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Sample records for residence hall f4

  1. A Residential Paradox?: Residence Hall Attributes and College Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronkema, Ryan; Bowman, Nicholas A.

    2017-01-01

    The researchers of this brief observed that few environments have the potential to shape the outcomes of college students as much as residence halls. As a result, residence halls have the capacity to foster a strong sense of community as well as other important outcomes such as college satisfaction and academic achievement. However, given the high…

  2. The Marketing of Residence Halls: A Question of Positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, R. Stephen; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 343 college residence hall directors revealed percentages of private and public institutions offering different amenities, main selling points in promotional brochures, and the most common resident complaints. Results were compared with those of a resident survey concerning the importance of various housing attributes. Implications for…

  3. Involving Students in Residence Halls in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, S. Raymond; Chan, Rebecca; Lee, Esther

    2016-01-01

    This article reports a study based on A. W. Astin's (1984) involvement theory applied in residence halls at a public university in Hong Kong, China. The resident students who were involved as participants or student leaders in this study were found to be better developed in terms of leadership, career development, multicultural experience,…

  4. The Role of Social Influence on How Residence Hall Inhabitants Respond to Fire Alarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leytem, Michael; Stark, Emily

    2016-01-01

    College resident halls pose a threat for a catastrophic event in the case of fire, but little research has examined potential influences on students' responses to fire alarms, particularly the role of social influence in affecting their behaviors. In the current study, residence hall inhabitants reported their knowledge about fire safety, their…

  5. "Are You as Hard as 50 Cent? Negotiating Race and Masculinity in the Residence Halls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggers, Dametraus; Iverson, Susan V.

    2012-01-01

    In a qualitative study of Black undergraduate men at a predominantly White university in the Midwest, participants shared their experiences in residence halls, including roommate conflicts, interracial tensions, and disagreements with residence hall staff. This article focuses on Black male undergraduates' negotiation of racialized conceptions of…

  6. The Development of a Tutor Programme in a University Hall of Residence--A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, V. J.

    The tutor system within a university hall of residence at Flinders University of South Australia and a method of inquiry used to study the system are examined. Interviews with residence hall tutors revealed four concerns: the need for guidelines, the nature of academic tutoring, pastoral care and its implications, and communication channels within…

  7. "Are You as Hard as 50 Cent?" Negotiating Race and Masculinity in the Residence Halls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggers, Dametraus; Iverson, Susan V.

    2012-01-01

    In a qualitative study of Black undergraduate men at a predominantly White university in the Midwest, participants shared their experiences in residence halls, including roommate conflicts, interracial tensions, and disagreements with residence hall staff. This article focuses on Black male undergraduates' negotiation of racialized conceptions of…

  8. Alcohol Trajectories over Three Years in a Swedish Residence Hall Student Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriettae Ståhlbrandt

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Although it is known that college students have a high alcohol consumption, less is known about the long-term drinking trajectories amongst college students and, in particular, students living in residence halls, known to be high-risk drinkers. Over four consecutive years, the drinking habits of 556 Swedish residence hall students were analyzed. The main instruments for measuring outcome were AUDIT (Alcohol Use Identification Disorders Test, SIP (Short Index of Problems and eBAC (estimated Blood Alcohol Concentration. The drinking trajectories among Swedish residence hall students showed stable and decreasing drinking patterns, with age and gender being predictors of group membership.

  9. Perceptions about Residence Hall Wingmates and Alcohol-Related Secondhand Effects among College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekeloo, Bradley O.; Bush, Elizabeth N.; Novik, Melinda G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the secondhand effects among college freshmen of others' alcohol use and related student characteristics, and perceptions about residence hallmates. Participants: The authors surveyed 509 incoming freshmen residing in predominantly freshman residence halls. Methods: The authors administered a Web-based survey 2…

  10. Style of Life and Student Personnel Policy in College Residence Halls

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Julie E.

    1969-01-01

    Doctoral dissertation, Dimensions of Conformity and Evasion in Residence Halls for University Women: A Sociological Analysis of Normative Behavior in a Large-Scale Social Organization, 1962, University of Illinois, Urbana.

  11. What Residence Hall Staff Need to Know about Dealing with Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Bonita; Towns, James E.

    1984-01-01

    Emphasizes the responsibility for residence hall staff to understand the grief process. An adaptation of Kubler-Ross's stages of death has produced helpful techniques for successfully accepting the death. Through understanding these principles, staff can become aware of the grief process and can assist residents. (JAC)

  12. The Actively Caring for People Movement at Virginia Tech and Beyond: Cultivating Compassion and Relationships in Residence Halls

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Shane M.; Mullins, Taris G.; Geller, E. Scott; Shushok, Frank, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    A professor and a group of student leaders initiated the Actively Caring for People (AC4P) Movement to establish a more civil, compassionate, and inclusive culture by inspiring intentional acts of kindness. This article explores the AC4P Movement in a first-year residence hall at Virginia Tech and a second-year residence hall at University of…

  13. Students' Sense of Community in Residence Halls, Social Integration, and First-Year Persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joseph B.

    1997-01-01

    Used concepts from community psychology literature to elaborate a revised version of Tinto's model of individual student departure. Employed a longitudinal analysis of 718 college students. Results indicate that students' sense of community in their residence halls was a source of social integration and a precursor to student departure decisions.…

  14. Students' Perceptions of the Residence Hall Living Environment at Kuwait University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kandari, Nabila

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore students' perceptions of the residence hall living environment at Kuwait University. The researcher developed a questionnaire for this purpose that included 36 items. The sample of the study consisted of 191 residential students, of whom 98 were male and 93 were female. The research findings indicated that:…

  15. Residence Hall Student Satisfaction with Interim Alcohol Policy. Office for Student Affairs Research Bulletin; v15 n4 Jul74.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabourg, Deborah; And Others

    At the beginning of the 1973-74 academic year alcohol usage was officially permitted for the first time in residence halls at the Twin Cities Campus of the University of Minnesota. To determine residents' perceptions of the effects of the change in drinking policy, interviews were conducted with 49 current dormitory residents, who had also lived…

  16. Energy-related environmental and economic performance analysis of two different types of electrically heated student residence halls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amber, Khuram Pervez; Aslam, Muhammad Waqar

    2018-03-01

    Student residence halls occupy 26% of the total area of a typical university campus in the UK and are directly responsible for 24% of university's annual CO2 emissions. Based on five years measured data, this paper aims to investigate the energy-related environmental and economic performance of electrically heated residence halls in which space heating is provided by two different types of electric heaters, that is, panel heater (PHT) and storage heater (SHT). Secondly, using statistical and machine learning methods, the paper attempts to investigate the relationship between daily electricity consumption and five factors (ambient temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, wind speed and type of day). Data analysis revealed that electricity consumption of both halls is mainly driven by ambient temperature only, whereas SHT residence has 39% higher annual electricity bill and emits 70% higher CO2 emissions on a per square metre basis compared to the PHT residence hall.

  17. The effect of hand hygiene on illness rate among students in university residence halls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Cindy; Kolble, Robin; Carlson, Rebecca; Lipson, Natasha; Dolan, Mike; Ali, Yusuf; Cline, Mojee

    2003-10-01

    Several studies have indicated a connection between hand sanitization and infection control in numerous settings such as extended care facilities, schools, and hospitals. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of both a hand-hygiene message campaign and the use of an alcohol gel hand sanitizer in decreasing the incidence of upper-respiratory illness among students living in university residence halls. This study involved a total of 430 students recruited from 4 residence halls during the fall semester at the University of Colorado at the Boulder campus. Dormitories were paired into control and product groups. In the product groups, alcohol gel hand-sanitizer dispensers were installed in every room, bathroom, and dining hall. The data were statistically analyzed for the differences between product and control groups in reported symptoms, illness rates, and absenteeism from classes. The overall increase in hand-hygiene behavior and reduction in symptoms, illness rates, and absenteeism between the product group and control group was statistically significant. Reductions in upper respiratory-illness symptoms ranged from 14.8% to 39.9%. Total improvement in illness rate was 20%. The product group had 43% less missed school/work days. Hand-hygiene practices were improved with increased frequency of handwashing through increasing awareness of the importance of hand hygiene, and the use of alcohol gel hand sanitizer in university dormitories. This resulted in fewer upper respiratory-illness symptoms, lower illness rates, and lower absenteeism.

  18. The Impact of a Health Campaign on Hand Hygiene and Upper Respiratory Illness among College Students Living in Residence Halls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Cindy; Kolble, Robin; Carlson, Rebecca; Lipson, Natasha

    2005-01-01

    Hand hygiene is a key element in preventing the transmission of cold and flu viruses. The authors conducted an experimental-control design study in 4 campus residence halls to determine whether a message campaign about hand hygiene and the availability of gel hand sanitizer could decrease cold and flu illness and school and work absenteeism. Their…

  19. Evacuation Simulation in Kalayaan Residence Hall, up Diliman Using Gama Simulation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claridades, A. R. C.; Villanueva, J. K. S.; Macatulad, E. G.

    2016-09-01

    Agent-Based Modeling (ABM) has recently been adopted in some studies for the modelling of events as a dynamic system given a set of events and parameters. In principle, ABM employs individual agents with assigned attributes and behaviors and simulates their behavior around their environment and interaction with other agents. This can be a useful tool in both micro and macroscale-applications. In this study, a model initially created and applied to an academic building was implemented in a dormitory. In particular, this research integrates three-dimensional Geographic Information System (GIS) with GAMA as the multi-agent based evacuation simulation and is implemented in Kalayaan Residence Hall. A three-dimensional GIS model is created based on the floor plans and demographic data of the dorm, including respective pathways as networks, rooms, floors, exits and appropriate attributes. This model is then re-implemented in GAMA. Different states of the agents and their effect on their evacuation time were then observed. GAMA simulation with varying path width was also implemented. It has been found out that compared to their original states, panic, eating and studying will hasten evacuation, and on the other hand, sleeping and being on the bathrooms will be impedances. It is also concluded that evacuation time will be halved when path widths are doubled, however it is recommended for further studies for pathways to be modeled as spaces instead of lines. A more scientific basis for predicting agent behavior in these states is also recommended for more realistic results.

  20. Using the Leaderless Group Discussion Technique for the Selection of Residence Hall Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, Trudy W.; McCormick, Jane E.

    1969-01-01

    Describes successful effort to involve head residents in selection responsibilities. Discusses use of Record of Previous Leadership Experience, behavior ratings adapted from Interview and LGD Rating Scale (T. W. Banta) recommendation from head resident as selection criteria. (CJ)

  1. Sleep quality and some factors affecting sleep quality in the students living in the residence hall of a university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Yavuz Sari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Sleep disorders are remarkable public health problems as they adversely affect physical, mental and social health and may cause accidents and decline in academic performance and labor productivity. Aim of the study is assessing sleep quality and determining some factors affecting sleep quality in the students living in the residence hall of a university. METHOD: It is a cross sectional study conducted with 277 students, 180 of whom are female. Data were collected via a questionnaire including Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS and socio-demographic characteristics query. RESULTS: According to PSQI, 41.1% of students have bad sleep quality. Sleep quality of male students and students who are overweight/obese or living in more crowded rooms in the hall of residence is worse than other students and #8217;. Prevalence of bad sleep quality is higher in medication users, participants thinking that they have problems in sleeping or falling asleep and had stressful experience in the last month. The differences between groups were statistically significant. In logistic regression analyzes, using medication (OR=2.54, having problems in sleep (OR=12.75, having problems in falling asleep (OR=8.83 and bad experiences in the last month (OR=2.66 have effects on sleep quality. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions about sleep disorders are important due to their preventable characteristics. Developing healthy life habits, improving physical conditions and coping with stress will be effective on preventing and treating sleep disorders. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(2.000: 93-100

  2. The influence of a student's 'home' climate on room temperature and indoor environmental controls use in a modern halls of residence

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, Rucha; Teli, Despoina; James, Patrick; Bourikas, Leonidas

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive comfort theory states that over time people adapt to their normal environment. Therefore, people from different climates are expected to have different thermal preferences and behaviours, which could lead to ‘performance gap’ in buildings with occupants of diverse climate backgrounds. This study investigates the influence of occupants’ thermal history on use of controls and indoor temperature preference in a newly built halls of residence building complex in Southampton, UK, which pr...

  3. An exploratory cluster randomised trial of a university halls of residence based social norms marketing campaign to reduce alcohol consumption among 1st year students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Graham F; Williams, Annie; Moore, Laurence; Murphy, Simon

    2013-04-18

    This exploratory trial examines the feasibility of implementing a social norms marketing campaign to reduce student drinking in universities in Wales, and evaluating it using cluster randomised trial methodology. Fifty residence halls in 4 universities in Wales were randomly assigned to intervention or control arms. Web and paper surveys were distributed to students within these halls (n = 3800), assessing exposure/contamination, recall of and evaluative responses to intervention messages, perceived drinking norms and personal drinking behaviour. Measures included the Drinking Norms Rating Form, the Daily Drinking Questionnaire and AUDIT-C. A response rate of 15% (n = 554) was achieved, varying substantially between sites. Intervention posters were seen by 80% and 43% of students in intervention and control halls respectively, with most remaining materials seen by a minority in both groups. Intervention messages were rated as credible and relevant by little more than half of students, though fewer felt they would influence their behaviour, with lighter drinkers more likely to perceive messages as credible. No differences in perceived norms were observed between intervention and control groups. Students reporting having seen intervention materials reported lower descriptive and injunctive norms than those who did not. Attention is needed to enhancing exposure, credibility and perceived relevance of intervention messages, particularly among heavier drinkers, before definitive evaluation can be recommended. A definitive evaluation would need to consider how it would achieve sufficient response rates, whilst hall-level cluster randomisation appears subject to a significant degree of contamination. ISRCTN: ISRCTN48556384.

  4. Brauer algebras of type F4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, S.

    2013-01-01

    We present an algebra related to the Coxeter group of type F4 which can be viewed as the Brauer algebra of type F4 and is obtained as a subalgebra of the Brauer algebra of type E6. We also describe some properties of this algebra.

  5. Brauer algebra of type F4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, S.

    2012-01-01

    We present an algebra related to the Coxeter group of type F4 which can be viewed as the Brauer algebra of type F4 and is obtained as a subalgebra of the Brauer algebra of type E6. We also describe some properties of this algebra.

  6. Hall Sweet Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2011-01-01

    Many urban and commuter universities have their sights set on students who are unlikely to connect with the college and likely to fail unless the right strategies are put in place to help them graduate. In efforts to improve retention rates, commuter colleges are looking to an unusual suspect: residence halls. The author discusses how these…

  7. Scanning vector Hall probe microscope

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fedor, J.; Cambel, V.; Gregušová, D.; Hanzelka, Pavel; Dérer, J.; Volko, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 12 (2003), s. 5105 - 5110 ISSN 0034-6748 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : VHPM * Hall sensor * Helium cryostat Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 1.343, year: 2003 http://web. ebscohost .com/ehost/pdf?vid=8&hid=115&sid=a7c0555a-21f4-4932-b1c6-a308ac4dd50b%40sessionmgr2

  8. EPR experiments in LiTbF4, LiHoF4, and LiErF4 at submillimeter frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magariño, J.; Tuchendler, J.; Beauvillain, P.

    1980-01-01

    Electron-paramagnetic-resonance experiments in LiTbF4, LiHoF4, and LiErF4 have been performed at frequencies between 70 and 600 GHz, in magnetic fields up to 60 kG and in the temperature range 1.4......Electron-paramagnetic-resonance experiments in LiTbF4, LiHoF4, and LiErF4 have been performed at frequencies between 70 and 600 GHz, in magnetic fields up to 60 kG and in the temperature range 1.4...

  9. Spectroscopic analysis of LiHoF4 and LiErF4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, H.P.

    1979-01-01

    The polarized absorption spectra for Ho3+ and Er3+ in LiHoF4 and LiErF4, respectively, have been recorded in the spectral interval 4000-26 000 cm-1 at 2 K. Parts of the spectra were examined at higher temperatures. The experimental levels for Ho3+ and Er3+ in LiRF4 were close to those found in Li...

  10. Hall A

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The instrumentation in Hall A at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility was designed to study electroand photo-induced reactions at very high luminosity...

  11. Hall C

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hall C's initial complement of equipment (shown in the figure), includes two general-purpose magnetic spectrometers. The High Momentum Spectrometer (HMS) has a large...

  12. The Significance of a Building’s Energy Consumption Profiles for the Optimum Sizing of a Combined Heat and Power (CHP System—A Case Study for a Student Residence Hall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuram Pervez Amber

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available University buildings, such as student residence halls with year-round consistent energy demands, offer strong opportunities for Combined Heat and Power (CHP systems. The economic and environmental feasibility of a CHP project is strongly linked with its optimum sizing. This study aims to undertake such an assessment for a CHP system for a student residence hall located in London, the United Kingdom (UK. The study also aims to undertake a sensitivity analysis to investigate the effect of different parameters on the project’s economics. Necessary data are collected via interviews with the University’s Energy Manager. Modeling of the CHP system is performed using the London South Bank University (LSBU, London, the UK CHP model. Results demonstrate that optimum sizing of CHP is crucial for achieving higher economic and environmental benefits and strongly depends on the authenticity of the energy consumption data, based on which the CHP is being sized. Use of incorrect energy data could result in an undersized or oversized CHP system, where an oversized system will result in higher negative results compared to an undersized system. Finally, Monto Carlo statistical analysis shows that electricity price is the significant factor that could affect the project’s economics. With an increasing spark gap, the payback period decreases, and vice versa.

  13. Observation of the Zero Hall Plateau in a Quantum Anomalous Hall Insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Yang; Feng, Xiao; Ou, Yunbo; Wang, Jing; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Liguo; Zhao, Dongyang; Jiang, Gaoyuan; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; He, Ke; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qi-Kun; Wang, Yayu

    2015-09-16

    We report experimental investigations on the quantum phase transition between the two opposite Hall plateaus of a quantum anomalous Hall insulator. We observe a well-defined plateau with zero Hall conductivity over a range of magnetic field around coercivity when the magnetization reverses. The features of the zero Hall plateau are shown to be closely related to that of the quantum anomalous Hall effect, but its temperature evolution exhibits a significant difference from the network model for a conventional quantum Hall plateau transition. We propose that the chiral edge states residing at the magnetic domain boundaries, which are unique to a quantum anomalous Hall insulator, are responsible for the novel features of the zero Hall plateau.

  14. Mapping the geometry of the F4 group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardoni, Fabio; Cacciatori, Sergio L.; Scotti, Antonio; Cerchiai, Bianca L.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a construction of the compact form of the exceptional Lie group F4 by exponentiating the corresponding Lie algebra f4. We realize F4 as the automorphisms group of the exceptional Jordan algebra, whose elements are 3 x 3 Hermitian matrices with octonionic entries. We use a parametrization which generalizes the Euler angles for SU(2) and is based on the fibration of F4 via a Spin(9) subgroup as a fiber. This technique allows us to determine an explicit expression for the Haar invariant measure on the F4 group manifold. Apart from shedding light on the structure of F4 and its coset manifold OP2 = F4/Spin(9), the octonionic projective plane, these results are a prerequisite for the study of E6, of which F4 is a (maximal) subgroup

  15. Analysis list: E2f4 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E2f4 Blood,Embryonic fibroblast,Liver,Muscle,Pluripotent stem cell + mm9 http://dba...rchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/E2f4.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/E2f4....5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/E2f4.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc....jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/E2f4.Blood.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/E2f4....Embryonic_fibroblast.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/E2f4.Liver.tsv,htt

  16. Transmission of F4+ E. coli in groups of early weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geenen, P.L.; Döpfer, D.; Meulen, van der J.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate transmission parameters of enterotoxigenic F4+ Escherichia coli F4 (F4+ E. coli) in groups of early weaned piglets with F4-receptor-positive (F4R+) and F4-receptor-negative piglets (F4R[minus sign]). Transmission of F4+ E. coli was quantified in four

  17. F4/80 as a Major Macrophage Marker: The Case of the Peritoneum and Spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Anjos Cassado, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Tissue macrophages are a heterogeneous cell population residing in all body tissues that contribute to the maintenance of homeostasis and trigger immune activation in response to injurious stimuli. This heterogeneity may be associated with tissue-specific functions; however, the presence of distinct macrophage populations within the same microenvironment indicates that macrophage heterogeneity may also be influenced outside of tissue specialization. The F4/80 molecule was established as a unique marker of murine macrophages when a monoclonal antibody was found to recognize an antigen exclusively expressed by these cells. However, recent research has shown that F4/80 is expressed by other immune cells and is not equivalently expressed across tissue-specific macrophage lineages, including those residing in the same microenvironment, such as the peritoneum and spleen. In this context, two murine macrophage subtypes with distinct F4/80 expression patterns were recently found to coexist in the peritoneum, termed large peritoneal macrophages (LPMs) and small peritoneal macrophages (SPMs). However, the presence of phenotypic and functional heterogeneous macrophage subpopulations in the spleen was already known. Thus, although F4/80 surface expression continues to be the best method to identify tissue macrophages, additional molecules must also be examined to distinguish these cells from other immune cells.

  18. Estimating transmission parameters of F4 + E. coli for F4-receptor-positive and -negative piglets: one-to-one transmission experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geenen, P.L.; Meulen, van der J.; Bouma, A.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    F4+ Escherichia coli is an important agent of post-weaning diarrhoea in piglets. Piglets that express an adhesion site for F4+ E. coli in their small intestine (F4R+) shed higher numbers of F4+ E. coli than piglets lacking this site (F4R[minus sign]). We hypothesized that F4R+ piglets are more

  19. Refined localization of the Escherichia coli F4ab/F4ac receptor locus on pig chromosome 13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joller, D.; Jørgensen, Claus Bøttcher; Bertschinger, H.U.

    2009-01-01

    Diarrhoea in newborn and weaned pigs caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) expressing F4 fimbriae leads to considerable losses in pig production. In this study, we refined the mapping of the receptor locus for ETEC F4ab/F4ac adhesion (F4bcR) by joint analysis of Nordic and Swiss data...... (MUC4-8227) were used to create the linkage map. The region for F4bcR was refined to the interval SW207-S0075 on pig chromosome 13. The most probable position of F4bcR was in the SW207-MUC4 region. The order of six markers was supported by physical mapping on the BAC fingerprint contig from...

  20. of Nd3+ions in YLiF4 and LuLiF4 crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Felipe Henriques Librantz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nd3+ ultraviolet (UV fluorescence induced by multiphotonic laser excitations was studied in doped Nd:YLiF4 (YLF and Nd:LuLiF4 (LLF crystals by using the time resolved spectroscopy technique. The UV luminescences are due to transitions between the 4f25d and the 4f3 electronic configurations of Nd3+ ions. The 4f25d configuration can be reached by direct pumping or by multiphotonic excitation, both processes give rise to the UV band emission with structure due to the strong phonon coupling expected for 5d orbital involvement in the transition. The multiphotonic excitation process is due to three photons (532 nanometers [nm] sequential absorptions by metastable levels of the 4f3 configuration split by crystalline local field. The sequential excitation of Nd by the laser excitation is attributed to the 4I9/2 + 532 nm t 4G7/2 ground state absorption followed by the 4G7/2 + 532 nm t 2F5/2 and 2F5/2 + 532 nm t 4f25d excited state absorptions. The UV emissions due to 4f25d configuration are parity allowed, having lifetime of 35 nanoseconds (ns in contrast to UV emissions from 4f3 configuration which are induced by two absorption steps and are parity forbidden showing longer lifetime of 8 microseconds (ms and narrow lines. The polarization effects of the UV emissions were studied and their behaviors are dependent on the excited state configuration involving or not involving the 5d orbital. The allowed UV emission positions were affected by the host variation more than the ones originated from the 4f3 configuration as expected. The electronic energy of the 4f25d configuration shifts to lower energy for increasing the crystal field.

  1. F4+ ETEC infection and oral immunization with F4 fimbriae elicits an IL-17-dominated immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yu; Van Nguyen, Ut; de la Fe Rodriguez, Pedro Y; Devriendt, Bert; Cox, Eric

    2015-10-21

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are an important cause of post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) in piglets. Porcine-specific ETEC strains possess different fimbrial subtypes of which F4 fimbriae are the most frequently associated with ETEC-induced diarrhea in piglets. These F4 fimbriae are potent oral immunogens that induce protective F4-specific IgA antibody secreting cells at intestinal tissues. Recently, T-helper 17 (Th17) cells have been implicated in the protection of the host against extracellular pathogens. However, it remains unknown if Th17 effector responses are needed to clear ETEC infections. In the present study, we aimed to elucidate if ETEC elicits a Th17 response in piglets and if F4 fimbriae trigger a similar response. F4(+) ETEC infection upregulated IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21 and IL-23p19, but not IL-12 and IFN-γ mRNA expression in the systemic and mucosal immune system. Similarly, oral immunization with F4 fimbriae triggered a Th17 signature evidenced by an upregulated mRNA expression of IL-17F, RORγt, IL-23p19 and IL-21 in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Intriguingly, IL-17A mRNA levels were unaltered. To further evaluate this difference between systemic and mucosal immune responses, we assayed the cytokine mRNA profile of F4 fimbriae stimulated PBMCs. F4 fimbriae induced IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22 and IL-23p19, but downregulated IL-17B mRNA expression. Altogether, these data indicate a Th17 dominated response upon oral immunization with F4 fimbriae and F4(+) ETEC infection. Our work also highlights that IL-17B and IL-17F participate in the immune response to protect the host against F4(+) ETEC infection and could aid in the design of future ETEC vaccines.

  2. Experimental halls workshop summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorndike, A.

    1976-01-01

    A brief discussion is given of: (1) pros and cons of open areas as compared with enclosed halls; (2) experimental hall needs of ep, anti p p, and other options; (3) hall for the lepton detector; and, (4) hall for the hadron spectrometer

  3. Experimental halls workshop summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorndike, A.

    1976-01-01

    On May 26 and 27, 1976, approximately 50 people met for an informal workshop on plans for experimental halls for ISABELLE. Plans as they exist in the May 1976 version of the ISABELLE proposal were presented. Discussions were held on the following four general topics by separate working groups: (1) pros and cons of open areas as compared with enclosed halls; (2) experimental hall needs of ep, anti pp, and other options; (3) hall for the lepton detector; and (4) hall for the hadron spectrometer. The planning for experimental halls at PEP, the hall for the lepton detector, the hadron spectrometer, and open areas are discussed

  4. Experimental halls workshop summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorndike, A.

    1976-01-01

    At the experimental halls workshop, discussions were held on: (1) open areas as compared with enclosed halls; (2) the needs of ep, anti pp, and other options; (3) the hall for the lepton detector; and (4) the hall for the hadron spectrometer. The value of different possibilities for the future experimental program was explored. A number of suggestions emerged which will be used as the design of the experimental halls progresses

  5. Confinement in F4 Exceptional Gauge Group Using Domain Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafibakhsh, Shahnoosh; Shahlaei, Amir

    2017-03-01

    We calculate the potential between static quarks in the fundamental representation of the F4 exceptional gauge group using domain structures of the thick center vortex model. As non-trivial center elements are absent, the asymptotic string tension is lost while an intermediate linear potential is observed. SU(2) is a subgroup of F4. Investigating the decomposition of the 26 dimensional representation of F4 to the SU(2) representations, might explain what accounts for the intermediate linear potential, in the exceptional groups with no center element.

  6. Biotransformation of ginsenosides F4 and Rg6 in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wen-Wen; Zhang, Hai-Xia; Qiu, Shou-Bei; Wei, Ying-Jie; Zhu, Fen-Xia; Wang, Jing; Wang, Dan-Dan; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Tang, Dao-Quan; Chen, Bin

    2017-03-28

    Ginsenosides F 4 and Rg 6 (GF 4 and GRg 6 ), two main active components of steamed notoginseng or red ginseng, are dehydrated disaccharide saponins. In this work, biotransformation of ginsenosides F 4 and Rg 6 in zebrafish was investigated by qualitatively identifying their metabolites and then proposing their possible metabolic pathways. The prediction of possible metabolism of ginsenosides F 4 and Rg 6 using zebrafish model which can effectively simulate existing mammals model was early and quickly performed. Metabolites of ginsenosides F 4 and Rg 6 after exposing to zebrafish for 24 h were identified by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography/Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. A total of 8 and 6 metabolites of ginsenosides F 4 and Rg 6 were identified in zebrafish, respectively. Of these, 7 and 5, including M1, M3-M5, M7-M9 and N1 (N5), N2, N4 (N9), N7-N8 were reported for the first time as far as we know. The mechanisms of their biotransformation involved were further deduced to be desugarization, glucuronidation, sulfation, dehydroxylation, loss of C-17 and/or C-23 residue pathways. It was concluded that loss of rhamnose at position C-6 and glucuronidation at position C-3 in zebrafish were considered as the main physiologic and metabolic processes of ginsenosides F 4 and ginsenosides Rg 6 , respectively.

  7. [Phosphate solubilization of Aureobasidium pullulan F4 and its mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Zhan, Jing; Sun, Qing-Ye

    2014-07-01

    The Aureobasidium pullulans F4 was isolated from the rhizosphere of Hippochaete ramosissimum in Tongguanshan mine wasteland in Tongling City, Anhui Province. Liquid culture was conducted with four kinds of phosphorus sources, calcium phosphate, aluminum phosphate, ferric phosphate and rock phosphate to determine the pH, dissolved phosphorus, phosphorus in the bacteria and organic acid in the solution. The results showed that the phosphate solubilization by A. pullulans F4 varied with phosphorus sources, which decreased in order of aluminum phosphate > ferric phosphate, calcium phosphate > rock phosphate. The amounts of dissolved phosphorus in the different treatments were all higher than 200 mg x L(-1). The pH of the medium dropped immediately in 48 h, and the aluminum phosphate and ferric phosphate treatments showed a greater decrease in pH than the calcium phosphate and rock phosphate treatments. The organic acid synthesized by A. pullulans F4 included oxalic acid, citric acid and tartaric acid, and oxalic acid, among which oxalic acid was the dominated component. The phosphate dissolving capacity of A. pullulans F4 showed no significant correlation with organic acid, but significantly correlated with the pH. The available phosphorus was significantly improved with the combined application of A. pullulans F4 and glucose, suggesting A. pullulans F4 was a potent candidate for remediation of copper mine wastelands.

  8. E2F4 is required for early eye patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzhynsky, Vladimir A; Furimsky, Marosh; Park, David S; Wallace, Valerie A; Slack, Ruth S

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly, studies reveal novel functions for cell cycle proteins during development. Here, we investigated the role of E2F4 in eye development. E2F4-deficient mouse embryos exhibit severe early eye patterning defects, which are evident from embryonic day 11.5 and characterized by aberrant shape of the optic cup, coloboma as well as abnormal eye pigmentation. Loss of E2F4 is associated with proximal-distal patterning defects in the optic vesicle. These defects are characterized by the expansion of optic stalk marker gene expression to the optic cup and reduced expression of ventral optic cup markers. These defects are associated with a split of Shh expression domain at the ventral midline of the forebrain and expansion of the Shh activity into the ventral optic cup. Despite these patterning defects, early neuronal differentiation and Shh expression in the retina are not affected by E2F4 deletion. Overall, the results of our studies show a novel role of E2F4 in the early eye development. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Transcytosis of F4 fimbriae by villous and dome epithelia in F4-receptor positive pigs supports importance of receptor-dependent endocytosis in oral immunization strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeck, Veerle; Van den Broeck, Wim; De Colvenaer, Veerle; Verdonck, Frank; Goddeeris, Bruno; Cox, Eric

    2008-07-15

    Very few antigens have been described that induce an intestinal immunity when given orally. Our laboratory demonstrated that oral administration of isolated F4 (K88) fimbriae of Escherichia coli to F4-receptor positive (F4R(+)) pigs induces protective mucosal immunity against challenge infection. However, presence of F4-receptors (F4R) on villous enterocytes is a prerequisite for inducing the immune response, as no F4-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASC) can be induced in F4R(-) pigs. In this study, the in vivo binding of isolated F4 fimbriae (F4) to the gut epithelium was examined in F4R(+) and F4R(-) pigs. It was further investigated whether binding of F4 to the F4R results in endocytosis in and translocation across the gut epithelium using microscopy. F4 did not adhere to the intestinal epithelium of F4R(-) pigs, whereas it strongly adhered to the villous epithelium and the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) of the jejunum and ileum of F4R(+) pigs. Following binding to F4R, F4 was endocytosed by villous enterocytes, follicle-associated enterocytes and M cells. Transcytosis of F4 across the epithelium resulted in the appearance of F4 in the lamina propria and dome region of the jejunal and ileal PP. This is the first study showing transcytosis of fimbriae across the gut epithelium. This receptor-dependent transcytosis can explain the success of F4 fimbriae as oral immunogen for inducing protective immunity in F4R(+) pigs strengthening the importance of receptor-dependent endocytosis and translocation in oral vaccine strategies. Further identification of the receptor responsible for this transport is in progress.

  10. Growth and scintillation properties of BaMgF4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Takayuki; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Sugiyama, Makoto; Furuya, Yuki; Kamada, Kei; Yokota, Yuui; Yoshikawa, Akira; Chani, Valery

    2010-01-01

    By using the micro-pulling down (μ-PD) method, the barium magnesium fluoride (BaMgF 4 ) single crystalline scintillator was produced. The crystal was cut and mirror polished to the physical dimensions of 1x2x10 mm 3 for examination of scintillation properties. BaMgF 4 demonstrated ∼70% transmittance in wavelength range above 170 nm, and strong emission peaking around 205 nm was observed under X-ray excitation. The absolute light yield of BaMgF 4 was 1300±100 ph/MeV, and the decay time profile showed two components as 0.57±0.01 (70%) and 2.2±0.31 (30%) ns at room temperature.

  11. Cryogenic microsize Hall sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvitkovic, J.; Polak, M.

    1993-01-01

    Hall sensors have a variety of applications in magnetic field measurements. The active area of the Hall sensor does not play an important role in measuring of homogeneous magnetic field. Actually Hall sensors are widely used to measure profiles of magnetic fields produced by magnetization currents in samples of HTC superconductors, as well as of LTC ones. Similar techniques are used to measure magnetization of both HTC and LTC superconductors. In these cases Hall sensor operates in highly inhomogeneous magnetic fields. Because of that, Hall sensors with very small active area are required. We developed and tested Hall sensors with active area 100 μm x 100 μm - type M and 50 μm x 50 μm - type V. Here we report on the most imporant parameters of these units, as well as on their properties as differential magnetometer. (orig.)

  12. The F4 fimbrial antigen of Escherichia coli and its receptors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Broeck, W; Cox, E; Oudega, B.; Goddeeris, B

    2000-01-01

    F4 or K88 fimbriae are long filamentous polymeric surface proteins of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), consisting of so-called major (FaeG) and minor (FaeF, FaeH, FaeC, and probably FaeI) subunits. Several serotypes of F4 have been described, namely F4ab, F4ac, and F4ad. The F4 fimbriae

  13. F4 symmetric ϕ3 theory at four loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracey, J. A.

    2017-03-01

    The renormalization group functions for six dimensional scalar ϕ3 theory with an F4 symmetry are provided at four loops in the modified minimal subtraction (MS ¯ ) scheme. Aside from the anomalous dimension of ϕ and the β -function this includes the mass operator and a ϕ2-type operator. The anomalous dimension of the latter is computed explicitly at four loops for the 26 and 324 representations of F4. The ɛ expansion of all the related critical exponents are determined to O (ɛ4). For instance the value for Δϕ agrees with recent conformal bootstrap estimates in 5 and 5.95 dimensions. The renormalization group functions are also provided at four loops for the group E6.

  14. Spectroscopic analysis of LiTmF4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, H.P.

    1979-01-01

    The absorption spectra of Tm3+ in LiTmF4 have been measured at 2, 10, 30, and 50 K in the spectral interval 4000-25 000 cm-1. The energy levels of the ground-state configuration were calculated by diagonalizing the Hamiltonian of the electron-electron interaction, the spin-orbit coupling......+, and Er3+ in LiLnF4, and they follow a common trend. The intensities of the transitions from the ground state were calculated in the Judd-Ofelt scheme, fitting six complex intensity parameters A(kqλ) for best agreement with the experimentally observed intensities. The model was only able to give a rough...

  15. Skyrmions and Hall viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bom Soo

    2018-05-01

    We discuss the contribution of magnetic Skyrmions to the Hall viscosity and propose a simple way to identify it in experiments. The topological Skyrmion charge density has a distinct signature in the electric Hall conductivity that is identified in existing experimental data. In an electrically neutral system, the Skyrmion charge density is directly related to the thermal Hall conductivity. These results are direct consequences of the field theory Ward identities, which relate various physical quantities based on symmetries and have been previously applied to quantum Hall systems.

  16. The receptor locus for escherichia coli F4ab/F4ac in the pig maps distal to the MUC4-LMLN region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rampoldi, Antonio; Jacobsen, Mette Juul; Bertschinger, Hans U.

    2011-01-01

    antigenic variants, F4ab, F4ac, and F4ad, of which F4ac is the most common. Resistance to ETEC F4ab/F4ac adhesion in pigs has been shown to be inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. In previous studies the ETEC F4ab/F4ac receptor locus (F4bcR) was mapped to the q41 region on pig chromosome 13....... A polymorphism within an intron of the mucin 4 (MUC4) gene, which is one of the possible candidate genes located in this region, was shown earlier to cosegregate with the F4bcR alleles. Recently, we discovered a Large White boar from a Swiss experimental herd with a recombination between F4bcR and MUC4. A three...... a newly detected SNP in the leishmanolysin-like gene (LMLN g.15920) and SNP ALGA0072075. In this study the six SNPs ALGA0072075, ALGA0106330, MUC13-226, MUC13-813, DIA0000584, and MARC0006918 were in complete linkage disequilibrium with F4bcR. Based on this finding and earlier investigations, we suggest...

  17. Differentiation of F4 receptor profiles in pigs based on their mucin 4 polymorphism, responsiveness to oral F4 immunization and in vitro binding of F4 to villi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, V U; Goetstouwers, T; Coddens, A; Van Poucke, M; Peelman, L; Deforce, D; Melkebeek, V; Cox, E

    2013-03-15

    F4(+) enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (F4(+) ETEC) are an important cause of diarrhoea and mortality in piglets. F4(+) ETEC use their F4 fimbriae to adhere to specific receptors (F4Rs) on small intestinal brush borders, resulting in colonization of the small intestine. To prevent pigs from post-weaning diarrhoea, pigs should be vaccinated during the suckling period. Previously, we demonstrated that F4acR(+), but not F4acR(-) piglets could be orally immunized with purified F4 fimbriae resulting in a protective immunity against F4(+) ETEC infections, indicating that this immune response was F4R dependent. Recently, aminopeptidase N has been identified as a glycoprotein receptor important for this oral immune response. However, in some oral immunization experiments, a few F4acR(+) piglets did not show an antibody response upon oral immunization, suggesting additional receptors. Therefore, the binding profile of F4 to brush border membrane (glyco)proteins was determined for pigs differing in F4-specific antibody response upon oral immunization, in in vitro adhesion of F4(+)E. coli to small intestinal villi, and in Muc4 genotype. Six groups of pigs could be identified. Only two groups positive in all three assays showed two high molecular weight (MW) glycoprotein bands (>250kDa) suggesting that these high MW bands are linked to the MUC4 susceptible genotype. The fact that these bands were absent in the MUC4 resistant group which showed a positive immune response against F4 and was positive in the adhesion test confirm that at least one or perhaps more other F4Rs exist. Interestingly, two pigs that were positive in the villous adhesion assay did not show an immune response against F4 fimbriae. This suggests that a third receptor category might exist which allows the bacteria to adhere but does not allow effective immunization with soluble F4 fimbriae. Future research will be necessary to confirm or reveal the identity of these receptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B

  18. Azeotrope in LiF-HfF4 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokin, I.D.; Korenev, Yu.M.; Sidorov, L.N.

    1975-01-01

    The gaseous phase of the system LiF-HfF 4 is investigated by means of isothermal evaporation. Using experimental data, p-X diagrams are constructed for 1125, 1075, 1025, 975 and 925 K. It is shown that the azeotrope with minimum total pressure observed at 1125 K degenerates upon lowering of the temperature and entry into the heterogeneous region. At 975 K the azeotrope corresponds to the point of inflexion from the horizontal tangent on the total pressure curve. At lower temperatures azeotropic distillation is absent from the system. (author)

  19. F4-related mutation and expression analysis of the aminopeptidase N gene in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetstouwers, T; Van Poucke, M; Nguyen, V U; Melkebeek, V; Coddens, A; Deforce, D; Cox, E; Peelman, L J

    2014-05-01

    Intestinal infections with F4 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are worldwide an important cause of diarrhea in neonatal and recently weaned pigs. Adherence of F4 ETEC to the small intestine by binding to specific receptors is mediated by F4 fimbriae. Porcine aminopeptidase N (ANPEP) was recently identified as a new F4 receptor. In this study, 7 coding mutations and 1 mutation in the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR)were identified in ANPEP by reverse transcriptase (RT-) PCR and sequencing using 3 F4 receptor-positive (F4R+) and 2 F4 receptor-negative (F4R-) pigs, which were F4 phenotyped based on the MUC4 TaqMan, oral immunization, and the in vitro villous adhesion assay. Three potential differential mutations (g.2615C > T, g.8214A > G, and g.16875C > G) identified by comparative analysis between the 3 F4R+ and 2 F4R- pigs were genotyped in 41 additional F4 phenotyped pigs. However, none of these 3 mutations could be associated with F4 ETEC susceptibility. In addition, the RT-PCR experiments did not reveal any differential expression or alternative splicing in the small intestine of F4R+ and F4R- pigs. In conclusion, we hypothesize that the difference in F4 binding to ANPEP is due to modifications in its carbohydrate moieties.

  20. Halls Lake 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Salt marsh habitats along the shoreline of Halls Lake are threatened by wave erosion, but the reconstruction of barrier islands to reduce this erosion will modify or...

  1. High susceptibility prevalence for F4+ and F18+Escherichia coli in Flemish pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ut V; Coddens, Annelies; Melkebeek, Vesna; Devriendt, Bert; Goetstouwers, Tiphanie; Poucke, Mario Van; Peelman, Luc; Cox, Eric

    2017-04-01

    F4 and/or F18 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (F4 + /F18 + ETEC) are responsible for diarrhea while F18 + verotoxigenic E. coli (F18 + VTEC) cause edema disease in pigs. Both infections can result in severe economic losses, which are mainly the result of the medication, growth retardation and mortality. The susceptibility of piglets to these pathogens is determined by the presence of F4 and F18 receptors (F4R and F18R). Understanding the composition of the susceptibility phenotypes of pigs is useful for animal health and breeding management. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of the F4 ETEC susceptibility phenotypes and F18 + E. coli susceptibility among Flemish pig breeds by using the in vitro villous adhesion assay. In this study, seven F4 ETEC susceptibility phenotypes were found, namely A (F4 ab R + , ac R + , ad R + ; 59.16%), B (F4 ab R + , ac R + , ad R - ; 6.28%), C (F4 ab R + , ac R - , ad R + ; 2.62%), D (F4 ab R - , ac R - , ad R + ; 6.28%), E (F4 ab R - , ac R - , ad R - ; 24.08%), F (F4 ab R + , ac R - , ad R - ; 1.05%) and G (F4 ab R - , ac R + , ad R - ; 0.52%). F4ab and F4ac E. coli showed a stronger degree of adhesion to the intestinal villi (53.40% and 52.88% strong adhesion, respectively), compared to F4ad E. coli (43.46% strong adhesion). Furthermore, the correlation between F4ac and F4ab adhesion was higher (r=0.78) than between F4ac and F4ad adhesion (r=0.41) and between F4ab and F4ad adhesion (r=0.57). For F18 + E. coli susceptibility, seven out of 82 pigs were F18R negative (8.54%), but only two of these seven pigs (2.44%) were also negative for F4R. As such, the chance to identify a pig that is positive for a F4 ETEC variant or F18 + E. coli is 97.56%. Therefore, significant economic losses will arise due to F4 + and/or F18 + E. coli infections in the Flemish pig population due to the high susceptibility prevalence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The quantum hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Arabi, N. M.

    1993-01-01

    Transport phenomena in two dimensional semiconductors have revealed unusual properties. In this thesis these systems are considered and discussed. The theories explain the Integral Quantum Hall Effect (IQHE) and the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect (FQHE). The thesis is composed of five chapters. The first and the second chapters lay down the theory of the IQHE, the third and fourth consider the theory of the FQHE. Chapter five deals with the statistics of particles in two dimension. (author). Refs

  3. Hall viscosity of hierarchical quantum Hall states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremling, M.; Hansson, T. H.; Suorsa, J.

    2014-03-01

    Using methods based on conformal field theory, we construct model wave functions on a torus with arbitrary flat metric for all chiral states in the abelian quantum Hall hierarchy. These functions have no variational parameters, and they transform under the modular group in the same way as the multicomponent generalizations of the Laughlin wave functions. Assuming the absence of Berry phases upon adiabatic variations of the modular parameter τ, we calculate the quantum Hall viscosity and find it to be in agreement with the formula, given by Read, which relates the viscosity to the average orbital spin of the electrons. For the filling factor ν =2/5 Jain state, which is at the second level in the hierarchy, we compare our model wave function with the numerically obtained ground state of the Coulomb interaction Hamiltonian in the lowest Landau level, and find very good agreement in a large region of the complex τ plane. For the same example, we also numerically compute the Hall viscosity and find good agreement with the analytical result for both the model wave function and the numerically obtained Coulomb wave function. We argue that this supports the notion of a generalized plasma analogy that would ensure that wave functions obtained using the conformal field theory methods do not acquire Berry phases upon adiabatic evolution.

  4. Modelling of arc behaviour inside a F4 APS torch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, K; Marques, J-L; Vassen, R; Stoever, D

    2006-01-01

    The plasma arc inside the F4 torch used for atmospheric plasma spraying is characterized by means of analytical and numerical methods. A simplified analytical model is formulated to understand the physical behaviour of the plasma arc. A three-dimensional numerical model is developed to simulate the realistic plasma arc flow inside the torch. At a given torch power and gas flow rate, possible combinations of the arc core radius and arc length are predicted. The thermodynamic principle of minimum entropy production is used to determine the combination of arc core radius and arc length, which corresponds to the actual physical situation of the arc inside the torch. The effect of arc current and gas flow rate on the plasma arc characteristics is clarified. The effect of hydrogen content in the plasma gas on its velocity and temperature profiles at the nozzle exit is shown. Predicted torch efficiencies are comparable to measured ones. The results of the numerical model are similar to that an analytical model. Previously published experimental and numerical results support part of the present results

  5. Receptor for the F4 fimbriae of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Pengpeng; Zou, Yajie; Wang, Yiting; Song, Yujie; Liu, Wei; Francis, David H; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2015-06-01

    Infection with F4(+) enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) responsible for diarrhea in neonatal and post-weaned piglets leads to great economic losses in the swine industry. These pathogenic bacteria express either of three fimbrial variants F4ab, F4ac, and F4ad, which have long been known for their importance in host infection and initiating protective immune responses. The initial step in infection for the bacterium is to adhere to host enterocytes through fimbriae-mediated recognition of receptors on the host cell surface. A number of receptors for ETEC F4 have now been described and characterized, but their functions are still poorly understood. The current review summarizes the latest research addressing the characteristics of F4 fimbriae receptors and the interactions of F4 fimbriae and their receptors on host cells. These include observations that as follows: (1) FaeG mediates the binding activities of F4 and is an essential component of the F4 fimbriae, (2) the F4 fimbrial receptor gene is located in a region of chromosome 13, (3) the biochemical properties of F4 fimbrial receptors that form the binding site of the bacterium are now recognized, and (4) specific receptors confer susceptibility/resistance to ETEC F4 infection in pigs. Characterizing the host-pathogen interaction will be crucial to understand the pathogenicity of the bacteria, provide insights into receptor activation of the innate immune system, and develop therapeutic strategies to prevent this illness.

  6. 26 CFR 1.860F-4 - REMIC reporting requirements and other administrative rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false REMIC reporting requirements and other administrative rules. 1.860F-4 Section 1.860F-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.860F-4 REMIC...

  7. 28 CFR 55.5 - Coverage under section 4(f)(4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Nature of Coverage § 55.5 Coverage under section 4(f)(4). (a) Coverage formula. Section 4(f)(4) applies to any State or political subdivision in...) Coverage may be determined with regard to section 4(f)(4) on a statewide or political subdivision basis. (1...

  8. The quantized Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klitzing von, K.

    1989-01-01

    The quantized Hall effect is theoretically explained in detail as are its basic properties. The explanation is completed with the pertinent mathematical relations and illustrative figures. Experimental data are critically assessed obtained by quantum transport measurement in a magnetic field on two-dimensional systems. The results are reported for a MOSFET silicon transistor and for GaAs-Al x Ga 1-x As heterostructures. The application is discussed of the quantized Hall effect in determining the fine structure constant or in implementing the resistance standard. (M.D.). 27 figs., 57 refs

  9. Intrinsic superspin Hall current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Jacob; Amundsen, Morten; Risinggârd, Vetle

    2017-09-01

    We discover an intrinsic superspin Hall current: an injected charge supercurrent in a Josephson junction containing heavy normal metals and a ferromagnet generates a transverse spin supercurrent. There is no accompanying dissipation of energy, in contrast to the conventional spin Hall effect. The physical origin of the effect is an antisymmetric spin density induced among transverse modes ky near the interface of the superconductor arising due to the coexistence of p -wave and conventional s -wave superconducting correlations with a belonging phase mismatch. Our predictions can be tested in hybrid structures including thin heavy metal layers combined with strong ferromagnets and ordinary s -wave superconductors.

  10. Polarized 3-folds in a codimension 10 weighted homogeneous F4 variety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Muhammad Imran

    2017-10-01

    We describe the construction of a codimension 10 weighted homogeneous variety wΣF4(μ , u) corresponding to the exceptional Lie group F4 by explicit computation of its graded ring structure. We give a formula for the Hilbert series of the generic weighted wΣF4(μ , u) in terms of representation theoretic data of F4. We also construct some families of polarized 3-folds in codimension 10 whose general member is a weighted complete intersection of some wΣF4(μ , u) .

  11. Increased electronic coupling in silicon nanocrystal networks doped with F4-TCNQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Alexandra; Oberg, Sven; Rayson, Mark J; Briddon, Patrick R

    2013-02-01

    The modification of the electronic structure of silicon nanocrystals using an organic dopant, 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ), is investigated using first-principles calculations. It is shown that physisorbed F4-TCNQ molecules have the effect of oxidizing the nanocrystal, attracting the charge density towards the F4-TCNQ-nanocrystal interface, and decreasing the excitation energy of the system. In periodic F4-TCNQ/nanocrystal superlattices, F4-TCNQ is suggested to enhance exciton separation, and in the presence of free holes, to serve as a bridge for electron/hole transfer between adjacent nanocrystals.

  12. Hall effect in hopping regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avdonin, A.; Skupiński, P.; Grasza, K.

    2016-01-01

    A simple description of the Hall effect in the hopping regime of conductivity in semiconductors is presented. Expressions for the Hall coefficient and Hall mobility are derived by considering averaged equilibrium electron transport in a single triangle of localization sites in a magnetic field. Dependence of the Hall coefficient is analyzed in a wide range of temperature and magnetic field values. Our theoretical result is applied to our experimental data on temperature dependence of Hall effect and Hall mobility in ZnO. - Highlights: • Expressions for Hall coefficient and mobility for hopping conductivity are derived. • Theoretical result is compared with experimental curves measured on ZnO. • Simultaneous action of free and hopping conduction channels is considered. • Non-linearity of hopping Hall coefficient is predicted.

  13. Hall effect in hopping regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avdonin, A., E-mail: avdonin@ifpan.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Skupiński, P. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Grasza, K. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, ul. Wólczyńska 133, 01-919 Warszawa (Poland)

    2016-02-15

    A simple description of the Hall effect in the hopping regime of conductivity in semiconductors is presented. Expressions for the Hall coefficient and Hall mobility are derived by considering averaged equilibrium electron transport in a single triangle of localization sites in a magnetic field. Dependence of the Hall coefficient is analyzed in a wide range of temperature and magnetic field values. Our theoretical result is applied to our experimental data on temperature dependence of Hall effect and Hall mobility in ZnO. - Highlights: • Expressions for Hall coefficient and mobility for hopping conductivity are derived. • Theoretical result is compared with experimental curves measured on ZnO. • Simultaneous action of free and hopping conduction channels is considered. • Non-linearity of hopping Hall coefficient is predicted.

  14. Binding determinants in the interplay between porcine aminopeptidase N and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4 fimbriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Pengpeng; Quan, Guomei; Yang, Yi; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Yiting; Zhou, Mingxu; Hardwidge, Philip R; Zhu, Jianzhong; Liu, Siguo; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2018-02-26

    The binding of F4 + enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and the specific receptor on porcine intestinal epithelial cells is the initial step in F4 + ETEC infection. Porcine aminopeptidase N (APN) is a newly discovered receptor for F4 fimbriae that binds directly to FaeG adhesin, which is the major subunit of the F4 fimbriae variants F4ab, F4ac, and F4ad. We used overlapping peptide assays to map the APN-FaeG binding sites, which has facilitated in the identifying the APN-binding amino acids that are located in the same region of FaeG variants, thereby limiting the major binding regions of APN to 13 peptides. To determine the core sequence motif, a panel of FaeG peptides with point mutations and FaeG mutants were constructed. Pull-down and binding reactivity assays using piglet intestines determined that the amino acids G159 of F4ab, N209 and L212 of F4ac, and A200 of F4ad were the critical residues for APN binding of FaeG. We further show using ELISA and confocal microscopy assay that amino acids 553-568, and 652-670 of the APN comprise the linear epitope for FaeG binding in all three F4 fimbriae variants.

  15. Porcine aminopeptidase N binds to F4+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli fimbriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Pengpeng; Wang, Yiting; Zhu, Congrui; Zou, Yajie; Yang, Ying; Liu, Wei; Hardwidge, Philip R; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2016-02-09

    F4(+) enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains cause diarrheal disease in neonatal and post-weaned piglets. Several different host receptors for F4 fimbriae have been described, with porcine aminopeptidase N (APN) reported most recently. The FaeG subunit is essential for the binding of the three F4 variants to host cells. Here we show in both yeast two-hybrid and pulldown assays that APN binds directly to FaeG, the major subunit of F4 fimbriae, from three serotypes of F4(+) ETEC. Modulating APN gene expression in IPEC-J2 cells affected ETEC adherence. Antibodies raised against APN or F4 fimbriae both reduced ETEC adherence. Thus, APN mediates the attachment of F4(+) E. coli to intestinal epithelial cells.

  16. Erythrocyte and porcine intestinal glycosphingolipids recognized by F4 fimbriae of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coddens, Annelies; Valis, Erik; Benktander, John; Ångström, Jonas; Breimer, Michael E; Cox, Eric; Teneberg, Susann

    2011-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic F4-fimbriated Escherichia coli is associated with diarrheal disease in neonatal and postweaning pigs. The F4 fimbriae mediate attachment of the bacteria to the pig intestinal epithelium, enabling an efficient delivery of diarrhea-inducing enterotoxins to the target epithelial cells. There are three variants of F4 fimbriae designated F4ab, F4ac and F4ad, respectively, having different antigenic and adhesive properties. In the present study, the binding of isolated F4ab, F4ac and F4ad fimbriae, and F4ab/ac/ad-fimbriated E. coli, to glycosphingolipids from erythrocytes and from porcine small intestinal epithelium was examined, in order to get a comprehensive view of the F4-binding glycosphingolipids involved in F4-mediated hemagglutination and adhesion to the epithelial cells of porcine intestine. Specific interactions between the F4ab, F4ac and F4ad fimbriae and both acid and non-acid glycosphingolipids were obtained, and after isolation of binding-active glycosphingolipids and characterization by mass spectrometry and proton NMR, distinct carbohydrate binding patterns were defined for each fimbrial subtype. Two novel glycosphingolipids were isolated from chicken erythrocytes, and characterized as GalNAcα3GalNAcß3Galß4Glcß1Cer and GalNAcα3GalNAcß3Galß4GlcNAcß3Galß4Glcß1Cer. These two compounds, and lactosylceramide (Galß4Glcß1Cer) with phytosphingosine and hydroxy fatty acid, were recognized by all three variants of F4 fimbriae. No binding of the F4ad fimbriae or F4ad-fimbriated E. coli to the porcine intestinal glycosphingolipids occurred. However, for F4ab and F4ac two distinct binding patterns were observed. The F4ac fimbriae and the F4ac-expressing E. coli selectively bound to galactosylceramide (Galß1Cer) with sphingosine and hydroxy 24:0 fatty acid, while the porcine intestinal glycosphingolipids recognized by F4ab fimbriae and the F4ab-fimbriated bacteria were characterized as galactosylceramide, sulfatide (SO(3)-3Galß1Cer), sulf

  17. The Monty Hall Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granberg, Donald; Brown, Thad A.

    1995-01-01

    Examines people's behavior in the Monty Hall Dilemma (MHD), in which a person must make two decisions to win a prize. In a series of five studies, found that people misapprehend probabilities in the MHD. Discusses the MHD's relation to illusion of control, belief perseverance, and the status quo bias. (RJM)

  18. The Isolde experimental hall

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    General view of the Isotope-Separator On-Line (ISOLDE) hall. ISOLDE is dedicated to the production of a large variety of radioactive ion beams for many different experiments. Rare isotopes can be produced allowing the study of spectra for neutrino beam production.

