WorldWideScience

Sample records for resident duty work-hours

  1. Ethical aspects of limiting residents' work hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesing, Urban

    2007-09-01

    The regulation of residents' work hours involves several ethical conflicts which need to be systematically analysed and evaluated. ARGUMENTS AND CONCLUSION: The most important ethical principle when regulating work hours is to avoid the harm resulting from the over-work of physicians and from an excessive division of labour. Additionally, other ethical principles have to be taken into account, in particular the principles of nonmaleficence and beneficence for future patients and for physicians. The article presents arguments for balancing the relevant ethical principles and analyses the structural difficulties that occur unavoidably in any regulation of the complex activities of physicians.

  2. Making residency work hour rules work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, I Glenn; Czeisler, Charles A; Landrigan, Christopher P

    2013-01-01

    In July 2011, the ACGME implemented new rules that limit interns to 16 hours of work in a row, but continue to allow 2nd-year and higher resident physicians to work for up to 28 consecutive hours. Whether the ACGME's 2011 work hour limits went too far or did not go far enough has been hotly debated. In this article, we do not seek to re-open the debate about whether these standards get matters exactly right. Instead, we wish to address the issue of effective enforcement. That is, now that new work hour limits have been established, and given that the ACGME has been unable to enforce work hour limits effectively on its own, what is the best way to make sure the new limits are followed in order to reduce harm to residents, patients, and others due to sleep-deprived residents? We focus on three possible national approaches to the problem, one rooted in funding, one rooted in disclosure, and one rooted in tort law. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  3. Abolishment of 24-hour continuous medical call duty in quebec: a quality of life survey of general surgical residents following implementation of the new work-hour restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadani, Fadi T; Deckelbaum, Dan; Sauve, Alexandre; Khwaja, Kosar; Razek, Tarek; Fata, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of work hour restrictions across North America have resulted in decreased levels of self injury and medical errors for Residents. An arbitration ruling in Quebec has led to further curtailment of work hours beyond that proposed by the ACGME. This may threaten Resident quality of life and in turn decrease the educational quality of surgical residency training. We administered a quality of life questionnaire with an integrated education quality assessment tool to all General Surgery residents training at McGill 6 months after the work hour restrictions. Across several strata respondents reveal a decreased sense of educational quality and quality of life. The arbitration argued that work- hour restrictions would be necessary to improve quality of life for trainees and hence improve patient safety. Results from this study demonstrate the exact opposite in a large majority of respondents, who report a poorer quality of life and a self-reported inability on their part to provide continuous and safe patient care. Copyright © 2013 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Work-hour restrictions as an ethical dilemma for residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Robert O; Austin, Mary T; Tarpley, John L; Griffin, Marie R; Lomis, Kimberly D

    2006-04-01

    We propose that the standardized work-hour limitations have created an ethical dilemma for residents. A survey tool was designed to assess factors that influence the number of hours residents work and report. The program directors of pediatrics, internal medicine, and general surgery at our institution supported their residents' participation. A voluntary, anonymous survey of these residents was performed. One hundred seventy of 265 eligible residents were surveyed. Eighty-one percent of residents surveyed responded. Eighty percent of respondents reported exceeding work-hour restrictions at least once within the past 6 months. The factor of greatest influence measured was concern for patient care (80%). Forty-nine percent of respondents admitted underreporting their work hours. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education work-hour restrictions have created an ethical dilemma for residents. Our data show that a significant number of residents feel compelled to exceed work-hour regulations and report those hours falsely.

  5. Exposing physicians to reduced residency work hours did not adversely affect patient outcomes after residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Anupam B; Schoemaker, Lena; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2014-10-01

    In 2003, work hours for physicians-in-training (residents) were capped by regulation at eighty hours per week, leading to the hotly debated but unexplored issue of whether physicians today are less well trained as a result of these work-hour reforms. Using a unique database of nearly all hospitalizations in Florida during 2000-09 that were linked to detailed information on the medical training history of the physician of record for each hospitalization, we studied whether hospital mortality and patients' length-of-stay varied according to the number of years a physician was exposed to the 2003 duty-hour regulations during his or her residency. We examined this database of practicing Florida physicians, using a difference-in-differences analysis that compared trends in outcomes of junior physicians (those with one-year post-residency experience) pre- and post-2003 to a control group of senior physicians (those with ten or more years of post-residency experience) who were not exposed to these reforms during their residency. We found that the duty-hour reforms did not adversely affect hospital mortality and length-of-stay of patients cared for by new attending physicians who were partly or fully exposed to reduced duty hours during their own residency. However, assessment of the impact of the duty-hour reforms on other clinical outcomes is needed. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  6. Resident work hours: why keeping the status quo may not be such a bad thing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Razik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Resident duty hours have become an increasingly debated topic in post-graduate medical education. Work-hour restrictions have been implemented for first-year residents in the US and more recently for all residents in Quebec. Current and future work-hour rules affect a variety of stakeholders: government, hospitals, residency training programs, patients, and most of all residents. In this article, we hope to examine the issue from a Canadian perspective and delineate some of the reasons why changing the current call structure may have potentially deleterious effects to all those concerned.

  7. Restricted working hours in Austrian residency programs : Survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmeister, Konstantin D; Aman, Martin; Podesser, Bruno K

    2018-04-27

    New regulations for working hours of medical doctors have been implemented in Austria based on the European directive 2003/88/EG, limiting on-duty working hours to 48 h per week. Clinical work is, therefore, substantially reduced compared to previous decades, and little is known on physician and students' opinions on this matter. We illustrate survey results concerning on-job training, its difficulties, and implications for restricted working hours. We conducted an internal survey among M.D. and Ph.D. students and medical staff members at the Medical University of Vienna using the MedCampus system (CAMPUSOnline, Graz, Austria) and SPSS (V.21, IBM Corp, Armonk, NY, USA). Participants were 36.5% staff members and 63.5% students. Students rated continuous education of physicians high at 9.19 ± 1.76 and staff members at 8.90 ± 2.48 on a 1-10 (1 unimportant, 10 most important) scale. Students rated limited time resources, while staff considered financial resources as the greatest challenge for in-hospital education. Overall, 28.85% thought that restricted working hours can positively influence education, while 19.04% thought the opposite and 52.11% were undecided. Considering the limited available time and financial resources, education of tomorrow's medical doctors remains an important but difficult task. While participants of our survey rated education as very important despite its many challenges, the opinions towards limited working hours were not as clear. Given that over 50% are still undecided whether reduced work hours may also positively influence medical education, it clearly presents an opportunity to include the next generations of physicians in this undertaking.

  8. The impact of the implementation of work hour requirements on residents' career satisfaction, attitudes and emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dongseok; Dickey, Jamie; Wessel, Kristen; Girard, Donald E

    2006-10-17

    To assess the impact of work hours' limitations required by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) on residents' career satisfaction, emotions and attitudes. A validated survey instrument was used to assess residents' levels of career satisfaction, emotions and attitudes before and after the ACGME duty hour requirements were implemented. The "pre" implementation survey was distributed in December 2002 and the "post" implementation one in December 2004. Only the latter included work-hour related questions. The response rates were 56% for the 2002 and 72% for the 2004 surveys respectively. Although career satisfaction remained unchanged, numerous changes occurred in both emotions and attitudes. Compared to those residents who did not violate work-hour requirements, those who did were significantly more negative in attitudes and emotions. With the implementation of the ACGME work hour limitations, the training experience became more negative for those residents who violated the work hour limits and had a small positive impact on those who did not violate them. Graduate medical education leaders must innovate to make the experiences for selected residents improved and still maintain compliance with the work hour requirements.

  9. When policy meets physiology: the challenge of reducing resident work hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockley, Steven W; Landrigan, Christopher P; Barger, Laura K; Czeisler, Charles A

    2006-08-01

    Considerable controversy exists regarding optimal work hours for physicians and surgeons in training. In a series of studies, we assessed the effect of extended work hours on resident sleep and health as well as patient safety. In a validated nationwide survey, we found that residents who had worked 24 hours or longer were 2.3 times more likely to have a motor vehicle crash following that shift than when they worked hours, and that the monthly risk of a crash increased by 16.2% after each extended duration shift. We also found in a randomized trial that interns working a traditional on-call schedule slept 5.8 hours less per week, had twice as many attentional failures on duty overnight, and made 36% more serious medical errors and nearly six times more serious diagnostic errors than when working on a schedule that limited continuous duty to 16 hours. While numerous opinions have been published opposing reductions in extended work hours due to concerns regarding continuity of patient care, reduced educational opportunities, and traditionally-defined professionalism, there are remarkably few objective data in support of continuing to schedule medical trainees to work shifts > 24 hours. An evidence-based approach is needed to minimize the well-documented risk that current work hour practices confer on resident health and patient safety while optimizing education and continuity of care.

  10. Orthopedic resident work-shift analysis: are we making the best use of resident work hours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Kamran S; Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Hsu, Eugene; Edgerton, Colston A; Hobson, David R; Lang, Jason E

    2014-01-01

    Surgery programs have been tasked to meet rising demands in patient surgical care while simultaneously providing adequate resident training in the midst of increasing resident work-hour restrictions. The purpose of this study was to quantify orthopedic surgery resident workflow and identify areas needing improved resident efficiency. We hypothesize that residents spend a disproportionate amount of time involved in activities that do not relate directly to patient care or maximize resident education. We observed 4 orthopedic surgery residents on the orthopedic consult service at a major tertiary care center for 72 consecutive hours (6 consecutive shifts). We collected minute-by-minute data using predefined work-task criteria: direct new patient contact, direct existing patient contact, communications with other providers, documentation/administrative time, transit time, and basic human needs. A seventh category comprised remaining less-productive work was termed as standby. In a 720-minute shift, residents spent on an average: 191 minutes (26.5%) performing documentation/administrative duties, 167.0 minutes (23.2%) in direct contact with new patient consults, 129.6 minutes (17.1%) in communication with other providers regarding patients, 116.2 (16.1%) minutes in standby, 63.7 minutes (8.8%) in transit, 32.6 minutes (4.5%) with existing patients, and 20 minutes (2.7%) attending to basic human needs. Residents performed an additional 130 minutes of administrative work off duty. Secondary analysis revealed residents were more likely to perform administrative work rather than directly interact with existing patients (p = 0.006) or attend to basic human needs (p = 0.003). Orthopedic surgery residents spend a large proportion of their time performing documentation/administrative-type work and their workday can be operationally optimized to minimize nonvalue-adding tasks. Formal workflow analysis may aid program directors in systematic process improvements to better align

  11. Strategies to accommodate resident work-hour restrictions: impact on surgical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiburg, Carter; James, Ted; Ashikaga, Takamura; Moalem, Jacob; Cherr, Greg

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of duty-hour restrictions has impacted surgical training. Several strategies were introduced by training programs in response to these restrictions. The purpose of this study was to assess the various strategies employed by residency programs to comply with work-hour restrictions with respect to the impact on the quality of surgical education. A national survey was developed and distributed to resident members of the Resident and Associate Society of the American College of Surgeons in all accredited residency programs across North America. Questions in the survey addressed 10 separate accommodation strategies used by training programs to adhere to resident work-hour restrictions. Resident respondents completed a 5-point Likert scale rating each strategy according to its impact on surgical education (detrimental, not very helpful, neutral, somewhat helpful, and very helpful). A total of 599 (9.7%) responses were received from 6186 members of the Resident Associate Society. The use of health information technology (IT), nurse practitioners, and physician assistants were most highly rated. Hiring clinical fellows, establishing nonteaching services, and shift-work scheduling were the three most poorly rated accommodations to work-hour restrictions with respect to resident education. Hospital IT and nonphysician care providers were rated by residents to optimize surgical education in the current work-hour limitation environment. We infer that strategies which lead to increased efficiency and redistribution of resident workload allow surgical trainees to spend more time on activities perceived to have higher educational value. Copyright © 2011 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of a night-team system on resident sleep and work hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Kao-Ping; Gordon, Mary Beth; Sectish, Theodore; Landrigan, Christopher P

    2011-12-01

    In 2009, Children's Hospital Boston implemented a night-team system on general pediatric wards to reduce extended work shifts. Residents worked 5 consecutive nights for 1 week and worked day shifts for the remainder of the rotation. Of note, resident staffing at night decreased under this system. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of this system on resident sleep and work hours. We conducted a prospective cohort study in which residents on the night-team system logged their sleep and work hours on work days. These data were compared with similar data collected in 2004, when there was a traditional call system. In 2004 and 2009, mean shift length was 15.22 ± 6.86 and 12.92 ± 5.70 hours, respectively (P = .161). Daily work hours were 10.49 ± 6.85 and 8.79 ± 6.42 hours, respectively (P = .08). Nightly sleep time decreased from 6.72 ± 2.60 to 4.77 ± 2.46 hours (P team system was unexpectedly associated with decreased sleep hours. As residency programs create work schedules that are compliant with the 2011 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education duty-hour standards, resident sleep should be monitored carefully.

  13. The effect of limiting residents' work hours on their surgical training: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanchuk, Ken

    2004-05-01

    Restrictions in residents' work hours have been in place in Canada for roughly a decade, having been negotiated rather than imposed. The changes in residents' schedules that resulted are roughly equivalent to the limitation of 80 duty hours per week in the United States. When work-hours restrictions began, surgery faculty were worried that residents' experience would be compromised. But these fears have not materialized. Why? The author maintains there are many reasons. (1) Most surgical procedures are now faster, and lengthy inpatient care has diminished, all of which saves time. (2) Formerly difficult or risky procedures are now performed more frequently and safely, which increases residents' education about difficult conditions. (3) A variety of resources (e.g., skills-transfer courses, surgical simulators, etc.) are now available for residents to learn and evolve surgical techniques, and residents take advantage of these resources, being highly motivated to learn the best in the time available to them. (4) There have been positive changes in residents' education that have helped them become more efficient learners than before, with improved resources and skills for faster access to information. The author maintains that in his present surgery residency program, the residents still work extremely hard but are more protected from the unending demands for patient care. They have more time for orderly study and greater opportunities to develop skills other than technical ones. They are in a happier work setting, which the author strongly believes facilitates improved patient care.

  14. Perspective: creating an ethical workplace: reverberations of resident work hours reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Lenny; Katz, Joel T

    2009-03-01

    Medical professionals are a community of highly educated individuals with a commitment to a core set of ideals and principles. This community provides both technical and ethical socialization. The development of ethical physicians is highly linked to experiences in the training period. Moral traits are situation-sensitive psychological and behavioral dispositions. The consequence of long duty hours on the moral development of physicians is less understood. The clinical environment of medical training programs can be so intense as to lead to conditions that may actually deprofessionalize trainees. The dynamic relationship between individual character traits and the situational dependence of their expression suggests that a systems approach will help promote and nurture moral development. Ethical behavior can be supported by systems that make it more difficult to veer from the ideal. Work hours limits are a structural change that will help preserve public safety by preventing physicians from taking the moral shortcuts that can occur with increasing work and time pressures. Work hours rules are beneficial but insufficient to optimize an ethical work and training environment. Additional measures need to be put in place to ensure that ethical tensions are not created between the patient's well-being and the resident's adherence to work hours rules. The ethical ideals of physician autonomy, selflessness, and accountability to the patient must be protected through the judicious and flexible use of work hours limits, physician extenders, census caps, nonteaching services, and high-quality handoffs.

  15. Implementing the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations on resident physician work hours, supervision, and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Alexander B; Shea, Sandra; Czeisler, Charles A; Landrigan, Christopher P; Leape, Lucian

    2011-01-01

    Long working hours and sleep deprivation have been a facet of physician training in the US since the advent of the modern residency system. However, the scientific evidence linking fatigue with deficits in human performance, accidents and errors in industries from aeronautics to medicine, nuclear power, and transportation has mounted over the last 40 years. This evidence has also spawned regulations to help ensure public safety across safety-sensitive industries, with the notable exception of medicine. In late 2007, at the behest of the US Congress, the Institute of Medicine embarked on a year-long examination of the scientific evidence linking resident physician sleep deprivation with clinical performance deficits and medical errors. The Institute of Medicine's report, entitled "Resident duty hours: Enhancing sleep, supervision and safety", published in January 2009, recommended new limits on resident physician work hours and workload, increased supervision, a heightened focus on resident physician safety, training in structured handovers and quality improvement, more rigorous external oversight of work hours and other aspects of residency training, and the identification of expanded funding sources necessary to implement the recommended reforms successfully and protect the public and resident physicians themselves from preventable harm. Given that resident physicians comprise almost a quarter of all physicians who work in hospitals, and that taxpayers, through Medicare and Medicaid, fund graduate medical education, the public has a deep investment in physician training. Patients expect to receive safe, high-quality care in the nation's teaching hospitals. Because it is their safety that is at issue, their voices should be central in policy decisions affecting patient safety. It is likewise important to integrate the perspectives of resident physicians, policy makers, and other constituencies in designing new policies. However, since its release, discussion of the

  16. What effects have resident work-hour changes had on education, quality of life, and safety? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Joshua D; Staheli, Greg; LeClere, Lance; Andersone, Diana; McCormick, Frank

    2015-05-01

    More than 15 years ago, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) identified medical error as a problem worthy of greater attention; in the wake of the IOM report, numerous changes were made to regulations to limit residents' duty hours. However, the effect of resident work-hour changes remains controversial within the field of orthopaedics. We performed a systematic review to determine whether work-hour restrictions have measurably influenced quality-of-life measures, operative and technical skill development, resident surgical education, patient care outcomes (including mortality, morbidity, adverse events, sentinel events, complications), and surgeon and resident attitudes (such as perceived effect on learning and training experiences, personal benefit, direct clinical experience, clinical preparedness). We performed a systematic review of PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), and Google Scholar using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Inclusion criteria were any English language peer-reviewed articles that analyzed the effect(s) of orthopaedic surgery resident work-hour restrictions on patient safety, resident education, resident/surgeon quality of life, resident technical operative skill development, and resident surgeon attitudes toward work-hour restrictions. Eleven studies met study inclusion criteria. One study was a prospective analysis, whereas 10 studies were of level IV evidence (review of surgical case logs) or survey results. Within our identified studies, there was some support for improved resident quality of life, improved resident sleep and less fatigue, a perceived negative impact on surgical operative and technical skill, and conflicting evidence on the topic of resident education, patient outcomes, and variable attitudes toward the work-hour changes. There is a paucity of high-level or clear evidence evaluating the effect of the changes to resident work

  17. Surgical resident learning styles have changed with work hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillin, Ralph C; Cortez, Alexander R; Pritts, Timothy A; Hanseman, Dennis J; Edwards, Michael J; Davis, Bradley R

    2016-01-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education instituted the 80-h workweek for residency programs in 2003. This presented a unique challenge for surgery residents who must acquire a medical and technical knowledge base during training. Therefore, learning should be delivered in an environment congruent with an individual's learning style. In this study, we evaluated the learning styles of general surgery residents to determine how learning styles changed after the implementation to the 80-h workweek. Kolb learning style inventory was taken by general surgery residents at the University of Cincinnati's Department of Surgery, and results from 1999-2012 were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-squared, logistic regression and Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Significance was defined as a P value of learning styles after the institution of the 80-h workweek to converging (43.9%) and accommodating (40.4%, P learning. This change paralleled the transition to a more team-based approach to patient care with the implementation of the 80-h workweek. These findings are important for surgical educators to consider in the development of surgical resident curriculum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The relationship between long working hours and depression among first-year residents in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Ryoko; Seo, Emiko; Maeno, Takami; Ito, Makoto; Sanuki, Masaru; Maeno, Tetsuhiro

    2018-01-01

    Background:In Japan, some residents develop mental health problems. In previous studies, it was reported thatlong working hours might be a cause of stress reaction such as depression. There were some reports thatcompared residents with 80 or more working hours with those with less than 80 working hours. However, manyresidents are practically detained for extra-long time, designated as 100 h or more per week, for medical practice,training, self-study, etc. There have been few reports on extra-...

  19. Comparison of Burnout among Medical Residents before and after the Implementation of Work Hours Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Shahm; Arfken, Cynthia L.; Balon, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors assess whether implementation of work hour limits is associated with a lower prevalence of medical resident burnout. Method: A survey was mailed to medical residents in different medical specialties at one university. Results: Somewhat lower burnout prevalence was reported among residents after implementation of work hour…

  20. Implementing the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations on resident physician work hours, supervision, and safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Alexander B; Shea, Sandra; Czeisler, Charles A; Landrigan, Christopher P; Leape, Lucian

    2011-01-01

    Long working hours and sleep deprivation have been a facet of physician training in the US since the advent of the modern residency system. However, the scientific evidence linking fatigue with deficits in human performance, accidents and errors in industries from aeronautics to medicine, nuclear power, and transportation has mounted over the last 40 years. This evidence has also spawned regulations to help ensure public safety across safety-sensitive industries, with the notable exception of medicine. In late 2007, at the behest of the US Congress, the Institute of Medicine embarked on a year-long examination of the scientific evidence linking resident physician sleep deprivation with clinical performance deficits and medical errors. The Institute of Medicine’s report, entitled “Resident duty hours: Enhancing sleep, supervision and safety”, published in January 2009, recommended new limits on resident physician work hours and workload, increased supervision, a heightened focus on resident physician safety, training in structured handovers and quality improvement, more rigorous external oversight of work hours and other aspects of residency training, and the identification of expanded funding sources necessary to implement the recommended reforms successfully and protect the public and resident physicians themselves from preventable harm. Given that resident physicians comprise almost a quarter of all physicians who work in hospitals, and that taxpayers, through Medicare and Medicaid, fund graduate medical education, the public has a deep investment in physician training. Patients expect to receive safe, high-quality care in the nation’s teaching hospitals. Because it is their safety that is at issue, their voices should be central in policy decisions affecting patient safety. It is likewise important to integrate the perspectives of resident physicians, policy makers, and other constituencies in designing new policies. However, since its release

  1. Work-hour restrictions and orthopaedic resident education: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauser, Nathan S; Michelson, James D; Gissel, Hannah; Henderson, Corey; Mauffrey, Cyril

    2016-05-01

    The ACGME (US) and The European Working Time Directive (UK) placed work-hour restrictions on medical trainees with the goal of improved patient safety. However, there has been concern over a potential decrease in medical education. Orthopaedic training is the focus of this study. We examined previously published subjective and objective data regarding education and work-hour restrictions and developed the questions: Do specific perceptions emerge within the subjective studies examined? Are there objective differences in educational measures before and after work-hour restrictions? Is there a difference between the subjective and objective data? A systematic review was conducted via MedLine, regarding orthopaedic studies in the USA and UK, with reference to work-hour restrictions and education. Subjective survey studies demonstrate that residents and attending physicians have a negative response to work-hour restrictions because of the perceived impact on their overall education and operating room experience. Conversely, limited objective studies demonstrated no change in operative volume before or after implementation of restrictions. This review highlights the need for more objective studies on the educational implications of work-hour restrictions. Studies to date have not demonstrated a measurable difference based on case logs or training scores. Opinion-based surveys demonstrate an overall negative perception by both residents and attending physicians, on the impact of work-hour restrictions on orthopaedic education. Current published data is limited and stronger evidence-based data are needed before definitive conclusions can be reached.

  2. Implications of current resident work-hour guidelines on the future practice of surgery in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruscak, Adam A; VanderBeek, Laura; Ott, Michael C; Kelly, Stephen; Forbes, Thomas L

    2012-01-01

    Work-hour restrictions have had a profound impact on surgical training. However, little is known of how work-hour restrictions may affect the future practice patterns of current surgical residents. The purpose of this study is to compare the anticipated career practice patterns of surgical residents who are training within an environment of work-hour restrictions with the current practice of faculty surgeons. An electronic survey was sent to all surgery residents and faculty at 2 Canadian university-affiliated medical centers. The survey consisted of questions regarding expected (residents) or current (faculty) practice patterns. A total of 149 residents and 125 faculty members completed the survey (50.3% and 52.3% response rates, respectively). A greater proportion of males were in the faculty cohort than in the resident group (77.6% vs 62.4%, p = 0.0003). More faculty than residents believed that work-hour restrictions have a negative impact on both residency education (40.8% vs 20.8%, p = 0.008) and preparation for a surgical career (56.8% vs 19.5%, p implications and might require larger surgical groups and reconsideration of resource allocation. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The relationship between long working hours and depression among first-year residents in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Ryoko; Seo, Emiko; Maeno, Takami; Ito, Makoto; Sanuki, Masaru; Maeno, Tetsuhiro

    2018-03-27

    In Japan, some residents develop mental health problems. In previous studies, it was reported that long working hours might be a cause of stress reaction such as depression. There were some reports that compared residents with 80 or more working hours with those with less than 80 working hours. However, many residents are practically detained for extra-long time, designated as 100 h or more per week, for medical practice, training, self-study, etc. There have been few reports on extra-long hours of work. This study evaluated the working environment and the amount of stress experienced by first-year residents, and examined the relationship between long working hours and depression, especially in the group of extra-long working hours. The study included 1241 first-year residents employed at 250 training hospitals in 2011. A self-report questionnaire was administered at the beginning of the residency and 3 months later to collect data on demographics, depressive symptoms, and training conditions (e.g., duration of work, sleep, disposable time, and night shift). Depressive symptoms were rated using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The mean duration of work per week was 79.4 h, with 97 residents (7.8%) working 100 h or more. At 3 months, clinically significant depressive symptoms were reported by 45.5% of residents working 100 or more h per week, which proportion was significantly greater than that for respondents working less than 60 h (P working week of 80 to 99.9 h was associated with a 2.83 fold higher risk and 100 h or more was associated with a 6.96-fold higher risk of developing depressive symptoms compared with a working week of less than 60 h. Working excessively long hours was significantly associated with development of depressive symptoms. Proper management of resident physicians' working hours is critical to maintaining their physical and mental health and to improve the quality of care they provide.

  4. Impact of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education work-hour regulations on neurosurgical resident education and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, Jay; Vates, G Edward; Pouratian, Nader; Sheehan, Jason P; Patrie, James; Grady, M Sean; Jane, John A

    2009-05-01

    Recently, the Institute of Medicine examined resident duty hours and their impact on patient safety. Experts have suggested that reducing resident work hours to 56 hours per week would further decrease medical errors. Although some reports have indicated that cutbacks in resident duty hours reduce errors and make resident life safer, few authors have specifically analyzed the effect of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) duty-hour limits on neurosurgical resident education and the perceived quality of training. The authors have evaluated multiple objective surrogate markers of resident performance and quality of training to determine the impact of the 80-hour workweek. The United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 data on neurosurgical applicants entering ACGME-accredited programs between 1998 and 2007 (before and after the implementation of the work-hour rules) were obtained from the Society of Neurological Surgeons. The American Board of Neurological Surgery (ABNS) written examination scores for this group of residents were also acquired. Resident registration for and presentations at the American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS) annual meetings between 2002 and 2007 were examined as a measure of resident academic productivity. As a case example, the authors analyzed the distribution of resident training hours in the University of Virginia (UVA) neurosurgical training program before and after the institution of the 80-hour workweek. Finally, program directors and chief residents in ACGME-accredited programs were surveyed regarding the effects of the 80-hour workweek on patient care, resident training, surgical experience, patient safety, and patient access to quality care. Respondents were also queried about their perceptions of a 56-hour workweek. Despite stable mean USMLE Step 1 scores for matched applicants to neurosurgery programs between 2000 and 2008, ABNS written examination scores for residents

  5. Changing the formula of residents' work hours in internal medicine: moving from "years in training" to "hours in training".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansi, Ishak A

    2011-03-01

    In a recent report, the Institute of Medicine recommended more restrictions on residents' working hours. Several problems exist with a system that places a weekly limit on resident duty hours: (1) it assumes the presence of a linear relationship between hours of work and patient safety; (2) it fails to consider differences in intensity among programs; and (3) it does not address increases in the scientific content of medicine, and it places the burden of enforcing the duty hour limits on the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. An innovative method of calculating credit hours for graduate medical education would shift the focus from "years of residency" to "hours of residency." For example, internal medicine residents would be requested to spend 8640 hours of total training hours (assuming 60 hours per week for 48 weeks annually) instead of the traditional 3 years. This method of counting training hours is used by other professions, such as the Intern Development Program of the National Council of Architectural Registration Boards. The proposed approach would allow residents and program directors to pace training based on individual capabilities. Standards for resident education should include the average number of patients treated in each setting (inpatient or outpatient). A possible set of "multipliers" based on these parameters, and possibly others such as resident evaluation, is devised to calculate the "final adjusted accredited hours" that count toward graduation. Substituting "years of training" with "hours of training" may resolve many of the concerns with the current residency education model, as well as adapt to the demands of residents' personal lives. It also may allow residents to pace their training according to their capabilities and learning styles, and contribute to reflective learning and better quality education.

  6. Implementing the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations on resident physician work hours, supervision, and safety

    OpenAIRE

    Blum, Alexander B; Shea, Sandra; Czeisler, Charles A; Landrigan, Christopher P; Leape, Lucian

    2011-01-01

    Long working hours and sleep deprivation have been a facet of physician training in the US since the advent of the modern residency system. However, the scientific evidence linking fatigue with deficits in human performance, accidents and errors in industries from aeronautics to medicine, nuclear power, and transportation has mounted over the last 40 years. This evidence has also spawned regulations to help ensure public safety across safety-sensitive industries, with the notable exception of...

  7. Working Hours of Surgical Residence: Perspective of a Group of Surgeons in a Regional Hospital in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu-Fai Lo

    2007-01-01

    Conclusion: Most respondents opine that resident work hours should be regulated and welcome minor rescheduling of residents' workflow. The impacts on residents' training and patient care require further evaluation.

  8. Lean principles optimize on-time vascular surgery operating room starts and decrease resident work hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Courtney J; Walsh, Daniel B; Horvath, Alexander J; Walsh, Teri R; Herrick, Daniel P; Prentiss, Steven J; Powell, Richard J

    2013-11-01

    Lean process improvement techniques are used in industry to improve efficiency and quality while controlling costs. These techniques are less commonly applied in health care. This study assessed the effectiveness of Lean principles on first case on-time operating room starts and quantified effects on resident work hours. Standard process improvement techniques (DMAIC methodology: define, measure, analyze, improve, control) were used to identify causes of delayed vascular surgery first case starts. Value stream maps and process flow diagrams were created. Process data were analyzed with Pareto and control charts. High-yield changes were identified and simulated in computer and live settings prior to implementation. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of on-time first case starts; secondary outcomes included hospital costs, resident rounding time, and work hours. Data were compared with existing benchmarks. Prior to implementation, 39% of first cases started on time. Process mapping identified late resident arrival in preoperative holding as a cause of delayed first case starts. Resident rounding process inefficiencies were identified and changed through the use of checklists, standardization, and elimination of nonvalue-added activity. Following implementation of process improvements, first case on-time starts improved to 71% at 6 weeks (P = .002). Improvement was sustained with an 86% on-time rate at 1 year (P < .001). Resident rounding time was reduced by 33% (from 70 to 47 minutes). At 9 weeks following implementation, these changes generated an opportunity cost potential of $12,582. Use of Lean principles allowed rapid identification and implementation of perioperative process changes that improved efficiency and resulted in significant cost savings. This improvement was sustained at 1 year. Downstream effects included improved resident efficiency with decreased work hours. Copyright © 2013 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All

  9. Implementing the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations on resident physician work hours, supervision, and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blum AB

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Alexander B Blum1, Sandra Shea2, Charles A Czeisler3,4, Christopher P Landrigan3-5, Lucian Leape61Department of Health and Evidence Policy, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; 2Committee of Interns and Residents, SEIU Healthcare Division, Service Employees International Union, New York, NY, USA; 3Harvard Work Hours, Health and Safety Group, Division of Sleep Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 4Division of Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 5Division of General Pediatrics, Department of Medicine, Children's Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 6Department of Health Policy and Management, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Long working hours and sleep deprivation have been a facet of physician training in the US since the advent of the modern residency system. However, the scientific evidence linking fatigue with deficits in human performance, accidents and errors in industries from aeronautics to medicine, nuclear power, and transportation has mounted over the last 40 years. This evidence has also spawned regulations to help ensure public safety across safety-sensitive industries, with the notable exception of medicine.

  10. Working hours of surgical residence: perspective of a group of surgeons in a regional hospital in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Siu-Fai; Spurgeon, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and European working time directive have restricted residents' workweek to 80 and 48 hours, respectively. Impacts on resident's training and health services are under evaluation in western countries. However, relevant studies are deficient in Hong Kong. Surgeons in a regional hospital of Hong Kong were recruited. Opinions were collected by semi-structured questionnaire. Response rate was 82%. Most respondents agreed that residents' work hours should be limited. Seventy-two percent thought that the addition of physician assistants, nurse practitioners and ancillary staff could help decrease the workload of residents. More than 60% thought that residents should have post-call afternoon off. Seventy-two percent worried that the number of operations residents performed would decrease. Only half agreed that long work hours was part of resident training and 56.3% agreed that the training period should be lengthened because of limiting work hours. Ninety-four percent agreed that sleep-deprived residents would create more medical errors; 72% thought that long work hours would impair quality of care. Surprisingly, only 28% thought that limiting work hours would compromise continued patient care. Most respondents opine that resident work hours should be regulated and welcome minor rescheduling of residents' workflow. The impacts on residents' training and patient care require further evaluation.

  11. Sleep deprivation in resident physicians, work hour limitations, and related outcomes: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansukhani, Meghna P; Kolla, Bhanu Prakash; Surani, Salim; Varon, Joseph; Ramar, Kannan

    2012-07-01

    Extended work hours, interrupted sleep, and shift work are integral parts of medical training among all specialties. The need for 24-hour patient care coverage and economic factors have resulted in prolonged work hours for resident physicians. This has traditionally been thought to enhance medical educational experience. These long and erratic work hours lead to acute and chronic sleep deprivation and poor sleep quality, resulting in numerous adverse consequences. Impairments may occur in several domains, including attention, cognition, motor skills, and mood. Resident performance, professionalism, safety, and well-being are affected by sleep deprivation, causing potentially adverse implications for patient care. Studies have shown adverse health consequences, motor vehicle accidents, increased alcohol and medication use, and serious medical errors to occur in association with both sleep deprivation and shift work. Resident work hour limitations have been mandated by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education in response to patient safety concerns. Studies evaluating the impact of these regulations on resident physicians have generated conflicting reports on patient outcomes, demonstrating only a modest increase in sleep duration for resident physicians, along with negative perceptions regarding their education. This literature review summarizes research on the effects of sleep deprivation and shift work, and examines current literature on the impact of recent work hour limitations on resident physicians and patient-related outcomes.

  12. Cost implications of reduced work hours and workloads for resident physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuckols, Teryl K; Bhattacharya, Jay; Wolman, Dianne Miller; Ulmer, Cheryl; Escarce, José J

    2009-05-21

    Although the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) limits the work hours of residents, concerns about fatigue persist. A new Institute of Medicine (IOM) report recommends, among other changes, improved adherence to the 2003 ACGME limits, naps during extended shifts, a 16-hour limit for shifts without naps, and reduced workloads. We used published data to estimate labor costs associated with transferring excess work from residents to substitute providers, and we examined the effects of our assumptions in sensitivity analyses. Next, using a probability model to represent labor costs as well as mortality and costs associated with preventable adverse events, we determined the net costs to major teaching hospitals and cost-effectiveness across a range of hypothetical changes in the rate of preventable adverse events. Annual labor costs from implementing the IOM recommendations were estimated to be $1.6 billion (in 2006 U.S. dollars) across all ACGME-accredited programs ($1.1 billion to $2.5 billion in sensitivity analyses). From a 10% decrease to a 10% increase in preventable adverse events, net costs per admission ranged from $99 to $183 for major teaching hospitals and from $17 to $266 for society. With 2.5% to 11.3% decreases in preventable adverse events, costs to society per averted death ranged from $3.4 million to $0. Implementing the four IOM recommendations would be costly, and their effectiveness is unknown. If highly effective, they could prevent patient harm at reduced or no cost from the societal perspective. However, net costs to teaching hospitals would remain high. 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society

  13. Free Flap Reconstruction Monitoring Techniques and Frequency in the Era of Restricted Resident Work Hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Urjeet A; Hernandez, David; Shnayder, Yelizaveta; Wax, Mark K; Hanasono, Matthew M; Hornig, Joshua; Ghanem, Tamer A; Old, Matthew; Jackson, Ryan S; Ledgerwood, Levi G; Pipkorn, Patrik; Lin, Lawrence; Ong, Adrian; Greene, Joshua B; Bekeny, James; Yiu, Yin; Noureldine, Salem; Li, David X; Fontanarosa, Joel; Greenbaum, Evan; Richmon, Jeremy D

    2017-08-01

    Free flap reconstruction of the head and neck is routinely performed with success rates around 94% to 99% at most institutions. Despite experience and meticulous technique, there is a small but recognized risk of partial or total flap loss in the postoperative setting. Historically, most microvascular surgeons involve resident house staff in flap monitoring protocols, and programs relied heavily on in-house resident physicians to assure timely intervention for compromised flaps. In 2003, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education mandated the reduction in the hours a resident could work within a given week. At many institutions this new era of restricted resident duty hours reshaped the protocols used for flap monitoring to adapt to a system with reduced resident labor. To characterize various techniques and frequencies of free flap monitoring by nurses and resident physicians; and to determine if adapted resident monitoring frequency is associated with flap compromise and outcome. This multi-institutional retrospective review included patients undergoing free flap reconstruction to the head and/or neck between January 2005 and January 2015. Consecutive patients were included from different academic institutions or tertiary referral centers to reflect evolving practices. Technique, frequency, and personnel for flap monitoring; flap complications; and flap success. Overall, 1085 patients (343 women [32%] and 742 men [78%]) from 9 institutions were included. Most patients were placed in the intensive care unit postoperatively (n = 790 [73%]), while the remaining were placed in intermediate care (n = 201 [19%]) or in the surgical ward (n = 94 [7%]). Nurses monitored flaps every hour (q1h) for all patients. Frequency of resident monitoring varied, with 635 patients monitored every 4 hours (q4h), 146 monitored every 8 hours (q8h), and 304 monitored every 12 hours (q12h). Monitoring techniques included physical examination (n = 949 [87

  14. Fatigue in Residency Education: Understanding the Influence of Work Hours Regulations in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Taryn S; Teunissen, Pim W; Dornan, Tim; Lingard, Lorelei

    2017-12-01

    Although one proposed solution to the problem of fatigued medical trainees is the implementation of work hours regulations, concerns about the effectiveness of these regulations are growing. Canada remains one of the few Western jurisdictions without legislated regulation. Recent research suggests that fatigue is a complex social construct, rather than simply a lack of sleep; thus, the authors explored how regulations and fatigue are understood in countries with established work hours frameworks to better inform other jurisdictions looking to address trainee fatigue. Using constructivist grounded theory methodology, the authors conducted individual, semistructured interviews in 2015-2016 with 13 postgraduate medical trainees from four European countries with established work hours regulations. Data collection and analysis proceeded iteratively, and the authors used a constant comparative approach to analysis. Trainees reported that they were commonly fatigued and that they violated the work hours restrictions for various reasons, including educational pursuits. Although they understood the regulations were legislated specifically to ensure safe patient care and optimize trainee well-being, they also described implicit meanings (e.g., monitoring for trainee efficiency) and unintended consequences (e.g., losing a sense of vocation). Work hours regulations carry multiple, conflicting meanings for trainees that are captured by three predominant rhetorics: the rhetoric of patient safety, of well-being, and of efficiency. Tensions within each of those rhetorics reveal that managing fatigue within clinical training environments is complex. These findings suggest that straightforward solutions are unlikely to solve the problem of fatigue, assure patient safety, and improve trainee well-being.

  15. More Learning in Less Time: Optimizing the Resident Educational Experience with Limited Clinical and Educational Work Hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedney, Cara L; Spirou, Eleni; Voelker, Joseph L; Rosen, Charles L

    2017-11-01

    Resident education in the United States and elsewhere has undergone significant changes in recent years owing to work hour restrictions, requiring didactics to fit within a limited schedule, while being increasingly effective at accomplishing educational goals. A single small program experience in improving the didactic experience of residents is described. Focused mentorship, curricula for intangibles, asynchronous education, and independent curricula all are useful tools in resident education. Residents can be exposed to both clinical material and specialty-specific mores using focused and intentional educational techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Working hours

    OpenAIRE

    Fialová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    Working hours The aim of this thesis that I set was a comprehensive analysis of the working hours issue. The main purpose was to summarize this area of labor law while taking into account the Labour Code amendment which came into force on 1st January 2012. The changes in the related legal terms were also included into this thesis because of the mentioned changes. The thesis is composed of three chapters. Chapter One deals briefly with history of Labour Law and regulatory development. Author`s...

  17. Changing the Formula of Residents' Work Hours in Internal Medicine: Moving From “Years in Training” to “Hours in Training”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansi, Ishak A

    2011-01-01

    Background In a recent report, the Institute of Medicine recommended more restrictions on residents' working hours. Several problems exist with a system that places a weekly limit on resident duty hours: (1) it assumes the presence of a linear relationship between hours of work and patient safety; (2) it fails to consider differences in intensity among programs; and (3) it does not address increases in the scientific content of medicine, and it places the burden of enforcing the duty hour limits on the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Proposal An innovative method of calculating credit hours for graduate medical education would shift the focus from “years of residency” to “hours of residency.” For example, internal medicine residents would be requested to spend 8640 hours of total training hours (assuming 60 hours per week for 48 weeks annually) instead of the traditional 3 years. This method of counting training hours is used by other professions, such as the Intern Development Program of the National Council of Architectural Registration Boards. The proposed approach would allow residents and program directors to pace training based on individual capabilities. Standards for resident education should include the average number of patients treated in each setting (inpatient or outpatient). A possible set of “multipliers” based on these parameters, and possibly others such as resident evaluation, is devised to calculate the “final adjusted accredited hours” that count toward graduation. Anticipated Benefits Substituting “years of training” with “hours of training” may resolve many of the concerns with the current residency education model, as well as adapt to the demands of residents' personal lives. It also may allow residents to pace their training according to their capabilities and learning styles, and contribute to reflective learning and better quality education. PMID:22379516

  18. Changes in Resident Well-Being at One Institution Across a Decade of Progressive Work Hours Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Michael F; Golob, Anna L; Wander, Pandora L; Wipf, Joyce E

    2017-10-01

    To measure changes in markers of resident well-being over time as progressive work hours limitations (WHLs) were enforced, and to investigate resident perceptions of the 2011 WHLs. A survey study of internal medicine residents was conducted at the University of Washington's multihospital residency program in 2012. The survey included validated well-being questions: the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the two-question PRIME-MD depression screen, and career satisfaction questions. Chi-square tests were used to compare 2012 well-being questionnaire responses against nearly identical surveys conducted in 2001 and 2004 at the same institution. In addition, residents were asked to rate the impact of WHLs on resident well-being and education as well as patient care, and to state preferences for future WHLs. Significantly different proportions of residents met burnout criteria across time, with fewer meeting criteria in 2012 than in 2001 (2001: 76% [87/115]; 2004: 64% [75/118]; 2012: 61% [68/112]; P = .039). Depression screening results also differed across time, with fewer screening positive in 2012 than in 2004 (2001: 45% [52/115]; 2004: 55% [65/118]; 2012 [35/112]: 31%; P = .001). Residents, especially seniors, reported perceived negative impacts of WHLs on their well-being, education, and patient care. Most senior residents favored reverting to the pre-July 2011 system of WHLs. Interns were more divided. Validated measures of resident well-being changed across the three time points measured. Residents had the lowest rates of burnout and depression in 2012. Resident perceptions of the 2011 WHLs, however, were generally negative.

  19. Improving education under work-hour restrictions: comparing learning and teaching preferences of faculty, residents, and students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Megan C; Kenkare, Sonya B; Saville, Benjamin R; Beidler, Stephanie K; Saba, Sam C; West, Alisha N; Hanemann, Michael S; van Aalst, John A

    2010-01-01

    Faced with work-hour restrictions, educators are mandated to improve the efficiency of resident and medical student education. Few studies have assessed learning styles in medicine; none have compared teaching and learning preferences. Validated tools exist to study these deficiencies. Kolb describes 4 learning styles: converging (practical), diverging (imaginative), assimilating (inductive), and accommodating (active). Grasha Teaching Styles are categorized into "clusters": 1 (teacher-centered, knowledge acquisition), 2 (teacher-centered, role modeling), 3 (student-centered, problem-solving), and 4 (student-centered, facilitative). Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (HayGroup, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) and Grasha-Riechmann's TSS were administered to surgical faculty (n = 61), residents (n = 96), and medical students (n = 183) at a tertiary academic medical center, after informed consent was obtained (IRB # 06-0612). Statistical analysis was performed using χ(2) and Fisher exact tests. Surgical residents preferred active learning (p = 0.053), whereas faculty preferred reflective learning (p style more often than surgical faculty (p = 0.01). Medical students preferred converging learning (42%) and cluster 4 teaching (35%). Statistical significance was unchanged when corrected for gender, resident training level, and subspecialization. Significant differences exist between faculty and residents in both learning and teaching preferences; this finding suggests inefficiency in resident education, as previous research suggests that learning styles parallel teaching styles. Absence of a predominant teaching style in residents suggests these individuals are learning to be teachers. The adaptation of faculty teaching methods to account for variations in resident learning styles may promote a better learning environment and more efficient faculty-resident interaction. Additional, multi-institutional studies using these tools are needed to elucidate these findings fully

  20. Resident work hour restrictions do not improve patient safety in surgery: a critical appraisal based on 7 years of experience in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Businger, Adrian P; Laffer, Urban; Kaderli, Reto

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In 2005 the Swiss government implemented new work-hour limitations for all residency programs in Switzerland, including a 50-hour weekly limit. The reduction in the working hours of doctors in training implicate an increase in their rest time and suggest an amelioration of doctors' clinical performance and consequently in patients' outcomes and safety - which was not detectable in a preliminary study at a large referral center in Switzerland. It remains elusive why work-hour restrict...

  1. Resident work hour restrictions do not improve patient safety in surgery: a critical appraisal based on 7 years of experience in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Businger Adrian P

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2005 the Swiss government implemented new work-hour limitations for all residency programs in Switzerland, including a 50-hour weekly limit. The reduction in the working hours of doctors in training implicate an increase in their rest time and suggest an amelioration of doctors' clinical performance and consequently in patients' outcomes and safety - which was not detectable in a preliminary study at a large referral center in Switzerland. It remains elusive why work-hour restrictions did not improve patient safety. We are well advised to thoroughly examine and eliminate the known adverse effects of reduced work-hours to improve our patients' safety.

  2. Work hours restrictions as an ethical dilemma for residents: a descriptive survey of violation types and frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Robert O; Spooner, John; Arbogast, Patrick G; Tarpley, John L; Griffin, Marie R; Lomis, Kimberly D

    2006-01-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) implemented requirements regarding allowable duty hours for resident training in the United States in July 2003. In a previous pilot study at Vanderbilt University Medical Center, a significant number of residents reported violation of requirements. In addition, almost half of those individuals admitted under-reporting their hours worked. The authors' goal was to further delineate the type and frequency of violations and under-reporting. A survey tool was designed to assess specific types of violations as well as factors that influence the number of hours residents worked and reported. Approval was obtained from the Vanderbilt Institutional Review Board and Office of Graduate Medical Education before enrollment of subjects. The program directors of Pediatrics, Internal Medicine, Medicine-Pediatrics, and General Surgery supported the participation of their residents. A voluntary anonymous survey of these residents was conducted 1 year after the pilot study. Of 263 eligible residents, 175 were surveyed. Of 175 residents, 125 (71%) residents responded. Eighty-five percent of residents reported violation of duty-hour requirements within the preceding 3 months. Residents reported violation of specific requirements as follows: 1 day off in 7, 28%; 80-hour weekly average, 65%; and "24+6" consecutive hours, 85%. Residents were asked to estimate the number of hours by which they exceeded requirements. Hours over the 80-hour weekly requirement were reported as follows: 1 hour, 12%; 2 hours, 15%; 3 hours, 21%; 4 hours, 5%; 5 hours, 14%; and 6 or more hours, 33%. Hours over the "24+6" requirement were reported as follows: 1 hour, 30%; 2 hours, 42%; 3 hours, 18%; 4 hours, 7%; 5 hours, 1%; and 6 or more hours, 2%. Forty-eight percent of respondents admitted under-reporting violations to their program director. Eighty-five percent of residents reported at least 1 violation, and 48% admitted under

  3. Resident duty hours in Canada: a survey and national statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Mark F; Shrichand, Pankaj; Maniate, Jerry M

    2014-01-01

    Physicians in general, and residents in particular, are adapting to duty schedules in which they have fewer continuous work hours; however, there are no Canadian guidelines on duty hours restrictions. To better inform resident duty hour policy in Canada, we set out to prepare a set of recommendations that would draw upon evidence reported in the literature and reflect the experiences of resident members of the Canadian Association of Internes and Residents (CAIR). A survey was prepared and distributed electronically to all resident members of CAIR. A total of 1796 eligible residents participated in the survey. Of those who responded, 38% (601) reported that they felt they could safely provide care for up to 16 continuous hours, and 20% (315) said that 12 continuous hours was the maximum period during which they could safely provide care (n=1592). Eighty-two percent (1316) reported their perception that the quality of care they had provided suffered because of the number of consecutive hours worked (n=1598). Only 52% (830) had received training in handover (n=1594); those who had received such training reported that it was commonly provided through informal modelling. On the basis of these data and the existing literature, CAIR recommends that resident duty hours be managed in a way that does not endanger the health of residents or patients; does not impair education; is flexible; and does not violate ethical or legal standards. Further, residents should be formally trained in handover skills and alternative duty hour models.

  4. No Correlation Between Work-Hours and Operative Volumes--A Comparison Between United States and Danish Operative Volumes Achieved During Surgical Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjærgaard, Jane; Sillesen, Martin; Beier-Holgersen, Randi

    2016-01-01

    Since 2003, United States residents have been limited to an 80-hour workweek. This has prompted concerns of reduced educational quality, especially inadequate operating exposure. In contrast, the Danish surgical specialty-training program mandates a cap on working hours of 37 per week. We hypothesize that there is no direct correlation between work-hours and operative volume achieved during surgical residency. To test the hypothesis, we compare Danish and US operative volumes achieved during surgical residency training. Retrospective comparative study. The data from the US population was extracted from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education database for General Surgery residents from 2012 to 2013. For Danish residents, a questionnaire with case categories matching the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education categories were sent to all Danish surgeons graduating the national surgical residency program in 2012 or 2013, 54 in total. In all, 30 graduated residents (55%) responded to the Danish survey. We found no significant differences in mean total major procedures (1002.4 vs 976.9, p = 0.28) performed during residency training, but comparing average major procedures per year, the US residents achieve significantly more (132.3 vs 195.4, p work-hours and operative volumes achievable. Factors other than work-hours seem to effect on operative volumes achieved during training. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Improvement of resident perceptions of nurse practitioners after the introduction of a collaborative care model: a benefit of work hour reform?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, Lisa M; Shea, Judy A

    2006-01-01

    Nurse practitioners (NPs) are assuming larger roles in many residency programs as a result of work hour reform, which is creating the potential for collaboration with interns and residents. To assess housestaff perceptions of NPs. We used a 17-item survey before and after the implementation of a collaborative care model in a university-based medicine residency. The majority of residents held favorable attitudes about NPs before the introduction of the collaborative care model. After 1 year, more interns and residents appreciated NPs' clinical judgment (effect size [ES] = .26, p =.02), thought they should be able to order laboratory tests (ES = .23, p = .05) and perform basic procedures (ES = .67, p collaborative care can be an unintended consequence of work hour reform. Educators are encouraged to think about how changes in the curriculum structure can provide opportunities for positive collaborative care experiences.

  6. Resident perceptions of the impact of duty hour restrictions on resident-attending interactions: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerjevic, Kristen A; Rosenbaum, Marcy E; Suneja, Manish

    2017-07-18

    The institution of duty hour reforms by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education in 2003 has created a learning environment where residents are consistently looking for input from attending physicians with regards to balancing duty hour regulations and providing quality patient care. There is a paucity of literature regarding resident perceptions of attending physician actions or attitudes towards work hour restrictions. The purpose of this study was to identify attending physician behaviors that residents perceived as supportive or unsupportive of their compliance with duty hour regulations. Focus group interviews were conducted with residents exploring their perceptions of how duty hour regulations impact their interactions with attending physicians. Qualitative analysis identified key themes in residents' experiences interacting with faculty in regard to duty hour regulations. Forty residents from five departments in two hospital systems participated. Discussion of these interactions highlighted that attending physicians demonstrate behaviors that explicitly or implicitly either lend their support and understanding of residents' need to comply with these regulations or imply a lack of support and understanding. Three major themes that contributed to the ease or difficulty in addressing duty hour regulations included attending physicians' explicit communication of expectations, implicit non-verbal and verbal cues and the program's organizational culture. Resident physicians' perception of attending physicians' explicit and implicit communication and residency programs organization culture has an impact on residents' experience with duty hour restrictions. Residency faculty and programs could benefit from explicitly addressing and supporting the challenges that residents perceive in complying with duty hour restrictions.

  7. Working Hours of Surgical Residence: Perspective of a Group of Surgeons in a Regional Hospital in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Siu-Fai; Spurgeon, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and European working time directive have restricted residents' workweek to 80 and 48 hours, respectively. Impacts on resident's training and health services are under evaluation in western countries. However, relevant studies are deficient in Hong Kong. Methods: Surgeons in a regional hospital of Hong Kong were recruited. Opinions were collected by semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Response rate was 82%. Most respondents agr...

  8. Working Hours and Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Collewet, Marion; Sauermann, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the link between working hours and productivity using daily information on working hours and performance of a sample of call centre agents. We exploit variation in the number of hours worked by the same employee across days and weeks due to central scheduling, enabling us to estimate the effect of working hours on productivity. We find that as the number of hours worked increases, the average handling time for a call increases, meaning that agents become less productive. Th...

  9. Working hours and productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collewet, Marion; Sauermann, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the link between working hours and productivity using daily information on working hours and performance of a sample of call centre agents. We exploit variation in the number of hours worked by the same employee across days and weeks due to central scheduling, enabling us to

  10. Local and national trends in general surgery residents' operative experience: do work hour limitations negatively affect case volume in small community-based programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markelov, Alexey; Sakharpe, Aniket; Kohli, Harjeet; Livert, David

    2011-12-01

    The goals of this study were to analyze the impact of work hour restrictions on the operative case volume at a small community-based general surgery residency training program and compare changes with the national level. Annual national resident case log data from Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) website and case logs of graduating Easton Hospital residents (years 2002-2009) were used for analysis. Weighted average change in total number of cases in our institution was -1.20 (P = 0.52) vs 1.78 (P = 0.07) for the national program average with statistically significant difference on comparison (P = 0.027). We also found significant difference in case volume changes at the national level compared with our institution for the following ACGME defined subcategories: alimentary tract [8.19 (P < 0.01) vs -1.08 (P = 0.54)], abdomen [8.48 (P < 0.01) vs -6.29 (P < 0.01)], breast [1.91 (P = 0.89) vs -3.6 (P = 0.02)], and vascular [4.03 (P = 0.02) vs -3.98 (P = 0.01)]. Comparing the national trend to the community hospital we see that there is total increase in cases at the national level whereas there is a decrease in case volume at the community hospital. These trends can also be followed in ACGME defined subcategories which form the major case load for a general surgical training such as alimentary tract, abdominal, breast, and vascular procedures. We hypothesize that work hour restrictions have been favorable for the larger programs, as these programs were able to better integrate the night float system, restructure their call schedule, and implement institutional modifications which are too resource demanding for smaller training programs.

  11. Duty hours and pregnancy outcome among residents in obstetrics and gynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbe, Steven G; Morgan, Maria A; Power, Michael L; Schulkin, Jay; Williams, Sterling B

    2003-11-01

    To assess the present status of resident duty hours in obstetrics and gynecology, identify existing policies concerning work schedules during pregnancy, and evaluate pregnancy outcome in female house officers. A questionnaire-based study was administered to residents taking the 2001 Council on Residency Education in Obstetrics and Gynecology examination. More than 90% of the residents reported that their institution had a maternity leave policy. The leave was usually 4-8 weeks long and was paid. Nearly 95% of residents reported that they had to take over the work of residents on maternity leave. Most women residents worked more than 80 hours weekly throughout pregnancy, and few took time off before delivery. Most pregnancies occurred during the fourth year of training and did not seem to be adversely affected by the long work hours. This study, performed before the institution of the new Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education resident duty hour policies, demonstrated that, although women house officers continued to work more than 80 hours per week during pregnancy, most had a good pregnancy outcome. Nevertheless, there was a higher frequency of preterm labor, preeclampsia, and fetal growth restriction in female residents than in spouses or partners of male residents.

  12. Impact of new duty-hour rules on residency training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran-Nelson, Alisa; Van Camp, Joan; Ling, Louis

    2010-11-01

    On the surface, changing the rules related to the number of hours residents work per day and per week sounds like a good idea. Theoretically, residents who work fewer hours would be less tired and provide better patient care. But even small changes in residency training programs have implications for the quality of the educational experience and the cost of training, as well as patient care. This article highlights the challenges that two Minnesota residency programs are facing as they adapt to the new rules around residents' work hours.

  13. The effect of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Duty Hours Policy on plastic surgery resident education and patient care: an outcomes study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Chandrasekhar Bob; Chen, Li-Mei; Hollier, Larry H; Shenaq, Saleh M

    2004-12-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Work-Hours Duty Policy became effective on July 1, 2003, mandating the reduction of resident duty work hours. The Baylor College of Medicine Multi-Institutional Integrated Plastic Surgery Program instituted a resident duty work-hours policy on July 1, 2002 (1 year ahead of the national mandate). Outcomes data are needed to facilitate continuous improvements in plastic surgical residency training while maintaining high-quality patient care. To assess the effect of this policy intervention on plastic surgery resident education as measured through the six core competencies and patient/resident safety, the investigators surveyed all categorical plastic surgery residents 6 months after implementation of the policy. This work represents the first empiric study investigating the effect of duty hours reduction on plastic surgery training and education. The categorical plastic surgery residents at the Baylor College of Medicine Multi-Institutional Integrated Plastic Surgery Program completed a 68-item survey on a five-point Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree). Residents were asked to rate multiple parameters based on the ACGME six core competencies, including statements on patient care and clinical/operative duties, resident education, resident quality of life, and resident perceptions on this policy. All surveys were completed anonymously. The sample size was n = 12 (program year 3 through program year 6), with a 100 percent response rate. Univariate and bivariate statistical analysis was conducted with SPSS version 10.0 statistical software. Specifically, interquartile deviations were used to find consensus among resident responses to each statement. Descriptive statistics indicated higher percentages of agreement on a majority of statements in three categories, including patient care and clinical/operative duties, academic duties, and resident quality of life. Using interquartile

  14. Limitation of duty hour regulations for pediatric resident wellness: A mixed methods study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Osamu; Mishina, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Ishiguro, Akira; Sakai, Hirokazu; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    Duty hour regulations have been placed in residency programs to address mental health concerns and to improve wellness. Here, we elucidate the prevalence of depressive symptoms after implementing an overnight call shift system and the factors associated with burnout or depression among residents.A sequential exploratory mixed methods study was conducted in a tertiary care pediatric and perinatal hospital in Tokyo, Japan. A total of 41 pediatric residents participated in the cross-sectional survey. We determined and compared the prevalence of depressive symptoms and the number of actual working hours before and after implementing the shift system. A follow-up focus-group interview with 4 residents was conducted to explore the factors that may trigger or prevent depression and burnout.Mean working hours significantly decreased from 75.2 hours to 64.9 hours per week. Prevalence of depressive symptoms remained similar before and after implementation of the shift system. Emotional exhaustion and depersonalization from the burnout scale were markedly associated with depression. High workload, stress intolerance, interpersonal difficulties, and generation gaps regarding work-life balance could cause burnout. Stress tolerance, workload monitoring and balancing, appropriate supervision, and peer support could prevent burnout.Although the overnight call shift system was effective in reducing working hours, its effectiveness in managing mental health issues among pediatric residents remains unclear. Resident wellness programs represent an additional strategy and they should be aimed at fostering peer support and improvement of resident-faculty interactions. Such an approach could be beneficial to the relationship between physicians of different generations with conflicting belief structures.

  15. The Productivity Of Working Hours

    OpenAIRE

    John Pencavel

    2013-01-01

    Observations on munition workers, most of them women, are organized to examine the relationship between their output and their working hours. The relationship is nonlinear: below an hours threshold, output is proportional to hours; above a threshold, output rises at a decreasing rate as hours increase. Implications of these results for the estimation of labor supply functions are taken up. The findings also link up with current research on the effects of long working hours on accidents and in...

  16. Flexible forms of working hours

    OpenAIRE

    Knapp, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    66 Abstract - Flexible forms of working hours This diploma thesis deals with the flexible forms of working hours and its goal is to describe this issue in intelligible and comprehensive way. It is being very interesting and current theme which is to a great extent not subject to direct legal regulations and provides its contracting parties with a big amount of freedom of contract. This fact assists in bigger flexibilization of labour market and represents a significant instrument in the fight...

