Results: Feed conversion ratio (FCR was significantly reduced at the end of the experiment (day 35 in both Aquablend and aqua-stress groups compared to control and cont-stress groups, respectively (P 0.05. Cont-stress group had higher RV: TV ratio (0.28 and heterophil: lymphocyte (H: L ratio (1.22 than aqua-stress group: (0.25 and (1.20, respectively (P > 0.05. Data regarding to intestinal mucosa morphology was controversial but the probiotic was able to elevate duodenum villi surface (P < 0.05 and also jejunum and ileum lamina propria thickness. Conclusion: Obtained data suggests that addition of Aquablend Avian® probiotic in the first 3 days of life may improve growth performance and some intestinal mucosa characteristics of Japanese quails. Moreover, the probiotic might reduce right heart failure and stress induced by cold-hypoxic situation.

  10. Intestinal microbiome landscaping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shetty, Sudarshan A.; Hugenholtz, Floor; Lahti, Leo; Smidt, Hauke; Vos, de Willem M.

    2017-01-01

    High individuality, large complexity and limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying human intestinal microbiome function remain the major challenges for designing beneficial modulation strategies. Exemplified by the analysis of intestinal bacteria in a thousand Western adults, we discuss

  11. [Isolate and genetic heterogeneity of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria from the intestinal tract of cold-water fishes from the Eerqisi river, Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Wang, Jungang; Gu, Yanling; Deng, Mei; Zhou, Hong; Ni, Yongqing

    2013-01-04

    The purpose of this study was to select cold-adapted lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from the intestinal tract of cold-water fishes from the Eerqisi river Alatai, Xinjiang. By using culture medium MRS and Elliker, isolation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from 9 intestinal canal of cold-water fishes was carried out. Taxonomic identity and genetic diversity of strains isolated were determined by partial 16S rRNA gene sequences and rep-PCR with three different kinds of primers named BOX, (GTG)5, ERIC. A total of 78 psychrotrophic isolates were obtained. Among them, 24 isolates had characteristics of LAB and showed the optimal growth temperature ranging from 15 to 24 degrees C. The phylogenesis result showed that 24 strains belonged to 6 Genuses, Carnobacterium (3 strains), Lactococcus (9 strains), Enterococcus (7 strains), Brochothrix (1 strain), Weissella (2 strains), Streptococcus (2 strains), rep-PCR clustering analysis showed that Lactococcus and Enterococcus strains were from different Species. Lactococcus were belonged to 4 species while Enterococcus assigned to 2 species. The phylogenetic diversity of cold-adapted LAB from the intestinal tract of cold-water fishes from the Eerqisi river in the Alatai Xinjiang was relatively abundant.

  12. [DISTRIBUTION OF BACTERIA OF THE KLEBSIELLA STRAIN IN WATER OBJECTS AND THEIR VALUE IN DEVELOPING OF THE WATER CAUSED ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmanin, Yu A; Ivanova, L V; Artyomova, T Z; Gipp, E K; Zagaynova, A V; Maksimkina, T N; Krasnyak, A V; Zhuravlev, P V; Aleshnya, V V; Panasovets, O P

    2016-01-01

    The wide circulation of Klebsiella bacteria in water ofwater objects of different climatic zones of Russia and various function is established. So bacteria of the Klebsiella strain are in superficial sources of the centralized water supply depending on extent of their biological and chemical pollution; underground waters at the unprotected water-bearing horizons; in drinking water at insufficiently effective system of its cleaning and disinfecting. Klebsiella circulating in water was shown to keep properties of pathogenicity and a virulence, possess resistance both to modern preparations and disinfecting agents (chlorine, an ultraviolet to radiation). Bacteria of the Klebsiella strain have high penetration in the water-bearing horizons. At strains of Klebsiella there is allocated considerable pathogenic potential (adhesive, invasive, phosphatase, lecithinase, DNA-ase, hemolytic activity) and genetic markers of pathogenicity of cnf-1. The etiologic role of bacteria of Klebsiella and an infecting (100, COE/dm3) dose emergence of acute intestinal infections (AII) is established. Detection of Klebsiella in water objects and especially in water of drinking appointment, in the absence of total coliform bacteria (TCB) contributes to the epidemic danger of water use.

  13. Prevalence and co-infection of intestinal parasites among thai rural residents at high-risk of developing cholangiocarcinoma: a cross-sectional study in a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songserm, Nopparat; Promthet, Supannee; Wiangnon, Surapon; Sithithaworn, Paiboon

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are still important to the health of Thai rural residents. IPIs are the cause of many chronic diseases with, for example, opisthorchiasis resulting in progression to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). This cross-sectional study in a prospective cohort study aimed to examine the prevalence and co- infection of intestinal parasites among Northeastern Thai rural residents, recruited into the Khon Kaen Cohort Study (KKCS), and who were residing in areas of high-risk for developing CCA. On recruitment, subjects had completed questionnaires and provided fecal samples for IPI testing using the formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique. Data on selected general characteristics and the results of the fecal tests were analysed. IPI test results were available for 18,900 of cohort subjects, and 38.50% were found to be positive for one or more types of intestinal parasite. The prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini (O. viverrini) infection was the highest (45.7%), followed by intestinal flukes (31.9%), intestinal nematodes (17.7%), intestinal protozoa (3.02%), and intestinal cestodes (1.69%). The pattern of different infections was similar in all age groups. According to a mapping analysis, a higher CCA burden was correlated with a higher prevalence of O. viverrini and intestinal flukes and a greater intensity of O. viverrini. Both prevention and control programs against liver fluke and other intestinal parasites are needed and should be delivered simultaneously. We can anticipate that the design of future control and prevention programmes will accommodate a more community-orientated and participatory approach.

  14. PREVALENCE OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA AND OTHER INTESTINAL PARASITES IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN AND ITS RELATION TO RESIDENCE PLACE, SEX AND BLOOD GROUP IN ILAM COUNTY OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourbabak

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available 1711' object of this study was to determine the prevalence oj asymptomatic infestation with Giardia lamblia lind other intestinal parasites in children of urban anti rural communities oj /lam county and its relation with dwelling place, sex and blood grollp!.. 77w study designed as (l five-month pUTasitoulgica! .m,..£!' oj fecal ami blood specimens from humans anti performed in 10 urban hcalih-trcatmcru clinics of llam city, two urban health treatment clinics of Eyvun city, two rural health-treatment clinics oj Chavar and Sartaf villages, llam province west of fran, 17,e examined population was preschool {, to 7 year-old children without any 'gastrointestinal compliarus. Prevalence oj infestation in subject grOllp W(l."' 32.54% (n=3100. Among intestinal parasites' G. lambliu with 85.43o/c (27.8% oj all, n=JO(JI prevalence rate was the most common. Infestation with 11. nnrm with 1'/.93% and E. coli with 3.07';, were in the second and third ranks, respectively, Infestation shows a distinct relationship with gender (P<0.05 and dwelling place, but it lacks a significant relation with blood groups. This study ."lIOWS that the prevalence of intestinal infestation in 6 to 7 year old child oj llam county hi equivalent to the top oj tile line oj the statistical percentage all over the world. 17,e relation between the severity oj infestation and residence place may arouse the suspicion oj sever contamination oj imbibing water.

  15. Modulation of immune homeostasis by commensal bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Ivaylo I.; Littman, Dan R.

    2011-01-01

    Intestinal bacteria form a resident community that has co-evolved with the mammalian host. In addition to playing important roles in digestion and harvesting energy, commensal bacteria are crucial for the proper functioning of mucosal immune defenses. Most of these functions have been attributed to the presence of large numbers of “innocuous” resident bacteria that dilute or occupy niches for intestinal pathogens or induce innate immune responses that sequester bacteria in the lumen, thus quenching excessive activation of the mucosal immune system. However it has recently become obvious that commensal bacteria are not simply beneficial bystanders, but are important modulators of intestinal immune homeostasis and that the composition of the microbiota is a major factor in pre-determining the type and robustness of mucosal immune responses. Here we review specific examples of individual members of the microbiota that modify innate and adaptive immune responses, and we focus on potential mechanisms by which such species-specific signals are generated and transmitted to the host immune system. PMID:21215684

  16. Study of the aminoglycoside subsistence phenotype of bacteria residing in the gut of humans and zoo animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bello Gonzalez, Teresita; Zuidema, Tina; Bor, Gerrit; Smidt, Hauke; Passel, van M.W.J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that next to antibiotic resistance, bacteria are able to subsist on antibiotics as a carbon source. Here we evaluated the potential of gut bacteria from healthy human volunteers and zoo animals to subsist on antibiotics. Nine gut isolates of Escherichia coli and

  17. Modification of composition and spatial distribution of intestinal microbiota following antibiotic therapy in immunocompetent defined flora C3H/HeN mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Luminal bacteria and/or their products play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of chronic intestinal inflammation associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). While host responses to resident flora may initiate IBD, the subsets of bacteria responsible for mediating inflammation in ...

  18. Comparison of the kinetics of intestinal colonization by associating 5 probiotic bacteria assumed either in a microencapsulated or in a traditional, uncoated form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, Mario D; Carmagnola, Stefania; Ballarè, Marco; Balzarini, Marco; Montino, Franco; Pagliarulo, Michela; Anderloni, Andrea; Orsello, Marco; Tari, Roberto; Sforza, Filomena; Mogna, Luca; Mogna, Giovanni

    2012-10-01

    Beneficial findings concerning probiotics are increasing day by day. However, one of the most important parameters able to significantly affect the probiotic value of a microorganism is its survival during the transit through the stomach and the duodenum. Some techniques may be applied that aim to improve this parameter, but microencapsulation of bacterial cells remains one of the most important. A recent study assessed the kinetics of intestinal colonization by a mixture of 2 probiotic strains, given either in a microencapsulated or in a traditional, uncoated form. A comparison between the intestinal colonization by associating 5 microencapsulated bacteria and the same uncoated strains was performed by a double-blind, randomized, cross-over study. The study (December 2007 to January 2009) involved 53 healthy volunteers. In particular, subjects were divided into 2 groups: group A (27 subjects) was given a mix of probiotic strains Probiotical S.p.A. (Novara, Italy), Lactobacillus acidophilus LA02 (DSM 21717), Lactobacillus rhamnosus LR04 (DSM 16605), L. rhamnosus GG, or LGG (ATCC 53103), L. rhamnosus LR06 (DSM 21981), and Bifidobacterium lactis BS01 (LMG P-21384) in an uncoated form, whereas group B (26 subjects) received the same strains microencapsulated with a gastroprotected material. The uncoated strains were administered at 5×10⁹ cfu/strain/d (a total of 25×10⁹ cfu/d) for 21 days, whereas the microencapsulated bacteria were given at 1×10⁹ cfu/strain/d (a total of 5×10⁹ cfu/d) for 21 days. At the end of the first period of supplementation with probiotics, a 3-week wash-out phase was included in the study setting. At the end of the wash-out period, the groups crossed over their treatment regimen; that is, group A was administered the microencapsulated bacteria and group B the uncoated bacteria. The administered quantities of each strain were the same as the first treatment. A quantitative evaluation of intestinal colonization by probiotics, either

  19. Review on colonization of residents and staff in Italian long-term care facilities by multidrug-resistant bacteria compared with other European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Aschbacher

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rates of colonization and infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR bacteria are increasing worldwide, in both acute care hospitals and long-term care facilities (LTCFs. Italy has one of the highest prevalence of MDR bacteria in European countries, especially with regard to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL or carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE. Method Review of studies on colonization by MDR bacteria from Italian LTCFs, risk factors for colonization and molecular characteristics of surveillance and clinical isolates, compared with other European countries. Results High variability of MDR colonization has been reported within and especially between European countries. Only a few surveillance studies have been performed in Italian LTCFs; these show MRSA colonization prevalence of 7.8–38.7 % for residents and 5.2–7.0 % for staff members, ESBL prevalence of 49.0–64.0 % for residents and 5.2–14.5 % for staff and prevalence of CPE of 1.0–6.3 % for residents and 0.0–1.5 % for staff. In Italian LTCFs, as well as in other European countries, the most prevalent ESBLs from surveillance or clinical Escherichia coli isolates were found to be CTX-M-type enzymes, particularly CTX-M-15, expressed by the pandemic ST131 clonal group; this lineage also expresses carbapenemase genes of the bla VIM and bla KPC types. Various risk factors for colonization of residents by MDR bacteria were identified. Conclusions The limited data from Italian LTCFs confirms these settings as important reservoirs for MDR organisms, allowing important considerations regarding the infection risk by these organisms. Nevertheless, more extended and countrywide screening studies for MDR colonization in Italian LTCFs are required. To promote further studies of various microbiological aspects related to LTCFs, the Association of Italian Clinical Microbiologists (Associazione Microbiologi

  20. Evaluation of a selected lactic acid bacteria-based probiotic on Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis colonization and intestinal permeability in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado-Rebolledo, Omar F; Delgado-Machuca, Jaime de Jesus; Macedo-Barragan, Rafael J; Garcia-Márquez, Luis J; Morales-Barrera, Jesus E; Latorre, Juan D; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Tellez, Guillermo

    2017-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of a lactic acid bacteria-based probiotic (FloraMax-B11 ® ) against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis intestinal colonization and intestinal permeability in broiler chickens. Experiment 1 consisted of two independent trials. In each trial, day-old broiler chicks were assigned to one of two groups: control + S. Enteritidis or probiotic + S. Enteritidis. At 72 h post-S. Enteritidis challenge, haematology and caecal content were evaluated for S. Enteritidis colonization. In Experiment 2, day-old broiler chicks were assigned to one of four groups: negative control; probiotic; control + S. Enteritidis; or probiotic + S. Enteritidis. At 72 h post-S. Enteritidis challenge, chickens in all groups were given an oral gavage dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d). In both trials of Experiment 1, a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in colony-forming units/gram of S. Enteritidis in caecal content and a reduction in the incidence of S. Enteritidis enriched caecal samples were observed in probiotic + S. Enteritidis chickens. In addition, significant heterophilia and lymphopaenia were observed in control + S. Enteritidis chickens. In Experiment 2, a decrease in numbers of S. Enteritidis in caeca were observed in probiotic + S. Enteritidis chickens when compared to control + S. Enteritidis. Also, an increase in serum FITC-d concentration was detected in control + S. Enteritidis. These results suggest that early infection with S. Enteritidis can increase intestinal permeability, but the adverse effects can be prevented by the administration of the probiotic tested.

  1. Giardia co-infection promotes the secretion of antimicrobial peptides beta-defensin 2 and trefoil factor 3 and attenuates attaching and effacing bacteria-induced intestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manko, Anna; Motta, Jean-Paul; Cotton, James A; Feener, Troy; Oyeyemi, Ayodele; Vallance, Bruce A; Wallace, John L; Buret, Andre G

    2017-01-01

    Our understanding of polymicrobial gastrointestinal infections and their effects on host biology remains incompletely understood. Giardia duodenalis is an ubiquitous intestinal protozoan parasite infecting animals and humans. Concomitant infections with Giardia and other gastrointestinal pathogens commonly occur. In countries with poor sanitation, Giardia infection has been associated with decreased incidence of diarrheal disease and fever, and reduced serum inflammatory markers release, via mechanisms that remain obscure. This study analyzed Giardia spp. co-infections with attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens, and assessed whether and how the presence of Giardia modulates host responses to A/E enteropathogens, and alters intestinal disease outcome. In mice infected with the A/E pathogen Citrobacter rodentium, co-infection with Giardia muris significantly attenuated weight loss, macro- and microscopic signs of colitis, bacterial colonization and translocation, while concurrently enhancing the production and secretion of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) mouse β-defensin 3 and trefoil factor 3 (TFF3). Co-infection of human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2) monolayers with G. duodenalis trophozoites and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) enhanced the production of the AMPs human β-defensin 2 (HBD-2) and TFF3; this effect was inhibited with treatment of G. duodenalis with cysteine protease inhibitors. Collectively, these results suggest that Giardia infections are capable of reducing enteropathogen-induced colitis while increasing production of host AMPs. Additional studies also demonstrated that Giardia was able to directly inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria. These results reveal novel mechanisms whereby Giardia may protect against gastrointestinal disease induced by a co-infecting A/E enteropathogen. Our findings shed new light on how microbial-microbial interactions in the gut may protect a host during concomitant infections.

  2. Activation of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase by Sodium Dichloroacetate Shifts Metabolic Consumption from Amino Acids to Glucose in IPEC-J2 Cells and Intestinal Bacteria in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Rui; Tang, Zhiru; Li, Yunxia; Li, Tiejun; Xu, Qingqing; Zhen, Jifu; Huang, Feiru; Yang, Jing; Chen, Cheng; Wu, Zhaoliang; Li, Mao; Sun, Jiajing; Zhang, Xiangxin; Chen, Jinchao; Wu, Liuting; Zhao, Shengjun; Qingyan, Jiang; Zhu, Weiyun; Yin, Yulong; Sun, Zhihong

    2018-04-18

    The extensive metabolism of amino acids (AA) as fuel is an important reason for the low use efficiency of protein in pigs. In this study, we investigated whether regulation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK)/pyruvate dehydrogenase alpha 1 (PDHA1) pathway affected AA consumption by porcine intestinal epithelial (IPEC-J2) cells and intestinal bacteria in pigs. The effects of knockdown of PDHA1 and PDK1 with small interfering RNA (siRNA) on nutrient consumption by IPEC-J2 cells were evaluated. IPEC-J2 cells were then cultured with sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) to quantify AA and glucose consumption and nutrient oxidative metabolism. The results showed that knockdown of PDHA1 using siRNA decreased glucose consumption but increased total AA (TAA) and glutamate (Glu) consumption by IPEC-J2 cells ( P < 0.05). Opposite effects were observed using siRNA targeting PDK1 ( P < 0.05). Additionally, culturing IPEC-J2 cells in the presence of 5 mM DCA markedly increased the phosphorylation of PDHA1 and PDH phosphatase 1, but inhibited PDK1 phosphorylation ( P < 0.05). DCA treatment also reduced TAA and Glu consumption and increased glucose depletion ( P < 0.05). These results indicated that PDH was the regulatory target for shifting from AA metabolism to glucose metabolism and that culturing cells with DCA decreased the consumption of AAs by increasing the depletion of glucose through PDH activation.

  3. Interactions between bacteria and the intestinal mucosa: Do enteric neurotransmitters acting on epithelium cells influence mucosal colonization or infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mechanisms governing the ability of bacteria to adhere to and colonize human and animal hosts in health and disease are still incompletely understood. Throughout the extensive mucosal surfaces of the body that are in contact with the external environment, epithelial cells represent the first po...

  4. Degradation of structurally different non-digestible oligosaccharides by intestinal bacteria: glycosylhydrolases of Bifidobacterium adolescentis = Afbraak van in structuur verschillende niet-verteerbare oligosacchariden door darmbacteriën : glycosylhydrolasen van Bifidobacterium adolescentis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laere, Van K.

    2000-01-01

    Non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDOs) are oligosaccharides, which resist digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract, and which are fermented in the colon by intestinal bacteria. Some NDOs are considered bifidogenic, meaning that they selectively stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria in

  5. Kefir-isolated bacteria and yeasts inhibit Shigella flexneri invasion and modulate pro-inflammatory response on intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolla, P A; Abraham, A G; Pérez, P F; de Los Angeles Serradell, M

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of a kefir-isolated microbial mixture containing three bacterial and two yeast strains (MM) to protect intestinal epithelial cells against Shigella flexneri invasion, as well as to analyse the effect on pro-inflammatory response elicited by this pathogen. A significant decrease in S. flexneri strain 72 invasion was observed on both HT-29 and Caco-2 cells pre-incubated with MM. Pre-incubation with the individual strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae CIDCA 8112 or Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CIDCA 8221 also reduced the internalisation of S. flexneri into HT-29 cells although in a lesser extent than MM. Interestingly, Lactobacillus plantarum CIDCA 83114 exerted a protective effect on the invasion of Caco-2 and HT-29 cells by S. flexneri. Regarding the pro-inflammatory response on HT-29 cells, S. flexneri infection induced a significant activation of the expression of interleukin 8 (IL-8), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) encoding genes (Pkefir, resulted in inhibition of S. flexneri internalisation into human intestinal epithelial cells, along with the inhibition of the signalling via NF-κB that in turn led to the attenuation of the inflammatory response.

  6. Differential effect of immune cells on non-pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria-induced nuclear factor-kappaB activation and pro-inflammatory gene expression in intestinal epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haller, D.; Holt, L.; Parlesak, Alexandr

    2004-01-01

    We have previously shown that non-pathogenic Gram negative bacteria induce RelA phosphorylation, nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB transcriptional activity and pro-inflammatory gene expression in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) in vivo and in vitro. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism......, PBMC from patients with active ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease differentially trigger epithelial cell activation in response to E. coli and E. coli-derived LPS. In conclusion, this study provides evidence for a differential regulation of non-pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria-induced NF......-kappaB signalling and IL-8 gene expression in IEC cocultured with immune cells and suggests the presence of mechanisms that assure hyporesponsiveness of the intestinal epithelium to certain commensally enteric bacteria....

  7. The effects of amoxicillin treatment of newborn piglets on the prevalence of hernias and abscesses, growth and ampicillin resistance of intestinal coliform bacteria in weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jinhyeon; Olkkola, Satu; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Oliviero, Claudio; Heinonen, Mari

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a single amoxicillin treatment of newborn piglets on the prevalence of hernias and abscesses until the age of nine weeks. We also studied whether the treatment was associated with growth and mortality, the need for treatment of other diseases, the proportions of ampicillin resistant coliforms and antimicrobial resistance patterns of intestinal Escherichia coli (E. coli). A total of 7156 piglets, from approximately 480 litters, were divided into two treatment groups: ANT (N = 3661) and CON (N = 3495), where piglets were treated with or without a single intramuscular injection of 75 mg amoxicillin one day after birth, respectively. The umbilical and inguinal areas of weaned pigs were palpated at four and nine weeks of age. At the same time, altogether 124 pigs with hernias or abscesses and 820 non-defective pigs from three pens per batch were weighed individually. Mortality and the need to treat piglets for other diseases were recorded. Piglet faecal samples were collected from three areas of the floors of each pen at four weeks of age. The prevalence of umbilical hernias or abscesses did not differ between the groups at four weeks of age, but it was higher in the CON group than in the ANT group at nine weeks of age (2.3% vs. 0.7%, P resistant intestinal coliform bacteria and the resistance patterns of the E. coli isolates were not different between the ANT and CON groups. In conclusion, our results showed that the amoxicillin treatment of new-born piglets produced statistically significant effect in some of the parameters studied. However, as these effects were only minor, we did not find grounds to recommend preventive antibiotic treatment. Further, continuous antimicrobial treatment of newborn piglets could negatively influence the development of the normal microbiota of the piglet and promote selection of antimicrobial resistance genes in herds. Therefore we suggest rejection of the use of routine administration of

  8. Complex interactions between potentially pathogenic, opportunistic, and resident bacteria emerge during infection on a reef-building coral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gignoux-Wolfsohn, Sarah A; Aronson, Felicia M; Vollmer, Steven V

    2017-07-01

    Increased bacterial diversity on diseased corals can obscure disease etiology and complicate our understanding of pathogenesis. To untangle microbes that may cause white band disease signs from microbes responding to disease, we inoculated healthy Acropora cervicornis corals with an infectious dose from visibly diseased corals. We sampled these dosed corals and healthy controls over time for sequencing of the bacterial 16S region. Endozoicomonas were associated with healthy fragments from 4/10 colonies, dominating microbiomes before dosing and decreasing over time only in corals that displayed disease signs, suggesting a role in disease resistance. We grouped disease-associated bacteria by when they increased in abundance (primary vs secondary) and whether they originated in the dose (colonizers) or the previously healthy corals (responders). We found that all primary responders increased in all dosed corals regardless of final disease state and are therefore unlikely to cause disease signs. In contrast, primary colonizers in the families Pasteurellaceae and Francisellaceae increased solely in dosed corals that ultimately displayed disease signs, and may be infectious foreign bacteria involved in the development of disease signs. Moving away from a static comparison of diseased and healthy bacterial communities, we provide a framework to identify key players in other coral diseases. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Effects Of pH, Temperature And Salinity In Growth And Organic Acid Production Of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated From Penaeid Shrimp Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subagiyo Subagiyo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bakteri asam laktat telah lama dikembangkan sebagai probiotik. Penentuan kondisi lingkungan yang optimum untuk pertumbuhan sel serta asam organik memberikan gambaran aktivitas optimum untuk kinerja probiotik baik dalam sistem fisiologi inang maupun dalam sistem bioproses untuk produksi sel dan metabolit. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh faktor lingkungan (pH, suhu dan salinitas terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi total asam organik tiga isolat bakteri asam laktat yang telah diseleksi dari intestinum udang penaeid. Eksperimen menggunakan  medium deMan, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS cair. Perlakuan pH awal meliputi  nilai pH 4, 5 dan 6. Perlakuan suhu meliputi suhu 25, 30 dan 35OC serta perlakuan salinitas  meliputi salinitas 0,75 %, 1,5 % dan 3 %.  Setiap interval 6 jam dilakukan pengambilan sampel kultur bakteri dan penghitungan pertumbuhan berdasarkan perubahan optical density (pada panjang gelombang 600 nm sedangkan produksi asam laktat dianalisis dengan metode titrimetrik menggunakan NaOH 1 N sebagai larutan titrasinya. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian disimpulkan bahwa suhu, pH awal dan salinitas berpengaruh terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi asam organik. Nilai kondisi lingkungan terbaik untuk pertumbuhan dapat berbeda dengan nilai terbaik untuk produksi asam organic. Hal ini ditunjukan oleh nilai laju pertumbuhan dan produksi asam laktat tertinggi dari tiga isolat uji terjadi pada suhu, pH awal dan salinitas yang berbeda.  Isolat L12 tumbuh optimum pada suhu 30oC, pH awal 6 dan salinitas 0,75%. Isolat L14 tumbuh optimum pada suhu 30oC, pH awal 6 dan salinitas 1.5%. Isolat L 21 tumbuh optimum pada suhu 30 oC, pH awal 6 dan salinitas 1.5%. Kata kunci: bakteri asam laktat, suhu, pH, salinitas, asamorganik, pertumbuhan, Lactic acid bacteria are widely distributed in intestinal tracts of various animals where they live as normal flora.Strains of lactic acid bacteria are the most common microbes employed as probiotics, The optimum

  10. Almond milk fermented with different potentially probiotic bacteria improves iron uptake by intestinal epithelial (Caco-2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus Bernat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available New fermented almond milks were developed, using different potentially probiotic bacteria, in order to meet the current demand for healthy, versatile non-dairy products. An in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model was used to evaluate the effect of both non-fermented and fermented almond milks on the mitochondrial enzymatic activities of enterocytes. Moreover, macrophages were challenged with the in-vitro digested samples and the production of pro-inflammatory biomarkers TNF-a and IL-6 was quantified. Enzymatic activities of cell cultures seemed to be stimulated by the exposure to both fermented and non-fermented almond milks. Both biomarkers decreased (p< 0.05 in fermented almond milks with either B. bifidum or B. longum. Results showed that fermented almond products favored the energetic metabolism of enterocytes and had a lower inflammatory response than non-fermented almond milk, suggesting its benefits for the management of allergies/intolerances. Moreover, the fermentation process enhanced the uptake of iron by Caco-2 cells, especially when using L. rhamnosus and either B. bifidum or B. longum as starters, thus improving the product bioactivity. Therefore, new non-dairy fermented products with functional properties were developed, which might be positioned as alternatives to cow-milk products for sensitized groups of population (allergic and/or intolerant to cow milk or anemic population, among others.

  11. Both direct and indirect effects account for the pro-inflammatory activity of enteropathogenic mycotoxins on the human intestinal epithelium: Stimulation of interleukin-8 secretion, potentiation of interleukin-1β effect and increase in the transepithelial passage of commensal bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maresca, Marc; Yahi, Nouara; Younes-Sakr, Lama; Boyron, Marilyn; Caporiccio, Bertrand; Fantini, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites responsible of food-mediated intoxication in animals and humans. Deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A and patulin are the best known enteropathogenic mycotoxins able to alter intestinal functions resulting in malnutrition, diarrhea, vomiting and intestinal inflammation in vivo. Although their effects on intestinal barrier and transport activities have been extensively characterized, the mechanisms responsible for their pro-inflammatory effect are still poorly understood. Here we investigated if mycotoxin-induced intestinal inflammation results from a direct and/or indirect pro-inflammatory activity of these mycotoxins on human intestinal epithelial cells, using differentiated Caco-2 cells as model and interleukin 8 (IL-8) as an indicator of intestinal inflammation. Deoxynivalenol was the only mycotoxin able to directly increase IL-8 secretion (10- to 15-fold increase). We also investigated if these mycotoxins could indirectly stimulate IL-8 secretion through: (i) a modulation of the action of pro-inflammatory molecules such as the interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), and/or (ii) an increase in the transepithelial passage of non-invasive commensal Escherichia coli. We found that deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A and patulin all potentiated the effect of IL-1β on IL-8 secretion (ranging from 35% to 138% increase) and increased the transepithelial passage of commensal bacteria (ranging from 12- to 1544-fold increase). In addition to potentially exacerbate established intestinal inflammation, these mycotoxins may thus participate in the induction of sepsis and intestinal inflammation in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that the pro-inflammatory activity of enteropathogenic mycotoxins is mediated by both direct and indirect effects

  12. The effects of amoxicillin treatment of newborn piglets on the prevalence of hernias and abscesses, growth and ampicillin resistance of intestinal coliform bacteria in weaned pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jinhyeon; Olkkola, Satu; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Oliviero, Claudio; Heinonen, Mari

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a single amoxicillin treatment of newborn piglets on the prevalence of hernias and abscesses until the age of nine weeks. We also studied whether the treatment was associated with growth and mortality, the need for treatment of other diseases, the proportions of ampicillin resistant coliforms and antimicrobial resistance patterns of intestinal Escherichia coli (E. coli). A total of 7156 piglets, from approximately 480 litters, were divided into two treatment groups: ANT (N = 3661) and CON (N = 3495), where piglets were treated with or without a single intramuscular injection of 75 mg amoxicillin one day after birth, respectively. The umbilical and inguinal areas of weaned pigs were palpated at four and nine weeks of age. At the same time, altogether 124 pigs with hernias or abscesses and 820 non-defective pigs from three pens per batch were weighed individually. Mortality and the need to treat piglets for other diseases were recorded. Piglet faecal samples were collected from three areas of the floors of each pen at four weeks of age. The prevalence of umbilical hernias or abscesses did not differ between the groups at four weeks of age, but it was higher in the CON group than in the ANT group at nine weeks of age (2.3% vs. 0.7%, P coliform bacteria and the resistance patterns of the E. coli isolates were not different between the ANT and CON groups. In conclusion, our results showed that the amoxicillin treatment of new-born piglets produced statistically significant effect in some of the parameters studied. However, as these effects were only minor, we did not find grounds to recommend preventive antibiotic treatment. Further, continuous antimicrobial treatment of newborn piglets could negatively influence the development of the normal microbiota of the piglet and promote selection of antimicrobial resistance genes in herds. Therefore we suggest rejection of the use of routine administration of antimicrobial agents at birth

  13. Assessment of the Effect of Intestinal Permeability Probes (Lactulose And Mannitol and Other Liquids on Digesta Residence Times in Various Segments of the Gut Determined by Wireless Motility Capsule: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana R Sequeira

    Full Text Available Whilst the use of the mannitol/lactulose test for intestinal permeability has been long established it is not known whether the doses of these sugars modify transit time Similarly it is not known whether substances such as aspirin that are known to increase intestinal permeability to lactulose and mannitol and those such as ascorbic acid which are stated to be beneficial to gastrointestinal health also influence intestinal transit time.Gastric and intestinal transit times were determined with a SmartPill following consumption of either a lactulose mannitol solution, a solution containing 600 mg aspirin, a solution containing 500 mg of ascorbic acid or an extract of blackcurrant, and compared by doubly repeated measures ANOVA with those following consumption of the same volume of a control in a cross-over study in six healthy female volunteers. The dominant frequencies of cyclic variations in gastric pressure recorded by the Smartpill were determined by fast Fourier transforms.The gastric transit times of lactulose mannitol solutions, of aspirin solutions and of blackcurrant juice did not differ from those of the control. The gastric transit times of the ascorbic acid solutions were significantly shorter than those of the other solutions. There were no significant differences between the various solutions either in the total small intestinal or colonic transit times. The intraluminal pHs during the initial quartiles of the small intestinal transit times were lower than those in the succeeding quartiles. This pattern did not vary with the solution that was consumed. The power of the frequencies of cyclic variation in intragastric pressure recorded by the Smartpill declined exponentially with increase in frequency and did not peak at the reported physiological frequencies of gastric contractile activity.Whilst the segmental residence times were broadly similar to those using other methods, the high degree of variation between subjects generally

  14. Anatomical localization of commensal bacteria in immune cell homeostasis and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Thomas C; Artis, David; Sonnenberg, Gregory F

    2014-07-01

    The mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract is colonized by trillions of beneficial commensal bacteria that are essential for promoting normal intestinal physiology. While the majority of commensal bacteria are found in the intestinal lumen, many species have also adapted to colonize different anatomical locations in the intestine, including the surface of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and the interior of gut-associated lymphoid tissues. These distinct tissue localization patterns permit unique interactions with the mammalian immune system and collectively influence intestinal immune cell homeostasis. Conversely, dysregulated localization of commensal bacteria can lead to inappropriate activation of the immune system and is associated with numerous chronic infectious, inflammatory, and metabolic diseases. Therefore, regulatory mechanisms that control proper anatomical containment of commensal bacteria are essential to maintain tissue homeostasis and limit pathology. In this review, we propose that commensal bacteria associated with the mammalian GI tract can be anatomically defined as (i) luminal, (ii) epithelial-associated, or (iii) lymphoid tissue-resident, and we discuss the role and regulation of these microbial populations in health and disease. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. [Intestinal parasitosis among non-permanent resident students in Tunisia: a review of 23 years of monitoring in the department of Parasitology-Mycology at the Rabta Hospital of Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dridi, Kalthoum; Fakhfakh, Najla; Belhadj, Sleh; Kaouech, Emira; Kallel, Kalthoum; Chaker, Emna

    2015-07-01

    In order to fight digestive parasitism in Tunisia, a national program of surveillance of non-permanent resident students in Tunisia has been found to detect these parasitosis in this target population. To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among non-permanent resident students in Tunisia, to identify the different parasitic species founded and to show the interest of this screening. During a period of 23 years (1990-2012), 7386 parasitological examinations of stools has been made among students essentially from or had visited tropical Africa, Maghreb and Middle-East, at the laboratory of Parasitology-Mycology at the Rabta Hospital of Tunis. The prevalence of intestinal parasitism found was 34.45% (i.e. 2545 infested students). Among the protozoa that have been isolated in the majority of cases (78.75%), amoebae were most frequently found (86.4%) represented mainly by Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nanus in respectively, 25.62 and 23.33% of parasites isolated; while Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, only pathogenic Amoeba was found in 8.05% of the total of parasites isolated. Regarding helminths, found in 21.25% of parasites isolated, Ankylostome was predominant (34.5%) represented by the species of Necator americanus. A single case of Ancylostom duodenale has been isolated. Among the identified parasite species, 38.7% were known parasitic pathogens for humans. These results note the interest of the control of the non-permanent resident students in Tunisia. The precocious tracking and treatment of affected subjects permits to avoid the introduction and the dissemination of parasites already rare and virulent strains in our country.

  16. Intestinal microbiota and ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Koido, Shigeo

    2015-11-01

    There is a close relationship between the human host and the intestinal microbiota, which is an assortment of microorganisms, protecting the intestine against colonization by exogenous pathogens. Moreover, the intestinal microbiota play a critical role in providing nutrition and the modulation of host immune homeostasis. Recent reports indicate that some strains of intestinal bacteria are responsible for intestinal ulceration and chronic inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Understanding the interaction of the intestinal microbiota with pathogens and the human host might provide new strategies treating patients with IBD. This review focuses on the important role that the intestinal microbiota plays in maintaining innate immunity in the pathogenesis and etiology of UC and discusses new antibiotic therapies targeting the intestinal microbiota. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Immunomodulatory properties of probiotic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen

    2007-01-01

    Certain lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are part of the commensal intestinal flora and considered beneficial for health, as they compete with pathogens for adhesion sites in the intestine and ferment otherwise indigestible compounds. Another important property of these so-called probiotic bacteria...... with bacteria, and the cytokine pattern induced by specific bacteria resembled the pattern induced in MoDC, except for TNF-alpha and IL-6, which were induced in response to different bacteria in blood DC/monocytes and monocyte-derived DC. Autologous NK cells produced IFN-gamma when cultured with blood DC......, monocytes and monocyte-derived DC and IL-12-inducing bacteria, whereas only DC induced IFN-gamma production in allogeneic T cells. In vitro-generated DC is a commonly used model of tissue DC, but they differ in certain aspects from intestinal DC, which are in direct contact with the intestinal microbiota...

  18. Intestinal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  19. G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) transcription in intestinal epithelial cells is significantly affected by bacteria belonging to the Bacteroides, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes phyla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredborg, Marlene; Theil, Peter Kappel; Jensen, Bent Borg

    2012-01-01

    examined using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The abundance of GLP-1 mRNA decreased when cells were exposed to 4 of the 12 supernatants (P ≤ 0.05) compared with cells without bacteria added. Supernatants from 8 of the 12 bacteria analyzed increased the mRNA level of GPR120 (P...

  20. Epidemiology and characteristics of Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) from long-term care facility residents colonized intestinally with fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jennifer H; Garrigan, Charles; Johnston, Brian; Nachamkin, Irving; Clabots, Connie; Bilker, Warren B; Santana, Evelyn; Tolomeo, Pam; Maslow, Joel; Myers, Janice; Carson, Lesley; Lautenbach, Ebbing; Johnson, James R

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate molecular and epidemiologic factors associated with Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) among long-term care facility (LTCF) residents who acquired gastrointestinal tract colonization with fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli (FQREC). Colonizing isolates from 37 residents who newly developed FQREC colonization at three LTCFs from 2006 to 2008 were evaluated. Twenty-nine (78%) of 37 total FQREC colonizing isolates were ST131. Most ST131 isolates had a distinctive combination of gyrA and parC replacement mutations. The ST131 and non-ST131 isolates differed significantly for the prevalence of many individual virulence factors but not for the proportion that qualified molecularly as extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) or aggregate virulence factor scores. E. coli ST131 was highly prevalent among LTCF residents with FQREC colonization. Future studies should determine the risk factors for infection among ST131-colonized residents, and assess the potential for increased transmissibility of ST131 in the long-term care setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Epidemiology and Characteristics of Escherichia coli Sequence Type 131 (ST131) from Long-Term Care Facility Residents Colonized Intestinally with Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jennifer H.; Garrigan, Charles; Johnston, Brian; Nachamkin, Irving; Clabots, Connie; Bilker, Warren B.; Santana, Evelyn; Tolomeo, Pam; Maslow, Joel; Myers, Janice; Carson, Lesley; Lautenbach, Ebbing; Johnson, James R.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate molecular and epidemiologic factors associated with Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) among long-term care facility (LTCF) residents who acquired gastrointestinal tract colonization with fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli (FQREC). Colonizing isolates from 37 residents who newly developed FQREC colonization at three LTCFs from 2006–2008 were evaluated. Twenty-nine (78%) of 37 total FQREC colonizing isolates were ST131. Most ST131 isolates had a distinctive combination of gyrA and parC replacement mutations. The ST131 and non-ST131 isolates differed significantly for the prevalence of many individual virulence factors but not for the proportion that qualified molecularly as extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) or aggregate virulence factor scores. E. coli ST131 was highly prevalent among LTCF residents with FQREC colonization. Future studies should determine the risk factors for infection among ST131-colonized residents, and assess the potential for increased transmissibility of ST131 in the long-term care setting. PMID:27939288

  2. Toxicity of Food-Grade TiO2 to Commensal Intestinal and Transient Food-Borne Bacteria: New Insights Using Nano-SIMS and Synchrotron UV Fluorescence Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna M. Radziwill-Bienkowska

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 is commonly used as a food additive (E171 in the EU for its whitening and opacifying properties. However, a risk of intestinal barrier disruption, including dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, is increasingly suspected because of the presence of a nano-sized fraction in this additive. We hypothesized that food-grade E171 and Aeroxyde P25 (identical to the NM-105 OECD reference nanomaterial in the European Union Joint Research Centre interact with both commensal intestinal bacteria and transient food-borne bacteria under non-UV-irradiated conditions. Based on differences in their physicochemical properties, we expect a difference in their respective effects. To test these hypotheses, we chose a panel of eight Gram-positive/Gram-negative bacterial strains, isolated from different biotopes and belonging to the species Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis (subsp. lactis and cremoris, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Lactobacillus sakei. Bacterial cells were exposed to food-grade E171 vs. P25 in vitro and the interactions were explored with innovative (nanoimaging methods. The ability of bacteria to trap TiO2 was demonstrated using synchrotron UV fluorescence imaging with single cell resolution. Subsequent alterations in the growth profiles were shown, notably for the transient food-borne L. lactis and the commensal intestinal E. coli in contact with food-grade TiO2. However, for both species, the reduction in cell cultivability remained moderate, and the morphological and ultrastructural damages, observed with electron microscopy, were restricted to a small number of cells. E. coli exposed to food-grade TiO2 showed some internalization of TiO2 (7% of cells, observed with high-resolution nano-secondary ion mass spectrometry (Nano-SIMS chemical imaging. Taken together, these data show that E171 may be trapped by commensal and transient food-borne bacteria within the gut. In return, it may induce some

  3. Conjugated primary bile salts reduce permeability of endotoxin through bacteria-stimulated intestinal epithelial cells and synergize with lecithin in suppression of inflammatory cytokine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Schaeckeler, Simone; Moser, Lydia

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Endotoxemia was shown to be integral in the pathophysiology of obstructive jaundice. In the current study, the role of conjugated primary bile salts (CPBS) and phosphatidylcholine on the permeability of endotoxin through a layer of intestinal epithelial cells and the consequent...

  4. Protein malnutrition and metronidazole induced intestinal bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... The gastrointestinal tract serves as a potent barrier that prevents luminal bacteria from entering the host. This barrier function is maintained by a well-balanced intestinal flora, an unaltered perme- ability of the intestinal mucosa, and a normal functioning immune system. Furthermore, the intestinal mucosa, in.

  5. Intestinal Complications of IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... localized pocket of pus caused by infection from bacteria. More common in Crohn’s than in colitis, an abscess may form in the intestinal wall—sometimes causing it to bulge out. Visible abscesses, such as those around the anus, look like boils and treatment often involves lancing. Symptoms of ...

  6. Community and genomic analysis of the human small intestine microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogert, van den B.

    2013-01-01

    Our intestinal tract is densely populated by different microbes, collectively called microbiota, of which the majority are bacteria. Research focusing on the intestinal microbiota often use fecal samples as a representative of the bacteria that inhabit the end of the large intestine.

  7. Utilização de bactérias ácido-lácticas isoladas do trato intestinal de tilápia-do-nilo como probiótico Lactic-acid bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of Nile tilapia utilized as probiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Jatobá

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi isolar bactérias ácido-lácticas do intestino de tilápias-do-nilo, e avaliar seu potencial probiótico. Foram isoladas cepas de bactérias ácido-lácticas, e foi avaliada a inibição aos patógenos in vitro. As cepas com os melhores resultados foram identificadas e utilizadas no experimento de colonização do trato intestinal de tilápias-do-nilo, via suplementação na dieta, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com três tratamentos e quatro repetições. Foram avaliados: o total de bactérias, as bactérias ácido-lácticas, Vibrio ssp. e Pseudomonas ssp. A cepa com melhor resultado foi utilizada na infecção experimental, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2x3: dieta suplementada com a cepa e dieta-controle; e os peixes não submetidos à injeção, peixes submetidos à injeção de solução salina e à injeção de Enterococcus durans, com três repetições. Foram avaliados os parâmetros hematológicos. As duas cepas identificadas foram: Lactobacillus plantarum e Lactobacillus brevis, que colonizaram o trato intestinal de tilápias, contudo L. plantarum teve menor número total de bactérias e de Pseudomonas ssp. Foi observado maior número total de eritrócitos, trombócitos, leucócitos, linfócitos, neutrófilos e monócitos, em peixes alimentados com L. plantarum e submetidos à injeção de E. durans. O L. plantarum tem efeito probiótico e melhora o sistema imune das tilápias.The objective of this work was to isolate lactic-acid bacteria from the intestines of Nile tilapia, and to assess their potential as probiotic. Strains of lactic-acid bacteria were isolated, and inhibition against pathogens was evaluated in vitro. Strains with best results were identified and used in tilapia intestinal tract colonization experiment through supplementation in the diet, in a completely randomized design, with three treatments and four replicates. Total number bacteria, lactic

  8. Immunogenetic control of the intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marietta, Eric; Rishi, Abdul; Taneja, Veena

    2015-07-01

    All vertebrates contain a diverse collection of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses and fungi, on their various body surfaces, and the ecological community of these microorganisms is referred to as the microbiota. Mucosal sites, such as the intestine, harbour the majority of microorganisms, and the human intestine contains the largest community of commensal and symbiotic bacteria. This intestinal community of bacteria is diverse, and there is a significant variability among individuals with respect to the composition of the intestinal microbiome. Both genetic and environmental factors can influence the diversity and composition of the intestinal bacteria with the predominant environmental factor being diet. So far, studies have shown that diet-dependent differences in the composition of intestinal bacteria can be classified into three groups, called enterotypes. Other environmental factors that can influence the composition include antibiotics, probiotics, smoking and drugs. Studies of monozygotic and dizygotic twins have proven that genetics plays a role. Recently, MHC II genes have been associated with specific microbial compositions in human infants and transgenic mice that express different HLA alleles. There is a growing list of genes/molecules that are involved with the sensing and monitoring of the intestinal lumen by the intestinal immune system that, when genetically altered, will significantly alter the composition of the intestinal microflora. The focus of this review will be on the genetic factors that influence the composition of the intestinal microflora. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Mycotoxins and the intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Broom

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungal biochemical pathways can yield various compounds that are not considered to be necessary for their growth and are thus referred to as secondary metabolites. These compounds have been found to have wide ranging biological effects and include potent poisons (mycotoxins. Mycotoxins invariably contaminate crops and (thus animal feeds. The intestine is the key link between ingested mycotoxins and their detrimental effects on the animal. Effects on the intestine, or intestinal environment, and immune system have been reported with various mycotoxins. These effects are almost certainly occurring across species. Most, if not all, of the reported effects of mycotoxins are negative in terms of intestinal health, for example, decreased intestinal cell viability, reductions in short chain fatty acid (SCFA concentrations and elimination of beneficial bacteria, increased expression of genes involved in promoting inflammation and counteracting oxidative stress. This challenge to intestinal health will predispose the animal to intestinal (and systemic infections and impair efficient digestion and absorption of nutrients, with the associated effect on animal productivity.