  19. Anomalous Hall effect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nagaosa, N.; Sinova, Jairo; Onoda, S.; MacDonald, A. H.; Ong, N. P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 2 (2010), s. 1539-1592 ISSN 0034-6861 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : anomalous Hall effect * spintronics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 51.695, year: 2010

  20. Laurance David Hall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxon, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    An account is given of the life, scientific contributions, and passing of Laurance David Hall (1938-2009), including his early history and education at the University of Bristol, UK, and the synthesis and NMR spectroscopy of carbohydrates and other natural products during ∼20 years of research and teaching at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada. Lists of graduate students, post-doctoral fellows, and sabbatical visitors are provided for this period. Following a generous endowment by Dr. Herchel Smith, Professor Hall built a new Department of Medicinal Chemistry at Cambridge University, UK, and greatly expanded his researches into the technology and applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and zero quantum NMR. MRI technology was applied both to medical problems such as the characterization of cartilage degeneration in knee joints, the measurement of ventricular function, lipid localization in animal models of atherosclerosis, paramagnetic metal complexes of polysaccharides as contrast agents, and studies of many other anatomical features, but also to several aspects of materials analysis, including food analyses, process control, and the elucidation of such physical phenomena as the flow of liquids through porous media, defects in concrete, and the visualization of fungal damage to wood. Professor Hall's many publications, patents, lectures, and honors and awards are described, and also his successful effort to keep the Asilomar facility in Pacific Grove, California as the alternating venue for the annual Experimental NMR Conference. Two memorial services for Professor Hall are remembered. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. F4+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) adhesion mediated by the major fimbrial subunit FaeG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Pengpeng; Song, Yujie; Zou, Yajie; Yang, Ying; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2015-09-01

    The FaeG subunit is the major constituent of F4(+) fimbriae, associated with glycoprotein and/or glycolipid receptor recognition and majorly contributes to the pathogen attachment to the host cells. To investigate the key factor involved in the fimbrial binding of F4(+) Escherichia coli, both the recombinant E. coli SE5000 strains carrying the fae operon gene clusters that express the different types of fimbriae in vitro, named as rF4ab, rF4ac, and rF4ad, respectively, corresponding to the fimbrial types F4ab, F4ac, and F4ad, and the three isogenic in-frame faeG gene deletion mutants were constructed. The adhesion assays and adhesion inhibition assays showed that ΔfaeG mutants had a significant reduction in the binding to porcine brush border as well as the intestinal epithelial cell lines, while the complemented strain ΔfaeG/pfaeG restored the adhesion function. The recombinant bacterial strains rF4ab, rF4ac, and rF4ad have the same binding property as wild-type F4(+) E. coli strains do and improvement in terms of binding to porcine brush border and the intestinal epithelial cells, and the adherence was blocked by the monoclonal antibody anti-F4 fimbriae. These data demonstrate that the fimbrial binding of F4(+) E. coli is directly mediated by the major FaeG subunit. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Development and Efficacy Assessment of an Enteric Coated Porous Tablet Loaded With F4 Fimbriae for Oral Vaccination of Piglets against F4+ Escherichia coli Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Atul; Gowda, D V; Madhunapantula, SubbaRao V; Siddaramaiah

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection is one of the major causes contributing to the development of diarrhoea and mortality in new born, suckling and newly weaned piglets. To date, no preventive/treatment strategy showed promising results, which could be due to the lack of potent vaccines, and/or due to the development of resistance of ETEC to antibiotics. Therefore, in the present investigation, a novel porous sodium alginate (SA) tablet formulation loaded with F4 fimbriae antigen was developed and tested for efficacy against ETEC infections in piglet models. Precompression parameters of the powder mixes and post compression parameters of tablets have been evaluated and results were found to be satisfactory. Loading of F4 fimbrial antigens into the tablets was achieved by inducing pores in the tablets via the sublimation of camphor followed by incubation with purified F4 fimbriae. The loaded tablets have been coated with Eudragit L100 to protect the F4 fimbriae from (a) highly acidic gastric environment; (b) proteolytic cleavage by pepsin; and (c) to promote subsequent release in the intestine. Evaluation of developed F4 fimbrial tablets in a Pig model demonstrated induction of mucosal immunity, and a significant reduction of F4+ E. coli in faeces. Therefore, F4 fimbriae loaded porous tablets could be a novel oral vaccination candidate to induce mucosal and systemic immunity against ETEC infections.

  3. Both flagella and F4 fimbriae from F4ac+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli contribute to attachment to IPEC-J2 cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mingxu; Duan, Qiangde; Zhu, Xiaofang; Guo, Zhiyan; Li, Yinchau; Hardwidge, Philip R; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2013-05-13

    The role of flagella in the pathogenesis of F4ac+ Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) mediated neonatal and post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) is not currently understood. We targeted the reference C83902 ETEC strain (O8:H19:F4ac+ LT+ STa+ STb+), to construct isogenic mutants in the fliC (encoding the major flagellin protein), motA (encoding the flagella motor), and faeG (encoding the major subunit of F4 fimbriae) genes. Both the ΔfliC and ΔfaeG mutants had a reduced ability to adhere to porcine intestinal epithelial IPEC-J2 cells. F4 fimbriae expression was significantly down-regulated after deleting fliC, which revealed that co-regulation exists between flagella and F4 fimbriae. However, there was no difference in adhesion between the ΔmotA mutant and its parent strain. These data demonstrate that both flagella and F4 fimbriae are required for efficient F4ac+ ETEC adhesion in vitro.

  4. Magnetic upconverting fluorescent NaGdF4:Ln3+ and iron-oxide@NaGdF4:Ln3+ nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Navadeep; Rocha, Uéslen; Muraca, Diego; Jacinto, Carlos; Moreno, Sergio; Vargas, J. M.; Sharma, S. K.

    2018-05-01

    Microwave assisted solvothermal method has been employed to synthesize multifunctional upconverting β-NaGdF4:Ln3+ and magnetic-upconverting Fe3O4/γ-Fe2O3@NaGdF4:Ln3+ (Ln = Yb and Er) nanoparticles. The powder x-ray diffraction data confirms the hexagonal structure of NaGdF4:Ln3+ and high resolution transmission electron microscopy shows the formation of rod shaped NaGdF4:Ln3+ (˜ 20 nm) and ovoid shaped Fe3O4/γ-Fe2O3@NaGdF4:Ln3+ (˜ 15 nm) nanoparticles. The magnetic hysteresis at 300 K for β-NaGdF4:Ln3+ demonstrates paramagnetic features, whereas iron-oxide@β-NaGdF4:Ln3+ exhibits superparamagnetic behavior along with a linear component at large applied field due to paramagnetic NaGdF4 matrix. Both nanoparticle samples provide an excellent green emitting [(2H11/2, 4S3/2)→4I15/2 (˜ 540 nm)] upconversion luminescence emission under excitation at 980 nm. The energy migration between Yb and Er in NaGdF4 matrix has been explored from 300-800 nm. Intensity variation of blue, green and red lines and the observed luminescence quenching due to the presence of Fe3O4/γ-Fe2O3 in the composite has been proposed. These kinds of materials contain magnetic and luminescence characteristics into single nanoparticle open new possibility for bioimaging applications.

  5. Spin Hall effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinova, Jairo; Valenzuela, Sergio O.; Wunderlich, J.; Back, C. H.; Jungwirth, T.

    2015-10-01

    Spin Hall effects are a collection of relativistic spin-orbit coupling phenomena in which electrical currents can generate transverse spin currents and vice versa. Despite being observed only a decade ago, these effects are already ubiquitous within spintronics, as standard spin-current generators and detectors. Here the theoretical and experimental results that have established this subfield of spintronics are reviewed. The focus is on the results that have converged to give us the current understanding of the phenomena, which has evolved from a qualitative to a more quantitative measurement of spin currents and their associated spin accumulation. Within the experimental framework, optical-, transport-, and magnetization-dynamics-based measurements are reviewed and linked to both phenomenological and microscopic theories of the effect. Within the theoretical framework, the basic mechanisms in both the extrinsic and intrinsic regimes are reviewed, which are linked to the mechanisms present in their closely related phenomenon in ferromagnets, the anomalous Hall effect. Also reviewed is the connection to the phenomenological treatment based on spin-diffusion equations applicable to certain regimes, as well as the spin-pumping theory of spin generation used in many measurements of the spin Hall angle. A further connection to the spin-current-generating spin Hall effect to the inverse spin galvanic effect is given, in which an electrical current induces a nonequilibrium spin polarization. This effect often accompanies the spin Hall effect since they share common microscopic origins. Both can exhibit the same symmetries when present in structures comprising ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic layers through their induced current-driven spin torques or induced voltages. Although a short chronological overview of the evolution of the spin Hall effect field and the resolution of some early controversies is given, the main body of this review is structured from a pedagogical

  6. Paired Hall states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiter, M.

    1992-01-01

    This dissertation contains a collection of individual articles on various topics. Their significance in the corresponding field as well as connections between them are emphasized in a general and comprehensive introduction. In the first article, the author explores the consequences for macroscopic effective Lagrangians of assuming that the momentum density is proportional to the flow of conserved current. The universal corrections obtained for the macroscopic Lagrangian of a superconductor describe the London Hall effect, and provide a fully consistent derivation of it. In the second article, a heuristic principle is proposed for quantized Hall states: the existence and incompressibility of fractionally quantized Hall states is explained by an argument based on an adiabatic localization of magnetic flux, the process of trading uniform flux for an equal amount of fictitious flux attached to the particles. This principle is exactly implemented in the third article. For a certain class of model Hamiltonians, the author obtains Laughlin's Jastrow type wave functions explicitly from a filled Landau level, by smooth extrapolation in quantum statistics. The generalization of this analysis to the torus geometry shows that theorems restricting the possibilities of quantum statistics on closed surfaces are circumvented in the presence of a magnetic field. In the last article, the existence is proposed of a novel incompressible quantum liquid, a paired Hall state, at a half filled Landau level. This state arises adiabatically from free fermions in zero magnetic field, and reduces to a state previously proposed by Halperin in the limit of tightly bound pairs. It supports unusual excitations, including neutral fermions and charge e/4 anyons with statistical parameter θ = π/8

  7. Guild Hall retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-08-01

    This report demonstrates the economic viability of an exterior rewrap retrofit performed on a public community facility for the performing arts. This facility originally consisted of two mess halls built by the American army. The exterior retrofit consisted of constructing a super-insulated passageway to link the two halls as well as completely wrapping the facility with six millimetre polyethylene to provide an airtight barrier. The roofs and walls were reinsulated and insulation levels were increased to RSI 10.5 in the ceilings and RSI 7.7 in the walls. The installation of a propane fuelled furnace was also included in the retrofit package. Prior to the renovations and retrofitting, the Guild Hall facility was almost unusable. The demonstration project transformed the cold, drafty buildings into an attractive, comfortable and functional centre for the performing arts. Heating requirements have been reduced to 500 MJ/m {sup 2} of floor space annually compared to a predicted 1,760 MJ/m{sup 2} of floor space based on HOTCAN analysis of the heating requirements without the energy conservation measures. 9 figs., 10 tabs.

  8. Quantum critical Hall exponents

    CERN Document Server

    Lütken, C A

    2014-01-01

    We investigate a finite size "double scaling" hypothesis using data from an experiment on a quantum Hall system with short range disorder [1-3]. For Hall bars of width w at temperature T the scaling form is w(-mu)T(-kappa), where the critical exponent mu approximate to 0.23 we extract from the data is comparable to the multi-fractal exponent alpha(0) - 2 obtained from the Chalker-Coddington (CC) model [4]. We also use the data to find the approximate location (in the resistivity plane) of seven quantum critical points, all of which closely agree with the predictions derived long ago from the modular symmetry of a toroidal sigma-model with m matter fields [5]. The value nu(8) = 2.60513 ... of the localisation exponent obtained from the m = 8 model is in excellent agreement with the best available numerical value nu(num) = 2.607 +/- 0.004 derived from the CC-model [6]. Existing experimental data appear to favour the m = 9 model, suggesting that the quantum Hall system is not in the same universality class as th...

  9. Identifying and sequencing a Mycobacterium sp. strain F4 as a potential bioremediation agent for quinclorac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingying; Chen, Wu; Wang, Yunsheng; Luo, Kun; Li, Yue; Bai, Lianyang; Luo, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Quinclorac is a widely used herbicide in rice filed. Unfortunately, quinclorac residues are phytotoxic to many crops/vegetables. The degradation of quinclorac in nature is very slow. On the other hand, degradation of quinclorac using bacteria can be an effective and efficient method to reduce its contamination. In this study, we isolated a quinclorac bioremediation bacterium strain F4 from quinclorac contaminated soils. Based on morphological characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, we identified strain F4 as Mycobacterium sp. We investigated the effects of temperature, pH, inoculation size and initial quinclorac concentration on growth and degrading efficiency of F4 and determined the optimal quinclorac degrading condition of F4. Under optimal degrading conditions, F4 degraded 97.38% of quinclorac from an initial concentration of 50 mg/L in seven days. Our indoor pot experiment demonstrated that the degradation products were non-phytotoxic to tobacco. After analyzing the quinclorac degradation products of F4, we proposed that F4 could employ two pathways to degrade quinclorac: one is through methylation, the other is through dechlorination. Furthermore, we reconstructed the whole genome of F4 through single molecular sequencing and de novo assembly. We identified 77 methyltransferases and eight dehalogenases in the F4 genome to support our hypothesized degradation path.

  10. Enterocin F4-9, a Novel O-Linked Glycosylated Bacteriocin

    OpenAIRE

    Maky, Mohamed Abdelfattah; Ishibashi, Naoki; Zendo, Takeshi; Perez, Rodney Honrada; Doud, Jehan Ragab; Karmi, Mohamed; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis F4-9 isolated from Egyptian salted-fermented fish produces a novel bacteriocin, termed enterocin F4-9. Enterocin F4-9 was purified from the culture supernatant by three steps, and its molecular mass was determined to be 5,516.6 Da by mass spectrometry. Amino acid and DNA sequencing showed that the propeptide consists of 67 amino acid residues, with a leader peptide containing a double glycine cleavage site to produce a 47-amino-acid mature peptide. Enterocin F4-9 is modi...

  11. Identifying and sequencing a Mycobacterium sp. strain F4 as a potential bioremediation agent for quinclorac.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Li

    Full Text Available Quinclorac is a widely used herbicide in rice filed. Unfortunately, quinclorac residues are phytotoxic to many crops/vegetables. The degradation of quinclorac in nature is very slow. On the other hand, degradation of quinclorac using bacteria can be an effective and efficient method to reduce its contamination. In this study, we isolated a quinclorac bioremediation bacterium strain F4 from quinclorac contaminated soils. Based on morphological characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, we identified strain F4 as Mycobacterium sp. We investigated the effects of temperature, pH, inoculation size and initial quinclorac concentration on growth and degrading efficiency of F4 and determined the optimal quinclorac degrading condition of F4. Under optimal degrading conditions, F4 degraded 97.38% of quinclorac from an initial concentration of 50 mg/L in seven days. Our indoor pot experiment demonstrated that the degradation products were non-phytotoxic to tobacco. After analyzing the quinclorac degradation products of F4, we proposed that F4 could employ two pathways to degrade quinclorac: one is through methylation, the other is through dechlorination. Furthermore, we reconstructed the whole genome of F4 through single molecular sequencing and de novo assembly. We identified 77 methyltransferases and eight dehalogenases in the F4 genome to support our hypothesized degradation path.

  12. Ion-molecular equilibria and activity determination in the RbF-ZrF4 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skokan, E.V.; Nikitin, M.I.; Sorokin, I.D.; Korenev, Yu.M.; Sidorov, L.N.

    1983-01-01

    Activity of zirconium tetrofluoride in 100-33.3 mol % ZrF 4 concentration range was determined during isothermal evaporation of samples of different initial composition of RbF-ZrF 4 system, using ion-molecular equilibrium method. It became possible, using the exchange ion-molecular reactions to determine ZrF 4 activity approximately 10 -10 in the region of state diagram of RbF-ZrF 4 system, adjoining to rubidium fluoride. The comparative analysis of results, obtained by the methods of isothermal evaporation, ion-molecular equilibria is given; the advantages and restrictions of ion-molecular equilibrium method are presented

  13. Topological Hall and Spin Hall Effects in Disordered Skyrmionic Textures

    OpenAIRE

    N'diaye, P. B.; Akosa, C. A.; Manchon, A.

    2016-01-01

    We carry out a throughout study of the topological Hall and topological spin Hall effects in disordered skyrmionic systems: the dimensionless (spin) Hall angles are evaluated across the energy band structure in the multiprobe Landauer-B\\"uttiker formalism and their link to the effective magnetic field emerging from the real space topology of the spin texture is highlighted. We discuss these results for an optimal skyrmion size and for various sizes of the sample and found that the adiabatic a...

  14. Quantum hall effect. A perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Hideo

    2006-01-01

    Novel concepts and phenomena are emerging recently in the physics of quantum Hall effect. This article gives an overview, which starts from the fractional quantum Hall system viewed as an extremely strongly correlated system, and move on to present various phenomena involving internal degrees of freedom (spin and layer), non-equilibrium and optical properties, and finally the spinoff to anomalous Hall effect and the rotating Bose-Einstein condensate. (author)

  15. Dipolar and Non-Dipolar Interactions in LiTbF4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, L. M.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Guggenheim, H. J.

    1975-01-01

    The magnetic interactions in LiTbF4 have been studied in measurements of the quasielastic scattering of neutrons from the paramagnetic crystal. Scattering data have been collected at a temperature T=18.6 K, which is 6.5 times the Curie temperature of LiTbF4, and have been least-squares fitted...

  16. Enterocin F4-9, a Novel O-Linked Glycosylated Bacteriocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maky, Mohamed Abdelfattah; Ishibashi, Naoki; Zendo, Takeshi; Perez, Rodney Honrada; Doud, Jehan Ragab; Karmi, Mohamed; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2015-07-01

    Enterococcus faecalis F4-9 isolated from Egyptian salted-fermented fish produces a novel bacteriocin, termed enterocin F4-9. Enterocin F4-9 was purified from the culture supernatant by three steps, and its molecular mass was determined to be 5,516.6 Da by mass spectrometry. Amino acid and DNA sequencing showed that the propeptide consists of 67 amino acid residues, with a leader peptide containing a double glycine cleavage site to produce a 47-amino-acid mature peptide. Enterocin F4-9 is modified by two molecules of N-acetylglucosamine β-O-linked to Ser37 and Thr46. The O-linked N-acetylglucosamine moieties are essential for the antimicrobial activity of enterocin F4-9. Further analysis of the enterocin F4-9 gene cluster identified enfC, which has high sequence similarity to a glycosyltransferase. The antimicrobial activity of enterocin F4-9 covered a limited range of bacteria, including, interestingly, a Gram-negative strain, Escherichia coli JM109. Enterocin F4-9 is sensitive to protease, active at a wide pH range, and moderately resistant to heat. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. 7 CFR 15f.4 - What do certain words and phrases in these regulations mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What do certain words and phrases in these regulations mean? 15f.4 Section 15f.4 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADJUDICATIONS UNDER....4 What do certain words and phrases in these regulations mean? Agency means the USDA agency, office...

  18. Magnesium Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, James J.

    2015-01-01

    This Phase II project is developing a magnesium (Mg) Hall effect thruster system that would open the door for in situ resource utilization (ISRU)-based solar system exploration. Magnesium is light and easy to ionize. For a Mars- Earth transfer, the propellant mass savings with respect to a xenon Hall effect thruster (HET) system are enormous. Magnesium also can be combusted in a rocket with carbon dioxide (CO2) or water (H2O), enabling a multimode propulsion system with propellant sharing and ISRU. In the near term, CO2 and H2O would be collected in situ on Mars or the moon. In the far term, Mg itself would be collected from Martian and lunar regolith. In Phase I, an integrated, medium-power (1- to 3-kW) Mg HET system was developed and tested. Controlled, steady operation at constant voltage and power was demonstrated. Preliminary measurements indicate a specific impulse (Isp) greater than 4,000 s was achieved at a discharge potential of 400 V. The feasibility of delivering fluidized Mg powder to a medium- or high-power thruster also was demonstrated. Phase II of the project evaluated the performance of an integrated, highpower Mg Hall thruster system in a relevant space environment. Researchers improved the medium power thruster system and characterized it in detail. Researchers also designed and built a high-power (8- to 20-kW) Mg HET. A fluidized powder feed system supporting the high-power thruster was built and delivered to Busek Company, Inc.

  19. Spin Hall effect transistor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wunderlich, Joerg; Park, B.G.; Irvine, A.C.; Zarbo, Liviu; Rozkotová, E.; Němec, P.; Novák, Vít; Sinova, Jairo; Jungwirth, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 330, č. 6012 (2010), s. 1801-1804 ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400100652; GA MŠk LC510 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 215368 - SemiSpinNet Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP0801 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : spin Hall effect * spintronics * spin transistor Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 31.364, year: 2010

  20. Refined candidate region specified by haplotype sharing for Escherichia coli F4ab/F4ac susceptibility alleles in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Mette Juul; Kracht, Steffen Skaarup; Esteso, G.

    2009-01-01

    Infection of the small intestine by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4ab/ac is a major welfare problem and financial burden for the pig industry. Natural resistance to this infection is inherited as a Mendelian recessive trait, and a polymorphism in the MUC4 gene segregating for susceptibility....../resistance is presently used in a selection programme by the Danish pig breeding industry. To elucidate the genetic background involved in E. coli F4ab/ac susceptibility in pigs, a detailed haplotype map of the porcine candidate region was established. This region covers approximately 3.7 Mb. The material used...... for the study is a three generation family, where the founders are two Wild boars and eight Large White sows. All pigs have been phenotyped for susceptibility to F4ab/ac using an adhesion assay. Their haplotypes are known from segregation analysis using flanking markes. By a targeted approach, the candidate...

  1. Maternal immunity enhances systemic recall immune responses upon oral immunization of piglets with F4 fimbriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ut V; Melkebeek, Vesna; Devriendt, Bert; Goetstouwers, Tiphanie; Van Poucke, Mario; Peelman, Luc; Goddeeris, Bruno M; Cox, Eric

    2015-06-23

    F4 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) cause diarrhoea and mortality in piglets leading to severe economic losses. Oral immunization of piglets with F4 fimbriae induces a protective intestinal immune response evidenced by an F4-specific serum and intestinal IgA response. However, successful oral immunization of pigs with F4 fimbriae in the presence of maternal immunity has not been demonstrated yet. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the effect of maternal immunity on the induction of a systemic immune response upon oral immunization of piglets. Whereas F4-specific IgG and IgA could be induced by oral immunization of pigs without maternal antibodies and by intramuscular immunization of pigs with maternal antibodies, no such response was seen in the orally immunized animals with maternal antibodies. Since maternal antibodies can mask an antibody response, we also looked by ELIspot assays for circulating F4-specific antibody secreting cells (ASCs). Enumerating the F4-specific ASCs within the circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the number of F4-specific IgA ASCs within the circulating IgA(+) B-cells revealed an F4-specific immune response in the orally immunized animals with maternal antibodies. Interestingly, results suggest a more robust IgA booster response by oral immunization of pigs with than without maternal antibodies. These results demonstrate that oral immunization of piglets with F4-specific maternal antibodies is feasible and that these maternal antibodies seem to enhance the secondary systemic immune response. Furthermore, our ELIspot assay on enriched IgA(+) B-cells could be used as a screening procedure to optimize mucosal immunization protocols in pigs with maternal immunity.

  2. Quantum Hall Electron Nematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Allan

    In 2D electron systems hosted by crystals with hexagonal symmetry, electron nematic phases with spontaneously broken C3 symmetry are expected to occur in the quantum Hall regime when triplets of Landau levels associated with three different Fermi surface pockets are partially filled. The broken symmetry state is driven by intravalley Coulombic exchange interactions that favor spontaneously polarized valley occupations. I will discuss three different examples of 2D electron systems in which this type of broken symmetry state is expected to occur: i) the SnTe (111) surface, ii) the Bi (111) surface. and iii) unbalanced bilayer graphene. This type of quantum Hall electron nematic state has so far been confirmed only in the Bi (111) case, in which the anisotropic quasiparticle wavefunctions of the broken symmetry state were directly imaged. In the SnTe case the nematic state phase boundary is controlled by a competition between intravalley Coulomb interactions and intervalley scattering processes that increase in relative strength with magnetic field. An in-plane Zeeman field alters the phase diagram by lifting the three-fold Landau level degeneracy, yielding a ground state energy with 2 π/3 periodicity as a function of Zeeman-field orientation angle. I will comment on the possibility of observing similar states in the absence of a magnetic field. Supported by DOE Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering Grant DE-FG03-02ER45958.

  3. The ISOLDE hall

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Since 1992, after its move from the 600 MeV SC, ISOLDE is a customer of the Booster (then 1 GeV, now 1.4 GeV). The intense Booster beam (some 3E13 protons per pulse) is directed onto a target, from which a mixture of isotopes emanates. After ionization and electrostatic acceleration to 60 keV, they enter one of the 2 spectrometers (General Purpose Separator: GPS, and High Resolution Separator: HRS) from which the selected ions are directed to the experiments. The photos show: the REX-ISOLDE post accelerator; the mini-ball experiment; an overview of the ISOLDE hall. In the picture (_12) of the hall, the separators are behind the wall. From either of them, beams can be directed into any of the many beamlines towards the experiments, some of which are visible in the foreground. The elevated cubicle at the left is EBIS (Electron Beam Ion Source), which acts as a charge-state multiplier for the REX facility. The ions are further mass analzyzed and passed on to the linac which accelerates them to higher energies. T...

  4. F4/80: the macrophage-specific adhesion-GPCR and its role in immunoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsi-Hsien; Stacey, Martin; Stein-Streilein, Joan; Gordon, Siamon

    2010-01-01

    As a macrophage-restricted reagent, the generation and application of the F4/80 mAb has greatly benefited the phenotypic characterization of mouse tissue macrophages for three decades. Following the molecular identification of the F4/80 antigen as an EGF-TM7 member of the adhesion-GPCR family, great interest was ignited to understand its cell type-specific expression pattern as well as its functional role in macrophage biology. Recent studies have shown that the F4/80 gene is regulated by a novel set of transcription factors that recognized a unique promoter sequence. Gene targeting experiments have produced two F4/80 knock out animal models and showed that F4/80 is not required for normal macrophage development. Nevertheless, the F4/80 receptor was found to be necessary for the induction of efferent CD8+ regulatory T cells responsible for peripheral immune tolerance. The identification of cellular ligands for F4/80 and delineation of its signaling pathway remain elusive but are critical to understand the in vivo role of this macrophage-specific adhesion-GPCR.

  5. Structural Analysis of the Resident Assistant Cultural Diversity Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Vanessa D.; Kang, Young-Shin; Thompson, George F.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the five-factor structure of the Resident Assistant Cultural Diversity (RACD) instrument, which assesses resident assistant (RA) confidence in addressing issues of cultural diversity in college and university residence halls. The instrument has five components that explore RA confidence: (1) belief in the need for cultural…

  6. Energy consumption of sport halls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The energy consumption of Finland's sports halls (ball games halls, ice hockey halls and swimming halls) represent approximately 1% of that of the country's whole building stock. In the light of the facts revealed by the energy study the potential energy saving rate in sports halls is 15-25%. The total savings would be something like FIM 30-40 million per annum, of which about a half would be achieved without energy-economic investments only by changing utilization habits and by automatic control measures. The energy-economic investments are for the most part connected with ventilation and their repayment period is from one to five years. On the basis of the energy study the following specific consumption are presented as target values: swimming halls: heat (kWh/m*H3/a)100, electricity (kWh/m*H3/a)35, water (l/m*H3/a)1000 icehockey halls (warm): heat (kWh/m*H3/a)25, electricity (kWh/m*H3/a)15, water (l/m*H3/a)200, ball games halls (multi-purpose halls): heat (kWh/m*H3/a)30, electricity (kWh/m*H3/a)25, water (l/m*H3/a)130. In the study the following points proved to be the central areas of energy saving in sports halls: 1. Flexible regulation of the temperature in sports spaces on the basis of the sport in question. 2. The ventilation of swimming halls should be adjusted in such a way that the humidity of the hall air would comply with the limit humidity curve determined by the quality of structures and the temperature of the outdoor air. 3. An ice skating hall is an establishment producing condensing energy from 8 to 9 months a year worth of approx. 100.000-150.000 Finnmarks. The development of the recovery of condensing energy has become more important. 4. The ventilation of ball games halls may account for over 50% of the energy consumption of the whole building. Therefore special attention should be paid to the optimatization of ventilation as a whole.

  7. Scanning vector Hall probe microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambel, V.; Gregusova, D.; Fedor, J.; Kudela, R.; Bending, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a scanning vector Hall probe microscope for mapping magnetic field vector over magnetic samples. The microscope is based on a micromachined Hall sensor and the cryostat with scanning system. The vector Hall sensor active area is ∼5x5 μm 2 . It is realized by patterning three Hall probes on the tilted faces of GaAs pyramids. Data from these 'tilted' Hall probes are used to reconstruct the full magnetic field vector. The scanning area of the microscope is 5x5 mm 2 , space resolution 2.5 μm, field resolution ∼1 μT Hz -1/2 at temperatures 10-300 K

  8. Can ensemble condition in a hall be improved and measured?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Anders Christian

    1988-01-01

    of the ceiling reflectors; and (c) changing the position of the orchestra on the platform. These variables were then tested in full scale experiments in the hall including subjective evaluation by the orchestra in order to verify their effects under practical conditions. New objective parameters, which showed......In collaboration with the Danish Broadcasting Corporation an extensive series of experiments has been carried out in The Danish Radio Concert Hall with the practical purpose of trying to improve the ensemble conditions on the platform for the resident symphony orchestra. First, a series...... very high correlations with the subjective data, also made it possible to compare the improvements with conditions as recently measured in famous European Halls. Besides providing the needed results, the experiments also shed some light on how musicians change their criteria for judging acoustic...

  9. On Hall current fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, M.C.; Ebel, D.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper some new results concerning magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations with the Hall current (HC) term in the Ohm's law are presented. For the cylindrical pinch of a compressible HC fluid, it is found that for large time and long wave length the solution to the governing equations exhibits the behavior of solitons as in the case of an ideal MHD model. In some special cases, the HC model appears to be better posed. An open question is whether a simple toroidal equilibrium of an HC fluid with resistivity and viscosity exists. The answer to this question is affirmative if the prescribed velocity on the boundary has a small norm. Furthermore, the equilibrium is also linearly and nonlinearly stable

  10. Farm Hall: The Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, David C.

    2013-03-01

    It's July 1945. Germany is in defeat and the atomic bombs are on their way to Japan. Under the direction of Samuel Goudsmit, the Allies are holding some of the top German nuclear scientists-among them Heisenberg, Hahn, and Gerlach-captive in Farm Hall, an English country manor near Cambridge, England. As secret microphones record their conversations, the scientists are unaware of why they are being held or for how long. Thinking themselves far ahead of the Allies, how will they react to the news of the atomic bombs? How will these famous scientists explain to themselves and to the world their failure to achieve even a chain reaction? How will they come to terms with the horror of the Third Reich, their work for such a regime, and their behavior during that period? This one-act play is based upon the transcripts of their conversations as well as the author's historical work on the subject.

  11. Quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joynt, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    A general investigation of the electronic structure of two dimensional systems is undertaken with a view towards understanding the quantum Hall effect. The work is limited to the case of a strong perpendicular magnetic field, with a disordered potential and an externally applied electric field. The electrons are treated as noninteracting. First, the scattering theory of the system is worked out. The surprising result is found that a wavepacket will reform after scattering from an isolated potential. Also it will tend to be accelerated in the neighborhood of the scatterer if the potential has bound states. Fredholm theory can then be used to show that the extended states carry an additional current which compensates for the zero current of the bound states. Together, these give the quantized conductance. The complementary case of a smooth random potential is treated by a path-integral approach which exploits the analogies to the classical equations of motion. The Green's function can be calculated approximately, which gives the general character of both the bound and extended states. Also the ratio of these two types of states can be computed for a given potential. The charge density is uniform in first approximation, and the Hall conductance is quantized. Higher-order corrections for more rapidly fluctuating potential are calculated. The most general conditions under which the conductance is quantized are discussed. Because of the peculiar scattering properties of the system, numerical solution of the Schroedinger equation is of interest, both to confirm the analytical results, and for pedagogical reasons. The stability and convergence problems inherent in the computer solution of the problem are analyzed. Results for some model scattering potentials are presented

  12. Orientational ordering and site structure of SiF4 trapped in rare gas solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Llewellyn H.; Swanson, Basil I.; Ekberg, Scott A.

    1984-12-01

    The infrared spectrum of the ν3 mode of SiF4 shows only one site with marked site-symmetry splitting accompanied by pronounced (>95%) orientational ordering. The results indicate a site symmetry of C3v with the SiF4 molecule occupying a four-atom substitutional site with a cubic-close-packed environment. In krypton and xenon matrices, however, SiF4 occupies a three-atom substitutional site. The fact that SiF4 shows only one dominant site when present in argon matrices of UF6 indicates that one of the two UF6 sites has a local hexagonal close packed environment induced by short range stacking faults.

  13. Adjuvant effect of Gantrez®AN nanoparticles during oral vaccination of piglets against F4+enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandamme, Katrien; Melkebeek, Vesna; Vesna, Melkebeek; Cox, Eric; Eric, Cox; Remon, Jean Paul; Paul, Remon Jean; Vervaet, Chris; Chris, Vervaet

    2011-02-15

    In this study, the adjuvanticity of methylvinylether-co-maleic anhydride (Gantrez(®)AN) nanoparticles (NP) was investigated in an oral immunisation experiment of pigs against F4+enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (F4+ETEC). In addition, Wheat Germ Agglutinin (WGA)-coating of the nanoparticles was tested for enterocyte-targeting. Pigs were either vaccinated with F4 fimbriae, F4 encapsulated in Gantrez(®)AN NP, F4 encapsulated in Gantrez(®)AN NP coated with WGA or F4 fimbriae mixed with empty Gantrez(®)AN NP. Only vaccination with the combination of F4 mixed with empty Gantrez(®)AN NP improved protection against F4+ETEC infection. In addition, vaccination with this formulation also resulted in an F4-specific serum antibody response prior to F4+ETEC challenge. Encapsulation of F4 in Gantrez(®)AN NP only raised the serum antibody response after F4+ETEC challenge compared to soluble F4, but did not improve protection, whereas WGA-coating almost completely abolished the serum antibody response. These data indicate that nanoparticle effects after F4 encapsulation were of lesser importance for the adjuvant effect of Gantrez(®)AN NP, contrarily to the reactivity of the Gantrez(®)AN polymer used to prepare the nanoparticles. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Hall Effect Gyrators and Circulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Giovanni; DiVincenzo, David P.

    2014-04-01

    The electronic circulator and its close relative the gyrator are invaluable tools for noise management and signal routing in the current generation of low-temperature microwave systems for the implementation of new quantum technologies. The current implementation of these devices using the Faraday effect is satisfactory but requires a bulky structure whose physical dimension is close to the microwave wavelength employed. The Hall effect is an alternative nonreciprocal effect that can also be used to produce desired device functionality. We review earlier efforts to use an Ohmically contacted four-terminal Hall bar, explaining why this approach leads to unacceptably high device loss. We find that capacitive coupling to such a Hall conductor has much greater promise for achieving good circulator and gyrator functionality. We formulate a classical Ohm-Hall analysis for calculating the properties of such a device, and show how this classical theory simplifies remarkably in the limiting case of the Hall angle approaching 90°. In this limit, we find that either a four-terminal or a three-terminal capacitive device can give excellent circulator behavior, with device dimensions far smaller than the ac wavelength. An experiment is proposed to achieve GHz-band gyration in millimeter (and smaller) scale structures employing either semiconductor heterostructure or graphene Hall conductors. An inductively coupled scheme for realizing a Hall gyrator is also analyzed.

  15. Hamaoka Atomic Energy Hall, Chubu Electric Power Co. , Inc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasaki, Y [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan)

    1979-10-01

    Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station was constructed in the very large site of about 1.6 million m/sup 2/ surrounded by sand dunes and pine forests at the southern tip of Shizuoka Prefecture. Hamaoka Atomic Energy Hall was built on the right side of this power station. This hall had been planned as a part of the works commemorating the 20th anniversary of the founding of the company, and was opened in August, 1972. The building is of steel frame type, and has two floors of 1135 m/sup 2/ total area. The first floor comprises cinema room, power generation corner and open gallery, and the second floor comprises meeting room, native land corner and observation room. Moreover, there is observation platform on the roof. The purpose of the hall is coexistence and coprosperity with the regional residents, and 13 persons make explanations to visitors having reached to 1.9 million as of the end of June, 1979. It is incorporated in the sightseeing route centering around the Omaezaki lighthouse. The cinema hall accommodates 120 men, and the films concerning nuclear power generation and the construction of a nuclear power plant are shown. In the power generation corner, the explanation on nuclear power generation is made with models and panels. The third hall is being built now as energy corner, and it will be completed in autumn, 1979.

  16. Hamaoka Atomic Energy Hall, Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Yukio

    1979-01-01

    Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station was constructed in the very large site of about 1.6 million m 2 surrounded by sand dunes and pine forests at the southern tip of Shizuoka Prefecture. Hamaoka Atomic Energy Hall was built on the right side of this power station. This hall had been planned as a part of the works commemorating the 20th anniversary of the founding of the company, and was opened in August, 1972. The building is of steel frame type, and has two floors of 1135 m 2 total area. The first floor comprises cinema room, power generation corner and open gallery, and the second floor comprises meeting room, native land corner and observation room. Moreover, there is observation platform on the roof. The purpose of the hall is coexistence and coprosperity with the regional residents, and 13 persons make explanations to visitors having reached to 1.9 million as of the end of June, 1979. It is incorporated in the sightseeing route centering around the Omaezaki lighthouse. The cinema hall accommodates 120 men, and the films concerning nuclear power generation and the construction of a nuclear power plant are shown. In the power generation corner, the explanation on nuclear power generation is made with models and panels. The third hall is being built now as energy corner, and it will be completed in autumn, 1979. (Kako, I.)

  17. Cadmium biosorption by Streptomyces sp. F4 isolated from former uranium mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siñeriz, Manuel Louis; Kothe, Erika; Abate, Carlos Mauricio

    2009-09-01

    46 actinomycetes were isolated from two polluted sites and one unpolluted site. One strain, F4, was selected through primary qualitative screening assays because of its cadmium resistance, and physiologically and taxonomically characterized. F4 was able to grow at 7.5% NaCl and 100 microg/ml lysozyme and at a pH between 6 and 10. 16S rDNA sequence analysis showed that F4 was closely related to Streptomyces tendae. Growth of Streptomyces sp. F4 on culture medium with 8 mg/l Cd(2+) for 8 days showed 80% inhibition. Maximum specific biosorption was 41.7 mg Cd(2+)/g dry weight after 7 days of growth and highest Cd(2+ )concentration was found in the cell wall (41.2%). The exopolysaccharide layer only contained 7.4%, whereas 39.4% of Cd(2+) was found in the cytosolic fraction. Twelve % was found in the ribosomes and membrane fraction. This was verified with TEM, showing Streptomyces sp. F4 cytoplasm with dark granulate appearance. This study could present the potential capacity of Streptomyces sp. F4 for Cd(2+) bioremediation. Copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Cell cycle regulator E2F4 is essential for the development of the ventral telencephalon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzhynsky, Vladimir A; McClellan, Kelly A; Vanderluit, Jacqueline L; Jeong, Yongsu; Furimsky, Marosh; Park, David S; Epstein, Douglas J; Wallace, Valerie A; Slack, Ruth S

    2007-05-30

    Early forebrain development is characterized by extensive proliferation of neural precursors coupled with complex structural transformations; however, little is known regarding the mechanisms by which these processes are integrated. Here, we show that deficiency of the cell cycle regulatory protein, E2F4, results in the loss of ventral telencephalic structures and impaired self-renewal of neural precursor cells. The mechanism underlying aberrant ventral patterning lies in a dramatic loss of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) expression specifically in this region. The E2F4-deficient phenotype can be recapitulated by interbreeding mice heterozygous for E2F4 with those lacking one allele of Shh, suggesting a genetic interaction between these pathways. Treatment of E2F4-deficient cells with a Hh agonist rescues stem cell self-renewal and cells expressing the homeodomain proteins that specify the ventral telencephalic structures. Finally, we show that E2F4 deficiency results in impaired activity of Shh forebrain-specific enhancers. In conclusion, these studies establish a novel requirement for the cell cycle regulatory protein, E2F4, in the development of the ventral telencephalon.

  19. Topological Hall and spin Hall effects in disordered skyrmionic textures

    KAUST Repository

    Ndiaye, Papa Birame; Akosa, Collins Ashu; Manchon, Aurelien

    2017-01-01

    We carry out a thorough study of the topological Hall and topological spin Hall effects in disordered skyrmionic systems: the dimensionless (spin) Hall angles are evaluated across the energy-band structure in the multiprobe Landauer-Büttiker formalism and their link to the effective magnetic field emerging from the real-space topology of the spin texture is highlighted. We discuss these results for an optimal skyrmion size and for various sizes of the sample and find that the adiabatic approximation still holds for large skyrmions as well as for nanoskyrmions. Finally, we test the robustness of the topological signals against disorder strength and show that the topological Hall effect is highly sensitive to momentum scattering.

  20. Topological Hall and spin Hall effects in disordered skyrmionic textures

    KAUST Repository

    Ndiaye, Papa Birame

    2017-02-24

    We carry out a thorough study of the topological Hall and topological spin Hall effects in disordered skyrmionic systems: the dimensionless (spin) Hall angles are evaluated across the energy-band structure in the multiprobe Landauer-Büttiker formalism and their link to the effective magnetic field emerging from the real-space topology of the spin texture is highlighted. We discuss these results for an optimal skyrmion size and for various sizes of the sample and find that the adiabatic approximation still holds for large skyrmions as well as for nanoskyrmions. Finally, we test the robustness of the topological signals against disorder strength and show that the topological Hall effect is highly sensitive to momentum scattering.

  1. Tuning giant anomalous Hall resistance ratio in perpendicular Hall balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J. Y.; Yang, G. [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Magnetism, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang, S. G., E-mail: sgwang@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: ghyu@mater.ustb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Magnetism, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, J. L. [State Key Laboratory of Magnetism, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Department of Physics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Wang, R. M. [Department of Physics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Amsellem, E.; Kohn, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ilse Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Yu, G. H., E-mail: sgwang@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: ghyu@mater.ustb.edu.cn [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-04-13

    Anomalous Hall effect at room temperature in perpendicular Hall balance with a core structure of [Pt/Co]{sub 4}/NiO/[Co/Pt]{sub 4} has been tuned by functional CoO layers, where [Pt/Co]{sub 4} multilayers exhibit perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. A giant Hall resistance ratio up to 69 900% and saturation Hall resistance (R{sub S}{sup P}) up to 2590 mΩ were obtained in CoO/[Pt/Co]{sub 4}/NiO/[Co/Pt]{sub 4}/CoO system, which is 302% and 146% larger than that in the structure without CoO layers, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy shows highly textured [Co/Pt]{sub 4} multilayers and oxide layers with local epitaxial relations, indicating that the crystallographic structure has significant influence on spin dependent transport properties.

  2. Experimental Studies of Anode Sheath Phenomena in a Hall Thruster Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorf, L.; Raitses, Y.; Fisch, N.J.

    2004-01-01

    Both electron-repelling and electron-attracting anode sheaths in a Hall thruster were characterized by measuring the plasma potential with biased and emissive probes [L. Dorf, Y. Raitses, V. Semenov, and N.J. Fisch, Appl. Phys. Let. 84 (2004) 1070]. In the present work, two-dimensional structures of the plasma potential, electron temperature, and plasma density in the near-anode region of a Hall thruster with clean and dielectrically coated anodes are identified. Possible mechanisms of anode sheath formation in a Hall thruster are analyzed. The path for current closure to the anode appears to be the determining factor in the anode sheath formation process. The main conclusion of this work is that the anode sheath formation in Hall thrusters differs essentially from that in the other gas discharge devices, like a glow discharge or a hollow anode, because the Hall thruster utilizes long electron residence times to ionize rather than high neutral pressures

  3. Anomalous Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaosa, Naoto; Sinova, Jairo; Onoda, Shigeki; MacDonald, A. H.; Ong, N. P.

    2010-04-01

    The anomalous Hall effect (AHE) occurs in solids with broken time-reversal symmetry, typically in a ferromagnetic phase, as a consequence of spin-orbit coupling. Experimental and theoretical studies of the AHE are reviewed, focusing on recent developments that have provided a more complete framework for understanding this subtle phenomenon and have, in many instances, replaced controversy by clarity. Synergy between experimental and theoretical works, both playing a crucial role, has been at the heart of these advances. On the theoretical front, the adoption of the Berry-phase concepts has established a link between the AHE and the topological nature of the Hall currents. On the experimental front, new experimental studies of the AHE in transition metals, transition-metal oxides, spinels, pyrochlores, and metallic dilute magnetic semiconductors have established systematic trends. These two developments, in concert with first-principles electronic structure calculations, strongly favor the dominance of an intrinsic Berry-phase-related AHE mechanism in metallic ferromagnets with moderate conductivity. The intrinsic AHE can be expressed in terms of the Berry-phase curvatures and it is therefore an intrinsic quantum-mechanical property of a perfect crystal. An extrinsic mechanism, skew scattering from disorder, tends to dominate the AHE in highly conductive ferromagnets. The full modern semiclassical treatment of the AHE is reviewed which incorporates an anomalous contribution to wave-packet group velocity due to momentum-space Berry curvatures and correctly combines the roles of intrinsic and extrinsic (skew-scattering and side-jump) scattering-related mechanisms. In addition, more rigorous quantum-mechanical treatments based on the Kubo and Keldysh formalisms are reviewed, taking into account multiband effects, and demonstrate the equivalence of all three linear response theories in the metallic regime. Building on results from recent experiment and theory, a

  4. Flagellin and F4 fimbriae have opposite effects on biofilm formation and quorum sensing in F4ac+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mingxu; Guo, Zhiyan; Yang, Yang; Duan, Qiangde; Zhang, Qi; Yao, Fenghua; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Xinjun; Hardwidge, Philip R; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2014-01-10

    Bacteria that form biofilms are often highly resistant to antibiotics and are capable of evading the host immune system. To evaluate the role of flagellin and F4 fimbriae on biofilm formation by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), we deleted the fliC (encoding the major flagellin protein) and/or the faeG (encoding the major subunit of F4 fimbriae) genes from ETEC C83902. Biofilm formation was reduced in the fliC mutant but increased in the faeG mutant, as compared with the wild-type strain. The expression of AI-2 quorum sensing associated genes was regulated in the fliC and faeG mutants, consistent with the biofilm formation of these strains. But, deleting fliC and/or faeG also inhibited AI-2 quorum sensing activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Seed-mediated synthesis of NaY F4:Y b, Er/NaGdF4 nanocrystals with improved upconversion fluorescence and MR relaxivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Hai; Li Zhengquan; Qian Haisheng; Hu Yong; Muhammad, Idris Niagara

    2010-01-01

    Rational combination of different functional lanthanide materials within a single nanocrystal presents a feasible way to develop a multifunctional nanoplatform for various biomedical applications. The conventional methods of synthesizing and integrating two kinds of material together generally involve laborious procedures, whilst codoping different functional ions inside a single lanthanide nanocrystal usually results in a decrease in both its fluorescence and its magnetic resonance relaxivity. Here, we present a seed-mediated synthetic route to prepare core-shell structured NaY F 4 :Y b, Er/NaGdF 4 nanocrystals. Epitaxial growth of a gadolinium layer on an upconversion lanthanide seed not only improves its upconversion fluorescence, but also creates a paramagnetic shell with high magnetic resonance relaxivity. The prepared nanocrystals are uniform in size, stable in water and easy for conjugation after modification, which may have the potential to serve as a versatile imaging tool for smart detection or diagnosis in future biomedical engineering.

  6. Planar Hall effect bridge magnetic field sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, A.D.; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Skieller, D.H.

    2010-01-01

    Until now, the planar Hall effect has been studied in samples with cross-shaped Hall geometry. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the planar Hall effect can be observed for an exchange-biased ferromagnetic material in a Wheatstone bridge topology and that the sensor signal can...... Hall effect bridge sensors....

  7. Gauge invariance and fractional quantized Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, R.; Wu, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that gauge invariance arguments imply the possibility of fractional quantized Hall effect; the Hall conductance is accurately quantized to a rational value. The ground state of a system showing the fractional quantized Hall effect must be degenerate; the non-degenerate ground state can only produce the integral quantized Hall effect. 12 references

  8. Electronic excitation to low-lying states of GeF4 molecule by electron impact: A comparative study with CF4 and SiF4 molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtomi, S; Matsui, M; Mochizuki, Y; Suga, A; Kato, H; Hoshino, M; Tanaka, H; Duflot, D; Limão-Vieira, P

    2015-01-01

    We report on the measurements of the electron impact electronic excitation cross sections for XF 4 (X = C, Si and Ge) molecules at 100 eV, 5° scattering angle and 30 eV, 30° in the electron energy loss range 8.0 - 18 eV. For a target of GeF 4 molecule, the optically-forbidden behavior has been observed in the lower electron energy loss range. (paper)

  9. PPAR γ is highly expressed in F4/80hi adipose tissue macrophages and dampens adipose-tissue inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Misyak, Sarah; Guri, Amir J.; Hontecillas, Raquel

    2009-01-01

    Macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue is a hallmark of obesity. We recently reported two phenotypically distinct subsets of adipose tissue macrophages (ATM) based on the surface expression of the glycoprotein F4/80 and responsiveness to treatment with a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ agonist. Hence, we hypothesized that F4/80hi and F4/80lo ATM differentially express PPAR γ. This study phenotypically and functionally characterizes F4/80hi and F4/80lo ATM subsets during obesity. Changes in gene expression were also examined on sorted F4/80lo and F4/80hi ATM by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. We show that while F4/80lo macrophages predominate in adipose tissue of lean mice, obesity causes accumulation of both F4/80lo and F4/80hi ATM. Moreover, accumulation of F4/80hi ATM in adipose tissue is associated with impaired glucose tolerance. Phenotypically, F4/80hi ATM express greater amounts of CD11c, MHC II, CD49b, and CX3CR1 and produce more TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-10 than F4/80lo ATM. Gene expression analyses of the sorted populations revealed that only the F4/80lo population produced IL-4, whereas the F4/80hi ATM expressed greater amounts of PPAR γ, δ, CD36 and toll-like receptor-4. In addition, the deficiency of PPAR γ in immune cells favors expression of M1 and impairs M2 macrophage marker expression in adipose tissue. Thus, PPAR γ is differentially expressed in F4/80hi versus F4/80low ATM subsets and its deficiency favors a predominance of M1 markers in WAT. PMID:19423085

  10. PPAR gamma is highly expressed in F4/80(hi) adipose tissue macrophages and dampens adipose-tissue inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Misyak, Sarah; Guri, Amir J; Hontecillas, Raquel

    2009-01-01

    Macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue is a hallmark of obesity. We recently reported two phenotypically distinct subsets of adipose tissue macrophages (ATM) based on the surface expression of the glycoprotein F4/80 and responsiveness to treatment with a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma agonist. Hence, we hypothesized that F4/80(hi) and F4/80(lo) ATM differentially express PPAR gamma. This study phenotypically and functionally characterizes F4/80(hi) and F4/80(lo) ATM subsets during obesity. Changes in gene expression were also examined on sorted F4/80(lo) and F4/80(hi) ATM by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. We show that while F4/80(lo) macrophages predominate in adipose tissue of lean mice, obesity causes accumulation of both F4/80(lo) and F4/80(hi) ATM. Moreover, accumulation of F4/80(hi) ATM in adipose tissue is associated with impaired glucose tolerance. Phenotypically, F4/80(hi) ATM express greater amounts of CD11c, MHC II, CD49b, and CX3CR1 and produce more TNF-alpha, MCP-1, and IL-10 than F4/80(lo) ATM. Gene expression analyses of the sorted populations revealed that only the F4/80(lo) population produced IL-4, whereas the F4/80(hi) ATM expressed greater amounts of PPAR gamma, delta, CD36 and toll-like receptor-4. In addition, the deficiency of PPAR gamma in immune cells favors expression of M1 and impairs M2 macrophage marker expression in adipose tissue. Thus, PPAR gamma is differentially expressed in F4/80(hi) versus F4/80(low) ATM subsets and its deficiency favors a predominance of M1 markers in WAT.

  11. Investigations of Probe Induced Perturbations in a Hall Thruster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Staack; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch

    2002-01-01

    An electrostatic probe used to measure spatial plasma parameters in a Hall thruster generates perturbations of the plasma. These perturbations are examined by varying the probe material, penetration distance, residence time, and the nominal thruster conditions. The study leads us to recommendations for probe design and thruster operating conditions to reduce discharge perturbations, including metal shielding of the probe insulator and operation of the thruster at lower densities

  12. "Hall mees" Linnateatris / Triin Sinissaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sinissaar, Triin

    1999-01-01

    Tallinn Linnateatri ja Raadioteatri ühislavastus "Hall mees" Gill Adamsi näidendi järgi, lavastaja Eero Spriit, osades Helene Vannari ja Väino Laes, kunstnik Kustav - Agu Püüman. Esietendus 22. okt

  13. Role of water in the dynamic disproportionation of Zn-based TCNQ(F4) coordination polymers (TCNQ = tetracyanoquinodimethane).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafady, Ayman; Le, Thanh Hai; Vo, Nguyen; Haworth, Naomi L; Bond, Alan M; Martin, Lisandra L

    2014-02-17

    Intriguingly, coordination polymers containing TCNQ(2–) and TCNQF4(2–) (TCNQ = 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, TCNQF4 = 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, both designated as TCNQ(F4)(2–)) may be generated from reaction of metal ions with TCNQ(F4)•–. An explanation is now provided in terms of a solvent-dependent dynamic disproportionation reaction. A systematic study of reactions associated with TCNQ(F4) and electrochemically generated TCNQ(F4)MeCN•– and TCNQ(F4)MeCN(2–) revealed that disproportionation of TCNQ(F4)MeCN•– radical anions in acetonitrile containing a low concentration of water is facilitated by the presence of ZnMeCN(2+). Thus, while the disproportionation reaction 2TCNQ(F4)MeCN•– TCNQ(F4)MeCN + TCNQ(F4)MeCN(2–) is thermodynamically very unfavorable in this medium (Keq ≈ 9 × 10(–10); TCNQF4), the preferential precipitation of ZnTCNQ(F4)(s) drives the reaction: ZnMeCN(2+) + 2 TCNQ(F4)MeCN•– ZnTCNQ(F4)(s) + TCNQ(F4)MeCN. The concomitant formation of soluble TCNQ(F4)MeCN and insoluble ZnTCNQ(F4)(s) and the loss of TCNQ(F4)MeCN•– were verified by UV–visible and infrared spectroscopy and steady-state voltammetry. Importantly, the reverse reaction of comproportionation rather than disproportionation becomes the favored process in the presence of ≥3% (v/v) water, due to the increased solubility of solid ZnTCNQ(F4)(s). Thus, in this “wet” environment, ZnMeCN(2+) and TCNQ(F4)MeCN•– are produced from a mixture of ZnTCNQ(F4)(s) and TCNQ(F4)MeCN and with the addition of water provides a medium for synthesis of [Zn(TCNQ(F4))2(H2O)2]. An important conclusion from this work is that the redox level of TCNQ(F4)-based materials, synthesized from a mixture of metal cations and TCNQ(F4)•–, is controlled by a solvent-dependent disproportionation/comproportionation reaction that may be tuned to favor formation of solids containing the monoanion radical, the dianion, or even a mixture of both.

  14. Sheldon-Hall syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamshad Michael J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sheldon-Hall syndrome (SHS is a rare multiple congenital contracture syndrome characterized by contractures of the distal joints of the limbs, triangular face, downslanting palpebral fissures, small mouth, and high arched palate. Epidemiological data for the prevalence of SHS are not available, but less than 100 cases have been reported in the literature. Other common clinical features of SHS include prominent nasolabial folds, high arched palate, attached earlobes, mild cervical webbing, short stature, severe camptodactyly, ulnar deviation, and vertical talus and/or talipes equinovarus. Typically, the contractures are most severe at birth and non-progressive. SHS is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern but about half the cases are sporadic. Mutations in either MYH3, TNNI2, or TNNT3 have been found in about 50% of cases. These genes encode proteins of the contractile apparatus of fast twitch skeletal muscle fibers. The diagnosis of SHS is based on clinical criteria. Mutation analysis is useful to distinguish SHS from arthrogryposis syndromes with similar features (e.g. distal arthrogryposis 1 and Freeman-Sheldon syndrome. Prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography is feasible at 18–24 weeks of gestation. If the family history is positive and the mutation is known in the family, prenatal molecular genetic diagnosis is possible. There is no specific therapy for SHS. However, patients benefit from early intervention with occupational and physical therapy, serial casting, and/or surgery. Life expectancy and cognitive abilities are normal.

