WorldWideScience

Sample records for reside explain variations

  1. Explaining variation in nascent entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Stel (André); A.R.M. Wennekers (Sander); P. Reynolds (Paul); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper aims at explaining cross-country variation in nascent entrepreneurship. Regression analysis is applied using various explanatory variables derived from three different approaches. We make use of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor database, including nascent entrepreneurship

  2. Explaining variation in Down's syndrome screening uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crombag, Neeltje M T H; Vellinga, Ynke E; Kluijfhout, Sandra A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The offer of prenatal Down's syndrome screening is part of routine antenatal care in most of Europe; however screening uptake varies significantly across countries. Although a decision to accept or reject screening is a personal choice, it is unlikely that the widely differing uptake...... rates across countries can be explained by variation in individual values alone.The aim of this study was to compare Down's syndrome screening policies and programmes in the Netherlands, where uptake is relatively low ( 90% respectively....... RESULTS: There were many similarities in the demographics, healthcare systems, government abortion legislation and Down's syndrome screening policy across the studied countries. However, the additional cost for Down's syndrome screening over and above standard antenatal care in the Netherlands...

  3. Thrive or Survive? Explaining Variation in Economic Outcomes for Refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Betts

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the context of protracted refugee situations, there has been a revival in concern among policymakers to transcend the so-called humanitarian-development divide and create greater opportunities for self-reliance. Yet, these discussions too often neglect an analytical focus on refugees’ own economic lives, and their own interactions with markets.Despite a growing literature on the economic lives of refugees, much of that work has lacked theory or data. The work that has been quantitative has generally focused on the economic impact of refugees on host countries rather than explaining variation in economic outcomes for refugees.  In order to explain variation in economic outcomes for refugees, this paper asks three questions about the economic lives of refugees: 1 what makes the economic lives of refugees distinctive from other populations; 2 what explains variation in refugees’ income levels; and 3 what role does entrepreneurship play in shaping refugees’ economic outcomes?In order to answer these questions, the paper draws upon extensive qualitative and quantitative research conducted in Uganda by the Humanitarian Innovation Project at Oxford University. The quantitative data set is based on a survey of 2,213 refugees in three types of contexts: urban (Kampala, protracted camps (Nakivale and Kyangwali settlements, and emergency camps (Rwamwanja. It supplements this with qualitative research from other parts of Africa and the Middle East. The economic lives of refugees are argued to be distinctive not because refugees are any different qua human beings but because they often occupy a distinctive institutional space. Following new institutional economics, the paper argues that “refugee economies” represent a distinctive analytical space insofar as refugees face different formal and informal institutional barriers and distortions in their economic lives compared to nationals or other migrants. Even within the same country, refugees

  4. Four loci explain 83% of size variation in the horse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokouh Makvandi-Nejad

    Full Text Available Horse body size varies greatly due to intense selection within each breed. American Miniatures are less than one meter tall at the withers while Shires and Percherons can exceed two meters. The genetic basis for this variation is not known. We hypothesize that the breed population structure of the horse should simplify efforts to identify genes controlling size. In support of this, here we show with genome-wide association scans (GWAS that genetic variation at just four loci can explain the great majority of horse size variation. Unlike humans, which are naturally reproducing and possess many genetic variants with weak effects on size, we show that horses, like other domestic mammals, carry just a small number of size loci with alleles of large effect. Furthermore, three of our horse size loci contain the LCORL, HMGA2 and ZFAT genes that have previously been found to control human height. The LCORL/NCAPG locus is also implicated in cattle growth and HMGA2 is associated with dog size. Extreme size diversification is a hallmark of domestication. Our results in the horse, complemented by the prior work in cattle and dog, serve to pinpoint those very few genes that have played major roles in the rapid evolution of size during domestication.

  5. Nest predation risk explains variation in avian clutch size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Kristen G.; Conway, Courtney J.

    2018-01-01

    Questions about the ecological drivers of, and mechanistic constraints on, productivity have driven research on life-history evolution for decades. Resource availability and offspring mortality are considered among the 2 most important influences on the number of offspring per reproductive attempt. We used a factorial experimental design to manipulate food abundance and perceived offspring predation risk in a wild avian population (red-faced warblers; Cardellina rubrifrons) to identify the mechanistic cause of variation in avian clutch size. Additionally, we tested whether female quality helped explain the extant variation in clutch size. We found no support for the Food Limitation or Female Quality Hypotheses, but we did find support for both predictions of the Nest Predation Risk Hypothesis. Females that experienced an experimentally heightened perception of offspring predation risk responded by laying a smaller clutch than females in the control group. Additionally, predation rates at artificial nests were highest where red-faced warbler clutch size was smallest (at high elevations). Life-history theory predicts that an individual should invest less in reproduction when high nest predation risk reduces the likely benefit from that nesting attempt and, indeed, we found that birds exhibit phenotypic plasticity in clutch size by laying fewer eggs in response to increasing nest predation risk.

  6. Explaining the Learning Experiences of Clinical Procedures of the Internal Medicine Residents at Department of Gastroenterology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Taghavinia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the method and way of learning and teaching are effective in acquiring clinical skills, and identifying the shortcomings of learning and teaching will lead to better planning. The purpose of this study was to explain the experiences of the learning clinical procedures of the internal medicine residents in gastroenterology department. Methods: qualitative study using content thematic analysis was done. Six fourth-year residents were selected and interviewed considering purposive sampling. The data of the interviews were transcribed and analyzed after rereading. Results: the collected data are divided into three categories: learning and experience with the following four categories (learning time and experiencing, leaning and experiencing times, learning and experiencing opportunities, training and the lack of the training of some procedures. These categories are explained by using some quotes derived from the data. Conclusion: the results of this study suggest that the administrative management of internal residency is poor and should get seriously in implementation and application of intended instructions existing in the prepared program of Medical Education and Specialized Council of internal residency period. The attending physicians and residents must be aware of the content of education program at the beginning of the residency periods and the trainers must try to supervise the residents’ education.

  7. Explaining variation in the uptake of HPV vaccination in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whynes David K

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In England, two national programmes of HPV vaccination for girls have been instituted, a routine programme for 12- and 13-year-olds and a catch-up programme for 17- and 18-year-olds. Uptake rates across the country have been far from uniform, and this research sought to identify factors explaining the variation in uptake by locality. Methods An association between uptake, deprivation and ethnic background had been established in pilot research. The present analysis was conducted at an aggregate, Primary Care Trust (PCT, level for the first year of the programmes. Published measures of HPV vaccination uptake, material deprivation, ethnic composition of PCT populations, primary care quality, and uptake of cervical screening and of other childhood immunisations were collated. Strong evidence of collinearity amongst the explanatory variables required a factor analysis to be undertaken. This provided four independent factors, used thereafter in regression models to explain uptake by PCT. Results The factor analysis revealed that ethnic composition was associated with attitudes towards cervical screening and other childhood vaccinations, whilst material deprivation and quality of primary care were orthogonal. Ethnic composition, early childhood vaccination, cervical screening and primary care quality were found to be influential in predicting uptake in both the routine and the catch-up cohorts, although with a lower degree of confidence in the case of the last two independent variables. Lower primary care quality was significant in explaining a greater fall in vaccination uptake between the first two doses in the catch-up cohort. Greater deprivation was a significant explanatory factor for both uptake and the fall in uptake between doses for the catch-up cohort but not for uptake in the routine cohort. Conclusion These results for uptake of the first year of the national programme using aggregate data corroborate findings from

  8. Explaining Variation in Instructional Time: An Application of Quantile Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Douglas Lyman; Phelps, Geoffrey; Ball, Deborah Loewenberg; Demonte, Jenny; Harrison, Delena

    2012-01-01

    This research is conducted in the context of a large-scale study of three nationally disseminated comprehensive school reform projects (CSRs) and examines how school- and classroom-level factors contribute to variation in instructional time in English language arts and mathematics. When using mean-based OLS regression techniques such as…

  9. Work experience and style explain variation among pediatricians in the detection of children with psychosocial problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, M.H.C.; Vogels, A.G.C.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether variation in the proportion of children identified as having psychosocial problems by individual preventive pediatricians can be explained by pediatrician characteristics, over and above variations in the mix of children. Furthermore, to assess whether the

  10. Work Experience and Style Explain Variation Among Pediatricians in the Detection of Children With Psychosocial Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, Meinou H. C.; Vogels, Antonius G. C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether variation in the proportion of children identified as having psychosocial problems by individual preventive pediatricians can be explained by pediatrician characteristics, over and above variations in the mix of children. Furthermore, to assess whether the

  11. Stress Redistribution Explains Anti-correlated Subglacial Pressure Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Marie Lefeuvre

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a finite element model to interpret anti-correlated pressure variations at the base of a glacier to demonstrate the importance of stress redistribution in the basal ice. We first investigated two pairs of load cells installed 20 m apart at the base of the 210 m thick Engabreen glacier in Northern Norway. The load cell data for July 2003 showed that pressurisation of a subglacial channel located over one load cell pair led to anti-correlation in pressure between the two pairs. To investigate the cause of this anti-correlation, we used a full Stokes 3D model of a 210 m thick and 25–200 m wide glacier with a pressurised subglacial channel represented as a pressure boundary condition. The model reproduced the anti-correlated pressure response at the glacier bed and variations in pressure of the same order of magnitude as the load cell observations. The anti-correlation pattern was shown to depend on the bed/surface slope. On a flat bed with laterally constrained cross-section, the resulting bridging effect diverted some of the normal forces acting on the bed to the sides. The anti-correlated pressure variations were then reproduced at a distance >10–20 m from the channel. In contrast, when the bed was inclined, the channel support of the overlying ice was vertical only, causing a reduction of the normal stress on the bed. With a bed slope of 5 degrees, the anti-correlation occurred within 10 m of the channel. The model thus showed that the effect of stress redistribution can lead to an opposite response in pressure at the same distance from the channel and that anti-correlation in pressure is reproduced without invoking cavity expansion caused by sliding.

  12. Modeling spatial variation in avian survival and residency probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracco, James F.; Royle, J. Andrew; DeSante, David F.; Gardner, Beth

    2010-01-01

    The importance of understanding spatial variation in processes driving animal population dynamics is widely recognized. Yet little attention has been paid to spatial modeling of vital rates. Here we describe a hierarchical spatial autoregressive model to provide spatially explicit year-specific estimates of apparent survival (phi) and residency (pi) probabilities from capture-recapture data. We apply the model to data collected on a declining bird species, Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), as part of a broad-scale bird-banding network, the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) program. The Wood Thrush analysis showed variability in both phi and pi among years and across space. Spatial heterogeneity in residency probability was particularly striking, suggesting the importance of understanding the role of transients in local populations. We found broad-scale spatial patterning in Wood Thrush phi and pi that lend insight into population trends and can direct conservation and research. The spatial model developed here represents a significant advance over approaches to investigating spatial pattern in vital rates that aggregate data at coarse spatial scales and do not explicitly incorporate spatial information in the model. Further development and application of hierarchical capture-recapture models offers the opportunity to more fully investigate spatiotemporal variation in the processes that drive population changes.

  13. Variations in pollen counts largely explained by climate and weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Stephan; Damialis, Athanasios; Estrella, Nicole; Jochner, Susanne; Menzel, Annette

    2017-04-01

    The interaction between climate and vegetation is well studied within phenology. Climatic / weather conditions affect e.g. flowering date, length of vegetation period, start and end of the season and the plant growth. Besides phenological stages also pollen counts can be used to investigate the interaction between climate and vegetation. Pollen emission and distribution is directly influenced by temperature, wind speed, wind direction and humidity/precipitation. The objective of this project is to study daily/sub daily variations in pollen counts of woody and herbaceous plant species along an altitudinal gradient with different climatic conditions during the vegetation period. Measurements of pollen were carried out with three volumetric pollen traps installed at the altitudes 450 m a.s.l (Freising), 700 m a.s.l (Garmisch-Partenkirchen), and 2700 m a.s.l (Schneefernerhaus near Zugspitze) representing gradient from north of Munich towards the highest mountain of Germany. Airborne pollen concentrations were recorded during the years 2014-2015. The altitudinal range of these three stations accompanied by different microclimates ("space for time approach") can be used as proxy for climate change and to assess its impact on pollen counts and thus allergenic risk for human health. For example the pollen season is shortened and pollen amount is reduced at higher sites. For detailed investigations pollen of the species Plantago, Quercus, Poaceae, Cupressaceae, Cyperacea, Betula and Platanus were chosen, because those are found in appropriate quantities. In general, pollen captured in the pollen traps to a certain extent has its origin from the immediate surrounding. Thus, it mirrors local species distribution. But furthermore the distance of pollen transport is also based on (micro-) climatic conditions, land cover and topography. The pollen trap shortly below the summit of Zugspitze (Schneefernerhaus) has an alpine environment without vegetation nearby. Therefore, this

  14. Swallowing disorders in nursing home residents: how can the problem be explained?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Dália; Reis, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The swallowing mechanism changes significantly as people age, even in the absence of chronic diseases. Presbyphagia, a term that refers to aging-related changes in the swallowing mechanism, may be linked to many health conditions and presents itself in distinct ways. Swallowing disorders are also identified as a major problem amongst the elderly population living in nursing homes. The study sought to determine the prevalence of swallowing disorders in nursing home residents, to identify the relationship between self-perceived swallowing disorders, cognitive functions, autonomy, and depression, and also to analyze which variables explain the score of the Dysphagia Self-Test (DST). For this purpose, the researchers chose to apply a survey conveying questions on demographic aspects, general health, eating and feeding, as well as instruments to assess functional performance and the 3 ounce Water Swallow Test. The sample consisted of 272 elderly people living in eight nursing homes in Portugal. Six did not sign the informed consent form. Of the total, 29% were totally dependent, 33% were depressed, 45% had cognitive impairment, and 38% needed help with feeding. About 43% of the individuals reported having problems related to eating. Regarding the DST, 40% showed signs of dysphagia. With respect to the 3 ounce Water Swallow Test, 38% revealed at least one of the symptoms, wet voice being the most prevalent. Correlation measures showed that age had no linear association with the DST score although correlation with the Barthel Index and Mini Mental State Examination was found to be significant. A linear regression model was estimated with the DST score as the dependent variable and the MMSE and BI scores, gender, age, education, the Geriatric Depression Scale score, 3 ounce Water Swallow Test, and diagnosed conditions (such as neurological disorder, dementia, and cardiorespiratory problems) as explaining variables. Results showed a high prevalence of dysphagia signs

  15. Swallowing disorders in nursing home residents: how can the problem be explained?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogueira D

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Dália Nogueira,1 Elizabeth Reis21Speech Therapy Department, Escola Superior de Saúde de Alcoitão, Estoril, Portugal; 2Department of Quantitative Methods, Lisbon University Institute ISCTE/IUL, Lisbon, PortugalBackground: The swallowing mechanism changes significantly as people age, even in the absence of chronic diseases. Presbyphagia, a term that refers to aging-related changes in the swallowing mechanism, may be linked to many health conditions and presents itself in distinct ways. Swallowing disorders are also identified as a major problem amongst the elderly population living in nursing homes.Methods: The study sought to determine the prevalence of swallowing disorders in nursing home residents, to identify the relationship between self-perceived swallowing disorders, cognitive functions, autonomy, and depression, and also to analyze which variables explain the score of the Dysphagia Self-Test (DST. For this purpose, the researchers chose to apply a survey conveying questions on demographic aspects, general health, eating and feeding, as well as instruments to assess functional performance and the 3 ounce Water Swallow Test.Results: The sample consisted of 272 elderly people living in eight nursing homes in Portugal. Six did not sign the informed consent form. Of the total, 29% were totally dependent, 33% were depressed, 45% had cognitive impairment, and 38% needed help with feeding. About 43% of the individuals reported having problems related to eating. Regarding the DST, 40% showed signs of dysphagia. With respect to the 3 ounce Water Swallow Test, 38% revealed at least one of the symptoms, wet voice being the most prevalent. Correlation measures showed that age had no linear association with the DST score although correlation with the Barthel Index and Mini Mental State Examination was found to be significant. A linear regression model was estimated with the DST score as the dependent variable and the MMSE and BI scores, gender, age

  16. Does geography or ecology best explain 'cultural' variation among chimpanzee communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamilar, Jason M; Marshack, Joshua L

    2012-02-01

    Much attention has been paid to geographic variation in chimpanzee behavior, but few studies have applied quantitative techniques to explain this variation. Here, we apply methods typically utilized in macroecology to explain variation in the putative cultural traits of chimpanzees. We analyzed published data containing 39 behavioral traits from nine chimpanzee communities. We used a canonical correspondence analysis to examine the relative importance of environmental characteristics and geography, which may be a proxy for inter-community gene flow and/or social transmission, for explaining geographic variation in chimpanzee behavior. We found that geography, and longitude in particular, was the best predictor of behavioral variation. Chimpanzee communities in close longitudinal proximity to each other exhibit similar behavioral repertoires, independent of local ecological factors. No ecological variables were significantly related to behavioral variation. These results support the idea that inter-community dispersal patterns have played a major role in structuring behavioral variation. We cannot be certain whether behavioral variation has a genetic basis, is the result of innovation and diffusion, or a combination of the two. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Explaining growth variation over large spatial scales: Effects of temperature and food on walleye growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosgaard, Thomas; Venturelli, Paul; Lester, Nigel P.

    2012-01-01

    Most fishes exhibit strong spatial variation in growth. Because fish growth and production are tightly linked, quantifying and explaining variation in growth can mean the difference between successful management and unforeseen collapse. However, disentangling the factors that are responsible...... freshwater fish species in North America. We then use length at age data from yellow perch (Perca flavescens) to identify the mechanisms behind the remaining variation in the length at age – temperature relationship for walleye. A positive perch – walleye relationship indicates that the mechanism behind...

  18. "A Smile I Could Not Explain": Educational Impact of an International Residency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Shari D.; Yi, Charlie; Baker, Blossom B.; Crowley, Eugene; King, Debbie S.; Korinek, Adam W.; Reinsch, N. Lamar

    2015-01-01

    This article reports a discourse analysis of journals from adult learners during a 1-week residency in Cape Town, South Africa. The theoretical posture is a critical dialogic perspective, making use of a postcolonial understanding of intercultural interactions. The purpose of the study was exploratory. The analysis suggests that demographic…

  19. Ideas, Institutions, and School Curricula: Explaining Variation between England and France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haus, Leah

    2015-01-01

    This study raises the question of why the French secondary school history curricula introduced in the late 2000s prescribed more extensive coverage of plural histories than did secondary school history curricula for English schools introduced in the same time period. Both countries share similar societal diversity. To explain the variation in…

  20. Variation in the place of death among nursing home residents in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Lucas; Johnell, Kristina; Aubry, Régis

    2015-05-01

    recent studies have reported that hospitals have become a common place of death for nursing home residents. This study aimed to (i) measure variations in the proportion of in-hospital deaths across regions after adjustment for facility-level characteristics and (ii) identify environmental risk factors that might explain these variations in France. a cross-sectional retrospective survey was conducted in 2013. coordinating physicians in 3,705 nursing homes in France. a regression model was used to construct risk-adjusted rates of in-hospital deaths considering the facilities' characteristics. At the regional level, the outcome was defined as the difference between the observed rate of in-hospital deaths and the expected risk-adjusted rate. Values exceeding zero indicated rates that exceeded the national predicted rate of in-hospital deaths and thus highlighted regions in which the risk-adjusted probability for nursing home residents to die in a hospital was greater than average. among 70,119 nursing home decedents, 25.4% (n = 17,789) died in hospitals. The characteristics of the facilities had a significant influence on the proportion of in-hospital deaths among the nursing home decedents. However, after adjustment for these facility-level risk factors, the proportion of nursing homes that reported worse-than-average outcomes showed significant variation (range 26.0-79.6%). At the regional level, both the rate of acute hospital beds and the rate of general practitioners were found to be strongly correlated with the probability of reporting worse-than-average outcomes (P nursing home facilities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Explaining intraurban variations of commuting by job proximity and workers' characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Fahui Wang

    2001-01-01

    Based on the Census for Transportation Planning Package (CTPP) 1990, in this paper I will attempt to explain intraurban variations of commuting time and distance in Columbus, OH. Whereas commuting times are directly available from the CTPP, commuting distances are recovered by GIS network techniques as the shortest-time distances through the urban road network. Explanations of commuting are first attempted by measures of job proximity such as distances from employment centers and a gravity-ba...

  2. From Contestation to Constraints: Explaining Institutional Variation in the Post-Communist World

    OpenAIRE

    Djuve, Vilde Lunnan

    2016-01-01

    25 years after the fall of the Soviet Union, the Post-Communist region has displayed substantial diversity in terms of institutional choice. To explain institutional variation, a common assumption, for example articulated by Acemoglu and Robinson (2012), Olson(1993), Svolik (2012), and Frye (1997), is that power-balanced institutions and constrained executives are the results of competition between elites. This competition leaves political power dispersed, thereby prohibiting autocratic conso...

  3. Noticeable Variations in the Educational Exposure During Residency in Danish Orthopedic Departments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Eske; Fridberg, Marie; Knudsen, Ulrik Kragegaard

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine the educational exposure during residency in Danish orthopedic departments. DESIGN: Questionnaire-based cross-sectional study. SETTING: Data were gathered from January 1, 2014 to April 30, 2014 through a nationwide web-based questionnaire....... CONCLUSIONS: A large variation in the educational exposure was found among the Danish orthopedic departments. Numbers indicate that Danish residents, compared with their US counterparts, operate considerably less during residency. Most residents work overtime and many of them work for free to participate...

  4. Explaining regional variation in home care use by demand and supply variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noort, Olivier; Schotanus, Fredo; van de Klundert, Joris; Telgen, Jan

    2018-02-01

    In the Netherlands, home care services like district nursing and personal assistance are provided by private service provider organizations and covered by private health insurance companies which bear legal responsibility for purchasing these services. To improve value for money, their procurement increasingly replaces fee-for-service payments with population based budgets. Setting appropriate population budgets requires adaptation to the legitimate needs of the population, whereas historical costs are likely to be influenced by supply factors as well, not all of which are necessarily legitimate. Our purpose is to explain home care costs in terms of demand and supply factors. This allows for adjusting historical cost patterns when setting population based budgets. Using expenses claims of 60 Dutch municipalities, we analyze eight demand variables and five supply variables with a multiple regression model to explain variance in the number of clients per inhabitant, costs per client and costs per inhabitant. Our models explain 69% of variation in the number of clients per inhabitant, 28% of costs per client and 56% of costs per inhabitant using demand factors. Moreover, we find that supply factors explain an additional 17-23% of variation. Predictors of higher utilization are home care organizations that are integrated with intramural nursing homes, higher competition levels among home care organizations and the availability of complementary services. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Explaining reported puma-related behaviors and behavioral intentions among northern Arizona residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, David J.; Ruther, Elizabeth J.

    2012-01-01

    Management of pumas in the American West is typified by conflict among stakeholders plausibly rooted in life experiences and worldviews. We used a mail questionnaire to assess demographics, nature-views, puma-related life experiences and behaviors, and support for puma-related policies among residents of northern Arizona. Data from the questionnaire (n = 693 respondents) were used to model behaviors and support for policies. Compared to models based on nature-views and life experiences, those based on demographics had virtually no support from the data. The Utilitarian/Dominionistic nature-view had the strongest effect of any variable in six of seven models, and was associated with firearms and opposition to policies that would limit killing pumas. The Humanistic/Moralistic nature-view was positively associated with non-lethal behaviors and policies in five models. Gender had the strongest effect of any demographic variable. Compared to demographics alone, our results suggest that worldviews provide a more meaningful explanation of reported human behaviors and behavioral intentions regarding pumas.

  6. Variations in hospitalization rates among nursing home residents: the role of facility and market attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Mary W; Porell, Frank W

    2003-04-01

    This study examined the contribution of facility-level and area market-level attributes to variations in hospitalization rates among nursing home residents. Three years (1991-1994) of state quarterly Medicaid case-mix reimbursement data from 527 nursing homes (NH) in Massachusetts were linked with Medicare Provider Analysis and Review hospital claims and nursing facility attribute data to produce a longitudinal, analytical file containing 72,319 person-quarter observations. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the influence of facility-level and market-level factors on hospital use, after controlling for individual-level resident attributes, including: NH diagnoses, resident-level quality of care indicators, and diagnostic cost grouping classification from previous hospital stays. Multivariate findings suggest that resident heterogeneity alone does not account for the wide variations in hospitalization rates across nursing homes. Instead, facility characteristics such as profit status, nurse staffing patterns, NH size, chain affiliation, and percentage of Medicaid and Medicare reimbursed days significantly influence NH residents' risk of hospitalization. Broader area market factors also appear to contribute to variations in hospitalization rates. Variations in hospitalization rates may reflect underutilization, as well as overutilization. Continued efforts toward identifying medically necessary hospitalizations are needed.

  7. Translational Selection for Speed Is Not Sufficient to Explain Variation in Bacterial Codon Usage Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Increasing growth rate across bacteria strengthens selection for faster translation, concomitantly increasing the total number of tRNA genes and codon usage bias (CUB: enrichment of specific synonymous codons in highly expressed genes). Typically, enriched codons are translated by tRNAs with higher gene copy numbers (GCN). A model of tRNA–CUB coevolution based on fast growth-associated selection on translational speed recapitulates these patterns. A key untested implication of the coevolution model is that translational selection should favor higher tRNA GCN for more frequently used amino acids, potentially weakening the effect of growth-associated selection on CUB. Surprisingly, we find that CUB saturates with increasing growth rate across γ-proteobacteria, even as the number of tRNA genes continues to increase. As predicted, amino acid-specific tRNA GCN is positively correlated with the usage of corresponding amino acids, but there is no correlation between growth rate associated changes in CUB and amino acid usage. Instead, we find that some amino acids—cysteine and those in the NNA/G codon family—show weak CUB that does not increase with growth rate, despite large variation in the corresponding tRNA GCN. We suggest that amino acid-specific variation in CUB is not explained by tRNA GCN because GCN does not influence the difference between translation times of synonymous codons as expected. Thus, selection on translational speed alone cannot fully explain quantitative variation in overall or amino acid-specific CUB, suggesting a significant role for other functional constraints and amino acid-specific codon features. PMID:29385509

  8. Root diameter variations explained by anatomy and phylogeny of 50 tropical and temperate tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jiacun; Xu, Yang; Dong, Xueyun; Wang, Hongfeng; Wang, Zhengquan

    2014-04-01

    Root diameter, a critical indicator of root physiological function, varies greatly among tree species, but the underlying mechanism of this high variability is unclear. Here, we sampled 50 tree species across tropical and temperate zones in China, and measured root morphological and anatomical traits along the first five branch orders in each species. Our objectives were (i) to reveal the relationships between root diameter, cortical thickness and stele diameter among tree species in tropical and temperate forests, and (ii) to investigate the relationship of both root morphological and anatomical traits with divergence time during species radiation. The results showed that root diameter was strongly affected by cortical thickness but less by stele diameter in both tropical and temperate species. Changes in cortical thickness explained over 90% of variation in root diameter for the first order, and ∼74-87% for the second and third orders. Thicker roots displayed greater cortical thickness and more cortical cell layers than thinner roots. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that root diameter, cortical thickness and number of cortical cell layers significantly correlated with divergence time at the family level, showing similar variation trends in geological time. The results also suggested that trees tend to decrease their root cortical thickness rather than stele diameter during species radiation. The close linkage of variations in root morphology and anatomy to phylogeny as demonstrated by the data from the 50 tree species should provide some insights into the mechanism of root diameter variability among tree species.

  9. Explaining cross-national variations in tax morality in the European Union: an exploratory analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin C. Williams

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to conduct an exploratory analysis of factors that might explain the cross-national variations in the level tax morality across the European Union. In order to do this, three competing explanations for the cross-national variations in tax morality will be evaluated which variously view lower levels of tax morality to be a result of either: under-development (a modernisation explanation; high taxes, state corruption and too much state interference (a neo-liberal explanation, or too little state redistribution and intervention to protect citizens (a structuralist explanation. Evaluating the cross-national variations in tax morality reported in a 2007 Eurobarometer survey using multilevel econometric techniques, the finding is that the tax morality of a baseline European citizen is higher in more developed and less corrupt nations and in countries with higher levels of taxation, social protection and redistribution. The outcome is a call for a synthesis of the three explanations in the form of a new neo-modernisation explanation which, contrary to neo-liberal discourse, argues that developed nations with higher levels of taxation, greater levels of social protection and higher levels of redistribution have higher levels of tax morality. The tentative policy implications are then discussed.

  10. Variations in body morphology explain sex differences in thermoeffector function during compensable heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notley, Sean R; Park, Joonhee; Tagami, Kyoko; Ohnishi, Norikazu; Taylor, Nigel A S

    2017-05-01

    What is the central question of this study? Can sex-related differences in cutaneous vascular and sudomotor responses be explained primarily by variations in the ratio between body surface area and mass during compensable exercise that elicits equivalent heat-loss requirements and mean body temperature changes across participants? What is the main finding and its importance? Mass-specific surface area was a significant determinant of vasomotor and sudomotor responses in men and women, explaining 10-48% of the individual thermoeffector variance. Nonetheless, after accounting for changes in mean body temperature and morphological differences, sex explained only 5% of that inter-individual variability. It was concluded that sex differences in thermoeffector function are morphologically dependent, but not sex dependent. Sex is sometimes thought to be an independent modulator of cutaneous vasomotor and sudomotor function during heat exposure. Nevertheless, it was hypothesized that, when assessed during compensable exercise that evoked equal heat-loss requirements across participants, sex differences in those thermoeffectors would be explained by variations in the ratio between body surface area and mass (specific surface area). To evaluate that possibility, vasomotor and sudomotor functions were assessed in 60 individuals (36 men and 24 women) with widely varying (overlapping) specific surface areas (range, 232.3-292.7 and 241.2-303.1 cm 2  kg -1 , respectively). Subjects completed two trials in compensable conditions (28°C, 36% relative humidity) involving rest (20 min) and steady-state cycling (45 min) at fixed, area-specific metabolic heat-production rates (light, ∼135 W m -2 ; moderate, ∼200 W m -2 ). Equivalent heat-loss requirements and mean body temperature changes were evoked across participants. Forearm blood flow and vascular conductance were positively related to specific surface area during light work in men (r = 0.67 and r = 0

  11. Rib Geometry Explains Variation in Dynamic Structural Response: Potential Implications for Frontal Impact Fracture Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murach, Michelle M; Kang, Yun-Seok; Goldman, Samuel D; Schafman, Michelle A; Schlecht, Stephen H; Moorhouse, Kevin; Bolte, John H; Agnew, Amanda M

    2017-09-01

    The human thorax is commonly injured in motor vehicle crashes, and despite advancements in occupant safety rib fractures are highly prevalent. The objective of this study was to quantify the ability of gross and cross-sectional geometry, separately and in combination, to explain variation of human rib structural properties. One hundred and twenty-two whole mid-level ribs from 76 fresh post-mortem human subjects were tested in a dynamic frontal impact scenario. Structural properties (peak force and stiffness) were successfully predicted (p geometry obtained via direct histological imaging (total area, cortical area, and section modulus) and were improved further when utilizing a combination of cross-sectional and gross geometry (robusticity, whole bone strength index). Additionally, preliminary application of a novel, adaptive thresholding technique, allowed for total area and robusticity to be measured on a subsample of standard clinical CT scans with varied success. These results can be used to understand variation in individual rib response to frontal loading as well as identify important geometric parameters, which could ultimately improve injury criteria as well as the biofidelity of anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and finite element (FE) models of the human thorax.

  12. Spatial climate patterns explain negligible variation in strength of compensatory density feedbacks in birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrando-Pérez, Salvador; Delean, Steven; Brook, Barry W; Cassey, Phillip; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2014-01-01

    The use of long-term population data to separate the demographic role of climate from density-modified demographic processes has become a major topic of ecological investigation over the last two decades. Although the ecological and evolutionary mechanisms that determine the strength of density feedbacks are now well understood, the degree to which climate gradients shape those processes across taxa and broad spatial scales remains unclear. Intuitively, harsh or highly variable environmental conditions should weaken compensatory density feedbacks because populations are hypothetically unable to achieve or maintain densities at which social and trophic interactions (e.g., competition, parasitism, predation, disease) might systematically reduce population growth. Here we investigate variation in the strength of compensatory density feedback, from long-term time series of abundance over 146 species of birds and mammals, in response to spatial gradients of broad-scale temperature precipitation variables covering 97 localities in 28 countries. We use information-theoretic metrics to rank phylogenetic generalized least-squares regression models that control for sample size (time-series length) and phylogenetic non-independence. Climatic factors explained < 1% of the remaining variation in density-feedback strength across species, with the highest non-control, model-averaged effect sizes related to extreme precipitation variables. We could not link our results directly to other published studies, because ecologists use contrasting responses, predictors and statistical approaches to correlate density feedback and climate--at the expense of comparability in a macroecological context. Censuses of multiple populations within a given species, and a priori knowledge of the spatial scales at which density feedbacks interact with climate, seem to be necessary to determine cross-taxa variation in this phenomenon. Despite the availability of robust modelling tools, the appropriate

  13. Spatial climate patterns explain negligible variation in strength of compensatory density feedbacks in birds and mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Herrando-Pérez

    Full Text Available The use of long-term population data to separate the demographic role of climate from density-modified demographic processes has become a major topic of ecological investigation over the last two decades. Although the ecological and evolutionary mechanisms that determine the strength of density feedbacks are now well understood, the degree to which climate gradients shape those processes across taxa and broad spatial scales remains unclear. Intuitively, harsh or highly variable environmental conditions should weaken compensatory density feedbacks because populations are hypothetically unable to achieve or maintain densities at which social and trophic interactions (e.g., competition, parasitism, predation, disease might systematically reduce population growth. Here we investigate variation in the strength of compensatory density feedback, from long-term time series of abundance over 146 species of birds and mammals, in response to spatial gradients of broad-scale temperature precipitation variables covering 97 localities in 28 countries. We use information-theoretic metrics to rank phylogenetic generalized least-squares regression models that control for sample size (time-series length and phylogenetic non-independence. Climatic factors explained < 1% of the remaining variation in density-feedback strength across species, with the highest non-control, model-averaged effect sizes related to extreme precipitation variables. We could not link our results directly to other published studies, because ecologists use contrasting responses, predictors and statistical approaches to correlate density feedback and climate--at the expense of comparability in a macroecological context. Censuses of multiple populations within a given species, and a priori knowledge of the spatial scales at which density feedbacks interact with climate, seem to be necessary to determine cross-taxa variation in this phenomenon. Despite the availability of robust modelling tools

  14. The costs of avian brood parasitism explain variation in egg rejection behaviour in hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Iliana; Langmore, Naomi E

    2015-07-01

    Many bird species can reject foreign eggs from their nests. This behaviour is thought to have evolved in response to brood parasites, birds that lay their eggs in the nest of other species. However, not all hosts of brood parasites evict parasitic eggs. In this study, we collate data from egg rejection experiments on 198 species, and perform comparative analyses to understand the conditions under which egg rejection evolves. We found evidence, we believe for the first time in a large-scale comparative analysis, that (i) non-current host species have rejection rates as high as current hosts, (ii) egg rejection is more likely to evolve when the parasite is relatively large compared with its host and (iii) egg rejection is more likely to evolve when the parasite chick evicts all the host eggs from the nest, such as in cuckoos. Our results suggest that the interactions between brood parasites and their hosts have driven the evolution of egg rejection and that variation in the costs inflicted by parasites is fundamental to explaining why only some host species evolve egg rejection. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Explaining regional variations in health care utilization between Swiss cantons using panel econometric models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenzind, Paul A

    2012-03-13

    In spite of a detailed and nation-wide legislation frame, there exist large cantonal disparities in consumed quantities of health care services in Switzerland. In this study, the most important factors of influence causing these regional disparities are determined. The findings can also be productive for discussing the containment of health care consumption in other countries. Based on the literature, relevant factors that cause geographic disparities of quantities and costs in western health care systems are identified. Using a selected set of these factors, individual panel econometric models are calculated to explain the variation of the utilization in each of the six largest health care service groups (general practitioners, specialist doctors, hospital inpatient, hospital outpatient, medication, and nursing homes) in Swiss mandatory health insurance (MHI). The main data source is 'Datenpool santésuisse', a database of Swiss health insurers. For all six health care service groups, significant factors influencing the utilization frequency over time and across cantons are found. A greater supply of service providers tends to have strong interrelations with per capita consumption of MHI services. On the demand side, older populations and higher population densities represent the clearest driving factors. Strategies to contain consumption and costs in health care should include several elements. In the federalist Swiss system, the structure of regional health care supply seems to generate significant effects. However, the extent of driving factors on the demand side (e.g., social deprivation) or financing instruments (e.g., high deductibles) should also be considered.

  16. Can Research Design Explain Variation in Head Start Research Results? A Meta-Analysis of Cognitive and Achievement Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shager, Hilary M.; Schindler, Holly S.; Magnuson, Katherine A.; Duncan, Greg J.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Hart, Cassandra M. D.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which differences in research design explain variation in Head Start program impacts. We employ meta-analytic techniques to predict effect sizes for cognitive and achievement outcomes as a function of the type and rigor of research design, quality and type of outcome measure, activity level of control group, and…

  17. Spatial variation in tuber depletion by swans explained by differences in net intake rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolet, BA; Langevoord, O; Bevan, RM; Engelaar, KR; Klaassen, M; Mulder, RJW

    We tested whether the spatial variation in resource depletion by Tundra Swans (Cygnus columbianus) foraging on belowground tubers of sage pondweed (Potnmogeton pectinatus) was caused by differences in net energy intake rates. The variation in giving up densities within the confines of one lake was

  18. Recurrent Coding Sequence Variation Explains Only A Small Fraction of the Genetic Architecture of Colorectal Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timofeeva, Maria N.; Ben Kinnersley, [Unknown; Farrington, Susan M.; Whiffin, Nicola; Palles, Claire; Svinti, Victoria; Lloyd, Amy; Gorman, Maggie; Ooi, Li-Yin; Hosking, Fay; Barclay, Ella; Zgaga, Lina; Dobbins, Sara; Martin, Lynn; Theodoratou, Evropi; Broderick, Peter; Tenesa, Albert; Smillie, Claire; Grimes, Graeme; Hayward, Caroline; Campbell, Archie; Porteous, David; Deary, Ian J.; Harris, Sarah E.; Northwood, Emma L.; Barrett, Jennifer H.; Smith, Gillian; Wolf, Roland; Forman, David; Morreau, Hans; Ruano, Dina; Tops, Carli; Wijnen, Juul; Schrumpf, Melanie; Boot, Arnoud; Vasen, Hans F. A.; Hes, Frederik J.; van Wezel, Tom; Franke, Andre; Lieb, Wolgang; Schafmayer, Clemens; Hampe, Jochen; Buch, Stephan; Propping, Peter; Hemminki, Kari; Foersti, Asta; Westers, Helga; Hofstra, Robert; Pinheiro, Manuela; Pinto, Carla; Teixeira, Manuel; Ruiz-Ponte, Clara; Fernandez-Rozadilla, Ceres; Carracedo, Angel; Castells, Antoni; Castellvi-Bel, Sergi; Campbell, Harry; Bishop, D. Timothy; Tomlinson, Ian P. M.; Dunlop, Malcolm G.; Houlston, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Whilst common genetic variation in many non-coding genomic regulatory regions are known to impart risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), much of the heritability of CRC remains unexplained. To examine the role of recurrent coding sequence variation in CRC aetiology, we genotyped 12,638 CRCs cases and

  19. Climatic niche breadth can explain variation in geographical range size of alpine and subalpine plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Fangyuan; Groen, T.A.; Wang, Tiejun; Skidmore, A.K.; Huang, J.; Ma, K.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the environmental factors determining the distribution of species with different range sizes can provide valuable insights for evolutionary ecology and conservation biology in the face of expected climate change. However, little is known about what determines the variation in

  20. Female mate preference explains countergradient variation in the sexual coloration of guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deere, Kerry A; Grether, Gregory F; Sun, Aida; Sinsheimer, Janet S

    2012-05-07

    We tested the hypothesis that mate choice is responsible for countergradient variation in the sexual coloration of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). The nature of the countergradient pattern is that geographical variation in the carotenoid content of the orange spots of males is counterbalanced by genetic variation in drosopterin production, resulting in a relatively uniform pigment ratio. A female hue preference could produce this pattern, because hue is the axis of colour variation most directly affected by the pigment ratio. To test this hypothesis, we crossed two populations differing in drosopterin production and produced an F(2) generation with variable drosopterin levels. When the carotenoid content of the orange spots was held constant, female guppies preferred males with intermediate drosopterin levels. This shows that females do not simply prefer males with greater orange spot pigment content; instead, the ratio of the pigments also affects male attractiveness. To our knowledge, this is the first direct evidence for a hypothesized agent of countergradient sexual selection.

  1. Social dominance explains within-ejaculate variation in sperm design in a passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Mora, Alfonso; Meniri, Magali; Ciprietti, Sabrina; Helfenstein, Fabrice

    2017-03-04

    Comparative studies suggest that sperm competition exerts stabilizing selection towards an optimal sperm design - e.g., the relative size and covariation of different sperm sections or a quantitative measure of sperm shape - that maximizes male fertility, which results in reduced levels of within-male variation in sperm morphology. Yet, these studies also reveal substantial amounts of unexplained within-ejaculate variance, and the factors presiding to the maintenance of such within-male variation in sperm design at the population level still remain to be identified. Sperm competition models predict that males should progressively invest more resources in their germline as their mating costs increase, i.e., the soma/germline allocation trade-off hypothesis. When access to fertile females is determined by social dominance, the soma/germline allocation trade-off hypothesis predicts that dominant males should invest less in the control of spermatogenesis. Hence, dominance should positively correlate with within-male variance in sperm design. In support of this hypothesis, we found that dominant house sparrow males produce ejaculates with higher levels of within-ejaculate variation in sperm design compared to subordinate males. However, after experimentally manipulating male social status, this pattern was not maintained. Our results suggest that males might control variation in sperm design according to their social status to some extent. Yet, it seems that such within-ejaculate variation in sperm design cannot be rapidly adjusted to a new status. While variation in sperm design could result from various non-exclusive sources, we discuss how strategic allocation of resources to the somatic vs. the germline functions could be an important process shaping the relationship between within-male variation in sperm design and social status.

  2. The Politics of Process Implementation: Explaining Variations Across Units in a High-Tech Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sune Dueholm

    In this PhD dissertation, I demonstrate how organizational politics helps explain process innovation outcomes, and I present key concepts and propositions for managing organizational politics in process innovation. Grounded in the literature on process and politics, and informed by theory...

  3. Do sleep, stress, and illness explain daily variations in fatigue? A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerstedt, Torbjörn; Axelsson, John; Lekander, Mats; Orsini, Nicola; Kecklund, Göran

    2014-04-01

    Fatigue is related to a number of serious diseases, as well as to general well-being. It is also a major cause of sickness absence and use of health facilities. Still, the determinants of variations in fatigue are little investigated. The purpose of present study was to investigate the relationships between the daily variations of fatigue with sleep during the previous night, stress or disease symptoms during the same day - across 42 consecutive days of normal life. 50 individuals participated and gave diary reports and used an actigraph across the 42days. The data was analyzed using a multilevel approach with mixed model regression. The analyses showed that the day-to-day variation in fatigue was related to (poor) sleep quality (psleep duration (pstress (psleep (and sleepiness) as well as stress and illness are consistently connected to how fatigue is experienced during normal living conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Can Simple Soil Parameters Explain Field-Scale Variations in Glyphosate-, Bromoxyniloctanoate-, Diflufenican-, and Bentazone Mineralization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norgaard, Trine; De Jonge, L. W.; Møldrup, Per

    2015-01-01

    The large spatial heterogeneity in soil physico-chemical and microbial parameters challenges our ability to predict and model pesticide leaching from agricultural land. Microbial mineralization of pesticides is an important process with respect to pesticide leaching since mineralization...... is the major process for the complete degradation of pesticides without generation of metabolites. The aim of our study was to determine field-scale variation in the potential for mineralization of the herbicides glyphosate, bromoxyniloctanoate, diflufenican, and bentazone and to investigate whether...... this variation can be predicted by variations in basic soil parameters. Sixty-five soil samples were sampled from an agricultural, loamy field in Silstrup, Denmark, from a 60 × 165 m rectangular grid. The mineralization potential of the four pesticides was determined using a 96-well microplate 14C...

  5. Body Morphology, Energy Stores, and Muscle Enzyme Activity Explain Cricket Acoustic Mate Attraction Signaling Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Ian R.; Darveau, Charles-A.; Bertram, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    High mating success in animals is often dependent on males signalling attractively with high effort. Since males should be selected to maximize their reproductive success, female preferences for these traits should result in minimal signal variation persisting in the population. However, extensive signal variation persists. The genic capture hypothesis proposes genetic variation persists because fitness-conferring traits depend on an individual's basic processes, including underlying physiological, morphological, and biochemical traits, which are themselves genetically variable. To explore the traits underlying signal variation, we quantified among-male differences in signalling, morphology, energy stores, and the activities of key enzymes associated with signalling muscle metabolism in two species of crickets, Gryllus assimilis (chirper: 20 pulses/chirp). Chirping G. assimilis primarily fuelled signalling with carbohydrate metabolism: smaller individuals and individuals with increased thoracic glycogen stores signalled for mates with greater effort; individuals with greater glycogen phosphorylase activity produced more attractive mating signals. Conversely, the more energetic trilling G. texensis fuelled signalling with both lipid and carbohydrate metabolism: individuals with increased β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity and increased thoracic free carbohydrate content signalled for mates with greater effort; individuals with higher thoracic and abdominal carbohydrate content and higher abdominal lipid stores produced more attractive signals. Our findings suggest variation in male reproductive success may be driven by hidden physiological trade-offs that affect the ability to uptake, retain, and use essential nutrients, although the results remain correlational in nature. Our findings indicate that a physiological perspective may help us to understand some of the causes of variation in behaviour. PMID:24608102

  6. Body morphology, energy stores, and muscle enzyme activity explain cricket acoustic mate attraction signaling variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R Thomson

    Full Text Available High mating success in animals is often dependent on males signalling attractively with high effort. Since males should be selected to maximize their reproductive success, female preferences for these traits should result in minimal signal variation persisting in the population. However, extensive signal variation persists. The genic capture hypothesis proposes genetic variation persists because fitness-conferring traits depend on an individual's basic processes, including underlying physiological, morphological, and biochemical traits, which are themselves genetically variable. To explore the traits underlying signal variation, we quantified among-male differences in signalling, morphology, energy stores, and the activities of key enzymes associated with signalling muscle metabolism in two species of crickets, Gryllus assimilis (chirper: 20 pulses/chirp. Chirping G. assimilis primarily fuelled signalling with carbohydrate metabolism: smaller individuals and individuals with increased thoracic glycogen stores signalled for mates with greater effort; individuals with greater glycogen phosphorylase activity produced more attractive mating signals. Conversely, the more energetic trilling G. texensis fuelled signalling with both lipid and carbohydrate metabolism: individuals with increased β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity and increased thoracic free carbohydrate content signalled for mates with greater effort; individuals with higher thoracic and abdominal carbohydrate content and higher abdominal lipid stores produced more attractive signals. Our findings suggest variation in male reproductive success may be driven by hidden physiological trade-offs that affect the ability to uptake, retain, and use essential nutrients, although the results remain correlational in nature. Our findings indicate that a physiological perspective may help us to understand some of the causes of variation in behaviour.

  7. Regional variation in post-stroke multidisciplinary rehabilitation care among veteran residents in community nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Huanguang; Pei, Qinglin; Sullivan, Charles T; Cowper Ripley, Diane C; Wu, Samuel S; Vogel, W Bruce; Wang, Xinping; Bidelspach, Douglas E; Hale-Gallardo, Jennifer L; Bates, Barbara E

    2017-01-01

    Effective post-acute multidisciplinary rehabilitation therapy improves stroke survivors' functional recovery and daily living activities. The US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) places veterans needing post-acute institutional care in private community nursing homes (CNHs). These placements are made under the same rules and regulations across the VA health care system and through individual per diem contracts between local VA facilities and CNHs. However, there is limited information about utilization of these veterans' health services as well as the geographic variation of the service utilization. The aims of this study were to determine rehabilitation therapy and restorative nursing care utilization by veterans with stroke in VA-contracted CNHs and to assess risk-adjusted regional variations in the utilization of rehabilitation therapy and restorative nursing care. This retrospective study included all veterans diagnosed with stroke residing in VA-contracted CNHs between 2006 and 2009. Minimum Dataset (a health status assessment tool for CNH residents) for the study CNHs was linked with veterans' inpatient and outpatient data within the VA health care system. CNHs were grouped into five VA-defined geographic regions: the North Atlantic, Southeast, Midwest, Continental, and Pacific regions. A two-part model was applied estimating risk-adjusted utilization probability and average weekly utilization days. Two dependent variables were rehabilitation therapy and restorative nursing care utilization by veterans during their CNH stays. The study comprised 6,206 veterans at 2,511 CNHs. Rates for utilization of rehabilitation therapy and restorative nursing care were 75.7% and 30.1%, respectively. Veterans in North Atlantic and Southeast CNHs were significantly ( p nursing care compared with veterans in all other regions, before and after risk adjustment. The majority of veterans with stroke received rehabilitation therapy, and about one-third had restorative nursing

  8. Individual quality explains variation in reproductive success better than territory quality in a long-lived territorial raptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabi Zabala

    Full Text Available Evolution by natural selection depends on the relationship between individual traits and fitness. Variation in individual fitness can result from habitat (territory quality and individual variation. Individual quality and specialization can have a deep impact on fitness, yet in most studies on territorial species the quality of territory and individuals are confused. We aimed to determine if variation in breeding success is better explained by territories, individual quality or a combination of both. We analysed the number of fledglings and the breeding quality index (the difference between the number of fledglings of an individual/breeding pair and the average number of fledglings of the monitored territories in the same year as part of a long term (16 years peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus monitoring program with identification of individuals. Using individual and territory identities as correlates of quality, we built Generalised Linear Models with Mixed effects, in which random factors depicted different hypotheses for sources of variation (territory/individual quality in the reproductive success of unique breeding pairs, males and females, and assessed their performance. Most evidence supported the hypothesis that variation in breeding success is explained by individual identity, particularly male identity, rather than territory. There is also some evidence for inter year variations in the breeding success of females and a territory effect in the case of males. We argue that, in territorial species, individual quality is a major source of variation in breeding success, often masked by territory. Future ecological and conservation studies on habitat use should consider and include the effect of individuals, in order to avoid misleading results.

  9. Plasma carotenoid concentrations of incubating American kestrels (Falco sparverius) show annual, seasonal, and individual variation and explain reproductive outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassani, Elizabeth C.; Sevy, Christeena; Strasser, Erin H.; Anderson, Alexandra M.; Heath, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    In wild birds, the proximate and ultimate factors that affect circulating carotenoid concentrations remain poorly understood. We studied variation in plasma carotenoid concentrations across several scales: annual, seasonal, pair, territory and individual, and evaluated whether carotenoid levels explained reproductive outcome of wild American kestrels (Falco sparverius). We sampled plasma carotenoid concentrations of 99 female and 80 male incubating kestrels from April-June in 2008–2012. Plasma carotenoid concentrations were explained by an interaction between year and sex, date, and random effects for pair and individual identity. In general, plasma carotenoid concentrations of males were significantly higher than females, but this depended on year. Within a breeding season, earlier nesting kestrels had higher carotenoid concentrations than later nesting kestrels, a pattern that is coincident with seasonal trends in local fitness. Pair and individual identity explained variation in carotenoid concentrations suggesting that carotenoid concentrations of mated birds were correlated, and some individuals consistently maintained higher carotenoid levels than others. Male carotenoid concentrations were positively associated with number of young fledged per pair. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that higher quality individuals have higher carotenoid levels compared to lower quality individuals, despite annual variations in carotenoid availability. PMID:27041770

  10. Genetic variation in personality traits explains genetic overlap between borderline personality features and substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, Lauren R; Grant, Julia D; Trull, Timothy J; Statham, Dixie J; Martin, Nicholas G; Lynskey, Michael T; Agrawal, Arpana

    2014-12-01

    To examine the genetic overlap between borderline personality features (BPF) and substance use disorders (SUDs) and the extent to which variation in personality traits contributes to this covariance. Genetic structural equation modelling was used to partition the variance in and covariance between personality traits, BPF and SUDs into additive genetic, shared and individual-specific environmental factors. All participants were registered with the Australian Twin Registry. A total of 3127 Australian adult twins participated in the study. Diagnoses of DSM-IV alcohol and cannabis abuse/dependence (AAD; CAD) and nicotine dependence (ND) were derived via computer-assisted telephone interview. BPF and five-factor model personality traits were derived via self-report questionnaires. Personality traits, BPF and substance use disorders were partially influenced by genetic factors with heritability estimates ranging from 0.38 (neuroticism; 95% confidence interval: 0.30-0.45) to 0.78 (CAD; 95% confidence interval: 0.67-0.86). Genetic and individual-specific environmental correlations between BPF and SUDs ranged from 0.33 to 0.56 (95% CI = 0.19-0.74) and 0.19-0.32 (95% CI = 0.06-0.43), respectively. Overall, there was substantial support for genetic influences that were specific to AAD, ND and CAD (30.76-68.60%). Finally, genetic variation in personality traits was responsible for 11.46% (extraversion for CAD) to 59.30% (neuroticism for AAD) of the correlation between BPF and SUDs. Both genetic and individual-specific environmental factors contribute to comorbidity between borderline personality features and substance use disorders. A substantial proportion of this comorbidity can be attributed to variation in normal personality traits, particularly neuroticism. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Geographic variation in sexual behavior can explain geospatial heterogeneity in the severity of the HIV epidemic in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palk, Laurence; Blower, Sally

    2018-02-09

    In sub-Saharan Africa, where ~ 25 million individuals are infected with HIV and transmission is predominantly heterosexual, there is substantial geographic variation in the severity of epidemics. This variation has yet to be explained. Here, we propose that it is due to geographic variation in the size of the high-risk group (HRG): the group with a high number of sex partners. We test our hypothesis by conducting a geospatial analysis of data from Malawi, where ~ 13% of women and ~ 8% of men are infected with HIV. We used georeferenced HIV testing and behavioral data from ~ 14,000 participants of a nationally representative population-level survey: the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey (MDHS). We constructed gender-stratified epidemic surface prevalence (ESP) maps by spatially smoothing and interpolating the HIV testing data. We used the behavioral data to construct gender-stratified risk maps that reveal geographic variation in the size of the HRG. We tested our hypothesis by fitting gender-stratified spatial error regression (SER) models to the MDHS data. The ESP maps show considerable geographic variation in prevalence: 1-29% (women), 1-20% (men). Risk maps reveal substantial geographic variation in the size of the HRG: 0-40% (women), 16-58% (men). Prevalence and the size of the HRG are highest in urban centers. However, the majority of HIV-infected individuals (~75% of women, ~ 80% of men) live in rural areas, as does most of the HRG (~ 80% of women, ~ 85% of men). We identify a significant (P national average in districts where > 20% of women are in the HRG. Most importantly, the SER models show that geographic variation in the size of the HRG can explain a substantial proportion (73% for women, 67% for men) of the geographic variation in epidemic severity. Taken together, our results provide substantial support for our hypothesis. They provide a potential mechanistic explanation for the geographic variation in the severity

  12. Explaining the Variation in Adoption Rates of the Information Content of Environmental Disclosure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallan, Even

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: - Corporate management decides what types of environmental information content to disclose/adopt. It is explored whether internal context - decision-makers’ perception of characteristics of the information content - might predict the variation in adoption rates of different types...... of content, and whether innovation adoption theory might represent important factors of this decision-making process. Design/methodology/approach: - Actual adoption rates of 13 information content categories are computed using content analysis of annual reports for 62 listed companies. Each content category...... is seen as an innovation the company decides to adopt or not. Interviews with management in several companies illustrate the decision process of disclosure, and help predict adoption rates. Predicted and actual adoption rates are compared. Findings: - Adoption rates vary considerably among the 13 types...