  17. Limitation of duty hour regulations for pediatric resident wellness

    OpenAIRE

    Nomura, Osamu; Mishina, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Ishiguro, Akira; Sakai, Hirokazu; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Duty hour regulations have been placed in residency programs to address mental health concerns and to improve wellness. Here, we elucidate the prevalence of depressive symptoms after implementing an overnight call shift system and the factors associated with burnout or depression among residents. A sequential exploratory mixed methods study was conducted in a tertiary care pediatric and perinatal hospital in Tokyo, Japan. A total of 41 pediatric residents participated in the cross-se...

  18. The Impact of 2011 ACGME Duty Hour Restrictions on Internal Medicine Resident Workload and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucicevic, Darko; Mookadam, Farouk; Webb, Brandon J.; Labonte, Helene R.; Cha, Stephen S.; Blair, Janis E.

    2015-01-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) implemented work hour restrictions for physicians in training in 2003 that were revised July 1, 2011. Current published data are insufficient to assess whether such work hour restrictions will have long-term impact on residents' education. We searched computer-generated reports…

  19. No Correlation Between Work-Hours and Operative Volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Jane; Sillesen, Martin; Beier-Holgersen, Randi

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Since 2003, United States residents have been limited to an 80-hour workweek. This has prompted concerns of reduced educational quality, especially inadequate operating exposure. In contrast, the Danish surgical specialty-training program mandates a cap on working hours of 37 per week....... We hypothesize that there is no direct correlation between work-hours and operative volume achieved during surgical residency. To test the hypothesis, we compare Danish and US operative volumes achieved during surgical residency training. DESIGN: Retrospective comparative study. PARTICIPANTS...... find no difference in overall surgical volumes between Danes and US residents during their surgical training. When time in training was accounted for, differences between weekly surgical volumes achieved were minor, indicating a lack of direct correlation between weekly work-hours and operative volumes...

  20. Impact of resident duty hour limits on safety in the intensive care unit: a national survey of pediatric and neonatal intensivists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Typpo, Katri V; Tcharmtchi, M Hossein; Thomas, Eric J; Kelly, P Adam; Castillo, Leticia D; Singh, Hardeep

    2012-09-01

    Resident duty-hour regulations potentially shift the workload from resident to attending physicians. We sought to understand how current or future regulatory changes might impact safety in academic pediatric and neonatal intensive care units. Web-based survey. U.S. academic pediatric and neonatal intensive care units. Attending pediatric and neonatal intensivists. We evaluated perceptions on four intensive care unit safety-related risk measures potentially affected by current duty-hour regulations: 1) attending physician and resident fatigue; 2) attending physician workload; 3) errors (self-reported rates by attending physicians or perceived resident error rates); and 4) safety culture. We also evaluated perceptions of how these risks would change with further duty-hour restrictions. We administered our survey between February and April 2010 to 688 eligible physicians, of whom 360 (52.3%) responded. Most believed that resident error rates were unchanged or worse (91.9%) and safety culture was unchanged or worse (84.4%) with current duty-hour regulations. Of respondents, 61.9% believed their own work-hours providing direct patient care increased and 55.8% believed they were more fatigued while providing direct patient care. Most (85.3%) perceived no increase in their own error rates currently, but in the scenario of further reduction in resident duty-hours, over half (53.3%) believed that safety culture would worsen and a significant proportion (40.3%) believed that their own error rates would increase. Pediatric intensivists do not perceive improved patient safety from current resident duty-hour restrictions. Policies to further restrict resident duty-hours should consider unintended consequences of worsening certain aspects of intensive care unit safety.

  1. 46 CFR 15.710 - Working hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Working hours. 15.710 Section 15.710 Shipping COAST... Limitations and Qualifying Factors § 15.710 Working hours. In addition to prescribing watch requirements, 46 U.S.C. 8104 sets limitations on the working hours of credentialed officers and crew members...

  2. Quantitative and qualitative perceptions of the 2011 residency duty hour restrictions: a multicenter, multispecialty cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, William S; Elkin, Rachel L; Nielsen, Craig D

    2015-03-25

    July 2011 saw the implementation of the newest duty hour restrictions, further limiting the working hours of first year residents and necessitating a variety of adaptations on the part of residency programs. The present study sought to characterize the perceived impact of these restrictions on residency program personnel using a multi-specialty and multi-site approach. We developed and administered a survey to internal medicine and general surgery residency programs at three academic medical centers within an urban region. The survey combined quantitative and qualitative components to gain a broader understanding of the impact of the newest regulations. Quantitative responses were compared between Internal Medicine and General Surgery programs with Student t-tests. Other comparisons were performed using ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis testing as appropriate. For all comparisons, the threshold for significance was set at 0.01. Two independent reviewers coded all qualitative data and assigned one or more themes based on content. Descriptive statistics were calculated and the diversity of themes identified. No between-group comparisons were conducted with the qualitative data. We found significant differences in the overall perceptions of duty hour restrictions across specialty (internal medicine more positive than general surgery) and across position (first year residents more positive than senior residents and faculty). Notably, individuals who trained at osteopathic medical schools reported significantly more negative views of the duty hour restrictions than those who had trained at allopathic or international medical schools, suggesting an influence of undergraduate medical training. The complementary qualitative data offered insights into the perceived strengths and weaknesses of the duty hour restrictions, as well as actionable suggestions that could help to improve residency program function. This study characterizes responses to the new duty hour restrictions from a

  3. Training on the clock: family medicine residency directors' responses to resident duty hours reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lars E; Johnson, Hillary; Pugno, Perry A; Bazemore, Andrew; Phillips, Robert L

    2006-12-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's 2003 restrictions on resident duty hours (RDH) raised concerns among educators about potential negative impacts on residents' training. In the early wake of these restrictions, little is known about how RDH reform impacts training in primary care. The authors surveyed family medicine (FM) residency program directors (PDs) for their perceptions of the impact of RDH regulations on training in primary care. All PDs of 472 FM residency programs were asked via list-serve to complete an anonymous Internet-based survey in the fall of 2004. The survey solicited PDs' opinions about changes in staff and in residents' training experiences with respect to implementation of RDH regulations. Descriptive and qualitative analyses were conducted. There were 369 partial and 328 complete responses, for a response rate of 69% (328/472). Effects of the RDH regulations are varied. Fifty percent of FMPDs report increased patient-care duties for attendings, whereas 42% report no increase. Nearly 80% of programs hired no additional staff. Sixty percent of programs eliminated postcall clinics, and nearly 40% implemented a night-float system. Administrative hassles and losses of professionalism, educational opportunity, and continuity of care were common concerns, but a sizeable minority feel that residents will be better off under the new regulations. Many FMPDs cited increased faculty burden and the risk of lower-quality educational experiences for their trainees. Innovations for increasing the effectiveness of teaching may ultimately compensate for lost educational time. If not, alternatives such as extending the length of residency must be considered.

  4. Are long physician working hours harmful to patient safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehara, Akira

    2008-04-01

    Pediatricians of Japanese hospitals including not only residents but also attending physicians work long hours, and 8% work for >79 h per week. Most of them work consecutively for >or=32 h when they are on call. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of long work hours on patient safety. The electronic databases MEDLINE and EMBASE to searched identify the English- and Japanese-language literature for studies on work hours, medical errors, patient safety, and malpractice for years 1966-2005. Studies that analyzed the relationship between physician work hours and outcomes directly related to patient safety were selected. Seven studies met the criteria. Four studies suggest that reduction of work hours has a favorable effect on patient safety indicators. In the other three studies no significant changes of the indicators were observed, but no report found that shorter work hours were harmful to patient safety. Decrease of physician work hours is not harmful but favorable to patient safety.

  5. Impacts of extended working hours in logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana Mitchell; Tom Gallagher

    2008-01-01

    Last year at the 2007 AIM in Minneapolis, MN, the authors presented the human factors impacts to consider when implementing extended working hours in the logging industry. In a continuation of this project, we have researched existing literature to identify possible actions that logging business owners can take to reduce the impact of extended working hours on their...

  6. Long working hours and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkila, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T.; Madsen, Ida E. H.

    2016-01-01

    in 116 462 men and women who were free of cancer at baseline. Incident cancers were ascertained from national cancer, hospitalisation and death registers; weekly working hours were self-reported. Results: During median follow-up of 10.8 years, 4371 participants developed cancer (n colorectal cancer: 393......Background: Working longer than the maximum recommended hours is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the relationship of excess working hours with incident cancer is unclear. Methods: This multi-cohort study examined the association between working hours and cancer risk......; n lung cancer: 247; n breast cancer: 833; and n prostate cancer: 534). We found no clear evidence for an association between working hours and the overall cancer risk. Working hours were also unrelated the risk of incident colorectal, lung or prostate cancers. Working greater than or equal to55 h...

  7. Work Hours Constraints: Impacts and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Constant, Amelie F.; Otterbach, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    If individuals reveal their preference as consumers, then they are taken seriously. What happens if individuals, as employees, reveal their preferences in working hours? And what happens if there is a misalignment between actual hours worked and preferred hours, the so-called work hours constraints? How does this affect the productivity of workers, their health, and overall life satisfaction? Labor supply and corresponding demand are fundamental to production. Labor economists know for long t...

  8. Working hours: Past, present, and future

    OpenAIRE

    Dolton, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Working hours across the world are falling, but considerable variation remains. In some countries people work 70% more hours per year, on average, than in other countries. Much of this variation is due to differences in the prevalence of part-time work and patterns of female labor market participation. Looking ahead, the question of how reducing working hours will affect productivity is significant. In addition, how individuals divide up their leisure and work time and what the appropriate wo...

  9. Long working hours and alcohol use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T

    2015-01-01

    .2%). There was no difference in these associations between men and women or by age or socioeconomic groups, geographical regions, sample type (population based v occupational cohort), prevalence of risky alcohol use in the cohort, or sample attrition rate. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals whose working hours exceed standard......OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies......, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies. REVIEW METHODS: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were...

  10. Long working hours and alcohol use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies......, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies. REVIEW METHODS: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were...... countries. The pooled maximum adjusted odds ratio for the association between long working hours and alcohol use was 1.11 (95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.18) in the cross sectional analysis of published and unpublished data. Odds ratio of new onset risky alcohol use was 1.12 (1.04 to 1...

  11. The Persistence of Long Work Hours

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Drago; David Black; Mark Wooden

    2005-01-01

    Previous research hypothesizes that long working hours are related to consumerism, the ideal worker norm, high levels of human capital, and a high cost-of-job-loss. The authors test these hypotheses using panel data on working hours for an Australian sample of full-time employed workers. Analyses include a static cross-sectional model and a persistence model for long hours over time. The results suggest that long hours (50 or more hours in a usual week) are often persistent, and provide stron...

  12. Long working hours and depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Madsen, Ida Eh

    2018-01-01

    Objectives This systematic review and meta-analysis combined published study-level data and unpublished individual-participant data with the aim of quantifying the relation between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms. Methods We searched PubMed and Embase for published....... In the majority of cohorts, long working hours was defined as working ≥55 hours per week. In multivariable-adjusted meta-analyses of 189 729 participants from 35 countries [96 275 men, 93 454 women, follow-up ranging from 1-5 years, 21 747 new-onset cases), there was an overall association of 1.14 (95% confidence...... interval (CI) 1.03-1.25] between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms, with significant evidence of heterogeneity (I 2=45.1%, P=0.004). A moderate association between working hours and depressive symptoms was found in Asian countries (1.50, 95% CI 1.13-2.01), a weaker association...

  13. Work hours and absenteeism among police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekedulegn, Desta; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Hartley, Tara A; Baughman, Penelope; Charles, Luenda E; Andrew, Michael E; Violanti, John M

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the cross-sectional association of paid work hours with episodes of work absence was examined in a cohort of police officers. Study subjects were participants from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress (BCOPS) study examined between 2004 and 2009. Among 395 study participants with complete data, day-by-day work history records during the one-year period prior to date of examination were used to determine episodes of one-day and three day work absence. The Negative binomial regression analysis was used to examine rate ratios (RR) of work absence. Analyses were also stratified by gender. A one-hour increase in total work hours was associated with 5% reduction in rate of one-day work absence (RR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.92 - 0.98) and with 8% reduction in rate of three-day work absence (RR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.89 - 0.95). The association of total work hours with episodes of one-day work absence was significant only in men while the association with episodes of three-day work absence was evident in men and women. In conclusion, in this cohort of police officers, work hours were negatively associated with both durations of work absence (one-day, > or = 3 consecutive days).

  14. Long working hours and depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Madsen, Ida Eh

    2018-01-01

    . In the majority of cohorts, long working hours was defined as working ≥55 hours per week. In multivariable-adjusted meta-analyses of 189 729 participants from 35 countries [96 275 men, 93 454 women, follow-up ranging from 1-5 years, 21 747 new-onset cases), there was an overall association of 1.14 (95% confidence......Objectives This systematic review and meta-analysis combined published study-level data and unpublished individual-participant data with the aim of quantifying the relation between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms. Methods We searched PubMed and Embase for published...... interval (CI) 1.03-1.25] between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms, with significant evidence of heterogeneity (I 2=45.1%, P=0.004). A moderate association between working hours and depressive symptoms was found in Asian countries (1.50, 95% CI 1.13-2.01), a weaker association...

  15. Variable Work Hours--The MONY Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Cynthia J.

    1974-01-01

    An experiment with variable work hours in one department of a large company was so successful that it has become standard procedure in various corporate areas, both staff and line. The result? Increased production, fewer errors, improved employee morale, and a significant reduction in lateness and absenteeism. (Author)

  16. Extended working hours: Impacts on workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Mitchell; T. Gallagher

    2010-01-01

    Some logging business owners are trying to manage their equipment assets by increasing the scheduled machine hours. The intent is to maximize the total tons produced by a set of equipment. This practice is referred to as multi-shifting, double-shifting, or extended working hours. One area often overlooked is the impact that working non-traditional hours can have on...

  17. Association of Otolaryngology Resident Duty Hour Restrictions With Procedure-Specific Outcomes in Head and Neck Endocrine Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Aaron; Braden, Lauren; Wan, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Importance Graduate medical education has undergone a transformation from traditional long work hours to a restricted plan to allow adequate rest for residents. The initial goal of this restriction is to improve patient outcomes. Objective To determine whether duty hour restrictions had any impact on surgery-specific outcomes by analyzing complications following thyroid and parathyroid procedures performed before and after duty hour reform. Design, Setting, and Participants Retrospective cross-sectional analysis of the National Inpatient Sample (NIS).The NIS was queried for procedure codes associated with thyroid and parathyroid procedures for the years 2000 to 2002 and 2006 to 2008. Hospitals were divided based on teaching status into 3 groups: nonteaching hospitals (NTHs), teaching hospitals without otolaryngology programs (THs), and teaching hospitals with otolaryngology programs (THs-OTO). Main Outcomes and Measures Procedure-specific complication rates, length of stay, and mortality rates were collected. SAS statistical software (version 9.4) was used for analysis with adjustment using Charlson comorbidity index. Results Total numbers of head and neck endocrine procedures were 34 685 and 39 770 (a 14.7% increase), for 2000 to 2002 and 2006 to 2008, respectively. THs-OTO contributed a greater share of procedures in 2006 to 2008 (from 18% to 25%). With the earlier period serving as the reference, length of stay remained constant (2.1 days); however, total hospital charges increased (from $12 978 to $23 708; P otolaryngology programs. PMID:28196195

  18. Program Director Perceptions of Surgical Resident Training and Patient Care under Flexible Duty Hour Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Lily V; Dahlke, Allison R; Rajaram, Ravi; Kreutzer, Lindsey; Love, Remi; Odell, David D; Bilimoria, Karl Y; Yang, Anthony D

    2016-06-01

    The Flexibility in Duty Hour Requirements for Surgical Trainees (FIRST) trial was a national, cluster-randomized, pragmatic, noninferiority trial of 117 general surgery programs, comparing standard ACGME resident duty hour requirements ("Standard Policy") to flexible, less-restrictive policies ("Flexible Policy"). Participating program directors (PDs) were surveyed to assess their perceptions of patient care, resident education, and resident well-being during the study period. A survey was sent to all PDs of the general surgery residency programs participating in the FIRST trial (N = 117 [100% response rate]) in June and July 2015. The survey compared PDs' perceptions of the duty hour requirements in their arm of the FIRST trial during the study period from July 1, 2014 to June 30, 2015. One hundred percent of PDs in the Flexible Policy arm indicated that residents used their additional flexibility in duty hours to complete operations they started or to stabilize a critically ill patient. Compared with the Standard Policy arm, PDs in the Flexible Policy arm perceived a more positive effect of duty hours on the safety of patient care (68.9% vs 0%; p care (98.3% vs 0%; p care (71.8%), continuity of care (94.0%), quality of resident education (83.8%), and resident well-being (55.6%) would be improved with a hypothetical permanent adoption of more flexible duty hours. Program directors involved in the FIRST trial perceived improvements in patient safety, continuity of care, and multiple aspects of resident education and well-being with flexible duty hours. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of states' nurse work hour regulations on overtime practices and work hours among registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sung-Heui; Yoon, Jangho

    2014-10-01

    To examine the degree to which states' work hour regulations for nurses-policies regarding mandatory overtime and consecutive work hours-decrease mandatory overtime practice and hours of work among registered nurses. We analyzed a nationally representative sample of registered nurses from the National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses for years 2004 and 2008. We obtained difference-in-differences estimates of the effect of the nurse work hour policies on the likelihood of working mandatory overtime, working more than 40 hours per week, and working more than 60 hours per week for all staff nurses working in hospitals and nursing homes. The mandatory overtime and consecutive work hour regulations were significantly associated with 3.9 percentage-point decreases in the likelihood of working overtime mandatorily and 11.5 percentage-point decreases in the likelihood of working more than 40 hours per week, respectively. State mandatory overtime and consecutive work hour policies are effective in reducing nurse work hours. The consecutive work hour policy appears to be a better regulatory tool for reducing long work hours for nurses. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  20. Association of the 2011 ACGME resident duty hour reform with general surgery patient outcomes and with resident examination performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, Ravi; Chung, Jeanette W; Jones, Andrew T; Cohen, Mark E; Dahlke, Allison R; Ko, Clifford Y; Tarpley, John L; Lewis, Frank R; Hoyt, David B; Bilimoria, Karl Y

    2014-12-10

    In 2011, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) restricted resident duty hour requirements beyond those established in 2003, leading to concerns about the effects on patient care and resident training. To determine if the 2011 ACGME duty hour reform was associated with a change in general surgery patient outcomes or in resident examination performance. Quasi-experimental study of general surgery patient outcomes 2 years before (academic years 2009-2010) and after (academic years 2012-2013) the 2011 duty hour reform. Teaching and nonteaching hospitals were compared using a difference-in-differences approach adjusted for procedural mix, patient comorbidities, and time trends. Teaching hospitals were defined based on the proportion of cases at which residents were present intraoperatively. Patients were those undergoing surgery at hospitals participating in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP). General surgery resident performance on the annual in-training, written board, and oral board examinations was assessed for this same period. National implementation of revised resident duty hour requirements on July 1, 2011, in all ACGME accredited residency programs. Primary outcome was a composite of death or serious morbidity; secondary outcomes were other postoperative complications and resident examination performance. In the main analysis, 204,641 patients were identified from 23 teaching (n = 102,525) and 31 nonteaching (n = 102,116) hospitals. The unadjusted rate of death or serious morbidity improved during the study period in both teaching (11.6% [95% CI, 11.3%-12.0%] to 9.4% [95% CI, 9.1%-9.8%], P adverse outcome. Mean (SD) in-training examination scores did not significantly change from 2010 to 2013 for first-year residents (499.7 [ 85.2] to 500.5 [84.2], P = .99), for residents from other postgraduate years, or for first-time examinees taking the written or oral board

  1. Long working hours and alcohol use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T

    2015-01-01

    .20) in the analysis of prospective published and unpublished data. In the 18 studies with individual participant data it was possible to assess the European Union Working Time Directive, which recommends an upper limit of 48 hours a week. Odds ratios of new onset risky alcohol use for those working 49-54 hours......OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies......, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies. REVIEW METHODS: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were...

  2. Long Work Hours: Volunteers and Conscripts

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Drago; Mark Wooden; David Black

    2006-01-01

    Panel data from Australia are used to study the prevalence of work hours mismatch among long hours workers and, more importantly, how that mismatch persists and changes over time, and what factors are associated with these changes. Particular attention is paid to the roles played by household debt, ideal worker characteristics and gender. Both static and dynamic multinomial logit models are estimated, with the dependent variable distinguishing long hours workers from other workers, and within...

  3. Long working hours and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrave, David; Charlwood, Andy; Wooden, Mark

    2015-08-01

    It is widely believed that persons employed in jobs demanding long working hours are at greater risk of physical inactivity than other workers, primarily because they have less leisure time available to undertake physical activity. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis using prospective data obtained from a nationally representative sample of employed persons. Longitudinal data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey (93,367 observations from 17,893 individuals) were used to estimate conditional fixed effects logistic regression models of the likelihood of moderate or vigorous physical exercise for at least 30 min, at least four times a week. No significant associations between long working hours and the incidence of healthy levels of physical activity were uncovered once other exogenous influences on activity levels were controlled for. The odds of men or women who usually work 60 or more hours per week exercising at healthy levels were 6% and 11% less, respectively, than those of comparable persons working a more standard 35-40 h/week; however, neither estimate was significantly different from 0 at 95% CI. The findings suggest that there is no trade-off between long working hours and physical activity in Australia. It is argued that these findings are broadly consistent with previous research studies from Anglo-Saxon countries (where long working hours are pervasive) that employed large nationally representative samples. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Economic Analysis of Long Working Hours (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    OHTAKE Fumio; OKUDAIRA Hiroko

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we set out the economic grounds for restrictions on long working hours and conduct an empirical analysis using surveys from the perspective of behavioral economics. The results of the analysis indicate that, on a year-on-year basis, if state of health improves, the probability of working more than 60 hours per week increases significantly, but that even when state of health deteriorates there is no decrease in the probability of working long hours. Moreover, among male managemen...

  5. Duty hours for post-graduate resident doctors need for change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Post Graduate training involves Patient care, education and administrative activities. But in today's modern life, the patient doctor ratio is so high that it leads to long working hours among PG residents which leads to fatigue & stress, which ultimately affects the care-giver as well as the patients. A survey was done among 20 PG residents to analyse performance, behavior, attitude and practices in patient care by PG Residents and to understand the affliction of their personal life. It was found that the PG Residents are working for an average time of 110 hrs/week ranging from 80–132 hours/week. It was also found to affect their performance, self-care, needle stick injuries & personal life.

  6. The Media Response to the ACGME's 2017 Relaxed Resident Duty-Hour Restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zi; Krauthamer, Alan V; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B

    2018-03-01

    In March 2017, the ACGME relaxed resident duty-hour restrictions to allow first-year residents to work 24-hour shifts, affecting the internship experience of incoming radiology residents. The aim of this study was to assess the media response to this duty-hour change, comparing news articles with favorable and unfavorable views. Google News was used to identify 36 relevant unique news articles published over a 4-week period after the announcement. Articles' stance was categorized as favorable, unfavorable, or neutral. Additional article characteristics were explored. Article sources were 58% national, 22% local, and 20% medical news. Article stance was most commonly unfavorable for national news sources (48%), compared with neutral for local (62%) and medical (72%) news sources. Most common reasons for unfavorable stance were sleep deprivation (n = 11), medical errors (n = 11), residents' health (n = 9), risk for car accidents (n = 9), a patriarchal hazing system (n = 6), and work-life balance (n = 5). Most common reasons for favorable stance were impact on resident education (n = 7) and continuity of care (n = 7). Supporting data were cited by 38% of unfavorable and 100% of favorable articles. Unfavorable articles most commonly quoted physicians affiliated with resident advocacy groups; favorable articles most commonly quoted physicians affiliated with the ACGME. The relaxed duty-hour restrictions received an overall unfavorable media response, particularly in nonmedical news sources, driven by concerns regarding sleep-deprived doctors. Favorable articles ubiquitously cited data supporting the safety of relaxed duty hour restrictions. Further research is warranted to better understand the impact of relaxed resident duty-hour limits on sleep deprivation, residents' health and education, and the quality of patient care. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Psychiatric Emergency Services - Can Duty-Hour Changes Help Residents and Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainch, Navjot; Schule, Patrick; Laurel, Faith; Bodic, Maria; Jacob, Theresa

    2018-04-14

    Limitations on resident duty hours have been widely introduced with the intention of decreasing resident fatigue and improving patient outcomes. While there is evidence of improvement in resident well-being and education following such initiatives, they have inadvertently resulted in increased number of hand-offs between clinicians leading to potential errors in patient care. Current literature emphasizes need for more specialty/setting-specific scheduling, while considering residents' opinions when implementing duty-hour reforms. There are no reports examining the impact of duty-hour changes on residents or patients in psychiatric emergency service (PES) settings. Our purpose was to assess the impact of a recent scheduling change and decrease in overall duty hours, on resident well-being and sense of burnout, while also evaluating changes to patient wait-time and length of stay (LOS) in PES. Residents completed Maslach Burnout Inventory and anonymous surveys focusing on: fatigue, sleep, life outside work for shifts - regular (8 am-8 pm) and swing shifts (12 pm-10 pm). Data from the electronic medical records were collected for 6 months pre- and post-schedule change (January 2016-February 2017), for LOS and patient wait-time. Residents' preference for shifts was split. However, 86% reported getting enough sleep during swing shifts, while 83% reported lack of sleep during regular shifts. The average patient wait-time and LOS significantly decreased from 169 to 147 and 690 to 515 min, respectively. The change to swing shifts significantly impacts LOS and patient wait-time. The short shifts demonstrated an improvement in well-being for residents, but were not the singular factor for overall resident satisfaction.

  8. Acute Stress and Anxiety in Medical Residents on the Emergency Department Duty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín M. González-Cabrera

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this longitudinal study were to compare salivary cortisol release patterns in medical residents and their self-perceived anxiety levels between a regular working day and a day when on call in the emergency department (ED-duty day and to determine any differences in cortisol release pattern as a function of years of residency or sex. The study included 35 residents (physicians-in-training of the Granada University Hospital, Granada, Spain. Acute stress was measured on a regular working day and an ED-duty day, evaluating anxiety-state with the Spanish version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Physiological stress assessment was based on salivary cortisol levels. Cortisol release concentrations were higher on an ED-duty day than on a regular working day, with a significantly increased area under the curve (AUC (p < 0.006. This difference slightly attenuated with longer residency experience. No gender difference in anxiety levels was observed (p < 0.001. According to these findings, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and anxiety levels of medical residents are higher on an ED-duty day than on a regular working day.

  9. A Reduced Duty Hours Model for Senior Internal Medicine Residents: A Qualitative Analysis of Residents' Experiences and Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Rebecca; Gundy, Serena; Ulic, Diana; Haider, Shariq; Wasi, Parveen

    2016-09-01

    To assess senior internal medicine residents' experience of the implementation of a reduced duty hours model with night float, the transition from the prior 26-hour call system, and the new model's effects on resident quality of life and perceived patient safety in the emergency department and clinical teaching unit at McMaster University. Qualitative data were collected during May 2013-July 2014, through resident focus groups held prior to implementation of a reduced duty hours model and 10 to 12 months postimplementation. Data analysis was guided by a constructivist grounded theory based in a relativist paradigm. Transcripts were coded; codes were collapsed into themes. Thematic analysis revealed five themes. Residents described reduced fatigue in the early morning, counterbalanced with worsened long-term fatigue on night float blocks; anticipation of negative impacts of the loss of distributed on-call experience and on-call shift volume; an urgency to sleep postcall in anticipation of consecutive night float shifts accompanied by conflicting role demands to stay postcall for care continuity; increased handover frequency accompanied by inaccurate/incomplete communication of patients' issues; and improvement in the senior resident experience on the clinical teaching unit, with increased ownership over patient care and improved relationships with junior housestaff. A reduced duty hours model with night float has potential to improve residents' perceived fatigue on call and care continuity on the clinical teaching unit. This must be weighed against increased handover frequency and loss of the postcall day, which may negatively affect patient care and resident quality of life.

  10. A Systematic Review of the Effects of Resident Duty Hour Restrictions in Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, Katharine S.; Keshet, Itay; Spicer, Jonathan; Imrie, Kevin; Feldman, Liane; Cools-Lartigue, Jonathan; Kayssi, Ahmed; Lipsman, Nir; Elmi, Maryam; Kulkarni, Abhaya V.; Parshuram, Chris; Mainprize, Todd; Warren, Richard J.; Fata, Paola; Gorman, M. Sean; Feinberg, Stan; Rutka, James

    2014-01-01

    Background: In 2003, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) mandated 80-hour resident duty limits. In 2011 the ACGME mandated 16-hour duty maximums for PGY1 (post graduate year) residents. The stated goals were to improve patient safety, resident well-being, and education. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to evaluate the impact of resident duty hours (RDH) on clinical and educational outcomes in surgery. Methods: A systematic review (1980–2013) was executed on CINAHL, Cochrane Database, Embase, Medline, and Scopus. Quality of articles was assessed using the GRADE guidelines. Sixteen-hour shifts and night float systems were analyzed separately. Articles that examined mortality data were combined in a random-effects meta-analysis to evaluate the impact of RDH on patient mortality. Results: A total of 135 articles met the inclusion criteria. Among these, 42% (N = 57) were considered moderate-high quality. There was no overall improvement in patient outcomes as a result of RDH; however, some studies suggest increased complication rates in high-acuity patients. There was no improvement in education related to RDH restrictions, and performance on certification examinations has declined in some specialties. Survey studies revealed a perception of worsened education and patient safety. There were improvements in resident wellness after the 80-hour workweek, but there was little improvement or negative effects on wellness after 16-hour duty maximums were implemented. Conclusions: Recent RDH changes are not consistently associated with improvements in resident well-being, and have negative impacts on patient outcomes and performance on certification examinations. Greater flexibility to accommodate resident training needs is required. Further erosion of training time should be considered with great caution. PMID:24662409

  11. Increased Academic Productivity of Orthopaedic Surgery Residents Following 2011 Duty Hour Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joey P; Savage, Kevin; Gil, Joseph A; Eberson, Craig P; Mulcahey, Mary K

    2017-12-19

    In 2003 and again in 2011, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) mandated increasingly stringent resident duty hour restrictions. With less time required at the hospital, residents theoretically have more time for other academic activities, such as research. Our study seeks to examine whether the number of research publications by orthopaedic residents increased following implementation of the 2011 ACGME duty hour restrictions. Pubmed was queried using publicly available alumni lists from programs across the United States. The years 2008 to 2011 were included to assess pre-2011 productivity. The years 2012 to 2015 were included in the post 2011 group. Paired t tests were used to assess differences between groups. Statistical significance was set to p care in any meaningful way. In our study, there was a statistically significant increase in publications after 2011; however, the number of publications between NIH funded and non-NIH funded programs did not differ. Our study is the first to demonstrate that with increasing duty hour restrictions, orthopaedic surgery residents may be using more of their free time to conduct research. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Resident duty hour modification affects perceptions in medical education, general wellness, and ability to provide patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Andrew; Webber, Jordan; Epstein, Ian

    2016-07-13

    Resident duty hours have recently been under criticism, with concerns for resident and patient well-being. Historically, call shifts have been long, and some residency training programs have now restricted shift lengths. Data and opinions about the effects of such restrictions are conflicting. The Internal Medicine Residency Program at Dalhousie University recently moved from a traditional call structure to a day float/night float system. This study evaluated how this change in duty hours affected resident perceptions in several key domains. Senior residents from an internal medicine training program in Canada responded to an anonymous online survey immediately before and 6 months after the implementation of duty hour reform. The survey contained questions relating to three major domains: resident wellness, ability to deliver quality health care, and medical education experience. Mean pre- and post-intervention scores were compared using the t-test for paired samples. Twenty-three of 27 (85 %) senior residents completed both pre- and post-reform surveys. Residents perceived significant changes in many domains with duty hour reform. These included improved general wellness, less exposure to personal harm, fewer feelings of isolation, less potential for error, improvement in clinical skills expertise, increased work efficiency, more successful teaching, increased proficiency in medical skills, more successful learning, and fewer rotation disruptions. Senior residents in a Canadian internal medicine training program perceived significant benefits in medical education experience, ability to deliver healthcare, and resident wellness after implementation of duty hour reform.

  13. The effect of duty hour regulation on resident surgical case volume in otolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Stuart H; Miller, Robert H; Weng, Cindy; Gurgel, Richard K

    2014-10-01

    Evaluate the effect of duty hour regulation on graduating otolaryngology resident surgical case volume and analyze trends in surgical case volume for Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) key indicator cases from 1996 to 2011. Time-trend analysis of surgical case volume. Nationwide sample of otolaryngology residency programs. Operative logs from the American Board of Otolaryngology and ACGME for otolaryngology residents graduating in the years 1996 to 2011. Key indicator volumes and grouped domain volumes before and after resident duty hour regulations (2003) were calculated and compared. Independent t test was performed to evaluate overall difference in operative volume. Wilcoxon rank sum test evaluated differences between procedures per time period. Linear regression evaluated trend. The average total number of key indicator cases per graduating resident was 440.8 in 1996-2003 compared to 500.4 cases in 2004-2011, and overall average per number of key indicators was 31.5 and 36.2, respectively (P = .067). Four key indicator cases showed statistically significant (P otolaryngology residents. The overall trend in operative volume is increasing for several specific key indicators. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  14. Pilot trial of IOM duty hour recommendations in neurology residency programs: unintended consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, L A; Khan, M A; Harle, H; Southerland, A M; Hicks, W J; Falchook, A; Schultz, L; Finney, G R

    2011-08-30

    To study the potential effect of the 2008 Institute of Medicine (IOM) work duty hour (WDH) recommendations on neurology residency programs. This study evaluated resident sleepiness, personal study hours, quality of life, and satisfaction and faculty satisfaction during a control month using the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education WDH requirements and during an intervention month using the IOM WDH recommendations. Resident participation in both schedules was mandatory, but both resident and faculty participation in the outcome measures was voluntary. Thirty-four residents (11 postgraduate year [PGY]-4, 9 PGY-3, and 14 PGY-2) participated. End-of-work shift sleepiness, mean weekly sleep hours, personal study hours, and hours spent in lectures did not differ between the control and intervention months. Resident quality of life measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory declined for 1 subscore in the intervention month (p = 0.03). Resident education satisfaction declined during the intervention month for issues related to continuity of care, patient hand-offs, and knowledge of their patients. Faculty satisfaction declined during the intervention month, without a decline in quality of life. The results from 3 residency programs suggest that the IOM WDH recommendations may negatively affect neurology resident education. This study was limited by the short duration of implementation, negative bias against the IOM recommendations, and inability to blind faculty. Additional study of the IOM WDH recommendations is warranted before widespread implementation.

  15. Impact of Working Hours on Work-Life Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Holly; Alwine Mohnen

    2012-01-01

    To examine the influence of working hours on employees' satisfaction, this article uses a large, representative set of panel data from German households (GSOEP). The results show that high working hours and overtime in general do not lead to decreased satisfaction. Rather, increasing working hours and overtime have positive effects on life and job satisfaction, whereas the desire to reduce working hours has a negative impact on satisfaction. In 2009, nearly 60% of employees wanted to reduce t...

  16. 48 CFR 552.236-74 - Working Hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Working Hours. 552.236-74... Hours. As prescribed in 536.570-5, insert the following clause: Working Hours (APR 1984) (a) It is contemplated that all work will be performed during the customary working hours of the trades involved unless...

  17. 5 CFR 551.421 - Regular working hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regular working hours. 551.421 Section... Activities § 551.421 Regular working hours. (a) Under the Act there is no requirement that a Federal employee... distinction based on whether the activity is performed by an employee during regular working hours or outside...

  18. 48 CFR 536.570-5 - Working hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Working hours. 536.570-5... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 536.570-5 Working hours. Insert 552.236-74, Working Hours, in solicitations and contracts if construction, dismantling...

  19. Associations of excessive sleepiness on duty with sleeping hours and number of days of overnight work among medical residents in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Koji; Sakata, Yumi; Theriault, Gilles; Narai, Rie; Yoshino, Yae; Tanaka, Katsutoshi; Aizawa, Yoshiharu

    2007-11-01

    Despite long-standing concerns regarding the effects of working hours on the performance and health of medical residents, and the patients' safety, prior studies have not shown an association of excessive sleepiness with the number of sleeping hours and days of overnight work among medical residents. In August 2005, a questionnaire was mailed to 227 eligible participants at 16 teaching hospitals. The total number of sleeping hours in the last 30 d was estimated from the average number of sleeping hours during regular days and during days with overnight work, and the number of days of overnight work. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for potentially associated variables. A total of 149 men and 47 women participated in this study. The participation rate was 86.3%. Among the participants, 55 (28.1%) suffered from excessive sleepiness. Excessive sleepiness was associated with sleeping for less than 150 h in the last 30 d (corrected odds ratio [cOR]=1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-2.16). The number of days of overnight work in the last 30 d showed no association with excessive sleepiness. Excessive sleepiness was also associated with smoking (cOR, 1.65; 95%CI, 1.01-2.32). Medical residents who slept for less than 150 h in the last 30 d and smoked had a significantly higher risk of excessive sleepiness on duty.

  20. Effect of 16-hour duty periods on patient care and resident education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Christopher P; Halvorsen, Andrew J; Loftus, Conor G; McDonald, Furman S; Oxentenko, Amy S

    2011-03-01

    To measure the effect of duty periods no longer than 16 hours on patient care and resident education. As part of our Educational Innovations Project, we piloted a novel resident schedule for an inpatient service that eliminated shifts longer than 16 hours without increased staffing or decreased patient admissions on 2 gastroenterology services from August 29 to November 27, 2009. Patient care variables were obtained through medical record review. Resident well-being and educational variables were collected by weekly surveys, end of rotation evaluations, and an electronic card-swipe system. Patient care metrics, including 30-day mortality, 30-day readmission rate, and length of stay, were unchanged for the 196 patient care episodes in the 5-week intervention month compared with the 274 episodes in the 8 weeks of control months. However, residents felt less prepared to manage cross-cover of patients (P = .006). There was a nonsignificant trend toward decreased perception of quality of education and balance of personal and professional life during the intervention month. Residents reported working fewer weekly hours overall during the intervention (64.3 vs 68.9 hours; P = .40), but they had significantly more episodes with fewer than 10 hours off between shifts (24 vs 2 episodes; P = .004). Inpatient hospital services can be staffed with residents working shifts less than 16 hours without additional residents. However, cross-cover of care, quality of education, and time off between shifts may be adversely affected.

  1. Assessing the Effects of the 2003 Resident Duty Hours Reform on Internal Medicine Board Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Patrick S.; Itani, Kamal M.F.; Rosen, Amy K.; Small, Dylan; Lipner, Rebecca S.; Bosk, Charles L.; Wang, Yanli; Halenar, Michael J.; Korovaichuk, Sophia; Even-Shoshan, Orit; Volpp, Kevin G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether the 2003 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) duty hours reform affected medical knowledge as reflected by written board scores for internal medicine (IM) residents. Method The authors conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of postgraduate year 1 (PGY-1) Internal Medicine residents who started training before and after the 2003 duty hour reform using a merged data set of American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Board examination and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NMBE) United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 2 Clinical Knowledge test scores. Specifically, using four regression models, the authors compared IM residents beginning PGY-1 training in 2000 and completing training unexposed to the 2003 duty hours reform (PGY-1 2000 cohort, n = 5,475) to PGY-1 cohorts starting in 2001 through 2005 (n = 28,008), all with some exposure to the reform. Results The mean ABIM board score for the unexposed PGY-1 2000 cohort (n = 5,475) was 491, SD = 85. Adjusting for demographics, program, and USMLE Step 2 exam score, the mean differences (95% CI) in ABIM board scores between the PGY-1 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004 and 2005 cohorts minus the PGY-1 2000 cohort were −5.43 (−7.63, −3.23), −3.44 (−5.65, −1.24), 2.58 (0.36, 4.79), 11.10 (8.88, 13.33) and 11.28 (8.98, 13.58) points respectively. None of these differences exceeded one-fifth of an SD in ABIM board scores. Conclusions The duty hours reforms of 2003 did not meaningfully affect medical knowledge as measured by scores on the ABIM board examinations. PMID:24556772

  2. Restricted duty hours for surgeons and impact on residents quality of life, education, and patient care: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfeifer Roman

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Work-hour limitations have been implemented by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME in July 2003 in order to minimize fatigue related medical adverse events. The effects of this regulation are still under intense debate. In this literature review, data of effects of limited work-hours on the quality of life, surgical education, and patient care was summarized, focusing on surgical subspecialities. Methods Studies that assessed the effects of the work-hour regulation published following the implementation of ACGME guidelines (2003 were searched using PubMed database. The following search modules were selected: work-hours, 80-hour work week, quality of life, work satisfaction, surgical education, residency training, patient care, continuity of care. Publications were included if they were completed in the United States and covered the subject of our review. Manuscrips were analysed to identify authors, year of publication, type of study, number of participants, and the main outcomes. Review Findings Twenty-one articles met the inclusion criteria. Studies demonstrate that the residents quality of life has improved. The effects on surgical education are still unclear due to inconsistency in studies. Furthermore, according to several objective studies there were no changes in mortality and morbidity following the implementation. Conclusion Further studies are necessary addressing the effects of surgical education and studying the objective methods to assess the technical skill and procedural competence of surgeons. In addition, patient surveys analysing their satisfaction and concerns can contribute to recent discussion, as well.

  3. “Friday off”: Reducing Working Hours in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Kallis, Giorgos; Kalush, Michael; O.'Flynn, Hugh; Rossiter, Jack; Ashford, Nicholas A.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the pros and cons for reducing working hours in Europe. To arrive to an informed judgment we review critically the theoretical and empirical literature, mostly from economics, concerning the relation between working hours on the one hand, and productivity, employment, quality of life, and the environment, on the other. We adopt a binary economics distinction between capital and labor productiveness, and are concerned with how working hours may be reduced without harming ...

  4. A 360 degrees evaluation of a night-float system for general surgery: a response to mandated work-hours reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Michael J; Kim, Eugene; Widmann, Warren D; Hardy, Mark A

    2004-01-01

    New York State Code 405 and societal/political pressure have led the RRC and ACGME to mandate strict limitations on resident work hours. In an attempt to meet these limitations, we have switched from the previous Q3 call schedule to a specialized night float (NF) system, the continuity-care system (CCS). The purpose of this CCS is to maximize resident duty time spent on direct patient care, operative experience, and outpatient clinics, while reducing duty hours spent on performing routine tasks and call coverage. The implementation of the CCS is the fundamental step in the restructuring of our residency program. In addition to a change in the call system, we added physician assistants to aid in performing some service tasks. We performed a 360 degrees evaluation of this work in progress. In May 2002, the standard Q3 call system was abolished on the general surgery services at the New York Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia campus. Two dedicated teams were created to provide day and night coverage, a day continuity-care team (DCT) and a night continuity-care team (NCT). The DCTs, consisting of PGY1-5 residents, provide daily in-house coverage from 6 AM to 5 PM with no regular weekday night-call responsibilities. The DCT residents provide Friday night, Saturday, and daytime Sunday call coverage 3 to 4 days per month. The NCT, consisting of 5 PGY1-5 residents, provides nightly continuous care, 5 PM to 6 AM, Sunday through Thursday, with no other weekend call responsibilities. This system creates a schedule with less than 80 duty hours per week, on average, with one 24-hour period off a week, one complete weekend off per month, and no more than 24 hours of consecutive duty time. After 1 year of use, the system was evaluated by a 360 degrees method in which residents, residents' spouses, nurses, and faculty were surveyed using a Likert-type scale. Statistical significance was calculated using the Student t-test. Patient satisfaction was measured both by internal review of

  5. Hospitalized Patients' Perceptions of Resident Fatigue, Duty Hours, and Continuity of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Brian C; Hyman, Charles H; Ghaderi, Kimeya F; Rodriguez-Srednicki, Joshua; Thompson, Jordan M; Fischer, Staci A

    2014-12-01

    Physicians' perceptions of duty hour regulations have been closely examined, yet patient opinions have been largely unstudied to date. We studied patient perceptions of residency duty hours, fatigue, and continuity of care following implementation of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education 2011 Common Program Requirements. A cross-sectional survey was administered between June and August 2013 to inpatients at a large academic medical center and an affiliated community hospital. Adult inpatients on teaching medical and surgical services were eligible for inclusion in the study. Survey response rate was 71.3% (513 of 720). Most respondents (57.1%, 293 of 513) believed residents should not be assigned to shifts longer than 12 hours, and nearly half (49.7%, 255 of 513) wanted to be notified if a resident caring for them had worked longer than 12 hours. Most patients (63.2%, 324 of 513) believed medical errors commonly occurred because of fatigue, and fewer (37.4%, 192 of 513; odds ratio, 0.56; P care. Given the choice between a familiar physician who "may be tired from a long shift" or a "fresh" physician who had received sign-out, more patients chose the fresh but unfamiliar physician (57.1% [293 of 513] versus 42.7% [219 of 513], P care.

  6. The effects of Smoke Free Work Hours in Danish municipalities

    OpenAIRE

    Tina Termansen; Simon Rask

    2017-01-01

    Since 2011, 15 Danish municipalities have implemented smoke free work hours, meaning that an employee working for the municipality may not smoke in his or her work time (about 7,5 hours a day). This is a much stricter prevention method, than former strategies preventing smoking mostly at locations and not during working hours. Research concerning the effects of smoke free work hours is non-existing. We therefore wish to look into the specific outcomes of smoke free work hours related to smoki...

  7. Do economic stresses influence child work hours on family farms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadomski, Anne; de Long, Rachel; Burdick, Patrick; Jenkins, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Economic stresses are a frequently cited reason for children doing farm work. To explore the relationship between economic indicators and child agricultural work hours between January 2001 and October 2003. This ecologic study design compares trends in aggregate child work hours with national and regional economic indicators. Child work hours were obtained from quarterly surveillance data from a randomized field trial of agricultural task guidelines for children. 2,360 children living or working on 845 farms in central New York participated in the original study. The relationship between child work hours and three economic indicators: national all farm index (AFI) ratio, national fuel index, and regional milk prices was analyzed using times series plots, correlation, and multiple linear regression. The AFI ratio was positively correlated with child work hours (r = 0.49, p = 0.008) but there was no significant correlation between child work hours and fuel or milk prices. Multiple linear regression demonstrated that the relationship between AFI and child work hours is independent of a seasonal effect. Increased child work hours may be associated with periods of higher farm sector productivity, rather than economic stress per se. Findings are limited by the ecologic study design, use of national economic indicators, and the limited number of cycles of child work hours available for time series analysis. Economic conditions may influence decisions about children's farm work.

  8. The effects of Smoke Free Work Hours in Danish municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Termansen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Since 2011, 15 Danish municipalities have implemented smoke free work hours, meaning that an employee working for the municipality may not smoke in his or her work time (about 7,5 hours a day. This is a much stricter prevention method, than former strategies preventing smoking mostly at locations and not during working hours. Research concerning the effects of smoke free work hours is non-existing. We therefore wish to look into the specific outcomes of smoke free work hours related to smoking prevalence, sickness leave and work place culture through a semi-experimental study. As the decision to implement smoke free work hours is administrative and/or political, we will not be able to randomize the intervention. Instead, we use one or more Danish municipality who are planning to implement smoke free work hours as an intervention-group and similar municipalities as control group. Data will be collected both through questionnaires about employees smoking prevalence, sickness leave and work place community, and through register data about the citizens employed in the municipalities in question. This will primarily be data on socio-economic status and health. In this way we can compare the municipalities implementing smoke free work hours with each other and find similar control municipalities. We hope, that this study can contribute to understanding the specific outcomes of implementing smoke free work hours, focusing both on health outcomes and work place culture.

  9. The Associations Between Long Working Hours, Physical Inactivity, and Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Nien-Chih; Chen, Jong-Dar; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

    2016-05-01

    To examine the correlations between long working hours, physical activity, and burnout. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 1560 full-time employees, who underwent periodic health examinations in the year 2013. The subjects were divided into upper, middle, and lower tertiles according to the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) score. The comparison of the high- and low-burnout groups revealed that long working hours were significantly correlated with burnout in a dose-dependent manner. Long working hours were more significantly associated with burnout among individuals younger than 50 years, females, and physically inactive employees. Long working hours are correlated with burnout when working over 40 hours per week and is even stronger when working over 60 hours per week. Limiting working hours to 40 weekly may be beneficial for the prevention of burnout. Physical activity helps reduce the risk of burnout.

  10. A Narrative Review of High-Quality Literature on the Effects of Resident Duty Hours Reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Henry; Lin, Emery; Auditore, Stephanie; Fanning, Jon

    2016-01-01

    To summarize current high-quality studies evaluating the effect and efficacy of resident duty hours reforms (DHRs) on patient safety and resident education and well-being. The authors searched PubMed and Medline in August 2012 and again in May 2013 for literature (1987-2013) about the effects of DHRs. They assessed the quality of articles using the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument (MERSQI) scoring system. They considered randomized controlled trials (RCTs), partial RCTs, and all studies with a MERSQI score ≥ 14 to be "high-quality" methodology studies. A total of 72 high-quality studies met inclusion criteria. Most studies showed no change or slight improvement in mortality and complication rates after DHRs. Resident well-being was generally improved, but there was a perceived negative impact on education (knowledge acquisition, skills, and cognitive performance) following DHRs. Eleven high-quality studies assessed the impact of DHR interventions; all reported a neutral to positive impact. Seven high-quality studies assessed costs associated with DHRs and demonstrated an increase in hospital costs. The results of most studies that allow enough time for DHR interventions to take effect suggest a benefit to patient safety and resident well-being, but the effect on the quality of training remains unknown. Additional methodologically sound studies on the impact of DHRs are necessary. Priorities for future research include approaches to optimizing education and clinical proficiency and studies on the effect of intervention strategies on both education and patient safety. Such studies will provide additional information to help improve duty hours policies.

  11. Association of Resident Duty Hour Restrictions, Level of Trainee, and Number of Available Residents with Mortality in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltempo, Marc; Clement, Karin; Lacroix, Guy; Bélanger, Sylvie; Julien, Anne-Sophie; Piedboeuf, Bruno

    2018-02-08

     This article assesses the effect of reducing consecutive hours worked by residents from 24 to 16 hours on yearly total hours worked per resident in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and evaluates the association of resident duty hour reform, level of trainee, and the number of residents present at admission with mortality in the NICU.  This is a 6-year retrospective cohort study including all pediatric residents working in a Level 3 NICU ( N  = 185) and infants admitted to the NICU ( N  = 8,159). Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were estimated for mortality with respect to Epoch (2008-2011 [24-hour shifts] versus 2011-2014 [16-hour shifts]), level of trainee, and the number of residents present at admission.  The reduction in maximum consecutive hours worked was associated with a significant reduction of the median yearly total hours worked per resident in the NICU (381 hour vs. 276 hour, p  duty hour reform and 0.8% (33/4,052) after the reform (aOR, 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.33-0.98). Neither level of trainee (aOR, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.71-2.10; junior vs. senior) nor the number of residents present at admission (aOR, 2.08; 95% CI, 0.43-10.02, 5-8 residents vs. 0-2 residents) were associated with early mortality. Resident duty hour reform was not associated with hospital mortality (aOR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.50-1.07; after vs. before resident duty hour reform).  Resident duty hour restrictions were associated with a reduction in the number of yearly hours worked by residents in the NICU as well as a significant decrease in adjusted odds of early mortality but not of hospital mortality in admitted neonates. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. The future of work hours--the European view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerstedt, Torbjörn; Kecklund, Göran

    2005-01-01

    In Europe the way work hours are handled varies between different countries. However, there are some issues that dominate the discussion in Europe and seem representative for what is happening. One such is the reduction of working hours--which was attempted in several countries but which now seems to be backfiring--probably related to the competition from countries outside Europe. Another area is compressed work hours--the drive towards maximizing the hours per work day in order to increase the number of days off. The health effects are debated--some find clear positive effects. A third area is company oriented flexible work hours, permitting the employer to make moderate changes in work hours when needed. The health impacts have not been evaluated but the loss of individual influence at work is obvious. In some parts of Europe self-determined work hours have been tried with very positive effects. The EU work hour directive is intended to provide uniformity but permits a counterproductive "opting out", creating problems of imbalance.

  13. A new approach for evaluating flexible working hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Ole; Janssen, Daniela; Schomann, Carsten; Nachreiner, Friedhelm

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies on flexible working hours show at least some of these working time arrangements seem to be associated with impairing effects of health and well-being. According to available evidence, variability of working hours seems to play an important role. The question, however, is how this variability can be assessed and used to explain or predict impairments. Based on earlier methods used to assess shift-work effects, a time series analysis approach was applied to the matter of flexible working hours. Data on the working hours of 4 week's length of 137 respondents derived from a survey on flexible work hours involving 15 companies of different production and service sectors in Germany were converted to time series and analyzed by spectral analysis. A cluster analysis of the resulting power spectra yielded 5 clusters of flexible work hours. Analyzing these clusters for differences in reported impairments showed that workers who showed suppression of circadian and weekly rhythms experienced severest impairments, especially in circadian controlled functions like sleep and digestion. The results thus indicate that analyzing the periodicity of flexible working hours seems to be a promising approach for predicting impairments which should be investigated further in the future.

  14. Perspectives on the working hours of Australian junior doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Nicholas J; Bonning, Michael; Mitchell, Rob

    2014-01-01

    The working hours of junior doctors have been a focus of discussion in Australia since the mid-1990s. Several national organizations, including the Australian Medical Association (AMA), have been prominent in advancing this agenda and have collected data (most of which is self-reported) on the working hours of junior doctors over the last 15 years. Overall, the available data indicate that working hours have fallen in a step-wise fashion, and AMA data suggest that the proportion of doctors at high risk of fatigue may be declining. It is likely that these changes reflect significant growth in the number of medical graduates, more detailed specifications regarding working hours in industrial agreements, and a greater focus on achieving a healthy work-life balance. It is notable that reductions in junior doctors' working hours have occurred despite the absence of a national regulatory framework for working hours. Informed by a growing international literature on working hours and their relation to patient and practitioner safety, accreditation bodies such as the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care (ACSQHC) and the Australian Medical Council (AMC) are adjusting their standards to encourage improved work and training practices.

  15. [A systematic review of working hours and mental health burden].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Yoshihisa; Horie, Seichi; Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Tsutsui, Takao; Tanaka, Yayoi

    2006-07-01

    There is growing concern over the possible increase in mental health problems among Japanese workers. This trend is generally regarded as a reflection of Japan's prolonged economic depression and changes in working environment. In fact, claims for compensation for industrial accidents related to mental health diseases have been rapidly increasing in recent years. Working hours, personal-relationships, support from supervisors/co-workers, job demand, job control, and payment are known to affect workers mental health. In 2004, the Government announced a guideline to combat overwork and mental health problems at work places. This guideline articulates that long overtime working is a major indicator, and workers who work over 100 h overtime in a month should be encouraged to see an occupational physician. This guideline takes into account the practicalities of occupational health at work places and the empiric knowledge that long working hours might associate with workers mental health status. It may be reasonable to assume that long working hours affect workers health status both psychologically and physiologically, interacting with a variety of occupational factors, particularly job stress. However, the association between working hours and workers mental health status has not been fully clarified. The present article aimed to provide a systematic review of the association between working hours and mental health problems. The authors conducted a systematic review of the published literature on the association between working hours and mental health problems using PubMed. Of 131 abstracts and citations reviewed, 17 studies met the predefined criteria. Ten of these are longitudinal studies, and the others are cross-sectional studies. Seven of the 17 studies report statistically significant associations between working hours and mental health problems, while the others report no association. In addition, comparison among these studies is difficult because a variety of

  16. Resident operative experience in general surgery, plastic surgery, and urology 5 years after implementation of the ACGME duty hour policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simien, Christopher; Holt, Kathleen D; Richter, Thomas H; Whalen, Thomas V; Coburn, Michael; Havlik, Robert J; Miller, Rebecca S

    2010-08-01

    Resident duty hour restrictions were implemented in 2002-2003. This study examines changes in resident surgical experience since these restrictions were put into place. Operative log data for 3 specialties were examined: general surgery, urology, and plastic surgery. The academic year immediately preceding the duty hour restrictions, 2002-2003, was used as a baseline for comparison to subsequent academic years. Operative log data for graduating residents through 2007-2008 were the primary focus of the analysis. Examination of associated variables that may moderate the relationship between fewer duty hours and surgical volume was also included. Plastic surgery showed no changes in operative volume following duty hour restrictions. Operative volume increased in urology programs. General surgery showed a decrease in volume in some operative categories but an increase in others. Specifically the procedures in vascular, plastic, and thoracic areas showed a consistent decrease. There was no increase in the percentage of programs' graduates falling below minimum requirements. Procedures in pancreas, endocrine, and laparoscopic areas demonstrated an increase in volume. Graduates in larger surgical programs performed fewer procedures than graduates in smaller programs; this was not the case for urology or plastic surgery programs. The reduction of duty hours has not resulted in an across the board decrease in operative volume. Factors other than duty hour reforms may be responsible for some of the observed findings.

  17. Work Hours, Social Value of Leisure and Globalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Montagna, Catia

    We examine how openness interacts with the coordination of consumption-leisure decisions in determining the equilibrium working hours and wage rate when there are leisure externalities (e.g., due to social interactions). The latter are modelled by allowing a worker's marginal utility of leisure...... to be increasing in the leisure time taken by other workers. Coordination takes the form of internalising the leisure externality and other relevant constraints (e.g., labour demand). The extent of openness is measured by the degree of capital mobility. We find that: coordination lowers equilibrium work hours...... and raises the wage rate; there is a U-shaped (inverse-U-shaped) relationship between work hours (wages) and the degree of coordination; coordination is welfare improving; and, the gap between the coordinated and uncoordinated work hours (and the corresponding wage rates) is affected by the extent and nature...

  18. Work Hours, Social Value of Leisure and Globalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Molana, Hassan; Montagna, Catia

    2010-01-01

    We examine how openness interacts with the coordination of consumption-leisure decisions in determining the equilibrium working hours and wage rate when there are leisure externalities (e.g., due to social interactions). The latter are modelled by allowing a worker's marginal utility of leisure...... to be increasing in the leisure time taken by other workers. Coordination takes the form of internalising the leisure externality and other relevant constraints (e.g., labour demand). The extent of openness is measured by the degree of capital mobility. We find that: coordination lowers equilibrium work hours...... and raises the wage rate; there is a U-shaped (inverse-U-shaped) relationship between work hours (wages) and the degree of coordination; coordination is welfare improving; and, the gap between the coordinated and uncoordinated work hours (and the corresponding wage rates) is affected by the extent and nature...

  19. Work hours, social value of leisure and globalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Molana, Hassan; Montagna, Catia

    2012-01-01

    We examine how openness interacts with the coordination of consumption-leisure decisions in determining the equilibrium working hours and wage rate when there are leisure externalities (e.g., due to social interactions). The latter are modelled by allowing a worker’s marginal utility of leisure...... to be increasing in the leisure time taken by other workers. Coordination takes the form of internalising the leisure externality and other relevant constraints (e.g., labour demand). The extent of openness is measured by the degree of capital mobility. We find that: coordination lowers equilibrium work hours...... and raises the wage rate; there is a U-shaped (inverse-U-shaped) relationship between work hours (wages) and the degree of coordination; coordination is welfare improving; and, the gap between the coordinated and uncoordinated work hours (and the corresponding wage rates) is affected by the extent and nature...

  20. Implementation and Evaluation of Flexible Work Hours; a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Mejia, Luis R.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The flexible work hours program described is favorably received by both management and nonmanagement employees and positively influences the employees' perceived quality of life without causing a productivity loss. (Author/IRT)

  1. Working hours and common mental disorders in English police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdmont, J; Randall, R

    2016-12-01

    There is a paucity of evidence on working hours and their psychological correlates in police officers of the federated ranks in England. An exploratory study to establish the extent to which a sample of English police officers worked long hours and the association between long working hours and common mental disorder (CMD). Officers of the federated ranks (constable, sergeant, inspector) from two English county forces completed a questionnaire to report their typical weekly working hours and symptoms of CMD. We also collected socio- and occupational-demographic data. We defined long working hours as ≥49 h in a typical week in accordance with 48-h weekly limit specified in the 1993 European Directive on the Organisation of Working Time. We established associations between long working hours and self-reported CMDs using binary logistic regression to generate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for potential confounding variables. Twenty-seven per cent (n = 327/1226) of respondents reported long working hours. The ORs for psychological distress (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.57-2.68), emotional exhaustion (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.52-2.59), and depersonalization (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.00-1.71) were significantly increased for long working hours after adjustment for socio- and occupational-demographic characteristics. More than one quarter of sampled police officers reported working long hours and were significantly more likely to report CMD. National and longitudinal research is required to confirm these findings, which suggest management of working hours may effectively promote psychological well-being. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Working hours and common mental disorders in English police officers

    OpenAIRE

    Houdmont, Jonathan; Randall, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of evidence on working hours and their psychological correlates in police officers of the federated ranks in England.\\ud Aims: An exploratory study to establish the extent to which a sample of English police officers worked long hours and the association between long working hours and common mental disorder (CMD).\\ud Methods: Officers of the federated ranks (constable, sergeant, inspector) from two English county forces completed a questionnaire to report their ...

