WorldWideScience

Sample records for resident coastal population

  1. Study of Evacuation Behavior of Coastal Gulf of Mexico Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharjee, Sanjoy; Petrolia, Daniel R.; Hanson, Terrill R.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the link between hurricane characteristics, demographics of the Coastal Gulf of Mexico residents, including their household location, and their respective evacuation behavior. Our study is significantly different from the previously made studies on hurricane evacuation behavior in two ways. At first, the research data is collected through recording responses to a series of hypothetical situations which are quite identical to the set of information that people are...

  2. Carbon isotopes in otolith amino acids identify residency of juvenile snapper (Family: Lutjanidae) in coastal nurseries

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Kelton

    2011-08-26

    This study explored the potential for otolith geochemistry in snapper (Family: Lutjanidae) to identify residency in juvenile nursery habitats with distinctive carbon isotope values. Conventional bulk otolith and muscle stable isotope analyses (SIA) and essential amino acid (AA) SIA were conducted on snapper collected from seagrass beds, mangroves, and coral reefs in the Red Sea, Caribbean Sea, and Pacific coast of Panama. While bulk stable isotope values in otoliths showed regional differences, they failed to distinguish nursery residence on local scales. Essential AA δ13C values in otoliths, on the other hand, varied as a function of habitat type and provided a better tracer of residence in different juvenile nursery habitats than conventional bulk otolith SIA alone. A strong linear relationship was found between paired otolith and muscle essential AA δ13C values regardless of species, geographic region, or habitat type, indicating that otolith AAs recorded the same dietary information as muscle AAs. Juvenile snapper in the Red Sea sheltered in mangroves but fed in seagrass beds, while snapper from the Caribbean Sea and Pacific coast of Panama showed greater reliance on mangrove-derived carbon. Furthermore, compound-specific SIA revealed that microbially recycled detrital carbon, not water-column-based new phytoplankton carbon, was the primary carbon source supporting snapper production on coastal reefs of the Red Sea. This study presented robust tracers of juvenile nursery residence that will be crucial for reconstructing ontogenetic migration patterns of fishes among coastal wetlands and coral reefs. This information is key to determining the importance of nursery habitats to coral reef fish populations and will provide valuable scientific support for the design of networked marine-protected areas. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  3. Carbon isotopes in otolith amino acids identify residency of juvenile snapper (Family: Lutjanidae) in coastal nurseries

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Kelton; Berumen, Michael L.; Mateo, Ivan; Elsdon, Travis S.; Thorrold, Simon R.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the potential for otolith geochemistry in snapper (Family: Lutjanidae) to identify residency in juvenile nursery habitats with distinctive carbon isotope values. Conventional bulk otolith and muscle stable isotope analyses (SIA) and essential amino acid (AA) SIA were conducted on snapper collected from seagrass beds, mangroves, and coral reefs in the Red Sea, Caribbean Sea, and Pacific coast of Panama. While bulk stable isotope values in otoliths showed regional differences, they failed to distinguish nursery residence on local scales. Essential AA δ13C values in otoliths, on the other hand, varied as a function of habitat type and provided a better tracer of residence in different juvenile nursery habitats than conventional bulk otolith SIA alone. A strong linear relationship was found between paired otolith and muscle essential AA δ13C values regardless of species, geographic region, or habitat type, indicating that otolith AAs recorded the same dietary information as muscle AAs. Juvenile snapper in the Red Sea sheltered in mangroves but fed in seagrass beds, while snapper from the Caribbean Sea and Pacific coast of Panama showed greater reliance on mangrove-derived carbon. Furthermore, compound-specific SIA revealed that microbially recycled detrital carbon, not water-column-based new phytoplankton carbon, was the primary carbon source supporting snapper production on coastal reefs of the Red Sea. This study presented robust tracers of juvenile nursery residence that will be crucial for reconstructing ontogenetic migration patterns of fishes among coastal wetlands and coral reefs. This information is key to determining the importance of nursery habitats to coral reef fish populations and will provide valuable scientific support for the design of networked marine-protected areas. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  4. Estimates of the Legal Permanent Resident Population: 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report presents estimates of the legal permanent resident (LPR) population living in the United States on January 1, 2009. The LPR population includes persons...

  5. Estimates of the Legal Permanent Resident Population: 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report presents estimates of the legal permanent resident (LPR) population living in the United States on January 1, 2011. The LPR population includes persons...

  6. Estimates of the Legal Permanent Resident Population: 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report presents estimates of the legal permanent resident (LPR) population living in the United States on January 1, 2012. The LPR population includes persons...

  7. Population genetics of drifting (Calanus spp.) and resident (Acartia clausi) plankton in Norwegian fjords

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bucklin, A.; Kaartvedt, S.; Guarnieri, M.; Goswami, U.

    fjords may be determined by local production (Aksnes and Magnesen, 1983). Thus, closed and open fjords may differ in zooplankton species’ composi- tion and in the degree to which populations of a given species are resident (i.e. self.... Introduction Fjords differ in their degree of exchange with open coastal waters. The biological and physical dynamics of open fjords are thought to be determined largely by advection (Aksnes et al., 1989; Giske et al., 1991), while abundances in more closed...

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL ATTITUDES OF ALABAMA COASTAL RESIDENTS: PUBLIC OPINION POLLS AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given these conclusions at the national level, it follows that the continued health and vitality of the Alabama coastal zone is associated with the current environmental knowledge of Mobile and Baldwin county residents. In this research, we collected information from coa...

  9. Keeping our charm: residents, growth, and quality of life issues in a small but growing Texas coastal community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiaying Lu; Michael A. Schuett

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed residents' perceptions of quality of life, conservation, and growth in a small, fast-growing coastal community. Data were collected from an on-site survey in Aransas County, TX, from 2006 to 2007. Results show that the residents are concerned about preserving their natural resources, maintaining a small-town atmosphere in their community, and...

  10. Population connectivity of an overexploited coastal fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sciaenidae), in an ocean-warming hotspot. ... in this global hotspot of seawater temperature changes. Keywords: Angola–Benguela Frontal Zone, climate change, demographic history, marine fisheries, molecular ecology, population structure ...

  11. Levels and profiles of persistent organic pollutants in resident and migratory birds from an urbanized coastal region of South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sang Hee; Shim, Won Joon; Han, Gi Myung; Ha, Sung Yong; Jang, Mi; Rani, Manviri; Hong, Sunwook; Yeo, Gwang Yeong

    2014-02-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) levels in resident and migratory birds collected from an urbanized coastal region of South Korea were investigated. As target species, resident birds that reside in different habitats-such as inland and coastal regions-were selected and their POP contamination status and accumulation features evaluated. Additionally, winter and summer migratory species were analysed for comparison with resident birds. Black-tailed gull and domestic pigeon were selected as the coastal and inland resident birds, respectively, and pacific loon and heron/egret were selected as the winter and summer migratory birds, respectively. The overall POP concentrations (unit: ng/g lipid) in resident birds were 14-131,000 (median: 13,400) for PCBs, 40-284,000 (11,200) for DDTs, urban resident bird such as pigeon, an intentional intake of dust or soils during feeding is likely to be an additional route of exposure to POPs. Resident birds generally accumulated higher POPs concentrations than migratory birds, the exceptions being relatively volatile compounds such as HCB, PeCB and HCHs. © 2013.

  12. Residence times of groundwater and nitrate transport in coastal aquifer systems: Daweijia area, northeastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Dongmei; Cao, Guoliang; McCallum, James; Song, Xianfang

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater within the coastal aquifer systems of the Daweijia area in northeastern China is characterized by a large of variations (33–521 mg/L) in NO_3"− concentrations. Elevated nitrate concentrations, in addition to seawater intrusion in the Daweijia well field, both attributable to anthropogenic activities, may impact future water-management practices. Chemical and stable isotopic (δ"1"8O, δ"2H) analysis, "3H and CFCs methods were applied to provide a better understanding of the relationship between the distribution of groundwater mean residence time (MRT) and nitrate transport, and to identify sources of nitrate concentrations in the complex coastal aquifer systems. There is a relatively narrow range of isotopic composition (ranging from − 8.5 to − 7.0‰) in most groundwater. Generally higher tritium contents observed in the wet season relative to the dry season may result from rapid groundwater circulation in response to the rainfall through the preferential flow paths. In the well field, the relatively increased nitrate concentrations of groundwater, accompanied by the higher tritium contents in the wet season, indicate the nitrate pollution can be attributed to domestic wastes. The binary exponential and piston-flow mixing model (BEP) yielded feasible age distributions based on the conceptual model. The good inverse relationship between groundwater MRTs (92–467 years) and the NO_3"− concentrations in the shallow Quaternary aquifers indicates that elevated nitrate concentrations are attributable to more recent recharge for shallow groundwater. However, there is no significant relationship between the MRTs (8–411 years) and the NO_3"− concentrations existing in the carbonate aquifer system, due to the complex hydrogeological conditions, groundwater age distributions and the range of contaminant source areas. Nitrate in the groundwater system without denitrification effects could accumulate and be transported for tens of years, through the

  13. Residence times of groundwater and nitrate transport in coastal aquifer systems: Daweijia area, northeastern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Dongmei [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle & Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); National Centre for Groundwater Research and Training, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Cao, Guoliang [National Centre for Groundwater Research and Training, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Center for Water Research, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); McCallum, James [National Centre for Groundwater Research and Training, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); School of the Environment, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Song, Xianfang [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle & Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Groundwater within the coastal aquifer systems of the Daweijia area in northeastern China is characterized by a large of variations (33–521 mg/L) in NO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations. Elevated nitrate concentrations, in addition to seawater intrusion in the Daweijia well field, both attributable to anthropogenic activities, may impact future water-management practices. Chemical and stable isotopic (δ{sup 18}O, δ{sup 2}H) analysis, {sup 3}H and CFCs methods were applied to provide a better understanding of the relationship between the distribution of groundwater mean residence time (MRT) and nitrate transport, and to identify sources of nitrate concentrations in the complex coastal aquifer systems. There is a relatively narrow range of isotopic composition (ranging from − 8.5 to − 7.0‰) in most groundwater. Generally higher tritium contents observed in the wet season relative to the dry season may result from rapid groundwater circulation in response to the rainfall through the preferential flow paths. In the well field, the relatively increased nitrate concentrations of groundwater, accompanied by the higher tritium contents in the wet season, indicate the nitrate pollution can be attributed to domestic wastes. The binary exponential and piston-flow mixing model (BEP) yielded feasible age distributions based on the conceptual model. The good inverse relationship between groundwater MRTs (92–467 years) and the NO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations in the shallow Quaternary aquifers indicates that elevated nitrate concentrations are attributable to more recent recharge for shallow groundwater. However, there is no significant relationship between the MRTs (8–411 years) and the NO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations existing in the carbonate aquifer system, due to the complex hydrogeological conditions, groundwater age distributions and the range of contaminant source areas. Nitrate in the groundwater system without denitrification effects could accumulate and be

  14. Variability in Benthic Exchange Rate, Depth, and Residence Time Beneath a Shallow Coastal Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russoniello, Christopher J.; Heiss, James W.; Michael, Holly A.

    2018-03-01

    Hydrodynamically driven benthic exchange of water between the water column and shallow seabed aquifer is a significant and dynamic component of coastal and estuarine fluid budgets. Associated exchange of solutes promotes ecologically important chemical reactions, so quantifying benthic exchange rates, depths, and residence times constrains coastal chemical cycling estimates. We present the first combined field, numerical, and analytical modeling investigation of wave-induced exchange. Temporal variability of exchange was calculated with data collected by instruments deployed in a shallow estuary for 11 days. Differential pressure sensors recorded pressure gradients across the seabed, and up- and down-looking ADCPs recorded currents and pressures to determine wave parameters, surface-water currents, and water depth. Wave-induced exchange was calculated (1) directly from differential pressure measurements, and indirectly with an analytical model based on wave parameters from (2) ADCP and (3) wind data. Wave-induced exchange from pressure measurements and ADCP-measured wave parameters matched well, but both exceeded wind-based values. Exchange induced by tidal pumping and current-bed form interaction—the other primary drivers in shallow coastal waters were calculated from tidal stage variation and ADCP-measured currents. Exchange from waves (mean = 20.0 cm/d; range = 1.75-92.3 cm/d) greatly exceeded exchange due to tides (mean = 3.7 cm/d) and current-bed form interaction (mean = 6.5 × 10-2 cm/d). Groundwater flow models showed aquifer properties affect wave-driven benthic exchange: residence time and depth increased and exchange rates decreased with increasing hydraulic diffusivity (ratio of aquifer permeability to compressibility). This new understanding of benthic exchange will help managers assess its control over chemical fluxes to marine systems.

  15. Variability in benthic exchange rate, depth, and residence time beneath a shallow coastal estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russoniello, C. J.; Michael, H. A.; Heiss, J.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrodynamically-driven exchange of water between the water column and shallow seabed aquifer, benthic exchange, is a significant and dynamic component of coastal and estuarine fluid budgets, but wave-induced benthic exchange has not been measured in the field. Mixing between surface water and groundwater solutes promotes ecologically important chemical reactions, so quantifying benthic exchange rates, depths, and residence times, constrains estimates of coastal chemical cycling. In this study, we present the first field-based direct measurements of wave-induced exchange and compare it to exchange induced by the other primary drivers of exchange - tides, and currents. We deployed instruments in a shallow estuary to measure benthic exchange and temporal variability over an 11-day period. Differential pressure sensors recorded pressure gradients across the seabed, and up-and down-looking ADCPs recorded currents and pressures from which wave parameters, surface-water currents, and water depth were determined. Wave-induced exchange was calculated directly from 1) differential pressure measurements, and indirectly with an analytical solution based on wave parameters from 2) ADCP and 3) weather station data. Groundwater flow models were used to assess the effects of aquifer properties on benthic exchange depth and residence time. Benthic exchange driven by tidal pumping or current-bedform interaction was calculated from tidal stage variation and from ADCP-measured currents at the bed, respectively. Waves were the primary benthic exchange driver (average = 20.0 cm/d, maximum = 92.3 cm/d) during the measurement period. Benthic exchange due to tides (average = 3.7 cm/d) and current-bedform interaction (average = 6.5x10-2 cm/d) was much lower. Wave-induced exchange calculated from pressure measurements and ADCP-measured wave parameters matched well, but wind-based rates underestimated wave energy and exchange. Groundwater models showed that residence time and depth increased

  16. Diabetic retinopathy and visual impairment in disaster prone coastal population of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abu Sayeed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective– Disaster prone coastal population has least accessibility to health care and very little is known about the prevalence of diabetes, diabetic retinopathy (DR and visual impairment. This study addressed the prevalence of visual impairment and DR and risk factors related to DR among population residing in disaster prone areas of Bangladesh. Methods: Thirty-two coastal communities in six coastal districts were purposively selected. All coastal people of age 18 years or more were considered eligible. Investigations included clinical history, anthropometry (height, weight, waist- and hip-girth, blood pressure and fasting blood glucose (FBG. The participants with hyperglycemia (FBG ≥5.6mmol/l were undertaken for eye examination. Visual acuity was measured bilaterally using the Snellen chart. An Early treatment diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS cut out chart with E Optotypes was used. Results: A total of 7567 participants volunteered and 1540 had hyperglycemia (FBG ≥5.6mmol/l. Of the hyperglycemic participants, 1214 (91.7% participated for complete eye examination. Visual impairment of any type was found in 14.1%, any type cataract in 27.8% and any type DR in 18%. The participants of advancing age of higher social class and higher central obesity had excess risk for developing DR. The participants with known family history of diabetes also had greater risk. Compared with the group having FBG 5.6 – 6.9mmol/l those having FBG >6.9mmol/l had significant risk for DR (OR 3.11, 95%CI 2.04 – 4.76. Conclusion: The study concludes that visual impairment and cataract of any type is almost comparable with other coastal populations. The coastal people had higher prevalence of DR compared to rural population from other areas of Bangladesh and it was also higher than global estimate. The persons with higher age from higher social class with higher central obesity had excess risk for DR. The risk of DR increased with increasing

  17. Future Coastal Population Growth and Exposure to Sea-Level Rise and Coastal Flooding - A Global Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Barbara; Vafeidis, Athanasios T.; Zimmermann, Juliane; Nicholls, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Coastal zones are exposed to a range of coastal hazards including sea-level rise with its related effects. At the same time, they are more densely populated than the hinterland and exhibit higher rates of population growth and urbanisation. As this trend is expected to continue into the future, we investigate how coastal populations will be affected by such impacts at global and regional scales by the years 2030 and 2060. Starting from baseline population estimates for the year 2000, we assess future population change in the low-elevation coastal zone and trends in exposure to 100-year coastal floods based on four different sea-level and socio-economic scenarios. Our method accounts for differential growth of coastal areas against the land-locked hinterland and for trends of urbanisation and expansive urban growth, as currently observed, but does not explicitly consider possible displacement or out-migration due to factors such as sea-level rise. We combine spatially explicit estimates of the baseline population with demographic data in order to derive scenario-driven projections of coastal population development. Our scenarios show that the number of people living in the low-elevation coastal zone, as well as the number of people exposed to flooding from 1-in-100 year storm surge events, is highest in Asia. China, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia and Viet Nam are estimated to have the highest total coastal population exposure in the baseline year and this ranking is expected to remain largely unchanged in the future. However, Africa is expected to experience the highest rates of population growth and urbanisation in the coastal zone, particularly in Egypt and sub-Saharan countries in Western and Eastern Africa. The results highlight countries and regions with a high degree of exposure to coastal flooding and help identifying regions where policies and adaptive planning for building resilient coastal communities are not only desirable but essential. Furthermore, we

  18. Future coastal population growth and exposure to sea-level rise and coastal flooding--a global assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Barbara; Vafeidis, Athanasios T; Zimmermann, Juliane; Nicholls, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Coastal zones are exposed to a range of coastal hazards including sea-level rise with its related effects. At the same time, they are more densely populated than the hinterland and exhibit higher rates of population growth and urbanisation. As this trend is expected to continue into the future, we investigate how coastal populations will be affected by such impacts at global and regional scales by the years 2030 and 2060. Starting from baseline population estimates for the year 2000, we assess future population change in the low-elevation coastal zone and trends in exposure to 100-year coastal floods based on four different sea-level and socio-economic scenarios. Our method accounts for differential growth of coastal areas against the land-locked hinterland and for trends of urbanisation and expansive urban growth, as currently observed, but does not explicitly consider possible displacement or out-migration due to factors such as sea-level rise. We combine spatially explicit estimates of the baseline population with demographic data in order to derive scenario-driven projections of coastal population development. Our scenarios show that the number of people living in the low-elevation coastal zone, as well as the number of people exposed to flooding from 1-in-100 year storm surge events, is highest in Asia. China, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia and Viet Nam are estimated to have the highest total coastal population exposure in the baseline year and this ranking is expected to remain largely unchanged in the future. However, Africa is expected to experience the highest rates of population growth and urbanisation in the coastal zone, particularly in Egypt and sub-Saharan countries in Western and Eastern Africa. The results highlight countries and regions with a high degree of exposure to coastal flooding and help identifying regions where policies and adaptive planning for building resilient coastal communities are not only desirable but essential. Furthermore, we

  19. Future coastal population growth and exposure to sea-level rise and coastal flooding--a global assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Neumann

    Full Text Available Coastal zones are exposed to a range of coastal hazards including sea-level rise with its related effects. At the same time, they are more densely populated than the hinterland and exhibit higher rates of population growth and urbanisation. As this trend is expected to continue into the future, we investigate how coastal populations will be affected by such impacts at global and regional scales by the years 2030 and 2060. Starting from baseline population estimates for the year 2000, we assess future population change in the low-elevation coastal zone and trends in exposure to 100-year coastal floods based on four different sea-level and socio-economic scenarios. Our method accounts for differential growth of coastal areas against the land-locked hinterland and for trends of urbanisation and expansive urban growth, as currently observed, but does not explicitly consider possible displacement or out-migration due to factors such as sea-level rise. We combine spatially explicit estimates of the baseline population with demographic data in order to derive scenario-driven projections of coastal population development. Our scenarios show that the number of people living in the low-elevation coastal zone, as well as the number of people exposed to flooding from 1-in-100 year storm surge events, is highest in Asia. China, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia and Viet Nam are estimated to have the highest total coastal population exposure in the baseline year and this ranking is expected to remain largely unchanged in the future. However, Africa is expected to experience the highest rates of population growth and urbanisation in the coastal zone, particularly in Egypt and sub-Saharan countries in Western and Eastern Africa. The results highlight countries and regions with a high degree of exposure to coastal flooding and help identifying regions where policies and adaptive planning for building resilient coastal communities are not only desirable but essential

  20. Residence times of groundwater and nitrate transport in coastal aquifer systems: Daweijia area, northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongmei; Cao, Guoliang; McCallum, James; Song, Xianfang

    2015-12-15

    Groundwater within the coastal aquifer systems of the Daweijia area in northeastern China is characterized by a large of variations (33-521mg/L) in NO3(-) concentrations. Elevated nitrate concentrations, in addition to seawater intrusion in the Daweijia well field, both attributable to anthropogenic activities, may impact future water-management practices. Chemical and stable isotopic (δ(18)O, δ(2)H) analysis, (3)H and CFCs methods were applied to provide a better understanding of the relationship between the distribution of groundwater mean residence time (MRT) and nitrate transport, and to identify sources of nitrate concentrations in the complex coastal aquifer systems. There is a relatively narrow range of isotopic composition (ranging from -8.5 to -7.0‰) in most groundwater. Generally higher tritium contents observed in the wet season relative to the dry season may result from rapid groundwater circulation in response to the rainfall through the preferential flow paths. In the well field, the relatively increased nitrate concentrations of groundwater, accompanied by the higher tritium contents in the wet season, indicate the nitrate pollution can be attributed to domestic wastes. The binary exponential and piston-flow mixing model (BEP) yielded feasible age distributions based on the conceptual model. The good inverse relationship between groundwater MRTs (92-467years) and the NO3(-) concentrations in the shallow Quaternary aquifers indicates that elevated nitrate concentrations are attributable to more recent recharge for shallow groundwater. However, there is no significant relationship between the MRTs (8-411years) and the NO3(-) concentrations existing in the carbonate aquifer system, due to the complex hydrogeological conditions, groundwater age distributions and the range of contaminant source areas. Nitrate in the groundwater system without denitrification effects could accumulate and be transported for tens of years, through the complex carbonate

  1. Cancer mortality in the indigenous population of coastal Chukotka, 1961-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudarev, Alexey A; Chupakhin, Valery S; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2013-01-01

    The general aim was to assess the pattern and trend in cancer mortality among the indigenous people of coastal Chukotka during the period 1961-1990. All cases of cancer deaths of indigenous residents of the Chukotsky district in the north-easternmost coast of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug were copied from personal death certificates. There were a total of 219 cancer deaths during the study period. The average annual number of cases, percent, crude, and age-standardized cancer mortality rates (ASMR) per 100,000 among men and women for all sites combined and selected sites were calculated. Data were aggregated into six 5-year periods to assess temporal trends. Direct age-standardization was performed with the Segi-Doll world standard population used by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The indigenous Chukchi and Eskimo people living in Chukotsky district were at higher risk of death from cancer during the 30-year period between 1961 and 1990, with ASMR among men twice that of Russia, and among women 3.5 times higher. The excess can be attributed to the extremely high mortality from oesophageal cancer and lung cancer. The indigenous people of coastal Chukotka were at very high risk of death from cancer relative to the Russian population nationally. The mortality data from this study correspond to the pattern of incidence reported among other indigenous people of the Russian Arctic. Little information is available since 1990, and the feasibility of ethnic-specific health data is now severely limited.

  2. Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) Urban-Rural Population and Land Area Estimates, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) Urban-Rural Population and Land Area Estimates, Version 2 data set consists of country-level estimates of urban population,...

  3. Estimates of the Lawful Permanent Resident Population in the United States: January 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report presents estimates of the lawful permanent resident (LPR) population living in the United States on January 1, 2013. The LPR population includes persons...

  4. Estimates of the Lawful Permanent Resident Population in the United States: January 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report presents estimates of the lawful permanent resident (LPR) population living in the United States on January 1, 2014. The LPR population includes persons...

  5. A comparison of resident fish assemblages in managed and unmanaged coastal wetlands in North Carolina and South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kelly F.; Jennings, Cecil A.

    2014-01-01

    The dominant fish species within impounded coastal wetlands in the southeastern US may be different from the species that dominate natural marshes. We tested the hypothesis that resident fish assemblages inhabiting impounded coastal wetlands in South Carolina would differ from resident assemblages in natural marshes of the southeastern United States. We used rarefied species richness, Shannon's H' diversity,J' evenness, Morisita's index of similarity, and the percent similarity index to compare resident fish assemblages from two impoundments to 12 open-marsh resident fish assemblages from previously published studies in North and South Carolina. We used rotenone to sample fish assemblages in impoundments. The assemblages in natural marsh habitat had been sampled with rotenone and seines. We classified comparisons yielding a similarity index ≥0.50 as moderately similar and those with an index ≥0.75 as very similar. Fifty-three percent of the among-impoundment comparisons (Morisita's index) were at least moderately similar, whereas 7% of impoundment—natural marsh comparisons were moderately similar. A difference in tidal influence was the only parameter in the best-fitting model describing the observed Morisita's indices. The index of similarity decreased by 63% when tidal influence differed between compared assemblages. Species richness and diversity were greater in impoundments than natural marshes, but evenness was similar between habitat types. Our results support the hypothesis that resident fish assemblages in impounded wetlands and natural marshes are different, and suggest that a degree of tidal influence is the most important factor behind the difference.

  6. Cancer mortality in the indigenous population of coastal Chukotka, 1961–1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudarev, Alexey A.; Chupakhin, Valery S.; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The general aim was to assess the pattern and trend in cancer mortality among the indigenous people of coastal Chukotka during the period 1961–1990. Methods All cases of cancer deaths of indigenous residents of the Chukotsky district in the north-easternmost coast of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug were copied from personal death certificates. There were a total of 219 cancer deaths during the study period. The average annual number of cases, percent, crude, and age-standardized cancer mortality rates (ASMR) per 100,000 among men and women for all sites combined and selected sites were calculated. Data were aggregated into six 5-year periods to assess temporal trends. Direct age-standardization was performed with the Segi-Doll world standard population used by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Results The indigenous Chukchi and Eskimo people living in Chukotsky district were at higher risk of death from cancer during the 30-year period between 1961 and 1990, with ASMR among men twice that of Russia, and among women 3.5 times higher. The excess can be attributed to the extremely high mortality from oesophageal cancer and lung cancer. Conclusions The indigenous people of coastal Chukotka were at very high risk of death from cancer relative to the Russian population nationally. The mortality data from this study correspond to the pattern of incidence reported among other indigenous people of the Russian Arctic. Little information is available since 1990, and the feasibility of ethnic-specific health data is now severely limited. PMID:23519821

  7. Cancer mortality in the indigenous population of coastal Chukotka, 1961–1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Dudarev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The general aim was to assess the pattern and trend in cancer mortality among the indigenous people of coastal Chukotka during the period 1961–1990. Methods. All cases of cancer deaths of indigenous residents of the Chukotsky district in the north-easternmost coast of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug were copied from personal death certificates. There were a total of 219 cancer deaths during the study period. The average annual number of cases, percent, crude, and age-standardized cancer mortality rates (ASMR per 100,000 among men and women for all sites combined and selected sites were calculated. Data were aggregated into six 5-year periods to assess temporal trends. Direct age-standardization was performed with the Segi-Doll world standard population used by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Results. The indigenous Chukchi and Eskimo people living in Chukotsky district were at higher risk of death from cancer during the 30-year period between 1961 and 1990, with ASMR among men twice that of Russia, and among women 3.5 times higher. The excess can be attributed to the extremely high mortality from oesophageal cancer and lung cancer. Conclusions. The indigenous people of coastal Chukotka were at very high risk of death from cancer relative to the Russian population nationally. The mortality data from this study correspond to the pattern of incidence reported among other indigenous people of the Russian Arctic. Little information is available since 1990, and the feasibility of ethnic-specific health data is now severely limited.

  8. Shallow Population Genetic Structures of Thread-sail Filefish (Stephanolepis cirrhifer) Populations from Korean Coastal Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, M; Park, W; Nam, Y K; Kim, D S

    2012-02-01

    Genetic diversities, population genetic structures and demographic histories of the thread-sail filefish Stephanolepis cirrhifer were investigated by nucleotide sequencing of 336 base pairs of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region in 111 individuals collected from six populations in Korean coastal waters. A total of 70 haplotypes were defined by 58 variable nucleotide sites. The neighbor-joining tree of the 70 haplotypes was shallow and did not provide evidence of geographical associations. Expansion of S. cirrhifer populations began approximate 51,000 to 102,000 years before present, correlating with the period of sea level rise since the late Pleistocene glacial maximum. High levels of haplotype diversities (0.974±0.029 to 1.000±0.076) and nucleotide diversities (0.014 to 0.019), and low levels of genetic differentiation among populations inferred from pairwise population F ST values (-0.007 to 0.107), support an expansion of the S. cirrhifer population. Hierarchical analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed weak but significant genetic structures among three groups (F CT = 0.028, p<0.05), and no genetic variation within groups (0.53%; F SC = 0.005, p = 0.23). These results may help establish appropriate fishery management strategies for stocks of S. cirrhifer and related species.

  9. Shallow Population Genetic Structures of Thread-sail Filefish ( Populations from Korean Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yoon

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversities, population genetic structures and demographic histories of the thread-sail filefish Stephanolepis cirrhifer were investigated by nucleotide sequencing of 336 base pairs of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA control region in 111 individuals collected from six populations in Korean coastal waters. A total of 70 haplotypes were defined by 58 variable nucleotide sites. The neighbor-joining tree of the 70 haplotypes was shallow and did not provide evidence of geographical associations. Expansion of S. cirrhifer populations began approximate 51,000 to 102,000 years before present, correlating with the period of sea level rise since the late Pleistocene glacial maximum. High levels of haplotype diversities (0.974±0.029 to 1.000±0.076 and nucleotide diversities (0.014 to 0.019, and low levels of genetic differentiation among populations inferred from pairwise population FST values (−0.007 to 0.107, support an expansion of the S. cirrhifer population. Hierarchical analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA revealed weak but significant genetic structures among three groups (FCT = 0.028, p<0.05, and no genetic variation within groups (0.53%; FSC = 0.005, p = 0.23. These results may help establish appropriate fishery management strategies for stocks of S. cirrhifer and related species.

  10. Genetic isolation between coastal and fishery-impacted, offshore bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops spp.) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Simon J; Bryant, Kate A; Kraus, Robert H S; Loneragan, Neil R; Kopps, Anna M; Brown, Alexander M; Gerber, Livia; Krützen, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The identification of species and population boundaries is important in both evolutionary and conservation biology. In recent years, new population genetic and computational methods for estimating population parameters and testing hypotheses in a quantitative manner have emerged. Using a Bayesian framework and a quantitative model-testing approach, we evaluated the species status and genetic connectedness of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops spp.) populations off remote northwestern Australia, with a focus on pelagic 'offshore' dolphins subject to incidental capture in a trawl fishery. We analysed 71 dolphin samples from three sites beyond the 50 m depth contour (the inshore boundary of the fishery) and up to 170 km offshore, including incidentally caught and free-ranging individuals associating with trawl vessels, and 273 dolphins sampled at 12 coastal sites inshore of the 50 m depth contour and within 10 km of the coast. Results from 19 nuclear microsatellite markers showed significant population structure between dolphins from within the fishery and coastal sites, but also among dolphins from coastal sites, identifying three coastal populations. Moreover, we found no current or historic gene flow into the offshore population in the region of the fishery, indicating a complete lack of recruitment from coastal sites. Mitochondrial DNA corroborated our findings of genetic isolation between dolphins from the offshore population and coastal sites. Most offshore individuals formed a monophyletic clade with common bottlenose dolphins (T. truncatus), while all 273 individuals sampled coastally formed a well-supported clade of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (T. aduncus). By including a quantitative modelling approach, our study explicitly took evolutionary processes into account for informing the conservation and management of protected species. As such, it may serve as a template for other, similarly inaccessible study populations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Modeling population dynamics and woody biomass of Alaska coastal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randy L. Peterson; Jingjing Liang; Tara M. Barrett

    2014-01-01

    Alaska coastal forest, 6.2 million ha in size, has been managed in the past mainly through clearcutting. Declining harvest and dwindling commercial forest resources over the past 2 decades have led to increased interest in management of young-growth stands and utilization of woody biomass for bioenergy. However, existing models to support these new management systems...

  12. Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report provides estimates of the size of the unauthorized immigrant population residing in the United States as of January 2012 by period of entry, region and...

  13. Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report provides estimates of the size of the unauthorized immigrant population residing in the United States as of January 2011 by period of entry, region and...

  14. Estimates of the Resident Nonimmigrant Population in the United States: 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report presents estimates on the size and characteristics of the resident nonimmigrant population in the United States in 2008.1 The estimates were based on...

  15. Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report provides estimates of the size of the unauthorized immigrant population residing in the United States as of January 2010 by period of entry, region and...

  16. Estimation of residence times of coastal basins in the Laxemar- Simpevarp area between 3000 BC and 9000 AD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engqvist, Anders (AandI Engqvist Konsult HB, Vaxholm (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    The assignment has consisted of computation of the morpho- and bathymetry of the coastal area of Laxemar-Simpevarp for the time period 3000 BC through 9000 AD, in order to estimate the residence times as yearly means of volume-averaged specific age (Average Age, AvA) for water in coastal basins. These basins have been selected as belonging to earlier defined biosphere objects, containing anticipated exit points from possible radionuclides leaking from a hypothetical underground repository for spent nuclear fuel. This endeavor starts with partitioning of the coast into appropriate sub-basins interconnected by straits in an as objective manner as possible. This has been performed in cooperation with Umeaa Univ. followed by the transformation of these hypsographical data to a form that can serve as input data to the employed numerical CouBa-model. This model has been developed to simulate the water exchange of straits between densimetrically stably stratified basins with a free sea level including advection and mixing of water-borne conservative scalar properties, e.g. salinity, heat and specific age. The forcing of the model consists of run-off, wind-induced stress, thermal surface dynamics (heating/cooling) and density fluctuations at the open boundary toward the coastal zone, relative by which the specific water age is calculated For these ambient forcing factors there do not exist sufficiently precise climate data other than for contemporary times. For all other time periods the measured and/or model-computed forcing data regarding 2004 have been used. Estimated AvA-values for the different time periods are thus an expression of sub-basin configuration and hypsographical differences. An overriding directive has been to rather overestimate than underestimate the residence times, as to avoid underestimation of the subsequent dose calculations. The results of these AvA computations, presented as volume averages of yearly means of the sixteen biosphere object

  17. Estimation of residence times of coastal basins in the Laxemar-Simpevarp area between 3000 BC and 9000 AD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engqvist, Anders

    2010-09-01

    The assignment has consisted of computation of the morpho- and bathymetry of the coastal area of Laxemar-Simpevarp for the time period 3000 BC through 9000 AD, in order to estimate the residence times as yearly means of volume-averaged specific age (Average Age, AvA) for water in coastal basins. These basins have been selected as belonging to earlier defined biosphere objects, containing anticipated exit points from possible radionuclides leaking from a hypothetical underground repository for spent nuclear fuel. This endeavor starts with partitioning of the coast into appropriate sub-basins interconnected by straits in an as objective manner as possible. This has been performed in cooperation with Umeaa Univ. followed by the transformation of these hypsographical data to a form that can serve as input data to the employed numerical CouBa-model. This model has been developed to simulate the water exchange of straits between densimetrically stably stratified basins with a free sea level including advection and mixing of water-borne conservative scalar properties, e.g. salinity, heat and specific age. The forcing of the model consists of run-off, wind-induced stress, thermal surface dynamics (heating/cooling) and density fluctuations at the open boundary toward the coastal zone, relative by which the specific water age is calculated For these ambient forcing factors there do not exist sufficiently precise climate data other than for contemporary times. For all other time periods the measured and/or model-computed forcing data regarding 2004 have been used. Estimated AvA-values for the different time periods are thus an expression of sub-basin configuration and hypsographical differences. An overriding directive has been to rather overestimate than underestimate the residence times, as to avoid underestimation of the subsequent dose calculations. The results of these AvA computations, presented as volume averages of yearly means of the sixteen biosphere object

  18. Comparison of the active and resident community of a coastal microbial mat

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Daniela Clara; Sandionigi, Anna; Cretoiu, Mariana Silvia; Casiraghi, Maurizio; Stal, Lucas; Bolhuis, Henk

    2017-01-01

    Coastal microbial mats form a nearly closed micro-scale ecosystem harboring a complex microbial community. Previous DNA based analysis did not necessarily provide information about the active fraction of the microbial community because it includes dormant, inactive cells as well as a potential stable pool of extracellular DNA. Here we focused on the active microbial community by comparing 16S rRNA sequences obtained from the ribosomal RNA pool with gene sequences obtained from the DNA fractio...

  19. Dietary habits and selenium intake of residents in mountain and coastal communities in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yukiko; Koyama, Hiroshi; Sasada, Yoko; Satoh, Hiroshi; Nojiri, Masami; Suzuki, Shosuke

    2004-10-01

    We used a Simple Food Frequency Questionnaire (SFFQ) in combination with other dietary approaches to estimate the selenium intake from different food groups based on the average long-term diet, in two rural communities in Japan, one in a mountain area and the other in a coastal area. The intake frequencies of rice and wheat products were significantly different in the two districts. The intake frequencies of fish, meat, and eggs, which are rich in selenium, were not significantly different. The mean dietary selenium intake, estimated from the SFFQ and the 24-h recall method, was 82.7 microg/d (n=234) (range 19.2-180.1 microg/d) in the mountain community. The mean dietary selenium intake estimated from the SFFQ and average value of the normal portion size was 118.0 microg/d (n=123) (range 22.6-255.3 microg/d) in the coastal community. These estimated mean values exceeded the Japanese RDA, although the range of daily selenium intake was large. In the mountain community, fish made the largest contribution to dietary selenium intake (48.2% of daily total), followed by eggs (24.3%), and meat (17.0%). In the coastal community, fish accounted for 57.7% of daily total selenium intake, followed by meat (17.5%), and eggs (16.1%). In both districts, the total contribution of rice and wheat products was around 10%. It was found that the contribution of fish to dietary selenium intake was high and the contribution of cereals was low among Japanese.

  20. Different profiles of anthropogenic and naturally produced organohalogen compounds in serum from residents living near a coastal area and e-waste recycling workers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Akifumi; Nomiyama, Kei; Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Subramanian, Annamalai; Bulbule, Kesav A; Parthasarathy, Peethambaram; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2012-10-15

    We determined the contamination status and accumulation profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hydroxylated PCB congeners (OH-PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs), methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs), and bromophenols (BPhs) in serum from e-waste recycling workers and residents near a coastal area in India. Residue levels of penta- to octa-chlorinated PCBs, penta- to octa-chlorinated OH-PCBs, 6MeO-BDE47, 6OH-BDE47, and 2,4,6-tri-BPh in serum from residents living near the coastal area were significantly higher than those in serum from e-waste recycling workers. Residue levels of tri- to tetra-chlorinated PCBs, tri- to tetra-chlorinated OH-PCBs, PBDEs, octa-brominated OH-PBDEs, and tetra-BPhs in serum from e-waste recycling workers were higher than those in serum from residents living near the coastal area. Principal component analysis revealed that residents living near the coastal area and e-waste recycling workers had different serum profiles of chlorinated and brominated compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic diversity in coastal and inland desert populations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-14

    Nov 14, 2011 ... 0.00196 showed low degree of differentiation among populations. .... number of amplification products per primer varied from 6 to 14, and these ..... strategies on genetic diversity estimates obtained with RAPD markers in ...

  2. Coupling bacterioplankton populations and environment to community function in coastal temperate waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traving, S. J.; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Knudsen-Leerbeck, H.

    2016-01-01

    drivers of bacterioplankton community functions, taking into account the variability in community composition and environmental conditions over seasons, in two contrasting coastal systems. A Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) analysis of the biological and chemical data obtained from...... surface waters over a full year indicated that specific bacterial populations were linked to measured functions. Namely, Synechococcus (Cyanobacteria) was strongly correlated with protease activity. Both function and community composition showed seasonal variation. However, the pattern of substrate...... of common drivers of bacterioplankton community functions in two different systems indicates that the drivers may be of broader relevance in coastal temperate waters....

  3. Partial migration and transient coexistence of migrants and residents in animal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Navinder J; Leonardsson, Kjell

    2014-01-01

    Partial migration, whereby a proportion of the population migrates, is common across the animal kingdom. Much of the focus in the literature has been on trying to explain the underlying mechanisms for the coexistence of migrants and residents. In addition, there has been an increasing number of reports on the prevalence and frequency of partially migratory populations. One possible explanation for the occurrence of partial migration, which has received no attention in the literature, is that of 'transient coexistence' during the invasion phase of a superior behaviour. In this study we develop a theoretical basis for explaining partial migration as a transient coexistence and derive a method to predict the frequency of residents and migrants in partially migrating populations. This method is useful to predict the frequencies of migrants and residents in a small set of populations as a complementing hypothesis to 'an Evolutionary Stable Strategy (ESS)'. We use the logistic growth equation to derive a formula for predicting the frequencies of residents and migrants. We also use simulations and empirical data from white perch (Morone americana), moose (Alces alces) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) to demonstrate our approach. We show that the probability of detecting partial migration due to transient coexistence depends upon a minimum number of tracked or marked individuals for a given number of populations. Our approach provides a starting point in searching for explanations to the observed frequencies, by contrasting the observed pattern with both the predicted transient and the uniform random pattern. Aggregating such information on observed patterns (proportions of migrants and residents) may eventually lead to the development of a quantitative theory for the equilibrium (ESS) populations as well.

  4. Partial migration and transient coexistence of migrants and residents in animal populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navinder J Singh

    Full Text Available Partial migration, whereby a proportion of the population migrates, is common across the animal kingdom. Much of the focus in the literature has been on trying to explain the underlying mechanisms for the coexistence of migrants and residents. In addition, there has been an increasing number of reports on the prevalence and frequency of partially migratory populations. One possible explanation for the occurrence of partial migration, which has received no attention in the literature, is that of 'transient coexistence' during the invasion phase of a superior behaviour. In this study we develop a theoretical basis for explaining partial migration as a transient coexistence and derive a method to predict the frequency of residents and migrants in partially migrating populations. This method is useful to predict the frequencies of migrants and residents in a small set of populations as a complementing hypothesis to 'an Evolutionary Stable Strategy (ESS'. We use the logistic growth equation to derive a formula for predicting the frequencies of residents and migrants. We also use simulations and empirical data from white perch (Morone americana, moose (Alces alces and red deer (Cervus elaphus to demonstrate our approach. We show that the probability of detecting partial migration due to transient coexistence depends upon a minimum number of tracked or marked individuals for a given number of populations. Our approach provides a starting point in searching for explanations to the observed frequencies, by contrasting the observed pattern with both the predicted transient and the uniform random pattern. Aggregating such information on observed patterns (proportions of migrants and residents may eventually lead to the development of a quantitative theory for the equilibrium (ESS populations as well.

  5. Tissue-resident adult stem cell populations of rapidly self-renewing organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barker, N.; Bartfeld, S.; Clevers, H.

    2010-01-01

    The epithelial lining of the intestine, stomach, and skin is continuously exposed to environmental assault, imposing a requirement for regular self-renewal. Resident adult stem cell populations drive this renewal, and much effort has been invested in revealing their identity. Reliable adult stem

  6. Social-psychological well-being of rural population in the White Sea coastal area as a risk factor for the Russian Arctic policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey O. Podoplekin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article represents a generalized data from sociological survey of social-psychological well-being of the rural population of the coastal areas in Arkhangelsk region (included into the Russian Arctic zone held in 2015. The data shows a critical level of social pessimism, assurance of residents in continuation of negative social-economic dynamics, deficiency of motivation and readiness for active participation and inclusion into the development of territories. Such a status is based on a deep degradation of local industries, infrastructures and social sphere, which has been confirmed by statistic data. The revealed indicators explain high migration preparedness, especially in groups of working ages, proceeding, in the middle-term prospective, to the risk of depopulation and disintegration of social carcass in the coastal areas which, in their turn, possess a significant resource potential. At that, residential population on these areas considered as strategic factor from the perspective of Russian geopolitical interests in the Arctic. A positive trend may be provided through implementation of spatial approach to the social-economic development, which has been already applied in activities held by the Russian State Commission on the Arctic Development. With that there is obvious relevance of correction of the Russian legislation toward transformation of residential population into the beneficiary party of the macro-regional development, which may be provided by establishing of special regimes and preferences in spheres of natural resource use, tax assessment, entrepreneurship and crediting for all groups indigenous (resident population, including aboriginal people of the North.

  7. Urban habitat fragmentation and genetic population structure of bobcats in coastal southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruell, E.W.; Riley, S.P.D.; Douglas, M.R.; Antolin, M.F.; Pollinger, J.R.; Tracey, J.A.; Lyren, L.M.; Boydston, E.E.; Fisher, R.N.; Crooks, K.R.

    2012-01-01

    Although habitat fragmentation is recognized as a primary threat to biodiversity, the effects of urban development on genetic population structure vary among species and landscapes and are not yet well understood. Here we use non-invasive genetic sampling to compare the effects of fragmentation by major roads and urban development on levels of dispersal, genetic diversity, and relatedness between paired bobcat populations in replicate landscapes in coastal southern California. We hypothesized that bobcat populations in sites surrounded by urbanization would experience reduced functional connectivity relative to less isolated nearby populations. Our results show that bobcat genetic population structure is affected by roads and development but not always as predicted by the degree that these landscape features surround fragments. Instead, we suggest that urban development may affect functional connectivity between bobcat populations more by limiting the number and genetic diversity of source populations of migrants than by creating impermeable barriers to dispersal.

  8. Health state of the population residing in the vicinity of Eleshnitsa Uranium Deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliznakov, V.; Panova, D.; Bakalov, M.; Stateva, E.; Nuryan, L.; Sultanov, E.; Ivanov, Z.; Tomov, P.; Krystev, D.; Madoleva, S.; Bulev, A.

    1993-01-01

    Disease prevalence rate was studied in residents of Eleshnitsa village, Bulgaria, situated in an immediate vicinity of two uranium mines and one uranium flotation plant. Determinations were made of gamma radiation dose rate in the open and within some premises, and of the level of 'hidden energy' at some outdoor sites. The investigation was performed by physicians and assistant personnel specialized in eight different medical fields. A total of 186 children and 257 adults residing in Eleshnitsa were examined. The control group included residents of the 'clear' Dobrinishte village, Razlog district. The evidence from statistical data processing indicated the health impairments to be more frequent among the control group population. No disorders that might be related to exposure to environmental radiation factors were revealed. (author)

  9. Vitamin D Status in Population of Bukovyna and Subcarpathia Depending on Residence above Sea Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Povoroznyuk

    2016-04-01

    ding on the residence above sea level. Objective: to determine the level of vitamin D in the blood serum of people, who live in different regions of the Subcarpathia and Bukovyna, depending on the location of the settlement above sea le-vel. Material and methods. In the cross-sectional study, we have examined 353 individuals, aged 18 to 86 years, permanently residing in different parts of the Subcarpathia (Kolomyia, Kosiv, Verhovyna districts and Bukovyna (Vyzhny-tsia district. Results. Only in 28 cases (7.9 %, the content of 25(OHD in the blood serum was in the normal range, and in other cases (92.1 %, there was a deficiency and a lack of vitamin D. The severe form of vitamin D deficiency has been detected in 7 (1.9 % patients. When comparing the performance of 25(OHD in the areas of inspection, it was found that the level of vitamin D in the blood serum was significantly higher in residents of Verkhovyna and Kosiv districts (located higher than 450 meters above sea level as compared with residents of Vyzhnytsia and Kolomyia. Conclusion. The average level of vitamin D in the blood serum of the adult population depends on residence and increases with height above sea level.

  10. Socioeconomic Position, Rural Residence, and Marginality Influences on Obesity Status in the Adult Mexican Population

    OpenAIRE

    Sparks, P. Johnelle; Sparks, Corey S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses individual and social environment determinants of obesity in the adult Mexican population based on socioeconomic position, rural residence, and areal deprivation. Using a nationally representative health and nutrition survey, this analysis considers individual and structural determinants of obesity from a socioeconomic position and health disparities conceptual framework using multilevel logistic regression models. We find that more than thirty percent of Mexican adults we...

  11. Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) Urban-Rural Population Estimates, Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project (GRUMP), Alpha Version

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) Urban-Rural Estimates consists of country-level estimates of urban, rural and total population and land area country-wide and...

  12. Effects of Hydrologic Restoration on the Residence Times and Water Quality of a Coastal Wetland in the Florida Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, E.; Price, R. M.; Melesse, A. M.; Whitman, D.

    2013-05-01

    The Everglades, located in southern Florida, is a dominantly freshwater coastal wetland ecosystem that has experienced many alterations and changes led by urbanization and water management practices with most cases resulting in decreased water flow across the system. The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan, passed in 2000, has the final goal of restoring natural flow and clean water to the Everglades while also balancing flood control and water supply needs of the south Florida population with approximately 60 projects to be constructed and completed in the following 30 years. One way to assess the success of restoration projects is to observe long-term hydrological and geochemical changes as the projects undergo completion. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of restoration on the water balance, flushing time, and water chemistry of Taylor Slough; one of the main natural waterways located within the coastal Everglades. A water balance equation was used to solve for groundwater-surface water exchange. The major parameters for the water balance equation (precipitation, evapotranspiration (ET), surface water storage, inflow and outflow) were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey and Everglades National Park databases via the Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN). Watershed flushing times were estimated as the surface water volume divided by the total outputs from the watershed. Both the water balance equation and water flushing time were calculated on a monthly time step from 2001 - 2011. Water chemistry of major ions and Total Nitrogen (TN) and Total Phosphorus (TP) was analyzed on water samples, 3-day composites collected every 18 hours from 2008 - 2012, and correlated with water flushing times. Stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen of water samples were obtained to support the dominant inputs of water into Taylor Slough as identified by the water budget equation. Results for flushing times varied between 3 and 78 days, with

  13. Population control of resident and immigrant microglia by mitosis and apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirenfeldt, Martin; Dissing-Olesen, Lasse; Babcock, Alicia

    2007-01-01

    microglia often occurred in clusters, some having recently incorporated bromodeoxyuridine, showing that proliferation had occurred. Annexin V labeling and staining for activated caspase-3 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling showed that apoptotic mechanisms participate...... in dissolution of the microglial response. Using bone marrow chimeric mice, we found that the lesion-induced proliferative capacity of resident microglia superseded that of immigrant microglia, whereas lesion-induced kinetics of apoptosis were comparable. Microglial numbers and responses were severely reduced...... in bone marrow chimeric mice. These results broaden our understanding of the microglial response to neural damage by demonstrating that simultaneously occurring mitosis and apoptosis regulate expansion and reduction of both resident and immigrant microglial cell populations....

  14. Proxy measures of fitness suggest coastal fish farms can act as population sources and not ecological traps for wild gadoid fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Dempster

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ecological traps form when artificial structures are added to natural habitats and induce mismatches between habitat preferences and fitness consequences. Their existence in terrestrial systems has been documented, yet little evidence suggests they occur in marine environments. Coastal fish farms are widespread artificial structures in coastal ecosystems and are highly attractive to wild fish. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate if coastal salmon farms act as ecological traps for wild Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua and saithe (Pollachius virens, we compared proxy measures of fitness between farm-associated fish and control fish caught distant from farms in nine locations throughout coastal Norway, the largest coastal fish farming industry in the world. Farms modified wild fish diets in both quality and quantity, thereby providing farm-associated wild fish with a strong trophic subsidy. This translated to greater somatic (saithe: 1.06-1.12 times; cod: 1.06-1.11 times and liver condition indices (saithe: 1.4-1.8 times; cod: 2.0-2.8 times than control fish caught distant from farms. Parasite loads of farm-associated wild fish were modified from control fish, with increased external and decreased internal parasites, however the strong effect of the trophic subsidy overrode any effects of altered loads upon condition. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Proxy measures of fitness provided no evidence that salmon farms function as ecological traps for wild fish. We suggest fish farms may act as population sources for wild fish, provided they are protected from fishing while resident at farms to allow their increased condition to manifest as greater reproductive output.

  15. LOCAL GENIUS AS SOCIO-CULTURAL CAPITAL FOR EMPOWERING THE BAJO ETHNIC PEOPLE RESIDING AT THE COASTAL AREA OF BUNGIN PERMAI VILLAGE, SOUTH EAST SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Ode Ali Basri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this dissertation the local genius as socio-cultural capital for empowering theBajo ethnic people residing at the costal area of Bungin Permai Village, TinanggeaDistrict, South Konawe Regency, South Sulawesi Province is discussed. The Bajo ethnicpeople have a set of local genius within their socio-cultural system which is reflected intheir belief, tradition and custom and is used as the reference for conceiving andexplaining the objective and essence of life and the world. However, such local geniushas not functioned optimally yet as they are still marginalized.This research is focused on (1 what forms of local genius serve as the sociocultural capital for empowering the Bajo ethnic group residing at the coastal area?; (2how the local genius is developed to empower the Bajo ethnic people residing at thecoastal area?; and (3 what factors which may support and obstruct the local genius usedas the socio cultural capital for empowering the Bajo ethnic people residing at the coastalarea? Qualitative method is employed in this study with the approach of cultural studies.The theories used are the post colonial theory, structural theory, generative theory,hegemony theory and semiotic theory. The techniques used for collecting the data neededare participative observation, in-depth interview, library research, and focus groupdiscussion. The data obtained are analytically and descriptively processed and arepresented in the forms of narration, tables and visual illustration.The results of the study show that the Bajo ethnic people residing at BunginPermai Village have a set of local genius which may be potentially used as the sociocultural capital for empowering their community such as (1 indigenous skills andknowledge; (2 working culture; and (3 local organizations. The development of theindigenous skills and knowledge (pengetahuan dan ketrampilan asli; hereon abbreviatedto PKA and the revitalization of their local organizations may be used as the

  16. Population control of resident and immigrant microglia by mitosis and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirenfeldt, Martin; Dissing-Olesen, Lasse; Anne Babcock, Alicia; Nielsen, Marianne; Meldgaard, Michael; Zimmer, Jens; Azcoitia, Iñigo; Leslie, Robert Graham Quinton; Dagnaes-Hansen, Frederik; Finsen, Bente

    2007-08-01

    Microglial population expansion occurs in response to neural damage via processes that involve mitosis and immigration of bone marrow-derived cells. However, little is known of the mechanisms that regulate clearance of reactive microglia, when microgliosis diminishes days to weeks later. We have investigated the mechanisms of microglial population control in a well-defined model of reactive microgliosis in the mouse dentate gyrus after perforant pathway axonal lesion. Unbiased stereological methods and flow cytometry demonstrate significant lesion-induced increases in microglial numbers. Reactive microglia often occurred in clusters, some having recently incorporated bromodeoxyuridine, showing that proliferation had occurred. Annexin V labeling and staining for activated caspase-3 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling showed that apoptotic mechanisms participate in dissolution of the microglial response. Using bone marrow chimeric mice, we found that the lesion-induced proliferative capacity of resident microglia superseded that of immigrant microglia, whereas lesion-induced kinetics of apoptosis were comparable. Microglial numbers and responses were severely reduced in bone marrow chimeric mice. These results broaden our understanding of the microglial response to neural damage by demonstrating that simultaneously occurring mitosis and apoptosis regulate expansion and reduction of both resident and immigrant microglial cell populations.

  17. U.S. Census Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Selected Age Groups by Sex for the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2010-2015. U.S. Census Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Selected Age Groups by Sex for the United States. The estimates are based on the 2010 Census...

  18. Estimates of the Size and Characteristics of the Resident Nonimmigrant Population in the United States: January 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report presents estimates of the size and characteristics of the resident nonimmigrant population in the United States. The estimates are daily averages for the...

  19. Internal exposure to the population of coastal Karnataka of South India from dietary intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayana, Y.; Radhakrishna, A.P.; Somashekarappa, H.M.; Karunakara, N.; Balakrishna, K.M.; Siddappa, K. [Managlore Univ. (India). Dept. of Studies in Physics

    1995-12-31

    Systematic studies on radiation levels and radionuclide distribution in the environment of coastal Karnatak, located on the south west coast of India, was initiated to provide baseline data on background radiation levels for the future assessment of the impact of the nuclear and thermal power stations that are being set up in the region. The paper presents the concentration of the prominent natural and artificial radionuclides in vegetarian and non-vegetarian composite diet samples of the region. The internal exposures to the population of the region were estimated from the concentration of prominent radionuclides in total diet. The results are discussed in the light of literature values reported for other environments. (Author).

  20. Internal exposure to the population of coastal Karnataka of South India from dietary intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayana, Y.; Radhakrishna, A.P.; Somashekarappa, H.M.; Karunakara, N.; Balakrishna, K.M.; Siddappa, K.

    1995-01-01

    Systematic studies on radiation levels and radionuclide distribution in the environment of coastal Karnatak, located on the south west coast of India, was initiated to provide baseline data on background radiation levels for the future assessment of the impact of the nuclear and thermal power stations that are being set up in the region. The paper presents the concentration of the prominent natural and artificial radionuclides in vegetarian and non-vegetarian composite diet samples of the region. The internal exposures to the population of the region were estimated from the concentration of prominent radionuclides in total diet. The results are discussed in the light of literature values reported for other environments. (Author)

  1. Analysis of the concept of Ministry of Public Health of the former USSR (35 rem) and republic concept of population residence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Concept of safe population residence at the contaminated territories accepted by Ministry of Public Health of the USSR in November, 1988 following the Chernobyl accident is discussed. Groundlessness of the introduced 'dose for life' equal 35 rem is marked as well as incompetence of the approach to population residence at contaminated territories. Republic concept of population residence at Belarussian contaminated territories is presented

  2. Seroprevalence of antibodies against chikungunya virus in Singapore resident adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Li Wei; Kam, Yiu Wing; Lin, Cui; Krishnan, Prabha Unny; Tay, Joanne; Ng, Lee Ching; James, Lyn; Lee, Vernon J M; Goh, Kee Tai; Ng, Lisa F P; Lin, Raymond T P

    2017-12-01

    We determined the seroprevalence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection in the adult resident population in Singapore following local outbreaks of chikungunya fever (CHIKF) in 2008-2009. Our cross-sectional study involved residual sera from 3,293 adults aged 18-79 years who had participated in the National Health Survey in 2010. Sera were tested for IgG antibodies against CHIKV and dengue virus (DENV) and neutralizing antibodies against CHIKV. The prevalence of CHIKV-neutralizing antibodies among Singapore residents aged 18-79 years was 1.9% (95% confidence interval: 1.4%- 2.3%). The CHIKV seroprevalence was highest in the elderly aged 70-79 years at 11.5%, followed by those aged 30-39 years at 3.1%. Men had significantly higher CHIKV seroprevalence than women (2.5% versus 1.3%, p = 0.01). Among the three main ethnic groups, Indians had the highest seroprevalence (3.5%) compared to Chinese (1.6%) and Malays (0.7%) (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, respectively). Multivariable logistic regression identified adults aged 30-39 years and 70-79 years, men, those of Indian ethnicity and ethnic minority groups, and residence on ground floor of public and private housing apartments as factors that were significantly associated with a higher likelihood of exposure to CHIKV. The overall prevalence of anti-DENV IgG antibodies was 56.8% (95% CI: 55.1%- 58.5%), while 1.5% (95% CI: 1.1%- 2.0%) of adults possessed both neutralizing antibodies against CHIKV and IgG antibodies against DENV. Singapore remains highly susceptible to CHIKV infection. There is a need to maintain a high degree of vigilance through disease surveillance and vector control. Findings from such serological study, when conducted on a regular periodic basis, could supplement surveillance to provide insights on CHIKV circulation in at-risk population.

  3. Food and fluid intake of the SENECA population residing in Romans, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, M; Hininger-Favier, I; Sidobre, B; Mathey, M F

    2001-01-01

    to provide information and data on food and fluid intake of free-living elderly aged of 81-86 years old residing in the south of France. using standardised methods data were collected from a random sample born between 1913 and 1918. The French study protocol again included data collection on dietary intake using a standardised modified dietary history consisting of a food frequency list and a 3-day estimated dietary record. Total dietary intake was generally low as compared to the recommended daily intake for elderly subjects. This descriptive part of the SENECA study gives the opportunity to have information on this growing segment of the population. These results should help to adapt the dietary guidelines for this category of the population.

  4. Population biology of Parides anchises nephalion (Papilionidae in a coastal site in Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. L. FREITAS

    Full Text Available A population of Parides anchises nephalion was studied during seven months in SE Brazil. The population size was about 10-20 individuals (with theoretic maximum near 60 individuals, with small variations in some months. Sex ratio was male biased, with males dominating in all months. The age structure was not stable, with an increase in new individuals before the population peak in December. The residence time was 14.1 ± 8.2 days for males and 9.0 ± 3.6 to females, with the maximum registered of 30 days. Males can travel distances of up to 400 m, but most individuals were always recaptured in the same site. The mean forewing length was greater in females. The population features agree with those found in other species of Parides in other neotropical sites.

  5. Highly diverse recombining populations of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in French Mediterranean coastal lagoons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin eEsteves

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae are ubiquitous to estuarine and marine environments. These two species can induce infections in humans. Therefore understanding the structure and dynamics of non-pandemic environmental populations in temperate regions, such as Mediterranean coastal systems, is important if we are to evaluate the risks of infection to humans.Environmental isolates of V. cholerae (n=109 and V. parahaemolyticus (n=89 sampled at different dates, stations and water salinities were investigated for virulence genes and by a multilocus sequence-based analysis (MLSA. V. cholerae isolates were all ctxA negative and only one isolate of V. parahaemolyticus displayed trh2 gene. Most Sequence Types (ST corresponded to unique ST isolated at one date or one station. Frequent recombination events were detected among different pathogenic species, V. parahaemolyticus, V. cholerae, Vibrio mimicus and Vibrio metoecus. Recombination had a major impact on the diversification of lineages. The genetic diversity assessed by the number of ST/strain was higher in low salinity conditions for V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae whereas the frequency of recombination events in V. cholerae was lower in low salinity. Mediterranean coastal lagoon systems housed V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus with genetic diversities equivalent to the worldwide diversity described so far. The presence of STs found in human infections as well as the frequency of recombination events in environmental vibrios populations could predict a potential epidemiological risk.

  6. Estimation of population structure in coastal Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii] using allozyme and microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantin V. Krutovsky; John Bradley St. Clair; Robert Saich; Valerie D. Hipkins; David B. Neale

    2009-01-01

    Characterizing population structure using neutral markers is an important first step in association genetic studies in order to avoid false associations between phenotypes and genotypes that may arise from nonselective demographic factors. Population structure was studied in a wide sample of approximately 1,300 coastal Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii...

  7. Seasonal dynamics of snail populations in coastal Kenya: Model calibration and snail control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurarie, D.; King, C. H.; Yoon, N.; Wang, X.; Alsallaq, R.

    2017-10-01

    A proper snail population model is important for accurately predicting Schistosoma transmission. Field data shows that the overall snail population and that of shedding snails have a strong pattern of seasonal variation. Because human hosts are infected by the cercariae released from shedding snails, the abundance of the snail population sets ultimate limits on human infection. For developing a predictive dynamic model of schistosome infection and control strategies we need realistic snail population dynamics. Here we propose two such models based on underlying environmental factors and snail population biology. The models consist of two-stage (young-adult) populations with resource-dependent reproduction, survival, maturation. The key input in the system is seasonal rainfall which creates snail habitats and resources (small vegetation). The models were tested, calibrated and validated using dataset collected in Msambweni (coastal Kenya). Seasonal rainfall in Msambweni is highly variable with intermittent wet - dry seasons. Typical snail patterns follow precipitation peaks with 2-4-month time-lag. Our models are able to reproduce such seasonal variability over extended period of time (3-year study). We applied them to explore the optimal seasonal timing for implementing snail control.

  8. Coupling bacterioplankton populations and environment to community function in coastal temperate waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traving, S. J.; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Knudsen-Leerbeck, H.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterioplankton play a key role in marine waters facilitating processes important for carbon cycling. However, the influence of specific bacterial populations and environmental conditions on bacterioplankton community performance remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to identify...... drivers of bacterioplankton community functions, taking into account the variability in community composition and environmental conditions over seasons, in two contrasting coastal systems. A Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) analysis of the biological and chemical data obtained from...... surface waters over a full year indicated that specific bacterial populations were linked to measured functions. Namely, Synechococcus (Cyanobacteria) was strongly correlated with protease activity. Both function and community composition showed seasonal variation. However, the pattern of substrate...