  13. Climate variables explain neutral and adaptive variation within salmonid metapopulations: The importance of replication in landscape genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Brian K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Wade, Alisa A.; Kovach, Ryan; Whited, Diane C.; Narum, Shawn R.; Matala, Andrew P.; Ackerman, Michael W.; Garner, B. A.; Kimball, John S; Stanford, Jack A.; Luikart, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how environmental variation influences population genetic structure is important for conservation management because it can reveal how human stressors influence population connectivity, genetic diversity and persistence. We used riverscape genetics modelling to assess whether climatic and habitat variables were related to neutral and adaptive patterns of genetic differentiation (population-specific and pairwise FST) within five metapopulations (79 populations, 4583 individuals) of steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Columbia River Basin, USA. Using 151 putatively neutral and 29 candidate adaptive SNP loci, we found that climate-related variables (winter precipitation, summer maximum temperature, winter highest 5% flow events and summer mean flow) best explained neutral and adaptive patterns of genetic differentiation within metapopulations, suggesting that climatic variation likely influences both demography (neutral variation) and local adaptation (adaptive variation). However, we did not observe consistent relationships between climate variables and FST across all metapopulations, underscoring the need for replication when extrapolating results from one scale to another (e.g. basin-wide to the metapopulation scale). Sensitivity analysis (leave-one-population-out) revealed consistent relationships between climate variables and FST within three metapopulations; however, these patterns were not consistent in two metapopulations likely due to small sample sizes (N = 10). These results provide correlative evidence that climatic variation has shaped the genetic structure of steelhead populations and highlight the need for replication and sensitivity analyses in land and riverscape genetics.

  14. Life span and reproductive cost explain interspecific variation in the optimal onset of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourocq, Emeline; Bize, Pierre; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Bradley, Russell; Charmantier, Anne; de la Cruz, Carlos; Drobniak, Szymon M; Espie, Richard H M; Herényi, Márton; Hötker, Hermann; Krüger, Oliver; Marzluff, John; Møller, Anders P; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Phillips, Richard A; Radford, Andrew N; Roulin, Alexandre; Török, János; Valencia, Juliana; van de Pol, Martijn; Warkentin, Ian G; Winney, Isabel S; Wood, Andrew G; Griesser, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Fitness can be profoundly influenced by the age at first reproduction (AFR), but to date the AFR-fitness relationship only has been investigated intraspecifically. Here, we investigated the relationship between AFR and average lifetime reproductive success (LRS) across 34 bird species. We assessed differences in the deviation of the Optimal AFR (i.e., the species-specific AFR associated with the highest LRS) from the age at sexual maturity, considering potential effects of life history as well as social and ecological factors. Most individuals adopted the species-specific Optimal AFR and both the mean and Optimal AFR of species correlated positively with life span. Interspecific deviations of the Optimal AFR were associated with indices reflecting a change in LRS or survival as a function of AFR: a delayed AFR was beneficial in species where early AFR was associated with a decrease in subsequent survival or reproductive output. Overall, our results suggest that a delayed onset of reproduction beyond maturity is an optimal strategy explained by a long life span and costs of early reproduction. By providing the first empirical confirmations of key predictions of life-history theory across species, this study contributes to a better understanding of life-history evolution. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. Lead, zinc, and chromium concentrations in acidic headwater streams in Sweden explained by chemical, climatic, and land-use variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Huser

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Long-term data series (1996–2009 for eleven acidic headwater streams (< 10 km2 in Sweden were analyzed to determine factors controlling concentrations of trace metals. In-stream chemical data as well climatic, flow, and deposition chemistry data were used to develop models predicting concentrations of chromium (Cr, lead (Pb, and zinc (Zn. Data were initially analyzed using partial least squares to determine a set of variables that could predict metal concentrations across all sites. Organic matter (as absorbance and iron related positively to Pb and Cr, while pH related negatively to Pb and Zn. Other variables such as conductivity, manganese, and temperature were important as well. Multiple linear regression was then used to determine minimally adequate prediction models which explained an average of 35% (Cr, 52% (Zn, and 72% (Pb of metal variation across all sites. While models explained at least 50% of variation in the majority of sites for Pb (10 and Zn (8, only three sites met this criterion for Cr. Investigation of variation between site models for each metal revealed geographical (altitude, chemical (sulfate, and land-use (silvaculture influences on predictive power of the models. Residual analysis revealed seasonal differences in the ability of the models to predict metal concentrations as well. Expected future changes in model variables were applied and results showed the potential for long-term increases (Pb or decreases (Zn for trace metal concentrations at these sites.

  16. Key Edaphic Properties Largely Explain Temporal and Geographic Variation in Soil Microbial Communities across Four Biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borton, Hannah M.; Espinosa, Noelle; Gebhardt, Martha; Gil-Loaiza, Juliana; Gutknecht, Jessica L. M.; Maes, Patrick W.; Mott, Brendon M.; Parnell, John Jacob; Purdy, Gayle; Rodrigues, Pedro A. P.; Stanish, Lee F.; Walser, Olivia N.

    2015-01-01

    Soil microbial communities play a critical role in nutrient transformation and storage in all ecosystems. Quantifying the seasonal and long-term temporal extent of genetic and functional variation of soil microorganisms in response to biotic and abiotic changes within and across ecosystems will inform our understanding of the effect of climate change on these processes. We examined spatial and seasonal variation in microbial communities based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) composition across four biomes: a tropical broadleaf forest (Hawaii), taiga (Alaska), semiarid grassland-shrubland (Utah), and a subtropical coniferous forest (Florida). In this study, we used a team-based instructional approach leveraging the iPlant Collaborative to examine publicly available National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) 16S gene and PLFA measurements that quantify microbial diversity, composition, and growth. Both profiling techniques revealed that microbial communities grouped strongly by ecosystem and were predominately influenced by three edaphic factors: pH, soil water content, and cation exchange capacity. Temporal variability of microbial communities differed by profiling technique; 16S-based community measurements showed significant temporal variability only in the subtropical coniferous forest communities, specifically through changes within subgroups of Acidobacteria. Conversely, PLFA-based community measurements showed seasonal shifts in taiga and tropical broadleaf forest systems. These differences may be due to the premise that 16S-based measurements are predominantly influenced by large shifts in the abiotic soil environment, while PLFA-based analyses reflect the metabolically active fraction of the microbial community, which is more sensitive to local disturbances and biotic interactions. To address the technical issue of the response of soil microbial communities to sample storage temperature, we compared 16S-based community

  17. Key Edaphic Properties Largely Explain Temporal and Geographic Variation in Soil Microbial Communities across Four Biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, Kathryn M; Borton, Hannah M; Espinosa, Noelle; Gebhardt, Martha; Gil-Loaiza, Juliana; Gutknecht, Jessica L M; Maes, Patrick W; Mott, Brendon M; Parnell, John Jacob; Purdy, Gayle; Rodrigues, Pedro A P; Stanish, Lee F; Walser, Olivia N; Gallery, Rachel E

    2015-01-01

    Soil microbial communities play a critical role in nutrient transformation and storage in all ecosystems. Quantifying the seasonal and long-term temporal extent of genetic and functional variation of soil microorganisms in response to biotic and abiotic changes within and across ecosystems will inform our understanding of the effect of climate change on these processes. We examined spatial and seasonal variation in microbial communities based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) composition across four biomes: a tropical broadleaf forest (Hawaii), taiga (Alaska), semiarid grassland-shrubland (Utah), and a subtropical coniferous forest (Florida). In this study, we used a team-based instructional approach leveraging the iPlant Collaborative to examine publicly available National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) 16S gene and PLFA measurements that quantify microbial diversity, composition, and growth. Both profiling techniques revealed that microbial communities grouped strongly by ecosystem and were predominately influenced by three edaphic factors: pH, soil water content, and cation exchange capacity. Temporal variability of microbial communities differed by profiling technique; 16S-based community measurements showed significant temporal variability only in the subtropical coniferous forest communities, specifically through changes within subgroups of Acidobacteria. Conversely, PLFA-based community measurements showed seasonal shifts in taiga and tropical broadleaf forest systems. These differences may be due to the premise that 16S-based measurements are predominantly influenced by large shifts in the abiotic soil environment, while PLFA-based analyses reflect the metabolically active fraction of the microbial community, which is more sensitive to local disturbances and biotic interactions. To address the technical issue of the response of soil microbial communities to sample storage temperature, we compared 16S-based community

  18. Key Edaphic Properties Largely Explain Temporal and Geographic Variation in Soil Microbial Communities across Four Biomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M Docherty

    Full Text Available Soil microbial communities play a critical role in nutrient transformation and storage in all ecosystems. Quantifying the seasonal and long-term temporal extent of genetic and functional variation of soil microorganisms in response to biotic and abiotic changes within and across ecosystems will inform our understanding of the effect of climate change on these processes. We examined spatial and seasonal variation in microbial communities based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA composition across four biomes: a tropical broadleaf forest (Hawaii, taiga (Alaska, semiarid grassland-shrubland (Utah, and a subtropical coniferous forest (Florida. In this study, we used a team-based instructional approach leveraging the iPlant Collaborative to examine publicly available National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON 16S gene and PLFA measurements that quantify microbial diversity, composition, and growth. Both profiling techniques revealed that microbial communities grouped strongly by ecosystem and were predominately influenced by three edaphic factors: pH, soil water content, and cation exchange capacity. Temporal variability of microbial communities differed by profiling technique; 16S-based community measurements showed significant temporal variability only in the subtropical coniferous forest communities, specifically through changes within subgroups of Acidobacteria. Conversely, PLFA-based community measurements showed seasonal shifts in taiga and tropical broadleaf forest systems. These differences may be due to the premise that 16S-based measurements are predominantly influenced by large shifts in the abiotic soil environment, while PLFA-based analyses reflect the metabolically active fraction of the microbial community, which is more sensitive to local disturbances and biotic interactions. To address the technical issue of the response of soil microbial communities to sample storage temperature, we compared 16S

  19. A statistical light use efficiency model explains 85% variations in global GPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, C.; Ryu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Photosynthesis is a complicated process whose modeling requires different levels of assumptions, simplification, and parameterization. Among models, light use efficiency (LUE) model is highly compact but powerful in monitoring gross primary production (GPP) from satellite data. Most of LUE models adopt a multiplicative from of maximum LUE, absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR), and temperature and water stress functions. However, maximum LUE is a fitting parameter with large spatial variations, but most studies only use several biome dependent constants. In addition, stress functions are empirical and arbitrary in literatures. Moreover, meteorological data used are usually coarse-resolution, e.g., 1°, which could cause large errors. Finally, sunlit and shade canopy have completely different light responses but little considered. Targeting these issues, we derived a new statistical LUE model from a process-based and satellite-driven model, the Breathing Earth System Simulator (BESS). We have already derived a set of global radiation (5-km resolution), carbon and water fluxes (1-km resolution) products from 2000 to 2015 from BESS. By exploring these datasets, we found strong correlation between APAR and GPP for sunlit (R2=0.84) and shade (R2=0.96) canopy, respectively. A simple model, only driven by sunlit and shade APAR, was thus built based on linear relationships. The slopes of the linear function act as effective LUE of global ecosystem, with values of 0.0232 and 0.0128 umol C/umol quanta for sunlit and shade canopy, respectively. When compared with MPI-BGC GPP products, a global proxy of FLUXNET data, BESS-LUE achieved an overall accuracy of R2 = 0.85, whereas original BESS was R2 = 0.83 and MODIS GPP product was R2 = 0.76. We investigated spatiotemporal variations of the effective LUE. Spatially, the ratio of sunlit to shade values ranged from 0.1 (wet tropic) to 4.5 (dry inland). By using maps of sunlit and shade effective LUE the accuracy of

  20. Variation in adult stress resistance does not explain vulnerability to climate change in copper butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockmann, Michael; Wallmeyer, Leonard; Fischer, Klaus

    2017-03-15

    Ongoing climate change is a major threat to biodiversity. However, although many species clearly suffer from ongoing climate change, others benefit from it, for example, by showing range expansions. However, which specific features determine a species' vulnerability to climate change? Phenotypic plasticity, which has been described as the first line of defence against environmental change, may be of utmost importance here. Against this background, we here compare plasticity in stress tolerance in 3 copper butterfly species, which differ arguably in their vulnerability to climate change. Specifically, we investigated heat, cold and desiccation resistance after acclimatization to different temperatures in the adult stage. We demonstrate that acclimation at a higher temperature increased heat but decreased cold tolerance and desiccation resistance. Contrary to our predictions, species did not show pronounced variation in stress resistance, though plastic capacities in temperature stress resistance did vary across species. Overall, our results seemed to reflect population-rather than species-specific patterns. We conclude that the geographical origin of the populations used should be considered even in comparative studies. However, our results suggest that, in the 3 species studied here, vulnerability to climate change is not in the first place determined by stress resistance in the adult stage. As entomological studies focus all too often on adults only, we argue that more research effort should be dedicated to other developmental stages when trying to understand insect responses to environmental change. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. Host resistance does not explain variation in incidence of male-killing bacteria in Drosophila bifasciata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toda Masanori J

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selfish genetic elements that distort the sex ratio are found widely. Notwithstanding the number of records of sex ratio distorters, their incidence is poorly understood. Two factors can prevent a sex ratio distorter from invading: inability of the sex ratio distorter to function (failure of mechanism or transmission, and lack of drive if they do function (inappropriate ecology for invasion. There has been no test to date on factors causing variation in the incidence of sex ratio distorting cytoplasmic bacteria. We therefore examined whether absence of the male-killing Wolbachia infection in D. bifasciata in Hokkaido island of Japan, in contrast to the presence of infection on the proximal island of Honshu, was associated with failure of the infection to function properly on the Hokkaido genetic background. Results The male-killer both transmitted and functioned well following introgression to each of 24 independent isofemale inbred lines carrying Hokkaido genetic backgrounds. This was maintained even under stringent conditions of temperature. We therefore reject the hypothesis that absence of infection is due to its inability to kill males and transmit on the Hokkaido genetic background. Further trap data indicates that D. bifasciata may occur at different densities in Hokkaido and Honshu populations, giving some credence to the idea that ecological differentiation could be important. Conclusions The absence of the infection from the Hokkaido population is not caused by failure of the male-killer to function on the Hokkaido genetic background.

  2. The political management of managed care: explaining variations in state health maintenance organization regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Virginia; Lowery, David; Godwin, Erik K

    2007-06-01

    In the 1990s, strong incentives for managed care organizations to control costs, once regarded as a fortuitous confluence of interests, came to be seen as antithetical to consumers' interests in quality of care. In response to this change in political climate, many states have greatly increased their regulatory control of managed care organizations since the mid-1990s. This activity is surprising in an era when public policy on health care issues is usually described as frozen, gridlocked, and/or stalemated as a result of intense activity on the part of organized interests. We take advantage of the variation in state regulations of health maintenance organizations (HMOs) to discover why some governments are able to address policy problems that are often perceived as intractable in a political if not in a true policy sense. From the history of HMOs, the backlash against managed care, and state responses to that backlash, we first extract a number of hypotheses about state regulatory activity. We then test these hypotheses with data on regulatory adoptions by states during the late 1990s and the early 2000s. Last, we discuss the findings with special attention to the role of politics in health care.

  3. Social inequality in infant mortality: what explains variation across low and middle income countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Nandi, Arijit; Heymann, Jody

    2014-01-01

    Growing work demonstrates social gradients in infant mortality within countries. However, few studies have compared the magnitude of these inequalities cross-nationally. Even fewer have assessed the determinants of social inequalities in infant mortality across countries. This study provides a comprehensive and comparative analysis of social inequalities in infant mortality in 53 low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs). We used the most recent nationally representative household samples (n = 874,207) collected through the Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) to calculate rates of infant mortality. The relative and absolute concentration indices were used to quantify social inequalities in infant mortality. Additionally, we used meta-regression analyses to examine whether levels of inequality in proximate determinants of infant mortality were associated with social inequalities in infant mortality across countries. Estimates of both the relative and the absolute concentration indices showed a substantial variation in social inequalities in infant mortality among LMICs. Meta-regression analyses showed that, across countries, the relative concentration of teenage pregnancy among poorer households was positively associated with the relative concentration of infant mortality among these groups (beta = 0.333, 95% CI = 0.115 0.551). Our results demonstrate that the concentration of infant deaths among socioeconomically disadvantaged households in the majority of LMICs remains an important health and social policy concern. The findings suggest that policies designed to reduce the concentration of teenage pregnancy among mothers in lower socioeconomic groups may mitigate social inequalities in infant mortality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. GABAergic synapse properties may explain genetic variation in hippocampal network oscillations in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim S Heistek

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive ability and the properties of brain oscillation are highly heritable in humans. Genetic variation underlying oscillatory activity might give rise to differences in cognition and behavior. How genetic diversity translates into altered properties of oscillations and synchronization of neuronal activity is unknown. To address this issue, we investigated cellular and synaptic mechanisms of hippocampal fast network oscillations in eight genetically distinct inbred mouse strains. The frequency of carbachol-induced oscillations differed substantially between mouse strains. Since GABAergic inhibition sets oscillation frequency, we studied the properties of inhibitory synaptic inputs (IPSCs received by CA3 and CA1 pyramidal cells of three mouse strains that showed the highest, lowest and intermediate frequencies of oscillations. In CA3 pyramidal cells, the frequency of rhythmic IPSC input showed the same strain differences as the frequency of field oscillations. Furthermore, IPSC decay times in both CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cells were faster in mouse strains with higher oscillation frequencies than in mouse strains with lower oscillation frequency, suggesting that differences in GABAA-receptor subunit composition exist between these strains. Indeed, gene expression of GABAA-receptor β2 (Gabrb2 and β3 (Gabrb2 subunits was higher in mouse strains with faster decay kinetics compared with mouse strains with slower decay kinetics. Hippocampal pyramidal neurons in mouse strains with higher oscillation frequencies and faster decay kinetics fired action potential at higher frequencies. These data indicate that differences in genetic background may result in different GABAA-receptor subunit expression, which affects the rhythm of pyramidal neuron firing and fast network activity through GABA synapse kinetics.

  5. Explaining quantitative variation in the rate of Optional Infinitive errors across languages: a comparison of MOSAIC and the Variational Learning Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenthal, Daniel; Pine, Julian; Gobet, Fernand

    2010-06-01

    In this study, we use corpus analysis and computational modelling techniques to compare two recent accounts of the OI stage: Legate & Yang's (2007) Variational Learning Model and Freudenthal, Pine & Gobet's (2006) Model of Syntax Acquisition in Children. We first assess the extent to which each of these accounts can explain the level of OI errors across five different languages (English, Dutch, German, French and Spanish). We then differentiate between the two accounts by testing their predictions about the relation between children's OI errors and the distribution of infinitival verb forms in the input language. We conclude that, although both accounts fit the cross-linguistic patterning of OI errors reasonably well, only MOSAIC is able to explain why verbs that occur more frequently as infinitives than as finite verb forms in the input also occur more frequently as OI errors than as correct finite verb forms in the children's output.

  6. Hydrological niche separation explains seasonal and inter-annual variations of vegetation dynamics in seasonally dry tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X.; Medvigy, D.; Powers, J. S.; Becknell, J. M.; Guan, K.

    2015-12-01

    Despite ample water supply, vegetation dynamics are subject to seasonal water stress in large fraction of tropical forests. These seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) account for over 40% of tropical forests, harbor high biodiversity, have large potential carbon sink due to forest recovery from human disturbance and also play a critical role in global carbon budget and inter-annual variations. Plants in this biome display notably diverse responses to seasonal and inter-annual variations of water availability, especially inter-specific variations in canopy seasonality and biomass growth. Current process-based dynamic vegetation models cannot represent these diversities and are shown to perform poorly on simulating drought responses of tropical forests, calling into question of their ability to accurately simulate future changes in SDTFs. Accumulated field observations, suggest that hydrological niche separation driven by coordinated plant functional traits is associated with plants' performance under drought. Yet, it remains not clear whether the physiology-level hydrological niche separation can explain the ecosystem-level diversity observed in SDTFs. Here, we test the theory with a model-data fusion approach. We implemented a new plant hydrodynamic module that is able to track leaf water potential at sub-daily scale in ED2 model. We further incorporated a hydrological niche separation scheme based on a meta-data analysis of key functional traits in SDTFs. Simulated ecological patterns with and without hydrological niche separation were then compared with remote-sensing and long-term field observations from an SDTF site in Palo Verde, Costa Rica. Using several numerical experiments, we specifically examine the following questions: (i) Whether hydrological niche separation can explain the diversity in canopy seasonality and biomass growth? (ii) How important are the yet uncertain belowground functional traits, especially root profile in determining canopy

  7. Reform-based science teaching: A mixed-methods approach to explaining variation in secondary science teacher practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetty, Lauren E.

    The purpose of this two-phase, sequential explanatory mixed-methods study was to understand and explain the variation seen in secondary science teachers' enactment of reform-based instructional practices. Utilizing teacher socialization theory, this mixed-methods analysis was conducted to determine the relative influence of secondary science teachers' characteristics, backgrounds and experiences across their teacher development to explain the range of teaching practices exhibited by graduates from three reform-oriented teacher preparation programs. Data for this study were obtained from the Investigating the Meaningfulness of Preservice Programs Across the Continuum of Teaching (IMPPACT) Project, a multi-university, longitudinal study funded by NSF. In the first quantitative phase of the study, data for the sample (N=120) were collected from three surveys from the IMPPACT Project database. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to examine the separate as well as the combined influence of factors such as teachers' personal and professional background characteristics, beliefs about reform-based science teaching, feelings of preparedness to teach science, school context, school culture and climate of professional learning, and influences of the policy environment on the teachers' use of reform-based instructional practices. Findings indicate three blocks of variables, professional background, beliefs/efficacy, and local school context added significant contribution to explaining nearly 38% of the variation in secondary science teachers' use of reform-based instructional practices. The five variables that significantly contributed to explaining variation in teachers' use of reform-based instructional practices in the full model were, university of teacher preparation, sense of preparation for teaching science, the quality of professional development, science content focused professional, and the perceived level of professional autonomy. Using the results

  8. Variations in automatically recorded rumination time as explained by variations in intake of dietary fractions and milk production, and between-cow variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, Malene Vesterager; Nadeau, E.; Johansson, B. E. O.

    2015-01-01

    of different dietary fractions, the relationship between RT in minutes per kilogram of dry matter intake (DMI) and milk production, and to examine the variation in RT within and between mid-lactating dairy cows. Data from 3 production trials were used in which a total of 27 different diets were fed. The data...... in milk, and parity was used to analyze the relationship between RT and the selected dietary fractions. Relationships between RT in minutes per kilogram of DMI and milk yield and milk components were analyzed, using the same multivariate model as in step 2. Approximately 32% of the variation in daily RT...... related to daily RT. Rumination time in minutes per kilogram of DMI was negatively related to milk yield and protein percentage, but positively related to milk fat percentage....

  9. Alongshore Variation in the Depth of Activation: Implications of Oil Residence Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, P.; Houser, C.

    2016-12-01

    In 2010 the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill released approximately 5 million barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexico just as the nearshore and beach profile were recovering from winter storms. As a consequence, oil mats and tar balls were trapped at depth within the beach and nearshore profile. Excavation of this buried oil during subsequent storms creates the potential for the contamination of adjacent beaches and the degradation of marine ecosystems, which can in turn negatively impact local economies that depend on fisheries and tourism. The potential for oil burial and persistence is dependent on four things: the physio-chemical nature of the oil as it reaches the nearshore environment, the pre-existing morphology of the beach and nearshore, and the evolution of that morphology after the oil is deposited. The depth at which the oil is buried is also dependent on the beach profile during the time of the spill. The purpose of this study is to characterize the alongshore variation in depth of activation on a Deepwater Horizon impacted section of Pensacola Beach, Florida with regards to the implications of oil residence time. Ground- Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveys were conducted along two parallel 1-km transects adjacent to the swash zone and the dune. Additional cross- shore transects were completed every 150 m from the base of the dune to the top of the swash zone. Sediments cores were taken at the crossing points of the alongshore and cross-shore transects, to calibrate the GPR surveys and complete an elemental analysis for the identification of storm layers. The cores were also analyzed for the presence of buried oil.

  10. Does Historical Urban Density Explain the Variation in Per Capita Carbon Dioxide Emissions Across U.S. Cities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, K. B.

    2013-12-01

    The shape a city takes can have long-term impacts. The built environment is durable, and urban infrastructure is costly to alter post-construction, so decisions made early in a city's history have a lasting effect. Cities are some of the biggest aggregate sources of CO2 emissions but are also the areas with the lowest per capita emissions. Even though per capita emissions in urban areas are less than their rural counterparts, the variation in emissions across cities is drastic and understanding this variation can improve the way we build and plan cities. Research has been conducted on how density correlates with per capita emissions, but little has been done on how historical growth has influenced emissions. Using historical census data and the Vulcan Project's fossil fuel CO2 emissions data product, I investigate in greater detail whether historical population density in U.S. cities has had a significant impact on future CO2 emissions in the urban area and in the surrounding region. The census data includes all places that have reported a population of over 100,000 people in any decennial census between 1790 and 2000 and the land area the year that the city first crosses that 100,000-population threshold. This data is used to create the historical density measure. The Vulcan CO2 emissions data is broken down by sector. For this project I use the residential, commercial, and transportation (on road and non-road) emissions sectors on a 10x10km grid in 2002. I also control for regional variation in heating and cooling days, current urban density, average house age, median income, and variation in residential heating (gas, electric, fuel oil, and coal) as these are all known correlates of carbon dioxide emissions. Understanding if historical density better explains the variation in per capita carbon dioxide emissions across cities will help urban planners and city governments decide if it is appropriate to regulate growth during the initial boom of a city, a

  11. Deterministic rather than stochastic factors explain most of the variation in the expression of skin telangiectasia after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safwat, Akmal; Bentzen, Soeren M.; Turesson, Ingela; Hendry, Jolyon H.

    2002-01-01

    90% (with 95% confidence limits 65% and 100%) of the variance in radioresponsiveness in the right-sided field was explained by the radioresponsiveness on the left-sided field. Through the linear regression analysis between the AUC and the ID2, it was estimated that patients with a reaction that is 1 SD from the population mean would require a dose modification of approximately 23 Gy (from the group mean of 56 Gy) to give them a level of reaction similar to the group average. Similarly, the WAUC was significantly correlated with the ID2, and 81% (with 95% confidence limits 49% and 100%) of the variance in radioresponsiveness in the right-sided field was explained by the radioresponsiveness on the left-sided field. Patients with a reaction that is 1 SD from the population mean would require a dose modification of approximately 21 Gy (from the group mean of 56 Gy) to give them a level of reaction similar to the group average. Conclusion: For a given fractionation schedule, patient-related factors explain 81-90% of the patient-to-patient variation in telangiectasia level seen after radiotherapy. The remaining 10-19% are explained by stochastic effects. This observation encourages further research into genetic or phenotypic assays of normal tissue radioresponsiveness

  12. To what extent does climate explain variations in reported malaria cases in early 20th century Uganda?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian M. Tompkins

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria case statistics were analysed for the period 1926 to 1960 to identify inter-annual variations in malaria cases for the Uganda Protectorate. The analysis shows the mid-to-late 1930s to be a period of increased reported cases. After World War II, malaria cases trend down to a relative minimum in the early 1950s, before increasing rapidly after 1953 to the end of the decade. Data for the Western Province confirm these national trends, which at the time were attributed to a wide range of causes, including land development and management schemes, population mobility, interventions and misdiagnosis. Climate was occasionally proposed as a contributor to enhanced case numbers, and unusual precipitation patterns were held responsible; temperature was rarely, if ever, considered. In this study, a dynamical malaria model was driven with available precipitation and temperature data from the period for five stations located across a range of environments in Uganda. In line with the historical data, the simulations produced relatively enhanced transmission in the 1930s, although there is considerable variability between locations. In all locations, malaria transmission was low in the late 1940s and early 1950s, steeply increasing after 1954. Results indicate that past climate variability explains some of the variations in numbers of reported malaria cases. The impact of multiannual variability in temperature, while only on the order of 0.5°C, was sufficient to drive some of the trends observed in the statistics and thus the role of climate was likely underestimated in the contemporary reports. As the elimination campaigns of the 1960s followed this partly climate-driven increase in malaria, this emphasises the need to account for climate when planning and evaluating intervention strategies.

  13. Diversity in plant hydraulic traits explains seasonal and inter-annual variations of vegetation dynamics in seasonally dry tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangtao; Medvigy, David; Powers, Jennifer S; Becknell, Justin M; Guan, Kaiyu

    2016-10-01

    We assessed whether diversity in plant hydraulic traits can explain the observed diversity in plant responses to water stress in seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs). The Ecosystem Demography model 2 (ED2) was updated with a trait-driven mechanistic plant hydraulic module, as well as novel drought-phenology and plant water stress schemes. Four plant functional types were parameterized on the basis of meta-analysis of plant hydraulic traits. Simulations from both the original and the updated ED2 were evaluated against 5 yr of field data from a Costa Rican SDTF site and remote-sensing data over Central America. The updated model generated realistic plant hydraulic dynamics, such as leaf water potential and stem sap flow. Compared with the original ED2, predictions from our novel trait-driven model matched better with observed growth, phenology and their variations among functional groups. Most notably, the original ED2 produced unrealistically small leaf area index (LAI) and underestimated cumulative leaf litter. Both of these biases were corrected by the updated model. The updated model was also better able to simulate spatial patterns of LAI dynamics in Central America. Plant hydraulic traits are intercorrelated in SDTFs. Mechanistic incorporation of plant hydraulic traits is necessary for the simulation of spatiotemporal patterns of vegetation dynamics in SDTFs in vegetation models. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Variation Across U.S. Assisted Living Facilities: Admissions, Resident Care Needs, and Staffing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kihye; Trinkoff, Alison M; Storr, Carla L; Lerner, Nancy; Yang, Bo Kyum

    2017-01-01

    Though more people in the United States currently reside in assisted living facilities (ALFs) than nursing homes, little is known about ALF admission policies, resident care needs, and staffing characteristics. We therefore conducted this study using a nationwide sample of ALFs to examine these factors, along with comparison of ALFs by size. Cross-sectional secondary data analysis using data from the 2010 National Survey of Residential Care Facilities. Measures included nine admission policy items, seven items on the proportion of residents with selected conditions or care needs, and six items on staffing characteristics (e.g., access to licensed nurse, aide training). Facilities (n = 2,301) were divided into three categories by size: small, 4 to 10 beds; medium, 11 to 25 beds; and large, 26 or more beds. Analyses took complex sampling design effects into account to project national U.S. estimates. More than half of ALFs admitted residents with considerable healthcare needs and served populations that required nursing care, such as for transfers, medications, and eating or dressing. Staffing was largely composed of patient care aides, and fewer than half of ALFs had licensed care provider (registered nurse, licensed practical nurse) hours. Smaller facilities tended to have more inclusive admission policies and residents with more complex care needs (more mobility, eating and medication assistance required, short-term memory issues, p < .01) and less access to licensed nurses than larger ALFs (p < .01). This study suggests ALFs are caring for and admitting residents with considerable care needs, indicating potential overlap with nursing home populations. Despite this finding, ALF regulations lag far behind those in effect for nursing homes. In addition, measurement of care outcomes is critically needed to ensure appropriate ALF care quality. As more people choose ALFs, outcome measures for ALFs, which are now unavailable, should be developed to allow for oversight

  15. The role of agonist and antagonist muscles in explaining isometric knee extension torque variation with hip joint angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bampouras, Theodoros M; Reeves, Neil D; Baltzopoulos, Vasilios; Maganaris, Constantinos N

    2017-10-01

    The biarticular rectus femoris (RF), operating on the ascending limb of the force-length curve, produces more force at longer lengths. However, experimental studies consistently report higher knee extension torque when supine (longer RF length) compared to seated (shorter RF length). Incomplete activation in the supine position has been proposed as the reason for this discrepancy, but differences in antagonistic co-activation could also be responsible due to altered hamstrings length. We examined the role of agonist and antagonist muscles in explaining the isometric knee extension torque variation with changes in hip joint angle. Maximum voluntary isometric knee extension torque (joint MVC) was recorded in seated and supine positions from nine healthy males (30.2 ± 7.7 years). Antagonistic torque was estimated using EMG and added to the respective joint MVC (corrected MVC). Submaximal tetanic stimulation quadriceps torque was also recorded. Joint MVC was not different between supine (245 ± 71.8 Nm) and seated (241 ± 69.8 Nm) positions and neither was corrected MVC (257 ± 77.7 and 267 ± 87.0 Nm, respectively). Antagonistic torque was higher when seated (26 ± 20.4 Nm) than when supine (12 ± 7.4 Nm). Tetanic torque was higher when supine (111 ± 31.9 Nm) than when seated (99 ± 27.5 Nm). Antagonistic co-activation differences between hip positions do not account for the reduced MVC in the supine position. Rather, reduced voluntary knee extensor muscle activation in that position is the major reason for the lower MVC torque when RF is lengthened (hip extended). These findings can assist standardising muscle function assessment and improving musculoskeletal modelling applications.

  16. Explaining variations in state foster care maintenance rates and the implications for implementing new evidence-based programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.; Babiarz, Kimberly S.; Garfield, Rachel L.; Wulczyn, Fred; Landsverk, John; Horwitz, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    declined $40 if a state's governorship and legislature became Republican, though significance was marginal. In analyses also examining state revenue, federal funding, and legal challenges, maintenance rates increased as the federal share of maximum TANF payments increased. However, >50% of variation in foster care maintenance rates was explained by unobserved state-level factors as measured by state fixed effects. These factors did not appear to be strongly related to 2008 Child Welfare outcomes like foster care placement stability and maltreatment which were also not correlated with foster care maintenance rates. Conclusions Despite being part of a social safety net, foster care maintenance rates have declined in real terms since 1991 in many states, and there is no strong evidence that they increase in response to harsher economic climates or to federal programs or legal reviews. State variation in maintenance rates was not related to Child Welfare outcomes, though further analysis of this important relationship is needed. Variability in state foster care maintenance rates appears highly idiosyncratic, an important contextual factor to consider when designing and disseminating evidence-based services. PMID:24659842

  17. Body size and geographic range do not explain long term variation in fish populations: a Bayesian phylogenetic approach to testing assembly processes in stream fish assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Jacquemin

    Full Text Available We combine evolutionary biology and community ecology to test whether two species traits, body size and geographic range, explain long term variation in local scale freshwater stream fish assemblages. Body size and geographic range are expected to influence several aspects of fish ecology, via relationships with niche breadth, dispersal, and abundance. These traits are expected to scale inversely with niche breadth or current abundance, and to scale directly with dispersal potential. However, their utility to explain long term temporal patterns in local scale abundance is not known. Comparative methods employing an existing molecular phylogeny were used to incorporate evolutionary relatedness in a test for covariation of body size and geographic range with long term (1983 - 2010 local scale population variation of fishes in West Fork White River (Indiana, USA. The Bayesian model incorporating phylogenetic uncertainty and correlated predictors indicated that neither body size nor geographic range explained significant variation in population fluctuations over a 28 year period. Phylogenetic signal data indicated that body size and geographic range were less similar among taxa than expected if trait evolution followed a purely random walk. We interpret this as evidence that local scale population variation may be influenced less by species-level traits such as body size or geographic range, and instead may be influenced more strongly by a taxon's local scale habitat and biotic assemblages.

  18. Leaf-trait variation explained by the hypothesis that plants maximize their canopy carbon export over the lifespan of leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtrie, Ross E; Dewar, Roderick C

    2011-09-01

    Measured values of four key leaf traits (leaf area per unit mass, nitrogen concentration, photosynthetic capacity, leaf lifespan) co-vary consistently within and among diverse biomes, suggesting convergent evolution across species. The same leaf traits co-vary consistently with the environmental conditions (light intensity, carbon-dioxide concentration, nitrogen supply) prevailing during leaf development. No existing theory satisfactorily explains all of these trends. Here, using a simple model of the carbon-nitrogen economy of trees, we show that global leaf-trait relationships and leaf responses to environmental conditions can be explained by the optimization hypothesis (MAXX) that plants maximize the total amount of carbon exported from their canopies over the lifespan of leaves. Incorporating MAXX into larger-scale vegetation models may improve their consistency with global leaf-trait relationships, and enhance their ability to predict how global terrestrial productivity and carbon sequestration respond to environmental change.

  19. Batch leachate treatment using stirred electrocoagulation reactor with variation of residence time and stirring rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitorus, I. S.; Astono, W.; Iswanto, B.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to reduce pollutant levels of the leachate by electrocoagulation method using a stirred electrocoagulation reactor as the electrochemical water treatment. The release of active coagulants as metallic ions took place in the anode, while in the cathode, the electrolysis reaction in the form of hydrogen gas dischargeoccurred. The source of wastewater is Waste Water Treatment Plant inlet III of Bantar Gebang, Bekasi. Some parameters were analyzed in this research, i.e., Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), NH3, NO3 -, NO2 -, N-total, and organic substances as well as the microorganism growth before and after electrocoagulation, with variations of detention time (seconds) of 10, 20, 120, 600 and rapid mixing conditions (rpm) of 60, 100 and 200. The results show that the greater the rapid mixing speed and the detention time of electrolysis, the higher the removal of contaminants in liquid waste. The optimum condition of electrocoagulation was encountered at 200 rpm rapid mixing with 600 seconds of processing time. The removal efficiencies of electrocoagulation method for each parameter are TSS of 46.80%, BOD5 of 71.33%, COD of 73.77%, Pb of 62.5%,and NH3-N of 57.92%,whereas the pH value has been increased from 8.03 to 8.95. The electrocoagulation method can reduce levels of pollutants, complying with the environmental standards.

  20. Emergency oil stocks in Southeastern and Eastern Europe: What explains variation in convergence towards the EU model?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosun, Jale

    2012-01-01

    The accumulation and maintenance of emergency oil stocks in accordance with the requirements of the European Union involve changes in legislation, the strengthening of national stockholding institutions and the attraction of investment. Despite these challenges, almost all Southeastern and Eastern European countries have begun to align their oil stockholding arrangements with the European model, albeit there is variation in the actual degree of convergence. The greatest convergence is observed for Croatia and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. In marked contrast, the oil stockholding system of Moldova continues to be different from the European model. This study provides an overview of the Southeastern and Eastern European countries’ progress in approximating the European requirements for emergency oil stocks and identifies the factors responsible for the cross-country variation. The differences observed stem from the extent to which the countries are legally obliged to comply with the European provisions, their membership aspirations, levels of energy-related investment from the European Union, and dependence on oil imports. - Highlights: ► Southeastern and Eastern European countries are approaching the European stockholding model. ► Croatia and Macedonia demonstrate the highest degree of convergence. ► Moldova displays the greatest distance to the European model. ► Variation in convergence is determined by legal obligation, membership aspiration, investment and dependence on oil.

  1. Magnetic storms and variations in hormone levels among residents of North Polar area - Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breus, Tamara; Zenchenko, Tatiana; Boiko, Evgeni

    It was previously shown that magnetic storms lead to an increase in the level of cortisol and noradrenalin in healthy and sick people with cardiovascular diseases [Breus Rapoport. 2003]. However, in the healthy group in the cited study was only 4 people and it seemed that these results need to be checked. In the present work the 4 examinations (January, March, June, October) of large groups of healthy inhabitants of high latitudes (Svalbard, the most northerly in the world year-round inhabited settlements) on the blood levels of adrenal hormones (cortisol) and thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine (T3 ) and thyroxine T4) have been done. The aim was to study the possible sensitivity of these biochemical parameters in three independent groups of people living in this region (men working underground (364 samples), the men working on the ground (274 samples) and women (280 samples)) to variations in external natural factors of high latitudes. For the analysis we used the following parameters of space and terrestrial weather :index of intensity of solar radio emission at a wavelength 10.7sm (RF10.7), planetary geomagnetic activity index - daily Kp index ( Kp) , the daily average Ap index ( Ap) , the maximum per every 3 -hour Kp index ) as well as the daily average indicators of flow rate of galactic cosmic rays neutron component (N), atmospheric pressure ( RATM ) and its rate of change ( the difference between the Ratm today and yesterday ) according to the geophysical station Oulu (Finland , http://cosmicrays.oulu.fi/). The obtained data indicate that the most expressed dependence of the level of studied three hormones is from the level of geomagnetic activity (GMA)-Kp, Ap, Kpmax - 3h. For two of the four seasons (June and October) with increasing levels of GMA a significant (p stress reaction in reply on GMA disturbance. 1. Breus T.K. and Rapoport S.I. Magnetic storms. Medico- biological aspects (in Russian), Publ.Co Soviet Sport,.Moscow, 2003, 271p.

  2. Explaining the Growth in US Health Care Spending Using State-Level Variation in Income, Insurance, and Provider Market Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Bradley; Trish, Erin

    2015-01-01

    The slowed growth in national health care spending over the past decade has led analysts to question the extent to which this recent slowdown can be explained by predictable factors such as the Great Recession or must be driven by some unpredictable structural change in the health care sector. To help address this question, we first estimate a regression model for state personal health care spending for 1991-2009, with an emphasis on the explanatory power of income, insurance, and provider market characteristics. We then use the results from this simple predictive model to produce state-level projections of health care spending for 2010-2013 to subsequently compare those average projected state values with actual national spending for 2010-2013, finding that at least 70% of the recent slowdown in health care spending can likely be explained by long-standing patterns. We also use the results from this predictive model to both examine the Great Recession's likely reduction in health care spending and project the Affordable Care Act's insurance expansion's likely increase in health care spending. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Explaining spatial heterogeneity in population dynamics and genetics from spatial variation in resources for a large herbivore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne L Contasti

    Full Text Available Fine-scale spatial variation in genetic relatedness and inbreeding occur across continuous distributions of several populations of vertebrates; however, the basis of observed variation is often left untested. Here we test the hypothesis that prior observations of spatial patterns in genetics for an island population of feral horses (Sable Island, Canada were the result of spatial variation in population dynamics, itself based in spatial heterogeneity in underlying habitat quality. In order to assess how genetic and population structuring related to habitat, we used hierarchical cluster analysis of water sources and an indicator analysis of the availability of important forage species to identify a longitudinal gradient in habitat quality along the length of Sable Island. We quantify a west-east gradient in access to fresh water and availability of two important food species to horses: sandwort, Honckenya peploides, and beach pea, Lathyrus japonicas. Accordingly, the population clusters into three groups that occupy different island segments (west, central, and east that vary markedly in their local dynamics. Density, body condition, and survival and reproduction of adult females were highest in the west, followed by central and east areas. These results mirror a previous analysis of genetics, which showed that inbreeding levels are highest in the west (with outbreeding in the east, and that there are significant differences in fixation indices among groups of horses along the length of Sable Island. Our results suggest that inbreeding depression is not an important limiting factor to the horse population. We conclude that where habitat gradients exist, we can anticipate fine-scale heterogeneity in population dynamics and hence genetics.

  4. Explaining spatial heterogeneity in population dynamics and genetics from spatial variation in resources for a large herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contasti, Adrienne L; Tissier, Emily J; Johnstone, Jill F; McLoughlin, Philip D

    2012-01-01

    Fine-scale spatial variation in genetic relatedness and inbreeding occur across continuous distributions of several populations of vertebrates; however, the basis of observed variation is often left untested. Here we test the hypothesis that prior observations of spatial patterns in genetics for an island population of feral horses (Sable Island, Canada) were the result of spatial variation in population dynamics, itself based in spatial heterogeneity in underlying habitat quality. In order to assess how genetic and population structuring related to habitat, we used hierarchical cluster analysis of water sources and an indicator analysis of the availability of important forage species to identify a longitudinal gradient in habitat quality along the length of Sable Island. We quantify a west-east gradient in access to fresh water and availability of two important food species to horses: sandwort, Honckenya peploides, and beach pea, Lathyrus japonicas. Accordingly, the population clusters into three groups that occupy different island segments (west, central, and east) that vary markedly in their local dynamics. Density, body condition, and survival and reproduction of adult females were highest in the west, followed by central and east areas. These results mirror a previous analysis of genetics, which showed that inbreeding levels are highest in the west (with outbreeding in the east), and that there are significant differences in fixation indices among groups of horses along the length of Sable Island. Our results suggest that inbreeding depression is not an important limiting factor to the horse population. We conclude that where habitat gradients exist, we can anticipate fine-scale heterogeneity in population dynamics and hence genetics.

  5. Plant functional traits and phylogenetic relatedness explain variation in associations with root fungal endophytes in an extreme arid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, Mónica A; Reinhart, Kurt O; Menoyo, Eugenia; Crespo, Esteban M; Urcelay, Carlos

    2015-02-01

    Since root endophytes may ameliorate drought stress, understanding which plants associate with endophytes is important, especially in arid ecosystems. Here, the root endophytes were characterized of 42 plants from an arid region of Argentina. Colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and dark septate endophytes (DSEs) was related to plant functional type (PFT), family, and phylogenetic relatedness. Overall, three main findings were observed. Firstly, only moderate levels of endophyte associations were found across all taxa (e.g., most Poaceae were not colonized by endophytes despite numerous accounts of colonization by AMF and DSEs). We determined 69% of plant taxa associated with some form of root endophyte but levels were lower than other regional studies. Secondly, comparisons by PFT and phylogeny were often qualitatively similar (e.g., succulents and Portulacineae consistently lacked AMF; variation occurred among terrestrial vs. epiphytic bromeliads) and often differed from comparisons based on plant family. Thirdly, comparisons by plant family often failed to account for important variation either within families (e.g., Bromeliaceae and Poaceae) or trait conservatism among related families (i.e., Rosidae consistently lacked DSEs and Portulacineae lacked AMF). This study indicates the value of comparing numerous taxa based on PFTs and phylogenetic similarity. Overall, the results suggest an uncertain benefit of endophytes in extremely arid environments where plant traits like succulence may obviate the need to establish associations.

  6. Seasonal variation in marine C:N:P stoichiometry: can the composition of seston explain stable Redfield ratios?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Frigstad

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Seston is suspended particulate organic matter, comprising a mixture of autotrophic, heterotrophic and detrital material. Despite variable proportions of these components, marine seston often exhibits relatively small deviations from the Redfield ratio (C:N:P = 106:16:1. Two time-series from the Norwegian shelf in Skagerrak are used to identify drivers of the seasonal variation in seston elemental ratios. An ordination identified water mass characteristics and bloom dynamics as the most important drivers for determining C:N, while changes in nutrient concentrations and biomass were most important for the C:P and N:P relationships. There is no standardized method for determining the functional composition of seston and the fractions of POC, PON and PP associated with phytoplankton, therefore any such information has to be obtained by indirect means. In this study, a generalized linear model was used to differentiate between the live autotrophic and non-autotrophic sestonic fractions, and for both stations the non-autotrophic fractions dominated with respective annual means of 76 and 55%. This regression model approach builds on assumptions (e.g. constant POC:Chl-a ratio and the robustness of the estimates were explored with a bootstrap analysis. In addition the autotrophic percentage calculated from the statistical model was compared with estimated phytoplankton carbon, and the two independent estimates of autotrophic percentage were comparable with similar seasonal cycles. The estimated C:nutrient ratios of live autotrophs were, in general, lower than Redfield, while the non-autotrophic C:nutrient ratios were higher than the live autotrophic ratios and above, or close to, the Redfield ratio. This is due to preferential remineralization of nutrients, and the P content mainly governed the difference between the sestonic fractions. Despite the seasonal variability in seston composition and the generally low contribution of autotrophic

  7. Do differences in risk factors, medical care seeking, or medical practices explain the geographic variation in campylobacteriosis in Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) sites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailes, Elizabeth; Scallan, Elaine; Berkelman, Ruth L; Kleinbaum, David G; Tauxe, Robert V; Moe, Christine L

    2012-06-01

    In the United States, considerable geographic variation in the rates of culture-confirmed Campylobacter infection has been consistently observed among sites participating in the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet). We used data from the FoodNet Population Surveys and a FoodNet case-control study of sporadic infection to examine whether differences in medical care seeking, medical practices, or risk factors contributed to geographic variation in incidence. We found differences across the FoodNet sites in the proportion of persons seeking medical care for an acute campylobacteriosis-like illness (range, 24.9%-43.5%) and in the proportion of ill persons who submitted a stool sample (range, 18.6%-40.7%), but these differences were not statistically significant. We found no evidence of geographic effect modification of previously identified risk factors for campylobacteriosis in the case-control study analysis. The prevalence of some exposures varied among control subjects in the FoodNet sites, including the proportion of controls reporting eating chicken at a commercial eating establishment (18.2%-46.1%); contact with animal stool (8.9%-30.9%); drinking water from a lake, river, or stream (0%-5.1%); and contact with a farm animal (2.1%-12.7%). However, these differences do not fully explain the geographic variation in campylobacteriosis. Future studies that quantify Campylobacter contamination in poultry or variation in host immunity may be useful in identifying sources of this geographic variation in incidence.

  8. The Role of Access to Finance in Explaining Cross-National Variation in Entrepreneurial Activity: A Panel Data Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Gabriel Anton

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to investigate to what extent access to finance explains differences in entrepreneurial activity across European Union (EU member countries. We use a dataset containing information across countries and time to investigate the determinants of entrepreneurial activity in twenty-five EU members over the period between 2007 and 2013. Our sample comprises both periods of difficult access to finance and periods of excessive liquidities. Employing a panel data model with fixed effects, we found a positive relationship between access to finance and entrepreneurial activities. Furthermore, we showed that this positive relationship is more important for the individuals who believe they have the required skills and knowledge to start a business. The results proved to be robust when we employed different measures of entrepreneurial activity and several proxies for access to finance. Our findings provide empirical evidence for the need of policy initiatives at national and EU level to facilitate the creation of sustainable new ventures.

  9. Explaining the variation in the shear force of lamb meat using sarcomere length, the rate of rigor onset and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, D L; Toohey, E S; Lamb, T A; Kerr, M J; van de Ven, R; Refshauge, G

    2011-08-01

    The temperature when the pH=6.0 (temp@pH6) impacts on the tenderness and eating quality of sheep meat. Due to the expense, sarcomere length is not routinely measured as a variable to explain variation in shear force, but whether measures such as temp@pH6 are as useful a parameter needs to be established. Measures of rigor onset in 261 carcases, including the temp@pH6, were evaluated in this study for their ability to explain some of the variation in shear force. The results show that for 1 day aged product combinations of the temp@pH6, the pH at 18 °C and the pH at 24 h provided a larger reduction (almost double) in total shear force variation than sarcomere length alone, with pH at 24 h being the single best measure. For 5 day aged product, pH at 18 °C was the single best measure. Inclusion of sarcomere length did represent some improvement, but the marginal increase would not be cost effective. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Temporal Variation in Ankle Fractures and Orthopedic Resident Program Planning in an Urban Level 1 Trauma Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynkoop, Aaron; Ndubaku, Osy; Walter, Norman; Atkinson, Theresa

    Previous studies have described the mechanism of ankle fractures, their seasonal variation, and fracture patterns but never in conjunction. In addition, the cohorts previously studied were either not from trauma centers or were often dominated by low-energy mechanisms. The present study aimed to describe the epidemiology of ankle fractures presenting to an urban level 1 trauma center. The records from an urban level 1 trauma center located in the Midwestern United States were retrospectively reviewed, and the injury mechanism and energy, time of injury, day of week, month, and patient characteristics (age, gender, comorbidities, smoking status) were collected. The fractures were classified using the AO (Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen), Lauge-Hansen, and Danis-Weber systems. Of these systems, the Lauge-Hansen classification system resulted in the greatest number of "unclassifiable" cases. Most ankle fractures were due to high-energy mechanisms, with motor vehicle collisions the most common high-energy mechanism. The review found that most ankle fractures were malleolar fractures, regardless of the mechanism of injury. The ankle fracture patients had greater rates of obesity, diabetes, and smoking than present in the region where the hospital is located. The fractures were most likely to occur in the afternoon, with more fractures presenting on the weekend than earlier in the week and more fractures in the fall and winter than in the spring and summer. The temporal variation of these fractures should be considered for health services planning, in particular, in regard to resident physician staffing at urban level 1 trauma centers. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Rensching cats and dogs: feeding ecology and fecundity trends explain variation in the allometry of sexual size dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P J; Noonan, M J; Kitchener, A C; Harrington, L A; Newman, C; Macdonald, D W

    2017-06-01

    The tendency for sexual size dimorphism (SSD) to increase with body mass in taxa where males are larger, and to decrease when females are larger, is known as Rensch's rule. In mammals, where the trend occurs, it is believed to be the result of a competitive advantage for larger males, while female mass is constrained by the energetics of reproduction. Here, we examine the allometry of SSD within the Felidae and Canidae, demonstrating distinctly different patterns: in felids, there is positive allometric scaling, while there is no trend in canids. We hypothesize that feeding ecology, via its effect on female spacing patterns, is responsible for the difference; larger male mass may be advantageous only where females are dispersed such that males can defend access to them. This is supported by the observation that felids are predominately solitary, and all are obligate carnivores. Similarly, carnivorous canids are more sexually dimorphic than insectivores and omnivores, but carnivory does not contribute to a Rensch effect as dietary variation occurs across the mass spectrum. The observed inter-familial differences are also consistent with reduced constraints on female mass in the canids, where litter size increases with body mass, versus no observable allometry in the felids.