  10. FEATURES OF THE LARGE INTESTINE MICROFLORA OF CHILDREN – DONOR LIVER TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Gabrielyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The study microecology of the large intestine of children with cirrhosis before transplantation of the share liver. Materials and methods. Studied the flora of the colon 157 children of 1 to 17 years admitted to hospital for liver transplantation fragment from a related donor. Identification was carried out using microbial panels BD Crystal and databases BBL Crystal MIND. Methicillin-resistant staphylococci were determined by their sensiti- vity to oxacillin and cefoxitin. Beta-lactamase activity was tested using discs with ceftazidime and ceftazidime/ clavulanic acid. Results. Microecological revealed deep irregularities in the large intestine transplantation in children up lobe of the liver on a spectrum and composition of the microflora. Among the resident microflora decreased levels of bifidobacteria, lactobacilli and coliform bacteria, especially in children under one year. A sig- nificant portion of the children surveyed (over 60–70% had an increase of frequency of finding stateally bacteria, especially Klebsiella and enterobacteria in third children – non-fermenting bacteria – Pseudomonas and Acine- tobacter spp. Revealed the spread of strains of gram-negative bacteria with extended-spectrum betalaktamaz.Conclusion. Expressed microecological violations in the large intestine in children with higher levels of bac- teria are conditionally risk factor reeks of infectious complications in the postoperative period and require are complex tools to assist in eliminatsii.s given antibiotic resistance of bacteria

  11. Gut Bacteria Affect Immunotherapy Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three new studies have identified intestinal bacteria that appear to influence the response to checkpoint inhibitors. This Cancer Currents blog post explains how the researchers think their findings could be used to improve patients’ responses to these immunotherapy drugs.

  12. A Possible Role of Intestinal Microbiota in the Pathogenesis of Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lianjun; Wang, Liping; Wang, Xin; Xian, Cory J.; Lu, Hai

    2016-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease primarily affecting the sacroiliac joints and the spine, for which the pathogenesis is thought to be a result of the combination of host genetic factors and environmental triggers. However, the precise factors that determine one’s susceptibility to AS remain to be unraveled. With 100 trillion bacteria residing in the mammalian gut having established a symbiotic relation with their host influencing many aspects of host metabolism, physiology, and immunity, a growing body of evidence suggests that intestinal microbiota may play an important role in AS. Several mechanisms have been suggested to explain the potential role of the microbiome in the etiology of AS, such as alterations of intestinal permeability, stimulation of immune responses, and molecular mimicry. In this review, the existing evidence for the involvement of the microbiome in AS pathogenesis was discussed and the potential of intestinal microbiome-targeting strategies in the prevention and treatment of AS was evaluated. PMID:27999312

  13. A Possible Role of Intestinal Microbiota in the Pathogenesis of Ankylosing Spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lianjun; Wang, Liping; Wang, Xin; Xian, Cory J; Lu, Hai

    2016-12-17

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease primarily affecting the sacroiliac joints and the spine, for which the pathogenesis is thought to be a result of the combination of host genetic factors and environmental triggers. However, the precise factors that determine one's susceptibility to AS remain to be unraveled. With 100 trillion bacteria residing in the mammalian gut having established a symbiotic relation with their host influencing many aspects of host metabolism, physiology, and immunity, a growing body of evidence suggests that intestinal microbiota may play an important role in AS. Several mechanisms have been suggested to explain the potential role of the microbiome in the etiology of AS, such as alterations of intestinal permeability, stimulation of immune responses, and molecular mimicry. In this review, the existing evidence for the involvement of the microbiome in AS pathogenesis was discussed and the potential of intestinal microbiome-targeting strategies in the prevention and treatment of AS was evaluated.

  14. Intestinal Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the obstruction along the intestines. Treatment Suction via nasogastric tube Fluids given by vein Surgery for strangulation Sometimes ... nose and placed in the stomach (called a nasogastric tube) or into the intestine. Suction is applied to ...

  15. Functional flexibility of intestinal IgA – broadening the fine line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma eSlack

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal bacteria outnumber our own human cells in conditions of both health and disease. It has long been recognized that secretory antibody, particularly IgA, is produced in response to these microbes and hypothesized that this must play an important role in defining the relationship between a host and its intestinal microbes. However, the exact role of IgA and the mechanisms by which IgA can act are only beginning to be understood. In this review we attempt to unravel the complex interaction between so-called natural, primitive (T-cell-independent and classical IgA responses, the nature of the intestinal microbiota/intestinal pathogens and the highly flexible dynamic homeostasis of the mucosal immune system. Such an analysis reveals that low-affinity IgA is sufficient to protect the host from excess mucosal immune activation induced by harmless commensal microbes. However, affinity-maturation of classical IgA is essential to provide protection from more invasive commensal species such as segmented filamentous bacteria and from true pathogens such as Salmonella typhimurium. Thus a correlation is revealed between sophistication of the IgA response and aggressiveness of the challenge. A second emerging theme is that more invasive species take advantage of host inflammatory mechanisms to more successfully compete with the resident microbiota. In many cases, the function of IgA may be to limit such inflammatory responses, either directly by coagulating or inhibiting virulence of bacteria before they can interact with the host or by modulating immune signaling induced by host recognition. Therefore IgA appears to provide an added layer of robustness in the intestinal ecosystem, promoting commensal-like behavior of its residents.

  16. Functional flexibility of intestinal IgA - broadening the fine line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Emma; Balmer, Maria Luisa; Fritz, Jörg H; Hapfelmeier, Siegfried

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal bacteria outnumber our own human cells in conditions of both health and disease. It has long been recognized that secretory antibody, particularly IgA, is produced in response to these microbes and hypothesized that this must play an important role in defining the relationship between a host and its intestinal microbes. However, the exact role of IgA and the mechanisms by which IgA can act are only beginning to be understood. In this review we attempt to unravel the complex interaction between so-called "natural," "primitive" (T-cell-independent), and "classical" IgA responses, the nature of the intestinal microbiota/intestinal pathogens and the highly flexible dynamic homeostasis of the mucosal immune system. Such an analysis reveals that low-affinity IgA is sufficient to protect the host from excess mucosal immune activation induced by harmless commensal microbes. However, affinity-maturation of "classical" IgA is essential to provide protection from more invasive commensal species such as segmented filamentous bacteria and from true pathogens such as Salmonellatyphimurium. Thus a correlation is revealed between "sophistication" of the IgA response and aggressiveness of the challenge. A second emerging theme is that more-invasive species take advantage of host inflammatory mechanisms to more successfully compete with the resident microbiota. In many cases, the function of IgA may be to limit such inflammatory responses, either directly by coagulating or inhibiting virulence of bacteria before they can interact with the host or by modulating immune signaling induced by host recognition. Therefore IgA appears to provide an added layer of robustness in the intestinal ecosystem, promoting "commensal-like" behavior of its residents.

  17. Interactions between the intestinal microbiota and innate lymphoid cells

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Vincent L; Kasper, Dennis L

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian intestine must manage to contain 100 trillion intestinal bacteria without inducing inappropriate immune responses to these microorganisms. The effects of the immune system on intestinal microorganisms are numerous and well-characterized, and recent research has determined that the microbiota influences the intestinal immune system as well. In this review, we first discuss the intestinal immune system and its role in containing and maintaining tolerance to commensal organisms. We...

  18. Studies on the structure and function of intestinal microbes of surgeonfishes in the central Red Sea with a focus on the giant bacteria Epulopiscium spp.

    KAUST Repository

    Miyake, Sou

    2015-05-01

    The intestinal tract microbiota – microbial community of the gut – is an important field in microbiology not only because of its critical role in the host development, but also increasingly large number of diseases are associated with certain state of the gut microbiota. The community structure and function of the gut microbiota is relatively well studied in humans and related higher vertebrates, but is severely understudied in fish. This is especially true for the coral reef fishes, who constitute the most diverse assemblage of vertebrates spread over a very local scale, and are essential for the resilience of the reefs. In order to bridge this gap in knowledge, this dissertation studied the community structure, interactions and functions of the gut microbial community from the surgeonfishes in the Red Sea – with special focus on the surgeonfish enteric symbiont Epulopiscium spp. Initially, I studied the composition of the gut microbiota of nine surgeonfish and three nonsurgeonfish species from the Red Sea using 454 pyrosequencing. Upon discovering the high abundance of Epulopiscium spp. in herbivorous surgeonfishes, I then proceeded to identify their phylogenetic diversity, distribution, as well as deducing their coevolutionary relationship with the host. Because Epulopiscium spp. undergo substantial changes in the cell size (grow up to ~600μm) and the DNA concentration (from 85 to over 250pg per cell) throughout their diel lifecycle, I also studied the temporal changes in their expression pattern using RNA-seq. Overall, this dissertation shed light on the complex structure, interaction and function of an important family of coral reef fish from the Red Sea through range of molecular techniques.

  19. Interactions between the intestinal microbiota and innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Vincent L; Kasper, Dennis L

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian intestine must manage to contain 100 trillion intestinal bacteria without inducing inappropriate immune responses to these microorganisms. The effects of the immune system on intestinal microorganisms are numerous and well-characterized, and recent research has determined that the microbiota influences the intestinal immune system as well. In this review, we first discuss the intestinal immune system and its role in containing and maintaining tolerance to commensal organisms. We next introduce a category of immune cells, the innate lymphoid cells, and describe their classification and function in intestinal immunology. Finally, we discuss the effects of the intestinal microbiota on innate lymphoid cells.

  20. Intestine transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeja Pintar

    2011-02-01

    Conclusion: Intestine transplantation is reserved for patients with irreversible intestinal failure due to short gut syndrome requiring total paranteral nutrition with no possibility of discontinuation and loss of venous access for patient maintenance. In these patients complications of underlying disease and long-term total parenteral nutrition are present.

  1. Scintigraphic visualization of bacterial translocation in experimental strangulated intestinal obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeev, Yu.M.; Popov, M.V.; Salato, O.V.; Lishmanov, Yu.B.; Grigorev, E.G.; Aparcin, K.A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain scintigraphic images depicting translocation of 99m Tc-labelled Escherichia coli bacteria through the intestinal barrier and to quantify this process using methods of nuclear medicine. Thirty male Wistar rats (including 20 rats with modelled strangulated intestinal obstruction and 10 healthy rats) were used for bacterial scintigraphy. 99m Tc-labelled E. coli bacteria ( 99m Ts-E. coli) with an activity of 7.4-11.1 MBq were administered into a section of the small intestine. Scintigraphic visualization of bacterial translocation into organs and tissues of laboratory animals was recorded in dynamic (240 min) and static (15 min) modes. The number of labelled bacteria, which migrated through the intestinal barrier, was quantified by calculating the translocation index (TI). Control indicated no translocation of 99m Ts-E. coli administered into the intestine through the parietes of the small intestine's distal part in healthy animals. Animals with strangulated obstruction demonstrated different migration strength and routes of labelled bacteria from strangulated and superior to strangulation sections of the small intestine. 99m Ts-E. coli migrated from the strangulated loop into the peritoneal cavity later causing systemic bacteraemia through peritoneal resorption. The section of the small intestine, which was superior to the strangulation, demonstrated migration of labelled bacteria first into the portal and then into the systemic circulation. The strangulated section of the small intestine was the main source of bacteria dissemination since the number of labelled bacteria, which migrated from this section significantly, exceeded that of the area superior to the strangulation section of the small intestine (p = 0.0003). Bacterial scintigraphy demonstrated the possibility of visualizing migration routes of labelled bacteria and quantifying their translocation through the intestinal barrier. This approach to study bacterial

  2. Resident Bacteria-Stimulated Interleukin-10-Secreting B Cells Ameliorate T-Cell-Mediated Colitis by Inducing T-Regulatory-1 Cells That Require Interleukin-27 SignalingSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Mishima

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: The regulatory roles of interleukin-10 (IL10-producing B cells in colitis are not fully understood, so we explored the molecular mechanisms by which these cells modulate mucosal homeostasis. Methods: CD4+ T cells from wild-type (WT, Il10−/−, or Il27ra−/− mice were cotransferred with B cells from specific pathogen-free (SPF or germ-free (GF WT or Il10−/− mice into Rag2−/−Il10−/−(double-knockout mice, and the severity of colitis and intestinal regulatory T-cell populations were characterized. In vitro, WT or Il10−/− B cells were cocultured with unfractionated, naïve or regulatory T cells plus Il10−/− antigen-presenting cells and stimulated with cecal bacterial lysate (CBL with or without IL27 or anti-IL10R blockade. Gene expressions, cytokines in the supernatant and cell populations were assessed. Results: WT but not Il10−/− B cells attenuated T helper cell TH1/TH17-mediated colitis in double-knockout mice that also received WT but not Il10−/− T cells. In vitro, CBL-stimulated WT B cells secrete abundant IL10 and suppress interferon-γ (IFNγ and IL17a-production by T cells without requiring cell contact. Although both WT and Il10−/− B cells induced Foxp3+CD4+ T-regulatory cells, only WT B cells induced IL10-producing (Foxp3-negative T regulatory-1 (Tr-1 cells both in vivo and in vitro. However, IL10-producing B cells did not attenuate colitis or induce Tr-1 cells in the absence of T cell IL27 signaling in vivo. WT B cell-dependent Tr-1 induction and concomitant decreased IFNγ-secretion were also mediated by T-cell IL27-signaling in vitro. Conclusions: IL10-secreting B cells activated by physiologically relevant bacteria ameliorate T-cell-mediated colitis and contribute to intestinal homeostasis by suppressing effector T cells and inducing Tr-1 cells via IL27-signaling on T cells. Keywords: Experimental

  3. Bile acids in regulation of intestinal physiology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keating, Niamh

    2009-10-01

    In addition to their roles in facilitating lipid digestion and absorption, bile acids are recognized as important regulators of intestinal function. Exposure to bile acids can dramatically influence intestinal transport and barrier properties; in recent years, they have also become appreciated as important factors in regulating cell growth and survival. Indeed, few cells reside within the intestinal mucosa that are not altered to some degree by exposure to bile acids. The past decade saw great advances in the knowledge of how bile acids exert their actions at the cellular and molecular levels. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the role of bile acids in regulation of intestinal physiology.

  4. Intestinal Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weight loss Intestinal ischemia Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  5. Intestinal Coccidia

    OpenAIRE

    MJ Ggaravi

    2007-01-01

    Intestinal Coccidia are a subclass of Apicomplexa phylum. Eucoccidida are facultative heteroxenous, but some of them are monoxenous. They have sexual and asexual life cycle. Some coccidia are human pathogens, for example: Cryptosporidium: Cryptosporidiums has many species that are mammalian intestinal parasites.C. Parvum specie is a human pathogenic protozoa. Cryptosporidum has circle or ellipse shapes and nearly 4-6 mm. It is transmitted in warm seasons. Oocyst is obtained insexual life cycl...

  6. Resident resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J L; Cleary, B

    1999-01-01

    Clearly, faculty must work hard with residents to explore the nature of their resistance to a program's learning and growth opportunities. Initial steps to a deeper, more effective, and longer-lasting change process must be pursued. If resident resistance is mishandled or misunderstood, then learning and professional growth may be sidetracked and the purposes of residency training defeated. Listening to the whole person of the resident and avoiding the trap of getting caught up in merely responding to select resident behaviors that irritate us is critical. Every faculty member in the family practice residency program must recognize resistance as a form of defense that cannot immediately be torn down or taken away. Resident defenses have important purposes to play in stress reduction even if they are not always healthy. Residents, especially interns, use resistance to avoid a deeper and more truthful look at themselves as physicians. A family practice residency program that sees whole persons in their residents and that respects resident defenses will effectively manage the stress and disharmony inherent to the resistant resident.

  7. Pathogen invasion changes the intestinal microbiota composition and induces innate immune responses in the zebrafish intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui-Ting; Zou, Song-Song; Zhai, Li-Juan; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Fu-Miao; An, Li-Guo; Yang, Gui-Wen

    2017-12-01

    Numerous bacteria are harbored in the animal digestive tract and are impacted by several factors. Intestinal microbiota homeostasis is critical for maintaining the health of an organism. However, how pathogen invasion affects the microbiota composition has not been fully clarified. The mechanisms for preventing invasion by pathogenic microorganisms are yet to be elucidated. Zebrafish is a useful model for developmental biology, and studies in this organism have gradually become focused on intestinal immunity. In this study, we analyzed the microbiota of normal cultivated and infected zebrafish intestines, the aquarium water and feed samples. We found that the predominant bacteria in the zebrafish intestine belonged to Gammaproteobacteria (67%) and that feed and environment merely influenced intestinal microbiota composition only partially. Intestinal microbiota changed after a pathogenic bacterial challenge. At the genus level, the abundance of some pathogenic intestinal bacteria increased, and these genera included Halomonas (50%), Pelagibacterium (3.6%), Aeromonas (2.6%), Nesterenkonia (1%), Chryseobacterium (3.4‰), Mesorhizobium (1.4‰), Vibrio (1‰), Mycoplasma (0.7‰) and Methylobacterium (0.6‰) in IAh group. However, the abundance of some beneficial intestinal bacteria decreased, and these genera included Nitratireductor (0.8‰), Enterococcus (0.8‰), Brevundimonas (0.7‰), Lactococcus (0.7‰) and Lactobacillus (0.4‰). Additionally, we investigated the innate immune responses after infection. ROS levels in intestine increased in the early stages after a challenge and recovered subsequently. The mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptide genes lectin, hepcidin and defensin1, were upregulated in the intestine after pathogen infection. These results suggested that the invasion of pathogen could change the intestinal microbiota composition and induce intestinal innate immune responses in zebrafish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rare cause of intestinal obstruction, Ascaris lumbricoides infestation: two case reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetim, Ibrahim; Semerci, Ersan; Abanoz, Recep

    2009-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is common resident of intestine especially low socioeconomic areas in the world. Complication of Ascaris lumbricoides has been reported include obstruction of the small intestine, intestinal volvulus and intussusception. We report two children with severe sequelae of intestinal obstruction. PMID:19830032

  9. Rare cause of intestinal obstruction, Ascaris lumbricoides infestation: two case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Yetim, Ibrahim; Ozkan, Orhan Veli; Semerci, Ersan; Abanoz, Recep

    2009-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is common resident of intestine especially low socioeconomic areas in the world. Complication of Ascaris lumbricoides has been reported include obstruction of the small intestine, intestinal volvulus and intussusception. We report two children with severe sequelae of intestinal obstruction.

  10. Small Intestine Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease Crohn's disease Infections Intestinal cancer Intestinal obstruction Irritable bowel syndrome Ulcers, such as peptic ulcer Treatment of disorders of the small intestine depends on the cause.

  11. Type 3 innate lymphoid cells maintain intestinal epithelial stem cells after tissue damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Aparicio-Domingo (Patricia); M. Romera-Hernandez (Monica); J.J. Karrich (Julien J.); F.H.J. Cornelissen (Ferry); N. Papazian (Natalie); D.J. Lindenbergh-Kortleve (Dicky); J.A. Butler (James A.); L. Boon (Louis); M. Coles (Mark); J.N. Samsom (Janneke); T. Cupedo (Tom)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractDisruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier allows bacterial translocation and predisposes to destructive inflammation. To ensure proper barrier composition, crypt-residing stem cells continuously proliferate and replenish all intestinal epithelial cells within days. As a consequence

  12. The fecal bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowsky, Michael J.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    The Fecal Bacteria offers a balanced, integrated discussion of fecal bacteria and their presence and ecology in the intestinal tract of mammals, in the environment, and in the food supply. This volume covers their use in examining and assessing water quality in order to offer protection from illnesses related to swimming in or ingesting contaminated water, in addition to discussing their use in engineering considerations of water quality, modeling, monitoring, and regulations. Fecal bacteria are additionally used as indicators of contamination of ready-to-eat foods and fresh produce. The intestinal environment, the microbial community structure of the gut microbiota, and the physiology and genomics of this broad group of microorganisms are explored in the book. With contributions from an internationally recognized group of experts, the book integrates medicine, public health, environmental, and microbiological topics in order to provide a unique, holistic understanding of fecal bacteria. Moreover, it shows how the latest basic science and applied research findings are helping to solve problems and develop effective management strategies. For example, readers will discover how the latest tools and molecular approaches have led to our current understanding of fecal bacteria and enabled us to improve human health and water quality. The Fecal Bacteria is recommended for microbiologists, clinicians, animal scientists, engineers, environmental scientists, food safety experts, water quality managers, and students. It will help them better understand fecal bacteria and use their knowledge to protect human and environmental health. They can also apply many of the techniques and molecular tools discussed in this book to the study of a broad range of microorganisms in a variety of habitats.

  13. Diversity and functions of intestinal mononuclear phagocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joeris, Thorsten; Müller-Luda, K; Agace, William Winston

    2017-01-01

    The intestinal lamina propria (LP) contains a diverse array of mononuclear phagocyte (MNP) subsets, including conventional dendritic cells (cDC), monocytes and tissue-resident macrophages (mφ) that collectively play an essential role in mucosal homeostasis, infection and inflammation. In the curr......The intestinal lamina propria (LP) contains a diverse array of mononuclear phagocyte (MNP) subsets, including conventional dendritic cells (cDC), monocytes and tissue-resident macrophages (mφ) that collectively play an essential role in mucosal homeostasis, infection and inflammation....... In the current review we discuss the function of intestinal cDC and monocyte-derived MNP, highlighting how these subsets play several non-redundant roles in the regulation of intestinal immune responses. While much remains to be learnt, recent findings also underline how the various populations of MNP adapt...

  14. Probiotic bacteria in dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    KORANDOVÁ, Květa

    2012-01-01

    Probiotic microorganisms are live organisms that facilitate optimal composition of intestinal flora. The thesis deals with the positive influence of probiotic microorganisms on human health. It describes the most frequently used bacteria family, which includes Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Streptococcus and Bifidobacterium. The thesis also deals with health, microbiologic and technological requirements necessary for probiotic effectiveness. It offers an overview of characteristics of products c...

  15. Intestinal Microbiota Signatures Associated With Histological Liver Steatosis in Pediatric-Onset Intestinal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpela, Katri; Mutanen, Annika; Salonen, Anne; Savilahti, Erkki; de Vos, Willem M; Pakarinen, Mikko P

    2017-02-01

    Intestinal failure (IF)-associated liver disease (IFALD) is the major cause of mortality in IF. The link between intestinal microbiota and IFALD is unclear. We compared intestinal microbiota of patients with IF (n = 23) with healthy controls (n = 58) using culture-independent phylogenetic microarray analysis. The microbiota was related to histological liver injury, fecal markers of intestinal inflammation, matrix metalloproteinase 9 and calprotectin, and disease characteristics. Overabundance of Lactobacilli, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria was observed in IF, whereas bacteria related to Clostridium clusters III, IV, and XIVa along with overall diversity and richness were reduced. Patients were segregated into 3 subgroups based on dominating bacteria: Clostridium cluster XIVa, Proteobacteria, and bacteria related to Lactobacillus plantarum. In addition to liver steatosis and fibrosis, Proteobacteria were associated with prolonged current parenteral nutrition (PN) as well as liver and intestinal inflammation. Lactobacilli were related to advanced steatosis and fibrosis mostly after weaning off PN without associated inflammation. In multivariate permutational analysis of variance, liver steatosis, bowel length, PN calories, and antibiotic treatment best explained the microbiota variation among patients with IF. Intestinal microbiota composition was associated with liver steatosis in IF and better predicted steatosis than duration of PN or length of the remaining intestine. Our results may be explained by a model in which steatosis is initiated during PN in response to proinflammatory lipopolysaccharides produced by Proteobacteria and progresses after weaning off PN, as the L plantarum group Lactobacilli becomes dominant and affects lipid metabolism by altering bile acid signaling.

  16. Prevalence and risk factors for intestinal protozoa infection in elderly residents at Long Term Residency Institutions in Southeastern Brazil Prevalência e fatores de risco para infecção por protozoários intestinais em idosos residentes nas Instituições de Longa Permanência no Sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katymilla Guimarães Girotto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the prevalence of intestinal protozoa in Long Term Residency Institutions for the Elderly (ILPI in elders, nurses and food handlers, identifying the risk factors associated with the infections. Stool samples taken from the elderly (n = 293, nurses (63 and food handlers (19 were studied. Questionnaires were used with questions related to sociodemographic variables, health, behavior and health characteristics. Stool samples were examined using the techniques of Faust and Ziehl Neelsen, and the prevalence of G. duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., E. histolytica/dispar in the elderly was 4.0%, 1.0% and 0.3% respectively. Nurses and food handlers showed 4.8% and 5.2% positivity only for G. duodenalis, respectively. The origin of the individuals and contact with domestic animals has been associated with infection by G. duodenalis in the elderly, and contact with domestic animals was considered a risk factor for infection. The last stool examinations were related to Cryptosporidium spp.. None of the variables were associated with E. histolytica/dispar. The frequency of hand washing was significantly associated with G. duodenalis among nurses. The frequency of positive samples of G. duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., E. histolytica/dispar showed that ILPIs environments are conducive to this occurring due to contact between the elderly, nurses and food handlers, which are often poorly trained in hygiene procedures and food handling.Este estudo determinou a prevalência de protozoários intestinais em Instituições de Longa Permanência para Idosos (ILPI, enfermeiros, manipuladores de alimentos identificando fatores de risco associados às infecções. Amostras de fezes de idosos (n = 293, enfermeiros (63, manipuladores de alimentos (19 foram estudadas. Foram aplicados questionários relacionados a variáveis sociodemográficas, de higiene, comportamento e características de saúde. As amostras de fezes foram examinadas pelas t

  17. Risk factors for intestinal pathogens in Danish finishing pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stege, H.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Møller, Kristian

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to identify risk factors for infection with the intestinal bacteria: Lawsonia intracellularis, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, Serpulina intermedia, Brachyspira innocens, Brachyspira pilosicoli and swine-pathogenic Escherichia coli (serogroups O138, O139, O141...

  18. Permanent resident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Fisher

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The training of physicians in the past century was based primarily on responsibility and the chain-of-command. Those with the bulk of that responsibility in the fields of pediatrics and internal medicine were residents. Residents trained the medical students and supervised them carefully in caring for patients. Most attending physicians supervised their teams at arm's length, primarily serving as teachers of the finer points of diagnosis and treatment during set periods of the day or week with a perfunctory signature on write-ups or progress notes. Residents endeavored to protect the attending physician from being heavily involved unless they were unsure about a clinical problem. Before contacting the attending physician, a more senior resident would be called. Responsibility was the ultimate teacher. The introduction of diagnosis-related groups by the federal government dramatically changed the health care delivery system, placing greater emphasis on attending physician visibility in the medical record, ultimately resulting in more attending physician involvement in day-to-day care of patients in academic institutions. Without specified content in attending notes, hospital revenues would decline. Although always in charge technically, attending physicians increasingly have assumed the role once dominated by the resident. Using biographical experiences of more than 40 years, the author acknowledges and praises the educational role of responsibility in his own training and laments its declining role in today's students and house staff.

  19. Permanent resident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John F

    2016-01-01

    The training of physicians in the past century was based primarily on responsibility and the chain-of-command. Those with the bulk of that responsibility in the fields of pediatrics and internal medicine were residents. Residents trained the medical students and supervised them carefully in caring for patients. Most attending physicians supervised their teams at arm's length, primarily serving as teachers of the finer points of diagnosis and treatment during set periods of the day or week with a perfunctory signature on write-ups or progress notes. Residents endeavored to protect the attending physician from being heavily involved unless they were unsure about a clinical problem. Before contacting the attending physician, a more senior resident would be called. Responsibility was the ultimate teacher. The introduction of diagnosis-related groups by the federal government dramatically changed the health care delivery system, placing greater emphasis on attending physician visibility in the medical record, ultimately resulting in more attending physician involvement in day-to-day care of patients in academic institutions. Without specified content in attending notes, hospital revenues would decline. Although always in charge technically, attending physicians increasingly have assumed the role once dominated by the resident. Using biographical experiences of more than 40 years, the author acknowledges and praises the educational role of responsibility in his own training and laments its declining role in today's students and house staff.

  20. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among HIV patients in Baringo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results A prevalence of 50.9% of intestinal parasites was recorded. Majority of the parasitic infections were waterborne protozoa with few helminthes. There was an association (P<0.05) between intestinal parasitic infection and place of residence, agro-ecological location, family size, water source, treatment and reliability ...

  1. Regulation of Intestinal Homeostasis by Innate Immune Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kayama, Hisako; Nishimura, Junichi; Takeda, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    The intestinal immune system has an ability to distinguish between the microbiota and pathogenic bacteria, and then activate pro-inflammatory pathways against pathogens for host defense while remaining unresponsive to the microbiota and dietary antigens. In the intestine, abnormal activation of innate immunity causes development of several inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Thus, activity of innate immunity is finely regulated in the intestine. To date, multiple...

  2. Spore Preparation Protocol for Enrichment of Clostridia from Murine Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Eric M; Rivera-Chávez, Fabian; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2017-05-20

    In recent years, many spore-forming commensal Clostridia found in the gut have been discovered to promote host physiology, immune development, and protection against infections. We provide a detailed protocol for rapid enrichment of spore-forming bacteria from murine intestine. Briefly, contents from the intestinal cecum are collected aerobically, diluted and finally treated with chloroform to enrich for Clostridia spores.

  3. Interactions between the intestinal microbiome and helminth parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaiss, M M; Harris, N L

    2016-01-01

    Throughout evolution, both helminths and bacteria have inhabited our intestines. As intestinal helminths and bacteria inhabit the same environmental niche, it is likely that these organisms interact with, and impact on, each other. In addition, intestinal helminths are well known to alter intestinal physiology, permeability, mucous secretion and the production of antimicrobial peptides - all of which may impact on bacterial survival and spatial organization. Yet despite rapid advances in our understanding of host-intestinal bacteria interactions, the impact of helminths on this relationship has remained largely unexplored. Moreover, although intestinal helminths are generally accepted to possess potent immuno-modulatory activity, it is unknown whether this capacity requires interactions with intestinal bacteria. We propose that this 'ménage à trois' situation is likely to have exerted a strong selective pressure on the development of our metabolic and immune systems. Whilst such pressures remain in developing countries, the eradication of helminths in industrialized countries has shifted this evolutionary balance, possibly underlying the increased development of chronic inflammatory diseases. Thus, helminth-bacteria interactions may represent a key determinant of healthy homoeostasis. © 2015 The Authors. Parasite Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary intestinal pseudo-obstruction; Acute colonic ileus; Colonic pseudo-obstruction; Idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction; Ogilvie syndrome; Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction; Paralytic ileus - pseudo-obstruction

  5. Intestinal myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U S Udgaonkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Intestinal myiasis is a condition when the fly larvae inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and are passed out in faeces. This type of infestation results when eggs or larvae of the fly, deposited on food are inadvertently taken by man. They survive the unfavourable conditions within the gastrointestinal tract and produce disturbances, which may vary from mild to severe. The condition is not uncommon and is often misdiagnosed as pinworm infestation. Correct diagnosis by the clinical microbiologist is important to avoid unnecessary treatment. Materials and Methods: We had 7 cases of intestinal myiasis. In 2 cases the larvae were reared to adult fly in modified meat and sand medium (developed by Udgaonkar. This medium is simple and can be easily prepared in the laboratory. Results: Of the 7 larvae, 5 were Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis, 1 Megaselia species and 1 was identified as Muscina stabulans. Conclusions: S. haemorrhoidalis was the commonest maggot involved. A high index of suspicion is required for clinical diagnosis when the patient complains of passing wriggling worms in faeces for a long period without any response to antihelminthics. The reason for long duration of illness and recurrence of infestation is baffling. The nearest to cure was colonic wash. We feel prevention is of utmost importance, which is to avoid eating food articles with easy access to flies.

  6. Intestinal radiation syndrome: sepsis and endotoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    Rats were whole-body irradiated with 8-MeV cyclotron-produced neutrons and 137 Cs γ rays to study the role of enteric bacteria and endotoxin in the intestinal radiation syndrome. Decrease in intestinal weight was used as an index of radiation-induced breakdown of the mucosa. Neutron and γ-ray doses that were sublethal for intestinal death resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in intestinal weight, reaching minimal values 2 to 3 days after exposure, followed by recovery within 5 days after irradiation. Neutron and photon doses that caused intestinal death resulted in greater mucosal breakdown with little or no evidence of mucosal recovery. The presence of fluid in the intestine and diarrhea, but not bacteremia or endotoxemia, were related to mucosal breakdown and recovery. Neither sepsis nor endotoxin could be detected in liver samples taken at autopsy from animals which died a short time earlier from intestinal injury. These results suggest that overt sepsis and endotoxemia do not play a significant role in the intestinal radiation syndrome

  7. Bacteremia due to anaerobic bacteria: epidemiology in a northern Bari Hospital, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonietta Distasi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Anaerobic bacteria are part of the commensal bacterial flora of skin and mucosae. Iatrogenic and pathological conditions altering this commensal relationship cause life-threatening diseases. Materials and Methods. We analysed the blood cultures sent to the microbiology of our hospital between 2008 and the first quarter of 2013 to measure the frequency of bacteraemia caused by anaerobia. We examined 3138 vials of blood cultures for anaerobia, inoculated following in-house standard procedures. The colonies grown in absence of air were subjected to biochemical analysis. The MICs of metronidazole for 23 of the 26 organisms was tested. Results. Twelve bacteria of the Bacteroides genus were identified, 9 Propionibacterium acnes, 1 Peptosctreptococcus micros, 1 Lactobacillus acidophilus, 1 Clostridium perfringens, 1 Prevotella oralis, 1 Eubacterium lentum. Conclusions. The analysis of the results suggests that the incidence of cultures positive to anaerobia was constant across the years. We note that advanced age, altered mucocutaneous tropism, alterations to the oral and intestinal bacterial flora intensify the risk of anaerobial pathogenicity. The analysis of the metronidazole-determined MIC suggests that the intestinal anaerobic flora responds well to therapy and prophylaxis with Metronidazole, while the anaerobic bacteria residing on skin and other mucosae are resistant. It is however hard to determine the clinical impact of anaerobic bacteremiae and their effect on the outcome of the patient, due to the scarcity of available clinical data.

  8. Ballroom dancing with stem cells: placement and displacement in the intestinal crypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajbakhsh, Shahragim

    2014-03-06

    Intestinal homeostasis is dependent upon stem cells that reside in the intestinal crypt, although the identity and dynamics of this population are unclear. Ritsma et al. (2014) recently reported temporal live imaging of mouse intestinal stem cells and their progeny, providing insights into spatial dynamics underlying stem cell behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. An Ecological Network of Polysaccharide Utilization Among Human Intestinal Symbionts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoff-Nahoum, Seth; Coyne, Michael J.; Comstock, Laurie E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background: The human intestine is colonized with trillions of microorganisms important to health and disease. There has been an intensive effort to catalog the species and genetic content of this microbial ecosystem. However, little is known of the ecological interactions between these microbes, a prerequisite to understanding the dynamics and stability of this host-associated microbial community. Here we perform a systematic investigation of public goods-based syntrophic interactions among the abundant human gut bacteria, the Bacteroidales. Results: We find evidence for a rich interaction network based on the breakdown and use of polysaccharides. Species that utilize a particular polysaccharide (producers) liberate polysaccharide breakdown products (PBP) that are consumed by other species unable to grow on the polysaccharide alone (recipients). Cross-species gene addition experiments demonstrate that recipients can grow on a polysaccharide if the producer-derived glycoside hydrolase, responsible for PBP generation, is provided. These producer-derived glycoside hydrolases are public goods transported extracellularly in outer membrane vesicles allowing for the creation of PBP and concomitant recipient growth spatially distant from the producer. Recipients can exploit these ecological interactions and conditionally outgrow producers. Finally, we show that these public good-based interactions occur among Bacteroidales species co-resident within a natural human intestinal community. Conclusions: This study examines public-goods based syntrophic interactions between bacterial members of the critically important gut microbial ecosystem. This polysaccharide-based network likely represents foundational relationships creating organized ecological units within the intestinal microbiota, knowledge of which can be applied to impact human health. PMID:24332541

  10. [Intestinal parasitic diseases in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mare, Anca; Man, A; Toma, Felicia; Székely, Edit; Lôrinczi, Lilla; Sipoş, Anca

    2007-01-01

    To compare the incidence of intestinal parasitosis between children with residence in urban and rural areas: to compare the efficacy of parasitologic diagnostic methods. In our study we included two lots of children. The first lot consisted in 74 children from rural areas from which we collected 44 samples of feces and 55 samples for the "Scotch tape" test. The second lot consisted in 214 children from urban areas from which we collected 44 samples of feces. We examined each sample of feces by three different methods. The study was performed between April to June 2006. The incidence of intestinal parasitosis increases in children from urban areas towards rural areas, and in children between 5 and 10 years. Ascariasis is the most frequent disease in both urban and rural areas. By examination of each fecal sample by three different methods, the number of positive cases increased. The residence in rural areas and age between 5 to 10 years are risk factors for intestinal parasitosis. The "Scotch tape" test was more efficient in Enterobius vermicularis infection than the methods performed from feces. We recommend using at the same time three diagnostic methods for feces examination to improve the diagnostic sensibility.

  11. Regulation of intestinal homeostasis by innate immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayama, Hisako; Nishimura, Junichi; Takeda, Kiyoshi

    2013-12-01

    The intestinal immune system has an ability to distinguish between the microbiota and pathogenic bacteria, and then activate pro-inflammatory pathways against pathogens for host defense while remaining unresponsive to the microbiota and dietary antigens. In the intestine, abnormal activation of innate immunity causes development of several inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Thus, activity of innate immunity is finely regulated in the intestine. To date, multiple innate immune cells have been shown to maintain gut homeostasis by preventing inadequate adaptive immune responses in the murine intestine. Additionally, several innate immune subsets, which promote Th1 and Th17 responses and are implicated in the pathogenesis of IBD, have recently been identified in the human intestinal mucosa. The demonstration of both murine and human intestinal innate immune subsets contributing to regulation of adaptive immunity emphasizes the conserved innate immune functions across species and might promote development of the intestinal innate immunity-based clinical therapy.

  12. Robust bioengineered 3D functional human intestinal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Lin, Yinan; Davis, Kimberly M; Wang, Qianrui; Rnjak-Kovacina, Jelena; Li, Chunmei; Isberg, Ralph R; Kumamoto, Carol A; Mecsas, Joan; Kaplan, David L

    2015-09-16

    Intestinal functions are central to human physiology, health and disease. Options to study these functions with direct relevance to the human condition remain severely limited when using conventional cell cultures, microfluidic systems, organoids, animal surrogates or human studies. To replicate in vitro the tissue architecture and microenvironments of native intestine, we developed a 3D porous protein scaffolding system, containing a geometrically-engineered hollow lumen, with adaptability to both large and small intestines. These intestinal tissues demonstrated representative human responses by permitting continuous accumulation of mucous secretions on the epithelial surface, establishing low oxygen tension in the lumen, and interacting with gut-colonizing bacteria. The newly developed 3D intestine model enabled months-long sustained access to these intestinal functions in vitro, readily integrable with a multitude of different organ mimics and will therefore ensure a reliable ex vivo tissue system for studies in a broad context of human intestinal diseases and treatments.

  13. Intestinal Microbiota Influences Non-intestinal Related Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Opazo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The human body is colonized by millions of microorganisms named microbiota that interact with our tissues in a cooperative and non-pathogenic manner. These microorganisms are present in the skin, gut, nasal, oral cavities, and genital tract. In fact, it has been described that the microbiota contributes to balancing the immune system to maintain host homeostasis. The gut is a vital organ where microbiota can influence and determine the function of cells of the immune system and contributes to preserve the wellbeing of the individual. Several articles have emphasized the connection between intestinal autoimmune diseases, such as Crohn's disease with dysbiosis or an imbalance in the microbiota composition in the gut. However, little is known about the role of the microbiota in autoimmune pathologies affecting other tissues than the intestine. This article focuses on what is known about the role that gut microbiota can play in the pathogenesis of non-intestinal autoimmune diseases, such as Grave's diseases, multiple sclerosis, type-1 diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorders. Furthermore, we discuss as to how metabolites derived from bacteria could be used as potential therapies for non-intestinal autoimmune diseases.

  14. Intestinal Failure (Short Bowel Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intestinal Failure (Short Bowel Syndrome) What is intestinal failure? Intestinal failure occurs when a significant portion of the small ... intestine does. Who is at risk for intestinal failure? N Babies (usually premature) who have had surgery ...

  15. The intestinal microbiome of fish under starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun Hong; Lin, Grace; Fu, Gui Hong; Wan, Zi Yi; Lee, May; Wang, Le; Liu, Xiao Jun; Yue, Gen Hua

    2014-04-05

    Starvation not only affects the nutritional and health status of the animals, but also the microbial composition in the host's intestine. Next-generation sequencing provides a unique opportunity to explore gut microbial communities and their interactions with hosts. However, studies on gut microbiomes have been conducted predominantly in humans and land animals. Not much is known on gut microbiomes of aquatic animals and their changes under changing environmental conditions. To address this shortcoming, we determined the microbial gene catalogue, and investigated changes in the microbial composition and host-microbe interactions in the intestine of Asian seabass in response to starvation. We found 33 phyla, 66 classes, 130 orders and 278 families in the intestinal microbiome. Proteobacteria (48.8%), Firmicutes (15.3%) and Bacteroidetes (8.2%) were the three most abundant bacteria taxa. Comparative analyses of the microbiome revealed shifts in bacteria communities, with dramatic enrichment of Bacteroidetes, but significant depletion of Betaproteobacteria in starved intestines. In addition, significant differences in clusters of orthologous groups (COG) functional categories and orthologous groups were observed. Genes related to antibiotic activity in the microbiome were significantly enriched in response to starvation, and host genes related to the immune response were generally up-regulated. This study provides the first insights into the fish intestinal microbiome and its changes under starvation. Further detailed study on interactions between intestinal microbiomes and hosts under dynamic conditions will shed new light on how the hosts and microbes respond to the changing environment.

  16. Impact of Deoxynivalenol on the Intestinal Microflora of Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Fravalo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON, a mycotoxin produced by some Fusarium species, is a frequent contaminant of cereal. In the present study, 24 weanling piglets received either control feed or feed naturally contaminated with DON (2.8 mg/kg for four weeks. Consumption of contaminated feed significantly reduced the animal weight gain during the first week of the experiment, but had a moderate effect on cultivable bacteria in the pig intestine. By contrast, changes in the intestinal microflora were observed by Capillary Electrophoresis Single-Stranded Conformation Polymorphism (CE-SSCP in DON-exposed animals, suggesting an impact of this toxin on the dynamics of intestinal bacteria communities.

  17. The intestinal microenvironment in sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Katherine T; Ford, Mandy L; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2017-10-01

    The gastrointestinal tract has long been hypothesized to function as "the motor" of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. The gastrointestinal microenvironment is comprised of a single cell layer epithelia, a local immune system, and the microbiome. These three components of the intestine together play a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis during times of health. However, the gastrointestinal microenvironment is perturbed during sepsis, resulting in pathologic changes that drive both local and distant injury. In this review, we seek to characterize the relationship between the epithelium, gastrointestinal lymphocytes, and commensal bacteria during basal and pathologic conditions and how the intestinal microenvironment may be targeted for therapeutic gain in septic patients. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. The role of CDX2 in intestinal homeostasis and inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coskun, Mehmet; Troelsen, Jesper Thorvald; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2011-01-01

    a causal role in a large number of diseases and developmental disorders. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by a chronically inflamed mucosa caused by dysregulation of the intestinal immune homeostasis. The aetiology of IBD is thought to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors......, including luminal bacteria. The Caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2) is critical in early intestinal differentiation and has been implicated as a master regulator of the intestinal homeostasis and permeability in adults. When expressed, CDX2 modulates a diverse set of processes including...... of the intestinal homeostasis and further to reveal its potential role in inflammation....