  9. Transcriptome analysis deciphers evolutionary mechanisms underlying genetic differentiation between coastal and offshore anchovy populations in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Montes, Iratxe; Zarraonaindia, Iratxe; Iriondo, Mikel; Grant, W. Stewart; Manzano, Carmen; Cotano, Unai; Conklin, Darrell; Irigoien, Xabier; Estonba, Andone

    2016-01-01

    Morphometry and otolith microchemistry point to the existence of two populations of the European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Bay of Biscay: one in open seawaters, and a yet unidentified population in coastal waters. To test this hypothesis, we assembled a large number of samples from the region, including 587 juveniles and spawning adults from offshore and coastal waters, and 264 fish from other locations covering most of the species’ European range. These samples were genotyped for 456 exonic SNPs that provide a robust way to decipher adaptive processes in these populations. Two genetically differentiated populations of anchovy inhabit the Bay of Biscay with different population dynamics: (1) a large offshore population associated with marine waters included in the wide-shelf group, and (2) a coastal metapopulation adapted to estuarine environments in the Bay of Biscay and North Sea included in the narrow-shelf group. Transcriptome analysis identified neutral and adaptive evolutionary processes underlying differentiation between these populations. Reduced gene flow between offshore and coastal populations in the Bay of Biscay appears to result from divergence between two previously isolated gene pools adapted to contrasting habitats and now in secondary contact. Eleven molecular markers appear to mark divergent selection between the ecotypes, and a majority of these markers are associated with salinity variability. Ecotype differences at two outlier genes, TSSK6 and basigin, may hinder gamete compatibility between the ecotypes and reinforce reproductive isolation. Additionally, possible convergent evolution between offshore and coastal populations in the Bay of Biscay has been detected for the syntaxin1B-otoferlin gene system, which is involved in the control of larval buoyancy. Further study of exonic markers opens the possibility of understanding the mechanisms of adaptive divergence between European anchovy populations. © 2016, Springer

  10. Transcriptome analysis deciphers evolutionary mechanisms underlying genetic differentiation between coastal and offshore anchovy populations in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Montes, Iratxe

    2016-09-13

    Morphometry and otolith microchemistry point to the existence of two populations of the European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Bay of Biscay: one in open seawaters, and a yet unidentified population in coastal waters. To test this hypothesis, we assembled a large number of samples from the region, including 587 juveniles and spawning adults from offshore and coastal waters, and 264 fish from other locations covering most of the species’ European range. These samples were genotyped for 456 exonic SNPs that provide a robust way to decipher adaptive processes in these populations. Two genetically differentiated populations of anchovy inhabit the Bay of Biscay with different population dynamics: (1) a large offshore population associated with marine waters included in the wide-shelf group, and (2) a coastal metapopulation adapted to estuarine environments in the Bay of Biscay and North Sea included in the narrow-shelf group. Transcriptome analysis identified neutral and adaptive evolutionary processes underlying differentiation between these populations. Reduced gene flow between offshore and coastal populations in the Bay of Biscay appears to result from divergence between two previously isolated gene pools adapted to contrasting habitats and now in secondary contact. Eleven molecular markers appear to mark divergent selection between the ecotypes, and a majority of these markers are associated with salinity variability. Ecotype differences at two outlier genes, TSSK6 and basigin, may hinder gamete compatibility between the ecotypes and reinforce reproductive isolation. Additionally, possible convergent evolution between offshore and coastal populations in the Bay of Biscay has been detected for the syntaxin1B-otoferlin gene system, which is involved in the control of larval buoyancy. Further study of exonic markers opens the possibility of understanding the mechanisms of adaptive divergence between European anchovy populations. © 2016, Springer

  11. The population structure of Glossina palpalis gambiensis from island and continental locations in Coastal Guinea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Solano

    Full Text Available We undertook a population genetics analysis of the tsetse fly Glossina palpalis gambiensis, a major vector of sleeping sickness in West Africa, using microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA markers. Our aims were to estimate effective population size and the degree of isolation between coastal sites on the mainland of Guinea and Loos Islands. The sampling locations encompassed Dubréka, the area with the highest Human African Trypanosomosis (HAT prevalence in West Africa, mangrove and savannah sites on the mainland, and two islands, Fotoba and Kassa, within the Loos archipelago. These data are discussed with respect to the feasibility and sustainability of control strategies in those sites currently experiencing, or at risk of, sleeping sickness.We found very low migration rates between sites except between those sampled around the Dubréka area that seems to contain a widely dispersed and panmictic population. In the Kassa island samples, various effective population size estimates all converged on surprisingly small values (10population sizes suggest high levels of inbreeding in tsetse flies within the island samples in marked contrast to the large diffuse deme in Dubréka zones. We discuss how these genetic results suggest that different tsetse control strategies should be applied on the mainland and islands.

  12. The Association between Natural Amenities, Rural Population Growth, and Long-Term Residents' Economic Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Lori M; Boardman, Jason D.; Saint Onge, Jarron M.

    2005-01-01

    Population growth in rural areas characterized by high levels of natural amenities has recently received substantial research attention. A noted concern with amenity-driven rural population growth is its potential to raise local costs-of-living while yielding only low-wage service sector employment for long-term residents. The work presented here…

  13. Analysis of population development and effectiveness of mnagement in resident greylag geese Anser anser in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, T.C.; Turnhout, van C.; Willems, F.; Voslamber, B.

    2010-01-01

    The resident Greylag goose population in the Netherlands has strongly increased in number which led to conflict with agricultural interests, public concern on goose hunting and legal debate on the need to regulate geese. Such a debate can be facilitated by insight in population development and the

  14. EFFECTIVENESS OF THE PROGRAM OF EMPOWERMENT OF THE WOMEN RESIDING AT THE COASTAL AREA OF AMPENAN DISTRICT, MATARAM CITY, LOMBOK IMPLEMENTED IN THE FORM OF LIFE SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Putu Listiawati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The program of the empowerment of the women living in Mataram City implemented inthe form of life skills including vocational skill, social skill, and personal skill has been carriedout since 2001. In reality, the attempts already made could not improve the well-being of thewomen in Mataram City in general and the women living along the coastal area of Ampenan,South Ampenan District and Banjar District in particular. Based on the background mentionedabove, the researcher was interested in exploring the effectiveness of the program of theempowerment provided in the form life skills. Three problems are formulated in this research.They are (1 how effective the implementation of the empowerment program of the womenresiding at the coastal area of Ampenan District was?; (2 what factors contributed to theeffectiveness of the empowerment program of the women residing at the coastal area?; (3 whatwere the effects and meanings of the effectiveness of the empowerment program of the womenresiding at the coastal area? The theories employed to answer the problems formulated above arethe theory of post feminism by Ann Brooks, the theory of social practice by Bourdieu and thetheory of power/knowledge by Foucault. The theories were eclectically applied. The qualitativemethod was employed in this study and the data needed were collected by the techniques ofobservation, in-depth interview, Focus Group Discussion (hereon abbreviated to FGD,documentation and library research.The results of the study show that (1 the program of the empowerment of the womenliving in the coastal area was ineffective; (2 the factors which contributed to the effectivenessof the empowerment of the women living along the coastal area are economic capital, culturalcapital, socio culture and symbolic culture; (3 the effects of the effectiveness of theempowerment program were on the skills acquired, the income earned, the independenceacquired, the environment where they live and their pattern

  15. Prevalence of intellectual dysfunctioning and its correlates in a community-residing elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, N; Tatara, K; Shinsho, F; Takatorige, T; Murakami, S; Fukuda, H

    1998-09-01

    To examine the prevalence of intellectual dysfunctioning and its correlates in community-residing elderly people, a randomly selected sample of 1,405 people aged 65 and over living in Settsu, Osaka, were investigated in October 1992. Data for assessing intellectual dysfunctioning were obtained from 1,364 people (97.1%), excluding 21 clinically demented people (1.5%); 17.6/100, 5.6/100, and 3.3/100 of the population showed minor, moderate, and appreciable intellectual dysfunctioning, respectively, and the prevalence of intellectual dysfunctioning increased with age. By multivariate analyses using logistic regression, age over 75, poor general health, including current medical treatment, and psychosocial conditions such as no participation in social activities, no life worth living (no Ikigai), and anxiety about the future were independent risk factors for intellectual dysfunctioning. We conclude that intellectual dysfunctioning is closely associated with health and psychosocial conditions.

  16. Winter Activity of Coastal Plain Populations of Bat Species Affected by White-Nose Syndrome and Wind Energy Facilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Grider

    Full Text Available Across the entire distribution of a species, populations may have variable responses to environmental perturbations. Many bat species experience mortality in large portions of their range during hibernation and along migratory paths to and from wintering grounds, from White-nose syndrome (WNS and wind energy development, respectively. In some areas, warm temperatures may allow bats to remain active through winter, thus decreasing their susceptibility to WNS and/or mortality associated with migration to wintering grounds. These areas could act as a refugia and be important for the persistence of local populations. To determine if warmer temperatures affect bat activity, we compared year-round activity of bat populations in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont of North Carolina, USA, two regions that differ in winter temperature. We established six recording stations, four along a 295-kilometer north-south transect in the Coastal Plain, and two in the Piedmont of North Carolina. We recorded bat activity over two years. We supplemented our recordings with mist-net data. Although bat activity was lower during winter at all sites, the odds of recording a bat during winter were higher at Coastal Plain sites when compared with Piedmont sites. Further, bats in the Piedmont had a lower level of winter activity compared to summer activity than bats in the Coastal Plain that had more similar levels of activity in the winter and summer. We found high bat species richness on the Coastal Plain in winter, with winter-active species including those known to hibernate throughout most of their range and others known to be long distance migrants. In particular, two species impacted by WNS, the northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis and tricolored bat (Perimyotis subflavus, were present year round in the Coastal Plain. The tricolored bat was also present year-round in the Piedmont. In the Coastal Plain, the long distance migratory hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus

  17. Winter Activity of Coastal Plain Populations of Bat Species Affected by White-Nose Syndrome and Wind Energy Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grider, John F; Larsen, Angela L; Homyack, Jessica A; Kalcounis-Rueppell, Matina C

    2016-01-01

    Across the entire distribution of a species, populations may have variable responses to environmental perturbations. Many bat species experience mortality in large portions of their range during hibernation and along migratory paths to and from wintering grounds, from White-nose syndrome (WNS) and wind energy development, respectively. In some areas, warm temperatures may allow bats to remain active through winter, thus decreasing their susceptibility to WNS and/or mortality associated with migration to wintering grounds. These areas could act as a refugia and be important for the persistence of local populations. To determine if warmer temperatures affect bat activity, we compared year-round activity of bat populations in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont of North Carolina, USA, two regions that differ in winter temperature. We established six recording stations, four along a 295-kilometer north-south transect in the Coastal Plain, and two in the Piedmont of North Carolina. We recorded bat activity over two years. We supplemented our recordings with mist-net data. Although bat activity was lower during winter at all sites, the odds of recording a bat during winter were higher at Coastal Plain sites when compared with Piedmont sites. Further, bats in the Piedmont had a lower level of winter activity compared to summer activity than bats in the Coastal Plain that had more similar levels of activity in the winter and summer. We found high bat species richness on the Coastal Plain in winter, with winter-active species including those known to hibernate throughout most of their range and others known to be long distance migrants. In particular, two species impacted by WNS, the northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) and tricolored bat (Perimyotis subflavus), were present year round in the Coastal Plain. The tricolored bat was also present year-round in the Piedmont. In the Coastal Plain, the long distance migratory hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus) was active in the

  18. Demographic and health characteristics of the population residing within the 30-km area around the Kozloduy NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, P.; Bliznakov, V.

    1993-01-01

    Based on detailed analysis of data on demographic and health state of the population residing within the 30-km zone around the Kozloduj NPP, an attempt was made to detect any impact of the power plant on population health under normal NPP operational conditions. The health characteristics of the population revealed no unfavorable trends. Particular attention was given to diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs, malignant new growths, complications of pregnancy, and congenital anomalies. (author)

  19. Optimal Vitamin D Status in a Middle-Aged and Elderly Population Residing in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleteng, Qiqige; Zhao, Lin; Lin, Huandong; Xia, Mingfeng; Ma, Hui; Gao, Jian; Pan, Baishen; Gao, Xin

    2017-12-19

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal vitamin D status in the middle-aged and elderly population residing in Shanghai, China. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 1,829 males and postmenopausal females older than 45 years of age in the Changfeng community of Shanghai were included in this study. The optimal vitamin D level was determined according to the suppression of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and the highest bone mineral density (BMD). Locally weighted scatter plot smoothing (LOWESS) was performed to study the correlations of 25(OH)D with PTH and BMD in the lumbar spine and total hip, adjusting for gender, age, weight, use of calcium and vitamin D supplements, eGFR, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. RESULTS The mean serum 25(OH)D concentration was 48.0±19.2 nmol/L for the whole study population. The circulating PTH was maximally suppressed by the serum 25(OH)D of 55 nmol/L in the total population (60 nmol/L for males and 50 nmol/L for females). The 25(OH)D concentrations corresponding to the highest BMD at lumbar spine (L1-L4) and total hip were 53 nmol/L and 75 nmol/L, respectively, for the whole population. These values were also higher in males than females. CONCLUSIONS The optimal 25(OH)D concentration of 55 nmol/L is sufficient to maintain the bone health and metabolic status in middle-aged and elderly individuals living in Shanghai. Males probably need higher vitamin D concentration than females. There are differences between vitamin D status based on lumbar spine BMD and total hip BMD.

  20. Composition and Dynamics of Migratory and Resident Avian Population in Wintering Wetlands from Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushalendra Kumar JHA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Twelve wetlands occurring in four different ecozones in Uttar Pradesh (UP, India, were selected for studying the winter composition and dynamics of avian populations. Wetland information was collected from office records of the UP Forest department. Bird populations were estimated by transect method and block-in-flock-in-sector method for woodland and aquatic birds, respectively. Across the twelve selected wetlands a total of 486,182 individuals belonging to 161 species of birds on 15,592 ha were recorded during the winter of 2010-11. The data were analyzed to assess the relationship between wetland characteristics and avian populations. Aquatic vegetation, surrounding vegetation, water availability and climate were found as important factors related to avian populations. January was found to be the peak of bird assemblage, while winter times before and after January were the waxing and waning period, respectively. Species richness and species diversity of aquatic birds varied between 18-58 and 1.90-3.20, respectively, and of all bird species between 23-109, and 1.73-3.81, respectively. The density of aquatic birds ranged between 17-384 ha-1. The most common migratory birds in wetlands were Northern Pintail, Common Teal and Greylag Goose. Common resident birds included Asian Openbill, Darter, Little Egret, Common Coot, Little Cormorant, Grey Heron, Purple Heron, Indian Pond Heron, Common Moorhen, Purple Swamphen, Cattle Egret, Indian Sarus Crane and White-throated Kingfisher. For improved conservation of aquatic avian fauna, management prescriptions are suggested for wetlands under current management which could also be extended to other wetlands, whereas conservation of avian fauna to be the emphasis.

  1. Role of resident CNS cell populations in HTLV-1-associated neuroinflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepoutre, Veronique; Jain, Pooja; Quann, Kevin; Wigdahl, Brian; Khan, Zafar K

    2009-01-01

    Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), the first human retrovirus discovered, is the etiologic agent for a number of disorders; the two most common pathologies include adult T cell leukemia (ATL) and a progressive demyelinating neuroinflammatory disease, HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The neurologic dysfunction associated with HAM/TSP is a result of viral intrusion into the central nervous system (CNS) and the generation of a hyperstimulated host response within the peripheral and central nervous system that includes expanded populations of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This robust, yet detrimental immune response likely contributes to the death of myelin producing oligodendrocytes and degeneration of neuronal axons. The mechanisms of neurological degeneration in HAM/TSP have yet to be fully delineated in vivo and may involve the immunogenic properties of the HTLV-1 transactivator protein Tax. This comprehensive review characterizes the available knowledge to date concerning the effects of HTLV-1 on CNS resident cell populations with emphasis on both viral and host factors contributing to the genesis of HAM/TSP.

  2. A cross-sectional survey of blood pressure of a coastal city's resident victims of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Hitoshi; Akashi, Hidechika; Noda, Shinichiro; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Okazaki, Osamu; Ouchi, Yoshiko; Okaji, Yuki; Kajiwara, Chieko; Miyoshi, Chiaki

    2013-06-01

    Blood pressure (BP) increase as a reaction to major disasters has been well documented; however, the impact has been underdocumented for tsunamis. This study aimed to confirm whether different levels of flooding/inundation and other damage caused by the 2011 Tohoku (northeast Japan) tsunami were associated with BP among resident victims in Higashi-Matsushima, Miyagi. Cross-sectional household screening was conducted 7-19 weeks after the disaster in administrative areas totally or partially flooded by the tsunami. Systolic and diastolic BP (SBP/DBP) were measured in 4,311 residents. There was a degree-dependent association between SBP/DBP and flooding height above sea level among victims not on antihypertensive medication (P tsunami or lifeline indicators and high BP (SBP ≥160mm Hg or DBP ≥100mm Hg). This study suggests that after a major tsunami, resident victims in areas highly inundated by flood waters and those with disrupted gas supply are more likely to have higher BP and thus might warrant getting BP screening earlier than other residents. Those with hypertension should be given assistance to resume or commence antihypertensive medication as soon as possible to reduce the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  3. Urinary and fecal incontinence in a community-residing older population in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, N; Tatara, K; Naramura, H; Fujiwara, H; Takashima, Y; Fukuda, H

    1997-02-01

    To estimate the prevalence and risk factors of urinary and fecal incontinence among a community-residing older population in Japan. Population-based cross-sectional study. A randomly selected sample of 1473 people aged 65 years and older living in the City of Settsu, Osaka, in 1992. Data collected via in-home visits were used to estimate the prevalence of urinary and fecal incontinence and to provide information regarding potential risk factors of urinary and fecal incontinence. Data were obtained from 1405 older adults, a response rate of 95.4%. The prevalence of any degree of urinary incontinence was 98/1000 in both sexes, and 87/ 1000 men and 66/1000 women admitted to some degree of fecal incontinence. Daily, 34/1000 and 20/1000 of the population were incontinent of urine and feces, respectively. There was an increasing prevalence of urinary and fecal incontinence with age in both sexes, but the expected greater prevalence in women was not found. By univariate analyses, age older than 75 years, poor general health as measured by Activities of Daily Living, stroke, dementia, no participation in social activities, and lack of life worth living (Ikigai) were associated significantly with both urinary and fecal incontinence. In the multivariate analyses using logistic regression, age older than 75 years, poor general health, and stroke were independent risk factors for any type of incontinence. Diabetes was an independent risk factor for isolated fecal incontinence, and dementia and no participation in social activities were independent risk factors for double incontinence. Incontinence of urine and feces is a prevalent condition among very old people living in the community in Japan and is associated highly with health and psychosocial conditions.

  4. Burden of Clostridium difficile-associated disease among patients residing in nursing homes: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Holly; Baser, Onur; Wang, Li

    2016-11-25

    Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection (CDI) is the leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea in the United States. This study aimed to examine the incidence of CDI and evaluate mortality and economic burden of CDI in an elderly population who reside in nursing homes (NHs). This was a population-based retrospective cohort study focusing on US NHs by linking Medicare 5% sample, Medicaid, Minimum Data Set (MDS) (2008-10). NH residents aged ≥65 years with continuous enrollment in Medicare and/or Medicaid Fee-for-Service plan for ≥12 months and ≥2 quarterly MDS assessments were eligible for the study. The incidence rate was calculated as the number of CDI episodes by 100,000 person-years. A 1:4 propensity score matched sample of cohorts with and without CDI was generated to assess mortality and health care costs following the first CDI. Among 32,807 NH residents, 941 residents had ≥1 episode of CDI in 2009, with an incidence of 3359.9 per 100,000 person-years. About 30% CDI episodes occurred in the hospital setting. NH residents with CDI (vs without CDI) were more likely to have congestive heart failure, renal disease, cerebrovascular disease, hospitalizations, and outpatient antibiotic use. During the follow-up period, the 30-day (14.7% vs 4.3%, P CDI residents vs non-CDI residents. Total health care costs within 2 months following the first CDI episode were also significantly higher for CDI residents ($28,621 vs $13,644, P CDI presents a serious public health issue in NHs. Mortality, health care utilization, and associated costs were significant following incident CDI episodes.

  5. Coastal Sea Levels, Impacts, and Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wahl

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sea-level rise (SLR poses a great threat to approximately 10% of the world’s population residing in low-elevation coastal zones (i.e., land located up to 10 m of present-day mean sea-level (MSL[...

  6. Nutrient fluxes and the recent collapse of coastal California salmon populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jonathan W.; Hayes, Sean A.; Duffy, Walter; Gallagher, Sean; Michel, Cyril J.; Wright, David

    2011-01-01

    Migratory salmon move nutrients both in and out of fresh waters during the different parts of their life cycle. We used a mass-balance approach to quantify recent changes in phosphorus (P) fluxes in six coastal California, USA, watersheds that have recently experienced dramatic decreases in salmon populations. As adults, semelparous Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) salmon imported 8.3 and 10.4 times more P from the ocean, respectively, than they exported as smolts, while iteroparous steelhead (i.e., sea-run rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) imported only 1.6 times more than they exported as kelts and smolts. Semelparous species whose life histories led them to import more nutrients were also the species whose populations decreased the most dramatically in California in recent years. In addition, the relationship between import and export was nonlinear, with export being proportionally more important at lower levels of import. This pattern was driven by two density-dependent processes — smolts were larger and disproportionately more abundant at lower spawner abundances. In fact, in four of our six streams we found evidence that salmon can drive net export of P at low abundance, evidence for the reversal of the "conveyor belt" of nutrients.

  7. Prevalence of Anemia among Older Adults Residing in the Coastal and Andes Mountains in Ecuador: Results of the SABE Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos H. Orces

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To estimate the prevalence of anemia and its determinants among older adults in Ecuador. Methods. The present study was based on data from the National Survey of Health, Wellbeing, and Aging. Hemoglobin concentrations were adjusted by participants’ smoking status and altitude of residence, and anemia was defined according to the World Health Organization criteria (<12 g/dL in women and <13 g/dL in men. Gender-specific logistic regression models were used to examine the association between demographic and health characteristics and anemia. Results. A total of 2,372 subjects with a mean age of 71.8 (SD 8.2 years had their hemoglobin measured, representing an estimated 1.1 million older adults. The crude prevalence of anemia was 20.0% in women and 25.2% in men. However, higher anemia prevalence rates were seen with advancing age among black women and subjects residing in the urban coast. Likewise, certain health conditions such as hypoalbuminemia, cancer in men, chronic kidney disease, iron deficiency, and low grade inflammation were associated with increased odds of having anemia. Conclusions. Anemia is a prevalent condition among older adults in Ecuador. Moreover, further research is needed to examine the association between anemia and adverse health-related outcomes among older Ecuadorians.

  8. Burnout among U.S. medical students, residents, and early career physicians relative to the general U.S. population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrbye, Liselotte N; West, Colin P; Satele, Daniel; Boone, Sonja; Tan, Litjen; Sloan, Jeff; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2014-03-01

    To compare the prevalence of burnout and other forms of distress across career stages and the experiences of trainees and early career (EC) physicians versus those of similarly aged college graduates pursuing other careers. In 2011 and 2012, the authors conducted a national survey of medical students, residents/fellows, and EC physicians (≤ 5 years in practice) and of a probability-based sample of the general U.S. population. All surveys assessed burnout, symptoms of depression and suicidal ideation, quality of life, and fatigue. Response rates were 35.2% (4,402/12,500) for medical students, 22.5% (1,701/7,560) for residents/fellows, and 26.7% (7,288/27,276) for EC physicians. In multivariate models that controlled for relationship status, sex, age, and career stage, being a resident/fellow was associated with increased odds of burnout and being a medical student with increased odds of depressive symptoms, whereas EC physicians had the lowest odds of high fatigue. Compared with the population control samples, medical students, residents/fellows, and EC physicians were more likely to be burned out (all P prevalence of burnout, depressive symptoms, and recent suicidal ideation are relatively small. At each stage, burnout is more prevalent among physicians than among their peers in the U.S. population.

  9. Place of Residence and Cognitive Function among the Adult Population in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hanzhang; Ostbye, Truls; Vorderstrasse, Allison A; Dupre, Matthew E; Wu, Bei

    2018-03-07

    The place of residence has been linked to cognitive function among adults in developed countries. This study examined how urban and rural residence was associated with cognitive function among adults in India. The World Health Organization Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health data was used to examine cognition among 6,244 community-residing adults age 50+ in 6 states in India. Residential status was categorized as urban, rural, urban-to-urban, rural-to-urban, rural-to-rural, and urban-to-rural. Cognition was assessed by immediate and delayed recall tests, digit span test, and verbal fluency test. Multilevel models were used to account for state-level differences and adjusted for individual-level sociodemographic, psychosocial, and health-related factors. Urban residents and urban-to-urban migrants had the highest levels of cognition, whereas rural residents and those who migrated to (or within) rural areas had the lowest cognition. The differences largely persisted after adjustment for multiple covariates; however, rural-to-urban migrants had no difference in cognition from urban residents once socioeconomic factors were taken into account. Cognition among adults in India differed significantly according to their current and past place of residence. Socioeconomic factors played an important role in the cognitive function of adults in urban areas. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Characterization of a resident population of adventitial macrophage progenitor cells in postnatal vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psaltis, Peter J; Puranik, Amrutesh S; Spoon, Daniel B; Chue, Colin D; Hoffman, Scott J; Witt, Tyra A; Delacroix, Sinny; Kleppe, Laurel S; Mueske, Cheryl S; Pan, Shuchong; Gulati, Rajiv; Simari, Robert D

    2014-07-18

    Macrophages regulate blood vessel structure and function in health and disease. The origins of tissue macrophages are diverse, with evidence for local production and circulatory renewal. We identified a vascular adventitial population containing macrophage progenitor cells and investigated their origins and fate. Single-cell disaggregates from adult C57BL/6 mice were prepared from different tissues and tested for their capacity to form hematopoietic colony-forming units. Aorta showed a unique predilection for generating macrophage colony-forming units. Aortic macrophage colony-forming unit progenitors coexpressed stem cell antigen-1 and CD45 and were adventitially located, where they were the predominant source of proliferating cells in the aortic wall. Aortic Sca-1(+)CD45(+) cells were transcriptionally and phenotypically distinct from neighboring cells lacking stem cell antigen-1 or CD45 and contained a proliferative (Ki67(+)) Lin(-)c-Kit(+)CD135(-)CD115(+)CX3CR1(+)Ly6C(+)CD11b(-) subpopulation, consistent with the immunophenotypic profile of macrophage progenitors. Adoptive transfer studies revealed that Sca-1(+)CD45(+) adventitial macrophage progenitor cells were not replenished via the circulation from bone marrow or spleen, nor was their prevalence diminished by depletion of monocytes or macrophages by liposomal clodronate treatment or genetic deficiency of macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Rather adventitial macrophage progenitor cells were upregulated in hyperlipidemic ApoE(-/-) and LDL-R(-/-) mice, with adventitial transfer experiments demonstrating their durable contribution to macrophage progeny particularly in the adventitia, and to a lesser extent the atheroma, of atherosclerotic carotid arteries. The discovery and characterization of resident vascular adventitial macrophage progenitor cells provides new insight into adventitial biology and its participation in atherosclerosis and provokes consideration of the broader existence of local macrophage

  11. Alcohol Trajectories over Three Years in a Swedish Residence Hall Student Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriettae Ståhlbrandt

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Although it is known that college students have a high alcohol consumption, less is known about the long-term drinking trajectories amongst college students and, in particular, students living in residence halls, known to be high-risk drinkers. Over four consecutive years, the drinking habits of 556 Swedish residence hall students were analyzed. The main instruments for measuring outcome were AUDIT (Alcohol Use Identification Disorders Test, SIP (Short Index of Problems and eBAC (estimated Blood Alcohol Concentration. The drinking trajectories among Swedish residence hall students showed stable and decreasing drinking patterns, with age and gender being predictors of group membership.

  12. Human Stressors Are Driving Coastal Benthic Long-Lived Sessile Fan Mussel Pinna nobilis Population Structure More than Environmental Stressors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salud Deudero

    Full Text Available Coastal degradation and habitat disruption are severely compromising sessile marine species. The fan shell Pinna nobilis is an endemic, vulnerable species and the largest bivalve in the Mediterranean basin. In spite of species legal protection, fan shell populations are declining. Models analyzed the contributions of environmental (mean depth, wave height, maximum wave height, period of waves with high energy and mean direction of wave source versus human-derived stressors (anchoring, protection status, sewage effluents, fishing activity and diving as explanatory variables depicting Pinna nobilis populations at a mesoscale level. Human stressors were explaining most of the variability in density spatial distribution of fan shell, significantly disturbing benthic communities. Habitat protection affected P. nobilis structure and physical aggression by anchoring reveals a high impact on densities. Environmental variables instead played a secondary role, indicating that global change processes are not so relevant in coastal benthic communities as human-derived impacts.

  13. Human Stressors Are Driving Coastal Benthic Long-Lived Sessile Fan Mussel Pinna nobilis Population Structure More than Environmental Stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deudero, Salud; Vázquez-Luis, Maite; Álvarez, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Coastal degradation and habitat disruption are severely compromising sessile marine species. The fan shell Pinna nobilis is an endemic, vulnerable species and the largest bivalve in the Mediterranean basin. In spite of species legal protection, fan shell populations are declining. Models analyzed the contributions of environmental (mean depth, wave height, maximum wave height, period of waves with high energy and mean direction of wave source) versus human-derived stressors (anchoring, protection status, sewage effluents, fishing activity and diving) as explanatory variables depicting Pinna nobilis populations at a mesoscale level. Human stressors were explaining most of the variability in density spatial distribution of fan shell, significantly disturbing benthic communities. Habitat protection affected P. nobilis structure and physical aggression by anchoring reveals a high impact on densities. Environmental variables instead played a secondary role, indicating that global change processes are not so relevant in coastal benthic communities as human-derived impacts.

  14. Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report provides estimates of the number of unauthorized immigrants residing in the United States as of January 2008 by period of entry, region and country of...

  15. Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report provides estimates of the number of unauthorized immigrants residing in the United States as of January 2007 by period of entry, region and country of...

  16. Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report provides estimates of the number of unauthorized immigrants residing in the United States as of January 2009 by period of entry, region and country of...

  17. Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report provides estimates of the number of unauthorized immigrants residing in the United States as of January 2006 by period of entry, region and country of...

  18. Residence time, chemical and isotopic analysis of nitrate in the groundwater and surface water of a small agricultural watershed in the Coastal Plain, Bucks Branch, Sussex County, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clune, John W.; Denver, Judith M.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrate is a common contaminant in groundwater and surface water throughout the Nation, and water-resource managers need more detailed small-scale watershed research to guide conservation efforts aimed at improving water quality. Concentrations of nitrate in Bucks Branch are among the highest in the state of Delaware and a scientific investigation was performed to provide water-quality information to assist with the management of agriculture and water resources. A combination of major-ion chemistry, nitrogen isotopic composition and age-dating techniques was used to estimate the residence time and provide a chemical and isotopic analysis of nitrate in the groundwater in the surficial aquifer of the Bucks Branch watershed in Sussex County, Delaware. The land use was more than 90 percent agricultural and most nitrogen inputs were from manure and fertilizer. The apparent median age of sampled groundwater is 18 years and the estimated residence time of groundwater contributing to the streamflow for the entire Bucks Branch watershed at the outlet is approximately 19 years. Concentrations of nitrate exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standard of 10 milligrams per liter (as nitrogen) in 60 percent of groundwater samples and 42 percent of surface-water samples. The overall geochemistry in the Bucks Branch watershed indicates that agriculture is the predominant source of nitrate contamination and the observed patterns in major-ion chemistry are similar to those observed in other studies on the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. The pattern of enrichment in nitrogen and oxygen isotopes (δ15N and δ18O) of nitrate in groundwater and surface water indicates there is some loss of nitrate through denitrification, but this process is not sufficient to remove all of the nitrate from groundwater discharging to streams, and concentrations of nitrate in streams remain elevated.

  19. Human skin is protected by four functionally and phenotypically discrete populations of resident and recirculating memory T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Rei; Gehad, Ahmed; Yang, Chao; Campbell, Laura; Teague, Jessica E.; Schlapbach, Christoph; Elco, Christopher; Huang, Victor; Matos, Tiago R.; Kupper, Thomas S.; Clark, Rachael A.

    2015-01-01

    The skin of an adult human contains approximately 20 billion memory T cells. Epithelial barrier tissues are infiltrated by a combination of resident and recirculating T cells in mice but the relative proportions and functional activities of resident versus recirculating T cells have not been evaluated in human skin. We discriminated resident from recirculating T cells in human engrafted mice and lymphoma patients using alemtuzumab, a medication that depletes recirculating T cells from skin, and then analyzed these T cell populations in healthy human skin. All non-recirculating resident memory T cells (TRM) expressed CD69, but the majority were CD4+, CD103− and located in the dermis, in contrast to studies in mice. Both CD4+ and CD8+ CD103+ TRM were enriched in the epidermis, had potent effector functions and had a limited proliferative capacity compared to CD103− TRM. TRM of both types had more potent effector functions than recirculating T cells. Induction of CD103 on human T cells was enhanced by keratinocyte contact, depended on TGFβ and was independent of T cell keratinocyte adhesive interactions. We observed two distinct populations of recirculating T cells, CCR7+/L-selectin+ central memory T cells (TCM) and CCR7+/L-selectin− T cells, which we term migratory memory T cells (TMM). Circulating skin-tropic TMM were intermediate in cytokine production between TCM and effector memory T cells. In patients with cutaneous T cell lymphoma, malignant TCM and TMM induced distinct inflammatory skin lesions and TMM were depleted more slowly from skin after alemtuzumab, suggesting TMM may recirculate more slowly. In summary, human skin is protected by four functionally distinct populations of T cells, two resident and two recirculating, with differing territories of migration and distinct functional activities. PMID:25787765

  20. Burden of Clostridium difficile-associated disease among patients residing in nursing homes: a population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Yu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clostridium difficile (C. difficile infection (CDI is the leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea in the United States. This study aimed to examine the incidence of CDI and evaluate mortality and economic burden of CDI in an elderly population who reside in nursing homes (NHs. Methods This was a population-based retrospective cohort study focusing on US NHs by linking Medicare 5% sample, Medicaid, Minimum Data Set (MDS (2008–10. NH residents aged ≥65 years with continuous enrollment in Medicare and/or Medicaid Fee-for-Service plan for ≥12 months and ≥2 quarterly MDS assessments were eligible for the study. The incidence rate was calculated as the number of CDI episodes by 100,000 person-years. A 1:4 propensity score matched sample of cohorts with and without CDI was generated to assess mortality and health care costs following the first CDI. Results Among 32,807 NH residents, 941 residents had ≥1 episode of CDI in 2009, with an incidence of 3359.9 per 100,000 person-years. About 30% CDI episodes occurred in the hospital setting. NH residents with CDI (vs without CDI were more likely to have congestive heart failure, renal disease, cerebrovascular disease, hospitalizations, and outpatient antibiotic use. During the follow-up period, the 30-day (14.7% vs 4.3%, P < 0.001, 60-day (22.7% vs 7.5%, P < 0.001, 6-month (36.3% vs 18.3%, P < 0.001, and 1-year mortality rates (48.2% vs 31.1%, P < 0.001 were significantly higher among the CDI residents vs non-CDI residents. Total health care costs within 2 months following the first CDI episode were also significantly higher for CDI residents ($28,621 vs $13,644, P < 0.001. Conclusions CDI presents a serious public health issue in NHs. Mortality, health care utilization, and associated costs were significant following incident CDI episodes.

  1. Assessment of indoor radiation dose received by the residents of natural high background radiation areas of coastal villages of Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deva Jayanthi, D., E-mail: d.devajayanthi@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Women' s Christian College, Nagercoil 629001 (India); Maniyan, C.G. [Environmental Assessment Division, BARC, Mumbai 400085 (India); Perumal, S. [Department of Physics and Research Centre, S.T.Hindu College, Nagercoil 629002 (India)

    2011-07-15

    Radiation exposure and effective dose received through two routes of exposure, viz. external and internal, via inhalation, by residents of 10 villages belonging to Natural High Background Radiation Areas (NHBRA) of coastal regions of Kanyakumari District and Tamil Nadu in India were studied. While the indoor gamma radiation levels were monitored using Thermo Luminescent Dosimeters (TLDs), the indoor radon and thoron gas concentrations were measured using twin chamber dosimeters employing Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs, LR-115-II). The average total annual effective dose was estimated and found to be varying from 2.59 to 8.76 mSv. -- Highlights: {yields} The effective dose received by the villages of Natural High Background Area (NHBRA) such as Enayam, Midalam and Mel Midalam is high when compared with other study areas. {yields} The high dose indicates higher concentration of radioactive nuclides like Thorium and Uranium in the soil. {yields} As radiation is harmful to human life, the external and internal doses can be reduced by removing the monazite content present in the soil by mineral separation. {yields} Contribution from vegetables, fruits, fish and other non vegetarian items are also being examined. {yields} These results along with other socio-economic factors can throw considerable light on the epidemiological impacts due to low levels of chronic exposure.

  2. Assessment of indoor radiation dose received by the residents of natural high background radiation areas of coastal villages of Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deva Jayanthi, D.; Maniyan, C.G.; Perumal, S.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation exposure and effective dose received through two routes of exposure, viz. external and internal, via inhalation, by residents of 10 villages belonging to Natural High Background Radiation Areas (NHBRA) of coastal regions of Kanyakumari District and Tamil Nadu in India were studied. While the indoor gamma radiation levels were monitored using Thermo Luminescent Dosimeters (TLDs), the indoor radon and thoron gas concentrations were measured using twin chamber dosimeters employing Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs, LR-115-II). The average total annual effective dose was estimated and found to be varying from 2.59 to 8.76 mSv. -- Highlights: → The effective dose received by the villages of Natural High Background Area (NHBRA) such as Enayam, Midalam and Mel Midalam is high when compared with other study areas. → The high dose indicates higher concentration of radioactive nuclides like Thorium and Uranium in the soil. → As radiation is harmful to human life, the external and internal doses can be reduced by removing the monazite content present in the soil by mineral separation. → Contribution from vegetables, fruits, fish and other non vegetarian items are also being examined. → These results along with other socio-economic factors can throw considerable light on the epidemiological impacts due to low levels of chronic exposure.

  3. General population exposure of stable lead and 210Pb to residents of New York City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogen, D.C.; Welford, G.A.; Morse, R.

    1975-12-01

    Stable lead and 210 Pb intake, ingestion, and inhalation by residents of New York City were determined. Measurement of excreta samples provided data to establish a mass balance of stable lead and 210 Pb. These results indicate that no more than 5 μg of stable lead and 0.1 pCi of 210 Pb are retained daily by residents of New York City. Analyses of bone samples have provided estimates of the skeletal burden of stable lead and 210 Pb. Using the ICRP model, intake data, and assuming 100 percent skeletal deposition, the calculated stable lead and 210 Pb values are in good agreement with the experimental results. The data indicate that inhalation is the principle source of stable lead to residents in New York City

  4. Population structure and condition factor of Pseudotothyris obtusa (hypoptopomatinae from three coastal streams in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Freitas Takeuti

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Population structure features and condition factor of Pseudotothyris obtusa were compared between three coastal streams in southern Brazil. Fishes were monthly collected through electric fishing and measured in the total length. Fifteen fishes from each stream were dissected to identify their sex. The structure in size, sex ratio and young/adults ratio of populations were analysed and the length-weight relationship was obtained. The condition factor (K1 and the relative condition factor (Kn were calculated for each stream. Fishes were grouped in 11 lenght classes of 3mm. The intermediate and bigger size classes were preponderant in the "Mergulhão" and "Colônia Pereira" streams, and the smaller and intermediate ones in the "Ribeirão" stream. Females prevailed in bigger size classes, reached bigger lengths than males, and were preponderant in all streams. The condition factors (K1 and Kn were different in all streams, indicating better condition and higher weight values in fishes from the "Mergulhão" and "Colônia Pereira" streams.Características da estrutura da população e o fator de condição de Pseudotothyris obtusa foram comparados em três rios costeiros na região sul do Brasil. Os peixes foram coletados mensalmente através de pesca elétrica e medidos quanto ao comprimento total. Quinze peixes de cada rio foram dissecados e identificados quanto ao sexo. A estrutura da população em tamanho, a proporção sexual e a relação jovem/adultos foram analisadas e foi obtida a relação peso/comprimento. O fator de condição (K1 e o fator de condição relativo (Kn foram calculados em cada rio. Os peixes foram agrupados em 11 classes de comprimento de 3mm. As classes de tamanho maiores e intermediárias foram preponderantes nos rios Mergulhão e Colônia Pereira, e as classes menores e intermediárias no rio Ribeirão. Fêmeas prevaleceram nas maiores classes de comprimento, atingiram maiores comprimentos que os machos, e foram

  5. Late effects of exposure to ionizing radiation. Studies of the resident population in the Semipalatinsk area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenson, R.I.; Tchaijunusova, N.J.; Gusev, B.I.; Katoh, O.; Kimura, A.; Hoshi, M.; Kamada, N.; Satow, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The early and late radiation effects on residents of the nuclear test site in Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan, were studied. In Semipalatinsk area hundreds of on-the-ground and underground nuclear tests had been conducted between 1949 and 1989. The collected biological data was investigated in terms of the following points, i.e., cancer incidence, mortality rates from malignant tumors, infant mortality and congenital anomalies, overall mortality, hemopoiesis, chromosomal aberrations in the somatic cells, immune system parameters, cardiovascular system findings, and thyroid gland disorders. The individual points were investigated according to the exposure level, resident areas, years after exposure, age, and sex. The significant findings are given and discussed. (S.Y.)

  6. Mercury concentrations in China's coastal waters and implications for fish consumption by vulnerable populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Yindong; Wang, Mengzhu; Bu, Xiaoge; Guo, Xin; Lin, Yan; Lin, Huiming; Li, Jing; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xuejun

    2017-01-01

    We assessed mercury (Hg) pollution in China's coastal waters, including the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea and the South China Sea, based on a nationwide dataset from 301 sampling sites. A methylmercury (MeHg) intake model for humans based on the marine food chain and human fish consumption was established to determine the linkage between water pollutants and the pollutant intake by humans. The predicted MeHg concentration in fish from the Bohai Sea was the highest among the four seas included in the study. The MeHg intake through dietary ingestion was dominant for the fish and was considerably higher than the MeHg intake through water respiration. The predicted MeHg concentrations in human blood in the coastal regions of China ranged from 1.37 to 2.77 μg/L for pregnant woman and from 0.43 to 1.00 μg/L for infants, respectively, based on different diet sources. The carnivorous fish consumption advisory for pregnant women was estimated to be 288–654 g per week to maintain MeHg concentrations in human blood at levels below the threshold level (4.4 μg/L established by the US Environmental Protection Agency). With a 50% increase in Hg concentrations in water in the Bohai Sea, the bioaccumulated MeHg concentration (4.5 μg/L) in the fish consumers will be higher than the threshold level. This study demonstrates the importance in controlling Hg pollution in China's coastal waters. An official recommendation guideline for the fish consumption rate and its sources will be necessary for vulnerable populations in China. - Graphical abstract: MeHg transfer route from the marine food chain to vulnerable population. - Highlights: • Predicted MeHg concentrations in pregnant woman and infant’s blood in China’s coastal regions are below threshold level. • The carnivorous fish consumption advisory for pregnant women is estimated to be 288–654 g per week. g • If with a 50% increase in Hg in Bohai Sea, the bioaccumulated MeHg concentration in

  7. Effects of climate change on a mutualistic coastal species: Recovery from typhoon damages and risks of population erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yu-Ting; Bain, Anthony; Deng, Shu-Lin; Ho, Yi-Chiao; Chen, Wen-Hsuan; Tzeng, Hsy-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Presently, climate change has increased the frequency of extreme meteorological events such as tropical cyclones. In the western Pacific basin, these cyclones are called typhoons, and in this area, around Taiwan Island, their frequency has almost doubled since 2000. When approaching landmasses, typhoons have devastating effects on coastal vegetation. The increased frequency of these events has challenged the survival of coastal plant species and their posttyphoon recovery. In this study, a population of coastal gynodioecious Ficus pedunculosa var. mearnsii (Mearns fig) was surveyed for two years to investigate its recovery after Typhoon Morakot, which occurred in August 2009. Similar to all the Ficus species, the Mearns fig has an obligate mutualistic association with pollinating fig wasp species, which requires syconia (the closed Ficus inflorescence) to complete its life cycle. Moreover, male gynodioecious fig species produces both pollen and pollen vectors, whereas the female counterpart produces only seeds. The recovery of the Mearns fig was observed to be rapid, with the production of both leaves and syconia. The syconium:leaf ratio was greater for male trees than for female trees, indicating the importance of syconium production for the wasp survival. Pollinating wasps live for approximately 1 day; therefore, receptive syconia are crucial. Every typhoon season, few typhoons pass by the coasts where the Mearns fig grows, destroying all the leaves and syconia. In this paper, we highlight the potential diminution of the fig population that can lead to the extinction of the mutualistic pair of species. The effects of climate change on coastal species warrant wider surveys.

  8. Effects of climate change on a mutualistic coastal species: Recovery from typhoon damages and risks of population erosion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Chiu

    Full Text Available Presently, climate change has increased the frequency of extreme meteorological events such as tropical cyclones. In the western Pacific basin, these cyclones are called typhoons, and in this area, around Taiwan Island, their frequency has almost doubled since 2000. When approaching landmasses, typhoons have devastating effects on coastal vegetation. The increased frequency of these events has challenged the survival of coastal plant species and their posttyphoon recovery. In this study, a population of coastal gynodioecious Ficus pedunculosa var. mearnsii (Mearns fig was surveyed for two years to investigate its recovery after Typhoon Morakot, which occurred in August 2009. Similar to all the Ficus species, the Mearns fig has an obligate mutualistic association with pollinating fig wasp species, which requires syconia (the closed Ficus inflorescence to complete its life cycle. Moreover, male gynodioecious fig species produces both pollen and pollen vectors, whereas the female counterpart produces only seeds. The recovery of the Mearns fig was observed to be rapid, with the production of both leaves and syconia. The syconium:leaf ratio was greater for male trees than for female trees, indicating the importance of syconium production for the wasp survival. Pollinating wasps live for approximately 1 day; therefore, receptive syconia are crucial. Every typhoon season, few typhoons pass by the coasts where the Mearns fig grows, destroying all the leaves and syconia. In this paper, we highlight the potential diminution of the fig population that can lead to the extinction of the mutualistic pair of species. The effects of climate change on coastal species warrant wider surveys.

  9. Involvement of Religious Factors on the Attitude Toward Organs Donation Among the Ecuadorian Population Resident in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, A; Lopez-Navas, A; Iniesta, A; Mikla, M; Martinez-Alarcón, L; Ramis, G; Ramirez, P; Parrilla, P

    2015-11-01

    The attitude toward cadaveric organ donation is modulated by different factors, such as religious beliefs. This study sought to analyze the attitude of nationals of Ecuador resident in Spain regarding deceased organ donation depending on their religious beliefs. A sample of Ecuadorian population resident in Spain (n = 461) stratified by age and sex was selected. We used a validated questionnaire of psychosocial aspects (PCID-DTO Rios), which is self-administered and anonymous. The χ(2) test, Student t test, and logistic regression analysis were used to analyze data. Of the 461 survey respondents, 86% (n = 395) were Catholic, 7% (n = 31) were believers of other faiths, and 7% (n = 35) declared themselves agnostic or atheist. A significant association between the religious beliefs and attitude toward organ donation among those tested can be objectified: 61% of Catholics (n = 241), 42% of believers in non-Catholic doctrines (n = 13), and 49% of atheists/agnostics (n = 17) were in favor of donation (P = .05). Among religious people, 77% of respondents believed their religion was favorable toward donation and 35%, although in favor of organ cadaveric donation, consider their religion contrary to donation (P organ donation among the Ecuadorian population resident in Spain is influenced by religious beliefs and considers what their religion says regarding organ donation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Asthma exacerbation and proximity of residence to major roads: a population-based matched case-control study among the pediatric Medicaid population in Detroit, Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahl Robert

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between asthma and traffic-related pollutants has received considerable attention. The use of individual-level exposure measures, such as residence location or proximity to emission sources, may avoid ecological biases. Method This study focused on the pediatric Medicaid population in Detroit, MI, a high-risk population for asthma-related events. A population-based matched case-control analysis was used to investigate associations between acute asthma outcomes and proximity of residence to major roads, including freeways. Asthma cases were identified as all children who made at least one asthma claim, including inpatient and emergency department visits, during the three-year study period, 2004-06. Individually matched controls were randomly selected from the rest of the Medicaid population on the basis of non-respiratory related illness. We used conditional logistic regression with distance as both categorical and continuous variables, and examined non-linear relationships with distance using polynomial splines. The conditional logistic regression models were then extended by considering multiple asthma states (based on the frequency of acute asthma outcomes using polychotomous conditional logistic regression. Results Asthma events were associated with proximity to primary roads with an odds ratio of 0.97 (95% CI: 0.94, 0.99 for a 1 km increase in distance using conditional logistic regression, implying that asthma events are less likely as the distance between the residence and a primary road increases. Similar relationships and effect sizes were found using polychotomous conditional logistic regression. Another plausible exposure metric, a reduced form response surface model that represents atmospheric dispersion of pollutants from roads, was not associated under that exposure model. Conclusions There is moderately strong evidence of elevated risk of asthma close to major roads based on the results obtained

  11. Asthma exacerbation and proximity of residence to major roads: a population-based matched case-control study among the pediatric Medicaid population in Detroit, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The relationship between asthma and traffic-related pollutants has received considerable attention. The use of individual-level exposure measures, such as residence location or proximity to emission sources, may avoid ecological biases. Method This study focused on the pediatric Medicaid population in Detroit, MI, a high-risk population for asthma-related events. A population-based matched case-control analysis was used to investigate associations between acute asthma outcomes and proximity of residence to major roads, including freeways. Asthma cases were identified as all children who made at least one asthma claim, including inpatient and emergency department visits, during the three-year study period, 2004-06. Individually matched controls were randomly selected from the rest of the Medicaid population on the basis of non-respiratory related illness. We used conditional logistic regression with distance as both categorical and continuous variables, and examined non-linear relationships with distance using polynomial splines. The conditional logistic regression models were then extended by considering multiple asthma states (based on the frequency of acute asthma outcomes) using polychotomous conditional logistic regression. Results Asthma events were associated with proximity to primary roads with an odds ratio of 0.97 (95% CI: 0.94, 0.99) for a 1 km increase in distance using conditional logistic regression, implying that asthma events are less likely as the distance between the residence and a primary road increases. Similar relationships and effect sizes were found using polychotomous conditional logistic regression. Another plausible exposure metric, a reduced form response surface model that represents atmospheric dispersion of pollutants from roads, was not associated under that exposure model. Conclusions There is moderately strong evidence of elevated risk of asthma close to major roads based on the results obtained in this population

  12. Assessment of radioactivity and estimation of effective dose received by villagers residing at natural high background areas of coastal regions of Tamil Nadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esaiselvan, K.; Rajagopal, R.; Sreekumar, K.; Harikumar, M.; AllenGnanaraj, G.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation exposure and effective dose received by villagers residing at seven villages belonging to Natural High Background Radiation Areas (NHBRA) of coastal regions of Tamil Nadu were studied; five houses in each village were selected. The NHBRA villages were Chinnavilai, Periavilai, Kottilpadu, Puthoor Colachel, Kodimunai and Midalam. The houses were of similar construction pattern (brick wall-tiled roof, cement flooring). Measurements of radon ( 222 Rn), thoron ( 220 Rn) and their progeny, produced by the decay of naturally occurring radioisotopes uranium and thorium in dwellings are the largest contributor to the average internal effective dose received by human beings. Internal doses due to radon/thoron and their progeny were estimated using, Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTD), LR-115, as the detector. External doses were estimated by gamma measurement using scintillometer and Thermo Luminescent Dosimeter (TLD). TLDs were exposed for one year, on a quarterly basis, inside the house at a height of 3 meters and about 1 meter away from the walls. The SSNTD cups were exposed adjacent to the TLDS, and the exposure was for a period of three months each. The SSNTDs were developed by standard procedures (10% NaOH, etching for 90 min at 60 deg C) and counted in a spark counter. Earlier the SSNTDs were calibrated using U and Th sources and calibration factors were obtained. Inhalation dose due to 232 Th and Th (B) in mWL were estimated by collecting air samples from each house, for one hour each, during the replacement time of TLD and SSNTD Cups. For inhalation dose estimation the occupancy factor was assumed to be 0.8. The soil samples were also collected from each sampling point. (author)

  13. Markers of Impaired Decision Making in Nursing Home Residents: Assessment by Nursing Home Staff in a Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Kevin M; Rosenberg, Paul B; Pirard, Sandrine; Bogunovic, Olivera; Spira, Adam P

    2015-07-01

    Many nursing home residents have cognitive impairment that affects their decision making. In order to identify potential markers of impaired decision making, we investigated the association between a range of nursing home resident characteristics and impaired decision making in a population-based sample. Participants were 13,013 residents in the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey. We used logistic regression to determine the association between resident characteristics (ie, gender, age, race, mood, recent pain, falls, fractures, or hospitalizations, length of stay, number of activities of daily living (ADL) requiring help, and diagnoses of dementia, anxiety disorders, and depression) and impaired (vs independent) decision making. After controlling for depression and anxiety diagnoses, as well as gender, age, race, and recent hospitalization or pain, characteristics associated with impaired decision making included depressed, sad, or anxious mood ["mild" odds ratio (OR) = 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.23-1.58; "severe" OR = 2.69, 95% CI = 2.27-3.20); diagnosed dementia or living on a dementia hall (OR = 5.07, 95% CI = 4.52-5.67); number of ADL requiring assistance (with 5 ADL, OR = 10.69, 95% CI = 6.82-16.75); length of nursing home stay [101-365 days (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.36-1.89); 366 days-2 years (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.34-1.90); >2 years (OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.92-2.63)]; and history of falls or fractures in the last 6 months (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.07-1.32)]. Residents reporting pain in the last week were less likely to have impaired decision making (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.52-0.66). We found several independent markers of impaired decision making in nursing home residents, including depressed, sad, or anxious mood (independent of depression or anxiety diagnosis); dementia; and greater need for ADL assistance. Some of these factors, in particular mood, are modifiable and addressing them may help improve decision making. These markers should be explored

  14. [Geographic Altitude of Residence and Alcohol Dependence in a Peruvian Population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones-Laveriano, Dante Manuel; Espinoza-Chiong, César; Scarsi-Mejia, Ottavia; Rojas-Camayo, José; Mejia, Christian Richard

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between alcohol dependence and altitude of residence in 11 villages in two high altitude areas of Peru. An analytical cross-sectional study was performed using a survey conducted by physicians in primary health care in 11 villages until 2013, that were divided into low altitude (≤2500m asl (above sea level)), and high altitude (>2500m asl) areas. The CAGE test for alcoholism (cut point, ≥2) was applied to those who responded positively when asked if they consumed alcohol. Statistical associations were obtained with generalised linear models Of the 737 participants, 51% were women and the median age was 36 years [interquartile range, 25-50], 334 (45%) lived at low altitude, and 113 (15%) had alcohol dependence. The highest frequency of alcoholism was positively associated with being a village considered extremely poor (Likelihood Ratio (LP)=2.42; 95%CI, 1.40-4.19), while being female (LP=0.44; 95%CI, 0.23-0.89) and residing at high altitude (LP=0.15; 95%CI, 0.07-0.31) were negatively associated. These were adjusted for nine socio-occupational and pathological variables. According to these data, there is a higher frequency of alcohol dependence in being, male, extremely poor, and residing at low altitude. These results should be taken into account by professionals who work in primary care and those involved in mental health care, because of their implications in society. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic and Phenotypic Catalog of Native Resident Trout of the Interior Columbia River Basin; Populations of the Upper Yakima Basin, 1997-1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trotter, Patrick C. (Fishery Science Consultant, Seattle, WA); McMillan, Bill; Gayeski, Nick (Washington Trout, Duvall, WA)

    1999-10-01

    The objective of this project is to photo-document upper Columbia Basin native resident trout populations in Washington, and to ascertain their species or subspecies identity and relative genetic purity using a nonlethal DNA technique.

  16. Prevalence of sarcopenia in a population of nursing home residents according to their frailty status: results of the SENIOR cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckinx, F.; Reginster, J-Y.; Brunois, T.; Lenaerts, C.; Beaudart, C.; Croisier, J-L.; Petermans, J.; Bruyère, O.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between frailty and sarcopenia, by evaluating the prevalence of sarcopenia among frail, pre-frail and robust elderly nursing home residents in Belgium. Methods: This is an analysis of baseline data collected from the SENIOR (Sample of Elderly Nursing home Individuals: an Observational Research) cohort. All subjects received a sarcopenia evaluation, based on the definition proposed by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP). The frailty evaluation was primarily based on FRIED’s definition but also on 9 other operational definitions. Results: A total of 662 subjects (73.1% of women) were included in this analysis (mean age: 83.2±8.99 years). The prevalence of sarcopenia was 38.1% whereas the prevalence of frail and pre-frail persons was respectively 24.7% and 61.4%. Among frail, pre-frail and robust subjects, respectively 47%, 38.9% and 16.3% were diagnosed sarcopenic. The prevalence of sarcopenia according to ten different operational definitions of frailty ranged between 32.8 % (i.e. Frail scale Status and Frailty Index) and 47% (i.e. Fried definition). Conclusion: This research highlights that over a third of nursing home residents are sarcopenic and the percentage is almost 50% among frail subjects; those latter constitute about 1 in 4 of the population of nursing home residents studied here. PMID:28860423

  17. Identifying county characteristics associated with resident well-being: A population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Brita; Riley, Carley; Herrin, Jeph; Spatz, Erica S; Arora, Anita; Kell, Kenneth P; Welsh, John; Rula, Elizabeth Y; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2018-01-01

    Well-being is a positively-framed, holistic assessment of health and quality of life that is associated with longevity and better health outcomes. We aimed to identify county attributes that are independently associated with a comprehensive, multi-dimensional assessment of individual well-being. We performed a cross-sectional study examining associations between 77 pre-specified county attributes and a multi-dimensional assessment of individual US residents' well-being, captured by the Gallup-Sharecare Well-Being Index. Our cohort included 338,846 survey participants, randomly sampled from 3,118 US counties or county equivalents. We identified twelve county-level factors that were independently associated with individual well-being scores. Together, these twelve factors explained 91% of the variance in individual well-being scores, and they represent four conceptually distinct categories: demographic (% black); social and economic (child poverty, education level [divorced); clinical care (% eligible women obtaining mammography, preventable hospital stays per 100,000, number of federally qualified health centers); and physical environment (% commuting by bicycle and by public transit). Twelve factors across social and economic, clinical care, and physical environmental county-level factors explained the majority of variation in resident well-being.

  18. Identifying county characteristics associated with resident well-being: A population based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brita Roy

    Full Text Available Well-being is a positively-framed, holistic assessment of health and quality of life that is associated with longevity and better health outcomes. We aimed to identify county attributes that are independently associated with a comprehensive, multi-dimensional assessment of individual well-being.We performed a cross-sectional study examining associations between 77 pre-specified county attributes and a multi-dimensional assessment of individual US residents' well-being, captured by the Gallup-Sharecare Well-Being Index. Our cohort included 338,846 survey participants, randomly sampled from 3,118 US counties or county equivalents.We identified twelve county-level factors that were independently associated with individual well-being scores. Together, these twelve factors explained 91% of the variance in individual well-being scores, and they represent four conceptually distinct categories: demographic (% black; social and economic (child poverty, education level [resident well-being.

  19. Biomarker of chronic cadmium exposure in a population residing in the vicinity of a zinc producing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratveit, Magne; Mageroy, Nils; Gundersen, Hilde; Vahter, Marie; Moen, Bente E.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of cadmium (Cd) in air, soil and moss have shown elevated concentrations in residential areas close to a zinc smelter in Norway. This study aimed to evaluate whether men and women residing in the area with elevated Cd concentrations in air and soil had increased levels of Cd and microproteins in urine. An invitation to participate was mailed to 200 persons residing close to the zinc smelter and to 200 controls from an area more than 4 km away from the smelter. They were asked to complete a questionnaire, and to deliver a urine sample for analysis of cadmium (CdU), mercury (HgU), lead (PbU) and α1-microglobulin (ProteinHC). Two hundred and six participants (response rate 52%), between 19 and 88 years of age, were included. Results were analysed by multiple-adjusted linear and logistic regression. CdU was not significantly different between individuals in the two residence areas. Only ten individuals had CdU concentrations exceeding European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) critical value of 1 μg/g creatinine, whereas 35 persons (22% of the women vs. 11% of the men) had CdU concentrations higher than 0.66 μg/g creatinine, which EU suggested to be sufficiently protective for the general population. Smoking was the predominant contributing factor to values of elevated CdU. There was a tendency of higher CdU, although not statistically significant, amongst people regularly consuming fruit, berries and vegetables grown in their own garden near the smelter area. Home address in the polluted area was not a significant determinant. There was a positive correlation between CdU and ProteinHC in urine, but no significant difference was found for ProteinHC between residents from polluted area and controls. In spite of demonstrated industrial emissions of cadmium, the results do not indicate elevated cadmium exposure or kidney damage in the polluted area compared to the control area. - Highlights: → Cadmium in air and soil is elevated in the residential area close

  20. Population structure of an invasive parthenogenetic gastropod in coastal lakes and estuaries of northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson A F Miranda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Estuaries and coastal lakes receive little attention despite being heavily invaded by non-indigenous invasive species (NIS. In these situations, studies of population dynamics in invaded habitats can provide valuable insights into how NIS interact with new environments. Tarebia granifera is a prosobranch gastropod from south-east Asia which has invaded other sub-tropical parts of the world. This study addresses whether a small number of key environmental factors influences gastropod communities, and specifically how the population density and size structure of T. granifera were influenced by environmental change in estuaries and coastal lakes in southern Africa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: T. granifera's density, number of brooded juveniles and size structure were measured at the St. Lucia Estuary, Mgobozeleni Estuary, Lake Sibaya and Lake Nhlange. Size structure was classified according to shell height (SH. All dissected individuals were found to be female and free from trematode infection. Salinity, water depth, temperature, and pH were the main factors correlated with population density of gastropod communities. T. granifera often reached densities well over 1000 ind. m(-2, displacing indigenous gastropods and becoming a dominant component of the benthic community. T. granifera successfully invaded estuaries despite frequent exposure to high salinity and desiccation, which could together eliminate >97% of the population. The persistence of T. granifera was ensured due to its high fecundity and the environmental tolerance of large adults (20-30 mm SH which carried an average of 158±12.8 SD brooded juveniles. Repeat introductions were not essential for the success of this parthenogenetic NIS. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: There is a need for a broader study on the reproductive biology of T. granifera (including the previously overlooked "brood pouch ecology", which affects population dynamics and may be relevant to other

  1. Population Genomics Reveals Seahorses (Hippocampus erectus) of the Western Mid-Atlantic Coast to Be Residents Rather than Vagrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, J. T.; Waldman, John; Robinson, John D.; Hickerson, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding population structure and areas of demographic persistence and transients is critical for effective species management. However, direct observational evidence to address the geographic scale and delineation of ephemeral or persistent populations for many marine fishes is limited. The Lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus) can be commonly found in three western Atlantic zoogeographic provinces, though inhabitants of the temperate northern Virginia Province are often considered tropical vagrants that only arrive during warm seasons from the southern provinces and perish as temperatures decline. Although genetics can locate regions of historical population persistence and isolation, previous evidence of Virginia Province persistence is only provisional due to limited genetic sampling (i.e., mitochondrial DNA and five nuclear loci). To test alternative hypotheses of historical persistence versus the ephemerality of a northern Virginia Province population we used a RADseq generated dataset consisting of 11,708 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) sampled from individuals collected from the eastern Gulf of Mexico to Long Island, NY. Concordant results from genomic analyses all infer three genetically divergent subpopulations, and strongly support Virginia Province inhabitants as a genetically diverged and a historically persistent ancestral gene pool. These results suggest that individuals that emerge in coastal areas during the warm season can be considered “local” and supports offshore migration during the colder months. This research demonstrates how a large number of genes sampled across a geographical range can capture the diversity of coalescent histories (across loci) while inferring population history. Moreover, these results clearly demonstrate the utility of population genomic data to infer peripheral subpopulation persistence in difficult-to-observe species. PMID:25629166

  2. Population genomics reveals seahorses (Hippocampus erectus of the western mid-Atlantic coast to be residents rather than vagrants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J T Boehm

    Full Text Available Understanding population structure and areas of demographic persistence and transients is critical for effective species management. However, direct observational evidence to address the geographic scale and delineation of ephemeral or persistent populations for many marine fishes is limited. The Lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus can be commonly found in three western Atlantic zoogeographic provinces, though inhabitants of the temperate northern Virginia Province are often considered tropical vagrants that only arrive during warm seasons from the southern provinces and perish as temperatures decline. Although genetics can locate regions of historical population persistence and isolation, previous evidence of Virginia Province persistence is only provisional due to limited genetic sampling (i.e., mitochondrial DNA and five nuclear loci. To test alternative hypotheses of historical persistence versus the ephemerality of a northern Virginia Province population we used a RADseq generated dataset consisting of 11,708 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP sampled from individuals collected from the eastern Gulf of Mexico to Long Island, NY. Concordant results from genomic analyses all infer three genetically divergent subpopulations, and strongly support Virginia Province inhabitants as a genetically diverged and a historically persistent ancestral gene pool. These results suggest that individuals that emerge in coastal areas during the warm season can be considered "local" and supports offshore migration during the colder months. This research demonstrates how a large number of genes sampled across a geographical range can capture the diversity of coalescent histories (across loci while inferring population history. Moreover, these results clearly demonstrate the utility of population genomic data to infer peripheral subpopulation persistence in difficult-to-observe species.