  12. ENSO, nest predation risk, food abundance, and male status fail to explain annual variations in the apparent survival rate of a migratory songbird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizée Vernouillet

    Full Text Available Adult mortality can be a major driver of population decline in species whose productivity is relatively low. Yet, little is known about the factors influencing adult survival rates in migratory bird species, nor do we know much about the longer-term effects of habitat disturbance on the fitness of individuals. The Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla is one of the vertebrate species most sensitive to forest management, yet it is still common and widespread. We monitored the fate of 330 colour-banded Ovenbird males in four pairs of 25-ha plots during 9 successive breeding seasons. One plot of each pair was treated through selection harvesting (30-40% basal area removed during the first winter. We tested the following hypotheses: (1 higher physiological costs in harvested plots as a result of lower food abundance will reduce apparent survival rate (ASR relative to controls; (2 lower ASR following years with low nest survival and higher probability of renesting; (3 fluctuations in ASR reflecting El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO; and (4 higher ASR in returning males than in recruits (unbanded immigrants owing to greater site familiarity in the former. We tested the relative importance of these hypotheses, or combinations thereof, by generating 23 models explaining variation in ASR. The year-dependent model received the most support, showing a 41% decrease in ASR from 2007 to 2014. The important year-to-year variation we observed in ASR (Σw(i = 0.99 was not explained by variation in nest predation risk nor by ENSO. There was also little evidence for an effect of selection harvesting on ASR of Ovenbird males, despite a slight reduction in lifespan relative to males from control plots (2.7 vs 2.9 years. An avenue worth exploring to explain this intriguing pattern would be to determine whether conditions at migratory stopover sites or in the wintering area of our focal population have gradually worsened over the past decade.

  13. Phosphate supply explains variation in nucleic acid allocation but not C : P stoichiometry in the western North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, A. E.; Martiny, A. C.; Lomas, M. W.; Allison, S. D.

    2014-03-01

    Marine microbial communities mediate many biogeochemical transformations in the ocean. Consequently, processes such as primary production and carbon (C) export are linked to nutrient regeneration and are influenced by the resource demand and elemental composition of marine microbial biomass. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that differential partitioning of element resources to various cellular components can directly influence overall cellular elemental ratios, especially with respect to growth machinery (i.e., ribosomal RNA) and phosphorus (P) allocation. To investigate whether allocation to RNA is related to biomass P content and overall C : P biomass composition in the open ocean, we characterized patterns of P allocation and C : P elemental ratios along an environmental gradient of phosphate supply in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre (NASG) from 35.67° N, 64.17° W to 22.676° N, 65.526° W. Because the NASG is characterized as a P-stressed ecosystem, we hypothesized that biochemical allocation would reflect sensitivity to bioavailable phosphate, such that greater phosphate supply would result in increased allocation toward P-rich RNA for growth. We predicted these changes in allocation would also result in lower C : P ratios with increased phosphate supply. However, bulk C : P ratios were decoupled from allocation to nucleic acids and did not appear to vary systematically across a phosphate supply gradient of 2.2-14.7 μmol m-2 d-1. Overall, we found that C : P ratios ranged from 188 to 306 along the transect, and RNA represented only 6-12% of total particulate P, whereas DNA represented 11-19%. We did find that allocation to RNA was positively correlated with phosphate supply rate, suggesting a consistent physiological response in biochemical allocation to resource supply within the whole community. These results suggest that community composition and/or nonnucleic acid P pools may influence ecosystem-scale variation in C : P stoichiometry more than

  14. Foliar pH as a new plant trait: can it explain variation in foliar chemistry and carbon cycling processes among subarctic plant species and types?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, J H C; Quested, H M; van Logtestijn, R S P; Pérez-Harguindeguy, N; Gwynn-Jones, D; Díaz, S; Callaghan, T V; Press, M C; Aerts, R

    2006-03-01

    Plant traits have become popular as predictors of interspecific variation in important ecosystem properties and processes. Here we introduce foliar pH as a possible new plant trait, and tested whether (1) green leaf pH or leaf litter pH correlates with biochemical and structural foliar traits that are linked to biogeochemical cycling; (2) there is consistent variation in green leaf pH or leaf litter pH among plant types as defined by nutrient uptake mode and higher taxonomy; (3) green leaf pH can predict a significant proportion of variation in leaf digestibility among plant species and types; (4) leaf litter pH can predict a significant proportion of variation in leaf litter decomposability among plant species and types. We found some evidence in support of all four hypotheses for a wide range of species in a subarctic flora, although cryptogams (fern allies and a moss) tended to weaken the patterns by showing relatively poor leaf digestibility or litter decomposability at a given pH. Among seed plant species, green leaf pH itself explained only up to a third of the interspecific variation in leaf digestibility and leaf litter up to a quarter of the interspecific variation in leaf litter decomposability. However, foliar pH substantially improved the power of foliar lignin and/or cellulose concentrations as predictors of these processes when added to regression models as a second variable. When species were aggregated into plant types as defined by higher taxonomy and nutrient uptake mode, green-specific leaf area was a more powerful predictor of digestibility or decomposability than any of the biochemical traits including pH. The usefulness of foliar pH as a new predictive trait, whether or not in combination with other traits, remains to be tested across more plant species, types and biomes, and also in relation to other plant or ecosystem traits and processes.

  15. Which factors explain variation in intention to disclose a diagnosis of dementia? A theory-based survey of mental health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eccles Martin

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For people with dementia, patient-centred care should involve timely explanation of the diagnosis and its implications. However, this is not routine. Theoretical models of behaviour change offer a generalisable framework for understanding professional practice and identifying modifiable factors to target with an intervention. Theoretical models and empirical work indicate that behavioural intention represents a modifiable predictor of actual professional behaviour. We identified factors that predict the intentions of members of older people's mental health teams (MHTs to perform key behaviours involved in the disclosure of dementia. Design Postal questionnaire survey. Participants Professionals from MHTs in the English National Health Service. Methods We selected three behaviours: Determining what patients already know or suspect about their diagnosis; using explicit terminology when talking to patients; and exploring what the diagnosis means to patients. The questionnaire was based upon the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT, and exploratory team variables. Main outcomes Behavioural intentions. Results Out of 1,269 professionals working in 85 MHTs, 399 (31.4% returned completed questionnaires. Overall, the TPB best explained behavioural intention. For determining what patients already know, the TPB variables of subjective norm, perceived behavioural control and attitude explained 29.4% of the variance in intention. For the use of explicit terminology, the same variables explained 53.7% of intention. For exploring what the diagnosis means to patients, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control explained 48.6% of intention. Conclusion These psychological models can explain up to half of the variation in intention to perform key disclosure behaviours. This provides an empirically-supported, theoretical basis for the design of interventions to improve disclosure practice by targeting relevant

  16. Natural selection in a population of Drosophila melanogaster explained by changes in gene expression caused by sequence variation in core promoter regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Mitsuhiko P; Makino, Takashi; Kawata, Masakado

    2016-02-09

    Understanding the evolutionary forces that influence variation in gene regulatory regions in natural populations is an important challenge for evolutionary biology because natural selection for such variations could promote adaptive phenotypic evolution. Recently, whole-genome sequence analyses have identified regulatory regions subject to natural selection. However, these studies could not identify the relationship between sequence variation in the detected regions and change in gene expression levels. We analyzed sequence variations in core promoter regions, which are critical regions for gene regulation in higher eukaryotes, in a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster, and identified core promoter sequence variations associated with differences in gene expression levels subjected to natural selection. Among the core promoter regions whose sequence variation could change transcription factor binding sites and explain differences in expression levels, three core promoter regions were detected as candidates associated with purifying selection or selective sweep and seven as candidates associated with balancing selection, excluding the possibility of linkage between these regions and core promoter regions. CHKov1, which confers resistance to the sigma virus and related insecticides, was identified as core promoter regions that has been subject to selective sweep, although it could not be denied that selection for variation in core promoter regions was due to linked single nucleotide polymorphisms in the regulatory region outside core promoter regions. Nucleotide changes in core promoter regions of CHKov1 caused the loss of two basal transcription factor binding sites and acquisition of one transcription factor binding site, resulting in decreased gene expression levels. Of nine core promoter regions regions associated with balancing selection, brat, and CG9044 are associated with neuromuscular junction development, and Nmda1 are associated with learning

  17. The role of organizational context and individual nurse characteristics in explaining variation in use of information technologies in evidence based practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doran Diane

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing awareness of the role of information technology in evidence-based practice. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of organizational context and nurse characteristics in explaining variation in nurses’ use of personal digital assistants (PDAs and mobile Tablet PCs for accessing evidence-based information. The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS model provided the framework for studying the impact of providing nurses with PDA-supported, evidence-based practice resources, and for studying the organizational, technological, and human resource variables that impact nurses’ use patterns. Methods A survey design was used, involving baseline and follow-up questionnaires. The setting included 24 organizations representing three sectors: hospitals, long-term care (LTC facilities, and community organizations (home care and public health. The sample consisted of 710 participants (response rate 58% at Time 1, and 469 for whom both Time 1 and Time 2 follow-up data were obtained (response rate 66%. A hierarchical regression model (HLM was used to evaluate the effect of predictors from all levels simultaneously. Results The Chi square result indicated PDA users reported using their device more frequently than Tablet PC users (p = 0.001. Frequency of device use was explained by ‘breadth of device functions’ and PDA versus Tablet PC. Frequency of Best Practice Guideline use was explained by ‘willingness to implement research,’ ‘structural and electronic resources,’ ‘organizational slack time,’ ‘breadth of device functions’ (positive effects, and ‘slack staff’ (negative effect. Frequency of Nursing Plus database use was explained by ‘culture,’ ‘structural and electronic resources,’ and ‘breadth of device functions’ (positive effects, and ‘slack staff’ (negative. ‘Organizational culture’ (positive, ‘breadth of device functions

  18. The political economy of farmers' suicides in India: indebted cash-crop farmers with marginal landholdings explain state-level variation in suicide rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jonathan; King, Lawrence

    2014-03-26

    A recent Lancet article reported the first reliable estimates of suicide rates in India. National-level suicide rates are among the highest in the world, but suicide rates vary sharply between states and the causes of these differences are disputed. We test whether differences in the structure of agricultural production explain inter-state variation in suicides rates. This hypothesis is supported by a large number of qualitative studies, which argue that the liberalization of the agricultural sector in the early-1990s led to an agrarian crisis and that consequently farmers with certain socioeconomic characteristics-cash crops cultivators, with marginal landholdings, and debts-are at particular risk of committing suicide. The recent Lancet study, however, contends that there is no evidence to support this hypothesis. We report scatter diagrams and linear regression models that combine the new state-level suicide rate estimates and the proportion of marginal farmers, cash crop cultivation, and indebted farmers. When we include all variables in the regression equation there is a significant positive relationship between the percentage of marginal farmers, cash crop production, and indebted farmers, and suicide rates. This model accounts for almost 75% of inter-state variation in suicide rates. If the proportion of marginal farmers, cash crops, or indebted farmers were reduced by 1%, the suicide rate--suicides per 100,000 per year--would fall by 0 · 437, 0 · 518 or 0 · 549 respectively, when all other variables are held constant. Even if the Indian state is unable to enact land reforms due to the power of local elites, interventions to stabilize the price of cash crops and relieve indebted farmers may be effective at reducing suicide rates.

  19. Presence of sequence and SNP variation in the IRF6 gene in healthy residents of Guangdong Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Wenli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to investigate the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the interferon regulatory factor 6 (IRF6 gene in healthy residents of Guangdong Province, China, for further analysis of their associations with the development of cleft lip with or without palate (CL/P.

  20. Specific infant feeding practices do not consistently explain variation in anthropometry at age 1 year in urban United States, Mexico, and China cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jessica G; Guerrero, M Lourdes; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M; Peng, Yong-mei; Herbers, Patricia M; Yao, Wen; Ortega, Hilda; Davidson, Barbara S; McMahon, Robert J; Morrow, Ardythe L

    2013-02-01

    Infant feeding practices generally influence infant growth, but it is unclear how introduction of specific foods affects growth across global populations. We studied 3 urban populations in the Global Exploration of Human Milk study to determine the association between infant feeding and anthropometry at 1 y of age. Three hundred sixty-five breastfeeding mother-infant pairs (120 US, 120 China, and 125 Mexico) were recruited soon after the infant's birth. Enrollment required agreement to breastfeed ≥75% for at least 3 mo. Weekly, 24-h, food frequency data were conducted on infants for 1 y and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) duration and timing of specific complementary food introduction were calculated. Weight and length were measured at age 1 y and anthropometry Z-scores calculated using WHO standards. Cohorts in the 3 urban populations (Shanghai, China; Cincinnati, USA; and Mexico City, Mexico) differed by median EBF duration (5, 14, and 7 wk, respectively; P urban, international, breast-fed cohorts, differences in specific feeding practices did not explain the significant variation in anthropometry.

  1. Variation in Older Adult Characteristics by Residence Type and Use of Home- and Community-Based Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi H. Ewen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The majority of older adults prefer to remain in their homes, or to “age-in-place.” To accomplish this goal, many older adults will rely upon home- and community-based services (HCBS for support. However, the availability and accessibility of HCBS may differ based on whether the older adult lives in the community or in a senior housing apartment facility. Methods: This paper reports findings from the Pathways to Life Quality study of residential change and stability among seniors in upstate New York. Data were analyzed from 663 older adults living in one of three housing types: service-rich facilities, service-poor facilities, and community-dwelling in single-family homes. A multinomial logistic regression model was used to examine factors associated with residence type. A linear regression model was fitted to examine factors associated with HCBS utilization. Results: When compared to community-dwelling older adults, those residing in service-rich and service-poor facilities were more likely to be older, report more activity limitations, and provide less instrumental assistance to others. Those in service-poor facilities were more likely to have poorer mental health and lower perceived purpose in life. The three leading HCBS utilized were senior centers (20%, homemaker services (19%, and transportation services (18%. More HCBS utilization was associated with participants who resided in service-poor housing, were older, were female, and had more activity limitations. More HCBS utilization was also associated with those who received instrumental support, had higher perceived purpose in life, and poorer mental health. Conclusions: Findings suggest that older adults’ residential environment is associated with their health status and HCBS utilization. Building upon the Person–Environment Fit theories, dedicated efforts are needed to introduce and expand upon existing HCBS available to facility residents to address physical and

  2. Assessing the Relevance of Anomie Theory for Explaining Spatial Variation in Lethal Criminal Violence: An Aggregate-Level Analysis of Homicide within the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric P. Baumer

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most influential statements in the anomie theory tradition has been Merton’s argument that the volume of instrumental property crime should be higher where there is a greater imbalance between the degree of commitment to monetary success goals and the degree of commitment to legitimate means of pursuing such goals. Contemporary anomie theories stimulated by Merton’s perspective, most notably Messner and Rosenfeld’s institutional anomie theory, have expanded the scope conditions by emphasizing lethal criminal violence as an outcome to which anomie theory is highly relevant, and virtually all contemporary empirical studies have focused on applying the perspective to explaining spatial variation in homicide rates. In the present paper, we argue that current explications of Merton’s theory and IAT have not adequately conveyed the relevance of the core features of the anomie perspective to lethal violence. We propose an expanded anomie model in which an unbalanced pecuniary value system – the core causal variable in Merton’s theory and IAT – translates into higher levels of homicide primarily in indirect ways by increasing levels of firearm prevalence, drug market activity, and property crime, and by enhancing the degree to which these factors stimulate lethal outcomes. Using aggregate-level data collected during the mid-to-late 1970s for a sample of relatively large social aggregates within the U.S., we find a significant effect on homicide rates of an interaction term reflecting high levels of commitment to monetary success goals and low levels of commitment to legitimate means. Virtually all of this effect is accounted for by higher levels of property crime and drug market activity that occur in areas with an unbalanced pecuniary value system. Our analysis also reveals that property crime is more apt to lead to homicide under conditions of high levels of structural disadvantage. These and other findings underscore the

  3. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in LPA explain most of the ancestry-specific variation in Lp(a levels in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul C Deo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipoprotein(a (Lp(a is an important causal cardiovascular risk factor, with serum Lp(a levels predicting atherosclerotic heart disease and genetic determinants of Lp(a levels showing association with myocardial infarction. Lp(a levels vary widely between populations, with African-derived populations having nearly 2-fold higher Lp(a levels than European Americans. We investigated the genetic basis of this difference in 4464 African Americans from the Jackson Heart Study (JHS using a panel of up to 1447 ancestry informative markers, allowing us to accurately estimate the African ancestry proportion of each individual at each position in the genome. In an unbiased genome-wide admixture scan for frequency-differentiated genetic determinants of Lp(a level, we found a convincing peak (LOD = 13.6 at 6q25.3, which spans the LPA locus. Dense fine-mapping of the LPA locus identified a number of strongly associated, common biallelic SNPs, a subset of which can account for up to 7% of the variation in Lp(a level, as well as >70% of the African-European population differences in Lp(a level. We replicated the association of the most strongly associated SNP, rs9457951 (p = 6 × 10(-22, 27% change in Lp(a per allele, ∼5% of Lp(a variance explained in JHS, in 1,726 African Americans from the Dallas Heart Study and found an even stronger association after adjustment for the kringle(IV repeat copy number. Despite the strong association with Lp(a levels, we find no association of any LPA SNP with incident coronary heart disease in 3,225 African Americans from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

  4. Effects of variations in cadmium and lead levels in river sediments on local foods and body burden of local residents in non-polluted areas in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Masayuki; Watanabe, Takao; Ohashi, Fumiko; Shimbo, Shinichiro

    2010-03-01

    This study was initiated to examine if variations in the concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in water environment may affect metal levels in local foods and body burden of local residents in non-polluted areas in Japan. Two nationwide databases have been made available on concentrations of Cd in locally harvested brown rice and of Cd and Pb in sediments in local river beds. These data were combined with published data on metal concentrations in polished rice, food duplicates, and blood and urine from the residents. Cd in river sediments correlated significantly with those in brown rice, food duplicates, blood, and urine. Cd in food duplicates correlated with Cd in rice. In contrast, Pb concentrations in the river sediments either did not correlate or correlated only weakly with Pb in biological materials or food duplicates. Possible implication of the different behavior between Cd and Pb regarding the intensity of correlation was discussed with reference to the different routes of exposure to the elements. In conclusions, the Cd body burden on local residents in Japan is significantly influenced by Cd levels in water in the general environment, whereas water-borne Pb did not show clear correlation with the Pb body burden.

  5. Complexity explained

    CERN Document Server

    Erdi, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This book explains why complex systems research is important in understanding the structure, function and dynamics of complex natural and social phenomena. Readers will learn the basic concepts and methods of complex system research.

  6. Preferences for (In)Formal Language: Correlations with Attitudes toward Linguistic Variation, Multilingualism, Tolerance of Ambiguity, and Residence Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Compernolle, Rémi A.

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on data collected via a web-based survey, the study investigates the relationship between preferences for (in)formal language and attitudes toward linguistic variation among a large group of monolingual and multilingual adults (n = 379). Also explored are the links between preferences for (in)formal language and several secondary…

  7. A variant in the ABO gene explains the variation in soluble E-selectin levels-results from dense genotyping in two independent populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahir Karakas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elevated soluble (s E-selectin levels have been associated with various cardiovascular diseases. Recently, genetic variants in the ABO blood group have been related to E-selectin levels in a small cohort of patients with type 1 diabetes. We evaluated whether this association is reproducible in two large samples of Caucasians. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data of the present study was drawn from the population-based MONICA/KORA Augsburg study (n = 1,482 and the patients-based LURIC study (n = 1,546. A high-density genotyping array (50K IBC Chip containing single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from E-selectin candidate genes selected on known biology of E-selectin metabolism, mouse genetic studies, and human genetic association studies, was used for genotyping. Linear regression analyses with adjustment for age and sex (and survey in KORA were applied to assess associations between gene variants and sE-selectin concentrations. A number of 12 SNPs (in KORA and 13 SNPs (in LURIC, all from the ABO blood group gene, were significantly associated with the log-transformed concentration of E-selectin. The strongest association was observed for rs651007 with a change of log-transformed sE-selectin per one copy of the minor allele of -0.37 ng/ml (p = 1.87×10(-103 in KORA and -0.35 ng/ml (p = 5.11×10(-84 in LURIC. Inclusion of rs651007 increased the explained sE-selectin variance by 0.256 in KORA and 0.213 in LURIC. All SNPs had minor allele frequencies above 20% showing a substantial gene variation. CONCLUSIONS/ SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings in two independent samples indicate that the genetic variants at the ABO locus affect sE-selectin levels. Since distinct genome-wide association studies linked the ABO gene with myocardial infarction (MI in the presence of coronary atherosclerosis and with coronary artery disease, these findings may not only enhance our understanding of adhesion molecule biology, but may also provide a focus for several

  8. Variation in Spring Nearshore Resident Fish Species Composition and Life Histories in the Lower San Joaquin Watershed and Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry R. Brown

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Providing freshwater to human populations while protecting or rehabilitating ecosystem health is a significant challenge to water resource managers and requires accurate knowledge of aquatic resources. Previous studies of fish assemblages in the San Francisco Estuary and watershed have focused on specific habitat types, water bodies, or geographic subregions. In this study, we use seining data from two monitoring programs to provide an integrated view of spring nearshore resident fish species composition and life history characteristics in five regions: the San Joaquin River, the upper Sacramento River, the lower Sacramento River, the northern Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (North Delta, and the Interior Delta. Data for the period March-May from 1994 to 2002, showed that spring species composition of the San Joaquin River was very different from the other four regions. Total catch in the San Joaquin River was dominated by small, short-lived batch spawning alien species (93%, particularly red shiner Cyprinella lutrensis (>75% of total catch. The upper and lower Sacramento River were very similar in species composition and life history characteristics and less dominated by alien fish (

  9. SPSS explained

    CERN Document Server

    Hinton, Perry R; Brownlow, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    SPSS Explained provides the student with all that they need to undertake statistical analysis using SPSS. It combines a step-by-step approach to each procedure with easy to follow screenshots at each stage of the process. A number of other helpful features are provided: regular advice boxes with tips specific to each test explanations divided into 'essential' and 'advanced' sections to suit readers at different levels frequently asked questions at the end of each chapter. The first edition of this popular book has been fully updated for IBM SPSS version 21 and also includes: chapters that expl

  10. Astronomy Explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Gerald

    Every year large numbers of people take up the study of astronomy, mostly at amateur level. There are plenty of elementary books on the market, full of colourful photographs, but lacking in proper explanations of how and why things are as they are. Many people eventually wish to go beyond the 'coffee-table book' stage and study this fascinating subject in greater depth. This book is written for them. In addition, many people sit for public examinations in this subject each year and this book is also intended to be of use to them. All the topics from the GCSE syllabus are covered here, with sample questions at the end of each chapter. Astronomy Explained provides a comprehensive treatment of the subject in more depth than is usually found in elementary works, and will be of interest to both amateur astronomers and students of astronomy.

  11. Sequence variation in the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) does not explain continent-wide plumage color differences in the Australian Magpie (Cracticus tibicen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Ana E; Schmidt, Daniel J; Hughes, Jane M

    2012-01-01

    The genetic basis of plumage color variation has already been determined for many model species; however, the genetic mechanisms responsible for intraspecific color variation in the majority of wild-bird species are yet to be uncovered. The Australian magpie (Cracticus tibicen) is a large black and white passerine which is widely distributed across the Australian continent. The proportion of melanized back plumage varies between regionally delineated subspecies; where back-color forms overlap, intermediate color phenotypes are produced. This study examined the majority (861 bp) of the coding region of the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), a candidate gene for plumage color differentiation in 98 magpies from across the Australian continent, to determine if the gene is associated with magpie back-color variation and explore phylogeographic signal within the gene. Neutrality and selection tests (Tajima's D, Fu's F (S), MKT) indicate the gene is unlikely to be currently under selection pressure and, together with other lines of evidence, suggest a past demographic expansion event within the species congruent with the results of previous mitochondrial phylogeographic work on this species. None of the 15 synonymous and four nonsynonymous substitutions within MC1R were found to be associated with plumage variation. Our results suggest that genes or regulatory elements other than MC1R may determine back-color variation in C. tibicen.

  12. Scratching the niche: A continental-scale evaluation of the productivity hypothesis in explaining geographic variation of bird diversity across 25 years

    OpenAIRE

    Dobson, LuAnna Lee

    2017-01-01

    Primary productivity and animal species richness are associated across spatial scales and extents. The productivity hypothesis had been credited for explaining these correlations by asserting that places with more energy fixed in the system by plants should support more individuals, whereby the community accumulates more species. Many have interpreted the spatial association between richness and productivity as support for the hypothesis. If true, bird richness should track productivity te...

  13. WAP explained

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, M.J.; Pulsipher, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    The Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) is a federal block grant program administered by all 50 states and the District of Columbia through community action agencies, state energy offices, local government, and other nonprofit organizations to provide weatherization services to eligible households. The WAP was established in 1976 to increase the energy efficiency, reduce the energy expenditures, and improve the health and safety of low-income households, especially those households that are particularly vulnerable such as families with children, persons with disabilities, and the elderly. The manner in which WAP funds have been allocated to states, however, has been a contentious issue since the inception of the program. Southern states have argued that too much of the federal funding goes to cold-climate and rural states. Northern states disagree. In 1990, Congress amended the Energy Conservation and Production Act and required the Department of Energy to develop a new funding formula. The Department of Energy currently uses a three-factor formula developed in 1995 in conjunction with a two-factor formula developed in 1977 and a hold-harmless provision to allocate WAP funding. The purpose of this paper is to explain the WAP allocation mechanism and the assumptions associated with the 1977 and the 1995 funding formula. The factors that compose each funding formula are critically assessed and various implementation issues are reviewed, including the selection of the trigger point and program capacity levels. It is not possible to define the need for weatherization assistance objectively and in a unique manner, and this ambiguity is the main reason why the WAP allocation mechanism is expected to remain a lively topic of debate and contention

  14. Full-Scale Modeling Explaining Large Spatial Variations of Nitrous Oxide Fluxes in a Step-Feed Plug-Flow Wastewater Treatment Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Bing-Jie; Pan, Yuting; van den Akker, Ben; Ye, Liu; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-08-04

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) emission data collected from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) show huge variations between plants and within one plant (both spatially and temporarily). Such variations and the relative contributions of various N2O production pathways are not fully understood. This study applied a previously established N2O model incorporating two currently known N2O production pathways by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) (namely the AOB denitrification and the hydroxylamine pathways) and the N2O production pathway by heterotrophic denitrifiers to describe and provide insights into the large spatial variations of N2O fluxes in a step-feed full-scale activated sludge plant. The model was calibrated and validated by comparing simulation results with 40 days of N2O emission monitoring data as well as other water quality parameters from the plant. The model demonstrated that the relatively high biomass specific nitrogen loading rate in the Second Step of the reactor was responsible for the much higher N2O fluxes from this section. The results further revealed the AOB denitrification pathway decreased and the NH2OH oxidation pathway increased along the path of both Steps due to the increasing dissolved oxygen concentration. The overall N2O emission from this step-feed WWTP would be largely mitigated if 30% of the returned sludge were returned to the Second Step to reduce its biomass nitrogen loading rate.

  15. Variations in response control within at-risk gamblers and non-gambling controls explained by GABAergic inhibition in the motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Nahian S; Livesey, Evan J; Blaszczynski, Alex; Harris, Justin A

    2018-03-17

    Paired-pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is used to study inhibitory and excitatory mechanisms in the motor cortex through the measurement of short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), indicative of GABAergic activity, and intracortical facilitation (ICF), indicative of glutamatergic activity. In the present study, TMS was delivered to the left motor cortex of 40 participants while we measured SICI and ICF at rest. We were interested in whether variation between individuals in these modulatory mechanisms is related to inhibitory control over responding measured as stop signal reaction time (SSRT). Within the same group of participants, we investigated whether SICI, ICF, SSRT, and self-reported impulsivity, are impaired in participants identified as At-Risk gamblers (n = 20) compared to non-gambling controls (n = 20). We found a significant negative correlation between SICI strength and SSRT, but no correlation between ICF strength and SSRT after controlling for the correlation between SICI and SSRT. Thus, poor inhibitory control of responding was associated with weak GABAergic activity. When taking into account the effects of substance/alcohol use and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom severity, At-Risk gamblers showed elevated self-reported impulsivity, but did not differ from controls on SSRT or SICI/ICF. Our study is the first to show that individual differences in motor cortex inhibition can predict stopping performance, and the first to investigate paired-pulse TMS parameters (together with other impulse control measures) in a gambling population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Daily variation of radon gas and its short-lived progeny concentration near ground level and estimation of aerosol residence time

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Mohery; A, M. Abdallah; A, Ali; S, S. Baz

    2016-05-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of radon (222Rn) gas and its short-lived progenies 218Po, 214Pb, and 214Po were continuously monitored every four hours at the ground level in Jeddah city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The measurements were performed three times every week, starting from November 2014 to October 2015. A method of electrostatic precipitation of positively charged 218Po and 214Po by a positive voltage was applied for determining 222Rn gas concentration. The short-lived 222Rn progeny concentration was determined by using a filter holder connected with the alpha-spectrometric technique. The meteorological parameters (relative air humidity, air temperature, and wind speed) were determined during the measurements of 222Rn and its progeny concentrations. 222Rn gas as well as its short-lived progeny concentration display a daily and seasonal variation with high values in the night and early morning hours as compared to low values at noon and in the afternoon. The observed monthly atmospheric concentrations showed a seasonal trend with the highest values in the autumn/winter season and the lowest values in the spring/summer season. Moreover, and in parallel with alpha-spectrometric measurements, a single filter-holder was used to collect air samples. The deposited activities of 214Pb and the long-lived 222Rn daughter 210Pb on the filter were measured with the gamma spectrometric technique. The measured activity concentrations of 214Pb by both techniques were found to be relatively equal largely. The highest mean seasonally activity concentrations of 210Pb were observed in the autumn/winter season while the lowest mean were observed in the spring/summer season. The mean residence time (MRT) of aerosol particles in the atmospheric air could be estimated from the activity ratios of 210Pb/214Pb. Project supported by the Deanship of Scientific Research (DSR), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Grant No. 291/965/1434).

  17. The variation in the eating quality of beef from different sexes and breed classes cannot be completely explained by carcass measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, S P F; Hocquette, J-F; Pethick, D W; Farmer, L J; Legrand, I; Wierzbicki, J; Allen, P; Polkinghorne, R J; Gardner, G E

    2016-06-01

    Delivering beef of consistent quality to the consumer is vital for consumer satisfaction and will help to ensure demand and therefore profitability within the beef industry. In Australia, this is being tackled with Meat Standards Australia (MSA), which uses carcass traits and processing factors to deliver an individual eating quality guarantee to the consumer for 135 different 'cut by cooking methods' from each carcass. The carcass traits used in the MSA model, such as ossification score, carcass weight and marbling explain the majority of the differences between breeds and sexes. Therefore, it was expected that the model would predict with eating quality of bulls and dairy breeds with good accuracy. In total, 8128 muscle samples from 482 carcasses from France, Poland, Ireland and Northern Ireland were MSA graded at slaughter then evaluated for tenderness, juiciness, flavour liking and overall liking by untrained consumers, according to MSA protocols. The scores were weighted (0.3, 0.1, 0.3, 0.3) and combined to form a global eating quality (meat quality (MQ4)) score. The carcasses were grouped into one of the three breed categories: beef breeds, dairy breeds and crosses. The difference between the actual and the MSA-predicted MQ4 scores were analysed using a linear mixed effects model including fixed effects for carcass hang method, cook type, muscle type, sex, country, breed category and postmortem ageing period, and random terms for animal identification, consumer country and kill group. Bulls had lower MQ4 scores than steers and females and were predicted less accurately by the MSA model. Beef breeds had lower eating quality scores than dairy breeds and crosses for five out of the 16 muscles tested. Beef breeds were also over predicted in comparison with the cross and dairy breeds for six out of the 16 muscles tested. Therefore, even after accounting for differences in carcass traits, bulls still differ in eating quality when compared with females and steers

  18. Explaining variation in adult Anopheles indoor resting abundance: the relative effects of larval habitat proximity and insecticide-treated bed net use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Robert S; Messina, Joseph P; MacFarlane, David W; Bayoh, M Nabie; Gimnig, John E; Giorgi, Emanuele; Walker, Edward D

    2017-07-17

    , and house structure modulated Anopheles abundance, but the effect varied with Anopheles species and sex. Variation in the abundance of indoor-resting Anopheles in rural houses of western Kenya varies with clearly identifiable factors. Results suggest that LLIN use continues to function in reducing vector abundance, and that larval source management in this region could lead to further reductions in malaria risk by reducing the amount of an obligatory resource for mosquitoes near people's homes.

  19. Resident resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J L; Cleary, B

    1999-01-01

    Clearly, faculty must work hard with residents to explore the nature of their resistance to a program's learning and growth opportunities. Initial steps to a deeper, more effective, and longer-lasting change process must be pursued. If resident resistance is mishandled or misunderstood, then learning and professional growth may be sidetracked and the purposes of residency training defeated. Listening to the whole person of the resident and avoiding the trap of getting caught up in merely responding to select resident behaviors that irritate us is critical. Every faculty member in the family practice residency program must recognize resistance as a form of defense that cannot immediately be torn down or taken away. Resident defenses have important purposes to play in stress reduction even if they are not always healthy. Residents, especially interns, use resistance to avoid a deeper and more truthful look at themselves as physicians. A family practice residency program that sees whole persons in their residents and that respects resident defenses will effectively manage the stress and disharmony inherent to the resistant resident.

  20. Much of the variation in breast pathology quality assurance data in the UK can be explained by the random order in which cases arrive at individual centres, but some true outliers do exist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Simon S; Stephenson, Timothy J; Harrison, Robert F

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the role of random temporal order of patient arrival at screening centres in the variability seen in rates of node positivity and breast cancer grade between centres in the NHS Breast Screening Programme. Computer simulations were performed of the variation in node positivity and breast cancer grade with the random temporal arrival of patients at screening centres based on national UK audit data. Cumulative mean graphs of these data were plotted. Confidence intervals for the parameters were generated, using the binomial distribution. UK audit data were plotted on these control limit graphs. The results showed that much of the variability in the audit data could be accounted for by the effects of random order of arrival of cases at the screening centres. Confidence intervals of 99.7% identified true outliers in the data. Much of the variation in breast pathology quality assurance data in the UK can be explained by the random order in which cases arrive at individual centres. Control charts with confidence intervals of 99.7% plotted against the number of reported cases are useful tools for identification of true outliers. 2011 Blackwell Publishing Limited.

  1. How important are determinants of obesity measured at the individual level for explaining geographic variation in body mass index distributions? Observational evidence from Canada using Quantile Regression and Blinder-Oaxaca Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Daniel J; McLaren, Lindsay

    2016-04-01

    Obesity prevalence varies between geographic regions in Canada. The reasons for this variation are unclear but most likely implicate both individual-level and population-level factors. The objective of this study was to examine whether equalising correlates of body mass index (BMI) across these geographic regions could be reasonably expected to reduce differences in BMI distributions between regions. Using data from three cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) 2001, 2003 and 2007 for males and females, we modelled between-region BMI cross-sectionally using quantile regression and Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition of the quantile regression results. We show that while individual-level variables (ie, age, income, education, physical activity level, fruit and vegetable consumption, smoking status, drinking status, family doctor status, rural status, employment in the past 12 months and marital status) may be Caucasian important correlates of BMI within geographic regions, those variables are not capable of explaining variation in BMI between regions. Equalisation of common correlates of BMI between regions cannot be reasonably expected to reduce differences in the BMI distributions between regions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Factors associated with primary care residents' satisfaction with their training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, C S; Bergus, G R; Schlechte, J A; McGuinness, G; Mueller, C W

    1997-01-01

    Satisfaction is known to impact work performance, learning, recruitment, and retention. This study identifies the factors associated with primary care residents' satisfaction with their training. We used a cross-sectional survey based on the Price-Mueller model of job satisfaction. The model included 14 job characteristics, four personal characteristics, and four demographic factors. Data were collected in February and March 1996 from residents in three primary care training programs (family practice, pediatrics, and internal medicine) at a large academic medical center. The same standardized, self-administered questionnaires were used in all three departments. Seventy-five percent (n = 119) of the residents returned questionnaires. Five job characteristics were positively associated with resident satisfaction: continuity of care, autonomy, collegiality, work that encourages professional growth, and work group loyalty. Role conflict, a sixth job characteristic, was negatively associated with satisfaction. The personal characteristic of having an optimistic outlook on life was also positively associated with satisfaction. The model explained 66% of the variation in self-reported satisfaction. The satisfaction of the residents was significantly associated with six job characteristics and one personal factor. Interventions based on these job characteristics may increase resident satisfaction and may lead to better patient outcomes, better work performance, greater patient satisfaction, and more success in recruiting top students into a residency.

  3. Journalism and Explaining News Content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albæk, E.; Skovsgaard, M.; de Vreese, C.H.; Nussbaum, J.F.

    Three models are presented to explain variation in news content. In the first model the explanation is based on the individual journalist, in the second model on the professional journalist, and in the third model on the organized journalist. The individual journalist model focuses on how the

  4. The human cerebral cortex is neither one nor many: neuronal distribution reveals two quantitatively different zones in the gray matter, three in the white matter, and explains local variations in cortical folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Pedro F. M.; Ventura-Antunes, Lissa; Gabi, Mariana; Mota, Bruno; Grinberg, Lea T.; Farfel, José M.; Ferretti-Rebustini, Renata E. L.; Leite, Renata E. P.; Filho, Wilson J.; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2013-01-01

    The human prefrontal cortex has been considered different in several aspects and relatively enlarged compared to the rest of the cortical areas. Here we determine whether the white and gray matter of the prefrontal portion of the human cerebral cortex have similar or different cellular compositions relative to the rest of the cortical regions by applying the Isotropic Fractionator to analyze the distribution of neurons along the entire anteroposterior axis of the cortex, and its relationship with the degree of gyrification, number of neurons under the cortical surface, and other parameters. The prefrontal region shares with the remainder of the cerebral cortex (except for occipital cortex) the same relationship between cortical volume and number of neurons. In contrast, both occipital and prefrontal areas vary from other cortical areas in their connectivity through the white matter, with a systematic reduction of cortical connectivity through the white matter and an increase of the mean axon caliber along the anteroposterior axis. These two parameters explain local differences in the distribution of neurons underneath the cortical surface. We also show that local variations in cortical folding are neither a function of local numbers of neurons nor of cortical thickness, but correlate with properties of the white matter, and are best explained by the folding of the white matter surface. Our results suggest that the human cerebral cortex is divided in two zones (occipital and non-occipital) that differ in how neurons are distributed across their gray matter volume and in three zones (prefrontal, occipital, and non-occipital) that differ in how neurons are connected through the white matter. Thus, the human prefrontal cortex has the largest fraction of neuronal connectivity through the white matter and the smallest average axonal caliber in the white matter within the cortex, although its neuronal composition fits the pattern found for other, non-occipital areas. PMID

  5. The human cerebral cortex is neither one nor many: Neuronal distribution reveals two quantitatively different zones in the grey matter, three in the white matter, and explains local variations in cortical folding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro F. M. Ribeiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The human prefrontal cortex has been considered different in several aspects and relatively enlarged compared to the rest of the cortical areas. Here we determine whether the white and gray matter of the prefrontal portion of the human cerebral cortex have similar or different cellular compositions relative to the rest of the cortical regions by applying the Isotropic Fractionator to analyze the distribution of neurons along the entire anteroposterior axis of the cortex, and its relationship with the degree of gyrification, number of neurons under the cortical surface, and other parameters. The prefrontal region shares with the remainder of the cerebral cortex (except for occipital cortex the same relationship between cortical volume and number of neurons. In contrast, both occipital and prefrontal areas vary from other cortical areas in their connectivity through the white matter, with a systematic reduction of cortical connectivity through the white matter and an increase of the mean axon caliber along the anteroposterior axis. These two parameters explain local differences in the distribution of neurons underneath the cortical surface. We also show that local variations in cortical folding are neither a function of local numbers of neurons nor of cortical thickness, but correlate with properties of the white matter, and are best explained by the folding of the white matter surface. Our results suggest that the human cerebral cortex is divided in two zones (occipital and non-occipital that differ in how neurons distributed across their grey matter volume and in three zones (prefrontal, occipital, and non-occipital that differ in how neurons are connected through the white matter. Thus, the human prefrontal cortex has the largest fraction of neuronal connectivity through the white matter and the smallest average axonal caliber in the white matter within the cortex, although its neuronal composition fits the pattern found for other, non

  6. Permanent resident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Fisher

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The training of physicians in the past century was based primarily on responsibility and the chain-of-command. Those with the bulk of that responsibility in the fields of pediatrics and internal medicine were residents. Residents trained the medical students and supervised them carefully in caring for patients. Most attending physicians supervised their teams at arm's length, primarily serving as teachers of the finer points of diagnosis and treatment during set periods of the day or week with a perfunctory signature on write-ups or progress notes. Residents endeavored to protect the attending physician from being heavily involved unless they were unsure about a clinical problem. Before contacting the attending physician, a more senior resident would be called. Responsibility was the ultimate teacher. The introduction of diagnosis-related groups by the federal government dramatically changed the health care delivery system, placing greater emphasis on attending physician visibility in the medical record, ultimately resulting in more attending physician involvement in day-to-day care of patients in academic institutions. Without specified content in attending notes, hospital revenues would decline. Although always in charge technically, attending physicians increasingly have assumed the role once dominated by the resident. Using biographical experiences of more than 40 years, the author acknowledges and praises the educational role of responsibility in his own training and laments its declining role in today's students and house staff.

  7. Permanent resident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John F

    2016-01-01

    The training of physicians in the past century was based primarily on responsibility and the chain-of-command. Those with the bulk of that responsibility in the fields of pediatrics and internal medicine were residents. Residents trained the medical students and supervised them carefully in caring for patients. Most attending physicians supervised their teams at arm's length, primarily serving as teachers of the finer points of diagnosis and treatment during set periods of the day or week with a perfunctory signature on write-ups or progress notes. Residents endeavored to protect the attending physician from being heavily involved unless they were unsure about a clinical problem. Before contacting the attending physician, a more senior resident would be called. Responsibility was the ultimate teacher. The introduction of diagnosis-related groups by the federal government dramatically changed the health care delivery system, placing greater emphasis on attending physician visibility in the medical record, ultimately resulting in more attending physician involvement in day-to-day care of patients in academic institutions. Without specified content in attending notes, hospital revenues would decline. Although always in charge technically, attending physicians increasingly have assumed the role once dominated by the resident. Using biographical experiences of more than 40 years, the author acknowledges and praises the educational role of responsibility in his own training and laments its declining role in today's students and house staff.

  8. Association of General Surgery Resident Remediation and Program Director Attitudes With Resident Attrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwed, Alexander C; Lee, Steven L; Salcedo, Edgardo S; Reeves, Mark E; Inaba, Kenji; Sidwell, Richard A; Amersi, Farin; Are, Chandrakanth; Arnell, Tracey D; Damewood, Richard B; Dent, Daniel L; Donahue, Timothy; Gauvin, Jeffrey; Hartranft, Thomas; Jacobsen, Garth R; Jarman, Benjamin T; Melcher, Marc L; Mellinger, John D; Morris, Jon B; Nehler, Mark; Smith, Brian R; Wolfe, Mary; Kaji, Amy H; de Virgilio, Christian

    2017-12-01

    program, and 18 (21.2%) exited graduate medical education altogether. Each program had an annual attrition rate ranging from 0.73% to 6.0% (median [IQR], 2.5% [1.5%-3.4%]). Low-attrition programs were more likely than high-attrition programs to use resident remediation (21.0% vs 6.8%; P < .001). Median (IQR) Qualifying Examination pass rates (93% [90%-98%] vs 92% [86%-100%]; P = .92) and Certifying Examination pass rates (83% [68%-84%] vs 81% [71%-86%]; P = .47) were similar. Program directors at high-attrition programs were more likely than their counterparts at low-attrition programs to agree with this statement: "I feel that it is my responsibility as a program director to redirect residents who should not be surgeons." The overall 5-year attrition rate of 8.8% was significantly lower than previously reported. Program directors at low-attrition programs were more likely to use resident remediation. Variations in attrition may be explained by program director attitudes, although larger studies are needed to further define program factors affecting attrition.

  9. Changes in breastfeeding and nutritional status of Nigerian children between 1990 and 2008, and variations by region, area of residence and maternal education and occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onubogu, Chinyere U; Onyeka, Ifeoma N; Esangbedo, Dorothy O; Ndiokwelu, Chika; Okolo, Selina N; Ngwu, Elizabeth K; Nwaru, Bright I

    2016-11-01

    Inadequate breastfeeding practices contribute to malnutrition in young children. This study examined changes in breastfeeding practices and the nutritional status of children (0-35 months, n = 37154) using data from the nationally-representative Nigerian Demographic and Health Surveys for 1990-2008. The study estimated the relative changes in the proportion of children meeting recommended breastfeeding practices and the anthropometric indices of the children during the study period, by region, place of residence, maternal education and maternal occupation. In each study year, over 97% of the children were ever breastfed. The proportion of infants breastfed within 1 hour and 1 day of birth increased from 34% to 45.8%, and from 63.8% to 82.3%, respectively. Overall, breastfeeding for ≥ 12 months changed from 88.9% to 95.2%, an increase of 7%; however, an increase of 14% was observed in the northern region (from 86.1% to 97.8%) while a decline of 7% was observed in the southern region (from 97.1% to 89.9%). Over the study period, the prevalence of all the assessed indicators of malnutrition (stunting, wasting and underweight) increased in the northern region while the southern region experienced a decline in all except severe wasting. In both urban and rural areas, stunting and wasting increased, while underweight declined. Children of non-formally educated and unemployed mothers were more malnourished in all the study years. Improvement in some breastfeeding practices did not result in improvement in the nutritional status of Nigerian children during 1990-2008, particularly in northern Nigeria and among socially disadvantaged mothers. Improving maternal education and employment, and integrating messages on techniques and benefits of optimal infant feeding with other maternal and child healthcare services could be beneficial.

  10. Residency training program: Perceptions of residents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: There is a phobia among doctors for the residency training program, since the establishment of ... Materials and Methods: Structured questionnaires were administered to residents at 3 training institutions in Nigeria. Results: ... Keywords: Decentralization, motivation, perception, remuneration, residents.

  11. Plagiarism explainer for students

    OpenAIRE

    Barba, Lorena A.

    2016-01-01

    A slide deck to serve as an explainer of plagiarism in academic settings, with a personal viewpoint. For my students.Also on SpeakerDeck:https://speakerdeck.com/labarba/plagiarism-explainer-for-students(The slide viewer on SpeakerDeck is much nicer.)

  12. Reporting explained variance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Ron; Fletcher, Harold J.

    The importance of reporting explained variance (sometimes referred to as magnitude of effects) in ANOVA designs is discussed in this paper. Explained variance is an estimate of the strength of the relationship between treatment (or other factors such as sex, grade level, etc.) and dependent variables of interest to the researcher(s). Three methods that can be used to obtain estimates of explained variance in ANOVA designs are described and applied to 16 studies that were reported in recent volumes of this journal. The results show that, while in most studies the treatment accounts for a relatively small proportion of the variance in dependent variable scores., in., some studies the magnitude of the treatment effect is respectable. The authors recommend that researchers in science education report explained variance in addition to the commonly reported tests of significance, since the latter are inadequate as the sole basis for making decisions about the practical importance of factors of interest to science education researchers.

  13. Using a semi-distributed physically-based hydrological model to explain diurnal to decadal scale ice velocity variations on Franz Josef Glacier (Ka Roimata o Hine Hukatere), New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, I. C.; Anderson, B. M.; Banwell, A. F.; Goodsell, B.; Owens, I. F.; Mackintosh, A. N.; Lawson, W.

    2011-12-01

    Franz Josef Glacier provides a rare opportunity to observe the dynamics of a fast-flowing, maritime glacier that differs significantly from many 'typical' alpine glaciers. In particular, Franz Josef Glacier tongue has limited ranges in both diurnal and seasonal temperature, significant volumes of melt and rainwater present year-round, and has been through a recent advance/retreat cycle. Previous studies indicate these factors have a significant influence on surface motion. This paper presents surface velocity measurements made over a ten year period between 2000 and 2010 at a variety of resolutions, notably hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly. A distributed degree-day based mass balance model is used to calculate spatial and temporal variations in snow / ice melt and rainfall across the glacier each day of the decade and these are used as input to a semi-distributed physically based model representing the englacial / subglacial drainage system. Key outputs are spatial and temporal variations in subglacial water pressure and discharge. Because the glacier is relatively thin and steep, subglacial conduits operate at atmospheric pressure over most of the glacier's length for most of the time. High pressure events are confined to specific places, generally at times of high melt or rain inputs. Daily to monthly ice velocity variations can be linked to corresponding fluctuations in subglacial water pressures. Year-to-year velocity variations are linked more to variations in glacier geometry and advance/retreat cycles. Short- to medium-term ice velocity variations reflect rapid changes in basal motion, whereas longer-term variations reflect changes in ice deformation and longitudinal stress gradients.

  14. Computer jargon explained

    CERN Document Server

    Enticknap, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Computer Jargon Explained is a feature in Computer Weekly publications that discusses 68 of the most commonly used technical computing terms. The book explains what the terms mean and why the terms are important to computer professionals. The text also discusses how the terms relate to the trends and developments that are driving the information technology industry. Computer jargon irritates non-computer people and in turn causes problems for computer people. The technology and the industry are changing so rapidly; it is very hard even for professionals to keep updated. Computer people do not

  15. The wireless internet explained

    CERN Document Server

    Rhoton, John

    2001-01-01

    The Wireless Internet Explained covers the full spectrum of wireless technologies from a wide range of vendors, including initiatives by Microsoft and Compaq. The Wireless Internet Explained takes a practical look at wireless technology. Rhoton explains the concepts behind the physics, and provides an overview that clarifies the convoluted set of standards heaped together under the umbrella of wireless. It then expands on these technical foundations to give a panorama of the increasingly crowded landscape of wireless product offerings. When it comes to actual implementation the book gives abundant down-to-earth advice on topics ranging from the selection and deployment of mobile devices to the extremely sensitive subject of security.Written by an expert on Internet messaging, the author of Digital Press''s successful Programmer''s Guide to Internet Mail and X.400 and SMTP: Battle of the E-mail Protocols, The Wireless Internet Explained describes and evaluates the current state of the fast-growing and crucial...

  16. Comparison of the effects explained by variations in the bovine PLAG1 and NCAPG genes on daily body weight gain, linear skeletal measurements and carcass traits in Japanese Black steers from a progeny testing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshiba, Hiroshi; Setoguchi, Kouji; Watanabe, Toshio; Kinoshita, Akihiro; Mizoshita, Kazunori; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Takasuga, Akiko

    2013-07-01

    The c.1326T>G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the NCAPG gene, which leads to an amino acid change of Ile442 to Met442, was previously identified as a candidate causative variation for a bovine carcass weight quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosome 6, which was associated with linear skeletal measurement gains and daily body weight gain at puberty. Recently, we identified the stature quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) in the PLAG1-CHCHD7 intergenic region as the causative variations for another carcass weight QTL on chromosome 14. This study aimed to compare the effects of the two QTL on growth and carcass traits using 768 Japanese Black steers from a progeny testing program and to determine whether a genetic interaction was present between them. The FJX_250879 SNP representing the stature QTL was associated with linear skeletal measurements and average daily body weight gain at early and late periods during adolescence. A genetic interaction between FJX_250879 and NCAPG c.1326T>G was detected only for body and rump lengths. Both were associated with increased carcass weight and Longissimus muscle area, and NCAPG c.1326T>G was also associated with reduced subcutaneous fat thickness and increased carcass yield estimate. These results will provide useful information to improve carcass weight in Japanese Black cattle. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Residency Allocation Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Residency Allocation Database is used to determine allocation of funds for residency programs offered by Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). Information...

  18. Applying Expectancy Theory to residency training: proposing opportunities to understand resident motivation and enhance residency training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweiki E

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ehyal Shweiki,1 Niels D Martin,2 Alec C Beekley,1 Jay S Jenoff,1 George J Koenig,1 Kris R Kaulback,1 Gary A Lindenbaum,1 Pankaj H Patel,1 Matthew M Rosen,1 Michael S Weinstein,1 Muhammad H Zubair,2 Murray J Cohen1 1Department of Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Medical resident education in the United States has been a matter of national priority for decades, exemplified initially through the Liaison Committee for Graduate Medical Education and then superseded by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. A recent Special Report in the New England Journal of Medicine, however, has described resident educational programs to date as prescriptive, noting an absence of innovation in education. Current aims of contemporary medical resident education are thus being directed at ensuring quality in learning as well as in patient care. Achievement and work-motivation theories attempt to explain people's choice, performance, and persistence in tasks. Expectancy Theory as one such theory was reviewed in detail, appearing particularly applicable to surgical residency training. Correlations between Expectancy Theory as a work-motivation theory and residency education were explored. Understanding achievement and work-motivation theories affords an opportunity to gain insight into resident motivation in training. The application of Expectancy Theory in particular provides an innovative perspective into residency education. Afforded are opportunities to promote the development of programmatic methods facilitating surgical resident motivation in education. Keywords: learning, education, achievement

  19. MAGMADIM: Young Explainers Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paltiel, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text:Physics teachers and educators constantly face the problem of inspiring their students to major in physics. On the other hand, science museums are designed to provide a pleasant environment which will stimulate and encourage a science associated experience to the general public. Typically, there is no intention to teach science as such in science museums. One may, however, use the science museum to teach and inspire certain groups of students in a much deeper sense. In fact they may actually enthusiastically learn much of the school physics curriculum at the museum. This report discusses the Magmadim program through which 10th graders are trained to be young explainers at the Weizmann Institutes Clore Garden of Science. To this end they study the physics underlying its exhibits in an after-school course. The ultimate goal is for the 'magmadim' to become the best possible explainers and be able to face all sorts of museum visitors. Along with learning how to instruct visitors, they must learn the physics behind the exhibits to give a full explanation of the exhibit and be able to answer any question that may arise. Our 5 year experience with the program shows that its self-selected participants not only study a lot of science, but also like it and learn how to explain the content to other people. This program, along with similar programs at the Bloomfield Science Museum and the Madatzim (young physics tutors) program of Ort, help in promoting the interest in science in general and physics in particular among school students. Various ways to expand the programs will also be discussed

  20. Operative Landscape at Canadian Neurosurgery Residency Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Michael K; Dakson, Ayoub; Ahmed, Syed Uzair; Bigder, Mark; Elliott, Cameron; Guha, Daipayan; Iorio-Morin, Christian; Kameda-Smith, Michelle; Lavergne, Pascal; Makarenko, Serge; Taccone, Michael S; Wang, Bill; Winkler-Schwartz, Alexander; Sankar, Tejas; Christie, Sean D

    2017-07-01

    Background Currently, the literature lacks reliable data regarding operative case volumes at Canadian neurosurgery residency programs. Our objective was to provide a snapshot of the operative landscape in Canadian neurosurgical training using the trainee-led Canadian Neurosurgery Research Collaborative. Anonymized administrative operative data were gathered from each neurosurgery residency program from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2014. Procedures were broadly classified into cranial, spine, peripheral nerve, and miscellaneous procedures. A number of prespecified subspecialty procedures were recorded. We defined the resident case index as the ratio of the total number of operations to the total number of neurosurgery residents in that program. Resident number included both Canadian medical and international medical graduates, and included residents on the neurosurgery service, off-service, or on leave for research or other personal reasons. Overall, there was an average of 1845 operative cases per neurosurgery residency program. The mean numbers of cranial, spine, peripheral nerve, and miscellaneous procedures were 725, 466, 48, and 193, respectively. The nationwide mean resident case indices for cranial, spine, peripheral nerve, and total procedures were 90, 58, 5, and 196, respectively. There was some variation in the resident case indices for specific subspecialty procedures, with some training programs not performing carotid endarterectomy or endoscopic transsphenoidal procedures. This study presents the breadth of neurosurgical training within Canadian neurosurgery residency programs. These results may help inform the implementation of neurosurgery training as the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons residency training transitions to a competence-by-design curriculum.