  19. Quantitative Measurements of Intestinal Ecology by Digital Image Analysed Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, M.H.F.; Schut, F.

    1998-01-01

    The study of the intestinal microflora, and in particular the flora dynamics, has been hampered seriously by the difficulties encountered when culturing the bacteria. Even when extreme care is taken, only some 40-50 % of the bacteria counted by microscopic techniques can actually be cultured.

  20. Antibiotic Resistant Microbiota in the Swine Intestinal Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    The healthy swine intestine is populated by upwards of 500 bacterial species, mainly obligate anaerobes. Our research focuses on the roles of these commensal bacteria in antimicrobial resistance and on interventions to reduce the prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria. In comparisons of intes...

  1. Potential Role of Probiotics in Mechanism of Intestinal Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Rashid Rajput and Wei Fen Li*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are nonpathogenic bacteria exert a constructive influence on health or physiology of the host. Effect of probiotics in the intestinal defense against variety of diseases is well known. The probiotics are involved in the mechanism of intestinal defense, support as antagonist against pathogens, improve intestinal epithelial layer and boost the innate as well as adaptive immunity. However these responses are also exerted by intestinal components. The intestinal components as well as probiotics play a reciprocal role to enhance the immune response of the individual. The possibilities of mechanism of action include the stimulation of epithelial cells, activation of dendritic cells via toll-like receptors (TLRs, conversely produce cytokines. These observations reviewed together advocate that specific immunomodulatory properties of probiotic bacteria should be focusing on mechanism of action via antigen presenting cells (APC.

  2. Residency training program: Perceptions of residents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: There is a phobia among doctors for the residency training program, since the establishment of ... Materials and Methods: Structured questionnaires were administered to residents at 3 training institutions in Nigeria. Results: ... Keywords: Decentralization, motivation, perception, remuneration, residents.

  3. Large intestine bacterial flora of nonhibernating and hibernating leopard frogs (Rana pipiens).

    OpenAIRE

    Gossling, J; Loesche, W J; Nace, G W

    1982-01-01

    The bacteria in the large intestines of 10 northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were enumerated and partially characterized. Four nonhibernating frogs were collected in the summer, four hibernating frogs were collected in the winter, and two frogs just emerged from hibernation were collected in the spring. All frogs had about 10(10) bacteria per g (wet weight) of intestinal contents and about 10(9) bacteria per g (wet weight) of mucosal scraping, although the counts from the winter frogs wer...

  4. Aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria from gut of red palm weevil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... in the intestinal termite gut play key physiological functions. These functions are: cellulose and ... facultative anaerobic bacteria isolated from termite's intestine including Burkholderia sp. and Citrobacter sp. .... The diversity of intestinal microbiota signifies the need for special requirements for cultivation.

  5. Intestinal Stem Cell Niche: The Extracellular Matrix and Cellular Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laween Meran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium comprises a monolayer of polarised columnar cells organised along the crypt-villus axis. Intestinal stem cells reside at the base of crypts and are constantly nourished by their surrounding niche for maintenance, self-renewal, and differentiation. The cellular microenvironment including the adjacent Paneth cells, stromal cells, smooth muscle cells, and neural cells as well as the extracellular matrix together constitute the intestinal stem cell niche. A dynamic regulatory network exists among the epithelium, stromal cells, and the matrix via complex signal transduction to maintain tissue homeostasis. Dysregulation of these biological or mechanical signals could potentially lead to intestinal injury and disease. In this review, we discuss the role of different intestinal stem cell niche components and dissect the interaction between dynamic matrix factors and regulatory signalling during intestinal stem cell homeostasis.

  6. Comparative analysis of proteins with a mucus-binding domain found exclusively in lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhorst, J.; Helmer, Q.; Kleerebezem, M; Siezen, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are frequently encountered inhabitants of the human intestinal tract. A protective layer of mucus covers the epithelial cells of the intestine, offering an attachment site for these bacteria. In this study bioinformatics tools were used to identify and characterize

  7. Enteric Virome Sensing-Its Role in Intestinal Homeostasis and Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Rebecca N; Krug, Anne B; Eisenächer, Katharina

    2018-03-23

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) sensing commensal microorganisms in the intestine induce tightly controlled tonic signaling in the intestinal mucosa, which is required to maintain intestinal barrier integrity and immune homeostasis. At the same time, PRR signaling pathways rapidly trigger the innate immune defense against invasive pathogens in the intestine. Intestinal epithelial cells and mononuclear phagocytes in the intestine and the gut-associated lymphoid tissues are critically involved in sensing components of the microbiome and regulating immune responses in the intestine to sustain immune tolerance against harmless antigens and to prevent inflammation. These processes have been mostly investigated in the context of the bacterial components of the microbiome so far. The impact of viruses residing in the intestine and the virus sensors, which are activated by these enteric viruses, on intestinal homeostasis and inflammation is just beginning to be unraveled. In this review, we will summarize recent findings indicating an important role of the enteric virome for intestinal homeostasis as well as pathology when the immune system fails to control the enteric virome. We will provide an overview of the virus sensors and signaling pathways, operative in the intestine and the mononuclear phagocyte subsets, which can sense viruses and shape the intestinal immune response. We will discuss how these might interact with resident enteric viruses directly or in context with the bacterial microbiome to affect intestinal homeostasis.

  8. Enteric Virome Sensing—Its Role in Intestinal Homeostasis and Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca N. Metzger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs sensing commensal microorganisms in the intestine induce tightly controlled tonic signaling in the intestinal mucosa, which is required to maintain intestinal barrier integrity and immune homeostasis. At the same time, PRR signaling pathways rapidly trigger the innate immune defense against invasive pathogens in the intestine. Intestinal epithelial cells and mononuclear phagocytes in the intestine and the gut-associated lymphoid tissues are critically involved in sensing components of the microbiome and regulating immune responses in the intestine to sustain immune tolerance against harmless antigens and to prevent inflammation. These processes have been mostly investigated in the context of the bacterial components of the microbiome so far. The impact of viruses residing in the intestine and the virus sensors, which are activated by these enteric viruses, on intestinal homeostasis and inflammation is just beginning to be unraveled. In this review, we will summarize recent findings indicating an important role of the enteric virome for intestinal homeostasis as well as pathology when the immune system fails to control the enteric virome. We will provide an overview of the virus sensors and signaling pathways, operative in the intestine and the mononuclear phagocyte subsets, which can sense viruses and shape the intestinal immune response. We will discuss how these might interact with resident enteric viruses directly or in context with the bacterial microbiome to affect intestinal homeostasis.

  9. Magnetic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jane Bray; Nelson, Jim

    1992-01-01

    Describes the history of Richard Blakemore's discovery of magnetotaxic organisms. Discusses possible reasons why the magnetic response in bacteria developed. Proposes research experiments integrating biology and physics in which students investigate problems using cultures of magnetotaxic organisms. (MDH)

  10. Big bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, HN; Jørgensen, BB

    2001-01-01

    A small number of prokaryotic species have a unique physiology or ecology related to their development of unusually large size. The biomass of bacteria varies over more than 10 orders of magnitude, from the 0.2 mum wide nanobacteria to the largest cells of the colorless sulfur bacteria......, Thiomargarita namibiensis, with a diameter of 750 mum. All bacteria, including those that swim around in the environment, obtain their food molecules by molecular diffusion. Only the fastest and largest swimmers known, Thiovulum majus, are able to significantly increase their food supply by motility...... and by actively creating an advective flow through the entire population. Diffusion limitation generally restricts the maximal size of prokaryotic cells and provides a selective advantage for mum-sized cells at the normally low substrate concentrations in the environment. The largest heterotrophic bacteria...

  11. Big bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, HN; Jørgensen, BB

    2001-01-01

    A small number of prokaryotic species have a unique physiology or ecology related to their development of unusually large size. The biomass of bacteria varies over more than 10 orders of magnitude, from the 0.2 mum wide nanobacteria to the largest cells of the colorless sulfur bacteria...... and by actively creating an advective flow through the entire population. Diffusion limitation generally restricts the maximal size of prokaryotic cells and provides a selective advantage for mum-sized cells at the normally low substrate concentrations in the environment. The largest heterotrophic bacteria......, the 80 x 600 mum large Epulopiscium sp. from the gut of tropical fish, are presumably living in a very nutrient-rich medium. Many large bacteria contain numerous inclusions in the cells that reduce the volume of active cytoplasm. The most striking examples of competitive advantage from large cell size...

  12. In Vitro Evaluation of the Probiotic and Safety Properties of Bacteriocinogenic and Non-Bacteriocinogenic Lactic Acid Bacteria from the Intestines of Nile Tilapia and Common Carp for Their Use as Probiotics in Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaktcham, Pierre Marie; Temgoua, Jules-Bocamdé; Zambou, François Ngoufack; Diaz-Ruiz, Gloria; Wacher, Carmen; Pérez-Chabela, María de Lourdes

    2018-03-01

    In this study, seven bacteriocinogenic and non-bacteriocinogenic LAB strains previously isolated from the intestines of Nile tilapia and common carp and that showed potent antibacterial activity against host-derived and non-host-derived fish pathogens were assayed for their probiotic and safety properties so as to select promising candidates for in vivo application as probiotic in aquaculture. All the strains were investigated for acid and bile tolerances, transit tolerance in simulated gastrointestinal conditions, for cell surface characteristics including hydrophobicity, co-aggregation and auto-aggregation, and for bile salt hydrolase activity. Moreover, haemolytic, gelatinase and biogenic amine-producing abilities were investigated for safety assessment. The strains were found to be tolerant at low pH (two strains at pH 2.0 and all the strains at pH 3.0). All of them could also survive in the presence of bile salts (0.3% oxgall) and in simulated gastric and intestinal juices conditions. Besides, three of them were found to harbour the gtf gene involved in pH and bile salt survival. The strains also showed remarkable cell surface characteristics, and 57.14% exhibited the ability to deconjugate bile salts. When assayed for their safety properties, the strains prove to be free from haemolytic activity, gelatinase activity and they could neither produce biogenic amines nor harbour the hdc gene. They did not also show antibiotic resistance, thus confirming to be safe for application as probiotics. Among them, Lactobacillus brevis 1BT and Lactobacillus plantarum 1KMT exhibited the best probiotic potentials, making them the most promising candidates.

  13. Lymphoma Caused by Intestinal Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuko L. Yamamoto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota and gut immune system must constantly communicate to maintain a balance between tolerance and activation: on the one hand, our immune system should protect us from pathogenic microbes and on the other hand, most of the millions of microbes in and on our body are innocuous symbionts and some can even be beneficial. Since there is such a close interaction between the immune system and the intestinal microbiota, it is not surprising that some lymphomas such as mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma have been shown to be caused by the presence of certain bacteria. Animal models played an important role in establishing causation and mechanism of bacteria-induced MALT lymphoma. In this review we discuss different ways that animal models have been applied to establish a link between the gut microbiota and lymphoma and how animal models have helped to elucidate mechanisms of microbiota-induced lymphoma. While there are not a plethora of studies demonstrating a connection between microbiota and lymphoma development, we believe that animal models are a system which can be exploited in the future to enhance our understanding of causation and improve prognosis and treatment of lymphoma.

  14. Intestinal cytochromes P450 regulating the intestinal microbiota and its probiotic profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Elefterios Venizelos Bezirtzoglou

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cytochromes P450 (CYPs enzymes metabolize a large variety of xenobiotic substances. In this vein, a plethora of studies were conducted to investigate their role, as cytochromes are located in both liver and intestinal tissues. The P450 profile of the human intestine has not been fully characterized. Human intestine serves primarily as an absorptive organ for nutrients, although it has also the ability to metabolize drugs. CYPs are responsible for the majority of phase I drug metabolism reactions. CYP3A represents the major intestinal CYP (80% followed by CYP2C9. CYP1A is expressed at high level in the duodenum, together with less abundant levels of CYP2C8-10 and CYP2D6. Cytochromes present a genetic polymorphism intra- or interindividual and intra- or interethnic. Changes in the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug are associated with increased toxicity due to reduced metabolism, altered efficacy of the drug, increased production of toxic metabolites, and adverse drug interaction. The high metabolic capacity of the intestinal flora is due to its enormous pool of enzymes, which catalyzes reactions in phase I and phase II drug metabolism. Compromised intestinal barrier conditions, when rupture of the intestinal integrity occurs, could increase passive paracellular absorption. It is clear that high microbial intestinal charge following intestinal disturbances, ageing, environment, or food-associated ailments leads to the microbial metabolism of a drug before absorption. The effect of certain bacteria having a benefic action on the intestinal ecosystem has been largely discussed during the past few years by many authors. The aim of the probiotic approach is to repair the deficiencies in the gut flora and establish a protective effect. There is a tentative multifactorial association of the CYP (P450 cytochrome role in the different diseases states, environmental toxic effects or chemical exposures and nutritional status.

  15. Intestinal, extra-intestinal and systemic sequelae of Toxoplasma gondii induced acute ileitis in mice harboring a human gut microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane von Klitzing

    Full Text Available Within seven days following peroral high dose infection with Toxoplasma gondii susceptible conventionally colonized mice develop acute ileitis due to an underlying T helper cell (Th -1 type immunopathology. We here addressed whether mice harboring a human intestinal microbiota developed intestinal, extra-intestinal and systemic sequelae upon ileitis induction.Secondary abiotic mice were generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment and associated with a complex human intestinal microbiota following peroral fecal microbiota transplantation. Within three weeks the human microbiota had stably established in the murine intestinal tract as assessed by quantitative cultural and culture-independent (i.e. molecular 16S rRNA based methods. At day 7 post infection (p.i. with 50 cysts of T. gondii strain ME49 by gavage human microbiota associated (hma mice displayed severe clinical, macroscopic and microscopic sequelae indicating acute ileitis. In diseased hma mice increased numbers of innate and adaptive immune cells within the ileal mucosa and lamina propria and elevated intestinal secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators including IFN-γ, IL-12 and nitric oxide could be observed at day 7 p.i. Ileitis development was accompanied by substantial shifts in intestinal microbiota composition of hma mice characterized by elevated total bacterial loads and increased numbers of intestinal Gram-negative commensals such as enterobacteria and Bacteroides / Prevotella species overgrowing the small and large intestinal lumen. Furthermore, viable bacteria translocated from the inflamed ileum to extra-intestinal including systemic compartments. Notably, pro-inflammatory immune responses were not restricted to the intestinal tract as indicated by increased pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in extra-intestinal (i.e. liver and kidney and systemic compartments including spleen and serum.With respect to the intestinal microbiota composition "humanized" mice display

  16. Small Intestine Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... all of an organ that contains cancer. The resection may include the small intestine and nearby organs (if the cancer has spread). The doctor may remove the section of the small intestine that contains cancer and perform an anastomosis (joining the cut ends of the intestine together). ...

  17. The microflora of rainbow trout intestine : a comparison of traditional and molecular identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanggaard, Bettina; Huber, I.; Nielsen, J.

    2000-01-01

    intestinal microflora was identified as bacteria belonging to the gamma subclass of Proteobacteria (of the genera Citrobacter, Aeromonas and Pseudomonas), to the Gram- positive bacteria with low G + C-content (of the genus Carnobacterium) and as bacteria belonging to the beta subclass of Proteobacteria...

  18. Susceptibilidad de las bacterias aisladas de infecciones gastrointestinales agudas a la rifaximina y otros agentes antimicrobianos en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Novoa-Farías

    2016-01-01

    Conclusiones: La resistencia de las bacterias enteropatógenas a antimicrobianos utilizados en gastroenteritis es alta. La rifaximina fue activa contra el 99-100% de las bacterias en concentraciones alcanzables en el contenido intestinal con las dosis recomendadas.

  19. The role of the intestinal microbiota in pneumonia and sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Lankelma, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Humans carry with them trillions of bacteria, viruses and fungi that are collectively called the human microbiota. The intestinal microbiota fulfills essential functions in human physiology and has recently been suggested as a potential therapeutic target for several diseases. This thesis focuses on the role of the intestinal microbiota in pneumonia and sepsis. Our main hypothesis was that the gut microbiota plays a protective role in innate host defenses against systemic bacterial infections...

  20. Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli gains a competitive advantage by using ethanolamine as a nitrogen source in the bovine intestinal content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Yolande; Girardeau, J P; Chaucheyras-Durand, F; Lyan, Bernard; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Harel, Josée; Martin, Christine

    2011-02-01

    The bovine gastrointestinal tract is the main reservoir for enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) responsible for food-borne infections. Characterization of nutrients that promote the carriage of these pathogens by the ruminant would help to develop ecological strategies to reduce their survival in the bovine gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we show for the first time that free ethanolamine (EA) constitutes a nitrogen source for the O157:H7 EHEC strain EDL933 in the bovine intestinal content because of induction of the eut (ethanolamine utilization) gene cluster. In contrast, the eut gene cluster is absent in the genome of most species constituting the mammalian gut microbiota. Furthermore, the eutB gene (encoding a subunit of the enzyme that catalyses the release of ammonia from EA) is poorly expressed in non-pathogenic E. coli. Accordingly, EA is consumed by EHEC but is poorly metabolized by endogenous microbiota of the bovine small intestine, including commensal E. coli. Interestingly, the capacity to utilize EA as a nitrogen source confers a growth advantage to E. coli O157:H7 when the bacteria enter the stationary growth phase. These data demonstrate that EHEC strains take advantage of a nitrogen source that is not consumed by the resident microbiota, and suggest that EA represents an ecological niche favouring EHEC persistence in the bovine intestine.

  1. Communication between B-Cells and Microbiota for the Maintenance of Intestinal Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuying Liu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The human intestine is populated with an extremely dense and diverse bacterial community. Commensal bacteria act as an important antigenic stimulus producing the maturation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT. The production of immunoglobulin (Ig A by B-cells in the GALT is one of the immune responses following intestinal colonization of bacteria. The switch of B-cells from IgM to IgA-producing cells in the Peyer’s patches and neighboring lamina propria proceeds by T-cell-dependent and T-cell-independent mechanisms. Several grams of secretory IgA (SIgA are released into the intestine each day. SIgA serves as a first-line of defense in protecting the intestinal epithelium from enteric toxins and pathogenic microorganisms. SIgA has a capacity to directly quench bacterial virulence factors, influence the composition of the intestinal microbiota, and promote the transportation of antigens across the intestinal epithelium to GALT and down-regulate proinflammatory responses associated with the uptake of highly pathogenic bacteria and potentially allergenic antigens. This review summarizes the reciprocal interactions between intestinal B cells and bacteria, specifically, the formation of IgA in the gut, the role of intestinal IgA in the regulation of bacterial communities and the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis, and the effects of probiotics on IgA levels in the gastrointestinal tract.

  2. Effect of various antibiotics on modulation of intestinal microbiota and bile acid profile in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Youcai; Limaye, Pallavi B.; Renaud, Helen J.; Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: curtisklaassenphd@gmail.com

    2014-06-01

    Antibiotic treatments have been used to modulate intestinal bacteria and investigate the role of intestinal bacteria on bile acid (BA) homeostasis. However, knowledge on which intestinal bacteria and bile acids are modified by antibiotics is limited. In the present study, mice were administered various antibiotics, 47 of the most abundant bacterial species in intestine, as well as individual BAs in plasma, liver, and intestine were quantified. Compared to the two antibiotic combinations (vancomycin + imipenem and cephalothin + neomycin), the three single antibiotics (metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and aztreonam) have less effect on intestinal bacterial profiles, and thus on host BA profiles and mRNA expression of genes that are important for BA homeostasis. The two antibiotic combinations decreased the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes in intestine, as well as most secondary BAs in serum, liver and intestine. Additionally, the two antibiotic combinations significantly increased mRNA of the hepatic BA uptake transporters (Ntcp and Oatp1b2) and canalicular BA efflux transporters (Bsep and Mrp2), but decreased mRNA of the hepatic BA synthetic enzyme Cyp8b1, suggesting an elevated enterohepatic circulation of BAs. Interestingly, the two antibiotic combinations tended to have opposite effect on the mRNAs of most intestinal genes, which tended to be inhibited by vancomycin + imipenem but stimulated by cephalothin + neomycin. To conclude, the present study clearly shows that various antibiotics have distinct effects on modulating intestinal bacteria and host BA metabolism. - Highlights: • Various antibiotics have different effects on intestinal bacteria. • Antibiotics alter bile acid composition in mouse liver and intestine. • Antibiotics influence genes involved in bile acid homeostasis. • Clostridia appear to be important for secondary bile acid formation.

  3. Effect of various antibiotics on modulation of intestinal microbiota and bile acid profile in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Youcai; Limaye, Pallavi B.; Renaud, Helen J.; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic treatments have been used to modulate intestinal bacteria and investigate the role of intestinal bacteria on bile acid (BA) homeostasis. However, knowledge on which intestinal bacteria and bile acids are modified by antibiotics is limited. In the present study, mice were administered various antibiotics, 47 of the most abundant bacterial species in intestine, as well as individual BAs in plasma, liver, and intestine were quantified. Compared to the two antibiotic combinations (vancomycin + imipenem and cephalothin + neomycin), the three single antibiotics (metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and aztreonam) have less effect on intestinal bacterial profiles, and thus on host BA profiles and mRNA expression of genes that are important for BA homeostasis. The two antibiotic combinations decreased the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes in intestine, as well as most secondary BAs in serum, liver and intestine. Additionally, the two antibiotic combinations significantly increased mRNA of the hepatic BA uptake transporters (Ntcp and Oatp1b2) and canalicular BA efflux transporters (Bsep and Mrp2), but decreased mRNA of the hepatic BA synthetic enzyme Cyp8b1, suggesting an elevated enterohepatic circulation of BAs. Interestingly, the two antibiotic combinations tended to have opposite effect on the mRNAs of most intestinal genes, which tended to be inhibited by vancomycin + imipenem but stimulated by cephalothin + neomycin. To conclude, the present study clearly shows that various antibiotics have distinct effects on modulating intestinal bacteria and host BA metabolism. - Highlights: • Various antibiotics have different effects on intestinal bacteria. • Antibiotics alter bile acid composition in mouse liver and intestine. • Antibiotics influence genes involved in bile acid homeostasis. • Clostridia appear to be important for secondary bile acid formation

  4. Mucin dynamics in intestinal bacterial infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara K Lindén

    Full Text Available Bacterial gastroenteritis causes morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide. Murine Citrobacter rodentium infection is a model for gastroenteritis caused by the human pathogens enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli. Mucin glycoproteins are the main component of the first barrier that bacteria encounter in the intestinal tract.Using Immunohistochemistry, we investigated intestinal expression of mucins (Alcian blue/PAS, Muc1, Muc2, Muc4, Muc5AC, Muc13 and Muc3/17 in healthy and C. rodentium infected mice. The majority of the C. rodentium infected mice developed systemic infection and colitis in the mid and distal colon by day 12. C. rodentium bound to the major secreted mucin, Muc2, in vitro, and high numbers of bacteria were found in secreted MUC2 in infected animals in vivo, indicating that mucins may limit bacterial access to the epithelial surface. In the small intestine, caecum and proximal colon, the mucin expression was similar in infected and non-infected animals. In the distal colonic epithelium, all secreted and cell surface mucins decreased with the exception of the Muc1 cell surface mucin which increased after infection (p<0.05. Similarly, during human infection Salmonella St Paul, Campylobacter jejuni and Clostridium difficile induced MUC1 in the colon.Major changes in both the cell-surface and secreted mucins occur in response to intestinal infection.

  5. Development of a HPLC-UV method for the quantitative determination of four short-chain fatty acids and lactic acid produced by intestinal bacteria during in vitro fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Baere, S; Eeckhaut, V; Steppe, M; De Maesschalck, C; De Backer, P; Van Immerseel, F; Croubels, S

    2013-06-01

    A rapid and sensitive HPLC-UV method for the quantitative determination of four short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and lactic acid (LA) produced during in vitro fermentation is presented. Extraction of SCFAs from supernatants of bacterial cultures is aggravated due to their polarity and volatility. Detection can only be performed at a short, non-selective UV wavelength (210nm), due to the lack of any significant chromophore. Therefore special attention was paid to the optimization of the sample preparation procedure and the HPLC-UV conditions. The final extraction procedure consisted of a liquid-liquid back extraction using diethylether. Prior to HPLC-UV analysis the samples were acidified (pHacid, aiming to select for butyric acid-producing bacteria. In addition, the method has been used to determine the production pattern of selected fatty acids by bacterial species isolated from human feces and chicken caeca. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Helminth-bacteria interaction in the gut of domestic pigeon Columba livia domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Debraj; Nandi, Anadi Prasad; Chatterjee, Soumendranath

    2016-03-01

    The present paper is an attempt to study the interaction between the helminth parasite and bacteria residing in the gut of domestic pigeon, Columba livia domestica. Biochemical and molecular characterization of the gut bacterial isolate were done and the isolate was identified as Staphylococcus sp. DB1 (JX442510). The interaction of Staphylococcus sp. with Cotugnia cuneata, an intestinal helminth parasite of domestic pigeon was studied on the basis of the difference between 'mean worm burden' of antibiotic treated infected pigeons and infected pigeons without any antibiotic treatment. The ANOVA and Tukey tests of the data obtained showed that antibiotic treatment reduced the mean worm burden significantly. The biochemical properties of Staphylococcus sp. DB1 (JX442510) also showed a mutualistic relationship with the physiology of C. cuneata.

  7. Regionalized Development and Maintenance of the Intestinal Adaptive Immune Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agace, William Winston; McCoy, Kathy D.

    2017-01-01

    The intestinal immune system has the daunting task of protecting us from pathogenic insults while limiting inflammatory responses against the resident commensal microbiota and providing tolerance to food antigens. This role is particularly impressive when one considers the vast mucosal surface...... and changing landscape that the intestinal immune system must monitor. In this review, we highlight regional differences in the development and composition of the adaptive immune landscape of the intestine and the impact of local intrinsic and environmental factors that shape this process. To conclude, we...... review the evidence for a critical window of opportunity for early-life exposures that affect immune development and alter disease susceptibility later in life....

  8. Effects of humic acids on the growth of bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, V. V.; Yakushev, A. V.; Zavgorodnyaya, Yu. A.; Byzov, B. A.; Demin, V. V.

    2010-03-01

    The influence of humic acids of different origins on the growth of bacterial cultures of different taxa isolated from the soil and the digestive tracts of earthworms ( Aporrectodea caliginosa)—habitats with contrasting conditions—was studied. More than half of the soil and intestinal isolates from the 170 tested strains grew on the humic acid of brown coal as the only carbon source. The specific growth rate of the bacteria isolated from the intestines of the earthworms was higher than that of the soil bacteria. The use of humic acids by intestinal bacteria confirms the possibility of symbiotic digestion by earthworms with the participation of bacterial symbionts. Humic acids at a concentration of 0.1 g/l stimulated the growth of the soil and intestinal bacteria strains (66 strains out of 161) on Czapek’s medium with glucose (1 g/l), probably, acting as a regulator of the cell metabolism. On the medium with the humic acid, the intestinal bacteria grew faster than the soil isolates did. The most active growth of the intestinal isolates was observed by Paenibacillus sp., Pseudomonas putida, Delftia acidovorans, Microbacterium terregens, and Aeromonas sp.; among the soil ones were the representatives of the Pseudomonas genus. A response of the bacteria to the influence of humic acids was shown at the strain level using the example of Pseudomonas representatives. The Flexom humin preparation stimulated the growth of the hydrocarbon-oxidizing Acinetobacter sp. bacteria. This effect can be used for creating a new compound with the elevated activity of bacteria that are destroyers of oil and oil products.

  9. Macrophages in intestinal homeostasis and inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Calum C; Mowat, Allan McI

    2014-01-01

    The intestine contains the largest pool of macrophages in the body which are essential for maintaining mucosal homeostasis in the face of the microbiota and the constant need for epithelial renewal but are also important components of protective immunity and are involved in the pathology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, defining the biological roles of intestinal macrophages has been impeded by problems in defining the phenotype and origins of different populations of myeloid cells in the mucosa. Here, we discuss how multiple parameters can be used in combination to discriminate between functionally distinct myeloid cells and discuss the roles of macrophages during homeostasis and how these may change when inflammation ensues. We also discuss the evidence that intestinal macrophages do not fit the current paradigm that tissue-resident macrophages are derived from embryonic precursors that self-renew in situ, but require constant replenishment by blood monocytes. We describe our recent work demonstrating that classical monocytes constantly enter the intestinal mucosa and how the environment dictates their subsequent fate. We believe that understanding the factors that drive intestinal macrophage development in the steady state and how these may change in response to pathogens or inflammation could provide important insights into the treatment of IBD. PMID:24942685

  10. Residency Allocation Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Residency Allocation Database is used to determine allocation of funds for residency programs offered by Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). Information...

  11. Dietary Gluten-Induced Gut Dysbiosis Is Accompanied by Selective Upregulation of microRNAs with Intestinal Tight Junction and Bacteria-Binding Motifs in Rhesus Macaque Model of Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Mohan

    2016-10-01

    in GS macaques will approach those of healthy individuals. Further studies are needed to elucidate the regulatory pathways of inflammatory miRNAs in intestinal mucosa of GS macaques and to correlate their expression with gut dysbiosis.

  12. Gastric and intestinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Theresa W; Hedlund, Cheryl S

    2003-09-01

    Gastric surgery is commonly performed to remove foreign bodies and correct gastric dilatation-volvulus and is less commonly performed to treat gastric ulceration or erosion, neoplasia, and benign gastric outflow obstruction. Intestinal surgery, although commonly performed by veterinarians, should never be considered routine. The most common procedures of the small intestinal tract performed in dogs and cats include enterotomy and resection/anastomosis. Surgery of the large intestine is indicated for lesions causing obstruction, perforations, colonic inertia, or chronic inflammation.

  13. Gastric acid reduction leads to an alteration in lower intestinal microflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Takayuki [Department of Gastroenterology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan); Matsuki, Takahiro [Yakult Central Institute for Microbiological Research, Tokyo (Japan); Oka, Masashi; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi [Department of Gastroenterology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan); Inada, Kenichi [First Department of Pathology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Aichi (Japan); Magari, Hirohito; Inoue, Izumi; Maekita, Takao; Ueda, Kazuki; Enomoto, Shotaro; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Yanaoka, Kimihiko; Tamai, Hideyuki [Department of Gastroenterology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan); Akimoto, Shigeru [Department of Microbiology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan); Nomoto, Koji; Tanaka, Ryuichiro [Yakult Central Institute for Microbiological Research, Tokyo (Japan); Ichinose, Masao, E-mail: ichinose@wakayama-med.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan)

    2009-04-17

    To clarify the alterations in lower intestinal microflora induced by gastric acid reduction, the dynamics of 12 major genera or groups of bacteria comprising the microflora in feces and colonic contents were examined by quantitative real-time PCR in proton pump inhibitor-treated rats and in asymptomatic human subjects with hypochlorhydria. In both rat and human experiments, most genera or groups of intestinal microflora (facultative and obligate anaerobes) proliferated by gastric acid reduction, and marked and significant increases in the Lactobacilli group and Veillonella, oropharyngeal bacteria, were observed. In rats, potent gastric acid inhibition led to a marked and significant increase of intestinal bacteria, including the Bacteroidesfragilis group, while Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial species, remained at a constant level. These results strongly indicate that the gastric acid barrier not only controls the colonization and growth of oropharyngeal bacteria, but also regulates the population and composition of lower intestinal microflora.

  14. Gastric acid reduction leads to an alteration in lower intestinal microflora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Takayuki; Matsuki, Takahiro; Oka, Masashi; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi; Inada, Kenichi; Magari, Hirohito; Inoue, Izumi; Maekita, Takao; Ueda, Kazuki; Enomoto, Shotaro; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Yanaoka, Kimihiko; Tamai, Hideyuki; Akimoto, Shigeru; Nomoto, Koji; Tanaka, Ryuichiro; Ichinose, Masao

    2009-01-01

    To clarify the alterations in lower intestinal microflora induced by gastric acid reduction, the dynamics of 12 major genera or groups of bacteria comprising the microflora in feces and colonic contents were examined by quantitative real-time PCR in proton pump inhibitor-treated rats and in asymptomatic human subjects with hypochlorhydria. In both rat and human experiments, most genera or groups of intestinal microflora (facultative and obligate anaerobes) proliferated by gastric acid reduction, and marked and significant increases in the Lactobacilli group and Veillonella, oropharyngeal bacteria, were observed. In rats, potent gastric acid inhibition led to a marked and significant increase of intestinal bacteria, including the Bacteroidesfragilis group, while Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial species, remained at a constant level. These results strongly indicate that the gastric acid barrier not only controls the colonization and growth of oropharyngeal bacteria, but also regulates the population and composition of lower intestinal microflora.

  15. Mechanisms of Cell Polarity-Controlled Epithelial Homeostasis and Immunity in the Intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klunder, Leon J.; Faber, Klaas Nico; Dijkstra, Gerard; van IJzendoorn, Sven C. D.

    Intestinal epithelial cell polarity is instrumental to maintain epithelial homeostasis and balance communications between the gut lumen and bodily tissue, thereby controlling the defense against gastrointestinal pathogens and maintenance of immune tolerance to commensal bacteria. In this review, we

  16. Emerging molecular insights into the interaction between probiotics and the host intestinal mucosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, P.A.; Baarlen, van P.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2012-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria can modulate immune responses in the host gastrointestinal tract to promote health. The genomics era has provided novel opportunities for the discovery and characterization of bacterial probiotic effector molecules that elicit specific responses in the intestinal system.

  17. Intestinal parasites and tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Alonso Cedeño-Burbano

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: The available evidence was insufficient to affirm that intestinal parasites predispose to developing tuberculous. The studies carried out so far have found statistically insignificant results.

  18. Transformation of intestinal stem cells into gastric stem cells on loss of transcription factor Cdx2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simmini, Salvatore; Bialecka, Monika; Huch, Meritxell; Kester, Lennart; van de Wetering, Marc; Sato, Toshiro; Beck, Felix; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Clevers, Hans; Deschamps, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    The endodermal lining of the adult gastro-intestinal tract harbours stem cells that are responsible for the day-to-day regeneration of the epithelium. Stem cells residing in the pyloric glands of the stomach and in the small intestinal crypts differ in their differentiation programme and in the gene

  19. TLR2 Controls Intestinal Carcinogen Detoxication by CYP1A1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Khoa; Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen; Jensen, Thomas Elbenhardt

    2012-01-01

    of ligands for TLR2 of bacterial origin seems to be crucial for detoxication of luminal carcinogens by CYP1A1 in the intestine. This unprecedented finding indicates a complex interplay between the immune system of the host and intestinal bacteria with detoxication mechanisms. This highlights the relevance...

  20. VSL#3 Probiotic Upregulates Intestinal Mucosal Alkaline Sphingomyelinase and Reduces Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Soo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alkaline sphingomyelinase, an enzyme found exclusively in bile and the intestinal brush border, hydrolyzes sphingomyelin into ceramide, sphingosine and sphingosine-1-phosphate, thereby inducing epithelial apoptosis. Reduced levels of alkaline sphingomyelinase have been found in premalignant and malignant intestinal epithelia and in ulcerative colitis tissue. Probiotic bacteria can be a source of sphingomyelinase.

  1. Inhibition of Escherichia coli precursor-16S rRNA processing by mouse intestinal contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Holmstrøm, Kim

    1999-01-01

    growth. The amounts of 23S rRNA and pre-16S rRNA measured for E. coli growing in intestinal mucus corresponded to that expected for bacteria with the observed growth rate. In contrast, the slow-growing E. coli cells present in intestinal contents turned out to have an approximately ninefold higher...

  2. The intestinal microbiota modulates the anticancer immune effects of cyclophosphamide.

    OpenAIRE

    Viaud S; Saccheri F; Mignot G; Yamazaki T; Daill\\xere R; Hannani D; Enot DP; Pfirschke C; Engblom C; Pittet MJ; Schlitzer A; Ginhoux F; Apetoh L; Chachaty E; Woerther PL

    2013-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide is one of several clinically important cancer drugs whose therapeutic efficacy is due in part to their ability to stimulate anti-tumor immune responses. Studying mouse models, we demonstrate that cyclophosphamide alters the composition of microbiota in the small intestine and induces the translocation of selected species of Gram+ bacteria into secondary lymphoid organs. There, these bacteria stimulate the generation of a specific subset of “pathogenic” T helper 17 (pTh17) cel...

  3. Fish oil enhances recovery of intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity in chronic rejection of intestinal transplant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiurong Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The intestinal chronic rejection (CR is the major limitation to long-term survival of transplanted organs. This study aimed to investigate the interaction between intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity in chronic rejection of intestinal transplantation, and to find out whether fish oil enhances recovery of intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The luminal and mucosal microbiota composition of CR rats were characterized by DGGE analysis at 190 days after intestinal transplant. The specific bacterial species were determined by sequence analysis. Furthermore, changes in the localization of intestinal TJ proteins were examined by immunofluorescent staining. PCR-DGGE analysis revealed that gut microbiota in CR rats had a shift towards Escherichia coli, Bacteroides spp and Clostridium spp and a decrease in the abundance of Lactobacillales bacteria in the intestines. Fish oil supplementation could enhance the recovery of gut microbiota, showing a significant decrease of gut bacterial proportions of E. coli and Bacteroides spp and an increase of Lactobacillales spp. In addition, CR rats showed pronounced alteration of tight junction, depicted by marked changes in epithelial cell ultrastructure and redistribution of occuldin and claudins as well as disruption in TJ barrier function. Fish oil administration ameliorated disruption of epithelial integrity in CR, which was associated with an improvement of the mucosal structure leading to improved tight junctions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study have presented novel evidence that fish oil is involved in the maintenance of epithelial TJ integrity and recovery of gut microbiota, which may have therapeutic potential against CR in intestinal transplantation.

  4. Factoring the intestinal microbiome into the pathogenesis of autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Albert J

    2016-11-14

    The intestinal microbiome is a reservoir of microbial antigens and activated immune cells. The aims of this review were to describe the role of the intestinal microbiome in generating innate and adaptive immune responses, indicate how these responses contribute to the development of systemic immune-mediated diseases, and encourage investigations that improve the understanding and management of autoimmune hepatitis. Alterations in the composition of the intestinal microflora (dysbiosis) can disrupt intestinal and systemic immune tolerances for commensal bacteria. Toll-like receptors within the intestine can recognize microbe-associated molecular patterns and shape subsets of T helper lymphocytes that may cross-react with host antigens (molecular mimicry). Activated gut-derived lymphocytes can migrate to lymph nodes, and gut-derived microbial antigens can translocate to extra-intestinal sites. Inflammasomes can form within hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells, and they can drive the pro-inflammatory, immune-mediated, and fibrotic responses. Diet, designer probiotics, vitamin supplements, re-colonization methods, antibiotics, drugs that decrease intestinal permeability, and molecular interventions that block signaling pathways may emerge as adjunctive regimens that complement conventional immunosuppressive management. In conclusion, investigations of the intestinal microbiome are warranted in autoimmune hepatitis and promise to clarify pathogenic mechanisms and suggest alternative management strategies.

  5. adhesive intestinal obstruction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-06-01

    Jun 1, 2006 ... ABSTRACT. Background: Adhesions after abdominal and pelvic surgery are a major cause of intestinal obstruction in the western world and the pathology is steadily gaining prominence in our practice. Objective: To determine the magnitude of adhesive intestinal obstruction; to determine the types.

  6. Meconium microbiome analysis identifies bacteria correlated with premature birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandria N Ardissone

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is the second leading cause of death in children under the age of five years worldwide, but the etiology of many cases remains enigmatic. The dogma that the fetus resides in a sterile environment is being challenged by recent findings and the question has arisen whether microbes that colonize the fetus may be related to preterm birth. It has been posited that meconium reflects the in-utero microbial environment. In this study, correlations between fetal intestinal bacteria from meconium and gestational age were examined in order to suggest underlying mechanisms that may contribute to preterm birth.Meconium from 52 infants ranging in gestational age from 23 to 41 weeks was collected, the DNA extracted, and 16S rRNA analysis performed. Resulting taxa of microbes were correlated to clinical variables and also compared to previous studies of amniotic fluid and other human microbiome niches.Increased detection of bacterial 16S rRNA in meconium of infants of <33 weeks gestational age was observed. Approximately 61·1% of reads sequenced were classified to genera that have been reported in amniotic fluid. Gestational age had the largest influence on microbial community structure (R = 0·161; p = 0·029, while mode of delivery (C-section versus vaginal delivery had an effect as well (R = 0·100; p = 0·044. Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Photorhabdus, and Tannerella, were negatively correlated with gestational age and have been reported to incite inflammatory responses, suggesting a causative role in premature birth.This provides the first evidence to support the hypothesis that the fetal intestinal microbiome derived from swallowed amniotic fluid may be involved in the inflammatory response that leads to premature birth.

  7. Intestinal Barrier and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julio-Pieper, M; Bravo, J A

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal barrier function contributes to gut homeostasis by modulating absorption of water, electrolytes, and nutrients from the lumen into the circulation while restricting the passage of noxious luminal substances and microorganisms. Chronic conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and celiac disease are associated to intestinal barrier dysfunction. Here, the hypothesis is that a leaky intestinal wall allowing for indiscriminate passage of intraluminal compounds to the vascular compartment could in turn lead to systemic inflammation. An increasing number of studies are now investigating the association between gut permeability and CNS disorders, under the premise that translocation of intestinal luminal contents could affect CNS function, either directly or indirectly. Still, it is unknown whether disruption of intestinal barrier is a causative agent or a consequence in these situations. Here, we discuss the latest evidence pointing to an association between increased gut permeability and disrupted behavioral responses. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Socioenvironmental conditions and intestinal parasitic infections in Brazilian urban slums: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Ferraz Ignacio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs are neglected diseases with limited data regarding prevalence in Brazil and many other countries. In increasingly urban societies, investigating the profile and socioenvironmental determinants of IPIs in the general population of slum dwellers is necessary for establishing appropriate public policies catered to these environments. This study assessed the socioenvironmental conditions and prevalence of IPIs in slums of Rio de Janeiro, RJ State, Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study covering an agglomeration of urban slums was conducted between 2015 and 2016 using participants observation, a socioeconomic survey, and the spontaneous sedimentation method with three slides per sample to analyze fresh stool specimens ( n =595 searching for intestinal parasites. Results Endolimax nana ( n =95, 16.0% and Entamoeba coli ( n =65, 10.9% were the most frequently identified agents, followed by Giardia intestinalis ( n =24, 4.0% and Ascaris lumbricoides ( n =11, 1.8%. Coinfections caused by E. nana and E. histolytica/dispar and by Entamoeba coli/A. lumbricoides were significant. The use of piped water as drinking water, the presence of A. lumbricoides , and contamination with coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli were more common in major area (MA 1. Children (0-19 years had a greater chance of living in poverty (OR 3.36; 95% CI: 2.50- 4.52; p <0.001 which was pervasive. The predominance of protozoa parasites suggests that a one-size-fits-all approach focusing on preventive chemotherapy for soil-transmitted helminths is not appropriate for all communities in developing countries. It is important that both residents and health professionals consider the socioenvironmental conditions of urban slums when assessing intestinal parasitic infections for disease control and health promotion initiatives.

  9. Intestinal microbiota in healthy adults: temporal analysis reveals individual and common core and relation to intestinal symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonna Jalanka-Tuovinen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While our knowledge of the intestinal microbiota during disease is accumulating, basic information of the microbiota in healthy subjects is still scarce. The aim of this study was to characterize the intestinal microbiota of healthy adults and specifically address its temporal stability, core microbiota and relation with intestinal symptoms. We carried out a longitudinal study by following a set of 15 healthy Finnish subjects for seven weeks and regularly assessed their intestinal bacteria and archaea with the Human Intestinal Tract (HIT Chip, a phylogenetic microarray, in conjunction with qPCR analyses. The health perception and occurrence of intestinal symptoms was recorded by questionnaire at each sampling point. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A high overall temporal stability of the microbiota was observed. Five subjects showed transient microbiota destabilization, which correlated not only with the intake of antibiotics but also with overseas travelling and temporary illness, expanding the hitherto known factors affecting the intestinal microbiota. We identified significant correlations between the microbiota and common intestinal symptoms, including abdominal pain and bloating. The most striking finding was the inverse correlation between Bifidobacteria and abdominal pain: subjects who experienced pain had over five-fold less Bifidobacteria compared to those without pain. Finally, a novel computational approach was used to define the common core microbiota, highlighting the role of the analysis depth in finding the phylogenetic core and estimating its size. The in-depth analysis suggested that we share a substantial number of our intestinal phylotypes but as they represent highly variable proportions of the total community, many of them often remain undetected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A global and high-resolution microbiota analysis was carried out to determine the temporal stability, the associations with intestinal symptoms, and the

  10. Residency training program: Perceptions of residents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to ascertain the perception of the residency ... the time of the study. Analysis of the respondents showed similar findings for both senior and junior levels of training. Discussion. The introduction of the residency training program .... Overseas training/ attachment should be re-introduced. 12. (10.1).