  15. Anode sheath in Hall thrusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorf, L.; Semenov, V.; Raitses, Y.

    2003-01-01

    A set of hydrodynamic equations is used to describe quasineutral plasma in ionization and acceleration regions of a Hall thruster. The electron distribution function and Poisson equation are invoked for description of a near-anode region. Numerical solutions suggest that steady-state operation of a Hall thruster can be achieved at different anode sheath regimes. It is shown that the anode sheath depends on the thruster operating conditions, namely the discharge voltage and the mass flow rate

  16. Theory of spin Hall effect

    OpenAIRE

    Chudnovsky, Eugene M.

    2007-01-01

    An extension of Drude model is proposed that accounts for spin and spin-orbit interaction of charge carriers. Spin currents appear due to combined action of the external electric field, crystal field and scattering of charge carriers. The expression for spin Hall conductivity is derived for metals and semiconductors that is independent of the scattering mechanism. In cubic metals, spin Hall conductivity $\\sigma_s$ and charge conductivity $\\sigma_c$ are related through $\\sigma_s = [2 \\pi \\hbar...

  17. Optimization of Cylindrical Hall Thrusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raitses, Yevgeny; Smirnov, Artem; Granstedt, Erik; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2007-01-01

    The cylindrical Hall thruster features high ionization efficiency, quiet operation, and ion acceleration in a large volume-to-surface ratio channel with performance comparable with the state-of-the-art annular Hall thrusters. These characteristics were demonstrated in low and medium power ranges. Optimization of miniaturized cylindrical thrusters led to performance improvements in the 50-200W input power range, including plume narrowing, increased thruster efficiency, reliable discharge initiation, and stable operation.

  18. Optimization of Cylindrical Hall Thrusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raitses, Yevgeny; Smirnov, Artem; Granstedt, Erik; Fi, Nathaniel J.

    2007-01-01

    The cylindrical Hall thruster features high ionization efficiency, quiet operation, and ion acceleration in a large volume-to-surface ratio channel with performance comparable with the state-of-the-art annular Hall thrusters. These characteristics were demonstrated in low and medium power ranges. Optimization of miniaturized cylindrical thrusters led to performance improvements in the 50-200W input power range, including plume narrowing, increased thruster efficiency, reliable discharge initiation, and stable operation

  19. Not your grandfather's concert hall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Russell; Malenka, Richard; Griffith, Charles; Friedlander, Steven

    2004-05-01

    The opening of Judy and Arthur Zankel Hall on 12 September 2003, restores Andrew Carnegie's original 1891 concept of having three outstanding auditoriums of different sizes under one roof, and creates a 21st-century venue for music performance and education. With concerts ranging from early music to avant-garde multimedia productions, from jazz to world music, and from solo recitals to chamber music, Zankel Hall expands the breadth and depth of Carnegie Hall's offerings. It allows for the integration of programming across three halls with minifestivals tailored both to the size and strengths of each hall and to the artists and music to be performed. The new flexible space also provides Carnegie Hall with an education center equipped with advanced communications technology. This paper discusses the unique program planned for this facility and how the architects, theatre consultants, and acousticians developed a design that fulfilled the client's expectations and coordinated the construction of the facility under the floor of the main Isaac Stern Auditorium without having to cancel a single performance.

  20. Phase transitions in (NH4)2MoO2F4 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, Alexander; Laptash, Natalia; Vtyurin, Alexander; Krylova, Svetlana

    2016-11-01

    The mechanisms of temperature and high pressure phase transitions have been studied by Raman spectroscopy. Room temperature (295 K) experiments under high hydrostatic pressure up to 3.6 GPa for (NH4)2 MoO2 F4 have been carried out. Experimental data indicates a phase transition into a new high-pressure phase for (NH4)2 MoO2 F4 at 1.2 GPa. This phase transition is related to the ordering anion octahedron groups [MoO2 F4]2- and is not associated with ammonium group. Raman spectra of small non-oriented crystals ranging from 10 to 350 K have been observed. The experiment shows anion groups [MoO2 F4]2- and ammonium in high temperature phase are disordered. The phase transition at T1 = 269.8 K is of the first-order, close to the tricritical point. The first temperature phase transition is related to the ordering anion octahedron groups [MoO2 F4]2-. Second phase transitions T2 = 180 K are associated with the ordering of ammonium. The data presented within this study demonstrate that 2D correlation analysis combined with traditional Raman spectroscopy are powerful tool to study phase transitions in the crystals.

  1. Dietary addition of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG impairs the health of Escherichia coli F4-challenged piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisi, P; Casini, L; Coloretti, F; Mazzoni, M; Merialdi, G; Bosi, P

    2011-08-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) is a probiotic for humans and is normally not found in pigs; however, it has been shown to protect the human-derived intestinal Caco-2 cells against the damage induced by an important intestinal pathogen, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4 (ETEC). An experiment was conducted to test whether the dietary addition of LGG improves the growth and health of weaned pigs when orally challenged by E. coli F4. Thirty-six pigs were weaned at 21 days and assigned to a standard weaning diet with or without 1010 CFU LGG (ATCC 53103) per day. The pigs, individually penned, were orally challenged with 1.5 ml of a 1010 CFU E. coli F4 suspension on day 7 and slaughtered on day 12 or 14. With the addition of LGG, the average daily gain and the average daily feed intake were reduced after the challenge with ETEC and for the entire trial (P F4-specific IgA activity was not affected by the diet at all the samplings. Our result shows that, the administration of LGG do not prevent or reduce the detrimental effect of the E. coli F4 infection on the growth performance and health status of weaned piglet.

  2. Lanthanide-doped NaScF4 nanoprobes: crystal structure, optical spectroscopy and biodetection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Yu; Tu, Datao; Zheng, Wei; Liu, Yongsheng; Kong, Jintao; Hu, Ping; Chen, Zhuo; Huang, Mingdong; Chen, Xueyuan

    2013-07-21

    Trivalent lanthanide ions (Ln(3+))-doped inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) as potential luminescent bioprobes have been attracting tremendous interest because of their unique upconversion (UC) and downconversion (DC) luminescence properties. NaScF4, as an important host material, has been rarely reported and its crystal structure remains unclear. Herein, based on the single crystal X-ray diffraction, the space group of NaScF4 crystals was determined to be P31 containing multiple sites of Sc(3+) with crystallographic site symmetry of C1, which was verified by high-resolution photoluminescence spectroscopy of Eu(3+) at low temperature (10 K). Furthermore, monodisperse and size-controllable NaScF4:Ln(3+) NPs were synthesized via a facile thermal decomposition method. The biotinylated NaScF4:Er(3+)/Yb(3+) NPs were demonstrated for their applications as a heterogeneous UC luminescence bioprobe to detect avidin with a detection limit of 180 pM. After bioconjugation with amino-terminal fragment (ATF) of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), NaScF4:Ln(3+) NPs also exhibited specific recognition of cancer cells overexpressed with uPA receptor (uPAR, an important marker of tumor biology and metastasis), showing great potentials in tumor-targeted bioimaging.

  3. Ion conductivities of ZrF4-BaF2-CsF glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Yoji; Nohara, Ichiro

    1987-01-01

    The glass-forming region in the ZrF 4 -BaF 2 -CsF glass system has been determined and the ac conductivity and the transport number of fluoride ions have been measured. The conductivities of compounds β-Cs 2 ZrF 6 , α-SrZrF 6 , α-BaZrF 6 , β-BaZrF 6 and α-PbZrF 6 have also been measured. These results and a previous study of ZrF 4 -BaF 2 -MF n (M: the groups I-IV metals) glasses revealed the following: (1) the ZrF 4 -BaF 2 -CsF glasses are exclusively fluoride-ion conductors; (2) the ionic conductivities of ZrF 4 -based glasses are predominantly determined by the activation energies for conduction; (3) the activation energy for conduction decreases with an increase in the average polarizability of glass-constituting cations; (4) a decrease in average Zr-F bond length and a lowering of the average F coordination number of Zr are presumed to increase the activation energy for conduction. Principles of developing ZrF 4 -based glasses with higher conductivities have also been proposed. (Auth.)

  4. Crystal growth and luminescence properties of Pr-doped LuLiF4 single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Makoto; Yanagida, Takayuki; Yokota, Yuui; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2013-01-01

    0.1, 1, and 3% Pr (with respect to Lu) doped LuLiF 4 (Pr:LuLiF 4 ) single crystals were grown by the micro-pulling-down (μ-PD) method. Transparency of the grown crystals was higher than 70% in the visible wavelength region with some absorption bands due to Pr 3+ 4f-4f transitions. Intense absorption bands related with the Pr 3+ 4f-5d transitions were observed at 190 and 215 nm. In radioluminescence spectra, Pr 3+ 5d-4f emissions were observed at 220, 240, 340, and 405 nm. In the pulse height spectra recorded under 137 Cs γ-ray excitation, the Pr 3% doped sample showed the highest light yield of 2050 photons/MeV and the scintillation decay time of it exhibited 23 and 72 ns also excited by 137 Cs γ-ray. -- Highlights: ► 0.1, 1, and 3% Pr-doped LuLiF 4 single crystals were grown by the μ-PD method. ► Pr 3+ 5d-4f emission peaks appeared at 220, 240, 340, and 405 nm ► The Pr 3%:LuLiF 4 crystal showed the highest light yield of 2050 photons/MeV

  5. In vitro and in vivo studies of pharmacokinetics and antitumor efficacy of D07001-F4, an oral gemcitabine formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wei-Hua; Wang, Jong-Jing; Hsueh, Shu-Ping; Hsu, Pei-Jing; Chang, Li-Chien; Hsu, Chang-Shan; Hsu, Kuang-Yang

    2013-02-01

    The chemotherapy agent gemcitabine is currently administered intravenously because the drug has poor oral bioavailability. In order to assess the pharmacokinetics and antitumor activity of D07001-F4, a new self-microemulsifying oral drug delivery system preparation of gemcitabine, this study was performed to compare the effect of D07001-F4 with administered gemcitabine in vitro and in vivo. D07001-F4 pharmacokinetics was examined by evaluation of in vitro deamination of D07001-F4 and gemcitabine hydrochloride by recombinant human cytidine deaminase (rhCDA) and in vivo evaluation of D07001-F4 pharmacokinetics in mice. Antitumor activity was evaluated by comparing the effect of D07001-F4 and gemcitabine hydrochloride in inhibiting growth in nine cancer cell lines and by examining the effect of D07001-F4 and gemcitabine in two xenograft tumor models in mice. In vitro deamination of D07001-F4 by rhCDA was 3.3-fold slower than deamination of gemcitabine hydrochloride. Growth inhibition by D07001-F4 of 7 of the 8 cancer cell lines was increased compared with that seen with gemcitabine hydrochloride, and D07001-F4 inhibited the growth of pancreatic and colon cancer xenografts. In vivo pharmacokinetics showed the oral bioavailability of D07001-F4 to be 34%. D07001-F4 was effective against several cancer types, was metabolized more slowly than gemcitabine hydrochloride, and exhibited enhanced oral bioavailability.

  6. Iodine Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, James

    2015-01-01

    Iodine enables dramatic mass and cost savings for lunar and Mars cargo missions, including Earth escape and near-Earth space maneuvers. The demonstrated throttling ability of iodine is important for a singular thruster that might be called upon to propel a spacecraft from Earth to Mars or Venus. The ability to throttle efficiently is even more important for missions beyond Mars. In the Phase I project, Busek Company, Inc., tested an existing Hall thruster, the BHT-8000, on iodine propellant. The thruster was fed by a high-flow iodine feed system and supported by an existing Busek hollow cathode flowing xenon gas. The Phase I propellant feed system was evolved from a previously demonstrated laboratory feed system. Throttling of the thruster between 2 and 11 kW at 200 to 600 V was demonstrated. Testing showed that the efficiency of iodine fueled BHT-8000 is the same as with xenon, with iodine delivering a slightly higher thrust-to-power (T/P) ratio. In Phase II, a complete iodine-fueled system was developed, including the thruster, hollow cathode, and iodine propellant feed system. The nominal power of the Phase II system is 8 kW; however, it can be deeply throttled as well as clustered to much higher power levels. The technology also can be scaled to greater than 100 kW per thruster to support megawatt-class missions. The target thruster efficiency for the full-scale system is 65 percent at high specific impulse (Isp) (approximately 3,000 s) and 60 percent at high thrust (Isp approximately 2,000 s).

  7. Faculty Mentoring in Residence Halls: An Experiential Learning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhaveri, Hemlata

    2012-01-01

    As more demands are being placed on faculty inside of the classroom, the debate surrounding the feasibility of faculty having the time and resources to be involved outside the classroom continues. At the same time there is a growing concern that in light of current advancements in technology; oral communication skills, basic to human existence is…

  8. Electric conductivity of molten mixtures of ternary mutual KF-KCl-ZrF4 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darienko, S.E.; Raspopin, S.P.; Chervinskij, Yu.F.

    1988-01-01

    Using the relative capillary method at the frequency of 50 kHz the specific electric conductivity of molten mixtures of the KF-KCl-ZnF 4 system is measured. All the measurements were made in the atmosphere of purified argon. Temperature dependence of electric conductivity of the mixtures studied (800-1260 K) is described by the equations of exponential type with sufficient accuracy. Curves of identical specific electric conductivity of the three-component system are presented. With an increase in zirconium tetrachloride concentration in the mixtures electric conductivity of the melts decreases. On the basis of the measurement results of KF-ZrF 4 and KCl-ZrF 4 molten mixture specific electric conductivity and data on the melt density the values of molar electric conductivity at 1200 K are calculated

  9. Electrochemistry of TiF4 in 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriyko, Yuriy; Andriiko, Alexander; Babushkina, Olga B.; Nauer, Gerhard E.

    2010-01-01

    Electrochemical behaviour of Ti(IV) species in the ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMMImBF 4 ) was studied by means of chronopotentiometry (CP) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) in melts with different concentrations of TiF 4 (2-35 mol%) within a temperature range of 65-180 deg. C. The electrochemical reduction of Ti(IV) was suggested to proceed via the sequence of one-electron steps with the formation of poorly soluble low valence intermediates (LVI). LVIs undergo further solid-state electrochemical reduction to Ti metal. Thin Ti coatings on a Pt substrate were thus obtained and characterized by ESEM method. FTIR spectroscopy was used for identification of the electrochemical active species of Ti(IV). The reaction 2BF 4 - + TiF 4 ↔ TiF 6 2- + 2BF 3 ↑ takes place in the concentrated solutions of TiF 4 at elevated temperatures.

  10. Laser induced broad band anti-Stokes white emission from LiYbF4 nanocrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L. Marciniak; R. Tomala; M. Stefanski; D. Hreniak; W. Strek

    2016-01-01

    Spectroscopic properties of tetragonal LiYbF4 nanocrystals under high dense NIR excitation at vacuum condition were in-vestigated. White, broad band emission covering whole visible part of the spectrum from LiYbF4 nanocrystals was observed. Its in-tensity strongly depended on the excitation power, excitation wavelength and ambient pressure. Temperature of the nanocrystals un-der 975 nm excitation was determined as a function of excitation power. Strong photo-induced current was observed from LiYbF4 pallet. The emission kinetic was analyzed. The mechanism of the anti-Stokes white emission was discussed in terms of the la-ser-induced charge transfer emission from Yb2+ states.

  11. Molecular composition of vapor in the NaF-ZrF4 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, Yu.M.; Sidorov, L.N.; Rykov, A.N.; Novoselova, A.V.

    1980-01-01

    The NaF-ZrF 4 system is studied. It is established that Na 2 ZrF 6 , NaZrF 5 , (NaZrF 5 ) 2 , NaZr 2 F 9 complex molecules are present in the saturated vapor alongside with pure components. Partial pressures of all vapor components are determined. The values of partial pressure and evaporation heat have been used to calculate the vapor composition above the system; T-x and P-T projections of the phase diagram of the NaF-ZrF 4 system are plotted

  12. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis and transcytosis of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4 fimbriae in porcine intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasschaert, Kristien; Devriendt, Bert; Favoreel, Herman; Goddeeris, Bruno M; Cox, Eric

    2010-10-15

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) cause severe diarrhea in neonatal and recently weaned piglets. Previously, we demonstrated that oral immunization of F4 receptor positive piglets with purified F4 fimbriae induces a protective F4-specific intestinal immune response. However, in F4 receptor negative animals no F4-specific immune response can be elicited, indicating that the induction of an F4-specific mucosal immune response upon oral immunisation is receptor-dependent. Although F4 fimbriae undergo transcytosis across the intestinal epithelium in vivo, the endocytosis pathways used remain unknown. In the present study, we characterized the internalization of F4 fimbriae in the porcine intestinal epithelial cell line IPEC-J2. The results in the present study demonstrate that F4 fimbriae are internalized through a clathrin-dependent pathway. Furthermore, our results suggest that F4 fimbriae are transcytosed across differentiated IPEC-J2 cells. This receptor-dependent transcytosis of F4 fimbriae may explain the immunogenicity of these fimbriae upon oral administration in vivo. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Recruitment of Gr1(+)CD11b (+)F4/80 (+) population in the bone marrow and spleen by irradiation-induced pulmonary damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanasegaran, Suganya; Ito, Sachiko; Nishio, Naomi; Uddin, Mohammad Nizam; Sun, Yang; Isobe, Ken-ichi

    2015-04-01

    Radiation-induced lung injury is a kind of sterile inflammation, which may lead to morbidity and mortality. The mechanism by which ionizing radiation activate the immune system is not well understood. In the present study, we have investigated the immunological responses induced by local irradiation-induced damage in mouse lung. The left lungs of C57BL/6 mice were irradiated at a high dose of 100 Gy. The histology of the lungs and spleen showed evidences of alveolar inflammation and congestion at 2 weeks after X-ray treatment. Also, prominent increase in cells expressing the cell surface markers, Gr(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) and Ly6C(+) Ly6G(+) were observed 2 weeks after X-ray treatment (100 Gy). Gr1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cell depletion by clodronate treatment reversed the histological effects and also failed to recruit Gr(+)CD11b(+) cells or F4/80(+) cells caused by irradiation. The origin of recruited Gr1(+)CD11b(+) cells was found to be a mixed resident and recruited phenotype.

  14. ac spin-Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entin-Wohlman, O.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text:The spin-Hall effect is described. The Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions are both shown to yield the low temperature spin-Hall effect for strongly localized electrons coupled to phonons. A frequency-dependent electric field E(ω) generates a spin-polarization current, normal to E, due to interference of hopping paths. At zero temperature the corresponding spin-Hall conductivity is real and is proportional to ω 2 . At non-zero temperatures the coupling to the phonons yields an imaginary term proportional to ω. The interference also yields persistent spin currents at thermal equilibrium, at E = 0. The contributions from the Dresselhaus and Rashba interactions to the interference oppose each other

  15. Synthesis and functionalization of NaGdF4:Yb,Er@NaGdF4 core–shell nanoparticles for possible application as multimodal contrast agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovile Baziulyte-Paulaviciene

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs are promising, new imaging probes capable of serving as multimodal contrast agents. In this study, monodisperse and ultrasmall core and core–shell UCNPs were synthesized via a thermal decomposition method. Furthermore, it was shown that the epitaxial growth of a NaGdF4 optical inert layer covering the NaGdF4:Yb,Er core effectively minimizes surface quenching due to the spatial isolation of the core from the surroundings. The mean diameter of the synthesized core and core–shell nanoparticles was ≈8 and ≈16 nm, respectively. Hydrophobic UCNPs were converted into hydrophilic ones using a nonionic surfactant Tween 80. The successful coating of the UCNPs by Tween 80 has been confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, photoluminescence (PL spectra and magnetic resonance (MR T1 relaxation measurements were used to characterize the size, crystal structure, optical and magnetic properties of the core and core–shell nanoparticles. Moreover, Tween 80-coated core–shell nanoparticles presented enhanced optical and MR signal intensity, good colloidal stability, low cytotoxicity and nonspecific internalization into two different breast cancer cell lines, which indicates that these nanoparticles could be applied as an efficient, dual-modal contrast probe for in vivo bioimaging.

  16. Spontaneous Magnetization in the Dipolar Ising Ferromagnet LiTbF4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Holmes, L. M.; Krebs Larsen, F.

    1975-01-01

    The spontaneous magnetization μ in Bohr magnetons below TC=2.874 K in LiTbF4 has been measured by magnetic Bragg scattering of neutrons. The data were normalized by comparing the magnetic Bragg scattering to the nuclear Bragg scattering at T>TC. The nuclear structure factors as well...

  17. Critical behavior of the magnetic susceptibility of the uniaxial ferromagnet LiHoF4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauvillain, P.; Renard, J. P.; Laursen, Ib

    1978-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of two LiHoF4 single crystals has been measured in the range 1.2-4.2 K. Ferromagnetic order occurs at Tc=1.527 K. Above 2.5 K, the susceptibilities parallel and perpendicular to the fourfold c axis are well interpreted by the molecular-field approximation, taking...

  18. Generalized WDVV equations for F4 pure N=2 Super-Yang-Mills theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaars, L.K.; Kersten, P.H.M.; Martini, Ruud

    2001-01-01

    An associative algebra of holomorphic differential forms is constructed associated with pure N=2 super-Yang–Mills theory for the Lie algebra F4. Existence and associativity of this algebra, combined with the general arguments in the work of Marshakov, Mironov and Morozov, proves that the

  19. Experimental infection with Escherichia coli 0149 : F4ac in weaned piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Gerda M.; Frydendahl, Kai; Svendsen, Ove

    2006-01-01

    adhesion test made after slaughter of piglets. However, in an experimental infection study with the purpose to obtain diarrhoeic piglets, it would be an advantage to test for susceptibility prior to experimentation. The Mucin 4 gene on porcine chromosome 13 has been proposed as a candidate gene...... for the production of the specific ETEC F4ab/ac receptor, and a DNA marker-based test has been developed to allow genotyping for ETEC F4ab/ac resistance/susceptibility [Jorgensen, C.B., Cirera, S., Archibald, A.L., Anderson, L., Fredholm, M., Edfors-Lilja, I., 2004. Porcine polymorphisms and methods for detecting...... them. International application published under the patent cooperation treaty (PCT). PCT/DK2003/000807 or WO2004/048606-A2]. The aim of this study was to test an experimental model for ETEC O149:F4ac-induced diarrhoea in piglets, selected for susceptibility towards ETEC O149:F4ac adhesion prior...

  20. In vitro reduction of dental erosion by low-concentration TiF4 solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieira, A.M.; Ruben, J.L.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare daily versus single applications of low-concentration TiF(4) solutions for reduction of enamel erosion and to evaluate the enamel surface loss due to application of these solutions. Sixty bovine enamel samples were randomly divided into 2 groups: single versus

  1. 26 CFR 1.672(f)-4 - Recharacterization of purported gifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recharacterization of purported gifts. 1.672(f...)-4 Recharacterization of purported gifts. (a) In general—(1) Purported gifts from partnerships... purported gift or bequest (as defined in paragraph (d) of this section) from a partnership, the purported...

  2. In vitro Reduction of Dental Erosion by Low-Concentration TiF4 Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieira, A. M.; Ruben, J. L.; Bronkhorst, E. M.; Huysmans, M. C. D. N. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare daily versus single applications of low-concentration TiF4 solutions for reduction of enamel erosion and to evaluate the enamel surface loss due to application of these solutions. Sixty bovine enamel samples were randomly divided into 2 groups: single versus

  3. Optical and scintillating properties of Ce:Li(Y,Lu)F4 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Yuui; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Chani, Valery; Kamada, Kei; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the optical and scintillating properties of Lu co-doped Ce:LiYF 4 single crystals with various Lu content. In the transmittance and absorption spectra, the absorption peaks at 243 nm get systematically red shifted in contrast to the peaks at 197 and 200 nm which get blue shifted with the increase in Lu content. At the same time, emission peaks at 306 nm and 200 nm under 295 nm excitation also get red shifted. The decay time of Ce:Li(Y,Lu)F 4 crystals under 295 nm excitation is found to be faster than that of Ce:LiYF 4 and Ce:LiLuF 4 crystals. The alpha-peak positions in the pulse-height spectra and decay times of crystals under alpha-ray irradiation are found to vary with the Lu content. - Highlights: • Optical and scintillation properties of Ce:Li(Y 1-x Lu x )F 4 crystals were inspected. • Increase of Lu content resulted change of the position of four absorption peaks. • Admixing of Y and Lu decreased the light yield and increased the decay time. • The Ce:LiLuF 4 crystal indicated the largest light yield in the pulse-height spectra. • Li[(Y 0.8 Lu 0.2 ) 0.98 Ce 0.02 ]F 4 indicated larger light yield than Ce:LiYF 4 crystal

  4. Men's Identity Development: Issues and Implications for Residence Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David A.; Livingston, Wade G.; Havice, Pamela A.; Cawthon, Tony W.

    2012-01-01

    Young men struggle with privilege and oppression in college and university residence halls just as they do in other educational and social contexts. While discussions and research about adolescent and adult identity development continue, little attention has focused on how a male student's identity development can impact residence life cultures on…

  5. ATLAS Assembly Hall Open Day

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2004-01-01

    To mark the 50th Anniversary of the founding of CERN, a day of tours, displays and presentations was held in October 2004. The assembly halls for the experiments that were waiting to be installed on the LHC, such as ATLAS shown here, were transformed into display areas and cafés.

  6. Universal intrinsic spin Hall effect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sinova, J.; Culcer, D.; Sinitsyn, N. A.; Niu, Q.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; MacDonald, A. H.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 12 (2004), 126603/1-126603/4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/02/0912 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : semiconductor quantum wells * spin-orbit interaction * spin Hall effect Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.218, year: 2004

  7. Spin Hall effect for anyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, S.; Basu, B.; Ghosh, Subir

    2007-01-01

    We explain the intrinsic spin Hall effect from generic anyon dynamics in the presence of external electromagnetic field. The free anyon is represented as a spinning particle with an underlying non-commutative configuration space. The Berry curvature plays a major role in the analysis

  8. The Other Hall Effect: College Board Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Keith; Gunning, Amanda M.

    2013-01-01

    Edwin Herbert Hall (1855-1938), discoverer of the Hall effect, was one of the first winners of the AAPT Oersted Medal for his contributions to the teaching of physics. While Hall's role in establishing laboratory work in high schools is widely acknowledged, his position as chair of the physics section of the Committee on College Entrance…

  9. Oral administration of a select mixture of Bacillus probiotics generates Tr1 cells in weaned F4ab/acR pigs challenged with an F4+ ETEC/VTEC/EPEC strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dong; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Meng-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Although breeding of F4 receptor − negative (F4R−) pigs may prevent post-weaning diarrhea, the underlying immunity is poorly understood. Here, various doses of a Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis mixture (BLS-mix) were orally administered to F4ab/acR− pigs for 1 week before F4 (K88) − ...... of BLS-mix during episodes of intestinal inflammation that is caused by enteric pathogens might prohibit clearance of the pathogen. Select probiotic mixtures may allow for tailoring strategies to prevent infectious diseases....

  10. BPS states in N = 2 supersymmetric G2 and F4 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahl Laamara, R.; Mellal, O.; Saidi, E. H.

    2017-07-01

    In BPS quiver theory of N = 2 supersymmetric pure gauge models with gauge invariance G, primitive BPS quivers Q0G are of two types: Q0ADE and Q0BCFG. In this study, we first show that Q0ADE have outer-automorphism symmetries inherited from the outer-automorphisms of the Dynkin diagrams of ADE Lie algebras. Then, we extend the usual folding operation of Dynkin diagrams ADE → BCFG to obtain the two following things: (i) relate Q0BCFG quivers and their mutations to the Q0ADE ones and their mutations; and (ii) link the BPS chambers of the N = 2ADE theories with the corresponding BCFG ones. As an illustration of this construction, we derive the BPS and anti-BPS states of the strong chambers QstgG2 and QstgF4 of the 4d N = 2 pure G2 and F4 gauge models.

  11. F4 quantum integrable, rational and trigonometric models: space-of-orbits view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turbiner, A V; Vieyra, J C Lopez

    2014-01-01

    Algebraic-rational nature of the four-dimensional, F 4 -invariant integrable quantum Hamiltonians, both rational and trigonometric, is revealed and reviewed. It was shown that being written in F 4 Weyl invariants, polynomial and exponential, respectively, both similarity-transformed Hamiltonians are in algebraic form, they are quite similar the second order differential operators with polynomial coefficients; the flat metric in the Laplace-Beltrami operator has polynomial (in invariants) matrix elements. Their potentials are calculated for the first time: they are meromorphic (rational) functions with singularities at the boundaries of the configuration space. Ground state eigenfunctions are algebraic functions in a form of polynomials in some degrees. Both Hamiltonians preserve the same infinite flag of polynomial spaces with characteristic vector (1, 2, 2, 3), it manifests exact solvability. A particular integral common for both models is derived. The first polynomial eigenfunctions are presented explicitly.

  12. Work plan for the retrieval of contaminated soil from the 116-F-4 soil storage unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludowise, J.D.

    1996-07-01

    The 116-F-4 pluto crib was excavated in 1993 as a treatability test to study field radionuclide analysis and dust control techniques. Approximately 410 m3 (540 yd3) of contaminated soil was removed from the crib and stored in a modular soil storage unit in the southwest corner of the 105-F exclusion area. In 1996, the waste will be retrieved from the storage unit and the storage unit will be dismantled. The waste and dismantled storage unit will be loaded and transported to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The purpose of this work plan is to provide guidance for retrieval and disposal of the 116-F-4 pluto crib contaminated soil and associated storage unit

  13. Procurement of the ITER magnet components supplied by F4E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sborchia, Carlo; Oliva, Alessandro Bonito; Rajainmaeki, Hannu; Vostner, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Fusion for Energy (F4E) will manage the in-kind contribution from Europe (EU) to ITER of about one quarter of the machine magnet components. This contribution will consist in 10 Toroidal Field (TF) coils, 5 (out of 6) Poloidal Field (PF) coils, 20% of the Nb3Sn conductor used in the TF coils and 15% of the PF coil NbTi conductor. In addition, 12 pre-compression fibreglass rings for the TF system will be procured. This paper presents the complex organization and status of the procurement activities of the F4E magnet components. The technical and managerial challenges, in terms of fabrication, quality assurance and schedule, are also highlighted.

  14. Facile preparation of highly pure KF-ZrF4 molten salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Guoqiang; Cui, Zhen-Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Bing; Zhang, Long; Xiao, Ji-Chang

    2018-03-01

    The preparation of highly pure KF-ZrF4 (FKZr) molten salt, a potential secondary coolant in molten salt reactors, was realized simply by heating a mixture of (NH4)2ZrF6 and KF. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the FKZr molten salt was mainly composed of KZrF5 and K2ZrF6. The melting point of the prepared FKZr molten salt was 420-422 °C under these conditions. The contents of all metal impurities were lower than 20 ppm, and the content of oxygen was lower than 400 ppm. This one-step protocol avoids the need for a tedious procedure to prepare ZrF4 and for an additional purification process to remove oxide impurities, and is therefore a convenient, efficient and economic preparation method for high-purity FKZr molten salt.

  15. Clostridium botulinum strains producing BoNT/F4 or BoNT/F5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Brian H; Bradshaw, Marite; Kalb, Suzanne R; Joseph, Lavin A; Lúquez, Carolina; Barr, John R; Johnson, Eric A; Maslanka, Susan E

    2014-05-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin type F (BoNT/F) may be produced by Clostridium botulinum alone or in combination with another toxin type such as BoNT/A or BoNT/B. Type F neurotoxin gene sequences have been further classified into seven toxin subtypes. Recently, the genome sequence of one strain of C. botulinum (Af84) was shown to contain three neurotoxin genes (bont/F4, bont/F5, and bont/A2). In this study, eight strains containing bont/F4 and seven strains containing bont/F5 were examined. Culture supernatants produced by these strains were incubated with BoNT/F-specific peptide substrates. Cleavage products of these peptides were subjected to mass spectral analysis, allowing detection of the BoNT/F subtypes present in the culture supernatants. PCR analysis demonstrated that a plasmid-specific marker (PL-6) was observed only among strains containing bont/F5. Among these strains, Southern hybridization revealed the presence of an approximately 242-kb plasmid harboring bont/F5. Genome sequencing of four of these strains revealed that the genomic backgrounds of strains harboring either bont/F4 or bont/F5 are diverse. None of the strains analyzed in this study were shown to produce BoNT/F4 and BoNT/F5 simultaneously, suggesting that strain Af84 is unusual. Finally, these data support a role for the mobility of a bont/F5-carrying plasmid among strains of diverse genomic backgrounds.

  16. Nqrs Data for C6H7F4N2OSb (Subst. No. 0879)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C6H7F4N2OSb (Subst. No. 0879)

  17. Final hazard classification for the 116-F-4 (Terra Stor) soil retrieval activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.J.

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the final hazard classification for the remediation activities described in the Work Plan for the Retrieval of Contaminated Soil from the 116-F-4 Storage Unit. Based upon total inventories calculated from the characterization data, a preliminary hazard categorization of less than Hazard Category 3 was assigned. Based upon the material-at-risk, a final hazard classification of radiological was assigned

  18. Nuevos fragmentos del Éxodo griego (Ms. Gr. Bibl. f. 4 [P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Spottorno

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available Publication of the unedited Ms. Gr. Bibl. f. 4 (P containing Ex. 9, 1. 2. 6-8. 10. 11. 13. 14, with paleographical commentary and discussion on its insertion in the Septuagint text history. The authors maintain that it belongs to a revision of the Septuagint implying on one side an approach to the original Hebrew and on the other side stylistic modifications. This revision could be parahexaplaric and perhaps prehexaplaric.

  19. The polymeric stability of the Escherichia coli F4 (K88) fimbriae enhances its mucosal immunogenicity following oral immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonck, Frank; Joensuu, Jussi Joonas; Stuyven, Edith; De Meyer, Julie; Muilu, Mikko; Pirhonen, Minna; Goddeeris, Bruno Maria; Mast, Jan; Niklander-Teeri, Viola; Cox, Eric

    2008-10-23

    Only a few vaccines are commercially available against intestinal infections since the induction of a protective intestinal immune response is difficult to achieve. For instance, oral administration of most proteins results in oral tolerance instead of an antigen-specific immune response. We have shown before that as a result of oral immunization of piglets with F4 fimbriae purified from pathogenic enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), the fimbriae bind to the F4 receptor (F4R) in the intestine and induce a protective F4-specific immune response. F4 fimbriae are very stable polymeric structures composed of some minor subunits and a major subunit FaeG that is also the fimbrial adhesin. In the present study, the mutagenesis experiments identified FaeG amino acids 97 (N to K) and 201 (I to V) as determinants for F4 polymeric stability. The interaction between the FaeG subunits in mutant F4 fimbriae is reduced but both mutant and wild type fimbriae behaved identically in F4R binding and showed equal stability in the gastro-intestinal lumen. Oral immunization experiments indicated that a higher degree of polymerisation of the fimbriae in the intestine was correlated with a better F4-specific mucosal immunogenicity. These data suggest that the mucosal immunogenicity of soluble virulence factors can be increased by the construction of stable polymeric structures and therefore help in the development of effective mucosal vaccines.

  20. F2-isoprostanes and F4-neuroprostanes as markers of intracranial aneurysm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syta-Krzyżanowska, Anna; Jarocka-Karpowicz, Iwona; Kochanowicz, Jan; Turek, Grzegorz; Rutkowski, Robert; Gorbacz, Krzysztof; Mariak, Zenon; Skrzydlewska, Elżbieta

    2018-04-24

    Intracranial aneurysms are common, occurring in about 1-2% of the population. Saccular aneurysm is a pouch-like pathological dilatation of an intracranial artery that develops when the cerebral artery wall becomes too weak to resist hemodynamic pressure and distends. The aim of this study was to determine whether the development of intracranial aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) affects neuronal phospholipid metabolism, and what influence different invasive treatments have on brain free radical phospholipid metabolism. The level of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) cyclization products - F2-isoprostanes and F4-neuroprostanes - was examined using liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in the plasma of patients with brain aneurysm and resulting subarachnoid hemorrhage. It was revealed that an aneurysm leads to the enhancement of lipid peroxidation with a significant increase in plasma F2-isoprostanes and F4-neuroprostanes (more than 3-fold and 11-fold, respectively) in comparison to healthy subjects. The rupture of an aneurysm results in hemorrhage and an additional increase in examined prostaglandin derivatives. The embolization and clipping of aneurysms contribute to a gradual restoration of metabolic homeostasis in brain cells, which is visible in the decrease in PUFA cyclization products. The results indicate that aneurysm development is associated with enhanced inflammation and oxidative stress, factors which favor lipid peroxidation, particularly in neurons, whose membranes are rich in docosahexaenoic acid, a precursor of F4-neuroprostanes.

  1. F4/80+ Macrophages Contribute to Clearance of Senescent Cells in the Mouse Postpartum Uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egashira, Mahiro; Hirota, Yasushi; Shimizu-Hirota, Ryoko; Saito-Fujita, Tomoko; Haraguchi, Hirofumi; Matsumoto, Leona; Matsuo, Mitsunori; Hiraoka, Takehiro; Tanaka, Tomoki; Akaeda, Shun; Takehisa, Chiaki; Saito-Kanatani, Mayuko; Maeda, Kei-Ichiro; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Osuga, Yutaka

    2017-07-01

    Cellular senescence, defined as an irreversible cell cycle arrest, exacerbates the tissue microenvironment. Our previous study demonstrated that mouse uterine senescent cells were physiologically increased according to gestational days and that their abnormal accumulation was linked to the onset of preterm delivery. We hypothesized that there is a mechanism for removal of senescent cells after parturition to maintain uterine function. In the current study, we noted abundant uterine senescent cells and their gradual disappearance in wild-type postpartum mice. F4/80+ macrophages were present specifically around the area rich in senescent cells. Depletion of macrophages in the postpartum mice using anti-F4/80 antibody enlarged the area of senescent cells in the uterus. We also found excessive uterine senescent cells and decreased second pregnancy success rate in a preterm birth model using uterine p53-deleted mice. Furthermore, a decrease in F4/80+ cells and an increase in CD11b+ cells with a senescence-associated inflammatory microenvironment were observed in the p53-deleted uterus, suggesting that uterine p53 deficiency affects distribution of the macrophage subpopulation, interferes with senescence clearance, and promotes senescence-induced inflammation. These findings indicate that the macrophage is a key player in the clearance of uterine senescent cells to maintain postpartum uterine function. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  2. 100 Area soil washing: Bench scale tests on 116-F-4 pluto crib soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, J.G.

    1994-06-10

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a bench-scale treatability study on a pluto crib soil sample from 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of physical separation (wet sieving), treatment processes (attrition scrubbing, and autogenous surface grinding), and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating radioactively-contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. The soil washing treatability study was conducted on a soil sample from the 116-F-4 Pluto Crib that had been dug up as part of an excavation treatability study. Trace element analyses of this soil showed no elevated concentrations above typically uncontaminated soil background levels. Data on the distribution of radionuclide in various size fractions indicated that the soil-washing tests should be focused on the gravel and sand fractions of the 116-F-4 soil. The radionuclide data also showed that {sup 137}Cs was the only contaminant in this soil that exceeded the test performance goal (TPG). Therefore, the effectiveness of subsequent soil-washing tests for 116-F-4 soil was evaluated on the basis of activity attenuation of {sup 137}Cs in the gravel- and sand-size fractions.

  3. 100 Area soil washing: Bench scale tests on 116-F-4 pluto crib soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a bench-scale treatability study on a pluto crib soil sample from 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of physical separation (wet sieving), treatment processes (attrition scrubbing, and autogenous surface grinding), and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating radioactively-contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. The soil washing treatability study was conducted on a soil sample from the 116-F-4 Pluto Crib that had been dug up as part of an excavation treatability study. Trace element analyses of this soil showed no elevated concentrations above typically uncontaminated soil background levels. Data on the distribution of radionuclide in various size fractions indicated that the soil-washing tests should be focused on the gravel and sand fractions of the 116-F-4 soil. The radionuclide data also showed that 137 Cs was the only contaminant in this soil that exceeded the test performance goal (TPG). Therefore, the effectiveness of subsequent soil-washing tests for 116-F-4 soil was evaluated on the basis of activity attenuation of 137 Cs in the gravel- and sand-size fractions

  4. F4/80 inhibits osteoclast differentiation via downregulation of nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ju-Hee; Sim, Jung-Sun; Zheng, Ting; Yim, Mijung

    2017-04-01

    Osteoclastogenesis is an essential process in bone metabolism, which can be induced by RANKL stimulation. The F4/80 glycoprotein is a member of the EGF-transmembrane 7 (TM7) family and has been established as a specific cell-surface marker for murine macrophages. This study aimed to identify the role of F4/80 in osteoclastogenesis. Using mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs), we observed that the mRNA level of F4/80 was dramatically reduced as these cells differentiated into osteoclasts. Furthermore, osteoclastogenesis was decreased in F4/80 high BMMs compared to F4/80 -/low BMMs. The inhibitory effect of F4/80 was associated with decreased expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1). Ectopic overexpression of a constitutively active form of NFATc1 rescued the anti-osteoclastogenic effect of F4/80 completely, suggesting that the anti-osteoclastogenic effect of F4/80 was mainly due to reduction in NFATc1 expression. As an underlying mechanism, we demonstrated that the presence of F4/80 abrogated the effect of RANKL on the phosphorylation of CREB and activated the expression of IFN-β, which are restored by cyclic AMP. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the presence of F4/80 suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by impairing the expression of NFATc1 via CREB and IFN-β. Therefore, F4/80 may hold therapeutic potential for bone destructive diseases.

  5. Hall effect in noncommutative coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayi, Oemer F.; Jellal, Ahmed

    2002-01-01

    We consider electrons in uniform external magnetic and electric fields which move on a plane whose coordinates are noncommuting. Spectrum and eigenfunctions of the related Hamiltonian are obtained. We derive the electric current whose expectation value gives the Hall effect in terms of an effective magnetic field. We present a receipt to find the action which can be utilized in path integrals for noncommuting coordinates. In terms of this action we calculate the related Aharonov-Bohm phase and show that it also yields the same effective magnetic field. When magnetic field is strong enough this phase becomes independent of magnetic field. Measurement of it may give some hints on spatial noncommutativity. The noncommutativity parameter θ can be tuned such that electrons moving in noncommutative coordinates are interpreted as either leading to the fractional quantum Hall effect or composite fermions in the usual coordinates

  6. General vibration monitoring: Experimental hall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Wambsganss, M.W.; Smith, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    The reported vibration data were generated from measurements made on the experimental hall floor on December 2, 1992. At the time of the measurements, the ESRF hydrolevel was set-up in the Early Assembly Area (EAA) of the experimental hall and was being used to measure static displacement (settlement) of the floor. The vibration measurement area was on and adjacent to the EAA, in the vicinity of the ESRF hydrolevel test which was in progress. This report summarizes the objectives, instrumentation, measurement locations, observations, and conclusions, and provides selected results in the form of RMS vs. time plots, and power spectral densities from which frequency information can be derived. Measured response amplitudes were within the vibration criteria established for the APS

  7. Inhibition of c-Myc by 10058-F4 induces growth arrest and chemosensitivity in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Fan, Hai-Yan; Li, Sheng-Chao

    2015-07-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a formidable medical challenge due to its malignancies and the absence of effective treatment. c-Myc, as an important transcription factor, plays crucial roles in cell cycle progression, apoptosis and cellular transformation. The c-Myc inhibitor, 10058-F4, has been reported act as a tumor suppressor in several different tumors. In current study, the tumor-suppressive roles of 10058-F4 was observed in human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro as demonstrated by decreased cell viability, cell cycle arrest at the G1/S transition and increased caspase3/7 activity. And tumor responses to gemcitabine were also significantly enhanced by 10058-F4 in PANC-1 and SW1990 cells. In a subcutaneous xenograft model, however, 10058-F4 showed no significant influence on pancreatic tumorigenesis. When combined with gemcitabine, tumorigenesis was drastically attenuated compared with gemcitabine group or 10058-F4 group; this synergistic effect was accompanied with decreased PCNA-positive cells and reduced TUNEL-positive cells in the combined treated group. Subsequent studies revealed that decreased glycolysis may be involved in the inhibitory effect of 10058-F4 on PDAC. Taken together, this study demonstrates the roles of 10058-F4 in PDAC and provides evidence that 10058-F4 in combination with gemcitabine showed significant clinical benefit over the usage of gemcitabine alone. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. Oral immunization with F4 fimbriae and CpG formulated with carboxymethyl starch enhances F4-specific mucosal immune response and modulates Th1 and Th2 cytokines in weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Benjamin; Calinescu, Carmen; Mateescu, Mircea Alexandru; Fairbrother, John Morris; Nadeau, Éric

    2012-01-01

    F4 fimbriae are a potential candidate for an oral subunit vaccine for prevention of post-weaning diarrhea in swine due to infection with F4-positive enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. However, large quantities of F4 fimbriae are required to induce a specific antibody response. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation of F4 fimbriae with Cytosine-phosphate-Guanosine-oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-A D19) or with complete cholera toxin (CT) as adjuvants on the F4-specific antibody response and cytokine production in weaned pigs following oral administration of F4 fimbrial antigen formulated with Carboxymethyl Starch (CMS). Oral dosage forms of F4 fimbriae alone or supplemented with CpG-A D19 or with CT were formulated with CMS as monolithic tablets, obtained by direct compression, and administered to weaned pigs. Blood and faecal samples were collected to determine the systemic and mucosal immune status of animals at various times until necropsy. During necropsy, contents of the jejunum and ileum were collected for determination of mucosal F4 specific antibodies. Segments of jejunum and ileum were also used to measure mRNA cytokine production. The presence of CpG in the formulation of the fimbriae significantly increased F4-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) IgM and IgG levels in intestinal secretions, and enhanced Th1 (Interferon-gamma / IFN-γ, Tumour Necrosis Factor-alpha / TNF-α, Interleukin-12p40 / IL-12p40, IL-1β) and Th2 (IL-4, IL-6) cytokine production in intestinal tissues. Supplementation with CT did not result in induction of F4-specific antibodies in secretions, although a significant Th1 response (IFN-α, IFN-γ, IL-18) was detected in tissues. Neither F4-specific systemic antibodies, nor intestinally secreted IgA were detected throughout the immunization trial for all groups. CpG-A D19 appeared to be a promising adjuvant for an oral F4 subunit vaccine formulated with CMS excipient as monolithic tablets. This matrix afforded gastro

  9. L'effet Hall Quantique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Thomas

    Nous proposons une methode permettant d'obtenir une expression pour la conductivite de Hall de structures electroniques bidimensionnelles et nous examinons celle -ci a la limite d'une temperature nulle dans le but de verifier l'effet Hall quantique. Nous allons nous interesser essentiellement a l'effet Hall quantique entier et aux effets fractionnaires inferieurs a un. Le systeme considere est forme d'un gaz d'electrons en interaction faible avec les impuretes de l'echantillon. Le modele du gaz d'electrons consiste en un gaz bidimensionnel d'electrons sans spin expose perpendiculairement a un champ magnetique uniforme. Ce dernier est decrit par le potentiel vecteur vec{rm A} defini dans la jauge de Dingle ou jauge symetrique. Conformement au formalisme de la seconde quantification, l'hamiltonien de ce gaz est represente dans la base des etats a un-corps de Dingle |n,m> et exprime ainsi en terme des operateurs de creation et d'annihilation correspondants a_sp{ rm n m}{dag} et a _{rm n m}. Nous supposons de plus que les electrons du niveau fondamental de Dingle interagissent entre eux via le potentiel coulombien. La methode utilisee fait appel a une equation mai tresse a N-corps, de nature quantique et statistique, et verifiant le second principe de la thermodynamique. A partir de celle-ci, nous obtenons un systeme d'equations differentielles appele hierarchie d'equations quantique dont la resolution nous permet de determiner une equation a un-corps, dite de Boltzmann quantique, et dictant l'evolution de la moyenne statistique de l'operateur non-diagonal a _sp{rm n m}{dag } a_{rm n}, _{rm m}, sous l'action du champ electrique applique vec{rm E}(t). C'est sa solution Tr(p(t) a _sp{rm n m}{dag} a_{rm n},_ {rm m}), qui definit la relation de convolution entre la densite courant de Hall vec{rm J}_{rm H }(t) et le champ electrique vec {rm E}(t) dont la transformee de Laplace-Fourier du noyau nous fournit l'expression de la conductivite de Hall desiree. Pour une valeur de

  10. Interrelationship and path coefficient analysis of yield components in F4 progenies of tef (Eragrostis tef).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debebe, Abel; Singh, Harijat; Tefera, Hailu

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted at Debre Zeit and Akaki during 2004-2005 cropping season on F2-derived F4 bulk families of three crosses, viz, DZ-01-974 x DZ-01-2786, DZ-01-974 x DZ-Cr-37 and Alba x Kaye Murri. To estimate the correlations and path coefficients between yield and yield components, 63 F4 families were taken randomly from each of the three crosses. The 189 F4 families, five parents and two checks were space planted following in 14 x 14 simple lattice design. Study of associations among traits indicated that yield was positively associated with shoot biomass, harvest index, lodging index and panicle kernel weight at phenotypic level at Debre Zeit. At Akaki, yield had significant positive correlation with shoot biomass, harvest index, plant height, panicle length and panicle weight. At genotypic level, grain yield per plot exhibited positive association with harvest index, shoot biomass, lodging index and panicle kernel weight at Debre Zeit. By contrast, days to heading, days to maturity, plant height and panicle length showed negative association with yield. At Akaki, kernel yield per plot was positively correlated at genotypic level with all the traits considered where lodging index had the highest correlation followed by shoot biomass, panicle kernel weight and harvest index. Path coefficient analysis at both phenotypic and genotypic levels for both the locations suggested those shoot biomass and harvest indexes are the two important yield determining traits. These two traits might be useful in indirect selection for yield improvement in the material generated from the three crosses under consideration.

  11. Hydrolysable chestnut tannins for reduction of postweaning diarrhea: Efficacy on an experimental ETEC F4 model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Marion; Thanner, Sophie; Pradervand, Nicolas; Hu, Dou; Ollagnier, Catherine; Bee, Giuseppe

    2018-01-01

    An experimental model for postweaning diarrhea with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4 (ETEC F4) was set up in piglets, and the efficacy of 1% chestnut-tannin extract in preventing diarrhea was subsequently assessed. In a first trial (infection model), 32 Swiss Large White piglets (age: 24 days; average BW: 7.8 ± 0.8 kg) were randomly assigned to two experimental groups (infected [INF], noninfected [NINF]). In a subsequent trial, 72 Swiss Large White piglets (age: 26 days; average BW: 7.4 ± 1.5 kg) were blocked by BW and assigned within block to four experimental groups: NINF-CO: not infected and fed a standard control starter diet (CO); INF-CO: infected and fed the CO diet; NINF-TA: not infected and fed the CO diet supplemented with 1% chestnut extract containing 54% of hydrolysable tannins (TA); and INF-TA: infected and fed the TA diet. Both diets (TA and CO) were formulated to be isocaloric and isoproteic and to meet or surpass the nutritional requirements. In both trials, four days after weaning, piglets assigned to the INF group received an oral suspension of ETEC F4. Fecal score, ETEC shedding in feces (only in trial 2), and growth performance traits were measured for the following 14 days post infection. In both trials, more than 50% of the INF piglets developed diarrhea within six days post infection. Tannins reduced (P < 0.05) the average fecal score, the percentage of piglets in diarrhea, and the duration of diarrhea, whereas feed intake and the average daily gain were unaffected.

  12. Nematic and Valley Ordering in Anisotropic Quantum Hall Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswaran, S. A.; Abanin, D. A.; Kivelson, S. A.; Sondhi, S. L.

    2010-03-01

    We consider a multi-valley two dimensional electron system in the quantum Hall effect (QHE) regime. We focus on QHE states that arise due to spontaneous breaking of the valley symmetry by the Coulomb interactions. We show that the anisotropy of the Fermi surface in each valley, which is generally present in such systems, favors states where all the electrons reside in one of the valleys. In a clean system, the valley ordering occurs via a finite temperature Ising-like phase transition, which, owing to the Fermi surface anisotropy, is accompanied by the onset of nematic order. In a disordered system, domains of opposite polarization are formed, and therefore long-range valley order is destroyed, however, the resulting state is still compressible. We discuss the transport properties in ordered and disordered regimes, and point out the possible relation of our results to recent experiments in AlAs [1]. [1] Y. P. Shkolnikov, S. Misra, N. C. Bishop, E. P. De Poortere, and M. Shayegan, Observation of Quantum Hall ``Valley Skyrmions", Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 068809 (2005)[2] D.A. Abanin, S.A. Parameswaran, S.A. Kivelson and S.L. Sondhi, Nematic and Valley Ordering in Anisotropic Quantum Hall Systems, to be published.

  13. Moessbauer studies of the structural phase transitions in RbFeF4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumeler, Hp.; Keller, H.; Kuendig, W.; Savic, I.M.; Wanklyn, B.M.

    1984-01-01

    RbFeF 4 exhibits two structural phase transitions (SPT), namely a first-order transition at 381 K and a second-order transition at 417 K. A detailed 57 Fe Moessbauer investigation of these SPT is presented. At pronounced discontinuities in the quadrupole splitting and the recoil-free fraction are observed, whereas at 417 K both quantities vary continuously with temperature. Both SPT are also seen in the area ratio of the single crystal quadrupole lines which reflects the tilting of the FeF 6 octahedra with respect to the c-axis. However, no noticeable indication of the SPT is found in the center shift. (Auth.)

  14. Magnetic properties of lithium rare-earth fluorides: Ferromagnetism in LiErF4 and LiHoF4 and crystal-field parameters at the rare-earth and Li sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P. E.; Johansson, Torben; Nevald, Rolf

    1975-01-01

    Single crystals of LiErF4 and LiHoF4 have been grown and their magnetic properties measured from 1.3 K to 300 K. LiHoF4 turned out to be a nearly ideal Ising ferromagnet with TC=1.30±0.05 K and a saturation magnetization along the crystalline c axis of (6.98±0.02)μB. In LiErF4 no ordering...... was observed, but extrapolation indicates that below 0.5 K it will be ferromagnetic with the magnetic moments in the crytalline ab plane. From the susceptibilities the crystal-field parameters Bnm with (n, m)=(2, 0), (4, 0), (4, 4), (6, 0), (6, 4) have been extracted giving for Er3+ in LiErF4: 430., -985......., 1185., -5., 740.+i135. (cm-1) and for Ho3+ in LiHoF4: 470., -825., 1050., -10., 760.+i150 (cm-1). The exchange constants were found to be small compared to the dipole interactions. Furthermore the 7Li NMR spectra have been obtained in these materials as well as in LiTbF4 thereby determining the second...

  15. Association of Increased F4/80high Macrophages With Suppression of Serum-Transfer Arthritis in Mice With Reduced FLIP in Myeloid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qi-Quan; Birkett, Robert; Doyle, Renee E; Haines, G Kenneth; Perlman, Harris; Shi, Bo; Homan, Philip; Xing, Lianping; Pope, Richard M

    2017-09-01

    Macrophages are critical in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We recently demonstrated that FLIP is necessary for the differentiation and/or survival of macrophages. We also showed that FLIP is highly expressed in RA synovial macrophages. This study was undertaken to determine if a reduction in FLIP in mouse macrophages reduces synovial tissue macrophages and ameliorates serum-transfer arthritis. Mice with Flip deleted in myeloid cells (Flip f/f LysM c/+ mice) and littermate controls were used. Arthritis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of K/BxN serum. Disease severity was evaluated by clinical score and change in ankle thickness, and joints were examined by histology and immunohistochemistry. Cells were isolated from the ankles and bone marrow of the mice and examined by flow cytometry, real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, or Western blotting. In contrast to expectations, Flip f/f LysM c/+ mice developed more severe arthritis early in the clinical course, but peak arthritis was attenuated and the resolution phase more complete than in control mice. Prior to the induction of serum-transfer arthritis, the number of tissue-resident macrophages was reduced. On day 9 after arthritis induction, the number of F4/80 high macrophages in the joints of the Flip f/f LysM c/+ mice was not decreased, but increased. FLIP was reduced in the F4/80 high macrophages in the ankles of the Flip f/f LysM c/+ mice, while F4/80 high macrophages expressed an antiinflammatory phenotype in both the Flip f/f LysM c/+ and control mice. Our observations suggest that reducing FLIP in macrophages by increasing the number of antiinflammatory macrophages may be an effective therapeutic approach to suppress inflammation, depending on the disease stage. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.