  1. Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained

    CERN Document Server

    Vujičić, Milan

    2008-01-01

    Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained provides a comprehensive introduction to the subject suitable for adoption as a self-contained text for courses at undergraduate and postgraduate level. The clear and comprehensive presentation of the basic theory is illustrated throughout with an abundance of worked examples. The book is written for teachers and students of linear algebra at all levels and across mathematics and the applied sciences, particularly physics and engineering. It will also be an invaluable addition to research libraries as a comprehensive resource book for the subject.

  2. Factors associated with physiotherapy provision in a population of elderly nursing home residents; a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribbe Miel W

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although physiotherapy (PT plays an important role in improving activities of daily living (ADL functioning and discharge rates, it is unclear how many nursing home residents receive treatment. Furthermore, there is a lack of insight into the determinants that influence the decision for treatment. In this study, we investigated how many nursing home residents receive PT. In addition, we analysed the factors that contribute to the variation in the provision of PT both between nursing homes and between residents. Methods A random sample of 600 elderly residents was taken from a random sample of 15 nursing homes. Residents had to be admitted for rehabilitation or for long-term care. Data were collected through interviews with the nursing home physician and the physiotherapist. Multilevel analysis was used to define the variation in the provision of PT and the factors that are associated with the question whether a resident receives PT or not. Furthermore the amount of PT provided was analysed and the factors that are associated with this. Results On average 69% of the residents received PT. The percentage of patients receiving treatment differed significantly across nursing homes, and especially the number of physiotherapists available, explained this difference between nursing homes. Residents admitted to a somatic ward for rehabilitation, and male residents in general, were most likely to receive PT. Residents who were treated by a physiotherapist received on average 55 minutes (sd 41 treatment a week. Residents admitted for rehabilitation received more PT a week, as were residents with a status after a total hip replacement. Conclusion PT is most likely to be provided to residents on a somatic ward, recently admitted for rehabilitation to a nursing home, which has a relatively large number of physiotherapists. This suggests a potential under-use of PT for long-term residents with cognitive problems. It is recommended that

  3. Factors associated with physiotherapy provision in a population of elderly nursing home residents; a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leemrijse, Chantal J; de Boer, Marike E; van den Ende, Cornelia H M; Ribbe, Miel W; Dekker, Joost

    2007-04-04

    Although physiotherapy (PT) plays an important role in improving activities of daily living (ADL functioning) and discharge rates, it is unclear how many nursing home residents receive treatment. Furthermore, there is a lack of insight into the determinants that influence the decision for treatment. In this study, we investigated how many nursing home residents receive PT. In addition, we analysed the factors that contribute to the variation in the provision of PT both between nursing homes and between residents. A random sample of 600 elderly residents was taken from a random sample of 15 nursing homes. Residents had to be admitted for rehabilitation or for long-term care. Data were collected through interviews with the nursing home physician and the physiotherapist. Multilevel analysis was used to define the variation in the provision of PT and the factors that are associated with the question whether a resident receives PT or not. Furthermore the amount of PT provided was analysed and the factors that are associated with this. On average 69% of the residents received PT. The percentage of patients receiving treatment differed significantly across nursing homes, and especially the number of physiotherapists available, explained this difference between nursing homes. Residents admitted to a somatic ward for rehabilitation, and male residents in general, were most likely to receive PT. Residents who were treated by a physiotherapist received on average 55 minutes (sd 41) treatment a week. Residents admitted for rehabilitation received more PT a week, as were residents with a status after a total hip replacement. PT is most likely to be provided to residents on a somatic ward, recently admitted for rehabilitation to a nursing home, which has a relatively large number of physiotherapists. This suggests a potential under-use of PT for long-term residents with cognitive problems. It is recommended that physiotherapists reconsider which residents may benefit from

  4. Explaining wartime rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschall, Jonathan

    2004-05-01

    In the years since the first reports of mass rapes in the Yugoslavian wars of secession and the genocidal massacres in Rwanda, feminist activists and scholars, human rights organizations, journalists, and social scientists have dedicated unprecedented efforts to document, explain, and seek solutions for the phenomenon of wartime rape. While contributors to this literature agree on much, there is no consensus on causal factors. This paper provides a brief overview of the literature on wartime rape in historical and ethnographical societies and a critical analysis of the four leading explanations for its root causes: the feminist theory, the cultural pathology theory, the strategic rape theory, and the biosocial theory. The paper concludes that the biosocial theory is the only one capable of bringing all the phenomena associated with wartime rape into a single explanatory context.

  5. Explaining moral religions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumard, Nicolas; Boyer, Pascal

    2013-06-01

    Moralizing religions, unlike religions with morally indifferent gods or spirits, appeared only recently in some (but not all) large-scale human societies. A crucial feature of these new religions is their emphasis on proportionality (between deeds and supernatural rewards, between sins and penance, and in the formulation of the Golden Rule, according to which one should treat others as one would like others to treat oneself). Cognitive science models that account for many properties of religion can be extended to these religions. Recent models of evolved dispositions for fairness in cooperation suggest that proportionality-based morality is highly intuitive to human beings. The cultural success of moralizing movements, secular or religious, could be explained based on proportionality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Matlab for engineers explained

    CERN Document Server

    Gustafsson, Fredrik

    2003-01-01

    This book is written for students at bachelor and master programs and has four different purposes, which split the book into four parts: 1. To teach first or early year undergraduate engineering students basic knowledge in technical computations and programming using MATLAB. The first part starts from first principles and is therefore well suited both for readers with prior exposure to MATLAB but lacking a solid foundational knowledge of the capabilities of the system and readers not having any previous experience with MATLAB. The foundational knowledge gained from these interactive guided tours of the system will hopefully be sufficient for an effective utilization of MATLAB in the engineering profession, in education and in research. 2. To explain the foundations of more advanced use of MATLAB using the facilities added the last couple of years, such as extended data structures, object orientation and advanced graphics. 3. To give an introduction to the use of MATLAB in typical undergraduate courses in elec...

  7. In rheumatoid arthritis, country of residence has an important influence on fatigue: results from the multinational COMORA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hifinger, Monika; Putrik, Polina; Ramiro, Sofia; Keszei, András P; Hmamouchi, Ihsane; Dougados, Maxime; Gossec, Laure; Boonen, Annelies

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the relationship between country of residence and fatigue in RA, and to explore which country characteristics are related to fatigue. Data from the multinational COMORA study were analysed. Contribution of country of residence to level of fatigue [0-10 on visual analogue scale (VAS)] and presence of severe fatigue (VAS ⩾ 5) was explored in multivariable linear or logistic regression models including first socio-demographics and objective disease outcomes (M1), and then also subjective outcomes (M2). Next, country of residence was replaced by country characteristics: gross domestic product (GDP), human development index (HDI), latitude (as indicator of climate), language and income inequality index (gini-index). Model fit (R(2)) for linear models was compared. A total of 3920 patients from 17 countries were included, mean age 56 years (s.d. 13), 82% females. Mean fatigue across countries ranged from 1.86 (s.d. 2.46) to 4.99 (s.d. 2.64) and proportion of severe fatigue from 14% (Venezuela) to 65% (Egypt). Objective disease outcomes did not explain much of the variation in fatigue ([Formula: see text] = 0.12), while subjective outcomes had a strong negative impact and partly explained the variation in fatigue ([Formula: see text]= 0.27). Country of residence had a significant additional effect (increasing model fit to [Formula: see text] = 0.20 and [Formula: see text] = 0.36, respectively). Remarkably, higher GDP and better HDI were associated with higher fatigue, and explained a large part of the country effect. Logistic regression confirmed the limited contribution of objective outcomes and the relevant contribution of country of residence. Country of residence has an important influence on fatigue. Paradoxically, patients from wealthier countries had higher fatigue. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Explaining gender segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Robert M; Browne, Jude; Brooks, Bradley; Jarman, Jennifer

    2002-12-01

    Occupational gender segregation--the tendency for women and men to work in different occupations--is an important feature of all societies, and particularly the wealthy industrialized ones. To understand this segregation, and to explain its significance, we need to distinguish between vertical segregation entailing inequality and horizontal segregation representing difference without inequality, with overall segregation being the resultant of these components. Three major theoretical approaches to understanding occupational gender segregation are examined: human capital/rational choice, patriarchy, and preference theories. All are found to be inadequate; they tend to confuse overall segregation with its vertical component, and each entails a number of other faults. It is generally assumed or implied that greater empowerment of women would reduce gender segregation. This is the reverse of what actually happens; in countries where the degree of women's empowerment is greater, the level of gender segregation is also greater. An alternative theoretical approach based on processes of social reproduction is shown to be more useful.

  9. Explaining Synthesized Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBaalen, Jeffrey; Robinson, Peter; Lowry, Michael; Pressburger, Thomas; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Motivated by NASA's need for high-assurance software, NASA Ames' Amphion project has developed a generic program generation system based on deductive synthesis. Amphion has a number of advantages, such as the ability to develop a new synthesis system simply by writing a declarative domain theory. However, as a practical matter, the validation of the domain theory for such a system is problematic because the link between generated programs and the domain theory is complex. As a result, when generated programs do not behave as expected, it is difficult to isolate the cause, whether it be an incorrect problem specification or an error in the domain theory. This paper describes a tool we are developing that provides formal traceability between specifications and generated code for deductive synthesis systems. It is based on extensive instrumentation of the refutation-based theorem prover used to synthesize programs. It takes augmented proof structures and abstracts them to provide explanations of the relation between a specification, a domain theory, and synthesized code. In generating these explanations, the tool exploits the structure of Amphion domain theories, so the end user is not confronted with the intricacies of raw proof traces. This tool is crucial for the validation of domain theories as well as being important in everyday use of the code synthesis system. It plays an important role in validation because when generated programs exhibit incorrect behavior, it provides the links that can be traced to identify errors in specifications or domain theory. It plays an important role in the everyday use of the synthesis system by explaining to users what parts of a specification or of the domain theory contribute to what pieces of a generated program. Comments are inserted into the synthesized code that document these explanations.

  10. Residency training program: Perceptions of residents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to ascertain the perception of the residency ... the time of the study. Analysis of the respondents showed similar findings for both senior and junior levels of training. Discussion. The introduction of the residency training program .... Overseas training/ attachment should be re-introduced. 12. (10.1).

  11. Plagiarism in residency application essays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Scott; Gelfand, Brian J; Hurwitz, Shelley; Berkowitz, Lori; Ashley, Stanley W; Nadel, Eric S; Katz, Joel T

    2010-07-20

    Anecdotal reports suggest that some residency application essays contain plagiarized content. To determine the prevalence of plagiarism in a large cohort of residency application essays. Retrospective cohort study. 4975 application essays submitted to residency programs at a single large academic medical center between 1 September 2005 and 22 March 2007. Specialized software was used to compare residency application essays with a database of Internet pages, published works, and previously submitted essays and the percentage of the submission matching another source was calculated. A match of more than 10% to an existing work was defined as evidence of plagiarism. Evidence of plagiarism was found in 5.2% (95% CI, 4.6% to 5.9%) of essays. The essays of non-U.S. citizens were more likely to demonstrate evidence of plagiarism. Other characteristics associated with the prevalence of plagiarism included medical school location outside the United States and Canada; previous residency or fellowship; lack of research experience, volunteer experience, or publications; a low United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 score; and non-membership in the Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society. The software database is probably incomplete, the 10%-match threshold for defining plagiarism has not been statistically validated, and the study was confined to applicants to 1 institution. Evidence of matching content in an essay cannot be used to infer the applicant's intent and is not sensitive to variations in the cultural context of copying in some societies. Evidence of plagiarism in residency application essays is more common in international applicants but was found in those by applicants to all specialty programs, from all medical school types, and even among applicants with significant academic honors. No external funding.

  12. Explaining inequalities in access to treatment in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Ruth H; Gulliford, Martin C; Ferguson, Jamie; Møller, Henrik

    2006-10-01

    Geographical inequalities in lung cancer treatment and patient survival have been described. We hypothesized that lung cancer patients' access to treatment may be influenced by deprivation and the pathway to care. Case notes were reviewed for patients resident in south-east London who were registered with lung cancer at the Thames Cancer Registry in 1998. Use of surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy or any specific treatment and one-year survival were examined. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, histology, stage and basis of diagnosis. Data for 695 out of 958 (73%) patients were analysed. Subjects who were initially referred to a specialist in thoracic medicine, surgery or oncology were more likely to receive active treatment (71%) than subjects who were referred to other consultants (51%) or who were admitted as emergencies (42%) (P < 0.0001). Socio-economic deprivation was associated with lower rates of treatment and this partly explained variations in survival. Subjects who were referred to specialists were more likely to receive active treatment and treatment patterns varied between first trust attended.

  13. Resident Characteristics Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Resident Characteristics Report summarizes general information about households who reside in Public Housing, or who receive Section 8 assistance. The report...

  14. Deepening Democracy: Explaining Variations in the Levels of Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    federales – presidente – lista nominal – votos – 2006 – entidad federative,” 2006; online: www.inegi.org.mex (accessed 18 Aug 2010); actual percentages...Elecciones federales – presidente – lista nominal – votos – 2006 – entidad federative,” 2006; online: www.inegi.org.mex (accessed 18 Aug 2010

  15. Does residence time affect responses of alien species richness to environmental and spatial processes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Dainese

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most robust emerging generalisations in invasion biology is that the probability of invasion increases with the time since introduction (residence time. We analysed the spatial distribution of alien vascular plant species in a region of north-eastern Italy to understand the influence of residence time on patterns of alien species richness. Neophytes were grouped according to three periods of arrival in the study region (1500–1800, 1800–1900, and > 1900. We applied multiple regression (spatial and non-spatial with hierarchical partitioning to determine the influence of climate and human pressure on species richness within the groups. We also applied variation partitioning to evaluate the relative importance of environmental and spatial processes. Temperature mainly influenced groups with speciesa longer residence time, while human pressure influenced the more recently introduced species, although its influence remained significant in all groups. Partial regression analyses showed that most of the variation explained by the models is attributable to spatially structured environmental variation, while environment and space had small independent effects. However, effects independent of environment decreased, and spatially independent effects increased, from older to the more recent neophytes. Our data illustrate that the distribution of alien species richness for species that arrived recently is related to propagule pressure, availability of novel niches created by human activity, and neutral-based (dispersal limitation processes, while climate filtering plays a key role in the distribution of species that arrived earlier. This study highlights the importance of residence time, spatial structure, and environmental conditions in the patterns of alien species richness and for a better understanding of its geographical variation.

  16. Restraint use among nursing home residents: cross-sectional study and prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Gabriele; Köpke, Sascha; Haastert, Burkhard; Mühlhauser, Ingrid

    2009-04-01

    To investigate (1) the prevalence of physical restraints and psychoactive medication, (2) newly administered physical restraints, frequency of application of the devices and frequency of psychoactive medication on demand during 12-month follow-up and (3) characteristics associated with restraint use in nursing homes. High quality data on restraint use in German nursing homes are lacking so far. Such information is the basis for interventions to achieve a restraint-free care. Cross-sectional study and prospective cohort study. Thirty nursing homes with 2367 residents in Hamburg, Germany. External investigators obtained prevalence of physical restraints by direct observation on three occasions on one day, psychoactive drugs were extracted from residents' records and prospective data were documented by nurses. Residents' mean age was 86 years, 81% were female. Prevalence of residents with at least one physical restraint was 26.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 21.3-31.1]. Centre prevalence ranged from 4.4 to 58.9%. Bedrails were most often used (in 24.5% of residents), fixed tables, belts and other restraints were rare. Prevalence of residents with at least one psychoactive drug was 52.4% (95% CI 48.7-56.1). The proportion of residents with at least one physical restraint after the first observation week of 26.3% (21.3-31.3) cumulated to 39.5% (33.3-45.7) at the end of follow-up (10.4 SD 3.3 months). The relative frequency of observation days with at least one device ranged from 4.9-64.8% between centres. No characteristic was found to explain centre differences. The frequency of physical restraints and psychoactive drugs in German nursing homes is substantial. Pronounced centre variation suggests that standard care is possible without restraints. Effective restraint minimisation approaches are urgently warranted. An evidence-based guideline may overcome centre differences towards a restraint-free nursing home care.

  17. Representation in the Care Planning Process for Nursing Home Residents With Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreedy, Ellen; Loomer, Lacey; Palmer, Jennifer A; Mitchell, Susan L; Volandes, Angelo; Mor, Vincent

    2018-03-10

    Federally mandated assessments of nursing home (NH) residents drive individualized care planning. Residents with cognitive impairment may not be able to meaningfully communicate their care needs and preferences during this process-a gap that may be partially addressed by involving surrogates. We describe the prevalence of family participation in the care planning process for long-stay NH residents with varying degrees of cognitive impairment. Retrospective study using administrative data made available as part of an ongoing pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial. A total of 292 NHs from 1 large for-profit NH system. Long-stay NH residents in 2016. We identified all care planning assessments conducted in 2016 for long-stay NH residents. Cognitive functioning was defined using the Cognitive Function Scale. The Minimum Data Set was used to determine whether a resident, family member, and/or legal guardian participated in the assessment process. Certification and Survey Provider Enhance Reporting system data was used to identify facility-level correlates of family participation. Bivariate and multivariable hierarchical regression results are presented. The analytic sample included 18,552 long-stay NH residents. Family member/representative participation varied by degree of resident cognitive impairment; 8% of residents with no cognitive impairment had family or representative participation in care planning during 2016, compared with 26% of residents with severe impairment. NHs with more social workers had greater family participation in care planning. Available NH characteristics do not explain most of the variation in family participation between NHs (residual intraclass correlation = .57). Only a minority of family members and surrogates participate in NH care planning, even for residents with severe cognitive impairment. The association between social work staffing and participation suggests family involvement may be a measure of quality improvement

  18. Sensitivity analysis of residency and site fidelity estimations to variations in sampling effort and individual catchability Análisis de sensibilidad en estimaciones de residencia y fidelidad al sitio a variaciones en el esfuerzo y capturabilidad individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Morteo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mark-recapture techniques are fundamental for assessing marine mammal population dynamics and individual temporal patterns. Since biases imposed by field conditions are generally unknown, we simulated variations in sampling effort (m and maximum individual catchability (r max to analyze their effects on residency levels measured through the number of recaptures (occurrence, O, duration of stay (permanence, P, and average recurrence (periodicity, I relative to a reference level of exhaustive daily sampling frequency. The number or recorded individuals (Dr was also used to determine the performance of the simulations. Results for standardized (s parameters showed that occurrences (Os were proportional to m and were not influenced by r max. Individual permanence (Ps and individual periodicity (Is were 8-49% and 3-11.74 times lower than expected, respectively, depending on m and r max. Also, Os, Ps, and Is were not influenced by study duration, thus inter-study comparisons are feasible if m and r max are similar. Dr was 68-92% (r max= 0.01 and 1-8% (r max= 1.0 lower than expected depending on m. Longer studies were more accurate but greater effort did not significantly increase Dr estimates. The use of bimonthly sampling frequencies (m= 0.07 was barely accurate and predictions for incomplete datasets were poor. Survey field data were also analyzed from 14 published studies on 4 dolphin species and compared to daily sampling frequencies; resulting values for Os, Ps, and Dr were 62.4-93.3%, 11.6-66.4%, and 2.4-33.8% lower than expected, respectively; also Is was 2.3-7.3 times lower than expected. The model produced Dr values that were similar to population estimates from empirical data, and bias was smaller than 15% in 87.5% of the cases, thus simulation accuracy was deemed acceptable.Las técnicas de marcado-recaptura son fundamentales para evaluar la dinámica poblacional de mamíferos marinos y sus patrones temporales individuales. Se simularon

  19. [Burnout in nursing residents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Gianfábio Pimentel; de Barros, Alba Lúcia Bottura Leite; Nogueira-Martins, Luiz Antônio; Zeitoun, Sandra Salloum

    2011-03-01

    Nursing residents may experience physical and emotional exhaustion from the daily life of attending the Program. The aim of this study was to determine the Burnout incidence among Nursing Residents. An investigative, descriptive, analytical, longitudinal-prospective study was conducted with 16 Residents over two years. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was used, translated and validated for Brazil, as well as a sociodemographic/occupational data tool. Of all residents, 17.2% showed high rates in Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization; 18.8% showed impaired commitment in Personal Accomplishment, 75% of which belonged to specialty areas, such as Emergency Nursing, Adult and Pediatric Intensive Care. Age and specialty area were positively correlated with Personal Accomplishment. One of the Residents was identified with changes in three subscales of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, thus characterized as a Burnout Syndrome patient. Nursing Residents have profiles of disease. Knowing these factors can minimize health risks of these workers.

  20. Facility Focus: Residence Halls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    College Planning & Management, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Describes four examples of residence hall design, one renovation and three new residence halls, that exemplify design principles that meet student and institutional requirements. The examples are at (1) the University of Illinois at Chicago; (2) Bowdoin College; (3) Muhlenberg College; and (4) Spring Arbor University. (SLD)

  1. Rain Forest Dance Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Dawn

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the author's experience as a dancer and choreographer artist-in-residence with third graders at a public elementary school, providing a cultural arts experience to tie in with a theme study of the rain forest. Details the residency and the insights she gained working with students, teachers, and theme. (SR)

  2. Psychologic effects of residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuben, D B

    1983-03-01

    The intense situational and physiologic stresses that accompany postgraduate training may have serious psychosocial ramifications. Although only a small proportion of residents have overt psychiatric illness, virtually all display some psychologic impairment. Contributing factors include life-changes, stresses associated with providing patient care, loss of social support, long working hours, sleep deprivation, and underlying personality traits of residents. The manifestations of this impairment are variable and may be subtle. In response to these problems, residency programs have taken steps to provide psychosocial support. Unfortunately, most programs do not offer formal support groups or seminars to discuss difficulties that accompany residency. Further definition of the psychosocial effects of residency may prompt changes that make the training of physicians a more humane process.

  3. Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiology and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography (Virtual ... to allow for inflation with air while CT images are being taken. If you’re scheduled for ...

  4. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiology and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript ... by a special camera and computer to create images of the inside of your body. If you’ ...

  5. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Medical Imaging Costs Radiology and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/ ... Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! I’m Dr. Ramji ...

  6. Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Medical Imaging Costs Radiology and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/ ... Explains CT Colonography (Virtual colonoscopy) Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hi, I’m Dr. Elliot ...

  7. Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography (Virtual colonoscopy) ... Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test Medical Imaging Costs Video: Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Radiology and You ...

  8. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome ... Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test Medical Imaging Costs Video: Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Radiology and You ...

  9. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org ... I’d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify ...

  10. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! ... d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify disease ...

  11. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! ... I’d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify disease ...

  12. Residents in difficulty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; O'Neill, Lotte; Hansen, Dorthe Høgh

    2016-01-01

    Background The majority of studies on prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty have been conducted in English-speaking countries and the existing literature may not reflect the prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty in other parts of the world such as the Scand......Background The majority of studies on prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty have been conducted in English-speaking countries and the existing literature may not reflect the prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty in other parts of the world...... such as the Scandinavian countries, where healthcare systems are slightly different. The aim of this study was to examine prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty in one out of three postgraduate medical training regions in Denmark, and to produce both a quantifiable overview and in-depth understanding...... of the topic. Methods We performed a mixed methods study. All regional residency program directors (N = 157) were invited to participate in an e-survey about residents in difficulty. Survey data were combined with database data on demographical characteristics of the background population (N = 2399...

  13. Extremes in Otolaryngology Resident Surgical Case Numbers: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Tiffany P; Franzese, Christine B

    2017-06-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of minimum case numbers on otolaryngology resident case log data and understand differences in minimum, mean, and maximum among certain procedures as a follow-up to a prior study. Study Design Cross-sectional survey using a national database. Setting Academic otolaryngology residency programs. Subjects and Methods Review of otolaryngology resident national data reports from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) resident case log system performed from 2004 to 2015. Minimum, mean, standard deviation, and maximum values for total number of supervisor and resident surgeon cases and for specific surgical procedures were compared. Results The mean total number of resident surgeon cases for residents graduating from 2011 to 2015 ranged from 1833.3 ± 484 in 2011 to 2072.3 ± 548 in 2014. The minimum total number of cases ranged from 826 in 2014 to 1004 in 2015. The maximum total number of cases increased from 3545 in 2011 to 4580 in 2015. Multiple key indicator procedures had less than the required minimum reported in 2015. Conclusion Despite the ACGME instituting required minimum numbers for key indicator procedures, residents have graduated without meeting these minimums. Furthermore, there continues to be large variations in the minimum, mean, and maximum numbers for many procedures. Variation among resident case numbers is likely multifactorial. Ensuring proper instruction on coding and case role as well as emphasizing frequent logging by residents will ensure programs have the most accurate data to evaluate their case volume.

  14. Ambulatory Care Skills: Do Residents Feel Prepared?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Bonds

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine resident comfort and skill in performing ambulatory care skills. Methods: Descriptive survey of common ambulatory care skills administered to internal medicine faculty and residents at one academic medical center. Respondents were asked to rate their ability to perform 12 physical exam skills and 6 procedures, and their comfort in performing 7 types of counseling, and obtaining 6 types of patient history (4 point Likert scale for each. Self-rated ability or comfort was compared by gender, status (year of residency, faculty, and future predicted frequency of use of the skill. Results: Residents reported high ability levels for physical exam skills common to both the ambulatory and hospital setting. Fewer felt able to perform musculoskeletal, neurologic or eye exams easily alone. Procedures generally received low ability ratings. Similarly, residents’ comfort in performing common outpatient counseling was also low. More residents reported feeling very comfortable in obtaining history from patients. We found little variation by gender, year of training, or predicted frequency of use. Conclusion: Self-reported ability and comfort for many common ambulatory care skills is low. Further evaluation of this finding in other training programs is warranted.

  15. Technology in Residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jordan

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the necessity for incorporating current technology in today's college residence halls to meet the more diverse and continued activities of its students. Technology addressed covers data networking and telecommunications, heating and cooling systems, and fire-safety systems. (GR)

  16. Satisfaction among residents in ASHP-accredited pharmacy residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDenBerg, C; Murphy, J E

    1997-07-01

    The level of work satisfaction among pharmacists in ASHP-accredited residencies was studied. In March 1996 a questionnaire designed to measure residency satisfaction was mailed to 697 individuals in ASHP-accredited pharmacy practice and specialty practice residencies. Subjects responded to 16 statements relating to intrinsic and extrinsic determinants of work satisfaction on a scale of 1 to 5, where 1 = strongly disagree and 5 = strongly agree. Questionnaires were returned by 413 (59%) of the residents. The respondents were predominantly women (76%), and most (86%) had at least a Pharm. D. degree. Hospitals were the primary work setting (88%). Of the 413 residents, 305 were in pharmacy practice residencies and 108 were in specialized residencies. None of the mean scores indicated disagreement (scores 3) with the negatively worded statements. The median and mode were equal to 2 (disagree) for the three negatively worded items and 4 (agree) for all but three positively worded items. Only 8% of the residents indicated that they would not accept the residency again if given the chance. Specialized residents tended to rate positively worded statements higher and negatively worded statements lower than pharmacy practice residents. Female residents indicated greater satisfaction than male residents. Pay and benefits were rated slightly better than neutral. Pharmacy residents appeared generally satisfied with their residencies. Specialized pharmacy residents were more satisfied than pharmacy practice residents, and women were more satisfied than men.

  17. The role of local food availability in explaining obesity risk among young school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Helen

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, research and public policy attention has increasingly focused on understanding whether modifiable aspects of the local food environment - the types and composition of food outlets families have proximate access to - are drivers of and potential solutions to the problem of childhood obesity in the United States. Given that much of the earlier published research has documented greater concentrations of fast-food outlets alongside limited access to large grocery stores in neighborhoods with higher shares of racial/ethnic minority groups and residents living in poverty, differences in retail food contexts may indeed exacerbate notable child obesity disparities along socioeconomic and racial/ethnic lines. This paper examines whether the lack of access to more healthy food retailers and/or the greater availability of "unhealthy" food purveyors in residential neighborhoods explains children's risk of excessive weight gain, and whether differential food availability explains obesity disparities. I do so by analyzing a national survey of U.S. children followed over elementary school (Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten Cohort) who are linked to detailed, longitudinal food availability measures from a comprehensive business establishment database (the National Establishment Time Series). I find that children who live in residentially poor and minority neighborhoods are indeed more likely to have greater access to fast-food outlets and convenience stores. However, these neighborhoods also have greater access to other food establishments that have not been linked to increased obesity risk, including large-scale grocery stores. When examined in a multi-level modeling framework, differential exposure to food outlets does not independently explain weight gain over time in this sample of elementary school-aged children. Variation in residential food outlet availability also does not explain socioeconomic and racial/ethnic differences. It may thus be

  18. Can Marxism Explain America's Racism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willhelm, Sidney M.

    1980-01-01

    The Marxist interpretation of the Black experience in America has always had difficulty explaining various noneconomic aspects of racism. A perspective is needed that can blend racism as a variable in relationship with economic variables. To reach this perspective, the labor process within capitalism must be more fully understood. (Author/GC)

  19. Does market competition explain fairness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descioli, Peter

    2013-02-01

    The target article by Baumard et al. uses their previous model of bargaining with outside options to explain fairness and other features of human sociality. This theory implies that fairness judgments are determined by supply and demand but humans often perceive prices (divisions of surplus) in competitive markets to be unfair.

  20. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! ... I’d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify disease ...

  1. Burnout Syndrome During Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Namigar; Karacalar, Serap; Polat, Cengiz; Kıran, Özlem; Gültop, Fethi; Kalyon, Seray Türkmen; Sinoğlu, Betül; Zincirci, Mehmet; Kaya, Ender

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is identified the degree of Burnout Syndrome (BOS) and find out its correlation with years of recidency and sociodemograpfic chareacteristics, training, sleeping habits, such as smoking and alcohol consumption. After approval from the Hospital Ethics Committee and obtaining informed consent, First, second, third, fourth and fifth year of recidency staff (n=127) working in our hospital were involved in this study. The standardized Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used in this study. Fifty six male (44.1%) and seventy one female (55.9%) residents were enroled in this study (Coranbach Alfa(α)=0.873). 57% of the first year residents smokes cigaret and 54% of them use alcohol. 2% of them gets one day off after hospital night shift, 61% of them suffers from disturbed sleep. 60% of them had been stated that they willingly selected their profession. 61% of them prefers talking to friends and 32% of them prefers shopping to overcome stress. There were statistical difference acording to years of recidency in MBI, Emotional Burnout (EB) and desensitisation scale (DS) points. EB scale points of the second year of residency group was statisticaly higher than fourth year of residency group. DS points of second year of residency group was also statisticaly higher than the third and fourth year of residency group. There was no statistical difference between any groups in Personal Success. BOS is a frequent problem during residency in anaesthesia. Appropriate definition and awareness are the first important steps to prevent this syndrome. Further administrative approaches should be evaluated with regard to their effects.

  2. Analysis of Resident Case Logs in an Anesthesiology Residency Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamamoto, Satoshi; Tanaka, Pedro; Madsen, Matias Vested

    2016-01-01

    Our goal in this study was to examine Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education case logs for Stanford anesthesia residents graduating in 2013 (25 residents) and 2014 (26 residents). The resident with the fewest recorded patients in 2013 had 43% the number of patients compared with the...

  3. Residents as teachers: survey of Canadian family medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Victor K; Burke, Clarissa A; Narula, Archna

    2013-09-01

    To examine Canadian family medicine residents' perspectives surrounding teaching opportunities and mentorship in teaching. A 16-question online survey. Canadian family medicine residency programs. Between May and June 2011, all first- and second-year family medicine residents registered in 1 of the 17 Canadian residency programs as of September 2010 were invited to participate. A total of 568 of 2266 residents responded. Demographic characteristics, teaching opportunities during residency, and resident perceptions about teaching. A total of 77.7% of family medicine residents indicated that they were either interested or highly interested in teaching as part of their future careers, and 78.9% of family medicine residents had had opportunities to teach in various settings. However, only 60.1% of respondents were aware of programs within residency intended to support residents as teachers, and 33.0% of residents had been observed during teaching encounters. It appears that most Canadian family medicine residents have the opportunity to teach during their residency training. Many are interested in integrating teaching as part of their future career goals. Family medicine residencies should strongly consider programs to support and further develop resident teaching skills.

  4. Buzz Factor or Innovation Potential: What Explains Cryptocurrencies? Returns?

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Sha; Vergne, Jean-Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Cryptocurrencies have become increasingly popular since the introduction of bitcoin in 2009. In this paper, we identify factors associated with variations in cryptocurrencies' market values. In the past, researchers argued that the "buzz" surrounding cryptocurrencies in online media explained their price variations. But this observation obfuscates the notion that cryptocurrencies, unlike fiat currencies, are technologies entailing a true innovation potential. By using, for the first time, a u...

  5. Does Social Capital Explain Community-Level Differences in Organ Donor Designation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladin, Keren; Wang, Rui; Fleishman, Aaron; Boger, Matthew; Rodrigue, James R

    2015-01-01

    Context The growing shortage of organs has reached unprecedented levels. Despite national attempts to increase donation and federal laws mandating the equitable allocation of organs, their availability and waiting times vary significantly nationwide. Organ donor designation is a collective action problem in public health, in which the regional organ supply and average waiting times are determined by the willingness of individuals to be listed as organ donors. Social capital increases the probability of collective action by fostering norms of reciprocity and cooperation while increasing costs to defectors. We examine whether social capital and other community-level factors explain geographic variation in organ donor designation rates in Massachusetts. Methods We obtained a sample of 3,281,532 registered drivers in 2010 from the Massachusetts Department of Transportation Registry of Motor Vehicles (MassDOT RMV). We then geocoded the registry data, matched them to 4,466 census blocks, and linked them to the 2010 US Census, the American Community Survey (ACS), and other sources to obtain community-level sociodemographic, social capital (residential segregation, voter registration and participation, residential mobility, violent-death rate), and religious characteristics. We used spatial modeling, including lagged variables to account for the effect of adjacent block groups, and multivariate regression analysis to examine the relationship of social capital and community-level characteristics with organ donor designation rates. Findings Block groups with higher levels of social capital, racial homogeneity, income, workforce participation, owner-occupied housing, native-born residents, and white residents had higher rates of organ donor designation (p organ donor designation (R2 = 0.52). Conclusions The findings suggest that community-level factors, including social capital, predict more than half the variation in donor designation. Future interventions should target the

  6. Teacher in Residence: Bringing Science to Students

    CERN Multimedia

    Daisy Yuhas

    CERN welcomes its first Teacher in Residence, Terrence Baine of the University of Oslo. Baine, who originally hails from Canada, will be concurrently completing his PhD in Physics Education during his time at CERN. Like CERN’s High School Teacher Programme (HST), of which Baine is an alumnus, the Teacher in Residence position is designed to help educators spread the science of CERN in a form that is accessible to students and can encourage them to pursue physics throughout their education.   Terrence Baine, first 'teacher in residence' at CERN Baine explains, “It’s very important to have a teacher present who can be that middle person between the young peoplecoming here, whom we are trying to enlighten, and the physicists who work at CERN. The Teacher in Residence can act as an on-site educational consultant.” As Teacher in Residence, Baine’s primary project will be to develop teaching modules, or a series of lesson plans, that can help high schoo...

  7. Can bootstrapping explain concept learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Susan Carey's account of Quinean bootstrapping has been heavily criticized. While it purports to explain how important new concepts are learned, many commentators complain that it is unclear just what bootstrapping is supposed to be or how it is supposed to work. Others allege that bootstrapping falls prey to the circularity challenge: it cannot explain how new concepts are learned without presupposing that learners already have those very concepts. Drawing on discussions of concept learning from the philosophical literature, this article develops a detailed interpretation of bootstrapping that can answer the circularity challenge. The key to this interpretation is the recognition of computational constraints, both internal and external to the mind, which can endow empty symbols with new conceptual roles and thus new contents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Explaining Disparities in Unemployment Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Karanassou, Marika; Snower, Dennis J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain disparities among the unemployment experiences of different OECD countries in terms of the `fragility' of the short-run unemployment equilibrium (the impact of labour market shocks on the short-run unemployment rate) and the lag structure of the employment determination, wage setting, and labour force participation decisions. The effects of this lag structure on unemployment dynamics are captured through two general measures of `unemployment persistence' (occurr...

  9. Interventional Pain Procedures in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Residencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sanjeev; Cicone, Caitlin; Chang, Philip

    2018-04-01

    Exposure to interventional pain procedures is now a required component of training in physical medicine and rehabilitation residencies as mandated by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Data regarding resident exposure and competency in these procedures remain limited. Objectives were to determine the volume and type of exposure physical medicine and rehabilitation residents have to interventional pain procedures and to obtain faculty-perceived opinions regarding competency of incoming fellows as it pertains to interventional pain management. Online surveys were sent to program directors of physical medicine and rehabilitation residencies and fellowship directors of interventional spine, sports medicine, and pain medicine fellowships. Surveys inquired about educational methods, the volume of procedures in which residents actively participate, and faculty-perceived competency of trainees performing procedures. Thirty-nine residency programs and 27 fellowships responded to the surveys. Of the 39 residencies that responded, there was great variation in the exposure residents receive. Most programs reported that residents have moderate exposure to common procedures such as ultrasound-guided knee injections and lumbar epidural injections. In addition, while most residency program directors report graduates to be "fairly prepared" (33%) to "well prepared" (20.5%) with regard to spine procedures, most fellowship directors (63%) describe incoming fellows to be at the "beginner" level.

  10. Resident fatigue in otolaryngology residents: a Web based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nida, Andrew M; Googe, Benjamin J; Lewis, Andrea F; May, Warren L

    2016-01-01

    Resident fatigue has become a point of emphasis in medical education and its effects on otolaryngology residents and their patients require further study. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the prevalence and nature of fatigue in otolaryngology residents, evaluate various quality of life measures, and investigate associations of increased fatigue with resident safety. Anonymous survey. Internet based. United States allopathic otolaryngology residents. None. The survey topics included demographics, residency structure, sleep habits and perceived stress. Responses were correlated with a concurrent Epworth Sleep Scale questionnaire to evaluate effects of fatigue on resident training and quality of life. 190 residents responded to the survey with 178 completing the Epworth Sleep Scale questionnaire. Results revealed a mean Epworth Sleep Scale score of 9.9±5.1 with a median of 10.0 indicating a significant number of otolaryngology residents are excessively sleepy. Statistically significant correlations between Epworth Sleep Scale and sex, region, hours of sleep, and work hours were found. Residents taking in-house call had significantly fewer hours of sleep compared to home call (p=0.01). Residents on "head and neck" (typically consisting of a large proportion of head and neck oncologic surgery) rotations tended to have higher Epworth Sleep Scale and had significantly fewer hours of sleep (p=.003) and greater work hours (potolaryngology residents are excessively sleepy. Our data suggest that the effects of fatigue play a role in resident well-being and resident safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Juvenile Delinquency Explained? A Test of Containment Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, William E.; Dodder, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the extent to which variation in self-reported delinquency is explained by the seven containment variables (favorable self-concept, goal orientation, frustration tolerance, retention of norms, internalization of rules, availability of meaningful roles, and group reinforcement), and focuses on racial and sex differences in self-reported…

  12. Explaining the Evolution of Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Hussain, Azhar; Jones, Edward Samuel

    2012-01-01

    We provide a comprehensive approach for analyzing the evolution of poverty using Mozambique as a case study. Bringing together data from disparate sources, we develop a novel “back-casting” framework that links a dynamic computable general equilibrium model to a micro-simulation poverty module....... This framework provides a new approach to explaining and decomposing the evolution of poverty, as well as to examining rigorously the coherence between poverty, economic growth, and inequality outcomes. Finally, various simple but useful and rarely-applied approaches to considering regional changes in poverty...

  13. Seasonal Variation in Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Seasonality analyses are important in medical research. If the incidence of a disease shows a seasonal pattern, then an environmental factor must be considered in its etiology. We discuss a method for the simultaneous analysis of seasonal variation in multiple groups. The nuts and bolts are explained using simple trigonometry, an elementary…

  14. Leadership Training in Otolaryngology Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, John P; Fried, Marvin P; Smith, Richard V; Hsueh, Wayne; Choi, Karen

    2017-06-01

    Although residency training offers numerous leadership opportunities, most residents are not exposed to scripted leadership instruction. To explore one program's attitudes about leadership training, a group of otolaryngology faculty (n = 14) and residents (n = 17) was polled about their attitudes. In terms of self-perception, more faculty (10 of 14, 71.4%) than residents (9 of 17, 52.9%; P = .461) considered themselves good leaders. The majority of faculty and residents (27 of 31) thought that adults could be taught leadership ability. Given attitudes about leadership ability and the potential for improvement through instruction, consideration should be given to including such training in otolaryngology residency.

  15. Root microbiota dynamics of perennial Arabis alpina are dependent on soil residence time but independent of flowering time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Nina; Schlaeppi, Klaus; Agler, Matthew T; Hacquard, Stéphane; Kemen, Eric; Garrido-Oter, Ruben; Wunder, Jörg; Coupland, George; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Recent field and laboratory experiments with perennial Boechera stricta and annual Arabidopsis thaliana suggest that the root microbiota influences flowering time. Here we examined in long-term time-course experiments the bacterial root microbiota of the arctic-alpine perennial Arabis alpina in natural and controlled environments by 16S rRNA gene profiling. We identified soil type and residence time of plants in soil as major determinants explaining up to 15% of root microbiota variation, whereas environmental conditions and host genotype explain maximally 11% of variation. When grown in the same soil, the root microbiota composition of perennial A. alpina is largely similar to those of its annual relatives A. thaliana and Cardamine hirsuta. Non-flowering wild-type A. alpina and flowering pep1 mutant plants assemble an essentially indistinguishable root microbiota, thereby uncoupling flowering time from plant residence time-dependent microbiota changes. This reveals the robustness of the root microbiota against the onset and perpetual flowering of A. alpina. Together with previous studies, this implies a model in which parts of the root microbiota modulate flowering time, whereas, after microbiota acquisition during vegetative growth, the established root-associated bacterial assemblage is structurally robust to perturbations caused by flowering and drastic changes in plant stature.

  16. Explaining (Missing) Regulator Paradigm Shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigger, Angela; Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The global financial and economic crisis has prompted some scholars to suggest that a fundamental regulatory shift away from neoliberalism will take place – both in general and in the field of EU competition regulation. This paper shows that so far no radical break with the neoliberal type...... of competition regulation is heaving into sight. It sets out to explain this from the vantage point of a critical political economy perspective, which identifies the circumstances under which a crisis can result in a regulatory paradigm shift. Contrasting the current situation with the shift in EC/EU competition...... regulation after the crisis in the 1970s, the paper argues that the preconditions for a fundamental shift in this issue area are not present this time around. Several reasons account for this: the current crisis has been construed by economic and political elites as a crisis within and not of neoliberal...

  17. What explains consciousness? Or…What consciousness explains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulany, Donelson E

    2014-01-01

    In this invited commentary I focus on the topic addressed in three papers: De Sousa's (2013[1617]) Toward an Integrative Theory of Consciousness, a monograph with Parts 1 & 2, as well as commentaries by Pereira (2013a[59]) and Hirstein (2013[42]). All three are impressively scholarly and can stand-and shout-on their own. But theory of consciousness? My aim is to slice that topic into the two fundamentally different kinds of theories of consciousness, say what appears to be an ideology, out of behaviourism into cognitivism, now also influencing the quest for an "explanation of consciousness" in cognitive neuroscience. I will then say what can be expected given what we know of the complexity of brain structure, the richness of a conscious "vocabulary", and current technological limits of brain imaging. This will then turn to the strategy for examining "what consciousness explains"-metatheory, theories, mappings, and a methodology of competitive support, a methodology especially important where there are competing commitments. There are also increasingly common identifications of methodological bias in, along with failures to replicate, studies reporting unconscious controls in decision, social priming-as there have been in perception, learning, problem solving, etc. The literature critique has provided evidence taken as reducing, and in some cases eliminating, a role for conscious controls-a position consistent with that ideology out of behaviourism into cognitivism. It is an ideological position that fails to recognize the fundamental distinction between theoretical and metaphysical assertions.

  18. Niche-tracking migrants and niche-switching residents: evolution of climatic niches in New World warblers (Parulidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Camila; Tenorio, Elkin A; Montoya, Paola; Cadena, Carlos Daniel

    2016-02-10

    Differences in life-history traits between tropical and temperate lineages are often attributed to differences in their climatic niche dynamics. For example, the more frequent appearance of migratory behaviour in temperate-breeding species than in species originally breeding in the tropics is believed to have resulted partly from tropical climatic stability and niche conservatism constraining tropical species from shifting their ranges. However, little is known about the patterns and processes underlying climatic niche evolution in migrant and resident animals. We evaluated the evolution of overlap in climatic niches between seasons and its relationship to migratory behaviour in the Parulidae, a family of New World passerine birds. We used ordination methods to measure seasonal niche overlap and niche breadth of 54 resident and 49 migrant species and used phylogenetic comparative methods to assess patterns of climatic niche evolution. We found that despite travelling thousands of kilometres, migrants tracked climatic conditions across the year to a greater extent than tropical residents. Migrant species had wider niches than resident species, although residents as a group occupied a wider climatic space and niches of migrants and residents overlapped extensively. Neither breeding latitude nor migratory distance explained variation among species in climatic niche overlap between seasons. Our findings support the notion that tropical species have narrower niches than temperate-breeders, but does not necessarily constrain their ability to shift or expand their geographical ranges and become migratory. Overall, the tropics may have been historically less likely to experience the suite of components that generate strong selection pressures for the evolution of migratory behaviour. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Niche-tracking migrants and niche-switching residents: evolution of climatic niches in New World warblers (Parulidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Camila; Tenorio, Elkin A.; Montoya, Paola; Cadena, Carlos Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Differences in life-history traits between tropical and temperate lineages are often attributed to differences in their climatic niche dynamics. For example, the more frequent appearance of migratory behaviour in temperate-breeding species than in species originally breeding in the tropics is believed to have resulted partly from tropical climatic stability and niche conservatism constraining tropical species from shifting their ranges. However, little is known about the patterns and processes underlying climatic niche evolution in migrant and resident animals. We evaluated the evolution of overlap in climatic niches between seasons and its relationship to migratory behaviour in the Parulidae, a family of New World passerine birds. We used ordination methods to measure seasonal niche overlap and niche breadth of 54 resident and 49 migrant species and used phylogenetic comparative methods to assess patterns of climatic niche evolution. We found that despite travelling thousands of kilometres, migrants tracked climatic conditions across the year to a greater extent than tropical residents. Migrant species had wider niches than resident species, although residents as a group occupied a wider climatic space and niches of migrants and residents overlapped extensively. Neither breeding latitude nor migratory distance explained variation among species in climatic niche overlap between seasons. Our findings support the notion that tropical species have narrower niches than temperate-breeders, but does not necessarily constrain their ability to shift or expand their geographical ranges and become migratory. Overall, the tropics may have been historically less likely to experience the suite of components that generate strong selection pressures for the evolution of migratory behaviour. PMID:26865303

  20. Lawful Permanent Residents - Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A lawful permanent resident (LPR) or 'green card' recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...

  1. Explain bioinformatics to your grandmother!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Bernard

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available What are you working on? You have certainly been asked that question many times, whether it be at a Saturday night party, during a discussion with your neighbors, or at a family gathering. Communicating with a lay audience about scientific subjects and making them attractive is a difficult task. But difficult or not, you will have to do it for many years, not only with your family and friends, but also with your colleagues and collaborators. So, better learn now! Although not usually taught, the ability to explain your work to others is an essential skill in science, where communication plays a key role. Using some examples of the French Regional Student Group activities, we discuss here (i why it is important to have such communication skills, (ii how you can get involved in these activities by using existing resources or working with people who have previous experience, and (iii what you get out of this amazing experience. We aim to motivate you and provide you with tips and ideas to get involved in promoting scientific activities while getting all the benefits.

  2. Inequality in healthcare costs between residing and non-residing patients: evidence from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hieu M

    2017-05-12

    Place of residence has been shown to impact health. To date, however, previous studies have only focused on the variability in health outcomes and healthcare costs between urban and rural patients. This study takes a different approach and investigates cost inequality facing non-residing patients - patients who do not reside in the regions in which the hospitals are located. Understanding the sources for this inequality is important, as they are directly related to healthcare accessibility in developing countries. The causal impact of residency status on individual healthcare spending is documented with a quasi-experimental design. The propensity score matching method is applied to a unique patient-level dataset (n = 900) collected at public general and specialist hospitals across North Vietnam. Propensity score matching shows that Vietnamese patients who do not reside in the regions in which the hospitals are located are expected to pay about 15 million Vietnamese dongs (approximately 750 USD) more than those who do, a sizable gap, given the distribution of total healthcare costs for the overall sample. This estimate is robust to alternative matching specifications. The obtained discrepancy is empirically attributable to the differences in three potential contributors, namely spending on accompanying relatives, "courtesy funds," and days of hospitalization. The present study finds that there is significant inequality in healthcare spending between residing and non-residing patients at Vietnamese hospitals and that this discrepancy can be partially explained by both institutional and non-institutional factors. These factors signal practical channels through which policymakers can improve healthcare accessibility.

  3. Does Social Capital Explain Community-Level Differences in Organ Donor Designation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladin, Keren; Wang, Rui; Fleishman, Aaron; Boger, Matthew; Rodrigue, James R

    2015-09-01

    The growing shortage of life-saving organs has reached unprecedented levels, with more than 120,000 Americans waiting for them. Despite national attempts to increase organ donation and federal laws mandating the equitable allocation of organs, geographic disparities remain. A better understanding of the contextual determinants of organ donor designation, including social capital, may enhance efforts to increase organ donation by raising the probability of collective action and fostering norms of reciprocity and cooperation while increasing costs to defectors. Because community-level factors, including social capital, predict more than half the variation in donor designation, future interventions should tailor strategies to specific communities as the unit of intervention. The growing shortage of organs has reached unprecedented levels. Despite national attempts to increase donation and federal laws mandating the equitable allocation of organs, their availability and waiting times vary significantly nationwide. Organ donor designation is a collective action problem in public health, in which the regional organ supply and average waiting times are determined by the willingness of individuals to be listed as organ donors. Social capital increases the probability of collective action by fostering norms of reciprocity and cooperation while increasing costs to defectors. We examine whether social capital and other community-level factors explain geographic variation in organ donor designation rates in Massachusetts. We obtained a sample of 3,281,532 registered drivers in 2010 from the Massachusetts Department of Transportation Registry of Motor Vehicles (MassDOT RMV). We then geocoded the registry data, matched them to 4,466 census blocks, and linked them to the 2010 US Census, the American Community Survey (ACS), and other sources to obtain community-level sociodemographic, social capital (residential segregation, voter registration and participation, residential

  4. Variational principles in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Basdevant, Jean-Louis

    2007-01-01

    Optimization under constraints is an essential part of everyday life. Indeed, we routinely solve problems by striking a balance between contradictory interests, individual desires and material contingencies. This notion of equilibrium was dear to thinkers of the enlightenment, as illustrated by Montesquieu’s famous formulation: "In all magistracies, the greatness of the power must be compensated by the brevity of the duration." Astonishingly, natural laws are guided by a similar principle. Variational principles have proven to be surprisingly fertile. For example, Fermat used variational methods to demonstrate that light follows the fastest route from one point to another, an idea which came to be known as Fermat’s principle, a cornerstone of geometrical optics. Variational Principles in Physics explains variational principles and charts their use throughout modern physics. The heart of the book is devoted to the analytical mechanics of Lagrange and Hamilton, the basic tools of any physicist. Prof. Basdev...

  5. Explaining the judicial independence of international courts: a comparative analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek

    What factors allow some international courts (ICs) to rule against the express preferences of powerful member states, whereas others routinely defer to governments? While judicial independence is not the only factor explaining the strength of a given international institution, it is a necessary...... condition. The paper first develops three sets of competing explanatory variables that potentially can explain variations in the judicial independence of ICs. The causal effects of these explanatory variables upon variance in judicial independence are investigated in a comparative analysis of the ACJ, ECJ...

  6. Attitudes toward the use of gender-inclusive language among residency trainees. The McMaster Residency Training Program Directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyatt, G H; Cook, D J; Griffith, L; Walter, S D; Risdon, C; Liutkus, J

    1997-05-01

    To explore postgraduate medical trainees' attitudes toward the use of gender-inclusive language. Self-administered questionnaire. Seven residency training programs at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont., from July 1993 to June 1994. Of 225 residents in the programs, 186 responded to the survey, for a response rate of 82.7%. Men and women were equally represented among the respondents. Categorization of attitudes about the use of language as gender-inclusive or gender-exclusive; characteristics predicting a gender-inclusive attitude. Factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha (0.90) supported the existence of a construct related to attitudes about language use, the poles of which were categorized as gender-inclusive and gender-exclusive. The authors classified residents with respect to their attitudes to language use from their responses to the questionnaire. In univariate analyses, sex, residency program and country of graduation significantly predicted a gender-inclusive attitude (p < 0.01). Only the first 2 variables were significant in a multivariate model; residency program explained 18% of the variance and sex 3%. Residents in obstetrics and gynecology and psychiatry had the most gender-inclusive attitudes, whereas residents in surgery and anesthesia had the most gender-exclusive attitudes. Residents' values are reflected in the language they choose to use. Language use may provide an index of underlying attitudes that may create hostile environments for female trainees.