  3. [Consumption to feed of resident adult population in rural area of the city of Ibatiba (ES, Brazil)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Edilaine Oliveira; da Rocha, Emersom Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    It is a transverse study where a questionnaire of alimentary frequency was applied (QAF) in 150 adults resident of the rural area of the city of Ibatiba (ES, Brazil). QAF classified the alimentary consumption as: habitual (>4 times in the week), not habitual (chayote, carrot, beet, pumpkin, juice of fruits, banana, orange, guava, mango and tangerine. It can be concluded that the feeding habit presented by the studied population it can come to increase in a medium or long period the prevalence and occurrences of chronic-degenerative diseases as hypertension, diabetes, obesity and coronary diseases. The alimentary consumption of this population needs concern, because when compared with the national patterns, it is observed some inadequacies, and it is known that this picture comes to every day causing damages the public health.

  4. [The residents of mental health services in 1994. Population characteristics and its opinions about graduation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrest, M

    1995-09-01

    Departing from two surveys that took place during a Mental Health Meeting of the Health Residents from Buenos Aires, the main features and their opinions upon their education and work are analyzed. The results are discriminated by profession. Two problems are highlighted: one of them refers to the general insatisfaction of this group with their theoretical learning; the other, shows the exit of prepared human resources from public hospitals. The data suggest that, despite sharing most of their activities, psychologists and psychiatrists have significant different opinions about the clinic education they think are getting. Further research is suggested in order to have a deeper comprehension of what is going on in these training programs.

  5. The impact of legal vulnerability on environmental inequalities. A case study of coastal populations in Guadeloupe (French Antilles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeys, Cécilia; Arnaud, Aurélie; Lambert, Marie-Laure

    2017-10-01

    This paper draws on sociology, geography and law to analyse the exposure of populations to coastal multihazards in a postcolonial and overseas context. The research is based on a case study conducted in two municipalities in Guadeloupe (French Antilles): Deshaies and Capesterre-Belle-Eau. The corpus of data consists of 52 interviews conducted with inhabitants and institutional actors, as well as a set of spatialized data and a regulatory corpus. The analysis underscores how public policies must contend with a complex territorial reality that is still bound to the postcolonial past and legacy of slavery in Guadeloupe. The potential contradictions between regularization policies, hazard prevention policies and policies to curb insalubrious housing tend to expose the most fragile populations to what we refer to here as legal vulnerability.

  6. Population growth is limited by nutritional impacts on pregnancy success in endangered Southern Resident killer whales (Orcinus orca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, Samuel K; Lundin, Jessica I; Ayres, Katherine; Seely, Elizabeth; Giles, Deborah; Balcomb, Kenneth; Hempelmann, Jennifer; Parsons, Kim; Booth, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    The Southern Resident killer whale population (Orcinus orca) was listed as endangered in 2005 and shows little sign of recovery. These fish eating whales feed primarily on endangered Chinook salmon. Population growth is constrained by low offspring production for the number of reproductive females in the population. Lack of prey, increased toxins and vessel disturbance have been listed as potential causes of the whale's decline, but partitioning these pressures has been difficult. We validated and applied temporal measures of progesterone and testosterone metabolites to assess occurrence, stage and health of pregnancy from genotyped killer whale feces collected using detection dogs. Thyroid and glucocorticoid hormone metabolites were measured from these same samples to assess physiological stress. These methods enabled us to assess pregnancy occurrence and failure as well as how pregnancy success was temporally impacted by nutritional and other stressors, between 2008 and 2014. Up to 69% of all detectable pregnancies were unsuccessful; of these, up to 33% failed relatively late in gestation or immediately post-partum, when the cost is especially high. Low availability of Chinook salmon appears to be an important stressor among these fish-eating whales as well as a significant cause of late pregnancy failure, including unobserved perinatal loss. However, release of lipophilic toxicants during fat metabolism in the nutritionally deprived animals may also provide a contributor to these cumulative effects. Results point to the importance of promoting Chinook salmon recovery to enhance population growth of Southern Resident killer whales. The physiological measures used in this study can also be used to monitor the success of actions aimed at promoting adaptive management of this important apex predator to the Pacific Northwest.

  7. Population growth is limited by nutritional impacts on pregnancy success in endangered Southern Resident killer whales (Orcinus orca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel K Wasser

    Full Text Available The Southern Resident killer whale population (Orcinus orca was listed as endangered in 2005 and shows little sign of recovery. These fish eating whales feed primarily on endangered Chinook salmon. Population growth is constrained by low offspring production for the number of reproductive females in the population. Lack of prey, increased toxins and vessel disturbance have been listed as potential causes of the whale's decline, but partitioning these pressures has been difficult. We validated and applied temporal measures of progesterone and testosterone metabolites to assess occurrence, stage and health of pregnancy from genotyped killer whale feces collected using detection dogs. Thyroid and glucocorticoid hormone metabolites were measured from these same samples to assess physiological stress. These methods enabled us to assess pregnancy occurrence and failure as well as how pregnancy success was temporally impacted by nutritional and other stressors, between 2008 and 2014. Up to 69% of all detectable pregnancies were unsuccessful; of these, up to 33% failed relatively late in gestation or immediately post-partum, when the cost is especially high. Low availability of Chinook salmon appears to be an important stressor among these fish-eating whales as well as a significant cause of late pregnancy failure, including unobserved perinatal loss. However, release of lipophilic toxicants during fat metabolism in the nutritionally deprived animals may also provide a contributor to these cumulative effects. Results point to the importance of promoting Chinook salmon recovery to enhance population growth of Southern Resident killer whales. The physiological measures used in this study can also be used to monitor the success of actions aimed at promoting adaptive management of this important apex predator to the Pacific Northwest.

  8. PARTIAL REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION OF A RECENTLY DERIVED RESIDENT-FRESHWATER POPULATION OF THREESPINE STICKLEBACK (GASTEROSTEUS ACULEATUS) FROM ITS PUTATIVE ANADROMOUS ANCESTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furin, Christoff G.; Von Hippel, Frank A.; Bell, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    We used no-choice mating trials to test for assortative mating between a newly derived resident-freshwater population (8 – 22 generations since founding) of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in Loberg Lake, Alaska and its putative anadromous ancestor as well as a morphologically convergent but distantly related resident-freshwater population. Partial reproductive isolation has evolved between the Loberg Lake population and its ancestor within a remarkably short time period. However, Loberg stickleback readily mate with morphologically similar, but distantly related resident-freshwater stickleback. Partial pre-mating isolation is asymmetrical; anadromous females and smaller, resident-freshwater males from Loberg Lake readily mate, but the anadromous males and smaller Loberg females do not. Our results indicate that pre-mating isolation can begin to evolve in allopatry within a few generations after isolation as a correlated effect of evolution of reduced body size. PMID:23025615

  9. The importance of resident environmental awareness in conservation of urban wildlife populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The proximity of humans and wildlife to each other along the wildland-urban interface results in constant potential conflict between human activity and wildlife populations. Since 2002, California biologists have observed a drastic increase in carnivore mortalities that are asso...

  10. More than 500 million Chinese urban residents (14% of the global urban population) are imperiled by fine particulate hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunyang; Han, Lijian; Zhang, Robin Q

    2016-11-01

    China's urbanization and the subsequent public vulnerability to degenerated environment is important to global public health. Among the environmental problems, fine particulate (PM 2.5 ) pollution has become a serious hazard in rapidly urbanizing China. However, quantitative information remains inadequate. We thus collected PM 2.5 concentrations and population census records, to illustrate the spatial patterns and changes in the PM 2.5 hazard levels in China, and to quantify public vulnerability to the hazard during 2000-2010, following the air quality standards of World Health Organization. We found that 28% (2.72 million km 2 ) of China's territory, including 78% of cities (154 cities) with a population of >1 million, was exposed to PM 2.5 hazard in 2010; a 15% increase (1.47 million km 2 ) from 2000 to 2010. The hazards potentially impacted the health of 72% of the total population (942 million) in 2010, including 70% of the young (206 million) and 76% of the old (71 million). This was a significant increase from the 42% of total the population (279 million) exposed in 2000. Of the total urban residents, 76% (501 million) were affected in 2010. Along with PM 2.5 concentration increase, massive number of rural to urban migration also contributed greatly to China's urban public health vulnerability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Current selection for lower migratory activity will drive the evolution of residency in a migratory bird population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, Francisco; Berthold, Peter

    2010-04-20

    Global warming is impacting biodiversity by altering the distribution, abundance, and phenology of a wide range of animal and plant species. One of the best documented responses to recent climate change is alterations in the migratory behavior of birds, but the mechanisms underlying these phenotypic adjustments are largely unknown. This knowledge is still crucial to predict whether populations of migratory birds will adapt to a rapid increase in temperature. We monitored migratory behavior in a population of blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla) to test for evolutionary responses to recent climate change. Using a common garden experiment in time and captive breeding we demonstrated a genetic reduction in migratory activity and evolutionary change in phenotypic plasticity of migration onset. An artificial selection experiment further revealed that residency will rapidly evolve in completely migratory bird populations if selection for shorter migration distance persists. Our findings suggest that current alterations of the environment are favoring birds wintering closer to the breeding grounds and that populations of migratory birds have strongly responded to these changes in selection. The reduction of migratory activity is probably an important evolutionary process in the adaptation of migratory birds to climate change, because it reduces migration costs and facilitates the rapid adjustment to the shifts in the timing of food availability during reproduction.

  12. Differences in health-related quality of life between older nursing home residents without cognitive impairment and the general population of Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drageset, Jorunn; Natvig, Gerd Karin; Eide, Geir Egil; Clipp, Elizabeth C; Bondevik, Margareth; Nortvedt, Monica W; Nygaard, Harald A

    2008-05-01

    To advance the understanding of health-related quality of life among older nursing home residents by assessing their health-related quality of life and comparing this with norms from the general population. The study used a two-group cross-sectional comparative design. The samples comprised 227 nursing home residents aged 65-102 years with at least six months' residence and a representative population sample of 1137 Norwegian citizens aged 65-102 years. All nursing home residents had a Clinical Dementia Rating Scale score > or =0.5 and were capable of conversing. The respondents provided demographic information and were surveyed using the SF-36 Health Survey. We used univariate and multivariate linear models to identify possible differences in health-related quality of life between the nursing home residents and the general population, controlled for age, sex, marital status and education. After adjustment for age, group, sex, marital status and education, the nursing home residents scored significantly higher on bodily pain and on physical and emotional role limitation and significantly lower on the other SF-36 subscales, except social functioning, with the largest differences for physical functioning (mean nursing home 23.2 and mean general population 62.9). The general population scores on all subscales generally increased with increasing education but not among the nursing home residents. The mean SF-36 scale scores differed markedly between the nursing home residents and the general population, with the nursing home residents generally scoring lower. The association with background variables known to be related to health-related quality of life differed between the groups. Healthcare professionals should increase attention to health-related quality of life among nursing home residents, periodically assess health-related quality of life and consider interventions that may improve health-related quality of life in older institutionalised populations. This study

  13. Hypernatremia in Dice snakes (Natrix tessellata) from a coastal population: implications for osmoregulation in marine snake prototypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brischoux, François; Kornilev, Yurii V

    2014-01-01

    The widespread relationship between salt excreting structures (e.g., salt glands) and marine life strongly suggests that the ability to regulate salt balance has been crucial during the transition to marine life in tetrapods. Elevated natremia (plasma sodium) recorded in several marine snakes species suggests that the development of a tolerance toward hypernatremia, in addition to salt gland development, has been a critical feature in the evolution of marine snakes. However, data from intermediate stage (species lacking salt glands but occasionally using salty environments) are lacking to draw a comprehensive picture of the evolution of an euryhaline physiology in these organisms. In this study, we assessed natremia of free-ranging Dice snakes (Natrix tessellata, a predominantly fresh water natricine lacking salt glands) from a coastal population in Bulgaria. Our results show that coastal N. tessellata can display hypernatremia (up to 195.5 mmol x l(-1)) without any apparent effect on several physiological and behavioural traits (e.g., hematocrit, body condition, foraging). More generally, a review of natremia in species situated along a continuum of habitat use between fresh- and seawater shows that snake species display a concomitant tolerance toward hypernatremia, even in species lacking salt glands. Collectively, these data suggest that a physiological tolerance toward hypernatremia has been critical during the evolution of an euryhaline physiology, and may well have preceded the evolution of salt glands.

  14. Salmonella infections in Antarctic fauna and island populations of wildlife exposed to human activities in coastal areas of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iveson, J B; Shellam, G R; Bradshaw, S D; Smith, D W; Mackenzie, J S; Mofflin, R G

    2009-06-01

    Salmonella infections in Antarctic wildlife were first reported in 1970 and in a search for evidence linking isolations with exposure to human activities, a comparison was made of serovars reported from marine fauna in the Antarctic region from 1982-2004 with those from marine mammals in the Northern hemisphere. This revealed that 10 (83%) Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from Antarctic penguins and seals were classifiable in high-frequency (HF) quotients for serovars prevalent in humans and domesticated animals. In Australia, 16 (90%) HF serovars were isolated from marine birds and mammals compared with 12 (86%) HF serovars reported from marine mammals in the Northern hemisphere. In Western Australia, HF serovars from marine species were also recorded in humans, livestock, mussels, effluents and island populations of wildlife in urban coastal areas. Low-frequency S. enterica serovars were rarely detected in humans and not detected in seagulls or marine species. The isolation of S. Enteritidis phage type 4 (PT4), PT8 and PT23 strains from Adélie penguins and a diversity of HF serovars reported from marine fauna in the Antarctic region and coastal areas of Australia, signal the possibility of transient serovars and endemic Salmonella strains recycling back to humans from southern latitudes in marine foodstuffs and feed ingredients.

  15. Trichomonas vaginalis Infection and Associated Risk Factors in a Socially-Marginalized Female Population in Coastal Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Segundo R.; Konda, Kelika A.; Bernstein, Kyle T.; Pajuelo, Jose B.; Rosasco, Ana M.; Caceres, Carlos F.; Coates, Thomas J.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. The epidemiology of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among sexually active socially-marginalized women in three urban, coastal Peruvian cities was examined in order to quantify the prevalence of trichomonas infection and identify associated risk factors. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional, venue-based study of women from socially-marginalized populations in three coastal Peruvian cities. Results. Among the 319 women enrolled, the overall prevalence of trichomonal infection was 9.1% (95% CI, 5.9%–12.3%). The mean age was 26.3 years, and 35.5% reported having had unprotected intercourse with nonprimary partners and 19.8% reported two or more sex partners in the last three months. Trichomonal infection was associated with increased number of sex partners (PR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4–4.6) and unprotected sex with nonprimary partner in the last three months (PR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1–4.9). Conclusions. A moderately high prevalence of trichomonal infection was found among women in our study. Trichomonal infection was associated with unprotected sex and multiple sex partners. Efforts to control the continued spread of trichomonal infection are warranted. PMID:19584943

  16. Trichomonas vaginalis Infection and Associated Risk Factors in a Socially-Marginalized Female Population in Coastal Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segundo R. Leon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The epidemiology of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among sexually active socially-marginalized women in three urban, coastal Peruvian cities was examined in order to quantify the prevalence of trichomonas infection and identify associated risk factors. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional, venue-based study of women from socially-marginalized populations in three coastal Peruvian cities. Results. Among the 319 women enrolled, the overall prevalence of trichomonal infection was 9.1% (95% CI, 5.9%–12.3%. The mean age was 26.3 years, and 35.5% reported having had unprotected intercourse with nonprimary partners and 19.8% reported two or more sex partners in the last three months. Trichomonal infection was associated with increased number of sex partners (PR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4–4.6 and unprotected sex with nonprimary partner in the last three months (PR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1–4.9. Conclusions. A moderately high prevalence of trichomonal infection was found among women in our study. Trichomonal infection was associated with unprotected sex and multiple sex partners. Efforts to control the continued spread of trichomonal infection are warranted.

  17. Hypernatremia in Dice snakes (Natrix tessellata from a coastal population: implications for osmoregulation in marine snake prototypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Brischoux

    Full Text Available The widespread relationship between salt excreting structures (e.g., salt glands and marine life strongly suggests that the ability to regulate salt balance has been crucial during the transition to marine life in tetrapods. Elevated natremia (plasma sodium recorded in several marine snakes species suggests that the development of a tolerance toward hypernatremia, in addition to salt gland development, has been a critical feature in the evolution of marine snakes. However, data from intermediate stage (species lacking salt glands but occasionally using salty environments are lacking to draw a comprehensive picture of the evolution of an euryhaline physiology in these organisms. In this study, we assessed natremia of free-ranging Dice snakes (Natrix tessellata, a predominantly fresh water natricine lacking salt glands from a coastal population in Bulgaria. Our results show that coastal N. tessellata can display hypernatremia (up to 195.5 mmol x l(-1 without any apparent effect on several physiological and behavioural traits (e.g., hematocrit, body condition, foraging. More generally, a review of natremia in species situated along a continuum of habitat use between fresh- and seawater shows that snake species display a concomitant tolerance toward hypernatremia, even in species lacking salt glands. Collectively, these data suggest that a physiological tolerance toward hypernatremia has been critical during the evolution of an euryhaline physiology, and may well have preceded the evolution of salt glands.

  18. Some Genetic Characteristics of the Population Residing Nearby Nuclear Power Plant. The First Step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mkheidze, M.

    2007-01-01

    There is Sosnovy Bor with 60 thousands of inhabitants located 80 km to the west from the centre of St. Petersburg. Here is the greatest and the oldest nuclear power plant, LNPP, with four reactors of the RMBK-1000 (Chernobyl) type. In fact every Sosnovy Bor inhabitant is connected with nuclear technologies. The strategy of the city development is formed and controlled by the policy of federal bodies. It is very difficult to have access to any demographic data and documents reflecting status of population health. Low doses of ionizing radiation are known to cause mutations in germ cells. A great part of the population of Sosnovy Bor works in the NPP and is exposed to low dose ionizing radiation. This paper presents some genetic characteristics of Sosnovy Bor inhabitants including monogenic diseases (phenylketonuria, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, lysosomal diseases, hypothyroidism etc), chromosomal pathology (Down syndrome, Turner and Klinefelter diseases), multiple malformation syndromes and results of aFP screening of pregnant women with high rate of abnormal values of aFP and hHG. These results are obligatory basis and the first step to conduct a study on possible genetic effects of LNPP on genetic structure of Sosnovy Bor population.(author)

  19. Consumption of locally grown foods by the populations residing near nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, P.Y.

    1980-01-01

    The studies carried out by the Geographical Institute of Aix-en-Provence and the B.E.G.E.A. are in three forms: the first studies the local rural production (farming, animal rearing and fishing); the second is concerned with the food intake of the population within a radius of 5 to 10 km around the site; the third consists in working out a soil utilization map covering an area of about 2500 hectares around the site in order to determine the agricultural and urban areas as well as the open spaces, and the exact sort of cultivation carried out, plot by plot. The map also represents all the phenomena concerning hydrography, irrigation, watering and the supply of potable water. All these studies concern only a few parishes and enable an accurate knowledge of the environment to be acquired. The food studies seek an order of magnitude of the amount of local produce consumed by the populations of the nuclear power station sites with a view to determining radioactive contamination levels. The results show the specific food consumption features of a population bearing the deep stamp of its environment and its rural origin [fr

  20. The prevalence of urinary incontinence in pregnancy among a multi-ethnic population resident in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bø, K; Pauck Øglund, G; Sletner, L; Mørkrid, K; Jenum, A K

    2012-10-01

    To investigate prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI) in a multi-ethnic population of pregnant women, and to analyse for possible associations of the known risk factors for UI in such a population. Population-based cross-sectional study. All pregnant women in three administrative city districts attending the Child Health Clinics. Out of 823 women identified in the [corrected] first trimester, 772 (94%) [corrected] agreed to participate in the study at 28 weeks of gestation. Inclusion criteria were: healthy women at 20 weeks of gestation or less and able to communicate in Norwegian, Arabic, English, Sorani, Somali, Tamil, Turkish, Urdu or Vietnamese. Differences between ethnic groups were tested by simple descriptive statistics. Associations were estimated by logistic regression analysis and presented as crude (cOR) and adjusted (aOR) odds ratios. Prevalence of UI as ascertained using the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-urinary incontinence-short form. Prevalence rates of UI at 28 weeks of gestation were 26% for women of African origin, 36% for women of Middle Eastern origin, 40% for women of East Asian origin, 43% for women of South Asian origin and 45% for women of European/North American origin. The difference was significant between women of African and European/North American origins (P = 0.011) and between women of African and South Asian origins (P = 0.035). Age (aOR 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.09) and parity (aOR 2.34; 95% CI 1.66-3.28) were positively associated with the prevalence of UI in pregnancy. Women of African origin had significantly reduced odds for UI (aOR 0.42; 95% CI 0.20-0.87). East Asian and African women reported the highest perceived impact of UI in pregnancy. A high prevalence of UI was found in a multi-ethnic pregnant population. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  1. Coastal marine contamination in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garay T, Jesus A; Marin Z, Bienvenido; Velez G, Ana Maria

    2002-01-01

    The paper tries about the problem of the marine contamination and their marked influence in the health of the coastal ecosystems, of their narrow relationship with the growing increase of the populations that they inhabit the coastal areas and of equal it forms, with the increment of the domestic, agricultural and industrial activities that, for the wrong handling and inadequate control of the solid and liquid waste, they affect the marine environment with significant implications at ecological, socioeconomic level and of health. Another component of the environmental problem of the marine ecosystems in the country, resides in that don't exist in general normative on the chemical quality and sanitary for its marine waters, that which limits the categorization of this agreement ecosystems with its environmental quality, conditioning this the lack of adequate mechanisms to mitigate the causes that originate the deterioration of the quality of the Colombian coasts

  2. Population monitoring: three generation study of residents living in the vicinity of Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bersimbaev, R.I.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of this work are as follows: to establish a Blood Bio-sample Database of three generations families living close to the Semipalatinsk test site (STS) and control families in three generation from clean areas; to determine the mini-satellite mutations rates in the three generation of radiation exposed people and control families of the same ethnic origin; to definition the chromosomal translocation frequencies by FISH chromosome painting in the lymphocytes of the exposed and control people in order to determine the radiation exposure. The following criteria for select to examined groups were used: the people from control group should be permanently living at clean area (far from STS or any places where the nuclear tests occur and far from any chemical industrial plants), e.g. they should not been exposed to radiation during their life (including a radiotherapy and cytostatics); the people of both examined groups should be matched regard to structure of families, age, ethnic background, parental age of P 0 and F 1 to the moment children birth, smoking habit, lifestyle and occupation. The maximum of available families by appropriate criteria in villages were chosen. As exposed inhabitation serves residents of following villages: Dolon, Mostik, Bodene, Cheremushki, Kanonerka, Karamyrza (all these villages are situated in Beskargai district). The inhabitants of Dzerzhinsk, Zhanatalap and Ushtobe villages of former Taldy-Kurgan oblast were included for study as a control group. The Bio-sample Bank consists of the frozen EDTA blood (at - 20 deg C), and isolated whole blood DNA (at - 70 deg C), the fixated erythrocytes (at - 70 deg C), isolated lymphocytes (in liquid nitrogen container) and lymphocyte cultures (at - 20 deg C). The Bio-sample Bank is supplement with a computerized database identifying the samples and number of vial stored, and information on individuals studied (all questionnaire data) and family tree. Results from the translocation FISH

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION: BENEFITS TO RESIDENT POPULATION IN THE GARDEN MARABÁ, CAMPO GRANDE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Duarte

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the records of cases of diarrhea recorded in the Information System for Notifiable Diseases after the implementation of sewage system in Maraba Garden, Campo Grande, Brazil. The Garden Maraba had a degraded area, characterized by exhaustion open. We searched the records of SINAN in the period before and after the environmental changes that community. The results showed that there is an asymmetry in the indicators recorded, where it was hoped that the disease had greater control due to the deployment of exhaustion, especially in cases of diarrhea that persist at levels considerably. The conclusion points to the need to expand the study to address this knowledge gap, so important and what influence and compromises the quality of life of the population, especially in matters related to environmental education.

  4. Rheumatoid arthritis disease activity and vitamin D deficiency in an Asian resident population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quraishi, Mohammed K; Badsha, Humeira

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its association with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity in a UAE population. Forty-five consecutive subjects were prospectively recruited during the early summer with their clinical examination and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) being recorded at a clinic appointment, along with their blood sample being taken for the 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) total test. Thirty-five (76%) patients claimed to be exposed to sunlight for Disease Activity Score (DAS28) or HAQ scores. A direct relationship was observed between HAQ scores and DAS28 scores (P culture. No association was observed between vitamin D and disease activity. However, the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency may negatively impact on bone health of these patients in the future. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. A population-based study on health-related quality of life among urban community residents in Shenyang, Northeast of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tian; Ding, Yan-wei; Sun, Yan; He, Yi-Ni; Qi, Dian-Jun; Wu, Ying; Wu, Bin; Lang, Lang; Yu, Kai; Zhao, Xin; Zhu, Liang-liang; Wang, Shuang; Yu, Xiao-Song

    2015-09-19

    Due to the rising standard of living environment and advances in public health and medical care in China, it has been a tendency in recent years that health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has been increasingly acknowledged in community health management. However, large-scale population-based study on evaluating HQRoL in northeast of China was not conducted. This article aims to investigate the HRQoL in community residents in Northeast China and explore the associated factors. Stratified multiple-stage sampling method was used in the cross-sectional survey to investigate HRQoL of community residents in northeast of China. Univariate analysis and multiple linear regressions were used to analyze the factors associated to HRQoL of the community residents. The results were confirmed that HRQoL in general population was well performed for the first time in northeast of China in a large scale population. Community residents had better mental health than physical health. The factors influencing HRQoL included gender, age, educational level, marital status, ethnic group, chronic disease status, having breakfast frequency weekly and sleep quality. However, drinking and smoking habits did not affect residents' HRQoL. In this study, the result of the large-scale survey was satisfactory in northeast of China, providing HRQoL status of community residents. Policies on specific health management in community public health would emphasize on lifestyle behaviors especially eating habits in order to improving HRQoL.

  6. Phylogenetics and population genetics of Plotosus canius (Siluriformes: Plotosidae from Malaysian coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Khalili Samani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Plotosus canius (Hamilton, 1822 is a significant marine species in Malaysia from nutritional and commercial perspectives. Despite numerous fundamental research on biological characteristics of P. canius, there are various concerns on the level of population differentiation, genomic structure, and the level of genetic variability among their populations due to deficiency of genetic-based studies. Deficiency on basic contexts such as stock identification, phylogenetic relationship and population genetic structure would negatively impact their sustainable conservation. Hence, this study was conducted to characterize the genetic structure of P. canius for the first time through the application of mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI gene, cross amplification of Tandanus tandanus microsatellites, and a total of 117 collected specimens across five selected populations of Malaysia. The experimental results of the mitochondrial analysis revealed that the haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity varied from 0.395–0.771 and 0.033–0.65 respectively. Moreover, the statistical analysis of microsatellites addressed a considerable heterozygote insufficiency in all populations, with average observed heterozygosity (Ho value of 0.2168, which was lower than the standard heterozygosity in marine populations (Ho = 0.79. This alongside the high Fis values estimation, high pairwise differentiation among populations and low within population variations are supposed to be associated with small sample size, and inbreeding system. Besides, the significant finding of this study was the sharing of common haplotype KR086940, which reflects a historical genetic connectivity between Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo populations due to the geological history of Southeast Asia during Pleistocene era. Demographic analyses showed that all populations were in an equilibrium state with no significant evidence of population expansion. To put it briefly, the current study has

  7. Resident and parental perceptions of adolescent problems and family communications in a low socioeconomic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, L E; Shear, C L; Stark, A M; Goodman, P R

    1984-11-01

    This cross-sectional survey of a low socioeconomic patient group was designed to determine the prevalence and severity of parentally perceived behavioral problems in adolescents as well as to investigate the correlation between such problems and single parenting, family communications, and medical care delivered. The sample population consisted of 79 parents and 121 teenagers selected from a family practice center. The medical record and telephone interview were the sources of information. Results include a parental perception of a high prevalence of problems with school grades (48 percent), school attendance (38 percent), and household problems (chores and sibling rivalry). Of low prevalence but high severity were perceived problems related to suicidal ideation, running away, sexual activity, and gang membership. Single-parent homes had a threefold higher incidence of behavioral problems, a greater degree of communication, and a lower use of community resources than two-parent families. None of the approximately 400 perceived behavioral problems listed by parents was found in the family physicians' master problem list. The results indicate the need for physician education of low socioeconomic and single-parent patients with regard to communication and coping style. In addition, it appears that training programs should provide more education in the care of adolescents.

  8. Serosurveillance of foot-and-mouth disease in ruminant population of Coastal Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihar Nalini Mohanty

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Foot and mouth disease (FMD is endemic in India and three serotypes viz, O, A, and Asia1 are prevalent in the country. In the current study a total of 551 serum samples were collected randomly from 51 cattle, 127 sheep and 373 goats from areas with or without the history of recent outbreaks in different districts of coastal Odisha, India. The samples were screened for antibodies against non-structural proteins (NSPs and structural proteins (SP of FMD virus to gather evidence with respect to the FMD virus circulation. The study revealed a higher level of NSP antibodies in goats (38.33% and cattle (33.33%, and lower prevalence in sheep (3.93%. In case of SP antibodies, the prevalence was higher in cattle (68.62% followed by goats (38.87% and sheep (17.32%. The study reiterates the importance of strengthening of FMD surveillance in small ruminants as they could pose a potential risk of virus transmission to cattle.

  9. Gene flow connects coastal populations of a habitat specialist, the Clapper Rail Rallus crepitans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coster, Stephanie S.; Welsh, Amy B.; Costanzo, Gary R.; Harding, Sergio R.; Anderson, James T.; Katzner, Todd

    2018-01-01

    Examining population genetic structure can reveal patterns of reproductive isolation or population mixing and inform conservation management. Some avian species are predicted to exhibit minimal genetic differentiation among populations as a result of the species high mobility, with habitat specialists tending to show greater fine‐scale genetic structure. To explore the relationship between habitat specialization and gene flow, we investigated the genetic structure of a saltmarsh specialist with high potential mobility across a wide geographic range of fragmented habitat. Little variation among mitochondrial sequences (620 bp from ND2) was observed among 149 individual Clapper Rails Rallus crepitans sampled along the Atlantic coast of North America, with the majority of individuals at all sampling sites sharing a single haplotype. Genotyping of nine microsatellite loci across 136 individuals revealed moderate genetic diversity, no evidence of bottlenecks, and a weak pattern of genetic differentiation that increased with geographic distance. Multivariate analyses, Bayesian clustering and an AMOVA all suggested a lack of genetic structuring across the North American Atlantic coast, with all individuals grouped into a single interbreeding population. Spatial autocorrelation analyses showed evidence of weak female philopatry and a lack of male philopatry. We conclude that high gene flow connecting populations of this habitat specialist may result from the interaction of ecological and behavioral factors that promote dispersal and limit natal philopatry and breeding‐site fidelity. As climate change threatens saltmarshes, the genetic diversity and population connectivity of Clapper Rails may promote resilience of their populations. This finding helps inform about potential fates of other similarly behaving saltmarsh specialists on the Atlantic coast.

  10. Biological effects of high level natural background radiation on human population residing in Kerala coast, South West India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seshadri, M.

    2010-01-01

    The populations residing in Kerala coast are exposed to elevated natural background radiation since many generations. Extensive studies conducted by Bio-Medical group, Bhabha Atomic Research Center have generated wealth of data from this area dealing with epidemiology, monitoring the newborns for malformations, Health Audit Survey, Dosimetry and biological studies using cytogenetic and molecular biology techniques. Our studies on congenital malformations and chromosomal anomalies in children born to parents residing in High Level Natural Radiation Areas in Kerala have not shown any significant difference from normal radiation areas. Screening of over 1,25,000 consecutively born children showed an incidence rate which is comparable in both areas. Other factors such as consanguinity, maternal age and gravida status are more significant contributors than radiation dose to the risk for having malformation in child. Radiation prevalent in the HLNRA is in the dose range of above 1.5 to about 50 mGy per year which translates to doses in the range of nGy per hour. This clearly indicate the number of cells exposed to radiations will be one in few thousand or ten thousands. This throws up challenges in our capability to investigate the effects of radiation on cells. It has become imperative to develop and exploit techniques which will detect responses in single cells and would be able screen large number of cells at a time. Developments in cell biology and molecular biology are now giving us these capabilities. Use of flowcytometer and next generation sequencing would enable us to address many of these questions and provide meaningful approaches to understand the effects of such low dose radiation

  11. The influence of large woody debris and a bankfull flood on movement of adult resident coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) during fall and winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bret C. Harvey; Rodney J. Nakamoto; Jason L. White

    1999-01-01

    Abstract - To improve understanding of the significance of large woody debris to stream fishes, we examined the influence of woody debris on fall and winter movement by adult coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) using radiotelemetry. Fish captured in stream pools containing large woody debris moved less than fish captured in pools lacking large woody debris or...

  12. Inferring genetic connectivity in real populations, exemplified by coastal and oceanic Atlantic cod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, Ingrid; Hauser, Lorenz; Jorde, Per Erik; Knutsen, Halvor; Punt, André E; Rogers, Lauren A; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2018-04-19

    Genetic data are commonly used to estimate connectivity between putative populations, but translating them to demographic dispersal rates is complicated. Theoretical equations that infer a migration rate based on the genetic estimator F ST , such as Wright's equation, F ST ≈ 1/(4 N e m + 1), make assumptions that do not apply to most real populations. How complexities inherent to real populations affect migration was exemplified by Atlantic cod in the North Sea and Skagerrak and was examined within an age-structured model that incorporated genetic markers. Migration was determined under various scenarios by varying the number of simulated migrants until the mean simulated level of genetic differentiation matched a fixed level of genetic differentiation equal to empirical estimates. Parameters that decreased the N e / N t ratio (where N e is the effective and N t is the total population size), such as high fishing mortality and high fishing gear selectivity, increased the number of migrants required to achieve empirical levels of genetic differentiation. Higher maturity-at-age and lower selectivity increased N e / N t and decreased migration when genetic differentiation was fixed. Changes in natural mortality, fishing gear selectivity, and maturity-at-age within expected limits had a moderate effect on migration when genetic differentiation was held constant. Changes in population size had the greatest effect on the number of migrants to achieve fixed levels of F ST , particularly when genetic differentiation was low, F ST ≈ 10 -3 Highly variable migration patterns, compared with constant migration, resulted in higher variance in genetic differentiation and higher extreme values. Results are compared with and provide insight into the use of theoretical equations to estimate migration among real populations. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  13. Quantifying age-related rates of social contact using diaries in a rural coastal population of Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Chapa Kiti

    Full Text Available Improved understanding and quantification of social contact patterns that govern the transmission dynamics of respiratory viral infections has utility in the design of preventative and control measures such as vaccination and social distancing. The objective of this study was to quantify an age-specific matrix of contact rates for a predominantly rural low-income population that would support transmission dynamic modeling of respiratory viruses.From the population register of the Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System, coastal Kenya, 150 individuals per age group (50 years exhibited the highest inter-generational contacts. Rural contact rates were higher than semiurban (18.8 vs 15.6, p = 0.002, with rural primary school students having twice as many assortative contacts as their semiurban peers.This is the first age-specific contact matrix to be defined for tropical Sub-Saharan Africa and has utility in age-structured models to assess the potential impact of interventions for directly transmitted respiratory infections.

  14. How does Australia's largest dolphin-watching industry affect the behaviour of a small and resident population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckenreuter, Andre; Möller, Luciana; Harcourt, Robert

    2012-04-30

    The small, genetically distinct population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in Port Stephens, New South Wales (NSW), is the target of the largest dolphin-watching industry in Australia and is located within the Port Stephens - Great Lakes Marine Park that was created in 2005. The effects of this industry have been identified as of significant management importance by the Marine Parks Authority NSW. Accordingly, the impact of commercial dolphin-watching boats was investigated from boat-based surveys from August 2008 to August 2009. Presence of dolphin-watching boats altered both the dolphins' behavioural states and activity budgets. Dolphins spent 66.5% less time feeding and 44.2% less time socialising, spent four times more milling, and were never observed to rest in the presence of dolphin-watching boats. Moreover, dolphin groups were more cohesive during dolphin-watching boat encounters and dolphins tended to avoid tour boats. These effects were exacerbated as the number of boats increased and the distance from boats decreased. The rate of approach was high with boats approaching each dolphin group three times per day in winter and six times in summer. Moreover, groups of dolphins with newborns were approached closer than state regulated minimum approach distances in nine out of ten encounters. Globally, dolphin-watching industries frequent small resident groups of coastal dolphins and effects are likely to be similar. We suggest that existing controls are inadequate and that these together with additional regulations be enforced by a regular presence of authorities. We suggest no more than one dolphin-watching boat within 50 m of a group of dolphins, or 100 m if calves are present. Operating times of dolphin-watching boats should be restricted in numbers after 1 pm, i.e., during preferred foraging times for dolphins. Additionally, exclusion zones should be considered to reduce pressure on dolphins undertaking critical activities such as

  15. Prevalence and characteristics of Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) in the child population residing in Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, D R; Ganesh, M; Bhaskar, V

    2012-02-01

    Most prevalence studies on Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) have been carried out in European countries and data from Asia especially south Asian populations are lacking. To investigate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of MIH in children residing in a western region of India. A cross-sectional survey including 1,366 children from 5 age cohorts, 8-12 years, studying in primary schools or attending the University Department, was carried out in the area of Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India. The dental examination was performed by a single well-trained and calibrated examiner in day light conditions. Full mouth inspection of wet teeth was conducted using the EAPD 2003 criteria for diagnosis of MIH. Results were recorded and statistically analysed using Chi-square test, independent sample t-test and Pearson correlations. Prevalence of MIH was 9.2% in the examined population. Males and females were equally affected. Among 12 index teeth involved in the examination, the most commonly affected were in descending order 46, 36, 16, 11 [FDI] and the least 42, 32, and 22. 17.4% of the cases revealed only molars involved, the remaining 72.6% having both molars and incisors affected; all four first permanent molars showed in 23% of the cases while no cases of only affected incisors were found. Of the MIH teeth 77.3% revealed mild defects and 22.7% severe defects. All incisors were mildly affected, as compared with only 67.1% of the molars, the remaining 32.9% being severely affected. As age increased, a statistically significant larger total number and severity level of affected teeth were recorded. Prevalence of MIH using EAPD 2003 criteria was found to be similar to other studies evaluating children in different geographic locations such as Europe, South America etc. Using the EAPD standardised criteria, more studies should be conducted in other Indian regions, in order to further evaluate prevalence, characteristics and treatment needs for this clinically demanding

  16. Estimating seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 among different Middle East and North African male populations residing in Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrallah, Gheyath K.; Dargham, Soha R.; Mohammed, Layla I.

    2017-01-01

    HSV‐1 epidemiology in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) remains poorly understood. Our study aimed to measure HSV‐1 antibody prevalence (seroprevalence) and its age‐distribution among select MENA populations residing in Qatar. Sera were collected from male blood donors attending Hamad Medical Corporation 2013‐2015. A total of 2,077 sera were tested for anti‐HSV‐1 antibodies using HerpeSelect® 1 ELISA IgG kits (Focus Diagnostics, Cypress, CA). Robust Poisson regression was conducted to estimate adjusted infection prevalence ratios. Country‐specific HSV‐1 seroprevalence was estimated for 10 national populations: 97.5% among Egyptians, 92.6% among Yemenis, 90.7% among Sudanese, 88.5% among Syrians, 86.5% among Jordanians, 82.3% among Qataris, 81.4% among Iranians, 81.4% among Lebanese, 80.5% among Palestinians, and 77.0% among Pakistanis. Age‐specific HSV‐1 seroprevalence was estimated for Egypt, the Fertile Crescent (Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, and Syria), and Qatar. Seroprevalence increased with age among Fertile Crescent and Qatari nationals. Seroprevalence increased from 70.0% among those aged ≤ 24 years up to 98.0% among those aged ≥55 years among Fertile Crescent nationals. Seroprevalence was consistently above 90% for all ages among Egyptians. HSV‐1 seroprevalence is high in MENA, though with some variation across countries. The seroprevalence appears to have declined among current young age cohorts compared to its levels a few decades ago. PMID:28817197

  17. Population attributable risk for chlamydia infection in a cohort of young international travellers (backpackers) and residents in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wand, Handan; Guy, Rebecca; Donovan, Basil; McNulty, Anna

    2011-02-23

    To estimate the population attributable risk (PAR) for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in young men and women in Sydney, Australia. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between demographic, sexual behaviour and other potential risk factors and chlamydia positivity in young (≤ 30 years) heterosexual international travellers (backpackers) and Australian residents attending a sexual health clinic. Point and interval estimates of PAR were calculated to quantify the proportion of chlamydia infections that can theoretically be prevented if a combination of risk factors is eliminated from a target population. In males, the PAR associated with inconsistent condom use in the past 3 months was 65% (95% CI 56% to 71%) in backpackers compared to 50% (95% CI 41% to 56%) in non-backpackers and the PAR associated with reporting three or more female sexual partners in the past 3 months was similar between male backpackers and non-backpackers (33% (95% CI 28% to 40%) and 36% (95% CI 32% to 41%), respectively). In females, the PAR associated with inconsistent condom use in the past 3 months was 51% (95% CI 42% to 59%) in backpackers compared to 41% (95% CI 31% to 51%) in non-backpackers, and the PAR associated with reporting three or more male sexual partners in the past 3 months was 14% (95% CI 11% to 18%) in backpackers compared to 30% (95% CI 25% to 37%) in non-backpackers. These findings suggest that the largest number of chlamydia infections could be avoided by increasing condom use, particularly in backpackers. Reporting multiple partners was also associated with a large proportion of infections and the risk associated with this behaviour should be considered in health promotion strategies.

  18. Population attributable risk for chlamydia infection in a cohort of young international travellers (backpackers) and residents in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Rebecca; Donovan, Basil; McNulty, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Aim To estimate the population attributable risk (PAR) for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in young men and women in Sydney, Australia. Method Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between demographic, sexual behaviour and other potential risk factors and chlamydia positivity in young (≤30 years) heterosexual international travellers (backpackers) and Australian residents attending a sexual health clinic. Point and interval estimates of PAR were calculated to quantify the proportion of chlamydia infections that can theoretically be prevented if a combination of risk factors is eliminated from a target population. Results In males, the PAR associated with inconsistent condom use in the past 3 months was 65% (95% CI 56% to 71%) in backpackers compared to 50% (95% CI 41% to 56%) in non-backpackers and the PAR associated with reporting three or more female sexual partners in the past 3 months was similar between male backpackers and non-backpackers (33% (95% CI 28% to 40%) and 36% (95% CI 32% to 41%), respectively). In females, the PAR associated with inconsistent condom use in the past 3 months was 51% (95% CI 42% to 59%) in backpackers compared to 41% (95% CI 31% to 51%) in non-backpackers, and the PAR associated with reporting three or more male sexual partners in the past 3 months was 14% (95% CI 11% to 18%) in backpackers compared to 30% (95% CI 25% to 37%) in non-backpackers. Conclusion These findings suggest that the largest number of chlamydia infections could be avoided by increasing condom use, particularly in backpackers. Reporting multiple partners was also associated with a large proportion of infections and the risk associated with this behaviour should be considered in health promotion strategies. PMID:22021720

  19. Pleistocene glacial refugia across the Appalachian Mountains and coastal plain in the millipede genus Narceus: Evidence from population genetic, phylogeographic, and paleoclimatic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Matt J; Stockman, Amy K; Marek, Paul E; Bond, Jason E

    2009-01-01

    Background Species that are widespread throughout historically glaciated and currently non-glaciated areas provide excellent opportunities to investigate the role of Pleistocene climatic change on the distribution of North American biodiversity. Many studies indicate that northern animal populations exhibit low levels of genetic diversity over geographically widespread areas whereas southern populations exhibit relatively high levels. Recently, paleoclimatic data have been combined with niche-based distribution modeling to locate possible refugia during the Last Glacial Maximum. Using phylogeographic, population, and paleoclimatic data, we show that the distribution and mitochondrial data for the millipede genus Narceus are consistent with classical examples of Pleistocene refugia and subsequent post-glacial population expansion seen in other organismal groups. Results The phylogeographic structure of Narceus reveals a complex evolutionary history with signatures of multiple refugia in southeastern North America followed by two major northern expansions. Evidence for refugial populations were found in the southern Appalachian Mountains and in the coastal plain. The northern expansions appear to have radiated from two separate refugia, one from the Gulf Coastal Plain area and the other from the mid-Atlantic coastal region. Distributional models of Narceus during the Last Glacial Maximum show a dramatic reduction from the current distribution, with suitable ecological zones concentrated along the Gulf and Atlantic coastal plain. We found a strong correlation between these zones of ecological suitability inferred from our paleo-model with levels of genetic diversity derived from phylogenetic and population estimates of genetic structuring. Conclusion The signature of climatic change, during and after the Pleistocene, on the distribution of the millipede genus Narceus is evident in the genetic data presented. Niche-based historical distribution modeling strengthens the

  20. Bay-scale population structure in coastal Atlantic cod in Labrador and Newfoundland, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzante, D.E.; Wroblewski, J.S.; Taggart, C.T.

    2000-01-01

    Polymorphisms at five microsatellite DNA loci provide evidence that Atlantic cod Gadus morhua inhabiting Gilbert Bay, Labrador are genetically distinguishable from offshore cod on the north- east Newfoundland shelf and from inshore cod in Trinity Bay, Newfoundland. Antifreeze activity in the blood...... of population structure suggest that important barriers to gene flow exist among five components that include two inshore (Gilbert and Trinity Bay) and three offshore cod aggregations on the north-east Newfoundland Shelf and the Grand Bank. D-A and D-SW estimates of genetic distance that involve Gilbert Bay cod...

  1. Genetic and Phenotypic Catalog of Native Resident Trout of the interior Columbia River Basin : FY-2001 Report : Populations in the Wenatchee, Entiat, Lake Chelan and Methow River Drainages.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trotter, Patrick C.

    2001-10-01

    The 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council specifies the recovery and preservation of population health of native resident fishes of the Columbia River Basin. Among the native resident species of concern are interior rainbow trout of the Columbia River redband subspecies Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri 1 and westslope cutthroat trout O. clarki lewisi. The westslope cutthroat trout has been petitioned for listing under the U. S. Endangered Species Act (American Wildlands et al. 1997). Before at-risk populations can be protected, their presence and status must be established. Where introgression from introduced species is a concern, as in the case of both westslope cutthroat trout and redband rainbow trout, genetic issues must be addressed as well. As is true with native trout elsewhere in the western United States (Behnke 1992), most of the remaining pure populations of these species in the Columbia River Basin are in relatively remote headwater reaches. The objective of this project was to photo-document upper Columbia Basin native resident trout populations in Washington, and to ascertain their species or subspecies identity and relative genetic purity using a nonlethal DNA technique. FY-2001 was year three (and final year) of a project in which we conducted field visits to remote locations to seek out and catalog these populations. In FY-2001 we worked in collaboration with the Wenatchee National Forest to catalog populations in the Wenatchee, Entiat, Lake Chelan, and Methow River drainages of Washington State.

  2. Factors associated with physiotherapy provision in a population of elderly nursing home residents; a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribbe Miel W

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although physiotherapy (PT plays an important role in improving activities of daily living (ADL functioning and discharge rates, it is unclear how many nursing home residents receive treatment. Furthermore, there is a lack of insight into the determinants that influence the decision for treatment. In this study, we investigated how many nursing home residents receive PT. In addition, we analysed the factors that contribute to the variation in the provision of PT both between nursing homes and between residents. Methods A random sample of 600 elderly residents was taken from a random sample of 15 nursing homes. Residents had to be admitted for rehabilitation or for long-term care. Data were collected through interviews with the nursing home physician and the physiotherapist. Multilevel analysis was used to define the variation in the provision of PT and the factors that are associated with the question whether a resident receives PT or not. Furthermore the amount of PT provided was analysed and the factors that are associated with this. Results On average 69% of the residents received PT. The percentage of patients receiving treatment differed significantly across nursing homes, and especially the number of physiotherapists available, explained this difference between nursing homes. Residents admitted to a somatic ward for rehabilitation, and male residents in general, were most likely to receive PT. Residents who were treated by a physiotherapist received on average 55 minutes (sd 41 treatment a week. Residents admitted for rehabilitation received more PT a week, as were residents with a status after a total hip replacement. Conclusion PT is most likely to be provided to residents on a somatic ward, recently admitted for rehabilitation to a nursing home, which has a relatively large number of physiotherapists. This suggests a potential under-use of PT for long-term residents with cognitive problems. It is recommended that

  3. Factors associated with physiotherapy provision in a population of elderly nursing home residents; a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leemrijse, Chantal J; de Boer, Marike E; van den Ende, Cornelia H M; Ribbe, Miel W; Dekker, Joost

    2007-04-04

    Although physiotherapy (PT) plays an important role in improving activities of daily living (ADL functioning) and discharge rates, it is unclear how many nursing home residents receive treatment. Furthermore, there is a lack of insight into the determinants that influence the decision for treatment. In this study, we investigated how many nursing home residents receive PT. In addition, we analysed the factors that contribute to the variation in the provision of PT both between nursing homes and between residents. A random sample of 600 elderly residents was taken from a random sample of 15 nursing homes. Residents had to be admitted for rehabilitation or for long-term care. Data were collected through interviews with the nursing home physician and the physiotherapist. Multilevel analysis was used to define the variation in the provision of PT and the factors that are associated with the question whether a resident receives PT or not. Furthermore the amount of PT provided was analysed and the factors that are associated with this. On average 69% of the residents received PT. The percentage of patients receiving treatment differed significantly across nursing homes, and especially the number of physiotherapists available, explained this difference between nursing homes. Residents admitted to a somatic ward for rehabilitation, and male residents in general, were most likely to receive PT. Residents who were treated by a physiotherapist received on average 55 minutes (sd 41) treatment a week. Residents admitted for rehabilitation received more PT a week, as were residents with a status after a total hip replacement. PT is most likely to be provided to residents on a somatic ward, recently admitted for rehabilitation to a nursing home, which has a relatively large number of physiotherapists. This suggests a potential under-use of PT for long-term residents with cognitive problems. It is recommended that physiotherapists reconsider which residents may benefit from

  4. Chronic diseases among older people and co-resident psychological morbidity: a 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honyashiki, Mina; Ferri, Cleusa P; Acosta, Daisy; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, K S; Llibre-Rodrigues, Juan J; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Williams, Joseph; Prince, Martin J

    2011-11-01

    This is the first study to investigate the associations between chronic health conditions of older people and their impact on co-resident psychological morbidity using population-based samples in low and middle income countries (LAMICs). Single-phase cross-sectional catchment area surveys were undertaken in urban sites in Cuba, Dominican Republic and Venezuela, and in rural and urban catchment areas in Mexico, Peru, India and China. All residents aged 65 years and over were interviewed with a co-resident key informant. Exposures were structured clinical diagnoses (10/66 and DSM-IV dementia and ICD-10 depression), self-reported diagnosis (stroke) and physical impairments. Mediating variables were dependence and disability (WHODAS 2.0), and the outcome was co-resident psychological morbidity assessed using SRQ-20. Poisson regression analysis was used to estimate the prevalence ratios (PRs) for the associations between health conditions and psychological morbidity in each site, and meta-analysis was used to pool the estimates. 11,988 pairs comprising a participant and a co-resident informant were included in the analysis. After meta-analysis, independent effects were noted for depression (PR2.11; 95% CI 1.82-2.45), dementia (PR 1.98; 95% CI 1.72-2.28), stroke (PR 1.42; 95% CI 1.17-1.71) and physical impairments (PR 1.17; 95% CI 1.13-1.21). The effects were partly mediated through disability and dependence. The mean population attributable fraction of total chronic conditions was 30.1%. The prevalence of co-resident psychological morbidity is higher among co-residents of older people with chronic conditions. This effect was prominent for, but not confined to, depression and dementia. Attention needs to be directed to chronic conditions.

  5. Human skin is protected by four functionally and phenotypically discrete populations of resident and recirculating memory T cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watanabe, Rei; Gehad, Ahmed; Yang, Chao; Scott, Laura L.; Teague, Jessica E.; Schlapbach, Christoph; Elco, Christopher P.; Huang, Victor; Matos, Tiago R.; Kupper, Thomas S.; Clark, Rachael A.

    2015-01-01

    The skin of an adult human contains about 20 billion memory T cells. Epithelial barrier tissues are infiltrated by a combination of resident and recirculating T cells in mice, but the relative proportions and functional activities of resident versus recirculating T cells have not been evaluated in

  6. A crab swarm at an ecological hotspot: patchiness and population density from AUV observations at a coastal, tropical seamount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Pineda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A research cruise to Hannibal Bank, a seamount and an ecological hotspot in the coastal eastern tropical Pacific Ocean off Panama, explored the zonation, biodiversity, and the ecological processes that contribute to the seamount’s elevated biomass. Here we describe the spatial structure of a benthic anomuran red crab population, using submarine video and autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV photographs. High density aggregations and a swarm of red crabs were associated with a dense turbid layer 4–10 m above the bottom. The high density aggregations were constrained to 355–385 m water depth over the Northwest flank of the seamount, although the crabs also occurred at lower densities in shallower waters (∼280 m and in another location of the seamount. The crab aggregations occurred in hypoxic water, with oxygen levels of 0.04 ml/l. Barcoding of Hannibal red crabs, and pelagic red crabs sampled in a mass stranding event in 2015 at a beach in San Diego, California, USA, revealed that the Panamanian and the Californian crabs are likely the same species, Pleuroncodes planipes, and these findings represent an extension of the southern endrange of this species. Measurements along a 1.6 km transect revealed three high density aggregations, with the highest density up to 78 crabs/m2, and that the crabs were patchily distributed. Crab density peaked in the middle of the patch, a density structure similar to that of swarming insects.

  7. Impacts of Extreme Flooding on Hydrologic Connectivity and Water Quality in the Atlantic Coastal Plain and Implications for Vulnerable Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros-Iregui, D. A.; Moser, H. A.; Christenson, E. C.; Gray, J.; Hedgespeth, M. L.; Jass, T. L.; Lowry, D. S.; Martin, K.; Nichols, E. G.; Stewart, J. R.; Emanuel, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    In October 2016, Hurricane Matthew brought extreme flooding to eastern North Carolina, including record regional flooding along the Lumber River and its tributaries in the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Situated in a region dominated by large-scale crop-cultivation and containing some of the highest densities of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and animal processing operations in the U.S., the Lumber River watershed is also home to the Lumbee Tribe of American Indians. Most of the tribe's 60,000+ members live within or immediately adjacent to the 3,000 km2 watershed where they maintain deep cultural and historical connections. The region, however, also suffers from high rates of poverty and large disparities in healthcare, education, and infrastructure, conditions exacerbated by Hurricane Matthew. We summarize ongoing efforts to characterize the short- and long-term impacts of extreme flooding on water quality in (1) low gradient streams and riverine wetlands of the watershed; (2) surficial aquifers, which provide water resources for the local communities, and (3) public drinking water supplies, which derive from deeper, confined aquifers but whose infrastructure suffered widespread damage following Hurricane Matthew. Our results provide mechanistic understanding of flood-related connectivity across multiple hydrologic compartments, and provide important implications for how hydrological natural hazards combine with land use to drive water quality impacts and affect vulnerable populations.

  8. Results of study of Sr-90 and Cs-137 content in organism and effective doses of internal and external irradiation of Ukrainian population residing in different regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalmykov, L.; Gur, E.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have studied effective doses of internal and external radiation for 1992-1994 in the residents of Chernigov and Kharkov Regions of Ukraine, i.e. those who live in the zone of strict radioecologic control and in relatively ''clean'' zones, respectively. In 95% of the investigated residents of Chernigov Region Cs-137 activity in the organism was lower than 1500 Bq, maximum amount being 11 kBq. Conditioned Cs-137 effective dose of internal radiation did not exceed 250 micro Sv per year, in 96% of the investigated subjects it was less than 30 micro Sv per year. Mean amount of this radionuclide in the organisms of both adults and children aged 3-6 years residing in Kharkov Region was 90 and 6 Bq respectively, dose being 2 and 0.4 micro Sv per year. Sr-90 amount in the bone tissue decreases with the age and for the residents of Chernigov region it was 7-23 Bq/kg of bone, for the adult residents of Kharkov region it was about 3 Bq/kg of bone. Mean effective dose of internal radiation due to Sr-90 incorporation for the residents of both Kharkov and Chernigov Regions was 0.7 and 1.9 micro Sv per year. Effective dose of external radiation for the residents of Kharkov Region has not changed since the Chernobyl accident. Total effective dose of external and internal radiation in various professional groups for the residents of Chernigov region increased by 80 micro Sv per year which makes up 14% of mean population dose in Ukraine. (author). 11 refs, 5 tabs

  9. Using a spatially structured life cycle model to assess the influence of multiple stressors on an exploited coastal-nursery-dependent population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, B.; Rivot, E.; Savina, M.; Le Pape, O.

    2018-02-01

    Exploited coastal-nursery-dependent fish species are subject to various stressors occurring at specific stages of the life cycle: climate-driven variability in hydrography determines the success of the first eggs/larvae stages; coastal nursery habitat suitability controls juvenile growth and survival; and fisheries target mostly adults. A life cycle approach was used to quantify the relative influence of these stressors on the Eastern English Channel (EEC) population of the common sole (Solea solea), a coastal-nursery-dependent flatfish population which sustains important fisheries. The common sole has a complex life cycle: after eggs hatch, larvae spend several weeks drifting in open water. Survivors go on to metamorphose into benthic fish. Juveniles spend the first two years of their life in coastal and estuarine nurseries. Close to maturation, they migrate to deeper areas, where different subpopulations supplied by different nurseries reproduce and are exploited by fisheries. A spatially structured age-and stage-based hierarchical Bayesian model integrating various aspects of ecological knowledge, data sources and expert knowledge was built to quantitatively describe this complex life cycle. The model included the low connectivity among three subpopulations in the EEC, the influence of hydrographic variability, the availability of suitable juvenile habitat and fisheries. Scenarios were designed to quantify the effects of interacting stressors on population renewal. Results emphasized the importance of coastal nursery habitat availability and quality for the population renewal. Realistic restoration scenarios of the highly degraded Seine estuary produced a two-third increase in catch potential for the adjacent subpopulation. Fisheries, however, remained the main source of population depletion. Setting fishing mortality to the maximum sustainable yield led to substantial increases in biomass (+100%) and catch (+33%) at the EEC scale. The approach also showed how

  10. Dietary Predictors and Plasma Concentrations of Perfluorinated Compounds in a Coastal Population from Northern Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rylander, C.; Brustad, M.; Falk, H.; Sandanger, T.M.; Rylander, C.; Falk, H.; Sandanger, T.M.

    2010-01-01

    Dietary intake, age, gender, and body mass index were investigated as possible predictors of perfluorinated compounds in a study population from northern Norway (44 women and 16 men). In addition to donating a blood sample, the participants answered a detailed questionnaire about diet and lifestyle. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (29 ng/mL), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) (3.9 ng/mL), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) (0.5 ng/mL), perfluoro nonanoate (Pna) (0.8 ng/ml), and perfluoroheptane sulfonate (Phps) (1.1 ng/ml) were detected in more than 95% of all samples. Of the dietary items investigated, fruit and vegetables significantly reduced the concentrations of Pos and Phps, whereas fatty fish to a smaller extent significantly increased the levels of the same compounds. Men had significantly higher concentrations of Pos, Poa, PFHxS, and PFHpS than women. There were significant differences in PFOS isomer pattern between genders, with women having the largest proportion of linear PFOS. PFOS, PFHxS, and PFHpS concentrations also increased with age.

  11. Non-diadromous recruitment in coastal populations of common bully (Gobiomorphus cotidianus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Closs, G.P.; Smith, M.; Barry, B.J.; Markwitz, A.

    2003-01-01

    Otolith microchemistry of common bullies (Gobiomorphus cotidianus) collected from the lower reaches of the Mataura, Clutha, and Taieri/Waipori River systems of New Zealand was examined using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). High strontium:calcium (Sr:Ca) ratios in otolith cores relative to otolith edges suggested either diadromous or estuarine-reared common bullies are present in all three systems, including fish collected from Clydevale (50 km inland) on the Clutha River. However, constant or slightly variable Sr:Ca ratios from otolith core to edge, suggesting a non-diadromous life history, were also observed in fish from the lower Mataura and Taieri/Waipori systems, even where access to the sea was continuously available. The results suggest that diadromy in common bully may be facultative, and that a proportion of the common bully population may be non-diadromous in river systems where suitable larval/juvenile rearing habitat is present. (author). 29 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Local and global influences on population declines of coastal waders: Purple Sandpiper Calidris maritima numbers in the Moray Firth, Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Ron W.; Foster, Simon; Swann, Bob; Etheridge, Brian

    2012-05-01

    Declines in numbers by several wader species in Britain have been linked to climate change, but the mechanism for the declines has rarely been explored. Britain lies at the northern end of the East Atlantic Flyway, and supports 1.3 million out of the Flyway's 8.5 million coastal waders (Charadrii) in winter and the Purple Sandpiper is one of the species whose numbers have declined. Here, we examine the dynamics of the decline as observed in the Moray Firth, northeast Scotland, investigating whether the decline was due to poorer apparent survival (return rate) or poorer recruitment of young birds. The maximum number in the Moray Firth declined from 860 in 1987/88 to 236 in 2006/07, with some increase during winters 2007/08 and 2008/09. At the three main high-tide roosts (Balintore, Lossiemouth and Buckie) the maximum combined number declined from 574 to 90. Changes in survival and recruitment (percentage of first-year birds) were examined at these roosts from captured samples, which were ringed and recaptured. There were no significant changes between winters in survival rates, nor were there differences between the survival rates of age groups (first-year and adult) or bill size groups, which represented birds of different sex and breeding origin. Annual survival estimates for the three roosts ranged from 72 to 77%. The percentage of first-year birds varied among roosts and years; the lowest values were during the late 1980s/early 1990s and early 2000s. A free-running population model incorporating varying percentages of first-year birds and constant mortality for each roost provided a plausible explanation for the decline. Although modelled numbers followed the observed pattern, a discrepancy in one year was carried forward in subsequent years, so that the fit with the observed numbers was parallel rather than similar. However, it seems that the decline in numbers was largely due to poorer recruitment. We discuss whether breeding success had declined, whether the

  13. Psychosocial Status and Economic Dependence for Healthcare and Nonhealthcare among Elderly Population in Rural Coastal Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rent, Priyanka Dsouza; Kumar, Sudeep; Dmello, Mackwin Kenwood; Purushotham, Jagannath

    2017-01-01

    The elderly who will constitute 10% of the Indian population by 2021 face problems such as deteriorating healthcare status, loneliness, and economic constraints among others. All these factors together may affect the psychosocial status of the elderly and their health-seeking behavior. With this background, the current study tried to evaluate the psychosocial status, economic dependence for health and nonhealth expenses and awareness regarding geriatric welfare services (GWS) among elderly patients. The study was carried out among 599 men and women aged above 60 who visited rural healthcare centers in two districts of Karnataka during September-December 2016. A semi-structured interview schedule was administered by a trained medical professional after taking informed consent. Majority of the respondents said that they had company at home, interacted with people outside home and that their advice was honored. About 75.8% of the respondents reported that they were either partially or completely financially dependent on someone else. The mean cost of hospitalization was reported to be Rs. 11,086. Majority of those hospitalized depended on their children to pay for healthcare (66.9%), whereas 16.9% had availed government insurance schemes and 14.6% paid out of pocket. Nearly 64.9% of the respondents were aware of the GWS while 32.6% had used them. The absence of financial risk pooling mechanisms and social support may cause elderly to forego treatment because of the need to pay for healthcare and further deteriorate their psychosocial status. Government initiatives to improve healthcare and social services to the elderly maybe advocated.