  16. Spin Hall effect by surface roughness

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Lingjun

    2015-01-08

    The spin Hall and its inverse effects, driven by the spin orbit interaction, provide an interconversion mechanism between spin and charge currents. Since the spin Hall effect generates and manipulates spin current electrically, to achieve a large effect is becoming an important topic in both academia and industries. So far, materials with heavy elements carrying a strong spin orbit interaction, provide the only option. We propose here a new mechanism, using the surface roughness in ultrathin films, to enhance the spin Hall effect without heavy elements. Our analysis based on Cu and Al thin films suggests that surface roughness is capable of driving a spin Hall angle that is comparable to that in bulk Au. We also demonstrate that the spin Hall effect induced by surface roughness subscribes only to the side-jump contribution but not the skew scattering. The paradigm proposed in this paper provides the second, not if only, alternative to generate a sizable spin Hall effect.

  17. Tunneling Anomalous and Spin Hall Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos-Abiague, A; Fabian, J

    2015-07-31

    We predict, theoretically, the existence of the anomalous Hall effect when a tunneling current flows through a tunnel junction in which only one of the electrodes is magnetic. The interfacial spin-orbit coupling present in the barrier region induces a spin-dependent momentum filtering in the directions perpendicular to the tunneling current, resulting in a skew tunneling even in the absence of impurities. This produces an anomalous Hall conductance and spin Hall currents in the nonmagnetic electrode when a bias voltage is applied across the tunneling heterojunction. If the barrier is composed of a noncentrosymmetric material, the anomalous Hall conductance and spin Hall currents become anisotropic with respect to both the magnetization and crystallographic directions, allowing us to separate this interfacial phenomenon from the bulk anomalous and spin Hall contributions. The proposed effect should be useful for proving and quantifying the interfacial spin-orbit fields in metallic and metal-semiconductor systems.

  18. Crystallization of the FaeE chaperone of Escherichia coli F4 fimbriae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Molle, Inge; Buts, Lieven; Coppens, Fanny; Qiang, Liu; Wyns, Lode; Loris, Remy; Bouckaert, Julie; De Greve, Henri

    2005-01-01

    The periplasmic chaperone FaeE of E. coli F4 fimbriae crystallizes in three crystal forms. F4 (formerly K88) fimbriae from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli are assembled via the FaeE/FaeD chaperone/usher pathway. The chaperone FaeE crystallizes in three crystal forms, all belonging to space group C2. Crystals of form 1 diffract to 2.3 Å and have unit-cell parameters a = 195.7, b = 78.5, c = 184.6 Å, β = 102.2°. X-ray data for crystal form 2 were collected to 2.7 Å using an SeMet variant of FaeE. The crystals have unit-cell parameters a = 136.4, b = 75.7, c = 69.4 Å, β = 92.8°. Crystals of form 3 were formed in a solution containing the FaeE–FaeG complex and diffract to 2.8 Å. Unit-cell parameters are a = 109.7, b = 78.6, c = 87.8 Å, β = 96.4°

  19. Crystallization of the FaeE chaperone of Escherichia coli F4 fimbriae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Molle, Inge, E-mail: ivmolle@vub.ac.be; Buts, Lieven; Coppens, Fanny; Qiang, Liu; Wyns, Lode; Loris, Remy; Bouckaert, Julie; De Greve, Henri [Laboratorium voor Ultrastructuur, Vlaams Interuniversitair Instituut voor Biotechnologie, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussel (Belgium)

    2005-04-01

    The periplasmic chaperone FaeE of E. coli F4 fimbriae crystallizes in three crystal forms. F4 (formerly K88) fimbriae from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli are assembled via the FaeE/FaeD chaperone/usher pathway. The chaperone FaeE crystallizes in three crystal forms, all belonging to space group C2. Crystals of form 1 diffract to 2.3 Å and have unit-cell parameters a = 195.7, b = 78.5, c = 184.6 Å, β = 102.2°. X-ray data for crystal form 2 were collected to 2.7 Å using an SeMet variant of FaeE. The crystals have unit-cell parameters a = 136.4, b = 75.7, c = 69.4 Å, β = 92.8°. Crystals of form 3 were formed in a solution containing the FaeE–FaeG complex and diffract to 2.8 Å. Unit-cell parameters are a = 109.7, b = 78.6, c = 87.8 Å, β = 96.4°.

  20. Synthesis and kinetics of [18F]4'-fluoroantipyrine in normal mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, P.J.; Fortman, D.L.; Scholz, K.L.; Fusaro, G.A.; Sodd, V.J.

    1978-01-01

    Antipyrine labeled with radioiodine has proven useful for studying the symmetry of human brain perfusion by gamma-camera techniques. The feasibility of preparing F-18-labeled antipyrine for eventual use with a positron camera was investigated. The preparation of [ 18 F] 4'-fluoroantipyrine and its distribution in normal mice were used to evaluate this potential. 4'-Fluoroantipyrine was prepared in 7 to 20% chemical yield by the pyrolysis of the 4'-diazonium fluoroborate salt of antipyrine. This Schiemann salt was prepared by a five-step synthesis from 1-(4'-nitrophenyl)-3-methyl-5-chloro-pyrazole. Fluorine-18 labeling of the diazonium fluoroborate salt by exchange with aqueous F-18 and pyrolysis of the dried labeled salt produced [ 18 F] 4'-fluoroantipyrine with specific activities of 0.83 to 2.7 μCi/mg. The incorporated F-18 activity ranged from 0.53 to 1.9%. The labeling procedure took about 3 hr. The labeled antipyrine was administered by tail vein to fasting female Swiss-Cox mice. Distribution of F-18 at 12, 30, 60, and 120 sec, and 10 min, after injection showed that radioactivity persisted in the brain up to 120 sec at a level greater than that of the skin and the bone. (Skin and bone samples were chosen as representative of activities in the scalp and skull surrounding the brain.) Thus, perfusion imaging of the CNS should be possible when greater quantities of high-specific-activity F-18-labeled antipyrine becomes available

  1. Multiferroic fluoride BaCoF4 Thin Films Grown Via Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, Pavel; Johnson, Trent; García-Castro, Camilo; Kc, Amit; Schrecongost, Dustin; Cen, Cheng; Romero, Aldo; Lederman, David

    Multiferroic materials exhibit exciting physics related to the simultaneous presence of multiple long-range orders, in many cases consisting of antiferromagnetic (AF) and ferroelectric (FE) orderings. In order to provide a new, promising route for fluoride-based multiferroic material engineering, we grew multiferroic fluoride BaCoF4 in thin film form on Al2O3 (0001) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. The films grow with the orthorhombic b-axis out-of-plane and with three in-plane structural twin domains along the polar c-axis directions. The FE ordering in thin films was verified by FE remanent hysteresis loops measurements at T = 14 K and by room temperature piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). An AF behavior was found below Neel temperature TN ~ 80 K, which is in agreement with the bulk properties. At lower temperatures two additional magnetic phase transitions at 19 K and 41 K were found. First-principles calculations demonstrated that the growth strain applied to the bulk BaCoF4 indeed favors two canted spin orders, along the b- and a-axes, respectively, in addition to the main AF spin order along the c-axis. Supported by FAME (Contract 2013-MA-2382), WV Research Challenge Grant (HEPC.dsr.12.29), and DMREF-NSF 1434897.

  2. Electrochemical behaviour of ThF4 in LiCl-KCl eutectic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Renu; Mukerjee, S.K.; Ramakumar, K.L.

    2016-01-01

    Pyrochemical processing of nuclear fuels is an integral part of molten salt reactor technology. Thorium containing molten salt reactors are relevant for transmutation of minor actinides and utilizations of vast thorium resources. Understanding chemical and electrochemical behavior of actinide and lanthanide ions in chloride melts is an important task in this process. A eutectic of lithium and potassium chloride is found to be the most suitable salt for this study due to its low melting, high reduction potential and significant solubility of most of the actinide and lanthanide salts. However, electrochemistry of thorium in chloride melt is inconsistent due to dispute over the presence of Th(II) cation along with Th(IV). In the present experiments, cyclic-voltammograms of ThF 4 in LiCl-KCl eutectic salt were measured using three electrodes cell, where all the electrodes were 1 mm molybdenum wires and counter electrode wire was twisted into a spiral shape to increase surface area and was used for mixing the salts in molten state. Cyclic-voltammograms of pure eutectic melt and with ThF 4 were measured at scanning rates 50-300 mV/s, at 648 K and 723 K. Diffusion coefficient of Th 4+ was calculated using Delahay equation

  3. Anomalous Hall effect in polycrystalline Ni films

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Zaibing

    2012-02-01

    We systematically studied the anomalous Hall effect in a series of polycrystalline Ni films with thickness ranging from 4 to 200 nm. It is found that both the longitudinal and anomalous Hall resistivity increased greatly as film thickness decreased. This enhancement should be related to the surface scattering. In the ultrathin films (46 nm thick), weak localization corrections to anomalous Hall conductivity were studied. The granular model, taking into account the dominated intergranular tunneling, has been employed to explain this phenomenon, which can explain the weak dependence of anomalous Hall resistivity on longitudinal resistivity as well. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Temperature Gradient in Hall Thrusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staack, D.; Raitses, Y.; Fisch, N.J.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma potentials and electron temperatures were deduced from emissive and cold floating probe measurements in a 2 kW Hall thruster, operated in the discharge voltage range of 200-400 V. An almost linear dependence of the electron temperature on the plasma potential was observed in the acceleration region of the thruster both inside and outside the thruster. This result calls into question whether secondary electron emission from the ceramic channel walls plays a significant role in electron energy balance. The proportionality factor between the axial electron temperature gradient and the electric field is significantly smaller than might be expected by models employing Ohmic heating of electrons

  5. Participation of CD11b and F4/80 molecules in the conjunctival eosinophilia of experimental allergic conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Atsuki; Ishida, Waka; Ojima, Ayako; Kajisako, Mina; Sumi, Tamaki; Yamada, Jun; Tsuru, Emi; Miyazaki, Jun-ichi; Tominaga, Akira; Yagita, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    CD11b and F4/80 are macrophage surface markers. How these molecules participate in allergic eosinophil infiltration remains unclear. We examined the roles CD11b and F4/80 play in the conjunctival eosinophil infiltration associated with experimental allergic conjunctivitis. Ragweed-immunized BALB/c mice were challenged with ragweed in eye drops to induce conjunctival eosinophil infiltration. The effect of challenge on conjunctival CD11b+ and F4/80+ cell numbers was determined by immunohistochemistry. In the same model, blocking anti-CD11b and anti-F4/80 Abs were injected intraperitoneally during the induction or the effector phase, or subconjunctivally 2 h before challenge, to determine their effect on challenge-induced conjunctival eosinophilia. To examine whether eosinophils express CD11b and F4/80 molecules, splenocytes from IL-5 gene-electroporated mice were subjected to flow cytometric analysis. To clarify the involvement of CD11b and F4/80 in conjunctival eosinophil infiltration, mice were intraperitoneally injected with anti-CD11b and anti-F4/80 Abs and then subconjunctivally injected with eotaxin to induce conjunctival eosinophilia. Ragweed challenge elevated conjunctival CD11b+ and F4/80+ cell numbers. Systemic anti-CD11b and anti-F4/80 Ab treatments during the effector phase, but not in either the induction phase or the local injection of Ab, suppressed conjunctival eosinophil infiltration in ragweed-induced conjunctivitis. Most splenic eosinophils from IL-5 gene-introduced mice expressed CD11b and F4/80. Systemic anti-CD11b and anti-F4/80 Ab treatment suppressed conjunctival eosinophilia induced by subconjunctival eotaxin injection. CD11b and F4/80 appear to participate in conjunctival eosinophil infiltration in allergic conjunctivitis. Their involvement in conjunctival eosinophilia appears to be due to their expression on eosinophils rather than on macrophages. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Molecular Doping the Topological Dirac Semimetal Na3Bi across the Charge Neutrality Point with F4-TCNQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Mark T; Hellerstedt, Jack; O'Donnell, Kane M; Tadich, Anton; Fuhrer, Michael S

    2016-06-29

    We perform low-temperature transport and high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy on 20 nm thin film topological Dirac semimetal Na3Bi grown by molecular beam epitaxy. We demonstrate efficient electron depletion ∼10(13) cm(-2) of Na3Bi via vacuum deposition of molecular F4-TCNQ without degrading the sample mobility. For samples with low as-grown n-type doping (1 × 10(12) cm(-2)), F4-TCNQ doping can achieve charge neutrality and even a net p-type doping. Photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory are utilized to investigate the behavior of F4-TCNQ on the Na3Bi surface.

  7. Preparing Residents for Teaching Careers: The Faculty for Tomorrow Resident Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Steven; Gordon, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Progress toward growing the primary care workforce is at risk of being derailed by an emerging crisis: a critical shortage of family medicine faculty. In response to the faculty shortage, the Society of Teachers of Family Medicine (STFM) launched a 2-year initiative called "Faculty for Tomorrow" (F4T). The F4T Task Force created a workshop designed to increase residents' interest in, and prepare them for, careers in academic family medicine. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of this workshop. Participants were family medicine residents who preregistered for and attended the F4T Resident Workshop at the 2016 STFM Annual Spring Conference. The intervention was a full-day, 9-hour preconference workshop delivered by a multi-institutional faculty team. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire before and immediately after the workshop. Data collected included demographics, residency program characteristics, future career plans, self-reported confidence in skills, and general knowledge relevant to becoming faculty. A total of 75 participants attended the workshop. The proportion of those who were "extremely likely" to pursue a career in academic family medicine increased from 58% to 72%. Participants reported statistically significant improvements in their confidence in clinical teaching, providing feedback to learners, writing an effective CV, knowledge about the structure of academic family medicine, and knowledge about applying for a faculty position. The STFM F4T Resident Workshop was effective at increasing participants' interest in academic careers, as well as self-reported confidence in skills and knowledge relevant to becoming faculty. The data collected from participants regarding their career plans may inform future interventions.

  8. Advanced calculations developed for the ITER project within of engineering support framework contracts to F4E; Calculos avanzados desarrollados para el proyecto ITER dentro de los contratos marco de soporte de ingenieria para F4E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch, C.; Polo, J.; Garcia Cid, J.; Guirao, J.; Fernandez, E.; Bayon, A.; Caixas, J.

    2013-07-01

    Present the different kind of analyses carried out within the engineering support framework contracts for F4E in the period 2009-2013 and its evolution according to project needs and Vacuum Vessel manufacturing status.

  9. Permanent resident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Fisher

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The training of physicians in the past century was based primarily on responsibility and the chain-of-command. Those with the bulk of that responsibility in the fields of pediatrics and internal medicine were residents. Residents trained the medical students and supervised them carefully in caring for patients. Most attending physicians supervised their teams at arm's length, primarily serving as teachers of the finer points of diagnosis and treatment during set periods of the day or week with a perfunctory signature on write-ups or progress notes. Residents endeavored to protect the attending physician from being heavily involved unless they were unsure about a clinical problem. Before contacting the attending physician, a more senior resident would be called. Responsibility was the ultimate teacher. The introduction of diagnosis-related groups by the federal government dramatically changed the health care delivery system, placing greater emphasis on attending physician visibility in the medical record, ultimately resulting in more attending physician involvement in day-to-day care of patients in academic institutions. Without specified content in attending notes, hospital revenues would decline. Although always in charge technically, attending physicians increasingly have assumed the role once dominated by the resident. Using biographical experiences of more than 40 years, the author acknowledges and praises the educational role of responsibility in his own training and laments its declining role in today's students and house staff.

  10. 75 FR 7467 - Gary E. Hall and Rita C. Hall; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing With the Commision...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... Rita C. Hall; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing With the Commision, Soliciting Motions To.... Project No.: 13652-000. c. Date filed: January 11, 2010. d. Applicant: Gary E. Hall and Rita C. Hall. e... Policies Act of 1978, 16 U.S.C. 2705, 2708. h. Applicant Contact: Mr. Gary E. Hall and Ms. Rita C. Hall, P...

  11. Nondestructive hall coefficient measurements using ACPD techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velicheti, Dheeraj; Nagy, Peter B.; Hassan, Waled

    2018-04-01

    Hall coefficient measurements offer great opportunities as well as major challenges for nondestructive materials characterization. The Hall effect is produced by the magnetic Lorentz force acting on moving charge carriers in the presence of an applied magnetic field. The magnetic perturbation gives rise to a Hall current that is normal to the conduction current but does not directly perturb the electric potential distribution. Therefore, Hall coefficient measurements usually exploit the so-called transverse galvanomagnetic potential drop effect that arises when the Hall current is intercepted by the boundaries of the specimen and thereby produce a measurable potential drop. In contrast, no Hall potential is produced in a large plate in the presence of a uniform normal field at quasi-static low frequencies. In other words, conventional Hall coefficient measurements are inherently destructive since they require cutting the material under tests. This study investigated the feasibility of using alternating current potential drop (ACPD) techniques for nondestructive Hall coefficient measurements in plates. Specifically, the directional four-point square-electrode configuration is investigated with superimposed external magnetic field. Two methods are suggested to make Hall coefficient measurements in large plates without destructive machining. At low frequencies, constraining the bias magnetic field can replace constraining the dimensions of the specimen, which is inherently destructive. For example, when a cylindrical permanent magnet is used to provide the bias magnetic field, the peak Hall voltage is produced when the diameter of the magnet is equal to the diagonal of the square ACPD probe. Although this method is less effective than cutting the specimen to a finite size, the loss of sensitivity is less than one order of magnitude even at very low frequencies. In contrast, at sufficiently high inspection frequencies the magnetic field of the Hall current induces a

  12. Hall magnetohydrodynamics of neutral layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huba, J.D.; Rudakov, L.I.

    2003-01-01

    New analytical and numerical results of the dynamics of inhomogeneous, reversed field current layers in the Hall limit (i.e., characteristic length scales < or approx. the ion inertial length) are presented. Specifically, the two- and three-dimensional evolution of a current layer that supports a reversed field plasma configuration and has a density gradient along the current direction is studied. The two-dimensional study demonstrates that a density inhomogeneity along the current direction can dramatically redistribute the magnetic field and plasma via magnetic shock-like or rarefaction waves. The relative direction between the density gradient and current flow plays a critical role in the evolution of the current sheet. One important result is that the current sheet can become very thin rapidly when the density gradient is directed opposite to the current. The three-dimensional study uses the same plasma and field configuration as the two-dimensional study but is also initialized with a magnetic field perturbation localized along the current channel upstream of the plasma inhomogeneity. The perturbation induces a magnetic wave structure that propagates in the direction of the electron drift (i.e., opposite to the current). The propagating wave structure is a Hall phenomenon associated with magnetic field curvature. The interaction between the propagating wave structure and the evolving current layer can lead to rapid magnetic field line reconnection. The results are applied to laboratory and space plasma processes

  13. Dipolar Antiferromagnetism and Quantum Criticality in LiErF4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, Conradin; Nikseresht, Neda; Piatek, Julian; Tsyrulin, Nikolay; Piazza, Bastien; Kiefer, Klaus; Klemke, Bastian; Rosenbaum, Thomas; Aeppli, Gabriel; Gannarelli, Che; Prokes, Karel; Straessle, Thierry; Keller, Lukas; Zaharko, Oksana; Kraemer, Karl; Ronnow, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Magnetism has been predicted to occur in systems in which dipolar interactions dominate exchange. We present neutron scattering, specific heat, and magnetic susceptibility data for LiErF 4 , establishing it as a model dipolar-coupled antiferromagnet with planar spin-anisotropy and a quantum phase transition in applied field H c# parallel# = 4.0 ± 0.1 kilo-oersteds. We discovered non-mean-field critical scaling for the classical phase transition at the antiferromagnetic transition temperature that is consistent with the two-dimensional XY/h 4 universality class; in accord with this, the quantum phase transition at H c exhibits three-dimensional classical behavior. The effective dimensional reduction may be a consequence of the intrinsic frustrated nature of the dipolar interaction, which strengthens the role of fluctuations.

  14. Thermodynamic assessment of the LiF-NaF-ThF4-UF4 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benes, O.; Beilmann, M.; Konings, R.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    A thermodynamic assessment of the LiF-NaF-ThF 4 -UF 4 system is presented in this study. The binary phase diagrams are optimized based on the known experimental data and the excess Gibbs energies of liquid and solid solutions are described using a modified quasi chemical model and polynomial formalism respectively. The higher order systems are extrapolated according to asymmetric Toop mathematical formalism. Based on the developed thermodynamic database the fuel composition of the molten salt fast reactor is optimized. In total three different fuel compositions are identified. Properties of these fuel compositions such as melting point, vapour pressure and the boiling temperature are derived from the obtained thermodynamic assessment and are presented in this study.

  15. Quantum Hall effect in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penin, Alexander A.

    2009-01-01

    We consider the quantum Hall effect in quantum electrodynamics and find a deviation from the quantum-mechanical prediction for the Hall conductivity due to radiative antiscreening of electric charge in an external magnetic field. A weak dependence of the universal von Klitzing constant on the magnetic field strength, which can possibly be observed in a dedicated experiment, is predicted

  16. Hall devices improve electric motor efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeussermann, W.

    1979-01-01

    Efficiency of electric motors and generators is reduced by radial magnetic forces created by symmetric fields within device. Forces are sensed and counteracted by Hall devices on excitation or control windings. Hall generators directly measure and provide compensating control of anu asymmetry, eliminating additional measurements needed for calibration feedback control loop.

  17. Higher fractions theory of fractional hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinov, I.Z.; Popov, V.N.

    1985-07-01

    A theory of fractional quantum Hall effect is generalized to higher fractions. N-particle model interaction is used and the gap is expressed through n-particles wave function. The excitation spectrum in general and the mean field critical behaviour are determined. The Hall conductivity is calculated from first principles. (author)

  18. Thermodynamic assessment of the LiF–ThF4–PuF3–UF4 system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelli, E.; Benes, O.; Konings, R.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The LiF–ThF4–PuF3–UF4 system is the reference salt mixture considered for the Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) concept started with PuF3. In order to obtain the complete thermodynamic description of this quaternary system, two binary systems (ThF4–PuF3 and UF4–PuF3) and two ternary systems

  19. Increasing Polymer Solar Cell Fill Factor by Trap-Filling with F4-TCNQ at Parts Per Thousand Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Han; Manion, Joseph G; Yuan, Mingjian; García de Arquer, F Pelayo; McKeown, George R; Beaupré, Serge; Leclerc, Mario; Sargent, Edward H; Seferos, Dwight S

    2016-08-01

    Intrinsic traps in organic semiconductors can be eliminated by trap-filling with F4-TCNQ. Photovoltaic tests show that devices with F4-TCNQ at parts per thousand concentration outperform control devices due to an improved fill factor. Further studies confirm the trap-filling pathway and demonstrate the general nature of this finding. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Oral administration of a select mixture of Bacillus probiotics generates Tr1 cells in weaned F4ab/acR- pigs challenged with an F4+ ETEC/VTEC/EPEC strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dong; Zhu, Yao-Hong; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Meng-Ling; Fan, Wen-Yi; Song, Dan; Yang, Gui-Yan; Jensen, Bent Borg; Wang, Jiu-Feng

    2015-09-17

    Although breeding of F4 receptor - negative (F4R(-)) pigs may prevent post-weaning diarrhea, the underlying immunity is poorly understood. Here, various doses of a Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis mixture (BLS-mix) were orally administered to F4ab/acR(-) pigs for 1 week before F4 (K88) - positive ETEC/VTEC/EPEC challenge. Administration of BLS-mix increased the percentage of Foxp3(-)IL-10(+) T cells but not of Foxp3(+)IL-10(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells among peripheral blood CD4(+) T cells. A low dose of BLS-mix feeding resulted in increased the expression of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, and the transcription factors Foxp3 and T-bet mRNAs in the jejunum. Administration of either a low or high dose BLS-mix also led to an increase in the percentage of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cells among intraepithelial lymphocytes and CD4(+)IL-10(+) T cells in the small intestinal Peyer's patches and the lamina propria of F4ab/acR(-) pigs following F4(+) ETEC/VTEC/EPEC challenge. The increased number of IL-10-producing CD4(+) T cells was attributed to an increase in the proportion of Foxp3(-)IL-10(+) Treg cells rather than Foxp3(+)IL-10(+) Treg cells. Our data indicate that oral administration of BLS-mix to newly weaned F4ab/acR(-) pigs ameliorates enteritis in an F4(+) ETEC/VTEC/EPEC model; however, induction of IL-10-producing Foxp3(-) Treg cells by BLS-mix administration cannot account for the protection of newly weaned F4ab/acR(-) pigs from F4(+) ETEC/VTEC/EPEC infection, and that excessive generation of CD4(+)IL-10(+) T cells following consumption of BLS-mix during episodes of intestinal inflammation that is caused by enteric pathogens might prohibit clearance of the pathogen. Select probiotic mixtures may allow for tailoring strategies to prevent infectious diseases.

  1. Evaluation of the antitumor effects of c-Myc-Max heterodimerization inhibitor 100258-F4 in ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiandong; Ma, Xiaoli; Jones, Hannah M; Chan, Leo Li-Ying; Song, Fang; Zhang, Weiyuan; Bae-Jump, Victoria L; Zhou, Chunxiao

    2014-08-21

    Epithelial ovarian carcinoma is the most lethal gynecological cancer due to its silent onset and recurrence with resistance to chemotherapy. Overexpression of oncogene c-Myc is one of the most frequently encountered events present in ovarian carcinoma. Disrupting the function of c-Myc and its downstream target genes is a promising strategy for cancer therapy. Our objective was to evaluate the potential effects of small-molecule c-Myc inhibitor, 10058-F4, on ovarian carcinoma cells and the underlying mechanisms by which 10058-F4 exerts its actions. Using MTT assay, colony formation, flow cytometry and Annexin V FITC assays, we found that 10058-F4 significantly inhibited cell proliferation of both SKOV3 and Hey ovarian cancer cells in a dose dependent manner through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle G1 arrest. Treatment with 10058-F4 reduced cellular ATP production and ROS levels in SKOV3 and Hey cells. Consistently, primary cultures of ovarian cancer treated with 10058-F4 showed induction of caspase-3 activity and inhibition of cell proliferation in 15 of 18 cases. The response to 10058-F4 was independent the level of c-Myc protein over-expression in primary cultures of ovarian carcinoma. These novel findings suggest that the growth of ovarian cancer cells is dependent upon c-MYC activity and that targeting c-Myc-Max heterodimerization could be a potential therapeutic strategy for ovarian cancer.

  2. Report of experimental hall subworking group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, K.; Ohama, T.; Takahashi, K.

    1982-01-01

    The general plan of constructing the TRISTAN e + e - colliding beam experimental halls may be divided into two parts. The first step is to construct two test-experimental halls associated with the 6.5 GeV x 6.5 GeV e + e - accumulator ring, and the second step is to build four experimental halls at the 30 GeV x 30 GeV e + e - TRISTAN main ring. At this workshop, extensive discussions on the detailed design of the four main ring experimental halls have been made. Four experimental areas will be built at the main ring, and two test-experimental halls at the accumulating ring. Among the four areas at the main ring, two will be used for electron-proton possible as well as electron-positron colliding beam experiment. The other two will be used exclusively for e + e - colliding experiments. Only a preliminary design has been made for these four experimental areas. A tentative plan of a larger experimental hall includes a counting and data processing room, a utility room, and a radiation safety control room. Two smaller halls have simpler structure. The figures of the experimental halls are presented. The two test-experimental halls at the accumulator ring will be used to test the detectors for e + e - colliding experiments before the final installation. The utility rooms designed for the halls are used to supply coolant and electric power of superconducting magnets. At the workshop, various ideas concerning the preliminary plan are presented. (Kato, T.)

  3. The quantum Hall effect helicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivastava, Keshav N., E-mail: keshav1001@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India)

    2015-04-16

    The quantum Hall effect in semiconductor heterostructures is explained by two signs in the angular momentum j=l±s and g=(2j+1)/(2l+1) along with the Landau factor (n+1/2). These modifications in the existing theories explain all of the fractional charges. The helicity which is the sign of the product of the linear momentum with the spin p.s plays an important role for the understanding of the data at high magnetic fields. In particular it is found that particles with positive sign in the spin move in one direction and those with negative sign move in another direction which explains the up and down stream motion of the particles.

  4. Stuart Hall: An Organic Intellectual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Fernández Castro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stuart Hall (3 February 1932 – 10 February 2014 is acknowledged as one of the founding figures of British Cultural Studies. His extensive academic work on topics such as race, ethnicity and identity reflects his own position as a diasporic intellectual. His contribution to the study of popular culture is determined by the importance of his political character in every social act, his non-deterministic view of Marxism, and is especially determined by his insistence on playing an active role beyond academia in order to contribute to the transformation of hegemonic structures. The following biography aims to give a focused view of his personal history and its direct influence on his key theoretical reflections.

  5. The fractional quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stormer, H.L.

    1988-01-01

    The fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE), is the manifestation of a new, highly correlated, many-particle ground state that forms in a two-dimensional electron system at low temperatures and in high magnetic fields. It is an example of the new physics that has grown out of the tremendous recent advances in semiconductor material science, which has provided us with high-quality, lower-dimensional carrier systems. The novel electronic state exposes itself in transport experiments through quantization of the Hall resistance to an exact rational fraction of h/e, and concomitantly vanishing longitudinal resistivity. Its relevant energy scale is only a few degrees kelvin. The quantization is a consequence of the spontaneous formation of an energy gap separating the condensed ground state from its rather elusive quasiparticle excitations. The theoretical understanding of the novel quantum liquids which underlie the FQHE has predominantly emerged from an ingenious many-particle wave function strongly supported by numerous few-particle simulations. Theory has now constructed a complex model for ideal two-dimensional electron systems in the presence of high magnetic fields and makes definitive, often fascinating predictions. Experiments have successively uncovered odd-denominator fractional states reaching presently to 7/13. The application of new experimental tools to the FQHE, such as optics, microwaves, and phonon techniques promises the direct observation of such parameters as the gap energy and possibly even some of the more elusive quantities in the future. While theory and experiment in the FQHE appear to be converging, there remains considerable room for challenging surprises. This paper provides a concise overview of the FQHE. It focuses on the experimental aspects and states, but does not expand on the theoretical advances. 70 refs., 11 figs

  6. The Prenylated Rab GTPase Receptor PRA1.F4 Contributes to Protein Exit from the Golgi Apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myoung Hui; Yoo, Yun-Joo; Kim, Dae Heon; Hanh, Nguyen Hong; Kwon, Yun; Hwang, Inhwan

    2017-07-01

    Prenylated Rab acceptor1 (PRA1) functions in the recruitment of prenylated Rab proteins to their cognate organelles. Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) contains a large number of proteins belonging to the AtPRA1 family. However, their physiological roles remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the physiological role of AtPRA1.F4, a member of the AtPRA1 family. A T-DNA insertion knockdown mutant of AtPRA1.F4 , atpra1.f4 , was smaller in stature than parent plants and possessed shorter roots, whereas transgenic plants overexpressing HA:AtPRA1.F4 showed enhanced development of secondary roots and root hairs. However, both overexpression and knockdown plants exhibited increased sensitivity to high-salt stress, lower vacuolar Na + /K + -ATPase and plasma membrane ATPase activities, lower and higher pH in the vacuole and apoplast, respectively, and highly vesiculated Golgi apparatus. HA:AtPRA1.F4 localized to the Golgi apparatus and assembled into high-molecular-weight complexes. atpra1.f4 plants displayed a defect in vacuolar trafficking, which was complemented by low but not high levels of HA : AtPRA1.F4 Overexpression of HA:AtPRA1.F4 also inhibited protein trafficking at the Golgi apparatus, albeit differentially depending on the final destination or type of protein: trafficking of vacuolar proteins, plasma membrane proteins, and trans-Golgi network (TGN)-localized SYP61 was strongly inhibited; trafficking of TGN-localized SYP51 was slightly inhibited; and trafficking of secretory proteins and TGN-localized SYP41 was negligibly or not significantly inhibited. Based on these results, we propose that Golgi-localized AtPRA1.F4 is involved in the exit of many but not all types of post-Golgi proteins from the Golgi apparatus. Additionally, an appropriate level of AtPRA1.F4 is crucial for its function at the Golgi apparatus. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Spectroscopic properties of Fe2+ ions at tetragonal sites-Crystal field effects and microscopic modeling of spin Hamiltonian parameters for Fe2+ (S=2) ions in K2FeF4 and K2ZnF4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudowicz, C.; Piwowarska, D.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic and spectroscopic properties of the planar antiferromagnet K 2 FeF 4 are determined by the Fe 2+ ions at tetragonal sites. The two-dimensional easy-plane anisotropy exhibited by K 2 FeF 4 is due to the zero field splitting (ZFS) terms arising from the orbital singlet ground state of Fe 2+ ions with the spin S=2. To provide insight into the single-ion magnetic anisotropy of K 2 FeF 4 , the crystal field theory and the microscopic spin Hamiltonian (MSH) approach based on the tensor method is adopted. Survey of available experimental data on the crystal field energy levels and free-ion parameters for Fe 2+ ions in K 2 FeF 4 and related compounds is carried out to provide input for microscopic modeling of the ZFS parameters and the Zeeman electronic ones. The ZFS parameters are expressed in the extended Stevens notation and include contributions up to the fourth-order using as perturbation the spin-orbit and electronic spin-spin couplings within the tetragonal crystal field states of the ground 5 D multiplet. Modeling of the ZFS parameters and the Zeeman electronic ones is carried out. Variation of these parameters is studied taking into account reasonable ranges of the microscopic ones, i.e. the spin-orbit and spin-spin coupling constants, and the energy level splittings, suitable for Fe 2+ ions in K 2 FeF 4 and Fe 2+ :K 2 ZnF 4 . Conversions between the ZFS parameters in the extended Stevens notation and the conventional ones are considered to enable comparison with the data of others. Comparative analysis of the MSH formulas derived earlier and our more complete ones indicates the importance of terms omitted earlier as well as the fourth-order ZFS parameters and the spin-spin coupling related contributions. The results may be useful also for Fe 2+ ions at axial symmetry sites in related systems, i.e. Fe:K 2 MnF 4 , Rb 2 Co 1-x Fe x F 4 , Fe 2+ :Rb 2 CrCl 4 , and Fe 2+ :Rb 2 ZnCl 4 . - Highlights: → Truncated zero field splitting (ZFS) terms for Fe 2+ in K

  8. Structural and functional insight into the carbohydrate receptor binding of F4 fimbriae-producing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonens, Kristof; Van den Broeck, Imke; De Kerpel, Maia; Deboeck, Francine; Raymaekers, Hanne; Remaut, Han; De Greve, Henri

    2015-03-27

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are important causes of intestinal disease in humans and lead to severe production losses in animal farming. A range of fimbrial adhesins in ETEC strains determines host and tissue tropism. ETEC strains expressing F4 fimbriae are associated with neonatal and post-weaning diarrhea in piglets. Three naturally occurring variants of F4 fimbriae (F4ab, F4ac, and F4ad) exist that differ in the primary sequence of their major adhesive subunit FaeG, and each features a related yet distinct receptor binding profile. Here the x-ray structure of FaeGad bound to lactose provides the first structural insight into the receptor specificity and mode of binding by the poly-adhesive F4 fimbriae. A small D'-D″-α1-α2 subdomain grafted on the immunoglobulin-like core of FaeG hosts the carbohydrate binding site. Two short amino acid stretches Phe(150)-Glu(152) and Val(166)-Glu(170) of FaeGad bind the terminal galactose in the lactosyl unit and provide affinity and specificity to the interaction. A hemagglutination-based assay with E. coli expressing mutant F4ad fimbriae confirmed the elucidated co-complex structure. Interestingly, the crucial D'-α1 loop that borders the FaeGad binding site adopts a different conformation in the two other FaeG variants and hints at a heterogeneous binding pocket among the FaeG serotypes. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Administration of probiotics influences F4 (K88)-positive enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli attachment and intestinal cytokine expression in weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daudelin, Jean-François; Lessard, Martin; Beaudoin, Frédéric; Nadeau, Eric; Bissonnette, Nathalie; Boutin, Yvan; Brousseau, Jean-Philippe; Lauzon, Karoline; Fairbrother, John Morris

    2011-05-23

    This study evaluated the effect of the probiotics Pediococcus acidilactici and Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii on the intestinal colonization of O149 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli harbouring the F4 (K88) fimbriae (ETEC F4) and on the expression of ileal cytokines in weaned pigs. At birth, different litters of pigs were randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: 1) control without antibiotics or probiotics (CTRL); 2) reference group in which chlortetracycline and tiamulin were added to weanling feed (ATB); 3) P. acidilactici; 4) S. cerevisiae boulardii; or 5) P. acidilactici + S. cerevisiae boulardii. Probiotics were administered daily (1 × 10(9) CFU per pig) during the lactation period and after weaning (day 21). At 28 days of age, all pigs were orally challenged with an ETEC F4 strain, and a necropsy was performed 24 h later. Intestinal segments were collected to evaluate bacterial colonization in the small intestine and ileal cytokine expressions. Attachment of ETEC F4 to the intestinal mucosa was significantly reduced in pigs treated with P. acidilactici or S. cerevisiae boulardii in comparison with the ATB group (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively). In addition, proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, were upregulated in ETEC F4 challenged pigs treated with P. acidilactici alone or in combination with S. cerevisiae boulardii compared with the CTRL group. In conclusion, the administration of P. acidilactici or S. cerevisiae boulardii was effective in reducing ETEC F4 attachment to the ileal mucosa, whereas the presence of P. acidilactici was required to modulate the expression of intestinal inflammatory cytokines in pigs challenged with ETEC F4.

  10. Functional PEG–PAMAM-Tetraphosphonate Capped NaLnF4 Nanoparticles and their Colloidal Stability in Phosphate Buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Developing surface coatings for NaLnF4 nanoparticles (NPs) that provide long-term stability in solutions containing competitive ions such as phosphate remains challenging. An amine-functional polyamidoamine tetraphosphonate (NH2-PAMAM-4P) as a multidentate ligand for these NPs has been synthesized and characterized as a ligand for the surface of NaGdF4 and NaTbF4 nanoparticles. A two-step ligand exchange protocol was developed for introduction of the NH2-PAMAM-4P ligand on oleate-capped NaLnF4 NPs. The NPs were first treated with methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-monophosphoric acid (Mn = 750) in tetrahydrofuran. The mPEG750-OPO3-capped NPs were stable colloidal solutions in water, where they could be ligand-exchanged with NH2-PAMAM-4P. The surface amine groups on the NPs were available for derivatization to attach methoxy-PEG (Mn = 2000) and biotin-terminated PEG (Mn = 2000) chains. The surface coverage of ligands on the NPs was examined by thermal gravimetric analysis, and by a HABA analysis for biotin-containing NPs. Colloidal stability of the NPs was examined by dynamic light scattering. NaGdF4 and NaTbF4 NPs capped with mPEG2000–PAMAM-4P showed colloidal stability in DI water and in phosphate buffer (10 mM, pH 7.4). A direct comparison with NaTbF4 NPs capped with a mPEG2000-lysine-based tetradentate ligand that we reported previously (Langmuir2012, 28, 12861−1287022906305) showed that both ligands provided long-term stability in phosphate buffer, but that the lysine-based ligand provided better stability in phosphate-buffered saline. PMID:24898128

  11. TiF4 varnish protects the retention of brackets to enamel after in vitro mild erosive challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Maria Isabel Dantas de; Carlo, Hugo Lemes; Santos, Rogério Lacerda Dos; Sousa, Frederico Barbosa; Castro, Ricardo Dias de; França, Renata Cristina Sobreira; Carvalho, Fabíola Galbiatti de

    2018-05-14

    The effect of fluoride agents on the retention of orthodontic brackets to enamel under erosive challenge is little investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) and sodium fluoride (NaF) agents on the shear bond strength of brackets to enamel and on the enamel microhardness around brackets under erosive challenge. Brackets were bonded to bovine incisors. Five groups were formed according to fluoride application (n=10): TiF4 varnish, TiF4 solution, NaF varnish, NaF solution and control (without application). The specimens were submitted to erosive challenge (90 s cola drink/2h artificial saliva, 4x per day for 7 days). Solutions were applied before each erosive cycle and varnishes were applied once. Vickers Microhardness (VHN) was obtained before and after all cycles of erosion and the percentage of microhardness loss was calculated. Shear bond strength, adhesive remnant index and polarized light microscopy were conducted after erosion. The data were analyzed by ANOVA, Tukey, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests (α=0.05). The %VHN had no statistically significant differences among the experimental groups. However, considering the comparisons of all groups with the control group, TiF4 varnish showed the highest protection from enamel demineralization (effect size of 2.94, while the effect size for the other groups was >2.4). The TiF4 varnish group had significantly higher shear bond strength compared to other groups. There was no difference among groups for adhesive remnant index. Polarized light microscopy showed higher demineralization depth for the control group. Application of NaF and TiF4 agents during mild erosive challenge minimized the enamel mineral loss around brackets, however only the experimental TiF4 varnish was able to prevent the reduction of shear bond strength of brackets to enamel.

  12. Administration of probiotics influences F4 (K88-positive enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli attachment and intestinal cytokine expression in weaned pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daudelin Jean-François

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated the effect of the probiotics Pediococcus acidilactici and Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii on the intestinal colonization of O149 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli harbouring the F4 (K88 fimbriae (ETEC F4 and on the expression of ileal cytokines in weaned pigs. At birth, different litters of pigs were randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: 1 control without antibiotics or probiotics (CTRL; 2 reference group in which chlortetracycline and tiamulin were added to weanling feed (ATB; 3 P. acidilactici; 4 S. cerevisiae boulardii; or 5 P. acidilactici + S. cerevisiae boulardii. Probiotics were administered daily (1 × 109 CFU per pig during the lactation period and after weaning (day 21. At 28 days of age, all pigs were orally challenged with an ETEC F4 strain, and a necropsy was performed 24 h later. Intestinal segments were collected to evaluate bacterial colonization in the small intestine and ileal cytokine expressions. Attachment of ETEC F4 to the intestinal mucosa was significantly reduced in pigs treated with P. acidilactici or S. cerevisiae boulardii in comparison with the ATB group (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively. In addition, proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, were upregulated in ETEC F4 challenged pigs treated with P. acidilactici alone or in combination with S. cerevisiae boulardii compared with the CTRL group. In conclusion, the administration of P. acidilactici or S. cerevisiae boulardii was effective in reducing ETEC F4 attachment to the ileal mucosa, whereas the presence of P. acidilactici was required to modulate the expression of intestinal inflammatory cytokines in pigs challenged with ETEC F4.

  13. Identification of a murine CD45-F4/80lo HSC-derived marrow endosteal cell associated with donor stem cell engraftment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, Kathleen M; Otsuru, Satoru; Olson, Timothy S; Guess, Adam J; Velazquez, Victoria M; Desbourdes, Laura; Dominici, Massimo; Horwitz, Edwin M

    2017-12-26

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in specialized microenvironments within the marrow designated as stem cell niches, which function to support HSCs at homeostasis and promote HSC engraftment after radioablation. We previously identified marrow space remodeling after hematopoietic ablation, including osteoblast thickening, osteoblast proliferation, and megakaryocyte migration to the endosteum, which is critical for effective engraftment of donor HSCs. To further evaluate the impact of hematopoietic cells on marrow remodeling, we used a transgenic mouse model (CD45Cre/iDTR) to selectively deplete hematopoietic cells in situ. Depletion of hematopoietic cells immediately before radioablation and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation abrogated donor HSC engraftment and was associated with strikingly flattened endosteal osteoblasts with preserved osteoblast proliferation and megakaryocyte migration. Depletion of monocytes, macrophages, or megakaryocytes (the predominant hematopoietic cell populations that survive short-term after irradiation) did not lead to an alteration of osteoblast morphology, suggesting that a hematopoietic-derived cell outside these lineages regulates osteoblast morphologic adaptation after irradiation. Using 2 lineage-tracing strategies, we identified a novel CD45 - F4/80 lo HSC-derived cell that resides among osteoblasts along the endosteal marrow surface and, at least transiently, survives radioablation. This newly identified marrow cell may be an important regulator of HSC engraftment, possibly by influencing the shape and function of endosteal osteoblasts.

  14. The quantum Hall effects: Philosophical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, P.

    2015-05-01

    The Quantum Hall Effects offer a rich variety of theoretical and experimental advances. They provide interesting insights on such topics as gauge invariance, strong interactions in Condensed Matter physics, emergence of new paradigms. This paper focuses on some related philosophical questions. Various brands of positivism or agnosticism are confronted with the physics of the Quantum Hall Effects. Hacking's views on Scientific Realism, Chalmers' on Non-Figurative Realism are discussed. It is argued that the difficulties with those versions of realism may be resolved within a dialectical materialist approach. The latter is argued to provide a rational approach to the phenomena, theory and ontology of the Quantum Hall Effects.

  15. Quantized Hall conductance as a topological invariant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Q.; Thouless, Ds.J.; Wu, Y.S.

    1984-10-01

    Whenever the Fermi level lies in a gap (or mobility gap) the bulk Hall conductance can be expressed in a topologically invariant form showing the quantization explicitly. The new formulation generalizes the earlier result by TKNN to the situation where many body interaction and substrate disorder are also present. When applying to the fractional quantized Hall effect we draw the conclusion that there must be a symmetry breaking in the many body ground state. The possibility of writing the fractionally quantized Hall conductance as a topological invariant is also carefully discussed. 19 references

  16. Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao; Meng, Kang-Kang; Yang, Mei-Yin; Edmonds, K W; Zhang, Hao; Cai, Kai-Ming; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Nan; Ji, Yang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Hou-Zhi; Wang, Kai-You

    2016-06-22

    The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the piezo voltage controlled Co2FeAl planar Hall effect devices without the external magnetic field. Our demonstration may lead to the realization of both information storage and processing using ferromagnetic materials.

  17. Molecular beam electric deflection of the tetrahalides CF4, CCl4, SiF4, SiCl4, GeCl4, TiF4, TiCl4, VF4, and VCl4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenter, A.A.; Dyke, T.R.; Falconer, W.E.; Klemperer, W.

    1975-01-01

    Using molecular beam electric deflection, the temperature dependence of polar behavior has been studied for the molecules CF 4 , CCl 4 , SiF 4 , SiCl 4 , GeCl 4 , TiF 4 TiCl 4 , VF 4 , VF 4 , and VCl 4 . A number of these molecules show polar behavior consistent with a vibrationally induced dipole moment for states with one or both of the triply degenerate vibrations excited. In four of the tetrachloride species, the presence of a vibrationally induced dipole moment was confirmed by the change in polar behavior with isotopic substituion of the Cl atoms. The deflection behavior of the transition metal tetrahalides varied from nonpolar in VCl 4 to very polar in TiF 4

  18. F4 , E6 and G2 exceptional gauge groups in the vacuum domain structure model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahlaei, Amir; Rafibakhsh, Shahnoosh

    2018-03-01

    Using a vacuum domain structure model, we calculate trivial static potentials in various representations of F4 , E6, and G2 exceptional groups by means of the unit center element. Due to the absence of the nontrivial center elements, the potential of every representation is screened at far distances. However, the linear part is observed at intermediate quark separations and is investigated by the decomposition of the exceptional group to its maximal subgroups. Comparing the group factor of the supergroup with the corresponding one obtained from the nontrivial center elements of S U (3 ) subgroup shows that S U (3 ) is not the direct cause of temporary confinement in any of the exceptional groups. However, the trivial potential obtained from the group decomposition into the S U (3 ) subgroup is the same as the potential of the supergroup itself. In addition, any regular or singular decomposition into the S U (2 ) subgroup that produces the Cartan generator with the same elements as h1, in any exceptional group, leads to the linear intermediate potential of the exceptional gauge groups. The other S U (2 ) decompositions with the Cartan generator different from h1 are still able to describe the linear potential if the number of S U (2 ) nontrivial center elements that emerge in the decompositions is the same. As a result, it is the center vortices quantized in terms of nontrivial center elements of the S U (2 ) subgroup that give rise to the intermediate confinement in the static potentials.

  19. Adrenomedullin Regulates IL-1β Gene Expression in F4/80+ Macrophages during Synovial Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Shotaro; Miyagi, Masayuki; Inoue, Gen; Aikawa, Jun; Iwabuchi, Kazuya; Takaso, Masashi

    2017-01-01

    Adrenomedullin (AM) plays an important role in the regulation of inflammatory processes; however, the role and expression of AM in synovial inflammation have not been determined. To investigate the expression and role of AM in inflamed synovial tissue (ST), the gene expression profiles of AM in the ST, including synovial macrophages and fibroblasts, of a murine patellar surgical dislocation model were characterized. In addition, the effects of interleukin- (IL-) 1β and AM in cultured synovial cells were also examined. CD11c+ macrophages were found to be elevated in ST of the surgically dislocated patella. Higher gene expression of CD11c, IL-1β, AM, receptor activity-modifying proteins 2 (RAMP2), and 3 (RAMP3) was also observed in ST obtained from the dislocated side. AM expression was also significantly increased in synovial fibroblasts and macrophages in response to IL-1β treatment. Synovial macrophages also highly expressed RAMP3 compared to fibroblasts and this expression was further stimulated by exogenously added IL-1β. Further, the treatment of the F4/80-positive cell fraction obtained from ST with AM inhibited IL-1β expression. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that AM was produced by synovial fibroblasts and macrophages in inflamed ST and that increased levels of AM may exert anti-inflammatory effects on synovial macrophages. PMID:28299347

  20. NaGdF4:Nd3+/Yb3+ Nanoparticles as Multimodal Imaging Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, Francisco; Rightsell, Chris; Kumar, Ga; Giuliani, Jason; Monton, Car; Sardar, Dhiraj

    Medical imaging is a fundamental tool used for the diagnosis of numerous ailments. Each imaging modality has unique advantages; however, they possess intrinsic limitations. Some of which include low spatial resolution, sensitivity, penetration depth, and radiation damage. To circumvent this problem, the combination of imaging modalities, or multimodal imaging, has been proposed, such as Near Infrared Fluorescence imaging (NIRF) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Combining individual advantages, specificity and selectivity of NIRF with the deep penetration and high spatial resolution of MRI, it is possible to circumvent their shortcomings for a more robust imaging technique. In addition, both imaging modalities are very safe and minimally invasive. Fluorescent nanoparticles, such as NaGdF4:Nd3 +/Yb3 +, are excellent candidates for NIRF/MRI multimodal imaging. The dopants, Nd and Yb, absorb and emit within the biological window; where near infrared light is less attenuated by soft tissue. This results in less tissue damage and deeper tissue penetration making it a viable candidate in biological imaging. In addition, the inclusion of Gd results in paramagnetic properties, allowing their use as contrast agents in multimodal imaging. The work presented will include crystallographic results, as well as full optical and magnetic characterization to determine the nanoparticle's viability in multimodal imaging.

  1. F4E studies for the electromagnetic analysis of ITER components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testoni, P., E-mail: pietro.testoni@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, c/ Josep Plá n.2, Barcelona (Spain); Cau, F.; Portone, A. [Fusion for Energy, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, c/ Josep Plá n.2, Barcelona (Spain); Albanese, R. [Associazione EURATOM/ENEA/CREATE, DIETI, Università Federico II di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Juirao, J. [Numerical Analysis TEChnologies S.L. (NATEC), c/ Marqués de San Esteban, 52 Entlo D Gijón (Spain)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Several ITER components have been analyzed from the electromagnetic point of view. • Categorization of DINA load cases is described. • VDEs, MDs and MFD have been studied. • Integral values of forces and moments components versus time have been computed for all the ITER components under study. - Abstract: Fusion for Energy (F4E) is involved in a relevant number of activities in the area of electromagnetic analysis in support of ITER general design and EU in-kind procurement. In particular several ITER components (vacuum vessel, blanket shield modules and first wall panels, test blanket modules, ICRH antenna) are being analyzed from the electromagnetic point of view. In this paper we give an updated description of our main activities, highlighting the main assumptions, objectives, results and conclusions. The plasma instabilities we consider, typically disruptions and VDEs, can be both toroidally symmetric and asymmetric. This implies that, depending on the specific component and loading conditions, FE models we use span from a sector of 10 up to 360° of the ITER machine. The techniques for simulating the electromagnetic phenomena involved in a disruption and the postprocessing of the results to obtain the loads acting on the structures are described. Finally we summarize the typical loads applied to different components and give a critical view of the results.

  2. Purification and properties of fructosyl lysine oxidase from Fusarium oxysporum S-1F4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Y; Yoshida, N; Isogai, A; Tani, Y; Kato, N

    1995-03-01

    Fructosyl lysine oxidase (FLOD) was examined for its use in the enzymatic measurement of the level of glycated albumin in blood serum. To isolate microorganisms having such an enzyme activity, we used N epsilon-fructosyl N alpha-Z-lysine (epsilon-FL) as a sole nitrogen source in the enrichment culture medium. The isolated fungus, strain S-1F4, showed a high FLOD activity in the cell-free extract and was identified as Fusarium oxysporum. FLOD was purified to an apparent homogeneity on SDS-PAGE. The molecular mass of the subunit was 50 kDa on SDS-PAGE and seemed to exist in a monomeric form. The enzyme had an absorption spectrum characteristic of a flavoprotein and the flavin was found to be covalently bound to the enzyme. The enzyme acted against N epsilon-fructosyl N alpha-Z-lysine and N alpha-fructosyl N epsilon-Z-lysine and showed specificity for fructosyl lysine residues.

  3. Targeting of Escherichia coli F4 fimbriae to Fcgamma receptors enhances the maturation of porcine dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devriendt, Bert; Verdonck, Frank; Summerfield, Artur; Goddeeris, Bruno M; Cox, Eric

    2010-06-15

    F4(+) enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections are an important cause of postweaning diarrhoea in piglets and an oral immunization of piglets with purified F4 fimbriae protects them from a subsequent F4(+) ETEC infection. However, oral immunization of suckling piglets is hampered due to the immature status of their immune system. Targeting of antigens to Fcgamma receptors (FcgammaR) on human and murine dendritic cells (DC) has been shown to enhance DC maturation and both humoral and cellular immune responses. To investigate the effect of F4 fimbriae incorporated in immune complexes (F4-IC) on porcine DC, we used porcine monocytic-derived DC (MoDC) as a model system. The results in this study demonstrate that FcgammaRI, II and III mRNA is expressed by porcine MoDC. Furthermore, we show that FcgammaRII and III are expressed on the cell surface and that F4-IC are internalized by MoDC via FcgammaR. This FcgammaR ligation induced a significantly enhanced expression of Major Histocompatibility complex (MHCII) class II and the costimulatory molecules CD80/86 and CD40 by MoDC compared with immature MoDC. Furthermore, the phagocytic capacity of F4-IC stimulated MoDC was reduced as evidenced by a reduced uptake of DQ-ovalbumin and FITC-dextran. In an allogenic and autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction, these F4-IC-activated MoDC showed an improved T cell stimulatory capacity in comparison with immature MoDC. The F4-IC induced DC maturation correlated with significant higher expression levels of several pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukine (IL) 1beta, IL-6 and Tumor necrosis factor alpha, the chemokine IL-8 and IL-12p40 in comparison with immature MoDC. Altogether, these results clearly demonstrate that FcgammaR engagement enhances the maturation of porcine MoDC, which may suggest that antigen targeting to FcgammaR on DC could improve vaccine design against infections. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Modifying the size and uniformity of upconversion Yb/Er:NaGdF4 nanocrystals through alkaline-earth doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Lei; Chen, Daqin; Huang, Ping; Xu, Ju; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yuansheng

    2013-11-21

    NaGdF4 is regarded as an ideal upconversion (UC) host material for lanthanide (Ln(3+)) activators because of its unique crystal structure, high Ln(3+) solubility, low phonon energy and high photochemical stability, and Ln(3+)-doped NaGdF4 UC nanocrystals (NCs) have been widely investigated as bio-imaging and magnetic resonance imaging agents recently. To realize their practical applications, controlling the size and uniformity of the monodisperse Ln(3+)-doped NaGdF4 UC NCs is highly desired. Unlike the routine routes by finely adjusting the multiple experimental parameters, herein we provide a facile and straightforward strategy to modify the size and uniformity of NaGdF4 NCs via alkaline-earth doping for the first time. With the increase of alkaline-earth doping content, the size of NaGdF4 NCs increases gradually, while the size-uniformity is still retained. We attribute this "focusing" of size distribution to the diffusion controlled growth of NaGdF4 NCs induced by alkaline-earth doping. Importantly, adopting the Ca(2+)-doped Yb/Er:NaGdF4 NCs as cores, the complete Ca/Yb/Er:NaGdF4@NaYF4 core-shell particles with excellent size-uniformity can be easily achieved. However, when taking the Yb/Er:NaGdF4 NCs without Ca(2+) doping as cores, they could not be perfectly covered by NaYF4 shells, and the obtained products are non-uniform in size. As a result, the UC emission intensity of the complete core-shell NCs increases by about 30 times in comparison with that of the cores, owing to the effective surface passivation of the Ca(2+)-doped cores and therefore protection of Er(3+) in the cores from the non-radiative decay caused by surface defects, whereas the UC intensity of the incomplete core-shell NCs is enhanced by only 3 times.