  11. The role of the intestinal microbiota in pneumonia and sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lankelma, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Humans carry with them trillions of bacteria, viruses and fungi that are collectively called the human microbiota. The intestinal microbiota fulfills essential functions in human physiology and has recently been suggested as a potential therapeutic target for several diseases. This thesis focuses on

  12. Bacterial diversity in the intestinal tract of the fungus- cultivating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-03-19

    Mar 19, 2007 ... culture dependent techniques, most of the isolates obtained belonged to the Gram-positive bacteria with a high G+C ... Key words: Fungus-cultivating termites, bacterial diversity, intestinal tract, 16S rRNA gene, RFLP. INTRODUCTION ...... disturbance and greenhouse gas fluxes in Sabah, East Malaysia.

  13. Intestinal solute carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffansen, Bente; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger

    2004-01-01

    A large amount of absorptive intestinal membrane transporters play an important part in absorption and distribution of several nutrients, drugs and prodrugs. The present paper gives a general overview on intestinal solute carriers as well as on trends and strategies for targeting drugs and...... membrane transporters in the small intestine in order to increase oral bioavailabilities of drug or prodrug, the major influence on in vivo pharmacokinetics is suggested to be dose-dependent increase in bioavailability as well as prolonged blood circulation due to large capacity facilitated absorption...

  14. Intestinal solute carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffansen, Bente; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger

    2004-01-01

    membrane transporters in the small intestine in order to increase oral bioavailabilities of drug or prodrug, the major influence on in vivo pharmacokinetics is suggested to be dose-dependent increase in bioavailability as well as prolonged blood circulation due to large capacity facilitated absorption......A large amount of absorptive intestinal membrane transporters play an important part in absorption and distribution of several nutrients, drugs and prodrugs. The present paper gives a general overview on intestinal solute carriers as well as on trends and strategies for targeting drugs and...

  15. Oral Administration of Probiotics Increases Paneth Cells and Intestinal Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia I. Cazorla

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The huge amount of intestinal bacteria represents a continuing threat to the intestinal barrier. To meet this challenge, gut epithelial cells produce antimicrobial peptides (AMP that act at the forefront of innate immunity. We explore whether this antimicrobial activity and Paneth cells, the main intestinal cell responsible of AMP production, are influenced by probiotics administration, to avoid the imbalance of intestinal microbiota and preserve intestinal barrier. Administration of Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 (Lc 431 and L. paracasei CNCM I-1518 (Lp 1518 to 42 days old mice, increases the number of Paneth cells on small intestine, and the antimicrobial activity against the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Typhimurium in the intestinal fluids. Specifically, strong damage of the bacterial cell with leakage of cytoplasmic content, and cellular fragmentation were observed in S. Typhimurium and S. aureus. Even more important, probiotics increase the antimicrobial activity of the intestinal fluids at the different ages, from weaning (21 days old to old age (180 days old. Intestinal antimicrobial activity stimulated by oral probiotics, do not influence significantly the composition of total anaerobic bacteria, lactobacilli and enterobacteria in the large intestine, at any age analyzed. This result, together with the antimicrobial activity observed against the same probiotic bacteria; endorse the regular consumption of probiotics without adverse effect on the intestinal homeostasis in healthy individuals. We demonstrate that oral probiotics increase intestinal antimicrobial activity and Paneth cells in order to strengthen epithelial barrier against pathogens. This effect would be another important mechanism by which probiotics protect the host mainly against infectious diseases.

  16. Resident Characteristics Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Resident Characteristics Report summarizes general information about households who reside in Public Housing, or who receive Section 8 assistance. The report...

  17. In ovo inoculation of chicken embryos with probiotic bacteria and its effect on posthatch Salmonella susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira, J.E. de; Hoeven-Hangoor, E. van der; Linde, I.B. van de; Montijn, R.C.; Vossen, J.M.B.M. van der

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of establishing probiotic bacteria in the intestine of broiler chickens by in ovo inoculation was investigated, followed by verifying possible subsequent protection against Salmonella Enteriditis infection. In a first study, 7 commercially available probiotics were screened for

  18. Susceptibility to rifaximin and other antimicrobial agents of bacteria isolated from acute gastrointestinal infections in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Novoa-Farías

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Resistance of enteropathogenic bacteria to various antibiotics used in gastrointestinal infections is high. Rifaximin was active against 99-100% of these enteropathogens at reachable concentrations in the intestine with the recommended dose.

  19. Multifunctions of dietary polyphenols in the regulation of intestinal inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Shimizu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Food for specified health use is a type of functional food approved by the Japanese government, with more than 1250 products in 10 health-claim categories being approved as of April 2016. Polyphenols are currently used as functional ingredients in seven of the 10 categories. Although they have not yet been used for the food-for-specified-health-use category of “gut health promotion,” polyphenols are expected to contribute to the future development of gut-modulating food. Intestinal functions include digestion/absorption, acting as a barrier, recognition of external factors, and signal transduction. Owing to incessant exposure to external stress factors including food substances, bacteria, and environmental chemicals, intestines are always inflammatory to some extent, which may cause damage to and dysfunction of intestinal tissues depending on the situation. We identified food factors that could suppress immoderate inflammation in the intestines. In addition to certain amino acids and peptides, polyphenols such as chlorogenic acid and isoflavones were found to suppress inflammation in intestinal cells. Intestinal inflammation is caused by various factors in diverse mechanisms. Recent studies revealed that activation of pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain proteins, in epithelial cells triggers intestinal inflammation. Intracellular receptors or signaling molecules controlling the intestinal detoxification system are also involved in the regulation of inflammation. Differentiation of regulatory T cells by activating a transcription factor Foxp-3 is known to suppress intestinal inflammation. A variety of phytochemicals including polyphenols modulate these receptors and signaling molecules, and are thus anti-inflammatory. Polyphenols affect epigenetic changes occurring in intestinal tissues by interacting with the enzymes responsible for DNA methylation and histone acetylation

  20. Intestinal microbiota: a potential diet-responsive prevention target in ApcMin mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Volker; Colbert, Lisa H; Perkins, Susan N; Schatzkin, Arthur; Hursting, Stephen D

    2007-01-01

    We previously reported that two dietary regimens, calorie restriction (CR) and a high olive oil-containing diet supplemented with a freeze-dried fruit and vegetable extract (OFV), reduced the development of intestinal adenomas in Apc(Min) mice by 57% and 33%, respectively, compared to control mice fed a defined diet ad libitum. The OFV diet was designed to have a strong effect on the composition of the intestinal microbiota through its high content of fiber, which represents a major source of fermentable substrate for the gut bacteria. We hypothesized that some of the observed effects of diet on intestinal carcinogenesis might be mediated by diet-related changes in the bacterial species that thrive in the gut. Therefore, we determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) how the dietary interventions affected the composition of the intestinal microbiota, and we characterized specific microbiota changes that were associated with diet and reduced intestinal carcinogenesis. The OFV diet changed the overall composition of the intestinal microbiota, smaller changes were observed for the CR diet. Furthermore, we detected a 16S rDNA fragment associated with mice that did not develop polyps. Sequence analysis suggested that hitherto unidentified bacteria belonging to the family Lachnospiraceae (order Clostridiales) were its source. Thus, these bacteria may be an indicator of intestinal conditions associated with reduced intestinal carcinogenesis in Apc(Min) mice. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Identification of the Paneth cells in chicken small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Li, J; Li, J; Li, R X; Lv, C F; Li, S; Mi, Y L; Zhang, C Q

    2016-07-01

    The Paneth cells are highly specialized cells in the epithelium of the small intestine of many vertebrate species. These cells reside at the base of crypts of the Lieberkühn and contain abundant secretory granules. Previous studies suggesting the existence of Paneth cells in the chicken (Gallus gallus) remained controversial. Here we seek to identify the Paneth cells in the chicken small intestine through morphological examination and specific gene expression. Histological staining and transmission electron microscope confirmed the presence of granulated secretory cells at the base of the crypts in the chicken small intestine. Western blotting experiment also manifested the expression of lysozyme protein, which is specifically secreted by the Paneth cells in the small intestine. Moreover, lysozyme c and lysozyme g mRNAs were expressed in the small intestine of chickens at different ages. Lysozyme c mRNA, in particular, was located at the base of the small intestinal crypts as displayed by in situ hybridization. Collectively, we provide evidences that the Paneth cells indeed exist in the small intestine of the chicken. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Antagonistic intestinal microflora produces antimicrobial substance inhibitory to pseudomonas species and other spoilage organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatew, B.; Delessa, T.; Zakin, V.; Gollop, N.

    2011-01-01

    Chicken intestine harbors a vast number of bacterial strains. In the present study, antimicrobial substance produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of healthy chicken was detected, characterized, and purified. Based on 16S rRNA sequencing, the bacteria were

  3. Is butyrate the link between diet, intestinal microbiota and obesity-related metabolic diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahe, L K; Astrup, A; Larsen, L H

    2013-12-01

    It is increasingly recognized that there is a connection between diet, intestinal microbiota, intestinal barrier function and the low-grade inflammation that characterizes the progression from obesity to metabolic disturbances, making dietary strategies to modulate the intestinal environment relevant. In this context, the ability of some Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria to produce the short-chain fatty acid butyrate is interesting. A lower abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria has been associated with metabolic risk in humans, and recent studies suggest that butyrate might have an anti-inflammatory potential that can alleviate obesity-related metabolic complications, possibly due to its ability to enhance the intestinal barrier function. Here, we review and discuss the potential of butyrate as an anti-inflammatory mediator in metabolic diseases, and the potential for dietary interventions increasing the intestinal availability of butyrate. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  4. Common occurrence of antibacterial agents in human intestinal microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima eDrissi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory experiments have revealed many active mechanisms by which bacteria can inhibit the growth of other organisms. Bacteriocins are a diverse group of natural ribosomally-synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by a wide range of bacteria and which seem to play an important role in mediating competition within bacterial communities. In this study, we have identified and established the structural classification of putative bacteriocins encoded by 317 microbial genomes in the human intestine. On the basis of homologies to available bacteriocin sequences, mainly from lactic acid bacteria, we report the widespread occurrence of bacteriocins across the gut microbiota: 175 bacteriocins were found to be encoded in Firmicutes, 79 in Proteobacteria, 34 in Bacteroidetes and 25 in Actinobacteria. Bacteriocins from gut bacteria displayed wide differences among phyla with regard to class distribution, net positive charge, hydrophobicity and secondary structure, but the α-helix was the most abundant structure. The peptide structures and physiochemical properties of bacteriocins produced by the most abundant bacteria in the gut, the Firmicutes and the Bacteroidetes, seem to ensure low antibiotic activity and participate in permanent intestinal host defence against the proliferation of harmful bacteria. Meanwhile, the potentially harmful bacteria, including the Proteobacteria, displayed highly effective bacteriocins, probably supporting the virulent character of diseases. These findings highlight the eventual role played by bacteriocins in gut microbial competition and their potential place in antibiotic therapy.

  5. Intestinal barrier: A gentlemen's agreement between microbiota and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricilli, Andrea Moro; Castoldi, Angela; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva

    2014-02-15

    Our body is colonized by more than a hundred trillion commensals, represented by viruses, bacteria and fungi. This complex interaction has shown that the microbiome system contributes to the host's adaptation to its environment, providing genes and functionality that give flexibility of diet and modulate the immune system in order not to reject these symbionts. In the intestine, specifically, the microbiota helps developing organ structures, participates of the metabolism of nutrients and induces immunity. Certain components of the microbiota have been shown to trigger inflammatory responses, whereas others, anti-inflammatory responses. The diversity and the composition of the microbiota, thus, play a key role in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and explain partially the link between intestinal microbiota changes and gut-related disorders in humans. Tight junction proteins are key molecules for determination of the paracellular permeability. In the context of intestinal inflammatory diseases, the intestinal barrier is compromised, and decreased expression and differential distribution of tight junction proteins is observed. It is still unclear what is the nature of the luminal or mucosal factors that affect the tight junction proteins function, but the modulation of the immune cells found in the intestinal lamina propria is hypothesized as having a role in this modulation. In this review, we provide an overview of the current understanding of the interaction of the gut microbiota with the immune system in the development and maintenance of the intestinal barrier.

  6. Host-dependent zonulin secretion causes the impairment of the small intestine barrier function after bacterial exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Asmar, Ramzi; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Bamford, Penelope; Berti, Irene; Not, Tarcisio; Coppa, Giovanni V; Catassi, Carlo; Fasano, Alessio; El Asmar, Rahzi

    2002-11-01

    Enteric infections have been implicated in the pathogenesis of both food intolerance and autoimmune diseases secondary to the impairment of the intestinal barrier. On the basis of our recent discovery of zonulin, a modulator of small-intestinal tight junctions, we asked whether microorganisms might induce zonulin secretion and increased small-intestinal permeability. Both ex vivo mammalian small intestines and intestinal cell monolayers were exposed to either pathogenic or nonpathogenic enterobacteria. Zonulin production and changes in paracellular permeability were monitored in Ussing chambers and micro-snapwells. Zonula occludens 1 protein redistribution after bacteria colonization was evaluated on cell monolayers. Small intestines exposed to enteric bacteria secreted zonulin. This secretion was independent of either the species of the small intestines or the virulence of the microorganisms tested, occurred only on the luminal aspect of the bacteria-exposed small-intestinal mucosa, and was followed by a decrease in small-intestinal tissue resistance (transepithelial electrical resistance). The transepithelial electrical resistance decrement was secondary to the zonulin-induced tight junction disassembly, as also shown by the disengagement of the protein zonula occludens 1 protein from the tight junctional complex. This zonulin-driven opening of the paracellular pathway may represent a defensive mechanism, which flushes out microorganisms and contributes to the host response against bacterial colonization of the small intestine.

  7. Proteorhodopsin lateral gene transfer between marine planktonic Bacteria and Archaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Martinez, Asuncion; Mincer, Tracy J

    2006-01-01

    Planktonic Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya reside and compete in the ocean's photic zone under the pervasive influence of light. Bacteria in this environment were recently shown to contain photoproteins called proteorhodopsins, thought to contribute to cellular energy metabolism by catalysing light...

  8. [Interaction of effective ingredients from traditional Chinese medicines with intestinal microbiota].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Xian-Peng; Lin, Zhang; Xie, Hai-Sheng; Yang, Niao; Liu, Xin-Ru; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2016-05-01

    A large number and wide varieties of microorganisms colonize in the human gastrointestinal tract. They construct an intestinal microecological system in the intestinal environment. The intestinal symbiotic flora regulates a series of life actions, including digestion and absorption of nutrient, immune response, biological antagonism, and is closely associated with the occurrence and development of many diseases. Therefore, it is greatly essential for the host's health status to maintain the equilibrium of intestinal microecological environment. After effective compositions of traditional Chinese medicines are metabolized or biotransformed by human intestinal bacteria, their metabolites can be absorbed more easily, and can even decrease or increase toxicity and then exhibit significant different biological effects. Meanwhile, traditional Chinese medicines can also regulate the composition of the intestinal flora and protect the function of intestinal mucosal barrier to restore the homeostasis of intestinal microecology. The relevant literatures in recent 15 years about the interactive relationship between traditional Chinese medicines and gut microbiota have been collected in this review, in order to study the classification of gut microflora, the relationship between intestinal dysbacteriosis and diseases, the important roles of gut microflora in intestinal bacterial metabolism in effective ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines and bioactivities, as well as the modulation effects of Chinese medicine on intestinal dysbacteriosis. In addition, it also makes a future prospect for the research strategies to study the mechanism of action of traditional Chinese medicines based on multi-omics techniques. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  9. ENTEROPATHOGENS DETECTED IN A DAYCARE CENTER, SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL: BACTERIA, VIRUS, AND PARASITE RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Donizetti Rossi Castro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and etiological profile of enteropathogens in children from a daycare center. Methods: From October 2010 to February 2011 stool samples from 100 children enrolled in a government daycare center in the municipality of São José do Rio Preto, in the state of São Paulo, were collected and analyzed. Results: A total of 246 bacteria were isolated in 99% of the fecal samples; 129 were in the diarrheal group and 117 in the non-diarrheal group. Seventy-three strains of Escherichia coli were isolated, 19 of Enterobacter, one of Alcaligenes and one of Proteus. There were 14 cases of mixed colonization with Enterobacter and E. coli. Norovirus and Astrovirus were detected in children with clinical signs suggestive of diarrhea. These viruses were detected exclusively among children residing in urban areas. All fecal samples were negative for the presence of the rotavirus species A and C. The presence of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana and hookworm was observed. A significant association was found between food consumption outside home and daycare center and the presence of intestinal parasites. Conclusions: For children of this daycare center, intestinal infection due to pathogens does not seem to have contributed to the occurrence of diarrhea or other intestinal symptoms. The observed differences may be due to the wide diversity of geographical, social and economic characteristics and the climate of Brazil, all of which have been reported as critical factors in the modulation of the frequency of different enteropathogens.

  10. The Role of Intestinal Bacteria in Acute Diarrheal Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    another enteric pathogen, Vibrio cholerae, is present in high number in the cral cavity during acute and convalescent periods. Also, the buccal cells...PoIA system. In the future we .will use the phage Xb2Z rex::Tn5cI857 syst’.in described by Dr. D. Berg. This X phage contains a transposable kanamycin...element Tn5. We are hopeful tnat this technique will be more fruitful. Approximately 10-2 of cells infected with XTn5 phage are transduced to KanR

  11. Intestinal bacteria as triggering agents in murine ankylosing enthesopathy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řeháková, Z.; Čapková, Jana; Šinkora, J.; Osterreicher, J.; Ivanyi, P.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 3, Suppl. 2 (2004), s. 108 ISSN 1568-9972. [International Congress of Autoimmunity /4./. Budapešť, 03.11.2004-07.11.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/03/0287 Keywords : ankylosing spondylitis * ANKENT * HLA-B27 Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  12. Prevalence and pattern of bacteria and intestinal parasites among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The subjects' stool samples tested positive: For A. lumbricoides (14.9%), T. trichuria(1.8%), S. starcolaris (3.0%), E. histolytica (10.7%), G. lambilia (1.8%), S. mansoni (1.2%), and Taenia species (4.8%). Furthermore, 42.3% and 15.5% of the stool specimen tested positive for Salmonella and Shigella species, respectively.

  13. [Production, absorption and excretion of phenols in intestinal obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, M

    1986-11-01

    In intestinal obstruction, phenols were produced in the distended loop proximal to obstruction by enteric bacteria. Clinically, in 17 cases of non-strangulated intestinal obstruction, phenols were detected in 15 cases and mean concentration of phenols was 4.2 +/- 9.7 micro g/ml(mean +/- 1 SD). In the fraction of phenols, p-cresol was detected in 15 cases and mean concentration was 3.8 +/- 7.7 and phenol was detected in 4 cases and mean concentration was 0.5 +/- 2.6. Phenols were decreased as clinical improvement of intestinal obstruction. Enteric bacteria in enteric juice ranged from 10(4) to 10(10)/ml and its change paralleled to phenols concentration. Mean urinary concentration of phenols in intestinal obstruction was increased to 297 +/- 415 mg/day compared to control (less than 50 mg/day). Its change also paralleled to phenols concentration in enteric juice. Closed ileal loop was made in dogs and phenols were infused in the loop. Phenols were increased in the portal vein 5 min after the infusion and in the femoral vein 60 min after the infusion. Phenols, which was thought to be toxic to the host, were proved to be produced in the distended intestine and excreted from the kidney.

  14. Autophagy and tight junction proteins in the intestine and intestinal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-An A. Hu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium (IE forms an indispensible barrier and interface between the intestinal interstitium and the luminal environment. The IE regulates water, ion and nutrient transport while providing a barrier against toxins, pathogens (bacteria, fungi and virus and antigens. The apical intercellular tight junctions (TJ are responsible for the paracellular barrier function and regulate trans-epithelial flux of ions and solutes between adjacent cells. Increased intestinal permeability caused by defects in the IE TJ barrier is considered an important pathogenic factor for the development of intestinal inflammation, diarrhea and malnutrition in humans and animals. In fact, defects in the IE TJ barrier allow increased antigenic penetration, resulting in an amplified inflammatory response in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, necrotizing enterocolitis and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Conversely, the beneficial enhancement of the intestinal TJ barrier has been shown to resolve intestinal inflammation and apoptosis in both animal models of IBD and human IBD. Autophagy (self-eating mechanism is an intracellular lysosome-dependent degradation and recycling pathway essential for cell survival and homeostasis. Dysregulated autophagy has been shown to be directly associated with many pathological processes, including IBD. Importantly, the crosstalk between IE TJ and autophagy has been revealed recently. We showed that autophagy enhanced IE TJ barrier function by increasing transepithelial resistance and reducing the paracellular permeability of small solutes and ions, which is, in part, by targeting claudin-2, a cation-selective, pore-forming, transmembrane TJ protein, for lysosome (autophagy-mediated degradation. Interestingly, previous studies have shown that the inflamed intestinal mucosa in patients with active IBD has increased claudin-2 expression. In addition, inflammatory cytokines (for example, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6

  15. Neonatal exposure to fecal antigens reduces intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydora, Beate C; McFarlane, Sarah M; Doyle, Jason S G; Fedorak, Richard N

    2011-04-01

    A role for bacterial antigens in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been established in enhanced humoral and cellular immune response to ubiquitous antigens of the enteric flora. However, we have recently shown that bacterial antigens in the absence of live bacteria cannot initiate an intestinal inflammation in IBD-prone interleukin (IL)-10 gene-deficient mice. The objective was to investigate whether neonatal exposure to antigens of their own endogenous flora can tolerize mice to bacterial antigens. IL-10 gene-deficient neonates were injected intraperitoneally within 72 hours of birth with a sterile solution of bacterial lysates prepared from fecal material of either conventionally raised mice (contains bacterial antigens) or axenic mice (lacks bacterial antigens). The onset of intestinal inflammation was monitored as the appearance of occult blood in the stool in weekly hemoccult analysis. Mice were sacrificed between age 15 and 19 weeks and tested for histopathologic injury, intestinal inflammation, and systemic response to bacterial antigens. In mice neonatally exposed to bacterial antigens the onset of intestinal inflammation was delayed and the incidence of histopathologic injury at age 18 weeks was reduced. In addition, mice injected with lysates from conventionally raised mice exhibited decreased release of proinflammatory cytokines (interferon gamma [IFN-γ] and IL-17) in intestinal tissue and demonstrated reduced bacteria-stimulated systemic responses when compared to mice injected with lysates derived from bacteria-free, axenic mice. Neonatal intraperitoneal injection of antigens from the commensal flora causes long-lasting changes in systemic and mucosal immune responses resulting in delayed onset of intestinal inflammation and injury in IBD-prone IL-10 gene-deficient mice. Copyright © 2010 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  16. Microbiota regulate intestinal absorption and metabolism of fatty acids in the zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semova, Ivana; Carten, Juliana D; Stombaugh, Jesse; Mackey, Lantz C; Knight, Rob; Farber, Steven A; Rawls, John F

    2012-09-13

    Regulation of intestinal dietary fat absorption is critical to maintaining energy balance. While intestinal microbiota clearly impact the host's energy balance, their role in intestinal absorption and extraintestinal metabolism of dietary fat is less clear. Using in vivo imaging of fluorescent fatty acid (FA) analogs delivered to gnotobiotic zebrafish hosts, we reveal that microbiota stimulate FA uptake and lipid droplet (LD) formation in the intestinal epithelium and liver. Microbiota increase epithelial LD number in a diet-dependent manner. The presence of food led to the intestinal enrichment of bacteria from the phylum Firmicutes. Diet-enriched Firmicutes and their products were sufficient to increase epithelial LD number, whereas LD size was increased by other bacterial types. Thus, different members of the intestinal microbiota promote FA absorption via distinct mechanisms. Diet-induced alterations in microbiota composition might influence fat absorption, providing mechanistic insight into how microbiota-diet interactions regulate host energy balance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Diagnosis of intestinal and extra intestinal amoebiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Myriam Consuelo; Quiroz, Damian Arnoldo; Pinilla, Analida Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The objective is to carry out a review of the national and international literature as of the XXth century in order to update the advances for the diagnosis of complex odd Entamoeba histolytic / Entamoeba dispar and that of intestinal and extra intestinal amoebiasis that may be of use to the scientific community. As well as to unify the diagnostic criteria of this parasitosis known as a public health problem, and as a consequence of that, optimize the quality of population care. Data source: there was a systematic search for the scientific literature Publisher in Spanish and English since 1960 until today, this selection started on the first semester of 2006 until 2007, in the development of the line on intestinal and extra-intestinal amoebiasis of the Medical School of the National University of Colombia. A retrospective search process was carried out, systematically reviewing the most relevant articles as well as the products of this research line. In deciding how to make this article, there was a continuous search in different data bases such as Medline, SciELO and other bases in the library of the National University of Colombia, as well as other classical books related to the subject. For that purpose the terms amoebiasis, odd Entamoeba histolytic, Entamoeba, diagnosis, epidemiology, dysentery, amoebic liver abscess, were used. Studies selection: titles and abstracts were reviewed to select the original publications and the most representative ones related to this article's subject. Data extraction: the articles were classified according to the subject, the chronology and the authors according to the scientific contribution to solve the problem. Synthesis of the data: in the fi rst instance, a chronological critical analysis was carried out to order and synthesize the progress made in the diagnosis until confirmation of the experts' agreements in the field of amoebiasis was obtained throughout the world. Conclusion: this article summarizes what has taken place

  18. Negative regulation of Toll-like receptor signaling plays an essential role in the homeostasis of the intestine

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Amlan; Wilmanski, Jeanette; Forsman, Huamei; Hrncir, Tomas; Hao, Liming; Tlaskalova-Hogenova, Helena; Kobayashi, Koichi S.

    2010-01-01

    A healthy intestinal tract is characterized by controlled homeostasis due to the balanced interaction between commensal bacteria and the host mucosal immune system. Human and animal model studies have supported the hypothesis that breakdown of this homeostasis may underlie the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). However it is not well understood how intestinal microflora stimulate the intestinal mucosal immune system and how such activation is regulated. Using a spontaneous, c...

  19. Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1-dependent depletion of mucus in immature small intestine: a potential role in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis

    OpenAIRE

    McElroy, Steven J.; Prince, Lawrence S.; Weitkamp, Jörn-Hendrik; Reese, Jeff; Slaughter, James C.; Polk, D. Brent

    2011-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants. NEC is believed to occur when intestinal bacteria invade the intestinal epithelial layer, causing subsequent inflammation and tissue necrosis. Mucins are produced and secreted by epithelial goblet cells as a key component of the innate immune system and barrier function of the intestinal tract that help protect against bacterial invasion. To better understand the role of mucins in NEC, we quant...

  20. [Burnout in nursing residents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Gianfábio Pimentel; de Barros, Alba Lúcia Bottura Leite; Nogueira-Martins, Luiz Antônio; Zeitoun, Sandra Salloum

    2011-03-01

    Nursing residents may experience physical and emotional exhaustion from the daily life of attending the Program. The aim of this study was to determine the Burnout incidence among Nursing Residents. An investigative, descriptive, analytical, longitudinal-prospective study was conducted with 16 Residents over two years. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was used, translated and validated for Brazil, as well as a sociodemographic/occupational data tool. Of all residents, 17.2% showed high rates in Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization; 18.8% showed impaired commitment in Personal Accomplishment, 75% of which belonged to specialty areas, such as Emergency Nursing, Adult and Pediatric Intensive Care. Age and specialty area were positively correlated with Personal Accomplishment. One of the Residents was identified with changes in three subscales of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, thus characterized as a Burnout Syndrome patient. Nursing Residents have profiles of disease. Knowing these factors can minimize health risks of these workers.

  1. Effect of peristalsis in balance of intestinal microbial ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbagheri, Seyed Amir; Fu, Henry C.

    2017-11-01

    A balance of microbiota density in gastrointestinal tracts is necessary for health of the host. Although peristaltic flow made by intestinal muscles is constantly evacuating the lumen, bacterial density stay balanced. Some of bacteria colonize in the secreted mucus where there is no flow, but the rest resist the peristaltic flow in lumen and maintain their population. Using a coupled two-dimensional model of flow induced by large amplitude peristaltic waves, bacterial motility, reproduction, and diffusion, we address how bacterial growth and motility combined with peristaltic flow affect the balance of the intestinal microbial ecosystem.

  2. Scrotal abscess, a rare case of extra intestinal amoebiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, R H

    2015-09-01

    The majority of amoeba infection are asymptomatic, but clinically intestinal amoebiasis or extra intestinal amoebiasis may result. Genital amoebiasis is very rare manifestation of extra intestial amoebiasis, but a case of amoebic scrotal abscess, seen in Surabaya. The invasive form of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoite was seen in Giemsa stained aspirate of the abscess. In case of an abscess bacteria are primarly considered, but the case presented here shows that amoeba can be the cause, although very rarely. Thus when bacteriological diagnostics are negative amoeba should be considered, especially in case of brown-reddish colored and foul smelling pus.

  3. Intestinal anisakidosis (anisakiosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Hidehiro; Powell, Suzanne Z

    2007-10-01

    A case of intestinal anisakidosis in a 42-year-old man in Japan is presented. His chief complaint was an acute onset of severe abdominal pain. Approximately 12 hours before the onset of this symptom, he had eaten sliced raw mackerel ("sashimi"). Upper endoscopy was unremarkable. At exploratory laparotomy, an edematous, diffusely thickened segment of jejunum was observed, which was resected. The postoperative course was uneventful. The segment of small intestine showed a granular indurated area on the mucosal surface, and microscopically, a helminthic larva penetrating the intestinal wall, which was surrounded by a cuff of numerous neutrophils and eosinophils, as well as diffuse acute serositis. A cross section of the larva revealed the internal structures, pathognomonic of Anisakis simplex. Although anisakidosis is rare in the United States, with the increasing popularity of Japanese cuisine, the incidence is expected to increase, and pathologists should be familiar with this disease.

  4. Intestinal failure: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Philip; Lal, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Intestinal failure (IF) is the inability of the gut to absorb necessary water, macronutrients (carbohydrate, protein, and fat), micronutrients, and electrolytes sufficient to sustain life and requiring intravenous supplementation or replacement. Acute IF (types 1 and 2) is the initial phase of the illness and may last for weeks to a few months, and chronic IF (type 3) from months to years. The challenge of caring for patients with IF is not merely the management of the underlying condition leading to IF or the correct provision of appropriate nutrition or both but also the prevention of complications, whether thromboembolic phenomenon (for example, venous occlusion), central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection, IF-associated liver disease, or metabolic bone disease. This review looks at recent questions regarding chronic IF (type 3), its diagnosis and management, the role of the multidisciplinary team, and novel therapies, including hormonal treatment for short bowel syndrome but also surgical options for intestinal lengthening and intestinal transplant. PMID:29399329

  5. Small intestine diverticuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomakov, P.; Risov, A.

    1991-01-01

    The routine method of contrast matter passage applied to 850 patients with different gastrointestinal diseases proved inefficient to detect any small-intestinal diverticuli. The following modiffications of the method have been tested in order to improve the diagnostic possibilities of the X-ray: study at short intervals, assisted passage, enteroclysm, pharmacodynamic impact, retrograde filling of the ileum by irrigoscopy. Twelve diverticuli of the small-intestinal loops were identified: 5 Meckel's diverticuli, 2 solitary of which one of the therminal ileum, 2 double diverticuli and 1 multiple diverticulosis of the jejunum. The results show that the short interval X-ray examination of the small intestines is the method of choice for identifying local changes in them. The solitary diverticuli are not casuistic scarcity, its occurrence is about 0.5% at purposeful X-ray investigation. The assisted passage method is proposed as a method of choice for detection of the Meckel's diverticulum. 5 figs., 3 tabs. 18 refs

  6. Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeon, Kyung Mo; Seo, Jeong Kee; Lee, Yong Seok

    1992-01-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome is a rare clinical condition in which impaired intestinal peristalsis causes recurrent symptoms of bowel obstruction in the absence of a mechanical occlusion. This syndrome may involve variable segments of small or large bowel, and may be associated with urinary bladder retention. This study included 6 children(3 boys and 3 girls) of chronic intestinal obstruction. Four were symptomatic at birth and two were of the ages of one month and one year. All had abdominal distension and deflection difficulty. Five had urinary bladder distension. Despite parenteral nutrition and surgical intervention(ileostomy or colostomy), bowel obstruction persisted and four patients expired from sepses within one year. All had gaseous distension of small and large bowel on abdominal films. In small bowel series, consistent findings were variable degree of dilatation, decreased peristalsis(prolonged transit time) and microcolon or microrectum. This disease entity must be differentiated from congenital megacolon, ileal atresia and megacystis syndrome

  7. Small Intestinal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munot, Khushboo; Kotler, Donald P

    2016-06-01

    Small intestinal infections are extremely common worldwide. They may be bacterial, viral, or parasitic in etiology. Most are foodborne or waterborne, with specific etiologies differing by region and with diverse pathophysiologies. Very young, very old, and immune-deficient individuals are the most vulnerable to morbidity or mortality from small intestinal infections. There have been significant advances in diagnostic sophistication with the development and early application of molecular diagnostic assays, though these tests have not become mainstream. The lack of rapid diagnoses combined with the self-limited nature of small intestinal infections has hampered the development of specific and effective treatments other than oral rehydration. Antibiotics are not indicated in the absence of an etiologic diagnosis, and not at all in the case of some infections.

  8. Intestinal immune maturation is accompanied by temporal changes in the composition of the microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Hartog, G; De Vries-Reilingh, G; Wehrmaker, A M; Savelkoul, H F J; Parmentier, H K; Lammers, A

    2016-11-30

    In animals establishment of the intestinal microbial ecosystem is influenced by mucosal immune functions. As mucosal immune functions dynamically change during development of juvenile layer chicken, this study focused on dynamics in the ileal microbiota composition in relation to intestinal immune development. In addition, the levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) in serum and amount of bacteria coated with IgA, a hallmark of intestinal immune maturation, were analysed. The composition of the intestinal microbiota transiently changed at the age of 14-42 days compared to the microbiota composition before and after this period. This temporal deviation in microbiota composition was associated to a temporal increase in transcriptional activity of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes. Furthermore, before week two limited amounts of faecal bacteria were bound by IgM and from week two increasing amounts of bacteria were bound by IgA, reaching a maximal level of 70% of IgA-coated bacteria at 6 weeks of age. These data could indicate that prior to achievement of intestinal homeostasis at 6-10 weeks post hatch, activation of inflammatory pathways cause a temporal disturbance of the microbiota composition. This period of imbalance may be essential for adequate immune development and establishment of intestinal homeostasis.

  9. The intestinal calcistat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M K Garg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main physiological function of vitamin D is maintenance of calcium homeostasis by its effect on calcium absorption, and bone health in association with parathyroid gland. Vitamin D deficiency (VDD is defined as serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD levels <20 ng/ml. Do all subjects with VDD have clinical disease according to this definition? We hypothesize that there exist an intestinal calcistat, which controls the calcium absorption independent of PTH levels. It consists of calcium sensing receptor (CaSR on intestinal brush border, which senses calcium in intestinal cells and vitamin D system in intestinal cells. CaSR dampens the generation of active vitamin D metabolite in intestinal cells and decrease active transcellular calcium transport. It also facilitates passive paracellular diffusion of calcium in intestine. This local adaptation adjusts the fractional calcium absorption according the body requirement. Failure of local adaptation due to decreased calcium intake, decreased supply of 25OHD, mutation in CaSR or vitamin D system decreases systemic calcium levels and systemic adaptations comes into the play. Systemic adaptations consist of rise in PTH and increase in active vitamin D metabolites. These adaptations lead to bone resorption and maintenance of calcium homeostasis. Not all subjects with varying levels of VDD manifest with secondary hyperparathyroidism and decreased in bone mineral density. We suggest that rise in PTH is first indicator of VDD along with decrease in BMD depending on duration of VDD. Hence, subjects with any degree of VDD with normal PTH and BMD should not be labeled as vitamin D deficient. These subjects can be called subclinical VDD, and further studies are required to assess beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation in this subset of population.

  10. Cd1d-dependent regulation of bacterial colonization in the intestine of mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuis, Edward E.S.; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Lindenbergh, Dicky; Willemsen, Rob; Kaser, Arthur; Simons-Oosterhuis, Ytje; Brugman, Sylvia; Yamaguchi, Keizo; Ishikawa, Hiroki; Aiba, Yuji; Koga, Yasuhiro; Samsom, Janneke N.; Oshima, Kenshiro; Kikuchi, Mami; Escher, Johanna C.; Hattori, Masahira; Onderdonk, Andrew B.; Blumberg, Richard S.

    2009-01-01

    The accumulation of certain species of bacteria in the intestine is involved in both tissue homeostasis and immune-mediated pathologies. The host mechanisms involved in controlling intestinal colonization with commensal bacteria are poorly understood. We observed that under specific pathogen–free or germ-free conditions, intragastric administration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, or Lactobacillus gasseri resulted in increased colonization of the small intestine and bacterial translocation in mice lacking Cd1d, an MHC class I–like molecule, compared with WT mice. In contrast, activation of Cd1d-restricted T cells (NKT cells) with α-galactosylceramide caused diminished intestinal colonization with the same bacterial strains. We also found prominent differences in the composition of intestinal microbiota, including increased adherent bacteria, in Cd1d–/– mice in comparison to WT mice under specific pathogen–free conditions. Germ-free Cd1d–/– mice exhibited a defect in Paneth cell granule ultrastructure and ability to degranulate after bacterial colonization. In vitro, NKT cells were shown to induce the release of lysozyme from intestinal crypts. Together, these data support a role for Cd1d in regulating intestinal colonization through mechanisms that include the control of Paneth cell function. PMID:19349688

  11. Antioxidant Properties of Probiotic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Wu, Yanping; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Han; Mei, Xiaoqiang; Yu, Dongyou; Wang, Yibing; Li, Weifen

    2017-05-19

    Oxidative stress defines a condition in which the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in the cell is disturbed, resulting in DNA hydroxylation, protein denaturation, lipid peroxidation, and apoptosis, ultimately compromising cells' viability. Probiotics have been known for many beneficial health effects, and the consumption of probiotics alone or in food shows that strain-specific probiotics can present antioxidant activity and reduce damages caused by oxidation. However, the oxidation-resistant ability of probiotics, especially the underling mechanisms, is not properly understood. In this view, there is interest to figure out the antioxidant property of probiotics and summarize the mode of action of probiotic bacteria in antioxidation. Therefore, in the present paper, the antioxidant mechanisms of probiotics have been reviewed in terms of their ability to improve the antioxidant system and their ability to decrease radical generation. Since in recent years, oxidative stress has been associated with an altered gut microbiota, the effects of probiotics on intestinal flora composition are also elaborated.

  12. Isolation and screening of lactic acid bacteria, Lactococcus lactis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In aquaculture probiotic feeding could play a crucial role in developing microbial control strategies, since disease outbreaks are recognized as important constraints to aquaculture production and the fear of antibiotic resistance. In this study, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains from the intestinal tissue of African catfish Clarias ...

  13. Bacteria Associated with Fresh Tilapia Fish ( Oreochromis niloticus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A research was conducted on bacteria micro flora associated with fresh Tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) sold at Sokoto central market, Sokoto. Nigeria. Sections of the skin, gills and intestine of ten randomly selected fishes were aseptically removed by means of a sterile scalpel and pair of sterile scissors. Four (4g) each ...

  14. Physiological Achilles' heels of Enteropathogenic bacteria in livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    An elaborate feeding regimen of animals, which takes advantage of the Achilles' heels of enteropathogenic bacteria, can possibly enable prophylaxis in the intestinal tract, attenuate actual disease symptoms, accelerate recovery from a bacterial gastroenteritis or ensure food safety. There is a wide

  15. Novel applications of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) and Recombinant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), present in intestines of most animals and humans, plays an important role as starters of fermented food products where it acts as a biopreservative, preventing spoilage by pathogenic microorganisms through acidification, competition for essential nutrients, and / or production of inhibitory ...

  16. Isolation and screening of lactic acid bacteria, Lactococcus lactis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-10

    Apr 10, 2012 ... In aquaculture probiotic feeding could play a crucial role in developing microbial control strategies, since disease outbreaks are recognized as important constraints to aquaculture production and the fear of antibiotic resistance. In this study, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains from the intestinal tissue of.

  17. Antibacterial activities of lactic acid bacteria isolated from cow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the antimicrobial activity of cow's intestinal Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) against enteric commensals. Method: ... Conclusion: This study shows that LAB from cow faeces possess considerable antimicrobial activity against resistant Es- cherichia ... tries1. The meat from cattle, goat, sheep, pig and poul-.

  18. Small intestine aspirate and culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003731.htm Small intestine aspirate and culture To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Small intestine aspirate and culture is a lab test to check for infection ...

  19. Biotin absorption by distal rat intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, B.B.; Rosenberg, I.H.

    1987-01-01

    We used the in vivo intestinal loop approach, with short (10-min) and long (3-h) incubations, to examine biotin absorption in proximal jejunum, distal ileum, cecum and proximal colon. In short-term studies, luminal biotin disappearance from rat ileum was about half that observed in the jejunum, whereas absorption by proximal colon was about 12% of that in the jejunum. In 3-h closed-loop studies, the absorption of 1.0 microM biotin varied regionally. Biotin absorption was nearly complete in the small intestine after 3 h; however, only about 15% of the dose had been absorbed in the cecum and 27% in the proximal colon after 3 h. Independent of site of administration, the major fraction of absorbed biotin was recovered in the liver; measurable amounts of radioactive biotin were also present in kidney and plasma. The results support the potential nutritional significance for the rat of biotin synthesized by bacteria in the distal intestine, by demonstrating directly an absorptive capability of mammalian large bowel for this vitamin

  20. Bacterial overgrowth and inflammation of small intestine after carboxymethylcellulose ingestion in genetically susceptible mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swidsinski, Alexander; Ung, Victoria; Sydora, Beate C; Loening-Baucke, Vera; Doerffel, Yvonne; Verstraelen, Hans; Fedorak, Richard N

    2009-03-01

    Detergents and emulsifiers added to food may destroy the mucus barrier, which normally isolates bacteria from the intestinal wall, and lead to chronic bowel inflammation in susceptible persons. We investigated the influence of 2% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) on the biostructure of the intestinal microbiota in IL-10 gene-deficient mice. Twenty to 27-week-old IL-10 gene-deficient mice received either 2% CMC solution (n = 7) or water (n = 6) orally for 3 weeks. Intestinal bacteria were investigated using fluorescence in situ hybridization in paraffin-fixed sections of the intestine. CMC-treated IL-10 gene-deficient mice demonstrated a massive bacterial overgrowth, distention of spaces between villi, with bacteria filling these spaces, adherence of bacteria to the mucosa, and migration of bacteria to the bottom of the crypts of Lieberkuehn. Leukocytes migrated into the intestinal lumen in 4 of the 7 CMC mice. The changes were similar to those observed in Crohn's disease in humans and were absent in control animals. CMC induces bacterial overgrowth and small bowel inflammation in susceptible animals. Because of its ubiquity in products and its unrestricted use in food of the industrial world, CMC is an ideal suspect to account for the rise of IBD in the 20th century.

  1. Association between oxidative status and the composition of intestinal microbiota along the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyuraszova, Marianna; Kovalcikova, Alexandra; Gardlik, Roman

    2017-06-01

    Studies have shown that the microbiota along the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) plays an important role when it comes to the maintenance of its proper functions. Many studies exist that have analyzed the composition of the bacterial community in the different regions of the GIT of humans and model animals. Microbial imbalance leads to several systemic disorders, including cardiovascular and renal disease. The imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their elimination by antioxidants leads to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress plays an important role in a variety of physiological processes, as well as disease. The continuous formation of ROS in the GIT is the result of the interaction between intestinal mucosa, symbiotic bacteria and dietary factors. It has also been proven that ROS play a role in the pathogenesis of several GI disorders, including IBD. We hypothesized that the levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) would be the highest in the ileum, caecum or colon, where the microbiota mostly consist of butyrate producing bacteria, Bacterioides, Clostridium, Ruminococcus or Bifidobacterium, which derive energy through carbohydrate fermentation. We also assumed that advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) mostly act in the segments, where bacteria reside and which are responsible for the amino acid fermentation, such as caecum or colon. Lipid hydroxyperoxides are generated during digestion in the stomach, which contains absorbed oxygen and has a low pH. According to this we hypothesized that the highest concentration of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) could be in the stomach, which, however, has not been confirmed. Because Lactobacilli are able to produce catalase, an endogenous antioxidant, and are abundant in the small intestine, we hypothesized that antioxidant capacity (measured by ferric reducing ability) would be the highest here. The highest levels of AGEs were found in the caecum. The highest level of

  2. Regulation of Toll-like receptors-mediated inflammation by immunobiotics in bovine intestinal epitheliocytes: role of signalling pathways and negative regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio eVillena

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs detect bacterial and viral associated-molecular-patterns (MAMPs via germline-encoded pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs and are responsible for maintaining immunetolerance to the communities of resident commensal bacteria while being also capable to mount immune responses against pathogens. Toll-like receptors (TLRs are a major class of PRRs expressed on IECs and immune cells, which are involved in the induction of both tolerance and inflammation. In the last decade, experimental and clinical evidence was generated to support the application of probiotics with immunoregulatory capacities (immunobiotics for the prevention and treatment of several gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders in which TLRs exert a significant role. The majority of these studies were performed in mouse and human cell lines and, despite the growing interest in the bovine immune system due to the economic importance of cattle as livestock, only few studies have been conducted on cattle. In this regard, our group have established a bovine intestinal epithelial (BIE cell line originally derived from fetal bovine intestinal epitheliocytes and used this cell line to evaluate the impact of immunobiotics in TLR-mediated inflammation. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge of the beneficial effects of immunobiotics in the regulation of intestinal inflammation/infection in cattle. Especially we discuss the role of TLRs and their negative regulators in both the inflammatory response nd the beneficial effects of immunobiotics in bovine IECs. This review article emphasizes the cellular and molecular interactions of immunobiotics with BIE cells through TLRs and gives the scientific basis for the development of immunomodulatory feed for bovine healthy development.