  14. The dispersal of phytoplankton populations by enhanced turbulent mixing in a shallow coastal sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Jaimie; Nimmo-Smith, W. Alex M.; Hosegood, Philip J.; Torres, Ricardo

    2014-08-01

    A single tidal cycle survey in a Lagrangian reference frame was conducted in autumn 2010 to evaluate the impact of short-term, episodic and enhanced turbulent mixing on large chain-forming phytoplankton. Observations of turbulence using a free-falling microstructure profiler were undertaken, along with near-simultaneous profiles with an in-line digital holographic camera at station L4 (50° 15‧ N 4° 13‧ W, depth 50 m) in the Western English Channel. Profiles from each instrument were collected hourly whilst following a drogued drifter. Results from an ADCP attached to the drifter showed pronounced vertical shear, indicating that the water column structure consisted of two layers, restricting interpretation of the Lagrangian experiment to the upper ~ 25 m. Atmospheric conditions deteriorated during the mid-point of the survey, resulting in values of turbulent dissipation reaching a maximum of 10- 4 W kg- 1 toward the surface in the upper 10 m. Chain-forming phytoplankton > 200 μm were counted using the data from the holographic camera for the two periods, before and after the enhanced mixing event. As mixing increased phytoplankton underwent chain breakage, were dispersed by advection through their removal from the upper to lower layer and subjected to aggregation with other suspended material. Depth averaged counts of phytoplankton were reduced from a maximum of around 2050 L- 1 before the increased turbulence, to 1070 L- 1 after, with each of these mechanisms contributing to this reduction. These results demonstrate the sensitivity of phytoplantkon populations to moderate increases in turbulent activity, yielding consequences for accurate forecasting of the role played by phytoplankton in climate studies and also for the ecosystem in general in their role as primary producers.

  15. Psychosocial status and economic dependence for healthcare and nonhealthcare among elderly population in rural coastal Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Dsouza Rent

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The elderly who will constitute 10% of the Indian population by 2021 face problems such as deteriorating healthcare status, loneliness, and economic constraints among others. All these factors together may affect the psychosocial status of the elderly and their health-seeking behavior. With this background, the current study tried to evaluate the psychosocial status, economic dependence for health and nonhealth expenses and awareness regarding geriatric welfare services (GWS among elderly patients. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out among 599 men and women aged above 60 who visited rural healthcare centers in two districts of Karnataka during September–December 2016. A semi-structured interview schedule was administered by a trained medical professional after taking informed consent. Results: Majority of the respondents said that they had company at home, interacted with people outside home and that their advice was honored. About 75.8% of the respondents reported that they were either partially or completely financially dependent on someone else. The mean cost of hospitalization was reported to be Rs. 11,086. Majority of those hospitalized depended on their children to pay for healthcare (66.9%, whereas 16.9% had availed government insurance schemes and 14.6% paid out of pocket. Nearly 64.9% of the respondents were aware of the GWS while 32.6% had used them. Conclusion: The absence of financial risk pooling mechanisms and social support may cause elderly to forego treatment because of the need to pay for healthcare and further deteriorate their psychosocial status. Government initiatives to improve healthcare and social services to the elderly maybe advocated.

  16. Assessing Hazard Vulnerability, Habitat Conservation, and Restoration for the Enhancement of Mainland China's Coastal Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjad, Muhammad; Li, Yangfan; Tang, Zhenghong; Cao, Ling; Liu, Xiaoping

    2018-03-01

    Worldwide, humans are facing high risks from natural hazards, especially in coastal regions with high population densities. Rising sea levels due to global warming are making coastal communities' infrastructure vulnerable to natural disasters. The present study aims to provide a coupling approach of vulnerability and resilience through restoration and conservation of lost or degraded coastal natural habitats to reclamation under different climate change scenarios. The integrated valuation of ecosystems and tradeoffs model is used to assess the current and future vulnerability of coastal communities. The model employed is based on seven different biogeophysical variables to calculate a natural hazard index and to highlight the criticality of the restoration of natural habitats. The results show that roughly 25% of the coastline and more than 5 million residents are in highly vulnerable coastal areas of mainland China, and these numbers are expected to double by 2100. Our study suggests that restoration and conservation in recently reclaimed areas have the potential to reduce this vulnerability by 45%. Hence, natural habitats have proved to be a great defense against coastal hazards and should be prioritized in coastal planning and development. The findings confirm that natural habitats are critical for coastal resilience and can act as a recovery force of coastal functionality loss. Therefore, we recommend that the Chinese government prioritizes restoration (where possible) and conservation of the remaining habitats for the sake of coastal resilience to prevent natural hazards from escalating into disasters.

  17. Suicide among nursing home residents in Australia: A national population-based retrospective analysis of medico-legal death investigation information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Briony J; Bugeja, Lyndal C; Pilgrim, Jennifer L; Ibrahim, Joseph E

    2018-05-01

    Suicide among nursing home residents is a growing public health concern, currently lacking in empirical research. This study aims to describe the frequency and nature of suicide among nursing home residents in Australia. This research comprised a national population-based retrospective analysis of suicide deaths among nursing home residents in Australia reported to the Coroner between July 2000 and December 2013. Cases were identified using the National Coronial Information System, and data collected from paper-based coroners' records on individual, incident, and organizational factors, as well as details of the medico-legal death investigation. Data analysis comprised univariate and bivariate descriptive statistical techniques; ecological analysis of incidence rates using population denominators; and comparison of age and sex of suicide cases to deaths from other causes using logistic regression. The study identified 141 suicides among nursing home residents, occurring at a rate of 0.02 deaths per 100 000 resident bed days. The ratio of deaths from suicide to deaths from any other cause was higher in males than females (OR = 3.56, 95%CI = 2.48-5.12, P = home for less than 12 months (n = 71, 50.3%). Common major life stressors identified in suicide cases included the following: health deterioration (n = 112, 79.4%); isolation and loneliness (n = 60, 42.6%); and maladjustment to nursing home life (n = 42, 29.8%). This research provides a foundational understanding of suicide among nursing home residents in Australia and contributes important new information to the international knowledge base. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Use of the robust design to estimate seasonal abundance and demographic parameters of a coastal bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly C Smith

    Full Text Available As delphinid populations become increasingly exposed to human activities we rely on our capacity to produce accurate abundance estimates upon which to base management decisions. This study applied mark-recapture methods following the Robust Design to estimate abundance, demographic parameters, and temporary emigration rates of an Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus population off Bunbury, Western Australia. Boat-based photo-identification surveys were conducted year-round over three consecutive years along pre-determined transect lines to create a consistent sampling effort throughout the study period and area. The best fitting capture-recapture model showed a population with a seasonal Markovian temporary emigration with time varying survival and capture probabilities. Abundance estimates were seasonally dependent with consistently lower numbers obtained during winter and higher during summer and autumn across the three-year study period. Specifically, abundance estimates for all adults and juveniles (combined varied from a low of 63 (95% CI 59 to 73 in winter of 2007 to a high of 139 (95% CI 134 to148 in autumn of 2009. Temporary emigration rates (γ' for animals absent in the previous period ranged from 0.34 to 0.97 (mean  =  0.54; ±SE 0.11 with a peak during spring. Temporary emigration rates for animals present during the previous period (γ'' were lower, ranging from 0.00 to 0.29, with a mean of 0.16 (± SE 0.04. This model yielded a mean apparent survival estimate for juveniles and adults (combined of 0.95 (± SE 0.02 and a capture probability from 0.07 to 0.51 with a mean of 0.30 (± SE 0.04. This study demonstrates the importance of incorporating temporary emigration to accurately estimate abundance of coastal delphinids. Temporary emigration rates were high in this study, despite the large area surveyed, indicating the challenges of sampling highly mobile animals which range over large spatial areas.

  19. Are slum dwellers at heightened risk of HIV infection than other urban residents? Evidence from population-based HIV prevalence surveys in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madise, Nyovani J; Ziraba, Abdhalah K; Inungu, Joseph; Khamadi, Samoel A; Ezeh, Alex; Zulu, Eliya M; Kebaso, John; Okoth, Vincent; Mwau, Matilu

    2012-09-01

    In 2008, the global urban population surpassed the rural population and by 2050 more than 6 billion will be living in urban centres. A growing body of research has reported on poor health outcomes among the urban poor but not much is known about HIV prevalence among this group. A survey of nearly 3000 men and women was conducted in two Nairobi slums in Kenya between 2006 and 2007, where respondents were tested for HIV status. In addition, data from the 2008/2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey were used to compare HIV prevalence between slum residents and those living in other urban and rural areas. The results showed strong intra-urban differences. HIV was 12% among slum residents compared with 5% and 6% among non-slum urban and rural residents, respectively. Generally, men had lower HIV prevalence than women although in the slums the gap was narrower. Among women, sexual experience before the age of 15 compared with after 19 years was associated with 62% higher odds of being HIV positive. There was ethnic variation in patterns of HIV infection although the effect depended on the current place of residence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [STUDY OF HEALTH LITERACY OF RURAL RESIDENTS OF ALMATY OBLAST (REGION), KAZAKHSTAN: ROLE OF FINANCIAL WELLBEING IN THE FORMATION OF HEALTH LITERACY OF POPULATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisunova, G; Turdaliyeva, B; Tulebayev, K; Zagulova, D

    2016-10-01

    Aim of the study was to explore the relationships between health literacy (HL) and financial wellbeing in residents of Almaty oblast (region). The survey was conducted among 826 residents of Almaty region aged 18 y.o. Over 56.5% were female residents. To estimate health literacy, self assessed health, financial wellbeing and attitude towards health /work -questionnaire HLS-EU-Q was used. The results confirmed a significant relationship between financial wellbeing, health literacy and health outcomes residents of Almaty region. Relationships between HL and self- assessed health and attitudes towards health /work balance were observed only in respondents with low financial deprivation index, in respondents with low financial wellbeing (high financial deprivation index) no such relationships were observed. Higher financial deprivation index and lower health literacy were observed in respondents for whom work meant more than health. Lower financial deprivation index and higher health literacy were in those respondents for whom health meant more than work. Improvement of HL and motivation for healthy behavior are important challenges for public health. To answer them population's financial wellbeing improvement alone is not enough, as complex change of consumer behavior in healthcare system is needed. HL enhancing in disadvantaged population groups should inform about possibilities of free healthcare services, medications and about the structure of public healthcare service.

  1. Anthropometrics of mental foramen in dry dentate and edentulous mandibles in Coastal Andhra population of Andhra Pradesh State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Moogala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the morphological features and morphometrics of mental foramen with reference to surrounding anatomical landmarks in Coastal Andhra population of Andhra Pradesh State. Materials and Methods: Two-hundred and nineteen dry dentate and edentulous mandibles are examined in this study. Out of these 127 were dentate and 92 were edentulous. Various morphological and morphometrical parameters were measured by using digital Vernier caliper, metallic wire and metallic scale on both the right and left sides. Results: In the present study, the distance between most anterior margin of mental foramen and posterior border of ramus of the mandible is [MF-PR], MF-PR is 69.61 ± 6.03 mm on the right side and is 69.17 ± 6. 0 mm on left side in dentate mandible. In edentulous type, MF-PR is 68.39 ±6.4 mm on right side and 68.81 ± 6.55 mm on left side. In the present study, the distance between symphysis menti and most anterior margin of mental foramen [MF-SM] in dentate mandible is 28.24 ± 5.09 mm on right side and is 27.45 ± 3.7 mm on left side. In edentulous mandible (MF-SM is 28.51 ± 4.5 mm on right side and on left side is 27.99 ± 4.50 mm. Conclusion: Acquiring the knowledge and importance of anatomy of mental foramen is helpful in avoiding neurovascular complications, during regional anesthesia, peri apical surgeries, nerve repositioning and dental implant placement.

  2. Comparative biology and population mixing among local, coastal and offshore Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in the North Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat and western Baltic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotte, Aril; Johannessen, Arne; Kvamme, Cecilie; Clausen, Lotte Worsøe; Nash, Richard D. M.

    2017-01-01

    The population structure of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) from 13 local, coastal and offshore areas of the North Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat and western Baltic (northeast Atlantic) was studied using biological and environmental data from 1970–2015. The objective was to identify distinct populations by comparing variability in the temporal and spatial phenotypic characteristics and evaluate the potential for mixing of populations in time and space. The populations varied in biological characteristics such as mean vertebral counts (VS), growth and maturity ogives. Generalized additive models indicated temporally stable VS in the North Sea and western Baltic, whereas intra-annual temporal variation of VS occurred in other areas. High variability of VS within a population was not affected by environmental factors such as temperature and salinity. Consequently, seasonal VS variability can be explained by the presence or absence of herring populations as they migrate between areas. The three main populations identified in this paper correspond to the three managed stocks in this area: Norwegian spring spawners (NSS), western Baltic spring spawners (WBSS) and North Sea autumn spawners (NSAS). In addition, several local populations were identified in fjords or lakes along the coast, but our analyses could not detect direct mixing of local populations with the three main populations. Our results highlight the importance of recognizing herring dynamics and understanding the mixing of populations as a challenge for management of herring. PMID:29084258

  3. Prevalence and regional correlates of road traffic injury among Chinese urban residents: A 21-city population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockett, Ian R H; Jiang, Shuhan; Yang, Qian; Yang, Tingzhong; Yang, Xiaozhao Y; Peng, Sihui; Yu, Lingwei

    2017-08-18

    This study estimated the prevalence of road traffic injury among Chinese urban residents and examined individual and regional-level correlates. A cross-sectional multistage process was used to sample residents from 21 selected cities in China. Survey respondents reported their history of road traffic injury in the past 12 months through a community survey. Multilevel, multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify injury correlates. Based on a retrospective 12-month reporting window, road traffic injury prevalence among urban residents was 13.2%. Prevalence of road traffic injury, by type, was 8.7, 8.7, 8.5, and 7.7% in the automobile, bicycle, motorcycle, and pedestrian categories, respectively. Multilevel analysis showed that prevalence of road traffic injury was positively associated with minority status, income, and mental health disorder score at the individual level. Regionally, road traffic injury was associated with geographic location of residence and prevalence of mental health disorders. Both individual and regional-level variables were associated with road traffic injury among Chinese urban residents, a finding whose implications transcend wholesale imported generic solutions. This descriptive research demonstrates an urgent need for longitudinal studies across China on risk and protective factors, in order to inform injury etiology, surveillance, prevention, treatment, and evaluation.

  4. MODIS Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Depth over Turbid Coastal Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a new approach to retrieve Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS over the turbid coastal water. This approach supplements the operational Dark Target (DT aerosol retrieval algorithm that currently does not conduct AOD retrieval in shallow waters that have visible sediments or sea-floor (i.e., Class 2 waters. Over the global coastal water regions in cloud-free conditions, coastal screening leads to ~20% unavailability of AOD retrievals. Here, we refine the MODIS DT algorithm by considering that water-leaving radiance at 2.1 μm to be negligible regardless of water turbidity, and therefore the 2.1 μm reflectance at the top of the atmosphere is sensitive to both change of fine-mode and coarse-mode AODs. By assuming that the aerosol single scattering properties over coastal turbid water are similar to those over the adjacent open-ocean pixels, the new algorithm can derive AOD over these shallow waters. The test algorithm yields ~18% more MODIS-AERONET collocated pairs for six AERONET stations in the coastal water regions. Furthermore, comparison of the new retrieval with these AERONET observations show that the new AOD retrievals have equivalent or better accuracy than those retrieved by the MODIS operational algorithm’s over coastal land and non-turbid coastal water product. Combining the new retrievals with the existing MODIS operational retrievals yields an overall improvement of AOD over those coastal water regions. Most importantly, this refinement extends the spatial and temporal coverage of MODIS AOD retrievals over the coastal regions where 60% of human population resides. This expanded coverage is crucial for better understanding of impact of anthropogenic aerosol particles on coastal air quality and climate.

  5. Are white storks addicted to junk food? Impacts of landfill use on the movement and behaviour of resident white storks (Ciconia ciconia) from a partially migratory population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Nathalie I; Correia, Ricardo A; Silva, João Paulo; Pacheco, Carlos; Catry, Inês; Atkinson, Philip W; Gill, Jenny A; Franco, Aldina M A

    2016-01-01

    The migratory patterns of animals are changing in response to global environmental change with many species forming resident populations in areas where they were once migratory. The white stork (Ciconia ciconia) was wholly migratory in Europe but recently guaranteed, year-round food from landfill sites has facilitated the establishment of resident populations in Iberia. In this study 17 resident white storks were fitted with GPS/GSM data loggers (including accelerometer) and tracked for 9.1 ± 3.7 months to quantify the extent and consistency of landfill attendance by individuals during the non-breeding and breeding seasons and to assess the influence of landfill use on daily distances travelled, percentage of GPS fixes spent foraging and non-landfill foraging ranges. Resident white storks used landfill more during non-breeding (20.1 % ± 2.3 of foraging GPS fixes) than during breeding (14.9 % ± 2.2). Landfill attendance declined with increasing distance between nest and landfill in both seasons. During non-breeding a large percentage of GPS fixes occurred on the nest throughout the day (27 % ± 3.0 of fixes) in the majority of tagged storks. This study provides first confirmation of year-round nest use by resident white storks. The percentage of GPS fixes on the nest was not influenced by the distance between nest and the landfill site. Storks travelled up to 48.2 km to visit landfills during non-breeding and a maximum of 28.1 km during breeding, notably further than previous estimates. Storks nesting close to landfill sites used landfill more and had smaller foraging ranges in non-landfill habitat indicating higher reliance on landfill. The majority of non-landfill foraging occurred around the nest and long distance trips were made specifically to visit landfill. The continuous availability of food resources on landfill has facilitated year-round nest use in white storks and is influencing their home ranges and movement behaviour. White

  6. The effect of metal pollution on the population genetic structure of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) residing in the River Hayle, Cornwall, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrant, Christopher J. [King' s College London, Metals Metabolism Group, Division of Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences, Franklin Wilkins Building, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH (United Kingdom); Stevens, Jamie R. [University of Exeter, Biosciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Geoffrey Pope Building, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QD (United Kingdom); Hogstrand, Christer [King' s College London, Metals Metabolism Group, Division of Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences, Franklin Wilkins Building, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH (United Kingdom); Bury, Nicolas R., E-mail: nic.bury@kcl.ac.uk [King' s College London, Metals Metabolism Group, Division of Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences, Franklin Wilkins Building, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    The River Hayle in south-west England is impacted with metals and can be divided into three regions depending on the copper and zinc concentrations: a low-metal upper section; a highly-contaminated middle section and a moderately contaminated lower section. Hayle river water is toxic to metal-naive brown trout, but brown trout are found in the upper and lower regions. The study aimed to evaluate the population genetic structure of River Hayle brown trout and to determine if the highly-contaminated section acts as a chemical barrier to migration. Population genetic analysis indicated that metals were not a barrier to gene flow within the river, but there was a high level of differentiation observed between fish sampled at two sites in the upper region, despite being separated by only 1 km. The metal tolerance trait exhibited by this brown trout population may represent an important component of the species genetic diversity in this region. - Highlights: > River Hayle, Cornwall, UK, water is toxic to metal-naive brown trout. > Some brown trout populations resident in the River Hayle are tolerant of elevated metals (e.g. copper and zinc). > Elevated metals do not affect the gene flow between sites on the river. > The population genetic structure of the brown trout in the River Hayle appears unaffected by elevated metals. - Aquatic metal pollution does not affect the gene flow between brown trout resident below and above a metal mining waste discharge point in the River Hayle, Cornwall, UK.

  7. Wheat cultivar-specific selection of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol-producing Pseudomonas species from resident soil populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzola, M.; Funnell, D.L.; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    An emerging body of evidence indicates a role for plant genotype as a determinant of the species and genetic composition of the saprophytic microbial community resident to the rhizosphere. In this study, experiments were conducted to determine the capacity of five different wheat cultivars to

  8. Coastal Morphology and Coastal Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Graaff, J.

    2009-01-01

    Lecture notes ct5309. Tides, currents and water; coastal problems; sediment transport processes; coastal transport modes; longshore transport; cross-shore transport; fundamentals of mud; channels and trenches; coastal protection; application of structures; application of nourishments.

  9. Pollution of coastal seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Pollution of various environments is a consequence of population growth and industrialisation. Coastal seas form part of marine environment and are very rich in minerals, crude oil fishes etc. They are also being used for disposal of wastes from...

  10. Reproductive success and chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination of resident great blue herons (Ardea herodias) from coastal British Columbia, Canada, 1977 to 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, M.L.; Elliott, J.E.; Butler, R.W.; Wilson, L.K.

    2003-01-01

    Human disturbance and loss of nesting habitat were more important factors than chlorinated hydrocarbons in changing heron reproductive success. - Over the period 1977-2000, eggs of Pacific great blue heron (Ardea herodias fannini) were collected from 23 colonies along the southern coast of British Columbia, Canada, and analyzed for persistent organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Concentrations of OC pesticides in eggs declined sharply in the late 1970s, after which there were minimal changes. The sums of PCB congeners were not reduced appreciably during the 1980s and 1990s, but Aroclor 1260 concentrations suggested a sharp decline in PCB contamination of eggs in the late 1970s, similar to that shown for OC pesticides. Eggs collected along or near the Fraser River delta showed higher levels of most pesticides compared to other monitored colonies. Although the delta lands support a long-standing agricultural economy, the primary factors influencing OC levels in the delta colonies were thought to be driven by estuarine processes. We suggest two possible influencing factors were: 1) a greater rate of bioaccumulation in the estuary due to the deposition of particulates collected over a vast area encompassed by the Fraser River watershed; or 2) a higher rate of biomagnification in the estuary due to species differences at lower trophic levels of the heron food chain. Eggs from urban colonies contained higher levels of PCBs. The congener pattern was not clearly different from that observed in less contaminated eggs from rural and pulp mill-influenced colonies, except that colonies in Vancouver had greater proportions of PCB-66, suggesting a local source of Aroclor 1242. Productivity in the coastal heron colonies was highly variable over the period of study, with 71% of recorded colony-wide reproductive failures occurring in colonies near pulp mills. However, the predominant factors influencing reproductive success were probably disturbance

  11. Retention of Ag-specific memory CD4+ T cells in the draining lymph node indicates lymphoid tissue resident memory populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Clare L; Dutton, Emma E; Tomura, Michio; Withers, David R

    2017-05-01

    Several different memory T-cell populations have now been described based upon surface receptor expression and migratory capabilities. Here we have assessed murine endogenous memory CD4 + T cells generated within a draining lymph node and their subsequent migration to other secondary lymphoid tissues. Having established a model response targeting a specific peripheral lymph node, we temporally labelled all the cells within draining lymph node using photoconversion. Tracking of photoconverted and non-photoconverted Ag-specific CD4 + T cells revealed the rapid establishment of a circulating memory population in all lymph nodes within days of immunisation. Strikingly, a resident memory CD4 + T cell population became established in the draining lymph node and persisted for several months in the absence of detectable migration to other lymphoid tissue. These cells most closely resembled effector memory T cells, usually associated with circulation through non-lymphoid tissue, but here, these cells were retained in the draining lymph node. These data indicate that lymphoid tissue resident memory CD4 + T-cell populations are generated in peripheral lymph nodes following immunisation. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Immunology published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Vitamin D and Calcium supplementation prevents severe falls in elderly community dwelling residents: a pragmatic population-based 3-year intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Roj; Mosekilde, Leif; Foldspang, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Background and aims: We evaluated the effect of two programs for the prevention of falls leading to acute hospital admission in a population of elderly community-dwelling Danish residents. Methods: This was a factorial, pragmatic, intervention study. We included 9605 community-dwelling city......, or no intervention. Results: The Calcium and Vitamin D program was followed by 50.3% and the Environmental and Health Program by 46.4%. According to a multivariate analysis including age, marital status and intervention program, female residents who followed the Calcium and Vitamin D Program had a 12% risk reduction...... in severe falls (RR 0.88; 95% CI 0.79-0.98; pfalls leading to acute hospitalization in communitydwelling elderly females in a northern European region known to be deficient in vitamin D....

  13. Connectedness to nature and public (skin) health perspectives: results of a representative, population-based survey among Austrian residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Höltge, Jan; Cervinka, Renate; Moshammer, Hanns

    2014-01-20

    Connectedness to nature (CN) influences motivation to have contact with outdoor natural environments. Spending leisure time in natural environments is beneficial for human health and well-being. Besides these positive effects, health risks of open-air activities are mainly related to unprotected sun light exposure-associated acute and chronic skin hazards. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional, representative telephone survey among Austrian residents to study the association of perceived CN level with sun-exposure knowledge, tanning habits, and sun protective behaviour. In total, 1,500 study subjects (50.5% females) participated in this questionnaire survey. Although knowledge about tanning and motives to tan were similar among genders, females performed more photoprotective measures and were more connected to nature (all p nature connectedness and skin health-relevant recreational habits of Austrian residents. The findings suggest to integrate hitherto neglected gender-specific Public (Skin) Health promotion when counselling on the manifold health advantages of outdoor activities.

  14. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the serum and breast milk of the resident population from production area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jun; Wang, Ying; Yang, Congqiao; Hu, Jicheng; Liu, Weizhi; Cui, Jian; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2009-10-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been produced in the south coast area of Laizhou Bay, Shandong Province in China, but little is known about the PBDE exposure level of residents to these compounds. We set out to assess potential health risks of PBDEs in the south coast area of the Laizhou Bay by determining the concentrations of PBDEs in serum and breast milk. We measured concentrations of eight PBDE congeners in serum and breast milk. The arithmetic means of Sigma(8)PBDE in pooled serum and breast milk were 613 ng/g lipid and 81.5 ng/g lipid, respectively. The highest concentration for Sigma(8)PBDE in all serum pools was 1830 ng/g lipid from the 41-50 year old female group. BDE-209 was the predominant congener, with the mean concentrations of 403 ng/g lipid in serum and 45.6 ng/g lipid in breast milk, respectively. BDE-209 averagely accounted for 65.8% and 54.2% of the total PBDEs, respectively. Our results suggest that high exposures to PBDEs have led to very high PBDE concentrations in serum and breast milk from the residents living in the south coast area of Laizhou Bay. High PBDE concentrations in human serum, particularly in women, pose a potential public health threat to local residents.

  15. EPR DOSIMETRY STUDY FOR POPULATION RESIDING IN THE VICINITY OF FALLOUT TRACE FOR NUCLEAR TEST ON 7 AUGUST 1962.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhumadilov, Kassym Sh; Ivannikov, Alexander I; Stepanenko, Valeriy F; Toyoda, Shin; Skvortsov, Valeriy G; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2016-12-01

    The method of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry using extracted teeth has been applied to human tooth enamel to obtain individual absorbed doses of residents of settlements in the vicinity of the central axis of radioactive fallout trace from the contaminating surface nuclear test on 7 August 1962. Most of the settlements (Kurchatov, Akzhar, Begen, Buras, Grachi, Mayskoe, Semenovka) are located from 70 to 120 km to the North-East from the epicenter of the explosion at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS). This region is basically an agricultural region. A total of 57 teeth samples were collected from these sites. Eight teeth from residents of the Kokpekty settlement, which was not subjected to any radioactive contamination and located 400 km to the Southeast from SNTS, were chosen as a control. The principal findings, using this method, were that the average excess dose obtained after subtraction of the natural background radiation was 13 mGy and ranged up to about 100 mGy all for residents in this region. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Reconsidering residency: Characterization and conservation implications of complex migratory patterns of shortnose sturgeon (Acispenser brevirostrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne, Phillip E.; Zydlewski, Gayle B.; Kinnison, Michael T.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.; Wippelhauser, Gail S.

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to conserve endangered species usually involve attempts to define and manage threats at the appropriate scale of population processes. In some species that scale is localized; in others, dispersal and migration link demic units within larger metapopulations. Current conservation strategies for endangered shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) assume the species is river resident, with little to no movement between rivers. However we have found that shortnose sturgeon travel more than 130 km through coastal waters between the largest rivers in Maine. Indeed, acoustic telemetry shows that shortnose sturgeon enter six out of the seven acoustically monitored rivers we have monitored, with over 70% of tagged individuals undertaking coastal migrations between river systems. Four migration patterns were identified for shortnose sturgeon inhabiting the Penobscot River, Maine: river resident (28%), spring coastal emigrant (24%), fall coastal emigrant (33%), and summer coastal emigrant (15%). No shortnose sturgeon classified as maturing female exhibited a resident pattern, indicating differential migration. Traditional river-specific assessment and management of shortnose sturgeon could be better characterized using a broader metapopulation scale, at least in the Gulf of Maine, that accounts for diverse migratory strategies and the importance of migratory corridors as critical habitat.

  17. A biological evaluation of DNA damage detected by comet assay in healthy populations residing in areas that differ in lung cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heepchantree, Worapa; Paratasilpin, Thipmani; Kangwanpong, Daoroong

    2006-06-01

    The comet assay was performed to evaluate the effect of environmental exposure between human populations residing in two areas that differ in lung cancer incidence, Saraphi (n = 91) and Chom Thong (n = 94). Three parameters, the tail length, tail intensity, and tail moment, were used to detect DNA damage in peripheral blood and stimulated lymphocytes with and without the DNA repair inhibitor, aphidicolin. Internal standards, cryopreserved isolated lymphocytes, and isolated lymphocytes irradiated with 2 Gy gamma rays, were used to correct the interexperimental variability. Results revealed a significant difference between two populations only when the tail length was used to measure DNA damage. The evaluation of various potential confounding factors, such as gender, pesticide exposure, smoking, alcohol drinking, and fermented tea leaf or betel nut chewing, indicated no significant influence in DNA damage. In conclusion, significant difference in DNA damage, detected only by tail length between the two populations residing in the areas with different incidence of lung cancer, may reflect a nonhazardous level of exposure to toxic substances.

  18. Population structure and residency patterns of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, at a provisioning site in Cebu, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Gonzalo; Lucey, Anna; Labaja, Jessica; So, Catherine Lee; Snow, Sally; Ponzo, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    This study represents the first description of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, occurring at a provisioning site in Oslob, Cebu, Philippines. Frequent observations of sharks are often difficult, even at tourism sites, giving rise to provisioning activities to attract them. The present study provides repeated longitudinal data at a site where daily provisioning activities took place, and whale sharks were present every day. A total of 158 individual whale sharks were photographically identified between Mar 2012 and Dec 2013, with 129 males (82%), 19 females (12%) and 10 (6%) of undetermined sex. Mean estimated total length was 5.5 m (±1.3 m S.D.). Twenty individuals were measured with laser photogrammetry to validate researchers' estimated sizes, yielding a good correlation (r (2) = 0.83). Fifty-four (34%) individuals were observed being hand-fed by local fishermen (provisioned), through in-water behavioural observations. Maximum likelihood methods were used to model mean residency time of 44.9 days (±20.6 days S.E.) for provisioned R. typus contrasting with 22.4 days (±8.9 days S.E.) for non-provisioned individuals. Propeller scars were observed in 47% of the animals. A mean of 12.7 (±4.3 S.D.) R. typus were present in the survey area daily, with a maximum of 26 individuals (Aug 10 2013) and a minimum of 2 (Dec 6 2012). Twelve (8%) individuals were seen on at least 50% of survey days (n = 621), with a maximum residency of 572 days for one individual (P-396). Twenty four individuals were photographically identified across regional hotsposts, highlighting the species' migratory nature and distribution. Extended residency and differences in lagged identification rates suggest behavioural modification on provisioned individuals, underlying the necessity for proper management of this tourism activity.

  19. Population structure and residency patterns of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, at a provisioning site in Cebu, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Araujo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study represents the first description of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, occurring at a provisioning site in Oslob, Cebu, Philippines. Frequent observations of sharks are often difficult, even at tourism sites, giving rise to provisioning activities to attract them. The present study provides repeated longitudinal data at a site where daily provisioning activities took place, and whale sharks were present every day. A total of 158 individual whale sharks were photographically identified between Mar 2012 and Dec 2013, with 129 males (82%, 19 females (12% and 10 (6% of undetermined sex. Mean estimated total length was 5.5 m (±1.3 m S.D.. Twenty individuals were measured with laser photogrammetry to validate researchers’ estimated sizes, yielding a good correlation (r2 = 0.83. Fifty-four (34% individuals were observed being hand-fed by local fishermen (provisioned, through in-water behavioural observations. Maximum likelihood methods were used to model mean residency time of 44.9 days (±20.6 days S.E. for provisioned R. typus contrasting with 22.4 days (±8.9 days S.E. for non-provisioned individuals. Propeller scars were observed in 47% of the animals. A mean of 12.7 (±4.3 S.D. R. typus were present in the survey area daily, with a maximum of 26 individuals (Aug 10 2013 and a minimum of 2 (Dec 6 2012. Twelve (8% individuals were seen on at least 50% of survey days (n = 621, with a maximum residency of 572 days for one individual (P-396. Twenty four individuals were photographically identified across regional hotsposts, highlighting the species’ migratory nature and distribution. Extended residency and differences in lagged identification rates suggest behavioural modification on provisioned individuals, underlying the necessity for proper management of this tourism activity.

  20. The effect of metal pollution on the population genetic structure of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) residing in the River Hayle, Cornwall, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrant, Christopher J.; Stevens, Jamie R.; Hogstrand, Christer; Bury, Nicolas R.

    2011-01-01

    The River Hayle in south-west England is impacted with metals and can be divided into three regions depending on the copper and zinc concentrations: a low-metal upper section; a highly-contaminated middle section and a moderately contaminated lower section. Hayle river water is toxic to metal-naive brown trout, but brown trout are found in the upper and lower regions. The study aimed to evaluate the population genetic structure of River Hayle brown trout and to determine if the highly-contaminated section acts as a chemical barrier to migration. Population genetic analysis indicated that metals were not a barrier to gene flow within the river, but there was a high level of differentiation observed between fish sampled at two sites in the upper region, despite being separated by only 1 km. The metal tolerance trait exhibited by this brown trout population may represent an important component of the species genetic diversity in this region. - Highlights: → River Hayle, Cornwall, UK, water is toxic to metal-naive brown trout. → Some brown trout populations resident in the River Hayle are tolerant of elevated metals (e.g. copper and zinc). → Elevated metals do not affect the gene flow between sites on the river. → The population genetic structure of the brown trout in the River Hayle appears unaffected by elevated metals. - Aquatic metal pollution does not affect the gene flow between brown trout resident below and above a metal mining waste discharge point in the River Hayle, Cornwall, UK.

  1. Report of the Workshop on Population Characteristics and Change in Coastal Fishing Communities: Madras, India, 10-14 March 1997

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    This workshop brought together 23 fisheries scientists/socio-economists and population experts with experience in demographic and population research on fishing communities and in fisheries management...

  2. [The possibility of provision of hygienically safe residing for the population in residential construction located closely to air transport enterprises].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildenskiold, R S; Tatyanyuk, T K; Savelyev, S I; Rekis, V K

    Operation of the modern heavy aircraft on the surrounding vast territory is associated with the appearance of high levels of sound pressure generated by the powerful engines, especially during takeoff and landing operations. Currently, the elimination or significant reduction of noise pollution on the environment technically does not yet have a radical solution and the possible reduction of the impact ofnoise pollution on the residents ofnearby settlements is achievedfor residents of building by the optimal location of the runway, changing in conditions for the takeoff and landing of aircrafts, the ordering of the regimen of the airport, the introduction of the package sufficiently effective anti-noise diverse - engineering, planning activities, in some cases, the creation ofprotective noise shield on the border of the residential area and the construction ofprotective awnings over the children’s and sports fields with fencing shields converted in the direction of the runway. An example of a positive decision, taking into account the complexity and variety of aspects of the problem, it is possible to consider the development of the project plan of the new microdistrict «Eletsky» in the Soviet district of the city of Lipetsk, falling under the impact of aircraft noise of plying aircrafts of the military airfield.

  3. Evaluation of quantitative imaging methods for organ activity and residence time estimation using a population of phantoms having realistic variations in anatomy and uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Bin; Du Yong; Segars, W. Paul; Wahl, Richard L.; Sgouros, George; Jacene, Heather; Frey, Eric C.

    2009-01-01

    Estimating organ residence times is an essential part of patient-specific dosimetry for radioimmunotherapy (RIT). Quantitative imaging methods for RIT are often evaluated using a single physical or simulated phantom but are intended to be applied clinically where there is variability in patient anatomy, biodistribution, and biokinetics. To provide a more relevant evaluation, the authors have thus developed a population of phantoms with realistic variations in these factors and applied it to the evaluation of quantitative imaging methods both to find the best method and to demonstrate the effects of these variations. Using whole body scans and SPECT/CT images, organ shapes and time-activity curves of 111In ibritumomab tiuxetan were measured in dosimetrically important organs in seven patients undergoing a high dose therapy regimen. Based on these measurements, we created a 3D NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT)-based phantom population. SPECT and planar data at realistic count levels were then simulated using previously validated Monte Carlo simulation tools. The projections from the population were used to evaluate the accuracy and variation in accuracy of residence time estimation methods that used a time series of SPECT and planar scans. Quantitative SPECT (QSPECT) reconstruction methods were used that compensated for attenuation, scatter, and the collimator-detector response. Planar images were processed with a conventional (CPlanar) method that used geometric mean attenuation and triple-energy window scatter compensation and a quantitative planar (QPlanar) processing method that used model-based compensation for image degrading effects. Residence times were estimated from activity estimates made at each of five time points. The authors also evaluated hybrid methods that used CPlanar or QPlanar time-activity curves rescaled to the activity estimated from a single QSPECT image. The methods were evaluated in terms of mean relative error and standard deviation of the

  4. Ethnicity and health care in cervical cancer survival: comparisons between a Filipino resident population, Filipino-Americans, and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redaniel, Maria Theresa; Laudico, Adriano; Mirasol-Lumague, Maria Rica; Gondos, Adam; Uy, Gemma Leonora; Toral, Jean Ann; Benavides, Doris; Brenner, Hermann

    2009-08-01

    Few studies have assessed and compared cervical cancer survival between developed and developing countries, or between ethnic groups within a country. Fewer still have addressed how much of the international or interracial survival differences can be attributed to ethnicity or health care. To determine the role of ethnicity and health care, 5-year survival of patients with cervical cancer was compared between patients in the Philippines and Filipino-Americans, who have the same ethnicity, and between Filipino-Americans and Caucasians, who have the same health care system. Cervical cancer databases from the Manila and Rizal Cancer Registries and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 13 were used. Age-adjusted 5-year survival estimates were computed and compared between the three patient groups. Using Cox proportional hazards modeling, potential determinants of survival differences were examined. Overall 5-year relative survival was similar in Filipino-Americans (68.8%) and Caucasians (66.6%), but was lower for Philippine residents (42.9%). Although late stage at diagnosis explained a large proportion of the survival differences between Philippine residents and Filipino-Americans, excess mortality prevailed after adjustment for stage, age, and morphology in multivariate analysis [relative risk (RR), 2.07; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.68-2.55]. Excess mortality decreased, but persisted, when treatments were included in the multivariate models (RR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.41-2.23). A moderate, marginally significant excess mortality was found among Caucasians compared with Filipino-Americans (adjusted RR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.01-1.47). The differences in cervical cancer survival between patients in the Philippines and in the United States highlight the importance of enhanced health care and access to diagnostic and treatment facilities in the Philippines.

  5. Coastal Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, E.T.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Introduction, waves, sediment transport, littoral transport, lonshore sediment transport, onshore-offshore sediment transport, coastal changes, dune erosion and storm surges, sedimentation in channels and trenches, coastal engineering in practice.

  6. Transitions in ancient inland freshwater resource management in Sri Lanka affect biota and human populations in and around coastal lagoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdouh-Guebas, F; Hettiarachchi, S; Lo Seen, D; Batelaan, O; Sooriyarachchi, S; Jayatissa, L P; Koedam, N

    2005-03-29

    The increasing anthropogenic pressure on natural environments results in impacts that affect tropical forest areas and their biodiversity. Adverse impacts on terrestrial and oceanic environments often compound in the intertidal area, where mangrove forest ecosystems thrive. In tropical coastal areas of many developing countries where people depend on wood and other mangrove forest products and services, forest degradation leads to socioeconomic problems. At the same time, increasing freshwater needs in these areas are expected to cause additional problems. On the basis of remote sensing and ground truthing complemented by colonial archival material from the Dutch East India Company (1602-1800), we report that changes to the historic system of inland freshwater management have increased dramatically in recent times. Hydrological changes, such as interbasin transfers, have resulted in a qualitative ecological and socioeconomic degradation in three coastal lagoons in southern Sri Lanka. Variations in river hydrology have caused changes in the areas suitable as mangrove habitat and, thus, have resulted in an altered distribution. However, increases in mangrove area can mask the degradation of the site in terms of floristic composition, significance of the species, and biodiversity (this effect is termed "cryptic ecological degradation"). It is important that such changes be carefully monitored to ensure biological and socioeconomic sustainability.

  7. Coastal climate is associated with elevated solar irradiance and higher 25(OH)D level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherrie, M P C; Wheeler, B W; White, M P; Sarran, C E; Osborne, N J

    2015-04-01

    There is evidence that populations living close to the coast have improved health and wellbeing. Coastal environments are linked to promotion of physical activity through provision of safe, opportune, aesthetic and accessible spaces for recreation. Exposure to coastal environments may also reduce stress and induce positive mood. We hypothesised that coastal climate may influence the vitamin D status of residents and thus partly explain benefits to health. Ecological and cross-sectional analyses were designed to elucidate the connection between coastal residence and vitamin D status. We divided residential data, from developed land use areas and the Lower Super Output Areas or Data Zones (Scotland) of the 1958 Birth Cohort participants, into the following coastal bands: 50 km. This relationship was modified by latitude with settlements at a lower latitude exhibiting a greater effect. Individuals living closer to the coast in England had higher vitamin D levels than those inland, particularly in autumn. Geographic location may influence biochemistry and health outcomes due to environmental factors. This can provide benefits in terms of vitamin D status but may also pose a risk due to higher skin cancer risk. We provide further evidence in support of the claim that coastal environments can provide opportunities for health and wellbeing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of a community health promotion program on social factors in a vulnerable older adult population residing in social housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Gina; Brydges, Madison

    2018-04-16

    Supporting older adults' health and wellbeing in the community is an important policy goal that can be supported by health promotion. Despite widespread acceptance of the biopsychosocial model of health and its relation to health, many health promotion programs fail to realize this model in program design. Further, there is limited evidence to support program design targeting social determinants of health such as social isolation or connectedness. To fill this gap, we aimed to understand older adult's experiences participating in cardiovascular health promotion program in a subsidized residential building to capture unintended 'spin-off' psychosocial effects. This study took a constructivist, ethnographic approach utilizing participant observation and semi-structured interviews with participants of the program to understand participant's lived experiences of a health promotion program. In total, we conducted eighty hours of field work and fifteen semi-structured interviews with participants of the program. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Four themes emerged. First, the health promotion program filled a perceived gap caused by a constrained and impersonal health care system. Secondly, the program connected older adults with resources and provided regular and secure access to health information and support. Third, for some residents, the program facilitated social relationships between older adults, leaving participants feeling more socially connected to other residents. Lastly, a paradox of loneliness emerged where older adults talked openly about feelings of loneliness, however not in relation to themselves, but rather regarding their peers. Psychosocial aspects of health, such as loneliness, social connectedness, and social support may be of equal value as the physical health benefits to the older adults who participate in health promotion programs. Incorporating these elements into programming is a complex goal, and the complexity of targeting

  9. Assessment of annual intake of thorium from animal origin food consumed by population residing in monazite rich area of southern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyapriya, R.S.; Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai; Prabhath, R.K.; Rao, D.D.; Acharya, R.

    2017-01-01

    Thorium ( 232 Th) concentration was determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in animal origin food groups widely consumed by population residing in monazite rich area of Tamil Nadu, India. The annual intake was evaluated based on market basket study method for female and male population for different age groups. Annual committed effective dose due to 232 Th intake from the ingestion was evaluated for different age groups of individuals, using the ICRP ingestion dose coefficients and annual consumption rate obtained from National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB). Annual intake values of 232 Th for adult members of the population were obtained from food items as, fish from 0.2 to 0.8; flesh food (meat, beef and chicken), from 0.03 to 0.12; and milk from 0.2 to 0.3 Bq year -1 . The total annual internal dose resulting from ingestion of radioisotope in these food groups was 0.2 µSv year -1 for male adult population. (author)

  10. Nitrogen and phosphorus resorption efficiency, and N : P ratios in natural populations of Typha domingensis Pers. in a coastal tropical lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno dos Santos Esteves

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: We studied nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P resorption patterns in Typha domingensis Pers. in a tropical coastal lagoon during different seasons of throughout one year. METHODS: Resorption of N and P is uttered as resorption efficiency (NRE and PRE, respectively, which may be used as an indicator of a nutrient limitation. Higher resorption efficiency values might indicate limitation of a certain element for the growth of aquatic macrophytes. RESULTS: N was inferred to be less limiting than P for the growth of T. domingensis in Campelo Lagoon, since N content varied less than P content and resorption efficiency of N was lower than that of P and, concomitantly, low resorption efficiency of this element. However, T. domingensis of Campelo Lagoon frequently utilized P that was already present in its tissues, contributing to the longer residence time of this element in system. Green leaves of T. domingensis showed N : P ratio, ranging 49-96, corroborating the inference of P limitation. CONCLUSIONS: N : P ratio and resorption efficiency indicate P limitation by T. domingensis in Campelo Lagoon.

  11. Phylogeography of Y-chromosome haplogroup O3a2b2-N6 reveals patrilineal traces of Austronesian populations on the eastern coastal regions of Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Yik-Ying; Huang, Yun-Zhi; Wang, Ling-Xiang; Yu, Ge; Saw, Woei-Yuh; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Lu, Yan; Zhang, Chao; Xu, Shu-Hua; Jin, Li; Li, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Austronesian diffusion is considered one of the greatest dispersals in human history; it led to the peopling of an extremely vast region, ranging from Madagascar in the Indian Ocean to Easter Island in Remote Oceania. The Y-chromosome haplogroup O3a2b*-P164(xM134), a predominant paternal lineage of Austronesian populations, is found at high frequencies in Polynesian populations. However, the internal phylogeny of this haplogroup remains poorly investigated. In this study, we analyzed -seventeen Y-chromosome sequences of haplogroup O3a2b*-P164(xM134) and generated a revised phylogenetic tree of this lineage based on 310 non-private Y-chromosome polymorphisms. We discovered that all available O3a2b*-P164(xM134) samples belong to the newly defined haplogroup O3a2b2-N6 and samples from Austronesian populations belong to the sublineage O3a2b2a2-F706. Additionally, we genotyped a series of Y-chromosome polymorphisms in a large collection of samples from China. We confirmed that the sublineage O3a2b2a2b-B451 is unique to Austronesian populations. We found that O3a2b2-N6 samples are widely distributed on the eastern coastal regions of Asia, from Korea to Vietnam. Furthermore, we propose- that the O3a2b2a2b-B451 lineage represents a genetic connection between ancestors of Austronesian populations and ancient populations in North China, where foxtail millet was domesticated about 11,000 years ago. The large number of newly defined Y-chromosome polymorphisms and the revised phylogenetic tree of O3a2b2-N6 will be helpful to explore the origin of proto-Austronesians and the early diffusion process of Austronesian populations. PMID:28380021

  12. Pre-Columbian population dynamics in coastal southern Peru: A diachronic investigation of mtDNA patterns in the Palpa region by ancient DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Reindel, Markus; Cagigao, Elsa Tomasto; Hummel, Susanne; Herrmann, Bernd

    2010-02-01

    Alternative models have been proposed to explain the formation and decline of the south Peruvian Nasca culture, ranging from migration or invasion to autochthonous development and ecological crisis. To reveal to what extent population dynamic processes accounted for cultural development in the Nasca mainland, or were influenced by them, we analyzed ancient mitochondrial DNA of 218 individuals, originating from chronologically successive archaeological sites in the Palpa region, the Paracas Peninsula, and the Andean highlands in southern Peru. The sampling strategy allowed a diachronic analysis in a time frame from approximately 800 BC to 800 AD. Mitochondrial coding region polymorphisms were successfully analyzed and replicated for 130 individuals and control region sequences (np 16021-16408) for 104 individuals to determine Native American mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and haplotypes. The results were compared with ancient and contemporary Peruvian populations to reveal genetic relations of the archaeological samples. Frequency data and statistics show clear proximity of the Nasca populations to the populations of the preceding Paracas culture from Palpa and the Peninsula, and suggest, along with archaeological data, that the Nasca culture developed autochthonously in the Rio Grande drainage. Furthermore, the influence of changes in socioeconomic complexity in the Palpa area on the genetic diversity of the local population could be observed. In all, a strong genetic affinity between pre-Columbian coastal populations from southern Peru could be determined, together with a significant differentiation from ancient highland and all present-day Peruvian reference populations, best shown in the differential distribution of mitochondrial haplogroups. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Value orientations of the population of the Republic of Tuva (a study of an opinion poll of urban and rural residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana P. Tatarova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the system of value orientations and cultural preferences in post-Soviet Russia are of highest importance for contemporary researchers. This article examines the value orientations of the residents of the Republic of Tuva (a constituent subject of Russian Federation both in toto and by generation and along the urban/rural divide. Our analysis utilized the outcomes of our empirical studies titled “The current state of sociocultural institutions in the Republic of Tuva and their role in preventing social problems” (2011 and “The rural culture of the Republic of Tuva” (2011-2012. I am grateful to students of the Tuva Branch of East Siberian State Academy of Culture and Fine Arts for their aid in conducting the study. The study showed that the system of value orientations in Tuva features certain distinctions between those of urban and rural residents, and along the generational divide. The urban population’s vital values are health, personal security and success (for the elder generation and health, money and personal success (for the younger generation. Among the social values the elder generations most frequently name respect from others, integrity, good family relations, while the younger generation focuses on respect from others, good friendship and integrity. Rural population places family and health above everything else. Studying leisure time of the urban population in Tuva showed that the list of top activities includes spending time with friends and/or family, watching TV and a day outdoors. The outcomes of our study do not completely match the hierarchy of leisure time activities in other regions of Russia and the national average. There is a certain danger in contemporary urban environment’s trend towards leaning down the variety of leisure activities. Our study showed that the urban and rural populations have almost identical TV watching habits, with the majority preferring newscasts, music shows and crime reports

  14. Current selection for lower migratory activity will drive the evolution of residency in a migratory bird population

    OpenAIRE

    Pulido, Francisco; Berthold, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Global warming is impacting biodiversity by altering the distribution, abundance, and phenology of a wide range of animal and plant species. One of the best documented responses to recent climate change is alterations in the migratory behavior of birds, but the mechanisms underlying these phenotypic adjustments are largely unknown. This knowledge is still crucial to predict whether populations of migratory birds will adapt to a rapid increase in temperature. We monitored migratory behavior in...

  15. Are sunscreens a new environmental risk associated with coastal tourism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Quiles, David; Tovar-Sánchez, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    The world coastal-zone population and coastal tourism are expected to grow during this century. Associated with that, there will be an increase in the use of sunscreens and cosmetics with UV-filters in their formulation, which will make coastal regions worldwide susceptible to the impact of these cosmetics. Recent investigations indicate that organic and inorganic UV-filters, as well as many other components that are constituents of the sunscreens, reach the marine environment--directly as a consequence of water recreational activities and/or indirectly from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) effluents. Toxicity of organic and inorganic UV filters has been demonstrated in aquatic organism. UV-filters inhibit growth in marine phytoplankton and tend to bioaccumulate in the food webs. These findings together with coastal tourism data records highlight the potential risk that the increasing use of these cosmetics would have in coastal marine areas. Nevertheless, future investigations into distribution, residence time, aging, partitioning and speciation of their main components and by-products in the water column, persistence, accumulation and toxicity in the trophic chain, are needed to understand the magnitude and real impact of these emerging pollutants in the marine system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Seasonal variation in natural abundance of δ13C and 15N in Salicornia brachiata Roxb. populations from a coastal area of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Doongar R; Seo, Juyoung; Kang, Hojeong; Rathore, Aditya P; Jha, Bhavanath

    2018-05-01

    High and fluctuating salinity is characteristic for coastal salt marshes, which strongly affect the physiology of halophytes consequently resulting in changes in stable isotope distribution. The natural abundance of stable isotopes (δ 13 C and δ 15 N) of the halophyte plant Salicornia brachiata and physico-chemical characteristics of soils were analysed in order to investigate the relationship of stable isotope distribution in different populations in a growing period in the coastal area of Gujarat, India. Aboveground and belowground biomass of S. brachiata was collected from six different populations at five times (September 2014, November 2014, January 2015, March 2015 and May 2015). The δ 13 C values in aboveground (-30.8 to -23.6 ‰, average: -26.6 ± 0.4 ‰) and belowground biomass (-30.0 to -23.1 ‰, average: -26.3 ± 0.4 ‰) were similar. The δ 13 C values were positively correlated with soil salinity and Na concentration, and negatively correlated with soil mineral nitrogen. The δ 15 N values of aboveground (6.7-16.1 ‰, average: 9.6 ± 0.4 ‰) were comparatively higher than belowground biomass (5.4-13.2 ‰, average: 7.8 ± 0.3 ‰). The δ 15 N values were negatively correlated with soil available P. We conclude that the variation in δ 13 C values of S. brachiata was possibly caused by soil salinity (associated Na content) and N limitation which demonstrates the potential of δ 13 C as an indicator of stress in plants.

  17. Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Asthma Prevalence in Different Population Groups Residing in Eastern Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorai, Amit Kr.; Tchounwou, Paul B.; Tuluri, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution has been an on-going research focus due to its detrimental impact on human health. However, its specific effects on asthma prevalence in different age groups, genders and races are not well understood. Thus, the present study was designed to examine the association between selected air pollutants and asthma prevalence in different population groups during 2010 in the eastern part of Texas, USA.The pollutants considered were particulate matter (PM2.5 with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 micrometers) and surface ozone. The population groups were categorized based on age, gender, and race. County-wise asthma hospital discharge data for different age, gender, and racial groups were obtained from Texas Asthma Control Program, Office of Surveillance, Evaluation and Research, Texas Department of State Health Services. The annual means of the air pollutants were obtained from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA)’s air quality system data mart program. Pearson correlation analyzes were conducted to examine the relationship between the annual mean concentrations of pollutants and asthma discharge rates (ADR) for different age groups, genders, and races. The results reveal that there is no significant association or relationship between ADR and exposure of air pollutants (PM2.5, and O3). The study results showed a positive correlation between PM2.5 and ADR and a negative correlation between ADR and ozone in most of the cases. These correlations were not statistically significant, and can be better explained by considering the local weather conditions. The research findings facilitate identification of hotspots for controlling the most affected populations from further environmental exposure to air pollution, and for preventing or reducing the health impacts. PMID:27043587

  18. [An evaluation of the clinical competence of a population of specialist physicians educated by the medical internship and residency system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, R; Busquet, J; Feliu, E; Castellsague, J; Gómez Sáez, J M; Martínez Carretero, J M; Rozman, C

    1995-10-21

    The quality of physicians who have undergone resident official training (MIR) should logically be better than that of the remaining physicians who were not able to enter into this official training. The present study was designed with the aim of verifying this hypothesis. A sample of physicians who underwent the MIR examination in 1982 and who upon passing the same were permitted to initiate the MIR training in 1983 was selected. The group was subdivided into MIR and no MIR and according to the specialty followed. When the physicians were practicing as specialists two types of surveys were carried out with one being by telephone and the other personal in which the personal characteristics, preparation for the MIR test, professional satisfaction and personal motivation were analyzed. The pharmaceutic prescriptions of both groups were analyzed according to indicators of the Servei Català de la Salut (Catalonian Health Service) and the opinion of colleagues of each of the members of each group was evaluated with another questionnaire. The written resolution of hypothetical clinical cases were given to each of the individuals included. A level of global competence defined as a percentage for the following components was identified using: curricular evaluation (10%), professional satisfaction (20%), personal motivation (10%), hypothetical case resolution (35%) and peer opinion (25%). The global competence of the physicians trained under the MIR system was greater than that of the no MIR group (p < 0.01). On analysis by sections the differences of greatest note were observed in the resolution of hypothetical cases (p < 0.0001), curricular evaluation (p < 0.0001) and the quality of pharmaceutical prescription (p < 0.0001). The differences were less of note in comparison of personal motivation (p < 0.02) and professional satisfaction (p < 0.02). No differences were observed in peer opinion. The professional quality of physicians trained by MIR who presented for the 1982

  19. The effect of wildfire on population dynamics for two native small mammal species in a coastal heathland in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedloff, Adam C.; Wilson, John C.; Engeman, Richard M.

    2018-04-01

    The influences of wildfire through population dynamics and life history for two species of small mammals in a south-east Queensland heathland on Bribie Island are presented. Trapping results provided information on breeding, immigration and movement of Melomys burtoni (Grassland melomys) and Rattus lutreolus (Swamp rat). We first investigated and optimized the design of trapping methodology for producing mark-recapture population estimates to compare two adjacent populations, one of which was subjected to an extensive wildfire during the two year study. We consider how well rodents survive wildfire and whether the immediate impacts of fire or altered habitat have the greatest impact on each species. We found the R. lutreolus population was far more influenced by the fire than the M. burtoni population both immediately after the fire and over 18 months of vegetation recovery.

  20. Seasonal variation in population density and heterotrophic activity of attached and free-living bacteria in coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iriberri, J.; Unanue, M.; Barcina, I.; Egea, L.

    1987-01-01

    The abundance and heterotrophic activity of attached and free-living bacteria was examined seasonally in coastal water. Heterotrophic activity was determined by the uptake of [ 14 C]glucose. The density of attached bacteria was always minor, not showing a seasonal variation, whereas the free-living bacteria were more numerous and showed a marked seasonal variation, their density being higher under warmer conditions. The contribution of the attached bacteria to the total assimilation of [ 14 C]glucose was lower than that of the free-living bacteria, neither of them showing a seasonal variation. On a cellular basis, attached bacteria were more active, since they assimilated more [ 14 C]glucose and showed, under warmer conditions, a higher cellular volume. The authors consider that the factors responsible for these observations were the amount and quality of the particulate material, the different availability of organic matter for the two types of bacteria, and in a fundamental way, the variation in water temperature

  1. Dynamics of bacterial populations during bench-scale bioremediation of oily seawater and desert soil bioaugmented with coastal microbial mats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nidaa; Dashti, Narjes; Salamah, Samar; Sorkhoh, Naser; Al-Awadhi, Husain; Radwan, Samir

    2016-03-01

    This study describes a bench-scale attempt to bioremediate Kuwaiti, oily water and soil samples through bioaugmentation with coastal microbial mats rich in hydrocarbonoclastic bacterioflora. Seawater and desert soil samples were artificially polluted with 1% weathered oil, and bioaugmented with microbial mat suspensions. Oil removal and microbial community dynamics were monitored. In batch cultures, oil removal was more effective in soil than in seawater. Hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria associated with mat samples colonized soil more readily than seawater. The predominant oil degrading bacterium in seawater batches was the autochthonous seawater species Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus. The main oil degraders in the inoculated soil samples, on the other hand, were a mixture of the autochthonous mat and desert soil bacteria; Xanthobacter tagetidis, Pseudomonas geniculata, Olivibacter ginsengisoli and others. More bacterial diversity prevailed in seawater during continuous than batch bioremediation. Out of seven hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial species isolated from those cultures, only one, Mycobacterium chlorophenolicum, was of mat origin. This result too confirms that most of the autochthonous mat bacteria failed to colonize seawater. Also culture-independent analysis of seawater from continuous cultures revealed high-bacterial diversity. Many of the bacteria belonged to the Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, and were hydrocarbonoclastic. Optimal biostimulation practices for continuous culture bioremediation of seawater via mat bioaugmentation were adding the highest possible oil concentration as one lot in the beginning of bioremediation, addition of vitamins, and slowing down the seawater flow rate. © 2016 The Author. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Aquifers in coastal reclaimed lands - real world assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, A.; Bironne, A.; Vonhögen-Peeters, L.; Lee, W. K.; Babovic, V. M.; Vermeulen, P.; van Baaren, E.; Karaoulis, M.; Blanchais, F.; Nguyen, M.; Pauw, P.; Doornenbal, P.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change and population growth are significant concerns in coastal regions around the world, where more than 30% of the world's population reside. The numbers continue to rise as coastal areas are increasingly urbanized. Urbanization creates land shortages along the coasts, which has spurred coastal reclamation activities as a viable solution. In this study, we focus on these reclamation areas; reclaimed areas in Singapore, and in the Netherlands, and investigate the potential of these reclaimed bodies as artificial aquifers that could attenuate water shortage problems in addition to their original purpose. We compare how the reclamation methods determine the hydrogeological characteristics of these manmade aquifers. We highlight similarities in freshwater lens development in the artificial shallow aquifers under natural recharge under diverse conditions, i.e. tropical and temperate zones, using numerical models. The characteristics and responses of these aquifers with dynamic freshwater-saltwater interface are contrasted against naturally occurring coastal aquifers where equilibrium was disturbed by anthropogenic activities. Finally, we assess the risks associated with subsidence and saltwater intrusion, combining measurements and numerical models, in case these aquifers are planned for Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) or Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) strategies. Relative performances of some ASR schemes are simulated and compared in the reclaimed lands.

  3. The osteo-inductive activity of bone-marrow-derived mononuclear cells resides within the CD14+ population and is independent of the CD34+ population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, D; Seebach, C; Verboket, R; Schaible, A; Marzi, I; Bonig, H

    2018-03-06

    Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMC) seeded on a scaffold of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) promote bone healing in a critical-size femur defect model. Being BMC a mixed population of predominantly mature haematopoietic cells, which cell type(s) is(are) instrumental for healing remains elusive. Although clinical therapies using BMC are often dubbed as stem cell therapies, whether stem cells are relevant for the therapeutic effects is unclear and, at least in the context of bone repair, seems dubious. Instead, in light of the critical contribution of monocytes and macrophages to tissue development, homeostasis and injury repair, in the current study it was hypothesised that BMC-mediated bone healing derived from the stem cell population. To test this hypothesis, bone remodelling studies were performed in an established athymic rats critical-size femoral defect model, with β-TCP scaffolds augmented with complete BMC or BMC immunomagnetically depleted of stem cells (CD34+) or monocytes/macrophages (CD14+). Bone healing was assessed 8 weeks after transplantation. Compared to BMC-augmented controls, when CD14- BMC, but not CD34- BMC were transplanted into the bone defect, femora possessed dramatically decreased biomechanical stability and new bone formation was markedly reduced, as measured by histology. The degree of vascularisation did not differ between the two groups. It was concluded that the monocyte fraction within the BMC provided critical osteo-inductive cues during fracture healing. Which factors were responsible at the molecular levels remained elusive. However, this study marked a significant progress towards elucidating the mechanisms by which BMC elicit their therapeutic effects, at least in bone regeneration.

  4. Morbidity pattern and health-seeking behavior of aged population residing in Shimla hills of north India: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population aging is a global phenomenon. In India, the size of the elderly population is growing fast. Many older adults have multiple medical conditions. Understanding elderly health problems and health-seeking behavior is prerequisite for proving comprehensive geriatric care to them. Objectives: To assess the morbidity pattern and study the health-seeking behavior of the elderly people of Shimla district in Himachal Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 elderly people aged 60 years and above were selected from urban and rural areas of Shimla hills in North India by simple random sampling. Statistical software Epi info software version 3.2 was used for analyzing data. Descriptive statistics were used to describe sociodemographic and morbidity variables. Results: The most common morbidity identified among them were musculoskeletal problems (55.0% followed by hypertension (40.5%. Two third were seeking treatment for their health problems. Among older persons not seeking treatment for their medical condition, most considered these morbidities as an age-related phenomenon. Many perceived that the health services were too far. Conclusion: The high morbidity load among elderly in the present study stresses for efforts to provide better health care to them and thus ensure that they remain active members of our society. Residence emerged out to be most significant determinant of healthcare-seeking behavior. Policy makers must focus on rural elderly and their beliefs which prevent them from seeking healthcare.