  5. Role of TiF4 in Microleakage of Silorane and Methacrylate-based Composite Resins in Class V Cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohpeima, Fatemeh; Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Jowkar, Zahra; Ahmadzadeh, Samaneh; Mokhtari, Mohammad Javad; Azarian, Babak

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of TiF4 solution pretreat-ment on microleakage of silorane and nanofilled methacrylate-based composites in class V cavities. Forty-eight intact premolar teeth were randomly allocated to four groups of 12 teeth. Restorative techniques after standard class V tooth preparations were as follows: Group 1, Filtek P90 composite; group 2, Filtek Z350 XT; group 3, TiF4 solution pretreatment and Filtek P90 composite; group 4, TiF4 solution pretreatment and Filtek Z350 XT. After storing the specimens in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours and followed by immersion of the specimens in a 0.5% basic-fuchsin solution for 24 hours, they were sectioned buccolingually to obtain four surfaces for each specimen for analysis of microleakage using a stereomicroscope. Data analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis test to compare the four groups and the Mann-Whitney test for paired comparisons with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17 software. At the enamel margins, microleakage score of the Filtek Z350 XT group was lower than those of the Filtek P90 with and without the application of the TiF4 (p = 0.009 and p = 0.031 respectively). At the dentin margins, groups 3 and 4 (TiF4+Filtek P90 and TiF4+Filtek z350 XT respectively) showed significantly lower microleakage than group 1 (Filtek P90). However, there was no significant difference between other groups (p > 0.05). At the enamel margins, microleakage score of the silorane-based composite was more than that of the nanofilled composite. No significant differences were observed between the other groups. At the dentin margins, for the silorane-based composite restorations, TiF4 solution pretreatment resulted in significantly lower microleakage. However, the similar result was not observed for Filtek Z350 XT. Also, no significant difference was observed between microleakage scores of Filtek P90 and Filtek Z350 XT with or without TiF4 pretreatment. In spite of better mechanical

  6. 76 FR 18960 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R Series Airplanes, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R Series Airplanes, and Model C4-605R Variant F Airplanes (Collectively... July 20, 2005; have been performed in service. (2) Airbus Model A300 B4-605R, B4-622R, F4-605R, and F4... C4-600R, and A300 F4-600R series airplanes (fitted with a trim tank), all serial numbers, except...

  7. Band gap opening of bilayer graphene by F4-TCNQ molecular doping and externally applied electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaoqing; Xu, Jianbin; Wang, Xiaomu

    2010-09-09

    The band gap opening of bilayer graphene with one side surface adsorption of F4-TCNQ is reported. F4-TCNQ doped bilayer graphene shows p-type semiconductor characteristics. With a F4-TCNQ concentration of 1.3 x 10(-10) mol/cm(2), the charge transfer between each F4-TCNQ molecule and graphene is 0.45e, and the built-in electric field, E(bi), between the graphene layers could reach 0.070 V/A. The charge transfer and band gap opening of the F4-TCNQ-doped graphene can be further modulated by an externally applied electric field (E(ext)). At 0.077 V/A, the gap opening at the Dirac point (K), DeltaE(K) = 306 meV, and the band gap, E(g) = 253 meV, are around 71% and 49% larger than those of the pristine bilayer under the same E(ext).

  8. Contribution of the study of the Hall Effect. Hall Effect of powder products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherville, Jean

    1961-01-01

    This research thesis reports the development of an apparatus aimed at measuring the Hall Effect and the magneto-resistance of powders at room temperature and at the liquid nitrogen temperature. The author also proposes a theoretical contribution to the Hall Effect and reports the calculation of conditions to be met to obtain a correct value for the Hall constant. Results are experimentally verified. The method is then applied to the study of a set of powdered pre-graphitic graphites. The author shows that their Hall coefficient confirms the model already proposed by Mrozowski. The study of the Hall Effect of any kind of powders can thus be performed, and the Hall Effect can therefore be a mean to study mineral and organic compounds, and notably powdered biological molecules [fr

  9. The infrared Hall effect in YBCO: Temperature and frequency dependence of Hall scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grayson, M.; Cerne, J.; Drew, H.D.; Schmadel, D.C.; Hughes, R.; Preston, J.S.; Kung, P.J.; Vale, L.

    1999-01-01

    The authors measure the Hall angle, θ H , in YBCO films in the far- and mid-infrared to determine the temperature and frequency dependence of the Hall scattering. Using novel modulation techniques they measure both the Faraday rotation and ellipticity induced by these films in high magnetic fields to deduce the complex conductivity tensor. They observe a strong temperature dependence of the mid-infrared Hall conductivity in sharp contrast to the weak dependence of the longitudinal conductivity. By fitting the frequency dependent normal state Hall angle to a Lorentzian θ H (ω) = ω H /(γ H minus iω) they find the Hall frequency, ω H , is nearly independent of temperature. The Hall scattering rate, γ H , is consistent with γ H ∼ T 2 up to 200 K and is remarkably independent of IR frequency suggesting non-Fermi liquid behavior

  10. Marker-assisted selection on E. coli F4ab/ac resistance and the effect on neonatal survival in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Claus Bøttcher; Anderson, Susan I.; Cirera, Susanna

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) that express the F4ab or F4ac fimbriae (formerly known as K88ab/ac) are major causes of diarrhea and death in neonatal and young pigs. A locus controlling susceptibility towards ETEC F4ab/ac has previously been mapped to pig chromosome 13q41. A number...

  11. 76 FR 441 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R Series Airplanes, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R Series Airplanes, and Model C4-605R...-622, B4-605R, B4-622R, F4-605R, F4-622R, and C4-605R Variant F airplanes, certificated in any category...

  12. 75 FR 7942 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A310-203, -221, -222 Airplanes; and Model A300 F4-605R and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A310-203, -221, -222 Airplanes; and Model A300 F4-605R and -622R...-222 airplanes, all serial numbers. (2) Airbus Model A300 F4-605R and A300 F4-622R airplanes, all...

  13. 76 FR 19724 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R Series Airplanes, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R Series Airplanes, and Model C4-605R Variant F Airplanes (Collectively... F4-605R and F4-622R airplanes, and Model A300 C4-605R Variant F airplanes; and Model A310-203, -204...

  14. 76 FR 6581 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R Series Airplanes, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R Series Airplanes, and Model C4-605R Variant F Airplanes (Collectively...-605R, B4-622R, F4-605R, F4-622R, and C4-605R Variant F airplanes, certificated in any category, all...

  15. 75 FR 28480 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 Series Airplanes; Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, F4-600R...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 Series Airplanes; Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, F4-600R Series..., B4-622, B4- 605R, B4-622R, F4-605R, F4-622R, and C4-605R Variant F airplanes; and Model A310-203...

  16. Distribution of Escherichia coli F4 adhesion phenotypes in pigs of 15 Chinese and Western breeds and a White DurocxErhualian intercross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xueming; Huang, Xiang; Ren, Jun; Zou, Zhengzhi; Yang, Shujin; Ouyang, Jing; Zeng, Weihong; Yang, Bin; Xiao, Shijun; Huang, Lusheng

    2009-08-01

    Diarrhoea in newborn and weaned piglets is mainly caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) with fimbriae F4. To investigate the prevalence of resistance to three fimbrial strains, F4ab, F4ac and F4ad, among Chinese indigenous pigs and Western commercial pigs introduced into China, we determined the ETEC F4 adhesion phenotypes in 292 pure-bred piglets from three Western commercial breeds and 12 Chinese indigenous breeds, and a total of 1093 adult pigs in a White DurocxErhualian intercross, by an in vitro microscopic adhesion assay. All the Tibet and Lantang pigs and a majority of the Erhualian and Rongchang pigs were resistant (nonadherent) to ETEC F4 whereas all the Laiwu pigs and most of the Jiangquhai and Tongcheng pigs were susceptible (adhesive) to at least one of the F4 strains. Yushan Black pigs were uniformly resistant to F4ab, and Jinhua pigs were predominantly resistant to F4ac. Susceptible and resistant animals were observed in the other breeds, indicating that diarrhoea caused by ETEC F4 could be prevalent in these breeds. This study confirmed the existence of eight previously reported F4 adhesion patterns, and supported the assumption that the three F4 receptors are encoded by distinct loci. Expression of the weakly adherent phenotype was observed in six pure-bred piglets and 90 adult F(2)/F(3) animals, and the inheritance of this phenotype and its correlation with susceptibility to disease are still not known.

  17. 76 FR 28914 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R Series Airplanes, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R Series Airplanes, and Model C4-605R Variant F Airplanes (Collectively... B4-605R and B4-622R airplanes; A300 F4-605R and F4-622R airplanes; A300 C4-605R Variant F airplanes...

  18. Topologically induced fractional Hall steps in the integer quantum Hall regime of MoS 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoz Islam, SK; Benjamin, Colin

    2016-09-01

    The quantum magnetotransport properties of a monolayer of molybdenum disulfide are derived using linear response theory. In particular, the effect of topological terms on longitudinal and Hall conductivity is analyzed. The Hall conductivity exhibits fractional steps in the integer quantum Hall regime. Further complete spin and valley polarization of the longitudinal conductivitity is seen in presence of these topological terms. Finally, the Shubnikov-de Hass oscillations are suppressed or enhanced contingent on the sign of these topological terms.

  19. How Expectations Do Not Equate with Practice: The Gendered Reality of the Female Resident Assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousineau, Luc; Chambers, Lori

    2015-01-01

    Residence hall and house employees (resident assistants) at postsecondary institutions in Canada are an important part of the social and rules-based structure that allows these facilities to operate. These employees are challenged with varied situations that require the application of mediation, authoritarian, recognition, and referral skills. To…

  20. A Study to Identify the Transitional Training Needs for United States Army Medical Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-29

    Books Kotler , Philip, and Roberta Clarke. Marketing for Health Care Organizations. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1987. Runyon, Richard P., and...8217 and most can benefit from instruction in administrative principles and practices during residency" (444). A focus began to turn toward residency...leadership development, office communi-ations, professional and legal obligations, Rawls 8 and practice marketing . Because these newly trained physicians

  1. Spin Hall effect by surface roughness

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Lingjun; Grigoryan, Vahram L.; Maekawa, Sadamichi; Wang, Xuhui; Xiao, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    induced by surface roughness subscribes only to the side-jump contribution but not the skew scattering. The paradigm proposed in this paper provides the second, not if only, alternative to generate a sizable spin Hall effect.

  2. Mesoscopic effects in the quantum Hall regime

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . When band mixing between multiple Landau levels is present, mesoscopic effects cause a crossover from a sequence of quantum Hall transitions for weak disorder to classical behavior for strong disorder. This behavior may be of relevance ...

  3. Plasmon Geometric Phase and Plasmon Hall Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Li-kun; Song, Justin C. W.

    2018-04-01

    The collective plasmonic modes of a metal comprise a simple pattern of oscillating charge density that yields enhanced light-matter interaction. Here we unveil that beneath this familiar facade plasmons possess a hidden internal structure that fundamentally alters its dynamics. In particular, we find that metals with nonzero Hall conductivity host plasmons with an intricate current density configuration that sharply departs from that of ordinary zero Hall conductivity metals. This nontrivial internal structure dramatically enriches the dynamics of plasmon propagation, enabling plasmon wave packets to acquire geometric phases as they scatter. At boundaries, these phases accumulate allowing plasmon waves that reflect off to experience a nonreciprocal parallel shift. This plasmon Hall shift, tunable by Hall conductivity as well as plasmon wavelength, displaces the incident and reflected plasmon trajectories and can be readily probed by near-field photonics techniques. Anomalous plasmon geometric phases dramatically enrich the nanophotonics toolbox, and yield radical new means for directing plasmonic beams.

  4. A system for pulse Hall effect measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orzechowski, T.; Kupczak, R.

    1975-01-01

    Measuring system for fast Hall-voltage changes in an n-type germanium sample irradiated at liquid nitrogen temperature with a high-energy electron-beam from the Van de Graaff accelerator is described. (author)

  5. Novel optical probe for quantum Hall system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to explore Landau levels of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in modulation doped ... Keywords. Surface photovoltage spectroscopy; quantum Hall effect; Landau levels; edge states. ... An optical fibre carries light from tunable diode laser.

  6. AA under construction in its hall

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    The Antiproton Accumulator was installed in a specially built hall. Here we see it at an "early" stage of installation, just a few magnets on the floor, no vacuum chamber at all, but: 3 months later there was circulating beam !

  7. Elementary theory of quantum Hall effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshav N. Shrivastava

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Hall effect is the generation of a current perpendicular to both the direction of the applied electric as well as magnetic field in a metal or in a semiconductor. It is used to determine the concentration of electrons. The quantum Hall effect with integer quantization was discovered by von Klitzing and fractionally charged states were found by Tsui, Stormer and Gossard. Robert Laughlin explained the quantization of Hall current by using “flux quantization” and introduced incompressibility to obtain the fractional charge. We have developed the theory of the quantum Hall effect by using the theory of angular momentum. Our predicted fractions are in accord with those measured. We emphasize our explanation of the observed phenomena. We use spin to explain the fractional charge and hence we discover spin-charge locking.

  8. Characterisation of five candidate genes within the ETEC F4ab/ac candidate region in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Mette Juul; Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Joller, David

    2011-01-01

    by haplotype sharing to a 2.5 Mb region on pig chromosome 13, a region containing 18 annotated genes. FINDINGS: The coding regions of five candidate genes for susceptibility to ETEC F4ab/ac infection (TFRC, ACK1, MUC20, MUC4 and KIAA0226), all located in the 2.5 Mb region, were investigated for the presence...... polymorphism in exon 22 of KIAA0226. Transcriptional profiles of the five genes were investigated in a porcine tissue panel including various intestinal tissues. All five genes were expressed in intestinal tissues at different levels but none of the genes were found differentially expressed between ETEC F4ab/ac...... of the amino acids composition. However, we cannot exclude that the five tested genes are bona fide candidate genes for susceptibility to ETEC F4ab/ac infection since the identified polymorphism might affect the translational apparatus, alternative splice forms may exist and post translational mechanisms might...

  9. P-T and T-x projections of phase diagram of CsF-ZrF4 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasev, N.M.; Korenev, Yu.M.; Sidorov, L.N.

    1980-01-01

    The CsF-ZrF 4 system has been investigated by the Knudsen effusion method and mass-spectral analysis of vaporization products. A molecular composition of vapour was determined. CsF, Cs 2 F 2 , ZrF 4 , Cs 2 ZrF 6 , CsZrF 5 , CsZr 2 F 9 molecules were found in the saturated vapour of the system. Heats of phase transitions and partial pressures of the molecules detected were determined depending on the melt compositions. Dissociation enthalpies of complex molecules were calculated. P-T and T-x projections of the state diagram of the CsF-ZrF 4 system were constructed

  10. {sup 111}In-anti-F4/80-A3-1 antibody: a novel tracer to image macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, Samantha Y.A. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); King' s College London, St Thomas' Hospital, Department of Imaging Chemistry and Biology, London (United Kingdom); Boerman, Otto C.; Gerrits, Danny; Franssen, Gerben M.; Oyen, Wim J.G. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Metselaar, Josbert M. [University of Twente, Targeted Therapeutics, MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, Enschede (Netherlands); Lehmann, Steffi; Gerdes, Christian A. [Roche Innovation Center Zurich, Roche Pharmaceutical Research and Early Development (pRED), Zurich (Switzerland); Abiraj, Keelara [Roche Innovation Center Basel, Roche Pharmaceutical Research and Early Development (pRED), Basel (Switzerland)

    2015-08-15

    Here, the expression of F4/80 on the cell surface of murine macrophages was exploited to develop a novel imaging tracer that could visualize macrophages in vivo. The immunoreactive fraction and IC{sub 50} of anti-F4/80-A3-1, conjugated with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and radiolabelled with {sup 111}In, were determined in vitro using murine bone marrow-derived macrophages. In vivo biodistribution studies were performed with {sup 111}In-anti-F4/80-A3-1 and isotype-matched control antibody {sup 111}In-rat IgG2b at 24 and 72 h post-injection (p.i.) in SCID/Beige mice bearing orthotopic MDA-MB-231 xenografts. In some studies mice were also treated with liposomal clodronate. Macrophage content in tissues was determined immunohistochemically. Micro-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT images were also acquired. In vitro binding assays showed that {sup 111}In-anti-F4/80-A3-1 specifically binds F4/80 receptor-positive macrophages. The immunoreactivity of anti-F4/80-A3-1 was 75 % and IC{sub 50} was 0.58 nM. In vivo, injection of 10 or 100 μg {sup 111}In-anti-F4/80-A3-1 resulted in splenic uptake of 78 %ID/g and 31 %ID/g, respectively, and tumour uptake of 1.38 %ID/g and 4.08 %ID/g, respectively (72 h p.i.). Liposomal clodronate treatment reduced splenic uptake of 10 μg {sup 111}In-anti-F4/80-A3-1 from 248 %ID/g to 114 %ID/g and reduced {sup 111}In-anti-F4/80-A3-1 uptake in the liver and femur (24 h p.i.). Tracer retention in the blood and tumour uptake increased (24 h p.i.). Tumour uptake of {sup 111}In-anti-F4/80-A3-1 was visualized by microSPECT/CT. Macrophage density in the spleen and liver decreased in mice treated with liposomal clodronate. Uptake of {sup 111}In-rat IgG2b was lower in the spleen, liver and femur when compared to {sup 111}In-anti-F4/80-A3-1. Radiolabelled anti-F4/80-A3-1 antibodies specifically localize in tissues infiltrated by macrophages in mice and can be used to visualize tumours. The liver and spleen act as antigen

  11. The fluctuation Hall conductivity and the Hall angle in type-II superconductor under magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinh, Bui Duc, E-mail: tinhbd@hnue.edu.vn [Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, K7/25 Quang Trung, Danang (Viet Nam); Department of Physics, Hanoi National University of Education, 136 Xuan Thuy, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hoc, Nguyen Quang; Thu, Le Minh [Department of Physics, Hanoi National University of Education, 136 Xuan Thuy, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • The time-dependent Ginzburg–Landau was used to calculate fluctuation Hall conductivity and Hall angle in type-II superconductor in 2D and 3D. • We obtain analytical expressions for the fluctuation Hall conductivity and the Hall angle summing all Landau levels without need to cutoff higher Landau levels to treat arbitrary magnetic field. • The results were compared to the experimental data on YBCO. - Abstract: The fluctuation Hall conductivity and the Hall angle, describing the Hall effect, are calculated for arbitrary value of the imaginary part of the relaxation time in the frame of the time-dependent Ginzburg–Landau theory in type II-superconductor with thermal noise describing strong thermal fluctuations. The self-consistent Gaussian approximation is used to treat the nonlinear interaction term in dynamics. We obtain analytical expressions for the fluctuation Hall conductivity and the Hall angle summing all Landau levels without need to cutoff higher Landau levels to treat arbitrary magnetic field. The results are compared with experimental data on high-T{sub c} superconductor.

  12. NAS Decadal Review Town Hall

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine is seeking community input for a study on the future of materials research (MR). Frontiers of Materials Research: A Decadal Survey will look at defining the frontiers of materials research ranging from traditional materials science and engineering to condensed matter physics. Please join members of the study committee for a town hall to discuss future directions for materials research in the United States in the context of worldwide efforts. In particular, input on the following topics will be of great value: progress, achievements, and principal changes in the R&D landscape over the past decade; identification of key MR areas that have major scientific gaps or offer promising investment opportunities from 2020-2030; and the challenges that MR may face over the next decade and how those challenges might be addressed. This study was requested by the Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation. The National Academies will issue a report in 2018 that will offer guidance to federal agencies that support materials research, science policymakers, and researchers in materials research and other adjoining fields. Learn more about the study at http://nas.edu/materials.

  13. Resistive Instabilities in Hall Current Plasma Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvak, Andrei A.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2000-01-01

    Plasma perturbations in the acceleration channel of a Hall thruster are found to be unstable in the presence of collisions. Both electrostatic lower-hybrid waves and electromagnetic Alfven waves transverse to the applied electric and magnetic field are found to be unstable due to collisions in the E X B electron flow. These results are obtained assuming a two-fluid hydrodynamic model in slab geometry. The characteristic frequencies of these modes are consistent with experimental observations in Hall current plasma thrusters

  14. Are tent halls subject to property tax?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Macudziński

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented publication is a response to currently asked questions and interpretative doubts of taxpayers and tax authorities, namely whether tent halls are subject to property tax. General issues connected with an entity and a subject of taxation of this tax are presented herein. The answer to the question asked is then provided through the qualification of constructions works and the allocation of tent halls in the proper category of the works, with the use of the current law.

  15. Fractional statistics and fractional quantized Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, R.; Wu, Y.S.

    1985-01-01

    The authors suggest that the origin of the odd-denominator rule observed in the fractional quantized Hall effect (FQHE) may lie in fractional statistics which govern quasiparticles in FQHE. A theorem concerning statistics of clusters of quasiparticles implies that fractional statistics do not allow coexistence of a large number of quasiparticles at fillings with an even denominator. Thus, no Hall plateau can be formed at these fillings, regardless of the presence of an energy gap. 15 references

  16. Hall effect in organic layered conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A.Hasan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hall effect in organic layered conductors with a multisheeted Fermi surfaces was considered. It is shown that the experimental study of Hall effect and magnetoresistance anisotropy at different orientations of current and a quantizing magnetic field relative to the layers makes it possible to determine the contribution of various charge carriers groups to the conductivity, and to find out the character of Fermi surface anisotropy in the plane of layers.

  17. Maillard neoglycans as inhibitors for in vitro adhesion of F4+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to piglet intestinal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabia-Sainz, Héctor Manuel; Mata Haro, Verónica; Sarabia Sainz, José Andre-I; Vázquez-Moreno, Luz; Montfort, Gabriela Ramos-Clamont

    2017-01-01

    Adhesion of enterotoxigenic (ETEC) E. coli to host intestinal cells is mediated by lectin-like fimbriae that bind to specific glycan moieties on the surfaces of enterocytes. To prevent in vitro binding of E. coli F4 fimbriae (F4 ETEC + ) to piglet enterocytes, neoglycans were synthesized by the Maillard reaction conjugating lactose (Lac), galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) or chitin oligosaccharides (Ochit) to porcine serum albumin (PSA). Neoglycans were characterized by SDS-PAGE, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and recognition by plant lectins, as well as by F4 ETEC variants. Electrophoretic patterns suggested the binding to PSA of 63, 13 and 2 molecules of Lac, GOS and Ochit, respectively. All neoglycans displayed quenching of tryptophan fluorescence consistent with the degree of glycation estimated by SDS-PAGE. Plant lectins recognized the neoglycans according to their specificity, whereas antigenic variants of F4 ETEC (ab, ac and ad) recognized PSA-Ochit and PSA-Lac with higher affinity than that for GOS. Neoglycans partially hindered the in vitro binding of F4 + ETEC to piglet enterocytes in a dose-dependent manner. The most effective blocking was observed with PSA-Lac that partially inhibited the adhesion of bacteria to enterocytes in a dose dependent manner, as quantified by flow cytometry. Increased production of the cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α was observed in response to F4 + ETEC infection of enterocytes and production was reduced in the presence of PSA-Ochit and PSA-GOS. These results suggest that neoglycans synthesized by the Maillard reaction could be useful in the prophylaxis of diarrhea in piglets.

  18. Thickness and nanomechanical properties of protective layer formed by TiF4 varnish on enamel after erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Dantas de MEDEIROS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The layer formed by fluoride compounds on tooth surface is important to protect the underlying enamel from erosion. However, there is no investigation into the properties of protective layer formed by NaF and TiF4 varnishes on eroded enamel. This study aimed to evaluate the thickness, topography, nanohardness, and elastic modulus of the protective layer formed by NaF and TiF4 varnishes on enamel after erosion using nanoindentation and atomic force microscopy (AFM. Human enamel specimens were sorted into control, NaF, and TiF4 varnish groups (n = 10. The initial nanohardness and elastic modulus values were obtained and varnishes were applied to the enamel and submitted to erosive challenge (10 cycles: 5 s cola drink/5 s artificial saliva. Thereafter, nanohardness and elastic modulus were measured. Both topography and thickness were evaluated by AFM. The data were subjected to ANOVA, Tukey’s test and Student’s t test (α = 0.05. After erosion, TiF4 showed a thicker protective layer compared to the NaF group and nanohardness and elastic modulus values were significantly lower than those of the control group. It was not possible to measure nanohardness and elastic modulus in the NaF group due to the thin protective layer formed. AFM showed globular deposits, which completely covered the eroded surface in the TiF4 group. After erosive challenge, the protective layer formed by TiF4 varnish showed significant properties and it was thicker than the layer formed by NaF varnish.

  19. Exact partition functions for deformed N=2 theories with N{sub f}=4 flavours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beccaria, Matteo; Fachechi, Alberto; Macorini, Guido; Martina, Luigi [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica Ennio De Giorgi, Università del Salento,Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); INFN, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2016-12-07

    We consider the Ω-deformed N=2SU(2) gauge theory in four dimensions with N{sub f}=4 massive fundamental hypermultiplets. The low energy effective action depends on the deformation parameters ε{sub 1},ε{sub 2}, the scalar field expectation value a, and the hypermultiplet masses m=(m{sub 1},m{sub 2},m{sub 3},m{sub 4}). Motivated by recent findings in the N=2{sup ∗} theory, we explore the theories that are characterized by special fixed ratios ε{sub 2}/ε{sub 1} and m/ε{sub 1} and propose a simple condition on the structure of the multi-instanton contributions to the prepotential determining the effective action. This condition determines a finite set Π{sub N} of special points such that the prepotential has N poles at fixed positions independent on the instanton number. In analogy with what happens in the N=2{sup ∗} gauge theory, the full prepotential of the Π{sub N} theories may be given in closed form as an explicit function of a and the modular parameter q appearing in special combinations of Eisenstein series and Jacobi theta functions with well defined modular properties. The resulting finite pole partition functions are related by AGT correspondence to special 4-point spherical conformal blocks of the Virasoro algebra. We examine in full details special cases where the closed expression of the block is known and confirms our Ansatz. We systematically study the special features of Zamolodchikov’s recursion for the Π{sub N} conformal blocks. As a result, we provide a novel effective recursion relation that can be exactly solved and allows to prove the conjectured closed expressions analytically in the case of the Π{sub 1} and Π{sub 2} conformal blocks.

  20. Exact partition functions for deformed N=2 theories with N_f=4 flavours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beccaria, Matteo; Fachechi, Alberto; Macorini, Guido; Martina, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    We consider the Ω-deformed N=2SU(2) gauge theory in four dimensions with N_f=4 massive fundamental hypermultiplets. The low energy effective action depends on the deformation parameters ε_1,ε_2, the scalar field expectation value a, and the hypermultiplet masses m=(m_1,m_2,m_3,m_4). Motivated by recent findings in the N=2"∗ theory, we explore the theories that are characterized by special fixed ratios ε_2/ε_1 and m/ε_1 and propose a simple condition on the structure of the multi-instanton contributions to the prepotential determining the effective action. This condition determines a finite set Π_N of special points such that the prepotential has N poles at fixed positions independent on the instanton number. In analogy with what happens in the N=2"∗ gauge theory, the full prepotential of the Π_N theories may be given in closed form as an explicit function of a and the modular parameter q appearing in special combinations of Eisenstein series and Jacobi theta functions with well defined modular properties. The resulting finite pole partition functions are related by AGT correspondence to special 4-point spherical conformal blocks of the Virasoro algebra. We examine in full details special cases where the closed expression of the block is known and confirms our Ansatz. We systematically study the special features of Zamolodchikov’s recursion for the Π_N conformal blocks. As a result, we provide a novel effective recursion relation that can be exactly solved and allows to prove the conjectured closed expressions analytically in the case of the Π_1 and Π_2 conformal blocks.

  1. Antimicrobial resistance of F4+ Escherichia coli isolated from Swine in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppi, A; Bonilauri, P; Dottori, M; Gherpelli, Y; Biasi, G; Merialdi, G; Maioli, G; Martelli, P

    2015-02-01

    Four-hundred and forty-two F4+ pathogenic Escherichia coli were isolated in a period of 10 years (2002-2011), from pigs that were suffering from diarrhoea belonging to Italian swine herds. The strains were analysed for their susceptibility to 12 antimicrobials using the disc diffusion method. During the study period, a statistically significant proportion of isolates resistant to enrofloxacin (14.5-89.3%), marbofloxacin (5.4-60.7%), flumequine (49.1-92.9%), danofloxacin (21.6-80%), florfenicol (9.8-64.3%), thiamphenicol (50-92%) and cefquinome (3.8-44%) was recorded. An increase in resistance (not statistically significant) to gentamicin (63.6-85.7%), apramycin (61.8-82.1%), trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (75-89.3%), tetracycline (97-100%) and erythromycin (92.4-100%) was also observed. Based on antimicrobial multiresistance, the strains were collected into three groups: I. resistant to 2-5 antimicrobials; II. resistant to 6-8 antimicrobials; III. resistant to 9-12 antimicrobials. The number of isolates belonging to the first group showed a statistically significant decrease (P < 0.05; R(2)  = 0.896; r = -0.9608), while the isolates belonging to the second and third groups showed a statistically significant increase in resistance (P < 0.05; R(2)  = 0.753; r = 0.8890 and P < 0.05; R(2)  = 0.727; r = 0.8701, respectively) over the period of study. The results of this study suggest the need for continued monitoring of the development of resistance. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Multiple-electron removal and molecular fragmentation of CO by fast F4+ impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Itzhak, I.; Ginther, S.G.; Carnes, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    Multiple-electron removal from and molecular fragmentation of carbon monoxide molecules caused by collisions with 1-MeV/amu F 4+ ions were studied using the coincidence time-of-flight technique. In these collisions, multiple-electron removal of the target molecule is a dominant process. Cross sections for the different levels of ionization of the CO molecule during the collision were determined. The relative cross sections of ionization decrease with increasing number of electrons removed in a similar way as seen in atomic targets. This behavior is in agreement with a two-step mechanism, where first the molecule is ionized by a Franck-Condon ionization and then the molecular ion dissociates. Most of the highly charged intermediate states of the molecule dissociate rapidly. Only CO + and CO 2+ molecular ions have been seen to survive long enough to be detected as molecular ions. The relative cross sections for the different breakup channels were evaluated for collisions in which the molecule broke into two charged fragments as well as for collisions where only a single charged molecular ion or fragment were produced. The average charge state of each fragment resulting from CO Q+ →C i+ +O j+ breakup increases with the number of electrons removed from the molecule approximately following the relationship bar i=bar j=Q/2 as long as K-shell electrons are not removed. This does not mean that the charge-state distribution is exactly symmetric, as, in general, removing electrons from the carbon fragment is slightly more likely than removing electrons from the oxygen due to the difference in binding energy. The cross sections for molecular breakup into a charged fragment and a neutral fragment drop rapidly with an increasing number of electrons removed

  3. Structural insight in the inhibition of adherence of F4 fimbriae producing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli by llama single domain antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonens, Kristof; Van den Broeck, Imke; Okello, Emmanuel; Pardon, Els; De Kerpel, Maia; Remaut, Han; De Greve, Henri

    2015-02-24

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli that cause neonatal and post-weaning diarrhea in piglets express F4 fimbriae to mediate attachment towards host receptors. Recently we described how llama single domain antibodies (VHHs) fused to IgA, produced in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds and fed to piglets resulted in a progressive decline in shedding of F4 positive ETEC bacteria. Here we present the structures of these inhibiting VHHs in complex with the major adhesive subunit FaeG. A conserved surface, distant from the lactose binding pocket, is targeted by these VHHs, highlighting the possibility of targeting epitopes on single-domain adhesins that are non-involved in receptor binding.

  4. Spectroscopic study of the interaction of Nd{sup +3} with amino acids: phenomenological 4f-4f intensity parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerico, Soraya; Carubelli, Celia R.; Massabni, Ana M.G.; Stucchi, Elizabeth B.; Leite, Sergio R. de A. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Malta, Oscar [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Fundamental

    1998-10-01

    We have studied behaviour of the phenomenological 4f-4f intensity parameters in compounds of the Nd{sup 3+} ion with glycine, L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid, L-histidine, DL-malic acid and Aspartame{sup TM} in aqueous solution, as function of the pK values and partial charges on the oxygens of the carboxylate groups of these molecules. The results are discussed and qualitatively interpreted in terms of the forced electric dipole and dynamic coupling mechanisms of the 4f-4f intensities, thus indicating that the forced electric dipole mechanism is dominant. (author)

  5. Spectroscopic study of the interaction of Nd+3 with amino acids: phenomenological 4f-4f intensity parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerico, Soraya; Carubelli, Celia R.; Massabni, Ana M.G.; Stucchi, Elizabeth B.; Leite, Sergio R. de A.; Malta, Oscar

    1998-01-01

    We have studied behaviour of the phenomenological 4f-4f intensity parameters in compounds of the Nd 3+ ion with glycine, L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid, L-histidine, DL-malic acid and Aspartame TM in aqueous solution, as function of the pK values and partial charges on the oxygens of the carboxylate groups of these molecules. The results are discussed and qualitatively interpreted in terms of the forced electric dipole and dynamic coupling mechanisms of the 4f-4f intensities, thus indicating that the forced electric dipole mechanism is dominant. (author)

  6. Variation in 12 porcine genes involved in the carbohydrate moiety assembly of glycosphingolipids does not account for differential binding of F4 Escherichia coli and their fimbriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetstouwers, Tiphanie; Van Poucke, Mario; Coddens, Annelies; Nguyen, Van Ut; Melkebeek, Vesna; Deforce, Dieter; Cox, Eric; Peelman, Luc J

    2014-10-03

    Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are important membrane components composed of a carbohydrate structure attached to a hydrophobic ceramide. They can serve as specific membrane receptors for microbes and microbial products, such as F4 Escherichia coli (F4 ETEC) and isolated F4 fimbriae. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that variation in genes involved in the assembly of the F4 binding carbohydrate moiety of GSLs (i.e. ARSA, B4GALT6, GAL3ST1, GALC, GBA, GLA, GLB1, GLB1L, NEU1, NEU2, UGCG, UGT8) could account for differential binding of F4 ETEC and their fimbriae. RT-PCR could not reveal any differential expression of the 12 genes in the jejunum of F4 receptor-positive (F4R(+)) and F4 receptor-negative (F4R(-)) pigs. Sequencing the complete open reading frame of the 11 expressed genes (NEU2 was not expressed) identified 72 mutations. Although some of them might have a structural effect, none of them could be associated with a F4R phenotype. We conclude that no regulatory or structural variation in any of the investigated genes is responsible for the genetic susceptibility of pigs towards F4 ETEC.

  7. F4E R and D programme and results on in-vessel dust and tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Guern, F.; Gulden, W.; Ciattaglia, S.; Counsell, G.; Bengaouer, A.; Brinster, J.; Dabbene, F.; Denkevitz, A.; Jordan, T.; Kuznetsov, M.; Porfiri, M.T.; Redlinger, R.; Roblin, Ph.; Roth, J.; Segre, J.; Sugiyama, K.; Tkatschenko, I.; Xu, Z.

    2011-01-01

    In a Tokamak vacuum vessel, plasma-wall interactions can result in the production of radioactive dust and H isotopes (including tritium) can be trapped both in in-vessel material and in dust. The vacuum vessel represents the most important confinement barrier to this radioactive material. In the event of an accident involving ingress of steam to the vacuum vessel, hydrogen could be produced by chemical reactions with hot metal and dust. Hydrogen isotopes could also be desorbed from in-vessel components, e.g. cryopumps. In events where an ingress of air to the vacuum vessel occurs, reaction of the air with hydrogen and/or dust therefore cannot be completely excluded. Due to the radiological risks highlighted by the safety evaluation studies for ITER in normal conditions (e.g. in-vessel maintenance chronic release) and accidental ones (e.g. challenge of vacuum vessel tightness in the event of a hydrogen/dust explosion with air), limitations on the accumulation of dust and tritium in the vacuum vessel are imposed as well as controls over the maximum extent of the quantity of accidental air ingress. ITER IO has defined a strategy for the control of in-vessel dust and tritium inventories below the safety limits based primarily on the measurement and removal of dust and tritium. In this context, this paper will report on the efforts under F4E responsibility to develop a number of the new ITER baseline systems. In particular this paper, after a review of safety constraints and ITER strategy, provides the status of: (1) tasks being launched on diagnostics for in-vessel dust inventory measurement, (2) experiments to enrich the data about the effectiveness of desorption of tritium from Be at 350 o C (divertor baking aiming to release significant amount of tritium trapped in Be co-deposit), (3) on-going R and D programme (experimental and numerical simulation) at FZK, CEA and ENEA on in-vacuum vessel H2 dust explosion.

  8. Velocity map imaging of ion-molecule reaction products: Co+(3F4)+isobutane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Emily L.; Thurau, Gert; Weisshaar, James C.

    2002-07-01

    The velocity map imaging technique is applied to mass-selected CoC3H6++CH4 and CoC4H8++H2 elimination products from the Co+(3F4)+isobutane reaction studied under crossed-beam conditions at 0.21 eV collision energy. For both reactions we obtain the joint scattering probability distribution P(E,Θ), where E and Θ are the product translational energy and scattering angle. The fraction of available energy deposited into product translation is 0.4 for H2, compared with 0.1 for CH4. For the CH4 product, the angular distribution is forward-backwards symmetric and sharply peaked at Θ=0 and 180°. P(E,Θ) is not separable into the product of an energy and an angular function; rather, the angular distribution peaks more sharply at higher translational energy. Evidently, incipient CoC3H6++CH4 products equilibrate in the Co+(C3H6)(CH4) exit-channel well, from which they decay statistically. The product translational energy distribution P(E) is consistent with orbiting-transition state phase-space theory with no exit-channel barrier. In addition, the energy-integrated angular distribution T(Θ) is consistent with the predictions of the early statistical complex decay model of Miller and Herschbach for fragmentation from a transition state that is a prolate top. In sharp contrast, P(E) for the CoC4H8++H2 products exhibits a substantial hot, nonstatistical tail towards high energy. Perhaps the H2 channel has a late potential energy barrier some 0.5 eV above products, but we view this explanation as highly unlikely. Instead, we suggest that the potential energy from an earlier multicenter transition state is funneled efficiently, and highly nonstatistically, into product translation. This surprising conclusion may apply to H2 products for the entire family of reactions of the late-3D series transition metal cations Fe+, Co+, and Ni+ with alkanes.

  9. 75 FR 22770 - Gary E. Hall and Rita Hall; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13652-000-Montana] Gary E. Hall and Rita Hall; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment April 22, 2010. In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended, and the Federal Energy Regulatory...

  10. Serum Mac-2 binding protein glycosylation isomer predicts grade F4 liver fibrosis in patients with biliary atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Naoya; Sanada, Yukihiro; Tashiro, Masahisa; Hirata, Yuta; Okada, Noriki; Ihara, Yoshiyuki; Urahashi, Taizen; Mizuta, Koichi

    2017-02-01

    Mac-2 Binding Protein Glycosylation Isomer (M2BPGi) is a novel fibrosis marker. We examined the ability of M2BPGi to predict liver fibrosis in patients with biliary atresia. Sixty-four patients who underwent living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) were included [median age, 1.1 years (range 0.4-16.0), male 16 patients (25.0 %)]. We examined M2BPGi levels in serum obtained the day before LDLT, and we compared the value of the preoperative M2BPGi levels with the histological evaluation of fibrosis using the METAVIR fibrosis score. Subsequently, we assessed the ability of M2BPGi levels to predict fibrosis. The median M2BPGi level in patients with BA was 6.02 (range, 0.36-20.0), and 0, 1, 1, 11, and 51 patients had METAVIR fibrosis scores of F0, F1, F2, F3, and F4, respectively. In patients with F4 fibrosis, the median M2BPGi level was 6.88 (quartile; 5.235, 12.10), significantly higher than that in patients with F3 fibrosis who had a median level of 2.42 (quartile; 1.93, 2.895, p F4 fibrosis. M2BPGi is a novel fibrosis marker for evaluating the status of the liver in patients with BA, especially when predicting grade F4 fibrosis.

  11. Subcutaneous or oral immunization of mice with Lactococcus lactis expressing F4 fimbrial adhesin FaeG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shujie; Li, Yongming; Xu, Ziwei; Wang, Yicheng

    2013-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is one of the most common causes of diarrhea in neonatal and postweaning piglets. Fimbrial adhesion of ETEC has been considered an important colonization factor with antigenicity. To safely and effectively deliver the F4 (K88) fimbrial adhesin FaeG to the immune system, we have previously constructed the secretory expression vector pNZ8112-faeG, and FaeG was produced in cytoplasmic form in Lactococcus lactis. In this work, BALB/c mice were immunized with recombinant L. lactis to further determine the immunogenicity of recombinant FaeG (rFaeG) via the subcutaneous or oral route. Subcutaneous immunization in mice with recombinant L. lactis induced a significant increase in the F4-specific serum IgG titer and the number of antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) in the spleen. Oral immunization of mice with recombinant L. lactis induced mucosal and systemic F4-specific immune responses and increased the number of ASCs in the spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches. High-dose (2.8 × 10(11) CFU) recombinant strains and adjuvant cholera toxin B subunit enhanced specific mucosal immune responses. The results suggest the feasibility of delivering rFaeG expressed in L. lactis to the immune system in order to induce an F4-specific immune response.

  12. Feeding of Lactobacillus sobrius reduces Escherichia coli F4 levels in the gut and promotes growth of infected piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantinov, S.R.; Smidt, H.; Akkermans, A.D.L.; Casini, L.; Trevisi, P.; Mazzoni, M.; Filippi, de S.; Bosi, P.; Vos, de W.M.

    2008-01-01

    The microbial community in the guts of mammals is often seen as an important potential target in therapeutic and preventive interventions. The aim of the present study was to determine whether enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) F4 infection in young animals might be counteracted by a probiotic

  13. Impact of calcium ion on cytotoxic effect of the boroxine derivative, K2[B3O3F4OH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivankovic, Sinisa; Stojkovic, Ranko; Maksimovic, Milka; Galic, Borivoj; Milos, Mladen

    2016-01-01

    The effect of Ca 2+ ions on the cytotoxic ability of boron heterocyclic compound dipotassium-trioxohydroxytetrafluorotriborate (K 2 [B 3 O 3 F 4 OH]), on in vitro tumor cells (mammary adenocarcinoma 4T1, melanoma B16F10 and squamous cell carcinoma SCCVII) and non-tumoral fibroblast cells (mouse dermal L929 and hamster lung V79) was examined. At small concentrations of Ca 2+ ions (0.42 mM), K 2 [B 3 O 3 F 4 OH] (3.85 mM) has a very strong cytotoxic effect on all cancer cells tested (89.1, 85.6 and 84.6%) and significantly less effect on normal cells (19.5 and 24.2%), respectively. Applying larger concentrations of Ca 2+ ions (9.42-72.42 mM), at the same concentration of K 2 [B 3 O 3 F 4 OH], no significant cytotoxic effect was detected on cancer cells and normal cells investigated. The selective ability of K 2 [B 3 O 3 F 4 OH], in the medium with a low concentration of Ca 2+ ions has a strong cytotoxic effect on cancer cells and very weak effect in normal cells, opens up the possibility of its application in antitumor therapy.

  14. 17 CFR 239.34 - Form F-4, for registration of securities of foreign private issuers issued in certain business...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form F-4, for registration of securities of foreign private issuers issued in certain business combination transactions. 239.34 Section 239.34 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE...

  15. New effective coupled F((4)R, φ) modified gravity from f((5)R) gravity in five dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madriz Aguilar, Jose Edgar

    2015-01-01

    Using some ideas of the Wesson induced matter theory, we obtain a new kind of F( (4) R, φ) modified gravity theory as an effective four-dimensional (4D) theory derived from f( (5) R) gravity in five dimensions (5D). This new theory exhibits a different matter coupling than the one in BBHL theory. We show that the field equations of the Wesson induced matter theory and of some brane-world scenarios can be obtained as maximally symmetric solutions of the same f( (5) R) theory. We found criteria for the Dolgov-Kawasaki instabilities for both the f( (5) R) and the F( (4) R, φ) theories. We demonstrate that under certain conditions imposed on the 5D geometry it is possible to interpret the F( (4) R, φ) theory as a modified gravity theory with dynamical coefficients, making this new theory a viable candidate to address the present accelerating cosmic expansion issue. Matter sources in the F( (4) R, φ) case appear induced by the 5D geometry without the necessity of the introduction of matter sources in 5D. (orig.)

  16. Charge carrier coherence and Hall effect in organic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, H. T.; Gartstein, Y. N.; Podzorov, V.

    2016-01-01

    Hall effect measurements are important for elucidating the fundamental charge transport mechanisms and intrinsic mobility in organic semiconductors. However, Hall effect studies frequently reveal an unconventional behavior that cannot be readily explained with the simple band-semiconductor Hall effect model. Here, we develop an analytical model of Hall effect in organic field-effect transistors in a regime of coexisting band and hopping carriers. The model, which is supported by the experiments, is based on a partial Hall voltage compensation effect, occurring because hopping carriers respond to the transverse Hall electric field and drift in the direction opposite to the Lorentz force acting on band carriers. We show that this can lead in particular to an underdeveloped Hall effect observed in organic semiconductors with substantial off-diagonal thermal disorder. Our model captures the main features of Hall effect in a variety of organic semiconductors and provides an analytical description of Hall mobility, carrier density and carrier coherence factor. PMID:27025354

  17. Charge carrier coherence and Hall effect in organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, H T; Gartstein, Y N; Podzorov, V

    2016-03-30

    Hall effect measurements are important for elucidating the fundamental charge transport mechanisms and intrinsic mobility in organic semiconductors. However, Hall effect studies frequently reveal an unconventional behavior that cannot be readily explained with the simple band-semiconductor Hall effect model. Here, we develop an analytical model of Hall effect in organic field-effect transistors in a regime of coexisting band and hopping carriers. The model, which is supported by the experiments, is based on a partial Hall voltage compensation effect, occurring because hopping carriers respond to the transverse Hall electric field and drift in the direction opposite to the Lorentz force acting on band carriers. We show that this can lead in particular to an underdeveloped Hall effect observed in organic semiconductors with substantial off-diagonal thermal disorder. Our model captures the main features of Hall effect in a variety of organic semiconductors and provides an analytical description of Hall mobility, carrier density and carrier coherence factor.

  18. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a single-dose live non-pathogenic Escherichia coli oral vaccine against F4-positive enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli challenge in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbrother, John Morris; Nadeau, Éric; Bélanger, Louise; Tremblay, Cindy-Love; Tremblay, Danielle; Brunelle, Mélanie; Wolf, Regina; Hellmann, Klaus; Hidalgo, Álvaro

    2017-01-05

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains expressing F4 (K88) fimbriae (F4-ETEC) are one of the most important causes of post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) in pigs. F4, a major antigen, plays an important role in the early steps of the infection. Herein, the efficacy of a live oral vaccine consisting of a non-pathogenic E. coli strain expressing F4 for protection of pigs against PWD was evaluated. Three blinded, placebo-controlled, block design, parallel-group confirmatory experiments were conducted, using an F4-ETEC PWD challenge model, each with a different vaccination-challenge interval (3, 7, and 21days). The pigs were vaccinated via the drinking water with a single dose of the Coliprotec® F4 vaccine one day post-weaning. Efficacy was assessed by evaluating diarrhea, clinical observations, intestinal fluid accumulation, weight gain, intestinal colonization and fecal shedding of F4-ETEC. The immune response was evaluated by measuring serum and intestinal F4-specific antibodies. The administration of the vaccine resulted in a significant reduction of the incidence of moderate to severe diarrhea, ileal colonization by F4-ETEC, and fecal shedding of F4-ETEC after the heterologous challenge at 7 and 21days post-vaccination. The 7-day onset of protection was associated with an increase of serum anti-F4 IgM whereas the 21-day duration of protection was associated with an increase of both serum anti-F4 IgM and IgA. Significant correlations between levels of serum and intestinal secretory anti-F4 antibodies were detected. Maternally derived F4-specific serum antibodies did not interfere with the vaccine efficacy. The evaluation of protection following a challenge three days after vaccination showed a reduction of the severity and the duration of diarrhea and of fecal shedding of F4-ETEC. The 7-day onset and the 21-day duration of protection induced by Coliprotec® F4 vaccine administered once in drinking water to pigs of at least 18days of age were confirmed by protection

  19. Dr. Hall and the work cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Kathlyn L

    2005-01-01

    Herbert James Hall, MD (1870-1923), was a pioneer in the systematic and organized study of occupation as therapy for persons with nervous and mental disorders that he called the "work cure." He began his work in 1904 during the early years of the Arts and Crafts Movement in the United States. His primary interest was the disorder neurasthenia, a condition with many symptoms including chronic fatigue, stress, and inability to work or perform everyday tasks. The prevailing treatment of the day was absolute bed rest known as the "rest cure." Hall believed that neurasthenia was not caused by overwork but by faulty living habits that could be corrected through an ordered life schedule and selected occupations. He identified several principles of therapy that are still used today including graded activity and energy conservation. Dr. Adolph Meyer credits Hall for organizing the ideas on the therapeutic use of occupation (Meyer, 1922). Hall also provided the name American Occupational Therapy Association for the professional organization and served as the fourth president. For his many contributions to the profession Hall deserves to be recognized as a major contributor to the development and organization of occupational therapy.

  20. A new CMOS Hall angular position sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, R.S.; Drljaca, P. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Lausanne (Switzerland); Schott, C.; Racz, R. [SENTRON AG, Zug (Switzerland)

    2001-06-01

    The new angular position sensor consists of a combination of a permanent magnet attached to a shaft and of a two-axis magnetic sensor. The permanent magnet produces a magnetic field parallel with the magnetic sensor plane. As the shaft rotates, the magnetic field also rotates. The magnetic sensor is an integrated combination of a CMOS Hall integrated circuit and a thin ferromagnetic disk. The CMOS part of the system contains two or more conventional Hall devices positioned under the periphery of the disk. The ferromagnetic disk converts locally a magnetic field parallel with the chip surface into a field perpendicular to the chip surface. Therefore, a conventional Hall element can detect an external magnetic field parallel with the chip surface. As the direction of the external magnetic field rotates in the chip plane, the output voltage of the Hall element varies as the cosine of the rotation angle. By placing the Hall elements at the appropriate places under the disk periphery, we may obtain the cosine signals shifted by 90 , 120 , or by any other angle. (orig.)

  1. Composite fermions in the quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.L.; Kirczenow, G.

    1997-01-01

    The quantum Hall effect and associated quantum transport phenomena in low-dimensional systems have been the focus of much attention for more than a decade. Recent theoretical development of interesting quasiparticles - 'composite fermions' - has led to significant advances in understanding and predicting the behaviour of two-dimensional electron systems under high transverse magnetic fields. Composite fermions may be viewed as fermions carrying attached (fictitious) magnetic flux. Here we review models of the integer and fractional quantum Hall effects, including the development of a unified picture of the integer and fractional effects based upon composite fermions. The composite fermion picture predicts remarkable new physics: the formation of a Fermi surface at high magnetic fields, and anomalous ballistic transport, thermopower, and surface acoustic wave behaviour. The specific theoretical predictions of the model, as well as the body of experimental evidence for these phenomena are reviewed. We also review recent edge-state models for magnetotransport in low-dimensional devices based on the composite fermion picture. These models explain the fractional quantum Hall effect and transport phenomena in nanoscale devices in a unified framework that also includes edge state models of the integer quantum Hall effect. The features of the composite fermion edge-state model are compared and contrasted with those of other recent edge-state models of the fractional quantum Hall effect. (author)

  2. Air temperature gradient in large industrial hall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpuk, Michał; Pełech, Aleksander; Przydróżny, Edward; Walaszczyk, Juliusz; Szczęśniak, Sylwia

    2017-11-01

    In the rooms with dominant sensible heat load, volume airflow depends on many factors incl. pre-established temperature difference between exhaust and supply airflow. As the temperature difference is getting higher, airflow volume drops down, consequently, the cost of AHU is reduced. In high industrial halls with air exhaust grids located under the ceiling additional temperature gradient above working zone should be taken into consideration. In this regard, experimental research of the vertical air temperature gradient in high industrial halls were carried out for the case of mixing ventilation system The paper presents the results of air temperature distribution measurements in high technological hall (mechanically ventilated) under significant sensible heat load conditions. The supply airflow was delivered to the hall with the help of the swirl diffusers while exhaust grids were located under the hall ceiling. Basing on the air temperature distribution measurements performed on the seven pre-established levels, air temperature gradient in the area between 2.0 and 7.0 m above the floor was calculated and analysed.

  3. Field theory approach to quantum hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabo, A.; Chaichian, M.

    1990-07-01

    The Fradkin's formulation of statistical field theory is applied to the Coulomb interacting electron gas in a magnetic field. The electrons are confined to a plane in normal 3D-space and also interact with the physical 3D-electromagnetic field. The magnetic translation group (MTG) Ward identities are derived. Using them it is shown that the exact electron propagator is diagonalized in the basis of the wave functions of the free electron in a magnetic field whenever the MTG is unbroken. The general tensor structure of the polarization operator is obtained and used to show that the Chern-Simons action always describes the Hall effect properties of the system. A general proof of the Streda formula for the Hall conductivity is presented. It follows that the coefficient of the Chern-Simons terms in the long-wavelength approximation is exactly given by this relation. Such a formula, expressing the Hall conductivity as a simple derivative, in combination with diagonal form of the full propagator allows to obtain a simple expressions for the filling factor and the Hall conductivity. Indeed, these results, after assuming that the chemical potential lies in a gap of the density of states, lead to the conclusion that the Hall conductivity is given without corrections by σ xy = νe 2 /h where ν is the filling factor. In addition it follows that the filling factor is independent of the magnetic field if the chemical potential remains in the gap. (author). 21 ref, 1 fig

  4. Extrinsic spin Hall effect in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappoport, Tatiana

    The intrinsic spin-orbit coupling in graphene is extremely weak, making it a promising spin conductor for spintronic devices. In addition, many applications also require the generation of spin currents in graphene. Theoretical predictions and recent experimental results suggest one can engineer the spin Hall effect in graphene by greatly enhancing the spin-orbit coupling in the vicinity of an impurity. The extrinsic spin Hall effect then results from the spin-dependent skew scattering of electrons by impurities in the presence of spin-orbit interaction. This effect can be used to efficiently convert charge currents into spin-polarized currents. I will discuss recent experimental results on spin Hall effect in graphene decorated with adatoms and metallic cluster and show that a large spin Hall effect can appear due to skew scattering. While this spin-orbit coupling is small if compared with what it is found in metals, the effect is strongly enhanced in the presence of resonant scattering, giving rise to robust spin Hall angles. I will present our single impurity scattering calculations done with exact partial-wave expansions and complement the analysis with numerical results from a novel real-space implementation of the Kubo formalism for tight-binding Hamiltonians. The author acknowledges the Brazilian agencies CNPq, CAPES, FAPERJ and INCT de Nanoestruturas de Carbono for financial support.

  5. The fecal presence of enterotoxin and F4 genes as an indicator of efficacy of treatment with colistin sulfate in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhouma, Mohamed; Fairbrother, John Morris; Thériault, William; Beaudry, Francis; Bergeron, Nadia; Laurent-Lewandowski, Sylvette; Letellier, Ann

    2017-01-05

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains producing multiple enterotoxins are important causes of post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) in pigs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the fecal presence of ETEC enterotoxin as well as F4 and F18 genes as an indicator of colistin sulfate (CS) efficacy for treatment of PWD in pigs. Forty-eight piglets were weaned at the age of 21 days, and were divided into four groups: challenged treated, challenged untreated, unchallenged treated, and unchallenged untreated. Challenge was performed using 10 9  CFU of an ETEC: F4 strain, and treatment was conducted using oral CS at the dose of 50,000 IU/kg. The fecal presence of genes encoding for STa, STb, LT, F4 and F18 was detected using PCR. The PCR amplification of ETEC virulence genes showed that nearly 100% of pigs excreted genes encoding for STa and STb toxins in the feces before the challenge. These genes, in the absence of the gene encoding F4, were considered as a marker for F4-negative ETEC. One day after ETEC: F4 oral challenge pigs in the two challenged groups excreted the genes encoding LT and F4 in the feces. These genes were considered as a marker for F4-positive ETEC. However, the gene encoding F18 was not detected in any fecal samples of the 4 groups throughout the experiment. After only 3 days of successive oral treatment with CS, a significant reduction in both the F4-positive and negative ETEC populations was observed in the challenged treated group compared to the challenged untreated group (p F4-positive and F4-negative ETEC in pigs. However, CS clinical efficiency was correlated with non-detection of F4-positive ETEC in the feces. Furthermore the fecal presence of F4-negative ETEC was not associated with clinical symptoms of post-weaning diarrhea in pigs.

  6. Electric conductivity of double fluorides in the systems M1F-Th(U)F4(M1=K, Tl) and M2F2-ThF4(M2=Ca, Sr, Ba)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murin, I.V.; Andreev, A.M.; Amelin, Yu.V.