  3. Working hours and Work-Life Balance Satisfaction in Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalie Georges; Dominique Méda; Danièle Trancart

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several years, many studies have highlighted the strategic nature of working hours, the way they are determined, their regularity and their predictability to judge the qualities of a job and how family life and work life are reconciled. Our results confirm those obtained by previous studies and clarify them, while also showing that both the working hours of the persons questioned and those of their spouse constitute a central variable. We will first review the results from the a...

  4. “Friday off”: Reducing Working Hours in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Rossiter

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the pros and cons for reducing working hours in Europe. To arrive to an informed judgment we review critically the theoretical and empirical literature, mostly from economics, concerning the relation between working hours on the one hand, and productivity, employment, quality of life, and the environment, on the other. We adopt a binary economics distinction between capital and labor productiveness, and are concerned with how working hours may be reduced without harming the earning capacity of workers. There are reasons to believe that reducing working hours may absorb some unemployment, especially in the short-run, even if less than what is advocated by proponents of the proposal. Further, there may well be strong benefits for the quality of peoples’ lives. Environmental benefits are likely but depend crucially on complementary policies or social conditions that will ensure that the time liberated will not be directed to resource-intensive or environmentally harmful consumption. It is questionable whether reduced working hours are sustainable in the long-term given resource limits and climate change. We conclude that while the results of reducing working hours are uncertain, this may be a risk worth taking, especially as an interim measure that may relieve unemployment while other necessary structural changes are instituted.

  5. Working hours and health behaviour among nurses at public hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana da Costa Fernandes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyse the differences between genders in the description in the professional, domestic and total work hours and assess its association with health-related behaviour among nurses. METHODS: this is a transversal study carried out in 18 different public hospitals in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. The data collection procedure was based on questionnaires. All nurses working with assistance were considered eligible (n=2,279. RESULTS: men and women showed significant differences in relation to working hours. The female group showed longer domestic and total work hours when compared to the group of men. In contrast, the number of hours spent on professional work was higher among men. For the women, both the professional hours and total work hours were often associated with excessive consumption of fried food and also coffee, lack of physical exercise and also the greater occurrence of overweight and obesity. CONCLUSION: both the professional hours and the domestic work hours need to be taken into account in studies about health, self-care and also the care provided within the context of nursing workers, particularly among women. The results add weight to the need for actions for health promotion in this occupational group and the importance of assessing the impact of long working hours on the health of workers.

  6. Working hours and health behaviour among nurses at public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Juliana da Costa; Portela, Luciana Fernandes; Rotenberg, Lúcia; Griep, Rosane Harter

    2013-01-01

    To analyse the differences between genders in the description in the professional, domestic and total work hours and assess its association with health-related behaviour among nurses. This is a transversal study carried out in 18 different public hospitals in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. The data collection procedure was based on questionnaires. All nurses working with assistance were considered eligible (n=2,279). Men and women showed significant differences in relation to working hours. The female group showed longer domestic and total work hours when compared to the group of men. In contrast, the number of hours spent on professional work was higher among men. For the women, both the professional hours and total work hours were often associated with excessive consumption of fried food and also coffee, lack of physical exercise and also the greater occurrence of overweight and obesity. Both the professional hours and the domestic work hours need to be taken into account in studies about health, self-care and also the care provided within the context of nursing workers, particularly among women. The results add weight to the need for actions for health promotion in this occupational group and the importance of assessing the impact of long working hours on the health of workers.

  7. Long work hours and obesity in Korean adult workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Tae-Won; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Lee, Hye-Eun; Myong, Jun-Pyo; Koo, Jung-Wan

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to identify the association between work hours and obesity in Korean adult manual and nonmanual workers, and to determine whether there is a gender difference in this association. The study was conducted using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data collected between 2007 and 2010. Individuals aged below 25 or over 64 years, pregnant women, part-time workers, soldiers, housewives and students were excluded. The total number of individuals included in the analysis was 8,889 (5,241 male and 3,648 female subjects). The outcome variable was obesity, defined as body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2). Variables considered in the model were age, education, income, marital status, alcohol drinking, smoking, daily energy intake, physical activity, sleep hours per day, the type of job, work hours, and work schedule. Work hours were categorized as 60 hours per week. In the multiple SURVEYLOGISTIC regression analyses, the adjusted odds ratio of obesity for long work hours (>60 hours per week) in male manual workers was 1.647 (95% confidence interval 1.262-2.151). Long work hours did not significantly increase the odds ratio for obesity in male nonmanual workers and female manual and nonmanual workers. More than 60 work hours per week increased the risk of obesity in Korean male manual workers. This result might be helpful in preventing obesity in Korean adult workers, especially male manual workers.

  8. Health and psychosocial effects of flexible working hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Daniela; Nachreiner, Friedhelm

    2004-12-01

    To examine whether any impairments in health and social lives can be found under different kinds of flexible working hours, and whether such effects are related to specific characteristics of these working hours. Two studies -- a company based survey (N=660) and an internet survey (N=528) -- have been conducted. The first one was a questionnaire study (paper and pencil) on employees working under some 'typical' kinds of different flexible working time arrangements in different companies and different occupational fields (health care, manufacturing, retail, administration, call centres). The second study was an internet-based survey, using an adaptation of the questionnaire from the first study. The results of both studies consistently show that high variability of working hours is associated with increased impairments in health and well-being and this is especially true if this variability is company controlled. These effects are less pronounced if variability is self-controlled; however, autonomy does not compensate the effects of variability. Recommendations for an appropriate design of flexible working hours should be developed in order to minimize any impairing effects on health and psychosocial well-being; these recommendations should include -- besides allowing for discretion in controlling one's (flexible) working hours -- that variability in flexible working hours should be kept low (or at least moderate), even if this variability is self-controlled.

  9. Flexible working hours and well-being in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandolin, I; Härmä, M; Toivanen, M

    2001-12-01

    Flexibility of working hours became more prevalent in the 1990s in Finland. According to a representative survey on Finnish wage and salary earners (n = 1790) at the beginning of 2000, a great majority of male (76%) and female (65%) employees regularly worked overtime and/or had irregular working hours every month. These employees were flexible in meeting the needs of their companies/employers. Individual flexibility of working hours was far less common, only one third of male and female employees were able to regulate their working hours. A better balance between company-controlled and individual flexibility would, however, improve the well-being of employees. Employees working overtime without being allowed to regulate their working hours felt more symptoms of distress and had more conflicts in combining workplace and family roles than those who could individually determine their working hours flexibly. An investment in individually determined flexibility, for example by means of participatory planning, would improve the well-being of employees, and thus also improve the productivity of the organization.

  10. Gender Differences and Predictors of Work Hours in a Sample of Ontario Dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Julia C; Ahmad, Atyub; Shaw, Jodi L; Rashid, Faahim; Clancy, Alicia; David, Courtney; Figueiredo, Rafael; Quiñonez, Carlos

    2016-11-01

    To determine the influence of gender on weekly work hours of Ontario dentists. In 2012, a 52-item survey was sent to a random sample of 3000 Ontario dentists (1500 men and 1500 women) to collect information on personal, professional and sociodemographic characteristics. The resulting data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and linear regression modeling. The 867 respondents included 463 men, 401 women and 3 people whose gender was unreported, yielding a response rate of 29%.Most dentists worked full-time, with men working, on average, 2 h/week longer than women. Younger dentists worked more than older dentists. Practice ownership increased weekly work hours, and men reported ownership more often than women. Canadian-trained women worked significantly fewer hours than those trained internationally. Women were more likely than men to work part time and take parental leave and more often reported being primary caregivers and solely responsible for household chores. Women with partner support for such tasks worked more hours than those who were solely responsible. Dentists with children ≤ 3 years of age worked fewer hours than those without children; however, after controlling for spousal responsibility for caregiver duties, this effect was eliminated. More women than men reported making concessions in their career to devote time to family. Gender, age, practice ownership, training location and degree of spousal support for household and caregiving responsibilities were predictors of weekly work hours. For women specifically, training location and household and caregiving responsibilities predicted weekly work hours.

  11. Nurses' extended work hours: Patient, nurse and organizational outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunaviktikul, W; Wichaikhum, O; Nantsupawat, A; Nantsupawat, R; Chontawan, R; Klunklin, A; Roongruangsri, S; Nantachaipan, P; Supamanee, T; Chitpakdee, B; Akkadechanunt, T; Sirakamon, S

    2015-09-01

    Nursing shortages have been associated with increased nurse workloads that may result in work errors, thus impacting patient, nurse and organizational outcomes. To examine for the first time in Thailand nurses' extended work hours (working more than 40 h per week) and its relationship to patient, nurse and organizational outcomes. Using multistage sampling, 1524 registered nurses working in 90 hospitals across Thailand completed demographic forms: the Nurses' Extended Work Hours Form; the Patient, Nurse, Organizational Outcomes Form; the Organizational Productivity Questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Spearman's rank correlation and logistic regression. The average extended work hour of respondents was 18.82 h per week. About 80% worked two consecutive shifts. The extended work hours had a positive correlation with patient outcomes, such as patient identification errors, pressure ulcers, communication errors and patient complaints and with nurse outcomes of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Furthermore, we found a negative correlation between extended work hours and job satisfaction as a whole, intent to stay and organizational productivity. Nurses who had extended work hours of >16 h per week were significantly more likely to perceive all four adverse patient outcomes than participants working an extended ≤8 h per week. Patient outcomes were measured by respondents' self-reports. This may not always reflect the real occurrence of adverse events. Associations between extended work hours and outcomes for patients, nurses and the organization were found. The findings demonstrate that working two shifts (16 h) more than the regular work hours lead to negative outcomes for patients, nurses and the organization. Our findings add to increasing international evidence that nurses' poor working conditions result in negative outcomes for professionals, patients and health systems

  12. Long working hours may increase risk of coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mo-Yeol; Cho, Soo-Hun; Yoo, Min-Sang; Kim, Taeshik; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the association between long working hours and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) estimated by Framingham risk score (FRS) in Korean adults. This study evaluated adult participants in Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (2007-2009). After inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, the final sample size for this study model was 8,350. Subjects were asked about working hours and health status. Participants also completed physical examinations and biochemical measurement necessary for estimation of FRS. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to investigate the association between working hours and 10-year risk for CHD estimated by FRS. Compared to those who work 31-40 hr, significantly higher 10-year risk was estimated among subjects working longer hours. As working hours increased, odds ratio (OR) for upper 10 percent of estimated 10-year risk for CHD was increased up to 1.94. Long working hours are significantly related to risk of coronary heart disease. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 4) - Special working hours

    CERN Document Server

    Department Head Office - HR Department

    2016-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 4) entitled "Special working hours", approved by the Director-General following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting on 22 March 2016, will be available on 1st September 2016 via the following link: https://cds.cern.ch/record/2208539.   This revised circular cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 3) also entitled "Special working hours" of January 2013. This document contains modifications to reflect the new career structure and ensuring the provision consistent with practice that compensation or remuneration of special working hours performed remotely is possible only in case of emergency.   This circular will enter into force on 1st September 2016.

  14. Shift work, long working hours, and later risk of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Ahmed, Kazi Ishtiak

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of shift work and long working hours in midlife on the risk of dementia in old age. Methods: The present study comprised 4766 participants from the Copenhagen Male Study. We used information on shift work (collected in 1970......–1971 and 1985–1986), long working hours defined as >45 hours per week (collected in 1970–1971), socioeconomic status, sleep, stress, and cardiovascular risk factors. Information about dementia diagnoses was obtained from registers. Participants were followed until 2014 (mean length of follow-up was 17.8 years......). We employed Poisson regression for the survival analyses and estimated incidence rate ratios (IRR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: We found no statistically significant association between shift work (IRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.70–1.05) or long working hours (IRR 0.97, 95% CI 0...

  15. Impact of working hours on sleep and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, P; Fonseca, M; Pires, J F

    2017-07-01

    The number of hours people are required to work has a pervasive influence on both physical and mental health. Excessive working hours can also negatively affect sleep quality. The impact at work of mental health problems can have serious consequences for individuals' as well as for organizations' productivity. To evaluate differences in sleep quality and anxiety and depression symptoms between longer working hours group (LWHG) and regular working hours group (RWHG). To examine factors influencing weekly working hours, sleep quality and anxiety and depressive symptoms. Participants were divided into two groups, RWHG and LWHG, based on working hours, with a cut-off of 48 h per week. We used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to assess anxiety and depression symptoms and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) to measure the quality and patterns of sleep. The response rate was 23%. Among the 429 study participants, those in the LWHG group (n = 256, 53%) had significantly more depressive and anxiety symptoms and worse sleep quality than those in RWHG (n = 223, 47%). Working time was significantly positively correlated with higher corporate position and HADS scores. Moreover, HADS scores were positively correlated with PSQI scores and negatively correlated with age. This study suggests that longer working hours are associated with poorer mental health status and increasing levels of anxiety and depression symptoms. There was a positive correlation between these symptoms and sleep disturbances. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. The existence and persistence of long work hours

    OpenAIRE

    Drago, Robert William; Black, David; Wooden, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Previous research hypothesizes that long working hours are related to consumerism, the ideal worker norm, high levels of human capital, and a high cost-of-job-loss. The authors test these hypotheses using panel data on working hours for an Australian sample of full-time employed workers. Analyses include a static cross-sectional model and a persistence model for long hours over time. The results suggest that long hours (50 or more hours in a usual week) are often persistent, and provide stron...

  17. Working hours in a period of low economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Walterskirchen, Ewald

    2016-01-01

    Collectively agreed reductions of working hours phased out in Europe in the 1990s. During the last two decades, working time became more flexible and heterogeneous. Working hours of full-time employees in the EU hardly changed. The strong increase in part-time work was the outstanding phenomenon. Today, one third of female employees and almost ten percent of male employees work part-time. In a period of slow growth, productivity gains will be squeezed by subdued investment and low capacity ut...

  18. Paediatric cardiology fellowship training: effect of work-hour regulations on scholarly activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronai, Christina; Lang, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In 2003, work-hour regulations were implemented by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Much has been published regarding resident rest and quality of life as well as patient safety. There has been no examination on the effect of work-hour restrictions on academic productivity of fellows in training. Paediatric subspecialty fellows have a scholarly requirement mandated by the American Board of Pediatrics. We have examined the impact of work-hour restrictions on the scholarly productivity of paediatric cardiology fellows during their fellowship. We conducted a literature search for all paediatric cardiology fellows between 1998 and 2007 at a single academic institution as first or senior authors on papers published during their 3-year fellowship and 3 years after completion of their categorical fellowship (n=63, 30 fellows before 2003 and 33 fellows after 2003). The numbers of first- or senior-author fellow publications before and after 2003 were compared. We also collected data on final paediatric cardiology subspecialty career choice. There was no difference in the number of fellow first-author publications before and after 2003. Before work-hour restrictions, the mean number of publications per fellow was 2.1 (±2.2), and after work-hour restrictions it was 2.0 (±1.8), (p=0.89). By subspecialty career choice, fellows who select electrophysiology, preventative cardiology, and heart failure always published within the 6-year time period. Since the implementation of work-hour regulations, total number of fellow first-authored publications has not changed. The role of subspecialty choice may play a role in academic productivity of fellows in training.

  19. Health problems due to long working hours in Japan: working hours, workers' compensation (Karoshi), and preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Kenji; Takahashi, Masaya; Nakata, Akinori

    2006-10-01

    Late in the 1970s, serious social concern over health problems due to long working hours has arisen in Japan. This report briefly summarizes the Japanese circumstances about long working hours and what the Government has achieved so far. The national statistics show that more than 6 million people worked for 60 h or more per week during years 2000 and 2004. Approximately three hundred cases of brain and heart diseases were recognized as labour accidents resulting from overwork (Karoshi) by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) between 2002 and 2005. Consequently, the MHLW has been working to establish a more appropriate compensation system for Karoshi, as well as preventive measures for overwork related health problems. In 2001, the MHLW set the standards for clearly recognizing Karoshi in association with the amount of overtime working hours. These standards were based on the results of a literature review and medical examinations indicating a relationship between overwork and brain and heart diseases. In 2002, the MHLW launched the program for the prevention of health impairment due to overwork, and in 2005 the health guidance through an interview by a doctor for overworked workers has been enacted as law. Long working hours are controversial issues because of conflicts between health, safety, work-life balance, and productivity. It is obvious that we need to continue research regarding the impact on worker health and the management of long working hours.

  20. Telework: Timesaving or Timeconsuming? An Investigation into Actual Working Hours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, P.; Wetzels, C.T.A.H.; Tijdens, K

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify the relationship between telework and the actual time employees put into their jobs. One of the reported threats to teleworkers' personal lives is that in order to finish their work, they not only use up saved commuting time, but also part of their non-working hours, even

  1. [Organization of socially acceptable working hours in nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büssing, A; Glaser, J

    1994-05-01

    Three dimensions in the structure of the working hour system of nurses, rendering them socially acceptable, are becoming important: duration of the working day, the time of day which is being worked and the distribution of working hours. The latter two are of particular importance because flexible shift is becoming the dominant pattern in nursing. Six indicators are discussed as criteria for social acceptability: security of employment which includes access to the labour-market, level of income, health, opportunity for social relationships, social participation, and autonomy. Responses of 297 nurses in one General Hospital taking part in a study, were analysed to examine empirically the concept of 'socially acceptable structure of the working hours'. Ideal and factual patterns are considered first. Secondly aspects of autonomy are considered and the way this depends on time, thirdly the criteria used to define 'social acceptability' are examined for validity. Results show firstly the cross contrast between the hospital's expectation and the nurses' wishes with regard to working hours. Furthermore, inspite of the demand for flexibility, staff have very little choice and there is little sign of joint decision making. Thirdly results show that health, interpersonal and social aspects are of special importance and that, correspondingly, in the view of nurses, financial and practical problems are of lesser importance in their every day life.

  2. How a Reduction of Standard Working Hours Affects Employment Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos Raposo, P.M.; van Ours, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    On December 1, 1996, a new law was implemented in Portugal to gradually reduce the stan- dard working week from 44 to 40 hours. We study how this mandatory reduction affected employment through job creation and job destruction. We find evidence that the working hours reduction had a positive effect

  3. Appropriate working hours for surgical training according to Australasian trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Gregory; Harper, Simon; Loveday, Benjamin; Adams, Brandon; Civil, Ian D; Peters, Matthew

    2012-04-01

    The demands of surgical training, learning and service delivery compete with the need to minimize fatigue and maintain an acceptable lifestyle. The optimal balance of working hours is uncertain. This study aimed to define the appropriate hours to meet these requirements according to trainees. All Australian and New Zealand surgical trainees were surveyed. Roster structures, weekly working hours and weekly 'sleep loss hours' (work practices were then correlated with sufficiency of training time, time for study, fatigue and its impacts, and work-life balance preferences. Multivariate and univariate analyses were performed. The response rate was 55.3% with responders representative of the total trainee body. Trainees who worked median 60 h/week (interquartile range: 55-65) considered their work hours to be appropriate for 'technical' and 'non-technical' training needs compared with 55 h/week (interquartile range: 50-60) regarded as appropriate for study/research needs. Working ≥65 h/week, or accruing ≥5.5 weekly 'sleep loss hours', was associated with increased fatigue, reduced ability to study, more frequent dozing while driving and impaired concentration at work. Trainees who considered they had an appropriate work-life balance worked median 55 h/week. Approximately, 60 h/week proved an appropriate balance of working hours for surgical training, although study and lifestyle demands are better met at around 55 h/week. Sleep loss is an important determinant of fatigue and its impacts, and work hours should not be considered in isolation. © 2012 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  4. Impact of the 2011 ACGME resident duty hour reform on hospital patient experience and processes-of-care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, Ravi; Saadat, Lily; Chung, Jeanette; Dahlke, Allison; Yang, Anthony D; Odell, David D; Bilimoria, Karl Y

    2016-12-01

    In 2011, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) expanded restrictions on resident duty hours. While studies have shown no association between these restrictions and improved outcomes, process-of-care and patient experience measures may be more sensitive to resident performance, and thus may be impacted by duty hour policies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between the 2011 resident duty hour reform and measures of processes-of-care and patient experience. Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey data and process-of-care scores were obtained from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Hospital Compare website for 1 year prior to (1 July 2010 to 30 June 2011) and 1 year after (1 July 2011 to 30 June 2012) duty hour reform implementation. Using a difference-in-differences model, non-teaching and teaching hospitals were compared before and after the 2011 reform to test the association of this policy with changes in process-of-care and patient experience measure scores. Duty hour reform was not associated with a change in the five patient experience measures evaluated, including patients rating a hospital 9 or 10 (coefficient -0.003, 95% CI -0.79 to 0.79) or stating they would 'definitely recommend' a hospital (coefficient -0.28, 95% CI -1.01 to 0.44). For all 10 process-of-care measures examined, such as antibiotic timing (coefficient -0.462, 95% CI -1.502 to 0.579) and discontinuation (0.188, 95% CI -0.529 to 0.904), duty hour reform was not associated with a change in scores. The 2011 ACGME duty hour reform was not associated with improvements in process-of-care and patient experience measures. These data should be considered when considering reform of resident duty hour policies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Development of Electronic Medical Record-Based "Rounds Report" Results in Improved Resident Efficiency, More Time for Direct Patient Care and Education, and Less Resident Duty Hour Violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Phillip B; Anderton, Toby; Gallaher, Ryan; Hyrman, Mike; Simmerman, Erika; Ramanathan, Annamalai; Fallaw, David; Holsten, Steven; Howell, Charles Gordon

    2016-09-01

    Surgeons frequently report frustration and loss of efficiency with electronic medical record (EMR) systems. Together, surgery residents and a programmer at Augusta University created a rounds report (RR) summarizing 24 hours of vitals, intake/output, labs, and other values for each inpatient that were previously transcribed by hand. The objective of this study was to evaluate the RR's effect on surgery residents. Surgery residents were queried to assess the RR's impact. Outcome measures were time spent preparing for rounds, direct patient care time, educational activity time, rates of incorrect/incomplete data on rounds, and rate of duty hour violations. Hospital wide, 17,200 RRs were generated in the 1-month study. Twenty-three surgery residents participated. Time spent preparing for rounds decreased per floor patient (15.6 ± 3.0 vs 6.0 ± 1.2, P care unit patient (19.9 ± 2.9 vs 7.5 ± 1.2 P care increased from 45.1 ± 5.6 to 54.0 ± 5.7 per cent (P = 0.0044). Educational activity time increased from 35.2 ± 5.4 to 54.7 ± 7.1 minutes per resident per day (P = 0.0004). Reported duty hour violations decreased 58 per cent (P care at academic medical centers.

  6. Working Hours, Promotion and the Gender Gap in the Workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kato, Takao; Owan, Hideo; Ogawa, Hiromasa

    thereof. The firm's decision to provide training also depends on its private information about the worker's OJT ability, which affects his/her future productivity if and when the worker gets promoted. Upon completion of training, the firm then promotes the worker. The model illuminates under what......This paper presents a novel model of promotion within the firm which sheds new light on the interplay between working hours and the odds of subsequent promotion. The model's key feature is the coexistence of two different sources of asymmetric information: (i) the worker's cost of long working....../her on the job. Long working hours signal the worker's commitment to the firm, which determines the surplus produced when the worker is promoted. Thus, the firm provides the worker with managerial training only after observing the employee's hours worked, a signal of his/her commitment to the firm or lack...

  7. Preferred vs Actual Working Hours in Couple Households

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Ping Tseng; Mark Wooden

    2005-01-01

    Working hours in Australia are quite widely distributed around the population mean. That is, there are relatively many people working both relatively short hours and relatively long hours each week. From a welfare perspective, however, it is not the actual number of hours worked that is of importance, but whether the hours being worked are consistent with individual preferences. In this paper the question of how closely hours preferences are being met is examined using data collected in the f...

  8. Work Hours, Social Value of Leisure and Globalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Molana, Hassan; Montagna, Catia; Ulff-Møller Nielsen, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    We examine how openness interacts with the coordination of consumption-leisure decisions in determining the equilibrium working hours and wage rate when there are leisure externalities (e.g., due to social interactions). The latter are modelled by allowing a worker's marginal utility of leisure to be increasing in the leisure time taken by other workers. Coordination takes the form of internalising the leisure externality and other relevant constraints (e.g., labour demand). The extent of ope...

  9. White-collar workers' hemodynamic responses during working hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinxin; Iwakiri, Kazuyuki; Sotoyama, Midori

    2017-08-08

    In the present study, two investigations were conducted at a communication center, to examine white-collar workers' hemodynamic responses during working hours. In investigation I, hemodynamic responses were measured on a working day; and in investigation II, cardiovascular responses were verified on both working and non-working days. In investigation I, blood pressure, cardiac output, heart rate, stroke volume, and total peripheral resistance were measured in 15 workers during working hours (from 9:00 am to 18:00 pm) on one working day. Another 40 workers from the same workplace participated in investigation II, in which blood pressure and heart rate were measured between the time workers arose in the morning until they went to bed on 5 working days and 2 non-working days. The results showed that blood pressure increased and remained at the same level during working hours. The underlying hemodynamics of maintaining blood pressure, however, changed between the morning and the afternoon on working days. Cardiac responses increased in the afternoon, suggesting that cardiac burdens increase in the afternoon on working days. The present study suggested that taking underlying hemodynamic response into consideration is important for managing the work-related cardiovascular burden of white-collar workers.

  10. Patient safety, resident well-being and continuity of care with different resident duty schedules in the intensive care unit: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshuram, Christopher S; Amaral, Andre C K B; Ferguson, Niall D; Baker, G Ross; Etchells, Edward E; Flintoft, Virginia; Granton, John; Lingard, Lorelei; Kirpalani, Haresh; Mehta, Sangeeta; Moldofsky, Harvey; Scales, Damon C; Stewart, Thomas E; Willan, Andrew R; Friedrich, Jan O

    2015-03-17

    Shorter resident duty periods are increasingly mandated to improve patient safety and physician well-being. However, increases in continuity-related errors may counteract the purported benefits of reducing fatigue. We evaluated the effects of 3 resident schedules in the intensive care unit (ICU) on patient safety, resident well-being and continuity of care. Residents in 2 university-affiliated ICUs were randomly assigned (in 2-month rotation-blocks from January to June 2009) to in-house overnight schedules of 24, 16 or 12 hours. The primary patient outcome was adverse events. The primary resident outcome was sleepiness, measured by the 7-point Stanford Sleepiness Scale. Secondary outcomes were patient deaths, preventable adverse events, and residents' physical symptoms and burnout. Continuity of care and perceptions of ICU staff were also assessed. We evaluated 47 (96%) of 49 residents, all 971 admissions, 5894 patient-days and 452 staff surveys. We found no effect of schedule (24-, 16- or 12-h shifts) on adverse events (81.3, 76.3 and 78.2 events per 1000 patient-days, respectively; p = 0.7) or on residents' sleepiness in the daytime (mean rating 2.33, 2.61 and 2.30, respectively; p = 0.3) or at night (mean rating 3.06, 2.73 and 2.42, respectively; p = 0.2). Seven of 8 preventable adverse events occurred with the 12-hour schedule (p = 0.1). Mortality rates were similar for the 3 schedules. Residents' somatic symptoms were more severe and more frequent with the 24-hour schedule (p = 0.04); however, burnout was similar across the groups. ICU staff rated residents' knowledge and decision-making worst with the 16-hour schedule. Our findings do not support the purported advantages of shorter duty schedules. They also highlight the trade-offs between residents' symptoms and multiple secondary measures of patient safety. Further delineation of this emerging signal is required before widespread system change. ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT00679809. © 2015 Canadian Medical

  11. Health and psychosocial effects of flexible working hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Janssen

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine whether any impairments in health and social lives can be found under different kinds of flexible working hours, and whether such effects are related to specific characteristics of these working hours. METHODS: Two studies - a company based survey (N=660 and an internet survey (N=528 - have been conducted. The first one was a questionnaire study (paper and pencil on employees working under some 'typical' kinds of different flexible working time arrangements in different companies and different occupational fields (health care, manufacturing, retail, administration, call centres. The second study was an internet-based survey, using an adaptation of the questionnaire from the first study. RESULTS: The results of both studies consistently show that high variability of working hours is associated with increased impairments in health and well-being and this is especially true if this variability is company controlled. These effects are less pronounced if variability is self-controlled; however, autonomy does not compensate the effects of variability. CONCLUSIONS: Recommendations for an appropriate design of flexible working hours should be developed in order to minimize any impairing effects on health and psychosocial well-being; these recommendations should include - besides allowing for discretion in controlling one's (flexible working hours - that variability in flexible working hours should be kept low (or at least moderate, even if this variability is self-controlled.OBJETIVO: Investigar se ocorre prejuízo à saúde e à vida social com diferentes tipos de horas de trabalho flexíveis e se há relação entre estes efeitos e características específicas das horas de trabalho. MÉTODOS: Foram realizados dois estudos, uma pesquisa em uma empresa (N=660 e outra pela Internet (N=528. O primeiro estudo consistiu de um questionário (papel e lápis aplicado a funcionários sujeitos a diferentes ajustes "típicos" de horas de

  12. Effects on employees of controlling working hours and working schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, T; Takahashi, M; Togo, F; Liu, X; Shimazu, A; Tanaka, K; Takaya, M

    2013-03-01

    High levels of control over working time and low variability in working hours have been associated with improved health-related outcomes. The potential mechanisms for this association remain unclear. To examine how work-time control and variability of working times are associated with fatigue recovery, sleep quality, work-life balance, and 'near misses' at work. Manufacturing sector employees completed a questionnaire that assessed work-time control, work-time variability, fatigue recovery, sleep quality, work-life balance and the frequency of near misses in the past 6 months. Mixed model analysis of covariance and multiple logistic regression analysis tested the main effects of work-time control and variability and their interaction, while adjusting for age, sex, work schedules, and overtime work in the past month. Subscales of work-time control were also investigated (control over daily working hours and over days off). One thousand three hundred and seventy-two completed questionnaires were returned, a response rate of 69%. A significantly higher quality of sleep and better work-life balance were found in the 'high control with low variability' reference group than in the other groups. Significantly better recovery of fatigue was also observed in the group having control over days off with low variability. While near misses were more frequent in the group with high control over daily working hours coupled with high variability compared with the reference group this was not significant. High work-time control and low variability were associated with favourable outcomes of health and work-life balance. This combined effect was not observed for the safety outcome addressed here.

  13. Impact of reduction in working hours for doctors in training on postgraduate medical education and patients' outcomes: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonesinghe, S R; Lowery, J; Shahi, N; Millen, A; Beard, J D

    2011-03-22

    To determine whether a reduction in working hours of doctors in postgraduate medical training has had an effect on objective measures of medical education and clinical outcome. Systematic review. Medline, Embase, ISI Web of Science, Google Scholar, ERIC, and SIGLE were searched without language restriction for articles published between 1990 and December 2010. Reference lists and citations of selected articles. Studies that assessed the impact of a change in duty hours using any objective measure of outcome related to postgraduate medical training, patient safety, or clinical outcome. Any study design was eligible for inclusion. 72 studies were eligible for inclusion: 38 reporting training outcomes, 31 reporting outcomes in patients, and three reporting both. A reduction in working hours from greater than 80 hours a week (in accordance with US recommendations) does not seem to have adversely affected patient safety and has had limited effect on postgraduate training. Reports on the impact of European legislation limiting working hours to less than 56 or 48 a week are of poor quality and have conflicting results, meaning that firm conclusions cannot be made. Reducing working hours to less than 80 a week has not adversely affected outcomes in patient or postgraduate training in the US. The impact of reducing hours to less than 56 or 48 a week in the UK has not yet been sufficiently evaluated in high quality studies. Further work is required, particularly in the European Union, using large multicentre evaluations of the impact of duty hours' legislation on objective educational and clinical outcomes.

  14. Implementation of self-rostering (the PRIO-project): effects on working hours, recovery, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Albertsen, Karen; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Carneiro, Isabella Gomes; Skotte, Jørgen; Hansen, Sofie Mandrup; Lund, Henrik; Hvid, Helge; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to (i) investigate the consequences of self-rostering for working hours, recovery, and health, and (ii) elucidate the mechanisms through which recovery and health are affected. Twenty eight workplaces were allocated to either an intervention or reference group. Intervention A encompassed the possibility to specify preferences for starting time and length of shift down to 15 minutes intervals. Interventions B and C included the opportunity to choose between a number of predefined duties. Questionnaires (N=840) on recovery and health and objective workplace reports of working hours (N=718) were obtained at baseline and 12 months later. The interaction term between intervention and time was tested in mixed models and multinomial logistic regression models. The odds ratio (OR) of having short [OR 4.8, 95 % confidence interval (95% CI) 1.9-12.3] and long (OR 4.8, 95% CI 2.9-8.0) shifts increased in intervention A. Somatic symptoms (β= -0.10, 95% CI -0.19- -0.02) and mental distress (β= -0.13, 95% CI -0.23- -0.03) decreased, and sleep (β= 1.7, 95% CI 0.04-0.30) improved in intervention B, and need for recovery was reduced in interventions A (β= -0.17, 95% CI -0.29- -0.04) and B (β= -0.17, 95% CI -0.27- -0.07). There were no effects on recovery and health in intervention C, and overall, there were no detrimental effects on recovery or health. The benefits of the intervention were not related to changes in working hours and did not differ by gender, age, family type, degree of employment, or working hour arrangements. After implementation of self-rostering, employees changed shift length and timing but did not compromise most recommendations for acceptable shift work schedules. Positive consequences of self-rostering for recovery and health were observed, particularly in intervention B where worktime control increased but less extensively than intervention A. The effect could not be statistically explained by changes in actual working hours.

  15. The impact of reduced working hours on surgical training in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Ian R

    2011-01-01

    There is a worldwide trend for reduced working hours for doctors, particularly in the developed western countries. This has been led by the introduction of the European Working Time Directive (EWTD) that has had a significant impact on work patterns and training. Australia currently has a more flexible working environment but this is changing. In New Zealand there is a contract for resident doctors defining a maximum 72 h of rostered work per week. Copyright © 2010 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Long working hours and cardiovascular diseases: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Horie, Seichi; Tsutsui, Takao; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Yayoi; Nagano, Chikage; Takahashi, Ken

    2005-12-01

    Three years have passed since the countermeasures against the adverse health effects of overwork started in Japan, and fruitful outcomes have been expected. In the current study, a systematic review of articles was performed regarding the association of long working hours (LWH) with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) to obtain recent evidence of their association. An electronic database search was conducted using PubMed among English-written original articles published until December, 2004. A total of twelve articles were found conforming to the study's inclusion criteria, but evidence supporting the association of LWH and CVD was not detected. However, some distinctive studies related to the prevention of CVD were found relating to the concept of sensitive psychosocial factors such as vital exhaustion, and to the statistical modeling of occupational factors and biological indicators with the interaction term of psychosocial factors. Further studies will be needed to clarify the association of LWH and CVD.

  17. Long working hours as a risk factor for atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivimäki, Mika; Nyberg, Solja T.; Batty, G. David

    2017-01-01

    long hours (≤55 per week) and those working standard 35-40 h/week. Methods and results In this prospective multi-cohort study from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-Analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) Consortium, the study population was 85 494 working men and women (mean age 43.4 years...... of atrial fibrillation (10-year cumulative incidence 12.4 per 1000). After adjustment for age, sex and socioeconomic status, individuals working long hours had a 1.4-fold increased risk of atrial fibrillation compared with those working standard hours (hazard ratio = 1.42, 95% CI= 1.13-1.80, P= 0......Aims Studies suggest that people who work long hours are at increased risk of stroke, but the association of long working hours with atrial fibrillation, the most common cardiac arrhythmia and a risk factor for stroke, is unknown. We examined the risk of atrial fibrillation in individuals working...

  18. Long working hours and overweight and obesity in working adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Mi; Lee, Bo-Eun; Park, Hye-Sook; Kim, Young-Ju; Suh, Young-Ju; Kim, Jeong-Youn; Shin, Ji-Young; Ha, Eun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have identified a link between gender and the various risk factors associated with obesity. We examined obesity risk factors in working adults to identify the effects of differences in body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (PBF) between women and men. A total of 1,120 adults agreed to participate in the study. Data from 711 participants, including 411 women and 300 men, were analyzed. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the effects of risk factors on obesity and being overweight. In addition, the least-squares (LS) means of both BMI and PBF were estimated by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) in a generalized linear model. Increases in BMI and PBF were significantly related to an age > 50 years and long working hours in women after compensating for confounding factors. Using the PBF criterion, the odds ratio (OR) of being overweight or obese in women > 50 years of age who worked for > 9 h a day was 3.9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-11.00). For BMI, women who were > 50 years of age and worked for > 9 h a day were 3.82 times (95% CI, 1.31-11.14) more likely to be overweight or obese than those who were worked for working adults was associated with > 50 years of age and long working hours in women. Further studies are needed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of this relationship and its potential implications for the prevention and management of excess weight and obesity.

  19. Understanding the Multidimensional Effects of Resident Duty Hours Restrictions: A Thematic Analysis of Published Viewpoints in Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, Katharine S; Kim, Michael J; Gotlib Conn, Lesley; Wright, Frances C; Moulton, Carol-Anne; Keshet, Itay; Ahmed, Najma

    2018-02-01

    Individuals representing various surgical disciplines have expressed concerns with the impact of resident duty hours (RDH) restrictions on resident education and patient outcomes. This thematic review of published viewpoints aimed to describe the effects of these restrictions in surgery. The authors conducted a qualitative systematic review of non-research-based literature published between 2003 and 2015. Articles were included if they focused on the RDH restrictions in surgery and resident wellness, health promotion, resident safety, resident education and/or training, patient safety, medical errors, and/or heterogeneity regarding training or disciplines. A thematic analysis approach guided data extraction. Contextual data were abstracted from the included articles to aid in framing the identified themes. Of 1,482 identified articles, 214 were included in the review. Most were from authors in the United States (144; 67%) and focused on the 80-hour workweek (164; 77%). The emerging themes were organized into three overarching categories: (1) impact of the RDH restrictions, (2) surgery has its own unique culture, and (3) strategies going forward. Published opinions suggested that RDH restrictions alone are insufficient to achieve the desired outcomes and that careful consideration of the surgical training model is needed to maintain the integrity of educational outcomes. Opinions from the surgical community highlight the complexity of issues surrounding the RDH restrictions and suggest that recent changes are not achieving all the desired outcomes and have resulted in unintended outcomes. From the perceptions of the various stakeholders in surgical education studied, areas for new policies were identified.

  20. Flexibility of working hours in the 24-hour society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, G

    2006-01-01

    The 24-hour Society undergoes an ineluctable process towards a social organisation where time constraints are no more restricting human life. The borders between working and social times are no more fixed and rigidly determined, and the value of working time changes according to the different economic and social effects you may consider. Shift and night work, irregular and flexible working hours, together with new technologies, are the milestone of this epochal passage. What are the advantages and disadvantages for the individual, the companies, and the society? What is the cost/benefit ratio in terms of health and social well-being? Coping properly with this process means avoiding a passive acceptance of it with consequent maladjustments at both individual and social level, but adopting effective preventive and compensative strategies aimed at building up a more sustainable society. Flexible working times now appear to be one of the best ways to cope with the demands of the modern life, but there are different points of view about labour and temporal 'flexibility" between employers and employees. For the former it means a prompt adaptation to market demands and technological innovations; for the latter it is a way to improve working and social life, by decreasing work constraints and increasing control and autonomy. Although it can be easily speculated that individual-based 'flexibility" should improve health and well-being, and especially satisfaction, whereas company-based flexibility" might interfere negatively, the effective consequences on health and well-being have still to be analysed properly.

  1. Irregular working hours and fatigue of cabin crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Marta; Carvalhais, José; Teles, Júlia

    2015-01-01

    Beyond workload and specific environmental factors, flight attendants can be exposed to irregular working hours, conflicting with their circadian rhythms and having a negative impact in sleep, fatigue, health, social and family life, and performance which is critical to both safety and security in flight operations. This study focuses on the irregular schedules of cabin crew as a trigger of fatigue symptoms in a wet lease Portuguese airline. The aim was to analyze: what are the requirements of the cabin crew work; whether the schedules being observed and effective resting timeouts are triggering factors of fatigue; and the existence of fatigue symptoms in the cabin crew. A questionnaire has been adapted and applied to a sample of 73 cabin crew-members (representing 61.9% of the population), 39 females and 34 males, with an average age of 27.68 ± 4.27 years. Our data indicate the presence of fatigue and corresponding health symptoms among the airline cabin crew, despite of the sample favorable characteristics. Senior workers and women are more affected. Countermeasures are required. Recommendations can be made regarding the fatigue risk management, including work organization, education and awareness training programmes and specific countermeasures.

  2. Nursing work hours: individual needs versus working conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Amanda Aparecida; Rotenberg, Lúcia; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2011-12-01

    To assess factors associated with professional and total hours of work (work + home) among nursing staff. Cross-sectional study conducted in a university hospital in the city of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, between 2004 and 2005. A total of 696 workers (nurses, nurse technicians and aids), mostly women (87.8%) working day and/or night shifts, participated in the study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collected information on demographic characteristics, and working and life conditions. Translated and adapted into Portuguese versions of the Job Stress Scale, Effort-reward imbalance, Short-Form-Health-related quality of life and the Work Ability Index were also administered. Logistic regression models were used for data analysis. Sole breadwinner, working night shifts and effort-reward imbalance were the variables associated with both professional (OR = 3.38, OR = 10.43, OR = 2.07, respectively) and total hours of work (OR = 1.57, OR = 3.37, OR = 2.75, respectively). There was no significant association between the variables related to hours of work and low Work Ability Index. Inadequate rest at home was statistically associated with professional (OR = 2.47) and total hours of work (OR = 1.48). Inadequate leisure time was significantly associated with professional hours of work (OR = 1.58) and barely associated with total hours of work (OR = 1.43). The sole breadwinner, working night shifts and effort-reward imbalance are variables that need to be further investigated in studies on work hours among nursing staff. These studies should explore workers' income and the relationship between effort and reward, taking into consideration gender issues.

  3. STRESSORS IN NURSING WITH DOUBLE OR MORE WORKING HOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlinir Bezerra de Lima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Objetivo: investigar os principais agentes estressores nos trabalhadores de enfermagem com dupla ou mais jornada de trabalho; verificar os principais sinais e sintomas indicadores de estresse. Métodos: estudo descritivo, com abordagem quantitativa. Desenvolvido em um hospital público da região metropolitana de Fortaleza-CE. A amostra constitui-se de 30 profissionais, sendo 46,7% auxiliares de enfermagem, 33,3% enfermeiros e 20% técnicos. A coleta ocorreu de novembro a dezembro de 2008, por meio de questionário semi-estruturado. Resultados: 93,3% dos profissionais são do sexo feminino na faixa etária de 31-40 anos. O estudo revelou vários fatores levando ao estresse, com destaque para insatisfação salarial (83%, falta de lazer (73% e sobrecarga de trabalho (60%, potencialmente prejudiciais à qualidade da assistência. Conclusão: percebeu-se a escassez de tempo que os trabalhadores de enfermagem dedicam ao descanso, ao lazer, ao convívio em família e à sua qualificação profissional. Descritores: Saúde mental, Estresse Ocupacional, Enfermagem, Ambiente de trabalho.   Abstract Objective: To investigate the main stressors in nursing workers double or more working hours, check the main signs and symptoms indicative of stress. Methods: A descriptive study with quantitative approach. It was developed in a public hospital in the metropolitan region of Fortaleza. The sample consisted of 30 professionals, and 46.7% nursing auxiliaries, 33.3% nurses and 20% technical. The data was collected during November-December 2008, through semi-structured questionnaire. Results: 93.3% of professionals are women aged 31-40 years. The study revealed several factors leading to stress, especially wage dissatisfaction (83%, lack of leisure (73% and workload (60%, potentially damaging the quality of care. Conclusion: it was perceived scarcity of time that the nursing staff dedicated to rest, leisure, living with the family and their professional

  4. Increasing Teachers' Workloads in the Form of Quantitative Expansion in Extracurricular Activities: Aggregated Data Analysis of Past Working Hours Using a General Linear Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanbayashi, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, teachers' increased workloads have become an issue for policy, and have been multiply pointed out, deriving as they do from peripheral duties such as paperwork, in academic research as well. However, these mentions have not been based on sufficiently solid proof. Here, this paper compares teacher working hours surveys extant from…

  5. Attending physician work hours: ethical considerations and the last doctor standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Mark R; Peterec, Steven M

    2009-08-01

    Based at least in part on concerns for patient safety and evidence that long shifts are associated with an increased risk of physician error, residents' and fellows' work hours have been strictly limited for the past several years. Little attention has been paid, however, to excessive attending physician shift duration, although there seems to be no reason to assume that this common practice poses any less risk to patients. Potential justifications for allowing attending physicians to work without hourly limits include physician autonomy, workforce shortages in certain communities or subspecialties, continuity of care, and financial considerations. None of these clearly justify the apparent increased risk to patients, with the exception in some settings of workforce shortage. In many hospital settings, the practice of allowing attending physicians to work with no limit on shift duration could pose an unnecessary risk to patients.

  6. Periodic self-rostering in shift work: correspondence between objective work hours, work hour preferences (personal fit), and work schedule satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingre, M.; Äkerstedt, T.; Ekstedt, M.; Kecklund, L.G.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The main objective of the present study was to investigate relative personal fit as the association between rated needs and preferences for work hours, on the one hand, and actual work hours, on the other hand, in three groups (hospital, call-center, and police) working with periodic

  7. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education resident duty hour new standards: history, changes, and impact on staffing of intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastores, Stephen M; O'Connor, Michael F; Kleinpell, Ruth M; Napolitano, Lena; Ward, Nicholas; Bailey, Heatherlee; Mollenkopf, Fred P; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2011-11-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education recently released new standards for supervision and duty hours for residency programs. These new standards, which will affect over 100,000 residents, take effect in July 2011. In response to these new guidelines, the Society of Critical Care Medicine convened a task force to develop a white paper on the impact of changes in resident duty hours on the critical care workforce and staffing of intensive care units. A multidisciplinary group of professionals with expertise in critical care education and clinical practice. Relevant medical literature was accessed through a systematic MEDLINE search and by requesting references from all task force members. Material published by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and other specialty organizations was also reviewed. Collaboratively and iteratively, the task force corresponded by electronic mail and held several conference calls to finalize this report. The new rules mandate that all first-year residents work no more than 16 hrs continuously, preserving the 80-hr limit on the resident workweek and 10-hr period between duty periods. More senior trainees may work a maximum of 24 hrs continuously, with an additional 4 hrs permitted for handoffs. Strategic napping is strongly suggested for trainees working longer shifts. Compliance with the new Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education duty-hour standards will compel workflow restructuring in intensive care units, which depend on residents to provide a substantial portion of care. Potential solutions include expanded utilization of nurse practitioners and physician assistants, telemedicine, offering critical care training positions to emergency medicine residents, and partnerships with hospitalists. Additional research will be necessary to evaluate the impact of the new standards on patient safety, continuity of care, resident learning, and staffing in the intensive care unit.

  8. Social Norms on Working Hours, Work-Life Balance, and Fertility Choice

    OpenAIRE

    大洞, 公平; 田畑, 顕

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the role played by the social norms of working hours in a household labor- leisure and fertility decision model. We suppose that social norms enforce workers not to deviate from the ideal level of working hours, which depends on past and current observations of working hours in workplaces. We show that the social norms lead to multiple equilibria: one with long working hours and a low fertility rate and another with short working hours and a high fertility rate. Our results...

  9. Gender-Based Differences in Surgical Residents' Perceptions of Patient Safety, Continuity of Care, and Well-Being: An Analysis from the Flexibility in Duty Hour Requirements for Surgical Trainees (FIRST) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Kristen A; Chung, Jeanette W; Matulewicz, Richard S; Kelz, Rachel R; Shea, Judy A; Dahlke, Allison R; Quinn, Christopher M; Yang, Anthony D; Bilimoria, Karl Y

    2017-02-01

    Little is known about gender differences in residency training experiences and whether duty hour policies affect these differences. Using data from the Flexibility in Duty Hour Requirements for Surgical Trainees (FIRST) trial, we examined gender differences in surgical resident perceptions of patient safety, education, health and well-being, and job satisfaction, and assessed whether duty hour policies affected gender differences. We compared proportions of male and female residents expressing dissatisfaction or perceiving a negative effect of duty hours on aspects of residency training (ie patient safety, resident education, well-being, job satisfaction) overall and by PGY. Logistic regression models with robust clustered SEs were used to test for significant gender differences and interaction effects of duty hour policies on gender differences. Female PGY2 to 3 residents were more likely than males to be dissatisfied with patient safety (odds ratio [OR] = 2.50; 95% CI, 1.29-4.84) and to perceive a negative effect of duty hours on most health and well-being outcomes (OR = 1.51-2.10; all p duty hours reduced gender differences in career dissatisfaction among interns (p = 0.028), but widened gender differences in negative perceptions of duty hours on patient safety (p duty hour policies. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Morbidity, mortality, and health care costs for patients undergoing spine surgery following the ACGME resident duty-hour reform: Clinical article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Ranjith; Thomas, Steven; Hazzard, Matthew A; Lokhnygina, Yuliya V; Friedman, Allan H; Gottfried, Oren N; Isaacs, Robert E; Boakye, Maxwell; Patil, Chirag G; Bagley, Carlos A; Haglund, Michael M; Lad, Shivanand P

    2014-10-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) implemented resident duty-hour restrictions on July 1, 2003, in concern for patient and resident safety. Whereas studies have shown that duty-hour restrictions have increased resident quality of life, there have been mixed results with respect to patient outcomes. In this study, the authors have evaluated the effect of duty-hour restrictions on morbidity, mortality, length of stay (LOS), and charges in patients who underwent spine surgery. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to evaluate the effect of duty-hour restrictions on complications, mortality, LOS, and charges by comparing the prereform (2000-2002) and postreform (2005-2008) periods. Outcomes were compared between nonteaching and teaching hospitals using a difference-in-differences (DID) method. Results A total of 693,058 patients were included in the study. The overall complication rate was 8.6%, with patients in the postreform era having a significantly higher rate than those in the pre-duty-hour restriction era (8.7% vs. 8.4%, p duty-hour reform era. The DID analysis to compare the magnitude in change between teaching and nonteaching institutions revealed that teaching institutions to had a significantly greater increase in complications during the postreform era (p = 0.0002). The overall mortality rate was 0.37%, with no significant difference between the pre- and post-duty-hour eras (0.39% vs. 0.36%, p = 0.12). However, the mortality rate significantly decreased in nonteaching hospitals in the postreform era (0.30% vs. 0.23%, p = 0.0008), while remaining the same in teaching institutions (0.46% vs. 0.46%, p = 0.75). The DID analysis to compare the changes in mortality between groups revealed that the difference between the effects approached significance (p = 0.069). The mean LOS for all patients was 4.2 days, with hospital stay decreasing in nonteaching hospitals (3.7 vs. 3.5 days, p duty-hour reform era, increasing from $40,000 in

  11. Working Hours and Satisfaction: A comparative analysis of Japan, the United Kingdom, and Germany (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    ASANO Hirokatsu; KENJOH Eiko

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between working hours and working-hour satisfaction and that between working hours and life satisfaction for white-collar permanent employees in Japan, the United Kingdom, and Germany. We use data obtained from the International Survey on Work-Life Balance , which was conducted by the Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI) and the Economic and Social Research Institute, Cabinet Office (ESRI) in Japan. The survey shows that Japan has the highe...

  12. Validity and reproducibility of self-reported working hours among Japanese male employees

    OpenAIRE

    Imai, Teppei; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Okazaki, Hiroko; Nishihara, Akiko; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Dohi, Seitaro

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Working long hours is a potential health hazard. Although self-reporting of working hours in various time frames has been used in epidemiologic studies, its validity is unclear. The objective of this study was to examine the validity and reproducibility of self-reported working hours among Japanese male employees. Methods: The participants were 164 male employees of four large-scale companies in Japan. For validity, the Spearman correlation between self-reported working hours in th...

  13. Relationship Between Long Working Hours and Metabolic Syndrome Among Korean Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Jungok Yu, RN, PhD

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated gender differences in the relationship between long working hours and metabolic syndrome. Methods: Data based on the Sixth National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2014) pertaining to a total of 1,145 paid workers were analyzed. Working hours were divided into three groups (40–51 hours/week, 52–59 hours/week, ≥ 60 hours/week). The relationship between working hours and metabolic syndrome was then analyzed after adjusting for general and occupationa...

  14. Extreme working hours in Western Europe and North America: A new aspect of polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Burger, Anna S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the trends and root causes of extreme working hours in sixteen Western European countries, Canada, and the United States between 1970 and 2010. Earlier literature has revealed increasing trends in extreme working hours in the United States and recognized the negative repercussions of this new aspect of labor market polarization. As European average working hours have declined over the past decades, scholars have turned little attention to the analysis of extreme working ho...

  15. Long Working Hours and Emotional Well-Being in Korean Manufacturing Industry Employees

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyoung-Hye; Kim, Jong-Eun; Kim, Young-Ki; Kang, Dong-Mug; Yun, Myeong-Ja; Park, Shin-Goo; Song, Jae-Seok; Lee, Sang-Gil

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Korea is well known for its long work hours amongst employees. Because workers of the manufacturing industry are constantly exposed to extended work hours, this study was based on how long work hours affect their emotional well-being. Methods The analysis was done using the secondary Korean Working Condition Survey (KWCS). Long work hours were defined to be more than 48 hours, and they were subcategorized into units of 52 hours and 60 hours. Based on the WHO (five) well-being index...

  16. Special Problems in Securing a Reduction in Working Hours: The Case of Security Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Lundall

    2002-01-01

    The paper considers the complex process of introducing a regime of shorter working hours in the private security sector in South Africa. While the process of reducing the working hours of security workers in 1999 was bold, there is potential for real gains and losses to be derived from the process and this depends on the system and levels of compensation that are negotiated for the period of transition to the new schedules in working hours. A reduction in normal working hours can affect the s...

  17. The Interventional Arm of the Flexibility In Duty-Hour Requirements for Surgical Trainees Trial: First-Year Data Show Superior Quality In-Training Initiative Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmehdi, Issa; O'Neal, Cindy-Marie; Moon, Davis; MacNew, Heather; Senkowski, Christopher

    With the implementation of strict 80-hour work week in general surgery training, serious questions have been raised concerning the quality of surgical education and the ability of newly trained general surgeons to independently operate. Programs that were randomized to the interventional arm of the Flexibility In duty-hour Requirements for Surgical Trainees (FIRST) Trial were able to decrease transitions and allow for better continuity by virtue of less constraints on duty-hour rules. Using National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Quality In-Training Initiative data along with duty-hour violations compared with old rules, it was hypothesized that quality of care would be improved and outcomes would be equivalent or better than the traditional duty-hour rules. It was also hypothesized that resident perception of compliance with duty hour would not change with implementation of new regulations based on FIRST trial. Flexible work hours were implemented on July 1, 2014. National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Quality In-Training Initiative information was reviewed from July 2014 to January 2015. Patient risk factors and outcomes were compared between institutional resident cases and the national cohort for comparison. Residents' duty-hour logs and violations during this period were compared to the 6-month period before the implementation of the FIRST trial. The annual Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education resident survey was used to assess the residents' perception of compliance with duty hours. With respect to the postoperative complications, the only statistically significant measures were higher prevalence of pneumonia (3.4% vs. 1.5%, p flexible duty hours. All other measures of postoperative surgical complications showed no difference. The total number of duty-hour violations decreased from 54 to 16. Had the institution not been part of the interventional arm of the FIRST trial, this number would have increased to 238. The residents

  18. Bullying Behavior, Parents' Work Hours and Early Adolescents' Perceptions of Time Spent with Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie-Mizell, C. Andre; Keil, Jacqueline M.; Laske, Mary Therese; Stewart, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the relationships among bullying behavior, mother's and father's work hours, and early adolescents' perceptions of whether they spend sufficient time with their parents. In cross-sectional models, we find maternal work hours are modestly associated with increases in bullying behavior. However, in more rigorous change…

  19. Flexible Work Hours and Other Job Factors in Parental Time with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Flexible working hours are typically seen to be advantageous to working parents, as the flexible hours more easily allow responsibilities of care and employment be balanced. But do flexible work hours actually mean that parents can spend more time with their children? This article explores this for parents of young children in Australia. The…

  20. Physiological and psychological impacts of extended work hours in logging operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana Mitchell; Tom Gallagher

    2007-01-01

    A study was initiated in 2006 to develop an understanding of the considerations of using extended work hours in the logging industry in the southeastern United States. Through semistructured interviews, it was obvious that loggers were individually creating ways of successfully implementing extended working hours without understanding the impacts that extended working...

  1. Impact of Long Farm Working Hours on Child Safety Practices in Agricultural Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlenga, Barbara; Pahwa, Punam; Hagel, Louise; Dosman, James; Pickett, William

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To characterize working hours of adult farm owner-operators and their spouses by season, and to examine associations between working hours and farm safety practices affecting children. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of cross-sectional survey data collected as part of an existing study of injury and its determinants.…

  2. Long working hours and cancer risk: a multi-cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heikkila, K.; Nyberg, S.T.; Madsen, I.E.; Vroome, E. de; Alfredsson, L.; Bjorner, J.B.; Borritz, M.; Burr, H.; Erbel, R.; Ferrie, J.E.; Fransson, E.; Geuskens, G.A.; Hooftman, W.E.; Houtman, I.L.; Jöckel, K.H.; Knutsson, A.; Koskenvuo, M.; Lunau, T.; Nielsen, M.L.; Nordin, M.; Oksanen, T.; Pejtersen, J.H.; Pentti, J.; Shipley, M.J.; Steptoe, A.; Suominen, S.B.; Theorell, T.; Vahtera, J.; Westerholm, P.J.M.; Westerlund, H.; Dragano, N.; Rugulies, R.; Kawachi, I.; Batty, G.D.; Singh-Manoux, A.; Virtanen, M.; Kivimäki, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Working longer than the maximum recommended hours is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the relationship of excess working hours with incident cancer is unclear. Methods: This multi-cohort study examined the association between working hours and cancer risk

  3. 45 CFR 2543.84 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act. 2543... OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Statutory Compliance § 2543.84 Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act. Where applicable, all contracts awarded by recipients in excess of $2000 for construction...

  4. The effect of long working hours on cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease; A case-crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyong-Sok; Chung, Yun Kyung; Kwon, Young-Jun; Son, Jun-Seok; Lee, Se-Hoon

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the relationship between weekly working hours and the occurrence of cerebro-cardiovascular diseases using a case-crossover study design. We investigated average working hours during the 7 days before the onset of illness (hazard period) and average weekly working hours between 8 days and 3 months before the onset of cerebro-cardiovascular diseases (control period) for 1,042 cases from the workers' compensation database for 2009. Among all subjects, the odds ratio by conditional logistic regression for the risk of cerebro-cardiovascular diseases with a 10 hr increase in average weekly working hours was 1.45 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-1.72), a significant association. An increase in average weekly working hours may trigger the onset of cerebro-cardiovascular disease. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:753-761, 2017. © 2017. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Validity and reproducibility of self-reported working hours among Japanese male employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Teppei; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Okazaki, Hiroko; Nishihara, Akiko; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Dohi, Seitaro

    2016-07-22

    Working long hours is a potential health hazard. Although self-reporting of working hours in various time frames has been used in epidemiologic studies, its validity is unclear. The objective of this study was to examine the validity and reproducibility of self-reported working hours among Japanese male employees. The participants were 164 male employees of four large-scale companies in Japan. For validity, the Spearman correlation between self-reported working hours in the second survey and the working hours recorded by the company was calculated for the following four time frames: daily working hours, monthly overtime working hours in the last month, average overtime working hours in the last 3 months, and the frequency of long working months (≥45 h/month) within the last 12 months. For reproducibility, the intraclass correlation between the first (September 2013) and second surveys (December 2013) was calculated for each of the four time frames. The Spearman correlations between self-reported working hours and those based on company records were 0.74, 0.81, 0.85, and 0.89 for daily, monthly, 3-monthly, and yearly time periods, respectively. The intraclass correlations for self-reported working hours between the two questionnaire surveys were 0.63, 0.66, 0.73, and 0.87 for the respective time frames. The results of the present study among Japanese male employees suggest that the validity of self-reported working hours is high for all four time frames, whereas the reproducibility is moderate to high.