  5. Do changes in the frequency, magnitude and timing of extreme climatic events threaten the population viability of coastal birds?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Martijn; Ens, Bruno J.; Heg, Dik; Brouwer, Lyanne; Krol, Johan; Maier, Martin; Exo, Klaus-Michael; Oosterbeek, Kees; Lok, Tamar; Eising, Corine M.; Koffijberg, Kees

    P>1. Climate change encompasses changes in both the means and the extremes of climatic variables, but the population consequences of the latter are intrinsically difficult to study. 2. We investigated whether the frequency, magnitude and timing of rare but catastrophic flooding events have changed

  6. Coastal Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelvink, J.A.; Steetzel, H.J.; Bliek, A.; Rakhorst, H.D.; Roelse, P.; Bakker, W.T.

    1998-01-01

    This book deals on "Coastal Dynamics", which will be defined in a narrow sense as a mathematical theory, which starts from given equations of motion for the sediment, which leads with the continuity equation and given boundary conditions to a calculated (eventually schematized) coastal topography,

  7. Estimating the cumulative effects of the nature-based tourism in a coastal dolphin population from southern Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jorge, Sergi; Louzao, Maite; Oro, Daniel; Pereira, Thalia; Corne, Chloe; Wijtten, Zeno; Gomes, Inês; Wambua, John; Christiansen, Fredrik

    2017-06-01

    Due to the growth of nature-based tourism worldwide, behavioural studies are needed to assess the impact of this industry on wildlife populations and understand their short-term effect. Tourism impact on dolphin populations remain poorly documented in developing countries. This study investigates the effects of nature-based tourism on the behaviour of the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in southern Kenya. We used Markov chain models to estimate transition probabilities between behavioural states in the presence and absence of tourist boats, and assess the overall behavioural budgets. Based on these data and the tourism intensity in the area, we quantified the potential tourist boat disturbance over the period 2006-2013. Our results demonstrated that tourist boat interactions affected dolphins' behavioural budgets, with a significant decrease in the overall amount of time travelling and an increase in diving. The average duration of travelling and resting decreased significantly in the presence of boats. Although the cumulative tourism exposure was not significant for the dolphin population at their current levels, these impacts should be taken into consideration with the potential tourism growth in the area. This is particularly important if tourism reaches periods of high intensity, as we have shown that these periods could have a significant impact for the species, particularly where home-range and core areas are highly overlap by this activity. Understanding the effect of human disturbance variations from previous years may help to predict the consequences on dolphin populations, towards achieving a more ecological and economic sustainability of the activity.

  8. Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Congress established the Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund (PCSRF) to monitor the restoration and conservation of Pacific salmon and steelhead populations and...

  9. Hair Mercury Concentrations and Fish Consumption Patterns in Florida Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M. Schaefer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mercury exposure through the consumption of fish and shellfish represents a significant public health concern in the United States. Recent research has demonstrated higher seafood consumption and subsequent increased risk of methylmercury exposure among subpopulations living in coastal areas. The identification of high concentrations of total mercury in blood and skin among resident Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus in the Indian River Lagoon (IRL, a coastal estuary in Florida, alerted us to a potential public health hazard in the contiguous human population. Therefore, we analyzed hair mercury concentrations of residents living along the IRL and ascertained their sources and patterns of seafood consumption. The total mean mercury concentration for 135 residents was 1.53 ± 1.89 µg/g. The concentration of hair mercury among males (2.02 ± 2.38 µg/g was significantly higher than that for females (0.96 ± 0.74 µg/g (p < 0.01. Log transformed hair mercury concentration was significantly associated with the frequency of total seafood consumption (p < 0.01. Individuals who reported consuming seafood once a day or more were 3.71 (95% CI 0.84–16.38 times more likely to have a total hair mercury concentration over 1.0 µg/g, which corresponds approximately to the U.S. EPA reference dose, compared to those who consumed seafood once a week or less. Hair mercury concentration was also significantly higher among individuals who obtained all or most of their seafood from local recreational sources (p < 0.01. The elevated human mercury concentrations mirror the elevated concentrations observed in resident dolphins in the same geographical region. The current study is one of the first to apply the concept of a sentinel animal to a contiguous human population.

  10. Population parameters and the relationships between environmental factors and abundance of the Acetes americanus shrimp (Dendrobranchiata: Sergestidae near a coastal upwelling region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Freitas dos Santos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe population dynamics of Acetes americanus was investigated, focusing on the sex ratio, individual growth, longevity, recruitment and relationship between abundance and environmental factors in the region of Macaé, strongly influenced by coastal upwelling. Otter trawl net samplings were performed from July 2010 to June 2011 at two points (5 m and 15 m. Nearly 19,500 specimens, predominantly females (77.15%, were captured. Their sizes, larger than that of males, indicated sexual dimorphism. Shrimps at lower latitudes present larger sizes and longer longevity than those from higher latitudes. This difference is probably due to low temperatures and high primary productivity. Though no statistical correlation was found between abundance and environmental factors, the species was more abundant in temperatures closer to 20.0º C and in months with high chlorophyll-a levels. Due to the peculiar characteristics of this region, A. americanusshowed greater differences in size and longevity than individuals sampled in other studies undertaken in the continental shelf of Southeast Brazil.

  11. Population growth, trophic level, and reproductive biology of two congeneric archer fishes (Toxotes chatareus, Hamilton 1822 and Toxotes jaculatrix, Pallas 1767) inhabiting Malaysian coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, K D; Bakar, Y; Samat, A; Zaidi, C C; Aziz, A; Mazlan, A G

    2009-12-01

    Population growth, trophic level, and some aspects of reproductive biology of two congeneric archer fish species, Toxotes chatareus and Toxotes jaculatrix, collected from Johor coastal waters, Malaysia, were studied. Growth pattern by length-weight relationship (W=aL(b)) for the sexes differed, and exhibited positive allometric growth (male, female and combined sexes of T. chatareus; female and combined sexes of T. jaculatrix) and isometric growth (male samples of T. jaculatrix only). Trophic levels of both species were analyzed based on 128 specimens. The results show that, in both species, crustaceans and insects were the most abundant prey items, and among crustaceans the red clawed crab Sesarma bidens and Formicidae family insects were the most represented taxa. The estimated mean trophic levels for T. chatareus and T. jaculatrix were 3.422+/-0.009 and 3.420+/-0.020, respectively, indicating that they are largely carnivores. Fecundity of T. chatareus ranged from 38 354 to 147 185 eggs for females with total length ranging from 14.5 to 22.5 cm and total body weight from 48.7 to 270.2 g, and T. jaculatrix 25 251 to 150 456 eggs for females with total length ranging from 12.2 to 23.0 cm and total body weight from 25.7 to 275.0 g. Differences in values of gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indexes calculated for both species in this study may have resulted from uneven sample size ranges.

  12. Spatial and temporal assessment of the initial pattern of phytoplankton population in a newly built coastal reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiangyu; Yang, Kai; Che, Yue; Wang, Mingwei; Zhou, Lili; Chen, Liqiao

    2016-09-01

    For decades, the main threat to the water security of a metropolis, such as the city of Shanghai, has been the rapidly growing demand for water and at the same time, the decrease in water quality, including eutrophication. Therefore Shanghai shifted the preferred freshwater source to the Yangtze Estuary and constructed the Qingcaosha Reservoir, which is subject to less eutrophic water from the Yangtze River. To assess the population of phytoplankton for the first time in the newly built reservoir, this study improved an integrated method to assess the phytoplankton pattern in large-water-area reservoirs and lakes, using partial triadic analysis and Geographic Information Systems. Monthly sampling and monitoring from 10 stations in the reservoir from July 2010 to December 2011 were conducted. The study examined the common pattern of the phytoplankton population structure and determined the differences in the specific composition of the phytoplankton community during the transition period of the reservoir. The results suggest that in all but three sampling stations in the upper parts of Qingcaosha Reservoir, there was a strong common compromise in 2011. The two most important periods occurred from late summer to autumn and from winter to early spring. The former was characterized by the dominance of cyanobacteria, whereas the latter was characterized by the dominance of both chlorophyta and diatoms. Cyanobacteria ( Microcystis spp. as the main genus) were the monopolistic dominant species in the summer after reservoir operation. The statistical analysis also indicated the necessity for regular monitoring to focus on the stations in the lower parts of the reservoir and on several limited species.

  13. Probabilistic estimation of dune erosion and coastal zone risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, F.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal erosion has gained global attention and has been studied for many decades. As a soft sea defence structure, coastal sandy dunes protect coastal zones all over the world, which usually are densely populated areas with tremendous economic value. The coastal zone of the Netherlands, one of the

  14. Genetic and Phenotype [Phenotypic] Catalog of Native Resident Trout of the interior Columbia River Basin : FY-99 Report : Populations of the Pend Oreille, Kettle, and Sanpoil River Basins of Colville National Forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trotter, Patrick C.

    2001-05-01

    The 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council specifies the recovery and preservation of population health of native resident fishes of the Columbia River Basin. Among the native resident species of concern are interior rainbow trout of the Columbia River redband subspecies Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri 1 and westslope cutthroat trout O. clarki lewisi. The westslope cutthroat trout has been petitioned for listing under the U. S. Endangered Species Act (American Wildlands et al. 1997). Before at-risk populations can be protected, their presence and status must be established. Where introgression from introduced species is a concern, as in the case of both westslope cutthroat trout and redband rainbow trout, genetic issues must be addressed as well. As is true with native trout elsewhere in the western United States (Behnke 1992), most of the remaining pure populations of these species in the Columbia River Basin are in relatively remote headwater reaches. The objective of this project is to photo-document upper Columbia Basin native resident trout populations in Washington, and to ascertain their species or subspecies identity and relative genetic purity using a nonlethal DNA technique. FY-99 was year two of a five-year project in which we conducted field visits to remote locations to seek out and catalog these populations. In FY-99 we worked in collaboration with the Colville National Forest and Kalispel Indian Tribe to catalog populations in the northeastern corner of Washington State.

  15. Genetic and phenotype catalog of native resident trout of the interior Columbia River Basin: FY-99 report: populations of the Pend Oreille, Kettle, and Sanpoil River Basins of Colville National Forest/ fiscal year 1999 report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotter, Patrick C.

    2001-01-01

    The 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council specifies the recovery and preservation of population health of native resident fishes of the Columbia River Basin. Among the native resident species of concern are interior rainbow trout of the Columbia River redband subspecies Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri 1 and westslope cutthroat trout O. clarki lewisi. The westslope cutthroat trout has been petitioned for listing under the U. S. Endangered Species Act (American Wildlands et al. 1997). Before at-risk populations can be protected, their presence and status must be established. Where introgression from introduced species is a concern, as in the case of both westslope cutthroat trout and redband rainbow trout, genetic issues must be addressed as well. As is true with native trout elsewhere in the western United States (Behnke 1992), most of the remaining pure populations of these species in the Columbia River Basin are in relatively remote headwater reaches. The objective of this project is to photo-document upper Columbia Basin native resident trout populations in Washington, and to ascertain their species or subspecies identity and relative genetic purity using a nonlethal DNA technique. FY-99 was year two of a five-year project in which we conducted field visits to remote locations to seek out and catalog these populations. In FY-99 we worked in collaboration with the Colville National Forest and Kalispel Indian Tribe to catalog populations in the northeastern corner of Washington State

  16. Permanent resident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Fisher

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The training of physicians in the past century was based primarily on responsibility and the chain-of-command. Those with the bulk of that responsibility in the fields of pediatrics and internal medicine were residents. Residents trained the medical students and supervised them carefully in caring for patients. Most attending physicians supervised their teams at arm's length, primarily serving as teachers of the finer points of diagnosis and treatment during set periods of the day or week with a perfunctory signature on write-ups or progress notes. Residents endeavored to protect the attending physician from being heavily involved unless they were unsure about a clinical problem. Before contacting the attending physician, a more senior resident would be called. Responsibility was the ultimate teacher. The introduction of diagnosis-related groups by the federal government dramatically changed the health care delivery system, placing greater emphasis on attending physician visibility in the medical record, ultimately resulting in more attending physician involvement in day-to-day care of patients in academic institutions. Without specified content in attending notes, hospital revenues would decline. Although always in charge technically, attending physicians increasingly have assumed the role once dominated by the resident. Using biographical experiences of more than 40 years, the author acknowledges and praises the educational role of responsibility in his own training and laments its declining role in today's students and house staff.

  17. Energy and resource basis of an Italian coastal resort region integrated using emergy synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassallo, Paolo; Paoli, Chiara; Tilley, David R; Fabiano, Mauro

    2009-10-01

    Sustainable development of coastal zones must balance economic development that encourages human visitation from a larger population with desires that differ from the local residents with the need to maintain opportunities for the local resident society and conserve ecological capital, which may serve as the basis for residents. We present a case study in which the sustainability level of a coastal zone (Riviera del Beigua), located along the Ligurian coast of north-western Italy, was assessed through the lens of systems ecology using emergy synthesis to integrate across economic, social and environmental sub-systems. Our purposes were (1) to quantify the environmental sustainability level of this coastal zone, (2) to evaluate the role of tourism in affecting the economy, society and environment, and (3) to compare emergy synthesis to Butler's Tourism Area Life Cycle model (TALC). Results showed that 81% of the total emergy consumption in the coastal zone was derived from external sources, indicating that this tourist-heavy community was not sustainable. Tourism, as the dominant economic sub-system, consumed 42% of the total emergy budget, while local residents used the remaining 58%. The progressive stages of the TALC model were found to parallel the dynamic changes in the ratio of external emergy inputs to local emergy inputs, suggesting that emergy synthesis could be a useful tool for detecting a tourist region's TALC stage. Use of such a quantitative tool could expedite sustainability assessment to allow administrative managers to understand the complex relationship between a region's economy, environment and resident society so sound policies can be developed to improve overall sustainability.

  18. Zonal Distribution and Population Biology of Ilyoplax frater (Brachyura: Ocypodoidea: Dotillidae in a Coastal Mudflat of Pakistan

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    Noor Us SAHER, Naureen Aziz QURESHI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Zonal distribution and population biology of Ilyoplax frater were studied in a mangrove mudflat area of Pakistan. The crabs were collected from Korangi creek through transect and quadrat method from low tide level to high tide level. Two transects were delimited in a mangrove area of Korangi creek (24o79’N/ 67o20’E. On each transect, three 0.25 m quadrats were sampled at three tidal levels on a monthly basis during low tide periods from March 2001 to February 2002. A total of 1124 crabs were obtained, of which 482 were males and 642 were females. Density of crabs varied between 0 and 90 /m2. The density and size distribution varied and showed significant differences from low to high tide level, and were positively correlated with the percent moisture, percent organic matter and sediment grain size. The carapace width (CW ranged from 2.5 to 11.5 mm for male and 2.5 to 11.0 mm for female and was not significantly different. The overall sex ratio did not differ significantly from the expected 1:1 throughout the year in small crabs but was significantly different in adult crabs (c2 = 49.73 with more male crabs. Size frequency distribution showed recruitment of juvenile crabs (< 4 mm nearly throughout the year except during June and July. Presence of ovigerous females in all months with seasonal peaks in September, October, December and May indicates seasonal continuous breeding. Weight of egg mass increases with weight of ovigerous females and show positive linear relationship. The estimated mean diameter of egg was 2.83+ 0.25 mm, and the average number of eggs was 3065+ 902 [Current Zoology 56(2: 244–251, 2010].

  19. Outcomes of intraventricular hemorrhage and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus in a population-based cohort of very preterm infants born to residents of Nova Scotia from 1993 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radic, Julia A E; Vincer, Michael; McNeely, P Daniel

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT Intraventicular hemorrhage (IVH) is a common complication of preterm birth, and the prognosis of IVH is incompletely characterized. The objective of this study was to describe the outcomes of IVH in a population-based cohort with minimal selection bias. METHODS All very preterm (≥ 30 completed weeks) patients born in the province of Nova Scotia were included in a comprehensive database. This database was screened for infants born to residents of Nova Scotia from January 1, 1993, to December 31, 2010. Among very preterm infants successfully resuscitated at birth, the numbers of infants who died, were disabled, developed cerebral palsy, developed hydrocephalus, were blind, were deaf, or had cognitive/language scores assessed were analyzed by IVH grade. The relative risk of each outcome was calculated (relative to the risk for infants without IVH). RESULTS Grades 2, 3, and 4 IVH were significantly associated with an increased overall mortality, primarily in the neonatal period, and the risk increased with increasing grade of IVH. Grade 4 IVH was significantly associated with an increased risk of disability (RR 2.00, p < 0.001), and the disability appeared to be primarily due to cerebral palsy (RR 6.07, p < 0.001) and cognitive impairment (difference in mean MDI scores between Grade 4 IVH and no IVH: -19.7, p < 0.001). No infants with Grade 1 or 2 IVH developed hydrocephalus, and hydrocephalus and CSF shunting were not associated with poorer outcomes when controlling for IVH grade. CONCLUSIONS Grades 1 and 2 IVH have much better outcomes than Grades 3 or 4, including a 0% risk of hydrocephalus in the Grade 1 and 2 IVH cohort. Given the low risk of selection bias, the results of this study may be helpful in discussing prognosis with families of very preterm infants diagnosed with IVH.

  20. Health-care-seeking patterns in the emerging private sector in Burkina Faso: a population-based study of urban adult residents in Ouagadougou.

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    Idrissa Beogo

    Full Text Available The private medical care sector is expanding in urban cities in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. However, people's health-care-seeking behaviors in this new landscape remain poorly understood; furthermore, distinguishing between public and private providers and among various types of private providers is critical in this investigation. This study assessed, by type, the healthcare providers urban residents in Burkina Faso visit, and their choice determinants.We conducted a population-based survey of a representative sample of 1,600 households in Ouagadougou from July to November 2011, consisting of 5,820 adults. We assessed the types of providers people typically sought for severe and non-severe conditions. We applied generalized estimating equations in this study.Among those surveyed, 97.7% and 53.1% indicated that they seek a formal provider for treating severe and non-severe conditions, respectively. Among the formal provider seekers, 20.5% and 17.0% chose for-profit (FP providers for treating severe and non-severe conditions, respectively. Insurance coverage was held by 2.0% of those surveyed. Possessing insurance was the strongest predictor for seeking FP, for both severe (odds ratio [OR]  = 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-1.28, and non-severe conditions (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.07-1.39. Other predictors included being a formal jobholder and holding a higher level education. By contrast, we observed no significant difference in predisposing, enabling, or need characteristics between not-for-profit (NFP provider seekers and public provider seekers. Proximity was the primary reason for choosing a provider.The results suggested that FP providers play a crucial role in the urban healthcare market in SSA. Socioeconomic status and insurance status are significant predictors of provider choice. The findings can serve as a crucial reference for policymakers in response to the emergence of FP providers in SSA.

  1. Common variants of the TCF7L2 gene are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a UK-resident South Asian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sudhesh

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have implicated variants of the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2 gene in genetic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus in several different populations. The aim of this study was to determine whether variants of this gene are also risk factors for type 2 diabetes development in a UK-resident South Asian cohort of Punjabi ancestry. Methods We genotyped four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of TCF7L2 (rs7901695, rs7903146, rs11196205 and rs12255372 in 831 subjects with diabetes and 437 control subjects. Results The minor allele of each variant was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes; the greatest risk of developing the disease was conferred by rs7903146, with an allelic odds ratio (OR of 1.31 (95% CI: 1.11 – 1.56, p = 1.96 × 10-3. For each variant, disease risk associated with homozygosity for the minor allele was greater than that for heterozygotes, with the exception of rs12255372. To determine the effect on the observed associations of including young control subjects in our data set, we reanalysed the data using subsets of the control group defined by different minimum age thresholds. Increasing the minimum age of our control subjects resulted in a corresponding increase in OR for all variants of the gene (p ≤ 1.04 × 10-7. Conclusion Our results support recent findings that TCF7L2 is an important genetic risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes in multiple ethnic groups.

  2. Salinity-related variation in gene expression in wild populations of the black-chinned tilapia from various West African coastal marine, estuarine and freshwater habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tine, Mbaye; McKenzie, David J.; Bonhomme, François; Durand, Jean-Dominique

    2011-01-01

    This study measured the relative expression of the genes coding for Na +, K +-ATPase 1α(NAKA), voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), cytochrome c oxidase-1 (COX), and NADH dehydrogenase (NDH), in gills of six wild populations of a West African tilapia species, acclimatised to a range of seasonal (rainy or dry) salinities in coastal, estuarine and freshwater sites. Previous laboratory experiments have demonstrated that these genes, involved in active ion transport, oxidative phosphorylation, and intra-cellular ATP transport, are relatively over-expressed in gill tissues of this species acclimated to high salinity. Positive correlations between relative expression and ambient salinity were found for all genes in the wild populations (Spearman rank correlation, p < 0.05), although for some genes these were only significant in either the rainy season or dry season. Most significantly, however, relative expression was positively correlated amongst the four genes, indicating that they are functionally interrelated in adaptation of Sarotherodon melanotheron to salinity variations in its natural environment. In the rainy season, when salinity was unstable and ranged between zero and 37 psu across the sites, overall mean expression of the genes was higher than in the dry season, which may have reflected more variable particularly sudden fluctuations in salinity and poorer overall water quality. In the dry season, when the salinity is more stable but ranged between zero and 100 psu across the sites, NAKA, NDH and VDAC expression revealed U-shaped relationships with lowest relative expression at salinities approaching seawater, between 25 and 45 psu. Although it is not simple to establish direct relationship between gene expression levels and energy requirement for osmoregulation, these results may indicate that costs of adaptation to salinity are lowest in seawater, the natural environment of this species. While S. melanotheron can colonise environments with extremely

  3. Going coastal: shared evolutionary history between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves (Canis lupus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron V Weckworth

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Many coastal species occupying the temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest in North America comprise endemic populations genetically and ecologically distinct from interior continental conspecifics. Morphological variation previously identified among wolf populations resulted in recognition of multiple subspecies of wolves in the Pacific Northwest. Recently, separate genetic studies have identified diverged populations of wolves in coastal British Columbia and coastal Southeast Alaska, providing support for hypotheses of distinct coastal subspecies. These two regions are geographically and ecologically contiguous, however, there is no comprehensive analysis across all wolf populations in this coastal rainforest.By combining mitochondrial DNA datasets from throughout the Pacific Northwest, we examined the genetic relationship between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolf populations and compared them with adjacent continental populations. Phylogenetic analysis indicates complete overlap in the genetic diversity of coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves, but these populations are distinct from interior continental wolves. Analyses of molecular variation support the separation of all coastal wolves in a group divergent from continental populations, as predicted based on hypothesized subspecies designations. Two novel haplotypes also were uncovered in a newly assayed continental population of interior Alaska wolves.We found evidence that coastal wolves endemic to these temperate rainforests are diverged from neighbouring, interior continental wolves; a finding that necessitates new international strategies associated with the management of this species.

  4. Going coastal: Shared evolutionary history between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves (canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckworth, B.V.; Dawson, N.G.; Talbot, S.L.; Flamme, M.J.; Cook, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many coastal species occupying the temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest in North America comprise endemic populations genetically and ecologically distinct from interior continental conspecifics. Morphological variation previously identified among wolf populations resulted in recognition of multiple subspecies of wolves in the Pacific Northwest. Recently, separate genetic studies have identified diverged populations of wolves in coastal British Columbia and coastal Southeast Alaska, providing support for hypotheses of distinct coastal subspecies. These two regions are geographically and ecologically contiguous, however, there is no comprehensive analysis across all wolf populations in this coastal rainforest. Methodology/Principal Findings: By combining mitochondrial DNA datasets from throughout the Pacific Northwest, we examined the genetic relationship between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolf populations and compared them with adjacent continental populations. Phylogenetic analysis indicates complete overlap in the genetic diversity of coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves, but these populations are distinct from interior continental wolves. Analyses of molecular variation support the separation of all coastal wolves in a group divergent from continental populations, as predicted based on hypothesized subspecies designations. Two novel haplotypes also were uncovered in a newly assayed continental population of interior Alaska wolves. Conclusions/Significance: We found evidence that coastal wolves endemic to these temperate rainforests are diverged from neighbouring, interior continental wolves; a finding that necessitates new international strategies associated with the management of this species. ?? 2011 This is an open-access article.

  5. A survey of integrated coastal zone management experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stive, M.J.F.

    1995-01-01

    Coastal problems that stem from human activities are almost always rooted in resource use conflicts. Since the majority of the world's population lives in coastal areas, such conflicts can only be expected to increase. As population growth continues, the pressure to develop coastal areas for

  6. Coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on the coastal zone focuses on the impact of climate change on Canada's marine and Great Lakes coasts with tips on how to deal with the impacts associated with climate change in sensitive environments. This report is aimed at the sectors that will be most affected by adaptation decisions in the coastal zone, including fisheries, tourism, transportation and water resources. The impact of climate change in the coastal zone may include changes in water levels, wave patterns, storm surges, and thickness of seasonal ice cover. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects global average sea level will rise between 9 and 88 centimetres between 1990 to 2100, but not all areas of Canada will experience the same rate of future sea level change. The main physical impact would be shoreline change that could result in a range of biophysical and socio-economic impacts, some beneficial, some negative. The report focuses on issues related to infrastructure and communities in coastal regions. It is noted that appropriate human adaptation will play a vital role in reducing the extent of potential impacts by decreasing the vulnerability of average zone to climate change. The 3 main trends in coastal adaptation include: (1) increase in soft protection, retreat and accommodation, (2) reliance on technology such as geographic information systems to manage information, and (3) awareness of the need for coastal adaptation that is appropriate for local conditions. 61 refs., 7 figs

  7. A Multiple Watershed Approach to Assessing the Effects of Habitat Restoration Actions on Anadromous and Resident Fish Populations, Technical Report 2003-2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmorek, David

    2004-03-01

    Habitat protection and restoration is a cornerstone of current strategies to restore ecosystems, recover endangered fish species, and rebuild fish stocks within the Columbia River Basin. Strategies featuring habitat restoration include the 2000 Biological Opinion on operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS BiOp) developed by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the 2000 Biological Opinion on Bull Trout developed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and Sub-Basin Plans developed under the Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NWPCC). There is however little quantitative information about the effectiveness of different habitat restoration techniques. Such information is crucial for helping scientists and program managers allocate limited funds towards the greatest benefits for fish populations. Therefore, it is critical to systematically test the hypotheses underlying habitat restoration actions for both anadromous and resident fish populations. This pilot project was developed through a proposal to the Innovative Projects fund of the NWPCC (ESSA 2002). It was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) following reviews by the Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP 2002), the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority (CBFWA 2002), the NWPCC and BPA. The study was designed to respond directly to the above described needs for information on the effectiveness of habitat restoration actions, including legal measures specified in the 2000 FCRPS BiOp (RPA 183, pg. 9-133, NMFS 2000). Due to the urgency of addressing these measures, the timeline of the project was accelerated from a duration of 18 months to 14 months. The purpose of this pilot project was to explore methods for evaluating past habitat restoration actions and their effects on fish populations. By doing so, the project will provide a foundation of retrospective analyses, on which to build prospective, multi-watershed designs

  8. Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oumeraci, H.; Burcharth, H. F.; Rouck, J. De

    1995-01-01

    The paper attempts to present an overview of five research projects supported by the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate General XII, under the MAST 2- Programme (Marine Sciences and Technology), with the overall objective of contributing to the development of improved rational me...... methods for the design of coastal structures....

  9. Understanding influences in policy landscapes for sustainable coastal livelihoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, Dirk J.; Clifton, Julian; Visser, Leontine E.; Stacey, Natasha; McWilliam, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Ensuring sustainability of livelihoods for communities residing in coastal environments of the Global South has gained considerable attention across policy making, practice and research fields. Livelihood enhancement programs commonly strategize around developing people's resilience by

  10. Exploring the persistence of stream-dwelling trout populations under alternative real-world turbidity regimes with an individual-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bret C. Harvey; Steven F. Railsback

    2009-01-01

    We explored the effects of elevated turbidity on stream-resident populations of coastal cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii using a spatially explicit individual-based model. Turbidity regimes were contrasted by means of 15-year simulations in a third-order stream in northwestern California. The alternative regimes were based on multiple-year, continuous...

  11. Coastal resuspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, J.A.

    1991-11-01

    There are several potential mechanisms for the suspension in air of radioactive or other pollutants from coastal sea water, beaches, mud banks and salt marshes. Available measurements rarely allow these mechanisms to be distinguished. The limited data show a broad spread of results. When normalised by the concentration of radionuclides in beach sediments most of the data indicate concentrations equivalent to 1 to 30 μg m -3 of sediment suspended in air, both for sampling sites on open coasts and near estuaries. Limited evidence for sampling sites located on salt marshes indicates about 0.2 μg m -3 of suspended sediment. These values represent the aggregate effect of the mechanisms that operate at a limited number of coastal locations. At other locations it is possible that additional mechanisms will contribute to the suspension of sediment. (Author)

  12. Ovarian cancer survival population differences: a "high resolution study" comparing Philippine residents, and Filipino-Americans and Caucasians living in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redaniel, Maria Theresa M; Laudico, Adriano; Mirasol-Lumague, Maria Rica; Gondos, Adam; Uy, Gemma Leonora; Toral, Jean Ann; Benavides, Doris; Brenner, Hermann

    2009-09-24

    In contrast to most other forms of cancer, data from some developing and developed countries show surprisingly similar survival rates for ovarian cancer. We aimed to compare ovarian cancer survival in Philippine residents, Filipino-Americans and Caucasians living in the US, using a high resolution approach, taking potential differences in prognostic factors into account. Using databases from the SEER 13 and from the Manila and Rizal Cancer Registries, age-adjusted five-year absolute and relative survival estimates were computed using the period analysis method and compared between Filipino-American ovarian cancer patients with cancer patients from the Philippines and Caucasians in the US. Cox proportional hazards modelling was used to determine factors affecting survival differences. Despite more favorable distribution of age and cancer morphology and similar stage distribution, 5-year absolute and relative survival were lower in Philippine residents (Absolute survival, AS, 44%, Standard Error, SE, 2.9 and Relative survival, RS, 49.7%, SE, 3.7) than in Filipino-Americans (AS, 51.3%, SE, 3.1 and RS, 54.1%, SE, 3.4). After adjustment for these and additional covariates, strong excess risk of death for Philippine residents was found (Relative Risk, RR, 2.45, 95% confidence interval, 95% CI, 1.99-3.01). In contrast, no significant differences were found between Filipino-Americans and Caucasians living in the US. Multivariate analyses disclosed strong survival disadvantages of Philippine residents compared to Filipino-American patients, for which differences in access to health care might have played an important role. Survival is no worse among Filipino-Americans than among Caucasians living in the US.

  13. Predicting severe winter coastal storm damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hondula, David M; Dolan, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 40 years residents of, and visitors to, the North Carolina coastal barrier islands have experienced the destructive forces of several 'named' extratropical storms. These storms have caused large-scale redistributions of sand and loss of coastal structures and infrastructure. While most of the population living on the islands are familiar with the wintertime storms, the damage and scars of the 'super northeasters'-such as the Ash Wednesday storm of 7 March 1962, and the Halloween storm of 1989-are slipping away from the public's memory. In this research we compared the damage zones of the 1962 Ash Wednesday storm, as depicted on aerial photographs taken after the storm, with photos taken of the same areas in 2003. With these high-resolution aerial photos we were able to estimate the extent of new development which has taken place along the Outer Banks of North Carolina since 1962. Three damage zones were defined that extend across the islands from the ocean landward on the 1962 aerial photos: (1) the zone of almost total destruction on the seaward edge of the islands where the storm waves break; (2) the zone immediately inland where moderate structural damage occurs during severe storms; and (3) the zone of flood damage at the landward margin of the storm surge and overwash. We considered the rate of coastal erosion, the rate of development, and increases in property values as factors which may contribute to changing the financial risk for coastal communities. In comparing the values of these four factors with the 1962 damage data, we produced a predicted dollar value for storm damage should another storm of the magnitude of the 1962 Ash Wednesday storm occur in the present decade. This model also provides an opportunity to estimate the rate of increase in the potential losses through time as shoreline erosion continues to progressively reduce the buffer between the development and the edge of the sea. Our data suggest that the losses along the North

  14. Predicting severe winter coastal storm damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hondula, David M; Dolan, Robert, E-mail: hondula@virginia.edu [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Virginia, PO Box 400123, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Over the past 40 years residents of, and visitors to, the North Carolina coastal barrier islands have experienced the destructive forces of several 'named' extratropical storms. These storms have caused large-scale redistributions of sand and loss of coastal structures and infrastructure. While most of the population living on the islands are familiar with the wintertime storms, the damage and scars of the 'super northeasters'-such as the Ash Wednesday storm of 7 March 1962, and the Halloween storm of 1989-are slipping away from the public's memory. In this research we compared the damage zones of the 1962 Ash Wednesday storm, as depicted on aerial photographs taken after the storm, with photos taken of the same areas in 2003. With these high-resolution aerial photos we were able to estimate the extent of new development which has taken place along the Outer Banks of North Carolina since 1962. Three damage zones were defined that extend across the islands from the ocean landward on the 1962 aerial photos: (1) the zone of almost total destruction on the seaward edge of the islands where the storm waves break; (2) the zone immediately inland where moderate structural damage occurs during severe storms; and (3) the zone of flood damage at the landward margin of the storm surge and overwash. We considered the rate of coastal erosion, the rate of development, and increases in property values as factors which may contribute to changing the financial risk for coastal communities. In comparing the values of these four factors with the 1962 damage data, we produced a predicted dollar value for storm damage should another storm of the magnitude of the 1962 Ash Wednesday storm occur in the present decade. This model also provides an opportunity to estimate the rate of increase in the potential losses through time as shoreline erosion continues to progressively reduce the buffer between the development and the edge of the sea. Our data suggest that the

  15. Predicting severe winter coastal storm damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondula, David M.; Dolan, Robert

    2010-07-01

    Over the past 40 years residents of, and visitors to, the North Carolina coastal barrier islands have experienced the destructive forces of several 'named' extratropical storms. These storms have caused large-scale redistributions of sand and loss of coastal structures and infrastructure. While most of the population living on the islands are familiar with the wintertime storms, the damage and scars of the 'super northeasters'—such as the Ash Wednesday storm of 7 March 1962, and the Halloween storm of 1989—are slipping away from the public's memory. In this research we compared the damage zones of the 1962 Ash Wednesday storm, as depicted on aerial photographs taken after the storm, with photos taken of the same areas in 2003. With these high-resolution aerial photos we were able to estimate the extent of new development which has taken place along the Outer Banks of North Carolina since 1962. Three damage zones were defined that extend across the islands from the ocean landward on the 1962 aerial photos: (1) the zone of almost total destruction on the seaward edge of the islands where the storm waves break; (2) the zone immediately inland where moderate structural damage occurs during severe storms; and (3) the zone of flood damage at the landward margin of the storm surge and overwash. We considered the rate of coastal erosion, the rate of development, and increases in property values as factors which may contribute to changing the financial risk for coastal communities. In comparing the values of these four factors with the 1962 damage data, we produced a predicted dollar value for storm damage should another storm of the magnitude of the 1962 Ash Wednesday storm occur in the present decade. This model also provides an opportunity to estimate the rate of increase in the potential losses through time as shoreline erosion continues to progressively reduce the buffer between the development and the edge of the sea. Our data suggest that the losses along the

  16. COASTAL, Pacific, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a coastal study.

  17. Coastal Inlet Model Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Coastal Inlet Model Facility, as part of the Coastal Inlets Research Program (CIRP), is an idealized inlet dedicated to the study of coastal inlets and equipped...

  18. SCOR Working Group 137: "Global Patterns of Phytoplankton Dynamics in Coastal Ecosystems": An introduction to the special issue of Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paerl, Hans W.; Yin, Kedong; O'Brien, Todd D.

    2015-09-01

    Phytoplankton form the base of most aquatic food webs and play a central role in assimilation and processing of carbon and nutrients, including nitrogen, phosphorus, silicon, iron and a wide range of trace elements (Reynolds, 2006). In the marine environment, estuarine and coastal ecosystems (jointly termed coastal here) are among the most productive, resourceful and dynamic habitats on Earth (Malone et al., 1999; Day et al., 2012). These ecosystems constitute only ∼10% of the global oceans' surface, but account for over 30% of its primary production (Day et al., 2012). They process vast amounts of nutrients, sediments, carbonaceous, and xenobiotic compounds generated in coastal watersheds, in which approximately 70% of the world's human population resides (Nixon, 1995; Vitousek et al., 1997; NOAA, 2013). Estuarine and coastal ecosystems are also strongly influenced by localized nutrient enrichment from coastal upwelling, with major impacts on the structure and function of phytoplankton communities and the food webs they support (Legendre and Rassoulzadegan, 2012; Paerl and Justić, 2012). In addition, introductions and invasions of exotic plant and animal species have led to significant "top down" mediated changes in phytoplankton community structure and function (Carlton, 1999; Thompson, 2005). Lastly, the coastal zone is the "front line" of climatically-induced environmental change, including warming, altered rainfall patterns, intensities and magnitudes (Trenberth, 2005; IPCC, 2012), which jointly impact phytoplankton community structure and function (Cloern and Jassby, 2012; Hall et al., 2013). The combined effects of these pressures translate into a myriad of changes in phytoplankton production and community structure along geomorphological and geographic gradients (Fig. 1), with cascading quantitative and qualitative impacts on biogeochemical cycling, food web structure and function, water quality and overall resourcefulness and sustainability of these

  19. The Arctic Coastal Erosion Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Thomas, Matthew Anthony [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bull, Diana L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Craig A. [Integral Consulting Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Roberts, Jesse D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Permafrost-dominated coastlines in the Arctic are rapidly disappearing. Arctic coastal erosion rates in the United States have doubled since the middle of the twentieth century and appear to be accelerating. Positive erosion trends have been observed for highly-variable geomorphic conditions across the entire Arctic, suggesting a major (human-timescale) shift in coastal landscape evolution. Unfortunately, irreversible coastal land loss in this region poses a threat to native, industrial, scientific, and military communities. The Arctic coastline is vast, spanning more than 100,000 km across eight nations, ten percent of which is overseen by the United States. Much of area is inaccessible by all-season roads. People and infrastructure, therefore, are commonly located near the coast. The impact of the Arctic coastal erosion problem is widespread. Homes are being lost. Residents are being dispersed and their villages relocated. Shoreline fuel storage and delivery systems are at greater risk. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operate research facilities along some of the most rapidly eroding sections of coast in the world. The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) is struggling to fortify coastal radar sites, operated to ensure national sovereignty in the air, against the erosion problem. Rapid alterations to the Arctic coastline are facilitated by oceanographic and geomorphic perturbations associated with climate change. Sea ice extent is declining, sea level is rising, sea water temperature is increasing, and permafrost state is changing. The polar orientation of the Arctic exacerbates the magnitude and rate of the environmental forcings that facilitate coastal land area loss. The fundamental mechanics of these processes are understood; their non-linear combination poses an extreme hazard. Tools to accurately predict Arctic coastal erosion do not exist. To obtain an accurate predictive model, a coupling of the influences of

  20. Utilization Trends in Diagnostic Imaging for a Commercially Insured Population: A Study of Massachusetts Residents 2009 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Stephen; Mortele, Koenraad J; Young, Gary J

    2018-06-01

    To report utilization trends in diagnostic imaging among commercially insured Massachusetts residents from 2009 to 2013. Current Procedural Terminology codes were used to identify diagnostic imaging claims in the Massachusetts All-Payer Claims Database for the years 2009 to 2013. We reported utilization and spending annually by imaging modality using total claims, claims per 1,000 individuals, total expenditures, and average per claim payments. The number of diagnostic imaging claims per insured MA resident increased only 0.6% from 2009 to 2013, whereas nonradiology claims increased by 6% annually. Overall diagnostic imaging expenditures, adjusted for inflation, were 27% lower in 2009 than 2013, compared with an 18% increase in nonimaging expenditures. Average payments per claim were lower in 2013 than 2009 for all modalities except nuclear medicine. Imaging procedure claims per 1,000 MA residents increased from 2009 to 2013 by 13% in MRI, from 147 to 166; by 17% in ultrasound, from 453 to 530; and by 12% in radiography (x-ray), from 985 to 1,100. However, CT claims per 1,000 fell by 37%, from 341 to 213, and nuclear medicine declined 57%, from 89 claims per 1,000 to 38. Diagnostic imaging utilization exhibited negligible growth over the study period. Diagnostic imaging expenditures declined, largely the result of falling payments per claim in most imaging modalities, in contrast with increased utilization and spending on nonimaging services. Utilization of MRI, ultrasound, and x-ray increased from 2009 to 2013, whereas CT and nuclear medicine use decreased sharply, although CT was heavily impacted by billing code changes. Copyright © 2018 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lower obesity rate during residence at high altitude among a military population with frequent migration: a quasi experimental model for investigating spatial causation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameson D Voss

    Full Text Available We sought to evaluate whether residence at high altitude is associated with the development of obesity among those at increased risk of becoming obese. Obesity, a leading global health priority, is often refractory to care. A potentially novel intervention is hypoxia, which has demonstrated positive long-term metabolic effects in rats. Whether or not high altitude residence confers benefit in humans, however, remains unknown. Using a quasi-experimental, retrospective study design, we observed all outpatient medical encounters for overweight active component enlisted service members in the U.S. Army or Air Force from January 2006 to December 2012 who were stationed in the United States. We compared high altitude (>1.96 kilometers above sea level duty assignment with low altitude (<0.98 kilometers. The outcome of interest was obesity related ICD-9 codes (278.00-01, V85.3x-V85.54 by Cox regression. We found service members had a lower hazard ratio (HR of incident obesity diagnosis if stationed at high altitude as compared to low altitude (HR 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54-0.65; p<0.001. Using geographic distribution of obesity prevalence among civilians throughout the U.S. as a covariate (as measured by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the REGARDS study also predicted obesity onset among service members. In conclusion, high altitude residence predicts lower rates of new obesity diagnoses among overweight service members in the U.S. Army and Air Force. Future studies should assign exposure using randomization, clarify the mechanism(s of this relationship, and assess the net balance of harms and benefits of high altitude on obesity prevention.

  2. Resident Peritoneal NK cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga, Rosemary; Matzinger, Polly; Perez-Diez, Ainhoa

    2011-01-01

    Here we describe a new population of NK cells that reside in the normal, un-inflamed peritoneal cavity. Phenotypically, they share some similarities with the small population of CD49b negative, CD27 positive immature splenic NK cells, and liver NK cells but differ in their expression of CD62L, TRAIL and EOMES. Functionally, the peritoneal NK cells resemble the immature splenic NK cells in their production of IFN-γ, GM-CSF and TNF-α and in the killing of YAC-1 target cells. We also found that the peritoneum induces different behavior in mature and immature splenic NK cells. When transferred intravenously into RAGγcKO mice, both populations undergo homeostatic proliferation in the spleen, but only the immature splenic NK cells, are able to reach the peritoneum. When transferred directly into the peritoneum, the mature NK cells survive but do not divide, while the immature NK cells proliferate profusely. These data suggest that the peritoneum is not only home to a new subset of tissue resident NK cells but that it differentially regulates the migration and homeostatic proliferation of immature versus mature NK cells. PMID:22079985

  3. Coastal hazards: hurricanes, tsunamis, coastal erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandas, Stephen; Mersfelder, Lynne; Farrar, Frank; France, Rigoberto Guardado; Yajimovich, Oscar Efraín González; Muñoz, Aurora R.; Rivera, María del C.

    1996-01-01

    Oceans are the largest geographic feature on the surface of the Earth, covering approximately 70% of the planet's surface. As a result, oceans have a tremendous impact on the Earth, its climate, and its inhabitants. The coast or shoreline is the boundary between ocean environments and land habitats. By the year 2025, it is estimated that approximately two-thirds of the world's population will be living within 200 kilometers of a coast. In many ways, we treat the coast just like any other type of land area, as a safe and stable place to live and play. However, coastal environments are dynamic, and they constantly change in response to natural processes and to human activities.

  4. Maintaining a way of life for São Miguel Island (the Azores archipelago, Portugal): an assessment of coastal processes and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, K; Phillips, M R; Borges, P; Thomas, T; August, P; Calado, H; Veloso-Gomes, F

    2014-05-15

    Traditional hard engineering structures and recently emerging soft engineering alternatives have been employed to protect vulnerable coastlines. Despite negative publicity, they have ensured community survival where socio-economic benefits outweigh adverse impacts. This is especially true for Small Islands (SI) where increasing sea levels and storm intensities threaten already limited land availability. This paper presents coastal vulnerability in São Miguel Island (the Azores SI archipelago) and considers SI issues with regard to coastal land loss. Regional wave statistics using 1998 to 2011 wind record showed: periods ranging from 7 to 13s (circa 83%); wave heights between 1 and 3m (circa 60%); and increasing trends in westerly (p=0.473), easterly (p=0.632) and southeasterly (p=0.932) waves. Sea level analyses between 1978 and 2007 indicated a statistically significant rising trend (2.5 ± 0.4 mm yr(-1); p=0.000), while between 1996 and 2007 it was 3.3 ± 1.5 mm yr(-1) (p=0.025), agreeing with other global sea level studies. Based on 2001 and 2008 population data and using zonal statistics, circa 60% of the Island's population was found to reside within 1 km of the sea and the percentage of total population was linearly correlated with distance from the shoreline (r(2)=99%). Three case studies show hard coastal engineering solutions preserved Azorean coastal lifestyle and had little or no observed negative impacts on their environs. Although hard engineering is likely to remain a valuable and feasible coastal protection option, an inventory of São Miguel's population distribution, surf breaks, bathymetry and coastal erosion rates showed the potential of using multifunctional artificial reefs as a soft engineering solution. These offshore submerged breakwaters offer coastal protection while providing additional benefits such as surfing amenity and beach widening. Consequently, findings of this work can inform other SI communities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B

  5. Introduction to the Special Issue: Coastal GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Nyerges

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of the ISPRS International Journal of Geographic Information about “Coastal GIS” is motivated by many circumstances. More than one-half of the world’s human population lives in coastal areas (within 200 kilometers of coast as of 2000 [1]. The trend toward coastal habitation is expected to continue in the US with the total being 75 percent by 2025, meaning that coastal human–environment interactions will likely increase and intensify [2]. Geographic information systems (GIS are being developed and used by technical specialists, stakeholder publics, and executive/policy decision makers for improving our understanding and management of coastal areas, separately and together as more organizations focus on improving the sustainability and resilience of coastal systems. Coastal systems—defined as the area of land closely connected to the sea, including barrier islands, wetlands, mudflats, beaches, estuaries, cities, towns, recreational areas, and maritime facilities, the continental seas and shelves, and the overlying atmosphere—are subject to complex and dynamic interactions among natural and human-driven processes. Coastal systems are crucial to regional and national economies, hosting valued human-built infrastructure and providing ecosystem services that sustain human well-being. This special issue of IJGI about coastal GIS presents a collection of nine papers that address many of the issues mentioned above. [...

  6. Identifying knowledge gaps hampering application of intertidal habitats in coastal protection: Opportunities & steps to take

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, T.J.; van Belzen, J.; Balke, T.; Zhu, Z.; Airoldi, L.; Blight, A.J.; Davies, A.J.; Galván, C.; Hawkins, S.J.; Hoggart, S.P.G.; Lara, J.L.; Losada, I.J.; Maza, M.; Ondiviela, B.; Skov, M.W.; Strain, E.M.; Thompson, R.C.; Yang, S.L.; Zanuttigh, B.; Zhang, L.; Herman, P.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decades, population densities in coastal areas have strongly increased. At the same time, many intertidal coastal ecosystems that provide valuable services in terms of coastal protection have greatly degraded. As a result, coastal defense has become increasingly dependent on man-made

  7. Residency Allocation Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Residency Allocation Database is used to determine allocation of funds for residency programs offered by Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). Information...

  8. A small population of resident limb bud mesenchymal cells express few MSC-associated markers, but the expression of these markers is increased immediately after cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Llera, Jessica Cristina; Chimal-Monroy, Jesús

    2018-05-01

    Skeletal progenitors are derived from resident limb bud mesenchymal cells of the vertebrate embryos. However, it remains poorly understood if they represent stem cells, progenitors, or multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC). Derived-MSC of different adult tissues under in vitro experimental conditions can differentiate into the same cellular lineages that are present in the limb. Here, comparing non-cultured versus cultured mesenchymal limb bud cells, we determined the expression of MSC-associated markers, the in vitro differentiation capacity and their gene expression profile. Results showed that in freshly isolated limb bud mesenchymal cells, the proportion of cells expressing Sca1, CD44, CD105, CD90, and CD73 is very low and a low expression of lineage-specific genes was observed. However, recently seeded limb bud mesenchymal cells acquired Sca1 and CD44 markers and the expression of the key differentiation genes Runx2 and Sox9, while Scx and Pparg genes decreased. Also, their chondrogenic differentiation capacity decreased through cellular passages while the osteogenic increased. Our findings suggest that the modification of the cell adhesion process through the in vitro method changed the limb mesenchymal cell immunophenotype leading to the expression and maintenance of common MSC-associated markers. These findings could have a significant impact on MSC study and isolation strategy because they could explain common variations observed in the MSC immunophenotype in different tissues. © 2018 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  9. [REAL AND UNREAL BACKLASHES OF AEROSPACE ACTIVITY FOR THE HEALTH OF POPULATION RESIDING NEAR AREAS OF FALL OF BEING SEPARATED PARTS OF CARRIER ROCKETS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkov, N A; Valtseva, E A; Kharlamova, E N; Kulikova, A Z

    2015-01-01

    Since the late 1990s, the ongoing debate about the consequences of the rocket-space activities for the health of people residing near areas offall ofseparatingfrom parts of rockets. Some scientists (Kolyado IB et al., 2001, 2013; Shoikhet YN et al., 2005, 2008; Skrebtsova NV 2005, 2006, Sidorov PI et al., 2007) argue that the main cause of morbidity is the effect of unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH). However, environmentalists find it only in areas offalling fragments of separated parts of carrier rockets. Presented in the article data were obtained as a result of perennial epidemiological and hygienic research. There was performed a hygienic assessment of the content of chemical substances in water soil andfood, nutritional status and health risk near areas of the district of falling 310 and 326. There were studied conditions of work and the health of military personnel at the sites of storage of propellant components. The relationship between revealed diseases and UDMH was not established, but there was their causality due to the influence of environmental factors characteristic of territories and living conditions. In the settlements near the area of falling district 310 the share of extremely anxious persons was shown to be 1.8 times higher than in controls, which is caused by cases of falling fragments stages of carrier rockets in the territory of settlements.

  10. Respiratory infections in elderly people: Viral role in a resident population of elderly care centers in Lisbon, winter 2013–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Jesus Chasqueira

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the etiology and clinical consequences of viral respiratory infections in 18 elderly care centers (ECC in Lisbon, which housed a total of 1022 residents. Methods: Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected whenever an elderly had symptoms of acute respiratory infections (ARI. PCR and RT-PCR were performed for influenza A/B, human parainfluenza virus 1–4, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus (HMPV, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, rhinovirus, enterovirus, human coronavirus and human Bocavirus (HBoV. Array cards for atypical bacteria were also used in severe cases. Results: In total, 188 episodes of ARI were reported, being rhinovirus the most frequently detected (n = 53, followed by influenza A(H3 (n = 19 and HBoV (n = 14. Severe infections were reported in 19 patients, 11 of which were fatal, Legionela pneumophila, rhinovirus, HMPV and RSV associated with these fatalities. Nine influenza strains were analyzed, all antigenically dissimilar from vaccine strain 2013/14. “Age”, “HMPV” and “Respiratory disease” showed an association with severe infection. Conclusions: In this study an etiologic agent could be found in 60% of the acute respiratory episodes. These data provides information about the circulating viruses in ECC and highlights the importance of searching both viruses and atypical bacteria in severe ARI. Keywords: Elderly, Respiratory infections, Respiratory viruses, Legionella pneumophila, Elderly care centers, Real time PCR

  11. Tsunami vulnerability assessment in the western coastal belt in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranagalage, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    26th December 2004 tsunami disaster has caused massive loss of life, damage to coastal infrastructures and disruption to economic activities in the coastal belt of Sri Lanka. Tsunami vulnerability assessment is a requirement for disaster risk and vulnerability reduction. It plays a major role in identifying the extent and level of vulnerabilities to disasters within the communities. There is a need for a clearer understanding of the disaster risk patterns and factors contributing to it in different parts of the coastal belt. The main objective of this study is to investigate tsunami vulnerability assessment of Moratuwa Municipal council area in Sri Lanka. We have selected Moratuwa area due to considering urbanization pattern and Tsunami hazards of the country. Different data sets such as one-meter resolution LiDAR data, orthophoto, population, housing data and road layer were employed in this study. We employed tsunami vulnerability model for 1796 housing units located there, for a tsunami scenario with a maximum run-up 8 meters. 86% of the total land area affected by the tsunami in 8 meters scenarios. Additionally, building population has been used to estimate population in different vulnerability levels. The result shows that 32% of the buildings have extremely critical vulnerability level, 46% have critical vulnerability level, 22% have high vulnerability level, and 1% have a moderate vulnerability. According to the population estimation model results, 18% reside building with extremely critical vulnerability, 43% with critical vulnerability, 36% with high vulnerability and 3% belong to moderate vulnerability level. The results of the study provide a clear picture of tsunami vulnerability. Outcomes of this analysis can use as a valuable tool for urban planners to assess the risk and extent of disaster risk reduction which could be achieved via suitable mitigation measures to manage the coastal belt in Sri Lanka.

  12. Genomic population structure of freshwater-resident and anadromous ide (Leuciscus idus) in north-western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovrind, Mikkel; Olsen, Morten Tange; Garrett Vieira, Filipe Jorge

    2016-01-01

    to become increasingly affected by changes in salinity is the ide (Leuciscus idus). The ide is a stenohaline freshwater fish that primarily inhabits rivers, with frequent anadromous behavior when sea salinity does not exceed 15%. Unlike most other anadromous Baltic Sea fish species, the ide has yet......Climate change experts largely agree that future climate change and associated rises in oceanic water levels over the upcoming decades, will affect marine salinity levels. The subsequent effects on fish communities in estuarine ecosystems however, are less clear. One species that is likely...... to be subjected to large-scale stocking programs, and thus provides an excellent opportunity for studying the natural population structure across the current salinity gradient in the Danish Belts. To explore this, we used Genotyping-by-Sequencing to determine genomic population structure of both freshwater...

  13. Effects of chronic low level radiation in the population residing in the high level natural radiation area in Kerala, India: employing heritable DNA mutation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shazia; Koya, P K M; Seshadri, M

    2013-03-18

    To study the effect of chronic low level radiation, 4040 meiosis were screened at eight microsatellite and five minisatellite (2485 and 1555 meiosis respectively) marker loci in people residing in high and normal level natural radiation areas of Kerala. Variants in the repeat length of allele were considered as mutants. Mutation rates (expressed as the number of mutations observed in the total number of meiosis) were 6.4×10(-3) (16/2485) and 2.6×10(-3) (4/1555) at microsatellite and minisatellite respectively. The germline microsatellite mutation frequency of father was 1.78 times higher at 7.52×10(-3) (8/1064) compared to 4.22×10(-3) (6/1421) of mother (P=0.292, Fisher's Exact two-sided test). The paternal and maternal mutation rates at minisatellite loci were more or less similar at 2.78×10(-3) (2/719) and 2.39×10(-3) (2/836), respectively (P=1.0, Fisher's Exact two-sided test). Higher but statistically non-significant microsatellite mutation frequency was observed in HLNRA compared to NLNRA (7.25×10(-3) vs 3.64×10(-3); P=0.547). The apparent increase in the mutation rate of microsatellite loci with the increase in radiation dose was also not statistically significant. All the four minisatellite mutation observed were from HLNRA (1198 meiosis) and no mutation was observed among 357 meiosis screened from NLNRA families. All the markers used in the present study were in the non-coding region and hence mutations in these regions may not cause adverse health effects, but the study is important in understanding the effect of chronic low level radiation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. How do urology residents manage personal finances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichman, J M; Bernheim, B D; Espinosa, E A; Cecconi, P P; Meyer, J; Pearle, M S; Preminger, G M; Leveillee, R J

    2001-05-01

    To examine personal financial management among residents to answer three research questions: do residents make reasonable financial choices; why do some residents not save; and what steps can be taken to improve residents' personal financial decisions. Portions of the Federal Reserve Board's Survey of Consumer Finances were modified and piloted to elicit demographic, expense, saving, and income data. The final questionnaire was completed by 151 urology residents at 20 programs. Comparing residents with the general population in the same age and income categories, the median debt/household income ratio was 2.38 versus 0.64. Residents had greater educational debt, greater noneducational debt, and lower savings. Resident participation in retirement accounts was 100% at institutions with employer-matching 401k or 403b plans, 63% at institutions with nonmatching 401k or 403b plans, and 48% at institutions without retirement plans for residents (P = 0.002). Fifty-nine percent of residents budgeted expenses, 27% had cash balances below $1000, 51% had paid interest charges on credit cards within the previous year, and 12% maintained unpaid credit card balances greater than $10,000. The median resident income was $38,400. A significant minority of residents appear not to make reasonable financial choices. Some residents save little because of a failure to budget, indebtedness, high projected income growth, or insufficient attention to personal financial management. Residents save more when they are eligible for tax-deferred retirement plans, particularly when their institution matches their contributions. Many residents would benefit from instruction concerning prudent financial management.

  15. Bulinus globosus (Planorbidae; Gastropoda) populations in the Lake Victoria basin and coastal Kenya show extreme nuclear genetic differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyakaana, Silvester; Stothard, J. Russell; Nalugwa, Allen

    2013-01-01

    . Average observed and expected heterozygosities across loci in each population ranged from 0.13 to 0.69 and from 0.39 to 0.79, respectively. Twenty-five of the seventy-six possible population-locus comparisons significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium proportions after Bonferroni corrections...

  16. STORMTOOLS: Coastal Environmental Risk Index (CERI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm L. Spaulding

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges facing coastal zone managers and municipal planners is the development of an objective, quantitative assessment of the risk to structures, infrastructure, and public safety that coastal communities face from storm surge in the presence of changing climatic conditions, particularly sea level rise and coastal erosion. Here we use state of the art modeling tool (ADCIRC and STWAVE to predict storm surge and wave, combined with shoreline change maps (erosion, and damage functions to construct a Coastal Environmental Risk Index (CERI. Access to the state emergency data base (E-911 provides information on structure characteristics and the ability to perform analyses for individual structures. CERI has been designed as an on line Geographic Information System (GIS based tool, and hence is fully compatible with current flooding maps, including those from FEMA. The basic framework and associated GIS methods can be readily applied to any coastal area. The approach can be used by local and state planners to objectively evaluate different policy options for effectiveness and cost/benefit. In this study, CERI is applied to RI two communities; Charlestown representing a typical coastal barrier system directly exposed to ocean waves and high erosion rates, with predominantly low density single family residences and Warwick located within Narragansett Bay, with more limited wave exposure, lower erosion rates, and higher residential housing density. Results of these applications are highlighted herein.

  17. Seabed resident event driven profiling system (SREP). Concept, design and tests

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Afzulpurkar, S.; Maurya, P.K.; Fernandes, L.; Madhan, R.; Desa, E.S.; Dabolkar, N.A.; Navelkar, G.S.; Naik, L.; Shetye, V.G.; Shetty, N.B.; Prabhudesai, S.P.; Nagvekar, S.; Vimalakumari, D.

    The seabed resident event driven profiling system (SREP) described here offers a novel, optimized approach to profiling in coastal waters from seabed to sea surface during the rough seas encountered in the southwest monsoon season (June...

  18. Incidence of cancer in children residing in ten jurisdictions of the Mexican Republic: importance of the Cancer registry (a population-based study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo; Juárez-Ocaña, Servando; González-Miranda, Guadalupe; Palma-Padilla, Virginia; Carreón-Cruz, Rogelio; Ortega-Alvárez, Manuel Carlos; Mejía-Arangure, Juan Manuel

    2007-01-01

    In 1996, Mexico started to register cases of childhood cancer. Here, we describe the incidence of cancer in children, residing in ten Mexican jurisdictions, who were treated by the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). New cases of childhood cancer, which were registered prospectively in nine principal Medical Centers of IMSS during the periods 1998–2000 (five jurisdictions) and 1996–2002 (five jurisdictions), were analyzed. Personnel were specifically trained to register, capture, and encode information. For each of these jurisdictions, the frequency, average annual age-standardized incidence (AAS) and average annual incidence per period by sex and, age, were calculated (rates per 1,000,000 children/years). In total 2,615 new cases of cancer were registered, with the male/female ratio generally >1, but in some tumors there were more cases in females (retinoblastoma, germ cells tumors). The principal groups of neoplasms in seven jurisdictions were leukemias, central nervous system tumors (CNS tumors), and lymphomas, and the combined frequency for these three groups was 62.6 to 77.2%. Most frequently found (five jurisdictions) was the North American-European pattern (leukemias-CNS tumors-lymphomas). Eight jurisdictions had AAS within the range reported in the world literature. The highest incidence was found for children underless than five year of age. In eight jurisdictions, leukemia had high incidence (>50). The AAS of lymphomas was between 1.9 to 28.6. Chiapas and Guerrero had the highest AAS of CNS tumors (31.9 and 30.3, respectively). The frequency and incidence of neuroblastoma was low. Chiapas had the highest incidence of retinoblastoma (21.8). Germ-cell tumors had high incidence. The North American-European pattern of cancers was the principal one found; the overall incidence was within the range reported worldwide. In general but particularly in two jurisdictions (Yucatán and Chiapas), it will be necessary to carry out studies concerning the

  19. Diversity in Dermatology Residency Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voorhees, Abby S; Enos, Clinton W

    2017-10-01

    Given the change in our population to one that is more racially and ethnically diverse, the topic of diversity in dermatology residency programs has gained attention. In a field that has become highly competitive, diversity is lagging behind. What are the reasons for this? The existing diversity among medical school matriculants is reflective of the applicant pool, and although modest, there has been an increase in applications and acceptances from minority populations. However, these proportions do not carry through to the population applying to dermatology residency. Making sense of this and planning how to recruit a more diverse applicant pool will improve the quality and cultural competency of future dermatologists. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Recurring Necrotic Enteritis Outbreaks in Commercial Broiler Chicken Flocks Strongly Influence Toxin Gene Carriage and Species Richness in the Resident Clostridium perfringens Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucher, Marie-Lou; Perron, Gabriel G.; Arsenault, Julie; Letellier, Ann; Boulianne, Martine; Quessy, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    Extensive use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) in food animals has been questioned due to the globally increasing problem of antibiotic resistance. For the poultry industry, digestive health management following AGP withdrawal in Europe has been a challenge, especially the control of necrotic enteritis. Much research work has focused on gut health in commercial broiler chicken husbandry. Understanding the behavior of Clostridium perfringens in its ecological niche, the poultry barn, is key to a sustainable and cost-effective production in the absence of AGPs. Using polymerase chain reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we evaluated how the C. perfringens population evolved in drug-free commercial broiler chicken farms, either healthy or affected with recurring clinical necrotic enteritis outbreaks, over a 14-month period. We show that a high genotypic richness was associated with an increased risk of clinical necrotic enteritis. Also, necrotic enteritis-affected farms had a significant reduction of C. perfringens genotypic richness over time, an increase in the proportion of C. perfringens strains harboring the cpb2 gene, the netB gene, or both. Thus, necrotic enteritis occurrence is correlated with the presence of an initial highly diverse C. perfringens population, increasing the opportunity for the selective sweep of particularly virulent genotypes. Disease outbreaks also appear to largely influence the evolution of this bacterial species in poultry farms over time. PMID:28567032

  1. Recurring Necrotic Enteritis Outbreaks in Commercial Broiler Chicken Flocks Strongly Influence Toxin Gene Carriage and Species Richness in the Resident Clostridium perfringens Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Lou Gaucher

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Extensive use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs in food animals has been questioned due to the globally increasing problem of antibiotic resistance. For the poultry industry, digestive health management following AGP withdrawal in Europe has been a challenge, especially the control of necrotic enteritis. Much research work has focused on gut health in commercial broiler chicken husbandry. Understanding the behavior of Clostridium perfringens in its ecological niche, the poultry barn, is key to a sustainable and cost-effective production in the absence of AGPs. Using polymerase chain reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we evaluated how the C. perfringens population evolved in drug-free commercial broiler chicken farms, either healthy or affected with recurring clinical necrotic enteritis outbreaks, over a 14-month period. We show that a high genotypic richness was associated with an increased risk of clinical necrotic enteritis. Also, necrotic enteritis-affected farms had a significant reduction of C. perfringens genotypic richness over time, an increase in the proportion of C. perfringens strains harboring the cpb2 gene, the netB gene, or both. Thus, necrotic enteritis occurrence is correlated with the presence of an initial highly diverse C. perfringens population, increasing the opportunity for the selective sweep of particularly virulent genotypes. Disease outbreaks also appear to largely influence the evolution of this bacterial species in poultry farms over time.