    1982-01-01

    The temperature dependence of electric conductivity of some double fluorides formed in the systems M 1 F-Th(U)F 4 (M 1 =K, Tl) and M 2 F 2 -ThF 4 (M 2 =Ca, Sr, Ba) as well as UF 3 in a wide temperature range is studied. It is shown that the values of electric conductivity and activation energy of these fluorides depend on the compound structure and cation nature. The temperature electric conductivity dependence for double fluorides with the tysonite structure is close to the lanthanum fluoride dependence. Taking into account low electron electric conductivity component the conclusion is drawn that the investigated compounds can be used as solid electrolytes

  7. Control by hardware of government systems for laser diodes with STM32F4 and Peltier cells; Control por hardware de sistemas de gobierno para diodos laser con STM32F4 y celdas Peltier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulloa Solano, Natalia Irina

    2013-07-01

    A low cost prototype of a government system is developed for laser diodes with STM32F4 microcontrollers and Peltier cooling. Commercial and homemade government system (with STM32F4 microcontrollers ) are investigated with the objective of adequately control the current of a laser diode. Characteristics of STM32F4 microcontrollers are described. The low cost platforms as the Arduino and Raspberry Pi are compared. A bibliographical and documentary compilation is realized for the preliminary study of the components and tools to use in the prototype. The theory related with the heat transfer between a laser diode and the outside, and a Peltier cell and outside is summarized. A heat dissipation model is proposed of a system formed by a laser diode and Peltier cell. A control system of current and fed back temperature is designed and implemented to allow adequately control laser diodes without and with photodiode (2 pickups and 3 pickups respectively). The viability of control with free software is studied and corroborated. The temperature control of the laser diode using a Peltier cell as cooler has been possible through a simple control of ON/OFF mode. The integration of devices such as ADC, DAC, timers and facilities of STM32F4 microcontroller, have allowed to optimize costs by hardware, save time and costs. Also, the incorporation of the Cortex-M4 processor has optimized the consumption of operational resources and has executed much of its instruction set of efficient way. Because of this, the project has complied with its maximum as to low cost is concerned [Spanish] Un prototipo de bajo costo de un sistema de gobierno es desarrollado para diodos laser con microcontroladores STM32F4 y enfriamiento con Peltier. Los sistemas de gobierno comerciales y caseros (con microcontroladores STM32F4) son investigados con el objetivo de controlar adecuadamente la corriente de un diodo laser. Las caracteristicas de los microcontroladores STM32F4 son descritas. Las plataformas de

  8. Localization in a quantum spin Hall system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoda, Masaru; Avishai, Yshai; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2007-02-16

    The localization problem of electronic states in a two-dimensional quantum spin Hall system (that is, a symplectic ensemble with topological term) is studied by the transfer matrix method. The phase diagram in the plane of energy and disorder strength is exposed, and demonstrates "levitation" and "pair annihilation" of the domains of extended states analogous to that of the integer quantum Hall system. The critical exponent nu for the divergence of the localization length is estimated as nu congruent with 1.6, which is distinct from both exponents pertaining to the conventional symplectic and the unitary quantum Hall systems. Our analysis strongly suggests a different universality class related to the topology of the pertinent system.

  9. Hall probe magnetometer for SSC magnet cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, R.W.; Goldfarb, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    The authors of this paper constructed a Hall probe magnetometer to measure the magnetization hysteresis loops of Superconducting Super Collider magnet cables. The instrument uses two Hall-effect field sensors to measure the applied field H and the magnetic induction B. Magnetization M is calculated from the difference of the two quantities. The Hall probes are centered coaxially in the bore of a superconducting solenoid with the B probe against the sample's broad surface. An alternative probe arrangement, in which M is measured directly, aligns the sample probe parallel to the field. The authors measured M as a function of H and field cycle rate both with and without a dc transport current. Flux creep as a function of current was measured from the dependence of ac loss on the cycling rate and from the decay of magnetization with time. Transport currents up to 20% of the critical current have minimal effect on magnetization and flux creep

  10. Spin Hall Effect in Doped Semiconductor Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Wang-Kong; Das Sarma, Sankar

    2006-03-01

    We present a microscopic theory of the extrinsic spin Hall effect based on the diagrammatic perturbation theory. Side-jump (SJ) and skew-scattering (SS) contributions are explicitly taken into account to calculate the spin Hall conductivity, and we show their effects scale as σxy^SJ/σxy^SS ˜(/τ)/ɛF, where τ being the transport relaxation time. Motivated by recent experimental work we apply our theory to n-doped and p-doped 3D and 2D GaAs structures, obtaining analytical formulas for the SJ and SS contributions. Moreover, the ratio of the spin Hall conductivity to longitudinal conductivity is found as σs/σc˜10-3-10-4, in reasonable agreement with the recent experimental results of Kato et al. [Science 306, 1910 (2004)] in n-doped 3D GaAs system.

  11. Shielding consideration for the SSCL experimental halls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bull, J.; Coyne, J.; Mokhov, N.; Stapleton, G.

    1994-03-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider which is being designed and built in Waxahachie, Texas consists Of series of proton accelerators, culminating in a 20 Te proton on proton collider. The collider will be in a tunnel which will be 87 km in circumference and. on average about 30 meters underground. The present design calls for two large interaction halls on the east side of the ring. The shielding for these halls is being designed for an interaction rate of 10 9 Hz or 10 16 interactions per year, based on 10 7 seconds per operational year. SSC guidelines require that the shielding be designed to meet the criterion of 1mSv per year for open areas off site 2mSv per year for open areas on site, and 2mSv per year for controlled areas. Only radiation workers will be routinely allowed to work in controlled areas. It should be pointed that there is a potential for an accidental full beam loss in either of the experimental halls, and this event would consist of the loss of the full circulating beam up to 4 x 10 14 protons. With the present design. the calculated dose equivalent for this event is about 10% of the annual dose equivalent for the normal p-p interactions, so that die accident condition does not control the shielding. If, for instance, local shielding within the experimental hall is introduced into the calculations, this could change. The shielding requirements presented here are controlled by the normal p-p interactions. Three important questions were addressed in the present calculations. They are (1) the thickness of the roof over the experimental halls, (2) the configuration of the shafts and adits which give access to the halls, and (3) the problem of ground water and air activation

  12. Developments in Scanning Hall Probe Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Taras; Chu, Ricky; David, Nigel; Broun, David

    2009-05-01

    Low temperature scanning Hall probe microscopy is a sensitive means of imaging magnetic structures with high spatial resolution and magnetic flux sensitivity approaching that of a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device. We have developed a scanning Hall probe microscope with novel features, including highly reliable coarse positioning, in situ optimization of sensor-sample alignment and capacitive transducers for linear, long range positioning measurement. This has been motivated by the need to reposition accurately above fabricated nanostructures such as small superconducting rings. Details of the design and performance will be presented as well as recent progress towards time-resolved measurements with sub nanosecond resolution.

  13. Enhanced Performance of Cylindrical Hall Thrusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raitses, Y.; Smirnov, A.; Fisch, N.J.

    2007-01-01

    The cylindrical thruster differs significantly in its underlying physical mechanisms from the conventional annular Hall thruster. It features high ionization efficiency, quiet operation, ion acceleration in a large volume-to-surface ratio channel, and performance comparable with the state-of-the-art conventional Hall thrusters. Very significant plume narrowing, accompanied by the increase of the energetic ion fraction and improvement of ion focusing, led to 50-60% increase of the thruster anode efficiency. These improvements were achieved by overrunning the discharge current in the magnetized thruster plasma

  14. Inverse spin Hall effect by spin injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S. Y.; Horing, Norman J. M.; Lei, X. L.

    2007-09-01

    Motivated by a recent experiment [S. O. Valenzuela and M. Tinkham, Nature (London) 442, 176 (2006)], the authors present a quantitative microscopic theory to investigate the inverse spin-Hall effect with spin injection into aluminum considering both intrinsic and extrinsic spin-orbit couplings using the orthogonalized-plane-wave method. Their theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental data. It is also clear that the magnitude of the anomalous Hall resistivity is mainly due to contributions from extrinsic skew scattering.

  15. Prototype dining hall energy efficiency study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzucchi, R.P.; Bailey, S.A.; Zimmerman, P.W.

    1988-06-01

    The energy consumption of food service facilities is among the highest of any commercial building type, owing to the special requirements for food preparation, sanitation, and ventilation. Consequently, the US Air Force Engineering and Services Center (AFESC) contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to collect and analyze end-use energy consumption data for a prototypical dining hall and make specific recommendations on cost-effective energy conservation options. This information will be used to establish or update criteria for dining hall designs and retrofits as appropriate. 6 refs., 21 figs., 23 tabs.

  16. Acoustics in rock and pop music halls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Werner; Thompson, Eric Robert; Gade, Anders Christian

    2007-01-01

    The existing body of literature regarding the acoustic design of concert halls has focused almost exclusively on classical music, although there are many more performances of rhythmic music, including rock and pop. Objective measurements were made of the acoustics of twenty rock music venues...... in Denmark and a questionnaire was used in a subjective assessment of those venues with professional rock musicians and sound engineers. Correlations between the objective and subjective results lead, among others, to a recommendation for reverberation time as a function of hall volume. Since the bass...

  17. Proton knock-out in Hall A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jager, K. de

    2003-01-01

    Proton knock-out is studied in a broad program in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. The first experiment performed in Hall A studied the 16 O(e,e'p) reaction. Since then proton knock-out experiments have studied a variety of aspects of that reaction, from single-nucleon properties to its mechanism, such as final-state interactions and two-body currents, in nuclei from 2 H to 16 O. In this review the accomplishments of this program will be summarized and an outlook given of expected future results. (orig.)

  18. Theory of fractional quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinov, I.Z.

    1984-09-01

    A theory of the fractional quantum Hall effect is constructed by introducing 3-particle interactions breaking the symmetry for ν=1/3 according to a degeneracy theorem proved here. An order parameter is introduced and a gap in the single particle spectrum is found. The critical temperature, critical filling number and critical behaviour are determined as well as the Ginzburg-Landau equation coefficients. A first principle calculation of the Hall current is given. 3, 5, 7 electron tunneling and Josephson interference effects are predicted. (author)

  19. 75 FR 76926 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R Series Airplanes, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R Series Airplanes, and Model C4-605R... airplanes; Model A300 B4-605R and B4-622R airplanes; Model A300 F4-605R and F4-622R airplanes; Model A300 C4...

  20. 76 FR 42029 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R Series Airplanes, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R Series Airplanes, and Model A300 C4... A300 B4-605R and B4-622R airplanes, Model A300 F4-605R and F4-622R airplanes, and Model A300 C4- [[Page...

  1. 76 FR 27242 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R Series Airplanes, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R Series Airplanes, and Model C4-605R... applies to all Airbus Model A300 B4-601, B4-603, B4- 620, B4-622, B4-605R, B4-622R, F4-605R, F4-622R, and...

  2. Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin administered in drinking water to recently weaned 3- to 4-week-old pigs with diarrhea experimentally induced by Escherichia coli O149 : F4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, G.M.; Lykkesfeldt, J.; Frydendahl, K.

    2006-01-01

    Objective-To measure effects of Escherichia coli 0149:F4-induced diarrhea on water consumption and pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin after administration in drinking water. Animals-24 recently weaned 24- to 28-day-old crossbred pigs. Procedure-10 pigs were inoculated with E coli O149:F4; all 10 pigs...... of amoxicillin may be appropriate for administration in drinking water during a 4-hour period on the first day that pigs have diarrhea attributable to E coli 0149:F4....

  3. 76 FR 38069 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R Series Airplanes, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R Series Airplanes, and Model C4-605R Variant F Airplanes (Collectively...-603, B4-620, B4-622, B4-605R, B4-622R, F4-605R, F4-622R, and C4-605R Variant F airplanes; and Model...

  4. 75 FR 27956 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R Series Airplanes, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R Series Airplanes, and Model C4-605R Variant F Airplanes (Collectively...-203, and B4-203 airplanes; Model A300 B4-601, B4- 603, B4-620, B4-622, B4-605R, B4-622R, F4-605R, F4...

  5. 76 FR 59008 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R Series Airplanes, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R Series Airplanes, and Model C4-605R... to Airbus Model A300 B4-601, B4-603, B4-620, B4-622, B4-605R, B4-622R, F4-605R, F4-622R, and C4-605R...

  6. 76 FR 39248 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R Series Airplanes, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R Series Airplanes, and Model C4-605R... B4-605R and B4-622R airplanes; Model A300 F4-605R and F4-622R airplanes; Model A300 C4-605R Variant F...

  7. Electrochemical behavior of Th(IV) and its electrodeposition from ThF_4-LiCl-KCl melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xianbin; Huang, Wei; Gong, Yu; Jiang, Feng; Zheng, Haiyang; Zhu, Tiejian; Long, Dewu; Li, Qingnuan

    2016-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of Th(IV) ion on molybdenum (Mo) electrode was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV) technologies at 773 K in ThF_4-LiCl-KCl melt. The reduction of Th(IV) to metal Th at −1.67 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) is a four-electron exchange process, which is quasi-reversible and diffusion-controlled. The diffusion coefficient (D) and activation energy of diffusion process for Th(IV) were determined to be 3.77 × 10"−"5 cm"2 s"−"1 and 59.2 kJ mol"−"1. The pulse potential electrolysis of ThF_4-LiCl-KCl melt revealed that 86.8% of Th(IV) can be separated from the melt based on the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) results.

  8. Crystal growth, spectroscopic characterization, and continuous wave laser operation of Nd3+-doped LiLuF4 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C. C.; Hang, Y.; Zhang, L. H.; He, X. M.; Yin, J. G.; Li, R.; Yu, T.; Chen, W. B.

    2011-04-01

    Nd3+-doped LiLuF4 single crystal with high optical quality was grown by Czochralski technique. The segregation coefficient of Nd3+ in LiLuF4 crystal was determined by the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry method. Polarized absorption and fluorescence spectra were investigated. The peak absorption cross section at 792 nm and peak emission cross section at 1053 nm are 6.94×10-20 and 7.60×10-20 cm2, respectively. With a laser-diode as the pump source, a maximum 6.22 W continuous-wave laser output at 1053 nm has been obtained with a slope efficiency of 37.2% with respect to the pump power.

  9. The 4s- and 4p- XPS spectra of Xe, XeF2 and XeF4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Masahide

    2003-01-01

    The 4s- and 4p- XPS spectra of Xe gas, XeF 2 molecule and XeF 4 molecule are calculated by an ab-initio atomic many-body theory. The 4s-peak and the prominent '4p'-peak are predicted well by the present theory. In XeF 2 and XeF 4 the spectral lines observed below the 4d-double ionization threshold are the 4d -2 4f multiplet states strongly perturbed by the interaction with the initial 4p 1/2 -hole state. They are very similar to the spectral lines which emerge with an increase in atomic number (e.g. Ba)

  10. Joint Research Centre Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) Fitness-for-Purpose (F4P) Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobron, N.; Adams, J. S.; Cappucci, F.; Lanconelli, C.; Mota, B.; Melin, F.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the concept and first results of the Copernicus Climate Change Service Fitness-for-Purpose (C3S F4P) project. The main goal aims at evaluating the efficiency and overall performance of the service, mainly with regard to users information needs and high level requirements. This project will also assess the fitness- for-purpose of the C3S with a specific emphasis on the needs of European Union (EU) Policies and translate these recommendations into programmatic and technical requirements. The C3S Climate Data Records (CDS) include various Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) that are derived from space sensors, including from Copernicus Sentinels sensors. One module of the F4P platform focuses on the benchmarking of data sets and algorithms, in addition to radiative transfer models used towards understanding potential discrepancies between CDS records. Methods and preliminary results of the benchmark platform are presented in this contribution.

  11. Bottom-up substitution assembly of AuF4-n0,-+nPO3 (n = 1-4): a theoretical study of novel oxyfluoride hyperhalogen molecules and anions AuF4-n(PO3)n0,-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-fan; Cui, Zhong-hua; Ding, Yi-hong

    2014-06-01

    Compounds with high electron affinity, i.e. superhalogens, have continued to attract chemists' attention, due to their potential importance in fundamental chemistry and materials science. It has now proven very effective to build up novel superhalogens with multi-positively charged centres, which are usually called 'hyperhalogens'. Herein, using AuF4- and PO3 as the model building blocks, we made the first attempt to design the Au,P-based hyperhalogen anions AuF4-n(PO3)n- (n = 1-4) at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d)&SDD and CCSD(T)/6-311+G(d)&SDD (single-point) levels (6-311+G(d) for O, F, P and SDD for Au). Notably, for all the considered Au,P systems, the ground state bears a dioxo-bonded structure with n ≤ 3, which is significantly more stable than the usually presumed mono-oxo-bonded one. Moreover, the clustering of the -PO3 moieties becomes energetically favoured for n ≥ 3. The ground states of AuP4O120,- are the first reported cage-like oxide hyperhalogens. Thus, the -PO3 moiety cannot be retained during the 'bottom-up' assembly. The vertical detachment energy (VDE) value of the most stable AuF4-n(PO3)n- (n = 1-4) ranges from 7.16 to 8.20 eV, higher than the VDE values of the corresponding building blocks AuF4- (7.08 eV) and PO3- (4.69 eV). The adiabatic detachment energy values of these four hyperhalogens exceed 6.00 eV. Possible generation routes for AuF4-n(PO3)n- (n = 1-4) were discussed. The presently designed oxyfluorides not only enriches the family of hyperhalogens, but also demonstrates the great importance of considering the structural transformation during the superhalogen → hyperhalogen design such as for the present Au-P based systems.

  12. Crystal growth, spectroscopic characterization and laser operation of Tm3+ and Ho3+ codoped LiLuF4 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C. C.; Hang, Y.; Zhang, L. H.; He, X. M.; Yin, J. G.; Gong, J.; Yu, T.; Chen, W. B.

    2012-02-01

    Laser crystal Tm3+ and Ho3+ codoped LiLuF4 with high optical quality was grown by Czochralski technique. Its absorption and fluorescence spectra were investigated. A continuous wave output power of 1.12 W at 2066 nm was obtained with a slope efficiency of 24% by use of diode pumping. In the Q-switched mode, a slope efficiency of 18.9% and a maximum average power of 0.65 W were obtained.

  13. An Investigation of the Magnetic Structure and Excitations in K2CoxFe1-xF4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Higgins, S.A.; Couley, R.A.; Hagen, M.

    1984-01-01

    Neutron scattering techniques have been used to investigate the magnetic structure of K2CoxF1-xF4 with x=0.2 and x=0.6. The x=0.6 sample exhibits only one magnetic phase transition, at TN=92.2+or-0.1K. The x=0.2 sample has two magnetic phase transitions; below TN=66+or-1K the axial spin components...

  14. Winglet Geometry Impact on DLR-F4 Aerodynamics and an Analysis of a Hyperbolic Winglet Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Djahid Gueraiche; Sergey Popov

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the growth of aerodynamic efficiency and the growth of the wing structural stress is studied for DLR-F4 typical transport aircraft wing-body, after installing classical Whitcomb winglets of different configurations and a delta wingtip fence. A new-concept curved-span winglet was mathematically developed and approved through Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and static structural experiments, revealing the interaction of sub- and transonic air flow dynamics with the wingtip d...

  15. Dissociation of gaseous complex fluorides MMnF3 and MMnF4 (M= Li - Cs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorov, L.N.; Gubarevich, V.D.

    1982-01-01

    Mass spectrometric determination of dissociation enthalpies of gaseous complex fluorides CsMnF 3 and CsMnF 4 into neutral and charged particles is carried out using techniques of isothermal evaporation, electron impact and study of ion-molecular equilibria. As a result formation enthalpy values of CsMnFsub(3 gas) and CsMnFsub(4 gas) at T=298 are obtained, being -285.4 and -359.9 kcal/mol respectively

  16. Control by hardware of government systems for laser diodes with STM32F4 and Peltier cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulloa Solano, Natalia Irina

    2013-01-01

    A low cost prototype of a government system is developed for laser diodes with STM32F4 microcontrollers and Peltier cooling. Commercial and homemade government system (with STM32F4 microcontrollers ) are investigated with the objective of adequately control the current of a laser diode. Characteristics of STM32F4 microcontrollers are described. The low cost platforms as the Arduino and Raspberry Pi are compared. A bibliographical and documentary compilation is realized for the preliminary study of the components and tools to use in the prototype. The theory related with the heat transfer between a laser diode and the outside, and a Peltier cell and outside is summarized. A heat dissipation model is proposed of a system formed by a laser diode and Peltier cell. A control system of current and fed back temperature is designed and implemented to allow adequately control laser diodes without and with photodiode (2 pickups and 3 pickups respectively). The viability of control with free software is studied and corroborated. The temperature control of the laser diode using a Peltier cell as cooler has been possible through a simple control of ON/OFF mode. The integration of devices such as ADC, DAC, timers and facilities of STM32F4 microcontroller, have allowed to optimize costs by hardware, save time and costs. Also, the incorporation of the Cortex-M4 processor has optimized the consumption of operational resources and has executed much of its instruction set of efficient way. Because of this, the project has complied with its maximum as to low cost is concerned [es

  17. 75 FR 60611 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R Series Airplanes, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R Series Airplanes, and Model A300 C4...; Model A300 B4-601, B4- 603, B4-620, B4-622, B4-605R, B4-622R, F4-605R, F4-622R, and C4-605R Variant F...-- Dated-- A300 series airplanes......... A300-32A0447..... April 22, 2004. A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4...

  18. Analytical variables affecting analysis of F2-isoprostanes and F4-neuroprostanes in human cerebrospinal fluid by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hsiu-Chuan; Wei, Hsing-Ju; Chen, Ting-Wei

    2013-01-01

    F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs) are a gold marker of lipid peroxidation in vivo, whereas F4-neuroprostanes (F4-NPs) measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or brain tissue selectively indicate neuronal oxidative damage. Gas chromatography/negative-ion chemical-ionization mass spectrometry (GC/NICI-MS) is the most sensitive and robust method for quantifying these compounds, which is essential for CSF samples because abundance of these compounds in CSF is very low. The present study revealed potential interferences on the analysis of F2-IsoPs and F4-NPs in CSF by GC/NICI-MS due to the use of improper analytical methods that have been employed in the literature. First, simultaneous quantification of F2-IsoPs and F4-NPs in CSF samples processed for F4-NPs analysis could cause poor chromatographic separation and falsely higher F2-IsoPs values for CSF samples with high levels of F2-IsoPs and F4-NPs. Second, retention of unknown substances in GC columns from CSF samples during F4-NPs analysis and from plasma samples during F2-IsoPs analysis might interfere with F4-NPs analysis of subsequent runs, which could be solved by holding columns at a high temperature for a period of time after data acquisition. Therefore, these special issues should be taken into consideration when performing analysis of F2-IsoPs and F4-NPs in CSF to avoid misleading results.

  19. Bound values for Hall conductivity of heterogeneous medium under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    - ditions in inhomogeneous medium has been studied. It is shown that bound values for. Hall conductivity differ from bound values for metallic conductivity. This is due to the unusual character of current percolation under quantum Hall effect ...

  20. Crystal phase transition in LixNa1-xGdF4 solid solution nanocrystals - Tuning of optical properties

    KAUST Repository

    Bański, Mateusz

    2014-01-01

    The influence of precursor composition on the crystallization of LixNa1-xGdF4 is investigated and discussed. Nanocrystals are prepared from the thermal decomposition of trifluoroacetates in the presence of trioctylphosphine oxide to provide control over particle size. A crystal phase transition from hexagonal to cubic and to tetragonal is observed by increasing lithium trifluoroacetate (Li-TFA) in the solution. Controlling the composition of LixNa1-xGdF4 nanocrystals results in modified crystal field symmetry and emission properties from doped europium (Eu3+) ions. We report that for lithium (Li+) substitution <15%, the hexagonal crystal field is preferred, while the Eu3+ emission is already tuned, whereas at higher Li+ substitution, a phase change takes place and the number of crystalline matrix defects increases which is reflected in the optical properties of Eu3+. From Eu3+ emission properties, the optimum Li+ content is determined to be ∼6.2% in the prepared LixNa1-xGdF4 nanocrystals.

  1. Atomic Layer Deposition of Stable LiAlF4 Lithium Ion Conductive Interfacial Layer for Stable Cathode Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jin; Sendek, Austin D; Cubuk, Ekin D; Zhang, Xiaokun; Lu, Zhiyi; Gong, Yongji; Wu, Tong; Shi, Feifei; Liu, Wei; Reed, Evan J; Cui, Yi

    2017-07-25

    Modern lithium ion batteries are often desired to operate at a wide electrochemical window to maximize energy densities. While pushing the limit of cutoff potentials allows batteries to provide greater energy densities with enhanced specific capacities and higher voltage outputs, it raises key challenges with thermodynamic and kinetic stability in the battery. This is especially true for layered lithium transition-metal oxides, where capacities can improve but stabilities are compromised as wider electrochemical windows are applied. To overcome the above-mentioned challenges, we used atomic layer deposition to develop a LiAlF 4 solid thin film with robust stability and satisfactory ion conductivity, which is superior to commonly used LiF and AlF 3 . With a predicted stable electrochemical window of approximately 2.0 ± 0.9 to 5.7 ± 0.7 V vs Li + /Li for LiAlF 4 , excellent stability was achieved for high Ni content LiNi 0.8 Mn 0.1 Co 0.1 O 2 electrodes with LiAlF 4 interfacial layer at a wide electrochemical window of 2.75-4.50 V vs Li + /Li.

  2. A Small Modular Laboratory Hall Effect Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ty Davis

    Electric propulsion technologies promise to revolutionize access to space, opening the door for mission concepts unfeasible by traditional propulsion methods alone. The Hall effect thruster is a relatively high thrust, moderate specific impulse electric propulsion device that belongs to the class of electrostatic thrusters. Hall effect thrusters benefit from an extensive flight history, and offer significant performance and cost advantages when compared to other forms of electric propulsion. Ongoing research on these devices includes the investigation of mechanisms that tend to decrease overall thruster efficiency, as well as the development of new techniques to extend operational lifetimes. This thesis is primarily concerned with the design and construction of a Small Modular Laboratory Hall Effect Thruster (SMLHET), and its operation on argon propellant gas. Particular attention was addressed at low-cost, modular design principles, that would facilitate simple replacement and modification of key thruster parts such as the magnetic circuit and discharge channel. This capability is intended to facilitate future studies of device physics such as anomalous electron transport and magnetic shielding of the channel walls, that have an impact on thruster performance and life. Preliminary results demonstrate SMLHET running on argon in a manner characteristic of Hall effect thrusters, additionally a power balance method was utilized to estimate thruster performance. It is expected that future thruster studies utilizing heavier though more expensive gases like xenon or krypton, will observe increased efficiency and stability.

  3. June 1992 Hall B collaboation meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, L.

    1992-01-01

    The Hall B collaboration meeting at the CEBAF 1992 Summer Workshop consisted of technical and physics working group meetings, a special beam line devices working group meeting the first meeting of the membership committee, a technical representatives meeting and a full collaboration meeting. Highlights of these meetings are presented in this report

  4. Chapin Hall Projects and Publications. Autumn 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicago Univ., IL. Chapin Hall Center for Children.

    This guide chronicles the ongoing work and writings of the Chapin Hall Center for Children at the University of Chicago, a policy research center dedicated to bringing sound information, rigorous analyses, innovative ideas, and an independent, multidisciplinary perspective to bear on policies and programs affecting children. This guide, organized…

  5. Quantum Hall Conductivity and Topological Invariants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Andres

    2001-04-01

    A short survey of the theory of the Quantum Hall effect is given emphasizing topological aspects of the quantization of the conductivity and showing how topological invariants can be derived from the hamiltonian. We express these invariants in terms of Chern numbers and show in precise mathematical terms how this relates to the Kubo formula.

  6. Room acoustic properties of concert halls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Anders Christian

    1996-01-01

    A large database of values of various room acoustic parameters has provided the basis for statistical analyses of how and how much the acoustic properties of concert halls are influenced by their size, shape, and absorption area (as deduced from measured reverberation time). The data have been...

  7. Pseudospin anisotropy classification of quantum Hall ferromagnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jungwirth, Tomáš; MacDonald, A. H.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 3 (2000), s. 035305-1 - 035305-9 ISSN 0163-1829 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/98/0085 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : quantum Hall ferromagnets * anisotropy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.065, year: 2000

  8. Anomalous Hall effect in disordered multiband metals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovalev, A.A.; Sinova, Jairo; Tserkovnyak, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 3 (2010), 036601/1-036601/4 ISSN 0031-9007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : anomalous Hall effect * spintronics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.621, year: 2010

  9. Anomalous Hall conductivity: Local orbitals approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Středa, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 4 (2010), 045115/1-045115/9 ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : anomalous Hall effect * Berry phase correction * orbital polarization momentum Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.772, year: 2010

  10. Quantization and hall effect: necessities and difficulties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed Bouketir; Hishamuddin Zainuddin

    1999-01-01

    The quantization procedure is a necessary tool for a proper understanding of many interesting quantum phenomena in modern physics. In this note, we focus on geometrical framework for such procedures, particularly the group-theoretic approach and their difficulties. Finally we look through the example of Hall effect as a quantized macroscopic phenomenon with group-theoretic quantization approach. (author)

  11. Spin Hall effect on a noncommutative space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Kai; Dulat, Sayipjamal

    2011-01-01

    We study the spin-orbital interaction and the spin Hall effect of an electron moving on a noncommutative space under the influence of a vector potential A(vector sign). On a noncommutative space, we find that the commutator between the vector potential A(vector sign) and the electric potential V 1 (r(vector sign)) of the lattice induces a new term, which can be treated as an effective electric field, and the spin Hall conductivity obtains some correction. On a noncommutative space, the spin current and spin Hall conductivity have distinct values in different directions, and depend explicitly on the noncommutative parameter. Once this spin Hall conductivity in different directions can be measured experimentally with a high level of accuracy, the data can then be used to impose bounds on the value of the space noncommutativity parameter. We have also defined a new parameter, σ=ρθ (ρ is the electron concentration, θ is the noncommutativity parameter), which can be measured experimentally. Our approach is based on the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation, which gives a general Hamiltonian of a nonrelativistic electron moving on a noncommutative space.

  12. Prospect of quantum anomalous Hall and quantum spin Hall effect in doped kagome lattice Mott insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterding, Daniel; Jeschke, Harald O; Valentí, Roser

    2016-05-17

    Electronic states with non-trivial topology host a number of novel phenomena with potential for revolutionizing information technology. The quantum anomalous Hall effect provides spin-polarized dissipation-free transport of electrons, while the quantum spin Hall effect in combination with superconductivity has been proposed as the basis for realizing decoherence-free quantum computing. We introduce a new strategy for realizing these effects, namely by hole and electron doping kagome lattice Mott insulators through, for instance, chemical substitution. As an example, we apply this new approach to the natural mineral herbertsmithite. We prove the feasibility of the proposed modifications by performing ab-initio density functional theory calculations and demonstrate the occurrence of the predicted effects using realistic models. Our results herald a new family of quantum anomalous Hall and quantum spin Hall insulators at affordable energy/temperature scales based on kagome lattices of transition metal ions.

  13. Stephen Hall Receives 2012 Walter Sullivan Award for Excellence in Science Journalism-Features: Citation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Stephen Hall, a freelance science writer and science-communication teacher, received the Walter Sullivan Award for Excellence in Science Journalism-Features at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, held on 5 December 2012 in San Francisco, Calif. Hall was honored for the article "At Fault?" published 15 September 2011 in Nature. The article examines the legal, personal, and political repercussions from a 2009 earthquake in L'Aquila, Italy for seismologists who had attempted to convey seismic risk assessments to the public. The 6.3 magnitude quake devastated the medieval town and caused more than 300 deaths. Six scientists and one government official were subsequently convicted of manslaughter and sentenced to prison for inadequately assessing and mischaracterizing the risks to city residents, despite the inexact nature of seismic risk assessment. The Sullivan award is for work published with a deadline pressure of more than 1 week.

  14. Digital technology impacts on the Arnhem transfer hall structural design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Straat, R.; Hofman, S.; Coenders, J.L.; Paul, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    The new Transfer Hall in Arnhem is one of the key projects to prepare the Dutch railways for the increased future demands for capacity. UNStudio developed a master plan in 1996 for the station area of which the completion of the Transfer Hall in 2015 will be a final milestone. The Transfer Hall is a

  15. Magnetoresistance in quantum Hall metals due to Pancharatnam ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We derive the trial Hall resistance formula for the quantum Hall metals to address both the integer and fractional quantum Hall effects. Within the degenerate (and crossed) Landau levels, and in the presence of changing magnetic field strength, one can invoke two physical processes responsible for the electron ...

  16. Destruction of the fractional quantum Hall effect by disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughlin, R.B.

    1985-07-01

    It is suggested that Hall steps in the fractional quantum Hall effect are physically similar to those in the ordinary quantum Hall effect. This proposition leads to a simple scaling diagram containing a new type of fixed point, which is identified with the destruction of the fractional states by disorder. 15 refs., 3 figs

  17. A Hall probe technique for characterizing high-temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.; Sheldon, P.; Ahrenkiel, R.K.

    1992-01-01

    Thin-film GaAs Hall probes were fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy technology. A contactless technique was developed to characterize thin-film, high-temperature superconducting (HTSC) materials. The Hall probes detected the ac magnetic flux penetration through the high-temperature superconducting materials. The Hall detector has advantages over the mutual inductance magnetic flux detector

  18. Spin-singlet hierarchy in the fractional quantum Hall effect

    OpenAIRE

    Ino, Kazusumi

    1999-01-01

    We show that the so-called permanent quantum Hall states are formed by the integer quantum Hall effects on the Haldane-Rezayi quantum Hall state. Novel conformal field theory description along with this picture is deduced. The odd denominator plateaux observed around $\

  19. Residency Allocation Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Residency Allocation Database is used to determine allocation of funds for residency programs offered by Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). Information...

  20. Topological honeycomb magnon Hall effect: A calculation of thermal Hall conductivity of magnetic spin excitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owerre, S. A., E-mail: solomon@aims.ac.za [African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 6 Melrose Road, Muizenberg, Cape Town 7945, South Africa and Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St. N., Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2016-07-28

    Quite recently, the magnon Hall effect of spin excitations has been observed experimentally on the kagome and pyrochlore lattices. The thermal Hall conductivity κ{sup xy} changes sign as a function of magnetic field or temperature on the kagome lattice, and κ{sup xy} changes sign upon reversing the sign of the magnetic field on the pyrochlore lattice. Motivated by these recent exciting experimental observations, we theoretically propose a simple realization of the magnon Hall effect in a two-band model on the honeycomb lattice. The magnon Hall effect of spin excitations arises in the usual way via the breaking of inversion symmetry of the lattice, however, by a next-nearest-neighbour Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction. We find that κ{sup xy} has a fixed sign for all parameter regimes considered. These results are in contrast to the Lieb, kagome, and pyrochlore lattices. We further show that the low-temperature dependence on the magnon Hall conductivity follows a T{sup 2} law, as opposed to the kagome and pyrochlore lattices. These results suggest an experimental procedure to measure thermal Hall conductivity within a class of 2D honeycomb quantum magnets and ultracold atoms trapped in a honeycomb optical lattice.

  1. Induction of Th1 polarized immune responses by thiolated Eudragit-coated F4 and F18 fimbriae of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Jung; Cha, Seungbin; Shin, Minkyoung; Islam, Mohammad Ariful; Cho, Chong-su; Yoo, Han Sang

    2011-10-01

    Diarrhea in newborn and weaned piglets is mainly induced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) with fimbriae F4 (K88) and F18 (F107). In this study, we evaluated F4 and F18 coated with thiolated Eudragit microspheres (TEMS) as a candidate for an oral vaccine. The average particle sizes of TEMS, F4-loaded TEMS, and F18-loaded TEMS were measured as 4.2±0.75 μm, 4.7±0.50 μm, and 4.5±0.37 μm, respectively. F4 is more efficiently encapsulated than F18 in the loading with TEMS. In the release test, F4 and F18 fimbriae were protected in acidic circumstances, whereas most were released at pH 7.4 of intestine circumstances. Production of TNF-α and NO from RAW 264.7 cells was increased in a time-dependent manner after exposure to all groups, whereas only F4- or F18-loaded TEMS-stimulated IL-6 secretion. The levels of IFN-γ from mouse splenocytes after exposure to F4 or F18 were increased while IL-4 was not detectable. These results suggest that F4- and F18-loaded TEMS may effectively induce immune response with the efficient release of antigens to appropriate target sites. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Classification of temporal profiles of F4+ E. coli shedding and faecal dry matter in experimental post-weaning diarrhoea of pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geenen, P.L.; Meulen, van der J.; Bouma, A.; Engel, B.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic F4+ Escherichia coli can colonize the intestine of pigs and cause diarrhoea. Our primary goal was to find a discriminant rule to discriminate between F4+ E. coli shedding profiles as this may reflect differences in the infectiousness of pigs. Our secondary goal was to find a

  3. Classification of temporal profiles of F4+ E. coli shedding and faecal dry matter in experimental post-weaning diarrhoea of pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geenen, P.L.; Meulen, J. van der; Bouma, A.; Engel, B.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.; Jong, M.C.M. de

    2006-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic F4+ Escherichia coli can colonize the intestine of pigs and cause diarrhoea. Our primary goal was to find a discriminant rule to discriminate between F4+ E. coli shedding profiles as this may reflect differences in the infectiousness of pigs. Our secondary goal was to find a

  4. Diagnostics Systems for Permanent Hall Thrusters Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Soares Ferreira, Ivan; Santos, Jean; Miranda, Rodrigo; Possa, M. Gabriela

    This work describes the development of Permanent Magnet Hall Effect Plasma Thruster (PHALL) and its diagnostic systems at The Plasma Physics Laboratory of University of Brasilia. The project consists on the construction and characterization of plasma propulsion engines based on the Hall Effect. Electric thrusters have been employed in over 220 successful space missions. Two types stand out: the Hall-Effect Thruster (HET) and the Gridded Ion Engine (GIE). The first, which we deal with in this project, has the advantage of greater simplicity of operation, a smaller weight for the propulsion subsystem and a longer shelf life. It can operate in two configurations: magnetic layer and anode layer, the difference between the two lying in the positioning of the anode inside the plasma channel. A Hall-Effect Thruster-HET is a type of plasma thruster in which the propellant gas is ionized and accelerated by a magneto hydrodynamic effect combined with electrostatic ion acceleration. So the essential operating principle of the HET is that it uses a J x B force and an electrostatic potential to accelerate ions up to high speeds. In a HET, the attractive negative charge is provided by electrons at the open end of the Thruster instead of a grid, as in the case of the electrostatic ion thrusters. A strong radial magnetic field is used to hold the electrons in place, with the combination of the magnetic field and the electrostatic potential force generating a fast circulating electron current, the Hall current, around the axis of the Thruster, mainly composed by drifting electrons in an ion plasma background. Only a slow axial drift towards the anode occurs. The main attractive features of the Hall-Effect Thruster are its simple design and operating principles. Most of the Hall-Effect Thrusters use electromagnet coils to produce the main magnetic field responsible for plasma generation and acceleration. In this paper we present a different new concept, a Permanent Magnet Hall

  5. Valley-chiral quantum Hall state in graphene superlattice structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H. Y.; Tao, W. W.; Wang, J.; Cui, Y. H.; Xu, N.; Huang, B. B.; Luo, G. X.; Hao, Y. H.

    2016-05-01

    We theoretically investigate the quantum Hall effect in a graphene superlattice (GS) system, in which the two valleys of graphene are coupled together. In the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field, an ordinary quantum Hall effect is found with the sequence σxy=ν e^2/h(ν=0,+/-1,+/-2,\\cdots) . At the zeroth Hall platform, a valley-chiral Hall state stemming from the single K or K' valley is found and it is localized only on one sample boundary contributing to the longitudinal conductance but not to the Hall conductivity. Our findings may shed light on the graphene-based valleytronics applications.

  6. Accurate micro Hall effect measurements on scribe line pads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Wang, Fei

    2009-01-01

    Hall mobility and sheet carrier density are important parameters to monitor in advanced semiconductor production. If micro Hall effect measurements are done on small pads in scribe lines, these parameters may be measured without using valuable test wafers. We report how Hall mobility can...... be extracted from micro four-point measurements performed on a rectangular pad. The dimension of the investigated pad is 400 × 430 ¿m2, and the probe pitches range from 20 ¿m to 50 ¿m. The Monte Carlo method is used to find the optimal way to perform the Hall measurement and extract Hall mobility most...

  7. Three enzymatically active neurotoxins of Clostridium botulinum strain Af84: BoNT/A2, /F4, and /F5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalb, Suzanne R; Baudys, Jakub; Smith, Theresa J; Smith, Leonard A; Barr, John R

    2014-04-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are produced by various species of clostridia and are potent neurotoxins which cause the disease botulism, by cleaving proteins needed for successful nerve transmission. There are currently seven confirmed serotypes of BoNTs, labeled A-G, and toxin-producing clostridia typically only produce one serotype of BoNT. There are a few strains (bivalent strains) which are known to produce more than one serotype of BoNT, producing either both BoNT/A and /B, BoNT/A and /F, or BoNT/B and /F, designated as Ab, Ba, Af, or Bf. Recently, it was reported that Clostridium botulinum strain Af84 has three neurotoxin gene clusters: bont/A2, bont/F4, and bont/F5. This was the first report of a clostridial organism containing more than two neurotoxin gene clusters. Using a mass spectrometry based proteomics approach, we report here that all three neurotoxins, BoNT/A2, /F4, and /F5, are produced by C. botulinum Af84. Label free MS(E) quantification of the three toxins indicated that toxin composition is 88% BoNT/A2, 1% BoNT/F4, and 11% BoNT/F5. The enzymatic activity of all three neurotoxins was assessed by examining the enzymatic activity of the neurotoxins upon peptide substrates, which mimic the toxins' natural targets, and monitoring cleavage of the substrates by mass spectrometry. We determined that all three neurotoxins are enzymatically active. This is the first report of three enzymatically active neurotoxins produced in a single strain of Clostridium botulinum.

  8. A far ultraviolet spectroscopic study of the reflectance, luminescence and electronic properties of SrMgF4 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogorodnikov, I.N.; Pustovarov, V.A.; Omelkov, S.I.; Isaenko, L.I.; Yelisseyev, A.P.; Goloshumova, A.A.; Lobanov, S.I.

    2014-01-01

    The electronic properties of single crystals of SrMgF 4 have been determined using low-temperature (10–293 K) time-resolved vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation spectroscopy, far ultraviolet (3.7–36 eV) reflectance spectra and calculations for the spectra of optical functions. The bandgap of investigated compound was found at E g =12.55eV, the energy threshold for creation of the unrelaxed excitons at E n=1 =11.37eV, and the low-energy fundamental absorption edge at 10.3 eV. Two groups of photoluminescence (PL) bands have been identified: the exciton-type emissions at 2.6–3.3 and 3.3–4.2 eV and defect-related emissions at 1.8–2.6 and 4.2–5.5 eV. It was shown that PL excitation (PLE) for the exciton-type emission bands occurs mainly at the low-energy tail of the fundamental absorption of the crystal with a maximum at 10.7 eV. At excitation energies above E g the energy transfer from the host lattice to the PL emission centers is inefficient. The paper discusses the origin of the excitonic-type PLE spectra taking into account the results of modeling the PLE spectra shape in the framework of a simple diffusion theory and surface energy losses. -- Highlights: • Far-ultraviolet reflection spectra of SrMgF 4 were studied. • Photoluminescence (PL) emission and PL excitation spectra were studied. • Optical function spectra were calculated on the basis of experimental data. • Electronic structure properties of undoped SrMgF 4 crystals were determined

  9. Tungsten ditelluride for a nanosecond Ho,Pr:LiLuF4 laser at 2.95 µm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhengyu; Li, Tao; Zhao, Jia; Zhao, Shengzhi; Yang, Kejian; Li, Guiqiu; Li, Dechun; Zhang, Shuaiyi; Li, Jian

    2018-04-01

    The linear and nonlinear absorption characteristics of a home-built multilayer tungsten ditelluride (WTe2) saturable absorber at ~3 µm were demonstrated for the first time. A passively Q-switched Ho,Pr:LiLuF4 laser was realized by inserting the WTe2-saturable absorber into a plane-concave laser cavity. A maximum average output power of 128 mW, with a pulse duration of 366 ns at a repetition rate of 92 kHz was obtained under an absorbed pump power of 3.67 W, corresponding to a pulse energy of 1.4 µJ.

  10. Two-step photoconductivity in LiY x Lu1 - x F4:Ce,Yb crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurtdinova, L. A.; Korableva, S. L.; Leontiev, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    Photoconductivity of LiY x Lu1- x F4:Ce,Yb ( x = 0-1) crystals is measured under one- and two-step excitation. It is established that the photoconductivity is due to intra-center transitions from excited states of Ce3+ ions. The position of the ground 4 f-state of Ce3+ ion relative to the bottom of the conduction band is determined. The choice of pumping conditions to obtain the lasing on the 5 d-4 f transitions of trivalent cerium in these active media is substantiated.

  11. Efficient Ho:LuLiF4 laser diode-pumped at 1.15 μm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Li; Huang, Chong-Yuan; Zhao, Cheng-Chun; Li, Hong-Qiang; Tang, Yu-Long; Yang, Nan; Zhang, Shuai-Yi; Hang, Yin; Xu, Jian-Qiu

    2013-07-15

    We report the first laser operation based on Ho(3+)-doped LuLiF(4) single crystal, which is directly pumped with 1.15-μm laser diode (LD). Based on the numerical model, it is found that the "two-for-one" effect induced by the cross-relaxation plays an important role for the laser efficiency. The maximum continuous wave (CW) output power of 1.4 W is produced with a beam propagation factor of M(2) ~2 at the lasing wavelength of 2.066 μm. The slope efficiency of 29% with respect to absorbed power is obtained.

  12. Giant photonic Hall effect in magnetophotonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzlikin, A M; Vinogradov, A P; Inoue, M; Granovsky, A B

    2005-10-01

    We have considered a simple, square, two-dimensional (2D) PC built of a magneto-optic matrix with square holes. It is shown that using such a magnetophotonic crystal it is possible to deflect a light beam at very large angles by applying a nonzero external magnetic field. The effect is called the giant photonic Hall effect (GPHE) or the magnetic superprism effect. The GPHE is based on magneto-optical properties, as is the photonic Hall effect [B. A. van Tiggelen and G. L. J. A. Rikken, in, edited by V. M. Shalaev (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2002), p. 275]; however GPHE is not caused by asymmetrical light scattering but rather by the influence of an external magnetic field on the photonic band structure.

  13. Assessment of elevator rope using Hall Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong O; Yoon, Woon Ha; Son, Young Ho; Kim, Jung Woo [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Ku [Pukyung National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Defect detection of wire rope for an elevator was investigated through the measurement of magnetic flux leakage. The types of defect usually found in wire rope categorized such as inner and outer wire breakage and wear. The specimens that has artificial defects were magnetized via permanent magnet, and measurement of magnetic flux leakage on the defects was performed with Hall sensor. In wire broken model, a defect smaller than 0.4 mm and 1 mm in depth on outer and inner wire rope, respectively, could be detected well. In wear model, smaller defect could not be detected clearly, however, appearance of changing of total magnetic flux during magnetic pole of the sensor passing through a defect 0.2 mm in depth at 4 mm or above width could make possible to detect it. From the results, the measurement via Hall sensor might be useful tool for defect detection of wire rope.

  14. Assesment of elevator rope using hall sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong O; Yoon, Woon Ha; Son, Young Ho [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Woo; Lee, Jong Ku [Pukyong National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-05-15

    Defect detection of wire rope for an elevator was investigated through the measurement of magnetic flux leakage. The types of defect usually found in wire rope categorized such as inner and outer wire breakage and wear. The specimens that has artificial defects were magnetized via permanent magnet, and measurement of magnetic flux leakage on the defects was performed with Hall sensor. In wire broken model, a defect smaller than 0.4mm and 1mm in depth on outer and inner wire rope, respectively, could be detected well. In wear model, smaller defect could not be detected clearly, however, appearance of changing of total magnetic flux during magnetic pole of the sensor passing through a defect 0.2mm in depth at 4mm or above width could make possible to detect it. From the results, the measurement via Hall sensor might be useful tool for defect detection of wire rope.

  15. Infinite symmetry in the quantum Hall effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lütken C.A.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The new states of matter and concomitant quantum critical phenomena revealed by the quantum Hall effect appear to be accompanied by an emergent modular symmetry. The extreme rigidity of this infinite symmetry makes it easy to falsify, but two decades of experiments have failed to do so, and the location of quantum critical points predicted by the symmetry is in increasingly accurate agreement with scaling experiments. The symmetry severely constrains the structure of the effective quantum field theory that encodes the low energy limit of quantum electrodynamics of 1010 charges in two dirty dimensions. If this is a non-linear σ-model the target space is a torus, rather than the more familiar sphere. One of the simplest toroidal models gives a critical (correlation length exponent that agrees with the value obtained from numerical simulations of the quantum Hall effect.

  16. Stuart Hall and Cultural Studies, circa 1983

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Curthoys

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Stuart Hall sought to internationalise theoretical debates and to create Cultural Studies as interdisciplinary. We chart his theoretical journey through a detailed examination of a series of lectures delivered in 1983 and now published for the first time. In these lectures, he discusses theorists such as E.P. Thompson, Raymond Williams, Louis Althusser, Levi Strauss and Antonio Gramsci, and explores the relationship between ideas and social structure, the specificities of class and race, and the legacies of slavery. We note his turn towards metaphors of divergence and dispersal and highlight how autobiographical and deeply personal Hall is in these lectures, especially in his ego histoire moment of traumatic memory recovery.

  17. Hall magnetohydrodynamics: Conservation laws and Lyapunov stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, D.D.

    1987-01-01

    Hall electric fields produce circulating mass flow in confined ideal-fluid plasmas. The conservation laws, Hamiltonian structure, equilibrium state relations, and Lyapunov stability conditions are presented here for ideal Hall magnetohydrodynamics (HMHD) in two and three dimensions. The approach here is to use the remarkable array of nonlinear conservation laws for HMHD that follow from its Hamiltonian structure in order to construct explicit Lyapunov functionals for the HMHD equilibrium states. In this way, the Lyapunov stability analysis provides classes of HMHD equilibria that are stable and whose linearized initial-value problems are well posed (in the sense of possessing continuous dependence on initial conditions). Several examples are discussed in both two and three dimensions

  18. Music hall Markneukirchen; Musikhalle in Markneukirchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The article presents the new building of the music hall Markneukirchen. From the planned use of the building result very high demands on the ventilation system in order to keep to a sound power level of less than 30 dB(A) in the hall. The building services are dealt with using numerous flowsheets and diagrams: Heat supply, ventilation system, sanitary system, building management, instrumentation and control, electric and lighting systems. (BWI) [Deutsch] Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt den Neubau der Musikhalle Markneukirchen vor. Durch das Nutzungskonzept ergeben sich fuer die Einhaltung eines Schalleistungspegels von weniger als 30 dB(A) im Saalbereich an die Lueftungsanlage sehr hohe Ansprueche. Es werden die raumlufttechnischen Anlagen anhand zahlreicher Flussbilder und Abbildungen vorgestellt: Waermeversorgung, Lueftungstechnik, Sanitaertechnik, Gebaeudeleit- und MSR-Technik, Elektro- und Lichttechnik. (BWI)

  19. Theory of fractional quantum hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinov, I.Z.

    1985-08-01

    A theory of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect is constructed based on magnetic flux fractionization, which lead to instability of the system against selfcompression. A theorem is proved stating that arbitrary potentials fail to lift a specific degeneracy of the Landau level. For the case of 1/3 fractional filling a model 3-particles interaction is constructed breaking the symmetry. The rigid 3-particles wave function plays the role of order parameter. In a BCS type of theory the gap in the single particles spectrum is produced by the 3-particles interaction. The mean field critical behaviour and critical parameters are determined as well as the Ginsburg-Landau equation coefficients. The Hall conductivity is calculated from the first principles and its temperature dependence is found. The simultaneous tunnelling of 3,5,7 etc. electrons and quantum interference effects are predicted. (author)

  20. Coulomb blockade in hierarchical quantum Hall droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappelli, Andrea; Georgiev, Lachezar S; Zemba, Guillermo R

    2009-01-01

    The degeneracy of energy levels in a quantum dot of Hall fluid, leading to conductance peaks, can be readily derived from the partition functions of conformal field theory. Their complete expressions can be found for Hall states with both Abelian and non-Abelian statistics, upon adapting known results for the annulus geometry. We analyze the Abelian states with hierarchical filling fractions, ν = m/(mp ± 1), and find a non-trivial pattern of conductance peaks. In particular, each one of them occurs with a characteristic multiplicity, which is due to the extended symmetry of the m-folded edge. Experimental tests of the multiplicity can shed more light on the dynamics of this composite edge. (fast track communication)

  1. Assessment of elevator rope using Hall Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong O; Yoon, Woon Ha; Son, Young Ho; Kim, Jung Woo; Lee, Jong Ku

    2003-01-01

    Defect detection of wire rope for an elevator was investigated through the measurement of magnetic flux leakage. The types of defect usually found in wire rope categorized such as inner and outer wire breakage and wear. The specimens that has artificial defects were magnetized via permanent magnet, and measurement of magnetic flux leakage on the defects was performed with Hall sensor. In wire broken model, a defect smaller than 0.4 mm and 1 mm in depth on outer and inner wire rope, respectively, could be detected well. In wear model, smaller defect could not be detected clearly, however, appearance of changing of total magnetic flux during magnetic pole of the sensor passing through a defect 0.2 mm in depth at 4 mm or above width could make possible to detect it. From the results, the measurement via Hall sensor might be useful tool for defect detection of wire rope.

  2. Assesment of elevator rope using hall sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong O; Yoon, Woon Ha; Son, Young Ho; Kim, Jung Woo; Lee, Jong Ku

    2003-01-01

    Defect detection of wire rope for an elevator was investigated through the measurement of magnetic flux leakage. The types of defect usually found in wire rope categorized such as inner and outer wire breakage and wear. The specimens that has artificial defects were magnetized via permanent magnet, and measurement of magnetic flux leakage on the defects was performed with Hall sensor. In wire broken model, a defect smaller than 0.4mm and 1mm in depth on outer and inner wire rope, respectively, could be detected well. In wear model, smaller defect could not be detected clearly, however, appearance of changing of total magnetic flux during magnetic pole of the sensor passing through a defect 0.2mm in depth at 4mm or above width could make possible to detect it. From the results, the measurement via Hall sensor might be useful tool for defect detection of wire rope.

  3. Judy Estes Hall (1940-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammons, Morgan T; Boucher, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Presents an obituary for Judy Estes Hall, who passed away on November 24, 2015. Hall served as the Executive Officer of the National Register of Health Service Psychologists until her retirement in 2013. She is a recognized expert in the development of education and training standards for the profession of psychology, she also made significant contributions in the field of international psychology, where she was a renowned expert in cross-national credentialing and an advocate for commonality in licensing standards. She was the coauthor of one edited volume and author of more than 60 journal articles, book chapters, and professional publications. A passionate advocate for the advancement of women in psychology, a devoted mother and grandmother, a connoisseur of wine and international traveler extraordinaire, she touched the personal and professional lives of many. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Homotopy arguments for quantized Hall conductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, T

    2002-01-01

    Using the strong localization bounds obtained by the Aizenman-Molcanov method for a particle in a magnetic field and a disordered potential, we show that the zero-temperature Hall conductivity of a gas of such particles is quantized and constant as long as both Fermi energy and disorder coupling parameter vary in a region of strong localization of the corresponding two-dimensional phase diagram.

  5. SPS beam to the West Hall

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    One of the two target stations feeding the West Hall (see Annual Report 1976). After the proton beam was split into three branches, the outer two were directed on to targets in the cast iron shielding box, the centre one passing through the box to another target station downstream. Five different targets could be put in each beam, controlled by the mechanism seen on top.