  6. The association between long work hours and leisure-time physical activity and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Miranda A; Gazmararian, Julie

    2018-06-01

    Obesity affects approximately one-third of all U.S. adults, presenting a large economic and public health burden. Long work hours may be contributing to the rising obesity problem by reducing time for physical activity, particularly for individuals working in sedentary occupations. This study sought to investigate the association between long work hours, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), and obesity across levels of occupational activity in order to identify potentially vulnerable groups. Cross sectional analysis was performed in 2017 using data from the 2015 Georgia Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and prevalence ratios were estimated across work hour and occupational activity groups. Ability to meet guidelines for LTPA did not differ significantly across work hour categories overall. Those working in low activity occupations were more likely to meet aerobic guidelines for LTPA compared to those in intermediate and high activity occupations (χ 2 : 19.3; P -value: work hours on obesity risk and meeting aerobic guidelines are significantly different across OA categories, indicating OA to be an effect modifier of the relationship between long work hours and obesity (χ 2 : 13.33; P -value: working long hours were found to be at the greatest risk for obesity. Further research is required to better understand the mechanisms impacting the relationship between long work hours, domains of physical activity, and obesity risk as well as to identify effective intervention and prevention programs for employees in intermediate activity occupations.

  7. Long working hours and stroke among employees in the general workforce of Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannerz, Harald; Albertsen, Karen; Burr, Hermann; Nielsen, Martin Lindhardt; Garde, Anne Helene; Larsen, Ann Dyreborg; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld

    2018-05-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis have found that long working hours were prospectively associated with an increased risk of overall stroke. The primary aim of the present study was to test if this finding could be reproduced in a sample that has been randomly selected from the general workforce of Denmark. A secondary aim was to estimate the association for haemorrhagic and ischaemic stroke separately. Individual participant data on 20- to 64-year-old employees were drawn from the Danish Labour Force Survey, 1999-2013, and linked to data on socio-economic status (SES), migrations, hospitalisations and deaths from national registers. The participants were followed from the time of the interview until the end of 2014. Poisson regression was used to estimate age-, sex- and SES-adjusted rate ratios for stroke as a function of weekly working hours. With 35-40 working hours per week as reference, the estimated rate ratios for overall stroke were 0.97 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83-1.13) for 41-48 working hours, 1.10 (95% CI 0.86-1.39) for 49-54 working hours and 0.89 (95% CI 0.69-1.16) for ≥55 working hours. The estimated rate ratios per one category increase in working hours were 0.99 (95% CI 0.93-1.06) for overall stroke, 0.96 (95% CI 0.88-1.05) for ischaemic stroke and 1.15 (95% CI 1.02-1.31) for haemorrhagic stroke. Our analysis does not support the hypothesis that long working hours are associated with increased rates of overall stroke. It suggests, however, that long working hours might be associated with increased rates of haemorrhagic stroke.

  8. Long working hours and emotional well-being in korean manufacturing industry employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung-Hye; Kim, Jong-Eun; Kim, Young-Ki; Kang, Dong-Mug; Yun, Myeong-Ja; Park, Shin-Goo; Song, Jae-Seok; Lee, Sang-Gil

    2013-12-05

    Korea is well known for its long work hours amongst employees. Because workers of the manufacturing industry are constantly exposed to extended work hours, this study was based on how long work hours affect their emotional well-being. The analysis was done using the secondary Korean Working Condition Survey (KWCS). Long work hours were defined to be more than 48 hours, and they were subcategorized into units of 52 hours and 60 hours. Based on the WHO (five) well-being index, emotional state was subdivided into three groups - reference group, low-mood group, and possible depression group- where 28 points and 50 points were division points, and two groups were compared at a time. Association between long work hours and emotional state was analyzed using binary and multinomial logistic regression analysis. Working for extended working hours in the manufacturing industry showed a statistically significant increase (t test p work-related characteristics were fixed as controlled variables, as work hours increased the odds ratio of the possible depression group increased compared to the reference group, and especially the odds ratio was 2.73 times increased for work hours between 48-52 and 4.09 times increased for 60 hours or more and both were statistically significant. In comparing the low-mood group and possible depression group, as work hours increased the odds ratio increased to 1.73, 2.39, and 4.16 times, and all work hours from working 48-52 hours, 53-60 hours, and 60 hours or more were statistically significant. Multinomial logistic regression analysis also showed that among the reference group and possible group, the possible depression group was statistically significant as odds ratio increased to 2.94 times in working 53-60 hours, and 4.35 times in 60 hours or more. Long work hours have an adverse effect on emotional well-being. A more diversified research towards variables that affect long work hours and emotional well-being and how they interact with each

  9. Poor safety climate, long work hours, and musculoskeletal discomfort among Latino horse farm workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanberg, Jennifer; Clouser, Jessica Miller; Gan, Wenqi; Flunker, John C; Westneat, Susan; Browning, Steven R

    2017-09-03

    This study investigated the prevalence of self-reported musculoskeletal discomfort (MSD) and work-related factors associated with elevated MSD among Latino thoroughbred farm workers. Participants (N = 225) were recruited using a community-based purposive sampling approach to participate in in-person interviews. Of these workers, 85% experienced MSD. MSD was divided into tertiles; the upper tertile was defined as elevated. Multivariable Poisson regression revealed associations between any elevated MSD and longer tenure on horse farms, longer work hours, and poor safety climate. Elevated neck/back MSD was associated with longer tenure, longer work hours, and poor safety climate. Elevated upper extremity MSD was associated with age and poor safety climate. Elevated lower extremity MSD was associated with longer tenure, longer work hours, and being female. Musculoskeletal discomfort is common among these workers. Improving safety climate and minimizing long work hours is recommended.

  10. Nurse practitioners' work hours and overtime: How much, and under what working conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sung-Heui; Champion, Jane Dimmitt

    2016-03-01

    To explore the nature and prevalence of nurse practitioner (NP) overtime, work hours, and their relationship to practice within NP work conditions. A secondary analysis of data extracted from the 2012 National Sample Survey of Nurse Practitioners. The focus in this study was on data from NPs in active practice in clinical settings. The final analytic sample consisted of 9010 NPs. NPs working in hospitals and long-term care settings tended to work more than 40 h/week (p work more hours per week than those who did not. Regarding the type of relationships with physicians, NPs who worked more than 40 h/week either had hierarchical relationships with them (p work hours/overtime and work conditions related to longer work hours. Further study is indicated to assess the potential impact of work hours/overtime on NP roles and patient outcomes. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  11. Long work hours and adiposity among police officers in a US northeast city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ja K; Charles, Luenda E; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Fekedulegn, Desta; Sarkisian, Khachatur; Andrew, Michael E; Ma, Claudia; Violanti, John M

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the associations between long work hours and adiposity measures in police officers. Participants included 408 officers from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress study who were examined between 2004 and 2009. Total work hours were abstracted from payroll records and questionnaires. Analysis of variance and covariance models were used. Among male officers who worked the midnight shift, mean values of waist circumference and body mass index increased with longer work hours after adjustment for age, physical activity, energy intake, sleep duration, smoking status, police rank, activities after work (eg, child/family care, sports), and household income. Adiposity measures were not associated with work hours among women on any shift. Working longer hours was significantly associated with larger waist circumferences and higher body mass index among male police officers working the midnight shift.

  12. The Risk of Developing Diabetes in Association With Long Working Hours Differs by Shift Work Schedules

    OpenAIRE

    Bannai, Akira; Yoshioka, Eiji; Saijo, Yasuaki; Sasaki, Sachiko; Kishi, Reiko; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    Background: The impact of long working hours on diabetes is controversial; however, shift work is known to increase the risk of diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the association between long working hours and diabetes among civil servants in Japan separately by shift work schedules. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted from April 2003 to March 2009. A total of 3195 men aged >= 35 years who underwent an annual health checkup at baseline were analyzed by shift work schedule...

  13. Work Life Balance in the Netherlands: Flexible working hours and a flexible working place (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    KENJOH Eiko

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the nature of Dutch approach to achieving Work Life Balance (WLB) and to draw policy implications for Japan. It is argued that flexibility of working hours and flexibility offered at one's working place are essential elements of WLB. In this respect, the Netherlands has attained relatively advanced policies and practices. For instance, workers in the Netherlands enjoy a strong degree of flexibility in terms of working hours, a system that strives to...

  14. Fertility Intentions, Career Considerations and Subsequent Births: The Moderating Effects of Women’s Work Hours

    OpenAIRE

    Shreffler, Karina M.; Johnson, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Prior research indicates a negative relationship between women’s labor force participation and fertility at the individual level in the United States, but little is known about the reasons for this relationship beyond work hours. We employed discrete event history models using panel data from the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 2,411) and found that the importance of career considerations mediates the work hours/fertility relationship. Further, fertility intentions and the imp...

  15. Long work hours and the wellbeing of fathers and their families

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Weston; Matthew Gray; Lixia Qu; David Stanton

    2004-01-01

    The average hours worked by full-time employees in Australia have increased since the late 1970s. This, combined with increases in female labour force participation, has led to concerns about the impact of long work hours on family life. This paper explores the relationship between fathers' work hours, their own wellbeing and that of their families using data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey. The analysis is restricted to full-time employed fathers with a par...

  16. Longer Working Hours? More Flexible Work Schedules? Do Austrian Economic Policymakers Need to Act?

    OpenAIRE

    Alfred Stiglbauer

    2004-01-01

    On September 23, 2004, the Oesterreichische Nationalbank (OeNB) hosted a workshop to discuss extending working hours and increasing working time flexibility. After Peter Mooslechner (OeNB) outlined the development of the present discussion in the media and presented some facts, the participants delivered their statements. Erhard Fu‹rst (Federation of Austrian Industry and Austria perspektiv) called for more flexibility rather than for an extension of working hours. He supported this view by p...

  17. Long working hours and sickness absence-a fixed effects design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstrøm, Vilde Hoff

    2018-05-02

    While long working hours seem to lead to impaired health, several studies have also shown that long working hours are related to lower levels of sickness absence. Previous studies on the relationship between long working hours and sickness absence have compared those who work long hours to those who do not, looking only at between-individual correlations. Those results might therefore reflect relatively stable differences between employees who typically work long hours and employees who typically do not. The aim of the present study is to examine within-individual correlations between long working hours and sickness absence. Records from the Human Resources department in a large Norwegian hospital from 2012 to 2015 provided objective data on both working hours and sickness absence. Two analyses were performed: a prospective cohort analysis to replicate the results from previous between-individual analyses and a second analysis of within-individual correlations using a fixed effect design. In line with existing research, both between-individual and within-individual analyses showed a negative relationship between long working hours (> 48 h/week) and short-term sickness absence (1-8 days) and no significant difference in incidence of long-term sickness absence (> 8 days). The results indicate that the negative relationship between long working hours and sickness absence is not due only to relatively stable individual differences between those who typically work long hours and those who do not. The results from both analyses therefore still contrast with previous research showing a negative relationship between long working hours and other health indicators.

  18. The Gender-Specific Effect of Working Hours on Family Happiness in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Rudolf; Seo-Young Cho

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses detailed longitudinal data from the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study (KLIPS) stretching from 1998 to 2008 to analyze the relationship between working hours and family happiness in Korea. The Korean labor market is characterized by high levels of gender inequality which is partly due to long working hours, a significant gender gap in earnings, yet also to traditional gender roles maintained until today. Therefore, post-marriage labor force participation rates for men are sti...

  19. Long Working Hours in Korea: Based on the 2014 Korean Working Conditions Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jungsun; Kim, Yangho; Han, Boyoung

    2017-01-01

    Background: Long working hours adversely affect worker safety and health. In 2004, Korea passed legislation that limited the work week to 40 hours, in an effort to improve quality-of-life and increase business competitiveness. This regulation was implemented in stages, first for large businesses and then for small businesses, from 2004 to 2011. We previously reported that average weekly working hours decreased from 2006 to 2010, based on the Korean Working Conditions Survey. Methods: In the p...

  20. The association between long work hours and leisure-time physical activity and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda A. Cook

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity affects approximately one-third of all U.S. adults, presenting a large economic and public health burden. Long work hours may be contributing to the rising obesity problem by reducing time for physical activity, particularly for individuals working in sedentary occupations. This study sought to investigate the association between long work hours, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA, and obesity across levels of occupational activity in order to identify potentially vulnerable groups. Cross sectional analysis was performed in 2017 using data from the 2015 Georgia Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and prevalence ratios were estimated across work hour and occupational activity groups. Ability to meet guidelines for LTPA did not differ significantly across work hour categories overall. Those working in low activity occupations were more likely to meet aerobic guidelines for LTPA compared to those in intermediate and high activity occupations (χ2: 19.3; P-value: <0.01. Results of interaction assessment demonstrate that the effects of work hours on obesity risk and meeting aerobic guidelines are significantly different across OA categories, indicating OA to be an effect modifier of the relationship between long work hours and obesity (χ2: 13.33; P-value: <0.001; χ2: 4.42; P-value: <0.05. Employees in intermediate activity occupations working long hours were found to be at the greatest risk for obesity. Further research is required to better understand the mechanisms impacting the relationship between long work hours, domains of physical activity, and obesity risk as well as to identify effective intervention and prevention programs for employees in intermediate activity occupations. Keywords: Physical activity, Obesity, Occupation, Long work hours

  1. Precarious employment, working hours, work-life conflict and health in hotel work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Maria; Bohle, Philip; Quinlan, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Precarious or temporary work is associated with adverse outcomes including low control over working hours, work-life conflict and stress. The rise in precarious employment is most marked in the service sector but little research has been done on its health effects in this sector. This study compares permanent and temporary workers in the hotel industry, where working hours are highly variable. Survey data from 150 workers from eight 3-Star hotels in urban and regional areas around Sydney were analyzed. Forty-five per cent were male and 52 per cent were female. Fifty four per cent were permanent full-time and 46 per cent were temporary workers. The effects of employment status on perceived job security, control over working hours, and work-life conflict are investigated using PLS-Graph 3.0. The effects of control over working hours, on work-life conflict and subsequent health outcomes are also explored. Temporary workers perceived themselves as less in control of their working hours, than permanent workers (β = .27). However, they also reported lower levels of work intensity (β = .25) and working hours (β = .38). The effects of low hours control (β = .20), work intensity (β = .29), and excessive hours (β = .39) on work-life conflict (r² = .50), and subsequent health effects (r² = .30), are illustrated in the final structural equation model. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Long Working Hours and Work-related Cerebro-cardiovascular Disease in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHUNG, Yun Kyung; KWON, Young-jun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine a good discriminatory cutoff for long working hours as a surrogate of chronic overload at work, which is associated with the approval of workers’ compensation claims for work-related cerebro-cardiovascular disease (WR-CVD) in Korea. We evaluated weekly working hours for four weeks prior to the onset of disease for all manufacturing industry claimants (N=319) of WR-CVD in 2010. The discrimination of long working hours in predicting approval of worker’s compensation pertaining to WR-CVD was compared across cases. The cutoff was calculated with sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the curve with 95% CI using the receiver operating curve (ROC) method. The cutoff point was thus calculated to be 60.75 h (AUC=0.89, 95% CI [0.84–0.93]), showing a sensitivity value of 65% and specificity of 94%. This is the first study to report that long working hours could be a predictor with good discrimination and high specificity of approval of WR-CVD cases. In Korea, long working hours and widespread chronic overload at work are recognized as a social problem. Our study results suggest an appropriate cutoff for working hours as an indicator of chronic overload for the purpose of approving claims of WR-CVD. Furthermore, these results could contribute to improving the consistency of evaluation. PMID:23892901

  3. The association between long working hours and health: a systematic review of epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannai, Akira; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the association between long working hours and health. By focusing on differences in the definition of long working hours and the influence of shift work, we attempt to explain why the results of these studies remain inconclusive. We defined long working hours as working time greater than around 40 hours per week or 8 hours per day. Since previous studies have indicated that shift work is detrimental to health, we minimized the influence of shift work in the studies. We also placed importance on the existence of reference groups since this made the results clearer. Based on these points, we analyzed previous studies to clarify the epidemiological evidence regarding the association between long working hours and health. We established inclusion criteria and carried out a systematic search for articles published in the Medline and PsycINFO databases between 1995-2012. We identified a total of 17 articles and 19 studies (12 prospective cohort and 7 cross-sectional studies). The outcomes were all-cause mortality, circulatory disease, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, depressive state, anxiety, other psychological disorders, sleep condition, cognitive function, and health-related behavior. Long working hours had significant adverse effects on most health outcomes. We concluded that working long hours is associated with depressive state, anxiety, sleep condition, and coronary heart disease. However, further studies that appropriately deal with the definition of long working hours and shift work are needed.

  4. Long working hours and work-related cerebro-cardiovascular disease in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yun Kyung; Kwon, Young-jun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine a good discriminatory cutoff for long working hours as a surrogate of chronic overload at work, which is associated with the approval of workers' compensation claims for work-related cerebro-cardiovascular disease (WR-CVD) in Korea. We evaluated weekly working hours for four weeks prior to the onset of disease for all manufacturing industry claimants (N=319) of WR-CVD in 2010. The discrimination of long working hours in predicting approval of worker's compensation pertaining to WR-CVD was compared across cases. The cutoff was calculated with sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the curve with 95% CI using the receiver operating curve (ROC) method. The cutoff point was thus calculated to be 60.75 h (AUC=0.89, 95% CI [0.84-0.93]), showing a sensitivity value of 65% and specificity of 94%. This is the first study to report that long working hours could be a predictor with good discrimination and high specificity of approval of WR-CVD cases. In Korea, long working hours and widespread chronic overload at work are recognized as a social problem. Our study results suggest an appropriate cutoff for working hours as an indicator of chronic overload for the purpose of approving claims of WR-CVD. Furthermore, these results could contribute to improving the consistency of evaluation.

  5. The role of the nonphysician educator in general surgery residency training: from outcome project and duty-hours restrictions to the next accreditation system and milestones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpley, Margaret J; Davidson, Mario A; Tarpley, John L

    2014-01-01

    In 2002 and 2003 the ACGME Outcome Project (assessing residents based on competencies) and duty-hours restrictions were implemented. One strategy for assisting PDs in the increased workload was to hire nonphysician educators with training and experience in curriculum design, teaching techniques, adult learning theories, and research methods. This study sought to document prevalence and responsibilities of nonphysician educators. IRB approval was received for a two-part study. All 247 general surgery PDs were e-mailed the question, "Do you have a nonphysician educator as a member of your surgery education office?" Those who replied "yes" or volunteered "not currently but in the past" were e-mailed a link to an electronic survey concerning the role of the nonphysician educator. Residency training programs in general surgery. General surgery program directors. Of the 126 PDs who responded to the initial query, 37 said "yes" and 4 replied "not currently but in the past". Thirty-two PDs of the initial 41 respondents completed the survey. Significant findings included: 65% were hired in the last 6 years; faculty rank is held by 69%; and curriculum development was the most common responsibility but teaching, research, and administrative duties were often listed. PDs perceived that faculty, residents, and medical students had mostly positive attitudes towards nonphysician educators. The overall results seem to support the notion that nonphysician educators serve as vital members of the team. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. All rights reserved.

  6. Work hours and turnover intention among hospital physicians in Taiwan: does income matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yu-Hsuan; Huang, Nicole; Chien, Li-Yin; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Chiou, Shu-Ti

    2016-11-21

    Physician shortage has become an urgent and critical challenge to many countries. According to the workforce dynamic model, long work hours may be one major pressure point to the attrition of physicians. Financial incentive is a common tool to human power retention. Therefore, this large-scale physician study investigated how pay satisfaction may influence the relationship between work hours and hospital physician's turnover intention. Data were obtained from a nationwide survey of full-time hospital staff members working at 100 hospitals in Taiwan. The analysis sample comprised 2423 full-time physicians. Dependent variable was degree of the physicians' turnover intention to leave the current hospital. The pay satisfaction was assessed by physicians themselves. We employed ordinal logistic regression models to analyze the association between the number of work hours and turnover intention. To consider the cluster effect of hospitals, we used the "gllamm" command in the statistical software package Stata Version 12.1. The results show that 351 (14.5%) of surveyed physicians reported strong intention to leave current hospital. The average work hours per week among hospital physicians was 59.8 h. As expected, work hours exhibited an independent relationship with turnover intention. More importantly, pay satisfaction could not effectively moderate the positive relationship between work hours and intentions to leave current hospital. The findings show that overtime work is prevalent among hospital physicians in Taiwan. Both the Taiwanese government and hospitals must take action to address the emerging problem of physician high turnover rate. Furthermore, hospitals should not consider relying solely on financial incentives to solve the problem. This study encouraged tackling work hour problem, which would lead to the possibility of solving high turnover intention among hospital physicians in Taiwan.

  7. Work hours and turnover intention among hospital physicians in Taiwan: does income matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsuan Tsai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physician shortage has become an urgent and critical challenge to many countries. According to the workforce dynamic model, long work hours may be one major pressure point to the attrition of physicians. Financial incentive is a common tool to human power retention. Therefore, this large-scale physician study investigated how pay satisfaction may influence the relationship between work hours and hospital physician’s turnover intention. Methods Data were obtained from a nationwide survey of full-time hospital staff members working at 100 hospitals in Taiwan. The analysis sample comprised 2423 full-time physicians. Dependent variable was degree of the physicians’ turnover intention to leave the current hospital. The pay satisfaction was assessed by physicians themselves. We employed ordinal logistic regression models to analyze the association between the number of work hours and turnover intention. To consider the cluster effect of hospitals, we used the “gllamm” command in the statistical software package Stata Version 12.1. Results The results show that 351 (14.5% of surveyed physicians reported strong intention to leave current hospital. The average work hours per week among hospital physicians was 59.8 h. As expected, work hours exhibited an independent relationship with turnover intention. More importantly, pay satisfaction could not effectively moderate the positive relationship between work hours and intentions to leave current hospital. Conclusions The findings show that overtime work is prevalent among hospital physicians in Taiwan. Both the Taiwanese government and hospitals must take action to address the emerging problem of physician high turnover rate. Furthermore, hospitals should not consider relying solely on financial incentives to solve the problem. This study encouraged tackling work hour problem, which would lead to the possibility of solving high turnover intention among hospital physicians in

  8. Long working hours and psychological distress among school teachers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannai, Akira; Ukawa, Shigekazu; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2015-01-01

    Long working hours have the possibility to influence human health. In Japan, it is well known that teachers have long working hours, and the number of leaves of absence due to mental disorders among public school teachers increased from 2,687 in 2002 to 4,960 in 2012. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between long working hours and psychological distress among school teachers. This cross-sectional study was conducted from mid-July to September in 2013 in Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan. Questionnaires were distributed to 1,245 teachers in public junior high schools. Information about basic characteristics, including working hours, and responses to the General Health Questionnaire-28 were collected anonymously. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for the association between long working hours and psychological distress by gender. Of the 1,245 teachers contacted, 558 (44.8%) responded. After excluding responses with missing data, the final sample included 522 teachers (337 males and 185 females). Psychological distress was identified in 47.8% of males and 57.8% of females. Our results showed a significantly increased risk only in males working >60 hours per week (adjusted OR=4.71 [95% CI 2.04-11.56]) compared with those working ≤40 hours per week. There were no significant associations between long working hours and psychological distress for females. There is a significant association between long working hours and psychological distress in male teachers. However, the causal relationship remains unclear. Further studies such as cohort studies with large sample sizes are needed.

  9. The declining demand for hospital care as a rationale for duty hour reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Anupam B; DePasse, Jacqueline W; Prasad, Vinay

    2014-10-01

    The regulation of duty hours of physicians in training remains among the most hotly debated subjects in medical education. Although recent duty hour reforms have been chiefly motivated by concerns about resident well-being and medical errors attributable to resident fatigue, the debate surrounding duty hour reform has infrequently involved discussion of one of the most important secular changes in hospital care that has affected nearly all developed countries over the last 3 decades: the declining demand for hospital care. For example, in 1980, we show that resident physicians in US teaching hospitals provided, on average, 1,302 inpatient days of care per resident physician compared to 593 inpatient days in 2011, a decline of 54%. This decline in the demand for hospital care by residents provides an under-recognized economic rationale for reducing residency duty hours, a rationale based solely on supply and demand considerations. Work hour reductions and growing requirements for outpatient training can be seen as an appropriate response to the shrinking demand for hospital care across the health-care sector.

  10. Duty hours restriction for our surgical trainees: An ethical obligation or a bad idea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adin, Christopher A; Fogle, Callie A; Marks, Steven L

    2018-04-01

    To ensure patient safety and protect the well-being of interns and residents, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) issued guidelines in 2003 limiting the working hours of physician trainees. Although many supported the goals of the ACGME, institutions struggled to restructure their programs and hire staff required by this unfunded mandate. Numerous studies have analyzed the effects of duty hours restrictions on patient outcomes and physician training over the past 15 years. Most agree that duty hours restrictions improved well-being of house officers, but these improvements came at the expense of continuity, and patient hand-offs led to medical errors. Effects on resident training are program specific, with duty hours restrictions having the most deleterious effects on surgical disciplines. Because veterinary specialists assume a similar role in providing 24-hour patient care, interns and residents face work-related stress as a result of extended working hours, on-call duty, and an increasingly complex caseload. The North Carolina State Veterinary Hospital is staffed by approximately 100 house officers representing almost every veterinary specialty group. We surveyed departing house officers regarding their quality of life and training experience. Sixty-six percent of interns and residents reported that they do not have time to take care of personal needs, and 57%-62% felt neutral or dissatisfied with their mental and physical well-being. Most trainees believed that decreased duty hours would improve learning, but 42% believed that decreased caseload would be detrimental to training. Veterinary educators must consider post-DVM veterinary training guidelines that maintain patient care with a good learning environment for interns and residents. © 2018 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  11. Association between long working hours and sleep problems in white-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Motoko; Morikawa, Yuko; Sakurai, Masaru; Nakamura, Koshi; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ishizaki, Masao; Kido, Teruhiko; Naruse, Yuchi; Suwazono, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Hideaki

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association between long work hours and sleep disturbance among white-collar workers. We evaluated 1510 male white-collar full-time employees, between the ages of 18 and 59 years, using a comprehensive sleep quality questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). All subjects worked in a light metal products factory in Japan. The mean number of monthly overtime work hours was determined using data from the previous 6 months from timecard records. Subjects were divided into five groups based on quintiles of the mean number of monthly overtime work hours: 63. Leisure time physical activity, drinking habits just before sleep, presence of family/partner and health status were used as confounding factors in the multiple regression model. The prevalence of short sleep hours, impairment of sleep efficiency and daytime dysfunction among seven components of PSQI increased, in a dose-response relationship, with overtime work hours. The prevalence of high global score (>5.5 points) was highest in workers with overtime hours ≥50 h week(-1). The odds ratios after adjustment for confounding factors for high global score using less than 26 h as a reference group were 1.67 for workers with ≥50 h and long work hours correlate with reduced sleep quality in a dose-response manner. © 2010 European Sleep Research Society.

  12. The association between working hours and sleep disturbances according to occupation and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo Hwan; Lee, Hye-Eun

    2015-01-01

    We attempted to explore the relationship between working hours and sleep disturbance according to occupation and gender among Korean workers. Data were derived from the third Korean Working Conditions Survey, conducted in 2011 by the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency. From a total of 50,032 workers, 34,783 salaried contract workers were selected. Work hours were categorized as 60 h/week. The outcome variable was sleep disturbance, which was assessed by a single question item (During the past 12 months, have you experienced sleep disturbance or insomnia?). Multiple survey logistic regression models were performed after adjusting with age, education level, marital status, self-rated health, salary, shift work, smoking and alcohol drinking. Gender and occupation were stratified in these models. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for sleep disturbance in male non-manual workers with long work hours (>60 h/week) was 3.017 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.956-4.653]. In female non-manual workers who work 49-60 working hour per week, the OR was 1.525 (95% CI 1.034-2.249). Long working hours can be a risk factor for sleep disturbance in Korean workers. The association was especially prominent in male non-manual workers.

  13. Long working hours, occupational health and the changing nature of work organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey V; Lipscomb, Jane

    2006-11-01

    The impact of long working hours on health has been of major concern since the late 19th Century. Working hours are again increasing in the US. An overview of historical, sociological, and health-related research presented at an international conference on long working hours is discussed as an introduction to a special section in this issue. Research indicates that long working hours are polarizing along class lines with professionals working regular though longer hours and less well-educated workers having fewer though more irregular hours. Extended and irregular hours are associated with acute reactions such as stress and fatigue, adverse health behavior such as smoking, and chronic outcomes such as cardiovascular and musculoskeletal disorders. Improved methodologies are needed to track exposure to long working hours and irregular shifts longitudinally. Research should focus on the adverse impact that sleep-deprived and stressed workers may have on the health of the public they serve. A variety of protective efforts should be undertaken and evaluated. Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Long working hours and health status among employees in Europe: between-country differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artazcoz, Lucía; Cortès, Imma; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Bartoll, Xavier; Basart, Helena; Borrell, Carme

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to (i) identify family responsibilities associated with moderately long working hours (41-60 hours a week); (ii) examine the relationship between moderately long working hours and three health outcomes; and (iii) analyze whether patterns differ by welfare state regimes. The sample was composed of all employees aged 16-64 years working 30-60 hours a week interviewed in the 2005 European Working Conditions Survey (9288 men and 6295 women). We fitted multiple logistic regression models separated by sex and welfare state regime typologies. Married males were more likely to work long hours in countries with male breadwinner models whereas family responsibilities were related to long working hours among both sexes in countries with dual breadwinner models. The association between long working hours and health was (i) stronger among men in countries with male breadwinner models, primarily in Anglo-Saxon countries [adjusted odds ratio (OR adj) associated with working 51-60 hours of 6.43, 6.04 and 9.60 for work-related poor health status, stress and psychological distress, respectively); (ii) similar among both sexes in Nordic countries; and (iii) stronger among women in Eastern European countries. In the European Union of 25 members (EU-25), working moderately long hours is associated with poor health outcomes with different patterns depending on welfare state regimes. The findings from this study suggest that the family responsibilities and breadwinner models can help explain the relationship between long working hours and health status.

  15. Long working hours and cancer risk: a multi-cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkila, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Madsen, Ida E H; de Vroome, Ernest; Alfredsson, Lars; Bjorner, Jacob J; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Erbel, Raimund; Ferrie, Jane E; Fransson, Eleonor I; Geuskens, Goedele A; Hooftman, Wendela E; Houtman, Irene L; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Lunau, Thorsten; Nielsen, Martin L; Nordin, Maria; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan H; Pentti, Jaana; Shipley, Martin J; Steptoe, Andrew; Suominen, Sakari B; Theorell, Töres; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerholm, Peter J M; Westerlund, Hugo; Dragano, Nico; Rugulies, Reiner; Kawachi, Ichiro; Batty, G David; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika

    2016-03-29

    Working longer than the maximum recommended hours is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the relationship of excess working hours with incident cancer is unclear. This multi-cohort study examined the association between working hours and cancer risk in 116 462 men and women who were free of cancer at baseline. Incident cancers were ascertained from national cancer, hospitalisation and death registers; weekly working hours were self-reported. During median follow-up of 10.8 years, 4371 participants developed cancer (n colorectal cancer: 393; n lung cancer: 247; n breast cancer: 833; and n prostate cancer: 534). We found no clear evidence for an association between working hours and the overall cancer risk. Working hours were also unrelated the risk of incident colorectal, lung or prostate cancers. Working ⩾55 h per week was associated with 1.60-fold (95% confidence interval 1.12-2.29) increase in female breast cancer risk independently of age, socioeconomic position, shift- and night-time work and lifestyle factors, but this observation may have been influenced by residual confounding from parity. Our findings suggest that working long hours is unrelated to the overall cancer risk or the risk of lung, colorectal or prostate cancers. The observed association with breast cancer would warrant further research.

  16. Investigation of Psychophysiological and Subjective Effects of Long Working Hours - Do Age and Hearing Impairment Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Hartl, Verena; Kallus, K Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Following current prognosis, demographic development raises expectations of an aging of the working population. Therefore, keeping employees healthy and strengthening their ability to work, becomes more and more important. When employees become older, dealing with age-related impairments of sensory functions, such as hearing impairment, is a central issue. Recent evidence suggests that negative effects that are associated with reduced hearing can have a strong impact at work. Especially under exhausting working situations such as working overtime hours, age and hearing impairment might influence employees' well-being. Until now, neither the problem of aged workers and long working hours, nor the problem of hearing impairment and prolonged working time has been addressed explicitly. Therefore, a laboratory study was examined to answer the research question: Do age and hearing impairment have an impact on psychophysiological and subjective effects of long working hours. In total, 51 white-collar workers, aged between 24 and 63 years, participated in the laboratory study. The results show no significant effects for age and hearing impairment on the intensity of subjective consequences (perceived recovery and fatigue, subjective emotional well-being and physical symptoms) of long working hours. However, the psychophysiological response (the saliva cortisol level) to long working hours differs significantly between hearing impaired and normal hearing employees. Interestingly, the results suggest that from a psychophysiological point of view long working hours were more demanding for normal hearing employees.

  17. Long Working Hours in Korea: Based on the 2014 Korean Working Conditions Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungsun Park

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long working hours adversely affect worker safety and health. In 2004, Korea passed legislation that limited the work week to 40 hours, in an effort to improve quality-of-life and increase business competitiveness. This regulation was implemented in stages, first for large businesses and then for small businesses, from 2004 to 2011. We previously reported that average weekly working hours decreased from 2006 to 2010, based on the Korean Working Conditions Survey. Methods: In the present study, we examine whether average weekly working hours continued to decrease in 2014 based on the 2014 Korean Working Conditions Survey. Results: The results show that average weekly working hours among all groups of workers decreased in 2014 relative to previous years; however, self-employed individuals and employers (who are not covered by the new legislation in the specific service sectors worked > 60 h/wk in 2014. Conclusion: The Korean government should prohibit employees from working excessive hours and should also attempt to achieve social and public consensus regarding work time reduction to improve the safety, health, and quality-of-life of all citizens, including those who are employers and self-employed. Keywords: employee, employer, Korea, self-employed, working hours

  18. Parental Involvement, Child Temperament, and Parents' Work Hours: Differential Relations for Mothers and Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Geoffrey L; McBride, Brent A; Bost, Kelly K; Shin, Nana

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how child temperament was related to parents' time spent accessible to and interacting with their 2-year-olds. Bivariate analyses indicated that both fathers and mothers spent more time with temperamentally challenging children than easier children on workdays, but fathers spent less time with challenging children than easier children on non-workdays. After accounting for work hours, some associations between temperament and fathers' workday involvement dropped to non-significance. For fathers, work hours also moderated the relation between irregular temperament and workday play. For mothers, work hours moderated the relation between both difficult and irregular temperament and workday interaction. Mothers also spent more time with girls (but not boys) who were temperamentally irregular. Results speak to the influence of child temperament on parenting behavior, and the differential construction of parenting roles as a function of child characteristics and patterns of work.

  19. Fertility Intentions, Career Considerations and Subsequent Births: The Moderating Effects of Women’s Work Hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Prior research indicates a negative relationship between women’s labor force participation and fertility at the individual level in the United States, but little is known about the reasons for this relationship beyond work hours. We employed discrete event history models using panel data from the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 2,411) and found that the importance of career considerations mediates the work hours/fertility relationship. Further, fertility intentions and the importance of career considerations were more predictive of birth outcomes as women’s work hours increase. Ultimately, our findings challenge the assumption that working more hours is the direct cause for employed women having fewer children and highlight the importance of career and fertility preferences in fertility outcomes. PMID:25506189

  20. Office workers' objectively measured sedentary behavior and physical activity during and outside working hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemes, Stacy A; O'Connell, Sophie E; Edwardson, Charlotte L

    2014-03-01

    To examine objectively determined sedentary behavior and physical activity (PA) during and outside working hours in full-time office workers. A total of 170 participants wore an ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer for 7 days. Time spent sedentary (working hours and nonworking hours) and nonworkdays. Participants accumulated significantly higher levels of sedentary behavior (68% vs 60%) and lower levels of light-intensity activity (28% vs 36%) on workdays in comparison with nonworkdays. Up to 71% of working hours were spent sedentary. Individuals who were most sedentary at work were also more sedentary outside work. Those who are most sedentary at work do not compensate by increasing their PA or reducing their sedentary time outside work. Occupational interventions should address workplace and leisure-time sedentary behavior.

  1. Payroll data based description of working hours in the Danish regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Johnni; Kolstad, Henrik A; Larsen, Ann Dyreborg; Pedersen, Jacob; Petersen, Jindong Ding; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2018-05-15

    The aim was to describe the organization of working hours in the Danish regions according to sex, age and calendar year. Based on the Danish Working Hour Database (DWHD), individuals were classified according to schedules: Permanent day (57.8%), evening (1.7%), or night (1.2%); day/evening (22.0%); day/night (6.6%); evening/night (0.6%); and day/evening/night (10.2%). More men (9.1%) than women (5.9%) worked day/night, whereas more women (10.9%) than men (7.4%) worked day/evening/night. More young than older employees worked day/evening/night, and fewer worked permanent day or night. From 2008 to 2015 we observed a trend towards more employees working permanent day and fewer employees working other schedules. Altogether DWHD provides a strong tool in research on working hours.

  2. Fertility Intentions, Career Considerations and Subsequent Births: The Moderating Effects of Women's Work Hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreffler, Karina M; Johnson, David R

    2013-09-01

    Prior research indicates a negative relationship between women's labor force participation and fertility at the individual level in the United States, but little is known about the reasons for this relationship beyond work hours. We employed discrete event history models using panel data from the National Survey of Families and Households ( N = 2,411) and found that the importance of career considerations mediates the work hours/fertility relationship. Further, fertility intentions and the importance of career considerations were more predictive of birth outcomes as women's work hours increase. Ultimately, our findings challenge the assumption that working more hours is the direct cause for employed women having fewer children and highlight the importance of career and fertility preferences in fertility outcomes.

  3. Safe working hours--doctors in training a best practice issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    In 1995, the Australian Medical Association launched its Safe Working Hours campaign. By 1998, this had been developed into a National Code of Conduct that continues to resonate in the Australian public health system. However, and particularly in respect of Doctors in Training (DITs) who continue to work long hours, there are levels of resistance to proposals that seek to re-organise work or change prevailing professional and cultural expectations. Long working hours have substantial impacts on a DIT's capacity to consistently deliver high quality patient care, dilute the effectiveness of their training regime and have negative consequences on their health, social life and family responsibilities. While public hospitals often maintain the view that minimal budget flexibility restricts their capacity to affect change in a positive way, in fact devisable productivity and efficiency gains can be achieved by reducing working hours. Further, the medical profession needs to consider whether long hours provide an optimal environment for quality learning and performance.

  4. Implementation of self-rostering (the PRIO-project) Effects on working hours, recovery and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Albertsen, Karen; Nabe Nielsen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to (i) investigate the consequences of self-rostering for working hours, recovery, and health, and (ii) elucidate the mechanisms through which recovery and health are affected. Methods Twenty eight workplaces were allocated to either an intervention or reference...... workplace reports of working hours (N=718) were obtained at baseline and 12 months later. The interaction term between intervention and time was tested in mixed models and multinomial logistic regression models. Results The odds ratio (OR) of having short [OR 4.8, 95 % confidence interval (95% CI) 1.......17, 95% CI -0.29– -0.04) and B (β= -0.17, 95% CI -0.27– -0.07). There were no effects on recovery and health in intervention C, and overall, there were no detrimental effects on recovery or health. The benefits of the intervention were not related to changes in working hours and did not differ by gender...

  5. Working hours and roster structures of surgical trainees in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Gregory; Loveday, Benjamin; Harper, Simon; Adams, Brandon; Civil, Ian D; Peters, Matthew

    2010-12-01

    The working hours of surgical trainees are a subject of international debate. Excessive working hours are fatiguing, and compromise performance, learning and work-life balance. However, reducing hours can impact on continuity of care, training experience and service provision. This study defines the current working hours of Australasian trainees, to inform the working hours debate in our regions. An online survey was conducted of all current Australasian trainees. Questions determined hours spent at work (AW) and off-site on-call (OC) per week, and roster structures were evaluated by training year, specialty and location. The response rate was 55.3%. Trainees averaged 61.4 ± 11.7 h/week AW, with 5% working ≥80 h. OC shifts were worked by 73.5%, for an average of 27.8 ± 14.3 h/week. Trainees of all levels worked similar hours (P= 0.10); however, neurosurgical trainees worked longer hours than most other specialties (P hours (P= 0.01) and rural rotations more OC (P Long days (>12 h) were worked by 86%; median frequency 1:4.4 days; median duration 15 h. OC shifts of 24-h duration were worked by 75%; median frequency 1:4.2 days; median sleep: 5-7 h/shift; median uninterrupted sleep: 3-5 h/shift. This study has quantified the working hours and roster structures of Australasian surgical trainees. By international standards, Australasian trainee working hours are around average. However, some rosters demand long hours and/or induce chronic sleep loss, placing some trainees at risk of fatigue. Ongoing efforts are needed to promote safe rostering practices. © 2010 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2010 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  6. Long working hours and risk for hypertension in Japanese male white collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, N; Yoshida, H; Nagano, K; Kawashimo, H; Nakamura, K; Tatara, K

    2001-05-01

    To evaluate the association of long working hours with the risk for hypertension. A five year prospective cohort study. Work site in Osaka, Japan. 941 hypertension free Japanese male white collar workers aged 35-54 years were prospectively examined by serial annual health examinations. Men in whom borderline hypertension and hypertension were found during repeated surveys were defined as incidental cases of borderline hypertension and hypertension. 336 and 88 men developed hypertension above the borderline level and definite hypertension during the 3940 and 4531 person years, respectively. After controlling for potential predictors of hypertension, the relative risk for hypertension above the borderline level, compared with those who worked hours per day, was 0.63 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.43, 0.91) for those who worked 10.0-10.9 hours per day and 0.48 (95% CI: 0.31, 0.74) for those who worked > or = 11.0 hours per day. The relative risk for definite hypertension, compared with those who worked hours per day, was 0.33 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.95) for those who worked > or = 11.0 hours per day. The multivariate adjusted slopes of diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) during five years of follow up decreased as working hours per day increased. From the multiple regression analyses, working hours per day remained as an independent negative factor for the slopes of systolic blood pressure, DBP, and MABP. These results indicate that long working hours are negatively associated with the risk for hypertension in Japanese male white collar workers.

  7. Work hours and cortisol variation from non-working to working days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Alain; Durand, Pierre; Lupien, Sonia

    2013-07-01

    This study aims at modelling the relationship between the number of work hours per week and cortisol variation across 3 days by comparing non-working day to working day in a population of day-shift workers. Questionnaire data and saliva samples for cortisol analysis were collected on 132 day-shift workers employed in 13 workplaces in Canada. Consenting workers provided 5 saliva samples a day (awaking, 30 min after awaking, 2 p.m., 4 p.m., bedtime) repeated 3 times (Saturday, Tuesday, Thursday) over a week, to provide measures at work and non-work times and settings. Multilevel regression models were estimated from cortisol measurements at each occasion within a day at level-1, days at level-2 and workers at level-3. Controlling for gender and age, results revealed significant variations in salivary cortisol concentration between sample, day and worker levels. Cortisol increases linearly from non-working day to work days and work hours per week interacted with days, revealing a positive association between the number of work hours per week and cortisol concentrations during these days. Work hours per week did not interact with awaking, 30 min after awaking, 2 p.m., 4 p.m., and bedtime cortisol concentrations. Gender and age had neither main effects nor interaction effects. No significant cortisol variations were found between workplaces. These results suggest that work hours act as a stressor that is associated with significant variations in cortisol concentrations over working days. Non-working days may contribute to stress reduction in workers who experience longer work hours.

  8. Work hours, weight status, and weight-related behaviors: a study of metro transit workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannan Peter J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Associations between hours worked per week and Body Mass Index (BMI, food intake, physical activity, and perceptions of eating healthy at work were examined in a sample of transit workers. Methods Survey data were collected from 1086 transit workers. Participants reported hours worked per week, food choices, leisure-time physical activity and perceptions of the work environment with regard to healthy eating. Height and weight were measured for each participant. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were conducted to examine associations between work hours and behavioral variables. Associations were examined in the full sample and stratified by gender. Results Transit workers working in the highest work hour categories had higher BMI and poorer dietary habits, with results differing by gender. Working 50 or more hours per week was associated with higher BMI among men but not women. Additionally, working 50 or more hours per week was significantly associated with higher frequency of accessing cold beverage, cold food, and snack vending machines among men. Working 40 or more hours per week was associated with higher frequency of accessing cold food vending machines among women. Reported frequency of fruit and vegetable intake was highest among women working 50 or more hours per week. Intake of sweets, sugar sweetened beverages, and fast food did not vary with work hours in men or women. Physical activity and perception of ease of eating healthy at work were not associated with work hours in men or women. Conclusions Long work hours were associated with more frequent use of garage vending machines and higher BMI in transit workers, with associations found primarily among men. Long work hours may increase dependence upon food availability at the worksite, which highlights the importance of availability of healthy food choices.

  9. Work hours, weight status, and weight-related behaviors: a study of metro transit workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoto, Kamisha H; French, Simone A; Harnack, Lisa J; Toomey, Traci L; Hannan, Peter J; Mitchell, Nathan R

    2010-12-20

    Associations between hours worked per week and Body Mass Index (BMI), food intake, physical activity, and perceptions of eating healthy at work were examined in a sample of transit workers. Survey data were collected from 1086 transit workers. Participants reported hours worked per week, food choices, leisure-time physical activity and perceptions of the work environment with regard to healthy eating. Height and weight were measured for each participant. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were conducted to examine associations between work hours and behavioral variables. Associations were examined in the full sample and stratified by gender. Transit workers working in the highest work hour categories had higher BMI and poorer dietary habits, with results differing by gender. Working 50 or more hours per week was associated with higher BMI among men but not women. Additionally, working 50 or more hours per week was significantly associated with higher frequency of accessing cold beverage, cold food, and snack vending machines among men. Working 40 or more hours per week was associated with higher frequency of accessing cold food vending machines among women. Reported frequency of fruit and vegetable intake was highest among women working 50 or more hours per week. Intake of sweets, sugar sweetened beverages, and fast food did not vary with work hours in men or women. Physical activity and perception of ease of eating healthy at work were not associated with work hours in men or women. Long work hours were associated with more frequent use of garage vending machines and higher BMI in transit workers, with associations found primarily among men. Long work hours may increase dependence upon food availability at the worksite, which highlights the importance of availability of healthy food choices.

  10. Time spent sitting during and outside working hours in bus drivers: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Mato, Veronica; Yates, Thomas; Stensel, David J; Biddle, Stuart J H; Clemes, Stacy A

    2016-06-01

    This cross-sectional pilot study objectively measured sedentary and non-sedentary time in a sample of bus drivers from the East Midlands, United Kingdom. Participants wore an activPAL3 inclinometer for 7 days and completed a daily diary. Driver's blood pressure, heart rate, waist circumference and body composition were measured objectively at the outset. The proportions of time spent sedentary and non-sedentary were calculated during waking hours on workdays and non-workdays and during working-hours and non-working-hours on workdays. 28 (85% of those enrolled into the study) provided valid objective monitoring data (89.3% male, [median ± IQR] age: 45.2 ± 12.8 years, BMI 28.1 ± 5.8 kg/m(2)). A greater proportion of time was spent sitting on workdays than non-workdays (75% [724 ± 112 min/day] vs. 62% [528 ± 151 min/day]; p working-hours than non-working-hours (83% [417 ± 88 min/day] vs. 68% [307 ± 64 min/day]; p less than 3% of their overall time stepping. Bus drivers accumulate high levels of sitting time during working-hours and outside working-hours. Interventions are urgently needed in this at-risk group, which should focus on reducing sitting and increasing movement during breaks and increasing physical activity during leisure time to improve cardiovascular health.

  11. Long working hours and sleep problems among public junior high school teachers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannai, Akira; Ukawa, Shigekazu; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2015-01-01

    Long working hours may impact human health. In Japan, teachers tend to work long hours. From 2002 to 2012, the number of leaves of absence due to diseases other than mental disorders, or mental disorders among public school teachers increased by 1.3 times (from 2,616 to 3,381), or 1.8 times (from 2,687 to 4,960), respectively. The present study aimed to investigate the association between long working hours and sleep problems among public school teachers. This cross-sectional study was conducted from mid-July to September 2013 in Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan. Questionnaires were distributed to 1,245 teachers in public junior high schools. Information about basic characteristics including working hours, and responses to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were collected anonymously. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for the association between long working hours and sleep problems separately by sex. The response rate was 44.8% (n=558). After excluding ineligible responses, the final sample comprised 515 teachers (335 males and 180 females). Sleep problems was identified in 41.5% of males and 44.4% of females. Our results showed a significantly increased risk of sleep problems in males working >60 hours per week (OR 2.05 [95% CI 1.01-4.30]) compared with those working ≤40 hours per week. No significant association was found in females. There is a significant association between long working hours and sleep problems in male teachers. Reducing working hours may contribute to a reduction in sleep problems.

  12. Working hours and cardiovascular disease in Korean workers: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Inchul; Rhie, Jeongbae; Kim, Inah; Ryu, Innshil; Jung, Pil Kyun; Park, Yoo Seok; Lim, Yong-Su; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Park, Shin-Goo; Im, Hyoung-June; Lee, Mi-Young; Won, Jong-Uk

    2014-01-01

    Long working hours can negatively impact a worker's health. The objective of this study was to examine the association between working hours and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and compare the degree of risk based on CVD subtypes in Korean workers. This study was a case-control study of the patients registered in the Occupational Cardiovascular Diseases Surveillance 2010. The cases included 348 patients diagnosed with a CVD (123 cerebral infarction, 69 intracerebral hemorrhage, 57 subarachnoid hemorrhage, 99 acute myocardial infarction). Controls were 769 participants with no history of CVDs matched for gender, age, type of occupation, and region. Participants' working hours in the previous week and the average working hours over the past three months were assessed to examine short-term and long-term effects. After adjusting for confounding factors, the odds ratios (ORs) for CVDs in the short-term were 2.66 (95% Confidence interval (CI) :1.78-3.99) for working ≤40 hours, 1.85 (95% CI: 1.22-2.81) for working 50.1-60 hours and 4.23 (95% CI: 2.81-6.39) for working >60 hours compared with the 40.1-50-hour working group. The ORs in the long-term were 2.90 (95% CI: 1.86-4.52) for working ≤40 hours, 1.73 (95% CI: 1.03-2.90) for working 48.1-52 hours and 3.46 (95% CI: 2.38-5.03) for working >52 hours compared with the 40.1-48-hour working group. Long working hours are related to an increased risk of CVDs, and the degree of risk differs based on CVD subtype. Short working hours are also related to an increased risk for CVDs. More prospective studies targeting specific disease risks are required.

  13. Gender and the Effect of Working Hours on Firm-Sponsored Training

    OpenAIRE

    Picchio, Matteo; van Ours, Jan C.

    2015-01-01

    Using employees' longitudinal data, we study the effect of working hours on the propensity of firms to sponsor training of their employees. We show that, whereas male part-time workers are less likely to receive training than male full-timers, part-time working women are as likely to receive training as full-time working women. Although we cannot rule out gender-working time specific monopsony power, we speculate that the gender-specific effect of working hours on training has to do with gend...

  14. Interactions between care-giving and paid work hours among European midlife women, 1994 to 1996

    OpenAIRE

    Spieß, Christa Katharina; Schneider, A. Ulrike

    2003-01-01

    This paper uses data from the European Community Household Panel surveys of 1994 and 1996 to study the association between changes in care-giving and changes in weekly work hours. Our sample comprises women aged 45-59 years who participated in the labour force in at least one of the two years studied. Controlling for country variation, we find significant relationships between starting or increasing informal care-giving and changes in weekly work hours. No such association is found however am...

  15. Influence on working hours among shift workers and effects on sleep quality - An intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Aust, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    in the high intensity group (p effects of interventions on sleep quality were observed. Thus, sleep quality was not improved by increasing work time influence in the present group of Danish elder care workers. This was partly due to program failure (failed intervention), but may also be due......The aim of the present intervention study was to examine if increased influence on working hours among shift workers led to better sleep quality. 391 employees were categorized into groups based on the performed activities: High (self-rostering), moderate (education and/or policy for working hours...

  16. Gender and the effect of working hours on firm-sponsored training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picchio, Matteo; van Ours, Jan

    Using employees’ longitudinal data, we study the effect of working hours on the propensity of firms to sponsor training of their employees. We show that, whereas male part-time workers are less likely to receive training than male full-timers, part-time working women are as likely to receive

  17. Gender and the Effect of Working Hours on Firm-Sponsored Training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picchio, Matteo; van Ours, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Using employees’ longitudinal data, we study the effect of working hours on the propensity of firms to sponsor training of their employees. We show that, whereas male part-time workers are less likely to receive training than male full-timers, parttime working women are as likely to receive training

  18. Telework: timesaving or time-consuming? An investigation into actual working hours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, P.; Wetzels, C.; Tijdens, K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify the relationship between telework and the actual time employees put into their jobs. One of the reported threats to teleworkers’ personal lives is that in order to finish their work, they not only use up saved commuting time, but also part of their non-working hours, even

  19. The relation between maternal work hours and cognitive outcomes of young school-aged children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Künn-Nelen, A.C.; de Grip, A.; Fouarge, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is the first that analyzes the relation between maternal work hours and the cognitive outcomes of young school-going children. When children attend school, the potential time working mothers miss out with their children, is smaller than when children do not yet attend school. At the same

  20. In the Face of Conflict: Work-Life Conflict and Desired Work Hour Adjustments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    This study helps integrate the work-life and work hours literatures by examining competing predictions about the relationship between work-life conflict and the desire for paid work. Using data from the 1997 National Study of the Changing Workforce (N = 2,178), I find that work-life conflict makes women want to decrease the number of hours they…

  1. Relations of Work Identity, Family Identity, Situational Demands, and Sex with Employee Work Hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; Peng, Ann C.; Allen, Tammy D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined relations of multiple indicators of work identity and family identity with the number of weekly hours worked by 193 married business professionals. We found that men generally worked long hours regardless of the situational demands to work long hours and the strength of their work and family identities. Women's work hours, on…

  2. Mothers' and Fathers' Work Hours, Child Gender, and Behavior in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah; Li, Jianghong; Kendall, Garth; Strazdins, Lyndall; Jacoby, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the association between typical parental work hours (including nonemployed parents) and children's behavior in two-parent heterosexual families. Child behavior was measured by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) at ages 5, 8, and 10 in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study ("N" = 4,201 child-year…

  3. Working hours and risk of gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Pei-Jen; Chu, Li-Ching; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Chuang, Yi-Li; Lin, Shio-Jean; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2010-01-01

    The potential impact of employment on maternal health, particularly in relation to gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia, has been subject to research. However, there is limited evidence on associations between shift work and long working hours on the incidence of these conditions. To evaluate potential associations between maternal shift work and long working hours during pregnancy and gestational hypertension or pre-eclampsia. Multistage stratified systematic sampling was used to recruit 24 200 post-partum women from the Taiwan national birth registration database in 2005. Subjects underwent home interview 6 months after their deliveries by structured questionnaire to obtain characteristics of maternal employment and potential confounders. Diagnosis of gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia was obtained from the birth registration. There was no association between employment status and gestational hypertension or pre-eclampsia. Also, no significant association between gestational hypertension or pre-eclampsia and maternal shift work or long working hours during pregnancy was found in all or primiparous women. There was no convincing evidence that maternal shift work or long working hours had a higher risk of gestational hypertension or pre-eclampsia. However, further research is warranted to confirm these negative findings.

  4. Increasing part-time working hours in the Netherlands. Identifying policy recommendations through Group Model Building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenbergh, I.L.; Fokkinga, B.L.A.

    2013-01-01

    With 73% of women and 19% of men working part-time,the Netherlands is known as the champion of part-time work. In order to increase especially the working hours of women with small part-time jobs (less than 20 hours per week) the Dutch government installed a thinktank of employers, employees

  5. Chicago Mothers on Finding and Using Child Care during Nonstandard Work Hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Marcia; Alexander, David; Nicpon, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Few issues confound child care policy more than the fact that very large numbers of mothers work evenings, overnight, or weekend hours when fewer child care programs operate. The authors interviewed 50 single Chicago mothers with nontraditional work hours about their experiences finding and using child care. Participants' responses addressed…

  6. Flexible working hours, health, and well-being in Europe: some considerations from a SALTSA project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, Giovanni; Akerstedt, Torbjorn; Nachreiner, Friedhelm; Baltieri, Federica; Carvalhais, José; Folkard, Simon; Frings-Dresen, Monique; Gadbois, Charles; Gartner, Johannes; Sukalo, Hiltraud Grzech; Härmä, Mikko; Kandolin, Irja; Sartori, Samantha; Silvério, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    The project brought together researchers from 9 EU-Countries and resulted in a number of actions, in particular the following: (a) There is an urgent need of defining the concept of flexible working hours, since it has been used in many different and even counterintuitive ways; the most obvious

  7. Toward a Conceptual Clarification of Employee Responses to Flexible Working Hours: A Work Adjustment Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jon L.; Newstrom, John W.

    1980-01-01

    Elaborates on a work adjustment model to explain how flexible working hours can influence employee satisfaction, performance, absenteeism, tenure, organizational commitment, and job involvement. Discusses need fulfillment, stress reduction, and the harmonization of work with human circadian rhythms. (Author/RC)

  8. Relationship Between Long Working Hours and Metabolic Syndrome Among Korean Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jungok

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated gender differences in the relationship between long working hours and metabolic syndrome. Data based on the Sixth National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2014) pertaining to a total of 1,145 paid workers were analyzed. Working hours were divided into three groups (40-51 hours/week, 52-59 hours/week, ≥ 60 hours/week). The relationship between working hours and metabolic syndrome was then analyzed after adjusting for general and occupational characteristics, using a multiple logistic regression model. Working 40-51 hours per week was associated with the lowest metabolic syndrome among female workers (11.2%), whereas it was associated with the highest metabolic syndrome among male workers (28.0%). After adjusting for general and occupational characteristics, female workers working≥60 hours per week showed odds ratios of 2.21 [95% confidence interval (1.07, 4.57)], compared to those who worked 40-51 hours per week. However, no clear association between long working hours and metabolic syndrome was found among male workers. The results suggest that working long hours, especially≥60 hours per week, is related to metabolic syndrome among female Korean workers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. The Combined Effect of Long Working Hours and Low Job Control on Self-Rated Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seong-Sik; Ju, Young-Su; Paek, Domyung; Kim, Hyunjoo; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of long working hours and low job control on self-rated health. Methods: We analyzed employees’ data obtained from the third Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS). Multiple survey logistic analysis and postestimation commands were employed to estimate the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI). Results: The odds ratio (OR) for poor self-rated health was 1.24 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.13 to 1.35] for long working hours, 1.04 (95% CI: 0.97 to 1.13) for low job control, and 1.47 (95% CI: 1.33 to 1.62) for both long working hours and low job control. The RERI was 0.18 (95% CI: 0.02 to 0.34). Conclusion: These results imply that low job control may increase the negative influence of long working hours on self-rated health. PMID:29200187

  10. Shift work, long working hours and preterm birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Melick, M. J. G. J.; Van Beukering, M. D. M.; Mol, B. W.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Hulshof, C. T. J.

    2014-01-01

    Specific physical activities or working conditions are suspected for increasing the risk of preterm birth (PTB). The aim of this meta-analysis is to review and summarize the pre-existing evidence on the effect of shift work or long working hours on the risk of PTB. We conducted a systematic search

  11. Long Working Hours in Korea: Based on the 2014 Korean Working Conditions Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungsun; Kim, Yangho; Han, Boyoung

    2017-12-01

    Long working hours adversely affect worker safety and health. In 2004, Korea passed legislation that limited the work week to 40 hours, in an effort to improve quality-of-life and increase business competitiveness. This regulation was implemented in stages, first for large businesses and then for small businesses, from 2004 to 2011. We previously reported that average weekly working hours decreased from 2006 to 2010, based on the Korean Working Conditions Survey. In the present study, we examine whether average weekly working hours continued to decrease in 2014 based on the 2014 Korean Working Conditions Survey. The results show that average weekly working hours among all groups of workers decreased in 2014 relative to previous years; however, self-employed individuals and employers (who are not covered by the new legislation) in the specific service sectors worked > 60 h/wk in 2014. The Korean government should prohibit employees from working excessive hours and should also attempt to achieve social and public consensus regarding work time reduction to improve the safety, health, and quality-of-life of all citizens, including those who are employers and self-employed.

  12. Employees' use of social media for private reasons during working hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnlaugsdottir, Johanna

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to find out: Whether Icelandic organizations allowed open access to social media (SM), whether the respondents used SM for private reasons during working hours, which SM they used, how much time they devoted to such use, and what was the attitude of managers and the employees themselves towards such use. The respondents were asked to disclose whether they worked in the private or the public sector and the type of organization that they worked for. This was a two-dimensional study: A questionnaire sent to an internet panel and a telephone survey both based on a random sample selected from the National Registry in February 2013. A similar study has not been performed in Iceland before. Foreign studies of the same nature are not known, only related research. The main findings were that about half of the organizations allowed open access to SM, just below 50% of respondents took advantage of SM for personal use during working hours and the great majority used Facebook. Employees used a considerable part of their working hours for personal use of SM. The majority of respondents were of the opinion that managers objected to the use of SM during working hours and a larger majority believed that such use of themselves was unacceptable. The survey adds valuable information for a better understanding of the status of SM at places of work. The results could be of value to organizations that want to evaluate the pros and cons of SM for the organization.