  7. The Preferred Learning Styles of Neurosurgeons, Neurosurgery Residents, and Neurology Residents: Implications in the Neurosurgical Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hung-Yi; Lee, Ching-Yi; Chiu, Angela; Lee, Shih-Tseng

    2014-01-01

    To delineate the learning style that best defines a successful practitioner in the field of neurosurgery by using a validated learning style inventory. The Kolb Learning Style Inventory, a validated assessment tool, was administered to all practicing neurosurgeons, neurosurgical residents, and neurology residents employed at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, an institution that provides primary and tertiary clinical care in 3 locations, Linkou, Kaohsiung, and Chiayi. There were 81 participants who entered the study, and all completed the study. Neurosurgeons preferred the assimilating learning style (52%), followed by the diverging learning style (39%). Neurosurgery residents were slightly more evenly distributed across the learning styles; however, they still favored assimilating (32%) and diverging (41%). Neurology residents had the most clearly defined preferred learning style with assimilating (76%) obtaining the large majority and diverging (12%) being a distant second. The assimilating and diverging learning styles are the preferred learning styles among neurosurgeons, neurosurgery residents, and neurology residents. The assimilating learning style typically is the primary learning style for neurosurgeons and neurology residents. Neurosurgical residents start off with a diverging learning style and progress toward an assimilating learning style as they work toward becoming practicing neurosurgeons. The field of neurosurgery has limited opportunities for active experimentation, which may explain why individuals who prefer reflective observation are more likely to succeed in this field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Past residence outside of the United States is associated with diet quality in adults currently residing in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenfeld, Cara L; Poudrier, Jill; Waters, Nigel; Gillevet, Patrick M

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate healthy dietary factors in relation to prior residence outside the United States (US) among university-affiliated individuals currently residing in the US. Current diet information was collected via a 4-day food record and residential history data were collected by in-person interview for 114 individuals. Residence outside of the US at any point during the interviewee's life was associated with higher diet quality (Healthy Eating Index-2005: 50.0 vs. 46.8) and lower added sugar intake (25.8 vs. 34.9 g/d). Concordance of residence as a child (≤12 years of age) and within the prior 5 years was more strongly associated with higher HEI-2005 score (52.7) than if childhood was outside of the US and recent within the US (47.1), compared with individuals who have only resided within the US (46.9). Results were similar when also accounting for self-reported current residence as permanent residence. Current diet quality, food groups, and nutrient intakes differed depending on where in the world region individuals resided as a child. Restricting the analyzes to a subgroup of individuals of younger age and similar education attenuated associations. Lower added sugar intake and higher overall diet quality were most consistently associated with residence outside of the US, and recent residence outside of the US may be more strongly associated than childhood residence. Some of these differences may be explained by demographic or socioeconomic factors. Future studies could evaluate explanatory factors for these observations, including detailed socioeconomic factors, exposure to diverse foods, and accessibility of processed foods. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Splines and variational methods

    CERN Document Server

    Prenter, P M

    2008-01-01

    One of the clearest available introductions to variational methods, this text requires only a minimal background in calculus and linear algebra. Its self-contained treatment explains the application of theoretic notions to the kinds of physical problems that engineers regularly encounter. The text's first half concerns approximation theoretic notions, exploring the theory and computation of one- and two-dimensional polynomial and other spline functions. Later chapters examine variational methods in the solution of operator equations, focusing on boundary value problems in one and two dimension

  10. Uncertainty and decision making for residents with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Ruth Palan; Guarino, A J

    2011-08-01

    Uncertainty is a significant barrier confronting surrogate decision makers(SDMs) who make treatment decisions for nursing home (NH) residents with dementia. The study purpose is to describe uncertainty among SDMs of NH residents with dementia and to identify factors associated with greater Uncertainty. We employed a nonexperimental, cross-sectional design using mailed survey and recruited 155 SDM participants from eight NHs in New England. The survey contained the Mishel Uncertainty in Illness Scale For Family Members. Independent variables included resident and SDM sociodemographic characteristics, Advance Directives, Credible Authority, Social Support, and Perceived Self-Efficacy for Surrogate Decision Making. Results of a simultaneous multiple regression analysis identified Perceived Self-Efficacy,Social Support, and Close Relative explained 22% of the Uncertainty variance.These findings suggest that close family relatives who serve as SDMs for NH residents with dementia may benefit from increasing social support and enhancing SDMs’ self-efficacy for decision making.

  11. The resident-intruder paradigm : a standardized test for aggression, violence and social stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolhaas, Jacob; Coppens, Caroline M.; de Boer, Sietse F.; Buwalda, Bauke; Meerlo, Peter; Timmermans, Paul J. A.

    2013-01-01

    This video publication explains in detail the experimental protocol of the resident-intruder paradigm in rats. This test is a standardized method to measure offensive aggression and defensive behavior in a semi natural setting. The most important behavioral elements performed by the resident and the

  12. Education Research: Neurology resident education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayans, David; Schneider, Logan; Adams, Nellie; Khawaja, Ayaz M.; Engstrom, John

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To survey US-trained graduating neurology residents who are American Academy of Neurology members, in an effort to trend perceived quality and completeness of graduate neurology education. Methods: An electronic survey was sent to all American Academy of Neurology members graduating from US neurology residency programs in the Spring of 2014. Results: Of 805 eligible respondents, 24% completed the survey. Ninety-three percent of adult neurology residents and 56% of child neurology residents reported plans to pursue fellowship training after residency. Respondents reported a desire for additional training in neurocritical care, neuro-oncology, neuromuscular diseases, botulinum toxin injection, and nerve blocks. There remains a clear deficit in business training of neurology residents, although there was notable improvement in knowledge of coding and office management compared to previous surveys. Discussion: Although there are still areas of perceived weakness in neurology training, graduating neurology residents feel generally well prepared for their chosen careers. However, most still pursue fellowship training for reasons that are little understood. In addition to certain subspecialties and procedures, practice management remains deficient in neurology training and is a point of future insecurity for most residents. Future curriculum changes should consider resident-reported gaps in knowledge, with careful consideration of improving business training. PMID:26976522

  13. Host-related factors explaining interindividual variability of carotenoid bioavailability and tissue concentrations in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohn, Torsten; Desmarchelier, Charles; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2017-01-01

    .g. smoking), gender and age, as well as genetic variations including single nucleotide polymorphisms that govern carotenoid metabolism. These are expected to explain interindividual differences that contribute to carotenoid uptake, distribution, metabolism and excretion, and therefore possibly also...

  14. Ensembl variation resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin-Garcia Pablo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maturing field of genomics is rapidly increasing the number of sequenced genomes and producing more information from those previously sequenced. Much of this additional information is variation data derived from sampling multiple individuals of a given species with the goal of discovering new variants and characterising the population frequencies of the variants that are already known. These data have immense value for many studies, including those designed to understand evolution and connect genotype to phenotype. Maximising the utility of the data requires that it be stored in an accessible manner that facilitates the integration of variation data with other genome resources such as gene annotation and comparative genomics. Description The Ensembl project provides comprehensive and integrated variation resources for a wide variety of chordate genomes. This paper provides a detailed description of the sources of data and the methods for creating the Ensembl variation databases. It also explores the utility of the information by explaining the range of query options available, from using interactive web displays, to online data mining tools and connecting directly to the data servers programmatically. It gives a good overview of the variation resources and future plans for expanding the variation data within Ensembl. Conclusions Variation data is an important key to understanding the functional and phenotypic differences between individuals. The development of new sequencing and genotyping technologies is greatly increasing the amount of variation data known for almost all genomes. The Ensembl variation resources are integrated into the Ensembl genome browser and provide a comprehensive way to access this data in the context of a widely used genome bioinformatics system. All Ensembl data is freely available at http://www.ensembl.org and from the public MySQL database server at ensembldb.ensembl.org.

  15. Factors Influencing Resident Choice of Prosthodontic Residency Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnarwsky, Pandora Keala Lee; Wang, Yan; Shah, Kumar; Koka, Sreenivas

    2017-06-01

    The decision by prosthodontic residency program directors to employ the Match process highlights the need to understand applicant priorities that influence their choice of which programs to rank highly. The purpose of this study is to determine the factors that were most important to residents when choosing from among nonmilitary based prosthodontics dental residency programs in the United States. Following completion of a pilot study, all currently enrolled prosthodontic residents at nonmilitary residency programs were invited to participate via the internet. The study consisted of a survey instrument asking residents to rank 26 possible factors that might impact an applicant's choice of residency program. In addition, the instrument collected other possible influencing variables including gender and debt load. Mean rank scores were compared to determine the most and least important factors. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare specific factors between the possible influencing variables. Two hundred and thirty residents completed the survey instrument, representing a 54.1% response rate of possible participants. With regard to factors influencing program choice, reputation of the residency program was the factor ranked the highest by participants, followed in descending order by the program director's personality, curriculum content, access to use of the latest digital technology, and opportunities for dental implant placement. Quality of schools for children, community outreach opportunities, and the ability to moonlight were ranked as the least important factors. Male and female residents ranked factors such as tuition/stipend, curriculum content, and community outreach opportunities significantly differently. Depending on debt load, residents ranked the factors tuition/stipend, ability to moonlight, curriculum content, and safety of the area where the program is differently. Current prosthodontic residents valued the reputation of the program as the most

  16. Genetic differentiation of populations residing in areas of high ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetic differentiation of populations residing in areas of high malaria endemicity in India. SWAPNIL SINHA1, VANDANA ARYA2, SARITA AGARWAL2, INDIAN GENOME VARIATION CONSORTIUM3 and SAMAN HABIB1∗. 1Division of Molecular and Structural Biology, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 001, ...

  17. Genetic differentiation of populations residing in areas of high ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia. Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 88; Issue 1. Genetic differentiation of populations residing in areas of high malaria endemicity in India. Swapnil Sinha Vandana Arya Sarita Agarwal Indian Genome Variation Consortium Saman Habib.

  18. Pathology Informatics Essentials for Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcher, Donald S.; Harrison, James H.; Sinard, John H.; Riben, Michael W.; Boyer, Philip J.; Plath, Sue; Thompson, Arlene; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2016-01-01

    Context: Recognition of the importance of informatics to the practice of pathology has surged. Training residents in pathology informatics has been a daunting task for most residency programs in the United States because faculty often lacks experience and training resources. Nevertheless, developing resident competence in informatics is essential for the future of pathology as a specialty. Objective: To develop and deliver a pathology informatics curriculum and instructional framework that guides pathology residency programs in training residents in critical pathology informatics knowledge and skills, and meets Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Informatics Milestones. Design: The College of American Pathologists, Association of Pathology Chairs, and Association for Pathology Informatics formed a partnership and expert work group to identify critical pathology informatics training outcomes and to create a highly adaptable curriculum and instructional approach, supported by a multiyear change management strategy. Results: Pathology Informatics Essentials for Residents (PIER) is a rigorous approach for educating all pathology residents in important pathology informatics knowledge and skills. PIER includes an instructional resource guide and toolkit for incorporating informatics training into residency programs that vary in needs, size, settings, and resources. PIER is available at http://www.apcprods.org/PIER (accessed April 6, 2016). Conclusions: PIER is an important contribution to informatics training in pathology residency programs. PIER introduces pathology trainees to broadly useful informatics concepts and tools that are relevant to practice. PIER provides residency program directors with a means to implement a standardized informatics training curriculum, to adapt the approach to local program needs, and to evaluate resident performance and progress over time. PMID:28725772

  19. Pathology Informatics Essentials for Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter H. Henricks MD

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: Recognition of the importance of informatics to the practice of pathology has surged. Training residents in pathology informatics has been a daunting task for most residency programs in the United States because faculty often lacks experience and training resources. Nevertheless, developing resident competence in informatics is essential for the future of pathology as a specialty. Objective: To develop and deliver a pathology informatics curriculum and instructional framework that guides pathology residency programs in training residents in critical pathology informatics knowledge and skills, and meets Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Informatics Milestones. Design: The College of American Pathologists, Association of Pathology Chairs, and Association for Pathology Informatics formed a partnership and expert work group to identify critical pathology informatics training outcomes and to create a highly adaptable curriculum and instructional approach, supported by a multiyear change management strategy. Results: Pathology Informatics Essentials for Residents (PIER is a rigorous approach for educating all pathology residents in important pathology informatics knowledge and skills. PIER includes an instructional resource guide and toolkit for incorporating informatics training into residency programs that vary in needs, size, settings, and resources. PIER is available at http://www.apcprods.org/PIER (accessed April 6, 2016. Conclusions: PIER is an important contribution to informatics training in pathology residency programs. PIER introduces pathology trainees to broadly useful informatics concepts and tools that are relevant to practice. PIER provides residency program directors with a means to implement a standardized informatics training curriculum, to adapt the approach to local program needs, and to evaluate resident performance and progress over time.

  20. Incorporating resident research into the dermatology residency program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Richard F; Raimer, Sharon S; Kelly, Brent C

    2013-01-01

    Programmatic changes for the dermatology residency program at The University of Texas Medical Branch were first introduced in 2005, with the faculty goal incorporating formal dermatology research projects into the 3-year postgraduate training period. This curriculum initially developed as a recommendation for voluntary scholarly project activity by residents, but it evolved into a program requirement for all residents in 2009. Departmental support for this activity includes assignment of a faculty mentor with similar interest about the research topic, financial support from the department for needed supplies, materials, and statistical consultation with the Office of Biostatistics for study design and data analysis, a 2-week elective that provides protected time from clinical activities for the purpose of preparing research for publication and submission to a peer-reviewed medical journal, and a departmental award in recognition for the best resident scholarly project each year. Since the inception of this program, five classes have graduated a total of 16 residents. Ten residents submitted their research studies for peer review and published their scholarly projects in seven dermatology journals through the current academic year. These articles included three prospective investigations, three surveys, one article related to dermatology education, one retrospective chart review, one case series, and one article about dermatopathology. An additional article from a 2012 graduate about dermatology education has also been submitted to a journal. This new program for residents was adapted from our historically successful Dermatology Honors Research Program for medical students at The University of Texas Medical Branch. Our experience with this academic initiative to promote dermatology research by residents is outlined. It is recommended that additional residency programs should consider adopting similar research programs to enrich resident education. PMID:23901305

  1. Seasonality in cholera dynamics: A rainfall-driven model explains the wide range of patterns in endemic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baracchini, Theo; King, Aaron A.; Bouma, Menno J.; Rodó, Xavier; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Pascual, Mercedes

    2017-10-01

    Seasonal patterns in cholera dynamics exhibit pronounced variability across geographical regions, showing single or multiple peaks at different times of the year. Although multiple hypotheses related to local climate variables have been proposed, an understanding of this seasonal variation remains incomplete. The historical Bengal region, which encompasses the full range of cholera's seasonality observed worldwide, provides a unique opportunity to gain insights on underlying environmental drivers. Here, we propose a mechanistic, rainfall-temperature driven, stochastic epidemiological model which explicitly accounts for the fluctuations of the aquatic reservoir, and analyze with this model the historical dataset of cholera mortality in the Bengal region. Parameters are inferred with a recently developed sequential Monte Carlo method for likelihood maximization in partially observed Markov processes. Results indicate that the hydrological regime is a major driver of the seasonal dynamics of cholera. Rainfall tends to buffer the propagation of the disease in wet regions due to the longer residence times of water in the environment and an associated dilution effect, whereas it enhances cholera resurgence in dry regions. Moreover, the dynamics of the environmental water reservoir determine whether the seasonality is unimodal or bimodal, as well as its phase relative to the monsoon. Thus, the full range of seasonal patterns can be explained based solely on the local variation of rainfall and temperature. Given the close connection between cholera seasonality and environmental conditions, a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms would allow the better management and planning of public health policies with respect to climate variability and climate change.

  2. Does It Cost More to Train Residents or to Replace Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Barbara O.; Smalley, Robert; Cordasco, Kristina M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The policy issue underlying this study is whether Medicare support for graduate medical education (GME) should be restructured to differentiate between programs that are less costly or are self-sustaining and those that are more costly to the sponsoring institution and its educational partners. The authors used available literature, interviews with individuals involved in operating GME programs, and analysis of administrative data to explore how the financial impact of operating residency training programs might differ by specialty. The study does not quantify the variation in financial impact, but it provides a framework for examining both the costs and benefits of operating GME programs to the sponsoring institution and its educational partners. It also identifies the major factors that are likely to affect financial performance and influence program offerings and size. Marginal financial impacts are more likely to influence sponsor decisions on changes in GME program size and offerings and help explain why GME program expansions are occurring without additional Medicare funding. If the hospital has service needs, there is a marginal benefit to adding a resident, particularly in the more-lucrative specialty and subspecialty programs, before considering the additional benefits of any Medicare GME-related revenues. PMID:28083303

  3. Poverty, disability and self-reported health amongst residents and migrants in Gauteng, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, George T H; de Wet, Thea

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the relative importance of individual- and household-level indicators of poverty to the self-reported health of residents and recent migrants in South Africa's most urbanised province (Gauteng). Univariate and multivariable statistical analyses were undertaken on data from the 2014 Quality of Life household survey undertaken by the Gauteng City Regional Observatory. The survey generated data on a representative sample of n = 27 490 respondents. At the individual-level the odds for disability or health-limiting work/social activities was significantly lower amongst younger, better educated and employed respondents, and amongst both transnational and internal migrants. At the household-level, the absence of some basic services and household assets (particularly mains electricity, telecommunications and a television) were significantly associated with a lower odds of health-limiting work/social activities. Variation in sociodemographic and economic predictors of self-reported health at the individual- and household-level partly explain the lower odds of disability and health-limiting work/social activities of migrants, since migrants were less likely to be disabled and tended to be younger, with higher educational attainment and better employment status than residents, yet were also more likely to be living in households with fewer services and assets.

  4. Fomenting Sickness: Nocebo Priming of Residents about Expected Wind Turbine Health Harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Simon; Joshi, Ketan; Fry, Luke

    2014-01-01

    A nocebo effect hypothesis has been proposed to explain variations in where small minorities of exposed residents complain about noise and health effects said to be caused by wind farm turbines. The hypothesis requires that those complaining have been exposed to negative, potentially frightening information about the impact of proposed wind farms on nearby residents, and that this information conditions both expectations about future health impacts or the etiology of current health problems where wind farms are already operational. This hypothesis has been confirmed experimentally under laboratory conditions, but case studies of how this process can operate in local communities are lacking. In this paper, we present a case study of the apparent impact of an anti-wind farm public meeting on the generation of negative news media and the subsequent expression of concerns about anticipated health and noise impacts to a planning authority approval hearing in Victoria, Australia. We present a content analysis of the negative claims disseminated about health and noise in the news media and available on the internet prior to the hearing, and another content analysis of all submissions made to the planning authority by those opposing the development application.

  5. Improving reliability of a residency interview process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Michael J; Serres, Michelle L; Gundrum, Todd E

    2013-10-14

    To improve the reliability and discrimination of a pharmacy resident interview evaluation form, and thereby improve the reliability of the interview process. In phase 1 of the study, authors used a Many-Facet Rasch Measurement model to optimize an existing evaluation form for reliability and discrimination. In phase 2, interviewer pairs used the modified evaluation form within 4 separate interview stations. In phase 3, 8 interviewers individually-evaluated each candidate in one-on-one interviews. In phase 1, the evaluation form had a reliability of 0.98 with person separation of 6.56; reproducibly, the form separated applicants into 6 distinct groups. Using that form in phase 2 and 3, our largest variation source was candidates, while content specificity was the next largest variation source. The phase 2 g-coefficient was 0.787, while confirmatory phase 3 was 0.922. Process reliability improved with more stations despite fewer interviewers per station-impact of content specificity was greatly reduced with more interview stations. A more reliable, discriminating evaluation form was developed to evaluate candidates during resident interviews, and a process was designed that reduced the impact from content specificity.

  6. Burnout among Dutch medical residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, J.T.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J.E.; Van De Wiel, H.B.; Gazendam-Donofrio, S.M.; Sprangers, F.; Jaspers, F.C.; van der Heijden, F.M.

    2007-01-01

    We examined levels of burnout and relationships between burnout, gender, age, years in training, and medical specialty in 158 medical residents working at the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands. Thirteen percent of the residents met the criteria for burnout, with the highest

  7. Surgical residency: A tenant's view

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'To sleep: perchance to dream', is the frequent mantra of the surgical resident. However, unlike. Hamlet, there is no ensuing speculation as to what dreams may come as there are seldom any!! Surgical residency has been both vilified and immortalized, but the fact remains that it is one of the most challenging, provocative ...

  8. Early resident-to-resident physics education in diagnostic radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansagra, Akash P

    2014-01-01

    The revised ABR board certification process has updated the method by which diagnostic radiology residents are evaluated for competency in clinical radiologic physics. In this work, the author reports the successful design and implementation of a resident-taught physics course consisting of 5 weekly, hour-long lectures intended for incoming first-year radiology residents in their first month of training. To the author's knowledge, this is the first description of a course designed to provide a very early framework for ongoing physics education throughout residency without increasing the didactic burden on faculty members. Twenty-six first-year residents spanning 2 academic years took the course and reported subjective improvement in their knowledge (90%) and interest (75%) in imaging physics and a high level of satisfaction with the use of senior residents as physics educators. Based on the success of this course and the minimal resources required for implementation, this work may serve as a blueprint for other radiology residency programs seeking to develop revised physics curricula. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Needs Assessment for Incoming PGY-1 Residents in Neurosurgical Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandman, David M; Haji, Faizal A; Matte, Marie C; Clarke, David B

    2015-01-01

    Residents must develop a diverse range of skills in order to practice neurosurgery safely and effectively. The purpose of this study was to identify the foundational skills required for neurosurgical trainees as they transition from medical school to residency. Based on the CanMEDS competency framework, a web-based survey was distributed to all Canadian academic neurosurgical centers, targeting incoming and current PGY-1 neurosurgical residents as well as program directors. Using Likert scale and free-text responses, respondents rated the importance of various cognitive (e.g. management of raised intracranial pressure), technical (e.g. performing a lumbar puncture) and behavioral skills (e.g. obtaining informed consent) required for a PGY-1 neurosurgical resident. Of 52 individuals contacted, 38 responses were received. Of these, 10 were from program directors (71%), 11 from current PGY-1 residents (58%) and 17 from incoming PGY-1 residents (89%). Respondents emphasized operative skills such as proper sterile technique and patient positioning; clinical skills such as lesion localization and interpreting neuro-imaging; management skills for common scenarios such as raised intracranial pressure and status epilepticus; and technical skills such as lumbar puncture and external ventricular drain placement. Free text answers were concordant with the Likert scale results. We surveyed Canadian neurosurgical program directors and PGY-1 residents to identify areas perceived as foundational to neurosurgical residency education and training. This information is valuable for evaluating the appropriateness of a training program's goals and objectives, as well as for generating a national educational curriculum for incoming PGY-1 residents.

  10. Radon in residences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnell, G.A.; Monmonier, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses the geographic variation in the presence of radon at relatively high levels. Its focus is the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania but it considers the incidence of residential radon in adjoining counties in contiguous states, and by state throughout the nation. Cartographic analysis provides a robust assessment of the broad impact of physiography, the local effects of housing and lifestyle, and the quality of the best available spatial data. By promoting a fuller understanding of the pattern and magnitude of the risk, radon maps constitute a basis for a more effective and efficient prophylaxis. Further, county-unit maps of age-adjusted mortality rates for successive decades demonstrate inconsistent and puzzling linkages between the geographics of radon and cancer

  11. Explaining Local Authority Choices on Public Hospital Provision in the 1930s: A Public Policy Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Julia

    2012-01-01

    This article summarises the findings of recent work on local authority public hospital services in England and Wales in the inter-war years and identifies the lack of a robust hypothesis to explain the variations found, particularly one that would explain the actions of county councils as well as county boroughs. Using public policy techniques on a group of local authorities in the far South West it proposes that variations can be explained by an understanding of the deep core beliefs of councillors, their previous experience of ‘commissioner’ and ‘provider’ roles, and the availability or otherwise of a dedicated policy entrepreneur to promote change. PMID:23752983

  12. Does place explain racial health disparities? Quantifying the contribution of residential context to the Black/white health gap in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, D Phuong; Finch, Brian Karl; Basurto-Davila, Ricardo; Bird, Chloe; Escarce, Jose; Lurie, Nicole

    2008-10-01

    The persistence of the black health disadvantage has been a puzzling component of health in the United States in spite of general declines in rates of morbidity and mortality over the past century. Studies that have focused on well-established individual-level determinants of health such as socio-economic status and health behaviors have been unable to fully explain these disparities. Recent research has begun to focus on other factors such as racism, discrimination, and segregation. Variation in neighborhood context-socio-demographic composition, social aspects, and built environment-has been postulated as an additional explanation for racial disparities, but few attempts have been made to quantify its overall contribution to the black/white health gap. This analysis is an attempt to generate an estimate of place effects on explaining health disparities by utilizing data from the U.S. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) (1989-1994), combined with a methodology for identifying residents of the same blocks both within and across NHIS survey cross-sections. Our results indicate that controlling for a single point-in-time measure of residential context results in a roughly 15-76% reduction of the black/white disparities in self-rated health that were previously unaccounted for by individual-level controls. The contribution of residential context toward explaining the black/white self-rated health gap varies by both age and gender such that contextual explanations of disparities decline with age and appear to be smaller among females.

  13. Helping Residents Protect Water Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building on the successful early engagement of the Plain Sect agricultural community, the Eastern Lancaster County Source Water Protection Collaborative is expanding its efforts to involve local residents in the work of protecting drinking water sources.

  14. Explaining labor wedge trends: An equilibrium search approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralia A. Quintero Rojas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a search and matching model of the labor market and use this as a device to explain the long-run variation in the aggregate hours worked in several OECD countries over the period 1980-2013. The model distinguishes between hours worked per employee (intensive margin and the employment rate (extensive margin and includes a tax/benefit system. This allows us to assess the impact of the observed time-varying heterogeneity of taxes, unemployment benefits, and workers’ bargaining power on the two margins. Our method is based on an accounting procedure. Once it has been calibrated, we find that, for the ten countries of the sample, our search economy is able to explain the patterns of the two margins of aggregate hours worked over the 1980-2013 period, when it includes the cross-country heterogeneity of the labor market institutions.

  15. the contribution of resident physicians

    OpenAIRE

    Trusch, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    A telephone survey of resident physicians to the basic conditions in which they work has been conducted in 14 of the 16 federal states. In the center of the survey stood the general medicine within the prisons. This limitation was necessary in order to achieve comparability to primary medical care outside of correctional services. There are 140 salaried and tenured resident pysicians and 97 contract doctors in the general medical care of approx. 70000 prisoners in 185 independent prisons ...

  16. Minimum Data Set Active Resident Information Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The MDS Active Resident Report summarizes information for residents currently in nursing homes. The source of these counts is the residents MDS assessment record....

  17. Sleep Quality Among Psychiatry Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho Aguiar Melo, Matias; das Chagas Medeiros, Francisco; Meireles Sales de Bruin, Veralice; Pinheiro Santana, José Abraão; Bastos Lima, Alexandre; De Francesco Daher, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Medical residency programs are traditionally known for long working hours, which can be associated with a poor quality of sleep and daytime sleepiness. However, few studies have focused on this theme. Our objective was to investigate sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and their relation with anxiety, social phobia, and depressive symptoms. This cross-sectional observational study involved 59 psychiatry residents. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) were used to measure the quality of sleep and excessive daytime sleepiness ([EDS] and ESS > 10), respectively. Among the 59 psychiatry residents, 59.3% had poor sleep quality (PSQI > 5) and 28.8% had EDS. Poor sleep quality was associated with higher EDS (P = 0.03) and the year of residency program (P = 0.03). Only 20% of residents with poor sleep had consulted at least once for sleep problems; 54.2% had used medications for sleep; and 16.9% were using medications at the time of interview. Only 30% obtained medication during medical consultations. Poor sleep was associated with irregular sleep hours (P = 0.001) and long periods lying down without sleep (P = 0.03). Poor sleep quality was also associated with high scores of anxiety symptoms (P Psychiatry residents frequently have poor sleep quality and EDS. Considering that sleep disorders can affect quality of life, predispose to metabolic syndrome, and be associated with worse performance at work, attention to this clinical problem is needed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Selection criteria of residents for residency programs in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwan, Yousef; Ayed, Adel

    2013-01-19

    In Kuwait, 21 residency training programs were offered in the year 2011; however, no data is available regarding the criteria of selecting residents for these programs. This study aims to provide information about the importance of these criteria. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from members (e.g. chairmen, directors, assistants …etc.) of residency programs in Kuwait. A total of 108 members were invited to participate. They were asked to rate the importance level (scale from 1 to 5) of criteria that may affect the acceptance of an applicant to their residency programs. Average scores were calculated for each criterion. Of the 108 members invited to participate, only 12 (11.1%) declined to participate. Interview performance was ranked as the most important criteria for selecting residents (average score: 4.63/5.00), followed by grade point average (average score: 3.78/5.00) and honors during medical school (average score: 3.67/5.00). On the other hand, receiving disciplinary action during medical school and failure in a required clerkship were considered as the most concerning among other criteria used to reject applicants (average scores: 3.83/5.00 and 3.54/5.00 respectively). Minor differences regarding the importance level of each criterion were noted across different programs. This study provided general information about the criteria that are used to accept/reject applicants to residency programs in Kuwait. Future studies should be conducted to investigate each criterion individually, and to assess if these criteria are related to residents' success during their training.

  19. Explaining human uniqueness: genome interactions with environment, behaviour and culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varki, Ajit; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Eichler, Evan E.

    2009-01-01

    What makes us human? Specialists in each discipline respond through the lens of their own expertise. In fact, ‘anthropogeny’ (explaining the origin of humans) requires a transdisciplinary approach that eschews such barriers. Here we take a genomic and genetic perspective towards molecular variation, explore systems analysis of gene expression and discuss an organ-systems approach. Rejecting any ‘genes versus environment’ dichotomy, we then consider genome interactions with environment, behaviour and culture, finally speculating that aspects of human uniqueness arose because of a primate evolutionary trend towards increasing and irreversible dependence on learned behaviours and culture — perhaps relaxing allowable thresholds for large-scale genomic diversity. PMID:18802414

  20. Variational principles

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseiwitsch, B L

    2004-01-01

    This graduate-level text's primary objective is to demonstrate the expression of the equations of the various branches of mathematical physics in the succinct and elegant form of variational principles (and thereby illuminate their interrelationship). Its related intentions are to show how variational principles may be employed to determine the discrete eigenvalues for stationary state problems and to illustrate how to find the values of quantities (such as the phase shifts) that arise in the theory of scattering. Chapter-by-chapter treatment consists of analytical dynamics; optics, wave mecha

  1. Explaining excess morbidity amongst homeless shelter users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benjaminsen, Lars; Birkelund, Jesper Fels

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: This article analyses excess morbidity amongst homeless shelter users compared to the general Danish population. The study provides an extensive control for confounding and investigates to what extent excess morbidity is explained by homelessness or other risk factors. METHODS: Data set...... background explain only a limited part. However, when conducting an extensive control for confounding, a significantly higher morbidity was identified amongst shelter users for infectious diseases, lung, skin, blood and digestive diseases, injuries, and poisoning. CONCLUSIONS: Ill health amongst homeless...... shelter users is widely explained by substance abuse problems and other risk factors. Nonetheless, for many diseases homelessness poses an additional risk to the health....

  2. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene in children living in city and rural residences in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: The present study aims to assess the biological uptake in children of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons measured as 1-hydroxypyrene in urine from children living in city and rural residences. METHODS: 103 children living in Copenhagen and 101 children living in rural residences of Denmark......, the children excreted on average 0.07 [95% CI: 0.01-0.41] micromol urinary 1-hydroxypyrene per mol creatinine. Children living in urban residences excreted 0.02 [95% CI: 0.01-0.05] micromol more 1-hydroxypyrene than children living in rural residences. This was confirmed in the multiple regression analysis...... living in urban residences are more exposed to PAH than children living in rural residences. Time spent outdoors increased the excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene, which was most evident among urban children. Higher concentrations of ambient air pollution in urban areas may explain this finding. No influence...

  3. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiology and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography ( ... pictures of the major blood vessels throughout your body. It may be performed with or without contrast ...

  4. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot ... d like to talk with you about magnetic resonance angiography, or as it’s commonly known, MRA. MRA ...

  5. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Medical Imaging Costs Radiology and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/ ... Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello, I’m Dr. Elliot ...

  6. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) ... Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test Medical Imaging Costs Video: Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Radiology and You ...

  7. Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin

    2009-01-01

    Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.

  8. Explorers Presentation: Explaining the Tides to Children

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2015-01-01

    Explaining the tides to children Presentation includes information about: Orbits of the Earth, Moon and Sun; Moon phases and the lunar cycle; Gravity; Gravity and the tide; Types of tides; The tides and me!; Tide tables; Extra insight

  9. Killer whale morphology - Variation in morphology of killer whale ecotypes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We are using elliptic Fourier analysis to determine the patterns of variation in morphology of dorsal fin shape, saddle patch shape, and eye patch shape of resident,...

  10. Explainers – New energy for the museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Martin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Exploratorium explainer program is not only important to the young people involved, but is an integral part of the museum culture. This initiative that started to help the youth of our community has blossomed into a program that has been very helpful to the science centre. In fact, the institution would not be complete without the fresh energy of the explainers. They help the Exploratorium to continue to give the real pear to its public.

  11. Optimization of Occupancy Based Demand Controlled Ventilation in Residences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Dorthe Kragsig; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2011-01-01

    Although it has been used for many years in commercial buildings, the application of demand controlled ventilation in residences is limited. In this study we used occupant exposure to pollutants integrated over time (referred to as "dose") as the metric to evaluate the effectiveness and air quality...... implications of demand controlled ventilation in residences. We looked at air quality for two situations. The first is that typically used in ventilation standards: the exposure over a long term. The second is to look at peak exposures that are associated with time variations in ventilation rates and pollutant...... generation. The pollutant generation had two components: a background rate associated with the building materials and furnishings and a second component related to occupants. The demand controlled ventilation system operated at a low airflow rate when the residence was unoccupied and at a high airflow rate...

  12. Evaluating Dermatology Residency Program Websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashack, Kurt A; Burton, Kyle A; Soh, Jonathan M; Lanoue, Julien; Boyd, Anne H; Milford, Emily E; Dunnick, Cory; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2016-03-16

    Internet resources play an important role in how medical students access information related to residency programs.Evaluating program websites is necessary in order to provide accurate information for applicants and provide information regarding areas of website improvement for programs. To date, dermatology residency websites (D  WS) have not been evaluated.This paper evaluates dermatology residency websites based on availability of predefined measures. Using the FREIDA (Fellowship and Residency Electronic Interactive Database) Online database, authors searched forall accredited dermatology program websites. Eligible programs were identified through the FREIDA Online database and had a functioning website. Two authors independently extracted data with consensus or third researcher resolution of differences. This data was accessed and archived from July 15th to July 17th, 2015.Primary outcomes measured were presence of content on education, resident and faculty information, program environment, applicant recruitment, schedule, salary, and website quality evaluated using an online tool (WooRank.com). Out of 117 accredited dermatology residencies, 115 had functioning webpages. Of these, 76.5% (75) had direct links found on the FRIEDA Online database. Most programs contained information on education, faculty, program environment, and applicant recruitment. However, website quality and marketing effectiveness were highly variable; most programs were deemed to need improvements in the functioning of their webpages. Also, additional information on current residents and about potential away rotations were lacking from most websites with only 52.2% (60) and 41.7% (48) of programs providing this content, respectively. A majority of dermatology residency websites contained adequate information on many of the factors we evaluated. However, many were lacking in areas that matter to applicants. We hope this report will encourage dermatology residencyprograms

  13. Operative experience of residents in US general surgery programs: a gap between expectation and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Richard H; Biester, Thomas W; Tabuenca, Arnold; Rhodes, Robert S; Cofer, Joseph B; Britt, L D; Lewis, Frank R

    2009-05-01

    . In addition, there was significant variation between residents in operative experience for specific procedures. In virtually all cases, the mean reported experience exceeded the mode, suggesting that the mean is a poor measure of typical experience. These data pose important problems for surgical educators. Methods will have to be developed to allow surgeons to reach a basic level of competence in procedures which they are likely to experience only rarely during residency. Even for more commonly performed procedures, the numbers of repetitions are not very robust, stressing the need to determine objectively whether residents are actually achieving basic competency in these operations. Finally, the large variations in experience between individuals in our residency system need to be explored, understood, and remedied.

  14. Simulation Activity in Otolaryngology Residencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Ellen S; Wiet, Gregory J; Seidman, Michael; Hussey, Heather M; Malekzadeh, Sonya; Fried, Marvin P

    2015-08-01

    Simulation has become a valuable tool in medical education, and several specialties accept or require simulation as a resource for resident training or assessment as well as for board certification or maintenance of certification. This study investigates current simulation resources and activities in US otolaryngology residency programs and examines interest in advancing simulation training and assessment within the specialty. Web-based survey. US otolaryngology residency training programs. An electronic web-based survey was disseminated to all US otolaryngology program directors to determine their respective institutional and departmental simulation resources, existing simulation activities, and interest in further simulation initiatives. Descriptive results are reported. Responses were received from 43 of 104 (43%) residency programs. Simulation capabilities and resources are available in most respondents' institutions (78.6% report onsite resources; 73.8% report availability of models, manikins, and devices). Most respondents (61%) report limited simulation activity within otolaryngology. Areas of simulation are broad, addressing technical and nontechnical skills related to clinical training (94%). Simulation is infrequently used for research, credentialing, or systems improvement. The majority of respondents (83.8%) expressed interest in participating in multicenter trials of simulation initiatives. Most respondents from otolaryngology residency programs have incorporated some simulation into their curriculum. Interest among program directors to participate in future multicenter trials appears high. Future research efforts in this area should aim to determine optimal simulators and simulation activities for training and assessment as well as how to best incorporate simulation into otolaryngology residency training programs. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  15. 38 CFR 51.70 - Resident rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.70 Resident rights. The resident has a... legal representative. (5) Conveyance upon death. Upon the death of a resident with a personal fund...; (iii) Physicians of the resident's choice (to provide care in the nursing home, physicians must meet...

  16. Mentorship in orthopaedic and trauma residency training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mentorship is important in residency training as it is necessary for personal and professional development of the resident trainees. Objectives: This study documents mentorship in orthopaedic residency training programme in Nigeria by assessing the awareness of orthopaedic residents on the role of a mentor, ...

  17. Surgery resident learning styles and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contessa, Jack; Ciardiello, Kenneth A; Perlman, Stacie

    2005-01-01

    To determine if surgical residents share a preferred learning style as measured by Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI) and if a relationship exists between resident learning style and achievement as measured by a standardized examination (AME). Also, core faculty learning styles were assessed to determine if faculty and residents share a preferred learning style. Kolb's LSI, Version 3, was administered to 16 surgical residents and the residency program's core faculty of 6 attending physicians. To measure academic achievement, the American Medical Education (AME) examination was administered to residents. The Hospital of Saint Raphael, General Surgery Residency Program, New Haven, Connecticut. Both instruments were administered to residents during protected core curriculum time. Core faculty were administered the LSI on an individual basis. Surgical residents of the Hospital of Saint Raphael's General Surgery Residency Program and 6 core faculty members Analysis of resident learning style preference revealed Converging as the most commonly occurring style for residents (7) followed by Accommodating (5), Assimilating (3), and Diverging (1). The predominant learning style for core faculty was also Converging (4) with 2 Divergers. The average score for the Convergers on the AME was 62.6 compared with 42 for the next most frequently occurring learning style, Accommodators. In this surgical residency program, a preferred learning style for residents seems to exist (Converging), which confirms what previous studies have found. Additionally, residents with this learning style attained a higher average achievement score as measured by the AME. Also, core faculty share the same preferential learning style as this subset of residents.

  18. The resident's view of residency training in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, D G

    1966-04-09

    In the view of residents in their last year of specialty training, the Fellowship is now becoming the operative standard for obtaining hospital privileges in urban centres and they felt that this implied that the two standards, the Certificate and the Fellowship of the Royal College, were not achieving the purpose for which they were designed. Although 80% of the residents intended to write the Fellowship, few viewed a year in a basic science department or in research as of intrinsic value in terms of their future practice.The examinations of the Royal College were the subject of criticism, most residents feeling that the examinations did not test the knowledge and ability gained in training. Most expressed a desire for ongoing evaluation during the training period.Service responsibilities were generally regarded as too heavy.Despite the criticism of both training and examination, most residents felt that their training had provided them with the experience and background they needed to practise as specialists.

  19. Conversations with Holocaust survivor residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Sandra P; LeNavenec, Carole Lynne; Aldiabat, Khaldoun

    2011-03-01

    Traumatic events in one's younger years can have an impact on how an individual copes with later life. One traumatic experience for Jewish individuals was the Holocaust. Some of these people are moving into long-term care facilities. It was within this context that the research question emerged: What are Holocaust survivor residents' perceptions of a life lived as they move into a long-term care facility? For this qualitative study, Holocaust survivors were individually interviewed. Findings emphasize that nursing care needs to ensure that Holocaust survivor residents participate in activities, receive timely health care, and receive recognition of their life experiences. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Medical practice variations: changing the theoretical approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westert, G.P.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    1999-01-01

    Variations in medical practice are well documented, but there has been less progress in explaining these variations. This paper discusses the existing theories and hypotheses and concludes that a change in theoretical approach is required, to one that more directly highlights the social context

  1. Mining and Explaining Relationships in Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinpeng; Asano, Yasuhito; Yoshikawa, Masatoshi

    Mining and explaining relationships between concepts are challenging tasks in the field of knowledge search. We propose a new approach for the tasks using disjoint paths formed by links in Wikipedia. Disjoint paths are easy to understand and do not contain redundant information. To achieve this approach, we propose a naive method, as well as a generalized flow based method, and a technique for mining more disjoint paths using the generalized flow based method. We also apply the approach to classification of relationships. Our experiments reveal that the generalized flow based method can mine many disjoint paths important for understanding a relationship, and the classification is effective for explaining relationships.

  2. Model Legislation on Student Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education in the States, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Because of the radical variance in residency requirements from state to state and sometimes from institution to institution, and because of several court cases involving this issue, the Education Commission of the States appointed a Committee to develop (1) a statement of principles for consideration in drafting legislation in connection with…

  3. From Residency to Lifelong Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Keith

    2015-11-01

    The residency training experience is the perfect environment for learning. The university/institution patient population provides a never-ending supply of patients with unique management challenges. Resources abound that allow the discovery of knowledge about similar situations. Senior teachers provide counseling and help direct appropriate care. Periodic testing and evaluations identify deficiencies, which can be corrected with future study. What happens, however, when the resident graduates? Do they possess all the knowledge they'll need for the rest of their career? Will medical discovery stand still limiting the need for future study? If initial certification establishes that the physician has the skills and knowledge to function as an independent physician and surgeon, how do we assure the public that plastic surgeons will practice lifelong learning and remain safe throughout their career? Enter Maintenance of Certification (MOC). In an ideal world, MOC would provide many of the same tools as residency training: identification of gaps in knowledge, resources to correct those deficiencies, overall assessment of knowledge, feedback about communication skills and professionalism, and methods to evaluate and improve one's practice. This article discusses the need; for education and self-assessment that extends beyond residency training and a commitment to lifelong learning. The American Board of Plastic Surgery MOC program is described to demonstrate how it helps the diplomate reach the goal of continuous practice improvement.

  4. Student Expenses in Residency Interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walling, Anne; Nilsen, Kari; Callaway, Paul; Grothusen, Jill; Gillenwater, Cole; King, Samantha; Unruh, Gregory

    2017-08-01

    The student costs of residency interviewing are of increasing concern but limited current information is available. Updated, more detailed information would assist students and residency programs in decisions about residency selection. The study objective was to measure the expenses and time spent in residency interviewing by the 2016 graduating class of the University of Kansas School of Medicine and assess the impact of gender, regional campus location, and primary care application. All 195 students who participated in the 2016 National Residency Matching Program (NRMP) received a 33 item questionnaire addressing interviewing activity, expenses incurred, time invested and related factors. Main measures were self-reported estimates of expenses and time spent interviewing. Descriptive analyses were applied to participant characteristics and responses. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and chi-square tests compared students by gender, campus (main/regional), and primary care/other specialties. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) on the dependent variables provided follow-up tests on significant MANOVA results. A total of 163 students (84%) completed the survey. The average student reported 38 (1-124) applications, 16 (1-54) invitations, 11 (1-28) completed interviews, and spent $3,500 ($20-$12,000) and 26 (1-90) days interviewing. No significant differences were found by gender. After MANOVA and ANOVA analyses, non-primary care applicants reported significantly more applications, interviews, and expenditures, but less program financial support. Regional campus students reported significantly fewer invitations, interviews, and days interviewing, but equivalent costs when controlled for primary care application. Cost was a limiting factor in accepting interviews for 63% and time for 53% of study respondents. Students reported investing significant time and money in interviewing. After controlling for other variables, primary care was associated with significantly

  5. Explaining the VET Applied Research Developmental Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Linda; Beddie, Francesca M.

    2017-01-01

    This document explains the VET Applied Research Developmental Framework, created as part of a project that explored how the vocational education and training (VET) sector could broaden its engagement in Australia's research and development (R&D) and innovation systems. Achieving this engagement will rely significantly on building the…

  6. Explaining Violence in Sierra Leone's Civil War

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Explaining the violence of civil war is never a simple task for the scholar. In the case of the Sierra Leone, paradoxically, the task has in some ways been rendered more difficult by the sheer variety of compelling scholarship on the question. This paper seeks to identify the most useful of the explanations offered thus far, and ...

  7. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recently posted: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test Medical Imaging Costs Video: Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Radiology and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot ...

  8. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiology and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography ( ... problems, recent surgeries and allergies. If you’re female and there’s a possibility that you’re pregnant ...

  9. Adaptive hatching hypotheses do not explain asynchronous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the core of the suite of adaptive hatching hypotheses advanced to explain asynchronous hatching in birds is the assumption that if food is not limited then all the hatchlings will develop normally to adulthood. In this study Brown-headed Parrot Poicephalus cryptoxanthus chicks were hand fed and weighed on a daily basis.

  10. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info ... I’d like to talk with you about magnetic resonance angiography, or as it’s commonly known, MRA. ...

  11. How Contracts and Enforcement Explain Transaction Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooi, E.A.; Gilliland, D.I.

    2013-01-01

    This study considers the influence of contracts on enforcement and the subsequent performance impact of aligned and misaligned enforcement. We define enforcement as a corrective action aimed at remedying problems occurring in the transaction. First we explain the role of contracts and show that at

  12. Measuring and explaining house price developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, P.

    2010-01-01

    This study discusses ways of measuring and explaining the development of house prices. The goal of the research underpinning this dissertation was to develop a methodological framework for studying these developments. This framework relates, first, to correcting for changes in the composition of

  13. Explaining quality of life with crisis theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprangers, M.A.G.; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.; de Haes, H.C.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Based on the premises of crisis theory. we expected cancer patients in-crisis to report a poorer quality of life (QL) and cancer patients post-crisis to report a similar level of overall QL in comparison to healthy individuals. To explain these hypothesized findings, we expected the coping resources

  14. Emotional Intelligence of Medical Residents of Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Mahsa Ghajarzadeh; Mehdi Mohammadifar

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, educators pay attention to emotional intelligence which is defined as the ability to monitor and explain one’s own and other’s emotional experience and feelings to differentiate between them as well as applying necessary information for determining thoughts and actions. The goal of this study was to determine emotional intelligence of medical residents of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. By means of two stage cluster sampling, 98 medical residents of Tehran University of Medic...

  15. Fomenting Sickness: Nocebo Priming of Residents about Expected Wind Turbine Health Harms

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Simon; Joshi, Ketan; Fry, Luke

    2014-01-01

    A nocebo effect hypothesis has been proposed to explain the varying spatio-temporal distribution of reported complaints by small minorities of exposed residents about noise and health effects said to be caused by wind farm turbines. The hypothesis requires that those complaining have been exposed to negative, potentially frightening information about the impact of proposed wind farms on nearby residents, and that this information conditions both expectations about future health impacts or the...

  16. Teaching residents to write a research paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleridge, S T

    1993-09-01

    Medical writing and publications are important in developing a scholarly basis for residency programs and in providing a learning experience for both resident and faculty mentors. Residency directors must provide the stimulus and support for both faculty and residents' varied creative activities. This support manifests itself in a commitment to scholarly activity (including a dedicated research person), the procurement of available research materials, the establishment of a process or plan for beginning a research project, and the development of a method for rewarding or recognizing faculty and residents who produce scholarly works. Some osteopathic residency programs may need to train faculty in research skills at the same time that residents are learning to write. Trained faculty are better models and coaches for residents engaged in research. Beginning with a fundamental, but disciplined, writing program, both faculty and residents may learn methods for sharing new knowledge or acquiring those skills necessary to critically analyze the medical literature.

  17. Clinical teachers' views on how teaching teams deliver and manage residency training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slootweg, Irene; Lombarts, Kiki; Van Der Vleuten, Cees; Mann, Karen; Jacobs, Johanna; Scherpbier, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Residents learn by working in a multidisciplinary context, in different locations, with many clinical teachers. Although clinical teachers are collectively responsible for residency training, little is known about the way teaching teams function. We conducted a qualitative study to explore clinical teachers' views on how teaching teams deliver residency training. Data were collected during six focus group interviews in 2010. The analysis revealed seven teamwork themes: (1) clinical teachers were more passionate about clinical expertise than about knowledge of teaching and teamwork; (2) residents needed to be informed about clinical teachers' shared expectations; (3) the role of the programme director in the teaching team needed further clarification; (4) the main topics of discussion in teaching teams were resident performance and the division of teaching tasks; (5) the structural elements of the organisation of residency training were clear; (6) clinical teachers had difficulty giving and receiving feedback and (7) clinical teachers felt under pressure to be accountable for team performance to external parties. The clinical teachers did not consider teamwork to be of any great significance to residency training. Teachers' views of professionalism and their own experiences as residents may explain their non-teamwork directed attitude. Efforts to strengthen teamwork within teaching teams may impact positively on the quality of residency training.

  18. Variability in working memory performance explained by epistasis vs polygenic scores in the ZNF804A pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicodemus, Kristin K.; Hargreaves, April; Morris, Derek; Anney, Richard; Gill, Michael; Corvin, Aiden; Donohoe, Gary; Ripke, Stephan; Sanders, Alan R.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Levinson, Douglas F.; Sklar, Pamela; Holmans, Peter A.; Lin, Dan-Yu; Duan, Jubao; Ophoff, Roel A.; Andreassen, Ole A.; Scolnick, Edward; Cichon, Sven; St Clair, David; Gurling, Hugh; Werge, Thomas; Rujescu, Dan; Blackwood, Douglas H. R.; Pato, Carlos N.; Malhotra, Anil K.; Purcell, Shaun; Dudbridge, Frank; Neale, Benjamin M.; Rossin, Lizzy; Visscher, Peter M.; Posthuma, Danielle; Ruderfer, Douglas M.; Fanous, Ayman; Stefansson, Hreinn; Steinberg, Stacy; Mowry, Bryan J.; Golimbet, Vera; de Hert, Marc; Jönsson, Erik G.; Bitter, István; Pietiläinen, Olli P. H.; Collier, David A.; Tosato, Sarah; Agartz, Ingrid; Albus, Margot; Alexander, Madeline; Amdur, Richard L.; Amin, Farooq; Bass, Nicholas; Bergen, Sarah E.; Black, Donald W.; Børglum, Anders D.; Brown, Matthew A.; Bruggeman, Richard; Buccola, Nancy G.; Byerley, William F.; Cahn, Wiepke; Cantor, Rita M.; Carr, Vaughan J.; Catts, Stanley V.; Choudhury, Khalid; Cloninger, C. Robert; Cormican, Paul; Craddock, Nicholas; Danoy, Patrick A.; Datta, Susmita; de Haan, Lieuwe; Demontis, Ditte; Dikeos, Dimitris; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donnelly, Peter; Duong, Linh; Dwyer, Sarah; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Freedman, Robert; Freimer, Nelson B.; Friedl, Marion; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Giegling, Ina; Glenthøj, Birte; Godard, Stephanie; Hamshere, Marian; Hansen, Mark; Hansen, Thomas; Hartmann, Annette M.; Henskens, Frans A.; Hougaard, David M.; Hultman, Christina M.; Ingason, Andrés; Jablensky, Assen V.; Jakobsen, Klaus D.; Jay, Maurice; Jürgens, Gesche; Kahn, René S.; Keller, Matthew C.; Kenis, Gunter; Kenny, Elaine; Kim, Yunjung; Kirov, George K.; Konnerth, Heike; Konte, Bettina; Krabbendam, Lydia; Krasucki, Robert; Lasseter, Virginia K.; Laurent, Claudine; Lawrence, Jacob; Lencz, Todd; Lerer, F. Bernard; Liang, Kung-Yee; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Linszen, Don H.; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Loughland, Carmel M.; Maclean, Alan W.; Maher, Brion S.; Maier, Wolfgang; Mallet, Jacques; Malloy, Pat; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mattingsdal, Morten; McGhee, Kevin A.; McGrath, John J.; McIntosh, Andrew; McLean, Duncan E.; McQuillin, Andrew; Melle, Ingrid; Michie, Patricia T.; Milanova, Vihra; Morris, Derek W.; Mors, Ole; Mortensen, Preben B.; Moskvina, Valentina; Muglia, Pierandrea; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Nertney, Deborah A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Nielsen, Jimmi; Nikolov, Ivan; Nordentoft, Merete; Norton, Nadine; Nöthen, Markus M.; O'Dushlaine, Colm T.; Olincy, Ann; Olsen, Line; O'Neill, F. Anthony; Ørntoft, Torben F.; Owen, Michael J.; Pantelis, Christos; Papadimitriou, George; Pato, Michele T.; Peltonen, Leena; Petursson, Hannes; Pickard, Ben; Pimm, Jonathan; Pulver, Ann E.; Puri, Vinay; Quested, Digby; Quinn, Emma M.; Rasmussen, Henrik B.; Réthelyi, János M.; Ribble, Robert; Rietschel, Marcella; Riley, Brien P.; Ruggeri, Mirella; Schall, Ulrich; Schulze, Thomas G.; Schwab, Sibylle G.; Scott, Rodney J.; Shi, Jianxin; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Spencer, Chris C. A.; Stefansson, Kari; Strange, Amy; Strengman, Eric; Stroup, T. Scott; Suvisaari, Jaana; Terenius, Lars; Thirumalai, Srinivasa; Thygesen, Johan H.; Timm, Sally; Toncheva, Draga; van den Oord, Edwin; van Os, Jim; van Winkel, Ruud; Veldink, Jan; Walsh, Dermot; Wang, August G.; Wiersma, Durk; Wildenauer, Dieter B.; Williams, Hywel J.; Williams, Nigel M.; Wormley, Brandon; Zammit, Stan; Sullivan, Patrick F.; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Daly, Mark J.; Gejman, Pablo; Barroso, Ines; Blackwell, Jenefer M.; Bramon, Elvira; Casas, Juan P.; Deloukas, Panos; Duncanson, Audrey; Jankowski, Janusz; Markus, Hugh S.; Mathew, Christopher G.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Plomin, Robert; Rautanen, Anna; Sawcer, Stephen J.; Trembath, Richard C.; Viswanathan, Ananth C.; Wood, Nicholas W.; Band, Gavin; Bellenguez, Céline; Freeman, Colin; Hellenthal, Garrett; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Pirinen, Matti; Pearson, Richard; Su, Zhan; Vukcevic, Damjan; Langford, Cordelia; Hunt, Sarah E.; Edkins, Sarah; Gwilliam, Rhian; Blackburn, Hannah; Bumpstead, Suzannah J.; Dronov, Serge; Gillman, Matthew; Gray, Emma; Hammond, Naomi; Jayakumar, Alagurevathi; McCann, Owen T.; Liddle, Jennifer; Potter, Simon C.; Ravindrarajah, Radhi; Ricketts, Michelle; Waller, Matthew; Weston, Paul; Widaa, Sara; Whittaker, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the variation in neuropsychological function explained by risk alleles at the psychosis susceptibility gene ZNF804A and its interacting partners using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), polygenic scores, and epistatic analyses. Of particular importance was the relative

  19. A patient safety curriculum for medical residents based on the perspectives of residents and supervisors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansma, J.D.; Wagner, C.; Bijnen, A.B.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To develop a patient safety course for medical residents based on the views of medical residents and their supervisors. Methods: In 2007, questionnaires were distributed to investigate residents' and supervisors' perspectives on the current patient safety performance and educational

  20. Change of Job and Change of Residence - Geographical Mobility of the Labour Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Filges, Trine

    Solving regional labour market discrepancies through geographical mobility has gained increased political interest. The decision of changing job is closely related to the decision of changing residence as either change may imply a change in commuting cost. In this paper we set up a search model...... that can explain the residence and job changing behaviour of workers. The model is a double search model, in the sense that workers search for better jobs and dwellings simultaneously. Results show that the interrelationship between change of job and change of residence is very complex. However, scope...