  6. Anomalous hall effect in ferromagnetic semiconductors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jungwirth, Tomáš; Niu, Q.; MacDonald, A. H.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 20 (2002), s. 207208-1-207208-4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/02/0912; GA MŠk OC P5.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : ferromagnetic semiconductors * anomalous Hall effect Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.323, year: 2002

  7. A hall for assembly and cryogenic tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaunier, J.; Buhler, S.; Caruette, A.; Chevrollier, R.; Junquera, T.; Le Scornet, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Cryodrome, an assembly hall and the testing ground for cryogenic equipment and R and D experiments for the superconducting cavities is going to be transformed for its future missions. The cryogenic utilities, especially the He low pressure pumping capacity, was rearranged and extended to a new area. Space was provided to install CRYHOLAB, a new horizontal cryostat for cavity testing. Automatic control and supervision of the utilities and the experimental area are rebuilt and updated. (authors)

  8. Generic superweak chaos induced by Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Harush, Moti; Dana, Itzhack

    2016-05-01

    We introduce and study the "kicked Hall system" (KHS), i.e., charged particles periodically kicked in the presence of uniform magnetic (B ) and electric (E ) fields that are perpendicular to each other and to the kicking direction. We show that for resonant values of B and E and in the weak-chaos regime of sufficiently small nonintegrability parameter κ (the kicking strength), there exists a generic family of periodic kicking potentials for which the Hall effect from B and E significantly suppresses the weak chaos, replacing it by "superweak" chaos (SWC). This means that the system behaves as if the kicking strength were κ2 rather than κ . For E =0 , SWC is known to be a classical fingerprint of quantum antiresonance, but it occurs under much less generic conditions, in particular only for very special kicking potentials. Manifestations of SWC are a decrease in the instability of periodic orbits and a narrowing of the chaotic layers, relative to the ordinary weak-chaos case. Also, for global SWC, taking place on an infinite "stochastic web" in phase space, the chaotic diffusion on the web is much slower than the weak-chaos one. Thus, the Hall effect can be relatively stabilizing for small κ . In some special cases, the effect is shown to cause ballistic motion for almost all parameter values. The generic global SWC on stochastic webs in the KHS appears to be the two-dimensional closest analog to the Arnol'd web in higher dimensional systems.

  9. Anode Fall Formation in a Hall Thruster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorf, Leonid A.; Raitses, Yevgeny F.; Smirnov, Artem N.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2004-01-01

    As was reported in our previous work, accurate, nondisturbing near-anode measurements of the plasma density, electron temperature, and plasma potential performed with biased and emissive probes allowed the first experimental identification of both electron-repelling (negative anode fall) and electron-attracting (positive anode fall) anode sheaths in Hall thrusters. An interesting new phenomenon revealed by the probe measurements is that the anode fall changes from positive to negative upon removal of the dielectric coating, which appears on the anode surface during the course of Hall thruster operation. As reported in the present work, energy dispersion spectroscopy analysis of the chemical composition of the anode dielectric coating indicates that the coating layer consists essentially of an oxide of the anode material (stainless steel). However, it is still unclear how oxygen gets into the thruster channel. Most importantly, possible mechanisms of anode fall formation in a Hall thruster with a clean and a coated anodes are analyzed in this work; practical implication of understanding the general structure of the electron-attracting anode sheath in the case of a coated anode is also discussed

  10. Josephson tunneling in bilayer quantum Hall system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezawa, Z.F.; Tsitsishvili, G.; Sawada, A.

    2012-01-01

    A Bose–Einstein condensation is formed by composite bosons in the quantum Hall state. A composite boson carries the fundamental charge (−e). We investigate Josephson tunneling of such charges in the bilayer quantum Hall system at the total filling ν=1. We show the existence of the critical current for the tunneling current to be coherent and dissipationless. Our results explain recent experiments due to [L. Tiemann, Y. Yoon, W. Dietsche, K. von Klitzing, W. Wegscheider, Phys. Rev. B 80 (2009) 165120] and due to [Y. Yoon, L. Tiemann, S. Schmult, W. Dietsche, K. von Klitzing, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104 (2010) 116802]. We predict also how the critical current changes as the sample is tilted in the magnetic field. -- Highlights: ► Composite bosons undergo Bose–Einstein condensation to form the bilayer quantum Hall state. ► A composite boson is a single electron bound to a flux quantum and carries one unit charge. ► Quantum coherence develops due to the condensation. ► Quantum coherence drives the supercurrent in each layer and the tunneling current. ► There exists the critical input current so that the tunneling current is coherent and dissipationless.

  11. Familial Pallister-Hall in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talsania, Mitali; Sharma, Rohan; Sughrue, Michael E; Scofield, R Hal; Lim, Jonea

    2017-10-01

    Pallister Hall syndrome is autosomal dominant disorder usually diagnosed in infants and children. Current diagnostic criteria include presence of hypothalamic hamartoma, post axial polydactyly and positive family history, but the disease has variable manifestations. Herein we report Pallister Hall syndrome diagnosed in a family where both patients were adults. A 59 year old man developed seizures 4 years prior to our evaluation of him, at which time imaging showed a hypothalamic hamartoma. The seizures were controlled medically. He did well until he had visual changes after a traumatic head injury. Repeat MRI showed slight expansion of the mass with formal visual field testing demonstrating bitemporal hemianopsia. There was no evidence of pituitary dysfunction except for large urine volume. He underwent surgery to debulk the hamartoma and the visual field defects improved. There was no hypopituitarism post-operatively, and the polydyspia resolved. His 29 year old daughter also had seizures and hypothalamic hamartoma. Both patients had had polydactyly with prior surgical correction in childhood. The daughter underwent genetic testing, which revealed a previously undescribed heterozygous single base pair deletion in exon 13 of the GLI3 gene causing a frameshift mutation. Further investigation into family history revealed multiple members in previous generations with polydactyly and/or seizures. Pallister-Hall syndrome is caused by an inherited autosomal dominant or de novo mutation in GLI3 gene. This rare syndrome has not had prevalence defined, however. Generally, diagnoses are made in the pediatric population. Our report adds to the few cases detected in adulthood.

  12. Relationships among quantitative traits in F3, F4 and F5 wheat hybrids obtained by pedigree and bulk selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Snežana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Relationships among quantitative traits of wheat were analyzed in parents and their F3, F4 and F5 hybrids. Three female parents (Briscard, Carifen 12 and Rescler were crossed with two male parents (Francuska and PKB-Prelivka. Same crosses were repeated 4 years, from 1996 to 1999. Hybrids were obtained via pedigree and bulk selection. In year 2000 the field experiments were set up with all parental and hybrid material, at the Institute 'PKB INI Agroekonomik', in Padinska Skela, near Belgrade. Six traits were measured: plant height, spike length, number of spikelets per spike, number of grains per spike, 1000 grain weight and grain weight per spike. In parental genotypes, it was found grain mass per spike was in significant and positive correlation with 1000 grain mass and number of grains per spike. As in parents, correlation between grain mass per spike and 1000 grain weight was almost functional in F3, F4 and F5 hybrids. However, correlation between grain mass per spike and number of grains per spike was negative or slight positive in hybrid descendents, what is surprising because it is oppositely to the parents. Similar values of correlation coefficients were found in both applied methods of selection. This fact shows correlations change between generations. Grain mass per spike depends on a 1000 grain mass in both, parental and hybrid generations. Stable relationship between traits could be use for selection of high yielding genotypes.

  13. In vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of the halogenated boroxine dipotassium-trioxohydroxytetrafluorotriborate (K2[B3O3F4OH]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivankovic, Sinisa; Stojkovic, Ranko; Galic, Zoran; Galic, Borivoj; Ostojic, Jelena; Marasovic, Maja; Milos, Mladen

    2015-06-01

    Dipotassium-trioxohydroxytetrafluorotriborate K2[B3O3F4OH] was listed as a promising new therapeutic for cancer diseases. For in vitro and in vivo investigation of its antitumor effects 4T1 mammary adenocarcinoma, B16F10 melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma SCCVII were used. The detailed in vitro investigation undoubtedly showed that K2[B3O3F4OH] affects the growth of cancer cells. The proliferation of cells depends on the concentration so that aqueous solution of K2[B3O3F4OH], the concentrations of 10(-4) M and less, does not affect cell growth, but the concentrations of 10(-3) M or more, significantly slows cells growth. B16F10 and SCCVII cells show higher sensitivity to the cytotoxic effects of K2[B3O3F4OH] compared to 4T1 cells. Under in vivo conditions, K2[B3O3F4OH] slows the growth of all three tumors tested compared to the control, and the inhibitory effect was most pronounced during the application of the substance. There is almost no difference if K2[B3O3F4OH] was applied intraperitoneally, intratumor, peroral or as ointment. Addition of 5-FU did not further increase the antitumor efficacy of K2[B3O3F4OH].

  14. Habitat Restoration/Enhancement Fort Hall Reservation : 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, Hunter [Shoshone Bannock Tribes

    2009-07-23

    Habitat enhancement, protection and monitoring were the focus of the Resident Fisheries Program during 2008. Enhancement and protection included sloping, fencing and planting wetlands plugs at sites on Spring Creek (Head-waters). Many previously constructed instream structures (rock barbs and wing dams) were repaired throughout the Fort Hall Indian Reservation (Reservation). Physical sampling during 2008 included sediment and depth measurements (SADMS) in Spring Creek at the Car Removal site. SADMS, used to track changes in channel morphology and specifically track movements of silt through Bottoms stream systems were completed for 5 strata on Spring Creek. Water temperature and chemistry were monitored monthly on Spring Creek, Clear Creek, Diggie Creek, and Portneuf (Jimmy Drinks) and Blackfoot rivers. Fish population densities and biomass were sampled in five reservation streams which included nine sites. Sampling protocols were identical to methods used in past years. Numbers of fish in Spring Creek series remained relatively low, however, there was an increase of biomass overall since 1993. Salmonid fry densities were monitored near Broncho Bridge and were similar to 2006, and 2007, however, as in years past, high densities of macrophytes make it very difficult to see fry in addition to lack of field technicians. Mean catch rate by anglers on Bottoms streams stayed the same as 2007 at 1.5/hr. Numbers of fish larger than 18-inches caught by anglers increased from 2007 at .20 to .26/hr.

  15. ¹¹¹In-anti-F4/80-A3-1 antibody: a novel tracer to image macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Samantha Y A; Boerman, Otto C; Gerrits, Danny; Franssen, Gerben M; Metselaar, Josbert M; Lehmann, Steffi; Oyen, Wim J G; Gerdes, Christian A; Abiraj, Keelara

    2015-08-01

    Here, the expression of F4/80 on the cell surface of murine macrophages was exploited to develop a novel imaging tracer that could visualize macrophages in vivo. The immunoreactive fraction and IC50 of anti-F4/80-A3-1, conjugated with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and radiolabelled with (111)In, were determined in vitro using murine bone marrow-derived macrophages. In vivo biodistribution studies were performed with (111)In-anti-F4/80-A3-1 and isotype-matched control antibody (111)In-rat IgG2b at 24 and 72 h post-injection (p.i.) in SCID/Beige mice bearing orthotopic MDA-MB-231 xenografts. In some studies mice were also treated with liposomal clodronate. Macrophage content in tissues was determined immunohistochemically. Micro-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT images were also acquired. In vitro binding assays showed that (111)In-anti-F4/80-A3-1 specifically binds F4/80 receptor-positive macrophages. The immunoreactivity of anti-F4/80-A3-1 was 75 % and IC50 was 0.58 nM. In vivo, injection of 10 or 100 μg (111)In-anti-F4/80-A3-1 resulted in splenic uptake of 78 %ID/g and 31 %ID/g, respectively, and tumour uptake of 1.38 %ID/g and 4.08 %ID/g, respectively (72 h p.i.). Liposomal clodronate treatment reduced splenic uptake of 10 μg (111)In-anti-F4/80-A3-1 from 248 %ID/g to 114 %ID/g and reduced (111)In-anti-F4/80-A3-1 uptake in the liver and femur (24 h p.i.). Tracer retention in the blood and tumour uptake increased (24 h p.i.). Tumour uptake of (111)In-anti-F4/80-A3-1 was visualized by microSPECT/CT. Macrophage density in the spleen and liver decreased in mice treated with liposomal clodronate. Uptake of (111)In-rat IgG2b was lower in the spleen, liver and femur when compared to (111)In-anti-F4/80-A3-1. Radiolabelled anti-F4/80-A3-1 antibodies specifically localize in tissues infiltrated by macrophages in mice and can be used to visualize tumours. The liver and spleen act as antigen sink organs for macrophage-specific tracers.

  16. Tumor cell-released TLR4 ligands stimulate Gr-1+CD11b+F4/80+ cells to induce apoptosis of activated T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Yan; Sun, Ling-Cong; Wei, Jing-Jing; Li, Dong; Yuan, Ye; Yan, Bin; Liang, Zhi-Hui; Zhu, Hui-Fen; Xu, Yong; Li, Bo; Song, Chuan-Wang; Liao, Sheng-Jun; Lei, Zhang; Zhang, Gui-Mei; Feng, Zuo-Hua

    2010-09-01

    Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells play important roles in tumor development and have a negative effect on tumor immunotherapy. So far, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of their immunosuppressive phenotype by classical and alternative macrophage activation stimuli are not well elucidated. In this study, we found that molecules from necrotic tumor cells (NTC-Ms) stimulated Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells to induce apoptosis of activated T cells but not nonstimulated T cells. The apoptosis-inducing capacity was determined by higher expression levels of arginase I and IL-10 relative to those of NO synthase 2 and IL-12 in Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells, which were induced by NTC-Ms through TLR4 signaling. The apoptosis-inducing capacity of NTC-Ms-stimulated Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells could be enhanced by IL-10. IFN-gamma may reduce the apoptosis-inducing capacity of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells only if their response to IFN-gamma was not attenuated. However, the potential of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells to express IL-12 in response to IFN-gamma could be attenuated by tumor, partially due to the existence of active STAT3 in Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells and NTC-Ms from tumor. In this situation, IFN-gamma could not effectively reduce the apoptosis-inducing capacity of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells. Tumor immunotherapy with 4-1BBL/soluble programmed death-1 may significantly reduce, but not abolish the apoptosis-inducing capacity of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells in local microenvironment. Blockade of TLR4 signaling could further reduce the apoptosis-inducing capacity of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells and enhance the suppressive effect of 4-1BBL/soluble form of programmed death-1 on tumor growth. These findings indicate the relationship of distinct signaling pathways with apoptosis-inducing capacity of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells and emphasize the importance of blocking TLR4 signaling to prevent the induction of T cell apoptosis by Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells.

  17. Comparison of casein and whey in diets on performance, immune responses and metabolomic profile of weaning pigs challenged with E.coli F4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Jensen, Bent Borg; Hedemann, Mette Skou

    2014-01-01

    challenged with E. coli F4. Two factorial experiments involving 24 weanling pigs were conducted. Diets containing casein or whey, and challenge with E. coli O149:F4 or not, were the two factors. Blood was sampled at the day before challenge and 4 and 7 days postchallenge. For measurement of mucosal immune...... of pigs. Challenge of the pigs with E. coli F4 increased the diarrhea and appeared to modulate the immune function of the piglets through changes in T cells populations and plasma metabolite profile....... with unchallenged pigs. The challenge reduced (PE...

  18. High-speed Internet Use and Academic Gratifications in the College Residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Denise; Schrum, Lynne

    2003-01-01

    A multimethod exploration of undergraduates' high-speed Internet use in residence halls took a uses-and-gratifications approach and revealed Internet use as integral to students' lives. Students' negative comments about Internet distractions from academic work led to identification of an individual difference variable, internal locus of control of…

  19. Use of a Behavioral Contract with Resident Assistants: Prelude to a Health Fair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, John D.; Hyner, Gerald C.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a conceptual model which focuses on goals of student government in residence halls. The model has two fundamental processes. One focuses on short term goals and activities catering to creation of environment. The second has long term effects referred to as lifelong personal development. (JAC)

  20. Commemorative Symposium on the Hall Effect and its Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Westgate, C

    1980-01-01

    In 1879, while a graduate student under Henry Rowland at the Physics Department of The Johns Hopkins University, Edwin Herbert Hall discovered what is now universally known as the Hall effect. A symposium was held at The Johns Hopkins University on November 13, 1979 to commemorate the lOOth anniversary of the discovery. Over 170 participants attended the symposium which included eleven in­ vited lectures and three speeches during the luncheon. During the past one hundred years, we have witnessed ever ex­ panding activities in the field of the Hall effect. The Hall effect is now an indispensable tool in the studies of many branches of condensed matter physics, especially in metals, semiconductors, and magnetic solids. Various components (over 200 million!) that utilize the Hall effect have been successfully incorporated into such devices as keyboards, automobile ignitions, gaussmeters, and satellites. This volume attempts to capture the important aspects of the Hall effect and its applications. It includes t...

  1. Experimental test of 200 W Hall thruster with titanium wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yongjie; Sun, Hezhi; Peng, Wuji; Xu, Yu; Wei, Liqiu; Li, Hong; Li, Peng; Su, Hongbo; Yu, Daren

    2017-05-01

    We designed a 200 W Hall thruster based on the technology of pushing down a magnetic field with two permanent magnetic rings. Boron nitride (BN) is an important insulating wall material for Hall thrusters. The discharge characteristics of the designed Hall thruster were studied by replacing BN with titanium (Ti). Experimental results show that the designed Hall thruster can discharge stably for a long time under a Ti channel. Experiments were performed to determine whether the channel and cathode are electrically connected. When the channel wall and cathode are insulated, the divergence angle of the plume increases, but the performance of the Hall thruster is improved in terms of thrust, specific impulse, anode efficiency, and thrust-to-power ratio. Ti exhibits a powerful antisputtering capability, a low emanation rate of gas, and a large structural strength, making it a potential candidate wall material in the design of low-power Hall thrusters.

  2. Resident Characteristics Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Resident Characteristics Report summarizes general information about households who reside in Public Housing, or who receive Section 8 assistance. The report...

  3. NOKOMIS 3-F4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical product bulletin: this dispersant used in oil spill cleanups may be applied directly from drums by fitting them with a T connection and pumping fresh or salt water across the junction, which pulls dispersant into water stream and onto spill.

  4. ϕ 3 theory with F4 flavor symmetry in 6 - 2 ɛ dimensions: 3-loop renormalization and conformal bootstrap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yi; Rong, Junchen; Su, Ning

    2016-12-01

    We consider ϕ 3 theory in 6 - 2 ɛ with F 4 global symmetry. The beta function is calculated up to 3 loops, and a stable unitary IR fixed point is observed. The anomalous dimensions of operators quadratic or cubic in ϕ are also computed. We then employ conformal bootstrap technique to study the fixed point predicted from the perturbative approach. For each putative scaling dimension of ϕ (Δ ϕ ), we obtain the corresponding upper bound on the scaling dimension of the second lowest scalar primary in the 26 representation ( Δ 26 2nd ) which appears in the OPE of ϕ × ϕ. In D = 5 .95, we observe a sharp peak on the upper bound curve located at Δ ϕ equal to the value predicted by the 3-loop computation. In D = 5, we observe a weak kink on the upper bound curve at ( Δ ϕ , Δ 26 2nd ) = (1.6, 4).

  5. Assessment of the Unstructured Grid Software TetrUSS for Drag Prediction of the DLR-F4 Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirzadeh, Shahyar Z.; Frink, Neal T.

    2002-01-01

    An application of the NASA unstructured grid software system TetrUSS is presented for the prediction of aerodynamic drag on a transport configuration. The paper briefly describes the underlying methodology and summarizes the results obtained on the DLR-F4 transport configuration recently presented in the first AIAA computational fluid dynamics (CFD) Drag Prediction Workshop. TetrUSS is a suite of loosely coupled unstructured grid CFD codes developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. The meshing approach is based on the advancing-front and the advancing-layers procedures. The flow solver employs a cell-centered, finite volume scheme for solving the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations on tetrahedral grids. For the present computations, flow in the viscous sublayer has been modeled with an analytical wall function. The emphasis of the paper is placed on the practicality of the methodology for accurately predicting aerodynamic drag data.

  6. 2.07-micron CW diode-laser-pumped Tm,Ho:YLiF4 room-temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Hamid

    1989-01-01

    Continuous-wave action is obtained at 2.07 microns from a 2-mm-long Tm-sensitized Ho:YLiF4 crystal at room temperature when longitudinally pumped by a pair of diode-laser arrays. Laser output power at 300 K is 26 mW, with a 30-percent slope efficiency and a lasing threshold of 108 mW. A maximum output power of 187 mW is obtained from a 4-mm-long crystal at 77 K, with a 67 percent slope efficiency. A preliminary demonstration of cavity Q switching produced 165 microJ of pulse energy at a repetition rate of 100 Hz.

  7. Tunable CW diode-pumped Tm,Ho:YLiF4 laser operating at or near room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcguckin, Brendan T. (Inventor); Menzies, Robert T. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A conversion efficiency of 42% and slope efficiency of 60% relative to absorbed pump power are obtained from a continuous wave diode-pumped Tm,Ho:YLiF4 laser at 2 microns with output power of 84 mW at a crystal temperature of 275 K. The emission spectrum is etalon tunable over a range of7 nm (16.3/cm) centered on 2.067 microns with fine tuning capability of the transition frequency with crystal temperature at a measured rate of -0.03/(cm)K. The effective emission cross-section is measured to be 5 x 10(exp -21) cm squared. These and other aspects of the laser performance are disclosed in the context of calculated atmospheric absorption characteristics in this spectral region and potential use in remote sensing applications. Single frequency output and frequency stabilization are achieved using an intracavity etalon in conjunction with an external reference etalon.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of novel Na15 (SO4 )5 F4 Cl:Ce3+ halosulfate phosphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhake, A M; Nair, Govind B; Zade, G D; Dhoble, S J

    2016-12-01

    A series of Na 15 (SO 4 ) 5 F 4 Cl phosphors doped with Ce 3+ ions was prepared using the wet chemical method. X-Ray diffraction studies were used to determine their phase formation and purity. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy effectively identified the chemical bonds present in the molecule. The photoluminescence properties of the as-prepared phosphors were investigated and the Ce 3+ ions in these hosts were found to give broadband emission in the UV range. For the thermoluminescence study, phosphors were irradiated with a 5 Gy dose of γ-rays from a 60 Co source. Chen's half-width method was employed to calculate the trapping parameters from the thermoluminescence glow curve. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Effects of the F4TCNQ-Doped Pentacene Interlayers on Performance Improvement of Top-Contact Pentacene-Based Organic Thin-Film Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Lin Fan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the top-contact (TC pentacene-based organic thin-film transistor (OTFT with a tetrafluorotetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ-doped pentacene interlayer between the source/drain electrodes and the pentacene channel layer were fabricated using the co-evaporation method. Compared with a pentacene-based OTFT without an interlayer, OTFTs with an F4TCNQ:pentacene ratio of 1:1 showed considerably improved electrical characteristics. In addition, the dependence of the OTFT performance on the thickness of the F4TCNQ-doped pentacene interlayer is weaker than that on a Teflon interlayer. Therefore, a molecular doping-type F4TCNQ-doped pentacene interlayer is a suitable carrier injection layer that can improve the TC-OTFT performance and facilitate obtaining a stable process window.

  10. Effects of the F4TCNQ-Doped Pentacene Interlayers on Performance Improvement of Top-Contact Pentacene-Based Organic Thin-Film Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ching-Lin; Lin, Wei-Chun; Chang, Hsiang-Sheng; Lin, Yu-Zuo; Huang, Bohr-Ran

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the top-contact (TC) pentacene-based organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) with a tetrafluorotetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ)-doped pentacene interlayer between the source/drain electrodes and the pentacene channel layer were fabricated using the co-evaporation method. Compared with a pentacene-based OTFT without an interlayer, OTFTs with an F4TCNQ:pentacene ratio of 1:1 showed considerably improved electrical characteristics. In addition, the dependence of the OTFT performance on the thickness of the F4TCNQ-doped pentacene interlayer is weaker than that on a Teflon interlayer. Therefore, a molecular doping-type F4TCNQ-doped pentacene interlayer is a suitable carrier injection layer that can improve the TC-OTFT performance and facilitate obtaining a stable process window. PMID:28787845

  11. Quantitative Analysis of KF-LiF-ZrF4 Molten Salt by Probe Assisted in-situ LIBS Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.; Moon, J.H.; Kim, D.H.; Hwang, I.S.; Lee, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Pyro-processing draws attention as a recycling process of spent nuclear fuel for future nuclear reactor. In the aspect of process control and safeguards of the pyro-processing, it requires a technology to measure the concentration of molten salt in real-time. The existing technologies measure the concentration by chemical analysis of sampled molten salt in the hot cell but it is disadvantageous in the aspects of cost, safety and time. The LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) is a form of atomic emission spectroscopy in which a pulsed laser is used as the excitation source. LIBS technology is appropriate to measure sensitive nuclear materials in hot cell because it is capable of measuring specimen quantitatively and qualitatively by exited atom by laser. Spectrum obtained from plasma is largely influenced by laser operation conditions and physical properties of specimens. Also, plasma induction is limited on the surface of specimen, so analysis of composition inside of the molten salt is extremely difficult. Thus, several restrictions should be overcome in order to apply LIBS for the measurement of molten salt (KF-LiF-ZrF 4 ) composition in real-time. In this study probe assisted LIBS system will be introduced with KF-LiF-ZrF 4 to quantitatively measure molten salt composition. Echelle spectrometer was used and the measurable wavelength area was 250-400 nm, the range of UV ray. NIST atomic spectra database measured the wavelength for molten salt composition, and each element was selected high signal intensity and wavelength range that is not overlapped by other elements. (authors)

  12. Siderophores mediate reduced and increased uptake of cadmium by Streptomyces tendae F4 and sunflower (Helianthus annuus), respectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimkpa, C O; Merten, D; Svatos, A; Büchel, G; Kothe, E

    2009-11-01

    As a toxic metal, cadmium (Cd) affects microbial and plant metabolic processes, thereby potentially reducing the efficiency of microbe or plant-mediated remediation of Cd-polluted soil. The role of siderophores produced by Streptomyces tendae F4 in the uptake of Cd by bacteria and plant was investigated to gain insight into the influence of siderophores on Cd availability to micro-organisms and plants. The bacterium was cultured under siderophore-inducing conditions in the presence of Cd. The kinetics of siderophore production and identification of the siderophores and their metal-bound forms were performed using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy was used to measure iron (Fe) and Cd contents in the bacterium and in sunflower plant grown in Cd-amended soil. Siderophores significantly reduced the Cd uptake by the bacterium, while supplying it with iron. Bacterial culture filtrates containing three hydroxamate siderophores secreted by S. tendae F4 significantly promoted plant growth and enhanced uptake of Cd and Fe by the plant, relative to the control. Furthermore, application of siderophores caused slightly more Cd, but similar Fe uptake, compared with EDTA. Bioinoculation with Streptomyces caused a dramatic increase in plant Fe content, but resulted only in slight increase in plant Cd content. It is concluded that siderophores can help reduce toxic metal uptake in bacteria, while simultaneously facilitating the uptake of such metals by plants. Also, EDTA is not superior to hydroxamate siderophores in terms of metal solubilization for plant uptake. The study showed that microbial processes could indirectly influence the availability and amount of toxic metals taken up from the rhizosphere of plants. Furthermore, although EDTA is used for chelator-enhanced phytoremediation, microbial siderophores would be ideal for this purpose.

  13. Efficacy, pharmacokinetics, tisssue distribution, and metabolism of the Myc-Max disruptor, 10058-F4 [Z,E]-5-[4-ethylbenzylidine]-2-thioxothiazolidin-4-one, in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianxia; Parise, Robert A; Joseph, Erin; Egorin, Merrill J; Lazo, John S; Prochownik, Edward V; Eiseman, Julie L

    2009-03-01

    c-Myc is commonly activated in many human tumors and is functionally important in cellular proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and cell cycle progression. The activity of c-Myc requires noncovalent interaction with its client protein Max. In vitro studies indicate the thioxothiazolidinone, 10058-F4, inhibits c-Myc/Max dimerization. In this study, we report the efficacy, pharmacokinetics and metabolism of this novel protein-protein disruptor in mice. SCID mice bearing DU145 or PC-3 human prostate cancer xenografts were treated with either 20 or 30 mg/kg 10058-F4 on a qdx5 schedule for 2 weeks for efficacy studies. For pharmacokinetics and metabolism studies, mice bearing PC-3 or DU145 xenografts were treated with 20 mg/kg of 10058-F4 i.v. Plasma and tissues were collected 5-1440 min after dosing. The concentration of 10058-F4 in plasma and tissues was determined by HPLC, and metabolites were characterized by LC-MS/MS. Following a single iv dose, peak plasma 10058-F4 concentrations of approximately 300 muM were seen at 5 min and declined to below the detection limit at 360 min. Plasma concentration versus time data were best approximated by a two-compartment, open, linear model. The highest tissue concentrations of 10058-F4 were found in fat, lung, liver, and kidney. Peak tumor concentrations of 10058-F4 were at least tenfold lower than peak plasma concentrations. Eight metabolites of 10058-F4 were identified in plasma, liver, and kidney. The terminal half-life of 10058-F4 was approximately 1 h, and the volume of distribution was >200 ml/kg. No significant inhibition of tumor growth was seen after i.v. treatment of mice with either 20 or 30 mg/kg 10058-F4. The lack of significant antitumor activity of 10058-F4 in tumor-bearing mice may have resulted from its rapid metabolism and low concentration in tumors.

  14. Hall Sensor Output Signal Fault-Detection & Safety Implementation Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee SangHun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently BLDC motors have been popular in various industrial applications and electric mobility. Recently BLDC motors have been popular in various industrial applications and electric mobility. In most brushless direct current (BLDC motor drives, there are three hall sensors as a position reference. Low resolution hall effect sensor is popularly used to estimate the rotor position because of its good comprehensive performance such as low cost, high reliability and sufficient precision. Various possible faults may happen in a hall effect sensor. This paper presents a fault-tolerant operation method that allows the control of a BLDC motor with one faulty hall sensor and presents the hall sensor output fault-tolerant control strategy. The situations considered are when the output from a hall sensor stays continuously at low or high levels, or a short-time pulse appears on a hall sensor signal. For fault detection, identification of a faulty signal and generating a substitute signal, this method only needs the information from the hall sensors. There are a few research work on hall effect sensor failure of BLDC motor. The conventional fault diagnosis methods are signal analysis, model based analysis and knowledge based analysis. The proposed method is signal based analysis using a compensation signal for reconfiguration and therefore fault diagnosis can be fast. The proposed method is validated to execute the simulation using PSIM.

  15. The Hall module of an exact category with duality

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Matthew B.

    2012-01-01

    We construct from a finitary exact category with duality a module over its Hall algebra, called the Hall module, encoding the first order self-dual extension structure of the category. We study in detail Hall modules arising from the representation theory of a quiver with involution. In this case we show that the Hall module is naturally a module over the specialized reduced sigma-analogue of the quantum Kac-Moody algebra attached to the quiver. For finite type quivers, we explicitly determin...

  16. Unusual Critical Behavior of the Diluted Uniaxial Dipolar Ferromagnet LiTb0.3Y0.7F4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seiden, P.; Seiden, J.; Laursen, Ib

    1980-01-01

    The experimental critical behavior of the susceptibility of LiTb0.3Y0.7F4 is described by the power law χ=Γ[(T-Tc) / Tc]-γ with Tc=0.520±0.003 K and γ=1.80±0.04. This behavior is dramatically different from that previously observed in LiTbF4 and is evidence of a departure from marginal...

  17. Spectral management and morphology evolution of β-NaGdF4:Yb3+,Er3+ by tuning the concentration of citric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lu; Xu, Dekang; Lin, Hao; Yang, Shenghong; Zhang, Yueli

    2018-05-01

    β-NaGdF4:Yb3+,Er3+ upconversion (UC) particles were prepared by a facile hydrothermal process with assistance of citric acid (CA). The morphologies of β-NaGdF4 UC particles were controlled by changing the doses of CA in precursor. With an increase CA concentration in precursor, increase sizes of crystals were observed, resulting in the increasing of luminescence intensity. The energy transfer ET mechanism was analyzed in detail.

  18. HYPERDIRE. HYPERgeometric functions DIfferential REduction. MATHEMATICA based packages for differential reduction of generalized hypergeometric functions pFp-1, F1, F2, F3, F4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bytev, Vladimir V.; Kalmykov, Mikhail Yu.; Kniehl, Bernd A.

    2013-05-01

    HYPERDIRE is a project devoted to the creation of a set of Mathematica based programs for the differential reduction of hypergeometric functions. The current version includes two parts: one, pfq, is relevant for manipulations of hypergeometric functions p+1 F p , and the second one, AppellF1F4, for manipulations with Appell hypergeometric functions F 1 , F 2 , F 3 , F 4 of two variables.

  19. Mechanism of Action of TiF4 on Dental Enamel Surface: SEM/EDX, KOH-Soluble F, and X-Ray Diffraction Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comar, Lívia P; Souza, Beatriz M; Al-Ahj, Luana P; Martins, Jessica; Grizzo, Larissa T; Piasentim, Isabelle S; Rios, Daniela; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Magalhães, Ana Carolina

    2017-10-12

    This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the action of TiF4 on sound and carious bovine and human enamel. Sound (S) and pre-demineralised (DE) bovine and human (primary and permanent) enamel samples were treated with TiF4 (pH 1.0) or NaF varnishes (pH 5.0), containing 0.95, 1.95, or 2.45% F for 12 h. The enamel surfaces were analysed using SEM-EDX (scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) (n = 10, 5 S and 5 DE) and KOH-soluble fluoride was quantified (n = 20, 10 S and 10 DE). Hydroxyapatite powder produced by precipitation method was treated with the corresponding fluoride solutions for 1 min (n = 2). The formed compounds were detected using X-ray diffraction (XRD). All TiF4 varnishes produced a coating layer rich in Ti and F on all types of enamel surface, with micro-cracks in its extension. TiF4 (1.95 and 2.45% F) provided higher fluoride deposition than NaF, especially for bovine enamel (p enamel. The Ti content was higher for bovine and human primary enamel than human permanent enamel, with some differences between S and DE. The XRD analysis showed that TiF4 induced the formation of new compounds such as CaF2, TiO2, and Ti(HPO4)2·H2O. In conclusion, TiF4 (>0.95% F) interacts better, when compared to NaF, with bovine and human primary enamel than with human permanent enamel. TiF4 provoked higher F deposition compared to NaF. Carious enamel showed higher F uptake than sound enamel by TiF4 application, while Ti uptake was dependent on the enamel condition and origin. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Effects of the F4TCNQ-Doped Pentacene Interlayers on Performance Improvement of Top-Contact Pentacene-Based Organic Thin-Film Transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Ching-Lin Fan; Wei-Chun Lin; Hsiang-Sheng Chang; Yu-Zuo Lin; Bohr-Ran Huang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the top-contact (TC) pentacene-based organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) with a tetrafluorotetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ)-doped pentacene interlayer between the source/drain electrodes and the pentacene channel layer were fabricated using the co-evaporation method. Compared with a pentacene-based OTFT without an interlayer, OTFTs with an F4TCNQ:pentacene ratio of 1:1 showed considerably improved electrical characteristics. In addition, the dependence of the OTFT performance ...

  1. DESIGN OF SUBSOIL IMPROVEMENT BELOW HALL FLOORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Turček

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The construction of an industrial park is now being prepared near the town of Nitra. The investor fixed very strict conditions for the bearing capacity and, above all, the settlement of halls and their floors. The geological conditions at the construction site are difficult: there are soft clay soils with high compressibility and low bearing capacity. A detailed analysis of soil improvement was made. Stone columns were prepared to be fitted into an approximately 5 m thick layer of soft clay. The paper shows the main steps used in the design of the stone columns.

  2. Optically induced Hall effect in semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idrish Miah, M; Gray, E Mac A, E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.a [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia)

    2009-03-01

    We describe an experiment which investigates the effect of a longitudinal electric field on the spin-polarized carriers generated by a circularly polarized light in semiconductors. Our experiment observes the effect as a Hall voltage resulting from nonequilibrium magnetization induced by the spin-carrier electrons accumulating at the transverse boundaries of the sample as a result of asymmetries in scattering for spin-up and spin-down electrons in the presence of spin-orbit interaction. It is found that the effect depends on the longitudinal electric field and doping density as well as on temperature. The results are presented by discussing the dominant spin relaxation mechanisms in semiconductors.

  3. Fractional quantization and the quantum hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, J.; Calixto, M.; Aldaya, V.

    1998-01-01

    Quantization with constrains is considered in a group-theoretical framework, providing a precise characterization of the set of good operators, i.e., those preserving the constrained Hilbert space, in terms of the representation of the subgroup of constraints. This machinery is applied to the quantization of the torus as symplectic manifold, obtaining that fractional quantum numbers are permitted, provided that we allow for vector valued representations. The good operators turn out to be the Wilson loops and, for certain representations of the subgroup of constraints, the modular transformations. These results are applied to the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect, where interesting implications are derived

  4. Excitons in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, R. B.

    1984-09-01

    Quasiparticles of charge 1/m in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect form excitons, which are collective excitations physically similar to the transverse magnetoplasma oscillations of a Wigner crystal. A variational exciton wavefunction which shows explicitly that the magnetic length is effectively longer for quasiparticles than for electrons is proposed. This wavefunction is used to estimate the dispersion relation of these excitons and the matrix elements to generate them optically out of the ground state. These quantities are then used to describe a type of nonlinear conductivity which may occur in these systems when they are relatively clean.

  5. The fractional quantum Hall effect goes organic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smet, Jurgen

    2000-01-01

    Physicists have been fascinated by the behaviour of two-dimensional electron gases for the past two decades. All of these experiments were performed on inorganic semiconductor devices, most of them based on gallium arsenide. Indeed, until recently it was thought that the subtle effects that arise due to electron-electron interactions in these devices required levels of purity that could not be achieved in other material systems. However, Hendrik Schoen, Christian Kloc and Bertram Batlogg of Bell Laboratories in the US have now observed the fractional quantum Hall effect - the most dramatic signature of electron-electron interactions - in two organic semiconductors. (U.K.)

  6. A Compton polarimeter for CEBAF Hall A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardin, G; Cavata, C; Frois, B; Juillard, M; Kerhoas, S; Languillat, J C; Legoff, J M; Mangeot, P; Martino, J; Platchkov, S; Rebourgeard, P; Vernin, P; Veyssiere, C; CEBAF Hall A Collaboration

    1994-09-01

    The physic program at CEBAF Hall A includes several experiments using 4 GeV polarized electron beam: parity violation in electron elastic scattering from proton and {sup 4}He, electric form factor of the proton by recoil polarization, neutron spin structure function at low Q{sup 2}. Some of these experiments will need beam polarization measurement and monitoring with an accuracy close to 4%, for beam currents ranging from 100 nA to 100 microA. A project of a Compton Polarimeter that will meet these requirements is presented. It will comprise four dipoles and a symmetric cavity consisting of two identical mirrors. 1 fig., 10 refs.

  7. Hall conductivity for two dimensional magnetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desbois, J.; Ouvry, S.; Texier, C.

    1996-01-01

    A Kubo inspired formalism is proposed to compute the longitudinal and transverse dynamical conductivities of an electron in a plane (or a gas of electrons at zero temperature) coupled to the potential vector of an external local magnetic field, with the additional coupling of the spin degree of freedom of the electron to the local magnetic field (Pauli Hamiltonian). As an example, the homogeneous magnetic field Hall conductivity is rederived. The case of the vortex at the origin is worked out in detail. A perturbative analysis is proposed for the conductivity in the random magnetic impurity problem (Poissonian vortices in the plane). (author)

  8. Electrochemical magneto immunosensor based on endogenous β-galactosidase enzyme to determine enterotoxicogenic Escherichia coli F4 (K88) in swine feces using square wave voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viviana Tarditto, Lorena; Alicia Zon, María; García Ovando, Hugo; Roberto Vettorazzi, Nelio; Javier Arévalo, Fernando; Fernández, Héctor

    2017-11-01

    Diseases caused by enterotoxicogenic Escherichia coli F4 (K88) (ETEC F4) are a problem in swine production establishments. Due to the high rate of mortality and morbidity of E. coli infections, a rapid and accurate diagnosis is important in order to choose an appropriate treatment to reduce the economic impact. Therefore, an electrochemical magneto-immunosensor (EMI) was developed to detect and quantify ETEC F4 in swine feces samples through a direct non-competitive immunoassay. ETEC F4 was selectively captured by immunomagnetic separation. The detection principle was based on the activity of β-galactosidase endogenous enzyme (β-gal), which hydrolyses the p-aminophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (p-APG) producing p-aminophenol (p-AP), which was oxidized on a carbon screen printed electrode (CSPE) using square wave voltammetry (SWV). All parameters related to construction and electrochemical responses were optimized. The total analysis time to quantify ETEC F4 using the EMI was less than 2h and the limit of detection (LOD) was 33CFUmL -1 . The perceptual relative error (%E r ) was 20%. The magneto-immunosensor was validated versus conventional method of culture and plate count, obtaining a very good agreement. The EMI is simple, fast and economical to detect and quantify ETEC F4 in swine feces samples, being thus a valuable tool in swine production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Transit-time instability in Hall thrusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barral, Serge; Makowski, Karol; Peradzynski, Zbigniew; Dudeck, Michel

    2005-01-01

    Longitudinal waves characterized by a phase velocity of the order of the velocity of ions have been recurrently observed in Hall thruster experiments and simulations. The origin of this so-called ion transit-time instability is investigated with a simple one-dimensional fluid model of a Hall thruster discharge in which cold ions are accelerated between two electrodes within a quasineutral plasma. A short-wave asymptotics applied to linearized equations shows that plasma perturbations in such a device consist of quasineutral ion acoustic waves superimposed on a background standing wave generated by discharge current oscillations. Under adequate circumstances and, in particular, at high ionization levels, acoustic waves are amplified as they propagate, inducing strong perturbation of the ion density and velocity. Responding to the subsequent perturbation of the column resistivity, the discharge current generates a standing wave, the reflection of which sustains the generation of acoustic waves at the inlet boundary. A calculation of the frequency and growth rate of this resonance mechanism for a supersonic ion flow is proposed, which illustrates the influence of the ionization degree on their onset and the approximate scaling of the frequency with the ion transit time. Consistent with experimental reports, the traveling wave can be observed on plasma density and velocity perturbations, while the plasma potential ostensibly oscillates in phase along the discharge

  10. Cylindrical Hall Thrusters with Permanent Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raitses, Yevgeny; Merino, Enrique; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2010-01-01

    The use of permanent magnets instead of electromagnet coils for low power Hall thrusters can offer a significant reduction of both the total electric power consumption and the thruster mass. Two permanent magnet versions of the miniaturized cylindrical Hall thruster (CHT) of different overall dimensions were operated in the power range of 50W-300 W. The discharge and plasma plume measurements revealed that the CHT thrusters with permanent magnets and electromagnet coils operate rather differently. In particular, the angular ion current density distribution from the permanent magnet thrusters has an unusual halo shape, with a majority of high energy ions flowing at large angles with respect to the thruster centerline. Differences in the magnetic field topology outside the thruster channel and in the vicinity of the channel exit are likely responsible for the differences in the plume characteristics measured for the CHTs with electromagnets and permanent magnets. It is shown that the presence of the reversing-direction or cusp-type magnetic field configuration inside the thruster channel without a strong axial magnetic field outside the thruster channel does not lead to the halo plasma plume from the CHT.

  11. Bimetric Theory of Fractional Quantum Hall States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Gromov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a bimetric low-energy effective theory of fractional quantum Hall (FQH states that describes the topological properties and a gapped collective excitation, known as the Girvin-Macdonald-Platzman (GMP mode. The theory consists of a topological Chern-Simons action, coupled to a symmetric rank-2 tensor, and an action à la bimetric gravity, describing the gapped dynamics of a spin-2 mode. The theory is formulated in curved ambient space and is spatially covariant, which allows us to restrict the form of the effective action and the values of phenomenological coefficients. Using bimetric theory, we calculate the projected static structure factor up to the k^{6} order in the momentum expansion. To provide further support for the theory, we derive the long-wave limit of the GMP algebra, the dispersion relation of the GMP mode, and the Hall viscosity of FQH states. The particle-hole (PH transformation of the theory takes a very simple form, making the duality between FQH states and their PH conjugates manifest. We also comment on the possible applications to fractional Chern insulators, where closely related structures arise. It is shown that the familiar FQH observables acquire a curious geometric interpretation within the bimetric formalism.

  12. Hypernuclear Spectroscopy at JLab Hall C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Osamu; Chiba, Atsushi; Doi, Daisuke; Fujii, Yu; Toshiyuki, Gogami; Kanda, Hiroki; Kaneta, M.; Kawama, Daisuke; Maeda, Kazushige; Maruta, Tomofumi; Matsumura, Akihiko; Nagao, Sho; Nakamura, Satoshi; Shichijo, Ayako; Tamura, Hirokazu; Taniya, Naotaka; Yamamoto, Taku; Yokota, Kosuke; Kato, S.; Sato, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Noumi, Hiroyuki; Motoba, T.; Hiyama, E.; Albayrak, Ibrahim; Ates, Ozgur; Chen, Chunhua; Christy, Michael; Keppel, Cynthia; Kohl, Karl; Li, Ya; Liyanage, Anusha Habarakada; Tang, Liguang; Walton, T.; Ye, Zhihong; Yuan, Lulin; Zhu, Lingyan; Baturin, Pavlo; Boeglin, Werner; Dhamija, Seema; Markowitz, Pete; Raue, Brian; Reinhold, Joerg; Hungerford, Ed; Ent, Rolf; Fenker, Howard; Gaskell, David; Horn, Tanja; Jones, Mark; Smith, Gregory; Vulcan, William; Wood, Stephen; Johnston, C.; Simicevic, Neven; Wells, Stephen; Samanta, Chhanda; Hu, Bitao; Shen, Ji; Wang, W.; Zhang, Xiaozhuo; Zhang, Yi; Feng, Jing; Fu, Y.; Zhou, Jian; Zhou, S.; Jiang, Yi; Lu, H.; Yan, Xinhu; Ye, Yunxiu; Gan, Liping; Ahmidouch, Abdellah; Danagoulian, Samuel; Gasparian, Ashot; Elaasar, Mostafa; Wesselmann, Frank; Asaturyan, Arshak; Margaryan, Amur; Mkrtchyan, Arthur; Mkrtchyan, Hamlet; Tadevosyan, Vardan; Androic, Darko; Furic, Miroslav; Petkovic, Tomislav; Seva, Tomislav; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Rodriguez, Victor; Cisbani, Evaristo; Cusanno, Francesco; Garibaldi, Franco; Urciuoli, Guido; De Leo, Raffaele; Maronne, S.; Achenbach, Carsten; Pochodzalla, J.

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1st generation experiment, E89-009, which was successfully carried out as a pilot experiment of (e,e(prime)K + ) hypernuclear spectroscopy at JLab Hall C in 2000, precision hypernuclear spectroscopy by the (e,e(prime)K + ) reactions made considerable progress. It has evolved to the 2nd generation experiment, E01-011, in which a newly constructed high resolution kaon spectrometer (HKS) was installed and the 'Tilt method' was adopted in order to suppress large electromagnetic background and to run with high luminosity. Preliminary high-resolution spectra of 7 ΛHe and 28 ΛAl together with that of 12 ΛB that achieved resolution better than 500 keV(FWHM) were obtained. The third generation experiment, E05-115, has completed data taking with an experimental setup combining a new splitter magnet, high resolution electron spectrometer (HES) and the HKS used in the 2nd generation experiment. The data were accumulated with targets of 7 Li, 9 Be, 10 B, 12 C and 52 Cr as well as with those of CH 2 and H 2 O for calibration. The analysis is under way with particular emphasis of determining precision absolute hypernuclear masses. In this article, hypernuclear spectroscopy program in the wide mass range at JLab Hall C that has undergone three generation is described.

  13. Bimetric Theory of Fractional Quantum Hall States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, Andrey; Son, Dam Thanh

    2017-10-01

    We present a bimetric low-energy effective theory of fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states that describes the topological properties and a gapped collective excitation, known as the Girvin-Macdonald-Platzman (GMP) mode. The theory consists of a topological Chern-Simons action, coupled to a symmetric rank-2 tensor, and an action à la bimetric gravity, describing the gapped dynamics of a spin-2 mode. The theory is formulated in curved ambient space and is spatially covariant, which allows us to restrict the form of the effective action and the values of phenomenological coefficients. Using bimetric theory, we calculate the projected static structure factor up to the k6 order in the momentum expansion. To provide further support for the theory, we derive the long-wave limit of the GMP algebra, the dispersion relation of the GMP mode, and the Hall viscosity of FQH states. The particle-hole (PH) transformation of the theory takes a very simple form, making the duality between FQH states and their PH conjugates manifest. We also comment on the possible applications to fractional Chern insulators, where closely related structures arise. It is shown that the familiar FQH observables acquire a curious geometric interpretation within the bimetric formalism.

  14. Repurposing the Caltech Robinson Hall Coelostat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treffers, Richard R.; Loisos, G.; Ubbelohde, M.; Douglas, S.; Martinez, M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the repurposing of the historic coelostat atop Caltech’s Robinson Hall for building lighting, public education and scientific research. The coelostat was originally part of George Ellery Hale’s vision of the Astrophysical Laboratory on the Caltech campus in 1932. The coelostat, designed by Russell Porter, has a 36 inch diameter primary mirror a 30 inch diameter secondary mirror and provides a 24 inch un-vignetted beam of sunlight into the building. Although constructed in the 1930s, due to wartime pressures and other projects, it was used only briefly in the 1970s and never fully realized. Recently Robinson Hall has been fully renovated to house the Ronald and Maxine Linde Center for Global Environmental Science. The coelostat operation was modernized replacing the old motors and automating all the motions. Each morning, if the weather cooperates, the dome slit opens, the mirrors configured and sunlight pours into the building. The beam of sunlight is divided into three parts. One part goes into a refracting telescope which projects a ten inch diameter of the sun onto a ground glass screen visible to the public. A second fraction is distributed to fiber optic fixtures that illuminate some of the basement rooms. The final fraction goes into two laboratories where it is used in experiments monitoring trace constituents of our atmosphere and for solar catalysis experiments. The instrument as originally conceived required at least two human operators. Now it is fully automatic and doing real science

  15. Undulator Hall Air Temperature Fault Scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevilla, J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent experience indicates that the LCLS undulator segments must not, at any time following tuning, be allowed to change temperature by more than about ±2.5 C or the magnetic center will irreversibly shift outside of acceptable tolerances. This vulnerability raises a concern that under fault conditions the ambient temperature in the Undulator Hall might go outside of the safe range and potentially could require removal and retuning of all the segments. In this note we estimate changes that can be expected in the Undulator Hall air temperature for three fault scenarios: (1) System-wide power failure; (2) Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system shutdown; and (3) HVAC system temperature regulation fault. We find that for either a system-wide power failure or an HVAC system shutdown (with the technical equipment left on), the short-term temperature changes of the air would be modest due to the ability of the walls and floor to act as a heat ballast. No action would be needed to protect the undulator system in the event of a system-wide power failure. Some action to adjust the heat balance, in the case of the HVAC power failure with the equipment left on, might be desirable but is not required. On the other hand, a temperature regulation failure of the HVAC system can quickly cause large excursions in air temperature and prompt action would be required to avoid damage to the undulator system.

  16. Bone marrow CD11b(+)F4/80(+) dendritic cells ameliorate collagen-induced arthritis through modulating the balance between Treg and Th17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingling; Fu, Jingjing; Sheng, Kangliang; Li, Ying; Song, Shanshan; Li, Peipei; Song, Shasha; Wang, Qingtong; Chen, Jingyu; Yu, Jianhua; Wei, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs) are well-known to show an immunosuppressive function. In this study we determine the therapeutic effects and potential mechanisms of transferred bone marrow (BM) CD11b(+)F4/80(+) DCs on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. Murine BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+) DCs were generated under the stimulation of GM-CSF and IL-4, and the function of BM CD11b(+) F4/80(+) DCs was identified by measuring the levels of IL-10, TGF-beta and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+) DCs were transferred to CIA mice by intravenous injections. The histopathology of joint and spleen were evaluated. T lymphocyte proliferation, Treg and Th17 subsets were analyzed. The expressions of Foxp3, Helios and RORγt in T lymphocytes co-cultured with BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+) DCs were measured in vitro. We found that BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+) DCs induced by GM-CSF and IL-4 could express high levels of IL-10, TGF-beta and IDO. BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+) DCs significantly reduced the pathologic scores in joints and spleens, which correlated significantly with the reduced T lymphocyte proliferation and Th17 cell number, and with the increased Tregs number. In vitro, OVA-pulsed BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+) DCs promoted Treg cell expansion, enhanced IL-10 and CTLA-4 protein expression, augmented Foxp3 and Helios mRNA expression, and inhibited RORγt and IL-17 mRNA expression. Taken together, BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+) DCs are able to ameliorate the development and severity of CIA, at least partly by inducing Foxp3(+) Treg cell expansion and suppressing Th17 function. The BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+) DCs might have a promising immunotherapeutic potential for autoimmune arthritis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mary E. Hall: Dawn of the Professional School Librarian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alto, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    A century ago, a woman named Mary E. Hall convinced school leaders of the need for the professional school librarian--a librarian who cultivated a love of reading, academic achievement, and independent learning skills. After graduating from New York City's Pratt Institute Library School in 1895, Hall developed her vision for the high school…

  18. What is the Hallé? | Smith | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bulk of the paper examines the difficulty of reconciling the view that the Hallé is several individuals with two prima facie plausible theses about the manner of its persistence through time. The paper is structured around some remarks made by Peter Simons about groups, and the Hallé in particular, in his Parts.

  19. Spin hall effect associated with SU(2) gauge field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Y.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the connection between spin Hall effect and spin force. Here we investigate that the spin force due to spin-orbit coupling, which, in two-dimensional system, is equivalent to forces of Hirsch and Chudnovsky besides constant factors 3 and frac{3}{2} respectively, is a part of classic Anandan force, and that the spin Hall effect is an anomalous Hall effect. Furthermore, we develop the method of AC phase to derive the expression for the spin force, and note that the most basic spin Hall effect indeed originate from the AC phase and is therefore an intrinsic quantum mechanical property of spin. This method differs from approach of Berry phase in the study of anomalous Hall effect , which is the intrinsic property of the perfect crystal. On the other hand, we use an elegant skill to show that the Chudnovsky-Drude model is reasonable. Here we have improved the theoretical values of spin Hall conductivity of Chudnovsky. Compared to the theoretical values of spin Hall conductivity in the Chudnovsky-Drude model, ours are in better agreement with experimentation. Finally, we discuss the relation between spin Hall effect and fractional statistics.

  20. Energy spectrum, dissipation, and spatial structures in reduced Hall magnetohydrodynamic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, L. N.; Dmitruk, P. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires and IFIBA, CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gomez, D. O. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires and IFIBA, CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-05-15

    We analyze the effect of the Hall term in the magnetohydrodynamic turbulence under a strong externally supported magnetic field, seeing how this changes the energy cascade, the characteristic scales of the flow, and the dynamics of global magnitudes, with particular interest in the dissipation. Numerical simulations of freely evolving three-dimensional reduced magnetohydrodynamics are performed, for different values of the Hall parameter (the ratio of the ion skin depth to the macroscopic scale of the turbulence) controlling the impact of the Hall term. The Hall effect modifies the transfer of energy across scales, slowing down the transfer of energy from the large scales up to the Hall scale (ion skin depth) and carrying faster the energy from the Hall scale to smaller scales. The final outcome is an effective shift of the dissipation scale to larger scales but also a development of smaller scales. Current sheets (fundamental structures for energy dissipation) are affected in two ways by increasing the Hall effect, with a widening but at the same time generating an internal structure within them. In the case where the Hall term is sufficiently intense, the current sheet is fully delocalized. The effect appears to reduce impulsive effects in the flow, making it less intermittent.

  1. Quantifying Spin Hall Angles from Spin Pumping : Experiments and Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosendz, O.; Pearson, J.E.; Fradin, F.Y.; Bauer, G.E.W.; Bader, S.D.; Hoffmann, A.

    2010-01-01

    Spin Hall effects intermix spin and charge currents even in nonmagnetic materials and, therefore, ultimately may allow the use of spin transport without the need for ferromagnets. We show how spin Hall effects can be quantified by integrating Ni80Fe20|normal metal (N) bilayers into a coplanar

  2. Stuart Hall on Racism and the Importance of Diasporic Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Fazal

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I want to show how my initial encounter with the work of Stuart Hall was grounded in my reading of the later philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein, and was shaped by my interest in understanding the nature of racism across the three countries in which I had lived. Over the years, Hall's various writings have helped me to make sense of…

  3. Theory of the quantum hall effects in lattice systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliros, G.S.

    1990-06-01

    The Fractional Quantum Hall Effect is identified as an Integral Quantum Hall Effect of electrons on a lattice with an even number of statistical flux quanta. A variational wavefunction in terms of the Hofstadter lattice eigenstates is proposed. (author). 21 refs

  4. Bulk Versus Edge in the Quantum Hall Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Kao, Y. -C.; Lee, D. -H.

    1996-01-01

    The manifestation of the bulk quantum Hall effect on edge is the chiral anomaly. The chiral anomaly {\\it is} the underlying principle of the ``edge approach'' of quantum Hall effect. In that approach, $\\sxy$ should not be taken as the conductance derived from the space-local current-current correlation function of the pure one-dimensional edge problem.