  3. Exogenous lysozyme influences Clostridium perfringens colonization and intestinal barrier function in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Guo, Yuming; Wang, Zhong; Yuan, Jianmin

    2010-02-01

    Necrotic enteritis is a worldwide poultry disease caused by the overgrowth of Clostridium perfringens in the small intestine. An experiment with a 2x2 factorial design (supplementation with or without 40 mg lysozyme/kg diet for chickens challenged with or without C. perfringens) was conducted to investigate the inhibitory efficacy of exogenous lysozyme against intestinal colonization by C. perfringens in chickens subject to oral inoculation of C. perfringens type A on days 17 to 20. The C. perfringens challenge resulted in significant increase of C. perfringens, Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus populations in the ileum, bacteria translocation to the spleen, the intestinal lesion scores , There was significantly lower intestinal lysozyme activity in the duodenum and jejunum and weight gain during days 14 to 28 of the experiment. The addition of exogenous lysozyme significantly reduced the concentration of C. perfringens in the ileum and the intestinal lesion scores, inhibited the overgrowth of E. coli and Lactobacillus in the ileum and intestinal bacteria translocation to the spleen, and improved intestinal lysozyme activity in the duodenum and the feed conversion ratio of chickens. These findings suggest that exogenous lysozyme could decrease C. perfringens colonization and improve intestinal barrier function and growth performance of chickens.

  4. Stages of Small Intestine Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... all of an organ that contains cancer. The resection may include the small intestine and nearby organs (if the cancer has spread). The doctor may remove the section of the small intestine that contains cancer and perform an anastomosis (joining the cut ends of the intestine together). ...

  5. Probiotic lactic acid bacteria ? the fledgling cuckoos of the gut?

    OpenAIRE

    Berstad, Arnold; Raa, Jan; Midtvedt, Tore; Valeur, J?rgen

    2016-01-01

    It is tempting to look at bacteria from our human egocentric point of view and label them as either ‘good’ or ‘bad’. However, a microbial society has its own system of government – ‘microcracy’ – and its own rules of play. Lactic acid bacteria are often referred to as representatives of the good ones, and there is little doubt that those belonging to the normal intestinal flora are beneficial for human health. But we should stop thinking of lactic acid bacteria as always being ‘friendly’ – th...

  6. Probiotic lactic acid bacteria - the fledgling cuckoos of the gut?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berstad, Arnold; Raa, Jan; Midtvedt, Tore; Valeur, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    It is tempting to look at bacteria from our human egocentric point of view and label them as either 'good' or 'bad'. However, a microbial society has its own system of government - 'microcracy' - and its own rules of play. Lactic acid bacteria are often referred to as representatives of the good ones, and there is little doubt that those belonging to the normal intestinal flora are beneficial for human health. But we should stop thinking of lactic acid bacteria as always being 'friendly' - they may instead behave like fledgling cuckoos.

  7. Facility Focus: Residence Halls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    College Planning & Management, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Describes four examples of residence hall design, one renovation and three new residence halls, that exemplify design principles that meet student and institutional requirements. The examples are at (1) the University of Illinois at Chicago; (2) Bowdoin College; (3) Muhlenberg College; and (4) Spring Arbor University. (SLD)

  8. Rain Forest Dance Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Dawn

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the author's experience as a dancer and choreographer artist-in-residence with third graders at a public elementary school, providing a cultural arts experience to tie in with a theme study of the rain forest. Details the residency and the insights she gained working with students, teachers, and theme. (SR)

  9. Intestinal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abdominal X-ray of patients 1, 3 and 4 demonstrated dilated small bowel loops with fluid levels in keeping with intestinal ... myxoid/vascular pattern characterised by a variable admixture of capillary-calibre blood vessels, .... in the present study had a past history of abdominal trauma or surgery. Ancillary histopathological ...

  10. Small intestine and microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Paul D

    2011-03-01

    To highlight the recent studies which have enhanced our appreciation of the composition of the microbiota in the human small intestine and its relevance to the health of the host. In the past number of years, the composition of the microorganisms present in our small intestines has been the subject of greater scrutiny than ever before. These investigations have been possible as a consequence of the development and utilization of new molecular tools which have revolutionized the field of microbial ecology and have focused predominantly on the small intestinal microbiota associated with pediatric celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome and pouchitis. The impact of invasive procedures, such as small bowel transplant, ileostomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis, on the ileal microbiota has also been investigated. The ever greater appreciation of the link between the small intestinal microbiota and the health status of the host has the potential to lead to the development of new strategies to alter this microbiota in a targeted way to prevent or treat specific disorders.

  11. Intestinal obstruction repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ileostomy and your diet Ileostomy - caring for your stoma Ileostomy - changing your pouch Ileostomy - discharge Ileostomy - what to ask your doctor Intestinal or bowel obstruction - discharge Low-fiber diet Surgical wound care - open Types of ileostomy When you have nausea ...

  12. adhesive intestinal obstruction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-06-01

    Jun 1, 2006 ... obstruction. Brit. I. Surg. 1998; 85: 1071-1074. The acute abdomen: Intestinal obstruction. In: Primary surgery, Vol. 1. Edited by Maurice King et al. Oxford. Med. PubL, Oxford. 1990; 142-169. Fluids and electrolyte management. In: Essentials of pediatric surgery. Edited by Marc Rowe et al. Mosby,. St. Louis ...

  13. Intestinal failure in childhood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) was one of the first recognised conditions of protracted IF. With the increasing and successful use of long-term PN during the last three decades, several other causes of IF have emerged. Long-term PN and home-PN are the mainstay of therapy, independent of the nature of “Intestinal failure” ...

  14. Psychologic effects of residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuben, D B

    1983-03-01

    The intense situational and physiologic stresses that accompany postgraduate training may have serious psychosocial ramifications. Although only a small proportion of residents have overt psychiatric illness, virtually all display some psychologic impairment. Contributing factors include life-changes, stresses associated with providing patient care, loss of social support, long working hours, sleep deprivation, and underlying personality traits of residents. The manifestations of this impairment are variable and may be subtle. In response to these problems, residency programs have taken steps to provide psychosocial support. Unfortunately, most programs do not offer formal support groups or seminars to discuss difficulties that accompany residency. Further definition of the psychosocial effects of residency may prompt changes that make the training of physicians a more humane process.

  15. Dead bacteria reverse antibiotic-induced host defense impairment in burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lee-Wei; Chen, Pei-Hsuan; Fung, Chang-Phone; Hsu, Ching-Mei

    2014-10-01

    Burn patients can incur high rates of hospital-acquired infections. The mechanism of antibiotic exposure on inducing infection vulnerability has not been determined. This study aimed to examine the effects of antibiotic treatment on host defense mechanisms. First we treated C57/BL6 mice with combined antibiotic treatment after 30% to 35% total body surface area burn. Animals were sacrificed at 48 hours after sham or thermal injury treatment. Bacterial counts in intestinal lumen and mucosa were measured. Next, we treated animals with or without oral dead Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus supplementation to stimulate Toll-like receptor in the intestinal mucosa. Toll-like receptor 4, antibacterial protein expression, nuclear factor (NF)-κB DNA-binding activity, and bacteria-killing activity in the intestinal mucosa; intestinal permeability; bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes; Klebsiella pneumoniae translocation; interleukin-6 in the blood; and phagocytic activity of alveolar macrophages, were assessed. Thermal injury increased microflora and NF-κB DNA-binding activity of the intestine. Systemic antibiotic treatment decreased gut microflora and increased bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes, intestinal permeability, and interleukin-6 levels in the blood. Antibiotic treatment also decreased bacteria-killing activity in intestinal mucosa and phagocytic activity of alveolar macrophages. Oral dead E coli and S aureus supplementation induced NF-κB DNA-binding activity, Toll-like receptor 4, and antibacterial protein expression of the intestinal mucosa. Taken together with the fact that dead bacteria reversed antibiotic-induced K pneumoniae translocation and intestinal and pulmonary defense impairment, we conclude that combined antibiotic treatment results in systemic host defense impairment in burns through the decrease in intestinal flora. We suggest that dead bacteria supplementation could induce nondefensin protein expression and

  16. Increased intestinal permeability correlates with sigmoid mucosa alpha-synuclein staining and endotoxin exposure markers in early Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B Forsyth

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder of aging. The pathological hallmark of PD is neuronal inclusions termed Lewy bodies whose main component is alpha-synuclein protein. The finding of these Lewy bodies in the intestinal enteric nerves led to the hypothesis that the intestine might be an early site of PD disease in response to an environmental toxin or pathogen. One potential mechanism for environmental toxin(s and proinflammatory luminal products to gain access to mucosal neuronal tissue and promote oxidative stress is compromised intestinal barrier integrity. However, the role of intestinal permeability in PD has never been tested. We hypothesized that PD subjects might exhibit increased intestinal permeability to proinflammatory bacterial products in the intestine. To test our hypothesis we evaluated intestinal permeability in subjects newly diagnosed with PD and compared their values to healthy subjects. In addition, we obtained intestinal biopsies from both groups and used immunohistochemistry to assess bacterial translocation, nitrotyrosine (oxidative stress, and alpha-synuclein. We also evaluated serum markers of endotoxin exposure including LPS binding protein (LBP. Our data show that our PD subjects exhibit significantly greater intestinal permeability (gut leakiness than controls. In addition, this intestinal hyperpermeability significantly correlated with increased intestinal mucosa staining for E. coli bacteria, nitrotyrosine, and alpha-synuclein as well as serum LBP levels in PD subjects. These data represent not only the first demonstration of abnormal intestinal permeability in PD subjects but also the first correlation of increased intestinal permeability in PD with intestinal alpha-synuclein (the hallmark of PD, as well as staining for gram negative bacteria and tissue oxidative stress. Our study may thus shed new light on PD pathogenesis as well as provide a new method for earlier

  17. Resurrecting the intestinal microbiota to combat antibiotic-resistant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamer, Eric G

    2016-04-29

    The intestinal microbiota, which is composed of diverse populations of commensal bacterial species, provides resistance against colonization and invasion by pathogens. Antibiotic treatment can damage the intestinal microbiota and, paradoxically, increase susceptibility to infections. Reestablishing microbiota-mediated colonization resistance after antibiotic treatment could markedly reduce infections, particularly those caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Ongoing studies are identifying commensal bacterial species that can be developed into next-generation probiotics to reestablish or enhance colonization resistance. These live medicines are at various stages of discovery, testing, and production and are being subjected to existing regulatory gauntlets for eventual introduction into clinical practice. The development of next-generation probiotics to reestablish colonization resistance and eliminate potential pathogens from the gut is warranted and will reduce health care-associated infections caused by highly antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. [Intestinal microbiota and cardiometabolic risk: mechanisms and diet modulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Ana Carolina Franco de; Silva, Isis Tande da; Almeida-Pititto, Bianca de; Ferreira, Sandra Roberta G

    2014-06-01

    The gut microbiota obtained after birth is composed of a large range of bacteria that play different roles in the human host, such as nutrient uptake, protection against pathogens and immune modulation. The intestinal bacterial content is not completely known, but it is influenced by internal, and mainly by external factors, which modulate its composition and function. Studies indicate that the gut microbiota differs in lean and obese individuals, and in individuals with different food habits. There is evidence that the relationship between diet, inflammation, insulin resistance, and cardiometabolic risk are, in part, mediated by the composition of intestinal bacteria. Knowledge about the gut microbiota may result in different strategies to manipulate bacterial populations and promote health. This review discusses the relevance of understanding the role of dietary factors or patterns in the composition of the microbiota, as well as pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic metabolic diseases, and the potential of prebiotics and probiotics on the cardiometabolic risk profile.

  19. Quantitative and qualitative study of intestinal flora in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ackground: In the neonatal period the developing intestinal barrier function provides a sub-optimal mucosal defense against infection. Establishment of the normal commensal micro-flora plays a vital role in this process. Aims: To determine aerobic and anaerobic bacteria by quantitative and qualitative methods from faecal samples of neonates. Settings and Design: A prospective study was carried out in two groups in a tertiary care hospital, Group A-comprised preterm infant and in group B-full term infants. Materials and Methods: Sixty two preterm infants with the weight 0.05. On day 21 there was a significant change in colonization of both bacterial sp (P < 0.05. Potential pathogenic aerobic bacteria dominate the intestinal flora of premature babies nursed in neonatal unit. There is a need to investigate interventions to offset this imbalance in gut micro-ecology of premature babies.

  20. Residents in difficulty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; O'Neill, Lotte; Hansen, Dorthe Høgh

    2016-01-01

    Background The majority of studies on prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty have been conducted in English-speaking countries and the existing literature may not reflect the prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty in other parts of the world such as the Scand......Background The majority of studies on prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty have been conducted in English-speaking countries and the existing literature may not reflect the prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty in other parts of the world...... such as the Scandinavian countries, where healthcare systems are slightly different. The aim of this study was to examine prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty in one out of three postgraduate medical training regions in Denmark, and to produce both a quantifiable overview and in-depth understanding...... of the topic. Methods We performed a mixed methods study. All regional residency program directors (N = 157) were invited to participate in an e-survey about residents in difficulty. Survey data were combined with database data on demographical characteristics of the background population (N = 2399...

  1. Prevalence of intestinal parasitosis and associated factors among the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Patrícia Honório Silva; Barros, Rita de Cássia Santos; Gomes, Kátia Virgínia Galvão; Nery, Adriana Alves; Casotti, Cezar Augusto

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To identify the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis and associated factors in elderly persons resident in the community. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed involving 236 elderly persons in Aiquara, in the state of Bahia, Brazil, in 2015. Data were collected through a coprological survey and a questionnaire for information relating to sociodemographic characteristics, health and lifestyle. The presence of parasites in stools was verified by the Hoffman method...

  2. Mechanisms of Cell Polarity-Controlled Epithelial Homeostasis and Immunity in the Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klunder, Leon J; Faber, Klaas Nico; Dijkstra, Gerard; van IJzendoorn, Sven C D

    2017-07-05

    Intestinal epithelial cell polarity is instrumental to maintain epithelial homeostasis and balance communications between the gut lumen and bodily tissue, thereby controlling the defense against gastrointestinal pathogens and maintenance of immune tolerance to commensal bacteria. In this review, we highlight recent advances with regard to the molecular mechanisms of cell polarity-controlled epithelial homeostasis and immunity in the human intestine. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  3. Fructokinase, Fructans, Intestinal Permeability, and Metabolic Syndrome: An Equine Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Richard J; Rivard, Chris; Lanaspa, Miguel A.; Otabachian-Smith, Silvia; Ishimoto, Takuji; Cicerchi, Christina; Cheeke, Peter R.; MacIntosh, Bridgett; Hess, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Fructose is a simple sugar present in honey and fruit, but can also exist as a polymer (fructans) in pasture grasses. Mammals are unable to metabolize fructans, but certain gram positive bacteria contain fructanases and can convert fructans to fructose in the gut. Recent studies suggest that fructose generated from bacteria, or directly obtained from the diet, can induce both increased intestinal permeability and features of metabolic syndrome, especially the development of insulin resistance. The development of insulin resistance is driven in part by the metabolism of fructose by fructokinase C in the liver, which results in oxidative stress in the hepatocyte. Similarly, the metabolism of fructose in the small bowel by intestinal fructokinase may lead to increased intestinal permeability and endotoxemia. While speculative, these observations raise the possibility that the mechanism by which fructans induce laminitis could involve intestinal and hepatic fructokinase. Further studies are indicated to determine the role of fructanases, fructose and fructokinase in equine metabolic syndrome and laminitis. PMID:23439477

  4. Methods for the cultivation of ciliated protozoa from the large intestine of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełżecki, Grzegorz; Miltko, Renata; Michałowski, Tadeusz; McEwan, Neil R

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes cultivation methods for ciliates from the digestive tract of horses. Members of three different genera were successfully grown in vitro for short periods of time. However, only cells belonging to the genus Blepharocorys, which resides in the horse's large intestine, were maintained for longer periods. This Blepharocorys culture was successfully grown in vitro after inoculation of freshly excreted horse faeces in culture medium containing a population of bacteria. The ciliates survived for over six months, and the density of their population varied between 1.7 × 10(3) and 2.4 × 10(3) cells mL(-1). Favourable conditions for the prolonged cultivation of this ciliate were observed when the medium was prepared by mixing horse faeces and 'caudatum' salt solution in a 1:1 V/V ratio together with food (60% powdered meadow hay, 16% wheat gluten, 12% barley flour and 12% microcrystalline cellulose) supplied as 0.20 mg mL(-1) culture per day. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Comprehensive postmortem analyses of intestinal microbiota changes and bacterial translocation in human flora associated mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus M Heimesaat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postmortem microbiological examinations are performed in forensic and medical pathology for defining uncertain causes of deaths and for screening of deceased tissue donors. Interpretation of bacteriological data, however, is hampered by false-positive results due to agonal spread of microorganisms, postmortem bacterial translocation, and environmental contamination. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a kinetic survey of naturally occurring postmortem gut flora changes in the small and large intestines of conventional and gnotobiotic mice associated with a human microbiota (hfa applying cultural and molecular methods. Sacrificed mice were kept under ambient conditions for up to 72 hours postmortem. Intestinal microbiota changes were most pronounced in the ileal lumen where enterobacteria and enterococci increased by 3-5 orders of magnitude in conventional and hfa mice. Interestingly, comparable intestinal overgrowth was shown in acute and chronic intestinal inflammation in mice and men. In hfa mice, ileal overgrowth with enterococci and enterobacteria started 3 and 24 hours postmortem, respectively. Strikingly, intestinal bacteria translocated to extra-intestinal compartments such as mesenteric lymphnodes, spleen, liver, kidney, and cardiac blood as early as 5 min after death. Furthermore, intestinal tissue destruction was characterized by increased numbers of apoptotic cells and neutrophils within 3 hours postmortem, whereas counts of proliferative cells as well as T- and B-lymphocytes and regulatory T-cells decreased between 3 and 12 hours postmortem. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that kinetics of ileal overgrowth with enterobacteria and enterococci in hfa mice can be used as an indicator for compromized intestinal functionality and for more precisely defining the time point of death under defined ambient conditions. The rapid translocation of intestinal bacteria starting within a few minutes after death will help

  6. Small intestinal transplantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M

    2012-02-03

    The past few years have witnessed a considerable shift in the clinical status of intestinal transplantation. A great deal of experience has been gained at the most active centers, and results comparable with those reported at a similar stage in the development of other solid-organ graft programs are now being achieved by these highly proficient transplant teams. Rejection and its inevitable associate, sepsis, remain ubiquitous, and new immunosuppressant regimes are urgently needed; some may already be on the near horizon. The recent success of isolated intestinal grafts, together with the mortality and morbidity attendant upon the development of advanced liver disease related to total parenteral nutrition, has prompted the bold proposal that patients at risk for this complication should be identified and should receive isolated small bowel grafts before the onset of end-stage hepatic failure. The very fact that such a suggestion has begun to emerge reflects real progress in this challenging field.

  7. Technology in Residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jordan

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the necessity for incorporating current technology in today's college residence halls to meet the more diverse and continued activities of its students. Technology addressed covers data networking and telecommunications, heating and cooling systems, and fire-safety systems. (GR)

  8. Bleach vs. Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Bleach vs. Bacteria By Sharon Reynolds Posted April 2, 2014 Your ... hypochlorous acid to help kill invading microbes, including bacteria. Researchers funded by the National Institutes of Health ...

  9. Application of a pig ligated intestinal loop model for early Lawsonia intracellularis infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boutrup, Torsten Snogdal; Schauser, Kirsten; Agerholm, Jørgen S

    2010-01-01

    (Enterisol® Ileitis Vet), and 3) vaccine bacteria propagated in cell culture. The bacteria-enterocyte interaction was visualised using immunohistochemistry on specimens derived 1, 3 and 6 h PI respectively. Results Although at a low level, close contact between bacteria and the enterocyte brush border...... including intracellular uptake of bacteria in mature enterocytes was seen at 3 and 6 h PI for the vaccine and the propagated vaccine inocula. Interaction between the wild-type bacteria and villus enterocytes was scarce and only seen at 6 h PI, where a few bacteria were found in close contact with the brush...... and that the bacterium, as shown for the vaccine bacteria, propagated as well as non-propagated, was able to invade mature enterocytes. Thus, the study demonstrates the early intestinal invasion of L. intracellularis in vivo....

  10. Satisfaction among residents in ASHP-accredited pharmacy residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDenBerg, C; Murphy, J E

    1997-07-01

    The level of work satisfaction among pharmacists in ASHP-accredited residencies was studied. In March 1996 a questionnaire designed to measure residency satisfaction was mailed to 697 individuals in ASHP-accredited pharmacy practice and specialty practice residencies. Subjects responded to 16 statements relating to intrinsic and extrinsic determinants of work satisfaction on a scale of 1 to 5, where 1 = strongly disagree and 5 = strongly agree. Questionnaires were returned by 413 (59%) of the residents. The respondents were predominantly women (76%), and most (86%) had at least a Pharm. D. degree. Hospitals were the primary work setting (88%). Of the 413 residents, 305 were in pharmacy practice residencies and 108 were in specialized residencies. None of the mean scores indicated disagreement (scores 3) with the negatively worded statements. The median and mode were equal to 2 (disagree) for the three negatively worded items and 4 (agree) for all but three positively worded items. Only 8% of the residents indicated that they would not accept the residency again if given the chance. Specialized residents tended to rate positively worded statements higher and negatively worded statements lower than pharmacy practice residents. Female residents indicated greater satisfaction than male residents. Pay and benefits were rated slightly better than neutral. Pharmacy residents appeared generally satisfied with their residencies. Specialized pharmacy residents were more satisfied than pharmacy practice residents, and women were more satisfied than men.

  11. The human intestinal microbiome: a new frontier of human biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Masahira; Taylor, Todd D

    2009-02-01

    To analyze the vast number and variety of microorganisms inhabiting the human intestine, emerging metagenomic technologies are extremely powerful. The intestinal microbes are taxonomically complex and constitute an ecologically dynamic community (microbiota) that has long been believed to possess a strong impact on human physiology. Furthermore, they are heavily involved in the maturation and proliferation of human intestinal cells, helping to maintain their homeostasis and can be causative of various diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease and obesity. A simplified animal model system has provided the mechanistic basis for the molecular interactions that occur at the interface between such microbes and host intestinal epithelia. Through metagenomic analysis, it is now possible to comprehensively explore the genetic nature of the intestinal microbiome, the mutually interacting system comprising the host cells and the residing microbial community. The human microbiome project was recently launched as an international collaborative research effort to further promote this newly developing field and to pave the way to a new frontier of human biology, which will provide new strategies for the maintenance of human health.

  12. MicroRNAs and the regulation of intestinal homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runtsch, Marah C; Round, June L; O'Connell, Ryan M

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian intestinal tract is a unique site in which a large portion of our immune system and the 10(14) commensal organisms that make up the microbiota reside in intimate contact with each other. Despite the potential for inflammatory immune responses, this complex interface contains host immune cells and epithelial cells interacting with the microbiota in a manner that promotes symbiosis. Due to the complexity of the cell types and microorganisms involved, this process requires elaborate regulatory mechanisms to ensure mutualism and prevent disease. While many studies have described critical roles for protein regulators of intestinal homeostasis, recent reports indicate that non-coding RNAs are also major contributors to optimal host-commensal interactions. In particular, there is emerging evidence that microRNAs (miRNAs) have evolved to fine tune host gene expression networks and signaling pathways that modulate cellular physiology in the intestinal tract. Here, we review our present knowledge of the influence miRNAs have on both immune and epithelial cell biology in the mammalian intestines and the impact this has on the microbiota. We also discuss a need for further studies to decipher the functions of specific miRNAs within the gut to better understand cellular mechanisms that promote intestinal homeostasis and to identify potential molecular targets underlying diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer.

  13. Applications of ribosomal in situ hybridization for the study of bacterial cells in the mouse intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Poulsen, Lars Kongsbak; Molin, Søren

    1997-01-01

    Localization of E. coli and S. typhimurium in the large and small intestine of streptomycin-treated mice was visualized by in situ hybridization with specific rRNA target probes and epi-fluorescence microscopy. Growth rates of E. coli BJ4 colonizing the large intestine of streptomycin-treated mice...... were estimated by quantitative hybridization. The ribosomal contents were measured in bacteria isolated from cecal mucus, cecal contents and feces and correlated with the ribosomal contents of bacteria growing in vitro with defined rates. The data suggest that E. coli BJ4 grows with an apparent...

  14. Effect of zinc bacitracin and salinomycin on intestinal microflora and performance of broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, R. M.; Hedemann, M.S.; Leser, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    were killed, and the contents of gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, ceca, and rectum were separately collected and pooled. In all intestinal segments, the pH and the concentration of lactic acid were measured, and the numbers of anaerobic bacteria, coliforms, lactic acid bacteria, lactobacilli...... as Lactobacillus salivarius, which was a dominant lactic acid bacterium found in broiler intestinal contents. High numbers of these lactobacilli may play a role in broiler growth depression related to competition in nutrient uptake or impaired fat absorption due to bile acid deconjugation....

  15. The role of intestinal microbiota and the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchiaroni, F; Tortora, A; Gabrielli, M; Bertucci, F; Gigante, G; Ianiro, G; Ojetti, V; Scarpellini, E; Gasbarrini, A

    2013-02-01

    The human gut is an ecosystem consisting of a great number of commensal bacteria living in symbiosis with the host. Several data confirm that gut microbiota is engaged in a dynamic interaction with the intestinal innate and adaptive immune system, affecting different aspects of its development and function. To review the immunological functions of gut microbiota and improve knowledge of its therapeutic implications for several intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases associated to dysregulation of the immune system. Significant articles were identified by literature search and selected based on content, including atopic diseases, inflammatory bowel diseases and treatment of these conditions with probiotics. Accumulating evidence indicates that intestinal microflora has protective, metabolic, trophic and immunological functions and is able to establish a "cross-talk" with the immune component of mucosal immunity, comprising cellular and soluble elements. When one or more steps in this fine interaction fail, autoimmune or auto-inflammatory diseases may occur. Furthermore, it results from the data that probiotics, used for the treatment of the diseases caused by the dysregulation of the immune system, can have a beneficial effect by different mechanisms. Gut microbiota interacts with both innate and adaptive immune system, playing a pivotal role in maintenance and disruption of gut immune quiescence. A cross talk between the mucosal immune system and endogenous microflora favours a mutual growth, survival and inflammatory control of the intestinal ecosystem. Based on these evidences, probiotics can be used as an ecological therapy in the treatment of immune diseases.  

  16. Small intestinal cytochromes P450.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, L S; Fasco, M J

    1991-01-01

    Small intestinal cytochromes P450 (P450) provide the principal, initial source of biotransformation of ingested xenobiotics. The consequences of such biotransformation are detoxification by facilitating excretion, or toxification by bioactivation. P450s occur at highest concentrations in the duodenum, near the pylorus, and at decreasing concentrations distally--being lowest in the ileum. Highest concentrations occur from midvillus to villous tip, with little or none occurring in the crypts of Lieberkuehn. Microsomal P4503A, 2C8-10, and 2D6 forms have been identified in human small intestine, and P450s 2B1, possibly 2B2, 2A1, and 3A1/2 were located in endoplasmic reticulum of rodent small intestine, while P4502B4 has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from rabbit intestine. Some evidence indicates a differential distribution of P450 forms along the length of the small intestine and even along the villus. Rat intestinal P450s are inducible by xenobiotics--with phenobarbital (PB) inducing P4502B1, 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) inducing P4501A1, and dexamethasone inducing two forms of P4503A. Induction is most effectively achieved by oral administration of the agents, and is rapid--aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) was increased within 1 h of administration of, for example, 3-MC. AHH, 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECOD), and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) have been used most frequently as substrates to characterize intestinal P450s. Dietary factors affect intestinal P450s markedly--iron restriction rapidly decreased intestinal P450 to beneath detectable values; selenium deficiency acted similarly but was less effective; Brussels sprouts increased intestinal AHH activity 9.8-fold, ECOD activity 3.2-fold, and P450 1.9-fold; fried meat and dietary fat significantly increased intestinal EROD activity; a vitamin A-deficient diet increased, and a vitamin A-rich diet decreased intestinal P450 activities; and excess cholesterol in the diet increased intestinal

  17. PNEUMONIA IN NURSING HOME RESIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Eržen

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pneumonia remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in advanced age. Prognosis of the disease depends on premorbid condition and immune competence of the patient, severity of the disease and causative microorganism. In our analysis we wanted to establish clinical, x-ray and microbiological characteristics of pneumonia in nursing home residents, estimate suitability of therapeutic measures and find out risk factors for adverse outcome in this group of patients.Material and methods. This retrospective study includes all nursing home residents hospitalised due to CAP in Hospital Golnik in 2000. Clinical data was/were evaluated according to case history. Microbiological data and laboratory results were gathered from the patients files. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis.Results. 30 patients, 17 women were included, aged 82.5 ± 11.7 years. 60% of patients had at least 2 accompanying diseases, most frequently cardiovascular and neurologic diseases. At admittance 83% of patients presented with severe form of the disease. Dispnea (93%, tachypnea, cough (67% and confusion (47% dominate clinical picture. Patients rarely expectorate, are frequently hypoxemic (93%, have leucocytosis (63%, electrolyte disturbances and elevated urea (67%. According to the microbiologic results most frequent causative agents are Enterobacteriae, S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and also some multiresistant bacteria. Amoxycillin with clavulanic acid was the most frequently used antibiotic, followed by macrolides and 3rd generation cephalosporines.9 patients died, mortality rate was 30%. Their average age was 83,4 years, 67% of them had more than 2 accompanying diseases, all of them severe form of the disease, 89% severe respiratory insufficiency and 22% positive hemoculture.Conclusions. Patients are characterised with numerous comorbidities and advanced age. Clinical presentation is unspecific. Mortality is high

  18. Burnout Syndrome During Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Namigar; Karacalar, Serap; Polat, Cengiz; Kıran, Özlem; Gültop, Fethi; Kalyon, Seray Türkmen; Sinoğlu, Betül; Zincirci, Mehmet; Kaya, Ender

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is identified the degree of Burnout Syndrome (BOS) and find out its correlation with years of recidency and sociodemograpfic chareacteristics, training, sleeping habits, such as smoking and alcohol consumption. After approval from the Hospital Ethics Committee and obtaining informed consent, First, second, third, fourth and fifth year of recidency staff (n=127) working in our hospital were involved in this study. The standardized Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used in this study. Fifty six male (44.1%) and seventy one female (55.9%) residents were enroled in this study (Coranbach Alfa(α)=0.873). 57% of the first year residents smokes cigaret and 54% of them use alcohol. 2% of them gets one day off after hospital night shift, 61% of them suffers from disturbed sleep. 60% of them had been stated that they willingly selected their profession. 61% of them prefers talking to friends and 32% of them prefers shopping to overcome stress. There were statistical difference acording to years of recidency in MBI, Emotional Burnout (EB) and desensitisation scale (DS) points. EB scale points of the second year of residency group was statisticaly higher than fourth year of residency group. DS points of second year of residency group was also statisticaly higher than the third and fourth year of residency group. There was no statistical difference between any groups in Personal Success. BOS is a frequent problem during residency in anaesthesia. Appropriate definition and awareness are the first important steps to prevent this syndrome. Further administrative approaches should be evaluated with regard to their effects.

  19. Significance and Roles of Proteus spp. Bacteria in Natural Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzewiecka, Dominika

    2016-11-01

    Proteus spp. bacteria were first described in 1885 by Gustav Hauser, who had revealed their feature of intensive swarming growth. Currently, the genus is divided into Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus penneri, Proteus hauseri, and three unnamed genomospecies 4, 5, and 6 and consists of 80 O-antigenic serogroups. The bacteria are known to be human opportunistic pathogens, isolated from urine, wounds, and other clinical sources. It is postulated that intestines are a reservoir of these proteolytic organisms. Many wild and domestic animals may be hosts of Proteus spp. bacteria, which are commonly known to play a role of parasites or commensals. However, interesting examples of their symbiotic relationships with higher organisms have also been described. Proteus spp. bacteria present in soil or water habitats are often regarded as indicators of fecal pollution, posing a threat of poisoning when the contaminated water or seafood is consumed. The health risk may also be connected with drug-resistant strains sourcing from intestines. Positive aspects of the bacteria presence in water and soil are connected with exceptional features displayed by autochthonic Proteus spp. strains detected in these environments. These rods acquire various metabolic abilities allowing their adaptation to different environmental conditions, such as high concentrations of heavy metals or toxic substances, which may be exploited as sources of energy and nutrition by the bacteria. The Proteus spp. abilities to tolerate or utilize polluting compounds as well as promote plant growth provide a possibility of employing these microorganisms in bioremediation and environmental protection.

  20. Lipo sarcoma in small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Iglesias, J.; Pineyro Gutierrez, A.; Taroco Medeiros, L.; Fein Kolodny, C.; Navarrete Pedocchi, H.

    1987-01-01

    A case is presented by primitive liposarcoma in small intestine , an extensive bibliographical review foreigner and national in this case. It detach the exceptional of the intestinal topography of the liposarcomas; and making stress in the relative value of the computerized tomography and ultrasonography in the diagnose of the small intestine tumors . As well as in the sarcomas of another topography, chemo and radiotherapy associated to the exeresis surgery, it can be of benefit [es

  1. Analysis of Resident Case Logs in an Anesthesiology Residency Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamamoto, Satoshi; Tanaka, Pedro; Madsen, Matias Vested

    2016-01-01

    Our goal in this study was to examine Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education case logs for Stanford anesthesia residents graduating in 2013 (25 residents) and 2014 (26 residents). The resident with the fewest recorded patients in 2013 had 43% the number of patients compared with the...

  2. Residents as teachers: survey of Canadian family medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Victor K; Burke, Clarissa A; Narula, Archna

    2013-09-01

    To examine Canadian family medicine residents' perspectives surrounding teaching opportunities and mentorship in teaching. A 16-question online survey. Canadian family medicine residency programs. Between May and June 2011, all first- and second-year family medicine residents registered in 1 of the 17 Canadian residency programs as of September 2010 were invited to participate. A total of 568 of 2266 residents responded. Demographic characteristics, teaching opportunities during residency, and resident perceptions about teaching. A total of 77.7% of family medicine residents indicated that they were either interested or highly interested in teaching as part of their future careers, and 78.9% of family medicine residents had had opportunities to teach in various settings. However, only 60.1% of respondents were aware of programs within residency intended to support residents as teachers, and 33.0% of residents had been observed during teaching encounters. It appears that most Canadian family medicine residents have the opportunity to teach during their residency training. Many are interested in integrating teaching as part of their future career goals. Family medicine residencies should strongly consider programs to support and further develop resident teaching skills.

  3. THE EFFECT OF CEFTRIAXONE ON THE ANAEROBIC BACTERIAL-FLORA AND THE BACTERIAL ENZYMATIC-ACTIVITY IN THE INTESTINAL-TRACT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WELLING, GW; MEIJERSEVERS, GJ; HELMUS, G; VANSANTEN, E; TONK, RHJ; DEVRIESHOSPERS, HG; VANDERWAAIJ, D

    1991-01-01

    The normal flora of the intestinal tract, mainly consisting of anaerobic bacteria, protects the host against colonization by pathogenic microorganisms. Antimicrobial treatment with ceftriaxone may influence the colonic microflora and as a consequence, the protective effect. Ten healthy volunteers

  4. [Pharyngeal bacteria and professional oral health care in elderly people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, K; Yoneyama, T; Ota, M; Hashimoto, K; Miyake, Y

    1997-02-01

    In 15 elderly residents of an old-age home, we measured the total number of bacteria and the numbers of streptococci and staphylococci in the pharynx over 5 months. Seven residents received professional oral health care from dentists and dental hygienists and eight practiced oral care by themselves or together with a helper. During the 5 months, the total number of bacteria and the numbers of streptococci and staphylococci decreased (p professional care. In contrast, the total number of bacteria and the numbers of streptococci and staphylococci neither did not change or increased in those who did not receive professional care. These findings show that professional oral health care by dentists and dental hygienists can decrease the total number of bacteria and the numbers of streptococci and staphylococci in the pharynx of elderly people, which might prevent aspiration pneumonia.

  5. Effects of probiotics and antibiotics on the intestinal homeostasis in a computer controlled model of the large intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehman Ateequr

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotic associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile infection are frequent complications of broad spectrum antibiotic therapy. Probiotic bacteria are used as therapeutic and preventive agents in these disorders, but the exact functional mechanisms and the mode of action are poorly understood. The effects of clindamycin and the probiotic mixture VSL#3 (containing the 8 bacterial strains Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium infantis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus consecutively or in combination were investigated and compared to controls without therapy using a standardized human fecal microbiota in a computer-controlled in vitro model of large intestine. Microbial metabolites (short chain fatty acids, lactate, branched chain fatty acids, and ammonia and the intestinal microbiota were analyzed. Results Compared to controls and combination therapy, short chain fatty acids and lactate, but also ammonia and branched chain fatty acids, were increased under probiotic therapy. The metabolic pattern under combined therapy with antibiotics and probiotics had the most beneficial and consistent effect on intestinal metabolic profiles. The intestinal microbiota showed a decrease in several indigenous bacterial groups under antibiotic therapy, there was no significant recovery of these groups when the antibiotic therapy was followed by administration of probiotics. Simultaneous application of anti- and probiotics had a stabilizing effect on the intestinal microbiota with increased bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Conclusions Administration of VSL#3 parallel with the clindamycin therapy had a beneficial and stabilizing effect on the intestinal metabolic homeostasis by decreasing toxic metabolites and protecting the endogenic microbiota from destruction. Probiotics could be a reasonable

  6. Hereditary intestinal polyposis syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, P A

    1996-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world, with overall mortality exceeding 40% even with treatment. Effective efforts for screening and prevention are most likely to succeed in patient groups identified as high risk for colorectal cancer, most notably the hereditary intestinal polyposis syndromes. In these syndromes, benign polyps develop throughout the intestinal tract prior to the development of colorectal cancer, marking the patient and associated family for precancer diagnosis followed by either close surveillance or preventive treatment. This review article was undertaken to discuss the most recent developments in the knowledge of hereditary intestinal polyposis syndromes, emphasizing the clinical approach to diagnosis and treatment relative to preventing the development of cancer. The most common of the hereditary polyposis syndromes is familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), which is characterized by the development of hundreds to thousands of adenomatous polyps in the colon followed at an early age by colorectal cancer. Colorectal cancer can be prevented in this autosomal dominant condition by prophylactic colectomy, though a risk for other tumors, including periampullary cancers, remains throughout life. Variant of FAP associated with fewer and smaller polyps (hereditary flat adenoma syndrome), or even CNS tumors (Turcot's syndrome) also carry this high risk of colorectal cancer. Hereditary hamartomatous polyposis syndromes such as juvenile polyposis and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (also autosomal dominant) are characterized by less frequent polyps. Though these are generally benign polyps, they are also associated with a significant risk of colorectal and other cancers. Other polyposis syndromes, including neurofibromatosis and Cowden's disease, do not carry this increased risk of colorectal cancer, and therefore affect different treatment strategies. Analysis of genetic factors responsible for these and other hereditary syndromes with

  7. Immunological Consequences of Intestinal Fungal Dysbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Matthew L; Limon, Jose J; Bar, Agnieszka S; Leal, Christian A; Gargus, Matthew; Tang, Jie; Brown, Jordan; Funari, Vincent A; Wang, Hanlin L; Crother, Timothy R; Arditi, Moshe; Underhill, David M; Iliev, Iliyan D

    2016-06-08

    Compared to bacteria, the role of fungi within the intestinal microbiota is poorly understood. In this study we investigated whether the presence of a "healthy" fungal community in the gut is important for modulating immune function. Prolonged oral treatment of mice with antifungal drugs resulted in increased disease severity in acute and chronic models of colitis, and also exacerbated the development of allergic airway disease. Microbiota profiling revealed restructuring of fungal and bacterial communities. Specifically, representation of Candida spp. was reduced, while Aspergillus, Wallemia, and Epicoccum spp. were increased. Oral supplementation with a mixture of three fungi found to expand during antifungal treatment (Aspergillus amstelodami, Epicoccum nigrum, and Wallemia sebi) was sufficient to recapitulate the exacerbating effects of antifungal drugs on allergic airway disease. Taken together, these results indicate that disruption of commensal fungal populations can influence local and peripheral immune responses and enhance relevant disease states. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Modulatory effect of intestinal polyamines and trace amines on the spontaneous phasic contractions of the isolated ileum and colon rings of mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Fernández, Manuel; Suárez García, Lorena; Andrés, María Teresa; Henar Flórez, Blanca; Bordallo Landa, Javier; Riestra, Sabino; Cantabrana Plaza, Begoña

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Gastrointestinal motility modulatory factors include substances of the intestinal content, such as polyamines and trace amines (TAs), the focus of this study. Methods: The amines of food, intestinal content and from faecal bacteria of Swiss mice were determined by HPLC and functionally characterised in isolated distal ileum and medial colon rings. Results: Mouse food and intestinal content contain polyamines (spermidine>putrescine>spermine) and TAs (isoamylamine>cadaverin...

  9. Intestinal parasites : associations with intestinal and systemic inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zavala, Gerardo A; García, Olga P; Camacho, Mariela; Ronquillo, Dolores; Campos-Ponce, Maiza; Doak, Colleen; Polman, Katja; Rosado, Jorge L

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: Evaluate associations between intestinal parasitic infection with intestinal and systemic inflammatory markers in school-aged children with high rates of obesity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma concentrations of CRP, leptin, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 were measured as systemic inflammation markers and

  10. Effect of Functional Oligosaccharides and Ordinary Dietary Fiber on Intestinal Microbiota Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weiwei; Lu, Jing; Li, Boxing; Lin, Weishi; Zhang, Zheng; Wei, Xiao; Sun, Chengming; Chi, Mingguo; Bi, Wei; Yang, Bingjun; Jiang, Aimin; Yuan, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Functional oligosaccharides, known as prebiotics, and ordinary dietary fiber have important roles in modulating the structure of intestinal microbiota. To investigate their effects on the intestinal microecosystem, three kinds of diets containing different prebiotics were used to feed mice for 3 weeks, as follows: GI (galacto-oligosaccharides and inulin), PF (polydextrose and insoluble dietary fiber from bran), and a GI/PF mixture (GI and PF, 1:1), 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metabolic analysis of mice feces were then conducted. Compared to the control group, the different prebiotics diets had varying effects on the structure and diversity of intestinal microbiota. GI and PF supplementation led to significant changes in intestinal microbiota, including an increase of Bacteroides and a decrease of Alloprevotella in the GI-fed, but those changes were opposite in PF fed group. Intriguing, in the GI/PF mixture-fed group, intestinal microbiota had the similar structure as the control groups, and flora diversity was upregulated. Fecal metabolic profiling showed that the diversity of intestinal microbiota was helpful in maintaining the stability of fecal metabolites. Our results showed that a single type of oligosaccharides or dietary fiber caused the reduction of bacteria species, and selectively promoted the growth of Bacteroides or Alloprevotella bacteria, resulting in an increase in diamine oxidase (DAO) and/or trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) values which was detrimental to health. However, the flora diversity was improved and the DAO values was significantly decreased when the addition of nutritionally balanced GI/PF mixture. Thus, we suggested that maintaining microbiota diversity and the abundance of dominant bacteria in the intestine is extremely important for the health, and that the addition of a combination of oligosaccharides and dietary fiber helps maintain the health of the intestinal microecosystem.