  1. Neodymium isotopic variations in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepgras, D. J.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1980-01-01

    Direct measurement of the isotopic composition of Nd in the Atlantic agree with the Nd content in ferromanganese sediments and differ from the observed amounts in the Pacific samples. These data indicate the existence of distinctive differences in the isotopic composition of Nd in the waters of major oceans; the average values determined from seawater and ferromanganese sediments are considerably lower than in sources with oceanic mantle affinities showing that the REE in the oceans is dominated by continental sources. The Nd isotopic variations in seawater are applied to relate the residence time of Nd and mixing rates between the oceans.

  2. How residency duration affects the outcome of a territorial contest: Complementary game-theoretic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesterton-Gibbons, Mike; Sherratt, Tom N

    2016-04-07

    While the first individuals to discover and maintain territories are generally respected as owners, under some conditions there may be ambiguity as to who got there first. Here we attempt to understand the evolutionary consequences of this ambiguity by developing a pair of game-theoretic models in which we explicitly consider rival residency-based claims to ownership. Following earlier qualitative explanations for residency effects, we assume that either the value of the territory (Model A) or an interloper׳s self-belief that it is the owner (Model B) increases with duration of residency. Model A clearly demonstrates that if the value of a territory increases to a resident over time, so should its motivation to fight in terms of the effort it invests in fighting. Indeed, only a small increase in territory value with residency duration can be sufficient for longer established residents to win disputes, even without any arbitrary convention or other form of priority effect. Likewise, Model B shows that the observed increase in fighting persistence with residency duration can be readily explained as a consequence of increasing confidence on behalf of the interloper that it is the rightful owner. Collectively, the models help to explain some general findings long observed by empiricists, and shed light on the nature of conflicts that can arise when individuals do not have complete information about rival claims to ownership. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. John Watson's paradoxical struggle to explain Freud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilling, M

    2000-03-01

    John Watson was fascinated by the discoveries of psychoanalysis, but he rejected Freud's central concept of the unconscious as incompatible with behaviorism. After failing to explain psychoanalysis in terms of William James's concept of habit, Watson borrowed concepts from classical conditioning to explain Freud's discoveries. Watson's famous experiment with Little Albert is interpreted not only in the context of Pavlovian conditioning but also as a psychoanalytically inspired attempt to capture simplified analogues of adult phobic behavior, including the "transference" of emotion in an infant. Watson used his behavioristic concept of conditioned emotional responses to compete with Freud's concepts of displacement and the unconscious transference of emotion. Behind a mask of anti-Freudian bias, Watson surprisingly emerges as a psychologist who popularized Freud and pioneered the scientific appraisal of his ideas in the laboratory.

  4. Explaining the Allocation of Regional Structural Funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charron, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    What regional factors can explain the heterogeneity in Structural Funds distribution to European Union regions? Past studies have shown that aside from the level of economic development and rates of unemployment, other political, and economic factors systematically explain why certain European...... Union regions receive greater funding than others, in particular where there is room for bargaining. In this article, a novel theory is posited which argues that the determination of Structural Funds is based on an interaction between a region’s formal institutions (the level of a regional autonomy......) and informal institutions (its level of quality of government). In cases of low regional autonomy, member states and European Union level actors prefer to allocate greater levels of Funds to regions with lower quality of government in order to increase cohesion. Yet in cases of high regional autonomy, risks...

  5. Children's Theories and the Drive to Explain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwitzgebel, Eric

    Debate has been growing in developmental psychology over how much the cognitive development of children is like theory change in science. Useful debate on this topic requires a clear understanding of what it would be for a child to have a theory. I argue that existing accounts of theories within philosophy of science and developmental psychology either are less precise than is ideal for the task or cannot capture everyday theorizing of the sort that children, if they theorize, must do. I then propose an account of theories that ties theories and explanation very closely together, treating theories primarily as products of a drive to explain. I clarify some of the positions people have taken regarding the theory theory of development, and I conclude by proposing that psychologists interested in the ''theory theory'' look for patterns of affect and arousal in development that would accompany the existence of a drive to explain.

  6. Explaining money creation by commercial banks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    2015-01-01

    created by commercial banks, as explained by the Bank of England recently (McLeay, Radia & Thomas, 2014b), is often met with incredulity: “What do you mean, created?” This paper introduces five easy-to-grasp analogies that educators and reformers may use to convey key money-creation concepts to a lay......Educators and economists concerned with monetary reform face the extraordinary challenge of explaining to the public and its elected representatives not only what a reformed system would look like, but also how the current system works. Centrally, the point that in a modern economy money is largely...... audience. The analogies offered include (1) money as patches in an expandable patchwork quilt that covers a nation’s real assets, (2) the money supply as water in a bathtub with a faucet and a drain, (3) money understood as debt in a model economy run by schoolchildren, (4) the misleading concept of a bank...

  7. Explaining the gender wage gap in Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Khitarishvili, Tamar

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates gender wage differentials in Georgia between 2000 and 2004. Using ordinary least squares, we find that the gender wage gap in Georgia is substantially higher than in other transition countries. Correcting for sample selection bias using the Heckman approach further increases the gender wage gap. The Blinder Oaxaca decomposition results suggest that most of the wage gap remains unexplained. The explained portion of the gap is almost entirely attributed to industrial variab...

  8. IEE wiring regulations explained and illustrated

    CERN Document Server

    Scaddan, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The IEE Wiring Regulations Explained and Illustrated, Second Edition discusses the recommendations of the IEE Regulations for the Electrical Equipment of Buildings for the safe selection or erection of wiring installations. The book emphasizes earthing, bonding, protection, and circuit design of electrical wirings. The text reviews the fundamental requirements for safety, earthing systems, the earth fault loop impedance, and supplementary bonding. The book also describes the different types of protection, such as protection against mechanical damage, overcurrent, under voltage (which prevents

  9. A More Practical Method for Explaining Equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Jang Yu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to suggest a more practical method for explaining market equilibrium in a two-dimensional risk-return world. Its main difference from textbook contents is to define, in both qualitative and quantitative ways, the environment or the system factor and treat it as an endogenous variable. Once the two-dimensional framework that is capable of managing uncertainty and environmental relationship can be reasonably established, a greater number of economic issues can be effect...

  10. Spatial inequalities explained - Evidence from Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes Gräb; Michael Grimm

    2008-01-01

    The literature shows that regional disparities in growth and poverty are often relatively high, that these regional disparities do not necessarily disappear as the economies grow and develop and that these disparities are itself in many cases an important driver of the overall performance of an economy. In this paper we make use of the advantage of a multilevel random coefficient model to explain spatial disparities in incomes among Burkinab`e households. Our findings show that it is not a ge...

  11. Use of the Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment among California Nursing Home Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Lee A; Zingmond, David; Louie, Rachel; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Thomas, Judy; O'Malley, Kate; Wenger, Neil S

    2016-10-01

    Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (POLST) is a tool that facilitates the elicitation and continuity of life-sustaining care preferences. POLST was implemented in California in 2009, but how well it disseminated across a large, racially diverse population is not known and has implications for end-of-life care. To evaluate the use of POLST among California nursing home residents, including variation by resident characteristics and by nursing home facility. Observational study using California Minimum Data Set Section S. A total of 296,276 people with a stay in 1,220 California nursing homes in 2011. The proportion of residents with a completed POLST (containing a resuscitation status order and resident/proxy and physician signatures) and relationship to resident characteristics; change in POLST use during 2011; and POLST completion and unsigned forms within nursing homes. During 2011, POLST completion increased from 33 to 49 % of California nursing home residents. Adjusting for age and gender using a mixed-effects logistic model, long-stay residents were more likely than short-stay residents to have a completed POLST [OR = 2.36 (95 % CI 2.30, 2.42)]; severely cognitively impaired residents were less likely than unimpaired to have a completed POLST [OR = 0.89 (95 % CI 0.87, 0.92)]; and there was little difference by functional status. There was no difference in POLST completion among White non-Hispanic, Black, and Hispanic residents. Variation in POLST completion among nursing homes far exceeded that attributable to resident characteristics with 40 % of facilities having ≥80 % of long-stay residents with a completed POLST, while 20 % of facilities had ≤10 % of long-stay residents with a completed POLST. Thirteen percent of nursing home residents had a POLST containing a resuscitation preference but lacked a signature, rendering the POLST invalid. Statewide nursing home data show broad uptake of POLST in California without racial disparity

  12. Strangers and friends: residents' social careers in assisted living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Candace L; Ball, Mary M; Hollingsworth, Carole; Perkins, Molly M

    2012-07-01

    This study examines coresident relationships in assisted living (AL) and identifies factors influencing relationships. We draw on qualitative data collected from 2008 to 2009 from three AL communities varying in size, location, and resident characteristics. Data collection methods included participant observation, and informal and formal, in-depth interviews with residents, administrators, and AL staff. Data analysis was guided by principles of grounded theory method, an iterative approach that seeks to discover core categories, processes, and patterns and link these together to construct theory. The dynamic, evolutionary nature of relationships and the individual patterns that comprise residents' overall experiences with coresidents are captured by our core category, "negotiating social careers in AL." Across facilities, relationships ranged from stranger to friend. Neighboring was a common way of relating and often involved social support, but was not universal. We offer a conceptual model explaining the multilevel factors influencing residents' relationships and social careers. Our explanatory framework reveals the dynamic and variable nature of coresident relationships and raises additional questions about social career variability, trajectories, and transitions. We discuss implications for practice including the need for useable spaces, thoughtful activity programming, and the promotion of neighboring through staff and family involvement.

  13. Errors by paediatric residents in calculating drug doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, C; Koren, T; Koren, G

    1998-07-01

    Errors in calculating drug doses in infants and small children can cause morbidity and mortality, especially with agents exhibiting a narrow therapeutic window. A previous study from this institution has detected potential life threatening errors in calculations performed by trainees while writing prescriptions. To verify whether the true incidence of trainees' errors in prescribing can be explained by impaired calculation skills in written tests. A tertiary paediatric hospital; educational rounds for core paediatric residents. Two anonymous written tests, which included calculations of doses similar to those performed at the paediatric bedside; one was conducted in 1993 and one in 1995. Thirty four paediatric residents participated in 1993 and 30 in 1995. A substantial number of trainees in both years committed at least one error. In general, there was no correlation between the length of training (0 to 4 years) and likelihood of making a mistake. Three trainees in 1993 and four in 1995 committed 10-fold errors. These seven residents committed significantly more errors than the rest of the group in each of the tests separately. All seven were in their first two years of training, and six were in their first year of residency. A substantial proportion of paediatric trainees make mistakes while calculating drug doses under optimal test conditions. Some trainees commit 10-fold errors, which may be life threatening. The results of these anonymous tests suggest that testing of calculations skills should be mandatory, and appropriate remedial steps should follow to prevent paediatric patients receiving wrong drug dosages.

  14. Continuity of care in dermatology residency programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Tiffany; Vazirnia, Aria; Afshar, Maryam; Dorschner, Robert; Paravar, Taraneh

    2017-05-15

    As established by the AccreditationCouncil for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME),dermatology residents in the United States must participate in continuity clinic. This requirement may be achieved through multiple means, allowing for program variation. To better assess continuity clinic's role in resident learning, more data on this component of graduate medical education is needed. An anonymous online survey was distributed via the American Board of Dermatology list serv to all U.S. dermatology residents. Continuity clinic organization, setting, frequency, and patient and preceptor characteristics were assessed; resident satisfaction and learning were compared. Of 231 responses, 7.8% reported continuity clinic daily, 77.1% weekly, 9.1% every other week, 3.0%monthly, 0.4% once every several months, and 2.2%only during certain blocks. Of the clinics reported,80.1% were "resident-run with attending" and 11.3%were attending-run. The rest were "resident-run with no attending" (0.9%), both resident and attending run(3.0%), or "other" (4.8%). Trainees in resident-run clinics (with attendings) reported greater continuity of care than those in attending-run clinics (p<0.001).Residents reported better teaching with attending presence during patient encounters than when attendings were present only if concerns were raised(p<0.01).

  15. Feasibility of an innovative third-year chief resident system: an internal medicine residency leadership study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolade, Victor O; Staton, Lisa J; Jayarajan, Ramesh; Bentley, Nanette K; Huang, Xiangke

    2014-01-01

    The role of the internal medicine chief resident includes various administrative, academic, social, and educational responsibilities, fulfillment of which prepares residents for further leadership tasks. However, the chief resident position has historically only been held by a few residents. As fourth-year chief residents are becoming less common, we considered a new model for rotating third-year residents as the chief resident. Online surveys were given to all 29 internal medicine residents in a single university-based program after implementation of a leadership curriculum and specific job description for the third-year chief resident. Chief residents evaluated themselves on various aspects of leadership. Participation was voluntary. Descriptive statistics were generated using SPSS version 21. Thirteen junior (first- or second-year) resident responses reported that the chief residents elicited input from others (mean rating 6.8), were committed to the team (6.8), resolved conflict (6.7), ensured efficiency, organization and productivity of the team (6.7), participated actively (7.0), and managed resources (6.6). Responses from senior residents averaged 1 point higher for each item; this pattern repeated itself in teaching evaluations. Chief resident self-evaluators were more comfortable running a morning report (8.4) than with being chief resident (5.8). The feasibility of preparing internal medicine residents for leadership roles through a rotating PGY-3 (postgraduate year) chief residency curriculum was explored at a small internal medicine residency, and we suggest extending the study to include other programs.

  16. Generic variation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben Juel

    2009-01-01

    In modern Danish, a handful of pronouns may be used to refer to a generic referent. In recent decades, the second person singular pronoun du has gained ground, apparently in parallel to similar recent developments in other languages. Even though generic du may not be as old as the traditional...... generic pronoun man, it is not a new variant in Danish if we by “new” mean that it has come into existence within the last 30–40 years. To all appearances, it has been used before the influence from English became significant in the last part of the 20th century, and the generic du as such need therefore...... not be explained by contact with English, as often assumed. In order to study the spread of the generic use of du we analysed the use of pronouns with generic reference in a large sample of speakers, most of whom were recorded during sociolinguistic interviews twice – the first time in the period 1978...

  17. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2011 Country

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanet residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been gratned the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  18. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2014 Country

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  19. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2015 State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  20. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2014 State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  1. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2011 State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  2. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2016 State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  3. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2015 Country

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  4. The Chief Resident Role in Emergency Medicine Residency Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafner, John W. Jr., MD, MPH

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Study Objectives: Although other specialties have examined the role of the chief resident (CR, the role and training of the emergency medicine (EM CR has largely been undefined.Methods: A survey was mailed to all EM CRs and their respective program directors (PD in 124 EM residency programs. The survey consisted of questions defining demographics, duties of the typical CR, and opinions regarding the level of support and training received. Multiple choice, Likert scale (1 strong agreement, 5 strong disagreement and short-answer responses were used. We analyzed associations between CR and PD responses using Chi-square, Student’s T and Mann-Whitney U tests.Results: Seventy-six percent of CRs and 65% of PDs responded and were similar except for age (31 vs. 42 years; p<0.001. CR respondents were most often male, in year 3 of training and held the position for 12 months. CRs and PDs agreed that the assigned level of responsibility is appropriate (2.63 vs. 2.73, p=0.15; but CRs underestimate their influence in the residency program (1.94 vs. 2.34, p=0.002 and the emergency department (2.61 vs. 3.03, p=0.002. The majority of CRs (70% and PDs (77% report participating in an extramural training program, and those CRs who participated in training felt more prepared for their job duties (2.26 vs. 2.73; p=0.03.Conclusion: EM CRs feel they have appropriate job responsibility but believe they are less influential in program and department administration than PD respondents. Extramural training programs for incoming CRs are widely used and felt to be helpful. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(2:120-125.

  5. Explaining the footsteps, belly dancer, Wenceslas, and kickback illusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Piers D. L.; Thompson, Peter G.; Anstis, Stuart M.; Sagreiya, Hersh; Livingstone, Margaret S.

    2009-01-01

    The footsteps illusion (FI) demonstrates that an object’s background can have a profound effect on the object’s perceived speed. This illusion consists of a yellow bar and a blue bar that move over a black-and-white, striped background. Although the bars move at a constant rate, they appear to repeatedly accelerate and decelerate in antiphase with each other. Previously, this illusion has been explained in terms of the variations in contrast at the leading and trailing edges of the bars that occur as the bars traverse the striped background. Here, we show that this explanation is inadequate and instead propose that for each bar, the bar’s leading edge, trailing edge, lateral edges, and the surrounding background edges all contribute to the bar’s perceived speed and that the degree to which each edge contributes to the motion percept is determined by that edge’s contrast. We show that this theory can explain all the data on the FI as well as the belly dancer and Wenceslas illusions. We conclude by presenting a new illusion, the kickback illusion, which, although geometrically similar to the FI, is mediated by a different mechanism, namely, reverse phi motion. PMID:17209742

  6. Localized bedrock aquifer distribution explains discharge from a headwater catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosugi, Ken'ichirou; Fujimoto, Masamitsu; Katsura, Shin'ya; Kato, Hiroyuki; Sando, Yoshiki; Mizuyama, Takahisa

    2011-07-01

    Understanding a discharge hydrograph is one of the leading interests in catchment hydrology. Recent research has provided credible information on the importance of bedrock groundwater on discharge hydrographs from headwater catchments. However, intensive monitoring of bedrock groundwater is rare in mountains with steep topography. Hence, how bedrock groundwater controls discharge from a steep headwater catchment is in dispute. In this study, we conducted long-term hydrological observations using densely located bedrock wells in a headwater catchment underlain by granitic bedrock. The catchment has steep topography affected by diastrophic activities. Results showed a fairly regionalized distribution of bedrock aquifers within a scale of tens of meters, consisting of upper, middle, and lower aquifers, instead of a gradual and continuous decline in water level from ridge to valley bottom. This was presumably attributable to the unique bedrock structure; fault lines developed in the watershed worked to form divides between the bedrock aquifers. Spatial expanse of each aquifer and the interaction among aquifers were key factors to explain gentle and considerable variations in the base flow discharge and triple-peak discharge responses of the observed hydrograph. A simple model was developed to simulate the discharge hydrograph, which computed each of the contributions from the soil mantle groundwater, from the lower aquifer, and from the middle aquifer to the discharge. The modeling results generally succeeded in reproducing the observed hydrograph. Thus, this study demonstrated that understanding regionalized bedrock aquifer distribution is pivotal for explaining discharge hydrograph from headwater catchments that have been affected by diastrophic activities.

  7. Pediatric Program Leadership's Contribution Toward Resident Wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Savanna L; Perkins, Kate; Reilly, Maura R; Sim, Myung-Shin; Li, Su-Ting T

    2018-02-27

    Residency program leaders are required to support resident well-being, but often do not receive training in how to do so. Determine frequency in which program leadership provides support for resident well-being, comfort in supporting resident well-being, and factors associated with need for additional training in supporting resident well-being. National cross-sectional web-based survey of pediatric program directors, associate program directors, and coordinators in June 2015, on their experience supporting resident well-being. Univariate and bivariate descriptive statistics compared responses between groups. Generalized linear modeling, adjusting for program region, size, program leadership role, and number of years in role determined factors associated with need for additional training. 39.3% (322/820) of participants responded. Most respondents strongly agreed that supporting resident well-being is an important part of their role, but few reported supporting resident well-being as part of their job description. Most reported supporting residents' clinical, personal, and health issues at least annually, and in some cases weekly, with 72% spending >10% of their time on resident well-being. Most program leaders desired more training. After adjusting for level of comfort in dealing with resident well-being issues, program leaders more frequently exposed to resident well-being issues were more likely to desire additional training (pProgram leaders spend a significant amount of time supporting resident well-being. While they feel that supporting resident well-being is an important part of their job, opportunities exist for developing program leaders through including resident wellness on job descriptions and training program leaders how to support resident well-being. Copyright © 2018 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Motivation and support provided on training: a longitudinal study of a cohort of family medicine residents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Dina; de Jesus, Saul Neves; Cruz, José Pestana

    2011-12-01

    Having as main goal the development of a culture of professional excellence, the Family Medicine residency currently intends to correspond to the principles of adult learning approach, in which motivation for practicing is essential. (1) To analyze the variability of Family Medicine residentes professional motivation, throughout the residency training; (2) To characterize Family Medicine residents perception about the support provided on training, during the residency; (3) To analyze the variability of Family Medicine residents perception about the support provided by the supervisor, throughout the residency. Observational, quantitative and longitudinal study (2005-2008) of Family Medicine residents who participated in a survey on professional motivation. At the beginning of the residency in 2005 (N = 109) in Portugal, they were submitted to three assessment moments (n = 69) by a postal survey using a questionnaire with 57 Likert scale items, representing motivational variables--professional project, professional commitment, initial motivation, intrinsic motivation, self-efficacy expectations, self-control expectations, assertiveness and perception of the support provided on training program. Descriptive statistics and analytic tests (ANOVA--GLM repeated measures) were used to study the variability of the cognitive dimensions (a = 0,05). Although motivated to Family Medicine practice (response rate = 47.8%, at the study entry), the physicians professional motivation variability along the residency has presented slightly positive, at the end of the study, but not statistically significant. The physicians of our cohort responded by assigning a relatively high average levels in almost all items of the scale support provided on training during the residency, and its variation showed a positive trend, at the end of the study. This study produced results of an important phenomenon on which there is no published information in Portugal. It provides substantial evidence on

  9. Tourist Activity of Senior Citizens (60+ Residing in Urban and Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omelan Aneta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of place of permanent residence (urban or rural on the tourist activity of senior citizens (60+ of different socioeconomic statuses. The study involved 380 senior citizens (305 female and 75 male aged 60 years and older who were permanent residents of the region of Warmia and Mazury, Poland. In this group, 244 subjects resided in urban areas and 136 participants were rural dwellers. The respondents were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their socioeconomic status (place of permanent residence, age, gender, educational attainment, financial status, membership in senior organizations, marital status, and professional activity and tourist activity. A significance test of two structure coefficients (α=0.05 was applied. Factors such as gender, professional activity, and marital status were not related with the travel propensity of seniors from different groups (urban and rural, but were significant when rural residents were compared with urban dwellers. Seniors residing in urban areas of Warmia and Mazury, Poland, were significantly more likely to travel for leisure than those residing in rural areas. The tourist activity of seniors decreased significantly (p<0.05 with the age (60-74 years and financial status of rural residents. The travel propensity of elderly people increased significantly (p<0.05 with educational attainment and membership in senior organizations. The study revealed considerable differences in the socioeconomic status and social characteristics of seniors residing in rural and urban areas, and those variations significantly influenced their propensity for travel: urban residents traveled more frequently than rural residents. It can be concluded that place of residence was a crucial factor determining the tourist behavior of senior citizens, and urban dwellers were more likely to travel.

  10. Blazar spectral variability as explained by a twisted inhomogeneous jet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiteri, C M; Villata, M; Acosta-Pulido, J A; Agudo, I; Arkharov, A A; Bachev, R; Baida, G V; Benítez, E; Borman, G A; Boschin, W; Bozhilov, V; Butuzova, M S; Calcidese, P; Carnerero, M I; Carosati, D; Casadio, C; Castro-Segura, N; Chen, W-P; Damljanovic, G; D'Ammando, F; Di Paola, A; Echevarría, J; Efimova, N V; Ehgamberdiev, Sh A; Espinosa, C; Fuentes, A; Giunta, A; Gómez, J L; Grishina, T S; Gurwell, M A; Hiriart, D; Jermak, H; Jordan, B; Jorstad, S G; Joshi, M; Kopatskaya, E N; Kuratov, K; Kurtanidze, O M; Kurtanidze, S O; Lähteenmäki, A; Larionov, V M; Larionova, E G; Larionova, L V; Lázaro, C; Lin, C S; Malmrose, M P; Marscher, A P; Matsumoto, K; McBreen, B; Michel, R; Mihov, B; Minev, M; Mirzaqulov, D O; Mokrushina, A A; Molina, S N; Moody, J W; Morozova, D A; Nazarov, S V; Nikolashvili, M G; Ohlert, J M; Okhmat, D N; Ovcharov, E; Pinna, F; Polakis, T A; Protasio, C; Pursimo, T; Redondo-Lorenzo, F J; Rizzi, N; Rodriguez-Coira, G; Sadakane, K; Sadun, A C; Samal, M R; Savchenko, S S; Semkov, E; Skiff, B A; Slavcheva-Mihova, L; Smith, P S; Steele, I A; Strigachev, A; Tammi, J; Thum, C; Tornikoski, M; Troitskaya, Yu V; Troitsky, I S; Vasilyev, A A; Vince, O

    2017-12-21

    Blazars are active galactic nuclei, which are powerful sources of radiation whose central engine is located in the core of the host galaxy. Blazar emission is dominated by non-thermal radiation from a jet that moves relativistically towards us, and therefore undergoes Doppler beaming. This beaming causes flux enhancement and contraction of the variability timescales, so that most blazars appear as luminous sources characterized by noticeable and fast changes in brightness at all frequencies. The mechanism that produces this unpredictable variability is under debate, but proposed mechanisms include injection, acceleration and cooling of particles, with possible intervention of shock waves or turbulence. Changes in the viewing angle of the observed emitting knots or jet regions have also been suggested as an explanation of flaring events and can also explain specific properties of blazar emission, such as intra-day variability, quasi-periodicity and the delay of radio flux variations relative to optical changes. Such a geometric interpretation, however, is not universally accepted because alternative explanations based on changes in physical conditions-such as the size and speed of the emitting zone, the magnetic field, the number of emitting particles and their energy distribution-can explain snapshots of the spectral behaviour of blazars in many cases. Here we report the results of optical-to-radio-wavelength monitoring of the blazar CTA 102 and show that the observed long-term trends of the flux and spectral variability are best explained by an inhomogeneous, curved jet that undergoes changes in orientation over time. We propose that magnetohydrodynamic instabilities or rotation of the twisted jet cause different jet regions to change their orientation and hence their relative Doppler factors. In particular, the extreme optical outburst of 2016-2017 (brightness increase of six magnitudes) occurred when the corresponding emitting region had a small viewing angle

  11. Blazar spectral variability as explained by a twisted inhomogeneous jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiteri, C. M.; Villata, M.; Acosta-Pulido, J. A.; Agudo, I.; Arkharov, A. A.; Bachev, R.; Baida, G. V.; Benítez, E.; Borman, G. A.; Boschin, W.; Bozhilov, V.; Butuzova, M. S.; Calcidese, P.; Carnerero, M. I.; Carosati, D.; Casadio, C.; Castro-Segura, N.; Chen, W.-P.; Damljanovic, G.; D'Ammando, F.; di Paola, A.; Echevarría, J.; Efimova, N. V.; Ehgamberdiev, Sh. A.; Espinosa, C.; Fuentes, A.; Giunta, A.; Gómez, J. L.; Grishina, T. S.; Gurwell, M. A.; Hiriart, D.; Jermak, H.; Jordan, B.; Jorstad, S. G.; Joshi, M.; Kopatskaya, E. N.; Kuratov, K.; Kurtanidze, O. M.; Kurtanidze, S. O.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Larionov, V. M.; Larionova, E. G.; Larionova, L. V.; Lázaro, C.; Lin, C. S.; Malmrose, M. P.; Marscher, A. P.; Matsumoto, K.; McBreen, B.; Michel, R.; Mihov, B.; Minev, M.; Mirzaqulov, D. O.; Mokrushina, A. A.; Molina, S. N.; Moody, J. W.; Morozova, D. A.; Nazarov, S. V.; Nikolashvili, M. G.; Ohlert, J. M.; Okhmat, D. N.; Ovcharov, E.; Pinna, F.; Polakis, T. A.; Protasio, C.; Pursimo, T.; Redondo-Lorenzo, F. J.; Rizzi, N.; Rodriguez-Coira, G.; Sadakane, K.; Sadun, A. C.; Samal, M. R.; Savchenko, S. S.; Semkov, E.; Skiff, B. A.; Slavcheva-Mihova, L.; Smith, P. S.; Steele, I. A.; Strigachev, A.; Tammi, J.; Thum, C.; Tornikoski, M.; Troitskaya, Yu. V.; Troitsky, I. S.; Vasilyev, A. A.; Vince, O.

    2017-12-01

    Blazars are active galactic nuclei, which are powerful sources of radiation whose central engine is located in the core of the host galaxy. Blazar emission is dominated by non-thermal radiation from a jet that moves relativistically towards us, and therefore undergoes Doppler beaming. This beaming causes flux enhancement and contraction of the variability timescales, so that most blazars appear as luminous sources characterized by noticeable and fast changes in brightness at all frequencies. The mechanism that produces this unpredictable variability is under debate, but proposed mechanisms include injection, acceleration and cooling of particles, with possible intervention of shock waves or turbulence. Changes in the viewing angle of the observed emitting knots or jet regions have also been suggested as an explanation of flaring events and can also explain specific properties of blazar emission, such as intra-day variability, quasi-periodicity and the delay of radio flux variations relative to optical changes. Such a geometric interpretation, however, is not universally accepted because alternative explanations based on changes in physical conditions—such as the size and speed of the emitting zone, the magnetic field, the number of emitting particles and their energy distribution—can explain snapshots of the spectral behaviour of blazars in many cases. Here we report the results of optical-to-radio-wavelength monitoring of the blazar CTA 102 and show that the observed long-term trends of the flux and spectral variability are best explained by an inhomogeneous, curved jet that undergoes changes in orientation over time. We propose that magnetohydrodynamic instabilities or rotation of the twisted jet cause different jet regions to change their orientation and hence their relative Doppler factors. In particular, the extreme optical outburst of 2016–2017 (brightness increase of six magnitudes) occurred when the corresponding emitting region had a small viewing

  12. Rural Residence and COPD Exacerbations: Analysis of the SPIROMICS Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkes, Robert M; Gassett, Amanda J; Ceppe, Agathe S; Anderson, Wayne; O'Neal, Wanda K; Woodruff, Prescott G; Krishnan, Jerry A; Barr, R Graham; Han, MeiLan K; Martinez, Fernando J; Comellas, Alejandro P; Lambert, Allison A; Kaufman, Joel D; Dransfield, Mark T; Wells, J Michael; Kanner, Richard E; Paine, Robert; Bleecker, Eugene R; Paulin, Laura M; Hansel, Nadia N; Drummond, M Bradley

    2018-03-27

    incidence rate of total exacerbations [OR 1.52 (95% CI 1.00-2.32; p=0.05) and IRR 1.39 (95% CI 0.97 - 1.99); p=0.07]. There was no difference in symptoms or airflow obstruction between rural and urban participants. Rural residence is independently associated with increased odds and incidence of total, but not severe COPD exacerbations. These associations are not fully explained by agriculture-related exposures, highlighting the need for future research into potential mechanisms of increased risk of COPD exacerbations in the rural population.

  13. Scrutinizing the carbon cycle and CO2 residence time in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harde, Hermann

    2017-05-01

    Climate scientists presume that the carbon cycle has come out of balance due to the increasing anthropogenic emissions from fossil fuel combustion and land use change. This is made responsible for the rapidly increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations over recent years, and it is estimated that the removal of the additional emissions from the atmosphere will take a few hundred thousand years. Since this goes along with an increasing greenhouse effect and a further global warming, a better understanding of the carbon cycle is of great importance for all future climate change predictions. We have critically scrutinized this cycle and present an alternative concept, for which the uptake of CO2 by natural sinks scales proportional with the CO2 concentration. In addition, we consider temperature dependent natural emission and absorption rates, by which the paleoclimatic CO2 variations and the actual CO2 growth rate can well be explained. The anthropogenic contribution to the actual CO2 concentration is found to be 4.3%, its fraction to the CO2 increase over the Industrial Era is 15% and the average residence time 4 years.

  14. The teaching of physics and related courses to residents in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunscombe, P.

    1989-01-01

    A survey of physics and related teaching to radiation oncology residents in 21 Canadian cancer centres was undertaken in December 1987 and January 1988. This survey illustrates a very considerable variation in the formal teaching of physics to aspiring radiation oncologists with, for example, the number of hours offered ranging from 40 to 160 in those 10 centres that have a training program. It would appear to be of benefit to radiation oncology residents, those charged with teaching them, and the radiation oncology community as a whole, to develop specific guidelines for this aspect of resident education. (8 refs., tab.)

  15. 45 CFR 233.40 - Residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... For purposes of this section: (1) A resident of a State is one: (i) Who is living in the State... resident of the State in which he or she is living other than on a temporary basis. Residence may not depend upon the reason for which the individual entered the State, except insofar as it may bear upon...

  16. Breaking Bad News - Perceptions of Pediatric Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geeta, M G; Krishnakumar, P

    2017-08-15

    The present study evaluated the perceptions and practice of 92 final year pediatric residents with regard to breaking bad news. Only 16% of residents had received any training in communication skills. Majority (65%) of the residents were not comfortable while breaking bad news.

  17. 8 CFR 325.3 - Residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Residence. 325.3 Section 325.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS NATIONALS BUT NOT CITIZENS OF THE UNITED STATES; RESIDENCE WITHIN OUTLYING POSSESSIONS § 325.3 Residence. (a) For purposes of applying the...

  18. Sexual Health Education: A Psychiatric Resident's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waineo, Eva; Arfken, Cynthia L.; Morreale, Mary K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This report discusses psychiatric residents' perceptions of sexual health education and their opinions regarding curricular improvements. Methods: An anonymous, web-based survey was sent to residents in one general psychiatry program (N = 33). The response rate was 69.7%. Results: Residents reported inadequate experience in multiple…

  19. Pioneering partnerships: Resident involvement from multiple perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baur, V.E.; Abma, T.A.; Boelsma, F.; Woelders, S.

    2013-01-01

    Resident involvement in residential care homes is a challenge due to shortcomings of consumerist and formal approaches such as resident councils. The PARTNER approach aims to involve residents through collective action to improve their community life and wellbeing. The purpose of this article is to

  20. 24 CFR 206.39 - Principal residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Principal residence. 206.39 Section... CONVERSION MORTGAGE INSURANCE Eligibility; Endorsement Eligible Mortgagors § 206.39 Principal residence. The property must be the principal residence of each mortgagor at closing. For purposes of this section, the...

  1. 25 CFR 700.97 - Residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Residence. 700.97 Section 700.97 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.97 Residence. (a) Residence is established by proving that the head of household...

  2. Suicidal Thoughts Among Medical Residents with Burnout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Frank; Dillingh, Gea; Bakker, Arnold; Prins, Jelle

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Recent research showed that medical residents have a high risk for developing burnout. The present study investigates the prevalence of burnout and its relationship with suicidal thoughts among medical residents. Methods: All Dutch medical residents (n = 5126) received a self-report

  3. Does Targeted Training Improve Residents' Teaching Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polreis, Sean; D'Eon, Marcel F.; Premkumar, Kalyani; Trinder, Krista; Bonnycastle, Deirdre

    2015-01-01

    Resident doctors have an important and integral responsibility of teaching a number of individuals. The purpose of this study was to measure the effectiveness of the University of Saskatchewan's resident-as-teacher training course--Teaching Improvement Project Systems (TIPS). Residents who attended the TIPS course from January, 2010 through June,…

  4. Negotiations of Acknowledgement among Middle Class Residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom

    2013-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of communication processes between residents, between residents and people in the broader societal context as well as of media coverage of a fireworks disaster in a Danish suburb. It demonstrates how residents (all members of the Danish middle class) were able...

  5. WHAT EXPLAINS VARIATIONS IN TRAINING ACROSS DIFFERENT NATIONAL CONTEXTS?THE CASE OF ABC PVT. LTD.

    OpenAIRE

    Naik, Vaidehi

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation seeks to explore the effects of institutional configuration and form of capitalism prevalent in a nation on the organisational practices. For the purpose of the research a case study approach is used by taking a MNC in the ITES (Information Technology Enabled Services) sector. A MNC would help to gain an understanding of the unique institutions operating in a nation that will lead to dissimilar organisational practises in subsidiaries of the MNC. As globalisation has led to ...

  6. How to explain diversity and variation in the external Peruvian vote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeles ESCRIVÁ

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Peruvian vote from abroad was an important contribution in the formation of successive governments in Peru in the decade 2006-2016. However, it has not been sufficiently analyzed from a diachronic and transnational perspective. This article seeks to combine our knowledge from general studies on the conditioning factors of the external vote with specific analysis of the influence of the contextual conditions and differing motivations in the Peruvian presidential election.

  7. Explaining life history variation in a changing climate across a species' range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuheimer, Anna B.; MacKenzie, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    changes in spawning time for 21 populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) across the species' range (40 degrees to 80 degrees N). We estimate spawning time using a physiologically relevant metric that includes information on fish thermal history (degree-days, DD). First, we estimate spawning DD among...

  8. Explaining Variation in the Apprehension of Mexican Drug Trafficking Cartel Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Jorge Ramos. “Senado posterga analizar iniciativas de Calderón.” El Universal May 9, 2009. Calderón, Felipe. “El Presidente Calderón en la visita a...California, San Diego, 2002). Presidencia de la Republica . “El Presidente Calderon en la visita a las Tropas que participan en la Operacion Conjunta

  9. The costs of avian brood parasitism explain variation in egg rejection behaviour in hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Medina, Iliana; Langmore, Naomi E.

    2015-01-01

    Many bird species can reject foreign eggs from their nests. This behaviour is thought to have evolved in response to brood parasites, birds that lay their eggs in the nest of other species. However, not all hosts of brood parasites evict parasitic eggs. In this study, we collate data from egg rejection experiments on 198 species, and perform comparative analyses to understand the conditions under which egg rejection evolves. We found evidence, we believe for the first time in a large-scale co...

  10. Explaining Variation in Student Efforts towards Using Math and Science Knowledge in Engineering Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berland, Leema K.; Steingut, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that in classes that take an integrated approach to science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education, students tend to engage in fulfilling goals of their engineering design challenges, but only inconsistently engage with the related math and science content. The present research examines these inconsistencies…

  11. The interplay between mouth and mind : explaining variation in taste-related brain activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, van Inge

    2016-01-01

    Food does not always ‘taste’ the same. During hunger, for example, food may be tastier compared to during satiety. Many other internal and external factors affect the way we experience our food and make it a dynamic process. Our brain is responsible for weighing and integrating these factors and

  12. Explaining technical inefficiency and the variation in income from apple adoption in highland Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alemu, Sintayehu Hailu; Kempen, van Luuk; Ruben, Ruerd

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers the performance and quality of apple fruits and seedlings production in Chencha district of southern Ethiopia. The estimated, three-factor (labour, land and capital) production frontier reveals that the technical inefficiency is 60% and 48% for fruits and seedlings

  13. Existing theories do not explain sex ratio variation at birth in monomorphic roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreugdenhil, S.J.; Breukelen, van L.; Wieren, van S.E.

    2007-01-01

    The phenomenon of skewed sex ratios at birth has been reported in many ungulate species. So far, no consistent trend has emerged for roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), because male-biased, female-biased and equal sex ratios at birth have all been found. Nevertheless, both the Trivers-Willard hypothesis

  14. To what extent does IQ 'explain' socio-economic variations in function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, Hans; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Kempen, Gertrudis I J M; van Eijk, Jacques Th M; Jolles, Jelle

    2007-07-25

    The aims of this study were to examine the extent to which higher intellectual abilities protect higher socio-economic groups from functional decline and to examine whether the contribution of intellectual abilities is independent of childhood deprivation and low birth weight and other socio-economic and developmental factors in early life. The Maastricht Aging Study (MAAS) is a prospective cohort study based upon participants in a registration network of general practices in The Netherlands. Information was available on 1211 men and women, 24-81 years old, who were without cognitive impairment at baseline (1993-1995), who ever had a paid job, and who participated in the six-year follow-up. Main outcomes were longitudinal decline in important components of quality of life and successful aging, i.e., self-reported physical, affective, and cognitive functioning. Persons with a low occupational level at baseline showed more functional decline than persons with a high occupational level. Socio-economic and developmental factors from early life hardly contributed to the adult socio-economic differences in functional decline. Intellectual abilities, however, took into account more than one third of the association between adult socio-economic status and functional decline. The contribution of the intellectual abilities was independent of the early life factors. Rather than developmental and socio-economic characteristics of early life, the findings substantiate the importance of intellectual abilities for functional decline and their contribution--as potential, but neglected confounders--to socio-economic differences in functioning, successful aging, and quality of life. The higher intellectual abilities in the higher socio-economic status groups may also underlie the higher prevalences of mastery, self-efficacy and efficient coping styles in these groups.

  15. To what extent does IQ 'explain' socio-economic variations in function?

    OpenAIRE

    Bosma, Hans; van Boxtel, Martin PJ; Kempen, Gertrudis IJM; van Eijk, Jacques ThM; Jolles, Jelle

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The aims of this study were to examine the extent to which higher intellectual abilities protect higher socio-economic groups from functional decline and to examine whether the contribution of intellectual abilities is independent of childhood deprivation and low birth weight and other socio-economic and developmental factors in early life. Methods The Maastricht Aging Study (MAAS) is a prospective cohort study based upon participants in a registration network of general p...

  16. Explaining regional variation in home care use by demand and supply variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, Leendert Olivier; Schotanus, Fredo; van der Klundert, Joris; Telgen, Jan

    In the Netherlands, home care services like district nursing and personal assistance are provided by private service provider organizations and covered by private health insurance companies which bear legal responsibility for purchasing these services. To improve value for money, their procurement

  17. Seasonal variation modulates coral sensibility to heat-stress and explains annual changes in coral productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheufen, Tim; Krämer, Wiebke E; Iglesias-Prieto, Roberto; Enríquez, Susana

    2017-07-10

    The potential effects of seasonal acclimatization on coral sensitivity to heat-stress, has received limited attention despite differing bleaching thresholds for summer and winter. In this study, we examined the response of two contrasting phenotypes, termed winter and summer, of four Caribbean reef corals to similar light and heat-stress levels. The four species investigated were categorized into two groups: species with the ability to harbour large number of symbionts, Orbicella annularis and O. faveolata, and species with reduced symbiont density (Montastraea cavernosa and Pseudodiploria strigosa). The first group showed higher capacity to enhance photosynthetic rates per area (P max ), while P max enhancement in the second group was more dependent on Symbiodinium performance (P sym ). In summer all four species presented higher productivity, but also higher sensitivity to lose coral photosynthesis under heat-stress. In contrast, corals in winter exhibit symbionts with higher capacity to photoacclimate to the increased levels of light-stress elicited by heat-stress. Overall, our study supports the importance of the acclimatory coral condition in addition to the previous thermal history, to determine the severity of the impact of heat-stress on coral physiology, but also the dependence of this response on the particular structural and functional traits of the species.

  18. Table for two : Explaining variations in the evaluation of authenticity by restaurant critics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lomi, Alessandro; Giachanou, Anastasia; Crestani, Fabio; Angelopoulos, Spyros

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present the preliminary results of a study on the relationship between organizational identity, multiple categorical affiliation and evaluation. More specifically, we are interested in understanding how food critics’ evaluation of restaurants and their judgments of authenticity of

  19. Explaining cross-national variation in the relationship between priority congruence and satisfaction with democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reher, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    : citizens whose concerns are shared by elites should perceive them to be more attentive and responsive to public concerns and societal needs. Yet, the relationship might vary with differences in expectations towards democracy and representation. Specifically, it should be stronger in more democratic...... countries and older democracies. The hypotheses are empirically tested in a multilevel regression framework, where voter survey data from the 2009 European Election Study is linked with candidate survey data. The results indicate that citizens are indeed more satisfied with democracy if elites share...

  20. Health manpower planning in European Union countries: explaining cross national variation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins-Coelho, G.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Human resources for health are critical for the performance of health care systems, in organizational, demographic and economic terms. They currently face challenges related to the progressive ageing of the European population, the epidemiological transition and the permanent

  1. Is the diurnal pattern sufficient to explain the intraday variation in volatility? A nonparametric assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kim; Hounyo, Ulrich; Podolskij, Mark

    is then based on asset returns, which are deflated by a model-free jump- and noise-robust estimate of the seasonal component and therefore homoscedastic under the null. The t-statistic (after pre-averaging and jump-truncation) diverges in the presence of stochastic volatility and has a standard normal...

  2. Does sex really matter? Explaining intraspecies variation in ocean acidification responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Robert P; Davison, William; Queirós, Ana M; Kroeker, Kristy J; Calosi, Piero; Dupont, Sam; Spicer, John I; Wilson, Rod W; Widdicombe, Steve; Urbina, Mauricio A

    2017-02-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) poses a major threat to marine ecosystems globally, having significant ecological and economic importance. The number and complexity of experiments examining the effects of OA has substantially increased over the past decade, in an attempt to address multi-stressor interactions and long-term responses in an increasing range of aquatic organisms. However, differences in the response of males and females to elevated pCO 2 have been investigated in fewer than 4% of studies to date, often being precluded by the difficulty of determining sex non-destructively, particularly in early life stages. Here we highlight that sex can significantly impact organism responses to OA, differentially affecting physiology, reproduction, biochemistry and ultimately survival. What is more, these impacts do not always conform to ecological theory based on differential resource allocation towards reproduction, which would predict females to be more sensitive to OA owing to the higher production cost of eggs compared with sperm. Therefore, non-sex-specific studies may overlook subtle but ecologically significant differences in the responses of males and females to OA, with consequences for forecasting the fate of natural populations in a near-future ocean. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Explaining variation in cancer survival between 11 jurisdictions in the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Peter W; Rubin, Greg; Perera-Salazar, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    hver fase. I alt 2795 praktiserende læger deltog fra New South Wales og Victoria (Australien), British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario (Canada), England, Nordirland, Wales, Danmark, Norge og Sverige. Vi fandt, at de praktiserende lægers respons på 4 af 5 vignetter viste en statistisk signifikant sammenhæng...

  4. Influences on Tobacco Control Funding Decisions: Explaining State Variation in Appropriations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    productivity, costs associated with fires, and the health effects of exposure to secondhand smoke (CDC, 2002). Therefore, the estimated annual burden of...owned and the amount of tobacco consumed (Sargent, Dalton, & Beach, 2000). One method of partially preventing the effect of advertising on smoking ...Manning WG, Newhouse JP, Winkler JD. The effects of excise taxes and regulations on cigarette smoking . Journal of Health Economics 10:43-64, 1991. Watson

  5. Variation in avian egg shape and nest structure is explained by climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert Duursma, Daisy; Gallagher, Rachael V; Price, J Jordan; Griffith, Simon C

    2018-03-07

    Why are avian eggs ovoid, while the eggs of most other vertebrates are symmetrical? The interaction between an egg and its environment likely drives selection that will shape eggs across evolutionary time. For example, eggs incubated in hot, arid regions face acute exposure to harsh climatic conditions relative to those in temperate zones, and this exposure will differ across nest types, with eggs in open nests being more exposed to direct solar radiation than those in enclosed nests. We examined the idea that the geographical distribution of both egg shapes and nest types should reflect selective pressures of key environmental parameters, such as ambient temperature and the drying capacity of air. We took a comparative approach, using 310 passerine species from Australia, many of which are found in some of the most extreme climates on earth. We found that, across the continent, egg elongation decreases and the proportion of species with domed nests with roofs increases in hotter and drier areas with sparse plant canopies. Eggs are most spherical in open nests in the hottest environments, and most elongate in domed nests in wetter, shadier environments. Our findings suggest that climatic conditions played a key role in the evolution of passerine egg shape.

  6. Variation in hydrologic connectivity as a result of microtopography explained by discharge to catchment size relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterwoud, Marieke; Ploeg, van der Martine; Schaaf, van der Sake; Zee, van der Sjoerd

    2017-01-01

    In hydrological terms, raised bogs are often approximated by simple models as in the acrotelm-catotelm concept. However, raised bogs are often characterized by a pronounced surface topography, causing large changes in connectivity of contributing areas on the bog. In this study, daily regression

  7. Latent constructs model explaining the attachment-linked variation in autobiographical remembering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öner, Sezin; Gülgöz, Sami

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, we proposed a latent constructs model to characterise the qualitative aspects of autobiographical remembering and investigated the structural relations in the model that may vary across individuals. Primarily, we focused on the memories of romantic relationships and argued that attachment anxiety and avoidance would be reflected in the ways that individuals encode, rehearse, or remember autobiographical memories in close relationships. Participants reported two positive and two negative relationship-specific memories and rated the characteristics for each memory. As predicted, the basic memory model yielded appropriate fit, indicating that event characteristics (EC) predicted the frequency of rehearsal (RC) and phenomenology at retrieval (PC). When attachment variables were integrated, the model showed that rehearsal mediated the link between anxiety and PC, especially for negative memories. On the other hand, for avoidance EC was the key factor mediating the link between avoidance and RC, as well as PC. Findings were discussed with respect to autobiographical memory functions emphasising a systematically, integrated framework.

  8. Inequities compounded: explaining variations in the transition to adulthood for teen mothers' offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SmithBattle, Lee; Leonard, Victoria

    2012-08-01

    Teen mothers as a cohort are disproportionately disadvantaged before pregnancy and are assumed to be further disadvantaged by an early pregnancy. A growing number of studies report that teen mothers and their children are disadvantaged slightly, if at all, by young maternal age. These studies highlight the social determinants of early childbearing but do not reveal the social contexts that shape the transition into adulthood for teen mothers' offspring. This report addresses this gap by presenting two cases from a longitudinal study that investigated how family members' lives unfold in the context of race, class, family practices, and communities. By the sixth wave, two of the mothers' first-born children had become teen parents. Both cases showcase the diverse outcomes and cumulative impact of social advantage and disadvantage on the transition into young adulthood. Implications are described in relation to what is known about social inequities in the transition into adulthood.

  9. The interplay between mouth and mind : explaining variation in taste-related brain activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, van Inge

    2016-01-01

    Food does not always ‘taste’ the same. During hunger, for example, food may be tastier compared to during satiety. Many other internal and external factors affect the way we experience our food and make it a dynamic process. Our brain is responsible for weighing and integrating these

  10. CAN GALACTIC CHEMICAL EVOLUTION EXPLAIN THE OXYGEN ISOTOPIC VARIATIONS IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugaro, Maria [Monash Centre for Astrophysics (MoCA), Building 28, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia); Liffman, Kurt [CSIRO/MSE, P.O. Box 56, Highett, VIC 3190 (Australia); Ireland, Trevor R. [Planetary Science Institute and Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Maddison, Sarah T., E-mail: maria.lugaro@monash.edu [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, H39, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia)

    2012-11-01

    A number of objects in primitive meteorites have oxygen isotopic compositions that place them on a distinct, mass-independent fractionation line with a slope of one on a three-isotope plot. The most popular model for describing how this fractionation arose assumes that CO self-shielding produced {sup 16}O-rich CO and {sup 16}O-poor H{sub 2}O, where the H{sub 2}O subsequently combined with interstellar dust to form relatively {sup 16}O-poor solids within the solar nebula. Another model for creating the different reservoirs of {sup 16}O-rich gas and {sup 16}O-poor solids suggests that these reservoirs were produced by Galactic chemical evolution (GCE) if the solar system dust component was somewhat younger than the gas component and both components were lying on the line of slope one in the O three-isotope plot. We argue that GCE is not the cause of mass-independent fractionation of the oxygen isotopes in the solar system. The GCE scenario is in contradiction with observations of the {sup 18}O/{sup 17}O ratios in nearby molecular clouds and young stellar objects. It is very unlikely for GCE to produce a line of slope one when considering the effect of incomplete mixing of stellar ejecta in the interstellar medium. Furthermore, the assumption that the solar system dust was younger than the gas requires unusual timescales or the existence of an important stardust component that is not theoretically expected to occur nor has been identified to date.

  11. Disentangling vegetation diversity from climate–energy and habitat heterogeneity for explaining animal geographic patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Alfaro, Borja; Chytry, Milan; Mucina, Ladislav; Grace, James B.; Rejmanek, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Broad-scale animal diversity patterns have been traditionally explained by hypotheses focused on climate–energy and habitat heterogeneity, without considering the direct influence of vegetation structure and composition. However, integrating these factors when considering plant–animal correlates still poses a major challenge because plant communities are controlled by abiotic factors that may, at the same time, influence animal distributions. By testing whether the number and variation of plant community types in Europe explain country-level diversity in six animal groups, we propose a conceptual framework in which vegetation diversity represents a bridge between abiotic factors and animal diversity. We show that vegetation diversity explains variation in animal richness not accounted for by altitudinal range or potential evapotranspiration, being the best predictor for butterflies, beetles, and amphibians. Moreover, the dissimilarity of plant community types explains the highest proportion of variation in animal assemblages across the studied regions, an effect that outperforms the effect of climate and their shared contribution with pure spatial variation. Our results at the country level suggest that vegetation diversity, as estimated from broad-scale classifications of plant communities, may contribute to our understanding of animal richness and may be disentangled, at least to a degree, from climate–energy and abiotic habitat heterogeneity.

  12. Explaining the trend in extreme right-wing voting: Germany 1989-1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, M.; Scheepers, P.L.H.

    2001-01-01

    Support for German extreme right-wing parties fluctuated strongly in the 1990s, reaching its highest level of 8.7 per cent in September 1992. Support for these parties also varied between regions. In this paper, we attempt to explain this variation over time and region using individual and

  13. Can we explain the observed methane variability after the Mount Pinatubo eruption?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banda, Narcisa; Krol, M.; Van Weele, M.; Van Noije, T.; Le Sager, P.; Röckmann, T.