  5. Critical current in the Integral Quantum Hall Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinov, I.Z.

    1985-11-01

    A multiparticle theory of the Integral Quantum Hall Effect (IQHE) was constructed operating with pairs wave function as an order parameter. The IQHE is described with bosonic macroscopic states while the fractional QHE with fermionic ones. The calculation of the critical current and Hall conductivity temperature dependence is presented. (author)

  6. Useful Pedagogical Applications of the Classical Hall Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houari, Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    One of the most known phenomena in physics is the Hall effect. This is mainly due to its simplicity and to the wide range of its theoretical and practical applications. To complete the pedagogical utility of the Hall effect in physics teaching, I will apply it here to determine the Faraday constant as a fundamental physical number and the number…

  7. Medical humanities: a resident doctor's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauranik, Anvita

    2012-01-01

    The barrage of competitive examinations, overwork, sleep deprivation, and the pressure of expectations all combine to destroy the dreams that resident doctors have when they start medical school. The empathy they had before entering this field fades away, and they eventually become insensitive to their patients. Medical humanities may be the means to halt this trend. Sensitising young minds, using the arts, literature, history and lessons on social issues, may bring about a paradigm shift in these doctors' outlook towards their patients. However, for the humanities to be integrated into medical education, the current curriculum must be modified and made more clinically and socially relevant. Further, the humanities cannot be taught in lecture halls; they need to be integrated into all aspects of medical school. For this, the medical school faculty should be sensitised to, and trained in, humanities education.

  8. Depletion of kidney CD11c+ F4/80+ cells impairs the recovery process in ischaemia/reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Gyu; Boo, Chang Su; Ko, Yoon Sook; Lee, Hee Young; Cho, Won Yong; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Jo, Sang-Kyung

    2010-09-01

    Recent studies provided evidence of the potential role of CD11c(+) F4/80(+) dendritic subset in mediating injury and repair. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of kidney CD11c(+) F4/80(+) dendritic subset in the recovery phase of ischaemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). Following ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R), liposome clodronate or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was administered, and on day 7 biochemical and histologic kidney damage was assessed. Activation and depletion of CD11c(+) F4/80(+) dendritic subset were confirmed by flow cytometry. Isolation of kidney CD11c(+) cells on days 1 and 7 with in vitro culture for measuring cytokines was performed to define functional characteristics of these cells, and adoptive transfer of CD11c(+) cells was also done. Following kidney IRI, the percentage of CD11c(+) F4/80(+) kidney dendritic cell subset that co-expresses maturation marker increased. Liposome clodronate injection after I/R resulted in preferential depletion of CD11c(+) F4/80(+) kidney dendritic subset, and depletion of these cells was associated with persistent kidney injury, more apoptosis, inflammation and impaired tubular cell proliferation. CD11c(+) F4/80(+) cell depletion was also associated with higher tissue levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and lower level of IL-10, indicating the persistence of inflammatory milieu. Isolated kidney CD11c(+) cells on day 7 showed different phenotype with increased production of IL-10 compared with those on day 1. Adoptive transfer of CD11c(+) cells partially reversed impaired tissue recovery. Our results suggest that kidney CD11c(+) F4/80(+) dendritic subset might contribute to the recovery process by dynamic phenotypic change from pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory with modulation of immune response.

  9. Effective tuning of the ratio of red to green emission of Ho"3"+ ions in single LiLuF_4 microparticle via codoping Ce"3"+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Wei; Dong, Jun; Liu, Jihong; Yan, Xuewen

    2016-01-01

    Yb"3"+/Ho"3"+ codoped LiLuF_4 microparticles have been successfully prepared via a facile hydrothermal method. The crystal phase and morphology of LiLuF_4 microparticles were inspected by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope, respectively. The upconversion emission of single LiLuF_4: Yb"3"+/Ho"3"+ microparticle was carefully studied by a confocal microscopy setup under NIR 980 nm excitation. With the increase of Ce"3"+ ion concentrations of 12%, the ratio of red to green emission of the Ho"3"+ ions of single LiLuF_4 microparticle was boosted about 17-fold, and the output colors were tuned from green to red, which is due to the two efficient cross-relaxation between Ho"3"+ and Ce"3"+ ions enhances the red and suppresses the green in the emission processes. To investigate the optical properties of the single microparticle or nanoparticle through the confocal microscopy setup can effectively avoid the influence of surrounding particle or environment, and could provide more precise information for better exploring the emission mechanisms of rare earth ions. The tunable upconversion emission of Ho"3"+ in single LiLuF_4 microparticle in this work will have great potential applications in the micro optoelectronic devices and color display applications. - Highlights: • The optical properties of the single LiLuF4: Yb3+/Ho3+/Ce3+ microparticle were studied. • The output colors of single LiLuF4 microparticle were tuned from green to red. • The upconversion mechanisms between Ho3+ and Ce3+ ions were discussed based on emission spectrum.

  10. Serum levels of interleukin-22, cardiometabolic risk factors and incident type 2 diabetes: KORA F4/FF4 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herder, Christian; Kannenberg, Julia M; Carstensen-Kirberg, Maren; Huth, Cornelia; Meisinger, Christa; Koenig, Wolfgang; Peters, Annette; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Roden, Michael; Thorand, Barbara

    2017-01-31

    Interleukin-22 (IL-22) has beneficial effects on body weight, insulin resistance and inflammation in different mouse models, but its relevance for the development of type 2 diabetes in humans is unknown. We aimed to identify correlates of serum IL-22 levels and to test the hypothesis that higher IL-22 levels are associated with lower diabetes incidence. Cross-sectional associations between serum IL-22, cardiometabolic risk factors and glucose tolerance status were investigated in 1107 persons of the population-based KORA F4 study. The prospective association between serum IL-22 and incident type 2 diabetes was assessed in 504 initially non-diabetic study participants in both the KORA F4 study and its 7-year follow-up examination KORA FF4, 76 of whom developed diabetes. Male sex, current smoking, lower HDL cholesterol, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher serum interleukin-1 receptor antagonist were associated with higher IL-22 levels after adjustment for confounders (all P < 0.05). Serum IL-22 showed no associations with glucose tolerance status, prediabetes or type 2 diabetes. Baseline serum IL-22 levels (median, 25th/75th percentiles) for incident type 2 diabetes cases and non-cases were 6.28 (1.95; 12.35) and 6.45 (1.95; 11.80) pg/ml, respectively (age and sex-adjusted P = 0.744). The age and sex-adjusted OR (95% CI) per doubling of IL-22 for incident type 2 diabetes of 1.02 (0.85; 1.23) was almost unchanged after consideration of further confounders. High serum levels of IL-22 were positively rather than inversely associated with several cardiometabolic risk factors. However, these associations did not translate into an increased risk for type 2 diabetes. Thus, our data argue against the utility of IL-22 as biomarker for prevalent or incident type 2 diabetes in humans, but identify potential determinants of IL-22 levels which merits further research in the context of cardiovascular diseases.

  11. A Novel Hall Effect Sensor Using Elaborate Offset Cancellation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlassis N. Petoussis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hall effect is caused by a traverse force that is formed in the electrons or holes of metal element or semiconductor when are polarized by current source and simultaneously all the system it is found vertical in external magnetic field. Result is finally the production of difference of potential (Hall voltage in address vertical in that of current and magnetic field directions. In the present work is presented a new Hall sensor exploiting the former operation. In combination with his pioneering form and using dynamic spinning current technique with an elaborate sequence, it leads to satisfactory results of produced Hall voltage with small noise in a presence of external magnetic field. Anyone can see both the spinning current and anti-Hall technique in the same sensor simultaneously.

  12. Migrants and Their Experiences of Time: Edward T. Hall Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Schilling

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we reassess the scientific heritage of Edward T. HALL and his contribution to the area of intercultural communication. The key objectives of our study are to demonstrate the applicability of HALL's theory of culture to empirical research and to establish its compatibility with other methods. Specifically, we propose that Alfred SCHÜTZ's phenomenology of sociality be taken as an extension to HALL. The connection between HALL and SCHÜTZ is made possible by the mutual emphases on the temporal dimension of culture and the temporal aspects of migration. With these foci we analyze six narratives by two groups of migrants: German and Russian. By combining HALL's theory of the cultural time with SCHÜTZ's phenomenological perspective on time and the Other and then applying them to empirical data, we show the terms in which different cultures experience time. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901357

  13. Unconventional quantum Hall effect in Floquet topological insulators

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.

    2016-07-27

    We study an unconventional quantum Hall effect for the surface states of ultrathin Floquet topological insulators in a perpendicular magnetic field. The resulting band structure is modified by photon dressing and the topological property is governed by the low-energy dynamics of a single surface. An exchange of symmetric and antisymmetric surface states occurs by reversing the lights polarization. We find a novel quantum Hall state in which the zeroth Landau level undergoes a phase transition from a trivial insulator state, with Hall conductivity αyx = 0 at zero Fermi energy, to a Hall insulator state with αyx = e2/2h. These findings open new possibilities for experimentally realizing nontrivial quantum states and unusual quantum Hall plateaus at (±1/2,±3/2,±5/2, ...)e2/h. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd Printed in the UK.

  14. Magnetic Measurements of the Background Field in the Undulator Hall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The steel present in the construction of the undulator hall facility has the potential for changing the ambient fields present in the undulator hall. This note describes a measurement done to make a comparison between the fields in the hall and in the Magnetic Measurement Facility. In order for the undulators to have the proper tuning, the background magnetic field in the Undulator Hall should agree with the background field in the Magnetic Measurements Facility within .5 gauss. In order to verify that this was the case measurements were taken along the length of the undulator hall, and the point measurements were compared to the mean field which was measured on the MMF test bench.

  15. Unconventional quantum Hall effect in Floquet topological insulators

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.; Vasilopoulos, P.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2016-01-01

    We study an unconventional quantum Hall effect for the surface states of ultrathin Floquet topological insulators in a perpendicular magnetic field. The resulting band structure is modified by photon dressing and the topological property is governed by the low-energy dynamics of a single surface. An exchange of symmetric and antisymmetric surface states occurs by reversing the lights polarization. We find a novel quantum Hall state in which the zeroth Landau level undergoes a phase transition from a trivial insulator state, with Hall conductivity αyx = 0 at zero Fermi energy, to a Hall insulator state with αyx = e2/2h. These findings open new possibilities for experimentally realizing nontrivial quantum states and unusual quantum Hall plateaus at (±1/2,±3/2,±5/2, ...)e2/h. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd Printed in the UK.

  16. Water-stable NaLuF4-based upconversion nanophosphors with long-term validity for multimodal lymphatic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Zhu, Xingjun; Chen, Min; Sun, Yun; Li, Fuyou

    2012-09-01

    Multimodal imaging is rapidly becoming an important tool for biomedical applications because it can compensate for the deficiencies of individual imaging modalities. Herein, multifunctional NaLuF(4)-based upconversion nanoparticles (Lu-UCNPs) were synthesized though a facile one-step microemulsion method under ambient condition. The doping of lanthanide ions (Gd(3+), Yb(3+) and Er(3+)/Tm(3+)) endows the Lu-UCNPs with high T(1)-enhancement, bright upconversion luminescence (UCL) emissions, and excellent X-ray absorption coefficient. Moreover, the as-prepared Lu-UCNPs are stable in water for more than six months, due to the protection of sodium glutamate and diethylene triamine pentacetate acid (DTPA) coordinating ligands on the surface. Lu-UCNPs have been successfully applied to the trimodal CT/MR/UCL lymphatic imaging on the modal of small animals. It is worth noting that Lu-UCNPs could be used for imaging even after preserving for over six months. In vitro transmission electron microscope (TEM), methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay and histological analysis demonstrated that Lu-UCNPs exhibited low toxicity on living systems. Therefore, Lu-UCNPs could be multimodal agents for CT/MR/UCL imaging, and the concept can be served as a platform technology for the next-generation of probes for multimodal imaging. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Neuropathic pain is not adequately treated in the older general population: Results from the KORA F4 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisinger, Christa; Bongaerts, Brenda W C; Heier, Margit; Amann, Ute; Kowall, Bernd; Herder, Christian; Rückert-Eheberg, Ina-Maria; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Ziegler, Dan

    2018-05-24

    We evaluated the pharmacological treatment of distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN) among older subjects from the general population. The study included subjects aged 61 to 82 years from the KORA F4 survey (2006-2008). DSPN was defined as the presence of bilaterally impaired foot-vibration perception and/or bilaterally impaired foot-pressure sensation. Pain intensity was assessed with the painDETECT questionnaire. From the included 1076 older persons, 172 (16%) persons reported pain in the lower extremities and DSPN was present in 150 (14%) subjects. Forty-eight people with pain in the lower extremities reported DSPN. Only 38% of the subjects with DSPN reporting an average pain level of ≥4 during the past 4 weeks received medical treatment, predominantly nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs 20% and opioids 12%). The medication of choice for neuropathic pain, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and opioids was relatively being underused. However, opioids and neuropathy preparations were prescribed preferably for subjects with painful DSPN. In the older general population, only a small proportion of subjects with painful DSPN receive analgesic pharmacotherapy. Although not recommended by guidelines for the treatment of neuropathic pain, NSAIDs were the most frequently used class of analgesic drugs. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Critical Temperature of Randomly Diluted Two-Dimensional Heisenberg Ferromagnet, K2CuxZn(1-x)F4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Yuichi; Tohi, Yasuto; Yamada, Isao; Haseda, Taiichiro

    1980-09-01

    The susceptibility of randomly diluted two-dimensional Heisenberg-like ferromagnet K2CuxZn(1-x)F4 was measured down to 50 mK, using the 3He-4He dilution refrigerator and a SQUID magnetometer. The ferromagnetic critical temperature Tc(x) was obtained for x{=}0.98, 0.94, 0.85, 0.82, 0.68, 0.60, 0.54, 0.50 and 0.42. The value of [1/Tc(1)][(d/dx)Tc(x)]x=1 was approximately 3.0. The critical temperature versus x curve exhibits a noticeable tail near the critical concentration, which may stem from the second nearest-neighbor interaction. The critical concentration xc, below which concentration there is no long range order down to T{=}0 K, was estimated to be 0.45˜0.50. The susceptibility of sample with x{=}0.42 behaves as if it obeys the Curie law down to 50 mK.

  19. Salts purification and redox potential measurement for the molten LiF-ThF4-UF4 mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afonichkin, V.; Bovet, A.; Shishkin, V.

    2010-01-01

    The 'dry' techniques of producing and clearing of some metals fluorides, their mixtures and cakes of a given composition obtained without usage gaseous HF for experiments under the Project ISTC No. 3749 are developed. The products of synthesizing and purification of oxygen-containing compounds, are studied by methods X-ray diffraction analysis, gravimetry or IR spectrometry. The experimental studies confirmed that solid NH 4 HF 2 can be efficiently used instead of an unsafe and corrosive HF gas for removal of oxygen-containing impurities from metal fluorides and for conversion of uranium and thorium dioxides to anhydrous tetra-fluorides. These processes do not require expensive equipment and special measures of safety. The electrochemical behavior of UF 4 solutions in a melt 77 LiF-23ThF 4 (mole%) was studied by cyclic voltammetry. Formal analysis of the obtained dependencies showed that in our experimental conditions the recharge U(IV) to U(III) is qualitatively consistent with voltammetric criteria and can be classified as reversible. However, the results of mathematical processing of voltammograms show that the basic calculated characteristics of this reaction differ from the theoretical values corresponding one-electron process controlled by the diffusion rate. This indicates quasi-reversibility of the studied reaction. (authors)

  20. Range calculations for spallation recoils in ThF4 by use of the computer code 'Marlowe'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westmeier, W.; Roessler, K.

    1978-12-01

    The determination of cross sections of spallation reactions requires a knowledge of the target thickness since only the products recoiling from the target are measured and their yield depends on the range. The effective target thickness is a function of the projectile's Z, A and spallation recoil energy and, thus, varies for the individual products. The computer code MARLOWE was used to evaluate energy vs. range curves in the binary collisions approximation. The program was extended to the high energy regime taking into account the stripping of electrons from the projectile and the concomitant changes in the interaction potentials especially for the inelastic part of the collisions. A complementary computer program LATTIC was developed for the parameterization of the lattice description. This code enables the application of MARLOWE to target materials with complicated crystallographic structure. Test calculations for a series of projectile/target combinations showed a reasonable agreement with experimental recoil ranges of Pd, Ag, Os and Ir isotopes from proton induced spallation in Ag, In and Pb targets, respectively. MARLOWE was then applied to calculate product ranges of the 232 Th(p,spall)X-reaction in the ployatomic system ThF 4 . The calculated energy vs. range curves enabled the evaluation of the mean spallation recoil ranges for all possible products, e.g. 170.8 μg/cm 2 for 192 Tl, 115.2 μg/cm 2 for 208 At and 37.1 μg/cm 2 for 223 Ac. (orig.)

  1. Winglet Geometry Impact on DLR-F4 Aerodynamics and an Analysis of a Hyperbolic Winglet Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djahid Gueraiche

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the growth of aerodynamic efficiency and the growth of the wing structural stress is studied for DLR-F4 typical transport aircraft wing-body, after installing classical Whitcomb winglets of different configurations and a delta wingtip fence. A new-concept curved-span winglet was mathematically developed and approved through Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD and static structural experiments, revealing the interaction of sub- and transonic air flow dynamics with the wingtip device geometry. The design space of the winglet geometry was explored briefly, and an evaluation of the lift-to-drag ratio increment depending on various winglet input parameters was performed. In particular, the winglet cant angle effect on lift and drag was thoroughly analyzed at various flow regimes and angles of attack, revealing an ambiguity and a conflicting character of results between highly canted winglets and nearly vertical ones. As a result of cant angle impact analysis, a curved winglet concept is suggested and mathematically parametrized, that could provide an innovative solution, alternative to a morphing winglet, but much simpler with a fixed structure. In conclusion, a multidisciplinary winglet efficiency estimation criterion is suggested for comparing the aerodynamic efficiency of different wingtip devices with respect to their structural weight penalty in real flight conditions.

  2. PATH COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS G39×CIHERANG AND MENTIK WANGI×G39 RICE IN F4 GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Totok Agung D.H.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Current research was conducted with the objectives to identify the utmost traits that may be beneficial for the higher productivity of the grains on high protein content genotypes lines by path coefficient. Path coefficient can define coefficient correlation directly and indirectly to gain information about nature relationship between yield component and protein content to grain yield. Research material consisted of 61 selected plants from G39×Ciherang and 66 selected plants from Mentik Wangi×G39 at F4 generation. Plants were planted in Banyumas in May 2011. Number of panicles per plant, panicle length, 1000 g of grain weight, percentage of filled grain per panicle, protein content, and grain yield were correlated by using Pearson correlation and were followed by path coefficient. Number of panicles per plant, panicle length, 1000 g of grain weight, percentage filled grain per panicle, and protein content were used as dependent variable, while grain yield was used as independent variable. The result showed that protein content in both populations was not correlated with all yield components. The numbers of panicles, followed by panicle length, had highest positive direct effect to yield. The number of panicle was a positive mediator variable to yield from another variable.

  3. Inheritance of spike length in F3, F4 and F5 wheat hybrids obtained by different selection methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the mode of inheritance of spike length in F3, F4 and F5 wheat hybrids obtained by pedigree, bulk and modified pedigree method of selection. Wheat hybrids were produced after crossing five varieties by M x N method. Three varieties were used as a female parent (Briscard, Carifen 12 and Rescler and two as a male component (Francuska and PKB-Prelivka. Descendents in F2 generation were produced from 6 F1 hybrids (3 x 2. Selection after F2 generation were undertaken from 1996 to 1999, while in 2000 the field experiments with complete breeding material were set up at the Institute 'PKB INI Agroekonomik' in Padinska Skela near Belgrade. Spike length was measured in progeny generations, from F3 to F5. It was observed that progenies had higher values for spike length than better parent (BP, with longer spikes in 5 out of 6 analyzed hybrids: Briscard x PKB-Prelivka, Carifen 12 x Francuska, Carifen 12 x PKB-Prelivka, Rescler x Francuska, and Rescler x PKB-Prelivka. From the above mentioned hybrid combinations, only Rescler x Francuska descendents in F5 generation obtained by pedigree and bulk selection inherited the spike length from the parent with lower value. High significant interaction was observed for spike length between genotype and generation of progenies in each of the applied selection methods.

  4. Optical and scintillation properties of Ce-doped LuLiF4 with different Ce concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Fukuda, Kentaro; Chani, Valery

    2013-01-01

    The crystals of 0.1, 0.5, and 1 mol% Ce-doped LuLiF 4 (Ce:LLF) grown by the micro-pulling down (μ-PD) method were examined for their optical and scintillation properties. Ce:LLF crystals had ∼80% transparency at wavelengths longer than 300 nm. In photoluminescence spectra, they demonstrated intense emission peaks at 310 and 330 nm with the quantum yield of 60–90%. Ce 3+ 5d–4f emission peaks were also detected at similar wavelengths of 310 and 330 nm in the radioluminescence spectra obtained under X-ray excitation. According to pulse height spectra recorded under γ-ray irradiation, the absolute light yield of Ce 0.1, 0.5, and 1% were 3600±400, 3000±300, and 1700±200 ph/MeV, respectively. Decay time kinetics was also inspected using a pulse X-ray equipped streak camera system. The decay time components of Ce:LLF were ∼70 ns and ∼1 μs for all the samples

  5. [Burnout in nursing residents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Gianfábio Pimentel; de Barros, Alba Lúcia Bottura Leite; Nogueira-Martins, Luiz Antônio; Zeitoun, Sandra Salloum

    2011-03-01

    Nursing residents may experience physical and emotional exhaustion from the daily life of attending the Program. The aim of this study was to determine the Burnout incidence among Nursing Residents. An investigative, descriptive, analytical, longitudinal-prospective study was conducted with 16 Residents over two years. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was used, translated and validated for Brazil, as well as a sociodemographic/occupational data tool. Of all residents, 17.2% showed high rates in Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization; 18.8% showed impaired commitment in Personal Accomplishment, 75% of which belonged to specialty areas, such as Emergency Nursing, Adult and Pediatric Intensive Care. Age and specialty area were positively correlated with Personal Accomplishment. One of the Residents was identified with changes in three subscales of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, thus characterized as a Burnout Syndrome patient. Nursing Residents have profiles of disease. Knowing these factors can minimize health risks of these workers.

  6. Multifunctional hydroxyapatite/Na(Y/Gd)F4:Yb3+,Er3+ composite fibers for drug delivery and dual modal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Liu, Hui; Sun, Shufen; Li, Xuejiao; Zhou, Yanmin; Hou, Zhiyao; Lin, Jun

    2014-02-04

    Porous hydroxyapatite (HAp) composite fibers functionalized with up-conversion (UC) luminescent and magnetic Na(Y/Gd)F4:Yb(3+),Er(3+) nanocrystals (NCs) have been fabricated via electrospinning. After transferring hydrophobic oleic acid-capped Na(Y/Gd)F4:Yb(3+),Er(3+) NCs into aqueous solution, these water-dispersible NCs were dispersed into precursor electrospun solution containing CTAB. Na(Y/Gd)F4:Yb(3+),Er(3+)@HAp composite fibers were fabricated by the high temperature treatment of the electrospun Na(Y/Gd)F4:Yb(3+),Er(3+) NCs decorated precursor fibers. The biocompatibility test on MC 3T3-E1 cells using MTT assay shows that the HAp composite fibers have negligible cytotoxity, which reveals the HAp composite fibers could be a drug carrier for drug delivery. Because the contrast brightening is enhanced at increased concentrations of Gd(3+), the HAp composite fibers can serve as T1 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents. In addition, the composites uptaken by MC 3T3-E1 cells present the UC luminescent emission of Er(3+) under the excitation of a 980 nm near-infrared laser. The above findings reveal Na(Y/Gd)F4:Yb(3+),Er(3+)@HAp composite fibers have potential applications in drug storage/release and magnetic resonance/UC luminescence imaging.

  7. Impact of Smoke-Free Residence Hall Policies: The Views of Administrators at 3 State Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Megan

    2005-01-01

    Nationwide efforts to protect the public against the health effects of secondhand smoke have prompted college and university administrators to adopt more restrictive smoking policies. Some campus officials are concerned that new policies will lead to student backlash, increased staff workloads, and an increased economic burden. To understand the…

  8. Planar Hall Effect Sensors for Biodetection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzi, Giovanni

    . In the second geometry (dPHEB) half of the sensor is used as a local negative reference to subtract the background signal from magnetic beads in suspension. In all applications below, the magnetic beads are magnetised using the magnetic field due to the bias current passed through the sensor, i.e., no external...... as labels and planar Hall effect bridge (PHEB) magnetic field sensor as readout for the beads. The choice of magnetic beads as label is motivated by the lack of virtually any magnetic background from biological samples. Moreover, magnetic beads can be manipulated via an external magnetic field...... hybridisation in real-time, in a background of suspended magnetic beads. This characteristic is employed in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping, where the denaturation of DNA is monitored in real-time upon washing with a stringency buffer. The sensor setup includes temperature control and a fluidic...

  9. Numerical investigation of a Hall thruster plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Subrata; Pandey, B.P.

    2002-01-01

    The dynamics of the Hall thruster is investigated numerically in the framework of a one-dimensional, multifluid macroscopic description of a partially ionized xenon plasma using finite element formulation. The model includes neutral dynamics, inelastic processes, and plasma-wall interaction. Owing to disparate temporal scales, ions and neutrals have been described by set of time-dependent equations, while electrons are considered in steady state. Based on the experimental observations, a third order polynomial in electron temperature is used to calculate ionization rate. The results show that in the acceleration channel the increase in the ion number density is related to the decrease in the neutral number density. The electron and ion velocity profiles are consistent with the imposed electric field. The electron temperature remains uniform for nearly two-thirds of the channel; then sharply increases to a peak before dropping slightly at the exit. This is consistent with the predicted electron gyration velocity distribution

  10. Quantum Hall effect on Riemann surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejero Prieto, Carlos

    2009-06-01

    We study the family of Landau Hamiltonians compatible with a magnetic field on a Riemann surface S by means of Fourier-Mukai and Nahm transforms. Starting from the geometric formulation of adiabatic charge transport on Riemann surfaces, we prove that Hall conductivity is proportional to the intersection product on the first homology group of S and therefore it is quantized. Finally, by using the theory of determinant bundles developed by Bismut, Gillet and Soul, we compute the adiabatic curvature of the spectral bundles defined by the holomorphic Landau levels. We prove that it is given by the polarization of the jacobian variety of the Riemann surface, plus a term depending on the relative analytic torsion.

  11. Quantum Hall effect on Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejero Prieto, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    We study the family of Landau Hamiltonians compatible with a magnetic field on a Riemann surface S by means of Fourier-Mukai and Nahm transforms. Starting from the geometric formulation of adiabatic charge transport on Riemann surfaces, we prove that Hall conductivity is proportional to the intersection product on the first homology group of S and therefore it is quantized. Finally, by using the theory of determinant bundles developed by Bismut, Gillet and Soul, we compute the adiabatic curvature of the spectral bundles defined by the holomorphic Landau levels. We prove that it is given by the polarization of the jacobian variety of the Riemann surface, plus a term depending on the relative analytic torsion.

  12. Frequency spectrum of Calder Hall reactor noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, J.D.

    1960-01-01

    The frequency spectrum of the noise power of Calder Hall reactor No. 1 has been obtained by analysing a tape recording of the backed off power. The root mean square noise power due to all frequencies above 0.001 cycles per second was found to be 0.13%. The noise power for this reactor, is due mainly to modulations of the power level by reactivity variations caused in turn by gas temperature changes. These gas temperature changes are caused by a Cyclic variation in the feedwater regulator to the heat exchanger. The apparatus and method used to determine the noise power are described in this memorandum. It is shown that for frequencies in the range 0.001 to 0.030 cycles per second the noise spectrum falls at 60 decibels per decade of frequency. (author)

  13. OPTICS. Quantum spin Hall effect of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliokh, Konstantin Y; Smirnova, Daria; Nori, Franco

    2015-06-26

    Maxwell's equations, formulated 150 years ago, ultimately describe properties of light, from classical electromagnetism to quantum and relativistic aspects. The latter ones result in remarkable geometric and topological phenomena related to the spin-1 massless nature of photons. By analyzing fundamental spin properties of Maxwell waves, we show that free-space light exhibits an intrinsic quantum spin Hall effect—surface modes with strong spin-momentum locking. These modes are evanescent waves that form, for example, surface plasmon-polaritons at vacuum-metal interfaces. Our findings illuminate the unusual transverse spin in evanescent waves and explain recent experiments that have demonstrated the transverse spin-direction locking in the excitation of surface optical modes. This deepens our understanding of Maxwell's theory, reveals analogies with topological insulators for electrons, and offers applications for robust spin-directional optical interfaces. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Determination of the Hall Thruster Operating Regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L. Dorf; V. Semenov; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch

    2002-04-01

    A quasi one-dimensional (1-D) steady-state model of the Hall thruster is presented. For the same discharge voltage two operating regimes are possible -- with and without the anode sheath. For given mass flow rate, magnetic field profile and discharge voltage a unique solution can be constructed, assuming that the thruster operates in one of the regimes. However, we show that for a given temperature profile the applied discharge voltage uniquely determines the operating regime: for discharge voltages greater than a certain value, the sheath disappears. That result is obtained over a wide range of incoming neutral velocities, channel lengths and widths, and cathode plane locations. It is also shown that a good correlation between the quasi 1-D model and experimental results can be achieved by selecting an appropriate electron mobility and temperature profile

  15. Chaotic waves in Hall thruster plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peradzynski, Zbigniew; Barral, S.; Kurzyna, J.; Makowski, K.; Dudeck, M.

    2006-01-01

    The set of hyperbolic equations of the fluid model describing the acceleration of plasma in a Hall thruster is analyzed. The characteristic feature of the flow is the existence of a trapped characteristic; i.e. there exists a characteristic line, which never intersects the boundary of the flow region in the thruster. To study the propagation of short wave perturbations, the approach of geometrical optics (like WKB) can be applied. This can be done in a linear as well as in a nonlinear version. The nonlinear version describes the waves of small but finite amplitude. As a result of such an approach one obtains so called transport equation, which are governing the wave amplitude. Due to the existence of trapped characteristics this transport equation appears to have chaotic (turbulent) solutions in both, linear and nonlinear versions

  16. Spin Hall magnetoresistance at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Ken-ichi; Qiu, Zhiyong; Kikkawa, Takashi; Iguchi, Ryo; Saitoh, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    The temperature dependence of spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) in Pt/Y 3 Fe 5 O 12 (YIG) bilayer films has been investigated in a high temperature range from room temperature to near the Curie temperature of YIG. The experimental results show that the magnitude of the magnetoresistance ratio induced by the SMR monotonically decreases with increasing the temperature and almost disappears near the Curie temperature. We found that, near the Curie temperature, the temperature dependence of the SMR in the Pt/YIG film is steeper than that of a magnetization curve of the YIG; the critical exponent of the magnetoresistance ratio is estimated to be 0.9. This critical behavior of the SMR is attributed mainly to the temperature dependence of the spin-mixing conductance at the Pt/YIG interface

  17. Concept of Operating Indoor Skiing Halls with

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    Indoor skiing halls are conventionally operated at low temperatures and with either crushed ice as snow substitute or snow made from freezing water in cold air. Both systems have a high energy demand for air cooling, floor freezing and consequently snow harvest. At the same time the snow at the top...... floor cooling/freezing and insulation become obsolete, significant savings in piping and building costs can be achieved. Due to the much higher evaporating temperature for the refrigeration system, the energy demand is kept low. Since the same equipment is used for both snowmaking and air cooling......, the running time of the equipment is high, resulting in a better economy. Using Binary Snow, with its unique qualities such as fluffy, crisp, white and ¿ since made daily ¿ "fresh and hygienic", offers great advantages in operating costs, investment costs and quality....

  18. Geometrical Description of fractional quantum Hall quasiparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeje; Yang, Bo; Haldane, F. D. M.

    2012-02-01

    We examine a description of fractional quantum Hall quasiparticles and quasiholes suggested by a recent geometrical approach (F. D. M. Haldane, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 116801 (2011)) to FQH systems, where the local excess electric charge density in the incompressible state is given by a topologically-quantized ``guiding-center spin'' times the Gaussian curvature of a ``guiding-center metric tensor'' that characterizes the local shape of the correlation hole around electrons in the fluid. We use a phenomenological energy function with two ingredients: the shear distortion energy of area-preserving distortions of the fluid, and a local (short-range) approximation to the Coulomb energy of the fluctuation of charge density associated with the Gaussian curvature. Quasiparticles and quasiholes of the 1/3 Laughlin state are modeled as ``punctures'' in the incompressible fluid which then relax by geometric distortion which generates Gaussian curvature, giving rise to the charge-density profile around the topological excitation.

  19. Cathode Effects in Cylindrical Hall Thrusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granstedt, E.M.; Raitses, Y.; Fisch, N. J.

    2008-09-12

    Stable operation of a cylindrical Hall thruster (CHT) has been achieved using a hot wire cathode, which functions as a controllable electron emission source. It is shown that as the electron emission from the cathode increases with wire heating, the discharge current increases, the plasma plume angle reduces, and the ion energy distribution function shifts toward higher energies. The observed effect of cathode electron emission on thruster parameters extends and clarifies performance improvements previously obtained for the overrun discharge current regime of the same type of thruster, but using a hollow cathode-neutralizer. Once thruster discharge current saturates with wire heating, further filament heating does not affect other discharge parameters. The saturated values of thruster discharge parameters can be further enhanced by optimal placement of the cathode wire with respect to the magnetic field.

  20. On-Chip Microwave Quantum Hall Circulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Mahoney

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulators are nonreciprocal circuit elements that are integral to technologies including radar systems, microwave communication transceivers, and the readout of quantum information devices. Their nonreciprocity arises from the interference of microwaves over the centimeter scale of the signal wavelength, in the presence of bulky magnetic media that breaks time-reversal symmetry. Here, we realize a completely passive on-chip microwave circulator with size 1/1000th the wavelength by exploiting the chiral, “slow-light” response of a two-dimensional electron gas in the quantum Hall regime. For an integrated GaAs device with 330  μm diameter and about 1-GHz center frequency, a nonreciprocity of 25 dB is observed over a 50-MHz bandwidth. Furthermore, the nonreciprocity can be dynamically tuned by varying the voltage at the port, an aspect that may enable reconfigurable passive routing of microwave signals on chip.

  1. Mesoscopic spin Hall effect in semiconductor nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarbo, Liviu

    The spin Hall effect (SHE) is a name given to a collection of diverse phenomena which share two principal features: (i) longitudinal electric current flowing through a paramagnetic semiconductor or metallic sample leads to transverse spin current and spin accumulation of opposite sign at opposing lateral edges; (ii) SHE does not require externally applied magnetic field or magnetic ordering in the equilibrium state of the sample, instead it relies on the presence of spin-orbit (SO) couplings within the sample. This thesis elaborates on a new type of phenomenon within the SHE family, predicted in our recent studies [Phys. Rev. B 72, 075361 (2005); Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046601 (2005); Phys. Rev. B 72, 075335 (2005); Phys. Rev. B 73 , 075303 (2006); and Europhys. Lett. 77, 47004 (2007)], where pure spin current flows through the transverse electrodes attached to a clean finitesize two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) due to unpolarized charge current injected through its longitudinal leads. If transverse leads are removed, the effect manifests as nonequilibrium spin Hall accumulation at the lateral edges of 2DEG wires. The SO coupling driving this SHE effect is of the Rashba type, which arises due to structural inversion asymmetry of semiconductor heterostructure hosting the 2DEG. We term the effect "mesoscopic" because the spin Hall currents and accumulations reach optimal value in samples of the size of the spin precession length---the distance over which the spin of an electron precesses by an angle pi. In strongly SO-coupled structures this scale is of the order of ˜100 nm, and, therefore, mesoscopic in the sense of being much larger than the characteristic microscopic scales (such as the Fermi wavelength, screening length, or the mean free path in disordered systems), but still much smaller than the macroscopic ones. Although the first theoretical proposal for SHE, driven by asymmetry in SO-dependent scattering of spin-up and spin-down electrons off impurities

  2. 50 KW Class Krypton Hall Thruster Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, David T.; Manzella, David H.

    2003-01-01

    The performance of a 50-kilowatt-class Hall thruster designed for operation on xenon propellant was measured using kryton propellant. The thruster was operated at discharge power levels ranging from 6.4 to 72.5 kilowatts. The device produced thrust ranging from 0.3 to 2.5 newtons. The thruster was operated at discharge voltages between 250 and 1000 volts. At the highest anode mass flow rate and discharge voltage and assuming a 100 percent singly charged condition, the discharge specific impulse approached the theoretical value. Discharge specific impulse of 4500 seconds was demonstrated at a discharge voltage of 1000 volts. The peak discharge efficiency was 64 percent at 650 volts.

  3. Magnon Hall effect on the Lieb lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaodong; Chen, Kai; He, Dahai

    2015-04-29

    Ferromagnetic insulators without inversion symmetry may show magnon Hall effect (MHE) in the presence of a temperature gradient due to the existence of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). In this theoretical study, we investigate MHE on a lattice with inversion symmetry, namely the Lieb lattice, where the DMI is introduced by adding an external electric field. We show the nontrivial topology of this model by examining the existence of edge states and computing the topological phase diagram characterized by the Chern numbers of different bands. Together with the topological phase diagram, we can further determine the sign and magnitude of the transverse thermal conductivity. The impact of the flat band possessed by this model on the thermal conductivity is discussed by computing the Berry curvature analytically.

  4. Photonic spin Hall effect at metasurfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiaobo; Ye, Ziliang; Rho, Junsuk; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

    2013-03-22

    The spin Hall effect (SHE) of light is very weak because of the extremely small photon momentum and spin-orbit interaction. Here, we report a strong photonic SHE resulting in a measured large splitting of polarized light at metasurfaces. The rapidly varying phase discontinuities along a metasurface, breaking the axial symmetry of the system, enable the direct observation of large transverse motion of circularly polarized light, even at normal incidence. The strong spin-orbit interaction deviates the polarized light from the trajectory prescribed by the ordinary Fermat principle. Such a strong and broadband photonic SHE may provide a route for exploiting the spin and orbit angular momentum of light for information processing and communication.

  5. Residencia hall del Obispado, en Gescher, Alemania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deilmann, Harald

    1969-02-01

    Full Text Available This Hall has four lecture rooms, each with a capacity for twenty students. They all face north, have lateral and cenithal illumination and cross ventilation. The workshop training halls face south, and there is a gymnasium. Each classroom is also connected with a protected open air space, so that in suitable weather, teaching can be practised out of doors. As the school is devoted to mentally retarded boys and youths, over 2 m2 of floor area has been allowed for each student in the classrooms, since it was estimated that many students would be of the nervous type and would need more room to work freely. Most of the construction is made with unfaced brick and concrete, which are long lasting materials, requiring little maintenance.Comprende cuatro clases propiamente dichas, con una capacidad total de 80 alumnos, a razón de 20 por cada clase, y orientadas al norte, con iluminación cenital y lateral y ventilación cruzada. Los locales donde se imparten las enseñanzas de taller tienen orientación sur. Se ha previsto, además, un gimnasio. Cada clase dispone de un recinto protegido para que, cuando las condiciones atmosféricas lo permitan, se pueda desarrollar en él la enseñanza al aire libre. Como la escuela está destinada a niños y adolescentes retrasados mentales, se partió de un espacio superior a los 2 m2 por alumno, pensando en que parte de ellos iban a ser niños nerviosos y, como consecuencia, la necesidad que tendrían de amplitud suficiente para desenvolverse adecuadamente. La construcción se ha desarrollado, en general, a base de fábrica de ladrillo a cara vista y hormigón visto, materiales de gran duración y prácticamente exentos de entretenimiento.

  6. Nonadiabatic effects in the Quantum Hall regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, D.A.; Brown, E.

    1993-01-01

    The authors consider the effect of a finite electric field on the states of a Bloch electron in two dimensions, with a uniform magnetic field present. They make use of the concept of electric time translation symmetry and treat the electric and magnetic fields symmetrically in a time dependent formalism. In addition to a wave vector k, the states are characterized by a frequency specifying the behavior under electric time translations. An effective Hamiltonian is employed to obtain the splitting of an isolated Bloch band into open-quotes frequencyclose quotes subbands. The time-averaged velocity and energy of the states are expressed in terms of the frequency dispersion. The relationship to the Stark ladder eigenstates in a scalar potential representation of the electric field is examined. This is seen to justify the use of the averaged energy in determining occupation of the states. In the weak electric field (adiabatic) limit, an expression is recovered for the quantized Hall conductivity of a magnetic subband as a topological invariant. A numerical procedure is outlined and results obtained over a range of electric field strengths. A transition between strong and weak field regimes is seen, with level repulsions between the frequencies playing an important role. The numerical results show how the magnetic subband structure and quantized Hall conductivity emerge as the electric field becomes weaker. In this regime, the behavior can be understood by comparison to the predictions of the adiabatic approximation. The latter predicts crossings in the frequencies at certain locations in wave vector space. Nonadiabatic effects are seen to produce gaps in the frequency spectrum at these locations. 35 refs., 14 figs

  7. 76 FR 25259 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B4-600, A300 B4-600R, and A300 F4-600R Series...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B4-600, A300 B4-600R, and A300 F4-600R Series Airplanes, and Model...-605R, B4-622R, F4-605R, F4-622R, and C4-605R Variant F airplanes; and Model A310-203, -204, -221, -222...

  8. 76 FR 47430 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B4-600, A300 B4-600R, and A300 F4-600R Series...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B4-600, A300 B4-600R, and A300 F4-600R Series Airplanes, and Model..., B4-622R, F4-605R, F4-622R, and C4-605R Variant F airplanes; and Model A310-203, -204, -221, -222...

  9. Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin after oral administration in recently weaned piglets with experimentally induced Escherichia coli subtype O149 : F4 diarrhea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, G.M.; Lykkesfeldt, J.; Frydendahl, K.

    2004-01-01

    Objective-To measure the effect of Escherichia coli subtype 0149:F4-induced diarrhea on the pharmacokinetics of orally administered amoxicillin in affected piglets relative to that of uninfected piglets. Animals-22 healthy 4-week-old recently weaned Danish crossbred piglets. Procedure-12 piglets...... were orally inoculated through gastric intubation with 10(9) CFUs of an E coli 0149:F4 strain and responded by developing diarrhea 12 to 16 hours later. Piglets were dosed with amoxicillin trihydrate solution (20 mg/kg) by gastric intubation. A control group of 10 age-matched piglets without signs...... that the concentration of the antimicrobial at the site of infection reflects the systemic concentration, higher doses of amoxicillin in the treatment of piglets with E coli 0149:F4-induced diarrhea may be appropriate....

  10. Renal F4/80+ CD11c+ mononuclear phagocytes display phenotypic and functional characteristics of macrophages in health and in adriamycin nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qi; Wang, Yiping; Wang, Xin Maggie; Lu, Junyu; Lee, Vincent W S; Ye, Qianling; Nguyen, Hanh; Zheng, Guoping; Zhao, Ye; Alexander, Stephen I; Harris, David C H

    2015-02-01

    Conventional markers of macrophages (Mфs) and dendritic cells (DCs) lack specificity and often overlap, leading to confusion and controversy regarding the precise function of these cells in kidney and other diseases. This study aimed to identify the phenotype and function of renal mononuclear phagocytes (rMPs) expressing key markers of both Mфs and DCs. F4/80(+)CD11c(+) cells accounted for 45% of total rMPs in normal kidneys and in those from mice with Adriamycin nephropathy (AN). Despite expression of the DC marker CD11c, these double-positive rMPs displayed the features of Mфs, including Mф-like morphology, high expression of CD68, CD204, and CD206, and high phagocytic ability but low antigen-presenting ability. F4/80(+)CD11c(+) cells were found in the cortex but not in the medulla of the kidney. In AN, F4/80(+)CD11c(+) cells displayed an M1 Mф phenotype with high expression of inflammatory mediators and costimulatory factors. Adoptive transfer of F4/80(+)CD11c(+) cells separated from diseased kidney aggravated renal injury in AN mice. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of common progenitors revealed that kidney F4/80(+)CD11c(+) cells were derived predominantly from monocytes, but not from pre-DCs. In conclusion, renal F4/80(+)CD11c(+) cells are a major subset of rMPs and display Mф-like phenotypic and functional characteristics in health and in AN. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  11. Nitric oxide synthase 2 is required for conversion of pro-fibrogenic inflammatory CD133(+) progenitors into F4/80(+) macrophages in experimental autoimmune myocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyszczuk, Przemyslaw; Berthonneche, Corrine; Behnke, Silvia; Glönkler, Marcel; Moch, Holger; Pedrazzini, Thierry; Lüscher, Thomas F; Eriksson, Urs; Kania, Gabriela

    2013-02-01

    Experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) model mirrors important mechanisms of inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy (iDCM). In EAM, inflammatory CD133(+) progenitors are a major cellular source of cardiac myofibroblasts in the post-inflammatory myocardium. We hypothesized that exogenous delivery of macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) can stimulate macrophage lineage differentiation of inflammatory progenitors and, therefore, prevent their naturally occurring myofibroblast fate in EAM. EAM was induced in wild-type (BALB/c) and nitric oxide synthase 2-deficient (Nos2(-/-)) mice and CD133(+) progenitors were isolated from inflamed hearts. In vitro, M-CSF converted inflammatory CD133(+) progenitors into nitric oxide-producing F4/80(+) macrophages and prevented transforming growth factor-β-mediated myofibroblast differentiation. Importantly, only a subset of heart-infiltrating CD133(+) progenitors expresses macrophage-specific antigen F4/80 in EAM. These CD133(+)/F4/80(hi) cells show impaired myofibrogenic potential compared with CD133(+)/F4/80(-) cells. M-CSF treatment of wild-type mice with EAM at the peak of disease markedly increased CD133(+)/F4/80(hi) cells in the myocardium, and CD133(+) progenitors isolated from M-CSF-treated mice failed to differentiate into myofibroblasts. In contrast, M-CSF was not effective in converting CD133(+) progenitors from inflamed hearts of Nos2(-/-) mice into macrophages, and M-CSF treatment did not result in increased CD133(+)/F4/80(hi) cell population in hearts of Nos2(-/-) mice. Accordingly, M-CSF prevented post-inflammatory fibrosis and left ventricular dysfunction in wild-type but not in Nos2(-/-) mice. Active and NOS2-dependent induction of macrophage lineage differentiation abrogates the myofibrogenic potential of heart-infiltrating CD133(+) progenitors. Modulating the in vivo differentiation fate of specific progenitors might become a novel approach for the treatment of inflammatory heart diseases.

  12. A semifluorinated alkane (F4H5) as novel carrier for cyclosporine A: a promising therapeutic and prophylactic option for topical treatment of dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlsen, Uta; Braun, Tobias; Notara, Maria; Krösser, Sonja; Steven, Philipp

    2017-04-01

    Cyclosporine A (Cs) has been used as effective topical therapy for inflammatory dry eye disease since more than a decade. However, due to its lipophilic character, Cs is formulated as emulsions or oily solutions for topical application. This experimental study aimed to test if the use of semifluorinated alkanes (SFAs) as a preservative-free, well-tolerated non-stinging or burning vehicle maintains or even improves the benefits of Cs in the topical therapy of dry-eye disease. Desiccating stress was applied to C57BL/6 mice for 14 consecutive days to induce experimental dry-eye. Cs dissolved in SFA (perfluorobutylpentane = F4H5with 0.5% Ethanol), F4H5 with 0.5% ethanol only, 0.05% Cs (Restasis®), and dexamethasone (Monodex®) were applied three times daily beginning either at day 4 or day 11 of desiccating stress for up to 3 weeks after end of dry-eye induction. In comparison to other groups, Cs/F4H5 demonstrated high efficacy and earlier reduction of corneal staining. In this study, Cs/F4H5 had the ability to maintain conjunctival goblet cell density once applied on day 4. Flow cytometry analysis from cervical lymphnodes demonstrated a significantly lower CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in the Cs/F4H5 group following 3 weeks of therapy than at baseline, but no difference in regulatory T cells from regional lymphnodes were seen. Overall, compared to a commercially available Cs formulation (Restasis®) and dexamethasone, Cs/F4H5 was shown to be equally effective but with a significantly faster therapeutic response in reducing signs of dry-eye disease in an experimental mouse model.

  13. Temperature dependence of collapse of quantized hall resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hiroyasu; Kawashima, Hironori; Iizuka, Hisamitsu; Fukuda, Hideaki; Kawaji, Shinji

    2006-01-01

    Similarity is observed in the deviation of Hall resistance from the quantized value with the increase in the source-drain current I SD in our butterfly-type Hall bars and in the Hall bars used by Jeanneret et al., while changes in the diagonal resistivity ρ xx with I SD are significantly different between these Hall bars. The temperature dependence of the critical Hall electric field F cr (T) for the collapse of R H (4) measured in these Hall bars is approximated using F cr (T) = F cr (0)(1 - (T/T cr ) 2 ). Here, the critical Hall electric field at zero temperature depends on the magnetic field B as F cr (0) ∝ B 3/2 . Theoretical considerations are given on F cr (T) on the basis of a temperature-dependent mobility edge model and a schema of temperature-dependent inter-Landau level tunneling probability arising from the Fermi distribution function. The former does not fit in with the I SD dependence of activation energy in ρ xx . (author)

  14. Spontaneous Hall effect in a chiral p-wave superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusaki, Akira; Matsumoto, Masashige; Sigrist, Manfred

    2001-08-01

    In a chiral superconductor with broken time-reversal symmetry a ``spontaneous Hall effect'' may be observed. We analyze this phenomenon by taking into account the surface properties of a chiral superconductor. We identify two main contributions to the spontaneous Hall effect. One contribution originates from the Bernoulli (or Lorentz) force due to spontaneous currents running along the surfaces of the superconductor. The other contribution has a topological origin and is related to the intrinsic angular momentum of Cooper pairs. The latter can be described in terms of a Chern-Simons-like term in the low-energy field theory of the superconductor and has some similarities with the quantum Hall effect. The spontaneous Hall effect in a chiral superconductor is, however, nonuniversal. Our analysis is based on three approaches to the problem: a self-consistent solution of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation, a generalized Ginzburg-Landau theory, and a hydrodynamic formulation. All three methods consistently lead to the same conclusion that the spontaneous Hall resistance of a two-dimensional superconducting Hall bar is of order h/(ekFλ)2, where kF is the Fermi wave vector and λ is the London penetration depth; the Hall resistance is substantially suppressed from a quantum unit of resistance. Experimental issues in measuring this effect are briefly discussed.

  15. Hall current effects in dynamic magnetic reconnection solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, I.J.D.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Watson, P.G.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of Hall current contributions on flow driven planar magnetic merging solutions is discussed. The Hall current is important if the dimensionless Hall parameter (or normalized ion skin depth) satisfies c H >η, where η is the inverse Lundquist number for the plasma. A dynamic analysis of the problem shows, however, that the Hall current initially manifests itself, not by modifying the planar reconnection field, but by inducing a non-reconnecting perpendicular 'separator' component in the magnetic field. Only if the stronger condition c H 2 >η is satisfied can Hall currents be expected to affect the planar merging. These analytic predictions are then tested by performing a series of numerical experiments in periodic geometry, using the full system of planar magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. The numerical results confirm that the nature of the merging changes dramatically when the Hall coupling satisfies c H 2 >η. In line with the analytic treatment of sheared reconnection, the coupling provided by the Hall term leads to the emergence of multiple current layers that can enhance the global Ohmic dissipation at the expense of the reconnection rate. However, the details of the dissipation depend critically on the symmetries of the simulation, and when the merging is 'head-on' (i.e., comprises fourfold symmetry) the reconnection rate can be enhanced

  16. Graphene and the universality of the quantum Hall effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzalenchuk, A.; Janssen, T. J.B.M.; Kazakova, O.

    2013-01-01

    The quantum Hall effect allows the standard for resistance to be defined in terms of the elementary charge and Planck's constant alone. The effect comprises the quantization of the Hall resistance in two-dimensional electron systems in rational fractions of RK=h/e2=25812.8074434(84) Ω (Mohr P. J....... the unconventional quantum Hall effect and then present in detail the route, which led to the most precise quantum Hall resistance universality test ever performed.......The quantum Hall effect allows the standard for resistance to be defined in terms of the elementary charge and Planck's constant alone. The effect comprises the quantization of the Hall resistance in two-dimensional electron systems in rational fractions of RK=h/e2=25812.8074434(84) Ω (Mohr P. J....... et al., Rev. Mod. Phys., 84 (2012) 1527), the resistance quantum. Despite 30 years of research into the quantum Hall effect, the level of precision necessary for metrology, a few parts per billion, has been achieved only in silicon and III-V heterostructure devices. In this lecture we show...

  17. Reproductive factors and serum uric acid levels in females from the general population: the KORA F4 study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Stöckl

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Hyperuricemia is associated with an increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. There are pronounced sex differences in the levels of uric acid. It is largely unknown whether or not reproductive parameters which induce hormonal changes are responsible for this. We examined if there are associations between reproductive parameters and uric acid levels in a female population-based sample. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis, data of 1530 women aged 32 to 81 years participating in the KORA F4 study, conducted between 2006 and 2008 in Southern Germany were used. Reproductive parameters were obtained by standardized interviews. Uric acid levels were tested by the uricase method. The whole study sample and stratified in pre- and postmenopausal women was analyzed. RESULTS: Menopausal status and earlier age at menarche were associated with higher serum uric acid levels (age-adjusted: p-values 0.003, <0.001 respectively; after multivariable adjustment, including BMI: p-values 0.002, 0.036. A history of oral contraceptive use showed an association with uric acid levels only after multivariable adjustment (p-value 0.009. Hot flushes showed an association with uric acid levels only after age-adjustment (p-value 0.038, but lost significance after adding other confounders. Other reproductive factors, including parity, current or ever use of hormone replacement therapy, current use of oral contraceptives, hysterectomy, bilateral oophorectomy, or depressive mood related to menopausal transition were not associated with uric acid levels. CONCLUSIONS: Postmenopausal status, earlier age at menarche and a history of oral contraceptive use were independently associated with higher serum uric acid concentrations in women from the general population. Further studies, especially longitudinal population-based studies investigating the relationship of female reproductive parameters with uric acid levels are necessary to confirm our findings.

  18. Mössbauer study on a two-dimensional random mixture with competing spin anisotropies K2Ni1- x Fe x F4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A.; Anma, T.

    1987-03-01

    Mössbauer measurements have been made on a two-dimensional (2D) random mixture K2Ni1- x Fe x F4 with competing spin anisotropies. The concentration versus temperature phase diagram predicted by Oguchi and Ishikawa for mixed systems with competition between orthorhombic anisotropies has been shown to exist in K2Ni1- x Fe x F4. The coexistence of two kinds of Mössbauer spectra is seen in the transition regions, and is believed to be an intrinsic property of this system.

  19. Therapeutic effects of visual standard channel combined with F4.8 visual puncture super-mini percutaneous nephrolithotomy on multiple renal calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhenyu; Gao, Yanjun; Yang, Wenzeng; Zhao, Chunli; Ma, Tao; Shi, Xiaoqiang

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effects of visual standard channel combined with F4.8 visual puncture super-mini percutaneous nephrolithotomy (SMP) on multiple renal calculi. The clinical data of 46 patients with multiple renal calculi treated in Affiliated Hospital of Hebei University from October 2015 to September 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 28 males and 18 females aged from 25 to 65 years old, with an average of 42.6. The stone diameters were 3.0-5.2 cm, (4.3 ± 0.8) cm on average. F4.8 visual puncture-assisted balloon expansion was used to establish a standard channel. After visible stones were removed through nephroscopy combined with ultrasound lithotripsy, the stones of other parts were treated through F4.8 visual puncture SMP with holmium laser. Indices such as the total time of channel establishment, surgical time, decreased value of hemoglobin, phase-I stone clearance rate and surgical complications were summarized. Single standard channel was successfully established in all cases with the assistance of F4.8 visual puncture, of whom 24 were combined with a single microchannel, 16 were combined with double microchannels, and six were combined with three microchannels. All patients were placed with nephrostomy tube which was not placed in the microchannels. Both F5 double J tubes were placed after surgery. The time for establishing a standard channel through F4.8 visual puncture was (6.8 ± 1.8) min, and that for establishing a single F4.8 visual puncture microchannel was (4.5 ± 0.9) min. The surgical time was (92 ± 15) min. The phase-I stone clearance rate was 91.3% (42/46), and the decreased value of hemoglobin was (12.21 ± 2.5) g/L. There were 8 cases of postoperative fever which was relieved after anti-inflammatory treatment. Four cases had 0.5-0.8 cm of stone residue in the lower calyx, and all stones were discharged one month after surgery by in vitro shock wave lithotripsy combined with position nephrolithotomy, without stone

  20. Use of mass spectral method for plotting P-T and T-x pro ection of state diagram of LiF-ZrF4 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, Yu.M.; Rykov, A.N.; Novoselova, A.V.

    1979-01-01

    T-x and P-T projections of the state diagram for the system LiF-ZrF 4 were constructed. The Knudsen effusion technique with the mass-spectral analysis of the evaporation products was employed to determine the vapor composition and pressure. LiF, LiF 2 , Li 3 F 3 , ZrF 4 , LiZrF 5 , Li 2 ZrF 6 , LiZrF 9 molecules were found in the saturated vapor of the system. Heats of evaporation of the molecules and their partial pressures depending on the melt composition were determined. Dissociation enthalpies of the complex molecules were calcuted