  13. Does money or the law reduce doctors' working hours in the UK?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreton, Adam; Collier, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    What can be learned from a 45-year journey to reduced junior doctors' working hours? The authors investigated the impact of financially punitive measures (the 2001 New Deal contract) and legislation (Working Time Regulations) on the average working week for doctors-in-training.

  14. Working hours and health in nurses of public hospitals according to gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana da Costa Fernandes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess the association between weekly working hours and self-rated health of nurses in public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS A total of 3,229 nurses (82.7% of the eligible group participated in this cross-sectional study, carried out between April 2010 and December 2011. The collection instrument consisted of a self-administered multidimensional questionnaire. The weekly working hours were calculated from a recall of the daily hours worked over seven consecutive days; this variable was categorized according to tertiles of distribution for men and women. The outcome of interest, self-rated health, was categorized into three levels: good (very good and good, regular, and poor (poor and very poor. The statistical analysis of the data included bivariate and multivariate analyses, having as reference group those with short working hours (first tertile. All the analyses were stratified by gender and elaborated using the program SPSS. RESULTS Among women, the group corresponding to the longest working week (more than 60.5 hours per week were more likely to report regular self-rated health, compared with those with shorter working hours, after adjusting for confounding factors (OR = 1.30; 95%CI 1.02–1.67. Among men, those with average working hours (49.5–70.5 hours per week were more than twice as likely to rate their health as regular (OR = 2.17; 95%CI 1.08–4.35 compared to those with shorter working hours (up to 49.5 hours. There was no significant association between long working hours and poor self-rated health. CONCLUSIONS The results point to the urgent need to promote interventions in the organization of work and appreciation of the nursing profession, in order to reduce the number of multiple jobs and thus contribute to mitigate potential effects on the health of workers and the quality of care in hospitals.

  15. Flexible working hours, health, and well-being in Europe: some considerations from a SALTSA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Giovanni; Akerstedt, Torbjorn; Nachreiner, Friedhelm; Baltieri, Federica; Carvalhais, José; Folkard, Simon; Dresen, Monique Frings; Gadbois, Charles; Gartner, Johannes; Sukalo, Hiltraud Grzech; Härmä, Mikko; Kandolin, Irja; Sartori, Samantha; Silvério, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    The project brought together researchers from 9 EU-Countries and resulted in a number of actions, in particular the following: (a) There is an urgent need of defining the concept of flexible working hours, since it has been used in many different and even counterintuitive ways; the most obvious distinction is where the influence over the working hours lies, that is between the "company-based flexibility" and the "individual-oriented flexibility"; (b) The review of the Legislation in force in the 15 European countries shows that the regulation of working times is quite extensive and covers (Council Directive 93/104/EC) almost all the various arrangements of working hours (i.e., part-time, overtime, shift, and night work), but fails to provide for flexibility; (c) According to the data of the Third EU Survey on Working Conditions, longer and "irregular" working hours are in general linked to lower levels of health and well-being; moreover, low (individual) flexibility and high variability of working hours (i.e., company-based flexibility) were consistently associated with poor health and well-being, while low variability combined with high autonomy showed positive effects; (d) Six substudies from different countries demonstrated that flexible working hours vary according to country, economic sector, social status, and gender; overtime is the most frequent form of company-based flexibility but has negative effects on stress, sleep, and social and mental health; individual flexibility alleviates the negative effects of the company-based flexibility on subjective health, safety, and social well-being; (e) The literature review was able to list more than 1,000 references, but it was striking that most of these documents were mainly argumentative with very little empirical data. Thus, one may conclude that there is a large-scale intervention ongoing in our society with almost completely unknown and uncontrolled effects. Consequently, there is a strong need for systematic

  16. Understanding the relationship of long working hours with health status and health-related behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artazcoz, L; Cortès, I; Escribà-Agüir, V; Cascant, L; Villegas, R

    2009-07-01

    The objectives of this study are to identify family and job characteristics associated with long work hours, to analyse the relationship between long work hours and several health indicators, and to examine whether gender differences for both objectives exist. The sample was composed of all salaried workers aged 16-64 years (3950 men and 3153 women) interviewed in the 2006 Catalonian Health Survey. Weekly work hours were categorised as less than 30 h (part-time), 30-40 (reference category), 41-50 and 51-60 h. Multiple logistic regression models separated by sex were fitted. Factors associated with long working hours differed by gender. Among men, extended work hours were related with being married or cohabiting and with being separated or divorced. In men, working 51-60 h a week was consistently associated with poor mental health status (aOR 2.06, 95% CI 1.31 to 3.24), self-reported hypertension (aOR 1.60, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.29), job dissatisfaction (aOR 2.05, 95% CI 1.49 to 2.82), smoking (aOR 1.33, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.72), shortage of sleep (aOR 1.42, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.85) and no leisure-time physical activity (aOR 2.43, 95% CI 1.64 to 3.60). Moreover, a gradient from standard working hours to 51-60 h a week was found for these six outcomes. Among women it was only related to smoking and to shortage of sleep. The association of overtime with different health indicators among men could be explained by their role as the family breadwinner: in situations of family financial stress men work overtime in order to increase the income and/or accept poor working conditions for fear of job loss, one of them being long working hours.

  17. Working hours, work-life conflict and health in precarious and "permanent" employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohle, Philip; Quinlan, Michael; Kennedy, David; Williamson, Ann

    2004-12-01

    The expansion of precarious employment in OECD countries has been widely associated with negative health and safety effects. Although many shiftworkers are precariously employed, shiftwork research has concentrated on full-time workers in continuing employment. This paper examines the impact of precarious employment on working hours, work-life conflict and health by comparing casual employees to full-time, "permanent" employees working in the same occupations and workplaces. Thirty-nine convergent interviews were conducted in two five-star hotels. The participants included 26 full-time and 13 casual (temporary) employees. They ranged in age from 19 to 61 years and included 17 females and 22 males. Working hours ranged from zero to 73 hours per week. Marked differences emerged between the reports of casual and full-time employees about working hours, work-life conflict and health. Casuals were more likely to work highly irregular hours over which they had little control. Their daily and weekly working hours ranged from very long to very short according to organisational requirements. Long working hours, combined with low predictability and control, produced greater disruption to family and social lives and poorer work-life balance for casuals. Uncoordinated hours across multiple jobs exacerbated these problems in some cases. Health-related issues reported to arise from work-life conflict included sleep disturbance, fatigue and disrupted exercise and dietary regimes. This study identified significant disadvantages of casual employment. In the same hotels, and doing largely the same jobs, casual employees had less desirable and predictable work schedules, greater work-life conflict and more associated health complaints than "permanent" workers.

  18. Long working hours and metabolic syndrome among Japanese men: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The link between long working hours and health has been extensively studied for decades. Despite global concern regarding metabolic syndrome, however, no studies to date have solely evaluated the relationship between long working hours and that syndrome. We therefore examined the association between long working hours and metabolic syndrome in a cross-sectional study. Methods Between May and October 2009, we collected data from annual health checkups and questionnaires from employees at a manufacturing company in Shizuoka, Japan. Questionnaires were returned by 1,601 workers (response rate: 96.2%; 1,314 men, 287 women). After exclusions, including women because of a lack of overtime work, the analysis was performed for 933 men. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for metabolic syndrome. Further, we conducted a stratified analysis by age-group (working hours and metabolic syndrome after adjusting for age, occupation, shift work, smoking status, frequency of alcohol consumption, and cohabiting status. Compared with subjects who worked 7–8 h/day, multivariate ORs for metabolic syndrome were 1.66 (95% CI, 0.91–3.01), 1.48 (95% CI, 0.75–2.90), and 2.32 (95% CI, 1.04–5.16) for those working 8–9 h/day, 9–10 h/day, and >10 h/day, respectively. Similar patterns were obtained when we excluded shift workers from the analysis. In age-stratified analysis, the corresponding ORs among workers aged ≥40 years were 2.02 (95% CI, 1.04–3.90), 1.21 (95% CI, 0.53–2.77), and 3.14 (95% CI, 1.24–7.95). In contrast, no clear association was found among workers aged working hours for increased risk of metabolic syndrome among Japanese male workers. PMID:22651100

  19. Long working hours and metabolic syndrome among Japanese men: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tomoko; Suzuki, Etsuji; Takao, Soshi; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2012-05-31

    The link between long working hours and health has been extensively studied for decades. Despite global concern regarding metabolic syndrome, however, no studies to date have solely evaluated the relationship between long working hours and that syndrome. We therefore examined the association between long working hours and metabolic syndrome in a cross-sectional study. Between May and October 2009, we collected data from annual health checkups and questionnaires from employees at a manufacturing company in Shizuoka, Japan. Questionnaires were returned by 1,601 workers (response rate: 96.2%; 1,314 men, 287 women). After exclusions, including women because of a lack of overtime work, the analysis was performed for 933 men. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for metabolic syndrome. Further, we conducted a stratified analysis by age-group (working hours and metabolic syndrome after adjusting for age, occupation, shift work, smoking status, frequency of alcohol consumption, and cohabiting status. Compared with subjects who worked 7-8 h/day, multivariate ORs for metabolic syndrome were 1.66 (95% CI, 0.91-3.01), 1.48 (95% CI, 0.75-2.90), and 2.32 (95% CI, 1.04-5.16) for those working 8-9 h/day, 9-10 h/day, and >10 h/day, respectively. Similar patterns were obtained when we excluded shift workers from the analysis. In age-stratified analysis, the corresponding ORs among workers aged ≥ 40 years were 2.02 (95% CI, 1.04-3.90), 1.21 (95% CI, 0.53-2.77), and 3.14 (95% CI, 1.24-7.95). In contrast, no clear association was found among workers aged working hours for increased risk of metabolic syndrome among Japanese male workers.

  20. The Risk of Developing Diabetes in Association With Long Working Hours Differs by Shift Work Schedules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Bannai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The impact of long working hours on diabetes is controversial; however, shift work is known to increase the risk of diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the association between long working hours and diabetes among civil servants in Japan separately by shift work schedules. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted from April 2003 to March 2009. A total of 3195 men aged ≥35 years who underwent an annual health checkup at baseline were analyzed by shift work schedules (2371 nonshift workers and 824 shift workers. Self-reported working hours were categorized as 35–44 and ≥45 hours per week. The incidence of diabetes was confirmed by fasting plasma glucose concentration ≥126 mg/dL and/or selfreported medical diagnosis of diabetes at the annual checkup. A Cox proportional model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for developing diabetes associated with long working hours. Results: The median follow-up period of non-shift and shift workers was 5.0 and 4.9 years, respectively. During this period, 138 non-shift workers and 46 shift workers developed diabetes. A decreased HR was found among nonshift workers working ≥45 hours per week (HR 0.84; 95% CI, 0.57–1.24; however, shift workers working ≥45 hours per week had a significantly increased risk of diabetes (HR 2.43; 95% CI, 1.21–5.10 compared with those working 35–44 hours per week. An analysis restricted to non-clerical workers also showed similar results. Conclusions: The risk of diabetes associated with long working hours differed by shift work schedules.

  1. The Risk of Developing Diabetes in Association With Long Working Hours Differs by Shift Work Schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannai, Akira; Yoshioka, Eiji; Saijo, Yasuaki; Sasaki, Sachiko; Kishi, Reiko; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2016-09-05

    The impact of long working hours on diabetes is controversial; however, shift work is known to increase the risk of diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the association between long working hours and diabetes among civil servants in Japan separately by shift work schedules. A prospective cohort study was conducted from April 2003 to March 2009. A total of 3195 men aged ≥35 years who underwent an annual health checkup at baseline were analyzed by shift work schedules (2371 non-shift workers and 824 shift workers). Self-reported working hours were categorized as 35-44 and ≥45 hours per week. The incidence of diabetes was confirmed by fasting plasma glucose concentration ≥126 mg/dL and/or self-reported medical diagnosis of diabetes at the annual checkup. A Cox proportional model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for developing diabetes associated with long working hours. The median follow-up period of non-shift and shift workers was 5.0 and 4.9 years, respectively. During this period, 138 non-shift workers and 46 shift workers developed diabetes. A decreased HR was found among non-shift workers working ≥45 hours per week (HR 0.84; 95% CI, 0.57-1.24); however, shift workers working ≥45 hours per week had a significantly increased risk of diabetes (HR 2.43; 95% CI, 1.21-5.10) compared with those working 35-44 hours per week. An analysis restricted to non-clerical workers also showed similar results. The risk of diabetes associated with long working hours differed by shift work schedules.

  2. Long working hours and use of psychotropic medicine: a follow-up study with register linkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannerz, Harald; Albertsen, Karen

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the possibility of a prospective association between long working hours and use of psychotropic medicine. Survey data drawn from random samples of the general working population of Denmark in the time period 1995-2010 were linked to national registers covering all inhabitants. The participants were followed for first occurrence of redeemed prescriptions for psychotropic medicine. The primary analysis included 25,959 observations (19,259 persons) and yielded a total of 2914 new cases of psychotropic drug use in 99,018 person-years at risk. Poisson regression was used to model incidence rates of redeemed prescriptions for psychotropic medicine as a function of working hours (32-40, 41-48, >48 hours/week). The analysis was controlled for gender, age, sample, shift work, and socioeconomic status. A likelihood ratio test was used to test the null hypothesis, which stated that the incidence rates were independent of weekly working hours. The likelihood ratio test did not reject the null hypothesis (P=0.085). The rate ratio (RR) was 1.04 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.94-1.15] for the contrast 41-48 versus 32-40 work hours/week and 1.15 (95% CI 1.02-1.30) for >48 versus 32-40 hours/week. None of the rate ratios that were estimated in the present study were statistically significant after adjustment for multiple testing. However, stratified analyses, in which 30 RR were estimated, generated the hypothesis that overtime work (>48 hours/week) might be associated with an increased risk among night or shift workers (RR=1.51, 95% CI 1.15-1.98). The present study did not find a statistically significant association between long working hours and incidence of psychotropic drug usage among Danish employees.

  3. Effect of sleep deprivation after a night shift duty on simulated crisis management by residents in anaesthesia. A randomised crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzalier-Daret, Ségolène; Buléon, Clément; Bocca, Marie-Laure; Denise, Pierre; Gérard, Jean-Louis; Hanouz, Jean-Luc

    2018-04-01

    Sleep deprivation has been associated with an increased incidence of medical errors and can jeopardise patients' safety during medical crisis management. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of sleep deprivation on the management of simulated anaesthesia crisis by residents in anaesthesiology. A randomised, comparative, monocentric crossover study involving 48 residents in anaesthesia was performed on a high fidelity patient simulator. Each resident was evaluated in a sleep-deprived state (deprived group, after a night shift duty) and control state (control group, after a night of sleep). Performance was assessed through points obtained during crisis scenario 1 (oesophageal intubation followed by anaphylactic shock) and scenario 2 (anaesthesia-related bronchospasm followed by ventricular tachycardia). Sleep periods were recorded by actigraphy. Two independent observers assessed the performances. The primary endpoint of the study was the score obtained for each scenario. Resident's crisis management performance is associated with sleep deprivation (scenario 1: control=39 [33-42] points vs. deprived=26 [19-40] points, P=0.02; scenario 2: control=21 [17-24] vs. deprived=14 [12-19], P=0.01). The main errors observed were: error in drug administration and dose, delay in identification of hypotension, and missing communication with the surgical team about situation. The present study showed that sleep deprivation is associated with impairment of performance to manage crisis situations by residents in anaesthesia. Copyright © 2017 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. A mid year comparison study of career satisfaction and emotional states between residents and faculty at one academic medical center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessel Kristen

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's (ACGME new requirements raise multiple challenges for academic medical centers. We sought to evaluate career satisfaction, emotional states, positive and negative experiences, work hours and sleep among residents and faculty simultaneously in one academic medical center after implementation of the ACGME duty hour requirements. Methods Residents and faculty (1330 in the academic health center were asked to participate in a confidential survey; 72% of the residents and 66% of the faculty completed the survey. Results Compared to residents, faculty had higher levels of satisfaction with career choice, competence, importance and usefulness; lower levels of anxiousness and depression. The most positive experiences for both groups corresponded to strong interpersonal relationships and educational value; most negative experiences to poor interpersonal relationships and issues perceived outside of the physician's control. Approximately 13% of the residents and 14% of the faculty were out of compliance with duty hour requirements. Nearly 5% of faculty reported working more than 100 hours per week. For faculty who worked 24 hour shifts, nearly 60% were out of compliance with the duty-hour requirements. Conclusion Reasons for increased satisfaction with career choice, positive emotional states and experiences for faculty compared to residents are unexplained. Earlier studies from this institution identified similar positive findings among advanced residents compared to more junior residents. Faculty are more frequently at risk for duty-hour violations. If patient safety is of prime importance, faculty, in particular, should be compliant with the duty hour requirements. Perhaps the ACGME should contain faculty work hours as part of its regulatory function.

  5. Long working hours and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivimäki, Mika; Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T

    2015-01-01

    , Economic and Social Research Council, European Union New and Emerging Risks in Occupational Safety and Health research programme, Finnish Work Environment Fund, Swedish Research Council for Working Life and Social Research, German Social Accident Insurance, Danish National Research Centre for the Working......BACKGROUND: Long working hours might increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but prospective evidence is scarce, imprecise, and mostly limited to coronary heart disease. We aimed to assess long working hours as a risk factor for incident coronary heart disease and stroke. METHODS: We...... identified published studies through a systematic review of PubMed and Embase from inception to Aug 20, 2014. We obtained unpublished data for 20 cohort studies from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) Consortium and open-access data archives. We used cumulative...

  6. Long and atypical working hours and the impact on intimate family life social activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans H. K.

    An increasing number of families has to meet the challenges of working in a 24-7 society and at the same time striving to take part in everyday family life. Research is not conclusive with respect to what degree atypical working hours has an impact on, for example, work-family balance, instable...... participate in together with their children (e.g. enjoying breakfasts together). On the other hand other research shows that factors like both parents having atypical working hours and small children in the home suggests a negative impact on family life. In addition, not much research has scrutinized...... through our longitudinal survey study of everyday family and work-life. So in short, this paper will present and discuss an analysis of the relationship between work life and intimate family life social activities as they evolve over time and across households....

  7. Effects of worksite health interventions involving reduced work hours and physical exercise on sickness absence costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Hasson, Henna

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the effects of physical exercise during work hours (PE) and reduced work hours (RWH) on direct and indirect costs associated with sickness absence (SA). Sickness absence and related costs at six workplaces, matched and randomized to three conditions (PE, RWH, and referents), were retrieved from company records and/or estimated using salary conversion methods or value-added equations on the basis of interview data. Although SA days decreased in all conditions (PE, 11.4%; RWH, 4.9%; referents, 15.9%), costs were reduced in the PE (22.2%) and RWH (4.9%) conditions but not among referents (10.2% increase). Worksite health interventions may generate savings in SA costs. Costs may not be linear to changes in SA days. Combing the friction method with indirect cost estimates on the basis of value-added productivity may help illuminate both direct and indirect SA costs.

  8. New Results on the Effect of Mothers’ Working Hours on Children’s Overweight Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Jane

    in exploring possible bias due to omitted variable bias. In contrast to the existing literature this paper shows that an increase in mothers’ working hours has a reducing effect on child weight. Subgroup analyses on formal and informal daycare suggest that the quality of childcare determines the effect...... weight. This paper uses the Danish Longitudinal Survey of Children (DALSC) merged with Danish register data from 1995 to 2002 to explore whether a causal relationship exists between maternal working hours and Danish children’s overweight status at age 7½. The instrumental variables technique is used......, as results show that maternal employment has a reducing effect on children’s overweight status in formal daycare (kindergarten). For children in informal daycare (family daycare), maternal employment has no significant effect....

  9. The impact of long working hours on psychosocial stress response among white-collar workers

    OpenAIRE

    LEE, Kyungjin; SUH, Chunhui; KIM, Jong-Eun; PARK, Jae Oh

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between long working hours and psychosocial stress responses. In total, 1,122 white-collar workers from a company in Korea completed self-administered questionnaires following a lecture about the study aim, procedures, and confidentiality. Psychosocial stress responses were evaluated using the Psychosocial Well-being Index - Short Form (PWI-SF), and psychosocial working conditions were evaluated with the Korean Occupational Stress Scale - Short Form (KOSS-S...

  10. Bottleneck congestion and distribution of work start times: The economics of staggered work hours revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Takayama, Yuki

    2014-01-01

    Since the seminal work of Henderson (1981), a number of studies examined the effect of staggered work hours by analyzing models of work start time choice that consider the trade-off between negative congestion externalities and positive production externalities. However, these studies described traffic congestion using flow congestion models. This study develops a model of work start time choice with bottleneck congestion and discloses the intrinsic properties of the model. To this end, this ...

  11. The desire and capability of Australian general practitioners to change their working hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Richard; Hall, Jane P

    2014-04-21

    To explore factors associated with general practitioners' desire to work less and their success in making that change. Waves 3 and 4 (conducted in 2010 and 2011) of a national longitudinal survey of Australian doctors in clinical practice (Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life). Of the broader group of medical practitioners in the survey, there were 3664 and 3436 GP completers in Waves 3 and 4, respectively. The association between the desire to reduce hours and doctor, job and geographic characteristics; the association between predictors of the capability to reduce hours and these same doctor, job and geographic characteristics. Over 40% of GPs stated a preference to reduce their working hours. Characteristics that predicted this preference were being middle-aged, being female, working ≥ 40 hours per week (all P working hours were being in excellent health, being satisfied or very satisfied with work (both P working hours, 26.8% successfully managed to do so in the subsequent year (where reduction was defined as reducing hours by at least 5 per week). Predictors of successfully reducing hours were being younger, female and working ≥ 40 hours per week (all P hours and their subsequent success in doing so. Declining working hours have contributed to the perceived shortage in GPs. Therefore, designing policies that address not just the absolute number of medical graduates but also their subsequent level of work may alleviate some of the pressures on the Australian primary health care system.

  12. How May Working Hours and Occupations Affect Arthritis? Results from a Nationally Representative Dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Mercan, Murat A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Even though many studies have focused on the relationship between osteoarthritis and occupation, few studies have examined the relationship between arthritis and working hours; this paper seeks to fill this gap in the literature. Methods: We used a Cox regression method for the sample from Health and Retirement Survey. Results: We found that working more hours reduces the probability of arthritis among older workers in the United States. We also showed which occupa...

  13. Long working hours and pregnancy complications: women physicians survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Masumi; Rahman, Mahbubur; Ishiguro, Aya; Nomura, Kyoko

    2014-07-23

    Previous studies have investigated the impact of occupational risk factors on health outcomes among physicians. However, few studies have investigated the effects on pregnancy outcomes among physicians. In this study, we examined the association between working hours during pregnancy and pregnancy complications among physicians. A cross-sectional study was based on a survey conducted in 2009-2011 of 1,684 alumnae (mean age, 44 ± 8 years) who had graduated from 13 private medical schools in Japan. Data on threatened abortion (TA), preterm birth (PTB), and the number of working hours during the first trimester of pregnancy were obtained via retrospective assessments. Of the 939 physicians with a first pregnancy, 15% experienced TA and 12% experienced PTB. Women who experienced TA (mean weekly working hours: 62 h vs. 50 h, P working hours during the first trimester than did those without pregnancy complications. Compared with women who worked 40 hours or less per week, women who worked 71 hours or more per week had a three-fold higher risk of experiencing TA (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7-6.0) even after adjusting for medical specialty, maternal age, and current household income. The risk of experiencing PTB was 2.5 times higher (95% CI:1.2-5.2) in women who worked 51-70 hours and 4.2 times higher (95% CI: 1.9-9.2) in women who worked 71 hours or more even after adjusting for specialty, maternal age, and current household income. The trend in the P statistic reflecting the effect of the quartile of hours worked per week (40 hours, 41-50 hours, 51-70 hours, ≥ 71 hours) on TA or PTB was 0.0001 in the multivariate logistic regression models. These results suggest that working long hours during the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with TA and PTB.

  14. Long working hours and risk for hypertension in Japanese male white collar workers

    OpenAIRE

    Nakanishi, N; Yoshida, H; Nagano, K; Kawashimo, H; Nakamura, K; Tatara, K

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To evaluate the association of long working hours with the risk for hypertension.
DESIGN—A five year prospective cohort study.
SETTING—Work site in Osaka, Japan.
PARTICIPANTS—941 hypertension free Japanese male white collar workers aged 35-54 years were prospectively examined by serial annual health examinations. Men in whom borderline hypertension and hypertension were found during repeated surveys were defined as incidental cases of borderline hypertension and hypertension.
...

  15. On the Problem of Implementing Flexible Working Hours at an Enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Hink, Johan Wilhelm

    2006-01-01

    The major trends of working time variation at enterprises and in labour market show that it is constantly decreasing. At the same time, the number of pensioners is constantly growing Therefore, to maintain competitiveness and to get adapted to constantly changing conditions, enterprises should implement new flexible working time models. The implementation of these models means that a worker can freely choose the working hours. The important requirement is to maintain working time balance duri...

  16. Maternal working hours and early childhood overweight in Japan: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, Toshiharu; Suzuki, Etsuji; Takao, Soshi; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    There has been a growing concern that maternal employment could have adverse or beneficial effects on children's health. Although recent studies demonstrated that maternal employment was associated with a higher risk of childhood overweight, the evidence remains sparse in Asian countries. We sought to examine the relationship between maternal working hours and early childhood overweight in a rural town in Okayama Prefecture. In February 2008, questionnaires were sent to parents of all preschool children aged ≥3 yr in the town to assess maternal working status (working hours and form of employment), children's body mass index, and potential confounders. Childhood overweight was defined following the age and sex-specific criteria of the International Obesity Task Force. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for childhood overweight were estimated in a logistic regression. We used generalized estimating equations with an exchangeable correlation matrix, considering the correlation between siblings. We analyzed 364 preschool children. Adjusting for each child's characteristics (age, sex), mother's characteristics (age, obesity, educational attainment, smoking status, and social participation), and family's characteristics (number of siblings), children whose mothers work working mothers, whereas the relationship was less pronounced among children whose mothers work ≥8 h/day (OR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.19, 2.68). We observed similar patterns in a stratified analysis by the form of maternal employment. Short maternal working hours are associated with a lower odds of early childhood overweight.

  17. Working hours and depressive symptoms over 7 years: evidence from a Korean panel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Seoyeon

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to examine how working hours influence depressive symptoms and the association between working hours and depressive symptoms differently across genders. The sample consists of salaried workers aged 25-64 years who participated in two consecutive waves of the seven-wave Korean Welfare Panel Study (2007-2013) (n = 6813 individuals, 27,986 observations) which is a survey of a nationally representative sample of the South Korean population. I apply logit regression and fixed-effects logit regression to examine the causal relation between (intra-)individual changes of working hours and depressive symptoms over a 7-year period. Results from logit model and fixed-effects logit model show that less than 30 h of work per week and more than 60 h of work per week are associated with significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms. Sex-stratified analyses reveal that women who worked over 60 h per week were at increased risk of showing depressive symptoms compared with women who worked 30-40 h per week. No significant increase in depressive symptoms was seen in men who worked more than 60 h per week. However, men working less than 30 h per week are more likely to report higher levels of depressive symptoms. These results suggest that work arrangement affects the mental health of men and women differently.

  18. The crossover effect of spouses’ long working hours on depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation

    Science.gov (United States)

    YOON, Jin-Ha; KANG, Mo-Yeol

    2016-01-01

    To examine the association between spouses’ weekly working hours (SWWH) and psychological symptoms such as depressive symptom and suicidal ideation. We used data from the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007–2012). We collected information about general characteristics, depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and working hours. After inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, a sample of 8,056 house units was used for analysis. A multiple logistic regression was conducted to investigate the association between SWWH and depressive symptoms, as well as suicidal ideation, to estimate the odds ratio (OR). The relationship between SWWH and psychological symptoms were linear in husbands, and J-shaped in wives. ORs for husbands’ depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation increased according to increase in SWWH (p-values for trend were 0.0045 and hours, but increased after SWWH of 40 to 49 hours (all p-values were below 0.01). Similar trends were observed after adjustment for age, obesity, household income, and one’s own weekly working hours, up to 1.33 and 1.57 in husbands, and 1.29 and 1.32 in wives, respectively. SWWH is negatively associated with mental health. PMID:27052574

  19. Relationship between long working hours and depression in two working populations: a structural equation model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amagasa, Takashi; Nakayama, Takeo

    2012-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that relationship reported between long working hours and depression was inconsistent in previous studies because job demand was treated as a confounder. Structural equation modeling was used to construct five models, using work-related factors and depressive mood scale obtained from 218 clerical workers, to test for goodness of fit and was externally validated with data obtained from 1160 sales workers. Multiple logistic regression analysis was also performed. The model that showed that long working hours increased depression risk when job demand was regarded as an intermediate variable was the best fitted model (goodness-of-fit index/root-mean-square error of approximation: 0.981 to 0.996/0.042 to 0.044). The odds ratio for depression risk with work that was high demand and 60 hours or more per week was estimated at 2 to 4 versus work that was low demand and less than 60 hours per week. Long working hours increased depression risk, with job demand being an intermediate variable.

  20. The crossover effect of spouses' long working hours on depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Kang, Mo-Yeol

    2016-10-08

    To examine the association between spouses' weekly working hours (SWWH) and psychological symptoms such as depressive symptom and suicidal ideation. We used data from the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2012). We collected information about general characteristics, depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and working hours. After inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, a sample of 8,056 house units was used for analysis. A multiple logistic regression was conducted to investigate the association between SWWH and depressive symptoms, as well as suicidal ideation, to estimate the odds ratio (OR). The relationship between SWWH and psychological symptoms were linear in husbands, and J-shaped in wives. ORs for husbands' depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation increased according to increase in SWWH (p-values for trend were 0.0045 and hours, but increased after SWWH of 40 to 49 hours (all p-values were below 0.01). Similar trends were observed after adjustment for age, obesity, household income, and one's own weekly working hours, up to 1.33 and 1.57 in husbands, and 1.29 and 1.32 in wives, respectively. SWWH is negatively associated with mental health.

  1. The impact of long working hours on psychosocial stress response among white-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungjin; Suh, Chunhui; Kim, Jong-Eun; Park, Jae Oh

    2017-02-07

    This study examined the association between long working hours and psychosocial stress responses. In total, 1,122 white-collar workers from a company in Korea completed self-administered questionnaires following a lecture about the study aim, procedures, and confidentiality. Psychosocial stress responses were evaluated using the Psychosocial Well-being Index - Short Form (PWI-SF), and psychosocial working conditions were evaluated with the Korean Occupational Stress Scale - Short Form (KOSS-SF). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed after adjusting for demographic variables and psychosocial working conditions to examine associations between long working hours and psychosocial stress responses. In comparison with the reference group, which worked 40-44 hours per week, the crude odds ratio (OR) of the respondents who worked 60 or more hours was 4.56 (95% confidence interval (CI), 2.55-8.15) in terms of psychosocial stress responses. After adjusting for demographic variables, the adjusted OR of those working ≥60 hours was 5.61 (95% CI, 3.01-10.47). After adjusting for both demographic variables and psychosocial working conditions, the adjusted OR of those working ≥60 hours was 3.25 (95% CI, 1.56-6.79). This study found that long working hours are significantly related to psychosocial stress responses among white-collar workers in one Korean company.

  2. Relationship between long working hours and depression: a 3-year longitudinal study of clerical workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amagasa, Takashi; Nakayama, Takeo

    2013-08-01

    To clarify how long working hours affect the likelihood of current and future depression. Using data from four repeated measurements collected from 218 clerical workers, four models associating work-related factors to the depressive mood scale were established. The final model was constructed after comparing and testing the goodness-of-fit index using structural equation modeling. Multiple logistic regression analysis was also performed. The final model showed the best fit (normed fit index = 0.908; goodness-of-fit index = 0.936; root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.018). Its standardized total effect indicated that long working hours affected depression at the time of evaluation and 1 to 3 years later. The odds ratio for depression risk was 14.7 in employees who were not long-hours overworked according to the initial survey but who were long-hours overworked according to the second survey. Long working hours increase current and future risks of depression.

  3. Long working hours in Korea: results of the 2010 Working Conditions Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungsun; Kwon, Oh Jun; Kim, Yangho

    2012-01-01

    Long working hours adversely affect workers' safety and health. In 2004, Korea passed legislation limiting the working week to 40 h, to improve quality-of-life and to increase business competitiveness. In the present study, we explored the characteristics of work in Korea and compared our data of the second Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS) with those of the first KWCS. We found that the average number of hours worked weekly has been reduced but the proportions of workers who work for more than 48 h per week has increased over the 4 yr between the two Korean surveys in all categories studied (male, female, employee, self-employed, and employer). We also found that self-employed and employers work much longer hours than do employees, who are protected by the Labor Standards Act. This was particularly true in the accommodation and food service sectors. In conclusion, Korean workers work longer than do workers of EU countries. The use of average figures masks differences in the numbers of working hours among those engaged in various types of employment, or in certain work sectors. Therefore, the Korean government should not simply monitor reductions in average weekly working hours, but should identify employees working for over 60 h weekly, and reduce their working time.

  4. Relationship between long working hours and periodontitis among the Korean workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wanhyung; Lim, Sung-Shil; Kim, Byurira; Won, Jong-Uk; Roh, Jaehoon; Yoon, Jin-Ha

    2017-08-11

    We aimed to investigate the association between long working hours and periodontitis, and whether such an association constitutes an exposure-response relationship. Data for this study were collected from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted from 2007 to 2014; 17,533 workers (9,483 of men and 8,050 of women) were included. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the analysis of periodontitis defined as positive of Community Periodontal Index in relation to working hours were calculated using multiple logistic regression models with various stratifications. Compared to participants who worked ≤40 hours per week, the prevalence ratio (95% CI) for the periodontitis was 1.19 (1.14-1.24) and full adjusted OR (95% CI) was 1.09 (1.02-1.18) in participants who worked over 40 hours per week. The OR (95% CI) for periodontitis were 1.09 (0.99-1.19) in working group of 40working group of >52 hours per week with a significant trend (p = 0.0233) even after adjusting for age, socioeconomic status, healthy behaviour, chronic disease, and dental care status. Long working hours are associated with periodontitis among Korean workers in an exposure-response manner.

  5. Crossover effect of spouse weekly working hours on estimated 10-years risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo-Yeol Kang

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between spouse weekly working hours (SWWH and the estimated 10-years risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD.This cross-sectional study was based on the data obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2012. Data of 16,917 participants (8,330 husbands, 8,587 wives were used for this analysis. The participants' clinical data were collected to estimate the 10-years risk of CVD, as well as weekly working hours. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to investigate the association between SWWH and the estimated 10-years risk of CVD. We also performed a stratified analysis according to each participant's and their spouse's employment status.Compared to those whose spouses worked 30 hours per week, estimated 10-years risk of CVD was significantly higher as SWWH increase among those whose spouses worked >30 hours per week. After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio for high CVD risk was found to increase as SWWH increased, up to 2.52 among husbands and 2.43 among wives. We also found that the association between SWWH and the estimated 10-years risk of CVD varied according to the employment status. Analysis of each component included in the CVD appraisal model showed that SWWH had close relationship with diabetes in men, and smoking habits in women.Spouse's long working hours are associated with individual's risk of CVD in future, especially among husbands.

  6. Long Working Hours and Subsequent Use of Psychotropic Medicine: A Study Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertsen, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Background Mental ill health is the most frequent cause of long-term sickness absence and disability retirement in Denmark. Some instances of mental ill health might be due to long working hours. A recent large cross-sectional study of a general working population in Norway found that not only “very much overtime”, but also “moderate overtime” (41-48 work hours/week) was significantly associated with increased levels of both anxiety and depression. These findings have not been sufficiently confirmed in longitudinal studies. Objective The objective of the study is to give a detailed plan for a research project aimed at investigating the possibility of a prospective association between weekly working hours and use of psychotropic medicine in the general working population of Denmark. Methods People from the general working population of Denmark have been surveyed, at various occasions in the time period 1995-2010, and interviewed about their work environment. The present study will link interview data from these surveys to national registers covering all inhabitants of Denmark. The participants will be followed for the first occurrence of redeemed prescriptions for psychotropic medicine. Poisson regression will be used to analyze incidence rates as a function of weekly working hours (32-40; 41-48; > 48 hours/week). The analyses will be controlled for gender, age, sample, shift work, and socioeconomic status. According to our feasibility studies, the statistical power is sufficient and the exposure is stable enough to make the study worth the while. Results The publication of the present study protocol ends the design phase of the project. In the next phase, the questionnaire data will be forwarded to Statistics Denmark where they will be linked to data on deaths, migrations, socioeconomic status, and redeemed prescriptions for psychotropic medication. We expect the analysis to be completed by the end of 2014 and the results to be published mid 2015

  7. Long working hours and metabolic syndrome among Japanese men: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Tomoko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The link between long working hours and health has been extensively studied for decades. Despite global concern regarding metabolic syndrome, however, no studies to date have solely evaluated the relationship between long working hours and that syndrome. We therefore examined the association between long working hours and metabolic syndrome in a cross-sectional study. Methods Between May and October 2009, we collected data from annual health checkups and questionnaires from employees at a manufacturing company in Shizuoka, Japan. Questionnaires were returned by 1,601 workers (response rate: 96.2%; 1,314 men, 287 women. After exclusions, including women because of a lack of overtime work, the analysis was performed for 933 men. We calculated odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for metabolic syndrome. Further, we conducted a stratified analysis by age-group ( Results Metabolic syndrome was identified in 110 workers (11.8%. We observed a positive association between working hours and metabolic syndrome after adjusting for age, occupation, shift work, smoking status, frequency of alcohol consumption, and cohabiting status. Compared with subjects who worked 7–8 h/day, multivariate ORs for metabolic syndrome were 1.66 (95% CI, 0.91–3.01, 1.48 (95% CI, 0.75–2.90, and 2.32 (95% CI, 1.04–5.16 for those working 8–9 h/day, 9–10 h/day, and >10 h/day, respectively. Similar patterns were obtained when we excluded shift workers from the analysis. In age-stratified analysis, the corresponding ORs among workers aged ≥40 years were 2.02 (95% CI, 1.04–3.90, 1.21 (95% CI, 0.53–2.77, and 3.14 (95% CI, 1.24–7.95. In contrast, no clear association was found among workers aged Conclusions The present study suggests that 10 h/day may be a trigger level of working hours for increased risk of metabolic syndrome among Japanese male workers.

  8. Long working hours and subsequent use of psychotropic medicine: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannerz, Harald; Albertsen, Karen

    2014-09-19

    Mental ill health is the most frequent cause of long-term sickness absence and disability retirement in Denmark. Some instances of mental ill health might be due to long working hours. A recent large cross-sectional study of a general working population in Norway found that not only "very much overtime", but also "moderate overtime" (41-48 work hours/week) was significantly associated with increased levels of both anxiety and depression. These findings have not been sufficiently confirmed in longitudinal studies. The objective of the study is to give a detailed plan for a research project aimed at investigating the possibility of a prospective association between weekly working hours and use of psychotropic medicine in the general working population of Denmark. People from the general working population of Denmark have been surveyed, at various occasions in the time period 1995-2010, and interviewed about their work environment. The present study will link interview data from these surveys to national registers covering all inhabitants of Denmark. The participants will be followed for the first occurrence of redeemed prescriptions for psychotropic medicine. Poisson regression will be used to analyze incidence rates as a function of weekly working hours (32-40; 41-48; > 48 hours/week). The analyses will be controlled for gender, age, sample, shift work, and socioeconomic status. According to our feasibility studies, the statistical power is sufficient and the exposure is stable enough to make the study worth the while. The publication of the present study protocol ends the design phase of the project. In the next phase, the questionnaire data will be forwarded to Statistics Denmark where they will be linked to data on deaths, migrations, socioeconomic status, and redeemed prescriptions for psychotropic medication. We expect the analysis to be completed by the end of 2014 and the results to be published mid 2015. The proposed project will be free from hindsight bias

  9. Flexible work in call centres: Working hours, work-life conflict & health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohle, Philip; Willaby, Harold; Quinlan, Michael; McNamara, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Call-centre workers encounter major psychosocial pressures, including high work intensity and undesirable working hours. Little is known, however, about whether these pressures vary with employment status and how they affect work-life conflict and health. Questionnaire data were collected from 179 telephone operators in Sydney, Australia, of whom 124 (69.3%) were female and 54 (30.2%) were male. Ninety-three (52%) were permanent full-time workers, 37 (20.7%) were permanent part-time, and 49 (27.4%) were casual employees. Hypothesised structural relationships between employment status, working hours and work organisation, work-life conflict and health were tested using partial least squares modelling in PLS (Chin, 1998). The final model demonstrated satisfactory fit. It supported important elements of the hypothesised structure, although four of the proposed paths failed to reach significance and the fit was enhanced by adding a path. The final model indicated that casual workers reported more variable working hours which were relatively weakly associated with greater dissatisfaction with hours. The interaction of schedule control and variability of hours also predicted dissatisfaction with hours. Conversely, permanent workers reported greater work intensity, which was associated with both lower work schedule control and greater work-life conflict. Greater work-life conflict was associated with more fatigue and psychological symptoms. Labour market factors and the undesirability of longer hours in a stressful, high-intensity work environment appear to have contributed to the results. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  10. A physically active occupation does not result in compensatory inactivity during out-of-work hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigbe, William W; Lean, Michael E J; Granat, Malcolm H

    2011-01-01

    To examine differences in non-occupational physical activity behaviour in workers who engage in high and low occupational physical activity. Cross-sectional survey of 112 otherwise comparable volunteers in active (56 walking postal delivery workers) or inactive (56 administrative postal workers) occupations in Glasgow (Scotland) in 2007. Twenty four-hour physical activity (steps and time standing, walking and sedentary) patterns were measured using activPAL™ for seven days. Comparisons were made during 8-hour work-shifts, during non-work hours on work-days and during the 2 non-work days. Age and body mass index of delivery and office staff, respectively, were (means (SD)) 38 (9) years versus 40 (7) years and 26.3 (3) kg m(-2) versus 27.4 (4) kg m(-2). Delivery staff spent substantially longer time than office staff upright (6.0 (1.1) h versus 3.9 (1.5) h) and walking (3.1 (0.7) h versus 1.6 (0.7) h) and amassed more steps (16,035 (4264) versus 6709 (2808)) during 8-hour work-shifts and over 24h on work days. During non-work hours of work-days and during non-work days, there were no significant differences in physical activity between the groups. The results were unchanged when the 15 women were excluded. Having a more active occupation is not associated with more inactivity during non-work hours. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Psychosocial factors at work, long work hours, and obesity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovieva, Svetlana; Lallukka, Tea; Virtanen, Marianna; Viikari-Juntura, Eira

    2013-05-01

    Associations between psychosocial work environment and excess weight have not been systematically addressed. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the published evidence for the associations of psychosocial factors at work and long work hours with weight-related outcomes . Methods We conducted a search of Medline and Embase for all original articles published up to September 2012 using predefined keywords. After excluding studies with a definite selection bias, we included 39 articles. About 60% of the studies reported at least one positive association between psychosocial factors at work and a weight-related outcome. However, 76% of the tested associations were found to be non-significant. Furthermore, the associations were rather weak. Studies of higher quality tended to observe associations more often than those of lower quality. Positive associations were found more frequently (i) among women versus men, (ii) in cross-sectional versus longitudinal studies, and (iii) for overweight or obesity versus other outcomes. About 70% of the studies reported positive associations between long work hours and weight-related outcomes. All four studies that evaluated the association between working overtime and weight gain (three longitudinal and one cross-sectional), showed a positive association among men and two of them also observed associations among women. We found evidence for weak associations between psychosocial factors at work and excess weight. Associations were observed between long work hours, working overtime, and weight gain, especially among men. More cohort studies among non-obese baseline participants using appropriate analytical methods based on an elaborated hypothetical model are needed.

  12. Shift work, long working hours and preterm birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Melick, M J G J; van Beukering, M D M; Mol, B W; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Hulshof, C T J

    2014-11-01

    Specific physical activities or working conditions are suspected for increasing the risk of preterm birth (PTB). The aim of this meta-analysis is to review and summarize the pre-existing evidence on the effect of shift work or long working hours on the risk of PTB. We conducted a systematic search in MEDLINE and EMBASE (1990-2013) for observational and intervention studies with original data. We only included articles that met our specific criteria for language, exposure, outcome, data collection and original data that were of at least of moderate quality. The data of the included studies were pooled. Eight high-quality studies and eight moderate-quality studies were included in the meta-analysis. In these studies, no clear or statistically significant relationship between shift work and PTB was found. The summary estimate OR for performing shift work during pregnancy and the risk of PTB were 1.04 (95% CI 0.90-1.20). For long working hours during pregnancy, the summary estimate OR was 1.25 (95% CI 1.01-1.54), indicating a marginally statistically significant relationship but an only slightly elevated risk. Although in many of the included studies a positive association between long working hours and PTB was seen this did reach only marginal statistical significance. In the studies included in this review, working in shifts or in night shifts during pregnancy was not significantly associated with an increased risk for PTB. For both risk factors, due to the lack of high-quality studies focusing on the risks per trimester, in particular the third trimester, a firm conclusion about an association cannot be stated.

  13. Working hours of obstetrics and gynaecology trainees in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, Jade; Tucker, Paige E; Bulsara, Max K; Cohen, Paul A

    2017-10-01

    The importance of doctors' working hours has gained significant attention with evidence suggesting long hours and fatigue may compromise the safety and wellbeing of both patients and doctors. This study aims to quantify the working hours of The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RANZCOG) specialist trainees in order to better inform discussions of working hours and safety within our region. An anonymous, online survey of RANZCOG trainees was conducted. Demographic data were collected. The primary outcomes were: hours per week at work and hours per week on-call. Secondary outcomes included the frequency of long days (>12 h) and 24-h shifts, time spent studying, staff shortages and opinions regarding current rostering. Response rate was 49.5% (n = 259). Full-time trainees worked an average of 53.1 ± 10.0 h/week, with 11.6% working on-call. Long-day shifts were reported by 85.8% of respondents, with an average length of 14.2 h. Fifteen percent reported working 24-h shifts, with a median duration of uninterrupted sleep during this shift being 1-2 h. Trainees in New Zealand worked 7.0 h/week more than Australian trainees (P ≤0.001), but reported less on-call (P = 0.021). Trainees in Western Australia were more likely to work on-call (P ≤0.001) and 24-h shifts (P ≤0.001). While 53.1 h/week at work is similar to the average Australian hospital doctor, high rates of long days and 24-h shifts with minimal sleep were reported by RANZCOG trainees in this survey. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  14. Payroll data based description of working hours in the Danish regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Johnni; Kolstad, Henrik A.

    2018-01-01

    .0%); day/night (6.6%); evening/night (0.6%); and day/evening/night (10.2%). More men (9.1%) than women (5.9%) worked day/night, whereas more women (10.9%) than men (7.4%) worked day/evening/night. More young than older employees worked day/evening/night, and fewer worked permanent day or night. From 2008...... to 2015 we observed a trend towards more employees working permanent day and fewer employees working other schedules. Altogether DWHD provides a strong tool in research on working hours....

  15. Long working hours as a risk factor for atrial fibrillation: a multi-cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Kivimaki, M.; Nyberg, S. T.; Batty, G. D.; Kawachi, I.; Jokela, M.; Alfredsson, L.; Bjorner, J. B.; Borritz, M.; Burr, H.; Dragano, N.; Fransson, E. I.; Heikkila, K.; Knutsson, A.; Koskenvuo, M.; Kumari, M.

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: Studies suggest that people who work long hours are at increased risk of stroke, but the association of long working hours with atrial fibrillation, the most common cardiac arrhythmia and a risk factor for stroke, is unknown. We examined the risk of atrial fibrillation in individuals working long hours (≥55 per week) and those working standard 35–40 h/week. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this prospective multi-cohort study from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Work...

  16. Analysis of Office/Laboratory Staying Hour and Home Working Hour of Japanese Scientists and Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejiri, A.

    The second questionnaire for scientists and engineers was carried out in 2007, and status of Japanese scientists and engineers were analyzed and reported. A part of the data was reanalyzed from the viewpoint of work life balance. In particular, office/laboratory staying hour and home working hour were analyzed and dependences on various factors were investigated. It was found that these hours depend on gender, marital status, number of child, employment status and age. In addition, the total hours tend to be kept constant regardless of various factors.

  17. Work Hours Offer in Colombia: an Approach to its Determinants, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Eduardo Rangel Jiménez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available When participating in the job market, an individual must determine the amount of work hours to offer, a situation illustrated by economic theory through the income and substitution effects. This paper reports the results of the econometric estimation of a three-stage model of the hours of individual work for Colombia, based on the 2012 Quality of Life Survey. In the first stage, a model of the probability of being employed is made; then, a Mincer Equation corrected by selection bias is estimated and, finally, an equation of work hours is estimated using the Tobit model, in terms of wages predicted to correct endogeneity. Results show that the substitution effect takes precedence over the income effect; that age (up to a threshold, being head of household, having children under five years of age, being married or living in a common-law marriage and, finally, having a written employment contract, have a positive effect on the number of hours offered; on the other hand, unearned income has a negative effect on the number of hours offered.

  18. Work hours and sleep/wake behavior of Australian hospital doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sally A; Thomas, Matthew J W; Dorrian, Jillian; Jay, Sarah M; Weissenfeld, Adrian; Dawson, Drew

    2010-07-01

    The objective of the study was to describe the work and sleep patterns of doctors working in Australian hospitals. Specifically, the aim was to examine the influence of work-related factors, such as hospital type, seniority, and specialty on work hours and their impact on sleep. A total of 635 work periods from 78 doctors were analyzed together with associated sleep history. Work and sleep diary information was validated against an objective measure of sleep/wake activity to provide the first comprehensive database linking work and sleep for individual hospital doctors in Australia. Doctors in large and small facilities had fewer days without work than those doctors working in medium-sized facilities. There were no significant differences in the total hours worked across these three categories of seniority; however, mid-career and senior doctors worked more overnight and weekend on-call periods than junior doctors. With respect to sleep, although higher work hours were related to less sleep, short sleeps (work) were observed at all levels of prior work history (including no work). In this population of Australian hospital doctors, total hours worked do impact sleep, but the pattern of work, together with other nonwork factors are also important mediators.

  19. Working Hours Mismatch, Macroeconomic Changes, and Mental Well-being in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moortel, Deborah; Thévenon, Olivier; De Witte, Hans; Vanroelen, Christophe

    2017-06-01

    This study explores the association between involuntarily working less or more than the standard workweek and poor mental well-being, and whether this relationship is dependent upon (changing) national-level unemployment and gross domestic product growth rates. Data from the European Social Survey Round 2 (2004-2005) and Round 5 (2010) were analyzed. The sample included 16,224 male and 16,184 female employees. Mental well-being was assessed by the World Health Organization Well-being Index. Three-level linear multilevel modeling was used to account for clustering of employees within research years and countries. Working involuntary long hours was positively associated with poor mental well-being for men. For women, working voluntary long, involuntary long, and involuntary short hours were positively associated with poor mental well-being. The mental well-being of women working voluntary and involuntary long hours was negatively influenced by deteriorating economic conditions. This study suggests women are more vulnerable to the effects of long working hours and working hours mismatch on mental well-being, especially during difficult economic periods.

  20. Games at work: the recreational use of computer games during working hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, Leonard

    2009-08-01

    The present study investigated the recreational use of video and computer games in the workplace. In an online survey, 833 employed users of online casual games reported on their use of computer games during working hours. The data indicate that playing computer games in the workplace elicits substantial levels of recovery experience. Recovery experience associated with gameplay was the strongest predictor for the use of games in the workplace. Furthermore, individuals with higher levels of work-related fatigue reported stronger recovery experience during gameplay and showed a higher tendency to play games during working hours than did persons with lower levels of work strain. Additionally, the social situation at work was found to have a significant influence on the use of games. Persons receiving less social support from colleagues and supervisors played games at work more frequently than did individuals with higher levels of social support. Furthermore, job control was positively related to the use of games at work. In sum, the results of the present study illustrate that computer games have a significant recovery potential. Implications of these findings for research on personal computer use during work and for games research in general are discussed.

  1. Identifying Factors Reinforcing Robotization: Interactive Forces of Employment, Working Hour and Wage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonmo Cho

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Unlike previous studies on robotization approaching the future based on the cutting-edge technologies and adopting a framework where robotization is considered as an exogenous variable, this study considers that robotization occurs endogenously and uses it as a dependent variable for an objective examination of the effect of robotization on the labor market. To this end, a robotization indicator is created based on the actual number of industrial robots currently deployed in workplaces, and a multiple regression analysis is performed using the robotization indicator and labor variables such as employment, working hours, and wage. The results using the multiple regression considering the triangular relationship of employment–working-hours–wages show that job destruction due to robotization is not too remarkable yet that use. Our results show the complementary relation between employment and robotization, but the substituting relation between working hour and robotization. The results also demonstrate the effects of union, the size of the company and the proportion of production workers and simple labor workers etc. These findings indicate that the degree of robotization may vary with many factors of the labor market. Limitations of this study and implications for future research are also discussed.

  2. Impact of Age and Hearing Impairment on Work Performance during Long Working Hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Wagner-Hartl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on demographic prognoses, it must be assumed that a greater number of older workers will be found in the future labor market. How to deal with their possible age-related impairments of sensory functions, like hearing impairment and work performance during extended working time, has not been addressed explicitly until now. The study addresses this interplay. The study was performed on two consecutive days after normal working hours. The 55 participants had to “work” in the study at least three additional hours to simulate a situation of long working hours. The tested measures for (job performance were: general attention, long-term selective attention, concentration, and reaction time. All of the investigated variables were taken at both days of the study (2 × 2 × 2 repeated measurement design. The results show effects for age, the interaction of hearing impairment and time of measurement, and effects of the measurement time. Older participants reacted slower than younger participants did. Furthermore, younger participants reacted more frequently in a correct way. Hearing impairment seems to have a negative impact especially on measures of false reactions, and therefore especially on measurement time 1. The results can be interpreted in a way that hearing-impaired participants are able to compensate their deficits over time.

  3. Falls From Agricultural Machinery: Risk Factors Related to Work Experience, Worked Hours, and Operators' Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffaro, Federica; Roccato, Michele; Micheletti Cremasco, Margherita; Cavallo, Eugenio

    2018-02-01

    Objective We investigated the risk factors for falls when egressing from agricultural tractors, analyzing the role played by worked hours, work experience, operators' behavior, and near misses. Background Many accidents occur within the agricultural sector each year. Among them, falls while dismounting the tractor represent a major source of injuries. Previous studies pointed out frequent hazardous movements and incorrect behaviors adopted by operators to exit the tractor cab. However, less is known about the determinants of such behaviors. In addition, near misses are known to be important predictors of accidents, but they have been under-investigated in the agricultural sector in general and as concerns falls in particular. Method A questionnaire assessing dismounting behaviors, previous accidents and near misses, and participants' relation with work was administered to a sample of Italian tractor operators ( n = 286). Results A mediated model showed that worked hours increase unsafe behaviors, whereas work experience decreases them. Unsafe behaviors in turn show a positive association with accidents, via the mediation of near misses. Conclusions We gave a novel contribution to the knowledge of the chain of events leading to fall accidents in the agricultural sector, which is one of the most hazardous industries. Applications Besides tractor design improvements, preventive training interventions may focus on the redesign of the actual working strategies and the adoption of engaging training methods in the use of machinery to optimize the learning of safety practices and safe behaviors.

  4. Can hospital-based doctors change their working hours? Evidence from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, R; Hall, J

    2014-07-01

    To explore factors predicting hospital-based doctors' desire to work less, and then their success in making that change. Consecutive waves of an Australian longitudinal survey of doctors (Medicine in Australia-Balancing Employment and Life). There were 6285 and 6337 hospital-based completers in the two waves, consisting of specialists, hospital-based non-specialists and specialist registrars. Forty-eight per cent stated a preference to reduce hours. Predictive characteristics were being female and working more than 40 h/week (both P less likely to state the preference. Factors associated with not wanting to reduce working hours were being in excellent health and being satisfied with work (both P working hours, only 32% successfully managed to do so in the subsequent year (defined by a reduction of at least 5 h/week). Predictors of successfully reducing hours were being older, female and working more than 40 h/week (all P hours and then their subsequent success in doing so. Designing policies that seek to reduce attrition may alleviate some of the ongoing pressures in the Australian hospital system. © 2014 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  5. The impact of long work hours and shift work on cognitive errors in nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhéaume, Ann; Mullen, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Pilot study to examine the impact of long work hours and shift work on cognitive errors in nurses. Twelve-hour shifts are more commonly used in hospital settings and there is growing concern over the impact that extended and irregular work hours have on nurses' well-being and performance. Twenty-eight nurses working different shifts (8-hr days and 12-hr rotation) participated in this study. Nurses were assessed at the beginning of four consecutive shifts using actigraphy, a sleep diary and an after work questionnaire. Nurses working 12-hr rotations had less total sleep time and less sleep efficiency than 8-hr day nurses. Twelve-hour rotation nurses also napped more than their counterparts. There were no differences between the two groups with respect to cognitive errors. Twelve-hour rotations have a negative effect on nurses' sleep patterns. There is no evidence indicating 12-hr rotations increased errors. Nurse managers can implement specific strategies, such as greater shift work flexibility and designated quiet time, to reduce the effects of disturbed sleep patterns in nurses. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Long Working Hours and Coronary Heart Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Heikkilä, Katriina; Jokela, Markus; Ferrie, Jane E.; Batty, G. David; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika

    2012-01-01

    The authors aggregated the results of observational studies examining the association between long working hours and coronary heart disease (CHD). Data sources used were MEDLINE (through January 19, 2011) and Web of Science (through March 14, 2011). Two investigators independently extracted results from eligible studies. Heterogeneity between the studies was assessed using the I2 statistic, and the possibility of publication bias was assessed using the funnel plot and Egger's test for small-study effects. Twelve studies were identified (7 case-control, 4 prospective, and 1 cross-sectional). For a total of 22,518 participants (2,313 CHD cases), the minimally adjusted relative risk of CHD for long working hours was 1.80 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.42, 2.29), and in the maximally (multivariate-) adjusted analysis the relative risk was 1.59 (95% CI: 1.23, 2.07). The 4 prospective studies produced a relative risk of 1.39 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.72), while the corresponding relative risk in the 7 case-control studies was 2.43 (95% CI: 1.81, 3.26). Little evidence of publication bias but relatively large heterogeneity was observed. Studies varied in size, design, measurement of exposure and outcome, and adjustments. In conclusion, results from prospective observational studies suggest an approximately 40% excess risk of CHD in employees working long hours. PMID:22952309

  7. Occupational physical activities, working hours and outcome of pregnancy: findings from the Southampton Women's Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonzini, M; Coggon, D; Godfrey, K; Inskip, H; Crozier, S; Palmer, K T

    2009-10-01

    To investigate risks of physical activity at work by pregnancy trimester, including the effects on head and abdominal circumference. At 34 weeks of gestation we interviewed 1327 mothers from the prospective Southampton Women's Survey (SWS); we asked about their activities (working hours, standing/walking, kneeling/squatting, trunk bending, lifting and night shifts) in jobs held at each of 11, 19 and 34 weeks of gestation, and subsequently ascertained four birth outcomes (preterm delivery, small for gestational age (SGA) and reduced head or abdominal circumference) blinded to employment history. Risk of preterm delivery was elevated nearly threefold in women whose work at 34 weeks entailed trunk bending for >1 h/day. Small head circumference was more common in babies born to women who worked for >40 h/week. However, no statistically significant associations were found with SGA or small abdominal circumference, and preterm delivery showed little association with long working hours, lifting, standing or shift work. There is a need for more research on trunk bending late in pregnancy, and on the relationship of work to reduced head circumference. Our findings on several other occupational exposures common among pregnant workers are reassuring.

  8. The organization of working hours of selected employee categories in Czech businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbancová Hana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current dynamic working environment, the adaptation of working hours is an important instrument for supporting the work and performance of all groups of employees. It also serves as an instrument that encourages their identification with the company. The aim of this article is to identify and evaluate the utilization of individual methods of work organization among selected groups of employees in Czech companies across the gamut of the business sector. The analysed data comes from a quantitative questionnairebased survey (n=315. The results show that in the Czech companies, flexitime is most frequent among regular employees (51.7% and graduates up to 30 years old (24.1%. A reduced work schedule is most frequently used by mothers with children and senior citizens (41.3%, 27% and as part-time work among students (41%. The use of flexible working hours is an instrument of diversity management and builds the company brand through enlisting the cooperation of different groups of employees.

  9. Impact of Age and Hearing Impairment on Work Performance during Long Working Hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Hartl, Verena; Grossi, Nina R; Kallus, K Wolfgang

    2018-01-09

    Based on demographic prognoses, it must be assumed that a greater number of older workers will be found in the future labor market. How to deal with their possible age-related impairments of sensory functions, like hearing impairment and work performance during extended working time, has not been addressed explicitly until now. The study addresses this interplay. The study was performed on two consecutive days after normal working hours. The 55 participants had to "work" in the study at least three additional hours to simulate a situation of long working hours. The tested measures for (job) performance were: general attention, long-term selective attention, concentration, and reaction time. All of the investigated variables were taken at both days of the study (2 × 2 × 2 repeated measurement design). The results show effects for age, the interaction of hearing impairment and time of measurement, and effects of the measurement time. Older participants reacted slower than younger participants did. Furthermore, younger participants reacted more frequently in a correct way. Hearing impairment seems to have a negative impact especially on measures of false reactions, and therefore especially on measurement time 1. The results can be interpreted in a way that hearing-impaired participants are able to compensate their deficits over time.