  11. RECOVERY OF MURINE MYELOPOIESIS AFTER CYTOSTATIC REDUCTION BY ARA-C - EFFECT OF BACITRACIN-INDUCED CHANGES IN THE INTESTINAL MICROFLORA AND INFLUENCE OF TIMING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DAENEN, S; GORIS, H; DEBOER, F; HALIE, MR; VANDERWAAIJ, D

    1991-01-01

    The influence of intestinal flora modulation by oral bacitracin on the recovery of myelopoiesis after Ara-C was studied in C3H/Law mice. Bacitracin resulted in a 3-5 log increase of Gram-negative bacteria and a 10-fold increase of the intestinal endotoxin concentration. Initiation of bacitracin

  12. Intestinal microbiota, probiotics and human gastrointestinal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Antonella; Russo, Francesco

    2013-06-01

    Cancers of the gastrointestinal tract account for 25 % of all cancers and for 9 % of all causes of cancer death in the world, so gastrointestinal cancers represent a major health problem. In the past decades, an emerging role has been attributed to the interactions between the gastrointestinal content and the onset of neoplasia. Thus, exogenous microbial administration of peculiar bacterial strains (probiotics) has been suggested as having a profound influence on multiple processes associated with a change in cancer risk. Probiotics are mono or mixed cultures of live microorganisms that might beneficially affect the host by improving the characteristics of indigenous microflora. Although the effects of probiotic administration has been intensively investigated in vitro, in animal models, in healthy volunteers, and in some human gastrointestinal diseases, very little is still known about the possible cross-interactions among probiotic administration, changes of intestinal flora, and the neoplastic transformation of gastrointestinal mucosa. Theoretically, probiotics are able to reduce cancer risk by a number of mechanisms: (a) binding and degradation of potential carcinogens; (b) quantitative, qualitative and metabolic alterations of the intestinal microflora; (c) production of anti-tumorigenic or anti-mutagenic compounds; (d) competitive action towards pathogenic bacteria; (e) enhancement of the host's immune response; (f) direct effects on cell proliferation. This review will attempt to highlight the literature on the most widely recognized effects of probiotics against neoplastic transformation of gastrointestinal mucosa and in particular on their effects on cell proliferation.

  13. Influence of radiotherapy on intestinal microflora in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzolin, L; Zambreri, D; Donini, M; Griso, C; Benoni, G

    1992-06-01

    We investigated in 15 patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix or endometrium, who were undergoing postoperative radiation therapy, the effects of different fractionated radiation exposures on counts of fecal bacteria, on the growth of Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin production. We observed a generally significant decrease in intestinal microflora after the first radiation exposure, whereas at the end of radiotherapy all bacteria increased and reached basal values except Enterococcus faecium 1, lactobacilli and total anaerobes. In some patients we observed an overgrowth of some Clostridium spp. which were potential pathogens associated with clinical symptoms. We did not observe an influence of multiple radiations on C. perfringens enterotoxin fecal contents. We conclude that patients receiving radiotherapy may benefit from the intake of oral bacteriotherapy, i.e. live beneficial bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis at the beginning of the irradiation exposure.

  14. Negative regulation of Toll-like receptor signaling plays an essential role in homeostasis of the intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Amlan; Wilmanski, Jeanette; Forsman, Huamei; Hrncir, Tomas; Hao, Liming; Tlaskalova-Hogenova, Helena; Kobayashi, Koichi S

    2011-01-01

    A healthy intestinal tract is characterized by controlled homeostasis due to the balanced interaction between commensal bacteria and the host mucosal immune system. Human and animal model studies have supported the hypothesis that breakdown of this homeostasis may underlie the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. However, it is not well understood how intestinal microflora stimulate the intestinal mucosal immune system and how such activation is regulated. Using a spontaneous, commensal bacteria-dependent colitis model in IL-10-deficient mice, we investigated the role of TLR and their negative regulation in intestinal homeostasis. In addition to IL-10(-/-) MyD88(-/-) mice, IL-10(-/-) TLR4(-/-) mice exhibited reduced colitis compared to IL-10(-/-) mice, indicating that TLR4 signaling plays an important role in inducing colitis. Interestingly, the expression of IRAK-M, a negative regulator of TLR signaling, is dependent on intestinal commensal flora, as IRAK-M expression was reduced in mice re-derived into a germ-free environment, and introduction of commensal bacteria into germ-free mice induced IRAK-M expression. IL-10(-/-) IRAK-M(-/-) mice exhibited exacerbated colitis with increased inflammatory cytokine gene expression. Therefore, this study indicates that intestinal microflora stimulate the colitogenic immune system through TLR and negative regulation of TLR signaling is essential in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Cytokines and intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamias, Giorgos; Cominelli, Fabio

    2016-11-01

    Cytokines of the intestinal microenvironment largely dictate immunological responses after mucosal insults and the dominance of homeostatic or proinflammatory pathways. This review presents important recent studies on the role of specific cytokines in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation. The particular mucosal effects of cytokines depend on their inherent properties but also the cellular origin, type of stimulatory antigens, intermolecular interactions, and the particular immunological milieu. Novel cytokines of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) family, including IL-33 and IL-36, have dominant roles in mucosal immunity, whereas more established ones such as IL-18 are constantly enriched with unique properties. Th17 cells are important mucosal constituents, although their profound plasticity, makes the specific set of cytokines they secrete more important than their mere numbers. Finally, various cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-like cytokine 1A, and death receptor, 3 demonstrate dichotomous roles with mucosa-protective function in acute injury but proinflammatory effects during chronic inflammation. The role of cytokines in mucosal health and disease is increasingly revealed. Such information not only will advance our understanding of the pathogenesis of gut inflammation, but also set the background for development of reliable diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and cytokine-specific therapies.

  16. Activation of intestinal epithelial Stat3 orchestrates tissue defense during gastrointestinal infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Wittkopf

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal infections with EHEC and EPEC are responsible for outbreaks of diarrheal diseases and represent a global health problem. Innate first-line-defense mechanisms such as production of mucus and antimicrobial peptides by intestinal epithelial cells are of utmost importance for host control of gastrointestinal infections. For the first time, we directly demonstrate a critical role for Stat3 activation in intestinal epithelial cells upon infection of mice with Citrobacter rodentium - a murine pathogen that mimics human infections with attaching and effacing Escherichia coli. C. rodentium induced transcription of IL-6 and IL-22 in gut samples of mice and was associated with activation of the transcription factor Stat3 in intestinal epithelial cells. C. rodentium infection induced expression of several antimicrobial peptides such as RegIIIγ and Pla2g2a in the intestine which was critically dependent on Stat3 activation. Consequently, mice with specific deletion of Stat3 in intestinal epithelial cells showed increased susceptibility to C. rodentium infection as indicated by high bacterial load, severe gut inflammation, pronounced intestinal epithelial cell death and dissemination of bacteria to distant organs. Together, our data implicate an essential role for Stat3 activation in intestinal epithelial cells during C. rodentium infection. Stat3 concerts the host response to bacterial infection by controlling bacterial growth and suppression of apoptosis to maintain intestinal epithelial barrier function.

  17. Resident fatigue in otolaryngology residents: a Web based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nida, Andrew M; Googe, Benjamin J; Lewis, Andrea F; May, Warren L

    2016-01-01

    Resident fatigue has become a point of emphasis in medical education and its effects on otolaryngology residents and their patients require further study. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the prevalence and nature of fatigue in otolaryngology residents, evaluate various quality of life measures, and investigate associations of increased fatigue with resident safety. Anonymous survey. Internet based. United States allopathic otolaryngology residents. None. The survey topics included demographics, residency structure, sleep habits and perceived stress. Responses were correlated with a concurrent Epworth Sleep Scale questionnaire to evaluate effects of fatigue on resident training and quality of life. 190 residents responded to the survey with 178 completing the Epworth Sleep Scale questionnaire. Results revealed a mean Epworth Sleep Scale score of 9.9±5.1 with a median of 10.0 indicating a significant number of otolaryngology residents are excessively sleepy. Statistically significant correlations between Epworth Sleep Scale and sex, region, hours of sleep, and work hours were found. Residents taking in-house call had significantly fewer hours of sleep compared to home call (p=0.01). Residents on "head and neck" (typically consisting of a large proportion of head and neck oncologic surgery) rotations tended to have higher Epworth Sleep Scale and had significantly fewer hours of sleep (p=.003) and greater work hours (potolaryngology residents are excessively sleepy. Our data suggest that the effects of fatigue play a role in resident well-being and resident safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hippo signalling directs intestinal fate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    le Bouteiller, Marie Catherine M; Jensen, Kim Bak

    2015-01-01

    Hippo signalling has been associated with many important tissue functions including the regulation of organ size. In the intestinal epithelium differing functions have been proposed for the effectors of Hippo signalling, YAP and TAZ1. These are now shown to have a dual role in the intestinal epit...

  19. MDCT in blunt intestinal trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Stefania [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A.Cardarelli' Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy)]. E-mail: stefromano@libero.it; Scaglione, Mariano [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A.Cardarelli' Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy); Tortora, Giovanni [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A.Cardarelli' Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy); Martino, Antonio [Trauma Center, ' A.Cardarelli' Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy); Di Pietto, Francesco [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A.Cardarelli' Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy); Romano, Luigia [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A.Cardarelli' Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy); Grassi, Roberto [Department ' Magrassi-Lanzara' , Section of Radiology, Second University of Naples, 80138 Naples (Italy)

    2006-09-15

    Injuries to the small and large intestine from blunt trauma represent a defined clinical entity, often not easy to correctly diagnose in emergency but extremely important for the therapeutic assessment of patients. This article summarizes the MDCT spectrum of findings in intestinal blunt lesions, from functional disorders to hemorrhage and perforation.

  20. MDCT in blunt intestinal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Stefania; Scaglione, Mariano; Tortora, Giovanni; Martino, Antonio; Di Pietto, Francesco; Romano, Luigia; Grassi, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    Injuries to the small and large intestine from blunt trauma represent a defined clinical entity, often not easy to correctly diagnose in emergency but extremely important for the therapeutic assessment of patients. This article summarizes the MDCT spectrum of findings in intestinal blunt lesions, from functional disorders to hemorrhage and perforation

  1. Transmural intestinal wall permeability in severe ischemia after enteral protease inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina E Altshuler

    Full Text Available In intestinal ischemia, inflammatory mediators in the small intestine's lumen such as food byproducts, bacteria, and digestive enzymes leak into the peritoneal space, lymph, and circulation, but the mechanisms by which the intestinal wall permeability initially increases are not well defined. We hypothesize that wall protease activity (independent of luminal proteases and apoptosis contribute to the increased transmural permeability of the intestine's wall in an acutely ischemic small intestine. To model intestinal ischemia, the proximal jejunum to the distal ileum in the rat was excised, the lumen was rapidly flushed with saline to remove luminal contents, sectioned into equal length segments, and filled with a tracer (fluorescein in saline, glucose, or protease inhibitors. The transmural fluorescein transport was determined over 2 hours. Villi structure and epithelial junctional proteins were analyzed. After ischemia, there was increased transmural permeability, loss of villi structure, and destruction of epithelial proteins. Supplementation with luminal glucose preserved the epithelium and significantly attenuated permeability and villi damage. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP inhibitors (doxycycline, GM 6001, and serine protease inhibitor (tranexamic acid in the lumen, significantly reduced the fluorescein transport compared to saline for 90 min of ischemia. Based on these results, we tested in an in-vivo model of hemorrhagic shock (90 min 30 mmHg, 3 hours observation for intestinal lesion formation. Single enteral interventions (saline, glucose, tranexamic acid did not prevent intestinal lesions, while the combination of enteral glucose and tranexamic acid prevented lesion formation after hemorrhagic shock. The results suggest that apoptotic and protease mediated breakdown cause increased permeability and damage to the intestinal wall. Metabolic support in the lumen of an ischemic intestine with glucose reduces the transport from the lumen

  2. Genomics of Probiotic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flaherty, Sarah; Goh, Yong Jun; Klaenhammer, Todd R.

    Probiotic bacteria from the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species belong to the Firmicutes and the Actinobacteria phylum, respectively. Lactobacilli are members of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) group, a broadly defined family of microorganisms that ferment various hexoses into primarily lactic acid. Lactobacilli are typically low G + C gram-positive species which are phylogenetically diverse, with over 100 species documented to date. Bifidobacteria are heterofermentative, high G + C content bacteria with about 30 species of bifidobacteria described to date.

  3. What causes the spatial heterogeneity of bacterial flora in the intestine of zebrafish larvae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinyou; Shimogonya, Yuji; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2018-06-07

    Microbial flora in the intestine has been thoroughly investigated, as it plays an important role in the health of the host. Jemielita et al. (2014) showed experimentally that Aeromonas bacteria in the intestine of zebrafish larvae have a heterogeneous spatial distribution. Although bacterial aggregation is important biologically and clinically, there is no mathematical model describing the phenomenon and its mechanism remains largely unknown. In this study, we developed a computational model to describe the heterogeneous distribution of bacteria in the intestine of zebrafish larvae. The results showed that biological taxis could cause the bacterial aggregation. Intestinal peristalsis had the effect of reducing bacterial aggregation through mixing function. Using a scaling argument, we showed that the taxis velocity of bacteria must be larger than the sum of the diffusive velocity and background bulk flow velocity to induce bacterial aggregation. Our model and findings will be useful to further the scientific understanding of intestinal microbial flora. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Epidemiology aspects intestinal parasitosis among the population of Baku].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalafli, Kh N

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in Baku and to evaluate its association with socio-economic and environmental factors. In the research 424 residents of Baku were investigated. Intestinal helminths and protozoosis were revealed by means of Standard methods of investigation (A.A.Turdiev (1967), K.Kato, M.Miura (1954) and C.Graham (1941) in modification variants R.E.Cobanov et al. (1993)). Data were analyzed using Student's t criterion and Van der Varden's X criterion. Total cases of infectious-contagious disease was about of 42,5+/-2,4% of investigated persons; ascaris, trichocephalus, trichostrongylus was found in 19,1+/-1,9% (p>0,001). There were some persons infected with Taeniarhynchus saginatus (mainly women)- 0,9+/-0,4% (p>0,001). In children the frequency of accompanying diseases was 2,15-4,3 times (X=5,19, pintestinal parasites among residents were investigated. The investigation showed that the current socio economic conditions have caused the increase of intestinal parasitosis. If left untreated, serious complications may occur due to parasitic infections. Therefore, public health care employee as well as the officers of municipality and government should cooperate to improve the conditions, and also people should be informed about the signs, symptoms and prevention methods of the parasitic diseases.

  5. Identification of Anaerobic Bacteria in Iranian patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahb Shafeian

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Please cite this article as: Shafeian SH, Bandehpour M, Mirzaahmadi S, Tofighi A. Identification of Anaerobic Bacteria in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. . Novel Biomed 2013;1(2:39-42.Background: There is a report about the 2-5% prevalence for septic arthritis by anaerobic bacteria. The relevance between synivitis and intestinal microbial flora has been a hypothesis for ten years. The PCR with sensitivity and specificity 99% for microorganism detection in acute, chronic and relapse form of septic arthritis is helpful.Methods: In this research we designed to diagnosis intestinal anaerobic bacteria which are able to occur bacteremia or septicemia. So amplification of the 16srRNA and narG genes in this type of bacteria is the best way for detection of them and followed by the treatment of the patients.Results: 100 patients with septic arthritis incidences were studied here. From these numbers 61% were bacterial arthritis and 18% were infected by anaerobic bacteria. Conclusion: On the base of coding of nitrate reductase, the positive samples were identified Enterobacter cloacae and Methylovorus sp. O157   Escherichia coli and Borrelia garinii.

  6. Modulation of Intestinal Microbiome Prevents Intestinal Ischemic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Bertacco

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Butyrate protects against ischemic injury to the small intestine by reducing inflammation and maintaining the structure of the intestinal barrier, but is expensive, short-lived, and cannot be administered easily due to its odor. Lactate, both economical and more palatable, can be converted into butyrate by the intestinal microbiome. This study aimed to assess in a rat model whether lactate perfusion can also protect against intestinal ischemia.Materials and Methods: Rat intestinal segments were loaded in an in vitro bowel perfusion device, and water absorption or secretion was assessed based on fluorescence of FITC-inulin, a fluorescent marker bound to a biologically inert sugar. Change in FITC concentration was used as a measure of ischemic injury, given the tendency of ischemic cells to retain water. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections at light level microscopy were examined to evaluate intestinal epithelium morphology. Comparisons between the data sets were paired Student t-tests or ANOVA with p < 0.05 performed on GraphPad.Results: Lactate administration resulted in a protective effect against intestinal ischemia of similar magnitude to that observed with butyrate. Both exhibited approximately 1.5 times the secretion exhibited by control sections (p = 0.03. Perfusion with lactate and methoxyacetate, a specific inhibitor of lactate-butyrate conversion, abolished this effect (p = 0.09. Antibiotic treatment also eliminated this effect, rendering lactate-perfused sections similar to control sections (p = 0.72. Perfusion with butyrate and methoxyacetate did not eliminate the observed increased secretion, which indicates that ischemic protection was mediated by microbial conversion of lactate to butyrate (p = 0.71.Conclusions: Lactate's protective effect against intestinal ischemia due to microbial conversion to butyrate suggests possible applications in the transplant setting for reducing ischemic injury and ameliorating intestinal

  7. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Samonella, Shigella and Yersinia: cellular aspects of host-bacteria interactions in enteric diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis Roberta

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A successful infection of the human intestine by enteropathogenic bacteria depends on the ability of bacteria to attach and colonize the intestinal epithelium and, in some cases, to invade the host cell, survive intracellularly and disseminate from cell to cell. To accomplish these processes bacteria have evolved an arsenal of molecules that are mostly secreted by dedicated type III secretion systems, and that interact with the host, subverting normal cellular functions. Here we overview the most important molecular strategies developed by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Shigella flexneri, and Yersinia enterocolitica to cause enteric infections. Despite having evolved different effectors, these four microorganisms share common host cellular targets.

  8. Intestine immune homeostasis after alcohol and burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoling; Hammer, Adam M; Rendon, Juan L; Choudhry, Mashkoor A

    2015-06-01

    Traumatic injury remains one of the most prevalent reasons for patients to be hospitalized. Burn injury accounts for 40,000 hospitalizations in the United States annually, resulting in a large burden on both the health and economic system and costing millions of dollars every year. The complications associated with postburn care can quickly cause life-threatening conditions including sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction and failure. In addition, alcohol intoxication at the time of burn injury has been shown to exacerbate these problems. One of the biggest reasons for the onset of these complications is the global suppression of the host immune system and increased susceptibility to infection. It has been hypothesized that infections after burn and other traumatic injury may stem from pathogenic bacteria from within the host's gastrointestinal tract. The intestine is the major reservoir of bacteria within the host, and many studies have demonstrated perturbations of the intestinal barrier after burn injury. This article reviews the findings of these studies as they pertain to changes in the intestinal immune system after alcohol and burn injury.

  9. Antibiotic resistance in probiotic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel eGueimonde

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. The main probiotic bacteria are strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, although other representatives, such as Bacillus or Escherichia coli strains, have also been used. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are two common inhabitants of the human intestinal microbiota. Also, some species are used in food fermentation processes as starters, or as adjunct cultures in the food industry. With some exceptions, antibiotic resistance in these beneficial microbes does not constitute a safety concern in itself, when mutations or intrinsic resistance mechanisms are responsible for the resistance phenotype. In fact, some probiotic strains with intrinsic antibiotic resistance could be useful for restoring the gut microbiota after antibiotic treatment. However, specific antibiotic resistance determinants carried on mobile genetic elements, such as tetracycline resistance genes, are often detected in the typical probiotic genera, and constitute a reservoir of resistance for potential food or gut pathogens, thus representing a serious safety issue.

  10. The intestinal microbiota and host immune interactions in the critically ill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuijt, T.J.; Poll, van der T.; Vos, de W.M.; Wiersinga, W.J.

    2013-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract harbors a complex population of microbes that play a fundamental role in the development of the immune system and human health. Besides an important local contribution in the host defense against infections, it has become increasingly clear that intestinal bacteria also

  11. Bovine colostrum improves intestinal function following formula-induced gut inflammation in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støy, Ann Cathrine Findal; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Thymann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    , abundance and location of bacteria, and inflammation markers were investigated. Results NEC severity and interleukins (IL)-1β and -8 protein concentrations were lower, while villus height, galactose absorption, and brush-border enzyme activities were increased in the distal small intestine in COLOS...

  12. Cell Viability and Functionality of Probiotic Bacteria in Dairy Products

    OpenAIRE

    Vinderola, Gabriel; Binetti, Ana; Burns, Patricia; Reinheimer, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria, according to the definition adopted by the World Health Organization in 2002, are live microorganisms, which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit to the host. Recent studies show that the same probiotic strain produced and/or preserved under different storage conditions, may present different responses regarding their susceptibility to the adverse conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, its capacity to adhere to the intestinal epithelium, or its ...

  13. Leadership Training in Otolaryngology Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, John P; Fried, Marvin P; Smith, Richard V; Hsueh, Wayne; Choi, Karen

    2017-06-01

    Although residency training offers numerous leadership opportunities, most residents are not exposed to scripted leadership instruction. To explore one program's attitudes about leadership training, a group of otolaryngology faculty (n = 14) and residents (n = 17) was polled about their attitudes. In terms of self-perception, more faculty (10 of 14, 71.4%) than residents (9 of 17, 52.9%; P = .461) considered themselves good leaders. The majority of faculty and residents (27 of 31) thought that adults could be taught leadership ability. Given attitudes about leadership ability and the potential for improvement through instruction, consideration should be given to including such training in otolaryngology residency.

  14. Molecular basis of an agarose metabolic pathway acquired by a human intestinal symbiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluvinage, Benjamin; Grondin, Julie M; Amundsen, Carolyn; Klassen, Leeann; Moote, Paul E; Xiao, Yao; Thomas, Dallas; Pudlo, Nicholas A; Anele, Anuoluwapo; Martens, Eric C; Inglis, G Douglas; Uwiera, Richard E R; Boraston, Alisdair B; Abbott, D Wade

    2018-03-13

    In red algae, the most abundant principal cell wall polysaccharides are mixed galactan agars, of which agarose is a common component. While bioconversion of agarose is predominantly catalyzed by bacteria that live in the oceans, agarases have been discovered in microorganisms that inhabit diverse terrestrial ecosystems, including human intestines. Here we comprehensively define the structure-function relationship of the agarolytic pathway from the human intestinal bacterium Bacteroides uniformis (Bu) NP1. Using recombinant agarases from Bu NP1 to completely depolymerize agarose, we demonstrate that a non-agarolytic Bu strain can grow on GAL released from agarose. This relationship underscores that rare nutrient utilization by intestinal bacteria is facilitated by the acquisition of highly specific enzymes that unlock inaccessible carbohydrate resources contained within unusual polysaccharides. Intriguingly, the agarolytic pathway is differentially distributed throughout geographically distinct human microbiomes, reflecting a complex historical context for agarose consumption by human beings.

  15. VA nursing home residents with substance use disorders: Mental health comorbidities, functioning, and problem behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Sonne; Schaefer, Jeanne A

    2010-07-01

    This research addresses whether residents with substance use disorders (SUDs) in VA nursing homes (VANHs) are distinctive in terms of their demographic characteristics, medical and mental health comorbidities, functioning, and problem behaviors. Residents over age 55 admitted to VANHs (n = 27,002) were identified in VA administrative files, and SUD and non-SUD residents were compared. Compared with other residents, the residents with SUDs (18% of admissions over age 55) were more likely to be younger, male, African-American, unmarried, have low income and a tobacco use disorder. Controlling for demographic factors and smoking, SUD residents were more likely to have mental health comorbidities (dementia, serious mental illness, depressive disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder), as well as AIDS/hepatitis, pulmonary disease, gastro-intestinal disorders, and injuries. SUD residents were less likely to have cancer, diabetes, neurological disorders, heart failure, and renal failure. SUD residents were more independent in activities of daily living, such as mobility and toileting. They were more likely to engage in verbal disruption but not in other problem behaviors such as aggression. With demographic factors and comorbidities controlled, the functioning differences were diminished, and SUD and non-SUD residents did not differ in the levels of problem behaviors. VANH residents with SUDs have distinctive patterns of comorbidities and functioning. SUD appears to represent a separate risk factor for VANH admission. Residents with SUDs present challenges but may have good potential for positive discharge outcomes if their substance use problems and limited resources can be addressed.

  16. Tissue-resident adult stem cell populations of rapidly self-renewing organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barker, N.; Bartfeld, S.; Clevers, H.

    2010-01-01

    The epithelial lining of the intestine, stomach, and skin is continuously exposed to environmental assault, imposing a requirement for regular self-renewal. Resident adult stem cell populations drive this renewal, and much effort has been invested in revealing their identity. Reliable adult stem

  17. Macrophages and dendritic cells emerge in the liver during intestinal inflammation and predispose the liver to inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Mikami

    Full Text Available The liver is a physiological site of immune tolerance, the breakdown of which induces immunity. Liver antigen-presenting cells may be involved in both immune tolerance and activation. Although inflammatory diseases of the liver are frequently associated with inflammatory bowel diseases, the underlying immunological mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here we report two murine models of inflammatory bowel disease: RAG-2(-/- mice adoptively transferred with CD4(+CD45RB(high T cells; and IL-10(-/- mice, accompanied by the infiltration of mononuclear cells in the liver. Notably, CD11b(-CD11c(lowPDCA-1(+ plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs abundantly residing in the liver of normal wild-type mice disappeared in colitic CD4(+CD45RB(high T cell-transferred RAG-2(-/- mice and IL-10(-/- mice in parallel with the emergence of macrophages (Mφs and conventional DCs (cDCs. Furthermore, liver Mφ/cDCs emerging during intestinal inflammation not only promote the proliferation of naïve CD4(+ T cells, but also instruct them to differentiate into IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells in vitro. The emergence of pathological Mφ/cDCs in the liver also occurred in a model of acute dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis under specific pathogen-free conditions, but was canceled in germ-free conditions. Last, the Mφ/cDCs that emerged in acute DSS colitis significantly exacerbated Fas-mediated hepatitis. Collectively, intestinal inflammation skews the composition of antigen-presenting cells in the liver through signaling from commensal bacteria and predisposes the liver to inflammation.

  18. How honey kills bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakman, Paulus H. S.; te Velde, Anje A.; de Boer, Leonie; Speijer, Dave; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Zaat, Sebastian A. J.

    2010-01-01

    With the rise in prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, honey is increasingly valued for its antibacterial activity. To characterize all bactericidal factors in a medical-grade honey, we used a novel approach of successive neutralization of individual honey bactericidal factors. All bacteria

  19. Factors with to intestinal constipation in the rural area elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Franco Diniz Heitor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of intestinal constipation in the rural area elderly and verify the factors associated. This is a home survey performed with 850 elderly residents of the rural area of Uberaba, Minas Gerais state. A structured instrument was used; information regarding their eating habits was obtained using an adapted questionnaire for food consumption frequency, and intestinal constipation was self-reported. Descriptive analysis, chi-square test and multiple logistic regression (p<0.05 were performed. The prevalence of intestinal constipation was 13.2%. The factors associated with intestinal constipation were: female gender (p<0.001, 80 years of age or older (p=0.035, living with another person (p=0.004, having no income (p=0.033, inadequate consumption of fruits (p=0.005 and vegetable (p=0.002. It is considered that client-centered nutritional education can help remove the factors associated with the outcome. Descriptors: Constipation; Aged; Gastrointestinal Motility; Rural Population; Geriatric Nursing.

  20. Use of acidifiers and herb-acidifier combinations with encapsulated and non-encapsulated intestinal microflora, intestinal histological and serum characteristics in broiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsir, Muhammad Halim; Hartutik, Sjofjan, Osfar; Widodo, Eko; Widyastuti, Eny Sri

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the use of acidifier and herb-acidifier combinations on intestinal microflora, intestinal histology and serum characteristics of broilers at 35 days of age when fed a diet supplemented with natural acidifier (lactic acid and citric acid), and herb-acidifier combinations (natural acidifier and herbs (garlic and Phyllanthus niruri L.) encapsulated and non-encapsulated. Here, 192 (Lohmann) broiler chicks were fed a negative control diet, positive control diet (tetracycline), 1.2% acidifier non-encapsulated (ANE), 1.2% acidifier encapsulated (AE), 1.2% herb-acidifier combination non-encapsulated (CNE), or 1.2% herb-acidifier combination encapsulated (CE). The variables measured were the total colony of lactic acid bacteria, Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp., intestinal histological characteristics (crypt depth, villi number, villi length, and viscosity) and serum (total protein, serum albumin, and serum globulin). Results showed that during the 35-d growth period, there were significant differences (Plactic acid bacteria and a decrease in the total colony of Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp., along with increasing intestinal histological characteristics (crypt depth, villi number, villi length, and viscosity) and total proteins in the serum, as well as significant effects (P<0.05) on intestinal pH and serum albumin. It is concluded that the use acidifiers or herb-acidifier combinations in encapsulation performed better than without encapsulation. Therefore using 1.2% of encapsulated combinations of herb-acidifiers in broiler diet is recommended.

  1. Dietary Additive Probiotics Modulation of the Intestinal Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shenglan; Wang, Li; Jiang, Zongyong

    2017-01-01

    The importance of the intestinal microbiota of animals is widely acknowledged because of its vital role in the health of animals. There are complex communities of microbiota, which colonize the gastrointestinal tract. Intestinal microbiota are conductive to animal health and the development of the host immune system. Probiotics are commonly used dietary additives where they provide the host with many beneficial functions, such as modulating intestinal homeostasis and promoting gut health. These beneficial effects of probiotics may accrue from the inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria and promoting the growth of beneficial flora in the gastrointestinal tract. Probiotics colonization and its impact on gut microbiota members are highly species specific. Different probiotics have been shown to have dramatically different capacities of modulation physiological function. This review summarizes existing studies of the influence of dietary additive probiotics on the gut microbiota in different animals, such as humans, mice, pigs and chickens, to clarify the contribution of different kinds of probiotics to the intestinal microbiota. Moreover, the probable mechanism for the benefits of dietary supplementation with probiotics will be discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. The interplay between Entamoeba and enteropathogenic bacteria modulates epithelial cell damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Galván-Moroyoqui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mixed intestinal infections with Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and bacteria with exacerbated manifestations of disease are common in regions where amoebiasis is endemic. However, amoeba-bacteria interactions remain largely unexamined. METHODOLOGY: Trophozoites of E. histolytica and E. dispar were co-cultured with enteropathogenic bacteria strains Escherichia coli (EPEC, Shigella dysenteriae and a commensal Escherichia coli. Amoebae that phagocytosed bacteria were tested for a cytopathic effect on epithelial cell monolayers. Cysteine proteinase activity, adhesion and cell surface concentration of Gal/GalNAc lectin were analyzed in amoebae showing increased virulence. Structural and functional changes and induction of IL-8 expression were determined in epithelial cells before and after exposure to bacteria. Chemotaxis of amoebae and neutrophils to human IL-8 and conditioned culture media from epithelial cells exposed to bacteria was quantified. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: E. histolytica digested phagocytosed bacteria, although S. dysenteriae retained 70% viability after ingestion. Phagocytosis of pathogenic bacteria augmented the cytopathic effect of E. histolytica and increased expression of Gal/GalNAc lectin on the amoebic surface and increased cysteine proteinase activity. E. dispar remained avirulent. Adhesion of amoebae and damage to cells exposed to bacteria were increased. Additional increases were observed if amoebae had phagocytosed bacteria. Co-culture of epithelial cells with enteropathogenic bacteria disrupted monolayer permeability and induced expression of IL-8. Media from these co-cultures and human recombinant IL-8 were similarly chemotactic for neutrophils and E. histolytica. CONCLUSIONS: Epithelial monolayers exposed to enteropathogenic bacteria become more susceptible to E. histolytica damage. At the same time, phagocytosis of pathogenic bacteria by amoebae further increased epithelial cell damage. SIGNIFICANCE

  3. Hydrocarbon degradation potentials of bacteria isolated from spent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study has shown that resident bacteria strains in lubricating oil contaminated soils have potential application in the bioremediation of oil polluted sites and enhance the possibility of developing models and strategies for removing hydrocarbon pollutants from the environment. Keywords: Biodegradation, hydrocarbon ...

  4. In vitro screening of soil bacteria for inhibiting phytopathogenic fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At present, the greatest interest resides with the development and application of specific biocontrol agent for the control of diseases on plant and this form the focus of this work. Several soil bacteria were evaluated in vitro for their effectiveness on the basis of their ability to suppress fungi in plate inhibition assays. 51 strains ...

  5. Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiradfar, Mehran; Shojaeian, Reza; Dehghanian, Paria; Hajian, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) is a multisystemic disorder in which impaired intestinal motor activity causes recurrent symptoms of intestinal obstruction in the absence of mechanical occlusion, associated with bladder distention without distal obstruction of the urinary tract. MMIHS and prune belly syndrome may overlap in most of the clinical features and discrimination of these two entities is important because the prognosis, management and consulting with parents are completely different. MMIHS outcome is very poor and in this article we present two neonates with MMIHS that both died in a few days. PMID:23729700

  6. INFANTS’ INTESTINAL COLICS. MODERN DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Ursova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes modern data on infants’ intestinal colics. Peculiarities of nutrition, intestinal microbiocenose in healthy infants, methods of colcs’ correction are discussed. Author describes the principles of probiotics choice based on their clinical effectiveness in infants. Milk formula «Nan Comfort» can be useful in prophylaxis and treatment of functional disorders of gastrointestinal tract in children.Key words: infants, gastrointestinal tract, anatomy, physiology, intestinal colics, nutrition, probiotics.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (2: 125–131

  7. Interleukin-15 promotes intestinal dysbiosis with butyrate deficiency associated with increased susceptibility to colitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meisel, Marlies; Mayassi, Toufic; Fehlner-Peach, Hannah; Koval, Jason C.; O' Brien, Sarah L.; Hinterleitner, Reinhard; Lesko, Kathryn; Kim, Sangman; Bouziat, Romain; Chen, Li; Weber, Christopher R.; Mazmanian, Sarkis K.; Jabri, Bana; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A.

    2016-09-20

    Dysbiosis resulting in gut-microbiome alterations with reduced butyrate production are thought to disrupt intestinal immune homeostasis and promote complex immune disorders. However, whether and how dysbiosis develops before the onset of overt pathology remains poorly defined. Interleukin 15 (IL-15) is upregulated in distressed tissue and its overexpression is thought to predispose susceptible individuals to and play a role in the pathogenesis of celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). While the immunological roles of IL-15 have been largely studied, its potential impact on the microbiota remains unexplored. Analysis of 16S rRNA-based inventories of bacterial communities in mice overexpressing IL-15 in the intestinal epithelium (v-IL-15tg mice) shows distinct changes in the composition of the intestinal bacteria. While some alterations are specific to individual intestinal compartments, others are found across the ileum, cecum, and feces. In particular, IL-15 overexpression restructures the composition of the microbiota with a decrease in butyrate producing bacteria that is associated with a reduction in luminal butyrate levels across all intestinal compartments. Fecal microbiota transplant experiments of wild-type and v-IL-15tg microbiota into germ-free mice further indicate that diminishing butyrate concentration observed in the intestinal lumen of v-IL-15tg mice is the result of intrinsic alterations in the microbiota induced by IL-15. This reconfiguration of the microbiota is associated with increased susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate induced colitis. Altogether, this study reveals that IL-15 impacts butyrate-producing bacteria and lowers butyrate levels in the absence of overt pathology, which represent events that precede and promote intestinal inflammatory diseases.

  8. Effect of zinc bacitracin and salinomycin on intestinal microflora and performance of broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, R. M.; Hedemann, M.S.; Leser, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    were killed, and the contents of gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, ceca, and rectum were separately collected and pooled. In all intestinal segments, the pH and the concentration of lactic acid were measured, and the numbers of anaerobic bacteria, coliforms, lactic acid bacteria, lactobacilli....... Zinc bacitracin significantly reduced the number of coliform bacteria in the ileum and increased the activities of amylase and lipase in pancreas homogenates. Supplementation with salinomycin and zinc bacitracin, alone or in combination, resulted in significantly lower counts of C. perfringens as well...

  9. Microbiota-Dependent Crosstalk Between Macrophages and ILC3 Promotes Intestinal Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortha, Arthur; Chudnovskiy, Aleksey; Hashimoto, Daigo; Bogunovic, Milena; Spencer, Sean P.; Belkaid, Yasmine; Merad, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota and tissue-resident myeloid cells promote immune responses that maintain intestinal homeostasis in the host. However, the cellular cues that translate microbial signals into intestinal homeostasis remain unclear. Here, we show that deficient granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) production altered mononuclear phagocyte effector functions and led to reduced regulatory T cell (Treg) numbers and impaired oral tolerance. We observed that RORγt+ innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are the primary source of GM-CSF in the gut and that ILC-driven GM-CSF production was dependent on the ability of macrophages to sense microbial signals and produce interleukin-1β. Our findings reveal that commensal microbes promote a crosstalk between innate myeloid and lymphoid cells that leads to immune homeostasis in the intestine. PMID:24625929

  10. Bacteria-bacteria interactions within the microbiota of the ancestral metazoan Hydra contribute to fungal resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraune, Sebastian; Anton-Erxleben, Friederike; Augustin, René; Franzenburg, Sören; Knop, Mirjam; Schröder, Katja; Willoweit-Ohl, Doris; Bosch, Thomas C G

    2015-07-01

    Epithelial surfaces of most animals are colonized by diverse microbial communities. Although it is generally agreed that commensal bacteria can serve beneficial functions, the processes involved are poorly understood. Here we report that in the basal metazoan Hydra, ectodermal epithelial cells are covered with a multilayered glycocalyx that provides a habitat for a distinctive microbial community. Removing this epithelial microbiota results in lethal infection by the filamentous fungus Fusarium sp. Restoring the complex microbiota in gnotobiotic polyps prevents pathogen infection. Although mono-associations with distinct members of the microbiota fail to provide full protection, additive and synergistic interactions of commensal bacteria are contributing to full fungal resistance. Our results highlight the importance of resident microbiota diversity as a protective factor against pathogen infections. Besides revealing insights into the in vivo function of commensal microbes in Hydra, our findings indicate that interactions among commensal bacteria are essential to inhibit pathogen infection.

  11. Lawful Permanent Residents - Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A lawful permanent resident (LPR) or 'green card' recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...

  12. Role of intestinal flora in colorectal cancer from the metabolite perspective: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuwen; Gao, Jianlan; Zhou, Qing; Liu, Shanshan; Wen, Caixia

    2018-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common human malignant tumors. Recent research has shown that colorectal cancer is a dysbacteriosis-induced disease; however, the role of intestinal bacteria in colorectal cancer is unclear. This review explores the role of intestinal flora in colorectal cancer. In total, 57 articles were included after identification and screening. The pertinent literature on floral metabolites in colorectal cancer from three metabolic perspectives – including carbohydrate, lipid, and amino acid metabolism – was analyzed. An association network regarding the role of intestinal flora from a metabolic perspective was constructed by analyzing the previous literature to provide direction and insight for further research on intestinal flora in colorectal cancer. PMID:29440929

  13. Shigella infection of intestinal epithelium and circumvention of the host innate defense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Michinaga; Mimuro, Hitomi; Sasakawa, Chihiro

    2009-01-01

    Shigella, Gram-negative bacteria closely related to Escherichia coli, are highly adapted human pathogens that cause bacillary dysentery. Although Shigella have neither adherence factors nor flagella required for attaching or accessing the intestinal epithelium, Shigella are capable of colonizing the intestinal epithelium by exploiting epithelial-cell functions and circumventing the host innate immune response. During Shigella infection, they deliver many numbers of effectors through the type III secretion system into the surrounding space and directly into the host-cell cytoplasm. The effectors play pivotal roles from the onset of bacterial infection through to the establishment of the colonization of the intestinal epithelium, such as bacterial invasion, intracellular survival, subversion of the host immune defense response, and maintenance of the infectious foothold. These examples suggest that Shigella have evolved highly sophisticated infectious and intracellular strategies to establish replicative niches in the intestinal epithelium.

  14. Antibacterial properties of chicken intestinal phospholipase A2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargouri Youssef

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of chicken group-IIA PLA2 (ChPLA2-IIA in the intestinal secretion suggests that this enzyme plays an important role in systemic bactericidal defence. We have analyzed the bactericidal activity of purified ChPLA2-IIA, on several gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria by using the diffusion well and dilution methods. Results ChPLA2-IIA displays potent bactericidal activity against gram-positive bacteria but lacks bactericidal activity against gram negative ones. We have also demonstrated a synergic action of ChPLA2-IIA with lysozyme when added to the bacteria culture prior to ChPLA2-IIA. The bactericidal efficiency of ChPLA2-IIA was shown to be dependent upon the presence of calcium ions and then a correlation could be made to its hydrolytic activity of membrane phospholipids. Interestingly ChPLA2-IIA displays a higher dependence to Ca2+ ions than to Mg2+ions. Conclusion We conclude that the main physiological role of ChPLA2-IIA could be the defence of the intestine against bacterial invasions.

  15. Antibacterial properties of chicken intestinal phospholipase A2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The presence of chicken group-IIA PLA2 (ChPLA2-IIA) in the intestinal secretion suggests that this enzyme plays an important role in systemic bactericidal defence. We have analyzed the bactericidal activity of purified ChPLA2-IIA, on several gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria by using the diffusion well and dilution methods. Results ChPLA2-IIA displays potent bactericidal activity against gram-positive bacteria but lacks bactericidal activity against gram negative ones. We have also demonstrated a synergic action of ChPLA2-IIA with lysozyme when added to the bacteria culture prior to ChPLA2-IIA. The bactericidal efficiency of ChPLA2-IIA was shown to be dependent upon the presence of calcium ions and then a correlation could be made to its hydrolytic activity of membrane phospholipids. Interestingly ChPLA2-IIA displays a higher dependence to Ca2+ ions than to Mg2+ions. Conclusion We conclude that the main physiological role of ChPLA2-IIA could be the defence of the intestine against bacterial invasions. PMID:21226897

  16. Effect of dietary inulin as prebiotic on growth, survival and intestinal bacterial density of juvenile great sturgeon (Huso huso)

    OpenAIRE

    Akrami, Reza

    2008-01-01

    Use of prebiotics, nondigestible dietary ingredients that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth of and/or activating the metabolism of healthpromoting bacteria in the intestinal tract, is a novel concept in aquaculture. An 8-week feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary prebiotic inulin on the growth performance, intestinal bacterial density, body composition and values of blood serum enzymes in the juvenile great sturg...

  17. Immunization of Mice with Lactobacillus casei Expressing a Beta-Intimin Fragment Reduces Intestinal Colonization by Citrobacter rodentium ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, P. C. D.; da Silva, J. B.; Piazza, R. M. F.; Eckmann, L.; Ho, P. L.; Oliveira, M. L. S.

    2011-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a common cause of diarrhea in children from developing countries. Intimate adhesion of the bacteria to intestinal cells occurs via binding of the adhesin intimin to the TIR receptor exposed on cell surfaces. Here, Lactobacillus casei expressing a fragment of β-intimin (L. casei-Intcv) was tested as mucosal vaccines in mice against intestinal colonization with the murine pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. Oral or sublingual immunization of C57BL/6 mice ...

  18. INTESTINAL MICROBIOTE IN AGOUTIS BRED IN CAPTIVITY MICROBIOTA INTESTINAL EM CUTIAS CRIADAS EM CATIVEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEANDRO LUÍS MARTINS

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Intestines are colonized by microorganisms, which vary according to the species and the intestinal region. Thus, due the lack of information about this subject in literature, this research was developed for better knowing some aspects of the intestinal microbiology of the agouti, considered one of the biggest Brazilian wild rodents. Three males and three not pregnant adult females, belonging to the Catanduva City Zoo, SP, went through laparotomy after anesthesia. Samples were collected with sterile swab in the medium thirds of the jejune, cecum and greater colon after enterotomy. They were cultivated in Sabouraud agar and in TSA (triptone-soy agar. In the jejune, the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was of 83.33%, Salmonella spp. of 66.67% and Clostridium spp. of 50.00% of the samples. In the cecum, they were identified Staphylococcus aureus in 33.33%, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Clostridium spp. in 100% and Streptococcus spp. in 16.67% of the samples were identified. In the greater colon, the growth of Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and Clostridium spp. in 66.67%, Staphylococcus aureus in 83.33%, and Streptococcus spp. in 16.67% of the samples was observed, showing the occurrence of variations in the bacteriae proportion according to the intestinal region. 

    KEY WORDS: Dasyprocta azarae, intestines, microbiote.