    2016-01-01

    The CH4 growth rate in the atmosphere showed large variations after the Pinatubo eruption in June 1991. A decrease of more than 10 ppb yr-1 in the growth rate over the course of 1992 was reported, and a partial recovery in the following year. Although several reasons have been proposed to explain

  14. Buzz Factor or Innovation Potential: What Explains Cryptocurrencies' Returns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Wang

    Full Text Available Cryptocurrencies have become increasingly popular since the introduction of bitcoin in 2009. In this paper, we identify factors associated with variations in cryptocurrencies' market values. In the past, researchers argued that the "buzz" surrounding cryptocurrencies in online media explained their price variations. But this observation obfuscates the notion that cryptocurrencies, unlike fiat currencies, are technologies entailing a true innovation potential. By using, for the first time, a unique measure of innovation potential, we find that the latter is in fact the most important factor associated with increases in cryptocurrency returns. By contrast, we find that the buzz surrounding cryptocurrencies is negatively associated with returns after controlling for a variety of factors, such as supply growth and liquidity. Also interesting is our finding that a cryptocurrency's association with fraudulent activity is not negatively associated with weekly returns-a result that further qualifies the media's influence on cryptocurrencies. Finally, we find that an increase in supply is positively associated with weekly returns. Taken together, our findings show that cryptocurrencies do not behave like traditional currencies or commodities-unlike what most prior research has assumed-and depict an industry that is much more mature, and much less speculative, than has been implied by previous accounts.

  15. Global patterns in endemism explained by past climatic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Roland

    2003-03-22

    I propose that global patterns in numbers of range-restricted endemic species are caused by variation in the amplitude of climatic change occurring on time-scales of 10-100 thousand years (Milankovitch oscillations). The smaller the climatic shifts, the more probable it is that palaeoendemics survive and that diverging gene pools persist without going extinct or merging, favouring the evolution of neoendemics. Using the change in mean annual temperature since the last glacial maximum, estimated from global circulation models, I show that the higher the temperature change in an area, the fewer endemic species of mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and vascular plants it harbours. This relationship was robust to variation in area (for areas greater than 10(4) km2), latitudinal position, extent of former glaciation and whether or not areas are oceanic islands. Past climatic change was a better predictor of endemism than annual temperature range in all phylads except amphibians, suggesting that Rapoport's rule (i.e. species range sizes increase with latitude) is best explained by the increase in the amplitude of climatic oscillations towards the poles. Globally, endemic-rich areas are predicted to warm less in response to greenhouse-gas emissions, but the predicted warming would cause many habitats to disappear regionally, leading to species extinctions.

  16. Buzz Factor or Innovation Potential: What Explains Cryptocurrencies' Returns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sha; Vergne, Jean-Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Cryptocurrencies have become increasingly popular since the introduction of bitcoin in 2009. In this paper, we identify factors associated with variations in cryptocurrencies' market values. In the past, researchers argued that the "buzz" surrounding cryptocurrencies in online media explained their price variations. But this observation obfuscates the notion that cryptocurrencies, unlike fiat currencies, are technologies entailing a true innovation potential. By using, for the first time, a unique measure of innovation potential, we find that the latter is in fact the most important factor associated with increases in cryptocurrency returns. By contrast, we find that the buzz surrounding cryptocurrencies is negatively associated with returns after controlling for a variety of factors, such as supply growth and liquidity. Also interesting is our finding that a cryptocurrency's association with fraudulent activity is not negatively associated with weekly returns-a result that further qualifies the media's influence on cryptocurrencies. Finally, we find that an increase in supply is positively associated with weekly returns. Taken together, our findings show that cryptocurrencies do not behave like traditional currencies or commodities-unlike what most prior research has assumed-and depict an industry that is much more mature, and much less speculative, than has been implied by previous accounts.

  17. Buzz Factor or Innovation Potential: What Explains Cryptocurrencies’ Returns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sha

    2017-01-01

    Cryptocurrencies have become increasingly popular since the introduction of bitcoin in 2009. In this paper, we identify factors associated with variations in cryptocurrencies’ market values. In the past, researchers argued that the “buzz” surrounding cryptocurrencies in online media explained their price variations. But this observation obfuscates the notion that cryptocurrencies, unlike fiat currencies, are technologies entailing a true innovation potential. By using, for the first time, a unique measure of innovation potential, we find that the latter is in fact the most important factor associated with increases in cryptocurrency returns. By contrast, we find that the buzz surrounding cryptocurrencies is negatively associated with returns after controlling for a variety of factors, such as supply growth and liquidity. Also interesting is our finding that a cryptocurrency’s association with fraudulent activity is not negatively associated with weekly returns—a result that further qualifies the media’s influence on cryptocurrencies. Finally, we find that an increase in supply is positively associated with weekly returns. Taken together, our findings show that cryptocurrencies do not behave like traditional currencies or commodities—unlike what most prior research has assumed—and depict an industry that is much more mature, and much less speculative, than has been implied by previous accounts. PMID:28085906

  18. A Conceptual Characterization of Online Videos Explaining Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlin, Gustav; Göransson, Andreas; Höst, Gunnar E.; Tibell, Lena A. E.

    2017-11-01

    Educational videos on the Internet comprise a vast and highly diverse source of information. Online search engines facilitate access to numerous videos claiming to explain natural selection, but little is known about the degree to which the video content match key evolutionary content identified as important in evolution education research. In this study, we therefore analyzed the content of 60 videos accessed through the Internet, using a criteria catalog with 38 operationalized variables derived from research literature. The variables were sorted into four categories: (a) key concepts (e.g. limited resources and inherited variation), (b) threshold concepts (abstract concepts with a transforming and integrative function), (c) misconceptions (e.g. that evolution is driven by need), and (d) organismal context (e.g. animal or plant). The results indicate that some concepts are frequently communicated, and certain taxa are commonly used to illustrate concepts, while others are seldom included. In addition, evolutionary phenomena at small temporal and spatial scales, such as subcellular processes, are rarely covered. Rather, the focus is on population-level events over time scales spanning years or longer. This is consistent with an observed lack of explanations regarding how randomly occurring mutations provide the basis for variation (and thus natural selection). The findings imply, among other things, that some components of natural selection warrant far more attention in biology teaching and science education research.

  19. Explaining convergence of oecd welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, C.; Starke, Peter

    2011-01-01

    of conditional convergence helps to both better describe and explain the phenomenon. By applying error correction models, we examine conditional convergence of various types of social expenditure in 21 OECD countries between 1980 and 2005. Our empirical findings go beyond the existing literature in two respects....... First, we show that there is very strong evidence of convergence across all categories of social expenditure when conditional factors are taken into account. Second, we demonstrate that the speed of convergence is highly driven by globalization and European Union membership and shaped by existing...

  20. SOME THEORETICAL MODELS EXPLAINING ADVERTISING EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilica Magdalena SOMEŞFĂLEAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Persuade clients is still the main focus of the companies, using a set of methods and techniques designed to influence their behavior, in order to obtain better results (profits over a longer period of time. Since the late nineteenth - early twentieth century, the american E.St.Elmo Lewis, considered a pioneer in advertising and sales, developed the first theory, AIDA model, later used by marketers and advertisers to develop a marketing communications strategy. Later studies have developed other models that are the main subject of this research, which explains how and why persuasive communication works, to understand why some approaches are effective and others are not.

  1. Attitudes toward the use of gender-inclusive language among residency trainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyatt, G H; Cook, D J; Griffith, L; Walter, S D; Risdon, C; Liutkus, J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore postgraduate medical trainees' attitudes toward the use of gender-inclusive language. DESIGN: Self-administered questionnaire. SETTING: Seven residency training programs at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont., from July 1993 to June 1994. PARTICIPANTS: Of 225 residents in the programs, 186 responded to the survey, for a response rate of 82.7%. Men and women were equally represented among the respondents. OUTCOME MEASURES: Categorization of attitudes about the use of language as gender-inclusive or gender-exclusive; characteristics predicting a gender-inclusive attitude. RESULTS: Factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha (0.90) supported the existence of a construct related to attitudes about language use, the poles of which were categorized as gender-inclusive and gender-exclusive. The authors classified residents with respect to their attitudes to language use from their responses to the questionnaire. In univariate analyses, sex, residency program and country of graduation significantly predicted a gender-inclusive attitude (p < 0.01). Only the first 2 variables were significant in a multivariate model; residency program explained 18% of the variance and sex 3%. Residents in obstetrics and gynecology and psychiatry had the most gender-inclusive attitudes, whereas residents in surgery and anesthesia had the most gender-exclusive attitudes. CONCLUSIONS: Residents' values are reflected in the language they choose to use. Language use may provide an index of underlying attitudes that may create hostile environments for female trainees. PMID:9145055

  2. CHANGES OF THE SOLAR MERIDIONAL VELOCITY PROFILE DURING CYCLE 23 EXPLAINED BY FLOWS TOWARD THE ACTIVITY BELTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R. H.; Schuessler, M.

    2010-01-01

    The solar meridional flow is an important ingredient in Babcock-Leighton type models of the solar dynamo. Global variations of this flow have been suggested to explain the variations in the amplitudes and lengths of the activity cycles. Recently, cycle-related variations in the amplitude of the P 1 2 term in the Legendre decomposition of the observed meridional flow have been reported. The result is often interpreted in terms of an overall variation in the flow amplitude during the activity cycle. Using a semi-empirical model based upon the observed distribution of magnetic flux on the solar surface, we show that the reported variations of the P 1 2 term can be explained by the observed localized inflows into the active region belts. No variation of the overall meridional flow amplitude is required.

  3. EXPLAINING THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN INCARCERATION AND DIVORCE*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siennick, Sonja E.; Stewart, Eric A.; Staff, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that incarceration dramatically increases the odds of divorce, but we know little about the mechanisms that explain the association. This study uses prospective longitudinal data from a subset of married young adults in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 1,919) to examine whether incarceration is associated with divorce indirectly via low marital love, economic strain, relationship violence, and extramarital sex. The findings confirmed that incarcerations occurring during, but not before, a marriage were associated with an increased hazard of divorce. Incarcerations occurring during marriage also were associated with less marital love, more relationship violence, more economic strain, and greater odds of extramarital sex. Above-average levels of economic strain were visible among respondents observed preincarceration, but only respondents observed postincarceration showed less marital love, more relationship violence, and higher odds of extramarital sex than did respondents who were not incarcerated during marriage. These relationship problems explained approximately 40 percent of the association between incarceration and marital dissolution. These findings are consistent with theoretical predictions that a spouse’s incarceration alters the rewards and costs of the marriage and the relative attractiveness of alternative partners. PMID:25598544

  4. Interannual variability of net ecosystem productivity in forests is explained by carbon flux phenology in autumn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Chaoyang; Chen, Xi Jing; Black, T. Andrew

    2013-01-01

    period, the spring lag (time interval between the onset of growing season and carbon uptake period) and the autumn lag (time interval between the end of the carbon uptake period and the growing season). Meteorological variables, including global shortwave radiation, air temperature, soil temperature......To investigate the importance of autumn phenology in controlling interannual variability of forest net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and to derive new phenological metrics to explain the interannual variability of NEP. North America and Europe. Flux data from nine deciduous broadleaf forests (DBF......, soil water content and precipitation, were also used to explain the phenological variations. We found that interannual variability of NEP can be largely explained by autumn phenology, i.e. the autumn lag. While variation in neither annual gross primary productivity (GPP) nor in annual ecosystem...

  5. Optimization of Occupancy Based Demand Controlled Ventilation in Residences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Dorthe Kragsig; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2011-01-01

    Although it has been used for many years in commercial buildings, the application of demand controlled ventilation in residences is limited. In this study we used occupant exposure to pollutants integrated over time (referred to as "dose") as the metric to evaluate the effectiveness and air quality...... implications of demand controlled ventilation in residences. We looked at air quality for two situations. The first is that typically used in ventilation standards: the exposure over a long term. The second is to look at peak exposures that are associated with time variations in ventilation rates and pollutant...... when occupied. We used analytical solutions to the continuity equation to determine the ventilation effectiveness and the long-term chronic dose and peak acute exposure for a representative range of occupancy periods, pollutant generation rates and airflow rates. The results of the study showed that we...

  6. Comparison of radiology residency programs in ten countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willatt, J.M.G.; Mason, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare various aspects of radiology training schemes in ten countries. A questionnaire was sent to senior residents in the UK, USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Italy, Egypt, India, Malaysia and Greece. The questions concerned length of training, required pre-training experience, the organization of the training scheme, teaching, resources, stages at which residents can independently perform and report examinations, fellowships, and progression to jobs. A wide variety of training, ranging from highly scheduled programs with detailed aims and objectives, to self-learning occurs across the world. Examinations and assessments are also variable. There are lessons to be learned from varying practices; more exchanges of ideas should be encouraged. In view of the ''internationalization'' of radiology services and the variation in training styles an international qualification for quality assurance purposes may be desirable. (orig.)

  7. 2003 survey of Canadian radiation oncology residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, Don; Fairchild, Alysa; Keyes, Mira; Butler, Jim; Dundas, George

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation oncology's popularity as a career in Canada has surged in the past 5 years. Consequently, resident numbers in Canadian radiation oncology residencies are at all-time highs. This study aimed to survey Canadian radiation oncology residents about their opinions of their specialty and training experiences. Methods and Materials: Residents of Canadian radiation oncology residencies that enroll trainees through the Canadian Resident Matching Service were identified from a national database. Residents were mailed an anonymous survey. Results: Eight of 101 (7.9%) potential respondents were foreign funded. Fifty-two of 101 (51.5%) residents responded. A strong record of graduating its residents was the most important factor residents considered when choosing programs. Satisfaction with their program was expressed by 92.3% of respondents, and 94.3% expressed satisfaction with their specialty. Respondents planning to practice in Canada totaled 80.8%, and 76.9% plan to have academic careers. Respondents identified job availability and receiving adequate teaching from preceptors during residency as their most important concerns. Conclusions: Though most respondents are satisfied with their programs and specialty, job availability and adequate teaching are concerns. In the future, limited time and resources and the continued popularity of radiation oncology as a career will magnify the challenge of training competent radiation oncologists in Canada

  8. Resident-Led Palliative Care Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlen, Naomi; Cruz, Brian; Leigh, A E

    2016-04-01

    Despite the growth of palliative medicine, 39% of hospitals do not have palliative care teams for consultation or to provide resident education. We examined the impact of resident-led education in palliative care principles on attitudes toward and comfort with palliative medicine and end-of-life care among internal medicine residents. An educational module designed by the authors was presented to other internal medicine residents in the program. Pre- and post-intervention survey data measuring residents' agreement with various statements regarding palliative medicine and end-of-life care were analyzed. Residents' agreement with various statements regarding palliative medicine and end-of-life care on a 5-point Likert scale was analyzed. Following the intervention, participants reported improved comfort with general knowledge of palliative medicine (p palliative care and end-of-life care (p curriculum in palliative medicine can improve resident comfort within this still-under-represented area of medicine.

  9. Carbon residence time dominates uncertainty in terrestrial vegetation responses to future climate and atmospheric CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Andrew D.; Lucht, Wolfgang; Rademacher, Tim T.; Keribin, Rozenn; Betts, Richard; Cadule, Patricia; Ciais, Philippe; Clark, Douglas B.; Dankers, Rutger; Falloon, Pete D.; Ito, Akihiko; Kahana, Ron; Kleidon, Axel; Lomas, Mark R.; Nishina, Kazuya; Ostberg, Sebastian; Pavlick, Ryan; Peylin, Philippe; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Vuichard, Nicolas; Warszawski, Lila; Wiltshire, Andy; Woodward, F. Ian

    2014-01-01

    Future climate change and increasing atmospheric CO2 are expected to cause major changes in vegetation structure and function over large fractions of the global land surface. Seven global vegetation models are used to analyze possible responses to future climate simulated by a range of general circulation models run under all four representative concentration pathway scenarios of changing concentrations of greenhouse gases. All 110 simulations predict an increase in global vegetation carbon to 2100, but with substantial variation between vegetation models. For example, at 4 °C of global land surface warming (510–758 ppm of CO2), vegetation carbon increases by 52–477 Pg C (224 Pg C mean), mainly due to CO2 fertilization of photosynthesis. Simulations agree on large regional increases across much of the boreal forest, western Amazonia, central Africa, western China, and southeast Asia, with reductions across southwestern North America, central South America, southern Mediterranean areas, southwestern Africa, and southwestern Australia. Four vegetation models display discontinuities across 4 °C of warming, indicating global thresholds in the balance of positive and negative influences on productivity and biomass. In contrast to previous global vegetation model studies, we emphasize the importance of uncertainties in projected changes in carbon residence times. We find, when all seven models are considered for one representative concentration pathway × general circulation model combination, such uncertainties explain 30% more variation in modeled vegetation carbon change than responses of net primary productivity alone, increasing to 151% for non-HYBRID4 models. A change in research priorities away from production and toward structural dynamics and demographic processes is recommended. PMID:24344265

  10. Carbon residence time dominates uncertainty in terrestrial vegetation responses to future climate and atmospheric CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Andrew D; Lucht, Wolfgang; Rademacher, Tim T; Keribin, Rozenn; Betts, Richard; Cadule, Patricia; Ciais, Philippe; Clark, Douglas B; Dankers, Rutger; Falloon, Pete D; Ito, Akihiko; Kahana, Ron; Kleidon, Axel; Lomas, Mark R; Nishina, Kazuya; Ostberg, Sebastian; Pavlick, Ryan; Peylin, Philippe; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Vuichard, Nicolas; Warszawski, Lila; Wiltshire, Andy; Woodward, F Ian

    2014-03-04

    Future climate change and increasing atmospheric CO2 are expected to cause major changes in vegetation structure and function over large fractions of the global land surface. Seven global vegetation models are used to analyze possible responses to future climate simulated by a range of general circulation models run under all four representative concentration pathway scenarios of changing concentrations of greenhouse gases. All 110 simulations predict an increase in global vegetation carbon to 2100, but with substantial variation between vegetation models. For example, at 4 °C of global land surface warming (510-758 ppm of CO2), vegetation carbon increases by 52-477 Pg C (224 Pg C mean), mainly due to CO2 fertilization of photosynthesis. Simulations agree on large regional increases across much of the boreal forest, western Amazonia, central Africa, western China, and southeast Asia, with reductions across southwestern North America, central South America, southern Mediterranean areas, southwestern Africa, and southwestern Australia. Four vegetation models display discontinuities across 4 °C of warming, indicating global thresholds in the balance of positive and negative influences on productivity and biomass. In contrast to previous global vegetation model studies, we emphasize the importance of uncertainties in projected changes in carbon residence times. We find, when all seven models are considered for one representative concentration pathway × general circulation model combination, such uncertainties explain 30% more variation in modeled vegetation carbon change than responses of net primary productivity alone, increasing to 151% for non-HYBRID4 models. A change in research priorities away from production and toward structural dynamics and demographic processes is recommended.

  11. Intracultural variation of knowledge about wild plant uses in the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal (Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schunko Christoph

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leading scholars in ethnobiology and ethnomedicine continuously stress the need for moving beyond the bare description of local knowledge and to additionally analyse and theorise about the characteristics and dynamics of human interactions with plants and related local knowledge. Analyses of the variation of local knowledge are thereby perceived as minimal standard. In this study we investigate the distribution and variation of wild plant knowledge in five domains: food, drinks, human medicine, veterinary medicine and customs. We assess relations between the wild plant knowledge of informants and their socio-demographic as well as geographic background. Method Research was conducted in the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal, Austria. Structured questionnaires were used to inquire wild plant knowledge from 433 informants with varying socio-demographic and geographic background. Children assisted in the data collection. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics and generalized linear models. Results and discussion A majority of respondents is familiar with wild plant uses, however to varying degrees. Knowledge variations depend on the socio-demographic and geographic background of the informants as well as on the domains of knowledge under investigation: women, older informants and homegardeners report more human medicinal applications and applications in drinks than men, younger informants and non-homegardeners; farmers know a greater variety of veterinary medicinal applications than non-farmers; the place of residence relates significantly to food and veterinary uses. Customs are difficult to investigate in standardized matrices. The household-related distribution of work and the general socio-cultural context are especially helpful in order to explain intracultural variation of knowledge in the Grosses Walsertal. Conclusions Research on the intracultural variation of local knowledge exposes cultural characteristics and

  12. Explaining NDVI trends in northern Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld; Fensholt, Rasmus; Fog, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    by a distinct spatial pattern and strongly dominated by negative trends in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The aim of the paper is to explain this distinct pattern. When studied over the period 2000–2012, using NDVI data from the MODIS sensor the spatial pattern of NDVI trends indicates that non......-climatic factors are involved. By relating NDVI trends to landscape elements and land use change we demonstrate that NDVI trends in the north-western parts of the study area are mostly related to landscape elements, while this is not the case in the south-eastern parts, where rapidly changing land use, including....... expansion of irrigation, plays a major role. It is inferred that a process of increased redistribution of fine soil material, water and vegetation from plateaus and slopes to valleys, possibly related to higher grazing pressure, may provide an explanation of the observed pattern of NDVI trends. Further work...

  13. Explaining the moral of the story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Caren M; Lombrozo, Tania

    2017-10-01

    Although storybooks are often used as pedagogical tools for conveying moral lessons to children, the ability to spontaneously extract "the moral" of a story develops relatively late. Instead, children tend to represent stories at a concrete level - one that highlights surface features and understates more abstract themes. Here we examine the role of explanation in 5- and 6-year-old children's developing ability to learn the moral of a story. Two experiments demonstrate that, relative to a control condition, prompts to explain aspects of a story facilitate children's ability to override salient surface features, abstract the underlying moral, and generalize that moral to novel contexts. In some cases, generating an explanation is more effective than being explicitly told the moral of the story, as in a more traditional pedagogical exchange. These findings have implications for moral comprehension, the role of explanation in learning, and the development of abstract reasoning in early childhood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Can molecular cell biology explain chromosome motions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagliardi L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitotic chromosome motions have recently been correlated with electrostatic forces, but a lingering "molecular cell biology" paradigm persists, proposing binding and release proteins or molecular geometries for force generation. Results Pole-facing kinetochore plates manifest positive charges and interact with negatively charged microtubule ends providing the motive force for poleward chromosome motions by classical electrostatics. This conceptual scheme explains dynamic tracking/coupling of kinetochores to microtubules and the simultaneous depolymerization of kinetochore microtubules as poleward force is generated. Conclusion We question here why cells would prefer complex molecular mechanisms to move chromosomes when direct electrostatic interactions between known bound charge distributions can accomplish the same task much more simply.

  15. Alcohol and breast cancer: the mechanisms explained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sader, Hassen; Abdul-Jabar, Hani; Allawi, Zahra; Haba, Yasser

    2009-08-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of death amongst women, several studies have shown significant association between alcohol consumption and breast cancer. The aim of this overview is to highlight some of the mechanisms by which alcohol consumption could increase the risk of developing breast cancer. Using online Medline search engine, article containing details about mechanisms which explain the link between alcohol and breast cancer were examined. A number of mechanisms were found by which alcohol could increase the risk of breast cancer, alcohol's interaction and effect on oestrogen secretion; number of oestrogen receptors; the generation of acetaldehyde and hydroxyl free radicals; cells migration and metastasis; secretion of IGF1 and interaction with HRT and folate metabolism. In conclusion, it is essential for clinicians to understand these mechanisms and inform patients of the link between alcohol and breast cancer. Breast cancer; Alcohol; Mechanisms.

  16. Explaining the gender difference in nightmare frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis showed a robust gender difference in nightmare frequency of medium effect size in adolescents and young adults: Women tend to report nightmares more frequently than men. The present study, carried out in an unselected student sample, indicates that 2 factors mediate the gender difference in nightmare frequency: neuroticism and overall dream recall frequency. The effect of neuroticism on the gender difference and the finding that the gender difference in nightmare frequency emerges at an age of about 10 years suggest that gender-specific socialization processes may play an important role in explaining the gender differences in nightmare frequency in adolescents and young to middle-aged adults. This idea is supported by the previous finding that nightmare frequency is related to sex role orientation. However, longitudinal studies are necessary to validate these hypotheses.

  17. Explaining fast radio bursts through Dicke's superradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houde, Martin; Mathews, Abhilash; Rajabi, Fereshteh

    2018-03-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs), characterized by strong bursts of radiation intensity at radio wavelengths lasting on the order of a millisecond, have yet to be firmly associated with a family, or families, of astronomical sources. It follows that despite the large number of proposed models, no well-defined physical process has been identified to explain this phenomenon. In this paper, we demonstrate how Dicke's superradiance, for which evidence has recently been found in the interstellar medium, can account for the characteristics associated with FRBs. Our analysis and modelling of previously detected FRBs suggest they could originate from regions in many ways similar to those known to harbour masers or megamasers, and result from the coherent radiation emanating from populations of molecules associated with large-scale entangled quantum mechanical states. We estimate this entanglement to involve as many as ˜1030 to ˜1032 molecules over distances spanning 100-1000 au.

  18. Explaining CMS lepton excesses with supersymmetry

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Prof. Allanach, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    1) Kostas Theofilatos will give an introduction to CMS result 2) Ben Allanach: Several CMS analyses involving di-leptons have recently reported small 2.4-2.8 sigma local excesses: nothing to get too excited about, but worth keeping an eye on nonetheless. In particular, a search in the $lljj p_T$(miss) channel, a search for $W_R$ in the $lljj$ channel and a di-leptoquark search in the $lljj$ channel and $ljj p_T$(miss) channel have all yielded small excesses. We interpret the first excess in the MSSM, showing that the interpretation is viable in terms of other constraints, despite only having squark masses of around 1 TeV. We can explain the last three excesses with a single R-parity violating coupling that predicts a non-zero contribution to the neutrinoless double beta decay rate.

  19. Explaining African Participation in International Courts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, Line Engbo; Brett, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Africa has more international courts than any other continent, yet International Relations scholarship has failed to explain this move to law on the African continent. This article provides such an explanation using Jean-François Bayart’s concept of extraversion. It shows how the creation...... of international courts in the 1990s and early 2000s was the result of extraverted strategies for attracting international resources and pre-empting donor pressures for political and legal reforms. By adopting these strategies, African states failed to behave in the ‘strategic’ manner anticipated by both...... Tribunal and International Criminal Court. Using the case studies of Zimbabwe and Kenya, it shows how global scripts were repeated by even those states which have, in recent years, most vocally asserted their national interests against these courts....

  20. Communication skills in pediatric training program: National-based survey of residents' perspectives in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alofisan, Tariq; Al-Alaiyan, Saleh; Al-Abdulsalam, Moath; Siddiqui, Khawar; Hussain, Ibrahim Bin; Al-Qahtani, Mohammad H

    2016-01-01

    Good communication skills and rapport building are considered the cardinal tools for developing a patient-doctor relationship. A positive, healthy competition among different health care organizations in Saudi Arabia underlines an ever increasing emphasis on effective patient-doctor relationship. Despite the numerous guidelines provided and programs available, there is a significant variation in the acceptance and approach to the use of this important tool among pediatric residents in this part of the world. To determine pediatric residents' attitude toward communication skills, their perception of important communication skills, and their confidence in the use of their communication skills in the performance of their primary duties. A cross-sectional study was conducted among all pediatrics trainee residents working in 13 different hospitals in Saudi Arabia. A standardized self-administered questionnaire developed by the Harvard Medical School was used. A total of 297 residents out of all trainees in these centers participated in the data collection. The 283 (95%) residents considered learning communication skills a priority in establishing a good patient-doctor relationship. Thirty four percent reported being very confident with regard to their communication skills. Few residents had the skills, and the confidence to communicate with children with serious diseases, discuss end-of-life issues, and deal with difficult patients and parents. Pediatric residents perceive the importance of communication skills and competencies as crucial components in their training. A proper comprehensive communication skills training should be incorporated into the pediatric resident training curriculum.

  1. Do socio-economic, behavioural and biological risk factors explain the poor health profile of the UK's sickest city?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Rebecca; Walsh, David; Ramsay, Julie

    2012-12-01

    The extent to which the poor health profile of Glasgow, the city with the highest mortality rates in the UK, can be explained solely by socio-economic factors is unclear. This paper additionally considers behavioural and biological factors as explanations of excess risk. Scottish Health Survey data for 2008-09 were analysed using logistic regression models to compare the odds of physical and mental health outcomes, as well as adverse health behaviours, for residents of the Greater Glasgow and Clyde (GGC) conurbation compared with the rest of Scotland. After adjustment for age and sex, significant differences were observed among Glasgow residents for most mental and physical health outcomes, but not for most adverse health behaviours. Adjustment for area and individual-level socio-economic characteristics explained the differences for all outcomes except anxiety, psychological ill-health, heart attack and men being overweight. After additional adjustment for behavioural and biological characteristics, significantly higher odds of anxiety and heart attack remained for residents of the Glasgow area. Adjusting for area- and individual-level socio-economic conditions explained the excess risk associated with residents of GGC for most (16 out of 18) outcomes; however, significant excess risks for two outcomes remained: anxiety and heart attack. Additional explanations are, therefore, required.

  2. Training science centre Explainers. The Techniquest experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Johnson

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Techniquest was established in 1986, and in 1995 moved to its current premises at Cardiff Bay, South Wales. This was the first purpose-built science centre in the UK. It receives around 200,000 visitors every year to its exhibition, and to its programmes for schools and public audiences in the theatre, laboratory, discovery room and planetarium. The author joined the Techniquest project in 1985, became a staff member in 1990 and was the Chief Executive from 1997 until his retirement in 2004. Techniquest has three “out-stations” in Wales, and is responsible for the supply and maintenance of exhibits to the Look Out Discovery Centre in Bracknell, England. There is a Techniquest gallery at the Lisbon Pavilhão do Conhecimento - Ciência Viva, and a traveling exhibition, SciQuest, in South Africa which was also supplied by Techniquest. All these centres rely on the effective intervention of “Explainers” (at Techniquest we call them “Helpers” to provide the best possible experience for visitors. At its most demanding, the tasks of an Explainer are varied and intensive, yet there may be times when the duties are mundane or even dull. When you rely on people to act as both hosts and housekeepers, to provide both support and stimulus, and to be both welcoming and watchful, you are asking a great deal. This article raises some of the issues concerned with the recruitment and retention of Explainers, their training and management, and the way in which their role is recognized and valued by the science centre as a whole.

  3. Explaining polarization reversals in STEREO wave data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breneman, A.; Cattell, C.; Wygant, J.; Kersten, K.; Wilson, L. B., III; Dai, L.; Colpitts, C.; Kellogg, P. J.; Goetz, K.; Paradise, A.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, Breneman et al. (2011) reported observations of large amplitude lightning and transmitter whistler mode waves from two STEREO passes through the inner radiation belt (L plane transverse to the magnetic field showed that the transmitter waves underwent periodic polarization reversals. Specifically, their polarization would cycle through a pattern of right-hand to linear to left-hand polarization at a rate of roughly 200 Hz. The lightning whistlers were observed to be left-hand polarized at frequencies greater than the lower hybrid frequency and less than the transmitter frequency (21.4 kHz) and right-hand polarized otherwise. Only right-hand polarized waves in the inner radiation belt should exist in the frequency range of the whistler mode and these reversals were not explained in the previous paper. We show, with a combination of observations and simulated wave superposition, that these polarization reversals are due to the beating of an incident electromagnetic whistler mode wave at 21.4 kHz and linearly polarized, symmetric lower hybrid sidebands Doppler-shifted from the incident wave by ±200 Hz. The existence of the lower hybrid waves is consistent with the parametric decay mechanism of Lee and Kuo (1984) whereby an incident whistler mode wave decays into symmetric, short wavelength lower hybrid waves and a purely growing (zero-frequency) mode. Like the lower hybrid waves, the purely growing mode is Doppler-shifted by ˜200 Hz as observed on STEREO. This decay mechanism in the upper ionosphere has been previously reported at equatorial latitudes and is thought to have a direct connection with explosive spread F enhancements. As such it may represent another dissipation mechanism of VLF wave energy in the ionosphere and may help to explain a deficit of observed lightning and transmitter energy in the inner radiation belts as reported by Starks et al. (2008).

  4. Geographic Variations of Colorectal and Breast Cancer Late-Stage Diagnosis and the Effects of Neighborhood-Level Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan; Wimberly, Michael C

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the geographic variations of late-stage diagnosis in colorectal cancer (CRC) and breast cancer as well as to investigate the effects of 3 neighborhood-level factors-socioeconomic deprivation, urban/rural residence, and spatial accessibility to health care-on the late-stage risks. This study used population-based South Dakota cancer registry data from 2001 to 2012. A total of 4,878 CRC cases and 6,418 breast cancer cases were included in the analyses. Two-level logistic regression models were used to analyze the risk of late-stage CRC and breast cancer. For CRC, there was a small geographic variation across census tracts in late-stage diagnosis, and residing in isolated small rural areas was significantly associated with late-stage risk. However, this association became nonsignificant after adjusting for census-tract level socioeconomic deprivation. Socioeconomic deprivation was an independent predictor of CRC late-stage risk, and it explained the elevated risk among American Indians. No relationship was found between spatial accessibility and CRC late-stage risk. For breast cancer, no geographic variation in the late-stage diagnosis was observed across census tracts, and none of the 3 neighborhood-level factors was significantly associated with late-stage risk. Results suggested that socioeconomic deprivation, rather than spatial accessibility, contributed to CRC late-stage risks in South Dakota as a rural state. CRC intervention programs could be developed to target isolated small rural areas, socioeconomically disadvantaged areas, as well as American Indians residing in these areas. © 2016 National Rural Health Association.

  5. Residents' Interaction with Their College Living-Learning Peer Mentor: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Jonathan Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This study used Strauss and Corbin's (1998) grounded theory model to describe and explain the stories of residents' interactions with their peer mentor, in a health, education, and human development living-learning community (LLC). The question answered in this study was: What is the impact of the interaction between a peer mentor and…

  6. The Effectiveness of Computer-Based Hypermedia Teaching Modules for Radiology Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Roger; And Others

    This paper explains the rationale for utilizing computer-based, hypermedia tutorials for radiology education and presents the results of a field test of this educational technique. It discusses the development of the hypermedia tutorials at Montreal General Hospital (Quebec, Canada) in 1991-92 and their use in the radiology residency program. The…

  7. The Provision of Informal Support By Elderly People Residing in Assisted Living Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Howard

    1998-01-01

    Examines factors facilitating support giving to members of the social network by elderly Jewish persons residing in assisted-living facilities in Israel. Results reveal that it is principally the perceived support measure along with two personal characteristics that explains the variance in support provision scores. (Author/MKA)

  8. Living environment matters: relationships between neighborhood characteristics and health of the residents in a Dutch municipality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putrik, Polina; de Vries, Nanne K.; Mujakovic, Suhreta; van Amelsvoort, Ludovic; Kant, Ijmert; Kunst, Anton E.; van Oers, Hans; Jansen, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Characteristics of an individual alone cannot exhaustively explain all the causes of poor health, and neighborhood of residence have been suggested to be one of the factors that contribute to health. However, knowledge about aspects of the neighborhood that are most important to health is limited.

  9. Living environment matters : Relationships between neighborhood characteristics and health of the residents in a Dutch municipality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putrik, P.; de Vries, N.K.; Mujakovic, S.; van Amelsvoort, L.; Kant, IJ.; Kunst, A.E.; van Oers, J.A.M.; Jansen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Characteristics of an individual alone cannot exhaustively explain all the causes of poor health, and neighborhood of residence have been suggested to be one of the factors that contribute to health. However, knowledge about aspects of the neighborhood that are most important to health is limited.

  10. A Time Study of Plastic Surgery Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Frank H; Sinha, Indranil; Jiang, Wei; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Eriksson, Elof

    2016-05-01

    Resident work hours are under scrutiny and have been subject to multiple restrictions. The studies supporting these changes have not included data on surgical residents. We studied the workday of a team of plastic surgery residents to establish prospective time-study data of plastic surgery (PRS) residents at a single tertiary-care academic medical center. Five trained research assistants observed all residents (n = 8) on a PRS service for 10 weeks and produced minute-by-minute activity logs. Data collection began when the team first met in the morning and continued until the resident being followed completed all non-call activities. We analyzed our data from 3 perspectives: 1) time spent in direct patient care (DPC), indirect patient care, and didactic activities; 2) time spent in high education-value activities (HEAs) versus low education-value activities; and 3) resident efficiency. We defined HEAs as activities that surgeons must master; other activities were LEAs. We quantified resident efficiency in terms of time fragmentation and time spent waiting. A total of 642.4 hours of data across 50 workdays were collected. Excluding call, residents worked an average of 64.2 hours per week. Approximately 50.7% of surgical resident time was allotted to DPC, with surgery accounting for the largest segment of this time (34.8%). Time spent on HEAs demonstrated trended upward with higher resident level (P = 0.086). Time in spent in surgery was significantly associated with higher resident levels (P time study of PRS residents, we found that compared with medicine trainees, surgical residents spent 3.23 times more time on DPC. High education-value activities comprised most of our residents' workdays. Surgery was the leading component of both DPC and HEAs. Our residents were highly efficient and fragmented, with the majority of all activities requiring 4 minutes or less. Residents spent a large portion of their time waiting for other services. In light of these data, we

  11. Neurocritical care education during neurology residency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drogan, O.; Manno, E.; Geocadin, R.G.; Ziai, W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Limited information is available regarding the current state of neurocritical care education for neurology residents. The goal of our survey was to assess the need and current state of neurocritical care training for neurology residents. Methods: A survey instrument was developed and, with the support of the American Academy of Neurology, distributed to residency program directors of 132 accredited neurology programs in the United States in 2011. Results: A response rate of 74% (98 of 132) was achieved. A dedicated neuroscience intensive care unit (neuro-ICU) existed in 64%. Fifty-six percent of residency programs offer a dedicated rotation in the neuro-ICU, lasting 4 weeks on average. Where available, the neuro-ICU rotation was required in the vast majority (91%) of programs. Neurology residents' exposure to the fundamental principles of neurocritical care was obtained through a variety of mechanisms. Of program directors, 37% indicated that residents would be interested in performing away rotations in a neuro-ICU. From 2005 to 2010, the number of programs sending at least one resident into a neuro-ICU fellowship increased from 14% to 35%. Conclusions: Despite the expansion of neurocritical care, large proportions of US neurology residents have limited exposure to a neuro-ICU and neurointensivists. Formal training in the principles of neurocritical care may be highly variable. The results of this survey suggest a charge to address the variability of resident education and to develop standardized curricula in neurocritical care for neurology residents. PMID:22573636

  12. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene in children living in city and rural residences in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    2006-01-01

    living in urban residences are more exposed to PAH than children living in rural residences. Time spent outdoors increased the excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene, which was most evident among urban children. Higher concentrations of ambient air pollution in urban areas may explain this finding. No influence......, the children excreted on average 0.07 [95% CI: 0.01-0.41] micromol urinary 1-hydroxypyrene per mol creatinine. Children living in urban residences excreted 0.02 [95% CI: 0.01-0.05] micromol more 1-hydroxypyrene than children living in rural residences. This was confirmed in the multiple regression analysis...... showing a 29% (95% CI: 2-64%) higher excretion among urban children than rural children. Moreover, the regression analysis showed that for each hour per day spent outside the children excreted 58% (1.58 [1.22-2.03]) more 1-hydroxypyrene in urine. CONCLUSION: The present study indicates that children...

  13. PNEUMONIA IN NURSING HOME RESIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Eržen

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pneumonia remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in advanced age. Prognosis of the disease depends on premorbid condition and immune competence of the patient, severity of the disease and causative microorganism. In our analysis we wanted to establish clinical, x-ray and microbiological characteristics of pneumonia in nursing home residents, estimate suitability of therapeutic measures and find out risk factors for adverse outcome in this group of patients.Material and methods. This retrospective study includes all nursing home residents hospitalised due to CAP in Hospital Golnik in 2000. Clinical data was/were evaluated according to case history. Microbiological data and laboratory results were gathered from the patients files. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis.Results. 30 patients, 17 women were included, aged 82.5 ± 11.7 years. 60% of patients had at least 2 accompanying diseases, most frequently cardiovascular and neurologic diseases. At admittance 83% of patients presented with severe form of the disease. Dispnea (93%, tachypnea, cough (67% and confusion (47% dominate clinical picture. Patients rarely expectorate, are frequently hypoxemic (93%, have leucocytosis (63%, electrolyte disturbances and elevated urea (67%. According to the microbiologic results most frequent causative agents are Enterobacteriae, S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and also some multiresistant bacteria. Amoxycillin with clavulanic acid was the most frequently used antibiotic, followed by macrolides and 3rd generation cephalosporines.9 patients died, mortality rate was 30%. Their average age was 83,4 years, 67% of them had more than 2 accompanying diseases, all of them severe form of the disease, 89% severe respiratory insufficiency and 22% positive hemoculture.Conclusions. Patients are characterised with numerous comorbidities and advanced age. Clinical presentation is unspecific. Mortality is high

  14. Learning environment: assessing resident experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byszewski, Anna; Lochnan, Heather; Johnston, Donna; Seabrook, Christine; Wood, Timothy

    2017-06-01

    Given their essential role in developing professional identity, academic institutions now require formal assessment of the learning environment (LE). We describe the experience of introducing a novel and practical tool in postgraduate programmes. The Learning Environment for Professionalism (LEP) survey, validated in the undergraduate setting, is relatively short, with 11 questions balanced for positive and negative professionalism behaviours. LEP is anonymous and focused on rotation setting, not an individual, and can be used on an iterative basis. We describe how we implemented the LEP, preliminary results, challenges encountered and suggestions for future application. Academic institutions now require formal assessment of the learning environment METHODS: The study was designed to test the feasibility of introducing the LEP in the postgraduate setting, and to establish the validity and the reliability of the survey. Residents in four programmes completed 187 ratings using LEP at the end of one of 11 rotations. The resident response rate was 87 per cent. Programme and rotation ratings were similar but not identical. All items rated positively (favourably), but displays of altruism tended to have lower ratings (meaning less desirable behaviour was witnessed), as were ratings for derogatory comments (again meaning that less desirable behaviour was witnessed). We have shown that the LEP is a feasible and valid tool that can be implemented on an iterative basis to examine the LE. Two LEP questions in particular, regarding derogatory remarks and demonstrating altruism, recorded the lowest scores, and these areas deserve attention at our institution. Implementation in diverse programmes is planned at our teaching hospitals to further assess reliability. This work may influence other postgraduate programmes to introduce this assessment tool. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  15. Case-Logging Practices in Otolaryngology Residency Training: National Survey of Residents and Program Directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermody, Sarah M; Gao, William; McGinn, Johnathan D; Malekzadeh, Sonya

    2017-06-01

    Objective (1) Evaluate the consistency and manner in which otolaryngology residents log surgical cases. (2) Assess the extent of instruction and guidance provided by program directors on case-logging practices. Study Design Cross-sectional national survey. Setting Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education otolaryngology residency programs in the United States. Subjects and Methods US otolaryngology residents, postgraduate year 2 through graduating chiefs as of July 2016, were recruited to respond to an anonymous questionnaire designed to characterize surgical case-logging practices. Program directors of US otolaryngology residency programs were recruited to respond to an anonymous questionnaire to elucidate how residents are instructed to log cases. Results A total of 272 residents and 53 program directors completed the survey, yielding response rates of 40.6% and 49.5%, respectively. Perceived accuracy of case logs is low among residents and program directors. Nearly 40% of residents purposely choose not to log certain cases, and 65.1% of residents underreport cases performed. More than 80% of program directors advise residents to log procedures performed outside the operating room, yet only 16% of residents consistently log such cases. Conclusion Variability in surgical case-logging behaviors and differences in provided instruction highlight the need for methods to improve consistency of logging practices. It is imperative to standardize practices across otolaryngology residency programs for case logs to serve as an accurate measure of surgical competency. This study provides a foundation for reform efforts within residency programs and for the Resident Case Log System.

  16. Understanding how residents' preferences for supervisory methods change throughout residency training: a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos-Vega, Francisco; Dolmans, Diana; Donkers, Jeroen; Stalmeijer, Renée E

    2015-10-16

    A major challenge for clinical supervisors is to encourage their residents to be independent without jeopardising patient safety. Residents' preferences according to level of training on this regard have not been completely explored. This study has sought to investigate which teaching methods of the Cognitive Apprenticeship (CA) model junior, intermediate and senior residents preferred and why, and how these preferences differed between groups. We invited 301 residents of all residency programmes of Javeriana University, Bogotá, Colombia, to participate. Each resident was asked to complete a Maastricht Clinical Teaching Questionnaire (MCTQ), which, being based on the teaching methods of CA, asked residents to rate the importance to their learning of each teaching method and to indicate which of these they preferred the most and why. A total of 215 residents (71 %) completed the questionnaire. All concurred that all CA teaching methods were important or very important to their learning, regardless of their level of training. However, the reasons for their preferences clearly differed between groups: junior and intermediate residents preferred teaching methods that were more supervisor-directed, such as modelling and coaching, whereas senior residents preferred teaching methods that were more resident-directed, such as exploration and articulation. The results indicate that clinical supervision (CS) should accommodate to residents' varying degrees of development by attuning the configuration of CA teaching methods to each level of residency training. This configuration should initially vest more power in the supervisor, and gradually let the resident take charge, without ever discontinuing CS.

  17. Explaining Polarization Reversals in STEREO Wave Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breneman, A.; Cattell, C.; Wygant, J.; Kersten, K.; Wilson, L, B., III; Dai, L.; Colpitts, C.; Kellogg, P. J.; Goetz, K.; Paradise, A.

    2012-01-01

    Recently Breneman et al. reported observations of large amplitude lightning and transmitter whistler mode waves from two STEREO passes through the inner radiation belt (Lpaper. We show, with a combination of observations and simulated wave superposition, that these polarization reversals are due to the beating of an incident electromagnetic whistler mode wave at 21.4 kHz and linearly polarized, symmetric lower hybrid sidebands Doppler-shifted from the incident wave by +/-200 Hz. The existence of the lower hybrid waves is consistent with the parametric decay mechanism of Lee and Kuo whereby an incident whistler mode wave decays into symmetric, short wavelength lower hybrid waves and a purely growing (zero-frequency) mode. Like the lower hybrid waves, the purely growing mode is Doppler-shifted by 200 Hz as observed on STEREO. This decay mechanism in the upper ionosphere has been previously reported at equatorial latitudes and is thought to have a direct connection with explosive spread F enhancements. As such it may represent another dissipation mechanism of VLF wave energy in the ionosphere and may help to explain a deficit of observed lightning and transmitter energy in the inner radiation belts as reported by Starks et al.

  18. Explaining Global Secularity: Existential Security or Education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude M. J. Braun

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available At the time of data analysis for this report there were 193 countries in the world. Various institutions – the United Nations, the World Health Organization, the CIA, the World Values Survey, Gallup, and many others – have performed sophisticated statistical analyses on cross-national data. The present investigation demonstrates that valid and reliable data concerning religiosity and secularity exist for most countries and that these data are comparable. Cross-national data relating to social, political, economic and cultural aspects of life were tested for correlation with religiosity/secularity. In contrast to the most widely accepted general account of secularity, the Existential Security Framework (ESF; Norris & Inglehart, 2004, secularity was not most highly related to material security, though these were highly related. Rather, secularity was most strongly related to the degree of formal education attained. Material security explained no significant variance beyond education. Thus, religion’s primary function in the world today is being replaced, not so much by the pseudo-materialistic supplication for better living conditions as posited by the ESF, but by contemporary education – extensive knowledge of contemporary cultures, philosophy, modes of thought or processes of reasoning.

  19. Explaining Change in Language: A Cybersemiotic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Danesi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest conundrums in semiotics and linguistics is explaining why change occurs in communication systems. The descriptive apparatus of how change occurs has been developed in great detail since at least the nineteenth century, but a viable explanatory framework of why it occurs in the first place still seems to be clouded in vagueness. So far, only the so-called Principle of Least Effort has come forward to provide a suggestive psychobiological framework for understanding change in communication codes such as language. Extensive work in using this model has shown many fascinating things about language structure and how it evolves. However, the many findings need an integrative framework for shedding light on any generalities implicit in them. This paper argues that a new approach to the study of codes, called cybersemiotics, can be used to great advantage for assessing theoretical frameworks and notions such as the Principle of Least Effort. Amalgamating cybernetic and biosemiotic notions, this new science provides analysts with valuable insights on the raison d’être of phenomena such as linguistic change.

  20. Dark matter "transporting" mechanism explaining positron excesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Doojin; Park, Jong-Chul; Shin, Seodong

    2018-04-01

    We propose a novel mechanism to explain the positron excesses, which are observed by satellite-based telescopes including PAMELA and AMS-02, in dark matter (DM) scenarios. The novelty behind the proposal is that it makes direct use of DM around the Galactic Center where DM populates most densely, allowing us to avoid tensions from cosmological and astrophysical measurements. The key ingredients of this mechanism include DM annihilation into unstable states with a very long laboratory-frame life time and their "retarded" decay near the Earth to electron-positron pair(s) possibly with other (in)visible particles. We argue that this sort of explanation is not in conflict with relevant constraints from big bang nucleosynthesis and cosmic microwave background. Regarding the resultant positron spectrum, we provide a generalized source term in the associated diffusion equation, which can be readily applicable to any type of two-"stage" DM scenarios wherein production of Standard Model particles occurs at completely different places from those of DM annihilation. We then conduct a data analysis with the recent AMS-02 data to validate our proposal.

  1. Feasibility of an innovative third-year chief resident system: an internal medicine residency leadership study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor O. Kolade

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The role of the internal medicine chief resident includes various administrative, academic, social, and educational responsibilities, fulfillment of which prepares residents for further leadership tasks. However, the chief resident position has historically only been held by a few residents. As fourth-year chief residents are becoming less common, we considered a new model for rotating third-year residents as the chief resident. Methods: Online surveys were given to all 29 internal medicine residents in a single university-based program after implementation of a leadership curriculum and specific job description for the third-year chief resident. Chief residents evaluated themselves on various aspects of leadership. Participation was voluntary. Descriptive statistics were generated using SPSS version 21. Results: Thirteen junior (first- or second-year resident responses reported that the chief residents elicited input from others (mean rating 6.8, were committed to the team (6.8, resolved conflict (6.7, ensured efficiency, organization and productivity of the team (6.7, participated actively (7.0, and managed resources (6.6. Responses from senior residents averaged 1 point higher for each item; this pattern repeated itself in teaching evaluations. Chief resident self-evaluators were more comfortable running a morning report (8.4 than with being chief resident (5.8. Conclusion: The feasibility of preparing internal medicine residents for leadership roles through a rotating PGY-3 (postgraduate year chief residency curriculum was explored at a small internal medicine residency, and we suggest extending the study to include other programs.

  2. What is an anesthesiology resident worth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrera, Marisa H; Beaman, Shawn T; Metro, David G; Handley, Linda J; Walker, James E

    2009-08-01

    To determine the cost of replacing an anesthesiology resident with a certified registered nurse anesthetist (CRNA) for equal operating room (OR) work. Retrospective financial analysis. Academic anesthesiology department. Clinical anesthesia (CA)-1 through CA-3 residents. Cost of replacing anesthesiology residents with CRNAs for equal OR work was determined. The cost of replacing one anesthesiology resident with a CRNA for the same number of OR hours ranged from $9,940.32 to $43,300 per month ($106,241.68 to $432,937.50 per yr). Numbers varied depending on the CRNA pay scale and whether the calculations were based on the number of OR hours worked at our residency program or OR hours worked in a maximum duty hour model. A CRNA is paid substantially more per OR hour worked, at all pay levels, than an anesthesiology resident.

  3. Attending Surgeons' Leadership Style in the Operating Room: Comparing Junior Residents' Experiences and Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissane-Lee, Nicole A; Yule, Steven; Pozner, Charles N; Smink, Douglas S

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have focused on surgeons' nontechnical skills in the operating room (OR), especially leadership. In an attempt to identify trainee preferences, we explored junior residents' opinions about the OR leadership style of teaching faculty. Overall, 20 interns and 20 mid-level residents completed a previously validated survey on the style of leadership they encountered, the style they preferred to receive, and the style they personally employed in the OR. In all, 4 styles were explored; authoritative: leader makes decisions and communicates them firmly; explanatory: leader makes decisions promptly, but explains them fully; consultative: leader consults with trainees when important decisions are made, and delegative: leader puts the problem before the group and makes decisions by majority opinion. Comparisons were completed using chi-square analysis. Junior resident preference for leadership style of attending surgeons in the OR differed from what they encountered. Overall, 62% of residents encountered an authoritative leadership style; however, only 9% preferred this (p < 0.001). Instead, residents preferred explanatory (53%) or consultative styles (41%). Preferences differed by postgraduate year. Although 40% of interns preferred a consultative style, 50% of mid-level residents preferred explanatory leadership. Junior resident preference of leadership style in the OR differs from what they actually encounter. This has the potential to create unwanted tension and may erode team performance. Awareness of this difference provides an opportunity for an educational intervention directed at both attendings and trainees. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of residents in professionalism and communication skills in south China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bo Qu; Yuhong Zhao; Baozhi Sun

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the resident doctors' competency in professionalism and communication skills in south China.We conducted this cross-sectional study in 8 hospitals, in 4 provinces of southern China from October to December 2007. The evaluation included 148 resident doctors. A 360-degree instrument from Education Outcomes Service Group (EOS group) of the Arizona Medical Education Consortium was developed and used by the attending physicians, residents, and their peers, nurses, patients, and office staff in this study. All data were entered into a computerized database and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 13.0( SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) for Windows. Our results indicated that the instruments are internally consistent (Cronbach's alpha >0.90). The principal components analysis with varimax rotation for the attending-, resident self-evaluation, nurse-, patient-, office staff- and resident peer-rated questionnaires explained 70.68%, 76.13%, 77.02%, 76.37%, 75.51%, and 72.05% of the total variance. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found among different evaluators. The 360-degree instrument appears to be reliable in evaluating a residents' competency in professionalism and communication skills. Information from the assessment may provide feedback to residents (Author).

  5. Motherhood during residency training: challenges and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Allyn; Gold, Michelle; Jensen, Phyllis; Jedrzkiewicz, Michelle

    2005-07-01

    To determine what factors enable or impede women in a Canadian family medicine residency program from combining motherhood with residency training. To determine how policies can support these women, given that in recent decades the number of female family medicine residents has increased. Qualitative study using in-person interviews. McMaster University Family Medicine Residency Program. Twenty-one of 27 family medicine residents taking maternity leave between 1994 and 1999. Semistructured interviews. The research team reviewed transcripts of audiotaped interviews for emerging themes; consensus was reached on content and meaning. NVIVO software was used for data analysis. Long hours, unpredictable work demands, guilt because absences from work increase workload for colleagues, and residents' high expectations of themselves cause pregnant residents severe stress. This stress continues upon return to work; finding adequate child care is an added stress. Residents report receiving less support from colleagues and supervisors upon return to work; they associate this with no longer being visibly pregnant. Physically demanding training rotations put additional strain on pregnant residents and those newly returned to work. Flexibility in scheduling rotations can help accommodate needs at home. Providing breaks, privacy, and refrigerators at work can help maintain breastfeeding. Allowing residents to remain involved in academic and clinical work during maternity leave helps maintain clinical skills, build new knowledge, and promote peer support. Pregnancy during residency training is common and becoming more common. Training programs can successfully enhance the experience of motherhood during residency by providing flexibility at work to facilitate a healthy balance among the competing demands of family, work, and student life.