  10. Depressed mood in the working population: associations with work schedules and working hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driesen, Karolien; Jansen, Nicole W H; Kant, Ijmert; Mohren, Danielle C L; van Amelsvoort, Ludovic G P M

    2010-07-01

    The impact of working time arrangements (WTA) on health has been studied extensively. Still, little is known about the interrelation between work schedules, working hours, and depressed mood. For work schedules, the underlying assumptions regarding depressed mood refer to a disturbance of social and biological rhythms, whereas for working hours, the assumptions relate to workload and work capacity. Conversely, depressed mood may urge an employee to adjust his/her work schedule and/or number of working hours/week (h/wk). The aim of this study was to assess the association between work schedule and working hours with depressed mood. Using baseline data from the Maastricht Cohort Study, depressed mood in day work was compared with depressed mood in different shiftwork schedules (n = 8843). Within day work, several categories of working h/wk were studied in association with depressed mood (n = 7217). The association between depressed mood and several aspects of overtime was assessed separately. Depressed mood was measured with a dichotomous item: "Did you feel down every day over the last two weeks?" Separate logistic regression analyses were conducted for men and women, with adjustments for potential confounders. The odds ratio (OR) for depressed mood was greater for men involved in shiftwork than for men only involved in day work (three-shift OR = 2.05 [95% confidence interval, CI 1.52-2.77]; five-shift OR = 1.34 [95% CI 1.00-1.80]; irregular-shift OR = 1.79 [95% CI 1.27-2.53]). In female employees, five-shift work was associated with a higher prevalence of depressed mood (OR = 5.96 [95% CI 2.83-12.56]). Regarding the number of working h/wk, men working working 36-40 h/wk (OR = 2.73 [95% CI 1.35-5.52]). After conducting trend analyses, a significant decreasing trend was found in men, whereas an increasing trend was found in women working a high number of hours. Furthermore, a dose-response relationship was present in men regarding the number of overtime h/wk. This

  11. No Variation in Patient Care Outcomes After Implementation of Resident Shift Work Duty Hour Limitations and a Hospitalist Model System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollier, John M; Wilson, Stephen D

    This study examines whether implementing a resident shift work schedule (RSWS) alone or combined with a hospitalist-led model system (HMS/RSWS) affects patient care outcomes or costs at a pediatric tertiary care teaching hospital. A retrospective sample compared pre- and postintervention groups for the most common primary discharge diagnoses, including asthma and cellulitis (RSWS intervention) and inflammatory bowel disease and diabetic ketoacidosis (HMS/RSWS intervention). Outcome variables included length of stay, number of subspecialty consultations, and hospitalization charges. For the RSWS intervention, the preintervention (n = 107) and postintervention (n = 92) groups showed no difference in any of the outcome variables. For the HMS/RSWS intervention, the preintervention (n = 98) and postintervention (n = 69) groups did not differ in demographics or length of stay. However, subspecialty consultations increased significantly during postintervention from 0.83 to 1.52 consults/hospitalization ( P care outcomes at a pediatric tertiary care teaching hospital.

  12. Working hours and health in nurses of public hospitals according to gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Juliana da Costa; Portela, Luciana Fernandes; Griep, Rosane Härter; Rotenberg, Lúcia

    2017-06-26

    To assess the association between weekly working hours and self-rated health of nurses in public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A total of 3,229 nurses (82.7% of the eligible group) participated in this cross-sectional study, carried out between April 2010 and December 2011. The collection instrument consisted of a self-administered multidimensional questionnaire. The weekly working hours were calculated from a recall of the daily hours worked over seven consecutive days; this variable was categorized according to tertiles of distribution for men and women. The outcome of interest, self-rated health, was categorized into three levels: good (very good and good), regular, and poor (poor and very poor). The statistical analysis of the data included bivariate and multivariate analyses, having as reference group those with short working hours (first tertile). All the analyses were stratified by gender and elaborated using the program SPSS. Among women, the group corresponding to the longest working week (more than 60.5 hours per week) were more likely to report regular self-rated health, compared with those with shorter working hours, after adjusting for confounding factors (OR = 1.30; 95%CI 1.02-1.67). Among men, those with average working hours (49.5-70.5 hours per week) were more than twice as likely to rate their health as regular (OR = 2.17; 95%CI 1.08-4.35) compared to those with shorter working hours (up to 49.5 hours). There was no significant association between long working hours and poor self-rated health. The results point to the urgent need to promote interventions in the organization of work and appreciation of the nursing profession, in order to reduce the number of multiple jobs and thus contribute to mitigate potential effects on the health of workers and the quality of care in hospitals. Avaliar a associação entre horas de trabalho semanais e autoavaliação de saúde de enfermeiros em hospitais públicos do Rio de

  13. Long hours in paid and domestic work and subsequent sickness absence: does control over daily working hours matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala-Mursula, L; Vahtera, J; Kouvonen, A; Väänänen, A; Linna, A; Pentti, J; Kivimäki, M

    2006-09-01

    To explore the associations of working hours (paid, domestic, commuting, and total) with sickness absence, and to examine whether these associations vary according to the level of employee control over daily working hours. Prospective cohort study among 25 703 full-time public sector employees in 10 towns in Finland. A survey of working hours and control over working hours was carried out in 2000-01. The survey responses were linked with register data on the number of self-certified (3 days) sickness absences until the end of 2003. Poisson regression analyses with generalised estimating equations were used to take into account the fact that the employees were nested within work units. Adjustments were made for work and family characteristics and health behaviour. The mean follow-up period was 28.1 (SD 8.1) months. Long domestic and total working hours were associated with higher rates of medically certified sickness absences among both genders. In contrast, long paid working hours were associated with lower rates of subsequent self-certified sickness absences. Long commuting hours were related to increased rates of sickness absence of both types. Low control over daily working hours predicted medically certified sickness absences for both the women and men and self-certified absences for the men. In combinations, high control over working hours reduced the adverse associations of long domestic and total working hours with medically certified absences. Employee control over daily working hours may protect health and help workers successfully combine a full-time job with the demands of domestic work.

  14. The Association between Long Working Hours and Self-Rated Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to determine the number of hours worked per week by full-time wage workers by using the data of the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study (KLIPS), which represents the domestic urban area household, and to determine the association between weekly working hours and the level of self-rated health. Methods We used data from the 11th KLIPS conducted in 2008. The subjects of this study were 3,699 full-time wage workers between the ages of 25 and 64 years. The association between weekly working hours and self-rated health was analyzed considering socio-demographic characteristics, work environment, and health-related behaviors. Results Among the workers, 29.7% worked less than 40 hours per week; 39.7%, more than 40 to 52 hours; 19.7%, more than 52 to 60 hours; and 10.9%, more than 60 hours per week. After controlling for socio-demographic variables, work environment-related variables, and health-related behavior variables, the odds ratio (OR) for poor self-rated health for the group working more than 40 hours and up to 52 hours was calculated to be 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.89-1.27) when the group working less than 40 hours per week was considered the reference. The OR for the group working more than 60 hours was 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10-1.83) and that for the group working more than 52 hours and up to 60 hours was 1.07 (95% CI, 0.86-1.33). After stratification by gender and tenure, the OR of the female workers group and that of the group with a tenure of more than 1 year were found to be significantly higher than those of the other groups. Conclusions This study showed that workers working more than 60 hours per week have a significantly higher risk of poor self-rated health than workers working less than 40 hours per week. This effect was more obvious for the female workers group and the group with a tenure of more than 1 year. In the future, longitudinal studies may be needed to determine the association between long working

  15. Influence of flexibility and variability of working hours on health and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Giovanni; Sartori, Samantha; Akerstedt, Torbjorn

    2006-01-01

    Flexible working hours can have several meanings and can be arranged in a number of ways to suit the worker and/or employer. Two aspects of "flexible" arrangement of working hours were considered: one more subjected to company control and decision (variability) and one more connected to individual discretion and autonomy (flexibility). The aim of the study was to analyze these two dimensions in relation to health and well-being, taking into consideration the interaction with some relevant background variables related to demographics plus working and social conditions. The dataset of the Third European Survey on working conditions, conducted in 2000 and involving 21,505 workers, was used. Nineteen health disorders and four psycho-social conditions were tested by means of multiple logistic regression analysis, in which mutually adjusted odds ratios were calculated for age, gender, marital status, number of children, occupation, mode of employment, shift work, night work, time pressure, mental and physical workload, job satisfaction, and participation in work organization. The flexibility and variability of working hours appeared inversely related to health and psycho-social well-being: the most favorable effects were associated with higher flexibility and lower variability. The analysis of the interactions with the twelve intervening variables showed that physical work, age, and flexibility are the three most important factors affecting health and well-being. Flexibility resulted as the most important factor to influence work satisfaction; the second to affect family and social commitment and the ability to do the same job when 60 years old, as well as trauma, overall fatigue, irritability, and headache; and the third to influence heart disease, stomachache, anxiety, injury, and the feeling that health being at risk because of work. Variability was the third most important factor influencing family and social commitments. Moreover, shift and night work confirmed to

  16. The Association between Long Working Hours and Self-Rated Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jun-Taek; Lee, Goeun; Kwon, Jongho; Park, Jung-Woo; Choi, Hyunrim; Lim, Sinye

    2014-01-20

    This study was conducted to determine the number of hours worked per week by full-time wage workers by using the data of the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study (KLIPS), which represents the domestic urban area household, and to determine the association between weekly working hours and the level of self-rated health. We used data from the 11th KLIPS conducted in 2008. The subjects of this study were 3,699 full-time wage workers between the ages of 25 and 64 years. The association between weekly working hours and self-rated health was analyzed considering socio-demographic characteristics, work environment, and health-related behaviors. Among the workers, 29.7% worked less than 40 hours per week; 39.7%, more than 40 to 52 hours; 19.7%, more than 52 to 60 hours; and 10.9%, more than 60 hours per week. After controlling for socio-demographic variables, work environment-related variables, and health-related behavior variables, the odds ratio (OR) for poor self-rated health for the group working more than 40 hours and up to 52 hours was calculated to be 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.89-1.27) when the group working less than 40 hours per week was considered the reference. The OR for the group working more than 60 hours was 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10-1.83) and that for the group working more than 52 hours and up to 60 hours was 1.07 (95% CI, 0.86-1.33). After stratification by gender and tenure, the OR of the female workers group and that of the group with a tenure of more than 1 year were found to be significantly higher than those of the other groups. This study showed that workers working more than 60 hours per week have a significantly higher risk of poor self-rated health than workers working less than 40 hours per week. This effect was more obvious for the female workers group and the group with a tenure of more than 1 year. In the future, longitudinal studies may be needed to determine the association between long working hours and various health effects in Korean

  17. Shift and night work and long working hours--a systematic review of safety implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Anthony Sverre; Sigstad Lie, Jenny-Anne

    2011-05-01

    In order to devise effective preventive strategies, it is important to study workplace stressors that might increase the risk of workplace accidents - both affecting workers themselves as well as causing harm to third-parties. The aim of this report is to provide a systematic, updated overview and scientific review of empirical research regarding accidents in relation to long work hours and shift work, primarily based on epidemiological studies. The search for articles was part of a large review study on the effects of work hours on various health outcomes, safety, and performance. The search strategy included 5 international scientific databases, and nearly 7000 articles were initially identified using our search string. Following the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 443 publications were found and evaluated using a pre-defined scoring system. Of these, 43 concerned safety and accidents but only 14 were considered to be of high quality (total score 2 or 3 on a scale from 0-3) and therefore used for this study. Both shift work and long working hours present a substantial and well-documented detrimental effect on safety - all the studies that are included in this review have one or more significant findings in this respect. The trends are quite coherent although the increases in accident rates are mostly from 50% to 100%. In epidemiological terms, this may be seen as rather small differences. The use of such data is therefore only of importance if the accident incidence is high or if accidents may have large effects. The findings are most relevant to safety-critical activities such as the transport and health sectors. Work periods >8 hours carry an increased risk of accidents that cumulates, so that the increased risk of accidents at around 12 hours is twice the risk at 8 hours. Shift work including nights carries a substantial increased risk of accidents, whereas "pure" night work may bring some protection against this effect due to

  18. Long working hours, socioeconomic status, and the risk of incident type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Working long hours might have adverse health effects, but whether this is true for all socioeconomic status groups is unclear. In this meta-analysis stratified by socioeconomic status, we investigated the role of long working hours as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We...... open-access data archives. Effect estimates from published and unpublished data from 222 120 men and women from the USA, Europe, Japan, and Australia were pooled with random-effects meta-analysis. FINDINGS: During 1·7 million person-years at risk, 4963 individuals developed diabetes (incidence 29 per......; and relative risks, odds ratios, or hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs, or sufficient information to calculate these estimates. Additionally, we used unpublished individual-level data from 19 cohort studies from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working-Populations Consortium and international...

  19. Work Hours of Immigrant Versus U.S.-Born Female Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sung-Heui

    2017-10-01

    This study was a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data extracted from the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey. Data from 8,931 full-time (i.e., 21 hours or more per week) women workers aged 18 to 85 years were analyzed to examine the nature and prevalence of immigrant female workers' work hours, overtime, and related factors in the United States compared to U.S.-born female workers. Results showed that foreign-born female workers did not work longer hours than U.S.-born female workers. Foreign-born female workers who reported poor health worked longer hours than did their U.S.-born counterparts. Foreign-born female workers who were self-employed or worked in family businesses tended to work longer hours than did those women who worked for private companies or nonprofit organizations.

  20. Risk of injury after evening and night work - findings from the Danish Working Hour Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena B; Larsen, Ann D; Dyreborg, Johnny

    2018-01-01

    during the past week increases risk of injury when reducing recall bias and unmeasured confounding. Methods We linked daily working hours at the individual level of 69 200 employees (167 726 person years from 2008-2015), primarily working at hospitals to registry information on 11 834 injuries leading......Objectives Evening and night work have been associated with higher risk of injury than day work. However, previous findings may be affected by recall bias and unmeasured confounding from differences between day, evening and night workers. This study investigates whether evening and night work...... to emergency room visits or death. Analyses were conducted with Poisson regression models in the full population including permanent day, evening and night workers, and in two sub-populations of evening and night workers, with both day and evening or night work, respectively. Thus, the exchangeability between...

  1. Headache prevalence and long working hours: the role of physical inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K; Hayashino, Y; Yamazaki, S; Takegami, M; Ono, R; Otani, K; Konno, S; Kikuchi, S; Fukuhara, S

    2012-07-01

    Headaches and long working hours are important issues for workers. This study investigated the association between hours worked and the prevalence of headaches, and how that association varies with physical activity. Cross-sectional study with two-stage cluster sampling. Using data from a nationally representative sample of households in Japan, people aged 20-65 years who worked ≥35 h/week were studied, and the cross-sectional association between the number of hours worked per week (35-45, 46-55 and >55 h/week) and the prevalence rates of headaches of different severity was evaluated. Of 721 workers, 307 reported experiencing at least one headache per month. Compared with working 35-45 h/week, the prevalence ratios of severe or disabling headaches among individuals working >55 h/week were 1.38 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.78] and 1.63 (95% CI 1.09-2.43), respectively. After stratification by the level of physical activity, the prevalence ratios were greater in the low-physical-activity group: 1.56 (95% CI 1.11-2.19) for severe headaches and 2.20 (95% CI 1.31-3.68) for disabling headaches. The number of hours worked was not associated with headaches in the high-physical-activity group. Among workers in the general population, long working hours were associated with the prevalence of headaches, and the association may depend on a lack of physical activity. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Working hours and the onset of depressive disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Imamura, Kotaro; Kawakami, Norito

    2016-12-01

    : This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to examine whether working beyond the standard working hours was associated with a greater risk of depressive disorder among workers included in published prospective studies. This manuscript was prepared according to the PRISMA guideline checklist. A database search was conducted using MEDLINE (PubMed), PsycINFO, and PsycARTICLES using a relevant set of keywords. The eligibility criteria were as follows: (1) participants were adult workers; (2) exposure was defined as overtime work; (3) outcome were depressive disorders clinically diagnosed or assessed by a structured interview and (4) the study design was prospective or cohort. 7 studies were identified in the systematic review and meta-analysis. Overtime work was associated with a small, non-significant, elevated risk of depressive disorder (pooled relative risk=1.075; 95% CI 0.834 to 1.387; p=0.575) in a random effects model. The association tended to be greater for women. The risk of working 50 or more hours per week was slightly but not significantly increased (pooled relative risk=1.241; 95% CI 0.880 to 1.750; p=0.218). The effect of overtime work on depressive disorder remains inconclusive and may be small if not negligible. Sex differences and the effect of longer working hours on depressive disorder should be addressed in the future. Prospero CRD42015020003; Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Work status, work hours and health in women with and without children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floderus, B; Hagman, M; Aronsson, G; Marklund, S; Wikman, A

    2009-10-01

    The authors studied self-reported health in women with and without children in relation to their work status (employed, student, job seeker or homemaker), work hours and having an employed partner. The study group comprised of 6515 women born in 1960-1979 who were interviewed in one of the Swedish Surveys of Living Conditions in 1994-2003. Self-rated health, fatigue and symptoms of anxiety were analysed. Having children increased the odds of poor self-rated health and fatigue in employed women, female students and job seekers. The presence of a working partner marginally buffered the effects. In dual-earner couples, mothers reported anxiety symptoms less often than women without children. Few women were homemakers (5.8%). The odds of poor self-rated health and fatigue increased with increasing number of children in employed women, and in women working 40 h or more. Poor self-rated health was also associated with the number of children in students. Many mothers wished to reduce their working hours, suggesting time stress was a factor in their impaired health. The associations between having children and health symptoms were not exclusively attributed to having young children. Having children may contribute to fatigue and poor self-rated health particularly in women working 40 h or more per week. Student mothers and job seeking mothers were also at increased risk of poor self-rated health. The results should be noted by Swedish policy-makers. Also countries aiming for economic and gender equality should consider factors that may facilitate successful merging of work and family life.

  4. [Gender differences in the relationship between long working hours and health status in Catalonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artazcoz, Lucía; Gutiérrez Vera, Anabel

    2012-01-01

    To analyze gender differences in the relationship of long working hours with type of contract, psychosocial risk factors and health status in Catalonia. Cross sectional study of a representative sample of the working population in Catalonia who worked up to 60 hours per week, interviewed in the 2005 I Survey of Working Conditions in Catalonia (1624 men and 1221 women). The analysis was conducted separately by sex and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted. The reference category was employees working 30-40 hours per week. In both sexes, working 41 to 60 hours per week was associated with non fixed term temporary contracts, low autonomy, low support from colleagues and high skill discretion. In addition, among women, they were also associated with high psychological demands. No relationship with self-perceived health status was observed, but working 41 to 60 hours a week was associated with job dissatisfaction in both sexes (crude odds ratio, 95% confidence intervals: cOR=1.52; 95%CI 1.05 to 2.18 for men; cOR=2.53; 95% CI 1.44 to 4.45 for women) and in women also with nervous disorders/depression (cOR=3.41; 95%CI 1.42 to 8.22). After adjustment for psychosocial risk factors, these associations disappeared among men but not in women. Long working hours are associated with non-fixed term temporary contracts and more psychosocial hazards, as well as with some health indicators, primarily among women. It is likely that the association with health status in women is partially explained by the sum of hours of paid and domestic and family work. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Seguretat i Medicina del Treball.

  5. Personal satisfaction and mentorship are critical factors for today's resident surgeons to seek surgical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukish, Jeffrey; Cruess, David

    2005-11-01

    The specific aim of this study was to summarize the viewpoints of the Resident and Associate Society of the American College of Surgeons (RAS-ACS) membership regarding current training and quality of life-related issues prior to implementation of the new duty-hour guidelines. The goal was to gain insight of the members that may be useful to recruit and guide the future training of surgical residents. An Internet-based survey was developed to evaluate the viewpoints of RAS-ACS. The survey was administered by Esurveymaker.com via the ACS Web page from 2000 to 2003. RAS-ACS member participation was voluntary and anonymous. Analyses were performed to determine the frequency of response for each survey item. Two hundred thirty-five members completed the survey representing 5 per cent of RAS-ACS. Eighty-four per cent were general surgery residents. Personal satisfaction (64%) and mentorship (49%) were top factors for respondents to pursue surgical training; discussion with colleagues and future income was less important. Forty-five per cent reported that job performance was their most important concern during residency. A rewarding surgical career and family life were ranked as the most important expectations. Eighty-six per cent reported that they were satisfied with their residency, and 66 per cent reported that work hours should be limited. Personal satisfaction and mentorship were critical factors for members of the RAS-ACS to seek surgical training. Although most of the members report that work hours should be limited, an overwhelming majority reports satisfaction with surgical training prior to institution of the new duty-hour guidelines. Further emphasis on mentorship and work-hour reform may be beneficial in recruiting medical students into surgical residencies.

  6. Working hours and self-rated health over 7 years: gender differences in a Korean longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seong-Sik; Ki, Myung; Kim, Keun-Hoe; Ju, Young-Su; Paek, Domyung; Lee, Wonyun

    2015-12-23

    To investigate the association between long working hours and self-rated health (SRH), examining the roles of potential confounding and mediating factors, such as job characteristics. Data were pooled from seven waves (2005-2011) of the Korean Labour and Income Panel Study. A total of 1578 workers who consecutively participated in all seven study years were available for analysis. A generalized estimating equation for repeated measures with binary outcome was used to examine the association between working hours (five categories; 20-35, 36-40, 41-52, 53-68 and ≥ 69 h) and SRH (two categories; poor and good health), considering possible confounders and serial correlation. Associations between working hours and SRH were observed among women, but only for the category of the shortest working hours among men. The associations with the category of shortest working hours among men and women disappeared after adjustment for socioeconomic factors. Among women, though not men, working longer than standard hours (36-40 h) showed a linear association with poor health; OR = 1.41 (95% CI = 1.08-1.84) for 52-68 working hours and OR = 2.11 (95% CI = 1.42-3.12) for ≥ 69 working hours. This association persisted after serial adjustments. However, it was substantially attenuated with the addition of socioeconomic factors (e.g., OR = 1.66 (95% CI = 1.07-2.57)) but only slightly attenuated with further adjustment for behavioural factors (e.g., OR = 1.63 (95% CI = 1.05-2.53)). The associations with job satisfaction were significant for men and women. The worsening of SRH with increasing working hours only among women suggests that female workers are more vulnerable to long working hours because of family responsibilities in addition to their workload.

  7. Working hours, work-life conflict and health in precarious and "permanent" employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Bohle

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The expansion of precarious employment in OECD countries has been widely associated with negative health and safety effects. Although many shiftworkers are precariously employed, shiftwork research has concentrated on full-time workers in continuing employment. This paper examines the impact of precarious employment on working hours, work-life conflict and health by comparing casual employees to full-time, "permanent" employees working in the same occupations and workplaces. METHODS: Thirty-nine convergent interviews were conducted in two five-star hotels. The participants included 26 full-time and 13 casual (temporary employees. They ranged in age from 19 to 61 years and included 17 females and 22 males. Working hours ranged from zero to 73 hours per week. RESULTS: Marked differences emerged between the reports of casual and full-time employees about working hours, work-life conflict and health. Casuals were more likely to work highly irregular hours over which they had little control. Their daily and weekly working hours ranged from very long to very short according to organisational requirements. Long working hours, combined with low predictability and control, produced greater disruption to family and social lives and poorer work-life balance for casuals. Uncoordinated hours across multiple jobs exacerbated these problems in some cases. Health-related issues reported to arise from work-life conflict included sleep disturbance, fatigue and disrupted exercise and dietary regimes. CONCLUSIONS:This study identified significant disadvantages of casual employment. In the same hotels, and doing largely the same jobs, casual employees had less desirable and predictable work schedules, greater work-life conflict and more associated health complaints than "permanent" workers.OBJETIVOS: O crescimento do número de empregos precários em países da OECD está largamente associado a efeitos negativos à saúde e segurança. Embora muitos

  8. Medical education and the ACGME duty hour requirements: assessing the effect of a day float system on educational activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roey, Steve

    2006-01-01

    In July 2003, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) instituted new resident work hour mandates, which are being shown to improve resident well-being and patient safety. However, there are limited data on the impact these new mandates may have on educational activities. To assess the impact on educational activities of a day float system created to meet ACGME work hour mandates. The inpatient ward coverage was changed by adding a day float team responsible for new patient admissions in the morning, with the on-call teams starting later and being responsible for new patient admissions thereafter. I surveyed the residents to assess the impact of this new system on educational activities-resident autonomy, attending teaching, conference attendance, resident teaching, self-directed learning, and ability to complete patient care responsibilities. There was no adverse effect of the day float system on educational activities. House staff reported increased autonomy, enhanced teaching from attending physicians, and improved ability to complete patient care responsibilities. Additionally, house staff demonstrated improved compliance with the ACGME mandates. The implementation of a novel day float system for the inpatient medicine ward service improved compliance with ACGME work duty requirements and did not adversely impact educational activities of the residency training program.

  9. Is suicidal ideation linked to working hours and shift work in Korea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Chang-Gyo; Bae, Kyu-Jung; Kang, Mo-Yeol; Yoon, Jin-Ha

    2015-01-01

    This study attempted to use the community health survey (CHS) to identify the effect of long working hours (long WHs) and night/shift work on suicidal ideation among the employed population of Korea. This study used data from 67,471 subjects who were administered the 2008 CHS which obtained information regarding sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors and working environment, using structured questionnaires and personal interviews. We adopted multiple logistic regression models for gender and employment stratification. Among male employees, suicidal ideation was significantly associated with only moderately long WHs (51-60 hours), after controlling covariates (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.30; 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 1.07 to 1.57). Self-employed/male employer populations had higher suicidal ideation when they had moderately long WHs (aOR, 1.23; 95%CI, 1.01 to 1.50) and very long WHs (over 60 hours) (aOR, 1.31; 95%CI, 1.08 to 1.59). Among the female population, suicidal ideation was significantly association with moderately long WHs in the employee group (aOR, 1.31; 95%CI, 1.08 to 1.58) and moderately (aOR, 1.35; 95%CI, 1.08 to 1.69) and very (aOR, 1.33; 95%CI, 1.07 to 1.65) long WHs in the self-employed/employer group. Shift work was a significant predictor only in the female population in the employee groups (aOR, 1.45; 95%CI, 1.23 to 1.70). Long WHs and shift work were associated with suicidal ideation when taking into account gender and employment differences. The harmful effects of exceptionally long WHs in Korea, among other Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, raise concerns about public and occupational health. To address the issue of long WHs, labor policies that reduce maximum working hours and facilitate job stability are needed.

  10. Long working hours as a risk factor for atrial fibrillation: a multi-cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivimäki, Mika; Nyberg, Solja T.; Batty, G. David; Kawachi, Ichiro; Jokela, Markus; Alfredsson, Lars; Bjorner, Jakob B.; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Dragano, Nico; Fransson, Eleonor I.; Heikkilä, Katriina; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Kumari, Meena; Madsen, Ida E.H.; Nielsen, Martin L.; Nordin, Maria; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan H.; Pentti, Jaana; Rugulies, Reiner; Salo, Paula; Shipley, Martin J.; Suominen, Sakari; Theorell, Töres; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerholm, Peter; Westerlund, Hugo; Steptoe, Andrew; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Hamer, Mark; Ferrie, Jane E.; Virtanen, Marianna; Tabak, Adam G.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aims Studies suggest that people who work long hours are at increased risk of stroke, but the association of long working hours with atrial fibrillation, the most common cardiac arrhythmia and a risk factor for stroke, is unknown. We examined the risk of atrial fibrillation in individuals working long hours (≥55 per week) and those working standard 35–40 h/week. Methods and results In this prospective multi-cohort study from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) Consortium, the study population was 85 494 working men and women (mean age 43.4 years) with no recorded atrial fibrillation. Working hours were assessed at study baseline (1991–2004). Mean follow-up for incident atrial fibrillation was 10 years and cases were defined using data on electrocardiograms, hospital records, drug reimbursement registers, and death certificates. We identified 1061 new cases of atrial fibrillation (10-year cumulative incidence 12.4 per 1000). After adjustment for age, sex and socioeconomic status, individuals working long hours had a 1.4-fold increased risk of atrial fibrillation compared with those working standard hours (hazard ratio = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.13–1.80, P = 0.003). There was no significant heterogeneity between the cohort-specific effect estimates (I2 = 0%, P = 0.66) and the finding remained after excluding participants with coronary heart disease or stroke at baseline or during the follow-up (N = 2006, hazard ratio = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.05–1.76, P = 0.0180). Adjustment for potential confounding factors, such as obesity, risky alcohol use and high blood pressure, had little impact on this association. Conclusion Individuals who worked long hours were more likely to develop atrial fibrillation than those working standard hours. PMID:28911189

  11. Long working hours as a risk factor for atrial fibrillation: a multi-cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivimäki, Mika; Nyberg, Solja T; Batty, G David; Kawachi, Ichiro; Jokela, Markus; Alfredsson, Lars; Bjorner, Jakob B; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Dragano, Nico; Fransson, Eleonor I; Heikkilä, Katriina; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Kumari, Meena; Madsen, Ida E H; Nielsen, Martin L; Nordin, Maria; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan H; Pentti, Jaana; Rugulies, Reiner; Salo, Paula; Shipley, Martin J; Suominen, Sakari; Theorell, Töres; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerholm, Peter; Westerlund, Hugo; Steptoe, Andrew; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Hamer, Mark; Ferrie, Jane E; Virtanen, Marianna; Tabak, Adam G

    2017-09-07

    Studies suggest that people who work long hours are at increased risk of stroke, but the association of long working hours with atrial fibrillation, the most common cardiac arrhythmia and a risk factor for stroke, is unknown. We examined the risk of atrial fibrillation in individuals working long hours (≥55 per week) and those working standard 35-40 h/week. In this prospective multi-cohort study from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) Consortium, the study population was 85 494 working men and women (mean age 43.4 years) with no recorded atrial fibrillation. Working hours were assessed at study baseline (1991-2004). Mean follow-up for incident atrial fibrillation was 10 years and cases were defined using data on electrocardiograms, hospital records, drug reimbursement registers, and death certificates. We identified 1061 new cases of atrial fibrillation (10-year cumulative incidence 12.4 per 1000). After adjustment for age, sex and socioeconomic status, individuals working long hours had a 1.4-fold increased risk of atrial fibrillation compared with those working standard hours (hazard ratio = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.13-1.80, P = 0.003). There was no significant heterogeneity between the cohort-specific effect estimates (I2 = 0%, P = 0.66) and the finding remained after excluding participants with coronary heart disease or stroke at baseline or during the follow-up (N = 2006, hazard ratio = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.05-1.76, P = 0.0180). Adjustment for potential confounding factors, such as obesity, risky alcohol use and high blood pressure, had little impact on this association. Individuals who worked long hours were more likely to develop atrial fibrillation than those working standard hours. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  12. A pilot study of the safety implications of Australian nurses' sleep and work hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrian, Jillian; Lamond, Nicole; van den Heuvel, Cameron; Pincombe, Jan; Rogers, Ann E; Dawson, Drew

    2006-01-01

    The frequency and severity of adverse events in Australian healthcare is under increasing scrutiny. A recent state government report identified 31 events involving "death or serious [patient] harm" and 452 "very high risk" incidents. Australia-wide, a previous study identified 2,324 adverse medical events (AME) in a single year, with more than half considered preventable. Despite the recognized link between fatigue and error in other industries, to date, few studies of medical errors have assessed the fatigue of the healthcare professionals involved. Nurses work extended and unpredictable hours with a lack of regular breaks and are therefore likely to experience elevated fatigue. Currently, there is very little available information on Australian nurses' sleep or fatigue levels, nor is there any information about whether this affects their performance. This study therefore aims to examine work hours, sleep, fatigue and error occurrence in Australian nurses. Using logbooks, 23 full-time nurses in a metropolitan hospital completed daily recordings for one month (644 days, 377 shifts) of their scheduled and actual work hours, sleep length and quality, sleepiness, and fatigue levels. Frequency and type of nursing errors, near errors, and observed errors (made by others) were recorded. Nurses reported struggling to remain awake during 36% of shifts. Moderate to high levels of stress, physical exhaustion, and mental exhaustion were reported on 23%, 40%, and 36% of shifts, respectively. Extreme drowsiness while driving or cycling home was reported on 45 occasions (11.5%), with three reports of near accidents. Overall, 20 errors, 13 near errors, and 22 observed errors were reported. The perceived potential consequences for the majority of errors were minor; however, 11 errors were associated with moderate and four with potentially severe consequences. Nurses reported that they had trouble falling asleep on 26.8% of days, had frequent arousals on 34.0% of days, and that

  13. The importance of individual preferences when evaluating the associations between working hours and indicators of health and well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Kecklund, Göran; Ingre, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that the effect of a given shift schedule may depend on individual factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a misfit between individual preferences and actual working hours affected the association between working hours and self-reported indicators...... and "non-day work", "weekend work" or "only a few consecutive days off" on the other hand was associated with an increased dissatisfaction with working hours and/or an increase in the intention to leave the workplace due to one's working hours....... of health and well-being. The study population consisted of 173 female eldercare workers who mainly worked day or evening shifts. We combined self-reported questionnaire data on preferences with actual work schedules during a four-week period. The study showed that a misfit between preferences on one hand...

  14. The Combined Effect of Long Working Hours and Low Job Control on Self-Rated Health: An Interaction Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seong-Sik; Ju, Young-Su; Paek, Domyung; Kim, Hyunjoo; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of long working hours and low job control on self-rated health. We analyzed employees' data obtained from the third Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS). Multiple survey logistic analysis and postestimation commands were employed to estimate the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI). The odds ratio (OR) for poor self-rated health was 1.24 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.13 to 1.35] for long working hours, 1.04 (95% CI: 0.97 to 1.13) for low job control, and 1.47 (95% CI: 1.33 to 1.62) for both long working hours and low job control. The RERI was 0.18 (95% CI: 0.02 to 0.34). These results imply that low job control may increase the negative influence of long working hours on self-rated health.

  15. Working 40 Hours or Not Working 39: Lessons from the 1981 Mandatory Reduction of Weekly Working Hours

    OpenAIRE

    Crépon, Bruno; Kramarz, Francis

    1999-01-01

    We use longitudinal individual wage, hours, and employment data to investigate the effect of the 1981 mandatory reduction of weekly working hours in France. A few months after François Mitterrand's election of May 1981, the government, applying its programme decided first to increase the minimum wage by 5% and, second, to reduce weekly working hours - from 40 to 39 - together with mandatory stability of monthly earnings of minimum wage workers and strong recommendation for stability of monthl...

  16. Experiences of reduced work hours for nurses and assistant nurses at a surgical department: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Gyllensten, Kristina; Andersson, Gunnar; Muller, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Background There is a shortage of registered nurses in the European Union (EU), and job dissatisfaction and perceived high work?family conflict have been identified as causes of nursing staff turnover. Reducing work hours is an organisational intervention that could have a positive effect on nurses? and assistant nurses? job satisfaction, work?life balance, and willingness to stay in the job. An orthopaedic surgery department at a large hospital in Sweden introduced reduced work hours for nur...

  17. On the wearing of anti-nuclear-buttons during working hours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebel, H.

    1980-01-01

    The paper discusses the controversial jurisdiction on the question as to whether employees or civil servants are allowed to wear so-called anti-nuclear buttons during working hours. Art. 5 of the Basic Law (basic right of freedom of expression) and its limitation by the laws relating to work, civil servants and schools form the legal basis for the admissibility or prohibition of the wearing of political buttons. As far as the factual decision in the individual case is concerned, the author proceeds on the assumption that there is the basic right of equality of Art. 3 of the Basic Law. A teacher who wears the button in school violates the right of equality twice, i.e. not only in his relation with the staff but also in his relation with the pupils. This does not call for the theory of interaction established by the Federal Administrative Court if, in fact, a problem posed by the right of equality is concealed behind the competitive relation of freedom of expression as defined by Art. 5 (1) of the Basic Law and the limitations by the general laws according to Art. 5 (2) of the Basic Law. (HSCH) [de

  18. Workplace flexibility, work hours, and work-life conflict: finding an extra day or two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E Jeffrey; Erickson, Jenet Jacob; Holmes, Erin K; Ferris, Maria

    2010-06-01

    This study explores the influence of workplace flexibility on work-life conflict for a global sample of workers from four groups of countries. Data are from the 2007 International Business Machines Global Work and Life Issues Survey administered in 75 countries (N = 24,436). We specifically examine flexibility in where (work-at-home) and when (perceived schedule flexibility) workers engage in work-related tasks. Multivariate results indicate that work-at-home and perceived schedule flexibility are generally related to less work-life conflict. Break point analyses of sub-groups reveal that employees with workplace flexibility are able to work longer hours (often equivalent to one or two 8-hr days more per week) before reporting work-life conflict. The benefit of work-at-home is increased when combined with schedule flexibility. These findings were generally consistent across all four groups of countries, supporting the case that workplace flexibility is beneficial both to individuals (in the form of reduced work-life conflict) and to businesses (in the form of capacity for longer work hours). However, work-at-home appears less beneficial in countries with collectivist cultures. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. From Minimum Wage to Standard Work Hour: HKSAR Labour Politics in Regime Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence K. K. Ho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight the significance of labour issues – namely, the minimum wage (MW and standard working hours (SWH – in shaping candidates’ electoral platforms in the 2012 chief executive (CE election of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR under the sovereignty of the People’s Republic of China (PRC. We first offer a brief review of labour politics regarding the MW case as a precursor to the SWH drafting and enactment process. We then provide an analytical delineation of some of the labour and socio-economic dimensions of the CE electoral contest by comparing the candidates’ campaign planks in relation to SWH. We then attempt to predict the likely course of the SWH debate under the leadership of Leung Chun-ying, who eventually won the CE election and assumed power on 1 July 2012. We conclude by examining Leung’s social engineering attempts to increase popular support amongst low- and middle-income (LMI households as part of his long-term strategy for the 2017 CE elections and his broader Beijing-entrusted political agenda.

  20. Association between long work hours and depressive state: a pilot study of propensity score matched Japanese white-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Mitsuo; Morita, Hiroshi

    2018-06-01

    Although long work hours have been associated with various physical health problems, studies of their association with mental health have yielded inconsistent results, due to differences in study settings, study outcome and/or unmeasured background factors. In this study, we used a propensity score method to evaluate the association between work hours and depressive state. A total of 467 Japanese white-collar workers were surveyed and divided into long and regular work hour groups according to overtime work records. Propensity score matching was performed based on 32 individual background and workplace factors, yielding 74 pairs of propensity-matched subjects. CES-D score, an indicator of depressive state, did not differ significantly among the two groups (p=0.203). However, work motivation, work control, social support and emotional stability correlated with CES-D score. These findings suggest that work control and social support factors are more associated with depressive state than control of work hours. These results also suggest that it is possible to use propensity score matching to evaluate the association between work hours and mental health in occupational study settings. Further studies, in larger populations, are required to determine the association between work hours and mental health parameters.

  1. Pediatric resident perceptions of shift work in ward rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Osamu; Mishina, Hiroki; Jasti, Harish; Sakai, Hirokazu; Ishiguro, Akira

    2017-10-01

    Although the long working hours of physicians are considered to be a social issue, no effective policies such as duty hour regulations have so far been proposed in Japan. We implemented an overnight call shift (OCS) system for ward rotations to improve the working environment for residents in a pediatric residency program. We later conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire asking the residents to compare this system with the traditional overnight call system. Forty-one pediatric residents participated in this survey. The residents felt that the quality of patient care improved (80.4% agreed). Most felt that there was less emphasis on education (26.8%) and more emphasis on service (31.7%). Overall, the residents reported that the OCS was beneficial (90.2%). In conclusion, the pediatric residents considered the OCS system during ward rotations as beneficial. Alternative solutions are vital to balance improvements in resident work conditions with the requirement for a high quality of education. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  2. BASS 4: a software system for ergonomic design and evaluation of working hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Schomann

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To extend an existing computer programme for the evaluation and design of shift schedules (BASS 3 by integrating workload as well as economic aspects. METHODS: The redesigned prototype BASS 4 includes a new module with a suitable and easily applicable screening method (EBA for the assessment of the intensity of physical, emotional and cognitive workload components and their temporal patterns. Specified criterion functions based on these ratings allow for an adjustment of shift and rest duration according to the intensity of physical and mental workload. Furthermore, with regard to interactive effects both workload and temporal conditions, e.g. time of day, are taken into account. In a second new module, important economic aspects and criteria have been implemented. Different ergonomic solutions for scheduling problems can now also be evaluated with regard to their economic costs. RESULTS: The new version of the computer programme (BASS 4 can now simultaneously take into account numerous ergonomic, legal, agreed and economic criteria for the design and evaluation of working hours. CONCLUSIONS: BASS 4 can now be used as an instrument for the design and the evaluation of working hours with regard to legal, ergonomic and economic aspects at the shop floor as well as in administrative (e.g. health and safety inspection and research problems.OBJETIVOS: Expandir um programa computacional existente para planejamento e avaliação dos horários de turnos (BASS 3 por meio da incorporação da carga de trabalho e características econômicas. MÉTODOS: O protótipo BASS 4 contém um novo módulo com um método de triagem (EBA conveniente e de fácil aplicação para a avaliação da intensidade dos componentes físico, emocional e cognitivo da carga de trabalho e seus padrões temporais. O uso de critérios específicos com base nestas avaliações possibilita ajustar a duração do turno e do descanso de acordo com a intensidade da carga de

  3. Employment, work hours and weight gain among middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, N; Hauck, K; Hollingsworth, B

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the influence of employment and work hours on weight gain and weight loss among middle-aged women. Quantile regression techniques were used to estimate the influence of employment and hours worked on percentage weight change over 2 years across the entire distribution of weight change in a cohort of middle-aged women. A range of controls was included in the models to isolate the effect of work status. A total of 9276 women aged 45-50 years at baseline who were present in both the 1996 and 1998 surveys of the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health. The women were a representative sample of the Australian population. Being out of the labour force or unemployed was associated with lower weight gain and higher weight loss than being employed. The association was stronger at low to moderate levels of weight gain. Among employed women, working regular (35-40), long (41-48) or very long (49+) hours was associated with increasingly higher levels of weight gain compared with working part-time hours. The association was stronger for women with greater weight gain overall. The association between unemployment and weight change became insignificant when health status was controlled for. Employment was associated with more weight gain and less weight loss. Among the employed, working longer hours was associated with more weight gain, especially at the higher levels of weight gain where the health consequences are more serious. These findings suggest that as women work longer hours they are more likely to make lifestyle choices that are associated with weight gain.

  4. [Sleep deprivation effects on cognitive, psychomotor skills and its relationship with personal characteristics of resident doctors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamui-Sutton, Liz; Barragán-Pérez, Virginia; Fuentes-García, Ruth; Monsalvo-Obregón, Erika Cristina; Fouilloux-Morales, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    In countries such as United States and European Nations changes have been proposed regarding to duty and academic structure of specialists in training, this implies adjustments in the norms concerning the number of hours a week that residents work. The main argument which has underpinned such transformations is based on the assumption that excessive working hours (more than 16 hours uninterrupted) cause cognitive and psychomotor disorders in residents. To evaluate the association between sleep deprivation and cognitive and psychomotor skills of a sample of residents of different specialties of Medicine. Longitudinal study with measurements pre and post shifts, in 31 residents of Medicine. The measured variables were: cognitive and psychomotor skills, demographic data and conditions of the shift, quality of sleep and psychopathology. 81% residents showed detriment in at least one of the tests, however, in psychomotor skills significant different results were found in CPR maneuvers between pre and post shift with an improvement in scores. Sleep deprivation causes detriment of cognitive and psychomotor skills. While our results can't be generalized, they may constitute a precedent for possible changes in the working hours of medical residencies.

  5. Interrelationships between romance, life quality, and medical training of female residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Jung; Hsu, Kan-Lin; Chang, Chin-Sung; Wu, Chih-Hsing

    2012-08-01

    For the past 30 years, there has been a steady increase in the number of female physicians, but the relationship between their romantic lives and their pattern of training has been inadequately reported. This study was designed to investigate the interrelationships between medical training, quality of life, and the attitudes that female residents have toward romance. Of the 106 female medical residents at our medical center in 2009, a total of 78 residents (73.6%) were enrolled for the study. Structured questionnaires (Cronbach α = 0.878), which included questions about female resident quality of life, attitude toward spousal choice, and the impact of programmed professional medical training, were self-administered through an anonymous process. Female residents, especially ward-care specialists, were determined to have excessively long working hours (84.6% > 88 work hours/week), insufficient and irregular sleep (44.9%), and inadequate personal time (73.1% friends, differences in values, and work-related stress. Those presumptive factors influencing romance between the assumed partner being a doctor or a "nondoctor" were significantly different with regard to lack of time (p = 0.002), values (p work-related stress (p life were significantly influenced by the pattern of medical training in female residents. Setting duty-hour limits and initiating a new hobby were determined to be potentially beneficial to their quality of life and attitudes toward romance. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Factors associated with intern noncompliance with the 2003 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's 30-hour duty period requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Christopher G; Antommaria, Armand H Matheny; Bale, James F; Ying, Jian; Greene, Tom; Srivastava, Rajendu

    2012-07-13

    In 2003 the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education mandated work hour restrictions. Violations can results in a residency program being cited or placed on probation. Recurrent violations could results in loss of accreditation. We wanted to determine specific intern and workload factors associated with violation of a specific mandate, the 30-hour duty period requirement. Retrospective review of interns' performance against the 30-hour duty period requirement during inpatient ward rotations at a pediatric residency program between June 24, 2008 and June 23, 2009. The analytical plan included both univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Twenty of the 26 (77%) interns had 80 self-reported episodes of continuous work hours greater than 30 hours. In multivariable analysis, noncompliance was inversely associated with the number of prior inpatient rotations (odds ratio: 0.49, 95% confidence interval (0.38, 0.64) per rotation) but directly associated with the total number of patients (odds ratio: 1.30 (1.10, 1.53) per additional patient). The number of admissions on-call, number of admissions after midnight and number of discharges post-call were not significantly associated with noncompliance. The level of noncompliance also varied significantly between interns after accounting for intern experience and workload factors. Subject to limitations in statistical power, we were unable to identify specific intern characteristics, such as demographic variables or examination scores, which account for the variation in noncompliance between interns. Both intern and workload factors were associated with pediatric intern noncompliance with the 30-hour duty period requirement during inpatient ward rotations. Residency programs must develop information systems to understand the individual and experience factors associated with noncompliance and implement appropriate interventions to ensure compliance with the duty hour regulations.

  7. Daily sleep, weekly working hours, and risk of work-related injury: US National Health Interview Survey (2004-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, David A; Folkard, Simon; Willetts, Joanna L; Smith, Gordon S

    2010-07-01

    The impact on health and safety of the combination of chronic sleep deficits and extended working hours has received worldwide attention. Using the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), an in-person household survey using a multistage, stratified, clustered sample design representing the US civilian, non-institutionalized population, the authors estimated the effect of total daily self-reported sleep time and weekly working hours on the risk of a work-related injury. During the survey period 2004-2008, 177,576 persons (ages 18-74) sampled within households reported that they worked at a paid job the previous week and reported their total weekly work hours. A randomly selected adult in each household (n = 75,718) was asked to report his/her usual (average) total daily sleep hours the prior week; complete responses were obtained for 74,415 (98.3%) workers. Weighted annualized work-related injury rates were then estimated across a priori defined categories of both average total daily sleep hours and weekly working hours. To account for the complex sampling design, weighted multiple logistic regression was used to independently estimate the risk of a work-related injury for categories of usual daily sleep duration and weekly working hours, controlling for important covariates and potential confounders of age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, type of pay, industry, occupation (proxy for job risk), body mass index, and the interaction between sleep duration and work hours. Based on the inclusion criteria, there were an estimated 129,950,376 workers annually at risk and 3,634,446 work-related medically treated injury episodes (overall injury rate 2.80/100 workers). Unadjusted annualized injury rates/100 workers across weekly work hours were 2.03 (60 h). With regards to self-reported daily sleep time, the estimated annualized injury rates/100 workers were 7.89 (10 h). After controlling for weekly work hours, and aforementioned covariates, significant increases in risk/1

  8. Work hours and incidence of hypertension among Spanish university graduates: the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Adriano M; Beunza, Juan J; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Alonso, Alvaro; López, Celeste N; Velásquez-Meléndez, Gustavo; Martínez-González, Miguel A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between work hours and incidence of hypertension in 8779 participants of a Spanish dynamic prospective cohort of university graduates. The baseline questionnaire included information about the weekly number of hours the participants devoted to work and to home chores. The work hours were grouped into four categories: 39 or less, 40-49, 50-59, and at least 60 for men; 29 or less, 30-39, 40-49, and at least 50 for women. We added up the number of hours working and spent in home chores in what we called 'total activity hours' that was categorized in quartiles, specific by sex. A participant was classified as an incident case of hypertension if he/she was initially free of hypertension at baseline and reported a physician-made diagnosis of hypertension in at least one of the follow-up questionnaires. The associations between work hours or 'total activity hours' and incidence of hypertension were estimated by calculating the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio and its 95% confidence interval, using logistic regression models. The cumulative incidence of hypertension during 4.2 years median follow-up was 5.8%. No association was found between work hours or 'total activity hours' and incidence of hypertension in either sex. The results of our study do not support any association between work hours and incidence of hypertension. Further longitudinal studies in the general population should be conducted to test this relationship.

  9. Investigation of Psychophysiological and Subjective Effects of Long Working Hours – Do Age and Hearing Impairment Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Hartl, Verena; Kallus, K. Wolfgang

    2018-01-01

    Following current prognosis, demographic development raises expectations of an aging of the working population. Therefore, keeping employees healthy and strengthening their ability to work, becomes more and more important. When employees become older, dealing with age-related impairments of sensory functions, such as hearing impairment, is a central issue. Recent evidence suggests that negative effects that are associated with reduced hearing can have a strong impact at work. Especially under exhausting working situations such as working overtime hours, age and hearing impairment might influence employees’ well-being. Until now, neither the problem of aged workers and long working hours, nor the problem of hearing impairment and prolonged working time has been addressed explicitly. Therefore, a laboratory study was examined to answer the research question: Do age and hearing impairment have an impact on psychophysiological and subjective effects of long working hours. In total, 51 white-collar workers, aged between 24 and 63 years, participated in the laboratory study. The results show no significant effects for age and hearing impairment on the intensity of subjective consequences (perceived recovery and fatigue, subjective emotional well-being and physical symptoms) of long working hours. However, the psychophysiological response (the saliva cortisol level) to long working hours differs significantly between hearing impaired and normal hearing employees. Interestingly, the results suggest that from a psychophysiological point of view long working hours were more demanding for normal hearing employees. PMID:29379452

  10. Investigation of Psychophysiological and Subjective Effects of Long Working Hours – Do Age and Hearing Impairment Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Wagner-Hartl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Following current prognosis, demographic development raises expectations of an aging of the working population. Therefore, keeping employees healthy and strengthening their ability to work, becomes more and more important. When employees become older, dealing with age-related impairments of sensory functions, such as hearing impairment, is a central issue. Recent evidence suggests that negative effects that are associated with reduced hearing can have a strong impact at work. Especially under exhausting working situations such as working overtime hours, age and hearing impairment might influence employees’ well-being. Until now, neither the problem of aged workers and long working hours, nor the problem of hearing impairment and prolonged working time has been addressed explicitly. Therefore, a laboratory study was examined to answer the research question: Do age and hearing impairment have an impact on psychophysiological and subjective effects of long working hours. In total, 51 white-collar workers, aged between 24 and 63 years, participated in the laboratory study. The results show no significant effects for age and hearing impairment on the intensity of subjective consequences (perceived recovery and fatigue, subjective emotional well-being and physical symptoms of long working hours. However, the psychophysiological response (the saliva cortisol level to long working hours differs significantly between hearing impaired and normal hearing employees. Interestingly, the results suggest that from a psychophysiological point of view long working hours were more demanding for normal hearing employees.

  11. O plantão noturno em anestesia reduz a latência ao sono El plantón nocturno en anestesia reduce la latencia al sueño Short sleep latency in residents after a period on duty in anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Andrade da Silva Telles Mathias

    2004-10-01

    ñana, después 24 horas de trabajo, sin dormir, sin plantón en los 3 días anteriores (M2; a las 13 horas de la tarde, después de 30 horas de trabajo, sin dormir, sin plantón en los 3 días anteriores (M3. En todas esas situaciones fue realizado electroencefalograma (EEG continuo, en sala apropiada para registro de los señales de sueño, evaluándose la latencia del sueño (LS. RESULTADOS: Se Verificó reducción significativa de la LS entre los residentes, después de 24 ó 30 horas de plantón sin dormir. Entre los praticantes que tuvieron noche de sueño normal en la víspera del examen, 36,4% presentaron LS en nivel considerado patológico. CONCLUSIONES: La jornada de plantón de 24 ó 30 horas lleva a valores de LS menores que 5 minutos, considerados patológicos, reflejando la fatiga extrema de residentes de Anestesiologia. Pode ser importante la reglamentación del número de horas de descanso pos-plantón.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Physicians in general, and anesthesiologists in particular, have long working hours. Residents of Anesthesiology may present significant fatigue and stress. This study aimed at investigating first and second year residents’ sleep latency after a period on duty. METHODS: Participated in this study 11 residents in different situations: at 7:00 am, after a normal night sleep (> 7 h, without on duty period in the last 3 days (M1; at 7:00 am, after 24h of night work, without on duty period in the last 3 days (M2; and at 1:00 pm after 30h of work without on duty period in the last 3 days (M3. Continuous EEG was performed for all situations in adequate room to record sleep signals. Sleep latency (SL was evaluated. RESULTS: There has been significant shorter SL among residents after 24 or 30 hours without sleep. From residents after a normal night sleep the day before the evaluation, 36.4% presented pathological SL levels. CONCLUSIONS: Periods on duty for 24 or 30 hours lead to SL values below 5 minutes, which are considered pathologic and

  12. Does graded return-to-work improve sick-listed workers' chance of returning to regular working hours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgelund, Jan; Holm, Anders; McIntosh, James

    2010-01-01

    Using Danish register and survey data, we examine the effect of a national graded return-to-work program on the probability of sick-listed workers returning to regular working hours. During program participation, the sick-listed worker works fewer hours and receives the normal hourly wage for the hours worked and sickness benefit for the hours off work. When the worker's health improves, working hours are increased until the sick-listed worker is able to work regular hours. Taking account of unobserved differences between program participants and non-participants, we find that participation in the program significantly increases the probability of returning to regular working hours. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Work-based resources as moderators of the relationship between work hours and satisfaction with work-family balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcour, Monique

    2007-11-01

    This study reports an investigation of the relationships of work hours, job complexity, and control over work time to satisfaction with work-family balance. Based on data from a sample of 570 telephone call center representatives, a moderated hierarchical regression analysis revealed that work hours were negatively related to satisfaction with work-family balance, consistent with the resource drain perspective. Job complexity and control over work time were positively associated with satisfaction with work-family balance. Control over work time moderated the relationship such that as work hours rose, workers with low control experienced a decline in work-family balance satisfaction, while workers with high control did not. Results encourage greater research attention to work characteristics, such as job complexity and control over work time, and skills that represent resources useful to the successful integration of work and family demands. (c) 2007 APA

  14. Age-related differences in working hours among male and female GPs: an SMS-based time use study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hassel, Daniël; van der Velden, Lud; de Bakker, Dinny; Batenburg, Ronald

    2017-12-19

    In several countries, the number of hours worked by general practitioners (GPs) has decreased, raising concern about current and impending workforce shortages. This shorter working week has been ascribed both to the feminisation of the workforce and to a younger generation of GPs who prefer more flexible working arrangements. There is, however, limited insight into how the impact of these determinants interact. We investigated the relative importance of differences in GPs' working hours in relation to gender, age, and employment position. An analysis was performed on real-time monitoring data collected by sending SMS text messages to 1051 Dutch GPs, who participated during a 1-week time use study. We used descriptive statistics, independent sample t-tests, and one-way ANOVA analysis to compare the working time of different GP groups. A path analysis was conducted to examine the difference in working time by gender, age, employment position, and their combinations. Female GPs worked significantly fewer hours than their male peers. GPs in their 50s worked the highest number of hours, followed by GPs age 60 and older. GPs younger than 40 worked the lowest number of hours. This relationship between working hours and age was not significantly different for women and men. As shown by path analysis, female GPs consistently worked fewer hours than their male counterparts, regardless of their age and employment position. The relationship between age and working hours was largely influenced by gender and employment position. The variation in working hours among GPs can be explained by the combination of gender, age, and employment position. Gender appears to be the most important predictor as the largest part of the variation in working hours is explained by a direct effect of this variable. It has previously been reported that the difference in working hours between male and female GPs had decreased over time. However, our findings suggest that gender remains a critical

  15. The Identification of a Threshold of Long Work Hours for Predicting Elevated Risks of Adverse Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Sadie H; Pompeii, Lisa A; Gimeno Ruiz de Porras, David; Follis, Jack L; Roberts, Robert E

    2017-07-15

    Working long hours has been associated with adverse health outcomes. However, a definition of long work hours relative to adverse health risk has not been established. Repeated measures of work hours among approximately 2,000 participants from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1986-2011), conducted in the United States, were retrospectively analyzed to derive statistically optimized cutpoints of long work hours that best predicted three health outcomes. Work-hours cutpoints were assessed for model fit, calibration, and discrimination separately for the outcomes of poor self-reported general health, incident cardiovascular disease, and incident cancer. For each outcome, the work-hours threshold that best predicted increased risk was 52 hours per week or more for a minimum of 10 years. Workers exposed at this level had a higher risk of poor self-reported general health (relative risk (RR) = 1.28; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 1.53), cardiovascular disease (RR = 1.42; 95% CI: 1.24, 1.63), and cancer (RR = 1.62; 95% CI: 1.22, 2.17) compared with those working 35-51 hours per week for the same duration. This study provides the first health risk-based definition of long work hours. Further examination of the predictive power of this cutpoint on other health outcomes and in other study populations is needed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Attitudes toward working conditions: are European Union workers satisfied with their working hours and work-life balance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matilla-Santander, Nuria; Lidón-Moyano, Cristina; González-Marrón, Adrián; Bunch, Kailey; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Sánchez, José M

    2017-12-23

    To describe the satisfaction with working hours and satisfaction with work-life balance and their association in the European Union (EU-28). This is a cross-sectional study based on data from the Flash Eurobarometer 398 among workers of the EU-28 from 2014 (n=13,683). We calculated percentages and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). We also applied a multi-level generalised linear model using the Poisson family, to calculate the adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) of satisfaction with work-life balance based on working hours. All analyses were stratified by individual, employment and welfare regime country classification. The satisfaction with working hours and work-life balance was 80.62% and 74.48%, respectively, and was significantly higher among women. The highest percentages of satisfaction were found in the Nordic welfare regime countries (90.2% and 85.3%, respectively). There was a statistically significant association between satisfaction with working hours and work-life balance (aPR: 2.63; 95%CI: 2.28-3.04), and the magnitude of the association differed in individual, employment and welfare regime country classifications. The main reasons declared for dissatisfaction were "excessive working hours" (48.7%), "shift work" (27.9%), and "inability to influence the work schedule" (28.3%). Differences were observed according to sex and type of welfare regime. The differences found in the association between satisfaction with work-life balance and working hours according to sociodemographic characteristics and welfare regime show that there are inequalities in the working conditions in the EU countries. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. It is worth 10 million working hours a year to have your toilet paper folded?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljung, Rickard; Ljung, Hedvig; Ljung, Harald

    2016-01-01

    From our experience the toilet paper is folded in the bathrooms in rooms in branded hotels. We aimed to study the total time yearly spent in the world on folding hotel toilet paper. Three investigators clocked 60 folding toilet paper events and calculated the mean time. The mean folding time was 5.73 s (interquartile range 4.50-6.56). Using the calculated extra time it takes to fold the toilet paper and the number of hotel nights spent we estimated the total time spent in the world each year to fold the toilet paper. For sensitivity analyses we used different assumptions on number of hotel beds, occupancy rate and folding time. Assuming an extra 10 s spent on folding toilet paper, approximately 10 million hours are globally spent on folding toilet paper every year. This corresponds to more than 5000 man-years of work. In a hotel with yearly full coverage of 200 beds skipping folding the toilet paper corresponds to around 200 h of time that could be spent elsewhere. To take away unnecessary duties from hotel room cleaners would increase their health and well-being and save time that could be better spent. Is it really defendable and appropriate that someone else has spent time on folding the toilet paper you are just about to use?