  2. Recurring Necrotic Enteritis Outbreaks in Commercial Broiler Chicken Flocks Strongly Influence Toxin Gene Carriage and Species Richness in the Resident Clostridium perfringens Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucher, Marie-Lou; Perron, Gabriel G; Arsenault, Julie; Letellier, Ann; Boulianne, Martine; Quessy, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    Extensive use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) in food animals has been questioned due to the globally increasing problem of antibiotic resistance. For the poultry industry, digestive health management following AGP withdrawal in Europe has been a challenge, especially the control of necrotic enteritis. Much research work has focused on gut health in commercial broiler chicken husbandry. Understanding the behavior of Clostridium perfringens in its ecological niche, the poultry barn, is key to a sustainable and cost-effective production in the absence of AGPs. Using polymerase chain reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we evaluated how the C. perfringens population evolved in drug-free commercial broiler chicken farms, either healthy or affected with recurring clinical necrotic enteritis outbreaks, over a 14-month period. We show that a high genotypic richness was associated with an increased risk of clinical necrotic enteritis. Also, necrotic enteritis-affected farms had a significant reduction of C. perfringens genotypic richness over time, an increase in the proportion of C. perfringens strains harboring the cpb2 gene, the netB gene, or both. Thus, necrotic enteritis occurrence is correlated with the presence of an initial highly diverse C. perfringens population, increasing the opportunity for the selective sweep of particularly virulent genotypes. Disease outbreaks also appear to largely influence the evolution of this bacterial species in poultry farms over time.

  3. Southern African Coastal vulnerability assessment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rautenbach, C

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available or business. The CSIR coastal systems group uses specialist skills in coastal engineering, geographic engineering systems and numerical modelling to assess and map vulnerable coastal ecosystems to develop specific adaptation measures and coastal protection...

  4. Saline groundwater - surface water interaction in coastal lowlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsman, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Coastal zones are among the world's most densely populated and economically important areas, but these factors put pressure on the often limited available freshwater resources. Global change will undoubtedly increase this pressure through the combined effects of increased population, economic

  5. Uranium concentrations in the water consumed by the resident population in the vicinity of the Lagoa Real uranium province, Bahia, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luciana S. [State University of Bahia (UNEB), Campus Caetite, BA (Brazil); Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S.; Sarkis, Jorge; Nisti, Marcelo B., E-mail: brigitte@ipen.br, E-mail: jesarkis@ipen.br, E-mail: mbnisti@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Lagoa Real Uranium Province, situated in South Central Bahia in the region of Caetite and Lagoa Real, is considered the most important monomineralic province of Brazil. The urban population who lives in the proximities of this uranium province in the cities of Caetite, Lagoa Real and Livramento uses public supply water, while the inhabitants of the rural area due to long terms of dry weather use water from wells, cisterns, small dams, reservoirs and dikes which are supplied with the rains. In this work it was determined the concentration of uranium in the water consumed by the rural and urban population living in the proximities of the Lagoa Real Uranium Province. The study comprehends 32 sampling spots spread throughout the region of interest. Samples were collected in January and July 2010, covering superficial, underground and public supply water from the region. The uranium concentrations were determined by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Preliminary results showed that the uranium concentrations in the water from the Lagoa Real Uranium Province varied from 0.064 {+-} 0.005 {mu}g.L{sup -1} to 90 {+-} 1,5 {+-}g.L{sup -1}. It was observed that only two of them obtained values higher than the World Health Organization's recommended limit (2011) of 30 {mu}g.L{sup -1} for maximum uranium concentration in the water for human consumption. For a conclusive evaluation, the uranium concentrations results will be analyzed together with total alpha and beta concentrations determined elsewhere for the same samples. (author)

  6. Uranium concentrations in the water consumed by the resident population in the vicinity of the Lagoa Real uranium province, Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Luciana S.; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S.; Sarkis, Jorge; Nisti, Marcelo B.

    2011-01-01

    The Lagoa Real Uranium Province, situated in South Central Bahia in the region of Caetite and Lagoa Real, is considered the most important monomineralic province of Brazil. The urban population who lives in the proximities of this uranium province in the cities of Caetite, Lagoa Real and Livramento uses public supply water, while the inhabitants of the rural area due to long terms of dry weather use water from wells, cisterns, small dams, reservoirs and dikes which are supplied with the rains. In this work it was determined the concentration of uranium in the water consumed by the rural and urban population living in the proximities of the Lagoa Real Uranium Province. The study comprehends 32 sampling spots spread throughout the region of interest. Samples were collected in January and July 2010, covering superficial, underground and public supply water from the region. The uranium concentrations were determined by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Preliminary results showed that the uranium concentrations in the water from the Lagoa Real Uranium Province varied from 0.064 ± 0.005 μg.L -1 to 90 ± 1,5 ±g.L -1 . It was observed that only two of them obtained values higher than the World Health Organization's recommended limit (2011) of 30 μg.L -1 for maximum uranium concentration in the water for human consumption. For a conclusive evaluation, the uranium concentrations results will be analyzed together with total alpha and beta concentrations determined elsewhere for the same samples. (author)

  7. Determination of the frequency of polymorphisms in genes related to the genome stability maintenance of the population residing at Monte Alegre, PA (Brazil) municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hozumi, Cristiny Gomes

    2010-01-01

    The human exposure to ionizing radiation coming from natural sources is an inherent feature of human life on earth, for man and all living things have always been exposed to these sources. Ionizing radiation is a known genotoxic agent which can affect the genomic stability and genes related to DNA repair may play a role when they have committed certain polymorphism. This study aimed to analyze the frequency of polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes of DNA repair and cell cycle control: hOGG1 (Ser326Cys), XRCC3 (Thr241 Met) and p53 (Arg72Pro) in saliva samples from a population located Monte Alegre, state of Para were collected in August 2008 and 40 samples of men and 46 samples of women, adding a total of 86 samples. By RFLP was determined the frequency of homozygous genotypes and / or heterozygous for polymorphic genes. The I)OGG1 gene was 5% of the allele 326Cys, XRCC3 gene found about 21 % of the allele 241 Met and p53 gene showed 40.8% of the 72Pro allele. And the genotype frequencies of individuals for the three genes were 91.04%, 88.06% and 59.7% for homozygous wild genotype, 5.97%, 11.94% and 22.39% for heterozygote genotype and 2,99%, zero and 17:91% for homozygous polymorphic hOGG1 genes respectively, XRCC3, p53. These values are similar to those found in previous studies. The influence of these polymorphisms, which are involved in DNA repair and consequent genotoxicity induced by radiation depends on dose and exposure factors such as smoking, which is statistically a factor in public health surveillance in the region. This study gathered information and molecular epidemiology in Monte Alegre, that help to characterization of local population. (author)

  8. [Part-time residency training in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbain, Dana; Levi, Baruch; Borow, Malke; Ashkenazi, Shai; Lindner, Arie

    2012-08-01

    Full-time work has long been perceived as a cornerstone of medical residency, the consensus being that a resident must apply the bulk of his time and attention to his professional training. Demographic and cultural changes that have taken place over the last several years, specifically the rise in the number of female doctors and the importance of leisure time to the younger generation, have intensified the need to find new and innovative ways to deal with the plight of the resident population. One idea, already in effect in many Western countries, is the institution of part-time residency programs. The possibility of fulfilling residency requirements on a part-time basis is intended to assist medical residents in integrating their professional development with their personal and family life, without compromising the quality of their training. A number of research studies conducted over the last several years in countries that allow part-time residency, among them the United States, England and Switzerland, aimed to examine the quality of part-time training. The various studies evinced a high level of satisfaction from the program both by the residents themselves and their supervisors, and in many aspects those doing residency part-time received higher appraisals than their full-time colleagues. Some of the residents polled noted that they would have totally foregone the practice of medicine had there not been an option to complete residency part-time. In light of the experience throughout the world and the changing landscape in Israel, the Scientific Council of the Israeli Medical Association decided to examine the issue and its various aspects, and weighed all the considerations in favor and against part-time residency. Recently, the Scientific Council approved the launch of a pilot program to allow part-time residency in several fields that were carefully selected according to specific criteria. Once the Ministry of Health completes the LegisLation process, part

  9. Coastal Erosion Armoring 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Coastal armoring along the coast of California, created to provide a database of all existing coastal armoring based on data available at the time of creation....

  10. Use of the Cumbrian coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The primary objective of the research was to establish the recreational usage made of the Cumbrian coastal area. Observations of the numbers of adults and children in each area included in the study were undertaken, as well as an interview survey among adults which identified patterns of use by different groups. The interview survey comprised 7070 interviews, 80% of which were with residents of, rather than visitors to, Cumbria. Additional investigations and analyses were conducted to: determine hours of occupancy at coastal areas; observe usage made of particular areas outside the locations and times of the main survey; assess the usage made of coastal areas and inland waterways by members of the public likely to be excluded from the main study (eg. bird watchers, water-sport participants). (author)

  11. Studies on Polonium-210 and Lead-210 aspects in a near shore coastal environment at Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, M.A.R.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to summarize the findings from a comprehensive research investigation, related to polonium-210 and lead-210 aspects in a confined near shore coastal marine environment at the site of Kalpakkam nuclear complex. The site hosts some major nuclear installations, the main units being a nuclear power station, fast breeder reactor units, reprocessing facilities and supporting facilities. These investigation have been carried out to evaluate the natural radiation exposures of the resident human population in the neighbourhood of the site complex, and compute the additional potential doses to the community, arising from operation of nuclear facilities. An added significance, surfaced during the study, was the presence of a higher natural radiation background in the study area, due to the occurrence of monazite - a thorium mineral - bearing beach sands in vast stretches of the coastal areas

  12. Mechanisms and risk of cumulative impacts to coastal ecosystem services: An expert elicitation approach

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Gerald G.; Sinner, Jim; Ellis, Joanne; Kandlikar, Milind; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Satterfield, Terre; Chan, Kai M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Coastal environments are some of the most populated on Earth, with greater pressures projected in the future. Managing coastal systems requires the consideration of multiple uses, which both benefit from and threaten multiple ecosystem services

  13. Resident Characteristics Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Resident Characteristics Report summarizes general information about households who reside in Public Housing, or who receive Section 8 assistance. The report...

  14. International cooperation for integrated management of coastal regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosc, E.; Houlbreque, F.; Boisson, F.; Scholten, J.; Betti, M.

    2010-01-01

    Coastal zones which comprise < 20% of the earth surface are one of the most dynamic areas of the world. Housing more than 50% of the earth's population, the coastal zones are affected by natural and anthropogenic induced pressures which challenge the sustainability of the coastal environment and its resources. Most of the environmental pressures originate from outside the coastal zones thus requiring an inter-regional approach for coastal environmental assessments. It is one of the missions of the Marine Environment Laboratories (MEL) of the International Atomic Energy Agency to assist Member States in coastal zone management by applying nuclear and isotopic techniques. These techniques are used in many ways at MEL to enhance the understanding of marine ecosystems and to improve their management and protection. The article gives an overview of MEL's current marine coastal projects and research activities. (author)

  15. Consumo alimentar de população adulta residente em área rural da cidade de Ibatiba (ES, Brasil Consumption to feed of resident adult population in rural area of the city of Ibatiba (ES, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilaine Oliveira Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um estudo transversal no qual foi aplicado um questionário de frequência alimentar (QFCA em 150 adultos residentes em área rural da cidade de Ibatiba (ES. O QFCA classificou o consumo alimentar como: habitual (> 4 vezes na semana, não habitual (It is a transverse study where a questionnaire of alimentary frequency was applied (QAF in 150 adults resident of the rural area of the city of Ibatiba (ES, Brazil. QAF classified the alimentary consumption as: habitual (> 4 times in the week, not habitual (<4 times in the week and rarely (1 time a month, with objective of correlating the alimentary consumption with the chronic-degenerative diseases. The results evidenced a habitual consumption of rice, breads, stalk, bean, cow milk, animal fat, margarine, sugar and coffee, and a non habitual consumption of cake, potato, cookies, manioc, sweet potato, chayote, carrot, beet, pumpkin, juice of fruits, banana, orange, guava, mango and tangerine. It can be concluded that the feeding habit presented by the studied population it can come to increase in a medium or long period the prevalence and occurrences of chronic-degenerative diseases as hypertension, diabetes, obesity and coronary diseases. The alimentary consumption of this population needs concern, because when compared with the national patterns, it is observed some inadequacies, and it is known that this picture comes to every day causing damages the public health.

  16. Influence of environmental factors on the response of a natural population of Daphnia magna (Crustacea: Cladocera) to spinosad and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis in Mediterranean coastal wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchet, C. [Entente Interdepartementale de Demoustication du Littoral Mediterraneen, 165 avenue Paul-Rimbaud, Montpellier F-34184 (France); INRA, UMR985 Ecologie et Sante des Ecosystemes, Equipe Ecotoxicologie et Qualite des Milieux Aquatiques, 65 rue de Saint Brieuc, Rennes F-35042 (France); Caquet, Th. [INRA, UMR985 Ecologie et Sante des Ecosystemes, Equipe Ecotoxicologie et Qualite des Milieux Aquatiques, 65 rue de Saint Brieuc, Rennes F-35042 (France); Franquet, E. [Universite Paul Cezanne, Institut Mediterraneen d' Ecologie et de Paleoecologie, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques Saint Jerome, C31, Marseille F-13397 (France); Lagneau, C. [Entente Interdepartementale de Demoustication du Littoral Mediterraneen, 165 avenue Paul-Rimbaud, Montpellier F-34184 (France); Lagadic, L., E-mail: Laurent.Lagadic@rennes.inra.f [INRA, UMR985 Ecologie et Sante des Ecosystemes, Equipe Ecotoxicologie et Qualite des Milieux Aquatiques, 65 rue de Saint Brieuc, Rennes F-35042 (France)

    2010-05-15

    The present study was undertaken to assess the impact of a candidate mosquito larvicide, spinosad (8, 17 and 33 mug L{sup -1}) on a field population of Daphnia magna under natural variations of water temperature and salinity, using Bti (0.16 and 0.50 muL L{sup -1}) as the reference larvicide. Microcosms (125 L) were placed in a shallow temporary marsh where D. magna was naturally present. The peak of salinity observed during the 21-day observation period may have been partly responsible for the decrease of daphnid population density in all the microcosms. It is also probably responsible for the absence of recovery in the microcosms treated with spinosad which caused a sharp decrease of D. magna abundance within the first two days following treatment whereas Bti had no effect. These results suggest that it may be difficult for a field population of daphnids to cope simultaneously with natural (water salinity and temperature) and anthropogenic (larvicides) stressors. - Significant interaction between salinity and spinosad exposure impairs the recovery of a natural population of Daphnia magna.

  17. Increasing risk of compound flooding from storm surge and rainfall for major US coastal cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Thomas; Jain, Shaleen; Bender, Jens; Meyers, Steven; Luther, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Flood risk is a well-known facet of natural hazards along the US coastline where nearly 40% of the population resides in coastal counties. Given the heavy reliance on the coastal zone for natural resources and economic activity, flood preparedness and safety is a key element of long-term resilience. A clear understanding of the various flood types and changes in the frequency of their occurrence is critical towards reliable estimates of vulnerability and potential impacts in the near-term as well as into the future. When the two main flood drivers for coastal areas storm surge and heavy precipitation occur in tandem the potential for significant flooding is much greater than from either in isolation. Exploring the probability of these 'compound events' and understanding the processes driving them is essential to mitigate the associated high impact risks. For the contiguous US the likelihood of the joint occurrence of the two phenomena is largely unknown. Here we show - using storm surge and precipitation records spanning the last century - that the risk of compound flooding is higher for the US east and Gulf coasts, relative to the west coast. We also show that the number of compound events has increased significantly over the last century along large coastline stretches including many of the major coastal cities. For New York City - as an example - this increase is attributed to a shift towards storm surge weather patterns also favouring high precipitation. Preliminary analyses reveal that these synoptic scale changes are closely linked to large scale and low frequency climate variations. Our results demonstrate the importance of assessing the risk of compound flooding within the design process of coastal and urban infrastructure in a non-stationary framework and to explore the potential effects of climate change on these high impact events.

  18. Risk factors for coronary heart disease in two similar Indian population groups, one residing in India, and the other in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, D; Bermingham, M A

    2004-05-01

    To identify the prevalence of coronary risk factors among South Asian Indians in Australia and India. Cross-sectional intercountry comparison. Healthy volunteers aged 23-75 y recruited from the Indian community in Sydney Australia (n=125), and their nominated relatives in India, (n=125). The two groups were of similar background with over 90% of the group in India being siblings, parents or relatives of the group in Australia. There was no difference in the populations between India and Australia with regard to mean age (40+/-11.5 vs 39+/-10.3 y), body mass index (BMI) (25+/-3.3 vs 25+/-3.5 kg/m(2)), lipoprotein (a) (178 vs 202 mg/l), total cholesterol (5.3+/-1.3 vs 5.3+/-1.2 mmol/l) or triglyceride (1.7+/-0.8 vs 1.7+/-0.8 mmol/l). The group in India had higher insulin (median values) (139 vs 83 pmol/l, P=0.0001), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (0.88+/-0.08 vs 0.85+/-0.09, P=0.01), exercise time (23.7+/-32.7 vs 17.2+/-23.2 h/week, P=0.07), lower waist (83+/-10.0 vs 85+/-11.1 cm, P=0.05) and high-density lipoprotein (0.9+/-0.3 vs 1.1+/-0.6 mmol/l, P=0.02). Women in India had lower BMI (22.7+/-2.9 vs 25.3+/-4.2 kg/m(2), P0.8, 73 vs 23%, P90 cm=2.3, PIndia had the same BMI, lower waist (85.5+/-8.8 vs 92.9+/-7.2 cm, PIndia. The fact that the groups are of such similar background and partly related, make it unlikely that changes due to migration have a strong genetic bias. In contrast to other studies, the absence here of excessive weight gain on migration may be a key factor in disease risk prevention.

  19. Data-Limited Population-Status Evaluation of Two Coastal Fishes in Southern Angola Using Recreational Catch Length-Frequency Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckensteiner, Jennifer; Kaplan, David M; Potts, Warren M; Santos, Carmen V; O'Farrell, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Excessive truncation of a population's size structure is often identified as an important deleterious effect of exploitation, yet the effect on population persistence of size-structure truncation caused by exploitation is often not quantified due to data limitations. In this study, we estimate changes in eggs per recruit (EPR) using annual length-frequency samples over a 9 year period to assess persistence of the two most important recreational fishes in southern Angola: west coast dusky kob (Argyrosomus coronus) and leerfish (Lichia amia). Using a length- and age-structured model, we improve on an existing method to fit this type of model to length-frequency data and estimate EPR. The objectives of the methodological changes are to add flexibility and robustness to the approach for assessing population status in data-limited situations. Results indicate that dusky kob presents very low levels of EPR (5%-10% of the per recruit reproductive capacity in the absence of fishing) in 2013, whereas large inter-annual variability in leerfish estimates suggest caution must be applied when drawing conclusions about its exploitation status. Using simulated length frequency data with known parameter values, we demonstrate that recruitment decline due to overexploitation leads to overestimation of EPR values. Considering the low levels of EPR estimated for the study species, recruitment limitation is not impossible and true EPR values may be even lower than our estimates. It is, therefore, likely that management action, such as the creation of Marine Protected Areas, is needed to reconstitute the west coast dusky kob population.

  20. Co-existence of zebra mussels and freshwater unionids: Population dynamics of Leptodea fragilis in a coastal wetland infested with zebra mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, S. Jerrine; Amberg, Jon

    1999-01-01

    In 1996, thousands of live Leptodea fragilis were collected from a marsh located in the western basin of Lake Erie that was infested with zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). Despite the presence of zebra mussels at this site for a number of years, this L. fragilis population showed no signs of competition-induced changes in population dynamics. Biofouling was limited: fewer than 1% of the L. fragilis showed evidence of recent or past zebra mussel colonization. Successful recruitment occurred yearly, with multiple year classes collected that ranged in age from 1 to 12 years. However, age and shell length were not well correlated. Seventy-one percent of the individuals collected were 51-80 mm long, but ranged in age from 2 to 4.5 years. Three different patterns of growth or shell deposition were found. Some individuals grew rapidly, reaching 105 mm in 3.5 years, while others grew only 4.5 mm over the same time period. A few grew poorly during some years but very rapidly in others. Individuals with a shell length of 41 mm or more were sexually mature and females were more common than males. The strong recruitment and steady growth of this population showed no change between the years before and after the zebra mussel invasion, indicating that this marsh is functioning as a natural refugium from potential problems caused by zebra mussels.

  1. Hurricane Sandy science plan: coastal impact assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronko, Jakob M.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: coastal topography and bathymetry, impacts to coastal beaches and barriers, impacts of storm surge, including disturbed estuarine and bay hydrology, impacts on environmental quality and persisting contaminant exposures, impacts to coastal ecosystems, habitats, and fish and wildlife. This fact sheet focuses assessing impacts to coastal beaches and barriers.

  2. Evaluation of the frequency of polymorphisms in XRCC1 (Arg399Gln) and XPD (Lys751Gln) genes related to the genome stability maintenance in individuals of the resident population from Monte Alegre, PA/Brazil municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Isabelle Magliano

    2010-01-01

    The human exposure to ionizing radiation coming from natural sources is an inherent feature of human life on Earth. Ionizing radiation is a known genotoxic agent, which can affect biological molecules, causing DNA damage and genomic instability. The cellular system of DNA repair plays an important role in maintaining genomic stability by repairing DNA damage caused by genotoxic agents. However, genes related to DNA repair may have their role committed when presenting a certain polymorphism. This study intended to analyze the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes of DNA repair XRCC1 (Arg39-9Gln) and XPD (Lys751Gln) in a: population of the city of Monte Alegre, that resides in an area of high exposure to natural radioactivity. Samples of saliva were collected from individuals of the population of Monte Alegre, in which 40 samples were of male and 46 female. Through the use of RFLP (length polymorphism restriction fragment) the frequency of homozygous genotypes and / or heterozygous was determined for polymorphic genes. The XRCC1 gene had 65.4% of the presence of the allele 399Gln and XPD gene had 32.9% of the 751Gln allele. These values are similar to those found in previous studies for the XPD gene, whereas XRCC1 showed a frequency much higher than described in the literature. The. influence of these polymorphisms, which are involved in DNA repair and consequent genotoxicity induced by radiation depends on dose and exposure factors such as smoking, statistically a factor in public health surveillance in the region. This study gathered information and molecular epidemiology for risk assessment of cancer in the population of Monte Alegre. (author)

  3. Elevation uncertainty in coastal inundation hazard assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesch, Dean B.; Cheval, Sorin

    2012-01-01

    Coastal inundation has been identified as an important natural hazard that affects densely populated and built-up areas (Subcommittee on Disaster Reduction, 2008). Inundation, or coastal flooding, can result from various physical processes, including storm surges, tsunamis, intense precipitation events, and extreme high tides. Such events cause quickly rising water levels. When rapidly rising water levels overwhelm flood defenses, especially in heavily populated areas, the potential of the hazard is realized and a natural disaster results. Two noteworthy recent examples of such natural disasters resulting from coastal inundation are the Hurricane Katrina storm surge in 2005 along the Gulf of Mexico coast in the United States, and the tsunami in northern Japan in 2011. Longer term, slowly varying processes such as land subsidence (Committee on Floodplain Mapping Technologies, 2007) and sea-level rise also can result in coastal inundation, although such conditions do not have the rapid water level rise associated with other flooding events. Geospatial data are a critical resource for conducting assessments of the potential impacts of coastal inundation, and geospatial representations of the topography in the form of elevation measurements are a primary source of information for identifying the natural and human components of the landscape that are at risk. Recently, the quantity and quality of elevation data available for the coastal zone have increased markedly, and this availability facilitates more detailed and comprehensive hazard impact assessments.

  4. Adult population as potential reservoir of NTD infections in rural villages of Kwale district, Coastal Kenya: implications for preventive chemotherapy interventions policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njenga, Sammy M; Mwandawiro, Charles S; Muniu, Erastus; Mwanje, Mariam T; Haji, Fatma M; Bockarie, Moses J

    2011-09-14

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are major public health problems in developing countries where they contribute to suffering of populations living in poor settings. As part of a research project started in September 2009 in Kwale district, Coast Region, Kenya, a baseline cross-sectional survey was conducted in 5 rural villages to provide information on the status of NTDs, including urinary schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH), and lymphatic filariasis. This paper presents the results of a parasitological investigation among adults in the study villages. A total of 599 adults in the 5 study villages were tested for NTD infections in urine, stool and blood. The presence of Schistosoma haematobium infection was determined by the urine filtration method. The presence of STH in stool was determined by Kato-Katz method while filarial antigenaemia was determined using immunochromatographic (ICT) test. The study revealed high prevalence of hookworm (41.7%) and schistosomiasis (18.2%) infections among adults in the study villages. Of the 599 individuals examined, 50.1% had one or more helminthic infections. There was low level of polyparasitism with helminthic NTDs in the study population with 9.5% and 1.7% of the participants having two and three infections, respectively. In the current study, hookworm and schistosomiasis infections were identified as important infections among adults living in areas of high endemicity for these infections. Thus, if this section of the population is left untreated it may remain an important potential reservoir and a source of re-infection for school-age children treated in school deworming programmes. Therefore, there is a need to design novel strategies for preventive chemotherapy interventions that could allow inclusion of adults in an effort to reduce force of infection in high endemic communities.

  5. Coastal Economic Trends for Coastal Geographies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These market data provide a comprehensive set of measures of changes in economic activity throughout the coastal regions of the United States. In regard to the...

  6. Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiang; Bertness, Mark D.; Bruno, John F.; Li, Bo; Chen, Guoqian; Coverdale, Tyler C.; Altieri, Andrew H.; Bai, Junhong; Sun, Tao; Pennings, Steven C.; Liu, Jianguo; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Cui, Baoshan

    2014-01-01

    Despite their value, coastal ecosystems are globally threatened by anthropogenic impacts, yet how these impacts are driven by economic development is not well understood. We compiled a multifaceted dataset to quantify coastal trends and examine the role of economic growth in China's coastal degradation since the 1950s. Although China's coastal population growth did not change following the 1978 economic reforms, its coastal economy increased by orders of magnitude. All 15 coastal human impacts examined increased over time, especially after the reforms. Econometric analysis revealed positive relationships between most impacts and GDP across temporal and spatial scales, often lacking dropping thresholds. These relationships generally held when influences of population growth were addressed by analyzing per capita impacts, and when population density was included as explanatory variables. Historical trends in physical and biotic indicators showed that China's coastal ecosystems changed little or slowly between the 1950s and 1978, but have degraded at accelerated rates since 1978. Thus economic growth has been the cause of accelerating human damage to China's coastal ecosystems. China's GDP per capita remains very low. Without strict conservation efforts, continuing economic growth will further degrade China's coastal ecosystems. PMID:25104138

  7. Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiang; Bertness, Mark D; Bruno, John F; Li, Bo; Chen, Guoqian; Coverdale, Tyler C; Altieri, Andrew H; Bai, Junhong; Sun, Tao; Pennings, Steven C; Liu, Jianguo; Ehrlich, Paul R; Cui, Baoshan

    2014-08-08

    Despite their value, coastal ecosystems are globally threatened by anthropogenic impacts, yet how these impacts are driven by economic development is not well understood. We compiled a multifaceted dataset to quantify coastal trends and examine the role of economic growth in China's coastal degradation since the 1950s. Although China's coastal population growth did not change following the 1978 economic reforms, its coastal economy increased by orders of magnitude. All 15 coastal human impacts examined increased over time, especially after the reforms. Econometric analysis revealed positive relationships between most impacts and GDP across temporal and spatial scales, often lacking dropping thresholds. These relationships generally held when influences of population growth were addressed by analyzing per capita impacts, and when population density was included as explanatory variables. Historical trends in physical and biotic indicators showed that China's coastal ecosystems changed little or slowly between the 1950s and 1978, but have degraded at accelerated rates since 1978. Thus economic growth has been the cause of accelerating human damage to China's coastal ecosystems. China's GDP per capita remains very low. Without strict conservation efforts, continuing economic growth will further degrade China's coastal ecosystems.

  8. 137Cs activity and associated dose in the coastal marine environment of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, G.P.; Sharma, D.N.; Jha, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    Coastal marine environment is important for India since a considerable percentage of the human population resides in coastal areas. Fallout radionuclides as well as non-radioactive substances have polluted the coastal marine environment of India. The introduction of 137 Cs, a fallout radionuclide, considered as global pollutant, into marine environment has created the need for marine environmental data. The main objective is to provide data on the present level of 137 Cs which is important from the standpoint of radiological health and dose associated with it. Such database will also provide benchmark which will be helpful in assessing the impact of additional contribution to marine radioactivity in the future. The results confirm that the mean annual individual dose from 137 Cs in seafood (fish) for the Indian subcontinent is 0.03 μSv. The highest annual individual dose for 137 Cs due to the ingestion offish is in the age group of 40 to 59 years which is due to the reason that the Indian annual dietary intake of fish is highest in this age group

  9. From Residency to Lifelong Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Keith

    2015-11-01

    The residency training experience is the perfect environment for learning. The university/institution patient population provides a never-ending supply of patients with unique management challenges. Resources abound that allow the discovery of knowledge about similar situations. Senior teachers provide counseling and help direct appropriate care. Periodic testing and evaluations identify deficiencies, which can be corrected with future study. What happens, however, when the resident graduates? Do they possess all the knowledge they'll need for the rest of their career? Will medical discovery stand still limiting the need for future study? If initial certification establishes that the physician has the skills and knowledge to function as an independent physician and surgeon, how do we assure the public that plastic surgeons will practice lifelong learning and remain safe throughout their career? Enter Maintenance of Certification (MOC). In an ideal world, MOC would provide many of the same tools as residency training: identification of gaps in knowledge, resources to correct those deficiencies, overall assessment of knowledge, feedback about communication skills and professionalism, and methods to evaluate and improve one's practice. This article discusses the need; for education and self-assessment that extends beyond residency training and a commitment to lifelong learning. The American Board of Plastic Surgery MOC program is described to demonstrate how it helps the diplomate reach the goal of continuous practice improvement.

  10. [Differences between observed and estimated by hematocrit hemoglobin and its relevance in the diagnosis of anemia among coastal population in Venezuela: analysis of the second national study of human growth and development (SENACREDH)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Torres, Jessica; Echeverría-Ortega, María; Arria-Bohorquez, Melissa; Hidalgo, Glida; Albano-Ramos, Carlos; Sanz, Rafael; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the differences between the observed hemoglobin levels and those estimated based on hematocrit in the context of the 2nd National Study of Human Growth and Development of the Venezuelan Population (SENACREDH). 6,004 individuals were chosen by a probabilistic multistage cluster sampling representing 7,286,781 inhabitants from North Central Coastal area (Vargas, Carabobo, Capital District, Aragua and Miranda). Means of observed and estimated hemoglobin (hematocrit/3) were compared, using t test for related samples and linear regression. Mean difference between the values of observed and estimated hemoglobin was -0.3446 ±0.0002 (phemoglobin values. Regression models of hemoglobin on hematocrit showed an r2=0,87. In order to correct the estimation, we propose a new formula for calculating hemoglobin based on haematocrit values: estimated hemoglobin=(Haematocrit/3.135)+ 0.257. There is an overestimation of hemoglobin levels from hematocrit levels and therefore an underestimation of the prevalence of anemia; however, a high positive correlation between them was found, allowing modeling for achieving a better estimation of the hemoglobin from the hematocrit value.

  11. Genetic structure and effective population size through time: a tale on two coastal marine species with contrasting life-history patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Martins Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Species with dispersal mediated by planktonic larvae are expected to be more likely to show temporal genetic variation, due to differences in larval mortality and dispersal ability. The shanny Lipophrys pholis is a typical benthic rocky intertidal fish and its dispersion is limited to its long larval stage. In contrast, the sand-smelt Atherina presbyter has a very short planktonic life, small size and weak swimming capabilities, which translates into reduced dispersion potential. A total of 226 specimens of L. pholis (collected in 2003, 2013 and 2014 and 281 of A. presbyter (collected in 2005, 2012, 2013 and 2014 were screened for genetic variation using the mitochondrial control region. Only 12 (out of 171 and 25 (out of 155 haplotypes found were shared between sampling periods for the shanny and the sand smelt, respectively. For both species, haplotype networks showed a deep genealogy with multiple levels of diversification and no temporal structure. Interestingly, some of the previously inferred missing haplotypes were sampled in more recent years. The genetic diversity indices showed little variation among sampling periods and were generally high. For L. pholis significant genetic differentiation was detected between 2013 and 2014, while no significant differences were detected between sampling periods in A. presbyter. The shanny showed lower effective population size per generation when compared to the sand-smelt (which yielded lack of evidence for genetic drift for the first and second period of the study. These results highlight the fact that temporal changes in the gene pool composition need to be considered when evaluating population structure, especially for species with long pelagic larval dispersion, more vulnerable to fluctuations in the recruitment.

  12. Residence in Proximity of a Coal-Oil-Fired Thermal Power Plant and Risk of Lung and Bladder Cancer in North-Eastern Italy. A Population-Based Study: 1995-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collarile, Paolo; Bidoli, Ettore; Barbone, Fabio; Zanier, Loris; Del Zotto, Stefania; Fuser, Simonetta; Stel, Fulvio; Panato, Chiara; Gallai, Irene; Serraino, Diego

    2017-07-31

    This study investigated the risk of lung and bladder cancers in people residing in proximity of a coal-oil-fired thermal power plant in an area of north-eastern Italy, covered by a population-based cancer registry. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) by sex, age, and histology were computed according to tertiles of residential exposure to benzene, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particular matter, and sulfur dioxide (SO2) among 1076 incident cases of lung and 650 cases of bladder cancers. In men of all ages and in women under 75 years of age, no significant associations were observed. Conversely, in women aged ≥75 years significantly increased risks of lung and bladder cancers were related to high exposure to benzene (IRR for highest vs. lowest tertile: 2.00 for lung cancer and 1.94 for bladder cancer) and NO2 (IRR: 1.72 for lung cancer; and 1.94 for bladder cancer). In these women, a 1.71-fold higher risk of lung cancer was also related to a high exposure to SO2. Acknowledging the limitations of our study, in particular that we did not have information regarding cigarette smoking habits, the findings of this study indicate that air pollution exposure may have had a role with regard to the risk of lung and bladder cancers limited to women aged ≥75 years. Such increased risk warrants further analytical investigations.

  13. The dynamics of heatwave over a coastal megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthy, P.

    2017-12-01

    A majority of the current population in the U.S. resides in urban areas and nearly 40% live in urban coastal communities. These cities are disproportionately affected by extreme events such as heatwaves, hurricanes and extreme precipitation. The microclimate of the coastal cities is profoundly influenced by the interaction between the highly convective urban core and the moist sea breeze advection. However, such interactions are poorly characterized due to lack of observations over these complex terrains. Herein we use a comprehensive observational platform and numerical simulations to characterize the impact of heatwaves over New York City. As part of the campaign the urban boundary layer over New York City was continuously monitored during July 2016, a period that witnessed three heatwave events. Surface weather stations and indoor sensors were also used to characterize the urban heat island intensity. Our results reveal that during the month, the urban heat island intensity was nearly twice as compared to the decadal average. During the heatwave episodes urban heat island intensities as high as 10 ˚C were observed. The thermal profiles indicate elevated temperatures in much of the boundary layer between 800-2500 m during the heatwave episodes. The profiles indicate a complex thermal structure and high intra-city variability. Thermal internal boundary layer was observed in neighborhoods populated by tall buildings. The results show that heat released from buildings heating and air conditioning system during extreme heat events can be as high as 18 percent of the overall available energy. Overall the high-pressure system during the heatwave episodes acted as a thermal block and much of the heat generated in the urban surface layer remained within the boundary layer, thereby amplifying the near surface air temperature.

  14. [Burnout in nursing residents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Gianfábio Pimentel; de Barros, Alba Lúcia Bottura Leite; Nogueira-Martins, Luiz Antônio; Zeitoun, Sandra Salloum

    2011-03-01

    Nursing residents may experience physical and emotional exhaustion from the daily life of attending the Program. The aim of this study was to determine the Burnout incidence among Nursing Residents. An investigative, descriptive, analytical, longitudinal-prospective study was conducted with 16 Residents over two years. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was used, translated and validated for Brazil, as well as a sociodemographic/occupational data tool. Of all residents, 17.2% showed high rates in Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization; 18.8% showed impaired commitment in Personal Accomplishment, 75% of which belonged to specialty areas, such as Emergency Nursing, Adult and Pediatric Intensive Care. Age and specialty area were positively correlated with Personal Accomplishment. One of the Residents was identified with changes in three subscales of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, thus characterized as a Burnout Syndrome patient. Nursing Residents have profiles of disease. Knowing these factors can minimize health risks of these workers.

  15. Circumpolar biodiversity monitoring program (CBMP): Coastal expert workshop meeting report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rebecca D.; McLennan, Donald; Thomson, Laura; Wegeberg, Susse; Pettersvik Arvnes, Maria; Sergienko, Liudmila; Behe, Carolina; Moss-Davies, Pitseolak; Fritz, Stacey; Christensen, Thomas K.; Price, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    The Coastal Expert Workshop, which took place in Ottawa, Canada from March 1 to 3, 2016, initiated the development of the Arctic Coastal Biodiversity Monitoring Plan (Coastal Plan). Meeting participants, including northern residents, representatives from industry, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), academia, and government regulators and agencies from across the circumpolar Arctic, discussed current biodiversity monitoring efforts, key issues facing biodiversity in Arctic coastal areas, and collectively identified monitoring indicators, or Focal Ecosystem Components (FECs). On February 29, the day before the workshop, a full day was allocated to Traditional Knowledge (TK) holders to meet and elucidate how this important knowledge can be included in the process of building the Coastal Plan and monitoring biodiversity in Arctic coastal areas, along with scientific data and variables. This document provides 1) background information about the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Programme and the Coastal Expert Monitoring Group, 2) overviews on workshop presentations and breakout sessions, and 3) details regarding outcomes of the workshop that will inform the drafting of the Coastal Plan.

  16. Spatial Analysis of Human Exposure and Vulnerability to Coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disasters in coastal cities have shown an ever-increasing frequency of occurrence. Population growth and urbanisation have increased the vulnerability of properties and societies in coastal flood-prone areas. Analysis of human exposure and vulnerability is one of the main strategies used to determine the necessary ...

  17. Essential coastal habitats for fish in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraufvelin, Patrik; Pekcan-Hekim, Zeynep; Bergström, Ulf

    2018-01-01

    Many coastal and offshore fish species are highly dependent on specific habitat types for population maintenance. In the Baltic Sea, shallow productive habitats in the coastal zone such as wetlands, vegetated flads/lagoons and sheltered bays as well as more exposed rocky and sandy areas are utili...

  18. Communicating Coastal Risk Analysis in an Age of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    extratropical storm systems); the geometry and geomorphology of the area (regional and local bathymetry and topography, including rivers, marshes, and...at risk from coastal hazards including storm surge inundation, precipitation driven flooding, waves, and coastal erosion. This population segment...will likely be exposed to increased risk as impacts of a changing climate are felt through elevated sea levels and potentially increased storm

  19. Coastal Innovation Imperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce C. Glavovic

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the second of two articles that explores the coastal innovation paradox and imperative. Paradoxically, innovation is necessary to escape the vulnerability trap created by past innovations that have degraded coastal ecosystems and imperil coastal livelihoods. The innovation imperative is to reframe and underpin business and technology with coherent governance innovations that lead to social transformation for coastal sustainability. How might coastal management help to facilitate this transition? It is argued that coastal management needs to be reconceptualised as a transformative practice of deliberative coastal governance. A foundation comprising four deliberative or process outcomes is posited. The point of departure is to build human and social capital through issue learning and improved democratic attitudes and skills. Attention then shifts to facilitating community-oriented action and improving institutional capacity and decision-making. Together, these endeavours enable improved community problem-solving. The ultimate process goal is to build more collaborative communities. Instituting transformative deliberative coastal governance will help to stimulate innovations that chart new sustainability pathways and help to resolve the coastal problems. This framework could be adapted and applied in other geographical settings.

  20. Hurricane Ike: Observations and Analysis of Coastal Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Kara S.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Stockdon, Hilary F.; Sallenger, Asbury H.; Serafin, Katherine A.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding storm-induced coastal change and forecasting these changes require knowledge of the physical processes associated with the storm and the geomorphology of the impacted coastline. The primary physical processes of interest are the wind field, storm surge, and wave climate. Not only does wind cause direct damage to structures along the coast, but it is ultimately responsible for much of the energy that is transferred to the ocean and expressed as storm surge, mean currents, and large waves. Waves and currents are the processes most responsible for moving sediments in the coastal zone during extreme storm events. Storm surge, the rise in water level due to the wind, barometric pressure, and other factors, allows both waves and currents to attack parts of the coast not normally exposed to those processes. Coastal geomorphology, including shapes of the shoreline, beaches, and dunes, is equally important to the coastal change observed during extreme storm events. Relevant geomorphic variables include sand dune elevation, beach width, shoreline position, sediment grain size, and foreshore beach slope. These variables, in addition to hydrodynamic processes, can be used to predict coastal vulnerability to storms The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards Project (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/hurricanes), strives to provide hazard information to those interested in the Nation's coastlines, including residents of coastal areas, government agencies responsible for coastal management, and coastal researchers. As part of the National Assessment, observations were collected to measure coastal changes associated with Hurricane Ike, which made landfall near Galveston, Texas, on September 13, 2008. Methods of observation included aerial photography and airborne topographic surveys. This report documents these data-collection efforts and presents qualitative and quantitative descriptions of hurricane-induced changes to the shoreline

  1. Researchers focus attention on coastal response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John; Rodriguez, Antonio; Fletcher, Charles; Fitzgerald, Duncan

    The world's population has been steadily migrating toward coastal cities, resulting in severe stress on coastal environments. But the most severe human impact on coastal regions may lie ahead as the rate of global sea-level rise accelerates and the impacts of global warming on coastal climates and oceanographic dynamics increase [Varekamp and Thomas, 1998; Hinrichsen, 1999; Goodwin et al., 2000]. Little is currently being done to forecast the impact of global climate change on coasts during the next century and beyond. Indeed, there are still many politicians, and even some scientists, who doubt that global change is a real threat to society.

  2. Negotiations of Acknowledgement among Middle Class Residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom

    2013-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of communication processes between residents, between residents and people in the broader societal context as well as of media coverage of a fireworks disaster in a Danish suburb. It demonstrates how residents (all members of the Danish middle class) were able......, ethnicity, class or other social categories normally recognized as influential in case of disastrous events. Since the population in the area was very homogenous, the axis of differentiation was instead linked to the social category of affectedness, and a hierarchy of affectedness was identified within...

  3. The use of strontium and barium analyses for the reconstruction of the diet of the early medieval coastal population of Gdańsk (Poland): A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostek, Krzysztof; Głab, Henryk; Pudło, Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Barium and strontium analyses yield an important perspective on temporal shifts in diet in relation to social and environmental circumstances. This research focuses on reconstructing dietary strategies of individuals in the early medieval (12-13th century) population of Gdańsk on the coast of the Baltic Sea. To describe these strategies where seafood rich in minerals was included in the diet, levels of strontium, barium, calcium and phosphorus were measured in first permanent molars of adult men and women whose remains were excavated from the churchyard in the city centre. Faunal remains from the excavation were analysed as an environmental background with respect to the content of the above-mentioned elements. The impact of diagenesis on the odontological material under study was also determined by an analysis of the soil derived from the grave and non-grave surroundings. For verification of diagenetic processes, the calcium/phosphorus index was used. Strontium, calcium, phosphorus and barium levels were determined with the spectrophotometric method using the latest generation plasma spectrophotometer Elan 6100 ICP-MS. From the results of the analysis of taphonomic parameters such as the soil pH, potential ion exchange in the grave surroundings and the Ca/P ratio, it can be inferred that diagenetic factors had little impact on the studied material. From this pilot study we can conclude that in the early Middle Ages in the Baltic Sea basin, seafood was included in the diet from early childhood and at the same time the diet contained calcium-rich milk products (also rich in minerals). The lack of sex differences may indicate the absence of a sex-specific nutritional strategy in childhood and early adolescence.

  4. Coastal Analysis, Nassau,NY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  5. Coastal Analysis, Mathews County, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  6. Monitoring the change of coastal zones from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, A. A.; Le Cozannet, G.; Benveniste, J.; Woodworth, P. L.

    2017-12-01

    The world's coastal zones, where an important fraction of the world population is currently living, are under serious threat because of coastal erosion, cyclones, storms, and salinization of estuaries and coastal aquifers. In the future, these hazards are expected to increase due to the combined effects of sea level rise, climate change, human activities and population increase. The response of coastal environments to natural and anthropogenic forcing factors (including climate change) depends on the characteristics of the forcing agents, as well as on the internal properties of the coastal systems, that remain poorly known and mostly un-surveyed at global scale. To better understand changes affecting coastal zones and to provide useful information to decision makers, various types of observations with global coverage need to be collected and analysed. Observations from space appear as an important complement to existing in situ observing systems (e.g., regional tide gauge networks). In this presentation, we discuss the benefit of systematic coastal monitoring from space, addressing both observations of forcing agents and of the coastal response. We highlight the need for a global coastal sea level data set based on retracked nadir altimetry missions and new SAR technology.

  7. Decision-making in Coastal Management and a Collaborative Governance Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over half of the US population lives in coastal watersheds, creating a regional pressure for coastal ecosystems to provide a broad spectrum of services while continuing to support healthy communities and economies. The National Ocean Policy, issued in 2010, and Coastal and Marin...

  8. In the Eye of the Storm: A Participatory Course on Coastal Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Storm disasters are amplified in the coastal environment due to population pressures and the power of the sea. The upper-division/graduate university course "Coastal Storms" was designed to equip future practitioners with the skills necessary to understand, respond to, and mitigate for these natural disasters. To accomplish this, "Coastal Storms"…

  9. Coastal leatherback turtles reveal conservation hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Nathan J.; Morreale, Stephen J.; Nel, Ronel; Paladino, Frank V.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the world’s largest reptile – the leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea – conducts flexible foraging migrations that can cover thousands of kilometres between nesting sites and distant foraging areas. The vast distances that may be travelled by migrating leatherback turtles have greatly complicated conservation efforts for this species worldwide. However, we demonstrate, using a combination of satellite telemetry and stable isotope analysis, that approximately half of the nesting leatherbacks from an important rookery in South Africa do not migrate to distant foraging areas, but rather, forage in the coastal waters of the nearby Mozambique Channel. Moreover, this coastal cohort appears to remain resident year-round in shallow waters (turtles Caretta caretta. The rare presence of a resident coastal aggregation of leatherback turtles not only presents a unique opportunity for conservation, but alongside the presence of loggerhead turtles and other endangered marine megafauna in the Mozambique Channel, highlights the importance of this area as a marine biodiversity hotspot. PMID:27886262

  10. Intensified coastal development behind nourished beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Scott; Lazarus, Eli; Limber, Patrick; Goldstein, Evan; Thorpe, Curtis; Ballinger, Rhoda

    2016-04-01

    Population density, housing development, and property values in coastal counties along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts continue to rise despite increasing hazard from storm impacts. Since the 1970s, beach nourishment, which involves importing sand to deliberately widen an eroding beach, has been the main strategy in the U.S. for protecting coastal properties from erosion and flooding hazards. Paradoxically, investment in hazard protection may intensify development. Here, we examine the housing stock of all existing shorefront single-family homes in Florida - a microcosm of U.S. coastal hazards and development - to quantitatively compare development in nourishing and non-nourishing towns. We find that nourishing towns now account for more than half of Florida's coastline, and that houses in nourishing towns are larger and more numerous. Even as the mean size of single-family homes nationwide has grown steadily since 1970, Florida's shorefront stock has exceeded the national average by 34%, and in nourishing towns by 45%. This emergent disparity between nourishing and non-nourishing towns in Florida demonstrates a pattern of intensifying coastal risk, and is likely representative of a dominant trend in coastal development more generally. These data lend empirical support to the hypothesis that US coastal development and hazard mitigation through beach nourishment have become dynamically coupled.

  11. Harmonizing water management and social needs: a necessary condition for sustainable development. The case of Israel's coastal aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melloul, Abraham J; Collin, Martin L

    2003-04-01

    This study focuses on the problem of most efficiently fulfilling the water requirements of society for sustainable water resources management. The goal is to coordinate effectively the social needs of the resident population with operational water resources management planning.The proposed approach consists of a pyramidal hierarchy of water resource management needs, similar to that suggested by psychologist Abraham Maslow for human social needs. The two pyramidal hierarchies can be simultaneously employed to delineate guidelines to synchronize planning for sustainable water resources development with the concerns and expectations of the resident population. In both hierarchies, higher level needs remain irrelevant and difficult to attain until lower level needs of the resident population have been fulfilled. Management planning measures employed with regard to Israel's coastal aquifer have been used to illustrate this approach. Observation of Israel's experience indicates markedly reduced effectiveness where such measures have failed to be properly synchronised with societal needs. Conversely, where hydrological management measures were successfully synchronized with societal concerns, increased efficiency towards attaining sustainable groundwater management was evident.

  12. Modeling Coastal Vulnerability through Space and Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Thomas; Meixler, Marcia S

    2016-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems experience a wide range of stressors including wave forces, storm surge, sea-level rise, and anthropogenic modification and are thus vulnerable to erosion. Urban coastal ecosystems are especially important due to the large populations these limited ecosystems serve. However, few studies have addressed the issue of urban coastal vulnerability at the landscape scale with spatial data that are finely resolved. The purpose of this study was to model and map coastal vulnerability and the role of natural habitats in reducing vulnerability in Jamaica Bay, New York, in terms of nine coastal vulnerability metrics (relief, wave exposure, geomorphology, natural habitats, exposure, exposure with no habitat, habitat role, erodible shoreline, and surge) under past (1609), current (2015), and future (2080) scenarios using InVEST 3.2.0. We analyzed vulnerability results both spatially and across all time periods, by stakeholder (ownership) and by distance to damage from Hurricane Sandy. We found significant differences in vulnerability metrics between past, current and future scenarios for all nine metrics except relief and wave exposure. The marsh islands in the center of the bay are currently vulnerable. In the future, these islands will likely be inundated, placing additional areas of the shoreline increasingly at risk. Significant differences in vulnerability exist between stakeholders; the Breezy Point Cooperative and Gateway National Recreation Area had the largest erodible shoreline segments. Significant correlations exist for all vulnerability (exposure/surge) and storm damage combinations except for exposure and distance to artificial debris. Coastal protective features, ranging from storm surge barriers and levees to natural features (e.g. wetlands), have been promoted to decrease future flood risk to communities in coastal areas around the world. Our methods of combining coastal vulnerability results with additional data and across multiple time

  13. Resilience from coastal protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Lesley C

    2015-10-28

    Coastal areas are important residential, commercial and industrial areas; but coastal hazards can pose significant threats to these areas. Shoreline/coastal protection elements, both built structures such as breakwaters, seawalls and revetments, as well as natural features such as beaches, reefs and wetlands, are regular features of a coastal community and are important for community safety and development. These protection structures provide a range of resilience to coastal communities. During and after disasters, they help to minimize damages and support recovery; during non-disaster times, the values from shoreline elements shift from the narrow focus on protection. Most coastal communities have limited land and resources and few can dedicate scarce resources solely for protection. Values from shore protection can and should expand to include environmental, economic and social/cultural values. This paper discusses the key aspects of shoreline protection that influence effective community resilience and protection from disasters. This paper also presents ways that the economic, environmental and social/cultural values of shore protection can be evaluated and quantified. It presents the Coastal Community Hazard Protection Resilience (CCHPR) Index for evaluating the resilience capacity to coastal communities from various protection schemes and demonstrates the use of this Index for an urban beach in San Francisco, CA, USA. © 2015 The Author(s).

  14. Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Programme: Coastal Expert Workshop meeting summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, L.; McLennan, Donald; Anderson, Rebecca D.; Wegeberg, S.; Pettersvik Arvnes, Maria; Sergienko, Liudmila; Behe, Carolina; Moss-Davies, Pitseolak; Fritz, S.; Christensen, T.; Price, C.

    2016-01-01

    The Coastal Expert Workshop brought together a diverse group of coastal experts with the common goal of developing a biodiversity monitoring program for coastal ecosystems across the circumpolar Arctic. Meeting participants, including northern residents, industry and Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) representatives, scientists, and government regulators from across the circumpolar Arctic, gathered at the Lord Elgin Hotel in Ottawa from March 1 to 3, 2016, to discuss current biodiversity monitoring efforts, understand key issues facing biodiversity in the Arctic coastal areas and suggest monitoring indicators, or Focal Ecosystem Components, for the program. A Traditional Knowledge Holders meeting was held on February 29, 2016 in conjunction with the workshop. The following document provides a summary of the workshop activities and outcomes, and will be followed by a more complete Workshop Report.

  15. Taxonomic Report on Small Mammals from Two Coastal Wetland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    Abstract. Surveys of the small mammal populations of two coastal wetlands in Ghana, .... Captured animals were euthanized with chloroform, according to the American Society of. Mammalogy Animal Care and Use Committee guidelines.

  16. Evolution of the Pathology Residency Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Y. Naritoku MD, PhD

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The required medical knowledge and skill set for the pathologist of 2020 are different than in 2005. Pathology residency training curriculum must accordingly change to fulfill the needs of these ever-changing requirements. In order to make rational curricular adjustments, it is important for us to know the current trajectory of resident training in pathology—where we have been, what our actual current training curriculum is now—to understand how that might change in anticipation of meeting the needs of a changing patient and provider population and to fit within the evolving future biomedical and socioeconomic health-care setting. In 2013, there were 143 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited pathology residency training programs in the United States, with approximately 2400 residents. There is diversity among residency training programs not only with respect to the number of residents but also in training venue(s. To characterize this diversity among pathology residency training programs, a curriculum survey was conducted of pathology residency program directors in 2013 and compared with a similar survey taken almost 9 years previously in 2005 to identify trends in pathology residency curriculum. Clinical pathology has not changed significantly in the number of rotations over 9 years; however, anatomic pathology has changed dramatically, with an increase in the number of surgical pathology rotations coupled with a decline in stand-alone autopsy rotations. With ever-expanding medical knowledge that the graduating pathology resident must know, it is necessary to (1 reflect upon what are the critical need subjects, (2 identify areas that have become of lesser importance, and then (3 prioritize training accordingly.

  17. Evolution of the Pathology Residency Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Suzanne Z.; Black-Schaffer, W. Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The required medical knowledge and skill set for the pathologist of 2020 are different than in 2005. Pathology residency training curriculum must accordingly change to fulfill the needs of these ever-changing requirements. In order to make rational curricular adjustments, it is important for us to know the current trajectory of resident training in pathology—where we have been, what our actual current training curriculum is now—to understand how that might change in anticipation of meeting the needs of a changing patient and provider population and to fit within the evolving future biomedical and socioeconomic health-care setting. In 2013, there were 143 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited pathology residency training programs in the United States, with approximately 2400 residents. There is diversity among residency training programs not only with respect to the number of residents but also in training venue(s). To characterize this diversity among pathology residency training programs, a curriculum survey was conducted of pathology residency program directors in 2013 and compared with a similar survey taken almost 9 years previously in 2005 to identify trends in pathology residency curriculum. Clinical pathology has not changed significantly in the number of rotations over 9 years; however, anatomic pathology has changed dramatically, with an increase in the number of surgical pathology rotations coupled with a decline in stand-alone autopsy rotations. With ever-expanding medical knowledge that the graduating pathology resident must know, it is necessary to (1) reflect upon what are the critical need subjects, (2) identify areas that have become of lesser importance, and then (3) prioritize training accordingly. PMID:28725779

  18. Hurricane Gustav: Observations and Analysis of Coastal Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Kara S.; Stockdon, Hilary F.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Sallenger, Asbury H.; Guy, Kristy K.; Serafin, Katherine A.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding storm-induced coastal change and forecasting these changes require knowledge of the physical processes associated with a storm and the geomorphology of the impacted coastline. The primary physical processes of interest are the wind field, storm surge, currents, and wave field. Not only does wind cause direct damage to structures along the coast, but it is ultimately responsible for much of the energy that is transferred to the ocean and expressed as storm surge, mean currents, and surface waves. Waves and currents are the processes most responsible for moving sediments in the coastal zone during extreme storm events. Storm surge, which is the rise in water level due to the wind, barometric pressure, and other factors, allows both waves and currents to attack parts of the coast not normally exposed to these processes. Coastal geomorphology, including shapes of the shoreline, beaches, and dunes, is also a significant aspect of the coastal change observed during extreme storms. Relevant geomorphic variables include sand dune elevation, beach width, shoreline position, sediment grain size, and foreshore beach slope. These variables, in addition to hydrodynamic processes, can be used to predict coastal vulnerability to storms. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/hurricanes) strives to provide hazard information to those concerned about the Nation's coastlines, including residents of coastal areas, government agencies responsible for coastal management, and coastal researchers. As part of the National Assessment, observations were collected to measure morphological changes associated with Hurricane Gustav, which made landfall near Cocodrie, Louisiana, on September 1, 2008. Methods of observation included oblique aerial photography, airborne topographic surveys, and ground-based topographic surveys. This report documents these data-collection efforts and presents qualitative and

  19. Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) Export from Watersheds to Coastal Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. F.; Gardner, G. B.; Peri, F.

    2016-02-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) from terrestrial plants and soils is transported by surface waters and groundwaters to coastal ocean waters. Along the way, photochemical and biological degradation can remove DOM, and in situ processes such as phytoplankton leaching and sediment sources can add to the DOM in the river water. Wetlands, especially coastal wetlands can add significant amounts of DOM that is carried by rivers and is exported through estuaries to coastal systems. We will present observational data from a variety of coastal systems (San Francisco Bay, Boston Harbor, Chesapeake Bay, Hudson River, the Mississippi River, and a small salt marsh in the Gulf of Mexico). High resolution measurements of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) can be correlated with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) so can be used to estimate DOC in specific systems and seasons. Gradients in CDOM/DOC combined with water fluxes can be used to estimate DOC fluxes from a variety of coastal watersheds to coastal systems. Influences of land use, system size, residence time, DOM quality, and photochemical and biological degradation will be discussed. The significance of coastal wetlands in the land-to-ocean export of DOC will be emphasized.

  20. Coastal Hazards: Hurricanes, Tsunamis, Coastal Erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandas, Steve

    1998-01-01

    Details an ocean-based lesson and provides background information on the designation of 1998 as the "Year of the Ocean" by the United Nations. Contains activities on the poster insert that can help raise student awareness of coastal-zone hazards. (DDR)

  1. Coastal Geographic Structures in Coastal-Marine Environmental Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklanov, P. Ya.; Ganzei, K. S.; Ermoshin, V. V.

    2018-01-01

    It has been proposed to distinguish the coastal geographic structures consisting of a spatial combination of three interconnected and mutually conditioned parts (coastal-territorial, coastal, coastal-marine), which are interlinked with each other by the cumulative effect of real-energy flows. Distinguishing specific resource features of the coastal structures, by which they play a connecting role in the complex coastalmarine management, has been considered. The main integral resource feature of the coastal structures is their connecting functions, which form transitional parts mutually connecting the coastal-territorial and coastalmarine environmental management.

  2. Hurricane Isaac: observations and analysis of coastal change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Kristy K.; Stockdon, Hilary F.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Doran, Kara S.; Morgan, Karen L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding storm-induced coastal change and forecasting these changes require knowledge of the physical processes associated with a storm and the geomorphology of the impacted coastline. The primary physical process of interest is sediment transport that is driven by waves, currents, and storm surge associated with storms. Storm surge, which is the rise in water level due to the wind, barometric pressure, and other factors, allows both waves and currents to impact parts of the coast not normally exposed to these processes. Coastal geomorphology reflects the coastal changes associated with extreme-storm processes. Relevant geomorphic variables that are observable before and after storms include sand dune elevation, beach width, shoreline position, sediment grain size, and foreshore beach slope. These variables, in addition to hydrodynamic processes, can be used to quantify coastal change and are used to predict coastal vulnerability to storms (Stockdon and others, 2007). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards (NACCH) project (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/national-assessment/) provides hazard information to those concerned about the Nation’s coastlines, including residents of coastal areas, government agencies responsible for coastal management, and coastal researchers. Extreme-storm research is a component of the NACCH project (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/hurricanes/) that includes development of predictive understanding, vulnerability assessments using models, and updated observations in response to specific storm events. In particular, observations were made to determine morphological changes associated with Hurricane Isaac, which made landfall in the United States first at Southwest Pass, at the mouth of the Mississippi River, at 0000 August 29, 2012 UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) and again, 8 hours later, west of Port Fourchon, Louisiana (Berg, 2013). Methods of observation included oblique aerial photography

  3. Residents in difficulty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; O'Neill, Lotte; Hansen, Dorthe Høgh

    2016-01-01

    Background The majority of studies on prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty have been conducted in English-speaking countries and the existing literature may not reflect the prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty in other parts of the world such as the Scand...... in a healthcare system. From our perspective, further sociological and pedagogical investigations in educational cultures across settings and specialties could inform our understanding of and knowledge about pitfalls in residents’ and doctors’ socialization into the healthcare system....

  4. Coastal fog, climate change, and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrosa, Alicia; O'Brien, Travis A.; Faloona, Ian C.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal marine fog, a characteristic feature of climates generated at the eastern boundaries of ocean basins worldwide, evokes different feelings in those who experience it (see Figure 1). Authors and poets use fog to represent mystery, bleakness, and confusion. Film directors seek out fog to shroud scenes in eerie gloominess. Tourists visiting beaches bemoan the cool and damp conditions that create a striking contrast to the sunny warm conditions typically found less than a few kilometers inland. Airline passengers delayed by fog impatiently wait for the skies to clear. Residents get used to the Sun “rising” in midday after fog dissipates.

  5. Coastal wetlands: an integrated ecosystem approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perillo, G. M. E.; Wolanski, E.; Cahoon, D.R.; Brinson, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal wetlands are under a great deal of pressure from the dual forces of rising sea level and the intervention of human populations both along the estuary and in the river catchment. Direct impacts include the destruction or degradation of wetlands from land reclamation and infrastructures. Indirect impacts derive from the discharge of pollutants, changes in river flows and sediment supplies, land clearing, and dam operations. As sea level rises, coastal wetlands in most areas of the world migrate landward to occupy former uplands. The competition of these lands from human development is intensifying, making the landward migration impossible in many cases. This book provides an understanding of the functioning of coastal ecosystems and the ecological services that they provide, and suggestions for their management. In this book a CD is included containing color figures of wetlands and estuaries in different parts of the world.

  6. Coastal Wetland Restoration Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yozzo, David

    1997-01-01

    This bibliography was compiled to provide biologists, engineers, and planners at Corps Districts and other agencies/ institutions with a guide to the diverse body of literature on coastal wetland restoration...

  7. Coastal Harbors Modeling Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Coastal Harbors Modeling Facility is used to aid in the planning of harbor development and in the design and layout of breakwaters, absorbers, etc.. The goal is...

  8. Coastal California Digital Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This digital ortho-imagery dataset is a survey of coastal California. The project area consists of approximately 3774 square miles. The project design of the digital...

  9. Pollution of Coastal Seas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These are the things ideally required for locating industries also. The mega-cities .... waste water released into coastal seas raises the ambient temperature causing .... Problems of ozone holes and greenhouse gases were, perhaps, beyond ...

  10. National Coastal Condition Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCCA is a collaborative, statistical survey of the nation's coastal waters and the Great Lakes. It is one of four national surveys that EPA and its partners conduct to assess the condition and health of the nation's water resources.

  11. National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) National Coastal Mapping Program (NCMP) is designed to provide high-resolution elevation and imagery data along U.S....