    Os intestinos são colonizados por microorganismos, variáveis de acordo com a espécie e região intestinal. Assim, em virtude da ausência de informações sobre esse assunto na literatura, esta pesquisa foi desenvolvida para melhor se conhecer alguns aspectos da microbiota intestinal da cutia, um dos maiores roedores selvagens brasileiros. Três machos e três fêmeas adultas vazias, pertencentes ao Zoológico Municipal de Catanduva, SP, foram submetidos a laparotomia mediante anestesia. Amostras com swab estéril foram coletadas nos terços médios do jejuno, ceco e c

  19. Solitary Large Intestinal Diverticulitis in Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, B A; Innis, C J; Daoust, P-Y; Wyneken, J; Miller, M; Harris, H; James, M C; Christiansen, E F; Foley, A

    2015-07-01

    Leatherback sea turtles are globally distributed and endangered throughout their range. There are limited data available on disease in this species. Initial observations of solitary large intestinal diverticulitis in multiple leatherbacks led to a multi-institutional review of cases. Of 31 subadult and adult turtles for which complete records were available, all had a single exudate-filled diverticulum, as large as 9.0 cm in diameter, arising from the large intestine immediately distal to the ileocecal junction. All lesions were chronic and characterized by ongoing inflammation, numerous intralesional bacteria, marked attenuation of the muscularis, ulceration, and secondary mucosal changes. In three cases, Morganella morganii was isolated from lesions. Diverticulitis was unrelated to the cause of death in all cases, although risk of perforation and other complications are possible. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. FORMATION OF INTESTINAL MICROBIOCENOSIS: THE STATE OF A PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Ursova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The first year of child’s life is the most important and intensive stage in formation of stable intestinal microbiocenosis. Main factors resulting in stability are primary colonization, tolerance, barrier function of epithelium, main protective systems of gastrointestinal tract, breast milk, and probiotics. The creation or restoration of microbiocenosis is achieved by different techniques of microbal population management: breast feeding, adopted milk mixtures fortified with probiotics in terms of lack or absence of breast milk. Beneficial effects of probiotics are strain-specific. Detailed scientific dossier of a strain Lactobacillus GG (АТСС 53103, LGG is described. The strain is included in sour-milk products «TYOMA» for children 6 months and older.Key words: children, colonization, intestinal flora, micro biocenosis, breast milk, probiotic bacteria, food.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (4: 62–69

  1. Regulation of intestinal immune responses through TLR activation: implications for pro- and prebiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander eDe Kivit

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal mucosa is constantly facing a high load of antigens including bacterial antigens derived from the microbiota and food. Despite this, the immune cells present in the gastrointestinal tract do not initiate a pro-inflammatory immune response. Toll-like receptors (TLRs are pattern recognition receptors expressed by various cells in the gastrointestinal tract, including intestinal epithelial cells (IEC and resident immune cells in the lamina propria. Many diseases, including chronic intestinal inflammation (e.g. inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, allergic gastroenteritis (e.g. eosinophilic gastroenteritis and allergic IBS and infections are nowadays associated with a deregulated microbiota. The microbiota may directly interact with TLR. In addition, differences in intestinal TLR expression in health and disease may suggest that TLR play an essential role in disease pathogenesis and may be novel targets for therapy. TLR signaling in the gut is involved in either maintaining intestinal homeostasis or the induction of an inflammatory response. This mini review provides an overview of the current knowledge regarding the contribution of intestinal epithelial TLR signaling in both tolerance induction or promoting intestinal inflammation, with a focus on food allergy. We will also highlight a potential role of the microbiota in regulating gut immune responses, especially through TLR activation.

  2. Disorders of the Small Intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that move down the intestine in a peristaltic fashion (Phase III). Phase III represents a continuation of ... Activities, Legislative & Regulatory Research Leadership Contact us News Industry Treatment News Medical News Legislative & Regulatory News Press ...

  3. Defence Mechanisms during Intestinal Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Buret

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available This review examines and compares host defence mechanisms during intestinal infection with three types of organisms: a virus, a bacterium and a nematode parasite (ie, transmissible gastroenteritis virus [TGEV], Helicobacter jejuni and Trichinella spiralis. Diarrhea is commonly associated with all of these infections. It appears that T spiralis initiates the most elaborate defence system of the three organisms, involving full range humoral and cellular immunity, as well as mucus hypersecretion, epithelial alterations, altered gut motility and parasite impairment (morphological and physiological. In contrast, intestinal defence against H jejuni and TGEV involves fewer components. The latter seems to initiate the most rudimentary host response. Despite such differences, these mechanisms exhibit many similarities, thus further illustrating the relatively limited repertoire of defence systems that the intestine can mount. The mediators translating the insult of any intestinal pathogen into a common response deserve further investigation.

  4. INTESTINAL INTUSSUSCEPTION DUE TO CONCURRENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Hymenolepis nana and Dentostomella ... worms (H. nana and D. translucida) were observed in the lumen of the intestine with severe cellular infiltration .... helminthosis and Balantidosis in Red monkey (Erythrocebus patas) in Ibadan Nigeria Nigerian ...

  5. Comparative analysis of the intestinal flora in type 2 diabetes and nondiabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Masanori; Miura, Takamasa; Hirakata, Satomi; Hosoyama, Akira; Sugino, Sakiko; Umeno, Aya; Murotomi, Kazutoshi; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Koike, Taisuke

    2017-10-30

    A relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and intestinal flora has been suggested since development of analysis technology for intestinal flora. An animal model of T2DM is important for investigation of T2DM. Although there are some animal models of T2DM, a comparison of the intestinal flora of healthy animals with that of T2DM animals has not yet been reported. The intestinal flora of Tsumura Suzuki Obese Diabetes (TSOD) mice was compared with that of Tsumura, Suzuki, Non Obesity (TSNO) mice in the present study. The TSOD mice showed typical type 2 diabetes symptoms, which were high-fat diet-independent. The TSOD and the TSNO mouse models were derived from the same strain, ddY. In this study, we compared the intestinal flora of TSOD mice with that if TSNO mice at 5 and 12 weeks of age. We determined that that the number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was significantly higher in the cecum of TSOD mice than in that of TSNO mice. The intestinal flora of the cecum and that of the feces were similar between the TSNO and the TSOD strains. The dominant bacteria in the cecum and feces were of the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. However, the content of some bacterial species varied between the two strains. The percentage of Lactobacillus spp. within the general intestinal flora was higher in TSOD mice than in TSNO mice. In contrast, the percentages of order Bacteroidales and family Lachnospiraceae were higher in TSNO mice than in TSOD mice. Some species were observed only in TSOD mice, such as genera Turicibacter and SMB53 (family Clostridiaceae), the percentage of which were 3.8% and 2.0%, respectively. Although further analysis of the metabolism of the individual bacteria in the intestinal flora is essential, genera Turicibacter and SMB53 may be important for the abnormal metabolism of type 2 diabetes.

  6. Effect of Fructooligosaccharide Metabolism on Chicken Colonization by an Extra-Intestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcheron, Gaëlle; Chanteloup, Nathalie Katy; Trotereau, Angélina; Brée, Annie; Schouler, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains cause many diseases in humans and animals. While remaining asymptomatic, they can colonize the intestine for subsequent extra-intestinal infection and dissemination in the environment. We have previously identified the fos locus, a gene cluster within a pathogenicity island of the avian ExPEC strain BEN2908, involved in the metabolism of short-chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS). It is assumed that these sugars are metabolized by the probiotic bacteria of the microbiota present in the intestine, leading to a decrease in the pathogenic bacterial population. However, we have previously shown that scFOS metabolism helps BEN2908 to colonize the intestine, its reservoir. As the fos locus is located on a pathogenicity island, one aim of this study was to investigate a possible role of this locus in the virulence of the strain for chicken. We thus analysed fos gene expression in extracts of target organs of avian colibacillosis and performed a virulence assay in chickens. Moreover, in order to understand the involvement of the fos locus in intestinal colonization, we monitored the expression of fos genes and their implication in the growth ability of the strain in intestinal extracts of chicken. We also performed intestinal colonization assays in axenic and Specific Pathogen-Free (SPF) chickens. We demonstrated that the fos locus is not involved in the virulence of BEN2908 for chickens and is strongly involved in axenic chicken cecal colonization both in vitro and in vivo. However, even if the presence of a microbiota does not inhibit the growth advantage of BEN2908 in ceca in vitro, overall, growth of the strain is not favoured in the ceca of SPF chickens. These findings indicate that scFOS metabolism by an ExPEC strain can contribute to its fitness in ceca but this benefit is fully dependent on the bacteria present in the microbiota. PMID:22514747

  7. Effect of fructooligosaccharide metabolism on chicken colonization by an extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Porcheron

    Full Text Available Extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC strains cause many diseases in humans and animals. While remaining asymptomatic, they can colonize the intestine for subsequent extra-intestinal infection and dissemination in the environment. We have previously identified the fos locus, a gene cluster within a pathogenicity island of the avian ExPEC strain BEN2908, involved in the metabolism of short-chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS. It is assumed that these sugars are metabolized by the probiotic bacteria of the microbiota present in the intestine, leading to a decrease in the pathogenic bacterial population. However, we have previously shown that scFOS metabolism helps BEN2908 to colonize the intestine, its reservoir. As the fos locus is located on a pathogenicity island, one aim of this study was to investigate a possible role of this locus in the virulence of the strain for chicken. We thus analysed fos gene expression in extracts of target organs of avian colibacillosis and performed a virulence assay in chickens. Moreover, in order to understand the involvement of the fos locus in intestinal colonization, we monitored the expression of fos genes and their implication in the growth ability of the strain in intestinal extracts of chicken. We also performed intestinal colonization assays in axenic and Specific Pathogen-Free (SPF chickens. We demonstrated that the fos locus is not involved in the virulence of BEN2908 for chickens and is strongly involved in axenic chicken cecal colonization both in vitro and in vivo. However, even if the presence of a microbiota does not inhibit the growth advantage of BEN2908 in ceca in vitro, overall, growth of the strain is not favoured in the ceca of SPF chickens. These findings indicate that scFOS metabolism by an ExPEC strain can contribute to its fitness in ceca but this benefit is fully dependent on the bacteria present in the microbiota.

  8. Epithelial Cell Damage Activates Bactericidal/Permeability Increasing-Protein (BPI Expression in Intestinal Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Balakrishnan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As the first line of defense against invading pathogen, intestinal epithelium produces various antimicrobial proteins (AMP that help in clearance of pathogen. Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI is a 55 kDa AMP that is expressed in intestinal epithelium. Dysregulation of BPI in intestinal epithelium is associated with various inflammatory diseases like Crohn’s Disease, Ulcerative colitis, and Infectious enteritis’s. In this paper, we report a direct correlation between intestinal damage and BPI expression. In Caco-2 cells, we see a significant increase in BPI levels upon membrane damage mediated by S. aureus infection and pore-forming toxins (Streptolysin and Listeriolysin. Cells detect changes in potassium level as a Danger-associated molecular pattern associated with cell damage and induce BPI expression in a p38 dependent manner. These results are further supported by in vivo findings that the BPI expression in murine intestinal epithelium is induced upon infection with bacteria which cause intestinal damage (Salmonella Typhimurium and Shigella flexneri whereas mutants that do not cause intestinal damage (STM ΔfliC and STM ΔinvC did not induce BPI expression. Our results suggest that epithelial damage associated with infection act as a signal to induce BPI expression.

  9. Fecal indicator bacteria at Havana Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Perez, Lisse; Gomez D'Angelo, Yamiris; Beltran Gonzalez, Jesus; Alvarez Valiente, Reinaldo

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations were evaluated in Havana Bay. Methods: Concentrations of traditional fecal indicator bacteria were calculated between April 2010 and February 2011, by MPN methods. Concentrations of thermo tolerant coliform (CTT), Escherichia coli, fecal streptococci (EF), intestinal enterococci (ENT) in seawater, and Clostridium perfringens in sediment surface, were determined. Results: CTT and E. coli levels were far above Cuban water quality standard for indirect contact with water, showing the negative influence of sewage and rivers on the bay. The EF and ENT were measured during sewage spills at the discharge site and they were suitable indicators of fecal contamination, but these indicators didn't show the same behavior in other selected sites. This result comes from its well-known inactivation by solar light in tropical zones and the presumable presence of humid acids in the waters of the bay. Conclusion: Fecal indicator bacteria and its statistical relationships reflect recent and chronic fecal contamination at the bay and near shores.

  10. Antibiotics from predatory bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Korp

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria, which prey on other microorganisms, are commonly found in the environment. While some of these organisms act as solitary hunters, others band together in large consortia before they attack their prey. Anecdotal reports suggest that bacteria practicing such a wolfpack strategy utilize antibiotics as predatory weapons. Consistent with this hypothesis, genome sequencing revealed that these micropredators possess impressive capacities for natural product biosynthesis. Here, we will present the results from recent chemical investigations of this bacterial group, compare the biosynthetic potential with that of non-predatory bacteria and discuss the link between predation and secondary metabolism.

  11. Hydrogen production by nonphotosynthetic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, S.D.; Secor, C.K.; Zweig, R.M.; Ascione, R.

    1984-01-01

    H-producing nonphotosynthetic bacteria are identified and H from sewage treatment plants, H from rumen bacteria, and large-scale production of H through the genetic manipulation of H-producing nonphotosynthetic bacteria are discussed. (Refs. 36).

  12. Parenteral Nutrition and Intestinal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielawska, Barbara; Allard, Johane P

    2017-05-06

    Severe short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a major cause of chronic (Type 3) intestinal failure (IF) where structural and functional changes contribute to malabsorption and risk of micronutrient deficiencies. Chronic IF may be reversible, depending on anatomy and intestinal adaptation, but most patients require long-term nutritional support, generally in the form of parenteral nutrition (PN). SBS management begins with dietary changes and pharmacologic therapies taking into account individual anatomy and physiology, but these are rarely sufficient to avoid PN. New hormonal therapies targeting intestinal adaptation hold promise. Surgical options for SBS including intestinal transplant are available, but have significant limitations. Home PN (HPN) is therefore the mainstay of treatment for severe SBS. HPN involves chronic administration of macronutrients, micronutrients, fluid, and electrolytes via central venous access in the patient's home. HPN requires careful clinical and biochemical monitoring. Main complications of HPN are related to venous access (infection, thrombosis) and metabolic complications including intestinal failure associated liver disease (IFALD). Although HPN significantly impacts quality of life, outcomes are generally good and survival is mostly determined by the underlying disease. As chronic intestinal failure is a rare disease, registries are a promising strategy for studying HPN patients to improve outcomes.

  13. Early initiation of weaning foods and proliferation of bacteria in Nigerian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elegbe, I A; Ojofeitimi, E O

    1984-05-01

    Ninety-five children, age range from 1 to 18 months, were followed for the types of weaning foods. Forty-five of the 95 children were evaluated for intestinal bacteria colonization. The most frequently isolated pathogens were enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and Staphylococcus aureus. Children who were not subjected to early initiation of weaning and supplementary foods had lower bacteria counts than their counterparts.

  14. Fate and Enumeration Problems of Fecal Coliform Bacteria in Runoff Waters from Terrestrial Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    1914. Thus, total coliform tests, which enumerate coliform bacteria that grow at 35*C, were developed. European researchers were * Gram-negative...compared with the enteric virus, Poliovirus 1. Removal effi- ciencies for the coliphage and enterovirus ranged from 30 to 60 percent and 65 to 85...selective for an obligate microorganism of the intestinal tract of most warm- blooded animals, namely, E. coli. However, other bacteria can grow and

  15. Determination of the Most Influential Factors in the Concentration of Bacteria in Coastal Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Palazón, A.; Aragonés Pomares, Luis; López Úbeda, Isabel; López-Úbeda, R.; Saval Pérez, José Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Control of water quality of coastal waters is essential to ensure the safety of bathers. Therefore, the current legislation establishes maximum concentration levels of faecal bacteria, in particular Escherichia coli and intestinal Enterococci. After several studies, it is known that there are environmental and physical factors such as the level of urbanization of the beach, sediment type, rainfall, salinity and water temperature, which influence the concentration of these bacteria. However, t...

  16. Effect of in ovo administration of an adult-derived microbiota on establishment of the intestinal microbiome in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, Adriana A; Batal, Amy B; Lee, Margie D

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine effects of in ovo administration of a probiotic on development of the intestinal microbiota of 2 genetic lineages (modern and heritage) of chickens. SAMPLE 10 newly hatched chicks and 40 fertile eggs to determine intestinal microbiota at hatch, 900 fertile eggs to determine effects of probiotic on hatchability, and 1,560 chicks from treated or control eggs. PROCEDURES A probiotic competitive-exclusion product derived from adult microbiota was administered in ovo to fertile eggs of both genetic lineages. Cecal contents and tissues were collected from embryos, newly hatched chicks, and chicks. A PCR assay was used to detect bacteria present within the cecum of newly hatched chicks. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and vitality staining were used to detect viable bacteria within intestines of embryos. The intestinal microbiota was assessed by use of 16S pyrosequencing. RESULTS Microscopic evaluation of embryonic cecal contents and tissues subjected to differential staining techniques revealed viable bacteria in low numbers. Development of the intestinal microbiota of broiler chicks of both genetic lineages was enhanced by in ovo administration of adult microbiota. Although the treatment increased diversity and affected composition of the microbiota of chicks, most bacterial species present in the probiotic were transient colonizers. However, the treatment decreased the abundance of undesirable bacterial species within heritage lineage chicks. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In ovo inoculation of a probiotic competitive-exclusion product derived from adult microbiota may be a viable method of managing development of the microbiota and reducing the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in chickens.

  17. Haemorrhage and intestinal lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attilia M. Pizzini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of coeliac disease is around 1% in general population but this is often unrecognised. The classical presentation of adult coeliac disease is characterized by diarrhoea and malabsorption syndrome, but atypical presentations are probably more common and are characterized by iron deficiency anaemia, weight loss, fatigue, infertility, arthralgia, peripheral neuropathy and osteoporosis. Unusual are the coagulation disorders (prevalence 20% and these are due to vitamin K malabsorption (prolonged prothrombin time. Clinical case: A 64-year-old man was admitted to our Department for an extensive spontaneous haematoma of the right leg. He had a history of a small bowel resection for T-cell lymphoma, with a negative follow-up and he didn’t report any personal or familiar history of bleeding. Laboratory tests showed markedly prolonged prothrombin (PT and partial-thromboplastin time (PTT, corrected by mixing studies, and whereas platelet count and liver tests was normal. A single dose (10 mg of intravenous vitamin K normalized the PT. Several days before the patient had been exposed to a superwarfarin pesticide, but diagnostic tests for brodifacoum, bromadiolone or difenacoum were negative. Diagnosis of multiple vitamin K-dependent coagulationfactor deficiencies (II, VII, IX, X due to intestinal malabsorption was made and coeliac disease was detected. Therefore the previous lymphoma diagnosis might be closely related to coeliac disease. Conclusions: A gluten free diet improves quality of life and restores normal nutritional and biochemical status and protects against these complications.

  18. [Malaria and intestinal protozoa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Marcos, Gerardo; Cuadros-González, Juan

    2016-03-01

    Malaria is life threatening and requires urgent diagnosis and treatment. Incidence and mortality are being reduced in endemic areas. Clinical features are unspecific so in imported cases it is vital the history of staying in a malarious area. The first line treatments for Plasmodium falciparum are artemisinin combination therapies, chloroquine in most non-falciparum and intravenous artesunate if any severity criteria. Human infections with intestinal protozoa are distributed worldwide with a high global morbid-mortality. They cause diarrhea and sometimes invasive disease, although most are asymptomatic. In our environment populations at higher risk are children, including adopted abroad, immune-suppressed, travelers, immigrants, people in contact with animals or who engage in oral-anal sex. Diagnostic microscopic examination has low sensitivity improving with antigen detection or molecular methods. Antiparasitic resistances are emerging lately. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  19. Adult intestinal failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, J., E-mail: Jdavidson@doctors.org.u [Salford Royal Hospital, Salford (United Kingdom); Plumb, A.; Burnett, H. [Salford Royal Hospital, Salford (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    Intestinal failure (IF) is the inability of the alimentary tract to digest and absorb sufficient nutrition to maintain normal fluid balance, growth, and health. It commonly arises from disease affecting the mesenteric root. Although severe IF is usually managed in specialized units, it lies at the end of a spectrum with degrees of nutritional compromise being widely encountered, but commonly under-recognized. Furthermore, in the majority of cases, the initial enteric insult occurs in non-specialist IF centres. The aim of this article is to review the common causes of IF, general principles of its management, some commoner complications, and the role of radiology in the approach to a patient with severe IF. The radiologist has a crucial role in helping provide access for feeding solutions (both enteral and parenteral) and controlling sepsis (via drainage of collections) in an initial restorative phase of treatment, whilst simultaneously mapping bowel anatomy and quality, and searching for disease complications to assist the clinicians in planning a later, restorative phase of therapy.

  20. [Intestinal failure: from adaptation to transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messing, B; Corcos, O; Amiot, A; Joly, F

    2009-01-01

    Optimised Home Parenteral Nutrition is still, after 35 years of progress, the of benign but chronic Intestinal Failure. A better recognition of chronic Intestinal Failure, in its multiple facets, is warranted for a better approach of associated treatment to Home Parenteral Nutrition, i.e., intestinal trophic factors (growth hormone, Glucagon Like Peptide-2), rehabilitative surgery (reestablishment of colonic continuity, reverse jejunal segment in severe short gut type II) and/or reconstructive surgery (intestinal transplantation for end stage intestinal failure patients). Boundaries of permanent, judged irreversible, intestinal failure will be certainly modified in the following years by combining the various and effective therapies which optimise management by ameliorating absorption of the remnant short gut. The work done on short bowel syndrome in the past 20 years should be done in the next years for chronic-intestinal - pseudo-obstruction patients presenting with intestinal failure on a large European scale because chronic-intestinal - pseudo-obstruction is a group of heterogeneous but rare intestinal diseases. Intestinal transplantation is now a mature therapy with formal indication especially in case of Home Parenteral Nutrition failure (mainly Home Parenteral Nutrition-associated severe liver disease) where combined Liver-intestine transplantation is indicated before end-stage liver failure occurs. For high-risk patients, "preemptive" indication for intestinal transplantation alone will be discussed before home parenteral nutrition complications occur. No doubt that, for improving overall outcome in intestinal failure patients, reference centres should have in expert hands the whole spectrum of medicosurgical therapies for intestinal failure.

  1. [Darwin and bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann D, Walter

    2009-02-01

    As in 2009 the scientific world celebrates two hundreds years from the birthday of Charles Darwin and one hundred and fifty from the publication of The Origin of Species, an analysis of his complete work is performed, looking for any mention of bacteria. But it seems that the great naturahst never took knowledge about its existence, something rather improbable in a time when the discovery of bacteria shook the medical world, or he deliberately ignored them, not finding a place for such microscopic beings into his theory of evolution. But the bacteria badly affected his familiar life, killing scarlet fever one of his children and worsening to death the evolution of tuberculosis of his favourite Annie. Darwin himself could suffer the sickness of Chagas, whose etiological agent has a similar level to bacteria in the scale of evolution.

  2. Extracellular communication in bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chhabra, S.R.; Philipp, B.; Eberl, L.

    2005-01-01

    molecules, in different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria they control pathogenicity, secondary metabolite production, biofilm differentiation, DNA transfer and bioluminescence. The development of biosensors for the detection of these signal molecules has greatly facilitated their subsequent chemical...

  3. Quantification of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii- and Subdoligranulum variabile-like bacteria in the cecum of chickens by real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marianne; Friis-Holm, Lotte Bjerrum; Pedersen, Karl

    2010-01-01

    for quantifying potentially important bacteria in the intestine. We describe a real-time quantitative assay for detection and quantification of a whole group of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Subdoligranulum variabile-like bacteria, which has recently been found to dominate in the cecum of broiler chickens....... The F. prausnitzii-S. variabile-like bacteria were quantified using a multiprobe assay in which one primer set was used to amplify DNA from all bacteria, whereas 2 probes detected all bacteria and the group of F. prausnitzii-S. variabile-like bacteria, respectively. The multiprobe assay accurately......, and in hatcher material. Quantification of this group of F. prausnitzii-S. variabile-like bacteria has not been performed before by real-time PCR, but results confirm previous results obtained by cloning and sequencing showing that the F. prausnitzii-S. variabile-like group of bacteria constitutes a major...

  4. The Composition of Colonic Commensal Bacteria According to Anatomical Localization in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuyang Zhao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a multistage disease resulting from complex factors, including genetic mutations, epigenetic changes, chronic inflammation, diet, and lifestyle. Recent accumulating evidence suggests that the gut microbiota is a new and important player in the development of CRC. Imbalance of the gut microbiota, especially dysregulated gut bacteria, contributes to colon cancer through mechanisms of inflammation, host defense modulations, oxidative stress, and alterations in bacterial-derived metabolism. Gut commensal bacteria are anatomically defined as four populations: luminal commensal bacteria, mucus-resident bacteria, epithelium-resident bacteria, and lymphoid tissue-resident commensal bacteria. The bacterial flora that are harbored in the gastrointestinal (GI tract vary both longitudinally and cross-sectionally by different anatomical localization. It is notable that the translocation of colonic commensal bacteria is closely related to CRC progression. CRC-associated bacteria can serve as a non-invasive and accurate biomarker for CRC diagnosis. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the oncogenic roles of gut bacteria with different anatomical localization in CRC progression.

  5. Probiotic-derived polyphosphate enhances the epithelial barrier function and maintains intestinal homeostasis through integrin-p38 MAPK pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Segawa

    Full Text Available Probiotics exhibit beneficial effects on human health, particularly in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis in a complex manner notwithstanding the diversity of an intestinal flora between individuals. Thus, it is highly probable that some common molecules secreted by probiotic and/or commensal bacteria contribute to the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and protect the intestinal epithelium from injurious stimuli. To address this question, we aimed to isolate the cytoprotective compound from a lactobacillus strain, Lactobacillus brevis SBC8803 which possess the ability to induce cytoprotective heat shock proteins in mouse small intestine. L. brevis was incubated in MRS broth and the supernatant was passed through with a 0.2-µm filter. Caco2/bbe cells were treated with the culture supernatant, and HSP27 expression was evaluated by Western blotting. HSP27-inducible components were separated by ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE anion exchange chromatography, gel filtration, and HPLC. Finally, we identified that the HSP27-inducible fraction was polyphosphate (poly P, a simple repeated structure of phosphates, which is a common product of lactobacilli and other bacteria associated with intestinal microflora without any definitive physiological functions. Then, poly P was synthesized by poly P-synthesizing enzyme polyphosphate kinase. The synthesized poly P significantly induced HSP27 from Caco2/BBE cells. In addition, Poly P suppressed the oxidant-induced intestinal permeability in the mouse small intestine and pharmacological inhibitors of p38 MAPK and integrins counteract its protective effect. Daily intrarectal administration of poly P (10 µg improved the inflammation grade and survival rate in 4% sodium dextran sulfate-administered mice. This study, for the first time, demonstrated that poly P is the molecule responsible for maintaining intestinal barrier actions which are mediated through the intestinal integrin β1-p38 MAPK.

  6. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide promotes profibrotic activation of intestinal fibroblasts.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, J P

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Fibroblasts play a critical role in intestinal wound healing. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a cell wall component of commensal gut bacteria. The effects of LPS on intestinal fibroblast activation were characterized. METHODS: Expression of the LPS receptor, toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, was assessed in cultured primary human intestinal fibroblasts using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Fibroblasts were treated with LPS and\\/or transforming growth factor (TGF) beta1. Nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) pathway activation was assessed by inhibitory kappaBalpha (IkappaBalpha) degradation and NFkappaB promoter activity. Fibroblast contractility was measured using a fibroblast-populated collagen lattice. Smad-7, a negative regulator of TGF-beta1 signalling, and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression were assessed using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and western blot. The NFkappaB pathway was inhibited by IkappaBalpha transfection. RESULTS: TLR-4 was present on the surface of intestinal fibroblasts. LPS treatment of fibroblasts induced IkappaBalpha degradation, enhanced NFkappaB promoter activity and increased collagen contraction. Pretreatment with LPS (before TGF-beta1) significantly increased CTGF production relative to treatment with TGF-beta1 alone. LPS reduced whereas TGF-beta1 increased smad-7 expression. Transfection with an IkappaBalpha plasmid enhanced basal smad-7 expression. CONCLUSION: Intestinal fibroblasts express TLR-4 and respond to LPS by activating NFkappaB and inducing collagen contraction. LPS acts in concert with TGF-beta1 to induce CTGF. LPS reduces the expression of the TGF-beta1 inhibitor, smad-7.

  7. Surface proteins of bacteria of the genus Bifidobacterium 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Dylus

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects due to the presence of probiotic bacteria of the genus Bifidobacterium in the human intestinal tract are still an interesting object of study. So far activities have been confirmed of bifidobacteria in stimulation of the host immune system, stimulation of tumor cell apoptosis, improvement of bowel motility, alleviation of symptoms of lactose intolerance, cholesterol lowering capacity, prevention and treatment of diarrhea and irritable bowel syndrome, alleviation of allergy or atopic dermatitis, maintenance of homeostasis of the intestine, and stimulation of the development of normal intestinal microflora in infants. A multitude of therapeutic properties encourages researchers to investigate the possibility of using the potential of Bifidobacterium in the prevention and treatment of other conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and depression. Although it is known that the beneficial effects are due to intestinal mucosal colonization by these bacteria, the cell components responsible for the colonization are still not determined. In addition to the beneficial effects of probiotic administration, there were also negative effects including sepsis. Therefore research has been directed to identify specific components of Bifidobacterium responsible for probiotic effects. Currently researchers are focused on identifying, isolating and evaluating the properties of surface proteins that are probably involved in the adhesion of bacterial cells to the intestinal epithelium, improving colonization. This paper is an overview of current knowledge on Bifidobacterium surface proteins. The ways of transport and anchoring proteins in Gram-positive bacterial cells, the assembly of cell wall, and a description of the genus Bifidobacterium are presented.

  8. Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in wild game in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Križman, M.; Kirbiš, A.; Jamnikar-Ciglenečki, U.

    2017-09-01

    Wildlife is usually not exposed to clinically-used antimicrobial agents but can acquire antimicrobial resistance throughout contact with humans, domesticated animals and environments. Samples of faeces from intestines (80 in total) were collected from roe deer (52), wild boars (11), chamois (10) red deer (6) and moufflon (1). After culture on ChromID extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) plates to select for growth of ESBL-producing bacteria, 25 samples produced bacterial colonies for further study. Six species of bacteria were identified from the 25 samples: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Serratia fonticola, Stenotrophomonas nitritireducens, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli. Two ESBL enzymes were amplified from group TEM and three from group CTX-M-1. Undercooked game meat and salami can be a source of resistant bacteria when animals are not eviscerated properly.

  9. Aquatic animals promote antibiotic resistance gene dissemination in water via conjugation: Role of different regions within the zebra fish intestinal tract, and impact on fish intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jialun; Yang, Dong; Jin, Min; Liu, Weili; Zhao, Xin; Li, Chenyu; Zhao, Tianyu; Wang, Jingfeng; Gao, Zhixian; Shen, Zhiqiang; Qiu, Zhigang; Li, Jun-Wen

    2017-10-01

    The aqueous environment is one of many reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Fish, as important aquatic animals which possess ideal intestinal niches for bacteria to grow and multiply, may ingest antibiotic resistance bacteria from aqueous environment. The fish gut would be a suitable environment for conjugal gene transfer including those encoding antibiotic resistance. However, little is known in relation to the impact of ingested ARGs or antibiotic resistance bacteria (ARB) on gut microbiota. Here, we applied the cultivation method, qPCR, nuclear molecular genetic marker and 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing technologies to develop a plasmid-mediated ARG transfer model of zebrafish. Furthermore, we aimed to investigate the dissemination of ARGs in microbial communities of zebrafish guts after donors carrying self-transferring plasmids that encode ARGs were introduced in aquaria. On average, 15% of faecal bacteria obtained ARGs through RP4-mediated conjugal transfer. The hindgut was the most important intestinal region supporting ARG dissemination, with concentrations of donor and transconjugant cells almost 25 times higher than those of other intestinal segments. Furthermore, in the hindgut where conjugal transfer occurred most actively, there was remarkable upregulation of the mRNA expression of the RP4 plasmid regulatory genes, trbBp and trfAp. Exogenous bacteria seem to alter bacterial communities by increasing Escherichia and Bacteroides species, while decreasing Aeromonas compared with control groups. We identified the composition of transconjugants and abundance of both cultivable and uncultivable bacteria (the latter accounted for 90.4%-97.2% of total transconjugants). Our study suggests that aquatic animal guts contribute to the spread of ARGs in water environments. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Fermented soya bean (tempe) extracts reduce adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubos-van den Hil, P J; Nout, M J R; Beumer, R R; van der Meulen, J; Zwietering, M H

    2009-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of processed soya bean, during the successive stages of tempe fermentation and different fermentation times, on adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88 to intestinal brush border cells as well as Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells; and to clarify the mechanism of action. Tempe was prepared at controlled laboratory scale using Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus as the inoculum. Extracts of raw, soaked and cooked soya beans reduced ETEC adhesion to brush border cells by 40%. Tempe extracts reduced adhesion by 80% or more. ETEC adhesion to Caco-2 cells reduced by 50% in the presence of tempe extracts. ETEC K88 bacteria were found to interact with soya bean extracts, and this may contribute to the observed decrease of ETEC adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells. Fermented soya beans (tempe) reduce the adhesion of ETEC to intestinal epithelial cells of pig and human origin. This reduced adhesion is caused by an interaction between ETEC K88 bacteria and soya bean compounds. The results strengthen previous observations on the anti-diarrhoeal effect of tempe. This effect indicates that soya-derived compounds may reduce adhesion of ETEC to intestinal cells in pigs as well as in humans and prevent against diarrhoeal diseases.

  11. Interactions between intestinal microbiota and innate immune system in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchiara, Salvatore; Stronati, Laura; Aloi, Marina

    2012-10-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is the result of an altered immune homeostasis within the intestinal mucosa against the gut microbiota, leading to chronic inflammation in genetically predisposed individuals. Under normal conditions, the immune system defends against pathogens and prevents the passage of excessive intestinal bacteria; regulatory pathways must maintain a low-grade, controlled inflammation in a healthy gut, but also induce a protective response against pathogens. The innate immune system is the first-line defense from microbes; dendritic cells, macrophages, and epithelial cells produce an initial, immediate response. The immune system constantly controls commensal bacteria and utilizes constitutive antimicrobial mechanisms to sustain immune homeostasis. The discovery that several genes linked to IBD modulate microbial recognition and innate immune pathways, such as nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 (Nod2), and genes that mediate autophagy (ie, ATG16L1, IRGM), has highlighted the critical role of host-microbe interactions in controlling intestinal immune homeostasis. Commensal microorganisms actively interact with the intestinal mucosa and influence the activity of the immune system as well as the amplitude of the immune response. In contrast, host factors can influence microbes, which in turn modulate disease susceptibility. In this paper, we focus on the mechanisms that mediate host-microbe interactions and how the disruption of this balance leads to chronic intestinal inflammation in IBD.

  12. Development of Functional Microfold (M Cells from Intestinal Stem Cells in Primary Human Enteroids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D Rouch

    Full Text Available Intestinal microfold (M cells are specialized epithelial cells that act as gatekeepers of luminal antigens in the intestinal tract. They play a critical role in the intestinal mucosal immune response through transport of viruses, bacteria and other particles and antigens across the epithelium to immune cells within Peyer's patch regions and other mucosal sites. Recent studies in mice have demonstrated that M cells are generated from Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells (ISCs, and that infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium increases M cell formation. However, it is not known whether and how these findings apply to primary human small intestinal epithelium propagated in an in vitro setting.Human intestinal crypts were grown as monolayers with growth factors and treated with recombinant RANKL, and assessed for mRNA transcripts, immunofluorescence and uptake of microparticles and S. Typhimurium.Functional M cells were generated by short-term culture of freshly isolated human intestinal crypts in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. RANKL stimulation of the monolayer cultures caused dramatic induction of the M cell-specific markers, SPIB, and Glycoprotein-2 (GP2 in a process primed by canonical WNT signaling. Confocal microscopy demonstrated a pseudopod phenotype of GP2-positive M cells that preferentially take up microparticles. Furthermore, infection of the M cell-enriched cultures with the M cell-tropic enteric pathogen, S. Typhimurium, led to preferential association of the bacteria with M cells, particularly at lower inoculum sizes. Larger inocula caused rapid induction of M cells.Human intestinal crypts containing ISCs can be cultured and differentiate into an epithelial layer with functional M cells with characteristic morphological and functional properties. This study is the first to demonstrate that M cells can be induced to form from primary human intestinal epithelium, and that S. Typhimurium preferentially infect these cells in an

  13. Effect of polydextrose on intestinal microbes and immune functions in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Francesca; Mäkivuokko, Harri; Siljander-Rasi, Hilkka; Putaala, Heli; Tiihonen, Kirsti; Stowell, Julian; Tuohy, Kieran; Gibson, Glenn; Rautonen, Nina

    2007-07-01

    Dietary fibre has been proposed to decrease risk for colon cancer by altering the composition of intestinal microbes or their activity. In the present study, the changes in intestinal microbiota and its activity, and immunological characteristics, such as cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 gene expression in mucosa, in pigs fed with a high-energy-density diet, with and without supplementation of a soluble fibre (polydextrose; PDX) (30 g/d) were assessed in different intestinal compartments. PDX was gradually fermented throughout the intestine, and was still present in the distal colon. Irrespective of the diet throughout the intestine, of the four microbial groups determined by fluorescent in situ hybridisation, lactobacilli were found to be dominating, followed by clostridia and Bacteroides. Bifidobacteria represented a minority of the total intestinal microbiota. The numbers of bacteria increased approximately ten-fold from the distal small intestine to the distal colon. Concomitantly, also concentrations of SCFA and biogenic amines increased in the large intestine. In contrast, concentrations of luminal IgA decreased distally but the expression of mucosal COX-2 had a tendency to increase in the mucosa towards the distal colon. Addition of PDX to the diet significantly changed the fermentation endproducts, especially in the distal colon, whereas effects on bacterial composition were rather minor. There was a reduction in concentrations of SCFA and tryptamine, and an increase in concentrations of spermidine in the colon upon PDX supplementation. Furthermore, PDX tended to decrease the expression of mucosal COX-2, therefore possibly reducing the risk of developing colon cancer-promoting conditions in the distal intestine.

  14. INTESTINAL VIROME AND NORMAL MICROFLORA OF HUMAN: FEATURES OF INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobyr V.V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Intestinal bacteria defend the host organism and narrow pathogenic bacterial colonization. However, the microbiome effect to enteric viruses is unexplored largely as well as role of microbiota in the pathogenesis of viral infections in general. This review focuses on precisely these issues. Keywords: microbiome, virome, normal microflora, enteric viruses, contagiousness. In this review article, facts about viral persistence in the human gut are summarized. It is described the role of viral populations during health and diseases. After analyzing of the literary facts it was concluded that the gastrointestinal tract is an environment for one from the most complex microbial ecosystems, which requires of more deeper study of its composition, role in physiological processes, as well as the dynamics of changes under influence of the environment. Normal microflora performs a different important functions providing the physiological homeostasis of the human body, including, in particular, an important role in the human metabolic processes, supporting of homeostasis, limiting of colonization by infectious bacteria. The multifactorial significance of the normal gastrointestinal microflora can be divided into immunological, structural and metabolic functions. At the same time, interaction between intestinal microflora and enteric viruses has not been studied largely. In recent years, much attention is paid to study of viruses-bacteria associations, and it is possible, obtained results should change our understanding of microbiota role in the systematic pathogenesis of the diseases with viral etiology. In contrast to the well-known benefits of normal microflora to the host, the viruses can use intestinal microflora as a trigger for replication at the optimal region. Recent studies give a reason for assumption that depletion of normal microflora with antibiotics can determining the antiviral effect. Thus, the role of commensal bacteria in viral

  15. Intestinal circulation during inhalation anesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tverskoy, M.; Gelman, S.; Fowler, K.C.; Bradley, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the influence of inhalational agents on the intestinal circulation in an isolated loop preparation. Sixty dogs were studied, using three intestinal segments from each dog. Selected intestinal segments were pumped with aortic blood at a constant pressure of 100 mmHg. A mixture of 86 Rb and 9-microns spheres labeled with 141 Ce was injected into the arterial cannula supplying the intestinal loop, while mesenteric venous blood was collected for activity counting. A very strong and significant correlation was found between rubidium clearance and microsphere entrapment (r = 0.97, P less than 0.0001). Nitrous oxide anesthesia was accompanied by a higher vascular resistance (VR), lower flow (F), rubidium clearance (Cl-Rb), and microspheres entrapment (Cl-Sph) than pentobarbital anesthesia, indicating that the vascular bed in the intestinal segment was constricted and flow (total and nutritive) decreased. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane anesthesia were accompanied by a much lower arteriovenous oxygen content difference (AVDO 2 ) and oxygen uptake than pentobarbital or nitrous oxide. Compared with pentobarbital, enflurane anesthesia was not accompanied by marked differences in VR, F, Cl-Rb, and Cl-Sph; halothane at 2 MAC decreased VR and increased F and Cl-Rb while isoflurane increased VR and decreased F. alpha-Adrenoceptor blockade with phentolamine (1 mg . kg-1) abolished isoflurane-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting that the increase in VR was mediated via circulating catecholamines

  16. Modeling intestinal disorders using zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X; Pack, M

    2017-01-01

    Although the zebrafish was initially developed as a model system to study embryonic development, it has gained increasing attention as an advantageous system to investigate human diseases, including intestinal disorders. Zebrafish embryos develop rapidly, and their digestive system is fully functional and visible by 5days post fertilization. There is a large degree of homology between the intestine of zebrafish and higher vertebrate organisms in terms of its cellular composition and function as both a digestive and immune organ. Furthermore, molecular pathways regulating injury and immune responses are highly conserved. In this chapter, we provide an overview of studies addressing developmental and physiological processes relevant to human intestinal disease. These studies include those related to congenital disorders, host-microbiota interactions, inflammatory diseases, motility disorders, and intestinal cancer. We also highlight the utility of zebrafish to functionally validate candidate genes identified through mutational analyses and genome-wide association studies, and discuss methodologies to investigate the intestinal biology that are unique to zebrafish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Isotopic identification of intestinal strangulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.C.; Selby, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    A small series of eleven dogs prepared with a strangulating segment of jejunum demonstrated that a radionuclide, 99 mTc-labelled albumin, concentrates in the lumen and bowel wall of the affected intestinal segment. Modern scanning equipment accurately localized the strangulating loop. This technique has the potential of identifying patients with intestinal obstruction, in whom strangulation is a factor, prior to the development of impaired arterial inflow and frank gangrene. These findings confirmed earlier obstructions that were reported when nuclear scanning instrumentation was less sophisticated. Identification of patients at risk for intestinal strangulation requires a high index of suspicion. Excruciating cramping abdominal pain out of proportion to physical findings, roentgenogram evidence, and laboratory studies should alert the physician to the possibility of intestinal ischemia and closed loop obstruction. Radionuclide scanning in such cases may be of assistance in defining or excluding the diagnosis of a strangulating mechanism. The test is simple, relatively economical, and represents a low risk procedure to patients. It would have no place when the classic physical and laboratory findings of intestinal infarction are present

  18. Isotopic identification of intestinal strangulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.C.; Selby, J.B.

    1982-12-01

    A small series of eleven dogs prepared with a strangulating segment of jejunum demonstrated that a radionuclide, /sup 99/mTc-labelled albumin, concentrates in the lumen and bowel wall of the affected intestinal segment. Modern scanning equipment accurately localized the strangulating loop. This technique has the potential of identifying patients with intestinal obstruction, in whom strangulation is a factor, prior to the development of impaired arterial inflow and frank gangrene. These findings confirmed earlier obstructions that were reported when nuclear scanning instrumentation was less sophisticated. Identification of patients at risk for intestinal strangulation requires a high index of suspicion. Excruciating cramping abdominal pain out of proportion to physical findings, roentgenogram evidence, and laboratory studies should alert the physician to the possibility of intestinal ischemia and closed loop obstruction. Radionuclide scanning in such cases may be of assistance in defining or excluding the diagnosis of a strangulating mechanism. The test is simple, relatively economical, and represents a low risk procedure to patients. It would have no place when the classic physical and laboratory findings of intestinal infarction are present.

  19. Molecular and cellular aspects of the bidirectional interaction between probiotic bacteria and the host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergenhenegouwen, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that intestinal microbial imbalance, or dysbiosis, and the associated changes in microbe-host interactions might contribute to the prevalence of disease. Dysbiosis is associated with a loss of beneficial bacteria and has triggered research into the potential preventive

  20. The antimicrobial action of chitosan, low molar mass chitosan, and chitooligosaccharides on human colonic bacteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimůnek, Jiří; Brandysová, V.; Koppová, Ingrid; Šimůnek, Jiří Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2012), 341-345 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA525/08/0803 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : antibacterial activity * intestinal bacteria * in vitro Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.791, year: 2012

  1. Age-Related Variations in Intestinal Microflora of Free-Range and Caged Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yizhe; Wang, Qiuju; Liu, Shengjun; Sun, Rui; Zhou, Yaqiang; Li, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Free range feeding pattern puts the chicken in a mixture of growth materials and enteric bacteria excreted by nature, while it is typically unique condition materials and enteric bacteria in commercial caged hens production. Thus, the gastrointestinal microflora in two feeding patterns could be various. However, it remains poorly understood how feeding patterns affect development and composition of layer hens' intestinal microflora. In this study, the effect of feeding patterns on the bacteria community in layer hens' gut was investigated using free range and caged feeding form. Samples of whole small intestines and cecal digesta were collected from young hens (8-weeks) and mature laying hens (30-weeks). Based on analysis using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing of bacterial 16S rDNA gene amplicons, the microflora of all intestinal contents were affected by both feeding patterns and age of hens. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Fusobacteria were the main components. Additionally, uncultured environmental samples were found too. There were large differences between young hens and adult laying hens, the latter had more Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, and bacterial community is more abundant in 30-weeks laying hens of all six phyla than 8-weeks young hens of only two phyla. In addition, the differences were also observed between free range and caged hens. Free range hens had richer Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria. Most of strains found were detected more abundant in small intestines than in cecum. Also the selected Lactic acid bacteria from hens gut were applied in feed and they had beneficial effects on growth performance and jejunal villus growth of young broilers. This study suggested that feeding patterns have an importance effect on the microflora composition of hens, which may impact the host nutritional status and intestinal health.