  18. Experiences of reduced work hours for nurses and assistant nurses at a surgical department: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllensten, Kristina; Andersson, Gunnar; Muller, Helena

    2017-01-01

    There is a shortage of registered nurses in the European Union (EU), and job dissatisfaction and perceived high work-family conflict have been identified as causes of nursing staff turnover. Reducing work hours is an organisational intervention that could have a positive effect on nurses' and assistant nurses' job satisfaction, work-life balance, and willingness to stay in the job. An orthopaedic surgery department at a large hospital in Sweden introduced reduced work hours for nurses and assistant nurses in order to improve the working situation. The aim of the study was to investigate the experiences of reduced work hours and no lunch breaks among nurses and assistant nurses at an orthopaedic surgery department at a hospital in Sweden, with a particular focus on recovery and psychosocial working environment. A qualitative design was used in the study. Eleven nurses and assistant nurses working at the particular orthopaedic department took part in the study, and semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. The interviews were analysed by interpretative phenomenological analysis. Four main themes were developed in the analysis of the data: A more sustainable working situation, Improved work-life balance, Consequences of being part of a project, and Improved quality of care. Each theme consisted of subthemes. Overall, reduced work hours appeared to have many, mainly positive, effects for the participants in both work and home life.

  19. 48 CFR 852.222-70 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement. 852.222-70 Section 852.222-70 Federal...—nursing home care contract supplement. As prescribed in 822.305, for nursing home care requirements, insert the following clause: Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act—Nursing Home Care Contract...

  20. Women’s working hours: The interplay between gender role attitudes, motherhood, and public childcare support in 23 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andringa, Wouter; Nieuwenhuis, Rense; van Gerven-Haanpää, Minna Marja-Leena

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show how the interplay between individual women’s gender role attitudes, having young children at home, as well as the country-context characterized by gender egalitarianism and public childcare support, relates to women’s working hours in 23 European

  1. Investigating the associations between work hours, sleep status, and self-reported health among full-time employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Akinori

    2012-04-01

    The extent to which work hours and sleep are associated with self-rated health (SRH) was investigated in full-time employees of small- and medium-scale businesses (SMBs) in a suburb of Tokyo. A total of 2,579 employees (1,887 men and 692 women), aged 18-79 (mean 45) years, in 296 SMBs were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire from August to December 2002. Work hours, sleep, and SRH were evaluated. Compared with those working 6-8 h/day, participants working >8 to 10 h/day and >10 h/day had significantly higher odds of suboptimal SRH [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.36 and 1.87, respectively]. Similarly, compared with those sleeping 6+ h/day and sufficient sleep, participants with short sleep (work hours with short sleep (aOR 3.30) or insufficient sleep (aOR 3.40) exerted synergistic negative associations on SRH. This study suggests that long work hours and poor sleep and its combination are associated with suboptimal SRH.

  2. Association among Working Hours, Occupational Stress, and Presenteeism among Wage Workers: Results from the Second Korean Working Conditions Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sung-Hwan; Leem, Jong-Han; Park, Shin-Goo; Heo, Yong-Seok; Lee, Bum-Joon; Moon, So-Hyun; Jung, Dal-Young; Kim, Hwan-Cheol

    2014-03-24

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the association between presenteeism and long working hours, shiftwork, and occupational stress using representative national survey data on Korean workers. We analyzed data from the second Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS), which was conducted in 2010, in which a total of 6,220 wage workers were analyzed. The study population included the economically active population aged above 15 years, and living in the Republic of Korea. We used the chi-squared test and multivariate logistic regression to test the statistical association between presenteeism and working hours, shiftwork, and occupational stress. Approximately 19% of the workers experienced presenteeism during the previous 12 months. Women had higher rates of presenteeism than men. We found a statistically significant dose-response relationship between working hours and presenteeism. Shift workers had a slightly higher rate of presenteeism than non-shift workers, but the difference was not statistically significant. Occupational stress, such as high job demand, lack of rewards, and inadequate social support, had a significant association with presenteeism. The present study suggests that long working hours and occupational stress are significantly related to presenteeism.

  3. Long working hours and alcohol risk among Australian and New Zealand nurses and midwives: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluter, Philip J; Turner, Catherine; Benefer, Christine

    2012-06-01

    The relationship between long working hours and harmful alcohol consumption reported in the literature is equivocal. This study aimed to investigate this relationship in a methodologically rigorous fashion. A cross-sectional analysis of a large cohort study of Australian and New Zealand nurses and midwives was undertaken. Psychometrically robust standardised assessments of alcohol consumption and problems and other key variables were elicited using an electronic survey. Crude and adjusted logistic regression models using complete case and multistage multiple imputed data were employed. The study included 4419 participants, 3552 from Australia and 867 from New Zealand. Long working hours were common, with 33.2% working 40-49 h/week and 7.5% working ≥50 h/week. Overall, 13.9% engaged in harmful daily drinking. Significant associations between long working hours and harmful daily alcohol consumption was seen in crude and adjusted complete case and imputed logistic regression models. In the adjusted model with imputed data, the odds of harmful daily drinking increased by 1.17 (95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.36) between work long hours. Since the late 1970s, the average hours worked by full-time employees in Australia has increased. Unless these long working hours can be curbed, workforce policies and programmes aimed at prevention, supportive and empathetic intervention, and recovery need to be instigated; both to protect patients and the nurses and midwives themselves. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Association among Working Hours, Occupational Stress, and Presenteeism among Wage Workers: Results from the Second Korean Working Conditions Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the present study was to identify the association between presenteeism and long working hours, shiftwork, and occupational stress using representative national survey data on Korean workers. Methods We analyzed data from the second Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS), which was conducted in 2010, in which a total of 6,220 wage workers were analyzed. The study population included the economically active population aged above 15 years, and living in the Republic of Korea. We used the chi-squared test and multivariate logistic regression to test the statistical association between presenteeism and working hours, shiftwork, and occupational stress. Results Approximately 19% of the workers experienced presenteeism during the previous 12 months. Women had higher rates of presenteeism than men. We found a statistically significant dose–response relationship between working hours and presenteeism. Shift workers had a slightly higher rate of presenteeism than non-shift workers, but the difference was not statistically significant. Occupational stress, such as high job demand, lack of rewards, and inadequate social support, had a significant association with presenteeism. Conclusions The present study suggests that long working hours and occupational stress are significantly related to presenteeism. PMID:24661575

  5. Australian employer usage of the practice of offering reduced working hours to workers close to retirement: Extent and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Philip; Earl, Catherine; McLoughlin, Christopher

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to determine factors associated with the implementation by employers of the practice of offering reduced working hours for workers nearing retirement. Data came from a survey of 2000 employers of more than 50 employees each (30% response rate). A minority (33%) of employers offered reduced working hours to older workers nearing retirement. Factors associated with offering reduced working hours were: expecting workforce ageing to cause a loss of staff to retirement; being a large employer; being a public/not-for-profit sector employer; not experiencing difficulties recruiting labourers; having a larger proportion of workers aged over 50; experiencing national competition for labour; not experiencing difficulties recruiting machinery operators/drivers; not expecting workforce ageing to increase workplace injuries; and experiencing difficulties with the quality of candidates. A minority of employers were found to offer reduced working hours to those nearing retirement. Factors associated with their propensity to do so included industry sector, size of employer, concerns about labour supply and the effects of workforce ageing. © 2016 AJA Inc.

  6. The longitudinal relationship between control over working hours and depressive symptoms: Results from SLOSH, a population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, S.C.; Kecklund, L.G.; Rajaleid, K.; Leineweber, C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Psychosocial work factors can affect depressive moods, but research is inconclusive if flexibility to self-determine working hours (work-time control, WTC) is associated with depressive symptoms over time. We investigated if either sub-dimension of WTC, control over daily hours and

  7. Working hours and incidence of metabolic syndrome and its components in a Mediterranean cohort: the SUN project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Adriano M; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Sayon-Orea, Carmen; Gea, Alfredo; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Enrique; Lopez-Iracheta, Roberto; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an important and priority public health problem globally. Long working hours have been proposed as a modifiable risk factor for MetS, despite sparse epidemiological evidence. Thus, the aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the associations between working hours and incidence of MetS and each of its components. We assessed 6845 participants of a Spanish dynamic prospective cohort of university graduates (the SUN project), initially free of any specific criteria of MetS, and followed-up for a median of 8.3 years. Weekly working hours were collected at baseline and grouped into four categories: >0-24, 25-39, 40-49 and ≥50 h. MetS was defined according to the updated harmonizing criteria. We estimated multivariable adjusted Relative Risks (RR) of MetS and their 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI), using Poisson regression models. The cumulative incidence of MetS was 6.0%. Working hours were not independently related to MetS (25-39 h/week = RR: 1.42, 95% CI 0.90-2.25; 40-49 h/week = RR: 1.45, 95% CI 0.91-2.30; ≥50 h/week = RR: 1.49, 95% CI 0.91-2.42, P for trend = 0.235) nor to any of its individual definition criteria. Our findings do not suggest that long working hours increase the risk of MetS development or each of its components. Further longitudinal studies in general population should be conducted to confirm these results. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  8. Long working hours and symptoms of anxiety and depression: a 5-year follow-up of the Whitehall II study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Ferrie, Jane E.; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Shipley, Martin J.; Stansfeld, Stephen A.; Marmot, Michael G.; Ahola, Kirsi; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika

    2011-01-01

    Background Although long working hours are common in working populations, little is known about the effect of long working hours on mental health. Method We examined the association between long working hours and onset of depressive and anxiety symptoms in middle-aged employees. Participants were 2960 full-time employees aged 44 to 66 (2248 men, 712 women) from the prospective Whitehall II cohort study of British civil servants. Working hours, anxiety and depressive symptoms, and covariates were measured at baseline (1997–1999) followed by two subsequent measurements of depressive and anxiety symptoms (2001 and 2002–2004). Results In prospective analysis of participants with no depressive symptoms (n=2549) or anxiety symptoms (n=2618) at baseline, Cox proportional hazard analysis adjusted for baseline covariates showed a 1.66-fold (95% CI 1.06–2.61) risk of depressive symptoms and a 1.74-fold (1.15–2.61) risk of anxiety symptoms among employees working more than 55 hours a week compared with employees working 35–40 hours a week. Sex-stratified analysis showed an excess risk of depression and anxiety associated with long working hours among women [hazard ratios 2.67 (1.07–6.68) and 2.84 (1.27–6.34)] but not men [1.30 (0.77–2.19) and 1.43 (0.89–2.30)]. Conclusions Working long hours is a risk factor for development of depressive and anxiety symptoms in women. PMID:21329557

  9. The transition to parenthood and well-being: the impact of partner status and work hour transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keizer, Renske; Dykstra, Pearl A; Poortman, Anne-Rigt

    2010-08-01

    Using data from the first two waves of the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study for 338 women and 262 men, we examine the consequences of making the transition to parenthood for life satisfaction, loneliness, positive affect, negative affect, and partnership satisfaction. We extend previous work by taking transitions in partner status and work hours into account. Results show a moderate impact of becoming a parent on well-being. In so far as effects of making the transition to parenthood emerge, they are attributable to changes in partner status and work hours. First, the decrease in negative affect upon making the transition to motherhood is attributable to the group of women who increase their working hours. Second, the detrimental impact of making the transition to motherhood on partnership satisfaction is attributable to the group of new mothers who quit their job. Third, the detrimental impact of making the transition to fatherhood on loneliness is attributable to the group of new fathers who become married. There is one exception to this pattern of partner status and work hours as mechanisms for changes in well-being. Men who become fathers remain less satisfied with their partnership, even when transitions in partner status and work hours have been taken into account. In the discussion-section, we consider the possible underestimation of negative effects because of the focus on the continuously partnered. We also reflect on our results in the light of the high incidence of part-time work in the Netherlands and Dutch policies aimed at supporting new parents.

  10. A dose-response relationship between long working hours and unmet need for access to hospital facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soek, Hongdeok; Won, Jong-Uk; Lee, Tae Il; Kim, Yeong-Kwang; Lee, Wanhyung; Lee, June-Hee; Roh, Jaehoon; Yoon, Jin-Ha

    2016-03-01

    Lack of access to hospital facilities, indicating unmet healthcare need, plays an important role in health inequity in the workplace. We aimed to investigate the association between long working hours and unmet healthcare need. We used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys collected during 2007-2012, which included 8369 participants (4765 males, 3604 females) aged 20-54 years, who were paid workers. We used a logistic regression model with gender stratification to investigate the association between working hours and unmet healthcare need. Of the 8369 participants, 855 males (17.94%) and 981 females (27.22%) experienced unmet healthcare need. After adjusting for covariates, and compared to 30-39 working hours per week, the odds ratios (OR) of unmet healthcare need were 1.07 [(95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.76-1.51], 1.46 (95% CI 1.03-2.07), and 1.57 (95% CI 1.11-2.23) in males, and 1.13 (95% CI 0.92-1.40), 1.30 (95% CI 0.99-1.69), and 1.60 (95% CI 1.21-2.10) in females, for 40-49, 50-59, and ≥ 60 work hours per week, respectively. There was a dose-response relationship between working hours per week and unmet healthcare need in both genders. Those who work long hours are more likely to have unmet healthcare needs, the cause of which seems to be lack of time.

  11. Long working hours and depressive symptoms: systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Madsen, Ida Eh; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Lallukka, Tea; Nyberg, Solja T; Alfredsson, Lars; Batty, G David; Bjorner, Jakob B; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Dragano, Nico; Erbel, Raimund; Ferrie, Jane E; Heikkilä, Katriina; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Lahelma, Eero; Nielsen, Martin L; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan H; Pentti, Jaana; Rahkonen, Ossi; Rugulies, Reiner; Salo, Paula; Schupp, Jürgen; Shipley, Martin J; Siegrist, Johannes; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Suominen, Sakari B; Theorell, Töres; Vahtera, Jussi; Wagner, Gert G; Wang, Jian Li; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Westerlund, Hugo; Kivimäki, Mika

    2018-05-01

    Objectives This systematic review and meta-analysis combined published study-level data and unpublished individual-participant data with the aim of quantifying the relation between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms. Methods We searched PubMed and Embase for published prospective cohort studies and included available cohorts with unpublished individual-participant data. We used a random-effects meta-analysis to calculate summary estimates across studies. Results We identified ten published cohort studies and included unpublished individual-participant data from 18 studies. In the majority of cohorts, long working hours was defined as working ≥55 hours per week. In multivariable-adjusted meta-analyses of 189 729 participants from 35 countries [96 275 men, 93 454 women, follow-up ranging from 1-5 years, 21 747 new-onset cases), there was an overall association of 1.14 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.25] between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms, with significant evidence of heterogeneity (I 2 =45.1%, P=0.004). A moderate association between working hours and depressive symptoms was found in Asian countries (1.50, 95% CI 1.13-2.01), a weaker association in Europe (1.11, 95% CI 1.00-1.22), and no association in North America (0.97, 95% CI 0.70-1.34) or Australia (0.95, 95% CI 0.70-1.29). Differences by other characteristics were small. Conclusions This observational evidence suggests a moderate association between long working hours and onset of depressive symptoms in Asia and a small association in Europe.

  12. Long working hours and symptoms of anxiety and depression: a 5-year follow-up of the Whitehall II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, M; Ferrie, J E; Singh-Manoux, A; Shipley, M J; Stansfeld, S A; Marmot, M G; Ahola, K; Vahtera, J; Kivimäki, M

    2011-12-01

    Although long working hours are common in working populations, little is known about the effect of long working hours on mental health. We examined the association between long working hours and the onset of depressive and anxiety symptoms in middle-aged employees. Participants were 2960 full-time employees aged 44 to 66 years (2248 men, 712 women) from the prospective Whitehall II cohort study of British civil servants. Working hours, anxiety and depressive symptoms, and covariates were measured at baseline (1997-1999) followed by two subsequent measurements of depressive and anxiety symptoms (2001 and 2002-2004). In a prospective analysis of participants with no depressive (n=2549) or anxiety symptoms (n=2618) at baseline, Cox proportional hazard analysis adjusted for baseline covariates showed a 1.66-fold [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-2.61] risk of depressive symptoms and a 1.74-fold (95% CI 1.15-2.61) risk of anxiety symptoms among employees working more than 55 h/week compared with employees working 35-40 h/week. Sex-stratified analysis showed an excess risk of depression and anxiety associated with long working hours among women [hazard ratios (HRs) 2.67 (95% CI 1.07-6.68) and 2.84 (95% CI 1.27-6.34) respectively] but not men [1.30 (0.77-2.19) and 1.43 (0.89-2.30)]. Working long hours is a risk factor for the development of depressive and anxiety symptoms in women.

  13. Time-trend analyses of bleeding and mortality after primary percutaneous coronary intervention during out of working hours versus in-working hours: an observational study of 11 466 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, M Bilal; Khamis, Ramzi; Ilsley, Charles; Mikhail, Ghada; Crake, Tom; Firoozi, Sam; Kalra, Sundeep; Knight, Charles; Archbold, Andrew; Lim, Pitt; Mathur, Anthony; Meier, Pascal; Rakhit, Roby D; Redwood, Simon; Whitbread, Mark; Bromage, Dan; Rathod, Krishna; Jones, Daniel A; Wragg, Andrew; Dalby, Miles; MacCarthy, Phil; Malik, Iqbal S

    2015-06-01

    Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is the treatment of choice for ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. Resources are limited during out of working hours (OWH). Whether PPCI outside working hours is associated with worse outcomes and whether outcomes have improved over time are unknown. We analyzed 11 466 patients undergoing PPCI between 2004 and 2011 at all 8 tertiary cardiac centers in London, United Kingdom. We defined working hours as 9 am to 5 pm (Monday to Friday). We analyzed in-hospital bleeding and all-cause mortality ≤3 years, comparing OWH versus in-working hours. A total of 7494 patients (65.3%) were treated during OWH. Multivariable analyses demonstrated that PPCI during OWH was not a predictor for bleeding (odds ratio, 1.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97-2.24; P=0.071) or 3-year mortality (hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.94-1.32; P=0.20). This was confirmed in propensity-matched analyses. Time-stratified analyses demonstrated that PPCI during OWH was a predictor for bleeding (odds ratio, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.06-3.80; P=0.034) and 3-year mortality during 2005 to 2008 (hazard ratio, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.00-1.50; P=0.050), but this association was lost during 2009 to 2011. During 2005 to 2008, transradial access was predominantly used during in-working hours and PPCI during OWH was predictive of reduced transradial access use (odds ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.71-0.98; P=0.033), but this association was lost during 2009 to 2011. In this study of unselected patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, PPCI during OWH versus in-working hours had comparable bleeding and mortality. Time-stratified analyses demonstrated a reduction in adjusted bleeding and mortality during OWH over time. This may reflect the improved service provision, but the increased adoption of transradial access during OWH may also be contributory. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. The effects of extended working hours on health and social well-being--a comparative analysis of four independent samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Anna; Nachreiner, Friedhelm

    2010-07-01

    Using structural equation modeling, it can be shown that long weekly working hours and work on weekends, nights, and in shifts have detrimental effects on psychovegetative health. Employees' reported subjective work-life balance also decreases with increasing number of hours worked/week, days worked on weekends, or at nights, and with working shifts. A decrease in work-life balance in turn increases the risk of psychovegetative impairments (PVIs). Thus, long and unusual working hours increase the risk of psychovegetative health impairments both directly and indirectly, moderated by the subjective work-life balance. In fact, the indirect effects of working time on PVIs via the work-life balance seem to be stronger than the direct effects. Results of a cross-validation study of four independent and representative samples from Germany and the European Union (N > 50,000) indicate high structural stability of these results and thus an increased validity and range for generalization.

  15. Factors associated with intern noncompliance with the 2003 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education’s 30-hour duty period requirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maloney Christopher G

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2003 the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education mandated work hour restrictions. Violations can results in a residency program being cited or placed on probation. Recurrent violations could results in loss of accreditation. We wanted to determine specific intern and workload factors associated with violation of a specific mandate, the 30-hour duty period requirement. Methods Retrospective review of interns’ performance against the 30-hour duty period requirement during inpatient ward rotations at a pediatric residency program between June 24, 2008 and June 23, 2009. The analytical plan included both univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results Twenty of the 26 (77% interns had 80 self-reported episodes of continuous work hours greater than 30 hours. In multivariable analysis, noncompliance was inversely associated with the number of prior inpatient rotations (odds ratio: 0.49, 95% confidence interval (0.38, 0.64 per rotation but directly associated with the total number of patients (odds ratio: 1.30 (1.10, 1.53 per additional patient. The number of admissions on-call, number of admissions after midnight and number of discharges post-call were not significantly associated with noncompliance. The level of noncompliance also varied significantly between interns after accounting for intern experience and workload factors. Subject to limitations in statistical power, we were unable to identify specific intern characteristics, such as demographic variables or examination scores, which account for the variation in noncompliance between interns. Conclusions Both intern and workload factors were associated with pediatric intern noncompliance with the 30-hour duty period requirement during inpatient ward rotations. Residency programs must develop information systems to understand the individual and experience factors associated with noncompliance and implement appropriate interventions to

  16. An analysis of driving and working hour on commercial motor vehicle driver safety using naturalistic data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soccolich, Susan A; Blanco, Myra; Hanowski, Richard J; Olson, Rebecca L; Morgan, Justin F; Guo, Feng; Wu, Shih-Ching

    2013-09-01

    Current hours-of-service (HOS) regulations prescribe limits to commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers' operating hours. By using naturalistic-data-collection, researchers were able to assess activities performed in the 14-h workday and the relationship between safety-critical events (SCEs) and driving hours, work hours, and breaks. The data used in the analyses were collected in the Naturalistic Truck Driving Study and included 97 drivers and about 735,000 miles of continuous driving data. An assessment of the drivers' workday determined that, on average, drivers spent 66% of their shift driving, 23% in non-driving work, and 11% resting. Analyses evaluating the relationship between driving hours (i.e., driving only) and SCE risk found a time-on-task effect across hours, with no significant difference in safety outcomes between 11th driving hour and driving hours 8, 9 or 10. Analyses on work hours (i.e., driving in addition to non-driving work) found that risk of being involved in an SCE generally increased as work hours increased. This suggests that time-on-task effects may not be related to driving hours alone, but implies an interaction between driving hours and work hours: if a driver begins the day with several hours of non-driving work, followed by driving that goes deep into the 14-h workday, SCE risk was found to increase. Breaks from driving were found to be beneficial in reducing SCEs (during 1-h window after a break) and were effective in counteracting the negative effects of time-on-task. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A path-theoretical investigation of the persistence of extra-long working hours in a management consulting firm

    OpenAIRE

    Blagoev, Blagoy

    2016-01-01

    This thesis explores the reasons for the persistence of the regime of long working hours and constant availability in professional service firms. Recently, this working time regime has become a central issue for many firms, as new generations of employees demand more work-life balance and flexibility provisions from their employers. However, empirical studies indicate that these firms’ efforts to implement various flexibility initiatives often fail or, in some cases, even seem to reinforce th...

  18. Working hours and sleep duration in midlife as determinants of health-related quality of life among older businessmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bonsdorff, Mikaela Birgitta; Strandberg, Arto; von Bonsdorff, Monika; Törmäkangas, Timo; Pitkälä, Kaisu H; Strandberg, Timo E

    2017-01-25

    Long working hours and short sleep duration are associated with a range of adverse health consequences. However, the combined effect of these two exposures on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has not been investigated. We studied white men born between 1919 and 1934 in the Helsinki Businessmen Study (HBS, initial n = 3,490). Data on clinical variables, self-rated health (SRH), working hours and sleep duration in 1974, and RAND-36 (SF-36) HRQoL survey in the year 2000 were available for 1,527 men. Follow-up time was 26 years. By combining working hours and sleep duration, four categories were formed: (i) normal work (≤50 hours/week) and normal sleep (>47 hours/week); (ii) long work (>50 hours/week) and normal sleep; (iii) normal work and short sleep (≤47 hours/week); and (iv) long work and short sleep. The association with RAND-36 domains was examined using multiple linear regression models adjusted for age, smoking and SRH. Compared to those with normal work and sleep in midlife, men with long work and short sleep had poorer RAND-36 scores for physical functioning, vitality and general health, and those with long work and normal sleep had poorer scores for physical functioning in old age. Adjustment for midlife smoking and SRH attenuated the associations, but the one for long work and short sleep and physical functioning remained significant (difference in mean physical functioning score −4.58, 95% confidence interval −9.00 to −0.15). Businessmen who had long working hours coupled with short sleep duration in midlife had poorer physical health in old age. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Wo(men) at work? The impact of cohabiting and married partners' earning on women's work hours

    OpenAIRE

    Triebe, Doreen

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the determinants of women's labor supply in the household context. The main focus is on the effect of a change in male partner's wages on women's work hours. This is linked to the broader question of whether married and cohabiting women make different economic decisions and respond differently to changes in their partners' wages. In addition, this study seeks to connect the working behavior of married and cohabiting individuals to the "tax-splitting" benefit for marrie...

  20. Long working hours and depressive symptoms: systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data

    OpenAIRE

    Virtanen, M.; Jokela, M.; Madsen, I. E.; Magnusson Hanson, L. L.; Lallukka, T.; Nyberg, S. T.; Alfredsson, L.; Batty, D.; Bjorner, J. B.; Borritz, M.; Burr, H.; Dragano, N.; Erbel, R.; Ferrie, J. E.; Heikkilä, K.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives This systematic review and meta-analysis combined published study-level data and unpublished individual-participant data with the aim of quantifying the relation between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms. Methods We searched PubMed and Embase for published prospective cohort studies and included available cohorts with unpublished individual-participant data. We used a random-effects meta-analysis to calculate summary estimates across studies. Results We identi...

  1. Working hours and all-cause mortality in relation to the EU Working Time Directive: a Danish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannerz, Harald; Soll-Johanning, Helle

    2018-03-12

    In keeping with the need to protect the safety and health of workers, the EU Working Time Directive stipulates that a worker's average working time for each 7-day period, including overtime, does not exceed 48 h. It has, however, not been settled whether or not the threshold at 48 working hours a week is low enough to protect against excess mortality from long work weeks. The aim of the present study was to examine all-cause mortality in relation to weekly working hours among employees in the general population of Denmark. A special attention was given to mortality rates among employees with moderately long work weeks, 41-48 h. Interview data from cohorts of 20-64 year-old employees were drawn from the Danish Labour Force Survey. The participants (N = 159 933) were followed through national registers from the end of the calendar year of the interview (1999-2013) until the end of 2014. Rate ratios (RRs) for all-cause mortality were estimated as a function of weekly working hours while controlling for age, sex, social class, night-time work and calendar year. We found 3374 deaths during an average follow-up time of 7.7 years. With 32-40 working hours a week as reference, the RRs for all-cause mortality were 0.75 (95% CI: 0.66-0.85) for 41-48 and 0.92 (0.80-1.05) for >48 h. Mortality rates in Denmark are significantly lower among employees with moderately long work weeks than they are among full-time employees without overtime work.

  2. A cross-sectional study of the association between working hours and sleep duration among the Japanese working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Aritake, Sayaka; Mishima, Kazuo; Uchiyama, Makoto; Akashiba, Tsuneto; Uchimura, Naohisa; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Munezawa, Takeshi; Kokaze, Akatsuki; Ohida, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to clarify the association between long working hours and short sleep duration among Japanese workers. We selected 4,000 households from across Japan by stratified random sampling and conducted an interview survey of a total of 662 participants (372 men; 290 women) in November 2009. Logistic regression analyses were performed using "sleep duration hours per day" as a dependent variable to examine the association between working hours/overtime hours and short sleep duration. When male participants who worked for ≥7 but hours per day were used as a reference, the odds ratio (OR) for short sleep duration in those who worked for ≥ 11 hours was 8.62 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.94-18.86). With regard to overtime hours among men, when participants without overtime were used as a reference, the OR for those whose period of overtime was ≥ 3 hours but hours was 3.59 (95% CI: 1.42-9.08). For both men and women, those with long weekday working hours tended to have a short sleep duration during weekdays and holidays. It is essential to avoid working long hours in order to prevent short sleep duration.

  3. Effects of modifications to the health and social sector’s collective agreement on the objective characteristics of working hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROPPONEN, Annina; VANTTOLA, Päivi; KOSKINEN, Aki; HAKOLA, Tarja; PUTTONEN, Sampsa; HÄRMÄ, Mikko

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an intervention on objective working-hour characteristics. The intervention involved making modifications to the collective agreement that would limit employees’ entitlement to time off as compensation. The intervention group consisted of 493 and the control group of 2,303 health and social care shift workers, respectively. We analysed the objective pay roll-based working-hour data for 2012–2013, which we obtained from employers’ records, using the repeated measures mixed model. The changes in objective working-hour characteristics were small, but systematic. The intervention had some positive effects: the amount of short recovery periods (working weeks of over 48 h decreased from 19% to 17%. The realization of employees’ shift preferences increased from 18% to 20%. However, in contrast, consecutive work shifts and the number of scheduled absences increased and days off decreased, suggesting less time for recovery and thus a negative trend in shift ergonomics. When planning shifts, nursing management should avoid regulations that promote specific unhealthy shift characteristics, that is, consecutive work shifts and less days off. PMID:28420807

  4. Effects of modifications to the health and social sector's collective agreement on the objective characteristics of working hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropponen, Annina; Vanttola, Päivi; Koskinen, Aki; Hakola, Tarja; Puttonen, Sampsa; Härmä, Mikko

    2017-08-08

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an intervention on objective working-hour characteristics. The intervention involved making modifications to the collective agreement that would limit employees' entitlement to time off as compensation. The intervention group consisted of 493 and the control group of 2,303 health and social care shift workers, respectively. We analysed the objective pay roll-based working-hour data for 2012-2013, which we obtained from employers' records, using the repeated measures mixed model. The changes in objective working-hour characteristics were small, but systematic. The intervention had some positive effects: the amount of short recovery periods (working weeks of over 48 h decreased from 19% to 17%. The realization of employees' shift preferences increased from 18% to 20%. However, in contrast, consecutive work shifts and the number of scheduled absences increased and days off decreased, suggesting less time for recovery and thus a negative trend in shift ergonomics. When planning shifts, nursing management should avoid regulations that promote specific unhealthy shift characteristics, that is, consecutive work shifts and less days off.

  5. Working hours and mental health in Australia: evidence from an Australian population-based cohort, 2001-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Allison; Smith, Peter; LaMontagne, A D

    2015-08-01

    This paper assesses the impact of working less than or more than standard full-time hours on mental health, as well as possible differences in this relationship by gender and skill level. The study design was a longitudinal cohort with 12 annual waves of data collection over the period 2001-2012, yielding a sample of 90,637 observations from 18,420 people. Fixed effects within-person regression was used to control for time invariant confounding. The Mental Component Summary of the Short Form 36 (SF-36) measure was used as the primary outcome measure. Working hours over the preceding year was measured in five categories with standard full-time hours (35-40 h/week) as the reference. Results indicated that when respondents were working 49-59 h (-0.52, 95% CI -0.74 to -0.29, pworking 35-40 h/week (reference). The difference in mental health when working 49-59 h was greater for women than for men. There were greater declines in mental health in relation to longer working hours among persons in higher compared to lower occupational skill levels. Study results suggest the need for employers and governments to regulate working hours to reduce the burden of mental ill health in the working population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Work hours and work-family conflict: the double-edged sword of involvement in work and family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Russell A; Swody, Cathleen A; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L

    2012-08-01

    In this study, we examine the role of work hours in a model that incorporates involvement in both work and family with experiences of work-family conflict and subjective well-being. Self-report data were collected from 383 full-time employees and analysed using structural equation modelling techniques. Results demonstrate that role salience was positively related to behavioural involvement with work and with family. In turn, behavioural family involvement was negatively related to work hours and family-to-work conflict, while behavioural work involvement was positively related to work hours. Behavioural family involvement was also positively related to life satisfaction. Finally, both family-to-work conflict and end-of-workday strain were negatively related to life satisfaction. Our results provide insight into unexpected problems that might arise when employees place overly high importance on work and work long hours. This study serves as a foundation for researchers to examine the interplay of time spent with work and family with other aspects of the work-family interface. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Duty Hour Reporting: Conflicting Values in Professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, John M; Loo, Lawrence K; Giang, Dan W

    2015-09-01

    Duty hour limits challenge professional values, sometimes forcing residents to choose between patient care and regulatory compliance. This may affect truthfulness in duty hour reporting. We assessed residents' reasons for falsifying duty hour reports. We surveyed residents in 1 sponsoring institution to explore the reasons for noncompliance, frequency of violations, falsification of reports, and the residents' awareness of the option to extend hours to care for a single patient. The analysis used descriptive statistics. Linear regression was used to explore falsification of duty hour reports by year of training. The response rate was 88% (572 of 650). Primary reasons for duty hour violations were number of patients (19%) and individual patient acuity/complexity (19%). Junior residents were significantly more likely to falsify duty hours (R = -0.966). Of 124 residents who acknowledged falsification, 51 (41%) identified the primary reason as concern that the program will be in jeopardy of violating the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) duty hour limits followed by fear of punishment (34, 27%). This accounted for more than two-thirds of the primary reasons for falsification. Residents' falsification of duty hour data appears to be motivated by concerns about adverse actions from the ACGME, and fear they might be punished. To foster professionalism, we recommend that sponsoring institutions educate residents about professionalism in duty hour reporting. The ACGME should also convey the message that duty hour limits be applied in a no-blame systems-based approach, and allow junior residents to extend duty hours for the care of individual patients.

  8. Changes in medicine: residency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The most important time in a physician’s educational development is residency, especially the first year. However, residency work and responsibility have come under the scrutiny of a host of agencies and bureaucracies, and therefore, is rapidly changing. Most important in the alphabet soup of regulatory agencies is the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME which accredits residencies and ultimately makes the governing rules.Resident work hours have received much attention and are clearly decreasing. However, the decline in work hours began in the 1970’s before the present political push to decrease work hours. The residency I entered in 1976 had every third night call during the first year resident’s 6-9 months on general medicine or wards. It had changed from every other night the year before. On wards, we normally were in the hospital for our 24 hours of call and followed this with a 10-12 hour day before …

  9. Recovery of Sleep or Recovery of Self? A Grounded Theory Study of Residents' Decision Making Regarding How to Spend Their Nonclinical Postcall Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Taryn S; Nisker, Jeff; Teunissen, Pim W; Dornan, Tim; Lingard, Lorelei

    2016-03-01

    As resident work hours policies evolve, residents' off-duty time remains poorly understood. Despite assumptions about how residents should be using their postcall, off-duty time, there is little research on how residents actually use this time and the reasoning underpinning their activities. This study sought to understand residents' nonclinical postcall activities when they leave the hospital, their decision-making processes, and their perspectives on the relationship between these activities and their well-being or recovery. The study took place at a Liaison Committee on Medical Education-accredited Canadian medical school from 2012 to 2014. The authors recruited a purposive and convenience sample of postgraduate year 1-5 residents from six surgical and nonsurgical specialties at three hospitals affiliated with the medical school. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, semistructured interviews were conducted, audio-taped, transcribed, anonymized, and combined with field notes. The authors analyzed interview transcripts using constant comparative analysis and performed post hoc member checking. Twenty-four residents participated. Residents characterized their predominant approach to postcall decision making as one of making trade-offs between multiple, competing, seemingly incompatible, but equally valuable, activities. Participants exhibited two different trade-off orientations: being oriented toward maintaining a normal life or toward mitigating fatigue. The authors' findings on residents' trade-off orientations suggest a dual recovery model with postcall trade-offs motivated by the recovery of sleep or of self. This model challenges the dominant viewpoint in the current duty hours literature and suggests that the duty hours discussion must be broadened to include other recovery processes.

  10. Working hours and depressive symptomatology among full-time employees: Results from the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Inah; Kim, Hyunjoo; Lim, Sinye; Lee, Mira; Bahk, Jinwook; June, Kyung Ja; Kim, Soyeon; Chang, Won Joon

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to examine the distribution of working hours and the association between working hours and depressive symptomatology using representative data from a national, population-based survey. Data came from the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2009), which employed a systematic, stratified cluster-sampling method. We used logistic regression procedures to estimate the importance of weekly working hours as a predictor of depressive symptomatology. The prevalence of depressive symptomatology was 10.2%. The work week, which averaged 48.3 hours for the sample as a whole, was longer for men (49.8 hours) than women (45.3 hours), and 12.1% of respondents were engaged in shift work. In logistic regression analyses, compared to those working hours per week, the odds ratios (OR) of working hours as a predictor of depressive symptomatology were 1.19 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.77-1.85] for those working 52-59 hours per week and 1.62 (95% CI 1.20-2.18) for those working ≥ 60 hours per week, after adjustment for demographic characteristics, health behaviors, socioeconomic status, employment status, and work schedules. It showed a positive dose-response relationship between working hours and depressive symptomatology (P = 0.0059). Working hours in Korea are long. There is an association between working hours and depressive symptomatology, and there seems be a trend in working hours and depressive symptomatology.

  11. Objective working hour characteristics and work-life conflict among hospital employees in the Finnish public sector study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karhula, Kati; Puttonen, Sampsa; Ropponen, Annina; Koskinen, Aki; Ojajärvi, Anneli; Kivimäki, Mika; Härmä, Mikko

    2017-01-01

    This epidemiological cohort study, based on Finnish public sector data, investigated the associations between objective working hour characteristics and work-life conflict in day and shift work. The comprehensive data of hospital workers (n = 8 931, 92% women, average age 45 years), consisted of survey responses from 2012, linked with the payroll data of working hour characteristics from 91 days preceding the survey. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the associations between working hour characteristics and experiencing work-life conflict often/very often. The analyses were adjusted for age (50 years), sex, level of education, marital status, number of small (0-6 years) and school-aged (7-18 years) children, and the overall stressfulness of the life situation. We also conducted stratified analyses of age and sex on the basis of significant interactions. Difficulties in combining work and life were more often associated with shift work without night shifts and shift work with night shifts than with day work (41% and 34 versus 27%; OR for shift work with night shifts 1.78, 95% CI 1.59-2.00, OR for shift work without night shifts 1.42, 95% CI 1.26-1.60). A high proportion (> 25%) of long (> 40h, (OR 1.26, 95% 1.14-1.39) and very long (> 48h, OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.15-1.49) weekly working hours were associated with work-life conflict, and in the stratified analysis, the latter was also true among women (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.25-1.89). Of the unsocial working hour characteristics, a relatively large amount (> 10% of all shifts) of evening (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.41-1.72) and night shifts (OR 1.46, 95%CI 1.32-1.61), a high proportion (> 25% of all shifts) of quick returns (work (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.31-1.58) were associated with work-life conflict. A large amount of single days off (> 25% of all days off) was associated with work-life conflict among men (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.11-3.25), but not in the whole sample. When the two types of shift work were analyzed separately

  12. Work and family life of childrearing women workers in Japan: comparison of non-regular employees with short working hours, non-regular employees with long working hours, and regular employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Masako; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Maruyama, Soichiro

    2006-05-01

    This study assessed the working and family life characteristics, and the degree of domestic and work strain of female workers with different employment statuses and weekly working hours who are rearing children. Participants were the mothers of preschoolers in a large Japanese city. We classified the women into three groups according to the hours they worked and their employment conditions. The three groups were: non-regular employees working less than 30 h a week (n=136); non-regular employees working 30 h or more per week (n=141); and regular employees working 30 h or more a week (n=184). We compared among the groups the subjective values of work, financial difficulties, childcare and housework burdens, psychological effects, and strains such as work and family strain, work-family conflict, and work dissatisfaction. Regular employees were more likely to report job pressures and inflexible work schedules and to experience more strain related to work and family than non-regular employees. Non-regular employees were more likely to be facing financial difficulties. In particular, non-regular employees working longer hours tended to encounter socioeconomic difficulties and often lacked support from family and friends. Female workers with children may have different social backgrounds and different stressors according to their working hours and work status.

  13. Do Japanese workers who experience an acute myocardial infarction believe their prolonged working hours are a cause?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Dracup, Kathleen; Froelicher, Erika Sivarajan; Ohno, Miyoshi; Hirayama, Haruo; Shiina, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Fumio

    2005-04-08

    Cardiovascular disease related to excessive work/job stress has been a significant social concern for the Japanese public. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study to (1) compare job stress levels between patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients and healthy workers, and (2) examine the types of stresses associated with patients' causal belief of AMI among patients with AMI. Forty-seven patients admitted to the hospital with AMI and 47 healthy workers visiting a hospital for their annual physical examination were recruited in Japan. Both groups were employed full time and matched on age and gender. Job stress was assessed by the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire, which consists of four subscales: job demand, job control, support from supervisors, and support from coworkers. Causal belief was assessed by a semi-structured interview. Compared with healthy workers (50.7+/-8.6 h), AMI patients worked significantly longer hours per week (58.3+/-15.0 h) prior to their AMI. Among AMI patients, 38% reported that job stress might have contributed to their AMI. AMI patients who reported acute stressful events at work during the month prior to AMI were 6.88 times (95% CI: 1.84, 25.75) more likely to believe that job stress/overwork caused their AMI after controlling for working hours per week and age. Like other known cardiac risk factors, it is important for clinicians to assess patient's excessive working hours. The education and counseling of patients following AMI must take into consideration long working hours, acute stressful events at work, and the patient's perceived view of job stress.

  14. Effect of working hours and precarious employment on depressive symptoms in South Korean employees: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woorim; Park, Eun-Cheol; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2016-12-01

    Long working hours and precarious employment are relatively common in South Korea. Since both can impact on mental health, this study examined their independent and combined effects on depressive symptoms of employees. Data were from the Korean Welfare Panel Study (KOWEPS), 2010-2013. A total of 2733 full-time employees without depressive symptoms were analysed. Hierarchical logistic regression models were used to investigate the effect of the number of working hours per week (eg, 35-40 hours, 41-52 hours, 53-68 hours, and >68 hours) and employment status (permanent vs precarious employment) on depressive symptoms, measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) 11 scale. Compared with individuals working 35-40 hours/week, employees working above 68 hours (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.34) had higher odds of depressive symptoms after full adjustment. Similarly, precarious employees (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.75) showed worse mental health than permanent employees. In the combined effect model, employees in precarious employment who worked above 68 hours/week (OR, 2.03 95% CI 1.08 to 3.83) exhibited the highest odds of depressive symptoms compared with permanent employees working 35 to 40 hours/week. Long work hours and precarious employment status were associated with higher odds of depressive symptoms. The findings highlight the importance of monitoring and addressing the vulnerable groups of employees to reduce the mental health burden of economically active individuals. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Does temporal and locational flexibility of work increase the supply of working hours? Evidence from the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Possenriede, D.S.; Hassink, W.H.J.; Plantenga, J.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, many employees have gained more control over temporal and locational aspects of their work via a variety of flexible work arrangements, such as flexi-time and telehomework. This temporal and locational flexibility of work (TLF) is often seen as a means to facilitate the combination of work and private life. As such it has been recommended as a policy to increase the average number of working hours of part-time workers. To the best of our knowledge, the effectiveness of this p...

  16. Long working hours and health in Europe: Gender and welfare state differences in a context of economic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artazcoz, Lucía; Cortès, Imma; Benavides, Fernando G; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Bartoll, Xavier; Vargas, Hernán; Borrell, Carme

    2016-07-01

    This article examines the relationship between moderately long working hours and health status in Europe. A cross-sectional study based on data from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey (13,518 men and 9381 women) was performed. Working moderately long hours was consistently associated with poor health status and poor psychological wellbeing in countries with traditional family models, in both sexes in Liberal countries and primarily among women in Continental and Southern European countries. A combination of economic vulnerability, increasing labour market deregulation and work overload related to the combination of job and domestic work could explain these findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A research note on the relationship between long working hours and weight gain for older workers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercan, Murat Anil

    2014-09-01

    Working long hours may be related to obesity in older adults. No studies have focused on older workers and long work hours, although the risk of obesity is high among this population group. This study is the first attempt to investigate the relationship between obesity and the older workforce. Panel data from the Health and Retirement Study are examined using Cox regression techniques. We found that older workers who work more than 59 hr a week are more likely to gain weight than older workers who work less than 59 hr per week. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. Long working hours and alcohol use: systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T; Madsen, Ida E H; Lallukka, Tea; Ahola, Kirsi; Alfredsson, Lars; Batty, G David; Bjorner, Jakob B; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Casini, Annalisa; Clays, Els; De Bacquer, Dirk; Dragano, Nico; Erbel, Raimund; Ferrie, Jane E; Fransson, Eleonor I; Hamer, Mark; Heikkilä, Katriina; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kittel, France; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Lunau, Thorsten; Nielsen, Martin L; Nordin, Maria; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan H; Pentti, Jaana; Rugulies, Reiner; Salo, Paula; Schupp, Jürgen; Siegrist, Johannes; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Steptoe, Andrew; Suominen, Sakari B; Theorell, Töres; Vahtera, Jussi; Wagner, Gert G; Westerholm, Peter J M; Westerlund, Hugo; Kivimäki, Mika

    2015-01-13

    To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies. The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were obtained with random effects meta-analysis. Sources of heterogeneity were examined with meta-regression. Cross sectional analysis was based on 61 studies representing 333,693 participants from 14 countries. Prospective analysis was based on 20 studies representing 100,602 participants from nine countries. The pooled maximum adjusted odds ratio for the association between long working hours and alcohol use was 1.11 (95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.18) in the cross sectional analysis of published and unpublished data. Odds ratio of new onset risky alcohol use was 1.12 (1.04 to 1.20) in the analysis of prospective published and unpublished data. In the 18 studies with individual participant data it was possible to assess the European Union Working Time Directive, which recommends an upper limit of 48 hours a week. Odds ratios of new onset risky alcohol use for those working 49-54 hours and ≥ 55 hours a week were 1.13 (1.02 to 1.26; adjusted difference in incidence 0.8 percentage points) and 1.12 (1.01 to 1.25; adjusted difference in incidence 0.7 percentage points), respectively, compared with working standard 35-40 hours (incidence of new onset risky alcohol use 6.2%). There was no difference in these associations between men and women or by age or socioeconomic groups, geographical regions, sample type (population based v occupational cohort), prevalence of risky alcohol use in the cohort, or sample attrition rate

  19. Resident fatigue in otolaryngology residents: a Web based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nida, Andrew M; Googe, Benjamin J; Lewis, Andrea F; May, Warren L

    2016-01-01

    Resident fatigue has become a point of emphasis in medical education and its effects on otolaryngology residents and their patients require further study. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the prevalence and nature of fatigue in otolaryngology residents, evaluate various quality of life measures, and investigate associations of increased fatigue with resident safety. Anonymous survey. Internet based. United States allopathic otolaryngology residents. None. The survey topics included demographics, residency structure, sleep habits and perceived stress. Responses were correlated with a concurrent Epworth Sleep Scale questionnaire to evaluate effects of fatigue on resident training and quality of life. 190 residents responded to the survey with 178 completing the Epworth Sleep Scale questionnaire. Results revealed a mean Epworth Sleep Scale score of 9.9±5.1 with a median of 10.0 indicating a significant number of otolaryngology residents are excessively sleepy. Statistically significant correlations between Epworth Sleep Scale and sex, region, hours of sleep, and work hours were found. Residents taking in-house call had significantly fewer hours of sleep compared to home call (p=0.01). Residents on "head and neck" (typically consisting of a large proportion of head and neck oncologic surgery) rotations tended to have higher Epworth Sleep Scale and had significantly fewer hours of sleep (p=.003) and greater work hours (potolaryngology residents are excessively sleepy. Our data suggest that the effects of fatigue play a role in resident well-being and resident safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Changes in the number of resident publications after inception of the 80-hour work week.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdari, Surena; Baldwin, Keith D; Weinraub, Barbara; Mehta, Samir

    2010-08-01

    Since the inception of resident work-hour regulations, there has been considerable concern regarding the influence of decreased work hours on graduate medical education. In particular, it is unclear whether implementation of work-hour restrictions has influenced resident academic performance as defined by quantity of peer-reviewed publications while participating in graduate medical education. We determined the impact of work-hour changes on resident involvement in the number of published clinical studies, laboratory research, case reports, and review articles. We conducted a PubMed literature search of 139 consecutive orthopaedic surgery residents (789 total resident-years) at one institution from academic years 1995-1996 to 2008-2009. This represented a continuous timeline before and after implementation of work-hour restrictions. The number of resident publications before and after implementation of work-hour changes was compared. There was a greater probability of peer review authorship in any given resident-year after work-hour changes than before. Average publications per resident-year increased for total articles, clinical articles, case reports, and reviews. There was an increased rate of publications in which the resident was the first author. Since implementation of work-hour changes, total resident publications and publications per resident-year have increased.

  1. Effects of resident duty hour reform on surgical and procedural patient safety indicators among hospitalized Veterans Health Administration and Medicare patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Amy K; Loveland, Susan A; Romano, Patrick S; Itani, Kamal M F; Silber, Jeffrey H; Even-Shoshan, Orit O; Halenar, Michael J; Teng, Yun; Zhu, Jingsan; Volpp, Kevin G

    2009-07-01

    Improving patient safety was a strong motivation behind duty hour regulations implemented by Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education on July 1, 2003. We investigated whether rates of patient safety indicators (PSIs) changed after these reforms. Observational study of patients admitted to Veterans Health Administration (VA) (N = 826,047) and Medicare (N = 13,367,273) acute-care hospitals from July 1, 2000 to June 30, 2005. We examined changes in patient safety events in more versus less teaching-intensive hospitals before (2000-2003) and after (2003-2005) duty hour reform, using conditional logistic regression, adjusting for patient age, gender, comorbidities, secular trends, baseline severity, and hospital site. Ten PSIs were aggregated into 3 composite measures based on factor analyses: "Continuity of Care," "Technical Care," and "Other" composites. Continuity of Care composite rates showed no significant changes postreform in hospitals of different teaching intensity in either VA or Medicare. In the VA, there were no significant changes postreform for the technical care composite. In Medicare, the odds of a Technical Care PSI event in more versus less teaching-intensive hospitals in postreform year 1 were 1.12 (95% CI; 1.01-1.25); there were no significant relative changes in postreform year 2. Other composite rates increased in VA in postreform year 2 in more versus less teaching-intensive hospitals (odds ratio, 1.63; 95% CI; 1.10-2.41), but not in Medicare in either postreform year. Duty hour reform had no systematic impact on PSI rates. In the few cases where there were statistically significant increases in the relative odds of developing a PSI, the magnitude of the absolute increases were too small to be clinically meaningful.

  2. Information Meeting- Working Hours

    CERN Multimedia

    Maurin

    1972-01-01

    Mons. Maurin préside la séance et fait part des résultats aux questionnaires pour définir une ligne de conduite de l'association- ramener et harmoniser les horaires- changer les contrats de 44 à 40 heures- des gens travaillent en partie encore 48 h

  3. Long working hours and occupational stress-related cardiovascular attacks among middle-aged workers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehata, T

    1991-12-01

    Two hundred and three Karoshi victims who suffered cardiovascular attacks and for whom workers' compensations was claimed were surveyed. These cases were 196 males and 7 females in middle age, and comprised 123 strokes, 50 acute cardiac failures, 27 myocardial infarctions and 4 aortic ruptures. As a sociomedical background, it was shown that two-thirds of them were working for long hours such as more than 60 hr per week, more than 50 hr overtime per month, or more than half of their fixed holidays before the attack. Moreover, among the white-collar workers, these long working hours were accompanied with other stressful work issues such as career problems, excessive business trips, strident norms, and changes of work places; among the blue-collar workers, they were accompanied with those such as irregular midnight work, insufficient manpower and long-distance driving, etc. On the other hand, eighty-eight cases of them experienced several minor and sudden events including work-related emotional anxiety or excitement, rapid increase of workload, unexpected work trouble or environmental changes of work places anticipated at least within 24 hr directly before the attack. It was concluded that Karoshi, meaning fatal attacks by overload, was one of the work-related diseases mainly triggered by long working hours.

  4. Cross-National Differences in the Association Between Parental Work Hours and Time with Children in Europe: A Multilevel Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeters, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates cross-national differences in the association between parental work hours and parent-child interaction time and explains differences in this individual-level association on the basis of country characteristics. It extends prior research by testing the moderating effects of country characteristics through multilevel analyses and by considering the possibility of selection effects. The presumption was that parents employ strategies to protect family life from work encroachments and that these strategies are enhanced by reconciliation policies, stronger parenthood ideologies, access to part-time work and higher income levels. Multilevel analyses were based on a subset of 5.183 parents in 23 countries from the 2005 European Working Conditions Survey that was complemented with country-level data. The negative association between parental work hours and parent-child time indeed varied significantly across countries and was weaker in countries where formal child care coverage was higher, part-time work was less prevalent, and earnings were lower. The effects of part-time work and earnings mainly applied to mothers. These findings suggest that child care coverage limits the availability of children and that differences in parent-child time between parents who work short and long hours are more pronounced when part-time work is more accessible and affordable.

  5. Reducing Risks to Women Linked to Shift Work, Long Work Hours, and Related Workplace Sleep and Fatigue Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Claire C

    2015-10-01

    In the United States, an estimated 12% to 28% of working women are on shift work schedules, and 12% work more than 48 hours per week. Shift work and long work hours are associated with many health and safety risks, including obesity, injuries, and negative reproductive outcomes. Over time, the worker is at risk for developing a wide range of chronic diseases. These work schedules can also strain personal relationships, owing to fatigue and poor mood from sleep deprivation and reduced quality time to spend with family and friends. Worker errors from fatigue can lead to reduced quality of goods and services, negatively impacting the employer. In addition, mistakes by fatigued workers can have far-reaching negative effects on the community, ranging from medical care errors to motor vehicle crashes and industrial disasters that endanger others. To reduce the many risks that are linked to these demanding work hours, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducts research, develops guidance and authoritative recommendations, and translates and disseminates scientific information to protect workers, their families, employers, and the community. The key message to reduce these risks is making sleep a priority in the employer's systems for organizing work and in the worker's personal life. The NIOSH website has freely available online training programs with suggestions for workers and their managers to help them better cope with this workplace hazard.

  6. Across the continuum of satisfaction with work-family balance: Work hours, flexibility-fit, and work-family culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Tay K; Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie; Matz-Costa, Christina; Brown, Melissa; Valcour, Monique

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the association between hours worked per week and satisfaction with work-family balance, using data from a 2007-2008 survey of employees nested within organizations. We tested hypotheses informed by the resource drain and resources-and-demands perspectives using quantile regression. We found that the negative association between hours worked per week and satisfaction with work-family balance was significantly stronger at the 25th percentile, as compared to at the 75th percentile, of satisfaction with work-family balance. Further, there was some evidence that perceived flexibility-fit (i.e., the fit between worker needs and flexible work options available) and supportive work-family culture attenuated the relationship between hours worked and satisfaction with work-family balance. The results suggest that analyses focusing on the average relationship between long work hours (such as those using ordinary least squares regression) and satisfaction with work-family balance may underestimate the importance of long work hours for workers with lower satisfaction levels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Quick returns and night work as predictors of sleep quality, fatigue, work-family balance and satisfaction with work hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, Anna; Tucker, Philip; Gustavsson, Petter; Rudman, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Quick returns (intervals of work. The current study explored quick returns and night work in terms of their impact on sleep, unwinding, recovery, exhaustion, satisfaction with work hours and work-family interference. Data from the 2006 cohort of Swedish nursing students within the national Longitudinal Analysis of Nursing Education (LANE) study were analysed (N = 1459). Respondents completed a questionnaire prior to graduation (response rate 69.2%) and 3 years after graduation (65.9%). The analyses examined associations between frequency of quick returns and night work and measures taken in year three, while adjusting for confounding factors (in year three and prior graduation). Frequency of quick returns was a significant predictor of poor sleep quality, short sleeps, unwinding, exhaustion, satisfaction with work hours and work-to-family interference, with higher frequency predicting more negative outcomes. Quick returns did not predict recovery after rest days. Frequency of night work did not predict any of the outcomes. In conclusion, quick returns were an important determinant of sleep, recovery and wellbeing, whereas night work did not show such an association.

  8. Associations of Work Hours, Job Strain, and Occupation with Endothelial Function: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Luenda E.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Landsbergis, Paul; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Baron, Sherry; Kaufman, Joel D.; Stukovsky, Karen Hinckley; Fujishiro, Kaori; Foy, Capri G.; Andrew, Michael E.; Roux, Ana V. Diez

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations of work hours, job control, job demands, job strain, and occupational category with brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in 1,499 MESA participants. Methods FMD was obtained using high-resolution ultrasound. Mean values of FMD were examined across categories of occupation, work hours, and the other exposures using regression analyses. Results Occupational category was significantly associated with FMD overall, with blue-collar workers showing the lowest mean values: Management/professional=4.97±0.22%; sales/office=5.19±0.28%; services=4.73 ± 0.29%; and blue-collar workers=4.01±0.26% (adjusted P <0.001). There was evidence of effect modification by gender (interaction P=0.031): significant associations were observed among women (adjusted P =0.002) and nearly significant results among men (adjusted P=0.087). Other exposures were not significantly associated with FMD. Conclusions Differences in endothelial function may account for some of the variation in cardiovascular disease across occupational groups. PMID:25376409

  9. Flexible work hours, health and well-being in the European Union: preliminary data from a SALTSA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, G; Akerstedt, T; Nachreiner, F; Baltieri, F; Folkard, S; Frings Dresen, M; Gadbois, C; Gartner, J; Grzech Sukalo, H; Harma, M; Kandolin, I; Silverio, J; Simoes, A

    2001-12-01

    Demand for flexible work hours (FWH) is increasing in Europe aimed at increasing the number of production hours on one hand, and, on the other, reducing individual working hours and/or increasing autonomy and control on them. In view of the lack of knowledge of the effects of FWH on health and safety, we started a pilot project, funded by the Joint Programme for Working Life Research in Europe (SALTSA), aimed at: a) comparing the most relevant national legislation and how the EU Directive 93/104 "concerning certain aspects of working time" has been implemented in the member States; b) reporting prevalence and trend of FWH in Europe according to the three EU Surveys on Working Conditions carried out in the last decade; c) collecting practical examples of innovative FWH; d) evaluating their impact on health and safety in relation to work sectors, job demands, social life, aging and gender. Consequent actions are going to include information and consultancy for pertinent authorities and social parties involved, as well as training programmes for Union officials and similar groups concerning the organisation of FWH according to ergonomic principles.

  10. Effects of the new Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education work hour rules on surgical interns: a prospective study in a community teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamine, Tovy Haber; Barron, Rebecca J; Lesicka, Agnieszka; Galbraith, John D; Millham, Frederick H; Larson, Janet

    2013-02-01

    On July 1, 2011, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) eliminated 30-hour call in an attempt to improve resident wakefulness. We surveyed interns on the Newton Wellesley Hospital (NWH) surgery service before and after the transition from Q4 overnight call to a night float schedule. For 15 weeks, interns completed weekly surveys including the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). The service changed to a night float schedule after 3 weeks (ie, first to 3-4 and then to 6 nights in a row). The average ESS score rose from 9.8 ± 5.2 to 14.9 ± 3.1 and 14.4 ± 4.5 (P = .042) on the 3/4 and 6/1 schedules, respectively. Interns were more likely to be abnormally tired on either night float schedule (relative risk = 2.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-6.97, P = .029). The new ACGME work hours increased the ESS scores among interns at NWH and caused interns to be more tired than interns on the Q4 schedule. This is likely caused by the multiple nights of poor sleep without a post-call day to make up sleep. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Long working hours and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis of published and unpublished data for 603 838 individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kivimäki, M.; Jokela, M.; Nyberg, S.T.; Singh-Manoux, A.; Fransson, E.I.; Alfredsson, L.; Bjorner, J.B.; Borritz, M.; Burr, H.; Casini, A.; Clays, E.; Bacquer, D. de; Dragano, N.; Erbel, R.; Geuskens, G.A.; Hamer, M.; Hooftman, W.E.; Houtman, I.L.; Jöckel, K.H.; Kittel, F.; Knutsson, A.; Koskenvuo, M.; Lunau, T.; Madsen, I.E.; Nielsen, M.L.; Nordin, M.; Oksanen, T.; Pejtersen, J.H.; Pentti, J.; Rugulies, R.; Salo, P.; Shipley, M.J.; Siegrist, J.; Steptoe, A.; Suominen, S.B.; Theorell, T.; Vahtera, J.; Westerholm, P.J.M.; O'Reilly, D.; Kumari, M.; Batty, G.D.; Ferrie, J.E.; Virtanen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Long working hours might increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but prospective evidence is scarce, imprecise, and mostly limited to coronary heart disease. We aimed to assess long working hours as a risk factor for incident coronary heart disease and stroke. Methods: We identified

  12. How many hours do you usually work? An analysis of the working hours questions in 26 large-scale surveys in 6 countries and the European Union.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dragstra, A.; Tijdens, K.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews how working hours are asked in 26 large-scale surveys in 6 countries plus the European Union. Four dimensions of working time were investigated, notably number of working hours, timing of work, predictability and control over hours, and commuting time. Although almost all

  13. How many hours do you usually work? An analysis of the working hours questions in 26 large-scale surveys in six countries and the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdens, K.; Dragstra, A.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews how working hours are asked for in 26 large-scale surveys in six countries plus the European Union. Four dimensions of working time were investigated, notably number of working hours, timing of work, predictability and control over hours, and commuting time. Although almost all

  14. The perspective of the vascular surgery trainee on new ACGME regulations, fatigue, resident training, and patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, Randall R; Brewster, L P; Kokkosis, A A; Glass, C; Boros, M; Kreishman, P; Kauvar, D A; Farber, A

    2011-11-01

    To assess the opinions of vascular surgery trainees on the new Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) guidelines. A questionnaire was developed and electronically distributed to trainee members of the Society for Vascular Surgery. Of 238 eligible vascular trainees, 38 (16%) participated. Respondents were predominantly 30 to 35 years of age (47%), male (69%), in 2-year fellowship (73%), and at large academic centers (61%). Trainees report occasionally working while fatigued (63%). Fellows were more likely to report for duty while fatigued (P = .012) than integrated vascular residents. Respondents thought further work-hour restrictions would not improve patient care or training (P life. Respondents reported that duty hours should vary by specialty (81%) and allow flexibility in the last years of training (P balanced against the need to adequately train vascular surgeons.