  12. Burnout Syndrome During Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Namigar; Karacalar, Serap; Polat, Cengiz; Kıran, Özlem; Gültop, Fethi; Kalyon, Seray Türkmen; Sinoğlu, Betül; Zincirci, Mehmet; Kaya, Ender

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is identified the degree of Burnout Syndrome (BOS) and find out its correlation with years of recidency and sociodemograpfic chareacteristics, training, sleeping habits, such as smoking and alcohol consumption. After approval from the Hospital Ethics Committee and obtaining informed consent, First, second, third, fourth and fifth year of recidency staff (n=127) working in our hospital were involved in this study. The standardized Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used in this study. Fifty six male (44.1%) and seventy one female (55.9%) residents were enroled in this study (Coranbach Alfa(α)=0.873). 57% of the first year residents smokes cigaret and 54% of them use alcohol. 2% of them gets one day off after hospital night shift, 61% of them suffers from disturbed sleep. 60% of them had been stated that they willingly selected their profession. 61% of them prefers talking to friends and 32% of them prefers shopping to overcome stress. There were statistical difference acording to years of recidency in MBI, Emotional Burnout (EB) and desensitisation scale (DS) points. EB scale points of the second year of residency group was statisticaly higher than fourth year of residency group. DS points of second year of residency group was also statisticaly higher than the third and fourth year of residency group. There was no statistical difference between any groups in Personal Success. BOS is a frequent problem during residency in anaesthesia. Appropriate definition and awareness are the first important steps to prevent this syndrome. Further administrative approaches should be evaluated with regard to their effects.

  13. Liver-resident NK cells and their potential functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hui; Sun, Rui

    2017-09-18

    Natural killer (NK) cells represent a heterogeneous population of innate lymphocytes with phenotypically and functionally distinct subsets. In particular, recent studies have identified a unique subset of NK cells residing within the liver that are maintained as tissue-resident cells, confer antigen-specific memory responses and exhibit different phenotypical and developmental characteristics compared with conventional NK (cNK) cells. These findings have encouraged researchers to uncover tissue-resident NK cells at other sites, and detailed analyses have revealed that these tissue-resident NK cells share many similarities with liver-resident NK cells and tissue-resident memory T cells. Here, we present a brief historical perspective on the discovery of liver-resident NK cells and discuss their relationship to cNK cells and other emerging NK cell subsets and their potential functions.Cellular &Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 18 September 2017; doi:10.1038/cmi.2017.72.

  14. Effects of Pile Driving on the Residency and Movement of Tagged Reef Fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph D Iafrate

    Full Text Available The potential effects of pile driving on fish populations and commercial fisheries have received significant attention given the prevalence of pile driving occurring in coastal habitats throughout the world. Behavioral impacts of sound generated from these activities on fish typically have a greater area of influence than physical injury, and may therefore adversely affect a greater portion of the local population. This study used acoustic telemetry to assess the movement, residency, and survival of 15 sheepshead (Archosargus probatocephalus and 10 grey snapper (Lutjanus griseus in Port Canaveral, Florida, USA, in response to 35 days of pile driving at a wharf complex. No obvious signs of mortality or injury to tagged fish were evident from the data. Received sound pressure levels from pile strikes on the interior of the wharf, where reef fish primarily occur, were on average 152-157 dB re 1 μPa (peak. No significant decrease in sheepshead daytime residency was observed during pile driving within the central portion of the wharf and area of highest sound exposure, and no major indicators of displacement from the exposure wharf with the onset of pile driving were observed. There was evidence of potential displacement from the exposure wharf that coincided with the start of pile driving observed for 2 out of 4 grey snapper, along with a decrease in daytime residency for a subset of this species with high site fidelity prior to the event. Results indicate that snapper may be more likely to depart an area of pile driving disturbance more readily than sheepshead, but were less at risk for behavioral impact given the lower site fidelity of this species.

  15. Changes in medicine: residency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The most important time in a physician’s educational development is residency, especially the first year. However, residency work and responsibility have come under the scrutiny of a host of agencies and bureaucracies, and therefore, is rapidly changing. Most important in the alphabet soup of regulatory agencies is the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME which accredits residencies and ultimately makes the governing rules.Resident work hours have received much attention and are clearly decreasing. However, the decline in work hours began in the 1970’s before the present political push to decrease work hours. The residency I entered in 1976 had every third night call during the first year resident’s 6-9 months on general medicine or wards. It had changed from every other night the year before. On wards, we normally were in the hospital for our 24 hours of call and followed this with a 10-12 hour day before …

  16. Individual-based ecology of coastal birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, Richard A; Goss-Custard, John D

    2010-08-01

    Conservation objectives for non-breeding coastal birds (shorebirds and wildfowl) are determined from their population size at coastal sites. To advise coastal managers, models must predict quantitatively the effects of environmental change on population size or the demographic rates (mortality and reproduction) that determine it. As habitat association models and depletion models are not able to do this, we developed an approach that has produced such predictions thereby enabling policy makers to make evidence-based decisions. Our conceptual framework is individual-based ecology, in which populations are viewed as having properties (e.g. size) that arise from the traits (e.g. behaviour, physiology) and interactions of their constituent individuals. The link between individuals and populations is made through individual-based models (IBMs) that follow the fitness-maximising decisions of individuals and predict population-level consequences (e.g. mortality rate) from the fates of these individuals. Our first IBM was for oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus and accurately predicted their density-dependent mortality. Subsequently, IBMs were developed for several shorebird and wildfowl species at several European sites, and were shown to predict accurately overwinter mortality, and the foraging behaviour from which predictions are derived. They have been used to predict the effect on survival in coastal birds of sea level rise, habitat loss, wind farm development, shellfishing and human disturbance. This review emphasises the wider applicability of the approach, and identifies other systems to which it could be applied. We view the IBM approach as a very useful contribution to the general problem of how to advance ecology to the point where we can routinely make meaningful predictions of how populations respond to environmental change.

  17. Coastal ecosystems: Attempts to manage a threatened resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundin, C.G.; Linden, O.

    1993-01-01

    Tropical coastal zones are productive ecosystems that currently face severe environmental threats, particularly from organic pollution. The role of the coastal ecosystems is analyzed and the relationship between coastal ecosystem health and fisheries productivity is explained. Ecological disturbances from organic sources like sewage and siltation is highlighted. The issues of integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) are discussed, particularly in the context of conserving natural ecosystems or transforming them to managed systems. Issues of population density, management capacity, and socioeconomic conditions are discussed. The possibilities for closing carbon cycles currently leaking organic materials to the coastal waters are pursued. Finally, examples of ICZM initiatives in the ASEAN countries and East Africa are presented. 42 refs

  18. Use and utility of Web-based residency program information: a survey of residency applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embi, Peter J; Desai, Sima; Cooney, Thomas G

    2003-01-01

    The Internet has become essential to the residency application process. In recent years, applicants and residency programs have used the Internet-based tools of the National Residency Matching Program (NRMP, the Match) and the Electronic Residency Application Service (ERAS) to process and manage application and Match information. In addition, many residency programs have moved their recruitment information from printed brochures to Web sites. Despite this change, little is known about how applicants use residency program Web sites and what constitutes optimal residency Web site content, information that is critical to developing and maintaining such sites. To study the use and perceived utility of Web-based residency program information by surveying applicants to an internal medicine program. Our sample population was the applicants to the Oregon Health & Science University Internal Medicine Residency Program who were invited for an interview. We solicited participation using the group e-mail feature available through the Electronic Residency Application Service Post-Office application. To minimize the possibility for biased responses, the study was confined to the period between submission of National Residency Matching Program rank-order lists and release of Match results. Applicants could respond using an anonymous Web-based form or by reply to the e-mail solicitation. We tabulated responses, calculated percentages for each, and performed a qualitative analysis of comments. Of the 431 potential participants, 218 responded (51%) during the study period. Ninety-nine percent reported comfort browsing the Web; 52% accessed the Web primarily from home. Sixty-nine percent learned about residency Web sites primarily from residency-specific directories while 19% relied on general directories. Eighty percent found these sites helpful when deciding where to apply, 69% when deciding where to interview, and 36% when deciding how to rank order programs for the Match. Forty

  19. Factors Influencing the Gender Breakdown of Academic Radiology Residency Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James C; Yoon, Sora C; Cater, Sarah Wallace; Grimm, Lars J

    2017-07-01

    To determine the gender distribution of radiology residency programs and identify associations with radiology departmental factors. The residency programs affiliated with the top 50 research medical school from US News and World Report were identified. The gender of all radiology residency graduates from each program from 2011 to 2015 were collected. Radiology departmental factors were collected: gender of chairperson, gender of program director, gender of faculty, geographic location, and city population of the residency program. The median percentage of female radiology faculty and residents were calculated and classified as above or below the median. Comparisons were made between residency programs and departmental factors via a Pearson χ 2 univariate test or logistic regression. There were 618 (27.9%) female and 1,598 (72.1%) male residents in our study, with a median female representation of 26.4% in each program. Programs with a female residency program director were significantly more likely to have an above-median percentage of female residents versus a male program director (68.4% versus 38.7%, P = .04). Programs in the Northeast (70.6%) and West (70.0%) had higher above-median female representation than the South (10.0%) and Midwest (38.5%, P < .01). There was no association with city population size (P = .40), gender of faculty (P = .40), residency size (P = .91), or faculty size (P = .15). Radiology residency programs with a female residency program director and those in the Northeast or West have a greater concentration of female residents. Residency programs that aim to increase female representation should investigate modifiable factors that can improve their recruitment practices. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Iraqi Population Displacement Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    relationship of population size of origin and destination countries inverse to the distance traveled between the locations to calculate an attraction for a...provinces). 2) IDP camps will attract no more than ~30% of the IDP population. 3) More IDPs reside in paid accommodations than any other type of...CAA-2015098 ii (3) IDP camps will attract no more than ~30% of the IDP population. (4) More IDPs reside in paid accommodations than in any

  1. Multidsciplinary Approaches to Coastal Adaptation - Aplying Machine Learning Techniques to assess coastal risk in Latin America and The Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calil, J.

    2016-12-01

    The global population, currently at 7.3 billion, is increasing by nearly 230,000 people every day. As the world's population grows to an estimated 11.2 billion by 2100, the number of people living in low elevation areas, exposed to coastal hazards, is continuing to increase. In 2013, 22 million people were displaced by extreme weather events, with 37 events displacing at least 100,000 people each. Losses from natural disasters and disaster risk are determined by a complex interaction between physical hazards and the vulnerability of a society or social-ecological system, and its exposure to such hazards. Impacts from coastal hazards depend on the number of people, value of assets, and presence of critical resources in harm's way. Moreover, coastal risks are amplified by challenging socioeconomic dynamics, including ill-advised urban development, income inequality, and poverty level. Our results demonstrate that in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), more than half a million people live in areas where coastal hazards, exposure (of people, assets and ecosystems), and poverty converge, creating the ideal conditions for a perfect storm. In order to identify the population at greatest risk to coastal hazards in LAC, and in response to a growing demand for multidisciplinary coastal adaptation approaches, this study employs a combination of machine learning clustering techniques (K-Means and Self Organizing Maps), and a spatial index, to assess coastal risks on a comparative scale. Data for more than 13,000 coastal locations in LAC were collected and allocated into three categories: (1) Coastal Hazards (including storm surge, wave energy and El Niño); (2) Geographic Exposure (including population, agriculture, and ecosystems); and (3) Vulnerability (including income inequality, infant mortality rate and malnutrition). This study identified hotspots of coastal vulnerability, the key drivers of coastal risk at each geographic location. Our results provide important

  2. Environmental security of coastal seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkovic, Vladivoj; Sudac, Davorin; Nad, Karlo; Obhodas, Jasmina; Kollar, Robert; Matika, Dario

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The bottoms of the coastal seas are contaminated by many man-made objects including a variety of ammunition. This contamination is world wide spread with some areas being highly polluted presenting a serious threat to local population and to visitors as well. All littoral nations are investing lots of effort into the remediation of their coastal areas. In this report an effort to identify the nature of the object on the sea bottom is presented. Once the presence of the anomaly on the bottom of the shallow coastal sea water is confirmed (by visual identification and by using one or several sensors, namely magnetometer, sonar and optical cameras) it is necessary to establish if it contains explosive and/or chemical warfare charge. In our work we propose this to be performed by using neutron sensor installed within an underwater vessel - 'Surveyor'. When positioned above the object, or to its side, the system inspects the object for the presence of the threat material by using alpha particle tagged neutrons from the sealed tube d+t neutron generator. The inside of the first prototype of the underwater system 'Surveyor' containing neutron generator, shielding and gamma ray detector is shown in figure. The neutron generator used by the 'Surveyor' is rotated by two step motors so that different volume elements chosen by the relative position of the neutron generator and gamma ray detector could be inspected. In such a way a profile of concentrations could also be measured. The preliminary results from the laboratory tests are presented

  3. SRKW seasonal occurence - Patterns of seasonal occurrence of Southern Resident Killer Whales

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Patterns of seasonal occurrence of Southern Resident Killer Whales (SRKW) throughout their range. Southern Resident Killer Whales are listed as a Distinct Population...

  4. Screening for Psychopathology Symptoms in Mexican Psychiatry Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Francisco Javier Mesa; Munoz, Maria Del Carmen Lara

    2011-01-01

    Background: Various rates of alcoholism, drug abuse, mental illness, and suicide among physician have been reported, generally higher than those in the general population. Psychiatry residents, as other specializing physicians, seem to be prone to suffering them. The prevalence of psychological symptoms among psychiatry residents has not been…

  5. Residence as a Factor in Longevity: A Study of Louisianians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Yui-Huen; Bertrand, Alvin L.

    In order to test the hypothesis that the longevity of aged persons differs according to residence and by sex, race, and marital status, data from every third year between 1962 and 1974 in the Louisiana State Bureau of Vital Statistics were examined. Criteria for population inclusion were: people over 65 years of age; Louisiana residents at time of…

  6. Coastal Upwelling Drives Intertidal Assemblage Structure and Trophic Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddin, Carl J; Docmac, Felipe; O'Connor, Nessa E; Bothwell, John H; Harrod, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Similar environmental driving forces can produce similarity among geographically distant ecosystems. Coastal oceanic upwelling, for example, has been associated with elevated biomass and abundance patterns of certain functional groups, e.g., corticated macroalgae. In the upwelling system of Northern Chile, we examined measures of intertidal macrobenthic composition, structure and trophic ecology across eighteen shores varying in their proximity to two coastal upwelling centres, in a hierarchical sampling design (spatial scales of >1 and >10 km). The influence of coastal upwelling on intertidal communities was confirmed by the stable isotope values (δ13C and δ15N) of consumers, including a dominant suspension feeder, grazers, and their putative resources of POM, epilithic biofilm, and macroalgae. We highlight the utility of muscle δ15N from the suspension feeding mussel, Perumytilus purpuratus, as a proxy for upwelling, supported by satellite data and previous studies. Where possible, we used corrections for broader-scale trends, spatial autocorrelation, ontogenetic dietary shifts and spatial baseline isotopic variation prior to analysis. Our results showed macroalgal assemblage composition, and benthic consumer assemblage structure, varied significantly with the intertidal influence of coastal upwelling, especially contrasting bays and coastal headlands. Coastal topography also separated differences in consumer resource use. This suggested that coastal upwelling, itself driven by coastline topography, influences intertidal communities by advecting nearshore phytoplankton populations offshore and cooling coastal water temperatures. We recommend the isotopic values of benthic organisms, specifically long-lived suspension feeders, as in situ alternatives to offshore measurements of upwelling influence.

  7. Intensified coastal development in beach-nourishment zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, E.; Armstrong, S.; Limber, P. W.; Goldstein, E. B.; Ballinger, R.

    2016-12-01

    Population density, housing development, and property values in coastal counties along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts continue to rise despite increasing hazard from storm impacts. Beach nourishment, a method for mitigating coastal storm damage or chronic erosion by deliberately replacing sand on an eroded beach, has been the leading form of coastal protection in the U.S. since the 1970s. However, investment in hazard protection can have the unintended consequence of encouraging development in places especially vulnerable to damage. To quantitatively compare development in nourishing and non-nourishing zones, we examine the parcel-scale housing stock of all shorefront single-family homes in the state of Florida. We find that houses in nourishing zones are significantly larger and more numerous than in non-nourishing zones. Florida represents both an advanced case of coastal risk and an exemplar of ubiquitous, fundamental challenges in coastal management. The predominance of larger homes in nourishing zones indicates a positive feedback between nourishment and development that is compounding coastal risk in zones already characterized by high vulnerability. We offer that this phenomenon represents a variant of Jevons' paradox, a theoretical argument from environmental economics in which more efficient use of a resource spurs an increase in its consumption. Here, we suggest reductions in coastal risk through hazard protection are ultimately offset or reversed by increased coastal development.

  8. Resident fatigue in otolaryngology residents: a Web based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nida, Andrew M; Googe, Benjamin J; Lewis, Andrea F; May, Warren L

    2016-01-01

    Resident fatigue has become a point of emphasis in medical education and its effects on otolaryngology residents and their patients require further study. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the prevalence and nature of fatigue in otolaryngology residents, evaluate various quality of life measures, and investigate associations of increased fatigue with resident safety. Anonymous survey. Internet based. United States allopathic otolaryngology residents. None. The survey topics included demographics, residency structure, sleep habits and perceived stress. Responses were correlated with a concurrent Epworth Sleep Scale questionnaire to evaluate effects of fatigue on resident training and quality of life. 190 residents responded to the survey with 178 completing the Epworth Sleep Scale questionnaire. Results revealed a mean Epworth Sleep Scale score of 9.9±5.1 with a median of 10.0 indicating a significant number of otolaryngology residents are excessively sleepy. Statistically significant correlations between Epworth Sleep Scale and sex, region, hours of sleep, and work hours were found. Residents taking in-house call had significantly fewer hours of sleep compared to home call (p=0.01). Residents on "head and neck" (typically consisting of a large proportion of head and neck oncologic surgery) rotations tended to have higher Epworth Sleep Scale and had significantly fewer hours of sleep (p=.003) and greater work hours (potolaryngology residents are excessively sleepy. Our data suggest that the effects of fatigue play a role in resident well-being and resident safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of climate change on food security in southwest coastal region of bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, S.; Rahman, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of climate change on food security of the population residing in the coastal area of Bangladesh. Based on multistage random sampling technique, a survey was conducted to collect socioeconomic and food datasets of the people affected by extreme climate events in the country. The study found that climate change caused food insecurity in the region; it led to greater dependence on pond and rain water for cooking food and water intake. Catastrophe due to extreme weather events adversely affected the livelihoods and level of income. The severe cyclonic storms, Sidr (November 2007) and Alia (May 2009) severely affected the vulnerable people of this region, especially the extremely poor. The study came out with several coping strategies to address adverse effects of climate change, including rehabilitation with income and employment generating activities and development training; alternative livelihood adaptation practices; access to subsidized inputs and credits; introduction of crop calendar; conservation of arable and fellow land; and innovation of saline-tolerant, heat-resistant, moderate water consuming and short-rotation crops for the coastal people. (author)

  10. Prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs in children in coastal areas of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulal Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was carried out to measure the caries prevalence and treatment needs in school children of 6-14 year old residing in coastal areas of West Bengal. Materials and Methods: A total of 1764 children of 6-14 years age group, studying in different primary and high schools of the coastal areas were examined using World Health Organization criteria (1997 to record the prevalence of dental caries. The treatment needs were also calculated according to that given criteria. Statistical Analysis: The results were subjected to statistical analysis using the Chi-square test and unpaired ′t′ test. Results: Dental caries were founded low in the studied population. The overall all caries prevalence in the permanent dentition was 28.06%, in boys it was 25.39% and in girls it was 30.86%. Therefore caries prevalence in female was higher and which was statistically highly significant (P < 0.05. The most frequently required treatment was one surface filling followed by other treatments irrespective of sex and age group. Discussion: The presence of sea foods containing high fluoride and least availability of refined carbohydrate in the diet may be the reason of lower prevalence. Conclusion: child oral health is always a matter of concern for a developing country so further research is required to explore actual causes.

  11. Internal Acoustic Transceivers Reveal the Annual Social Network Patterns in a Coastal Top Predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haulsee, D.; Fox, D. A.; Breece, M.; Wetherbee, B.; Brown, L.; Kneebone, J.; Skomal, G.; Oliver, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Sand Tigers (Carcharias taurus) are large apex predators resident in the coastal ocean along the Eastern US Coast. Although Delaware Bay and surrounding coastal waters are known summer "hot spots" for Sand Tigers, our understanding of their seasonal movements is less well known. Since 2007, we have implanted more than 300 VEMCO acoustic transmitters in Sand Tigers, which have been detected from Cape Canaveral, Florida to Long Island, New York by collaborators in the Atlantic Cooperative Telemetry (ACT) Network. During the summer of 2012, 20 Sand Tigers were implanted with VEMCO Mobile Transceivers (VMTs), which are capable of both transmitting and receiving coded acoustic pings. To date, two of the 20 sharks have been recaptured, and their VMTs recovered. VMTs recorded detections of 350 individuals, from 8 different species. We analyzed their intra- and interspecific social network, which allowed us to reconstruct the approximate locations of Sand Tigers throughout the year. Changes in the interspecific population dynamics throughout the year revealed evidence of fission-fusion social behavior, which is common in mammals, but rarely documented in non-mammalian species. This project is a unique look at the social network of an apex predator and is a useful model for studies quantifying the social structures of marine animals. In addition, understanding how the aggregations of this species changes (in terms of sex and size class segregation) on spatiotemporal scales is critical for effective protection of the species and will be useful as managers develop conservation plans along the East Coast.

  12. 77 FR 40586 - Coastal Programs Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal Programs Division AGENCY: Coastal Programs Division, Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management, National Ocean.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kerry Kehoe, Coastal Programs Division (NORM/3), Office of Ocean and...

  13. Monitoring Coastal Change after the Tsunami in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantanahiran, W

    2014-01-01

    The tsunami on December 26, 2004 caused widespread devastation along the coast of Thailand, especially in Ban Nam Khem, Phang Nga province. This disaster claimed more than 941 lives, with 502 other people missing when the storm surge caught the residents of this area. The coastal geomorphology was impacted by this disaster. The objectives of the research were to study the effect of the tsunami on coastal change and the recovery of coastal areas. Six time-series datasets of aerial photographs and satellite images from 2002, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2009, and 2010 were compared using the Geographic Information System (GIS). The results showed the effect of the tsunami on the buildings in the area. Fifty-eight point sixty-three percent of the buildings in the urban area were destroyed by the tsunami and constructions was raised to 103.60% and 197.12% between 2004 and 2010, thus indicating the recovery of the local community. Geomorphological change in Ko Kho Khao (the island) was found after the tsunami disaster, including coastal erosion and coastal deposition. The balance of nature played a major role in controlling the erosion and deposition. The coastal deposits were the highest in 2005; however, deposition was not found in 2004. The erosion rate from 2002-2003 was the highest (48.10 meter per year) and higher than 2003-2004 (39.03 meters per year), 2004-2009 (15.64 meters per year) and 2009-2010 (29.49 meters per year). The coastal area was more severe eroded than the estuary area, and severe coastal erosion caused the loss of coastal area, approximately 0.28 ha. Severe coastal erosion has been repeatedly found since 2005 in the lower part of the area, and hard structures such as concrete seawalls might have been affected by coastal erosion. In addition, extrapolation of coastal erosion at the rate of 30 meters per year showed that the lower part of Ko Kho Khao should disappear in 2015

  14. Vertical Transport by Coastal Mesoscale Convective Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, K.; Kading, T.

    2016-12-01

    This work is part of an ongoing investigation of coastal mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), including changes in vertical transport of boundary layer air by storms moving from inland to offshore. The density of a storm's cold pool versus that of the offshore marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL), in part, determines the ability of the storm to successfully cross the coast, the mechanism driving storm propagation, and the ability of the storm to lift air from the boundary layer aloft. The ability of an MCS to overturn boundary layer air can be especially important over the eastern US seaboard, where warm season coastal MCSs are relatively common and where large coastal population centers generate concentrated regions of pollution. Recent work numerically simulating idealized MCSs in a coastal environment has provided some insight into the physical mechanisms governing MCS coastal crossing success and the impact on vertical transport of boundary layer air. Storms are simulated using a cloud resolving model initialized with atmospheric conditions representative of a Mid-Atlantic environment. Simulations are run in 2-D at 250 m horizontal resolution with a vertical resolution stretched from 100 m in the boundary layer to 250 m aloft. The left half of the 800 km domain is configured to represent land, while the right half is assigned as water. Sensitivity experiments are conducted to quantify the influence of varying MABL structure on MCS coastal crossing success and air transport, with MABL values representative of those observed over the western Mid-Atlantic during warm season. Preliminary results indicate that when the density of the cold pool is much greater than the MABL, the storm successfully crosses the coastline, with lifting of surface parcels, which ascend through the troposphere. When the density of the cold pool is similar to that of the MABL, parcels within the MABL remain at low levels, though parcels above the MABL ascend through the troposphere.

  15. COASTAL STUDY, LINCOLN COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a result of a...

  16. Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building coastal-relief models (CRM) for select U.S. coastal regions. Bathymetric, topographic, and shoreline data...

  17. COASTAL STUDY, SOLANO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a result of a...

  18. Connectivity of a large embayment and coastal fishery: spawning aggregations in one bay source local and broad-scale fishery replenishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, P A; Acevedo, S; Jenkins, G P; Newman, A

    2011-04-01

    Ichthyoplankton sampling and otolith chemistry were used to determine the importance of transient spawning aggregations of snapper Chrysophrys auratus (Sparidae) in a large embayment, Port Phillip Bay (PPB), Australia, as a source of local and broad-scale fishery replenishment. Ichthyoplankton sampling across five spawning seasons within PPB, across the narrow entrance to the bay and in adjacent coastal waters, indicated that although spawning may occur in coastal waters, the spawning aggregations within the bay were the primary source of larval recruitment to the bay. Otolith chemical signatures previously characterized for 0+ year C. auratus of two cohorts (2000 and 2001) were used as the baseline signatures to quantify the contribution that fish derived from reproduction in PPB make to fishery replenishment. Sampling of these cohorts over a 5 year period at various widely dispersed fishery regions, combined with maximum likelihood analyses of the chemistry of the 0+ year otolith portions of these older fish, indicated that C. auratus of 1 to 3+ years of age displayed both local residency and broad-scale emigration from PPB to populate coastal waters and an adjacent bay (Western Port). While the PPB fishery was consistently dominated (>70%) by locally derived fish irrespective of cohort or age, the contribution of fish that had originated from PPB to distant populations increased with age. At 4 to 5+ years of age, when C. auratus mature and fully recruit to the fishery, populations of both cohorts across the entire central and western Victorian fishery, including two major embayments and c. 800 km of coastal waters, were dominated (>70%) by fish that had originated from the spawning aggregations and nursery habitat within PPB. Dependence of this broadly dispersed fishery on replenishment from heavily targeted spawning aggregations within one embayment has significant implications for management and monitoring programmes. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish

  19. Policies for Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickson, D.; Johnson, S.

    2014-12-01

    Hurricane- and coastal storm-related economic losses have increased substantially over the past century, largely due to expanding population and development in susceptible coastal areas. Concurrent with this growth, the federal government has assumed an increasing proportion of the financial responsibility associated with U.S. coastal storms, which may discourage state and local governments from taking appropriate actions to reduce risk and enhance resilience. Strategies to manage coastal storm risks fall into two categories: reducing the probability of flooding or wave impact (such as seawalls, storm surge barriers, beach nourishment, dune building, restoration/expansion of oyster reefs, salt marshes, and mangroves) and reducing the number or vulnerability of people or structures (such as relocation, land-use planning, and elevating or floodproofing buildings). Over the past century, most coastal risk management programs have emphasized coastal armoring, while doing little to decrease development in harm's way. This National Research Council report calls for the development of a national vision for managing coastal risks that includes a long-term view, regional solutions, and recognition of all benefits. A national coastal risk assessment is needed to identify high priority areas. Benefit-cost analysis provides a reasonable framework to evaluate national investments in coastal risk reduction, if constrained by other important environmental, social, and life-safety factors. Extensive collaboration and additional policy changes will be necessary to move from a nation that is primarily reactive to coastal disasters to one that invests wisely in coastal risk reduction and builds resilience among coastal communities.

  20. Coastal Inlets Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Geomorphic  Evolution • ADCP Currents  • ADCP Backscatter • Total Suspended  Solids • Turbidity  Sensor  Array • Wave Array • Light Attenuation • Surface...shore for both East and West Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory 38 Coast Applications Summary and New Initiatives http://cirp.usace.army.milCIRP...Nearshore Berm Target Date: Sep FY15- Sep FY17 • Coastal experiments on Atlantic • Estuary experiments in Currituck Sound • Overland

  1. Geomorphometry in coastal morphodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisado-Pintado, Emilia; Jackson, Derek

    2017-04-01

    Geomorphometry is a cross-cutting discipline that has interwoven itself into multiple research themes due to its ability to encompass topographic quantification on many fronts. Its operational focus is largely defined as the extraction of land-surface parameters and earth surface characterisation. In particular, the coastal sciences have been enriched by the use of digital terrain production techniques both on land and in the nearshore/marine area. Numerous examples exist in which the utilisation of field instrumentation (e.g. LIDAR, GPS, Terrestrial Laser Scanning, multi-beam echo-sounders) are used for surface sampling and development of Digital Terrain Models, monitoring topographic change and creation of nearshore bathymetry, and have become central elements in modern investigations of coastal morphodynamics. The coastal zone is a highly dynamic system that embraces variable and at times, inter-related environments (sand dunes, sandy beaches, shoreline and nearshore) all of which require accurate and integrated monitoring. Although coastal studies can be widely diverse (with interconnected links to other related disciplines such as geology or biology), the characterisation of the landforms (coastal geomorphology) and associated processes (morphodynamics, hydrodynamics, aeolian processes) is perhaps where geomorphometry (topo-bathymetry quantification) is best highlighted. In this respect, many tools have been developed (or improved upon) for the acquisition of topographic data that now commands a high degree of accuracy, simplicity, and ultimately acquisition cost reduction. We present a series of field data acquisitions examples that have produced land surface characterisation using a range of techniques including traditional GPS surveys to more recent Terrestrial Laser Scanning and airborne LIDAR. These have been conducted within beach and dune environments and have helped describe erosion and depositional processes driven by wind and wave energy (high

  2. An approach of habitat degradation assessment for characterization on coastal habitat conservation tendency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xi-Yin; Lei, Kun; Meng, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Coastal zones are population and economy highly intensity regions all over the world, and coastal habitat supports the sustainable development of human society. The accurate assessment of coastal habitat degradation is the essential prerequisite for coastal zone protection. In this study, an integrated framework of coastal habitat degradation assessment including landuse classification, habitat classifying and zoning, evaluation criterion of coastal habitat degradation and coastal habitat degradation index has been established for better regional coastal habitat assessment. Through establishment of detailed three-class landuse classification, the fine landscape change is revealed, the evaluation criterion of coastal habitat degradation through internal comparison based on the results of habitat classifying and zoning could indicate the levels of habitat degradation and distinguish the intensity of human disturbances in different habitat subareas under the same habitat classification. Finally, the results of coastal habitat degradation assessment could be achieved through coastal habitat degradation index (CHI). A case study of the framework is carried out in the Circum-Bohai-Sea-Coast, China, and the main results show the following: (1) The accuracy of all land use classes are above 90%, which indicates a satisfactory accuracy for the classification map. (2) The Circum-Bohai-Sea-Coast is divided into 3 kinds of habitats and 5 subareas. (3) In the five subareas of the Circum-Bohai-Sea-Coast, the levels of coastal habitat degradation own significant difference. The whole Circum-Bohai-Sea-Coast generally is in a worse state according to area weighting of each habitat subarea. This assessment framework of coastal habitat degradation would characterize the landuse change trend, realize better coastal habitat degradation assessment, reveal the habitat conservation tendency and distinguish intensity of human disturbances. Furthermore, it would support for accurate coastal

  3. Microbial processes in coastal pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capone, D.G.; Bauer, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors describe the nature and range of some of the interactions that can occur between the microbiota and environmental contaminants in coastal areas. The implications of such interactions are also discussed. Pollutant types include inorganic nutrients, heavy metals, bulk organics, organic contaminants, pathogenic microorganisms and microbial pollutants. Both the effects of pollutants such as petroleum hydrocarbons on natural microbial populations and the mitigation of contaminant effects by complexation and biodegradation are considered. Finally, several areas of emerging concerns are presented that involve a confluence of biogeochemistry, microbial ecology and applied and public health microbiology. These concerns range in relevance from local/regional to oceanic/global scales. 308 ref

  4. Leadership Training in Otolaryngology Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, John P; Fried, Marvin P; Smith, Richard V; Hsueh, Wayne; Choi, Karen

    2017-06-01

    Although residency training offers numerous leadership opportunities, most residents are not exposed to scripted leadership instruction. To explore one program's attitudes about leadership training, a group of otolaryngology faculty (n = 14) and residents (n = 17) was polled about their attitudes. In terms of self-perception, more faculty (10 of 14, 71.4%) than residents (9 of 17, 52.9%; P = .461) considered themselves good leaders. The majority of faculty and residents (27 of 31) thought that adults could be taught leadership ability. Given attitudes about leadership ability and the potential for improvement through instruction, consideration should be given to including such training in otolaryngology residency.

  5. Coping with Coastal Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nichols, Robert J.; Stive, Marcel J.F.; Tol, Richard S.J.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter focuses on how to cope with coastal change and its implications. There are two major types of response: mitigation representing source control of drivers, such as greenhouse gas emissions and groundwater withdrawal, and adaptation referring to behavioral changes that range from

  6. Managing Coastal Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quevenco, R.

    2010-01-01

    Concern over the growing incidence of pollution in the Caribbean has been on the rise, as it has the potential to affect livelihoods dependent on fishing and tourism. The IAEA's Department of Technical Cooperation launched a regional project on the use of nuclear techniques to address coastal management issues in the Caribbean.

  7. Spatio-temporal migration patterns of Pacific salmon smolts in rivers and coastal marine waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Melnychuk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Migrations allow animals to find food resources, rearing habitats, or mates, but often impose considerable predation risk. Several behavioural strategies may reduce this risk, including faster travel speed and taking routes with shorter total distance. Descriptions of the natural range of variation in migration strategies among individuals and populations is necessary before the ecological consequences of such variation can be established. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Movements of tagged juvenile coho, steelhead, sockeye, and Chinook salmon were quantified using a large-scale acoustic tracking array in southern British Columbia, Canada. Smolts from 13 watersheds (49 watershed/species/year combinations were tagged between 2004-2008 and combined into a mixed-effects model analysis of travel speed. During the downstream migration, steelhead were slower on average than other species, possibly related to freshwater residualization. During the migration through the Strait of Georgia, coho were slower than steelhead and sockeye, likely related to some degree of inshore summer residency. Hatchery-reared smolts were slower than wild smolts during the downstream migration, but after ocean entry, average speeds were similar. In small rivers, downstream travel speed increased with body length, but in the larger Fraser River and during the coastal migration, average speed was independent of body length. Smolts leaving rivers located towards the northern end of the Strait of Georgia ecosystem migrated strictly northwards after ocean entry, but those from rivers towards the southern end displayed split-route migration patterns within populations, with some moving southward. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results reveal a tremendous diversity of behavioural migration strategies used by juvenile salmon, across species, rearing histories, and habitats, as well as within individual populations. During the downstream migration, factors that had strong

  8. The impact of local black residents' socioeconomic status on white residents' racial views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Marylee C; Reyes, Adriana M

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends the study of contextual influences on racial attitudes by asking how the SES of the local black community shapes the racial attitudes of local whites. Using responses to the 1998-2002 General Social Surveys merged with year 2000 census data, we compare the influences of black educational and economic composition on white residents' attitudes. Finally, the independence of these effects from the impact of white contextual SES is assessed. Across three dimensions of racial attitudes, white residents' views are more positive in localities where the black population contains more college graduates. However, such localities tend also to have highly educated white populations, as well as higher incomes among blacks and whites, and the multiple influences are inseparable. In contrast, many racial attitude measures show an independent effect of black economic composition, white residents reporting more negative views where the local African American community is poorer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Movement of resident rainbow trout transplanted below a barrier to anadromy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilzbach, Margaret A.; Ashenfelter, Mark J.; Ricker, Seth J.

    2012-01-01

    We tracked the movement of resident coastal rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus that were experimentally transplanted below a migration barrier in a northern California stream. In 2005 and 2006, age-1 and older rainbow trout were captured above a 5-m-high waterfall in Freshwater Creek and individually marked with passive integrated transponder tags. Otolith microchemistry confirmed that the above-barrier trout were the progeny of resident rather than anadromous parents, and genetic analysis indicated that the rainbow trout were introgressed with cutthroat trout O. clarkii. At each of three sampling events, half of the tagged individuals (n = 22 and 43 trout in 2005 and 2006, respectively) were released 5 km downstream from the waterfall (approximately 10 km upstream from tidewater), and an equal number of tagged individuals were released above the barrier. Tagged individuals were subsequently relocated with stationary and mobile antennae or recaptured in downstream migrant traps, or both, until tracking ceased in October 2007. Most transplanted individuals remained within a few hundred meters of their release location. Three individuals, including one rainbow trout released above the waterfall, were last detected in the tidally influenced lower creek. Two additional tagged individuals released above the barrier were found alive in below-barrier reaches and had presumably washed over the falls. Two of seven tagged rainbow trout captured in downstream migrant traps had smolted and one was a presmolt. The smoltification of at least some individuals, coupled with above-barrier "leakage" of fish downstream, suggests that above-barrier resident trout have the potential to exhibit migratory behavior and to enter breeding populations of steelhead (anadromous rainbow trout) within the basin.

  10. Groundwater flow system under a rapidly urbanizing coastal city as determined by hydrogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagabu, Makoto; Shimada, Jun; Delinom, Robert; Tsujimura, Maki; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    In the Jakarta area (Indonesia), excessive groundwater pumping due to the rapidly increasing population has caused groundwater-related problems such as brackish water contamination in coastal areas and land subsidence. In this study, we adopted multiple hydrogeochemical techniques to demonstrate the groundwater flow system in the Jakarta area. Although almost all groundwater existing in the Jakarta basin is recharged at similar elevations, the water quality and residence time demonstrates a clear difference between the shallow and deep aquifers. Due to the rapid decrease in the groundwater potential in urban areas, we found that the seawater intrusion and the shallow and deep groundwaters are mixing, a conclusion confirmed by major ions, Br -:Cl - ratios, and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-12 analysis. Spring water and groundwater samples collected from the southern mountainside area show younger age characteristics with high concentrations of 14C and Ca-HCO 3 type water chemistry. We estimated the residence times of these groundwaters within 45 years under piston flow conditions by tritium analysis. Also, these groundwater ages can be limited to 20-30 years with piston flow evaluated by CFCs. Moreover, due to the magnitude of the CFC-12 concentration, we can use a pseudo age indicator in this field study, because we found a positive correlation between the major type of water chemistry and the CFC-12 concentration.

  11. Lawful Permanent Residents - Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A lawful permanent resident (LPR) or 'green card' recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...

  12. Relationships Between Perceived Coastal Waterway Condition and Social Aspects of Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie E. Cox

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that the presence of natural areas is beneficial to human well-being. However, to date there have been few published studies of the effects that the condition of natural areas have on well-being. We hypothesize that coastal waterways that are perceived to be in better condition are visited more often by local residents, and as a result, residents will develop a stronger sense of place and stronger social relations with other residents, which will in turn lead to a higher quality of life. A survey was conducted to test this hypothesis in two coastal regions in Queensland, Australia. A weak relationship was found between perceived coastal quality and the number of recreational visits. In both study areas, frequency of visits to coastal waterways was significantly related to quality of life through an increased sense of place and social contacts. In the Douglas region, sense of place and social capital were closely related, and social capital was also related to quality of life. In both study areas, residents were most likely to visit waterways that were located in close proximity to their residence, suggesting that management of all waterways is essential for human well-being, and that benefits to humans will result from rehabilitating degraded waterways.

  13. [The number of deaths by suicide after the Great East Japan Earthquake based on demographic statistics in the coastal and non-coastal areas of Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Naoko; Hashimoto, Shuji; Kawado, Miyuki; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Takeshima, Tadashi; Matsubara, Miyuki; Mitoku, Kazuko; Ogata, Yukiko

    2018-01-01

    Objective The number of deaths by suicide after the Great East Japan Earthquake was surveyed based on demographic statistics. In particular, this study examined whether or not there were excessive deaths due to suicide (excluding people who were injured in the earthquake) after the Great East Japan Earthquake disaster. This examination surveyed municipalities in coastal and non-coastal areas of Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures (referred to below as the "three prefectures").Methods The demographic statistics questionnaire survey information supplied by Article 33 of the Statistics Act (Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare's published statistics Vol. 0925 No.4, September 25 th , 2014) were used as the basic data with particular reference to the information on the deaths from January 1 st , 2010 to March 31 st , 2013. The information obtained included the date of death, the municipality where the address of the deceased was registered, the gender of the deceased, age at the time of death, and cause of death codes (International Classification of Disease Codes 10 th revision: ICD-10). Additionally, information was gathered about the population based on the resident register from 2009 to 2013 and the 2010 National Census; the number of deaths by suicide was then totalled by period and area. The areas were classified as municipalities within three prefectures and those located elsewhere using the municipality where the address of the deceased was registered.Results The SMR for suicides did not show a tendency to increase for coastal or non-coastal areas throughout the two-year period after the earthquake disaster (from March 2011 to February 2013). The SMR for the three prefectures 0-1 years after the disaster compared with the year before the disaster was 0.92 and for 1-2 years after the disaster was 0.93. Both these values were significantly low. Looking at both the non-coastal and coastal areas from each of the three prefectures, the SMR for suicides

  14. Coastal Ohio Wind Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorsevski, Peter [Bowling Green State Univ., OH (United States); Afjeh, Abdollah [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Jamali, Mohsin [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Bingman, Verner [Bowling Green State Univ., OH (United States)

    2014-04-04

    The Coastal Ohio Wind Project intends to address problems that impede deployment of wind turbines in the coastal and offshore regions of Northern Ohio. The project evaluates different wind turbine designs and the potential impact of offshore turbines on migratory and resident birds by developing multidisciplinary research, which involves wildlife biology, electrical and mechanical engineering, and geospatial science. Firstly, the project conducts cost and performance studies of two- and three-blade wind turbines using a turbine design suited for the Great Lakes. The numerical studies comprised an analysis and evaluation of the annual energy production of two- and three-blade wind turbines to determine the levelized cost of energy. This task also involved wind tunnel studies of model wind turbines to quantify the wake flow field of upwind and downwind wind turbine-tower arrangements. The experimental work included a study of a scaled model of an offshore wind turbine platform in a water tunnel. The levelized cost of energy work consisted of the development and application of a cost model to predict the cost of energy produced by a wind turbine system placed offshore. The analysis found that a floating two-blade wind turbine presents the most cost effective alternative for the Great Lakes. The load effects studies showed that the two-blade wind turbine model experiences less torque under all IEC Standard design load cases considered. Other load effects did not show this trend and depending on the design load cases, the two-bladed wind turbine showed higher or lower load effects. The experimental studies of the wake were conducted using smoke flow visualization and hot wire anemometry. Flow visualization studies showed that in the downwind turbine configuration the wake flow was insensitive to the presence of the blade and was very similar to that of the tower alone. On the other hand, in the upwind turbine configuration, increasing the rotor blade angle of attack

  15. Iowa Population Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, John L.; Johnson, Arthur H.

    The trends in population distribution and the composition of Iowa's population are reported in this document in order to provide the leaders and citizens of Iowa with information to assist them in making decisions relating to growth and development. Birth and death rates, rural and urban residence, population by race, and age structure are…

  16. The roles of large top predators in coastal ecosystems: new insights from long term ecological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Adam E.; Heithaus, Michael R.; Mather, Martha E.; Matich, Philip; Nifong, James C.; Ripple, William J.; Silliman, Brian R.

    2013-01-01

    During recent human history, human activities such as overhunting and habitat destruction have severely impacted many large top predator populations around the world. Studies from a variety of ecosystems show that loss or diminishment of top predator populations can have serious consequences for population and community dynamics and ecosystem stability. However, there are relatively few studies of the roles of large top predators in coastal ecosystems, so that we do not yet completely understand what could happen to coastal areas if large top predators are extirpated or significantly reduced in number. This lack of knowledge is surprising given that coastal areas around the globe are highly valued and densely populated by humans, and thus coastal large top predator populations frequently come into conflict with coastal human populations. This paper reviews what is known about the ecological roles of large top predators in coastal systems and presents a synthesis of recent work from three coastal eastern US Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) sites where long-term studies reveal what appear to be common themes relating to the roles of large top predators in coastal systems. We discuss three specific themes: (1) large top predators acting as mobile links between disparate habitats, (2) large top predators potentially affecting nutrient and biogeochemical dynamics through localized behaviors, and (3) individual specialization of large top predator behaviors. We also discuss how research within the LTER network has led to enhanced understanding of the ecological roles of coastal large top predators. Highlighting this work is intended to encourage further investigation of the roles of large top predators across diverse coastal aquatic habitats and to better inform researchers and ecosystem managers about the importance of large top predators for coastal ecosystem health and stability.

  17. Residents as teachers: psychiatry and family medicine residents' self-assessment of teaching knowledge, skills, and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Michael W; Ekambaram, Vijayabharathi; Tucker, Phebe; Aggarwal, Ruchi

    2013-09-01

    understanding of teaching techniques, and report spending less time educating patients than do family medicine residents. The differences might be due to different patient populations and treatment settings. The study suggests that psychiatry residents may have difficulty adapting the One-Minute Preceptor technique in psychiatric settings. Results serve as a benchmarking study in a performance-improvement program to enhance psychiatry residents' teaching skills.

  18. The Prevalence of Burnout Among US Neurosurgery Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Hakeem J; McPheeters, Matthew J; Shallwani, Hussain; Pittari, Joseph E; Reynolds, Renée M

    2017-10-27

    Burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Its prevalence among US physicians exceeds 50% and is higher among residents/fellows. This is important to the practice of neurosurgery, as burnout is associated with adverse physical health, increased risk of substance abuse, and increased medical errors. To date, no study has specifically addressed the prevalence of burnout among neurosurgery residents. To determine and compare the prevalence of burnout among US neurosurgery residents with published rates for residents/fellows and practicing physicians from other specialties. We surveyed 106 US neurosurgery residency training programs to perform a descriptive analysis of the prevalence of burnout among residents. Data on burnout among control groups were used to perform a cross-sectional analysis. Nonparametric tests assessed differences in burnout scores among neurosurgery residents, and the 2-tailed Fisher's exact test assessed burnout between neurosurgery residents and control populations. Of approximately 1200 US neurosurgery residents, 255 (21.3%) responded. The prevalence of burnout was 36.5% (95% confidence interval: 30.6%-42.7%). There was no significant difference in median burnout scores between gender (P = .836), age (P = .183), or postgraduate year (P = .963) among neurosurgery residents. Neurosurgery residents had a significantly lower prevalence of burnout (36.5%) than other residents/fellows (60.0%; P burnout than other residents/fellows and practicing physicians. The underlying causes for these findings were not assessed and are likely multifactorial. Future studies should address possible causes of these findings. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  19. Resident cross-cultural training, satisfaction, and preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frintner, Mary Pat; Mendoza, Fernando S; Dreyer, Benard P; Cull, William L; Laraque, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    To describe the diversity of pediatric residents and examine relationships of cross-cultural training experiences with training satisfaction, perceived preparedness for providing culturally effective care, and attitudes surrounding care for underserved populations. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of a national random sample of graduating pediatric residents and an additional sample of minority residents. Using weighted analysis, we used multivariate regression to test for differences in satisfaction, preparedness, and attitudes between residents with more and less cross-cultural experiences during residency, controlling for residents' characteristics and experiences before training. The survey response rate was 57%. Eleven percent were Hispanic, 61% white, 21% Asian, 9% African American, 9% other racial/ethnic groups; 34% grew up in a bi- or multilingual family. Ninety-three percent of residents were satisfied with their residency training, 81% with the instruction they received on health and health care disparities, and 54% on global health issues. Ninety-six percent of residents felt they were prepared to care for patients from diverse backgrounds, but fewer felt prepared to care for families with beliefs at odds with Western medicine (49%) and families who receive alternative or complementary care (37%). Residents with more cross-cultural experiences during residency reported being better prepared than those with less experience to care for families with limited English proficiency (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.40-3.17), new immigrants (aOR 1.91; 95% CI 1.32-2.75), and with religious beliefs that might affect clinical care (aOR 1.62; 95% CI 1.13-2.32). Pediatric residents begin their training with diverse cross-cultural backgrounds and experiences. Residency experiences in cross-cultural care contribute to feelings of preparedness to care for diverse US children. Copyright © 2013 Academic Pediatric Association. Published

  20. The socio-economic significance of the Turkish coastal environment for sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuleli, Tuncay

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the contribution from the coastal resources in the coastal region to the national economy for sustainable development. There was no separate data base for the coastal zone so that the contribution from the coastal resources in the coastal region to the national economy was not evaluated. In estimating the significance of Turkish coastal cities, indirect methods and the geographical information system were used. In conclusion, it was found that 61.09% of the total national gross domestic product and 50.75% of the national agricultural, 90.98% of the national fisheries, 68.19% of the national tourism and 71.82% of the national industrial gross domestic product came from the coastal zone. It was determined that while coastal cities of Turkey had 28.23% of the national surface area, the coastal district had 12.96%; in other words, 21.5 million (28.04%) of the national population lived in 101.5 thousand km(2) (12.96%) of the national surface area. Approximately 44% of the national gross domestic product comes from the top ten coastal cities. According to the contribution ratio to the national economy of each coastal city, these low-lying coastal cities have about $16 billion risk value. An analysis showed that the coastal zone is very important for the national economy of Turkey and also the pressure on the coastal zone is very high. At a time of increasing pressures on coastal resources of Turkey, the decision-makers need the most up-to-date information on the full range of values these resources provide in order to make decisions that best reflect the public interest.

  1. Impact of Residency Training Redesign on Residents' Clinical Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Elaine; Eiff, M Patrice; Dexter, Eve; Rinaldo, Jason C B; Marino, Miguel; Garvin, Roger; Douglass, Alan B; Phillips, Robert; Green, Larry A; Carney, Patricia A

    2017-10-01

    The In-training Examination (ITE) is a frequently used method to evaluate family medicine residents' clinical knowledge. We compared family medicine ITE scores among residents who trained in the 14 programs that participated in the Preparing the Personal Physician for Practice (P4) Project to national averages over time, and according to educational innovations. The ITE scores of 802 consenting P4 residents who trained in 2007 through 2011 were obtained from the American Board of Family Medicine. The primary analysis involved comparing scores within each academic year (2007 through 2011), according to program year (PGY) for P4 residents to all residents nationally. A secondary analysis compared ITE scores among residents in programs that experimented with length of training and compared scores among residents in programs that offered individualized education options with those that did not. Release of ITE scores was consented to by 95.5% of residents for this study. Scores of P4 residents were higher compared to national scores in each year. For example, in 2011, the mean P4 score for PGY1 was 401.2, compared to the national average of 386. For PGY2, the mean P4 score was 443.1, compared to the national average of 427, and for PGY3, the mean P4 score was 477.0, compared to the national PGY3 score of 456. Scores of residents in programs that experimented with length of training were similar to those in programs that did not. Scores were also similar between residents in programs with and without individualized education options. Family medicine residency programs undergoing substantial educational changes, including experiments in length of training and individualized education, did not appear to experience a negative effect on resident's clinical knowledge, as measured by ITE scores. Further research is needed to study the effect of a wide range of residency training innovations on ITE scores over time.

  2. Advancing UAS methods for monitoring coastal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, J.; Seymour, A.; Rodriguez, A. B.; Dale, J.; Newton, E.; Johnston, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    Utilizing fixed-wing Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), we are working to improve coastal monitoring by increasing the accuracy, precision, temporal resolution, and spatial coverage of habitat distribution maps. Generally, multirotor aircraft are preferred for precision imaging, but recent advances in fixed-wing technology have greatly increased their capabilities and application for fine-scale (decimeter-centimeter) measurements. Present mapping methods employed by North Carolina coastal managers involve expensive, time consuming and localized observation of coastal environments, which often lack the necessary frequency to make timely management decisions. For example, it has taken several decades to fully map oyster reefs along the NC coast, making it nearly impossible to track trends in oyster reef populations responding to harvesting pressure and water quality degradation. It is difficult for the state to employ manned flights for collecting aerial imagery to monitor intertidal oyster reefs, because flights are usually conducted after seasonal increases in turbidity. In addition, post-storm monitoring of coastal erosion from manned platforms is often conducted days after the event and collects oblique aerial photographs which are difficult to use for accurately measuring change. Here, we describe how fixed wing UAS and standard RGB sensors can be used to rapidly quantify and assess critical coastal habitats (e.g., barrier islands, oyster reefs, etc.), providing for increased temporal frequency to isolate long-term and event-driven (storms, harvesting) impacts. Furthermore, drone-based approaches can accurately image intertidal habitats as well as resolve information such as vegetation density and bathymetry from shallow submerged areas. We obtain UAS imagery of a barrier island and oyster reefs under ideal conditions (low tide, turbidity, and sun angle) to create high resolution (cm scale) maps and digital elevation models to assess habitat condition

  3. Identifying the Relevant Local Population for Environmental Impact Assessments of Mobile Marine Fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine B. H. Chabanne

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact assessments must be addressed at a scale that reflects the biological organization for the species affected. It can be challenging to identify the relevant local wildlife population for impact assessment for those species that are continuously distributed and highly mobile. Here, we document the existence of local communities of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus inhabiting coastal and estuarine waters of Perth, Western Australia, where major coastal developments have been undertaken or are proposed. Using sighting histories from a 4-year photo-identification study, we investigated fine-scale, social community structure of dolphins based on measures of social affinity, and network (Half-Weight Index—HWI, preferred dyadic association tests, and Lagged Association Rates—LAR, home ranges, residency patterns (Lagged Identification Rates—LIR, and genetic relatedness. Analyses revealed four socially and spatially distinct, mixed-sex communities. The four communities had distinctive social patterns varying in strength, site fidelity, and residency patterns. Overlap in home ranges and relatedness explained little to none of the association patterns between individuals, suggesting complex local social structures. The study demonstrated that environmental impact assessments for mobile, continuously distributed species must evaluate impacts in light of local population structure, especially where proposed developments may affect core habitats of resident communities or sub-populations. Here, the risk of local extinction is particularly significant for an estuarine community because of its small size, limited connectivity with adjacent communities, and use of areas subject to intensive human use. In the absence of information about fine-scale population structure, impact assessments may fail to consider the appropriate biological context.

  4. Preparedness of Entering Pediatric Dentistry Residents: Advanced Pediatric Program Directors' and First-Year Residents' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkauskas, John; Seale, N Sue; Casamassimo, Paul; Rutkauskas, John S

    2015-11-01

    For children to receive needed oral health care, adequate training at both the predoctoral and postdoctoral levels of dental education is required, but previous studies have found inadequacies in predoctoral education that lead to general dentists' unwillingness to treat certain young populations. As another way of assessing predoctoral preparation, the aim of this study was to determine the perspectives of first-year residents and pediatric program directors about residents' preparedness to enter advanced education programs in pediatric dentistry. Surveys were sent to all 74 U.S. program directors and 360 first-year residents. The survey focused on procedures related to prevention, behavior management, restorative procedures, pulp therapy, sedation, and surgery, as well as treating patients funded by Medicaid and with special health care needs. Among the first-year residents, 173 surveys were returned for a 48% response rate; 61 directors returned surveys for an 82% response rate. Only half of the residents (55%) reported feeling adequately prepared for their first year in residency; less than half cited adequate preparation to place stainless steel crowns (SSCs) (42%) and perform pulpotomies (45%). Far fewer felt adequately prepared to provide treatment for children six months to three years of age, including examinations (29%), infant oral exams (27%), and children with severe caries (37%). The program directors were even less positive about the adequacy of residents' preparation. Only 17% deemed them adequately prepared to place SSCs and 13% to perform pulpotomies. Approximately half reported their first-year residents were inadequately prepared to treat very young children and children with severe caries (55% each). This study found that the perceived inadequacy of predoctoral education in pediatric dentistry was consistent at both the learner and educator levels, supporting previous studies identifying inadequacies in this area.

  5. Risk perception of aquatic pollution originated from chemical industry clusters in the coastal area of Jiangsu province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; Liu, Bo; You, Zhen; Zhao, Li

    2018-02-01

    According to "the Layout Scheme of the Chemical Industry in Jiangsu Province From 2016 to 2030" and "the Development Planning in the Coastal Area of Jiangsu Province, China," several chemical industry clusters will be located in the coastal area of Jiangsu province, China, and the risk of surface water pollution will be inevitably higher in the densely populated region. To get to know the risk acceptance level of the residents near the clusters, public perception was analyzed from the five risk factors: the basic knowledge about the pollution, the negative effects on aquatic environment imposed by the clusters, the positive effects brought by the clusters, the trust of controlling aquatic pollution, and the acceptance of the clusters. Twenty-four statements were screened out to describe the five factors, and about 600 residents were covered in three typical clusters surveyed. On the whole, the youth showed a higher interest on the survey, and middle-aged people were likely to be more concerned about aquatic pollution incident. There was no significant difference on risk perception of the three clusters. The respondents investigated had good knowledge background on aquatic pollution and the residents identified with the benefits brought by the clusters. They were weak in risk awareness of pollution originated from the chemical enterprises' groups. Although the respondents regarded that chemical industry clusters did not expose all points of pollutants' generation to the public, they inclined to trust the administration agencies on controlling the pollution and welcome the construction of chemical clusters in their dwelling cities. Besides, risk perception showed obvious spatial distribution. The closer were the samples' sites to the clusters and the rivers receiving pollutants, the higher were the residents' perceived risk, benefit, and trust. However, there was no identical spatial difference on risk acceptance, which might be comprehensively influenced by various

  6. Coastal research: Observational challenge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, M.R.

    research. Modeling has also benefited from new tech nologies and is playing an increasingly important tole as well. Problems such as global climate change as affected by and affecting the oceans, variability in biomass and fish abun dance and regime... will be needed. Further, numerical modeling is central to these collective programs. Many of the societally important coastal problems, like their atmospheric counterparts, require forecasting and rapid information dissemination to decision-makers and the public...

  7. Coastal risk forecast system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, André; Poseiro, Pedro; Rodrigues, Armanda; Reis, Maria Teresa; Fortes, Conceição J.; Reis, Rui; Araújo, João

    2018-03-01

    The run-up and overtopping by sea waves are two of the main processes that threaten coastal structures, leading to flooding, destruction of both property and the environment, and harm to people. To build early warning systems, the consequences and associated risks in the affected areas must be evaluated. It is also important to understand how these two types of spatial information integrate with sensor data sources and the risk assessment methodology. This paper describes the relationship between consequences and risk maps, their role in risk management and how the HIDRALERTA system integrates both aspects in its risk methodology. It describes a case study for Praia da Vitória Port, Terceira Island, Azores, Portugal, showing that the main innovations in this system are twofold: it represents the overtopping flow and consequent flooding, which are critical for coastal and port areas protected by maritime structures, and it works also as a risk assessment tool, extremely important for long-term planning and decision-making. Moreover, the implementation of the system considers possible known variability issues, enabling changes in its behaviour as needs arise. This system has the potential to become a useful tool for the management of coastal and port areas, due to its capacity to effectively issue warnings and assess risks.

  8. Coastal risk forecast system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, André; Poseiro, Pedro; Rodrigues, Armanda; Reis, Maria Teresa; Fortes, Conceição J.; Reis, Rui; Araújo, João

    2018-04-01

    The run-up and overtopping by sea waves are two of the main processes that threaten coastal structures, leading to flooding, destruction of both property and the environment, and harm to people. To build early warning systems, the consequences and associated risks in the affected areas must be evaluated. It is also important to understand how these two types of spatial information integrate with sensor data sources and the risk assessment methodology. This paper describes the relationship between consequences and risk maps, their role in risk management and how the HIDRALERTA system integrates both aspects in its risk methodology. It describes a case study for Praia da Vitória Port, Terceira Island, Azores, Portugal, showing that the main innovations in this system are twofold: it represents the overtopping flow and consequent flooding, which are critical for coastal and port areas protected by maritime structures, and it works also as a risk assessment tool, extremely important for long-term planning and decision-making. Moreover, the implementation of the system considers possible known variability issues, enabling changes in its behaviour as needs arise. This system has the potential to become a useful tool for the management of coastal and port areas, due to its capacity to effectively issue warnings and assess risks.

  9. Vulnerability of Coastal Communities from Storm Surge and Flood Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathi, Jejal Reddy; Das, Himangshu S.

    2016-01-01

    Disasters in the form of coastal storms and hurricanes can be very destructive. Preparing for anticipated effects of such disasters can help reduce the public health and economic burden. Identifying vulnerable population groups can help prioritize resources for the most needed communities. This paper presents a quantitative framework for vulnerability measurement that incorporates both socioeconomic and flood inundation vulnerability. The approach is demonstrated for three coastal communities in Mississippi with census tracts being the study unit. The vulnerability results are illustrated as thematic maps for easy usage by planners and emergency responders to assist in prioritizing their actions to vulnerable populations during storm surge and flood disasters. PMID:26907313

  10. 76 FR 39857 - Alaska Coastal Management Program Withdrawal From the National Coastal Management Program Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration Alaska Coastal Management Program Withdrawal From the National Coastal Management Program Under the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) AGENCY: Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management (OCRM), National Ocean Service (NOS...

  11. 75 FR 9158 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Coastal Sharks Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Coastal Sharks Fishery AGENCY: National Marine... Commission's Interstate Fishery Management Plan (ISFMP) for Coastal Sharks. Subsequently, the Commission... New Jersey failed to carry out its responsibilities under the Coastal Sharks ISFMP, and if the...

  12. Coastal ecosystems, productivity and ecosystem protection: Coastal ecosystem management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngoile, M.A.K.; Horrill, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The coastal zone is a complex ecosystem under the influence of physical, chemical and biological processes. Under natural conditions these processes interact and maintain an equilibrium in the coastal ecosystem. Man makes a variety of important uses of coastal resources, ranging from harvesting of living resources, extraction of nonliving resources, and recreation, to the disposal of wastes. Man's extensive use of the oceans introduces factors which bring about an imbalance in the natural processes, and may result in harmful and hazardous effects to life hindering further use. Man's pressure on the resources of the coastal zone is already manifest and will increase manifold. This calls for an immediate solution to the protection and sustainable use of coastal resources. The current sectorized approach to the management of human activities will not solve the problem because the different resources of the coastal zone interact in such a manner that disturbances in one cause imbalance in the others. This is further complicated by the sectorized approach to research and limited communication between policy makers, managers, and scientists. This paper discusses strategies for managing coastal-resources use through an integrated approach. The coastal zone is presented as a unified ecosystem in equilibrium and shows that man's extensive use of the coastal resources destabilizes this equilibrium. Examples from the East Africa Region are presented. 15 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  13. Genetic Enhancement of Coastal Ecosystem (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parida, A.

    2005-01-01

    Coastal and marine areas contain some of the world's most diverse and productive biological systems. They are sensitive to human activities, impact and interventions. Pressures on these systems are growing more intense. As rapid development and population growth continue in coastal areas increasing demands are expected on natural resources and on remaining natural habitats along the coasts. The problem is more serious in Indian context that has a 7,500 km long coastline and is facing increasing soil erosion and water pollution. The prospects of sea level rise, expected to be in the order of 8-29 cm due to the global warming by 2025, necessitates immediate measures to foster the sustainable and equitable management of the coastal wetland ecosystems. Salinity is a significant limiting factor to agricultural productivity affecting about 9 x 10/sup 8/ha, worldwide. About one-third of all irrigated land is affected by salt due to secondary salinisation and it is estimated that 50% of the arable lands will be salinised by the year 2050. The problem of salinity is most acute in the coastal regions affecting the productivity of the agricultural system. Improving or maintaining yield potential of the crops under increased salinisation is of greater significance for the future. With a view to identify and isolate novel genetic combinations offering resistance to coastal salinity, MSSRF has initiated work on mangrove species. Mangroves are salt tolerant plant communities occupying the coastal estuarine regions of the tropics. They serve as a vital link between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and provide livelihood and ecological security for the coastal communities. MSSRF is the first institution worldwide to have undertaken modern molecular marker based analysis of mangroves. These studies have provided substantial information for developing unambiguous identification systems for individual species, elucidating nature and extent of genetic diversity at intra- and inter-population

  14. Features of the territorial planning of the sea coastal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Yavorska

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The coastal zone in Ukraine is likely to undergo the most profound change in the near future. Already more than 65 percent of the Ukrainian Black Sea region population lives within 30 km of the coast. Consequently, unless territory planning and careful environmental management are instituted, sharp conflicts over coastal space and resource are likely, and the degradation of natural resources will stop future social-economic development. In order to maintain and restore coastal ecosystem it was implemented law about formation of the national ecological network of Ukraine. Later were developed General Scheme for Planning of the Territory of Ukraine and regional level planning scheme but there is no especial document regulating the use of land in the coastal zone. The study of geographical conditions, economic activity, and population resettlement shows separation within the regions of several echelons of economic development in relation to the coastline. Such separation may be based on differences in intensity and types of economic use within the territory and the water area, as well as the population density on the land. These features include the following economic stripes: seaside-facade, middle, peripheral – on land, and coastal, territorial waters, exclusive economic zone – in the direction of the sea. At the same time, each economic stripe has a complex internal structure. There are several basic principles of functional zoning of the territory highlighted in the article can help to rational plan the seaside regions.