  2. Age-Related Variations in Intestinal Microflora of Free-Range and Caged Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizhe Cui

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Free range feeding pattern puts the chicken in a mixture of growth materials and enteric bacteria excreted by nature, while it is typically unique condition materials and enteric bacteria in commercial caged hens production. Thus, the gastrointestinal microflora in two feeding patterns could be various. However, it remains poorly understood how feeding patterns affect development and composition of layer hens’ intestinal microflora. In this study, the effect of feeding patterns on the bacteria community in layer hens’ gut was investigated using free range and caged feeding form. Samples of whole small intestines and cecal digesta were collected from young hens (8-weeks and mature laying hens (30-weeks. Based on analysis using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing of bacterial 16S rDNA gene amplicons, the microflora of all intestinal contents were affected by both feeding patterns and age of hens. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Fusobacteria were the main components. Additionally, uncultured environmental samples were found too. There were large differences between young hens and adult laying hens, the latter had more Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, and bacterial community is more abundant in 30-weeks laying hens of all six phyla than 8-weeks young hens of only two phyla. In addition, the differences were also observed between free range and caged hens. Free range hens had richer Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria. Most of strains found were detected more abundant in small intestines than in cecum. Also the selected Lactic acid bacteria from hens gut were applied in feed and they had beneficial effects on growth performance and jejunal villus growth of young broilers. This study suggested that feeding patterns have an importance effect on the microflora composition of hens, which may impact the host nutritional status and intestinal health.

  3. Comparative cytotoxicity of periodontal bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.H.; Hammond, B.F.

    1988-01-01

    The direct cytotoxicity of sonic extracts (SE) from nine periodontal bacteria for human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) was compared. Equivalent dosages (in terms of protein concentration) of SE were used to challenge HGF cultures. The cytotoxic potential of each SE was assessed by its ability to (1) inhibit HGF proliferation, as measured by direct cell counts; (2) inhibit 3H-thymidine incorporation in HGF cultures; or (3) cause morphological alterations of the cells in challenged cultures. The highest concentration (500 micrograms SE protein/ml) of any of the SEs used to challenge the cells was found to be markedly inhibitory to the HGFs by all three of the criteria of cytotoxicity. At the lowest dosage tested (50 micrograms SE protein/ml); only SE from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Bacteroides gingivalis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum caused a significant effect (greater than 90% inhibition or overt morphological abnormalities) in the HGFs as determined by any of the criteria employed. SE from Capnocytophaga sputigena, Eikenella corrodens, or Wolinella recta also inhibited cell proliferation and thymidine incorporation at this dosage; however, the degree of inhibition (5-50%) was consistently, clearly less than that of the first group of three organisms named above. The SE of the three other organisms tested (Actinomyces odontolyticus, Bacteroides intermedius, and Streptococcus sanguis) had little or no effect (0-10% inhibition) at this concentration. The data suggest that the outcome of the interaction between bacterial components and normal resident cells of the periodontium is, at least in part, a function of the bacterial species

  4. Comparative cytotoxicity of periodontal bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, R.H.; Hammond, B.F.

    1988-11-01

    The direct cytotoxicity of sonic extracts (SE) from nine periodontal bacteria for human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) was compared. Equivalent dosages (in terms of protein concentration) of SE were used to challenge HGF cultures. The cytotoxic potential of each SE was assessed by its ability to (1) inhibit HGF proliferation, as measured by direct cell counts; (2) inhibit 3H-thymidine incorporation in HGF cultures; or (3) cause morphological alterations of the cells in challenged cultures. The highest concentration (500 micrograms SE protein/ml) of any of the SEs used to challenge the cells was found to be markedly inhibitory to the HGFs by all three of the criteria of cytotoxicity. At the lowest dosage tested (50 micrograms SE protein/ml); only SE from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Bacteroides gingivalis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum caused a significant effect (greater than 90% inhibition or overt morphological abnormalities) in the HGFs as determined by any of the criteria employed. SE from Capnocytophaga sputigena, Eikenella corrodens, or Wolinella recta also inhibited cell proliferation and thymidine incorporation at this dosage; however, the degree of inhibition (5-50%) was consistently, clearly less than that of the first group of three organisms named above. The SE of the three other organisms tested (Actinomyces odontolyticus, Bacteroides intermedius, and Streptococcus sanguis) had little or no effect (0-10% inhibition) at this concentration. The data suggest that the outcome of the interaction between bacterial components and normal resident cells of the periodontium is, at least in part, a function of the bacterial species.

  5. The repertoire of equine intestinal α-defensins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetens Jens

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Defensins represent an important class of antimicrobial peptides. These effector molecules of the innate immune system act as endogenous antibiotics to protect the organism against infections with pathogenic microorganisms. Mammalian defensins are classified into three distinct sub-families (α-, β- and θ-defensins according to their specific intramolecular disulfide-bond pattern. The peptides exhibit an antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of microorganisms including bacteria and fungi. Alpha-Defensins are primarily synthesised in neutrophils and intestinal Paneth cells. They play a role in the pathogenesis of intestinal diseases and may regulate the flora of the intestinal tract. An equine intestinal α-defensin (DEFA1, the first characterised in the Laurasiatheria, shows a broad antimicrobial spectrum against human and equine pathogens. Here we report a first investigation of the repertoire of equine intestinal α-defensins. The equine genome was screened for putative α-defensin genes by using known α-defensin sequences as matrices. Based on the obtained sequence information, a set of oligonucleotides specific to the α-defensin gene-family was designed. The products generated by reverse-transcriptase PCR with cDNA from the small intestine as template were sub-cloned and numerous clones were sequenced. Results Thirty-eight equine intestinal α-defensin transcripts were determined. After translation it became evident that at least 20 of them may code for functional peptides. Ten transcripts lacked matching genomic sequences and for 14 α-defensin genes apparently present in the genome no appropriate transcript could be verified. In other cases the same genomic exons were found in different transcripts. Conclusions The large repertoire of equine α-defensins found in this study points to a particular importance of these peptides regarding animal health and protection from infectious diseases. Moreover, these

  6. Intestinal paragonimiasis with colonic ulcer and hematochezia in an elderly Taiwanese woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chung-Te; Chen, Yen-Cheng; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Barghouth, Ursula; Fan, Chia-Kwung

    2012-12-01

    A 94-year-old female with end-stage renal disease presents with fever, fatigue, and hematochezia. She had previously resided in Hunan Province, China, and Myanmar, and she immigrated to Taiwan 30 years ago. Colonoscopy revealed a colonic ulcer. Biopsy of the colonic ulcer showed ulceration of the colonic mucosa, and many Paragonimus westermani-like eggs were noted. Serum IgG antibody levels showed strong reactivity with P. westermani excretory-secretory antigens by ELISA. Intestinal paragonimiasis was thus diagnosed according to the morphology of the eggs and serologic finding. After treatment with praziquantel, hematochezia resolved. The present case illustrates the extreme manifestations encountered in severe intestinal paragonimiasis.

  7. Modulation of host responses by oral commensal bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre A. Devine

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Immunomodulatory commensal bacteria are proposed to be essential for maintaining healthy tissues, having multiple roles including priming immune responses to ensure rapid and efficient defences against pathogens. The default state of oral tissues, like the gut, is one of inflammation which may be balanced by regulatory mechanisms and the activities of anti-inflammatory resident bacteria that modulate Toll-like receptor (TLR signalling or NF-κB activation, or influence the development and activities of immune cells. However, the widespread ability of normal resident organisms to suppress inflammation could impose an unsustainable burden on the immune system and compromise responses to pathogens. Immunosuppressive resident bacteria have been isolated from the mouth and, for example, may constitute 30% of the resident streptococci in plaque or on the tongue. Their roles in oral health and dysbiosis remain to be determined. A wide range of bacterial components and/or products can mediate immunomodulatory activity, raising the possibility of development of alternative strategies for therapy and health promotion using probiotics, prebiotics, or commensal-derived immunomodulatory molecules.

  8. Neuron-macrophage crosstalk in the intestine: a ‘microglia’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eVerheijden

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal macrophages are strategically located in different layers of the intestine, including the mucosa, submucosa and muscularis externa, where they perform complex tasks to maintain intestinal homeostasis. As the gastrointestinal tract is continuously challenged by foreign antigens, macrophage activation should be tightly controlled to prevent chronic inflammation and tissue damage. Unraveling the precise cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the tissue-specific control of macrophage activation is crucial to get more insight into intestinal immune regulation. Two recent reports provide unanticipated evidence that the enteric nervous system acts as a critical regulator of macrophage function in the myenteric plexus. Both studies clearly illustrate that enteric neurons reciprocally interact with intestinal macrophages and are actively involved in shaping their phenotype. This concept has striking parallels with the central nervous system (CNS, where neuronal signals maintain microglia, the resident macrophages of the CNS, in a quiescent, anti-inflammatory state. This inevitably evokes the perception that the ENS and CNS share mechanisms of neuroimmune interaction. In line, intestinal macrophages, both in the muscularis externa and (submucosa, express high levels of CX3CR1, a feature that was once believed to be unique for microglia. CX3CR1 is the sole receptor of fractalkine (CX3CL1, a factor mainly produced by neurons in the CNS to facilitate neuron-microglia communication. The striking parallels between resident macrophages of the brain and intestine might provide a promising new line of thought to get more insight into cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling macrophage activation in the gut.

  9. Intestinal epithelial barrier function and tight junction proteins with heat and exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dokladny, Karol; Zuhl, Micah N; Moseley, Pope L

    2016-01-01

    (passive hyperthermia) heat stress on tight junction barrier function in in vitro and in vivo (animals and humans) models. Our secondary focus is to review changes in tight junction proteins in response to exercise or hyperthermic conditions. Finally, we discuss some pharmacological or nutritional...... interventions that may affect the cellular mechanisms involved in maintaining homeostasis of the intestinal epithelial tight junction barrier during heat stress or exercise....... permeation of luminal antigens, endotoxins, and bacteria into the blood stream. Various substances and conditions have been shown to affect the maintenance of the intestinal epithelial tight junction barrier. The primary focus of the present review is to analyze the effects of exertional or nonexertional...

  10. Education Research: Neurology resident education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayans, David; Schneider, Logan; Adams, Nellie; Khawaja, Ayaz M.; Engstrom, John

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To survey US-trained graduating neurology residents who are American Academy of Neurology members, in an effort to trend perceived quality and completeness of graduate neurology education. Methods: An electronic survey was sent to all American Academy of Neurology members graduating from US neurology residency programs in the Spring of 2014. Results: Of 805 eligible respondents, 24% completed the survey. Ninety-three percent of adult neurology residents and 56% of child neurology residents reported plans to pursue fellowship training after residency. Respondents reported a desire for additional training in neurocritical care, neuro-oncology, neuromuscular diseases, botulinum toxin injection, and nerve blocks. There remains a clear deficit in business training of neurology residents, although there was notable improvement in knowledge of coding and office management compared to previous surveys. Discussion: Although there are still areas of perceived weakness in neurology training, graduating neurology residents feel generally well prepared for their chosen careers. However, most still pursue fellowship training for reasons that are little understood. In addition to certain subspecialties and procedures, practice management remains deficient in neurology training and is a point of future insecurity for most residents. Future curriculum changes should consider resident-reported gaps in knowledge, with careful consideration of improving business training. PMID:26976522

  11. Mechanisms involved in alleviation of intestinal inflammation by bifidobacterium breve soluble factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Heuvelin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Soluble factors released by Bifidobacterium breve C50 (Bb alleviate the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by immune cells, but their effect on intestinal epithelium remains elusive. To decipher the mechanisms accounting for the cross-talk between bacteria/soluble factors and intestinal epithelium, we measured the capacity of the bacteria, its conditioned medium (Bb-CM and other Gram(+ commensal bacteria to dampen inflammatory chemokine secretion. METHODS: TNFalpha-induced chemokine (CXCL8 secretion and alteration of NF-kappaB and AP-1 signalling pathways by Bb were studied by EMSA, confocal microscopy and western blotting. Anti-inflammatory capacity was also tested in vivo in a model of TNBS-induced colitis in mice. RESULTS: Bb and Bb-CM, but not other commensal bacteria, induced a time and dose-dependent inhibition of CXCL8 secretion by epithelial cells driven by both AP-1 and NF-kappaB transcription pathways and implying decreased phosphorylation of p38-MAPK and IkappaB-alpha molecules. In TNBS-induced colitis in mice, Bb-CM decreased the colitis score and inflammatory cytokine expression, an effect reproduced by dendritic cell conditioning with Bb-CM. CONCLUSIONS: Bb and secreted soluble factors contribute positively to intestinal homeostasis by attenuating chemokine production. The results indicate that Bb down regulate inflammation at the epithelial level by inhibiting phosphorylations involved in inflammatory processes and by protective conditioning of dendritic cells.

  12. Subversion of human intestinal mucosa innate immunity by a Crohn's disease-associated E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarry, A; Crémet, L; Caroff, N; Bou-Hanna, C; Mussini, J M; Reynaud, A; Servin, A L; Mosnier, J F; Liévin-Le Moal, V; Laboisse, C L

    2015-05-01

    Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC), associated with Crohn's disease, are likely candidate contributory factors in the disease. However, signaling pathways involved in human intestinal mucosa innate host response to AIEC remain unknown. Here we use a 3D model of human intestinal mucosa explant culture to explore the effects of the AIEC strain LF82 on two innate immunity platforms, i.e., the inflammasome through evaluation of caspase-1 status, and NFκB signaling. We showed that LF82 bacteria enter and survive within a few intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages, without altering the mucosa overall architecture. Although 4-h infection with a Salmonella strain caused crypt disorganization, caspase-1 activation, and mature IL-18 production, LF82 bacteria were unable to activate caspase-1 and induce IL-18 production. In parallel, LF82 bacteria activated NFκB signaling in epithelial cells through IκBα phosphorylation, NFκBp65 nuclear translocation, and TNFα secretion. In addition, NFκB activation was crucial for the maintenance of epithelial homeostasis upon LF82 infection. In conclusion, here we decipher at the whole-mucosa level the mechanisms of the LF82-induced subversion of innate immunity that, by maintaining host cell integrity, ensure intracellular bacteria survival.

  13. Mycorrhiza helper bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deveau, Aurelie [French National Insitute for Agricultural Research (INRA); Labbe, Jessy [ORNL

    2016-10-01

    This chapter focuses on the Mycorrhiza Helper Bacteria (MHB), a generic name given to bacteria which stimulate the formation of mycorrhizal symbiosis. By extension, some bacterial strains that positively impact the functioning of mycorrhizal symbiosis are also called MHB. These bacteria have applicative interests, as they indirectly improve the health and growth of tree seedlings. MHB are not restricted to a specific type of ecosystem, but are rather generalist in the way that they associate with both herbaceous and woody mycorrhizal plants from boreal, temperate, arid and tropical ecosystems. However, understanding the molecular mechanisms and their specificities will help us to know more about the ecology of the MHB. The process of acquisition varies between fungal species; while ectomycorrhizal fungi most probably recurrently acquire them from the environment, the association between bacterial endosymbionts and Glomeromycota probably dates back to very ancient times, and has since been vertically transmitted.

  14. Cholesterol Assimilation by Lactobacillus Probiotic Bacteria: An In Vitro Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Tomaro-Duchesneau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess cholesterol is associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD, an important cause of mortality worldwide. Current CVD therapeutic measures, lifestyle and dietary interventions, and pharmaceutical agents for regulating cholesterol levels are inadequate. Probiotic bacteria have demonstrated potential to lower cholesterol levels by different mechanisms, including bile salt hydrolase activity, production of compounds that inhibit enzymes such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A, and cholesterol assimilation. This work investigates 11 Lactobacillus strains for cholesterol assimilation. Probiotic strains for investigation were selected from the literature: Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 11951, L. reuteri NCIMB 701359, L. reuteri NCIMB 702655, L. reuteri NCIMB 701089, L. reuteri NCIMB 702656, Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221, L. fermentum NCIMB 8829, L. fermentum NCIMB 2797, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103 GG, Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 314, and Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917. Cholesterol assimilation was investigated in culture media and under simulated intestinal conditions. The best cholesterol assimilator was L. plantarum ATCC 14917 (15.18 ± 0.55 mg/1010 cfu in MRS broth. L. reuteri NCIMB 701089 assimilated over 67% (2254.70 ± 63.33 mg/1010 cfu of cholesterol, the most of all the strains, under intestinal conditions. This work demonstrates that probiotic bacteria can assimilate cholesterol under intestinal conditions, with L. reuteri NCIMB 701089 showing great potential as a CVD therapeutic.

  15. Role of Natural Killer and Dendritic Cell Crosstalk in Immunomodulation by Commensal Bacteria Probiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzello, Valeria; Bonaccorsi, Irene; Dongarra, Maria Luisa

    2011-01-01

    -talk is of particular importance at mucosal surfaces such as the intestine, where the immune system exists in intimate association with commensal bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB). We here review NK/DC interactions in the presence of gut-derived commensal bacteria and their role in bacterial strain......-dependent immunomodulatory effects. We particularly aim to highlight the ability of distinct species of commensal bacterial probiotics to differently affect the outcome of DC/NK cross-talk and consequently to differently influence the polarization of the adaptive immune response....

  16. Probiotic lactic acid bacteria – the fledgling cuckoos of the gut?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Berstad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It is tempting to look at bacteria from our human egocentric point of view and label them as either ‘good’ or ‘bad’. However, a microbial society has its own system of government – ‘microcracy’ – and its own rules of play. Lactic acid bacteria are often referred to as representatives of the good ones, and there is little doubt that those belonging to the normal intestinal flora are beneficial for human health. But we should stop thinking of lactic acid bacteria as always being ‘friendly’ – they may instead behave like fledgling cuckoos.

  17. Effect of cocoa's theobromine on intestinal microbiota of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Peláez, Sandra; Camps-Bossacoma, Mariona; Massot-Cladera, Malen; Rigo-Adrover, Mar; Franch, Àngels; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Castell, Margarida

    2017-10-01

    To establish the role of cocoa theobromine on gut microbiota composition and fermentation products after cocoa consumption in rats. Lewis rats were fed either a standard diet (RF diet), a diet containing 10% cocoa (CC diet) or a diet including 0.25% theobromine (TB diet) for 15 days. Gut microbiota (fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled to flow cytometry and metagenomics analysis), SCFA and IgA-coated bacteria were analyzed in fecal samples. CC and TB diets induced lower counts of E. coli whereas TB diet led to lower counts of Bifidobacterium spp., Streptococcus spp. and Clostridium histolyticum-C. perfingens group compared to RF diet. Metagenomics analysis also revealed a different microbiota pattern among the studied groups. The SCFA content was higher after both CC and TB diets, which was mainly due to enhanced butyric acid production. Furthermore, both diets decreased the proportion of IgA-coated bacteria. Cocoa's theobromine plays a relevant role in some effects related to cocoa intake, such as the lower proportion of IgA-coated bacteria. Moreover, theobromine modifies gut microbiota although other cocoa compounds could also act on intestinal bacteria, attenuating or enhancing the theobromine effects. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Galanin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harling, H; Messell, T; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1991-01-01

    By immunohistochemistry and double staining technique, almost complete coexistence of galanin-like immunoreactivity (GAL-LI) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-like immunoreactivity (VIP-LI) was demonstrated in submucosal ganglionic cells and mucosal nerve fibers of the porcine ileum. The rele......By immunohistochemistry and double staining technique, almost complete coexistence of galanin-like immunoreactivity (GAL-LI) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-like immunoreactivity (VIP-LI) was demonstrated in submucosal ganglionic cells and mucosal nerve fibers of the porcine ileum...

  19. Factors Influencing Resident Choice of Prosthodontic Residency Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnarwsky, Pandora Keala Lee; Wang, Yan; Shah, Kumar; Koka, Sreenivas

    2017-06-01

    The decision by prosthodontic residency program directors to employ the Match process highlights the need to understand applicant priorities that influence their choice of which programs to rank highly. The purpose of this study is to determine the factors that were most important to residents when choosing from among nonmilitary based prosthodontics dental residency programs in the United States. Following completion of a pilot study, all currently enrolled prosthodontic residents at nonmilitary residency programs were invited to participate via the internet. The study consisted of a survey instrument asking residents to rank 26 possible factors that might impact an applicant's choice of residency program. In addition, the instrument collected other possible influencing variables including gender and debt load. Mean rank scores were compared to determine the most and least important factors. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare specific factors between the possible influencing variables. Two hundred and thirty residents completed the survey instrument, representing a 54.1% response rate of possible participants. With regard to factors influencing program choice, reputation of the residency program was the factor ranked the highest by participants, followed in descending order by the program director's personality, curriculum content, access to use of the latest digital technology, and opportunities for dental implant placement. Quality of schools for children, community outreach opportunities, and the ability to moonlight were ranked as the least important factors. Male and female residents ranked factors such as tuition/stipend, curriculum content, and community outreach opportunities significantly differently. Depending on debt load, residents ranked the factors tuition/stipend, ability to moonlight, curriculum content, and safety of the area where the program is differently. Current prosthodontic residents valued the reputation of the program as the most

  20. Contrasting Ecological Processes and Functional Compositions Between Intestinal Bacterial Community in Healthy and Diseased Shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinyong; Dai, Wenfang; Qiu, Qiongfen; Dong, Chunming; Zhang, Jinjie; Xiong, Jinbo

    2016-11-01

    Intestinal bacterial communities play a pivotal role in promoting host health; therefore, the disruption of intestinal bacterial homeostasis could result in disease. However, the effect of the occurrences of disease on intestinal bacterial community assembly remains unclear. To address this gap, we compared the multifaceted ecological differences in maintaining intestinal bacterial community assembly between healthy and diseased shrimps. The neutral model analysis shows that the relative importance of neutral processes decreases when disease occurs. This pattern is further corroborated by the ecosphere null model, revealing that the bacterial community assembly of diseased samples is dominated by stochastic processes. In addition, the occurrence of shrimp disease reduces the complexity and cooperative activities of species-to-species interactions. The keystone taxa affiliated with Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria in healthy shrimp gut shift to Gammaproteobacteria species in diseased shrimp. Changes in intestinal bacterial communities significantly alter biological functions in shrimp. Within a given metabolic pathway, the pattern of enrichment or decrease between healthy and deceased shrimp is correlated with its functional effects. We propose that stressed shrimp are more prone to invasion by alien strains (evidenced by more stochastic assembly and higher migration rate in diseased shrimp), which, in turn, disrupts the cooperative activity among resident species. These findings greatly aid our understanding of the underlying mechanisms that govern shrimp intestinal community assembly between health statuses.

  1. Gintonin absorption in intestinal model systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Hwan Lee

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study shows that gintonin could be absorbed in the intestine through transcellular and paracellular diffusion, and active transport. In addition, the lipid component of gintonin might play a key role in its intestinal absorption.

  2. Microbiota, intestinal immunity, and mouse bustle

    OpenAIRE

    Kruglov, A.; Nedospasov, S.

    2014-01-01

    The composition of the intestinal microbiota is regulated by the immune system. This paper discusses the role of cytokines and innate immunity lymphoid cells in the intestinal immune regulation by means of IgA.

  3. Dietary High Fluorine Alters Intestinal Microbiota in Broiler Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qin; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Liu, Juan; Deng, Yubing

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary high fluorine on ileal and cecal microbiota in broiler chickens. Two hundred eighty 1-day-old broiler chickens were randomly assigned to four groups and raised for 42 days. The control group was fed a corn-soybean basal diet (fluorine 22.6 mg/kg). The other three groups were fed the same basal diet, but supplemented with 400, 800, and 1200 mg/kg fluorine (high fluorine groups I, II, and III), administered in the form of sodium fluoride. The microbiota of ileal and cecal digesta was assessed with plate counts and polymerase chain reaction-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). It was found that, compared with those in the control group, the counts of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. were markedly decreased (P fluorine groups II and III. PCR-DGGE analysis showed that the number of DGGE bands, similarity, and Shannon index of ileal and cecal bacteria were markedly reduced in the high fluorine groups II and III from 21 to 42 days. Sequencing analysis revealed that the composition of the intestinal microbiota was altered in the high fluorine groups. In conclusion, dietary fluorine in the range of 800-1200 mg/kg obviously altered the bacterial counts, and the diversity and composition of intestinal microbiota in broiler chickens, a finding which implies that dietary high fluorine can disrupt the natural balance and structure of the intestinal microbiota.

  4. Galacto-oligosaccharides and Colorectal Cancer: Feeding our Intestinal Probiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno-Barcena, Jose M; Azcarate-Peril, M Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Prebiotics are ingredients selectively fermented by the intestinal microbiota that promote changes in the microbial community structure and/or their metabolism, conferring health benefits to the host. Studies show that β (1-4) galacto-oligosaccharides [β (1-4) GOS], lactulose and fructo-oligosaccharides increase intestinal concentration of lactate and short chain fatty acids, and stool frequency and weight, and they decrease fecal concentration of secondary bile acids, fecal pH, and nitroreductase and β-glucuronidase activities suggesting a clear role in colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention. This review summarizes research on prebiotics bioassimilation, specifically β (1-4) GOS, and their potential role in CRC. We also evaluate research that show that the impact of prebiotics on host physiology can be direct or through modulation of the gut intestinal microbiome, specifically the probiome (autochtonous beneficial bacteria), we present studies on a potential role in CRC progression to finally describe the current state of β (1-4) GOS generation for industrial production.

  5. Pathology Informatics Essentials for Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcher, Donald S.; Harrison, James H.; Sinard, John H.; Riben, Michael W.; Boyer, Philip J.; Plath, Sue; Thompson, Arlene; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2016-01-01

    Context: Recognition of the importance of informatics to the practice of pathology has surged. Training residents in pathology informatics has been a daunting task for most residency programs in the United States because faculty often lacks experience and training resources. Nevertheless, developing resident competence in informatics is essential for the future of pathology as a specialty. Objective: To develop and deliver a pathology informatics curriculum and instructional framework that guides pathology residency programs in training residents in critical pathology informatics knowledge and skills, and meets Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Informatics Milestones. Design: The College of American Pathologists, Association of Pathology Chairs, and Association for Pathology Informatics formed a partnership and expert work group to identify critical pathology informatics training outcomes and to create a highly adaptable curriculum and instructional approach, supported by a multiyear change management strategy. Results: Pathology Informatics Essentials for Residents (PIER) is a rigorous approach for educating all pathology residents in important pathology informatics knowledge and skills. PIER includes an instructional resource guide and toolkit for incorporating informatics training into residency programs that vary in needs, size, settings, and resources. PIER is available at http://www.apcprods.org/PIER (accessed April 6, 2016). Conclusions: PIER is an important contribution to informatics training in pathology residency programs. PIER introduces pathology trainees to broadly useful informatics concepts and tools that are relevant to practice. PIER provides residency program directors with a means to implement a standardized informatics training curriculum, to adapt the approach to local program needs, and to evaluate resident performance and progress over time. PMID:28725772

  6. Pathology Informatics Essentials for Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter H. Henricks MD

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: Recognition of the importance of informatics to the practice of pathology has surged. Training residents in pathology informatics has been a daunting task for most residency programs in the United States because faculty often lacks experience and training resources. Nevertheless, developing resident competence in informatics is essential for the future of pathology as a specialty. Objective: To develop and deliver a pathology informatics curriculum and instructional framework that guides pathology residency programs in training residents in critical pathology informatics knowledge and skills, and meets Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Informatics Milestones. Design: The College of American Pathologists, Association of Pathology Chairs, and Association for Pathology Informatics formed a partnership and expert work group to identify critical pathology informatics training outcomes and to create a highly adaptable curriculum and instructional approach, supported by a multiyear change management strategy. Results: Pathology Informatics Essentials for Residents (PIER is a rigorous approach for educating all pathology residents in important pathology informatics knowledge and skills. PIER includes an instructional resource guide and toolkit for incorporating informatics training into residency programs that vary in needs, size, settings, and resources. PIER is available at http://www.apcprods.org/PIER (accessed April 6, 2016. Conclusions: PIER is an important contribution to informatics training in pathology residency programs. PIER introduces pathology trainees to broadly useful informatics concepts and tools that are relevant to practice. PIER provides residency program directors with a means to implement a standardized informatics training curriculum, to adapt the approach to local program needs, and to evaluate resident performance and progress over time.

  7. Incorporating resident research into the dermatology residency program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Richard F; Raimer, Sharon S; Kelly, Brent C

    2013-01-01

    Programmatic changes for the dermatology residency program at The University of Texas Medical Branch were first introduced in 2005, with the faculty goal incorporating formal dermatology research projects into the 3-year postgraduate training period. This curriculum initially developed as a recommendation for voluntary scholarly project activity by residents, but it evolved into a program requirement for all residents in 2009. Departmental support for this activity includes assignment of a faculty mentor with similar interest about the research topic, financial support from the department for needed supplies, materials, and statistical consultation with the Office of Biostatistics for study design and data analysis, a 2-week elective that provides protected time from clinical activities for the purpose of preparing research for publication and submission to a peer-reviewed medical journal, and a departmental award in recognition for the best resident scholarly project each year. Since the inception of this program, five classes have graduated a total of 16 residents. Ten residents submitted their research studies for peer review and published their scholarly projects in seven dermatology journals through the current academic year. These articles included three prospective investigations, three surveys, one article related to dermatology education, one retrospective chart review, one case series, and one article about dermatopathology. An additional article from a 2012 graduate about dermatology education has also been submitted to a journal. This new program for residents was adapted from our historically successful Dermatology Honors Research Program for medical students at The University of Texas Medical Branch. Our experience with this academic initiative to promote dermatology research by residents is outlined. It is recommended that additional residency programs should consider adopting similar research programs to enrich resident education. PMID:23901305

  8. The effect of heat stress on intestinal integrity and Salmonella invasion in broiler birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhenaky, Alhanof; Abdelqader, Anas; Abuajamieh, Mohannad; Al-Fataftah, Abdur-Rahman

    2017-12-01

    The intestinal mucosa works as a barrier to protect the internal environment of the animal from bacteria and bacterial toxins found in the gut lumen. Heat stress may harm this function. Therefore, we designed the current experiment to investigate the effect of heat stress on intestinal integrity, physiological and immunological responses and Salmonella invasion in broiler chickens. At 26 days of age, 72 birds were randomly distributed into 3 treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 3 birds per replicate. The three treatments were control treatment; kept at thermoneutral environmental conditions (20 ± 2°C), chronic heat stress treatment (exposed to 30 ± 2°C; 24h/day) and acute heat stress treatment (exposed to 35 ±2°C from 09:00 to 13:00 and kept at 20 ± 1°C from 13:00 to 09:00). The heat stress exposure was conducted for 10 successive days. Compared with the control treatment, birds subject to chronic and acute heat stress had reduced (P stress treatment. Rectal temperature and Δ rectal temperature (°C/h) increased (P stressed birds had increased (P stress impaired intestinal integrity which resulted in increased intestinal permeability to endotoxin, translocation of intestinal pathogens (Salmonella spp.) and serum inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, avoiding thermal dysfunction of intestinal barrier is a significant factor in maintaining welfare, immune status and meat safety of broiler birds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Enteric glial cells and their role in the intestinal epithelial barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan-Bo; Li, Yan-Qing

    2014-08-28

    The intestinal epithelium constitutes a physical and functional barrier between the external environment and the host organism. It is formed by a continuous monolayer of intestinal epithelial cells maintained together by intercellular junctional complex, limiting access of pathogens, toxins and xenobiotics to host tissues. Once this barrier integrity is disrupted, inflammatory disorders and tissue injury are initiated and perpetuated. Beneath the intestinal epithelial cells lies a population of astrocyte-like cells that are known as enteric glia. The morphological characteristics and expression markers of these enteric glia cells were identical to the astrocytes of the central nervous system. In the past few years, enteric glia have been demonstrated to have a trophic and supporting relationship with intestinal epithelial cells. Enteric glia lesions and/or functional defects can be involved in the barrier dysfunction. Besides, factors secreted by enteric glia are important for the regulation of gut barrier function. Moreover, enteric glia have an important impact on epithelial cell transcriptome and induce a shift in epithelial cell phenotype towards increased cell adhesion and cell differentiation. Enteric glia can also preserve epithelial barrier against intestinal bacteria insult. In this review, we will describe the current body of evidence supporting functional roles of enteric glia on intestinal barrier.

  10. Intestinal Dysbiosis, Barrier Dysfunction, and Bacterial Translocation Account for CKD-Related Systemic Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Kirstin; Kesper, Marie Sophie; Marschner, Julian A; Konrad, Lukas; Ryu, Mi; Kumar Vr, Santhosh; Kulkarni, Onkar P; Mulay, Shrikant R; Romoli, Simone; Demleitner, Jana; Schiller, Patrick; Dietrich, Alexander; Müller, Susanna; Gross, Oliver; Ruscheweyh, Hans-Joachim; Huson, Daniel H; Stecher, Bärbel; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2017-01-01

    CKD associates with systemic inflammation, but the underlying cause is unknown. Here, we investigated the involvement of intestinal microbiota. We report that collagen type 4 α3-deficient mice with Alport syndrome-related progressive CKD displayed systemic inflammation, including increased plasma levels of pentraxin-2 and activated antigen-presenting cells, CD4 and CD8 T cells, and Th17- or IFNγ-producing T cells in the spleen as well as regulatory T cell suppression. CKD-related systemic inflammation in these mice associated with intestinal dysbiosis of proteobacterial blooms, translocation of living bacteria across the intestinal barrier into the liver, and increased serum levels of bacterial endotoxin. Uremia did not affect secretory IgA release into the ileum lumen or mucosal leukocyte subsets. To test for causation between dysbiosis and systemic inflammation in CKD, we eradicated facultative anaerobic microbiota with antibiotics. This eradication prevented bacterial translocation, significantly reduced serum endotoxin levels, and fully reversed all markers of systemic inflammation to the level of nonuremic controls. Therefore, we conclude that uremia associates with intestinal dysbiosis, intestinal barrier dysfunction, and bacterial translocation, which trigger the state of persistent systemic inflammation in CKD. Uremic dysbiosis and intestinal barrier dysfunction may be novel therapeutic targets for intervention to suppress CKD-related systemic inflammation and its consequences. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  11. Composition, diversity, and origin of the bacterial community in grass carp intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangong Wu

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota has become an integral component of the host, and received increasing attention. However, for many domestic animals, information on the microbiota is insufficient and more effort should be exerted to manage the gastrointestinal bacterial community. Understanding the factors that influence the composition of microbial community in the host alimentary canal is essential to manage or improve the microbial community composition. In the present study, 16S rRNA gene sequence-based comparisons of the bacterial communities in the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus intestinal contents and fish culture-associated environments are performed. The results show that the fish intestinal microbiota harbors many cellulose-decomposing bacteria, including sequences related to Anoxybacillus, Leuconostoc, Clostridium, Actinomyces, and Citrobacter. The most abundant bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs in the grass carp intestinal content are those related to feed digestion. In addition, the potential pathogens and probiotics are important members of the intestinal microbiota. Further analyses show that grass carp intestine holds a core microbiota composed of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. The comparison analyses reveal that the bacterial community in the intestinal contents is most similar to those from the culture water and sediment. However, feed also plays significant influence on the composition of gut microbiota.

  12. Effects of propofol on damage of rat intestinal epithelial cells induced by heat stress and lipopolysaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, J.; Jiang, Y. [Southern Medical University, Nanfang Hospital, Department of Anesthesia, Guangzhou, China, Department of Anesthesia, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Tang, Y.; Chen, B. [Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Department of Intensive Care Unit, Guangzhou, China, Department of Intensive Care Unit, Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Guangzhou (China); Sun, X. [Laboratory of Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndrome, School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Su, L.; Liu, Z. [Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Department of Intensive Care Unit, Guangzhou, China, Department of Intensive Care Unit, Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Guangzhou (China)

    2013-06-25

    Gut-derived endotoxin and pathogenic bacteria have been proposed as important causative factors of morbidity and death during heat stroke. However, it is still unclear what kind of damage is induced by heat stress. In this study, the rat intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6) was treated with heat stress or a combination of heat stress and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, propofol, which plays an important role in anti-inflammation and organ protection, was applied to study its effects on cellular viability and apoptosis. Heat stress, LPS, or heat stress combined with LPS stimulation can all cause intestinal epithelial cell damage, including early apoptosis and subsequent necrosis. However, propofol can alleviate injuries caused by heat stress, LPS, or the combination of heat stress and LPS. Interestingly, propofol can only mitigate LPS-induced intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis, and has no protective role in heat-stress-induced apoptosis. This study developed a model that can mimic the intestinal heat stress environment. It demonstrates the effects on intestinal epithelial cell damage, and indicated that propofol could be used as a therapeutic drug for the treatment of heat-stress-induced intestinal injuries.

  13. Effects of propofol on damage of rat intestinal epithelial cells induced by heat stress and lipopolysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, J.; Jiang, Y.; Tang, Y.; Chen, B.; Sun, X.; Su, L.; Liu, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Gut-derived endotoxin and pathogenic bacteria have been proposed as important causative factors of morbidity and death during heat stroke. However, it is still unclear what kind of damage is induced by heat stress. In this study, the rat intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6) was treated with heat stress or a combination of heat stress and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, propofol, which plays an important role in anti-inflammation and organ protection, was applied to study its effects on cellular viability and apoptosis. Heat stress, LPS, or heat stress combined with LPS stimulation can all cause intestinal epithelial cell damage, including early apoptosis and subsequent necrosis. However, propofol can alleviate injuries caused by heat stress, LPS, or the combination of heat stress and LPS. Interestingly, propofol can only mitigate LPS-induced intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis, and has no protective role in heat-stress-induced apoptosis. This study developed a model that can mimic the intestinal heat stress environment. It demonstrates the effects on intestinal epithelial cell damage, and indicated that propofol could be used as a therapeutic drug for the treatment of heat-stress-induced intestinal injuries

  14. The endogenous bacteria alter gut epithelial apoptosis and decrease mortality following Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Amy C; McConnell, Kevin W; Yoseph, Benyam P; Breed, Elise; Liang, Zhe; Clark, Andrew T; O'Donnell, David; Zee-Cheng, Brendan; Jung, Enjae; Dominguez, Jessica A; Dunne, W Michael; Burd, Eileen M; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2012-11-01

    The endogenous bacteria have been hypothesized to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of critical illness, although their role in sepsis is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine how commensal bacteria alter the host response to sepsis. Conventional and germ-free (GF) C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. All GF mice died within 2 days, whereas 44% of conventional mice survived for 7 days (P = 0.001). Diluting the dose of bacteria 10-fold in GF mice led to similar survival in GF and conventional mice. When animals with similar mortality were assayed for intestinal integrity, GF mice had lower levels of intestinal epithelial apoptosis but similar levels of proliferation and intestinal permeability. Germ-free mice had significantly lower levels of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 1β in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid compared with conventional mice without changes in systemic cytokine production. Under conventional conditions, sepsis unmasks lymphocyte control of intestinal epithelial apoptosis, because sepsis induces a greater increase in gut apoptosis in Rag-1 mice than in wild-type mice. However, in a separate set of experiments, gut apoptosis was similar between septic GF Rag-1 mice and septic GF wild-type mice. These data demonstrate that the endogenous bacteria play a protective role in mediating mortality from pneumonia-induced sepsis, potentially mediated through altered intestinal apoptosis and the local proinflammatory response. In addition, sepsis-induced lymphocyte-dependent increases in gut epithelial apoptosis appear to be mediated by the endogenous bacteria.

  15. Effects of byproducts on intestinal microbiota and the immune modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Yoon Yu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective Although the efficacy of Rubus coreanus (RC byproducts as a feed additive has been recognized, its effects on intestinal microorganisms and the immune system are still unknown. Methods Six-week-old male rats were treated with 0.5% RC (T1, 1.0% RC (T2, and 1.5% RC (T3 for 4 weeks. Results We found that treatment with RC byproducts significantly increased the daily gain of body weight and feed intake. Treg-cell differentiation was enhanced in the mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen from the rats fed with RC byproducts. Illumina sequencing showed that bacteria in the phylum Firmicutes decreased and while those in the phylum Bacteroidetes increased in RC-treated groups. Particularly, the pathogenic microorganisms in the family Peptococcaceae decreased, and the non-pathogenic families Lachnospiraceae and S24-7 increased. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the RC byproducts increased the lactic acid bacteria Bifidobacterium spp., Oscillospira spp., Leuconostoc citreum, and Weissella cibaria in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusion RC byproducts may be effective in immunomodulation by affecting intestinal microorganisms.

  16. Bacterial Colonization and the Development of Intestinal Defences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Ning Shi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In humans, intestinal defences develop during gestation and, at full term, have the capacity to respond in an appropriate manner to infectious agents and foreign antigens. Before an active protective response can occur, however, the gut must first be exposed to colonizing bacteria. Colonization with diverse intestinal microbes is necessary for the development of important gut defenses such as the synthesis and secretion of polymeric immunoglobulin A and the generation of a balanced T helper (Th cell response. Insights into normal immune physiological development of the gut have been made by studying the germ-free animal and intestinal defenses. These studies have provided insights into the physiology of immune responses. Two important immunological functions are the secretion of polymeric immunoglobulin A to protect the intestinal surface against harmful stimuli and inhibition of the systemic response to commensal bacteria and food proteins (eg, oral tolerance to prevent chronic inflammation. Neither function exists in the germ-free state, but rapidly develops after conventionalization (colonization of the germ-free animal. In the present review, the importance of bacterial colonization on the appearance of normal mucosal immune function and to the clinical consequences of inadequate colonization to the development of disease will be discussed. For example, excessive Th2 activity can lead to atopy, whereas Th1 predominance is found in conditions such as Helicobacter pylori gastritis and Crohn's disease. With the eradication of infectious diseases in developed countries in the past three decades, the incidence of atopic and autoimmune diseases has increased. This epidemiological observation has been explained by the 'hygiene hypothesis', which suggests that a reduction in microbial burden by public health measures has contributed to an immunological imbalance in the intestine. A family of pattern recognition receptors (Toll-like receptors on gut

  17. EFFECT BY INTESTINAL MICROBIOM ON THE PROGRESSION OF VIRAL HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Polishchuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the modern concepts an intestinal microbiome has a significant effect on the functioning of the whole body including the immune system, digestive tract and liver in particular. This review displays current understanding of the intestinal microbiome impacting on the progression of chronic viral hepatitis caused by HCV- and HBV-infection, as well as changes in bowel microbiocenosis features depending on the duration of chronic process in the liver. It is indicated that chronic hepatitis to cirrhosis progression is accompanied by Bifidobacterium and strains of lactic acid (Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, Weissella number decreasing and overgrowth of opportunistic species such as Enterococcaceae, Veillonellaceae, Enterobactericeae, Candida spp., Clostridia spp. This phenomena caused by PAMPs entry into the bloodstream including various types of toxins playing a role in liver immune inflammation processes progression. Thus patients with HBV and HCV infection are increased the number of CD4+, CD25+ in the blood and liver significantly, FOXP3+ Treg cell providing an immunosuppressive effect, and the function of specific CD8 lymphocytes is reduced and insufficient leveling virus significantly. Microbial imbalance has a negative effect on the biosynthesis of bile acids and sterolbiom functioning of our body as a result of changes in the balance between Bacteroides/Firmicutes, overgrowth of pathogenic and opportunistic Enterobacteriaceae, Veillonellaceae, Alcaligeneaceae and Porphyromonadaceae, Clostridium cluster XIVa, Helicobacter spp. and Clostridium difficile. These toxins formation and various carcinogenic metabolites from these strains leads to the inflammation development in the intestines and as a consequence to the progression of the inflammatory process in the liver. In turn, the reduction in the bacteria number producing short-chain fatty acid contributes to intestinal colonization by pathogenic representatives

  18. Burnout among Dutch medical residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, J.T.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J.E.; Van De Wiel, H.B.; Gazendam-Donofrio, S.M.; Sprangers, F.; Jaspers, F.C.; van der Heijden, F.M.

    2007-01-01

    We examined levels of burnout and relationships between burnout, gender, age, years in training, and medical specialty in 158 medical residents working at the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands. Thirteen percent of the residents met the criteria for burnout, with the highest

  19. Surgical residency: A tenant's view

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'To sleep: perchance to dream', is the frequent mantra of the surgical resident. However, unlike. Hamlet, there is no ensuing speculation as to what dreams may come as there are seldom any!! Surgical residency has been both vilified and immortalized, but the fact remains that it is one of the most challenging, provocative ...

  20. Antifreeze Proteins of Bacteria

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 12. Antifreeze Proteins of Bacteria. M K Chattopadhyay. General Article Volume 12 Issue 12 December 2007 pp 25-30. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/012/12/0025-0030 ...