  15. The association between long working hours and the metabolic syndrome: evidences from the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 2010 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae Uk; Jeon, Man Joong; Sakong, Joon

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the association between the working hours of Korean employees and the metabolic syndrome and the effects of long working hours on metabolic syndrome based on the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012). Based on the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012), 4,456 Korean employees without shift work, aged over 15, who work 30 hours or more per week were targeted in this study. The association between the general characteristics, including age, smoking, alcohol drinking, exercise, and the metabolic syndrome criteria defined by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and weekly working hours were analyzed. In addition, the association between weekly working hours and the metabolic syndrome of the subjects stratified by gender was analyzed through multiple logistic regression analyses and generalized linear mixed model after adjusting the general characteristics. In the results of stratified analysis by gender, in male subjects, in comparison with the 30-39 weekly working hours group, there were no significant adjusted odds ratios to the other working hours groups. In female subjects, in comparison with the 30-39 weekly working hours group, there were no significant adjusted odds ratios to the other working hours groups. In addition, no trend associations were observed among weekly working hour groups in both stratified genders. No significant differences in prevalence of metabolic syndrome of the subjects stratified by gender were found according to weekly increasing working hours. However, due to some limitations of this study, further prospective studies may be necessary for verification.

  16. Scientific activity and working hours of physicians in university hospitals: results from the Innsbruck and Salzburg physician lifestyle assessment (TISPLA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Bernhard; Colvin, Hans Peter; Rieder, Josef

    2009-01-01

    Controllable lifestyle has become an important factor influencing career decision-making among physicians. In academic medicine, doctors are required to combine both patient care and research in their daily routine. Insufficient release of clinicians for research during contracted work hours may lead to increased weekly working hours in academic medical centers and deter medical graduates from academia. We tested for an association between numbers of scientific publications and an increased hourly workload among physicians. This was a cross-sectional online survey among all salaried physicians working in the university hospitals of Innsbruck and Salzburg, Austria. The main outcome measures were the self-reported total number of scientific papers published in peer-reviewed medical journals over the past two years and self-reported working hours. Of 590 returned surveys, 393 were fully completed and included in the study. The sample was stratified into three groups according to scientific output in the past two years: Group A, >/= 6 publications; Group B, 1-5 publications; Group C, no publications. Men were more likely than women to have a scientific publication: in Group A there was a male predominance of 75%, whereas in Group C only 48% were men (P = 0.0034). A total of 59% (n = 232) of all participants had not published a scientific article in the past two years (Group C) and worked a mean of 58.3 +/- 12 h/week. Physicians in Group B (n = 113) had published 2.4 +/- 1.4 papers and worked 62.8 +/- 12.9 h/week; those in Group A (n = 48) had published 11.5 +/- 6.6 papers and worked 73 +/- 13.1 h/week (P work time but for 60% of overtime hours, reflecting the fact that research was mainly performed during overtime. Research activity among clinicians in academic medical centers is associated with significantly increased overtime hours. Measures need to be taken to allow medical graduates an academic career at reasonable impairment of personal lifestyle.

  17. Effect of Long Working Hours on Self-reported Hypertension among Middle-aged and Older Wage Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Dong Hyun; Kang, Mo-Yeol; Paek, Domyung; Min, Bokki; Cho, Sung-Il

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have reported an association between overwork and hypertension. However, research on the health effects of long working hours has yielded inconclusive results. The objective of this study was to identify an association between overtime work and hypertension in wage workers 45 years and over of age using prospective data. Wage workers in Korea aged 45 years and over were selected for inclusion in this study from among 10,254 subjects from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Workers with baseline hypertension and those with other major diseases were excluded. In the end, a total of 1,079 subjects were included. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratios and adjust for baseline characteristics such as sex, age, education, income, occupation, form of employment, body mass index, alcohol habit, smoking habit, regular exercise, and number of working days per week. Additional models were used to calculate hazard ratios after gender stratification. Among the 1,079 subjects, 85 workers were diagnosed with hypertension during 3974.2 person-months. The average number of working hours per week for all subjects was 47.68. The proportion of overtime workers was 61.0% (cutoff, 40 h per week). Compared with those working 40 h and less per week, the hazard ratio of subjects in the final model, which adjusted for all selected variables, working 41-50 h per week was 2.20 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19-4.06), that of subjects working 51-60 h per week was 2.40 (95% CI, 1.07-5.39), and that of subjects working 61 h and over per week was 2.87 (95% CI, 1.33-6.20). In gender stratification models, the hazard ratio of the females tended to be higher than that of the males. As the number of working hours per week increased, the hazard ratio for diagnosis of hypertension significantly increased. This result suggests a positive association between overtime work and the risk of hypertension.

  18. When work calls-associations between being contacted outside of regular working hours for work-related matters and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlinghaus, Anna; Nachreiner, Friedhelm

    2013-11-01

    Boundaries between work and private life are diminishing, but little is known on how this influences worker health. Therefore, we examined the association between work-related contacts outside of regular working hours by e-mail or phone and self-reported health in a representative sample of European employees (n = 23 760). The risk of reporting ≥1 health problem(s) was increased in workers contacted sometimes (odds ratio [OR]: 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.27) or often (OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.12-1.34) as compared with never, controlling for several demographic and workplace characteristics. Further research is needed to quantify work and nonwork patterns and their health effects.

  19. The Relation between Maternal Work Hours and Primary School Students’ Affect in China: The Role of the Frequency of Mother–Child Communication (FMCC) and Maternal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huan; Lv, Bo; Guo, Xiaolin; Liu, Chunhui; Qi, Bing; Hu, Weiping; Liu, Zhaomin; Luo, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although substantial evidence suggests that maternal work hours may have a negative effect on children’s cognitive development, the link between maternal work hours and children’s affect remains unclear. Some studies have observed that non-daytime maternal work hours are associated with more emotional problems among children. However, few studies have focused on the effects of maternal work hours on workdays and non-workdays. Therefore, this study separately investigated the relation between maternal work hours on workdays and on non-workdays and explored the mediating role of the frequency of mother-child communication (FMCC) and the moderating role of maternal education. Method: Using cluster sampling, this study selected 879 students in grades 4–6 at two primary schools in the Hebei and Shandong provinces in China and their mothers as the study subjects. A multi-group structural equation model (SEM) was used to test the relations between maternal work hours, FMCC and children’s affect and the moderating effect of maternal education. Results: (1) Non-college-educated mothers’ work hours on workdays negatively predicted FMCC, but there was no such effect for college-educated mothers; (2) non-workday work hours of all employed mothers negatively predicted FMCC; (3) the FMCC of all employed mothers positively predicted children’s positive affect; (4) the FMCC of college-educated mothers negatively predicted children’s negative affect although there was no such relation for non-college-educated mothers; (5) there was a significant mediating effect of FMCC on the relation between maternal work hours and children’s affect only for non-college-educated mothers; and (6) the workday work hours of non-college-educated mothers positively predicted children’s negative affect, but this correlation was negative for college-educated mothers. Conclusion: Maternal work hours have a marginally significant negative effect on children’s affect through

  20. The Relation between Maternal Work Hours and Primary School Students' Affect in China: The Role of the Frequency of Mother-Child Communication (FMCC) and Maternal Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huan; Lv, Bo; Guo, Xiaolin; Liu, Chunhui; Qi, Bing; Hu, Weiping; Liu, Zhaomin; Luo, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although substantial evidence suggests that maternal work hours may have a negative effect on children's cognitive development, the link between maternal work hours and children's affect remains unclear. Some studies have observed that non-daytime maternal work hours are associated with more emotional problems among children. However, few studies have focused on the effects of maternal work hours on workdays and non-workdays. Therefore, this study separately investigated the relation between maternal work hours on workdays and on non-workdays and explored the mediating role of the frequency of mother-child communication (FMCC) and the moderating role of maternal education. Method: Using cluster sampling, this study selected 879 students in grades 4-6 at two primary schools in the Hebei and Shandong provinces in China and their mothers as the study subjects. A multi-group structural equation model (SEM) was used to test the relations between maternal work hours, FMCC and children's affect and the moderating effect of maternal education. Results: (1) Non-college-educated mothers' work hours on workdays negatively predicted FMCC, but there was no such effect for college-educated mothers; (2) non-workday work hours of all employed mothers negatively predicted FMCC; (3) the FMCC of all employed mothers positively predicted children's positive affect; (4) the FMCC of college-educated mothers negatively predicted children's negative affect although there was no such relation for non-college-educated mothers; (5) there was a significant mediating effect of FMCC on the relation between maternal work hours and children's affect only for non-college-educated mothers; and (6) the workday work hours of non-college-educated mothers positively predicted children's negative affect, but this correlation was negative for college-educated mothers. Conclusion: Maternal work hours have a marginally significant negative effect on children's affect through FMCC only for non

  1. The Relation between Maternal Work Hours and Primary School Students’ Affect in China: The Role of the Frequency of Mother–Child Communication (FMCC and Maternal Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Zhou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although substantial evidence suggests that maternal work hours may have a negative effect on children’s cognitive development, the link between maternal work hours and children’s affect remains unclear. Some studies have observed that non-daytime maternal work hours are associated with more emotional problems among children. However, few studies have focused on the effects of maternal work hours on workdays and non-workdays. Therefore, this study separately investigated the relation between maternal work hours on workdays and on non-workdays and explored the mediating role of the frequency of mother-child communication (FMCC and the moderating role of maternal education.Method: Using cluster sampling, this study selected 879 students in grades 4–6 at two primary schools in the Hebei and Shandong provinces in China and their mothers as the study subjects. A multi-group structural equation model (SEM was used to test the relations between maternal work hours, FMCC and children’s affect and the moderating effect of maternal education.Results: (1 Non-college-educated mothers’ work hours on workdays negatively predicted FMCC, but there was no such effect for college-educated mothers; (2 non-workday work hours of all employed mothers negatively predicted FMCC; (3 the FMCC of all employed mothers positively predicted children’s positive affect; (4 the FMCC of college-educated mothers negatively predicted children’s negative affect although there was no such relation for non-college-educated mothers; (5 there was a significant mediating effect of FMCC on the relation between maternal work hours and children’s affect only for non-college-educated mothers; and (6 the workday work hours of non-college-educated mothers positively predicted children’s negative affect, but this correlation was negative for college-educated mothers.Conclusion: Maternal work hours have a marginally significant negative effect on children

  2. The longitudinal relationship between control over working hours and depressive symptoms: Results from SLOSH, a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Sophie C; Kecklund, Göran; Rajaleid, Kristiina; Leineweber, Constanze

    2017-06-01

    Psychosocial work factors can affect depressive moods, but research is inconclusive if flexibility to self-determine working hours (work-time control, WTC) is associated with depressive symptoms over time. We investigated if either sub-dimension of WTC, control over daily hours and control over time off, was related to depressive symptoms over time and examined causal, reversed-causal, and reciprocal pathways. The study was based on four waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health which is a follow-up of representative samples of the Swedish working population. WTC was measured using a 5-item index. Depressive symptoms were assessed with a brief subscale of the Symptom Checklist. Latent growth curve models and cross-lagged panel models were tested. Best fit was found for a model with correlated intercepts (control over daily hours) and both correlated intercepts and slopes (control over time off) between WTC and depressive symptoms, with stronger associations for control over time off. Causal models estimating impacts from WTC to subsequent depressive symptoms were best fitting, with a standardised coefficient between -0.023 and -0.048. Results were mainly based on self-report data and mean age in the study sample was relatively high. Higher WTC was related to fewer depressive symptoms over time albeit small effects. Giving workers control over working hours - especially over taking breaks and vacation - may improve working conditions and buffer against developing depression, potentially by enabling workers to recover more easily and promoting work-life balance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Buffering effects of job resources on the association of overtime work hours with psychological distress in Japanese white-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Ayako; Inoue, Akiomi; Kawakami, Norito; Tsuno, Kanami; Tomioka, Kimiko; Nakanishi, Mayuko; Mafune, Kosuke; Hiro, Hisanori

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the buffering effects of job resources, utilizing the job demands-control (or demand-control-support) and effort-reward imbalance models (i.e., job control, workplace social support, and extrinsic reward), on the association of overtime work hours with psychological distress in Japanese employees. A total of 1,198 participants (valid response rate = 93.7 %) from five branches of a manufacturing company in Japan completed a self-administered questionnaire comprising the scales assessing job resources, psychological distress, and demographic characteristics. We obtained the information on working hours in the most recent month from the personnel records of the surveyed company. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. In a series of analyses, interaction term of overtime work hours with each job resource was included in the model. Significant interaction effect of overtime work hours with job control was observed. Among the low job control group, the long overtime (80 h or more) subgroup had a significantly higher prevalence odds ratio of psychological distress compared to the short overtime (44 h or less) subgroup. No significant association of overtime work hours with psychological distress was found among the high job control group. On the other hand, there was no significant interaction effect of overtime work hours with workplace social support or extrinsic reward. The present findings suggest that high job control has an effect on reducing psychological distress in relation to overtime work hours in Japanese employees.

  4. Long working hours, job satisfaction, and depressive symptoms: a community-based cross-sectional study among Japanese employees in small- and medium-scale businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Nakata, Akinori

    2017-01-01

    Although long working hours have been suspected to be a risk factor for depressive symptoms (DS), it is not well understood the conditions under which long working hours are associated with it. This study investigated the moderating effect of job satisfaction on the relationship between working hours and DS. A total of 2,375 full-time non-shift day workers (73% men), aged 18?79 (mean 45) years, in 296 small- and medium-scale businesses were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire eva...

  5. Work-Related Quality of Life among Medical Residents at a University Hospital in Northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somsila, Nattamon; Chaiear, Naesinee; Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip; Tiamkao, Somsak

    2015-12-01

    1) To assess work-related quality of life (WRQOL) among medical residents at a university hospital in northeast Thailand. 2) To determine the strength of the association between personal and working condition components and WRQOL among medical residents. A descriptive study was used to describe the WRQOL among medical residents. The study population comprised of all 375 residents affiliated with the university hospital. The Thai version of a self-administered work-related quality of life scale-2 was used for data collection. Testing the reliability revealed a Cronbach's alpha of 0.908. Questionnaires were completed by 259 of 375 (68.3%). The study found that the mean rating by residents for overall WRQOL was 113.8 out of 170 (SD 14.8). Most rated WRQOL as moderate (76.6%). The seven sub-factors were rated as moderate to high for employee engagement and control at work, moderate for home/work interface, general well-being and working conditions, high-moderate for job career satisfaction, and low-moderate for stress at work. Relationships between the personal and working condition components and WRQOL were analyzed using binary logistic regression. Residents in minor specialties had a higher WRQOL than those in major specialties (OR 2.522, 95% CI: 1.37, 4.63). Residents who had less than eight duty shifts/week had a higher WRQOL than those with more than eight duty shifts/week (OR 2.263, 95% CI: 1.16, 4.41). Similarly, residents working with less than 80 hours/week had a higher WRQOL than those working more than 80 hours/week (OR 2.344, 95% CI: 1.17, 4.72). A subgroup analyzes of those working in minor specialties showed the trend that working less than eight shifts/month and working less than 80 hours/week had the potential association with good quality of work-life (QWL). This phenomenon is presented in the subgroup analyses of those working in major specialties. Therefore, working hours and number of shifts might have played important role in contributing good QWL

  6. Demographics, Interests, and Quality of Life of Canadian Neurosurgery Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio-Morin, Christian; Ahmed, Syed Uzair; Bigder, Mark; Dakson, Ayoub; Elliott, Cameron; Guha, Daipayan; Kameda-Smith, Michelle; Lavergne, Pascal; Makarenko, Serge; Taccone, Michael S; Tso, Michael K; Wang, Bill; Winkler-Schwartz, Alexander; Fortin, David

    2018-03-01

    Neurosurgical residents face a unique combination of challenges, including long duty hours, technically challenging cases, and uncertain employment prospects. We sought to assess the demographics, interests, career goals, self-rated happiness, and overall well-being of Canadian neurosurgery residents. A cross-sectional survey was developed and sent through the Canadian Neurosurgery Research Collaborative to every resident enrolled in a Canadian neurosurgery program as of April 1, 2016. We analyzed 76 completed surveys of 146 eligible residents (52% response rate). The median age was 29 years, with 76% of respondents being males. The most popular subspecialties of interest for fellowship were spine, oncology, and open vascular neurosurgery. The most frequent self-reported number of worked hours per week was the 80- to 89-hour range. The majority of respondents reported a high level of happiness as well as stress. Sense of accomplishment and fatigue were reported as average to high and overall quality of life was low for 19%, average for 49%, and high for 32%. Satisfaction with work-life balance was average for 44% of respondents and was the only tested domain in which significant dissatisfaction was identified (18%). Overall, respondents were highly satisfied with their choice of specialty, choice of program, surgical exposure, and work environment; however, intimidation was reported in 36% of respondents and depression by 17%. Despite a challenging residency and high workload, the majority of Canadian neurosurgery residents are happy and satisfied with their choice of specialty and program. However, work-life balance, employability, resident intimidation, and depression were identified as areas of active concern.

  7. Long work hours and physical fitness: 30-year risk of ischaemic heart disease and all-cause mortality among middle-aged Caucasian men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Burr, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    No previous long-term studies have examined if workers with low physical fitness have an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality due to long work hours. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis....

  8. Effects of duty hour restrictions on core competencies, education, quality of life, and burnout among general surgery interns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiel, Ryan M; Reed, Darcy A; Van Arendonk, Kyle J; Wightman, Sean C; Hall, Daniel E; Porterfield, John R; Horvath, Karen D; Terhune, Kyla P; Tarpley, John L; Farley, David R

    2013-05-01

    To measure the implications of the new Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education duty hour regulations for education, well-being, and burnout. Longitudinal study. Eleven university-based general surgery residency programs from July 2011 to May 2012. Two hundred thirteen surgical interns. Perceptions of the impact of the new duty hours on various aspects of surgical training, including the 6 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies, were measured on 3-point scales. Quality of life, burnout, balance between personal and professional life, and career satisfaction were measured using validated instruments. Half of all interns felt that the duty hour changes have decreased the coordination of patient care (53%), their ability to achieve continuity with hospitalized patients (70%), and their time spent in the operating room (57%). Less than half (44%) of interns believed that the new standards have decreased resident fatigue. In longitudinal analysis, residents' beliefs had significantly changed in 2 categories: less likely to believe that practice-based learning and improvement had improved and more likely to report no change to resident fatigue (P life. Compared with the normal US population, 50 interns (32%) were 0.5 SD less than the mean on the 8-item Short Form Health Survey mental quality of life score. Approximately one-third of interns demonstrated weekly symptoms of emotional exhaustion (28%) or depersonalization (28%) or reported that their personal-professional balance was either "very poor" or "not great" (32%). Although many interns (67%) reported that they daily or weekly reflect on their satisfaction from being a surgeon, 1 in 7 considered giving up their career as a surgeon on at least a weekly basis. The first cohort of surgical interns to train under the new regulations report decreased continuity with patients, coordination of patient care, and time spent in the operating room. Furthermore, suboptimal quality of

  9. Long working hours and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke : a systematic review and meta-analysis of published and unpublished data for 603 838 individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Kivimaki, Mika; Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T.; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Fransson, Eleonor I.; Alfredsson, Lars; Bjorner, Jakob B.; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Casini, Annalisa; Clays, Els; De Bacquer, Dirk; Dragano, Nico; Erbel, Raimund; Geuskens, Goedele A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long working hours might increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but prospective evidence is scarce, imprecise, and mostly limited to coronary heart disease. We aimed to assess long working hours as a risk factor for incident coronary heart disease and stroke. METHODS: We identified published studies through a systematic review of PubMed and Embase from inception to Aug 20, 2014. We obtained unpublished data for 20 cohort studies from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-anal...

  10. Long working hours and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis of published and unpublished data for 603 838 individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Kivimäki, M.; Jokela, M.; Nyberg, S.T.; Singh-Manoux, A.; Fransson, E.I.; Alfredsson, L.; Bjorner, J.B.; Borritz, M.; Burr, H.; Casini, A.; Clays, E.; Bacquer, D. de; Dragano, N.; Erbel, R.; Geuskens, G.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Long working hours might increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but prospective evidence is scarce, imprecise, and mostly limited to coronary heart disease. We aimed to assess long working hours as a risk factor for incident coronary heart disease and stroke. Methods: We identified published studies through a systematic review of PubMed and Embase from inception to Aug 20, 2014. We obtained unpublished data for 20 cohort studies from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-anal...

  11. Long working hours and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis of published and unpublished data for 603 838 individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Kivimäki, M.; Jokela, M.; Nyberg, S. T.; Singh-Manoux, A.; Fransson, E. I.; Alfredsson, L.; Bjorner, J. B.; Borritz, M.; Burr, H.; Casini, A.; Clays, E.; De Bacquer, D.; Dragano, N.; Erbel, R.; Geuskens, G. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Long working hours might increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but prospective evidence is scarce, imprecise, and mostly limited to coronary heart disease. We aimed to assess long working hours as a risk factor for incident coronary heart disease and stroke. / Methods: We identified published studies through a systematic review of PubMed and Embase from inception to Aug 20, 2014. We obtained unpublished data for 20 cohort studies from the Individual-Participant-Data Met...

  12. Associations of work hours with carotid intima-media thickness and ankle-brachial index: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Luenda E; Fekedulegn, Desta; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Fujishiro, Kaori; Landsbergis, Paul; Diez Roux, Ana V; Macdonald, Leslie; Foy, Capri G; Andrew, Michael E; Stukovsky, Karen H; Baron, Sherry

    2012-10-01

    Long working hours may be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective was to investigate cross-sectional associations of work hours with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and ankle-brachial index (ABI). Participants were 1694 women and 1868 men from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. CIMT and ABI were measured using standard protocols. Information on work hours was obtained from questionnaires. Mean values of CIMT and ABI were examined across five categories of hours worked per week (≤20, 21-39, 40, 41-50 and >50) using analysis of variance/analysis of covariance. p Values for trend were obtained from linear regression models. Mean age of participants was 56.9±8.4 years; 52.4% were men. Distinct patterns of association between work hours and the subclinical CVD biomarkers were found for women and men, although this heterogeneity by gender was not statistically significant. Among women only, work hours were positively associated with common (but not internal) CIMT (p=0.073) after full risk factor adjustment. Compared with women working 40 h, those working >50 h were more likely to have an ABI work hours and ABI were inversely associated (p=0.046). There was some evidence that the association between work hours and ABI was modified by occupational category (interaction p=0.061). Among persons classified as management/professionals, longer work hours was associated with lower ABI (p=0.015). No significant associations were observed among other occupational groups. Working longer hours may be associated with subclinical CVD. These associations should be investigated using longitudinal studies.

  13. Long work hours and physical fitness: 30-year risk of ischaemic heart disease and all-cause mortality among middle-aged Caucasian men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Burr, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    No previous long-term studies have examined if workers with low physical fitness have an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality due to long work hours. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis.......No previous long-term studies have examined if workers with low physical fitness have an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality due to long work hours. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis....

  14. Long working hours in the healthcare system of the Belo Horizonte municipality, Brazil: a population-based cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Juliana M; Assunção, Ada A; Abreu, Mery N S

    2017-04-21

    Health personnel are key players in developing and improving healthcare systems, caring for individuals and their communities, and helping improve quality of life. However, these professionals are often exposed to long working hours because of the pressing need for their services at potentially any time of day. The long working hours they endure are a major risk factor for both acute and chronic health problems. The present study aimed to analyze occurrences of long working hours and their association with individual characteristics and employment factors among workers in the municipal healthcare system in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. In this cross-sectional study, a ramdomly selected proportional sample of 1549 participants was analyzed from among the total of 13 602 workers in the Belo Horizonte municipal healthcare system in 2009. "Long" working hours were defined as >44 h/week. A self-administered questionnaire was used for accumulating data. Associations with outcomes were estimated using logistic regression, in univariate and multivariate models. The rate of occurrence of long working hours was 31.4% (95% CI 29.1-33.7). Lower educational level (high school, technical, or uncompleted undergraduate [OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.47-0.78 p long working hours in relation to the group with the highest educational level (completed undergraduate or postgraduate). Male sex (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.26-2.09 p long working hours. It was observed that number of long weekly working hours was related to individual characteristics and employment factors.

  15. Different Views about Work-Hour Limitations in Medicine: A Qualitative Content Analysis of Surgeons', Lawyers', and Pilots' Positive and Negative Arguments

    OpenAIRE

    Businger, Adrian P.; Kaderli, Reto M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Whereas work-hour regulations have been taken for granted since 1940 in other occupational settings, such as commercial aviation, they have been implemented only recently in medical professions, where they lead to a lively debate. The aim of the present study was to evaluate arguments in favour of and against work-hour limitations in medicine given by Swiss surgeons, lawyers, and pilots. Methods An electronic questionnaire survey with four free-response items addressing the questio...

  16. Excessive working hours and health complaints among hospital physicians: a study based on a national sample of hospital physicians in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosta, Judith

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine correlations between excessively long working hours and subjectively experienced somatic health complaints among hospital physicians. Methods: Quantitative data were collected as part of the survey “Working life, Lifestyle and Health of Hospital Physicians in Germany 2006” using self-reporting questionnaires. The individually experienced health was assessed on the basis of Zerssen’s [1] list of somatic complaints. The indicator of excessively long working hours was defined as 10 or more working hours per working day and 6 or more on-call shifts a month among full-time employees. The net sample consisted of 3295 randomly selected physicians from 515 hospitals. Results: The response rate was 58% (n=1917. Physicians with excessively long working hours (19% had significantly higher sum score of health complaints (p=0.0001 and significantly increased mental and physical fatigue symptoms (feeling faint, languor, uneasiness, heavy legs, excessive need for sleep, trembling; p=0.0001 to 0.047, mood changes (irritability, brooding; p=0.008 to 0.014, gastrointestinal (nausea, loss of weight; p=0.0001 to 0.014 and heart disorders (lumpy sensation in the throat, chest pain; p=0.0001 to 0.042. When the sum score of health complaints was controlled for selected confounders, being female (B=-3.44, p=0.0001 and having excessively long working hours (B=2.76, p=0.0001 were significantly correlated with health complaints. In a separate gender analysis, being exposed to excessively long working hours remained a significant predictor for health complaints among both females (B=3.78, p=0.001 and males (B=2.28, p=0.004. Conclusions: Excessively long working hours are associated with an increased risk of health complaints. Reducing working hours may be the first step to improving physicians' health.

  17. Excessive working hours and health complaints among hospital physicians: a study based on a national sample of hospital physicians in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Rosta, Judith; Gerber, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To determine correlations between excessively long working hours and subjectively experienced somatic health complaints among hospital physicians. Methods: Quantitative data were collected as part of the survey “Working life, Lifestyle and Health of Hospital Physicians in Germany 2006” using self-reporting questionnaires. The individually experienced health was assessed on the basis of Zerssen’s [1] list of somatic complaints. The indicator of excessively long working hours was de...

  18. Administrative work consumes one-sixth of U.S. physicians' working hours and lowers their career satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolhandler, Steffie; Himmelstein, David U

    2014-01-01

    Doctors often complain about the burden of administrative work, but few studies have quantified how much time clinicians devote to administrative tasks. We quantified the time U.S. physicians spent on administrative tasks, and its relationship to their career satisfaction, based on a nationally representative survey of 4,720 U.S. physicians working 20 or more hours per week in direct patient care. The average doctor spent 8.7 hours per week (16.6% of working hours) on administration. Psychiatrists spent the highest proportion of their time on administration (20.3%), followed by internists (17.3%) and family/general practitioners (17.3%). Pediatricians spent the least amount of time, 6.7 hours per week or 14.1 percent of professional time. Doctors in large practices, those in practices owned by a hospital, and those with financial incentives to reduce services spent more time on administration. More extensive use of electronic medical records was associated with a greater administrative burden. Doctors spending more time on administration had lower career satisfaction, even after controlling for income and other factors. Current trends in U.S. health policy--a shift to employment in large practices, the implementation of electronic medical records, and the increasing prevalence of financial risk sharing--are likely to increase doctors' paperwork burdens and may decrease their career satisfaction.

  19. Fatigue and related factors among hotel workers: the effects of emotional labor and non-standard working hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Jong; Moon, Hyun Jey; Lee, Kyung-Jae; Kim, Joo Ja

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed fatigue and its association with emotional labor and non-standard working hours among hotel workers. A structured self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 1,320 employees of five hotels located in Seoul. The questionnaire survey included questions concerning the participants' sociodemographics, health-related behaviors, job-related factors, emotional labor, and fatigue. Fatigue was assessed using the Multidimensional Fatigue Scale (MFS). Multiple logistic regression modeling was used to determine the associations between fatigue and emotional labor. Among male workers, there was a significant association between fatigue and both emotional disharmony (OR=5.52, 95% CI=2.35-12.97) and emotional effort (OR=3.48, 95% CI=1.54-7.86). These same associations were seen among the female workers (emotional disharmony: OR=6.91, 95% CI=2.93-16.33; emotional effort: OR=2.28, 95% CI=1.00-5.16). These results indicate that fatigue is associated with emotional labor and, especially, emotional disharmony among hotel workers. Therefore, emotional disharmony management would prove helpful for the prevention of fatigue.

  20. [Results of Training for Personnel Involved in Blood-Transfusion Testing Outside of Regular Work Hours at Saga University Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Marie; Yamada, Naotomo; Higashitani, Takanori; Ohta, Shoichiro; Sueoka, Eisaburo

    2015-11-01

    Laboratory testing prior to blood transfusion outside of regular hours in many hospitals and clinics is frequently conducted by technicians without sufficient experience in such testing work. To obtain consistent test results regardless of the degree of laboratory experience with blood transfusion testing, the number of facilities introducing automated equipment for testing prior to blood transfusion is increasing. Our hospital's blood transfusion department introduced fully automated test equipment in October of 2010 for use when blood transfusions are conducted outside of regular hours. However, excessive dependence on automated testing can lead to an inability to do manual blood typing or cross-match testing when necessitated by breakdowns in the automated test equipment, in the case of abnormal specimen reactions, or other such case. In addition, even outside of normal working hours there are more than a few instances in which transfusion must take place based on urgent communications from clinical staff, with the need for prompt and flexible timing of blood transfusion test and delivery of blood products. To address this situation, in 2010 we began training after-hours laboratory personnel in blood transfusion testing to provide practice using test tubes manually and to achieve greater understanding of blood transfusion test work (especially in cases of critical blood loss). Results of the training and difficulties in its implementation for such after-hours laboratory personnel at our hospital are presented and discussed in this paper. [Original

  1. Working hours, sleep, salivary cortisol, fatigue and neuro-behavior during Mars analog mission: five crews study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Balwant; Foing, Bernard H; Kaur, Jasdeep

    2012-05-16

    The buoyancy of humans in exploring extreme space environments has been established during missions to the moon. Long duration missions like mission to Mars however, requires humans to adapt to systemic and complex environments beyond the human body's capacity. Astronauts will encounter both physiological and psychological extremes during this trip. Very few studies are conducted on effect of long duration work and sleepiness on cognitive performance. So, this study was planned to find out effects of leadership responsibility, sleepiness and long duration working hours on cognitive performance. The 30 members (leadership: normal; 10:20) were selected from MDRS crews (Mars Desert Research Station, USA). Neurobehavioral test performance, self-ratings of fatigue and sleepiness, and salivary cortisol levels were evaluated during first day, mid and end day of mission. The leadership group did not show any signs of reduced test performance, even in elevated fatigue and sleepiness. The leadership group had faster reaction times on end of mission as compared to first and after 7 day of mission. Salivary cortisol levels were significantly higher in leadership group as compared to normal group. The results suggest that long duration work and sleepiness does not affect the cognitive performance of crew member. Further study is required while taking into account all factors and large sample size to prove this fact. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Associations between social ecological factors and self-reported short physical activity breaks during work hours among desk-based employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennie, Jason A; Timperio, Anna F; Crawford, David A; Dunstan, David W; Salmon, Jo L

    2011-01-01

    To examine the associations between potential social ecological correlates and self-reported short physical activity breaks during work hours (defined as any interruption in sitting time during a typical work hour) among a sample of employees who commonly sit for working tasks. 801 employed adults aged 18-70 years from metropolitan Melbourne, Australia were surveyed in 2009 about their short physical activity breaks from sitting during work hours and potential social ecological correlates of this behaviour. Men reported significantly more short physical activity breaks per work hour than did women (2.5 vs. 2.3 breaks/h, p=0.02). A multivariable linear regression analysis adjusting for clustering and meeting the public health physical activity recommendations showed that the factors associated with frequency of short physical activity breaks per work hour were perceptions of lack of time for short physical activity breaks for men (-0.31 breaks/h, 95% confidence intervals [CI] -0.52, -0.09) and lack of information about taking short physical activity breaks for women (-0.20 breaks/h, CI -0.47, -0.05). These findings suggest that providing male employees with support for short physical activity breaks during work hours, and female employees with information on benefits of this behaviour may be useful for reducing workplace sedentary time. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Association between long working hours and serum gamma-glutamyltransferase levels in female workers: data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung-Gwon; Lee, Yong-Jin; Ham, Jung-Oh; Jang, Eun-Chul; Kim, Seong-Woo; Park, Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the association between long working hours and serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) levels, a factor influencing the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2011) were used to analyze 1,809 women. Subjects were divided into three groups based on the number of weekly working hours: ≤29, 30-51, and ≥52 hours per week. Complex samples logistic regression was performed after adjusting for general and occupational factors to determine the association between long working hours and high serum GGT levels. The prevalence of high serum GGT levels in groups with ≤29, 30-51, and ≥52 working hours per week was 22.0%, 16.9%, and 26.6%, respectively. Even after adjusting for general and occupational factors, those working 30-51 hours per week had the lowest prevalence of high serum GGT levels. Compared to those working 30-51 hours per week, the odds ratios (OR) of having high serum GGT levels in the groups with ≥52 and ≤29 working hours per week were 1.56 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-2.23) and 1.53 (95% CI, 1.05-2.24), respectively. Long working hours were significantly associated with high serum GGT levels in Korean women.

  4. Features of residency training and psychological distress among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4 Department of Peridontal and Community Dentistry, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. 5 Department of ... had <5 hours of research or private study per week. ..... in the USA issued a directive limiting resident doctors' working hours. Following this ...

  5. Paid and unpaid working hours among Swedish men and women in relation to depressive symptom trajectories: results from four waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peristera, Paraskevi; Westerlund, Hugo; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L

    2018-06-07

    Long working hours and unpaid work are possible risk factors for depressive symptoms. However, little is known about how working hours influence the course of depressive symptoms. This study examined the influence of paid, unpaid working hours and total working hours on depressive symptoms trajectories. The study was based on data from four waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH 2008-2014). We applied group-based trajectory modelling in order to identify trajectories of depressive symptoms and studied paid and unpaid working hours and total working hours as risk factors. Six trajectory groups were identified with symptoms: 'very low stable', 'low stable', 'doubtful increasing', 'high decreasing', 'mild decreasing' and 'high stable'. More time spent on unpaid work was associated with the 'low stable' (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.30) and the 'high stable (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.65) symptom trajectories compared with being in the 'very low stable' symptom group. In addition, more total working hours was associated with a higher probability of having 'high decreasing' (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.48) and 'high stable' (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.47) symptoms, when adjusting for sex, age, civil status and socioeconomic status. The results, however, differed somewhat for men and women. More unpaid working hours was more clearly associated with higher symptom trajectories among women. More total working hours was associated with 'high stable' symptoms among women only. This study supported heterogeneous individual patterns of depressive symptoms over time among the Swedish working population. The results also indicate that a higher burden of unpaid work and longer total working hours, which indicate a double burden from paid and unpaid work, may be associated with higher depressive symptom trajectories, especially among women. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights

  6. Whether Regular Working Hours Can Minimize The Blood Bbiochemical Effects of Shift Working: Across-Sectional Study In Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koroush Soleimani

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background:Irregular Working hours, including night work and shift work,have been found to be associated with alteration in various levels of biochemical factors. And some studies have showed association between shift work and blood biochemical disturbances in blood. In this epidemiological study we investigated,whether regular schedule of working hours can minimize the associated biochemical effects.Methods: Atotal of 442 air traffic controllers between the ages of 21 and 59 years in this study filled out questionnaire, and triglyceride, total cholesterol, and HDL-C concentration and FBS were measured after 12- hours fasting. The correlation between shift work and the biochemical variables was measured. The SPSS software version 11.5 and STATAversion 8 were used for statistical analysis, the X2 and fisher's exact test used for comparing the qualitative variables and the parametric tests for quantitative variables with normal distribution. Odd's ratio (OR, and 95% confidence interval (95% CI were used for estimating the effect of shift work on lipid profile and high blood glucose levels. Logistic regression modeling was used for multivariable analysis and adjusting the effect of different variables.Results: sample size of this cross-sectional study was consisted of 305(69% shift workers and 137(31% day workers. The mean age of the shift workers was 40 ± 10 years old and the day workers 40 ± 9.The mean of variables in the present study for total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglyceride and fasting blood glucose in the shift workers were respectively: 195±37mg/dl, 116.8±34.8mg/dl, 48.2±15.1mg/dl, 154±80mg/dl, 92±20mg/dl and in the day workers were respectively: 200±40mg/dl, 125.3±38.6mg/dl, 48.8±23.3mg/dl,151± 77mg/dl, 90± 14mg/dl. Adjusted Odd's ratio for the effect of shift working on the biochemical blood factors did not change the results.Conclusion: This study showed that air traffic control workers with various shift did not

  7. Have restricted working hours reduced junior doctors' experience of fatigue? A focus group and telephone interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Gill; Burford, Bryan; Carter, Madeline; Illing, Jan

    2014-03-06

    To explore the effects of the UK Working Time Regulations (WTR) on trainee doctors' experience of fatigue. Qualitative study involving focus groups and telephone interviews, conducted in Spring 2012 with doctors purposively selected from Foundation and specialty training. Final compliance with a 48 h/week limit had been required for trainee doctors since August 2009. Framework analysis of data. 9 deaneries in all four UK nations; secondary care. 82 doctors: 53 Foundation trainees and 29 specialty trainees. 36 participants were male and 46 female. Specialty trainees were from a wide range of medical and surgical specialties, and psychiatry. Implementation of the WTR, while acknowledged as an improvement to the earlier situation of prolonged excessive hours, has not wholly overcome experience of long working hours and fatigue. Fatigue did not only arise from the hours that were scheduled, but also from an unpredictable mixture of shifts, work intensity (which often resulted in educational tasks being taken home) and inadequate rest. Fatigue was also caused by trainees working beyond their scheduled hours, for reasons such as task completion, accessing additional educational opportunities beyond scheduled hours and staffing shortages. There were also organisational, professional and cultural drivers, such as a sense of responsibility to patients and colleagues and the expectations of seniors. Fatigue was perceived to affect efficiency of skills and judgement, mood and learning capacity. Long-term risks of continued stress and fatigue, for doctors and for the effective delivery of a healthcare service, should not be ignored. Current monitoring processes do not reflect doctors' true working patterns. The effectiveness of the WTR cannot be considered in isolation from the culture and context of the workplace. On-going attention needs to be paid to broader cultural issues, including the relationship between trainees and seniors.

  8. Have restricted working hours reduced junior doctors’ experience of fatigue? A focus group and telephone interview study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Gill; Burford, Bryan; Carter, Madeline; Illing, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of the UK Working Time Regulations (WTR) on trainee doctors’ experience of fatigue. Design Qualitative study involving focus groups and telephone interviews, conducted in Spring 2012 with doctors purposively selected from Foundation and specialty training. Final compliance with a 48 h/week limit had been required for trainee doctors since August 2009. Framework analysis of data. Setting 9 deaneries in all four UK nations; secondary care. Participants 82 doctors: 53 Foundation trainees and 29 specialty trainees. 36 participants were male and 46 female. Specialty trainees were from a wide range of medical and surgical specialties, and psychiatry. Results Implementation of the WTR, while acknowledged as an improvement to the earlier situation of prolonged excessive hours, has not wholly overcome experience of long working hours and fatigue. Fatigue did not only arise from the hours that were scheduled, but also from an unpredictable mixture of shifts, work intensity (which often resulted in educational tasks being taken home) and inadequate rest. Fatigue was also caused by trainees working beyond their scheduled hours, for reasons such as task completion, accessing additional educational opportunities beyond scheduled hours and staffing shortages. There were also organisational, professional and cultural drivers, such as a sense of responsibility to patients and colleagues and the expectations of seniors. Fatigue was perceived to affect efficiency of skills and judgement, mood and learning capacity. Conclusions Long-term risks of continued stress and fatigue, for doctors and for the effective delivery of a healthcare service, should not be ignored. Current monitoring processes do not reflect doctors’ true working patterns. The effectiveness of the WTR cannot be considered in isolation from the culture and context of the workplace. On-going attention needs to be paid to broader cultural issues, including the relationship between

  9. Effects of new ways of working on work hours and work location, health and job-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijp, Hylco H; Beckers, Debby G J; van de Voorde, Karina; Geurts, Sabine A E; Kompier, Michiel A J

    2016-01-01

    New ways of working (NWW) is a type of work organization that is characterized by temporal and spatial flexibility, often combined with extensive use of information and communication technologies (ICT) and performance-based management. In a three-wave intervention study, we examined the effects of NWW on both the organization of work (changes in control over time and place of work; working hours and work location; and other key job characteristics), and on employees' outcomes (work-nonwork balance; health and well-being; and job-related outcomes). We applied a quasi-experimental design within a large Dutch financial company (N = 2,912). We studied an intervention group (n = 2,391) and made comparisons with a reference group (n = 521). There were three study waves: (i) one/two months before, and (ii) 4 months and (iii) 10 months after implementation of NWW. Repeated measures analyses of covariance (involving 361 participants from the intervention group and 80 participants from the reference group) showed a large and significant shift from hours worked at the office to hours worked at home after implementation of NWW. Accordingly, commuting time was reduced. Employees remained working on week days and during day time. Psychosocial work-characteristics, work-nonwork balance, stress, fatigue, and job-related outcomes remained favourable and largely unaffected, but the health score in the intervention group decreased (medium effect). These findings suggest that the implementation of NWW does not necessarily lead to changes in psychosocial work characteristics, well-being or job-related outcomes.

  10. Internal Medicine Residents Reject ?Longer and Gentler? Training

    OpenAIRE

    Gopal, R. K.; Carreira, F.; Baker, W. A.; Glasheen, J. J.; Crane, L. A.; Miyoshi, T. J.; Prochazka, A. V.

    2007-01-01

    Background Increasing complexity of medical care, coupled with limits on resident work hours, has prompted consideration of extending Internal Medicine training. It is unclear whether further hour reductions and extension of training beyond the current duration of 3?years would be accepted by trainees. Objective We aimed to determine if further work-hour reductions and extension of training would be accepted by trainees and whether resident burnout affects their opinions. Design A postal surv...

  11. Different views about work-hour limitations in medicine: a qualitative content analysis of surgeons', lawyers', and pilots' positive and negative arguments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian P Businger

    Full Text Available Whereas work-hour regulations have been taken for granted since 1940 in other occupational settings, such as commercial aviation, they have been implemented only recently in medical professions, where they lead to a lively debate. The aim of the present study was to evaluate arguments in favour of and against work-hour limitations in medicine given by Swiss surgeons, lawyers, and pilots.An electronic questionnaire survey with four free-response items addressing the question of what arguments speak in favour of or against work-hour limitations in general and in medicine was sent to a random sample of board-certified surgeons, lawyers in labour law, and pilots from SWISS International Airlines Ltd.In all, 279/497 (56% of the respondents answered the survey: 67/117 surgeons, 92/226 lawyers, and 120/154 pilots. Support for work-hour limitations in general and in medicine was present and higher among lawyers and pilots than it was in surgeons (p<0.001. The latter agreed more with work-hour limitations in general than in medicine (p<0.001. The most often cited arguments in favour of work-hour limitations were "quality and patient safety," "health and fitness," and "leisure and work-family balance," whereas the lack of "flexibility" was the most important argument against. Surgeons expected more often that their "education" and the "quality of their work" would be threatened (p<0.001.Work-hour limitations should be supported in medicine also, but a way must be found to reduce problems resulting from discontinuity in patient care and to minimise the work in medicine, which has no education value.

  12. Relationship between Long Working Hours and Suicidal Thoughts: Nationwide Data from the 4th and 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Jung, Pil Kyun; Roh, Jaehoon; Seok, Hongdeok; Won, Jong-Uk

    2015-01-01

    Long working hours are a worldwide problem and may increase the risk of various health issues. However, the health effects of long working hours on suicidal thoughts have not been frequently studied. Our goal was to investigate the relationship between long working hours and suicidal thoughts in the rapidly developing country of Korea. Data from 12,076 participants (7,164 men, 4,912 women) from the 4th and 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were used for the current analysis. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for suicidal thoughts. Combined effects of long working hours and lower socioeconomic status or sleep disturbance were also estimated. Compared to groups who worked less than 52 hours per week, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for suicidal thoughts in groups who worked 60 hours or more per week were 1.36 (1.09-1.70) for males and 1.38 (1.11-1.72) for females, even after controlling for household income, marital status, history of hypertension or diabetes mellitus, health-related behaviors, and past two weeks' experience of injury, intoxication, or acute or chronic diseases, as well as type of work. The combined effects of long working hours with lower socioeconomic status, or with sleep disturbance, were also significantly higher compared to participants who worked less than 52 hours per week with higher socioeconomic status, or with 6-8 hours of nighttime sleep. In this study, long working hours were linked to suicidal thoughts for both genders. Additionally, the odds of those suicidal thoughts were higher for lower socioeconomic groups. To prevent adverse psychological health problems such as suicidal thoughts, a strategy regarding long working hours should be investigated.

  13. Effects of long work hours and poor sleep characteristics on workplace injury among full-time male employees of small- and medium-scale businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Akinori

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long work hours and poor sleep characteristics on workplace injury. A total of 1891 male employees, aged 18-79 years (mean 45 years), in 296 small- and medium-scale businesses in a suburb of Tokyo were surveyed by means of a self-administered questionnaire during August-December 2002. Work hours and sleep characteristics, including daily sleep hours, subjective sleep sufficiency, sleep quality and easiness to wake up in the morning, were evaluated. Information on workplace injury in the past 1-year period was self-reported. The risk of workplace injury associated with work hours and poor sleep was estimated using multivariate logistic regression with odds ratio (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals as measures of associations. Compared with those working 6-8 h day(-1) with good sleep characteristics, positive interactive effects for workplace injury were found between long work hours (>8-10 h day(-1) or >10 h day(-1) ) and short sleep duration (Long work hours (aOR, 1.31-1.48), subjective insufficient sleep (aOR, 1.49) and sleeping poorly at night (aOR, 1.72) were also independently associated with workplace injury. This study suggests that long work hours coupled with poor sleep characteristics are synergistically associated with increased risk of workplace injury. Greater attention should be paid to manage/treat poor sleep and reduce excessive work hours to improve safety at the workplace. 2011 European Sleep Research Society.

  14. Relationship between Long Working Hours and Suicidal Thoughts: Nationwide Data from the 4th and 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ha Yoon

    Full Text Available Long working hours are a worldwide problem and may increase the risk of various health issues. However, the health effects of long working hours on suicidal thoughts have not been frequently studied. Our goal was to investigate the relationship between long working hours and suicidal thoughts in the rapidly developing country of Korea.Data from 12,076 participants (7,164 men, 4,912 women from the 4th and 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were used for the current analysis. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for suicidal thoughts. Combined effects of long working hours and lower socioeconomic status or sleep disturbance were also estimated.Compared to groups who worked less than 52 hours per week, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals for suicidal thoughts in groups who worked 60 hours or more per week were 1.36 (1.09-1.70 for males and 1.38 (1.11-1.72 for females, even after controlling for household income, marital status, history of hypertension or diabetes mellitus, health-related behaviors, and past two weeks' experience of injury, intoxication, or acute or chronic diseases, as well as type of work. The combined effects of long working hours with lower socioeconomic status, or with sleep disturbance, were also significantly higher compared to participants who worked less than 52 hours per week with higher socioeconomic status, or with 6-8 hours of nighttime sleep.In this study, long working hours were linked to suicidal thoughts for both genders. Additionally, the odds of those suicidal thoughts were higher for lower socioeconomic groups. To prevent adverse psychological health problems such as suicidal thoughts, a strategy regarding long working hours should be investigated.

  15. Working hours, sleep duration and the risk of acute coronary heart disease: a case-control study of middle-aged men in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yawen; Du, Chung-Li; Hwang, Juey-Jen; Chen, I-Shin; Chen, Ming-Fong; Su, Ta-Chen

    2014-02-15

    This study aimed to examine whether long working hours and short sleep duration were associated with an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or severe coronary heart diseases (SCHD), independent of established psychosocial work-related factors. A case-control study was conducted. Cases were 322 men, aged working hours and daily hours of sleep were calculated. Men with average working hours longer than 60 h/week were found to have significantly increased risks for total CHD (OR=2.2) as compared to those with weekly working hours in 40-48 h, and those with daily hours of sleep fewer than 6 h were found to have increased risks for CHD (OR=3.0) as compared to those with sleeping hours in 6-9 h. Restriction to confirmed AMI yielded a greater risk and these associations remained consistent with adjustment of smoking status, body mass index and psychosocial work factors including job demands, job control, workplace justice, job insecurity and shift work. The results support the hypothesis that long working hours and short sleep duration contribute independently to the risk of cardiovascular diseases in men. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Different views about work-hour limitations in medicine: a qualitative content analysis of surgeons', lawyers', and pilots' positive and negative arguments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Businger, Adrian P; Kaderli, Reto M

    2014-01-01

    Whereas work-hour regulations have been taken for granted since 1940 in other occupational settings, such as commercial aviation, they have been implemented only recently in medical professions, where they lead to a lively debate. The aim of the present study was to evaluate arguments in favour of and against work-hour limitations in medicine given by Swiss surgeons, lawyers, and pilots. An electronic questionnaire survey with four free-response items addressing the question of what arguments speak in favour of or against work-hour limitations in general and in medicine was sent to a random sample of board-certified surgeons, lawyers in labour law, and pilots from SWISS International Airlines Ltd. In all, 279/497 (56%) of the respondents answered the survey: 67/117 surgeons, 92/226 lawyers, and 120/154 pilots. Support for work-hour limitations in general and in medicine was present and higher among lawyers and pilots than it was in surgeons (pwork-family balance," whereas the lack of "flexibility" was the most important argument against. Surgeons expected more often that their "education" and the "quality of their work" would be threatened (p<0.001). Work-hour limitations should be supported in medicine also, but a way must be found to reduce problems resulting from discontinuity in patient care and to minimise the work in medicine, which has no education value.

  17. Job strain associated with increases in ambulatory blood and pulse pressure during and after work hours among female hotel room cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaster, Matt; Krause, Niklas

    2018-06-01

    Previously documented elevated hypertension rates among Las Vegas hotel room cleaners are hypothesized to be associated with job strain. Job strain was assessed by questionnaire. Ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) was recorded among 419 female cleaners from five hotels during 18 waking hours. Multiple linear regression models assessed associations of job strain with ABP and pulse pressure for 18-h, work hours, and after work hours. Higher job strain was associated with increased 18-h systolic ABP, after work hours systolic ABP, and ambulatory pulse pressure. Dependents at home but not social support at work attenuated effects. Among hypertensive workers, job strain effects were partially buffered by anti-hypertensive medication. High job strain is positively associated with blood pressure among female hotel workers suggesting potential for primary prevention at work. Work organizational changes, stress management, and active ABP surveillance and hypertension management should be considered for integrated intervention programs. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Social support and the working hours of employed mothers in Europe: The relevance of the state, the workplace, and the family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abendroth, Anja-Kristin; van der Lippe, Tanja; Maas, Ineke

    2012-05-01

    This paper studies the influence of state, workplace, and family support on the working hours of employed mothers and how these different support sources interact. Data taken from the European Social Survey 2004/2005 as well as country-specific information were used to estimate several hierarchical models. We find evidence that the availability of supportive workplace arrangements and family support positively impact the working hours of employed mothers and that state policies facilitating the traditional family have a negative effect. There is weak support for a positive relationship between state policies facilitating the dual-earner family and working hours of employed mothers. In addition, most of the sources of support appear to be complementary. Supportive family role models and supportive workplace arrangements have a reinforcing relationship, as do publicly funded child care and supportive workplace arrangements. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Long Work Hours, Part-Time Work, and Trends in the Gender Gap in Pay, the Motherhood Wage Penalty, and the Fatherhood Wage Premium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim A. Weeden

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We assess how changes in the social organization and compensation of work hours over the last three decades are associated with changes in wage differentials among mothers, fathers, childless women, and childless men. We find that large differences between gender and parental status groups in long work hours (fifty or more per week, coupled with sharply rising hourly wages for long work hours, contributed to rising gender gaps in wages (especially among parents, motherhood wage penalties, and fatherhood wage premiums. Changes in the representation of these groups in part-time work, by contrast, is associated with a decline in the gender gap in wages among parents and in the motherhood wage penalty, but an increase in the fatherhood wage premium. These findings offer important clues into why gender and family wage differentials still persist.

  20. Association between sleeping hours, working hours and obesity in Hong Kong Chinese: the 'better health for better Hong Kong' health promotion campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, G T C; Chan, J C N; Chan, A W Y; Wong, P T S; Hui, S S C; Tong, S D Y; Ng, S-M; Chow, F; Chan, C L W

    2007-02-01

    To study the inter-relationships between sleeping hours, working hours and obesity in subjects from a working population. A cross-sectional observation study under the 'Better Health for Better Hong Kong' Campaign, which is a territory-wide health awareness and promotion program. 4793 subjects (2353 (49.1%) men and 2440 (50.9%) women). Their mean age (+/-s.d.) was 42.4+/-8.9 years (range 17-83 years, median 43.0 years). Subjects were randomly selected using computer-generated codes in accordance to the distribution of occupational groups in Hong Kong. The mean daily sleeping time was 7.06+/-1.03 h (women vs men: 7.14+/-1.08 h vs 6.98+/-0.96 h, Pworking hours reaching significance in the whole group as well as among male subjects. Those with short sleeping hour (6 h or less) and long working hours (>9 h) had the highest BMI and waist in both men and women. Based on multiple regression analysis with age, smoking, alcohol drinking, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean daily sleeping hours and working hours as independent variables, BMI was independently associated with age, systolic and diastolic blood pressure in women, whereas waist was associated with age, smoking and blood pressure. In men, blood pressure, sleeping hours and working hours were independently associated with BMI, whereas waist was independently associated with age, smoking, blood pressure, sleeping hours and working hours in men. Obesity is associated with reduced sleeping hours and long working hours in men among Hong Kong Chinese working population. Further studies are needed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of this relationship and its potential implication on prevention and management of obesity.

  1. Long working hours, job satisfaction, and depressive symptoms: a community-based cross-sectional study among Japanese employees in small- and medium-scale businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Akinori

    2017-08-08

    Although long working hours have been suspected to be a risk factor for depressive symptoms (DS), it is not well understood the conditions under which long working hours are associated with it. This study investigated the moderating effect of job satisfaction on the relationship between working hours and DS. A total of 2,375 full-time non-shift day workers (73% men), aged 18-79 (mean 45) years, in 296 small- and medium-scale businesses were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire evaluating working hours, job satisfaction, DS and covariates. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) was used to assess DS. Risk of DS (CES-D ≥ 16) by working hours, job satisfaction, and both combined was estimated by multivariable logistic regression analysis. Compared to participants working 6-8 hrs/day, those working 12+ hrs/day had significantly higher odds of DS (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.49), while participants with low satisfaction, as opposed to high satisfaction, had increased odds of DS (aOR 1.81). Furthermore, compared to those working 6-8 hrs/day with high satisfaction (reference group), participants working 6-8 hrs/day, > 8 to 10 hrs/day, and > 10 hrs/day combined with low satisfaction had dose-response increase of DS (aOR 1.48, 2.21 and 2.31, respectively, p working > 8 to 10 hrs/day and > 10 hrs/day combined with high satisfaction had not (aOR 0.93 and 1.39, respectively, p > 0.10). The results suggest that long working hours are associated with increased risk of DS only under reduced job satisfaction condition, which highlights the importance of improving job satisfaction, particularly among those working excessive hours.

  2. Long working hours, job satisfaction, and depressive symptoms: a community-based cross-sectional study among Japanese employees in small- and medium-scale businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Akinori

    2017-01-01

    Although long working hours have been suspected to be a risk factor for depressive symptoms (DS), it is not well understood the conditions under which long working hours are associated with it. This study investigated the moderating effect of job satisfaction on the relationship between working hours and DS. A total of 2,375 full-time non-shift day workers (73% men), aged 18–79 (mean 45) years, in 296 small- and medium-scale businesses were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire evaluating working hours, job satisfaction, DS and covariates. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) was used to assess DS. Risk of DS (CES-D ≥ 16) by working hours, job satisfaction, and both combined was estimated by multivariable logistic regression analysis. Compared to participants working 6–8 hrs/day, those working 12+ hrs/day had significantly higher odds of DS (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.49), while participants with low satisfaction, as opposed to high satisfaction, had increased odds of DS (aOR 1.81). Furthermore, compared to those working 6–8 hrs/day with high satisfaction (reference group), participants working 6-8 hrs/day, > 8 to 10 hrs/day, and > 10 hrs/day combined with low satisfaction had dose-response increase of DS (aOR 1.48, 2.21 and 2.31, respectively, p working > 8 to 10 hrs/day and > 10 hrs/day combined with high satisfaction had not (aOR 0.93 and 1.39, respectively, p > 0.10). The results suggest that long working hours are associated with increased risk of DS only under reduced job satisfaction condition, which highlights the importance of improving job satisfaction, particularly among those working excessive hours. PMID:28881792

  3. Prevalence and cost of full-time research fellowships during general surgery residency: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Charles M; Klingensmith, Mary E; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2009-01-01

    To quantify the prevalence, outcomes, and cost of surgical resident research. General surgery is unique among graduate medical education programs because a large percentage of residents interrupt their clinical training to spend 1 to 3 years performing full-time research. No comprehensive data exists on the scope of this practice. Survey sent to all 239 program directors of general surgery residencies participating in the National Resident Matching Program. Response rate was 200 of 239 (84%). A total of 381 of 1052 trainees (36%) interrupt residency to pursue full-time research. The mean research fellowship length is 1.7 years, with 72% of trainees performing basic science research. A significant association was found between fellowship length and postresidency activity, with a 14.7% increase in clinical fellowship training and a 15.2% decrease in private practice positions for each year of full-time research (P < 0.0001). Program directors at 31% of programs reported increased clinical duties for research fellows as a result of Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education work hour regulations for clinical residents, whereas a further 10% of programs are currently considering such changes. It costs $41.5 million to pay the 634 trainees who perform research fellowships each year, the majority of which is paid for by departmental funds (40%) and institutional training grants (24%). Interrupting residency to perform a research fellowship is a common and costly practice among general surgery residents. Although performing a research fellowship is associated with clinical fellowship training after residency, it is unclear to what extent this practice leads to the development of surgical investigators after postgraduate training.

  4. How many hours do you usually work? An analysis of the working hours questions in 26 large-scale surveys in six countries and the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Tijdens, K.; Dragstra, A.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews how working hours are asked for in 26 large-scale surveys in six countries plus the European Union. Four dimensions of working time were investigated, notably number of working hours, timing of work, predictability and control over hours, and commuting time. Although almost all questionnaires ask for hours worked, the terminology varies greatly. In only half of the cases a reference period is taken into account and in half the reasons for working more/less in the survey w...

  5. How many hours do you usually work? An analysis of the working hours questions in 26 large-scale surveys in 6 countries and the European Union.

    OpenAIRE

    Dragstra, A.; Tijdens, K.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews how working hours are asked in 26 large-scale surveys in 6 countries plus the European Union. Four dimensions of working time were investigated, notably number of working hours, timing of work, predictability and control over hours, and commuting time. Although almost all questionnaires ask for hours worked, the terminology varies largely. In only half of the cases a reference period is taken into account and in half the reasons for working more/less in the survey week than...

  6. Work hours, sleep sufficiency, and prevalence of depression among full-time employees: a community-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Akinori

    2011-05-01

    Depression due to long wo