  15. Process-based and Surrogate Modelling of Fine Sediment Transport in the Dutch Coastal Zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kai, C.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal zones which are known as the interface between continents and oceans are vital and important to human beings because a majority of the world's population live in such zones (Nelson, 2007). Coastal systems are among the most dynamic and energetic environments on earth and they are

  16. Disturbance and coastal forests: a strategic approach to forest management in hurricane impact zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Stanturf; Scott L. Goodrick; Kenneth W. Outcalt

    2007-01-01

    The Indian Ocean Tsunami focused world attention on societal responses to environmental hazards and the potential of natural systems to moderate disturbance effects. Coastal areas are critical to the welfare of up to 50% of the world's population. Coastal systems in the southern United States are adapted to specific disturbance regimes of tropical cyclones (...

  17. Visual Problem Appraisal-Kerela's Coast: A Simulation for Learning about Integrated Coastal Zone Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, L.M.; Enserink, B.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated management of coastal zones is crucial for the sustainable use of scarce and vulnerable natural resources and the economic survival of local and indigenous people. Conflicts of interest in coastal zones are manifold, especially in regions with high population pressure, such as Kerala (in

  18. Analysis and Remediation of the Salinized, Damour Coastal (Dolomitic) Limestone Aquifer in Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khadra, W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Coastal aquifer management has recently emerged as a main scope in groundwater hydrology, especially in arid and semi-arid zones. About two thirds of the human population are currently gathered close to shorelines relying on coastal groundwater resources. Worldwide, these systems are subject to

  19. Effect of spatial adaptation measures on flood risk: study of coastal floods in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koks, E.E.; de Moel, H.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.; Bouwer, L.M.

    2014-01-01

    Flood risk in coastal zones is projected to increase due to climate change and socioeconomic changes. Over the last decades, population growth, increases in wealth, and urban expansion have been found to be the main causes for increasing losses in coastal areas. These changes may, however, be offset

  20. Eastern Africa Coastal Forest Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Younge, A.

    2002-01-01

    The eastern African coastal forest ecoregion is recognised as one of Africa’s centres of species endemism, and is distributed over six countries (Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Malawi). Most is found in Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique, which form our focal region. The coastal forests are fragmented, small and surrounded by poor communities that have a high demand for land and forest resources. Although coastal forests have significant cultural and traditional...

  1. Coastal Planning for Sustainable Maritime Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, F.; Santoso, E. B.; Supriharjo, R.

    2017-08-01

    The Kendari Bay has a unique asset as a tourist attraction for the residents of the city of Kendari. The coastal area with all its potential like as a green open space, mangrove forests, the play area, is still a main destination to attract visitors. The function of Kendari Bay area as a tourist attraction makes this area as a place that has potential as a center of the economic vibrant and social interaction. Unfortunately, the arrangement of the area has not been done so that the integrated development of the region is not optimal. Therefore, it is important to promote a concept of area development as a tourist destination of coastal areas in order to improve function of the area. The concept of the coastal development area of Kendari Bay as tourist areas is formulated by the development criteria that influence to capable of attracting tourists. The criteria is formulated by the factors that play a role in the development of tourist areas, further exploration by qualitative descriptive analysis based on the information respondents. Fixation of the results of the criteria development was done with descriptive analysis assessed based on theoretically references through literature and regulations regarding the criteria for the development of tourism. To formulating the concept of tourism development used qualitative descriptive analysis technique with validation using triangulation techniques. The concept of tourism development based on the potential of the region is divided into three zones, namely area development of the core zone, direct supporting zone and indirect supporting zone. The macro spatial concept is necessary for the development of the area through the improvement of accessibility to tourist attraction, while the micro spatial concept includes improvements and additions to the activity in each zone to provide the convenience facilities for the tourists.

  2. Black Sea coastal forecasting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Kubryakov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea coastal nowcasting and forecasting system was built within the framework of EU FP6 ECOOP (European COastalshelf sea OPerational observing and forecasting system project for five regions: the south-western basin along the coasts of Bulgaria and Turkey, the north-western shelf along the Romanian and Ukrainian coasts, coastal zone around of the Crimea peninsula, the north-eastern Russian coastal zone and the coastal zone of Georgia. The system operates in the real-time mode during the ECOOP project and afterwards. The forecasts include temperature, salinity and current velocity fields. Ecosystem model operates in the off-line mode near the Crimea coast.

  3. The pregnant female surgical resident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifflette V

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Vanessa Shifflette,1 Susannah Hambright,2 Joseph Darryl Amos,1 Ernest Dunn,3 Maria Allo4 1Associates in Surgical Acute Care, Methodist Dallas Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 2Methodist Surgical Associates, Methodist Dallas Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 3Graduate Medical Education - General Surgery, Methodist Dallas Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 4Santa Clara Valley Medical Center, San Jose, CA, USA Background: Surgery continues to be an intense, time-consuming residency. Many medical students decide against surgery as a profession due to the long work hours and family strain. The pregnant female surgical resident has an added stress factor compared to her male counterpart. Methods: We distributed an electronic, online 26-question survey to 32 general surgery programs in the southwestern region of the United States. Each program distributed our survey to the female surgical residents who had been pregnant during residency in the last 5 years. Each program was re-contacted 6 weeks after the initial contact. Most questions were in a 5-point Likert scale format. The responses were collected and analyzed using the Survey Monkey website. Results: An unvalidated survey was sent to 32 general surgery programs and 26 programs responded (81%. Each program was asked for the total number of possible responses from female residents that met our criteria (60 female residents. Seven of the programs (27% stated that they have had zero residents pregnant. We had 22 residents respond (37%. Over half of the residents (55% were pregnant during their 2nd or 3rd year of residency, with only 18% pregnant during a research year. Thirty-one percent had a lower American Board of Surgery In-Training Exam (ABSITE score. Ninety percent of the residents were able to take 4 weeks or more for maternity leave. Most of the residents (95% stated that they would do this again during residency given the opportunity, but many of the residents felt that returning back to work

  4. Origin and residence time of water in the Lima Aquifer

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya, Modesto; Mamani, Enoc

    2014-01-01

    The 8 million inhabitants of the coastal city Lima are supplied with water from the Rimac and Chillon rivers and water wells in the Lima aquifer. The history of the Rimac River flow and static level of water in its wells have been correlated to calculate the residence time of water in the aquifer it is recharged by the Rimac River until it reaches a well located 12 km away in the Miraflores District near the sea. The relative abundance of H-2 and O-18 are used to identify the origins of the w...

  5. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Reducing Light Pollution in U.S. Coastal Regions Using the High Sensitivity Cameras on the SAC-C and Aquarius/SAC-D Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jane C.; Knowlton, Kelly

    2007-01-01

    Light pollution has significant adverse biological effects on humans, animals, and plants and has resulted in the loss of our ability to view the stars and planets of the universe. Over half of the U.S. population resides in coastal regions where it is no longer possible to see the stars and planets in the night sky. Forty percent of the entire U.S. population is never exposed to conditions dark enough for their eyes to convert to night vision capabilities. In coastal regions, urban lights shine far out to sea where they are augmented by the output from fishing boat, cruise ship and oil platform floodlights. The proposed candidate solution suggests using HSCs (high sensitivity cameras) onboard the SAC-C and Aquarius/SAC-D satellites to quantitatively evaluate light pollution at high spatial resolution. New products modeled after pre-existing, radiance-calibrated, global nighttime lights products would be integrated into a modified Garstang model where elevation, mountain screening, Rayleigh scattering, Mie scattering by aerosols, and atmospheric extinction along light paths and curvature of the Earth would be taken into account. Because the spatial resolution of the HSCs on SAC-C and the future Aquarius/SAC-D missions is greater than that provided by the DMSP (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) OLS (Operational Linescan System) or VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite), it may be possible to obtain more precise light intensity data for analytical DSSs and the subsequent reduction in coastal light pollution.

  6. Mixed messages: residents' experiences learning cross-cultural care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Elyse R; Betancourt, Joseph R; Kim, Minah K; Maina, Angela W; Blumenthal, David; Weissman, Joel S

    2005-09-01

    An Institute of Medicine report issued in 2002 cited cross-cultural training as a mechanism to address racial and ethnic disparities in health care, but little is known about residents' training and capabilities to provide quality care to diverse populations. This article explores a select group of residents' perceptions of their preparedness to deliver quality care to diverse populations. Seven focus groups and ten individual interviews were conducted with 68 residents in locations nationwide. Qualitative analysis of focus-group and individual interview transcripts was performed to assess residents' perceptions of (1) preparedness to deliver care to diverse patients; (2) educational climate; and (3) training experiences. Most residents in this study noted the importance of cross-cultural care yet reported little formal training in this area. Residents wanted more formal training yet expressed concern that culture-specific training could lead to stereotyping. Most residents had developed ad hoc, informal skills to care for diverse patients. Although residents perceived institutional endorsement, they sensed it was a low priority due to lack of time and resources. Residents in this study reported receiving mixed messages about cross-cultural care. They were told it is important, yet they received little formal training and did not have time to treat diverse patients in a culturally sensitive manner. As a result, many developed coping behaviors rather than skills based on formally taught best practices. Training environments need to increase training to enhance residents' preparedness to deliver high-quality cross-cultural care if the medical profession is to achieve the goals set by the Institute of Medicine.

  7. The influence of home-site factors on residents' willingness to pay: An application for power generation from scrubland in Galicia, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solino, Mario; Farizo, Begona A.; Campos, Pablo

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to measure how much home-site factors can help to explain the individual WTP for an environmental improvement in power generation in Galicia, Spain. The results show that home-site variables such as a dispersed population, local community income, population growth and coastal/inland emplacements have significant effects on the residents' WTP. Individual and home-site models are compared using goodness-of-fit measures, and implications for forestry resources management and energy planning are discussed. The results favor to take into account the home-site variables into the WTP function. Moreover, a different structure of preferences for coastal and inland inhabitants is identified. A cross-validity analysis shows that some home-site coefficients are common to both sub-samples, but the scale parameters are not homogenous. This analysis could be useful to inform and support the public energy policy when designing incentives that promote the electric use of biomass.

  8. Assessing the Nation's Coastal Waters....Better

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA has been assessing estuarine and coastal condition in the United States since 1999 via the National Coastal Assessment (NCA) and National Aquatic Resources Surveys (NARS) programs. Approximately 1500 randomly selected coastal sites were surveyed annually during summers ...

  9. Education Research: Neurology resident education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayans, David; Schneider, Logan; Adams, Nellie; Khawaja, Ayaz M.; Engstrom, John

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To survey US-trained graduating neurology residents who are American Academy of Neurology members, in an effort to trend perceived quality and completeness of graduate neurology education. Methods: An electronic survey was sent to all American Academy of Neurology members graduating from US neurology residency programs in the Spring of 2014. Results: Of 805 eligible respondents, 24% completed the survey. Ninety-three percent of adult neurology residents and 56% of child neurology residents reported plans to pursue fellowship training after residency. Respondents reported a desire for additional training in neurocritical care, neuro-oncology, neuromuscular diseases, botulinum toxin injection, and nerve blocks. There remains a clear deficit in business training of neurology residents, although there was notable improvement in knowledge of coding and office management compared to previous surveys. Discussion: Although there are still areas of perceived weakness in neurology training, graduating neurology residents feel generally well prepared for their chosen careers. However, most still pursue fellowship training for reasons that are little understood. In addition to certain subspecialties and procedures, practice management remains deficient in neurology training and is a point of future insecurity for most residents. Future curriculum changes should consider resident-reported gaps in knowledge, with careful consideration of improving business training. PMID:26976522

  10. Drivers of coastal shoreline change: case study of hon dat coast, Kien Giang, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hai-Hoa; McAlpine, Clive; Pullar, David; Leisz, Stephen Joseph; Galina, Gramotnev

    2015-05-01

    Coastal shorelines are naturally dynamic, shifting in response to coastal geomorphological processes. Globally, land use change associated with coastal urban development and growing human population pressures is accelerating coastal shoreline change. In southern Vietnam, coastal erosion currently is posing considerable risks to shoreline land use and coastal inhabitants. The aim of this paper is to quantify historical shoreline changes along the Hon Dat coast between 1995 and 2009, and to document the relationships between coastal mangrove composition, width and density, and rates of shoreline change. The generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify the major biophysical and land-use factors influencing shoreline change rates. Most significant drivers of the rates of change are cutting of mangroves, the dominant mangrove genus, changes in adjacent shoreline land use, changes of shoreline land cover, and width of fringing mangroves. We suggest that a possible and inexpensive strategy for robust mangrove shoreline defense is direct mangrove planting to promote mangrove density with the presence of breakwater structures. In the shorter term, construction of coastal barriers such as fence-structured melaleuca poles in combination with mangrove restoration schemes could help retain coastal sediments and increase the elevation of the accretion zone, thereby helping to stabilize eroding fringe shorelines. It also is recommended that implementation of a system of payments for mangrove ecosystem services and the stronger regulation of mangrove cutting and unsustainable land-use change to strengthen the effectiveness of mangrove conservation programs and coastal land-use management.

  11. Drivers of Coastal Shoreline Change: Case Study of Hon Dat Coast, Kien Giang, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hai-Hoa; McAlpine, Clive; Pullar, David; Leisz, Stephen Joseph; Galina, Gramotnev

    2015-05-01

    Coastal shorelines are naturally dynamic, shifting in response to coastal geomorphological processes. Globally, land use change associated with coastal urban development and growing human population pressures is accelerating coastal shoreline change. In southern Vietnam, coastal erosion currently is posing considerable risks to shoreline land use and coastal inhabitants. The aim of this paper is to quantify historical shoreline changes along the Hon Dat coast between 1995 and 2009, and to document the relationships between coastal mangrove composition, width and density, and rates of shoreline change. The generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify the major biophysical and land-use factors influencing shoreline change rates. Most significant drivers of the rates of change are cutting of mangroves, the dominant mangrove genus, changes in adjacent shoreline land use, changes of shoreline land cover, and width of fringing mangroves. We suggest that a possible and inexpensive strategy for robust mangrove shoreline defense is direct mangrove planting to promote mangrove density with the presence of breakwater structures. In the shorter term, construction of coastal barriers such as fence-structured melaleuca poles in combination with mangrove restoration schemes could help retain coastal sediments and increase the elevation of the accretion zone, thereby helping to stabilize eroding fringe shorelines. It also is recommended that implementation of a system of payments for mangrove ecosystem services and the stronger regulation of mangrove cutting and unsustainable land-use change to strengthen the effectiveness of mangrove conservation programs and coastal land-use management.

  12. Assessment of the present and future implications of radioactive contamination of the Irish Sea coastal region of Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, B.T.; Simmonds, J.R.; Cooper, J.R.

    1994-10-01

    An assessment has been made of the doses that could be received by people who make use of the Cumbrian coastal area. Current doses have been estimated for residents and visitors to different parts of the area. By making assumptions about changes in waste management practices at the BNFL Sellafield plant and in the geography of the coastal area, the development of doses over the next 200 years has been assessed. The study was confined to exposure pathways in the terrestrial environment, although the influence of liquid discharges on terrestrial pathways was taken into account. Consumption of marine foodstuffs was outside the scope of the study. As expected, the highest doses would be received by those people who live closest to Sellafield. However, in all cases doses to average individuals were well below the present limit for members of the public specified by ICRP. The general future trend was for doses to decline. Doses were also estimated for particular population groups such as those who spend more time on beaches. While the resultant values were higher than those for average individuals, they were still well within the ICRP limit in all cases. (author)

  13. Medical Student Interest in Flexible Residency Training Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Madison; Stulberg, Debra; Egan, Mari

    2018-05-01

    Medical residents continue to experience high rates of burnout during residency training even after implementation of the 2003 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education duty-hour restrictions. The purpose of this study is to determine medical student interest in flexible residency training options. Researchers developed an 11-question survey for second through fourth-year medical students. The populations surveyed included medical students who were: (1) attending the 2015 American Academy of Family Physicians National Conference, the 2015 Family Medicine Midwest Conference, and (2) enrolled at University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Chicago, Drexel University College of Medicine, and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine. The survey was completed by 789 medical students. Over half of medical students surveyed indicated that they would be interested in working part-time during some portion of their residency training (51%), and that access to part-time training options would increase their likelihood of applying to a particular residency program (52%). When given the option of three residency training schedules of varying lengths, 41% of male students and 60% of female students chose a 60-hour workweek, even when that meant extending the residency length by 33% and reducing their yearly salary to $39,000. There is considerable interest among medical students in access to part-time residency training options and reduced-hour residency programs. This level of interest indicates that offering flexible training options could be an effective recruitment tool for residency programs and could improve students' perception of their work-life balance during residency.

  14. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RESORT LIFE CYCLE AND RESIDENTS' PERCEPTION AND ATTITUDE--A Case Study of Putuo Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-zhong; LU Lin; ZHANG Guang-sheng; LU Song; XUAN Guo-fu

    2004-01-01

    The change in residents' perception and attitude and resort life cycle are the basic problems in the course of resort evolution. This thesis sets up the dynamic model of residents'perception and attitude, analyzes the linkage between residents' perception and attitude and the influential factors of resort life cycle, and finally, with a case study of Putuo Mountain, preliminarily discusses the relationship between resort life cycle and residents'perception and attitude. The research findings show that, although within development stage of life cycle, Putuo Mountain has already presented some signs of mature stage. The on-the-spot survey also indicates that, the local residents'positive perception is stronger than their negative perception. But compared with residents in some other coastal resorts such as Haikou and Sanya, negative perception of residents in Putuo Mountain is more evident, as the result of the smaller tourism carrying capacity in Putuo Mountain. There are some influential factors that have great impact on tourism carrying capacity in Putuo Mountain: tourist-resident number ratio, residents' benefit-cost ratio and characteristics of tourism resources. And the less influential factors are residents' demographic character, tourist behavioral character and cultural differences between local residents and tourists. Therefore, effective measures should be taken to adjust the structure of tourism product for the purpose of expanding tourism carrying capacity, lowering its pressure, lessening residents' environmental cost and enhancing their positive perception, which is the most essential prerequisite for the maturation of life cycle in Putuo Mountain.

  15. Business and Entrepreneurship in South Coastal Zone of Attica Region, in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agisilaos Economou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the present paper is to investigate the evolution of the economic situation and particularly employment in Attica region in Greece. It focuses particularly on the southern coastal municipalities in the region and specifically in municipalities of Moshato, Kallithea, Paleo Faliro, Alimos, Elliniko, Voula and Vouliagmeni. Attica is an urbanized region which displays an excellence in the secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy. In addition, it is a center of advanced services with valuable human resources because of higher educational institutions hosted in the region. That means a dynamic development of high technology. The good economic situation of the study area changed in recent years, from 2009 onwards, due to the economic crisis in Greece. The poor fiscal policy resulted in swelling of the external debt of the country, has contributed not only to the economic downturn, but has also affected the welfare of residents. The economic effects are obvious in the private sector, thereby reducing business activities, revenues and lost jobs. All the above have additional effect of increasing intra-regional disparities, such as population disparities, rising unemployment, the population movements for job search and other. The paper elaborates on the economic situation and entrepreneurship in the region over the past 20 years or so including both periods of acne, and those of the last economic downturn. Using documents, tables and graphs, work draws conclusions.

  16. A framework for the assessment of the spatial and temporal patterns of threatened coastal delphinids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingzhen; Yang, Yingting; Yang, Feng; Li, Yuelin; Li, Lianjie; Lin, Derun; He, Tangtian; Liang, Bo; Zhang, Tao; Lin, Yao; Li, Ping; Liu, Wenhua

    2016-01-25

    The massively accelerated biodiversity loss rate in the Anthropocene calls for an efficient and effective way to identify the spatial and temporal dynamics of endangered species. To this end, we developed a useful identification framework based on a case study of locally endangered Sousa chinensis by combining both LEK (local ecological knowledge) evaluation and regional boat-based survey methods. Our study investigated the basic ecological information of Sousa chinensis in the estuaries of eastern Guangdong that had previously been neglected, which could guide the future study and conservation. Based on the statistical testing of reported spatial and temporal dolphins sighting data from fishermen and the ecological monitoring analyses, including sighting rate, site fidelity and residence time estimations, some of the current Sousa chinensis units are likely to be geographically isolated and critically endangered, which calls for much greater conservation efforts. Given the accelerated population extinction rate and increasing budgetary constraints, our survey pattern can be applied in a timely and economically acceptable manner to the spatial and temporal assessment of other threatened coastal delphinids, particularly when population distributions are on a large scale and traditional sampling methods are difficult to implement.

  17. Coastal and Riverine Flood Forecast Model powered by ADCIRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, A.; Ferreira, C.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal flooding is becoming a major threat to increased population in the coastal areas. To protect coastal communities from tropical storms & hurricane damages, early warning systems are being developed. These systems have the capability of real time flood forecasting to identify hazardous coastal areas and aid coastal communities in rescue operations. State of the art hydrodynamic models forced by atmospheric forcing have given modelers the ability to forecast storm surge, water levels and currents. This helps to identify the areas threatened by intense storms. Study on Chesapeake Bay area has gained national importance because of its combined riverine and coastal phenomenon, which leads to greater uncertainty in flood predictions. This study presents an automated flood forecast system developed by following Advanced Circulation (ADCIRC) Surge Guidance System (ASGS) guidelines and tailored to take in riverine and coastal boundary forcing, thus includes all the hydrodynamic processes to forecast total water in the Potomac River. As studies on tidal and riverine flow interaction are very scarce in number, our forecast system would be a scientific tool to examine such area and fill the gaps with precise prediction for Potomac River. Real-time observations from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and field measurements have been used as model boundary feeding. The model performance has been validated by using major historical riverine and coastal flooding events. Hydrodynamic model ADCIRC produced promising predictions for flood inundation areas. As better forecasts can be achieved by using coupled models, this system is developed to take boundary conditions from Global WaveWatchIII for the research purposes. Wave and swell propagation will be fed through Global WavewatchIII model to take into account the effects of swells and currents. This automated forecast system is currently undergoing rigorous testing to include any missing parameters which

  18. Incorporating resident research into the dermatology residency program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Richard F; Raimer, Sharon S; Kelly, Brent C

    2013-01-01

    Programmatic changes for the dermatology residency program at The University of Texas Medical Branch were first introduced in 2005, with the faculty goal incorporating formal dermatology research projects into the 3-year postgraduate training period. This curriculum initially developed as a recommendation for voluntary scholarly project activity by residents, but it evolved into a program requirement for all residents in 2009. Departmental support for this activity includes assignment of a faculty mentor with similar interest about the research topic, financial support from the department for needed supplies, materials, and statistical consultation with the Office of Biostatistics for study design and data analysis, a 2-week elective that provides protected time from clinical activities for the purpose of preparing research for publication and submission to a peer-reviewed medical journal, and a departmental award in recognition for the best resident scholarly project each year. Since the inception of this program, five classes have graduated a total of 16 residents. Ten residents submitted their research studies for peer review and published their scholarly projects in seven dermatology journals through the current academic year. These articles included three prospective investigations, three surveys, one article related to dermatology education, one retrospective chart review, one case series, and one article about dermatopathology. An additional article from a 2012 graduate about dermatology education has also been submitted to a journal. This new program for residents was adapted from our historically successful Dermatology Honors Research Program for medical students at The University of Texas Medical Branch. Our experience with this academic initiative to promote dermatology research by residents is outlined. It is recommended that additional residency programs should consider adopting similar research programs to enrich resident education. PMID:23901305

  19. Incorporating resident research into the dermatology residency program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Richard F; Raimer, Sharon S; Kelly, Brent C

    2013-01-01

    Programmatic changes for the dermatology residency program at The University of Texas Medical Branch were first introduced in 2005, with the faculty goal incorporating formal dermatology research projects into the 3-year postgraduate training period. This curriculum initially developed as a recommendation for voluntary scholarly project activity by residents, but it evolved into a program requirement for all residents in 2009. Departmental support for this activity includes assignment of a faculty mentor with similar interest about the research topic, financial support from the department for needed supplies, materials, and statistical consultation with the Office of Biostatistics for study design and data analysis, a 2-week elective that provides protected time from clinical activities for the purpose of preparing research for publication and submission to a peer-reviewed medical journal, and a departmental award in recognition for the best resident scholarly project each year. Since the inception of this program, five classes have graduated a total of 16 residents. Ten residents submitted their research studies for peer review and published their scholarly projects in seven dermatology journals through the current academic year. These articles included three prospective investigations, three surveys, one article related to dermatology education, one retrospective chart review, one case series, and one article about dermatopathology. An additional article from a 2012 graduate about dermatology education has also been submitted to a journal. This new program for residents was adapted from our historically successful Dermatology Honors Research Program for medical students at The University of Texas Medical Branch. Our experience with this academic initiative to promote dermatology research by residents is outlined. It is recommended that additional residency programs should consider adopting similar research programs to enrich resident education.

  20. Integrated coastal management in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Integrated coastal management in Uruguay Carmelo includes the following areas-Nueva Palmira challenges and opportunities for local development in a context of large-scale industrial (Conchillas Uruguay), coastal management and stream Arroyo Solis Solis Chico Grande, Punta Colorada and Punta Negra, Maldonado Province Arroyo Valizas and sustainable tourism.

  1. Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) spacecraft ocean color instrument is capable of measuring and mapping global ocean surface chlorophyll concentration. It is a scanning radiometer with multiband capability. With new electronics and some mechanical, and optical re-work, it probably can be made flight worthy. Some additional components of a second flight model are also available. An engineering study and further tests are necessary to determine exactly what effort is required to properly prepare the instrument for spaceflight and the nature of interfaces to prospective spacecraft. The CZCS provides operational instrument capability for monitoring of ocean productivity and currents. It could be a simple, low cost alternative to developing new instruments for ocean color imaging. Researchers have determined that with global ocean color data they can: specify quantitatively the role of oceans in the global carbon cycle and other major biogeochemical cycles; determine the magnitude and variability of annual primary production by marine phytoplankton on a global scale; understand the fate of fluvial nutrients and their possible affect on carbon budgets; elucidate the coupling mechanism between upwelling and large scale patterns in ocean basins; answer questions concerning the large scale distribution and timing of spring blooms in the global ocean; acquire a better understanding of the processes associated with mixing along the edge of eddies, coastal currents, western boundary currents, etc., and acquire global data on marine optical properties.

  2. Ocean and Coastal Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, David A.

    First of all, this is not the typical book that one expects to see reviewed in Eos, but, read on. It should be clear, by now, even to the most esoteric geophysicist, that lawyers and jurists are taking very close looks at many coastal zone and offshore marine activities. More importantly, there are a wide variety of laws (both at the state and the national levels) and international regulations that determine how we now use or will use our coastal region including how and where we will do marine scientific research. Recently, a Presidential Proclamation (March 1983) declared a 200-mile exclusive economic zone for the United States. The President, in the accompanying statements to the Proclamation, has called special attention to polymetallic sulfide deposits (Is someone in the White House reading Eos?) in what will now be U.S. waters (i.e., the Juan de Fuca region). Well, if you or your colleagues want to know more about U.S. and individual state rules for management and use of our marine areas, this might be the book for you.

  3. Satellite tagging highlights the importance of productive Mozambican coastal waters to the ecology and conservation of whale sharks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Anthony J.; Jaine, Fabrice R. A.; Bennett, Michael B.; Weeks, Scarla J.; Cliff, Geremy; Robinson, David P.; Reeve-Arnold, Katie E.; Pierce, Simon J.

    2018-01-01

    The whale shark Rhincodon typus is an endangered, highly migratory species with a wide, albeit patchy, distribution through tropical oceans. Ten aerial survey flights along the southern Mozambican coast, conducted between 2004–2008, documented a relatively high density of whale sharks along a 200 km stretch of the Inhambane Province, with a pronounced hotspot adjacent to Praia do Tofo. To examine the residency and movement of whale sharks in coastal areas around Praia do Tofo, where they may be more susceptible to gill net entanglement, we tagged 15 juveniles with SPOT5 satellite tags and tracked them for 2–88 days (mean = 27 days) as they dispersed from this area. Sharks travelled between 10 and 2,737 km (mean = 738 km) at a mean horizontal speed of 28 ± 17.1 SD km day−1. While several individuals left shelf waters and travelled across international boundaries, most sharks stayed in Mozambican coastal waters over the tracking period. We tested for whale shark habitat preferences, using sea surface temperature, chlorophyll-a concentration and water depth as variables, by computing 100 random model tracks for each real shark based on their empirical movement characteristics. Whale sharks spent significantly more time in cooler, shallower water with higher chlorophyll-a concentrations than model sharks, suggesting that feeding in productive coastal waters is an important driver of their movements. To investigate what this coastal habitat choice means for their conservation in Mozambique, we mapped gill nets during two dedicated aerial surveys along the Inhambane coast and counted gill nets in 1,323 boat-based surveys near Praia do Tofo. Our results show that, while whale sharks are capable of long-distance oceanic movements, they can spend a disproportionate amount of time in specific areas, such as along the southern Mozambique coast. The increasing use of drifting gill nets in this coastal hotspot for whale sharks is likely to be a threat to regional

  4. South Texas coastal classification maps - Mansfield Channel to the Rio Grande

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Robert A.; Peterson, Russell L.

    2006-01-01

    The Nation's rapidly growing coastal population requires reliable information regarding the vulnerability of coastal regions to storm impacts. This has created a need for classifying coastal lands and evaluating storm-hazard vulnerability. Government officials and resource managers responsible for dealing with natural hazards also need accurate assessments of potential storm impacts in order to make informed decisions before, during, and after major storm events. Both economic development and coastal-damage mitigation require integrated models of storm parameters, hazard vulnerability, and expected coastal responses. Thus, storm-hazard vulnerability assessments constitute one of the fundamental components of forecasting storm impacts. Each year as many as 10 to 12 hurricanes and tropical storms will be the focus of national attention. Of particular interest are intense hurricanes (Categories 3 to 5 of the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale) that have the potential to cause substantial economic and environmental damage to the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States. These coastal regions include some of the largest metropolitan areas in the country and they continue to experience rapid population growth. Based on media reports, there is a general lack of public knowledge regarding how different coastal segments will respond to the same storm or how the same coastal segment will respond differently depending on storm conditions. A primary purpose of the USGS National Assessment of Coastal Change Project is to provide accurate representations of pre-storm ground conditions for areas that are designated high priority because they have dense populations or valuable resources that are at risk. A secondary purpose is to develop a broad coastal classification that, with only minor modification, can be applied to most coastal regions in the United States.

  5. Concepts and theoretical specifications of a Coastal Vulnerability Dynamic Simulator (COVUDS): A multi-agent system for simulating coastal vulnerability towards management of coastal ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orencio, P. M.; Endo, A.; Taniguchi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Disaster-causing natural hazards such as floods, erosions, earthquakes or slope failures were particularly observed to be concentrated in certain geographical regions. In the Asia-pacific region, coastal ecosystems were suffering because of perennial threats driven by chronic fluctuations in climate variability (e.g., typhoons, ENSO), or by dynamically occurring events (e.g., earthquakes, tsunamis). Among the many people that were found prone to such a risky condition were the ones inhabiting near the coastal areas. Characteristically, aside from being located at the forefront of these events, the coastal communities have impacted the resource by the kind of behavioral patterns they exhibited, such as overdependence and overexploitation to achieve their wellbeing. In this paper, we introduce the development of an approach to an assessment of the coupled human- environment using a multi- agent simulation (MAS) model known as Coastal Vulnerability Dynamic Simulator (COVUDS). The COVUDS comprised a human- environmental platform consisting multi- agents with corresponding spatial- based dynamic and static variables. These variables were used to present multiple hypothetical future situations that contribute to the purpose of supporting a more rational management of the coastal ecosystem and their environmental equities. Initially, we present the theoretical and conceptual components that would lead to the development of the COVUDS. These consisted of the human population engaged in behavioral patterns affecting the conditions of coastal ecosystem services; the system of the biophysical environment and changes in patches brought by global environment and local behavioral variations; the policy factors that were important for choosing area- specific interventions; and the decision- making mechanism that integrates the first three components. To guide a future scenario-based application that will be undertaken in a coastal area in the Philippines, the components of the

  6. Space missiles start-up impact on environment and dermatosis distribution for population residing areas adjacent to the 'Baikanur' space spot and to that of worked out stages of missile carriers fall: development and immunoprophylaxis measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlovskij, V.A.; Mukhamedzhanov, Eh.K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents review of literary data of missile start-ups impact on environment and human health, condition of dermatological diseases in the regions adjacent to 'Baikanur' missile-space complex. It is reported that in-depth study upon assessment of dermatosis distribution for adults and children, development mechanisms of a number dermatological diseases under effect of excess ultraviolet radiation condition and that of asymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (heptyl) in the regions of possible impact of missile carrier's start-ups on dermatosis development epidemic process will be carried out. The study results will be compared with assessment of general level of population life within the last 20 years and adequacy of medicine, including dermatological care for the population. (author)

  7. Surgical residency: A tenant's view

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'To sleep: perchance to dream', is the frequent mantra of the surgical resident. However, unlike. Hamlet, there is no ensuing speculation as to what dreams may come as there are seldom any!! Surgical residency has been both vilified and immortalized, but the fact remains that it is one of the most challenging, provocative ...

  8. Burnout among Dutch medical residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, J.T.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J.E.; Van De Wiel, H.B.; Gazendam-Donofrio, S.M.; Sprangers, F.; Jaspers, F.C.; van der Heijden, F.M.

    2007-01-01

    We examined levels of burnout and relationships between burnout, gender, age, years in training, and medical specialty in 158 medical residents working at the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands. Thirteen percent of the residents met the criteria for burnout, with the highest

  9. Variations in population vulnerability to tectonic and landslide-related tsunami hazards in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nathan J.; Peters, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Effective tsunami risk reduction requires an understanding of how at-risk populations are specifically vulnerable to tsunami threats. Vulnerability assessments primarily have been based on single hazard zones, even though a coastal community may be threatened by multiple tsunami sources that vary locally in terms of inundation extents and wave arrival times. We use the Alaskan coastal communities of Cordova, Kodiak, Seward, Valdez, and Whittier (USA), as a case study to explore population vulnerability to multiple tsunami threats. We use anisotropic pedestrian evacuation models to assess variations in population exposure as a function of travel time out of hazard zones associated with tectonic and landslide-related tsunamis (based on scenarios similar to the 1964 M w9.2 Good Friday earthquake and tsunami disaster). Results demonstrate that there are thousands of residents, employees, and business customers in tsunami hazard zones associated with tectonically generated waves, but that at-risk individuals will likely have sufficient time to evacuate to high ground before waves are estimated to arrive 30–60 min after generation. Tsunami hazard zones associated with submarine landslides initiated by a subduction zone earthquake are smaller and contain fewer people, but many at-risk individuals may not have enough time to evacuate as waves are estimated to arrive in 1–2 min and evacuations may need to occur during earthquake ground shaking. For all hazard zones, employees and customers at businesses far outnumber residents at their homes and evacuation travel times are highest on docks and along waterfronts. Results suggest that population vulnerability studies related to tsunami hazards should recognize non-residential populations and differences in wave arrival times if emergency managers are to develop realistic preparedness and outreach efforts.

  10. Multi-scale trends analysis of landscape stressors in an urbanizing coastal watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthropogenic land based stressors within a watershed can deliver major impacts to downstream and adjacent coastal waterways affecting water quality and estuarine habitats. Our research focused on a subset of non-point sources of watershed stressors specifically, human population...

  11. Plankton composition in the coastal waters between Jaigarh and Rajapur along west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R.S.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, V.R.; Devassy, V.P.

    , Mollusca, Decapoda, Chaetognatha, Tunicata and fish eggs and larvae were the major groups in the zooplankton population. The highest secondary production values were obtained off Ratnagiri and the average production for the Konkan coastal waters was found...

  12. Strategies to combat salt water intrusion in coastal aquifers : A model-based exploratory analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakkel, J.H.; Slinger, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Coastal communities dependent upon groundwater resources for drinking water and irrigation are vulnerable to salinization of the groundwater reserve. The increasing uncertainty associated with changing climatic conditions, population and economic development, and technological advances in

  13. A system dynamics mode-based exploratory analysis of salt water intrusion in coastal aquifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakkel, J.H.; Slinger, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal communities dependent upon groundwater resources for drinking water and irrigation are vulnerable to salinization of the groundwater reserve. The increasing uncertainty associated with changing climatic conditions, population and economic development, and technological advances poses

  14. Drinking Water Sodium and Elevated Blood Pressure of Healthy Pregnant Women in Salinity-Affected Coastal Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheelbeek, Pauline F D; Khan, Aneire E; Mojumder, Sontosh; Elliott, Paul; Vineis, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    Coastal areas in Southeast Asia are experiencing high sodium concentrations in drinking water sources that are commonly consumed by local populations. Salinity problems caused by episodic cyclones and subsequent seawater inundations are likely (partly) related to climate change and further exacerbated by changes in upstream river flow and local land-use activities. Dietary (food) sodium plays an important role in the global burden of hypertensive disease. It remains unknown, however, if sodium in drinking water-rather than food-has similar effects on blood pressure and disease risk. In this study, we examined the effect of drinking water sodium on blood pressure of pregnant women: increases in blood pressure in this group could severely affect maternal and fetal health. Data on blood pressure, drinking water source, and personal, lifestyle, and environmental confounders was obtained from 701 normotensive pregnant women residing in coastal Bangladesh. Generalized linear mixed regression models were used to investigate association of systolic and diastolic blood pressure of these-otherwise healthy-women with their water source. After adjustment for confounders, drinkers of tube well and pond water (high saline sources) were found to have significantly higher average systolic (+4.85 and +3.62 mm Hg) and diastolic (+2.30 and +1.72 mm Hg) blood pressures than rainwater drinkers. Drinking water salinity problems are expected to exacerbate in the future, putting millions of coastal people-including pregnant women-at increased risk of hypertension and associated diseases. There is an urgent need to further explore the health risks associated to this understudied environmental health problem and feasibility of possible adaptation strategies. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Early resident-to-resident physics education in diagnostic radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansagra, Akash P

    2014-01-01

    The revised ABR board certification process has updated the method by which diagnostic radiology residents are evaluated for competency in clinical radiologic physics. In this work, the author reports the successful design and implementation of a resident-taught physics course consisting of 5 weekly, hour-long lectures intended for incoming first-year radiology residents in their first month of training. To the author's knowledge, this is the first description of a course designed to provide a very early framework for ongoing physics education throughout residency without increasing the didactic burden on faculty members. Twenty-six first-year residents spanning 2 academic years took the course and reported subjective improvement in their knowledge (90%) and interest (75%) in imaging physics and a high level of satisfaction with the use of senior residents as physics educators. Based on the success of this course and the minimal resources required for implementation, this work may serve as a blueprint for other radiology residency programs seeking to develop revised physics curricula. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Needs Assessment for Incoming PGY-1 Residents in Neurosurgical Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandman, David M; Haji, Faizal A; Matte, Marie C; Clarke, David B

    2015-01-01

    Residents must develop a diverse range of skills in order to practice neurosurgery safely and effectively. The purpose of this study was to identify the foundational skills required for neurosurgical trainees as they transition from medical school to residency. Based on the CanMEDS competency framework, a web-based survey was distributed to all Canadian academic neurosurgical centers, targeting incoming and current PGY-1 neurosurgical residents as well as program directors. Using Likert scale and free-text responses, respondents rated the importance of various cognitive (e.g. management of raised intracranial pressure), technical (e.g. performing a lumbar puncture) and behavioral skills (e.g. obtaining informed consent) required for a PGY-1 neurosurgical resident. Of 52 individuals contacted, 38 responses were received. Of these, 10 were from program directors (71%), 11 from current PGY-1 residents (58%) and 17 from incoming PGY-1 residents (89%). Respondents emphasized operative skills such as proper sterile technique and patient positioning; clinical skills such as lesion localization and interpreting neuro-imaging; management skills for common scenarios such as raised intracranial pressure and status epilepticus; and technical skills such as lumbar puncture and external ventricular drain placement. Free text answers were concordant with the Likert scale results. We surveyed Canadian neurosurgical program directors and PGY-1 residents to identify areas perceived as foundational to neurosurgical residency education and training. This information is valuable for evaluating the appropriateness of a training program's goals and objectives, as well as for generating a national educational curriculum for incoming PGY-1 residents.

  17. Psychiatry residents in a milieu participatory democracy: a resident's view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersten, D

    1978-11-01

    Psychiatry residents respond with a variety of coping mechanisms to the lack of traditional structure in a milieu participatory democracy. To incorporate themselves into the system they must accept such democratic ideals as equality among staff and patients, group decision making, and free self-expression and give up some of their traditional ideas about staff and patient roles, treatment modalities, and the therapeutic environment. The author was a first-year resident in psychiatry on a university hospital inpatient therapeutic community; he discusses the conflicts between residents, who often adopt a "we-they" attitude, and the permanent staff, whose protectiveness of the ward community reflects their personal commitment to its ideals.

  18. Does Residency Selection Criteria Predict Performance in Orthopaedic Surgery Residency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Tina; Alrabaa, Rami George; Sood, Amit; Maloof, Paul; Benevenia, Joseph; Berberian, Wayne

    2016-04-01

    More than 1000 candidates applied for orthopaedic residency positions in 2014, and the competition is intense; approximately one-third of the candidates failed to secure a position in the match. However, the criteria used in the selection process often are subjective and studies have differed in terms of which criteria predict either objective measures or subjective ratings of resident performance by faculty. Do preresidency selection factors serve as predictors of success in residency? Specifically, we asked which preresidency selection factors are associated or correlated with (1) objective measures of resident knowledge and performance; and (2) subjective ratings by faculty. Charts of 60 orthopaedic residents from our institution were reviewed. Preresidency selection criteria examined included United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 and Step 2 scores, Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) scores, number of clinical clerkship honors, number of letters of recommendation, number of away rotations, Alpha Omega Alpha (AOA) honor medical society membership, fourth-year subinternship at our institution, and number of publications. Resident performance was assessed using objective measures including American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery (ABOS) Part I scores and Orthopaedics In-Training Exam (OITE) scores and subjective ratings by faculty including global evaluation scores and faculty rankings of residents. We tested associations between preresidency criteria and the subsequent objective and subjective metrics using linear correlation analysis and Mann-Whitney tests when appropriate. Objective measures of resident performance namely, ABOS Part I scores, had a moderate linear correlation with the USMLE Step 2 scores (r = 0.55, p communication skills" subsection of the global evaluations. We found that USMLE Step 2, number of honors in medical school clerkships, and AOA membership demonstrated the strongest correlations with resident performance. Our

  19. Derivaciones al Servicio de Urgencias del hospital en una población de ancianos residentes: Estudio retrospectivo sobre sus causas y adecuación Hospital transfers from a population of elderly residents: A retrospective study about the causes and suitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Bermejo Higuera

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: analizar las causas y la adecuación de las derivaciones de ancianos institucionalizados al Servicio de Urgencias del hospital. Método: estudio descriptivo retrospectivo transversal sobre la población de una residencia de la Comunidad de Madrid. Se recogieron datos de 45 pacientes derivados durante el año 2008, con un total de 62 derivaciones. Derivación adecuada o pertinente fue aquella que cumpliera uno de los siguientes criterios: 1 el paciente ingresó o estuvo en observación más de 24 horas; 2 precisó ser valorado por un especialista y/o requirió pruebas diagnósticas no disponibles en el centro; y 3 necesitó tratamiento no disponible en el centro. Análisis estadístico descriptivo. Resultados: el 98,4% de las derivaciones cumplió los criterios de adecuación; 67% Criterio 1,21% Criterio 2 y no otros, y 77,4% Criterio 3. La causa más frecuente de derivación fue la sospecha de fractura poscaída (32,3%. El porcentaje anual de fallecidos (22,38% fue menor que el observado en otras residencias madrileñas, de ellos, el 15,55% falleció en el hospital.Aim: to analyse the causes and suitability of elderly resident transfers to hospital emergencies service. Methods: a retrospective and descriptive study about the resident population in a Residence of Comunidad de Madrid. We recorded data from 45 patients transferred in 2008, out of a total of 62 transfers. A suitable or appropriate derivation was one fulfilling at least one of the following criteria: 1-the patient was admitted to hospital or stayed in observation for more than 24 hours, 2- the patient had to be seen by a specialist or required a diagnosis test that was not available in the centre, 3- the patient needed treatment that was not available in the centre. The statistical analysis was descriptive. Results: 98.4% of the transfers complied with the suitability criteria: 67% criterion 1,21% criterion 2 but not other and 77% criterion 3. The most frequent cause for

  20. Applying Expectancy Theory to residency training: proposing opportunities to understand resident motivation and enhance residency training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shweiki, Ehyal; Martin, Niels D; Beekley, Alec C; Jenoff, Jay S; Koenig, George J; Kaulback, Kris R; Lindenbaum, Gary A; Patel, Pankaj H; Rosen, Matthew M; Weinstein, Michael S; Zubair, Muhammad H; Cohen, Murray J

    2015-01-01

    Medical resident education in the United States has been a matter of national priority for decades, exemplified initially through the Liaison Committee for Graduate Medical Education and then superseded by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. A recent Special Report in the New England Journal of Medicine, however, has described resident educational programs to date as prescriptive, noting an absence of innovation in education. Current aims of contemporary medical resident education are thus being directed at ensuring quality in learning as well as in patient care. Achievement and work-motivation theories attempt to explain people's choice, performance, and persistence in tasks. Expectancy Theory as one such theory was reviewed in detail, appearing particularly applicable to surgical residency training. Correlations between Expectancy Theory as a work-motivation theory and residency education were explored. Understanding achievement and work-motivation theories affords an opportunity to gain insight into resident motivation in training. The application of Expectancy Theory in particular provides an innovative perspective into residency education. Afforded are opportunities to promote the development of programmatic methods facilitating surgical resident motivation in education.

  1. Protecting Malaysia's aquatic resources: biomarkers of exposure and effect in resident fishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swee Joo Teh; Hinton, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental regulators are increasingly looking for better, more cost-effective ways to protect biological resources from harmful consequences of pollution, and to restore the formerly contaminated watersheds. Where financial restraints are a reality, prioritization of efforts becomes necessary. Detection of harmful contaminant effects by direct analysis of fishes residing in streams and coastal waters of varying quality can yield information necessary to prioritize future efforts and to verify whether remediation has been achieved. Responses of tissues, body fluids, and cells signal exposure and these B iomarkers , on the other hand, reflect the bioavailability of contaminants, provide a rapid and inexpensive means for toxicity assessment, may serve as fingerprints of specific classes of chemicals, and serve as an early warning of population and community stress. Furthermore, biomarkers can identify early stages of disease and serve as a powerful integrator between contaminant exposure and biologic responses to xenobiotics found in the environment. This report will focus on the application of biomarkers as an indicator of xenobiotic exposure and deleterious effect and to evaluate progress of remediation efforts. Various levels of biomarker approaches, from biochemical to morphologic, which have been shown to be powerful tools for assessing environmental contamination and health, will be presented and their application for field validation will be discussed. When integrated with chemical analysis, biomarker approaches provide unique information on infaunal organisms and on the health of their ecosystems. (Author)

  2. Disentangling physical and biological drivers of phytoplankton dynamics in a coastal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianelli, Daniela; D'Alelio, Domenico; Uttieri, Marco; Sarno, Diana; Zingone, Adriana; Zambianchi, Enrico; d'Alcalà, Maurizio Ribera

    2017-11-20

    This proof-of-concept study integrates the surface currents measured by high-frequency coastal radars with plankton time-series data collected at a fixed sampling point from the Mediterranean Sea (MareChiara Long Term Ecological Research site in the Gulf of Naples) to characterize the spatial origin of phytoplankton assemblages and to scrutinize the processes ruling their dynamics. The phytoplankton community generally originated from the coastal waters whereby species succession was mainly regulated by biological factors (life-cycle processes, species-specific physiological performances and inter-specific interactions). Physical factors, e.g. the alternation between coastal and offshore waters and the horizontal mixing, were also important drivers of phytoplankton dynamics promoting diversity maintenance by i) advecting species from offshore and ii) diluting the resident coastal community so as to dampen resource stripping by dominant species and thereby increase the numerical importance of rarer species. Our observations highlight the resilience of coastal communities, which may favour their persistence over time and the prevalence of successional events over small time and space scales. Although coastal systems may act differently from one another, our findings provide a conceptual framework to address physical-biological interactions occurring in coastal basins, which can be generalised to other areas.

  3. Job-housing imbalance and commuting of coastal industrial town in Liaoning province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Lu, Wei; Cai, Jun; Yang, Qiyao

    2017-11-01

    During the Twelve Five period, China promulgated industrial policies promote the energy-intensive industries relocate to coastal areas in order to utilize marine shipping resources. Consequently, some major state-owned steel and petrochemical enterprises have relocated and resulted in a large scale coastal area development. Restricted by the port construction, most of the coastal industrial areas are located in the outer suburbs. To balance between employment and housing, new industrial coastal towns were constructed. In this paper, we adopt a case-study approach to analysis some typical industrial coastal towns of Liaoning Province situated in the Bohai Bay, which is currently under rapid economic growth. Our investigations reflect the common phenomenon of long distance commuting and massive amount of vacant residences. More specifically, large plant relocation caused hundreds of kilometers of daily commute and enterprises had to provide housing subsidies and education incentives to motivate employees to relocate to coastal areas. Nonetheless, many employees still refuse to relocate due to job stability, diverse needs of family members and access to convenient services. These employees averaged 4 hours of commute daily and some who lived further had to reside in temporary industrial housing units and subject to long-term family separation. As a result, only a small portion of employees purchase new coastal residences but mostly for investment and retirement purposes, leading to massive vacancy and ghost-town phenomenon. In contrast to the low demand, coastal areas tend to develop large amount of residences prior to industrial relocation, which may be directly related to local government finances. Some local governments have sold residential land to developers to general revenue to support the subsequent industrial development. Subject to the strong preference of ocean- view, residential housing developers tend to select coast-line land to construct new residential

  4. Personal finances of urology residents in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichman, J M; Tongco, W; MacNeily, A E; Smart, M

    2000-12-01

    We examined how Urology residents in Canada manage their personal finances. A survey instrument was designed to elicit information on demographics, expenses, savings and incomes. The questionnaire was completed by 40 Urology residents attending the 2000 Queen's Urology Exam Skills Training (QUEST) program. Twenty-eight residents (70%) had educational debt (median debt $50 000). Seventeen residents (45%) paid credit card interest charges within the last year. Four residents (10%) maintained an unpaid credit card balance > $7500 at 17% annual interest rate. Twenty-six residents (67%) contributed to Registered Retirement Savings Program (RRSP) accounts. Seventeen residents (44%) contributed to non-RRSP retirement accounts. Nineteen residents (50%) budgeted expenses. Median resident income was $45 000. Thirteen residents (34%) had cash reserves < $250. Many residents save little, and incur substantial debt over and above educational loans. Many residents would benefit from instruction concerning prudent financial management. Residents should be informed of the consequences of low saving and high debt.

  5. Population structure of a whale shark Rhincodon typus aggregation in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Cochran, Jesse; Hardenstine, Royale; Braun, C. D.; Skomal, G. B.; Thorrold, S. R.; Xu, K.; Genton, Marc G.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of whale sharks Rhincodon typus were recorded around Shib Habil, a small, coastal reef off the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia, from 2010 to 2015. A total of 267 suitable photographs resulting in the identification of 136 individuals, were documented from 305 encounters. Sharks were divided evenly between the sexes with no evidence of temporal or spatial segregation. All individuals were immature based on size estimates and, for males, juvenile clasper morphology. Scars were reported for 57% of R. typus with 15% showing evidence of propeller trauma. Estimates of population size and patterns of residency were calculated by modelling the lagged identification rate. Multiple models were run simultaneously and compared using the Akaike information criterion. An open population model was found to best represent the data and estimates a daily abundance between 15 and 34 R. typus during the aggregation season, with local residence times ranging from 4 to 44 days. Residence times away from Shib Habil range from 15 to 156 days with a permanent emigration–death rate between 0·07 and 0·58 individuals year−1. These results are broadly similar to those from other aggregations of R. typus, although the observed sexual parity and integration found at this site is unique for the species and needs further study. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles

  6. Population structure of a whale shark Rhincodon typus aggregation in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Cochran, Jesse

    2016-07-12

    The presence of whale sharks Rhincodon typus were recorded around Shib Habil, a small, coastal reef off the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia, from 2010 to 2015. A total of 267 suitable photographs resulting in the identification of 136 individuals, were documented from 305 encounters. Sharks were divided evenly between the sexes with no evidence of temporal or spatial segregation. All individuals were immature based on size estimates and, for males, juvenile clasper morphology. Scars were reported for 57% of R. typus with 15% showing evidence of propeller trauma. Estimates of population size and patterns of residency were calculated by modelling the lagged identification rate. Multiple models were run simultaneously and compared using the Akaike information criterion. An open population model was found to best represent the data and estimates a daily abundance between 15 and 34 R. typus during the aggregation season, with local residence times ranging from 4 to 44 days. Residence times away from Shib Habil range from 15 to 156 days with a permanent emigration–death rate between 0·07 and 0·58 individuals year−1. These results are broadly similar to those from other aggregations of R. typus, although the observed sexual parity and integration found at this site is unique for the species and needs further study. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles

  7. Perspectives on healthy eating among Appalachian residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Nancy E; Howell, Britteny M; Swanson, Mark; Grosh, Christopher; Bardach, Shoshana

    2013-08-01

    Extensive attention has been focused on improving the dietary intake of Americans. Such focus is warranted due to increasing rates of overweight, obesity, and other dietary-related disease. To address suboptimal dietary intake requires an improved, contextualized understanding of the multiple and intersecting influences on healthy eating, particularly among those populations at greatest risk of and from poor diet, including rural residents. During 8 focus groups (N = 99) and 6 group key informant interviews (N = 20), diverse Appalachian rural residents were queried about their perceptions of healthy eating, determinants of healthy food intake, and recommendations for improving the dietary intake of people in their communities. Participants included church members and other laypeople, public health officials, social service providers, health care professionals, and others. Participants offered insights on healthy eating consistent with the categories of individual, interpersonal, community, physical, environmental, and society-level influences described in the socioecological model. Although many participants identified gaps in dietary knowledge as a persistent problem, informants also identified extraindividual factors, including the influence of family, fellow church members, and schools, policy, advertising and media, and general societal trends, as challenges to healthy dietary intake. We highlight Appalachian residents' recommendations for promoting healthier diets, including support groups, educational workshops, cooking classes, and community gardening. We discuss the implications of these findings for programmatic development in the Appalachian context. © 2013 National Rural Health Association.

  8. [Snacks consumption among residents in Shenzhen City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Qinggang; Cao, Keke; Xu, Jiazhang; Yuan, Xueli; Zhuo, Zhipeng; Xu, Jian; Pan, Peng

    2014-07-01

    To describe the status of snacks consumption among residents in Shenzhen. By a multiple stage probability proportionate to size sampling, 12 communities were randomly selected from 8 districts of Shenzhen based on population proportion. In the second stage, 30 households were randomly selected from each community. In each household, 2 years or older were invited to take dietary survey. There were 66.1% residents consuming snacks. More girls ate snacks than boys (chi2 = 11.552, P snacks than adults (chi2 = 27.207, P snacks were 107.8 kcal (451.5 kJ), 1.7 g, 0.8 g, 22.0 g, 1.1 g, 23.1 microg, 8.3 mg, 1.1 mg,17.0 mg, 9.3 mg, 21.0 mg, 0.8 mg and 0.4 mg. Food categories the most frequently consumed as snacks were fruit, pastry, milk and products, beverages and grains. It's important to strengthen the diet education among residents in Shenzhen, especially the knowledge how to select snacks correctly and rationally.

  9. 24 CFR 574.645 - Coastal barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coastal barriers. 574.645 Section....645 Coastal barriers. In accordance with the Coastal Barrier Resources Act, 16 U.S.C. 3501, no financial assistance under this part may be made available within the Coastal Barrier Resources System. ...

  10. Climate adaptation and policy-induced inflation of coastal property value.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan E McNamara

    Full Text Available Human population density in the coastal zone and potential impacts of climate change underscore a growing conflict between coastal development and an encroaching shoreline. Rising sea-levels and increased storminess threaten to accelerate coastal erosion, while growing demand for coastal real estate encourages more spending to hold back the sea in spite of the shrinking federal budget for beach nourishment. As climatic drivers and federal policies for beach nourishment change, the evolution of coastline mitigation and property values is uncertain. We develop an empirically grounded, stochastic dynamic model coupling coastal property markets and shoreline evolution, including beach nourishment, and show that a large share of coastal property value reflects capitalized erosion control. The model is parameterized for coastal properties and physical forcing in North Carolina, U.S.A. and we conduct sensitivity analyses using property values spanning a wide range of sandy coastlines along the U.S. East Coast. The model shows that a sudden removal of federal nourishment subsidies, as has been proposed, could trigger a dramatic downward adjustment in coastal real estate, analogous to the bursting of a bubble. We find that the policy-induced inflation of property value grows with increased erosion from sea level rise or increased storminess, but the effect of background erosion is larger due to human behavioral feedbacks. Our results suggest that if nourishment is not a long-run strategy to manage eroding coastlines, a gradual removal is more likely to smooth the transition to more climate-resilient coastal communities.

  11. Climate Adaptation and Policy-Induced Inflation of Coastal Property Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Dylan E.; Gopalakrishnan, Sathya; Smith, Martin D.; Murray, A. Brad

    2015-01-01

    Human population density in the coastal zone and potential impacts of climate change underscore a growing conflict between coastal development and an encroaching shoreline. Rising sea-levels and increased storminess threaten to accelerate coastal erosion, while growing demand for coastal real estate encourages more spending to hold back the sea in spite of the shrinking federal budget for beach nourishment. As climatic drivers and federal policies for beach nourishment change, the evolution of coastline mitigation and property values is uncertain. We develop an empirically grounded, stochastic dynamic model coupling coastal property markets and shoreline evolution, including beach nourishment, and show that a large share of coastal property value reflects capitalized erosion control. The model is parameterized for coastal properties and physical forcing in North Carolina, U.S.A. and we conduct sensitivity analyses using property values spanning a wide range of sandy coastlines along the U.S. East Coast. The model shows that a sudden removal of federal nourishment subsidies, as has been proposed, could trigger a dramatic downward adjustment in coastal real estate, analogous to the bursting of a bubble. We find that the policy-induced inflation of property value grows with increased erosion from sea level rise or increased storminess, but the effect of background erosion is larger due to human behavioral feedbacks. Our results suggest that if nourishment is not a long-run strategy to manage eroding coastlines, a gradual removal is more likely to smooth the transition to more climate-resilient coastal communities. PMID:25806944

  12. Climate adaptation and policy-induced inflation of coastal property value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Dylan E; Gopalakrishnan, Sathya; Smith, Martin D; Murray, A Brad

    2015-01-01

    Human population density in the coastal zone and potential impacts of climate change underscore a growing conflict between coastal development and an encroaching shoreline. Rising sea-levels and increased storminess threaten to accelerate coastal erosion, while growing demand for coastal real estate encourages more spending to hold back the sea in spite of the shrinking federal budget for beach nourishment. As climatic drivers and federal policies for beach nourishment change, the evolution of coastline mitigation and property values is uncertain. We develop an empirically grounded, stochastic dynamic model coupling coastal property markets and shoreline evolution, including beach nourishment, and show that a large share of coastal property value reflects capitalized erosion control. The model is parameterized for coastal properties and physical forcing in North Carolina, U.S.A. and we conduct sensitivity analyses using property values spanning a wide range of sandy coastlines along the U.S. East Coast. The model shows that a sudden removal of federal nourishment subsidies, as has been proposed, could trigger a dramatic downward adjustment in coastal real estate, analogous to the bursting of a bubble. We find that the policy-induced inflation of property value grows with increased erosion from sea level rise or increased storminess, but the effect of background erosion is larger due to human behavioral feedbacks. Our results suggest that if nourishment is not a long-run strategy to manage eroding coastlines, a gradual removal is more likely to smooth the transition to more climate-resilient coastal communities.

  13. 75 FR 44938 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery AGENCY: National... moratorium on fishing for Atlantic coastal sharks in the State waters of New Jersey. NMFS canceled the... Fisheries Commission's (Commission) Interstate Fishery Management Plan for Atlantic Coastal Sharks (Coastal...

  14. Are coastal lagoons physically or biologically controlled ecosystems? Revisiting r vs. K strategies in coastal lagoons and estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Marcos, Concepción; Pérez-Ruzafa, Isabel María; Pérez-Marcos, María

    2013-11-01

    Environmental stress influences biological assemblages, with species responding to stress by adopting particular life-history strategies (e.g., r vs. K). Coastal lagoons and estuaries are considered naturally stressed and physically controlled systems with frequent environmental disturbances and fluctuations. At the same time, their transitional nature (between terrestrial, freshwater and marine) makes them especially vulnerable to human impacts and land and freshwater inputs. As a result, it is hypothesised that residents of coastal lagoons would display characteristics of r-selected species. The r-strategy involves increased reproductive effort through early reproduction, small and numerous offspring with a large dispersive capability, short lifespan and small adult body size. Together, these traits provide a selective advantage in such unpredictable or short-lived environments. Alternatively, immigrants to coastal lagoons should mostly be K-strategists, with a competitive advantage over the r-strategists, at least on a temporary time scale. These hypotheses were explored using a dataset from 73 Atlanto-Mediterranean sites: 27 estuaries, 42 coastal lagoons and 4 from the sea, obtained from published sources. A detailed analysis of the distributions of the different resident fish species according to lagoon characteristics indicated that in lagoons with a higher marine influence the families Gobiidae, Blenniidae and Syngnathidae were common, while lagoons with freshwater influence are characterized by Cyprinidae and other freshwater species. In analyzing the biological strategies of lagoon species we found that fish assemblages inhabiting marine influenced lagoons were characterized by solitary, necto-benthonic sedentary species. These species are often hermaphroditic, with benthic broods and many exhibit brooding behaviour. This suggests that marine influenced lagoons are dominated by K-strategist species, while r-strategy species will be more common in

  15. Climate change impacts on rural poverty in low-elevation coastal zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Edward B.

    2015-11-01

    This paper identifies the low-elevation coastal zone (LECZ) populations and developing regions most vulnerable to sea-level rise and other coastal hazards, such as storm surges, coastal erosion and salt-water intrusion. The focus is on the rural poor in the LECZ, as their economic livelihoods are especially endangered both directly by coastal hazards and indirectly through the impacts of climate change on key coastal and near-shore ecosystems. Using geo-spatially referenced malnutrition and infant mortality data for 2000 as a proxy for poverty, this study finds that just 15 developing countries contain over 90% of the world's LECZ rural poor. Low-income countries as a group have the highest incidence of poverty, which declines somewhat for lower middle-income countries, and then is much lower for upper middle-income economies. South Asia, East Asia and the Pacific and Sub-Saharan Africa account for most of the world's LECZ rural poor, and have a high incidence of poverty among their rural LECZ populations. Although fostering growth, especially in coastal areas, may reduce rural poverty in the LECZ, additional policy actions will be required to protect vulnerable communities from disasters, to conserve and restore key coastal and near-shore ecosystems, and to promote key infrastructure investments and coastal community response capability.

  16. Major threats of pollution and climate change to global coastal ecosystems and enhanced management for sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yonglong; Yuan, Jingjing; Lu, Xiaotian; Su, Chao; Zhang, Yueqing; Wang, Chenchen; Cao, Xianghui; Li, Qifeng; Su, Jilan; Ittekkot, Venugopalan; Garbutt, Richard Angus; Bush, Simon; Fletcher, Stephen; Wagey, Tonny; Kachur, Anatolii; Sweijd, Neville

    2018-08-01

    Coastal zone is of great importance in the provision of various valuable ecosystem services. However, it is also sensitive and vulnerable to environmental changes due to high human populations and interactions between the land and ocean. Major threats of pollution from over enrichment of nutrients, increasing metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and climate change have led to severe ecological degradation in the coastal zone, while few studies have focused on the combined impacts of pollution and climate change on the coastal ecosystems at the global level. A global overview of nutrients, metals, POPs, and major environmental changes due to climate change and their impacts on