  6. [Geographic variations in freshwater molluscs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinarskiĭ, M V

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of geographic variation is known in practically all taxa of living beings. However, the reality of this phenomenon in freshwater molluscs (snails and bivalves) has many times been questioned in the past. It was accepted that these animals do not demonstrate spatially-oriented variation, where specific "local race" is arisen in each specific habitat. Till the beginning of 1970s, there was no statistical evidence that geographic clines in freshwater molluscs really exist. However, a few species of freshwater molluscs has been studied in this respect so far, therefore it is almost impossible to draw any general patterns of geographical variation in this group of animals. Most species of freshwater molluscs studied to the date exhibit statistically significant decrease of their body size in the south-north direction. Perhaps, it may be explained by decrease of the duration of the growth season in high latitudes. Some species of freshwater snails demonstrate clinal changes in shell proportions. This allows to reject subspecies separation within these species since diagnostic characters of such "subspecies" may blur when geographic variation is taken into consideration. The data on geographic variation in anatomical traits in freshwater molluscs is much more scarce. At least one species of pond snails (Lymnaea terebra) demonstrates clinal variation in proportions of the copulative apparatus in the south-north direction. Further studies of geographic variation in freshwater molluscs should reveal whether it is truly adaptive, i.e. whether geographical clines have underlying genetic basis. Otherwise, the clines may arise as a result of direct modifying effect of a habitat.

  7. [Heart failure in nursing home residents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daamen, M A M J; Hamers, J P H; Brunner-la Rocca, H P; Schols, J M G A

    2016-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of heart failure (HF) in nursing home residents and to gain insight into the clinical characteristics of residents with heart failure. Multi-centre, observational, cross-sectional study. 501 nursing home residents aged 65 years and over, in a department for chronic somatic diseases or a psychogeriatric department, participated in this study. The diagnosis of HF and the related characteristics were based on data collected from clinical examinations for heart failure (including history, physical examination, ECG, cardiac markers and echocardiography), patient records and questionnaires. A panel of two cardiologists and an internist-geriatrician made the final diagnosis of HF. The prevalence of HF in nursing home residents was 33%. Dyspnoea, oedema and a history of cardiac disease were more common in residents with heart failure. Diabetes mellitus and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease also appeared to be more prevalent in this group. In 54% of the residents with HF, the diagnosis had not previously been made. Diagnosis of HF was not confirmed by the expert panel in 31% of residents with a history of HF. Heart failure does indeed appear to be very prevalent in nursing home residents. Heart failure had not been previously diagnosed in many cases but also a previous diagnosis of heart failure could be disproved in many participants. It is therefore important that the diagnostic process for heart failure in nursing home residents be improved.

  8. Radiology residents' experience with intussusception reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateni, Cyrus; Stein-Wexler, Rebecca; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L; Li, Chin-Shang

    2011-06-01

    Residents should be exposed to adequate procedural volume to act independently upon completion of training. Informal inquiry led us to question whether residents encounter enough intussusception reductions to become comfortable with the procedure. We sought to determine radiology residents' exposure to intussusception reductions, and whether their experiences vary by region or institution. U.S. radiology residency program directors were asked to encourage their residents to complete a 12-question online survey describing characteristics of their pediatric radiology department, experiences with intussusception reduction, and confidence in their own ability to perform the procedure. Six hundred sixty-four residents responded during the study period. Of those, 308 (46.4%) had not experienced an intussusception reduction, and 228 (34%) had experienced only one or two. Twenty-two percent of fourth-year residents had never experienced an intussusception reduction, and 21% had experienced only one. Among second- through fourth-year residents, only 99 (18.3%) felt confident that they could competently reduce an intussusception (P Radiology residents have limited opportunity to learn intussusception reduction and therefore lack confidence. Most think they would benefit from additional training with a computer-simulation model.

  9. Internal medicine residency training in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Hatice; Akcicek, Fehmi

    2005-12-01

    Medical school entrance depends on passing a central examination that is given annually by the National Selection and Placement Center. Undergraduate medical education takes 6 years. About 5000 students graduate from medical faculties annually. The central exam necessary for residency training is given by the National Selection and Placement Center. A Specialist Training Regulation regulates residency training. Internal medicine residency training takes 4 years and includes inpatient and outpatient care in wards and rotations. Residents prepare a dissertation that is used in the evaluation of residency competency. At the end of the residency period, residents who have been successful in previous evaluations take an oral exam followed by a written exam, which lead to their certification in internal medicine. Residents' scientific knowledge and skills are assessed by a jury consisting of five people, four from the same department and one from the equivalent department in another training institution. The title of specialist is granted after a certification exam given by training institutions and approved by the Ministry of Health. Internists are mainly employed in state hospitals, which are under the Ministry of Health. Subspecialty areas in internal medicine include gastroenterology, geriatrics, endocrinology, nephrology, hematology, rheumatology, immunology, allergology, and oncology. The training period for a subspecialty is 2 years. A substantial effort is being made all over the country to improve regulations and health care service delivery. These changes will also affect the residency training and manpower planning and employment of internists.

  10. The challenges of residents teaching neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Samuel A; Józefowicz, Ralph F

    2004-07-01

    Teaching is integrated into the daily practice of residents, and it is a skill necessary for practice as well as academics. The settings in which teaching and learning take place are ubiquitous but include classrooms, small groups, bedside rounds, and grand rounds. Given the learning environment of residency, neurology residents should have working knowledge of basic principles of effective teaching to make learning successful. Teaching also reinforces knowledge, and residents will likely be better practitioners if some basic skills of teaching are practiced. Neurology teaching techniques for residents are rarely addressed in the medical literature. Although information regarding teaching principles in medicine exists, there is little information regarding how residents teach. We examine and review some of the more effective methods and appreciated qualities in teachers, with a particular emphasis for the neurology resident. We also review whom neurologists need to teach and the various settings in which teaching may take place. Neurology residents encounter a variety of audiences in a variety of settings that require diverse teaching skills to effectively convey information to other providers as well as patients. The majority of these skills should be learned in residency to establish a foundation for teaching, regardless of future practice settings.

  11. Explaining clinical behaviors using multiple theoretical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, Martin P; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; MacLennan, Graeme; Bonetti, Debbie; Glidewell, Liz; Pitts, Nigel B; Steen, Nick; Thomas, Ruth; Walker, Anne; Johnston, Marie

    2012-10-17

    In the field of implementation research, there is an increased interest in use of theory when designing implementation research studies involving behavior change. In 2003, we initiated a series of five studies to establish a scientific rationale for interventions to translate research findings into clinical practice by exploring the performance of a number of different, commonly used, overlapping behavioral theories and models. We reflect on the strengths and weaknesses of the methods, the performance of the theories, and consider where these methods sit alongside the range of methods for studying healthcare professional behavior change. These were five studies of the theory-based cognitions and clinical behaviors (taking dental radiographs, performing dental restorations, placing fissure sealants, managing upper respiratory tract infections without prescribing antibiotics, managing low back pain without ordering lumbar spine x-rays) of random samples of primary care dentists and physicians. Measures were derived for the explanatory theoretical constructs in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), and Illness Representations specified by the Common Sense Self Regulation Model (CSSRM). We constructed self-report measures of two constructs from Learning Theory (LT), a measure of Implementation Intentions (II), and the Precaution Adoption Process. We collected data on theory-based cognitions (explanatory measures) and two interim outcome measures (stated behavioral intention and simulated behavior) by postal questionnaire survey during the 12-month period to which objective measures of behavior (collected from routine administrative sources) were related. Planned analyses explored the predictive value of theories in explaining variance in intention, behavioral simulation and behavior. Response rates across the five surveys ranged from 21% to 48%; we achieved the target sample size for three of the five surveys. For the predictor variables

  12. Explaining clinical behaviors using multiple theoretical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eccles Martin P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the field of implementation research, there is an increased interest in use of theory when designing implementation research studies involving behavior change. In 2003, we initiated a series of five studies to establish a scientific rationale for interventions to translate research findings into clinical practice by exploring the performance of a number of different, commonly used, overlapping behavioral theories and models. We reflect on the strengths and weaknesses of the methods, the performance of the theories, and consider where these methods sit alongside the range of methods for studying healthcare professional behavior change. Methods These were five studies of the theory-based cognitions and clinical behaviors (taking dental radiographs, performing dental restorations, placing fissure sealants, managing upper respiratory tract infections without prescribing antibiotics, managing low back pain without ordering lumbar spine x-rays of random samples of primary care dentists and physicians. Measures were derived for the explanatory theoretical constructs in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT, and Illness Representations specified by the Common Sense Self Regulation Model (CSSRM. We constructed self-report measures of two constructs from Learning Theory (LT, a measure of Implementation Intentions (II, and the Precaution Adoption Process. We collected data on theory-based cognitions (explanatory measures and two interim outcome measures (stated behavioral intention and simulated behavior by postal questionnaire survey during the 12-month period to which objective measures of behavior (collected from routine administrative sources were related. Planned analyses explored the predictive value of theories in explaining variance in intention, behavioral simulation and behavior. Results Response rates across the five surveys ranged from 21% to 48%; we achieved the target sample size for three of

  13. Explaining Counterfeit Alcohol Purchases in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotelnikova, Zoya

    2017-04-01

    of surrogate alcohol (i.e., nonbeverage) are more influential in explaining why people purchase counterfeit alcohol. Further research on these 2 factors is needed to more fully understand the purchase and consumption of counterfeit alcoholic beverages. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  14. Explaining G20 and BRICS Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Larionova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the internal and external factors influencing the compliance performance of the Group of 20 (G20 and the BRICS. The authors start with an overview of the G20 and BRICS compliance patterns using comparative data onthe number of commitments made by the two institutions, the level of institutional compliance, and distribution of commitments and compliance across issue areas. G20 compliance is traced since the leaders’ first 2008 summit in Washington. The BRICS compliance performance record includes data since the third stand alone summit in Sanya in 2011.The study then takes stock of compliance catalysts embedded in the summits’ discourse: priority placements, numerical targets, timelines, self-accountability pledges and mandates to implement and/or monitor implementation. The authors review trends in the use of catalysts in different years and issue areas and identify commonalities and differences.The analysis then turns to external causes of compliance and focuses on demand for collective actions and members’ collective power to respond and deliver on their pledges. Here the study explores whether the self-accountability mechanisms created by the institutions in response to the demand for effectiveness and legitimacy facilitate compliance.The article concludes by highlighting catalysts, causes of compliance and their combinations with the greatest power to encourage implementation, explaining trends in G20 and BRICS compliance performance. The data sets on G20 and BRICS differ in terms of scale. The G20 data set contains 1,511 commitments of which 114 have been monitored, and the BRICS data set contains 231 commitments of which 23 have been monitored.

  15. Characteristics explaining performance in downhill mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidley, Joel B; MacGregor, Alexandra L; Martin, Caoimhe; Arthur, Calum A; Macdonald, Jamie H

    2015-03-01

    To identify physiological, psychological, and skill characteristics that explain performance in downhill (DH) mountain-bike racing. Four studies were used to (1) identify factors potentially contributing to DH performance (using an expert focus group), (2) develop and validate a measure of rider skill (using video analysis and expert judge evaluation), (3) evaluate whether physiological, psychological, and skill variables contribute to performance at a DH competition, and (4) test the specific contribution of aerobic capacity to DH performance. STUDY 1 identified aerobic capacity, handgrip endurance, anaerobic power, rider skill, and self-confidence as potentially important for DH. In study 2 the rider-skill measure displayed good interrater reliability. Study 3 found that rider skill and handgrip endurance were significantly related to DH ride time (β=-0.76 and -0.14, respectively; R2=.73), with exploratory analyses suggesting that DH ride time may also be influenced by self-confidence and aerobic capacity. Study 4 confirmed aerobic capacity as an important variable influencing DH performance (for a DH ride, mean oxygen uptake was 49±5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), and 90% of the ride was completed above the 1st ventilatory threshold). In order of importance, rider skill, handgrip endurance, self-confidence, and aerobic capacity were identified as variables influencing DH performance. Practically, this study provides a novel assessment of rider skill that could be used by coaches to monitor training and identify talent. Novel intervention targets to enhance DH performance were also identified, including self-confidence and aerobic capacity.

  16. Explaining the gender gap in sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østby, K A; Mykletun, A; Nilsen, W

    2018-04-17

    In many western countries, women have a much higher rate of sickness absence than men. To what degree the gender differences in sickness absence are caused by gender differences in health is largely unknown. To assess to what degree the gender gap in sickness absence can be explained by health factors and work- and family-related stressors. Norwegian parents participating in the Tracking Opportunities and Problems (TOPP) study were asked about sickness absence and a range of factors possibly contributing to gender differences in sickness absence, including somatic and mental health, sleep problems, job control/demands, work-home conflicts, parent-child conflicts and stressful life events. Using a cross-sectional design, we did linear regression analyses, to assess the relative contribution from health and stressors. There were 557 study participants. Adjusting for health factors reduced the gender difference in sickness absence by 24%, while adjusting for stressors in the family and at work reduced the difference by 22%. A simultaneous adjustment for health factors and stressors reduced the difference in sickness absence by about 28%. Despite adjusting for a large number of factors, including both previously well-studied factors (e.g. health, job control/demands) and lesser-studied factors (parent-child conflict and sexual assault), this study found that most of the gender gap in sickness absence remains unexplained. Gender differences in health and stressors account for only part of the differences in sickness absence. Other factors must, therefore, exist outside the domains of health, work and family stressors.

  17. Brand Name Statin Prescribing in a Resident Ambulatory Practice: Implications for Teaching Cost-Conscious Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryskina, Kira L; Pesko, Michael F; Gossey, J Travis; Caesar, Erica Phillips; Bishop, Tara F

    2014-09-01

    Several national initiatives aim to teach high-value care to residents. While there is a growing body of literature on cost impact of physicians' therapeutic decisions, few studies have assessed factors that influence residents' prescribing practices. We studied factors associated with intensive health care utilization among internal medicine residents, using brand name statin prescribing as a proxy for higher-cost care. We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of statin prescriptions by residents at an urban academic internal medicine program, using electronic health record data between July 1, 2010, and June 30, 2011. For 319 encounters by 90 residents, patients were given a brand name statin in 50% of cases. When categorized into quintiles, the bottom quintile of residents prescribed brand name statins in 2% of encounters, while the top quintile prescribed brand name statins in 98% of encounters. After adjusting for potential confounders, including patient characteristics and supervising attending, being in the primary care track was associated with lower odds (odds ratio [OR], 0.38; P  =  .02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.16-0.86), and graduating from a medical school with an above-average hospital care intensity index was associated with higher odds of prescribing brand name statins (OR, 1.70; P  =  .049; 95% CI, 1.003-2.88). We found considerable variation in brand name statin prescribing by residents. Medical school attended and residency program type were associated with resident prescribing behavior. Future interventions should raise awareness of these patterns in an effort to teach high-value, cost-conscious care to all residents.

  18. Air Pollution from Livestock Farms is Associated with Airway Obstruction in Neighboring Residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borlée, Floor|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315138661; Yzermans, C Joris; Aalders, Bernadette; Rooijackers, Jos; Krop, Esmeralda|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30482383X; Maassen, Catharina B M; Schellevis, François; Brunekreef, Bert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Heederik, Dick|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072910542; Smit, Lidwien A M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311470882

    2017-01-01

    RATIONALE: Livestock farm emissions may not only affect respiratory health of farmers but also of neighboring residents. OBJECTIVES: To explore associations between both spatial and temporal variation in pollutant emissions from livestock farms and lung function in a general, non-farming, rural

  19. Air pollution from livestock farms is associated with airway obstruction in neighboring residents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borlée, F.; Yzermans, C.J.; Aalders, B.; Rooijackers, J.; Krop, E.; Maassen, C.B.M.; Schellevis, F.; Brunekreef, B.; Heederik, D.; Smit, L.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Livestock farm emissions may not only affect respiratory health of farmers but also of neighboring residents. Objectives: To explore associations between both spatial and temporal variation in pollutant emissions from livestock farms and lung function in a general, non-farming, rural

  20. Educational Placement of Students with Autism: The Impact of State of Residence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Typically, child characteristics such as IQ and severity of autism symptoms are thought to determine educational placement. The present study examines external factors, including state of residence and state funding formulas, to determine their potential influence on placement outcomes. Findings reveal that considerable variations exist among…

  1. Optimization of Occupancy Based Demand Controlled Ventilation in Residences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, Dorthe K.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2011-05-01

    Although it has been used for many years in commercial buildings, the application of demand controlled ventilation in residences is limited. In this study we used occupant exposure to pollutants integrated over time (referred to as 'dose') as the metric to evaluate the effectiveness and air quality implications of demand controlled ventilation in residences. We looked at air quality for two situations. The first is that typically used in ventilation standards: the exposure over a long term. The second is to look at peak exposures that are associated with time variations in ventilation rates and pollutant generation. The pollutant generation had two components: a background rate associated with the building materials and furnishings and a second component related to occupants. The demand controlled ventilation system operated at a low airflow rate when the residence was unoccupied and at a high airflow rate when occupied. We used analytical solutions to the continuity equation to determine the ventilation effectiveness and the long-term chronic dose and peak acute exposure for a representative range of occupancy periods, pollutant generation rates and airflow rates. The results of the study showed that we can optimize the demand controlled airflow rates to reduce the quantity of air used for ventilation without introducing problematic acute conditions.

  2. Simulation of spinal nerve blocks for training anesthesiology residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blezek, Daniel J.; Robb, Richard A.; Camp, Jon J.; Nauss, Lee A.; Martin, David P.

    1998-06-01

    Deep nerve regional anesthesiology procedures, such as the celiac plexus block, are challenging to learn. The current training process primarily involves studying anatomy and practicing needle insertion is cadavers. Unfortunately, the training often continues on the first few patients subjected to the care of the new resident. To augment the training, we have developed a virtual reality surgical simulation designed to provide an immersive environment in which an understanding of the complex 3D relationships among the anatomic structures involved can be obtained and the mechanics of the celiac block procedure practiced under realistic conditions. Study of the relevant anatomy is provided by interactive 3D visualization of patient specific data nd the practice simulated using a head mounted display, a 6 degree of freedom tracker, and a haptic feedback device simulating the needle insertion. By training in a controlled environment, the resident may practice procedures repeatedly without the risks associated with actual patient procedures, and may become more adept and confident in the ability to perform nerve blocks. The resident may select a variety of different nerve block procedures to practice, and may place the virtual patient in any desired position and orientation. The preliminary anatomic models used in the simulation have been computed from the Visible Human Male; however, patient specific models may be generated from patient image data, allowing the physician to evaluate, plan, and practice difficult blocks and/or understand variations in anatomy before attempting the procedure on any specific patient.

  3. Explaining CO2 fluctuations observed in snowpacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Laura; Risk, David

    2018-02-01

    Winter soil carbon dioxide (CO2) respiration is a significant and understudied component of the global carbon (C) cycle. Winter soil CO2 fluxes can be surprisingly variable, owing to physical factors such as snowpack properties and wind. This study aimed to quantify the effects of advective transport of CO2 in soil-snow systems on the subdiurnal to diurnal (hours to days) timescale, use an enhanced diffusion model to replicate the effects of CO2 concentration depletions from persistent winds, and use a model-measure pairing to effectively explore what is happening in the field. We took continuous measurements of CO2 concentration gradients and meteorological data at a site in the Cape Breton Highlands of Nova Scotia, Canada, to determine the relationship between wind speeds and CO2 levels in snowpacks. We adapted a soil CO2 diffusion model for the soil-snow system and simulated stepwise changes in transport rate over a broad range of plausible synthetic cases. The goal was to mimic the changes we observed in CO2 snowpack concentration to help elucidate the mechanisms (diffusion, advection) responsible for observed variations. On subdiurnal to diurnal timescales with varying winds and constant snow levels, a strong negative relationship between wind speed and CO2 concentration within the snowpack was often identified. Modelling clearly demonstrated that diffusion alone was unable to replicate the high-frequency CO2 fluctuations, but simulations using above-atmospheric snowpack diffusivities (simulating advective transport within the snowpack) reproduced snow CO2 changes of the observed magnitude and speed. This confirmed that wind-induced ventilation contributed to episodic pulsed emissions from the snow surface and to suppressed snowpack concentrations. This study improves our understanding of winter CO2 dynamics to aid in continued quantification of the annual global C cycle and demonstrates a preference for continuous wintertime CO2 flux measurement systems.

  4. Explaining CO2 fluctuations observed in snowpacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Graham

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Winter soil carbon dioxide (CO2 respiration is a significant and understudied component of the global carbon (C cycle. Winter soil CO2 fluxes can be surprisingly variable, owing to physical factors such as snowpack properties and wind. This study aimed to quantify the effects of advective transport of CO2 in soil–snow systems on the subdiurnal to diurnal (hours to days timescale, use an enhanced diffusion model to replicate the effects of CO2 concentration depletions from persistent winds, and use a model–measure pairing to effectively explore what is happening in the field. We took continuous measurements of CO2 concentration gradients and meteorological data at a site in the Cape Breton Highlands of Nova Scotia, Canada, to determine the relationship between wind speeds and CO2 levels in snowpacks. We adapted a soil CO2 diffusion model for the soil–snow system and simulated stepwise changes in transport rate over a broad range of plausible synthetic cases. The goal was to mimic the changes we observed in CO2 snowpack concentration to help elucidate the mechanisms (diffusion, advection responsible for observed variations. On subdiurnal to diurnal timescales with varying winds and constant snow levels, a strong negative relationship between wind speed and CO2 concentration within the snowpack was often identified. Modelling clearly demonstrated that diffusion alone was unable to replicate the high-frequency CO2 fluctuations, but simulations using above-atmospheric snowpack diffusivities (simulating advective transport within the snowpack reproduced snow CO2 changes of the observed magnitude and speed. This confirmed that wind-induced ventilation contributed to episodic pulsed emissions from the snow surface and to suppressed snowpack concentrations. This study improves our understanding of winter CO2 dynamics to aid in continued quantification of the annual global C cycle and demonstrates a preference for continuous wintertime CO2 flux

  5. Contemporary Trends in Radiation Oncology Resident Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Vivek [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Nebraska, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Burt, Lindsay [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Gimotty, Phyllis A. [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ojerholm, Eric, E-mail: eric.ojerholm@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that recent resident research productivity might be different than a decade ago, and to provide contemporary information about resident scholarly activity. Methods and Materials: We compiled a list of radiation oncology residents from the 2 most recent graduating classes (June 2014 and 2015) using the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology annual directories. We queried the PubMed database for each resident's first-authored publications from postgraduate years (PGY) 2 through 5, plus a 3-month period after residency completion. We abstracted corresponding historical data for 2002 to 2007 from the benchmark publication by Morgan and colleagues (Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2009;74:1567-1572). We tested the null hypothesis that these 2 samples had the same distribution for number of publications using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. We explored the association of demographic factors and publication number using multivariable zero-inflated Poisson regression. Results: There were 334 residents publishing 659 eligible first-author publications during residency (range 0-17; interquartile range 0-3; mean 2.0; median 1). The contemporary and historical distributions were significantly different (P<.001); contemporary publication rates were higher. Publications accrued late in residency (27% in PGY-4, 59% in PGY-5), and most were original research (75%). In the historical cohort, half of all articles were published in 3 journals; in contrast, the top half of contemporary publications were spread over 10 journals—most commonly International Journal of Radiation Oncology • Biology • Physics (17%), Practical Radiation Oncology (7%), and Radiation Oncology (4%). Male gender, non-PhD status, and larger residency size were associated with higher number of publications in the multivariable analysis. Conclusion: We observed an increase in first-author publications during training compared with historical data from the mid-2000s. These

  6. Contemporary Trends in Radiation Oncology Resident Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vivek; Burt, Lindsay; Gimotty, Phyllis A; Ojerholm, Eric

    2016-11-15

    To test the hypothesis that recent resident research productivity might be different than a decade ago, and to provide contemporary information about resident scholarly activity. We compiled a list of radiation oncology residents from the 2 most recent graduating classes (June 2014 and 2015) using the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology annual directories. We queried the PubMed database for each resident's first-authored publications from postgraduate years (PGY) 2 through 5, plus a 3-month period after residency completion. We abstracted corresponding historical data for 2002 to 2007 from the benchmark publication by Morgan and colleagues (Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2009;74:1567-1572). We tested the null hypothesis that these 2 samples had the same distribution for number of publications using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. We explored the association of demographic factors and publication number using multivariable zero-inflated Poisson regression. There were 334 residents publishing 659 eligible first-author publications during residency (range 0-17; interquartile range 0-3; mean 2.0; median 1). The contemporary and historical distributions were significantly different (Pcontemporary publication rates were higher. Publications accrued late in residency (27% in PGY-4, 59% in PGY-5), and most were original research (75%). In the historical cohort, half of all articles were published in 3 journals; in contrast, the top half of contemporary publications were spread over 10 journals-most commonly International Journal of Radiation Oncology • Biology • Physics (17%), Practical Radiation Oncology (7%), and Radiation Oncology (4%). Male gender, non-PhD status, and larger residency size were associated with higher number of publications in the multivariable analysis. We observed an increase in first-author publications during training compared with historical data from the mid-2000s. These contemporary figures may be useful to medical students considering

  7. Contemporary Trends in Radiation Oncology Resident Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Vivek; Burt, Lindsay; Gimotty, Phyllis A.; Ojerholm, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that recent resident research productivity might be different than a decade ago, and to provide contemporary information about resident scholarly activity. Methods and Materials: We compiled a list of radiation oncology residents from the 2 most recent graduating classes (June 2014 and 2015) using the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology annual directories. We queried the PubMed database for each resident's first-authored publications from postgraduate years (PGY) 2 through 5, plus a 3-month period after residency completion. We abstracted corresponding historical data for 2002 to 2007 from the benchmark publication by Morgan and colleagues (Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2009;74:1567-1572). We tested the null hypothesis that these 2 samples had the same distribution for number of publications using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. We explored the association of demographic factors and publication number using multivariable zero-inflated Poisson regression. Results: There were 334 residents publishing 659 eligible first-author publications during residency (range 0-17; interquartile range 0-3; mean 2.0; median 1). The contemporary and historical distributions were significantly different (P<.001); contemporary publication rates were higher. Publications accrued late in residency (27% in PGY-4, 59% in PGY-5), and most were original research (75%). In the historical cohort, half of all articles were published in 3 journals; in contrast, the top half of contemporary publications were spread over 10 journals—most commonly International Journal of Radiation Oncology • Biology • Physics (17%), Practical Radiation Oncology (7%), and Radiation Oncology (4%). Male gender, non-PhD status, and larger residency size were associated with higher number of publications in the multivariable analysis. Conclusion: We observed an increase in first-author publications during training compared with historical data from the mid-2000s. These

  8. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2014 Core Based Statistical Area (CBSA) of Residence

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  9. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2015 Core Based Statistical Area (CBSA) of Residence

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  10. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2016 Core Based Statistical Area (CBSA) of Residence

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanet residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been gratned the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  11. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2011 Core Based Statistical Area (CBSA) of Residence

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  12. Classifying and explaining democracy in the Muslim world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohaizan Baharuddin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to classify and explain democracies in the 47 Muslim countries between the years 1998 and 2008 by using liberties and elections as independent variables. Specifically focusing on the context of the Muslim world, this study examines the performance of civil liberties and elections, variation of democracy practised the most, the elections, civil liberties and democratic transitions and patterns that followed. Based on the quantitative data primarily collected from Freedom House, this study demonstrates the following aggregate findings: first, the “not free not fair” elections, the “limited” civil liberties and the “Illiberal Partial Democracy” were the dominant feature of elections, civil liberties and democracy practised in the Muslim world; second, a total of 413 Muslim regimes out of 470 (47 regimes x 10 years remained the same as their democratic origin points, without any transitions to a better or worse level of democracy, throughout these 10 years; and third, a slow, yet steady positive transition of both elections and civil liberties occurred in the Muslim world with changes in the nature of elections becoming much more progressive compared to the civil liberties’ transitions.

  13. A case-mix classification system for explaining healthcare costs using administrative data in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Maria Chiara; Avossa, Francesco; Schievano, Elena; Gallina, Pietro; Ferroni, Eliana; Alba, Natalia; Dotto, Matilde; Basso, Cristina; Netti, Silvia Tiozzo; Fedeli, Ugo; Mantoan, Domenico

    2018-03-04

    The Italian National Health Service (NHS) provides universal coverage to all citizens, granting primary and hospital care with a copayment system for outpatient and drug services. Financing of Local Health Trusts (LHTs) is based on a capitation system adjusted only for age, gender and area of residence. We applied a risk-adjustment system (Johns Hopkins Adjusted Clinical Groups System, ACG® System) in order to explain health care costs using routinely collected administrative data in the Veneto Region (North-eastern Italy). All residents in the Veneto Region were included in the study. The ACG system was applied to classify the regional population based on the following information sources for the year 2015: Hospital Discharges, Emergency Room visits, Chronic disease registry for copayment exemptions, ambulatory visits, medications, the Home care database, and drug prescriptions. Simple linear regressions were used to contrast an age-gender model to models incorporating more comprehensive risk measures aimed at predicting health care costs. A simple age-gender model explained only 8% of the variance of 2015 total costs. Adding diagnoses-related variables provided a 23% increase, while pharmacy based variables provided an additional 17% increase in explained variance. The adjusted R-squared of the comprehensive model was 6 times that of the simple age-gender model. ACG System provides substantial improvement in predicting health care costs when compared to simple age-gender adjustments. Aging itself is not the main determinant of the increase of health care costs, which is better explained by the accumulation of chronic conditions and the resulting multimorbidity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Radiology residents as teachers: Current status of teaching skills training in United States residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Andrea

    2010-07-01

    Radiology residents often teach medical students and other residents. Workshops developed with the goal of improving resident teaching skills are becoming increasingly common in various fields of medicine. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and structure of resident-teacher training opportunities within radiology programs in the United States. Program directors with membership in the Association of Program Directors in Radiology (APDR) were surveyed to determine views on a panel of topics related to resident-teacher training programs. A total of 114 (56%) of 205 APDR members completed an online survey. Approximately one-third (32%) stated that their program provided instruction to residents on teaching skills. The majority of these programs (72%) were established within the last 5 years. Residents provided teaching to medical students (94%) and radiology residents (90%). The vast majority of program directors agreed that it is important for residents to teach (98%) and that these teaching experiences helped residents become better radiologists (85%). Ninety-four percent of program directors felt that the teaching skills of their residents could be improved, and 85% felt that residents would benefit from instruction on teaching methods. Only one-third of program directors felt their program adequately recognized teaching provided by residents. Program directors identified residents as being active contributors to teaching in most programs. Although teaching was viewed as an important skill to develop, few programs had instituted a resident-teacher curriculum. Program directors felt that residents would benefit from structured training to enhance teaching skills. Future studies are needed to determine how best to provide teaching skills training for radiology trainees. 2010 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiology resident teaching skills improvement: impact of a resident teacher training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Andrea

    2011-04-01

    Teaching is considered an essential competency for residents to achieve during their training. Instruction in teaching skills may assist radiology residents in becoming more effective teachers and increase their overall satisfaction with teaching. The purposes of this study were to survey radiology residents' teaching experiences during residency and to assess perceived benefits following participation in a teaching skills development course. Study participants were radiology residents with membership in the American Alliance of Academic Chief Residents in Radiology or the Siemens AUR Radiology Resident Academic Development Program who participated in a 1.5-hour workshop on teaching skills development at the 2010 Association of University Radiologists meeting. Participants completed a self-administered, precourse questionnaire that addressed their current teaching strategies, as well as the prevalence and structure of teaching skills training opportunities at their institutions. A second postcourse questionnaire enabled residents to evaluate the seminar and assessed new knowledge and skill acquisition. Seventy-eight residents completed the precourse and postcourse questionnaires. The vast majority of respondents indicated that they taught medical students (72 of 78 [92.3%]). Approximately 20% of residency programs (17 of 78) provided residents with formal didactic programs on teaching skills. Fewer than half (46.8%) of the resident respondents indicated that they received feedback on their teaching from attending physicians (36 of 77), and only 18% (13 of 78) routinely gave feedback to their own learners. All of the course participants agreed or strongly agreed that this workshop was helpful to them as teachers. Few residency programs had instituted resident teacher training curricula. A resident teacher training workshop was perceived as beneficial by the residents, and they reported improvement in their teaching skills. Copyright © 2011 AUR. Published by

  16. Does It Cost More to Train Residents or to Replace Them?: A Look at the Costs and Benefits of Operating Graduate Medical Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Barbara O; Smalley, Robert; Cordasco, Kristina M

    2013-01-01

    The policy issue underlying this study is whether Medicare support for graduate medical education (GME) should be restructured to differentiate between programs that are less costly or are self-sustaining and those that are more costly to the sponsoring institution and its educational partners. The authors used available literature, interviews with individuals involved in operating GME programs, and analysis of administrative data to explore how the financial impact of operating residency training programs might differ by specialty. The study does not quantify the variation in financial impact, but it provides a framework for examining both the costs and benefits of operating GME programs to the sponsoring institution and its educational partners. It also identifies the major factors that are likely to affect financial performance and influence program offerings and size. Marginal financial impacts are more likely to influence sponsor decisions on changes in GME program size and offerings and help explain why GME program expansions are occurring without additional Medicare funding. If the hospital has service needs, there is a marginal benefit to adding a resident, particularly in the more-lucrative specialty and subspecialty programs, before considering the additional benefits of any Medicare GME-related revenues.

  17. Causes and significance of variation in mammalian basal metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raichlen, David A; Gordon, Adam D; Muchlinski, Magdalena N; Snodgrass, J Josh

    2010-02-01

    Mammalian basal metabolic rates (BMR) increase with body mass, whichs explains approximately 95% of the variation in BMR. However, at a given mass, there remains a large amount of variation in BMR. While many researchers suggest that the overall scaling of BMR with body mass is due to physiological constraints, variation at a given body mass may provide clues as to how selection acts on BMR. Here, we examine this variation in BMR in a broad sample of mammals and we test the hypothesis that, across mammals, body composition explains differences in BMR at a given body mass. Variation in BMR is strongly correlated with variation in muscle mass, and both of these variables are correlated with latitude and ambient temperature. These results suggest that selection alters BMR in response to thermoregulatory pressures, and that selection uses muscle mass as a means to generate this variation.

  18. Invitational Engineering in the Residence Halls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jack; Purkey, William

    1981-01-01

    Presents various ways in which a residence hall environment may be specifically engineered to encourage individual participation in the process of education. Invitational engineering is defined as one way to transpose psychological principles to residence halls so they contribute to the developmental life of students. (RC)

  19. Emotional intelligence in orthopedic surgery residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kevin; Petrisor, Brad; Bhandari, Mohit

    2014-01-01

    Background Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to understand and manage emotions in oneself and others. It was originally popularized in the business literature as a key attribute for success that was distinct from cognitive intelligence. Increasing focus is being placed on EI in medicine to improve clinical and academic performance. Despite the proposed benefits, to our knowledge, there have been no previous studies on the role of EI in orthopedic surgery. We evaluated baseline data on EI in a cohort of orthopedic surgery residents. Methods We asked all orthopedic surgery residents at a single institution to complete an electronic version of the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). We used completed questionnaires to calculate total EI scores and 4 branch scores. Data were analyzed according to a priori cutoff values to determine the proportion of residents who were considered competent on the test. Data were also analyzed for possible associations with age, sex, race and level of training. Results Thirty-nine residents (100%) completed the MSCEIT. The mean total EI score was 86 (maximum score 145). Only 4 (10%) respondents demonstrated competence in EI. Junior residents (p = 0.026), Caucasian residents (p = 0.009) and those younger than 30 years (p = 0.008) had significantly higher EI scores. Conclusion Our findings suggest that orthopedic residents score low on EI based on the MSCEIT. Optimizing resident competency in noncognitive skills may be enhanced by dedicated EI education, training and testing. PMID:24666445

  20. Sedation practice among Nigerian radiology residents | Omisore ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Providing safe and effective sedation to patients, especially those with multiple medical problems, can be challenging for radiology residents and fellows. This study aimed to determine knowledge, attitude and practice of Nigerian radiology residents concerning sedation. Keywords: anaesthetist, guidelines ...

  1. Emotional intelligence in orthopedic surgery residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kevin; Petrisor, Brad; Bhandari, Mohit

    2014-04-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to understand and manage emotions in oneself and others. It was originally popularized in the business literature as a key attribute for success that was distinct from cognitive intelligence. Increasing focus is being placed on EI in medicine to improve clinical and academic performance. Despite the proposed benefits, to our knowledge, there have been no previous studies on the role of EI in orthopedic surgery. We evaluated baseline data on EI in a cohort of orthopedic surgery residents. We asked all orthopedic surgery residents at a single institution to complete an electronic version of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). We used completed questionnaires to calculate total EI scores and 4 branch scores. Data were analyzed according to a priori cutoff values to determine the proportion of residents who were considered competent on the test. Data were also analyzed for possible associations with age, sex, race and level of training. Thirty-nine residents (100%) completed the MSCEIT. The mean total EI score was 86 (maximum score 145). Only 4 (10%) respondents demonstrated competence in EI. Junior residents (p = 0.026), Caucasian residents (p = 0.009) and those younger than 30 years (p = 0.008) had significantly higher EI scores. Our findings suggest that orthopedic residents score low on EI based on the MSCEIT. Optimizing resident competency in noncognitive skills may be enhanced by dedicated EI education, training and testing.

  2. 42 CFR 483.10 - Resident rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to Medicaid benefits, in writing, at the time of admission to the nursing facility or, when the resident becomes eligible for Medicaid of— (A) The items and services that are included in nursing facility... eligibility for Medicaid or SSI. (6) Conveyance upon death. Upon the death of a resident with a personal fund...

  3. Tax treaty entitlement issues concerning dual residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanghavi, D.

    2014-01-01

    The question whether a dual resident taxpayer is entitled to tax treaties concluded by each residence state with a third state has been controversial. Since 2008, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Commentary on Article 4(1) of the OECD Model states that such a

  4. Displacing Media: LCD LAB Artistic Residency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Pais

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This review refers to an artistic residency which took place at LCD LAB -  CAAA at Guimarães, in March, exploring a strategy for media art called Media Displacement. The text introduces the strategy very briefly and describes the residency's organization, structure, processses and the results produced.

  5. 20th Annual Residence Hall Construction Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agron, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Even in difficult economic times, colleges and universities continue to invest in residence hall construction projects as a way to attract new students and keep existing ones on campus. According to data from "American School & University"'s 20th annual Residence Hall Construction Report, the median new project completed in 2008 was…

  6. 38 CFR 3.653 - Foreign residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign residence. 3.653 Section 3.653 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Adjustments and Resumptions § 3.653 Foreign residence...

  7. Medication Refusal: Resident Rights, Administration Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Danielle R; Wick, Jeannette Y

    2017-12-01

    Occasionally, residents actively or passively refuse to take medications. Residents may refuse medication for a number of reasons, including religious beliefs, dietary restrictions, misunderstandings, cognitive impairment, desire to self-harm, or simple inconvenience. This action creates a unique situation for pharmacists and long-term facility staff, especially if patients have dementia. Residents have the legal right to refuse medications, and long-term care facilities need to employ a process to resolve disagreement between the health care team that recommends the medication and the resident who refuses it. In some cases, simple interventions like selecting a different medication or scheduling medications in a different time can address and resolve the resident's objection. If the medical team and the resident cannot resolve their disagreement, often an ethics consultation is helpful. Documenting the resident's refusal to take any or all medications, the health care team's actions and any other outcomes are important. Residents' beliefs may change over time, and the health care team needs to be prepared to revisit the issue as necessary.

  8. 42 CFR 436.403 - State residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Definition. For purposes of this section—Institution has the same meaning as Institution and Medical... intention to remain there permanently or for an indefinite period. (2) For any individual not residing in an... of residence is the State where the individual is— (i) Living with the intention to remain there...

  9. 42 CFR 435.403 - State residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... set forth in § 431.52 of this chapter. (b) Definition. For purposes of this section—Institution has... intent, the State of residence is the State where the individual is living with the intention to remain...), the State of residence is the State where the individual is— (i) Living with the intention to remain...

  10. Adult neurology training during child neurology residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schor, Nina F

    2012-08-21

    As it is currently configured, completion of child neurology residency requires performance of 12 months of training in adult neurology. Exploration of whether or not this duration of training in adult neurology is appropriate for what child neurology is today must take into account the initial reasons for this requirement and the goals of adult neurology training during child neurology residency.

  11. Teaching Forensic Psychiatry to General Psychiatry Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Catherine F.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires that general psychiatry residency training programs provide trainees with exposure to forensic psychiatry. Limited information is available on how to develop a core curriculum in forensic psychiatry for general psychiatry residents and few articles have been…

  12. Modeling the Residence Time of Mobile Bay in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, M. M.; Park, K.

    2016-02-01

    The Three-dimensional Hydrodynamic-Eutrophication Model/Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (HEM3D/EFDC) was used to calculate the residence time of Mobile Bay in Alabama using Eulerian passive tracer method. Mobile Bay is about 50 km long and 20 km wide, so it can be divided into several sections which may have different residence times. Three typical boundary conditions that affect residence time are tide, river discharge, and wind. Mobile Bay is located in the northern Gulf of Mexico and is a micro-tidal region. Two most important tidal components here are K1 and O1, and the maximum tidal range of tropic (spring) tide is less than 0.6 m. There is a difference between the simulation results with and without tidal condition (K1+O1) even though the tidal range is relatively smaller than that in macro-tidal regions. Also the minimum, mean, and maximum of daily mean river discharge for 38 years (1976-2013) in Mobile and Tensaw River are 80.7 m3/s, 1700.8 m3/s, and 14186.7 m3/s respectively, and there are daily, monthly, seasonal, and annual variations. The residence time can be largely affected by the river discharge because of its large deviation. Even though the dominant wind here is southerly in the spring and summer and is northerly in the fall and winter, the wind speed and direction change over time. Continuous winds from similar directions can reduce and increase the residence time such as the southerly, southwesterly, northerly, and northeasterly winds in alignment with the direction of the inlet and outlet of Mobile Bay. Also the short term changes of wind direction and speed can affect it complicatedly. Therefore, the simulations with the combinations of three boundary conditions allow us to understand the water circulation in Mobile Bay well and to predict the residence time when some accidents happen such as contaminations by factories, sewage plants, ships and oil spills.

  13. Attitudes and behaviour of residents within the framework of energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valkila, N.

    2013-11-01

    The goal of this study was to determine how Finnish energy policies are realised and the attitudes of consumers regarding energy issues. Further research was done to study if the attitudes of residents and their behaviour regarding energy issues are inter-related. A goal was also to study if place of residence affects attitudes and behaviour. Are residents willing to improve their efficiency in terms of energy consumption? The range of applied research methods was diverse. A literature review was performed and experts operating in the energy industry were interviewed. Ordinary energy consumers, i.e. residents, were studied using interviews and measurements and by forming consumer panels. Content analysis and statistical methods were used for analysing the results. Based on this study, Finland should strive to utilise more diverse energy sources and engage in closer co-operation with different stakeholders. Resident attitudes on energy matters must be influenced. The most effective influencing methods are peer groups, communication, media, training and education, perceptions and visions. Age and the location of residence influence people's attitudes and behaviour with respect to energy issues, whereas their life satisfaction level does not. For example, research subjects that reside in a more densely populated suburban area are more concerned with climate change and more willing to give up driving than research subjects that live in more scarcely populated residential areas. Residents are willing to improve their energy behaviour, although young and elderly people are more willing to make environmentally friendly choices than the middle-aged demographic. There is a gap that needs to be bridged between attitudes and behaviour. If the attitudes of residents were to become more active and positive towards energy, they could lead to the desired energy-efficient behaviour. This study does not aim to make generalisations regarding Finns. Instead, it wishes to explain

  14. Simulation and resident education in spinal neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohm, Parker E; Arnold, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    A host of factors have contributed to the increasing use of simulation in neurosurgical resident education. Although the number of simulation-related publications has increased exponentially over the past two decades, no studies have specifically examined the role of simulation in resident education in spinal neurosurgery. We performed a structured search of several databases to identify articles detailing the use of simulation in spinal neurosurgery education in an attempt to catalogue potential applications for its use. A brief history of simulation in medicine is given, followed by current trends of spinal simulation utilization in residency programs. General themes from the literature are identified that are integral for implementing simulation into neurosurgical residency curriculum. Finally, various applications are reported. The use of simulation in spinal neurosurgery education is not as ubiquitous in comparison to other neurosurgical subspecialties, but many promising methods of simulation are available for augmenting resident education.

  15. Introducing "optimal challenges" in resident training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anette Bagger; Christensen, Mette Krogh

    Background: Residents are often caught between two interests: the resident’s desire to participate in challenging learning situations and the department’s work planning. However, these interests may clash if they are not coordinated by the senior doctors, and challenging learning situations risk...... being subject to work planning. Summary of work: Inspired by Csikszentmihalyi’s concept of optimal challenges, an intervention study aimed at introducing a more suitable planning of residents' learning in terms of optimal allocation of educational patient contacts. The objective was to coordinating...... residents’ individual competences and learning needs with patient characteristics in order to match each resident with a case (an outpatient or a patient) that meets the learning needs of the resident and thus pose an optimal challenge to the resident. Summary of results: The preliminary results show...

  16. Child Neurology Education for Pediatric Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Dara V F; Patel, Anup D; Behnam-Terneus, Maria; Sautu, Beatriz Cunill-De; Verbeck, Nicole; McQueen, Alisa; Fromme, H Barrett; Mahan, John D

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the current state of child neurology education during pediatric residency provides adequate preparation for pediatric practice. A survey was sent to recent graduates from 3 pediatric residency programs to assess graduate experience, perceived level of competence, and desire for further education in child neurology. Responses from generalists versus subspecialists were compared. The response rate was 32%, half in general pediatric practice. Only 22% feel very confident in approaching patients with neurologic problems. This may represent the best-case scenario as graduates from these programs had required neurology experiences, whereas review of Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education-accredited residency curricula revealed that the majority of residencies do not. Pediatric neurologic problems are common, and pediatric residency graduates do encounter such problems in practice. The majority of pediatricians report some degree of confidence; however, some clear areas for improvement are apparent.

  17. Assessment of medical resident's attention to the health literacy level of newly admitted patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsenty, Cecile; Landau, Michael; Ferguson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess communication at the bedside in the emergency room between residents and their patients in order to identify common communication gaps. We also intended to evaluate whether residents for whom English is a second language (ESL residents) communicate less effectively. A scorable checklist was developed in order to assess and identify communication gaps between the residents and their patients. Medical students observed the internal medicine and family medicine residents while they admitted patients to the medical service in the Emergency Room. Before this, medical students were trained for two weeks with a senior internist. The role of the medical student was not revealed; rather they were self-described as observers of the admission process. Over an 8 week period, 71 observations were made of 27 medicine residents. 71 patient intakes were observed, evaluating 27 residents. In 52.1% of these interactions, the residents used medical acronyms when communicating with the patients. During 66.2% of interactions, technical medical terms or expressions were used during the history taking and in only 27.6% of those cases were the terms explained at least partially. Teach back technique was not observed in any of the interactions evaluated. Data was also analyzed based on whether the doctors were ESL residents or native English speakers. ESL residents tended to use significantly more technical language than the native English speakers, but the native English speakers tended to use more acronyms. How much patients understand of what their doctor says is called "health literacy." Resident physicians often overestimate their patients' health literacy, and this leads to communication gaps which have the potential to result in poorer health outcomes for the patients. The checklist developed for this pilot study assessed how well residents tailor their communication to their patients' health literacy. Our assessment revealed much room for

  18. Assessment of medical resident's attention to the health literacy level of newly admitted patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile Karsenty

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess communication at the bedside in the emergency room between residents and their patients in order to identify common communication gaps. We also intended to evaluate whether residents for whom English is a second language (ESL residents communicate less effectively. Methods: A scorable checklist was developed in order to assess and identify communication gaps between the residents and their patients. Medical students observed the internal medicine and family medicine residents while they admitted patients to the medical service in the Emergency Room. Before this, medical students were trained for two weeks with a senior internist. The role of the medical student was not revealed; rather they were self-described as observers of the admission process. Results: Over an 8 week period, 71 observations were made of 27 medicine residents. 71 patient intakes were observed, evaluating 27 residents. In 52.1% of these interactions, the residents used medical acronyms when communicating with the patients. During 66.2% of interactions, technical medical terms or expressions were used during the history taking and in only 27.6% of those cases were the terms explained at least partially. Teach back technique was not observed in any of the interactions evaluated. Data was also analyzed based on whether the doctors were ESL residents or native English speakers. ESL residents tended to use significantly more technical language than the native English speakers, but the native English speakers tended to use more acronyms. Conclusions: How much patients understand of what their doctor says is called “health literacy.” Resident physicians often overestimate their patients’ health literacy, and this leads to communication gaps which have the potential to result in poorer health outcomes for the patients. The checklist developed for this pilot study assessed how well residents tailor their communication to

  19. Variational principles for locally variational forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brajercik, J.; Krupka, D.

    2005-01-01

    We present the theory of higher order local variational principles in fibered manifolds, in which the fundamental global concept is a locally variational dynamical form. Any two Lepage forms, defining a local variational principle for this form, differ on intersection of their domains, by a variationally trivial form. In this sense, but in a different geometric setting, the local variational principles satisfy analogous properties as the variational functionals of the Chern-Simons type. The resulting theory of extremals and symmetries extends the first order theories of the Lagrange-Souriau form, presented by Grigore and Popp, and closed equivalents of the first order Euler-Lagrange forms of Hakova and Krupkova. Conceptually, our approach differs from Prieto, who uses the Poincare-Cartan forms, which do not have higher order global analogues

  20. Women in leadership positions within obstetrics and gynecology: does the past explain the present?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baecher-Lind, Laura

    2012-12-01

    To determine whether the proportion of leadership positions in obstetrics and gynecology held by women is consistent with expectations based on the proportion of women entering residency at the time of current leaders. Leadership positions were considered as department chairs affiliated with the Council of University Chairs of Obstetrics and Gynecology, editors of the 20 obstetrics and gynecology journals with the highest impact factors [corrected],and presidents of influential professional societies. Publically available data were accessed to determine sex and the year of medical school graduation for each individual holding each leadership position, as well as to determine the number of men and women entering residency in obstetrics and gynecology per year. Actual and expected proportions of leadership positions held by women were compared using χ² tests. Women should hold 71 of the total 194 leadership positions based on the proportion of women entering residency during the mean graduation year among leaders. Women actually hold 41 of these leadership positions (21.1%; Pobstetrics and gynecology, and this cannot be explained by historical sex imbalances among physicians entering our specialty.

  1. Pregnancy and the Plastic Surgery Resident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Rebecca M; Weston, Jane S; Furnas, Heather J

    2017-01-01

    Combining pregnancy with plastic surgery residency has historically been difficult. Two decades ago, 36 percent of plastic surgery program directors surveyed actively discouraged pregnancy among residents, and 33 percent of women plastic surgeons suffered from infertility. Most alarmingly, 26 percent of plastic surgery trainees had had an elective abortion during residency. With increasing numbers of women training in plastic surgery, this historical lack of support for pregnancy deserves further attention. To explore the current accommodations made for the pregnant plastic surgery resident, an electronic survey was sent to 88 plastic surgery program directors in the United States. Fifty-four responded, for a response rate of 61.36 percent. On average, a director trained a total of 7.91 women among 17.28 residents trained over 8.19 years. Of the women residents, 1.43 were pregnant during a director's tenure, with 1.35 of those residents taking maternity leave. An average 1.75 male residents took paternity leave. Approximately one-third of programs had a formal maternity/paternity leave policy (36.54 percent) which, in most cases, was limited to defining allowed weeks of leave, time required to fulfill program requirements, and remuneration during leave. This survey of plastic surgery directors is a first step in defining the challenges training programs face in supporting the pregnant resident. Directors provided comments describing their challenges accommodating an absent resident in a small program and complying with the American Board of Plastic Surgery's required weeks of training per year. A discussion of these challenges is followed by suggested solutions.

  2. Evaluation of stress experienced by pharmacy residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Hung M; Young, Shardae D

    2017-04-15

    Results of a study of stress and negative affect levels in postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) and postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) pharmacy residents are presented. A cross-sectional approach was used. Pharmacy residency program directors received e-mailed invitation letters requesting that they ask their residents to participate in an online survey in 2011. The main study outcomes included evaluation of resident scores on the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS10) and the Multiple Affect Adjective Checklist-Revised (MAACL-R) anxiety, depression, hostility, and dysphoria subscales. Of the 524 pharmacy residents included in the study, 75.4% were female, 41.2% were under 26 years of age, and 41% reported working more than 60 hours per week. There were no significant differences between PGY1 and PGY2 residents in stress levels, as assessed with the PSS10 (mean ± S.D. score, 19.05 ± 5.96 versus 19.09 ± 5.77). MAACL-R scores for hostility were, on average, higher among PGY2 residents (mean ± S.D., 50.83 ± 10.02) than among PGY1 residents (48.62 ± 8.96), while there were no significant differences in anxiety, depression, and dysphoria levels. Relative to residents who worked 60 or fewer hours per week, those who worked more than 60 hours had higher perceived stress levels as well as higher depression, hostility, and dysphoria scores. Pharmacy residents exhibited high levels of perceived stress, especially those who worked more than 60 hours per week. Perceived stress was highly correlated to negative affect levels. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evolution of the Pathology Residency Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Suzanne Z.; Black-Schaffer, W. Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The required medical knowledge and skill set for the pathologist of 2020 are different than in 2005. Pathology residency training curriculum must accordingly change to fulfill the needs of these ever-changing requirements. In order to make rational curricular adjustments, it is important for us to know the current trajectory of resident training in pathology—where we have been, what our actual current training curriculum is now—to understand how that might change in anticipation of meeting the needs of a changing patient and provider population and to fit within the evolving future biomedical and socioeconomic health-care setting. In 2013, there were 143 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited pathology residency training programs in the United States, with approximately 2400 residents. There is diversity among residency training programs not only with respect to the number of residents but also in training venue(s). To characterize this diversity among pathology residency training programs, a curriculum survey was conducted of pathology residency program directors in 2013 and compared with a similar survey taken almost 9 years previously in 2005 to identify trends in pathology residency curriculum. Clinical pathology has not changed significantly in the number of rotations over 9 years; however, anatomic pathology has changed dramatically, with an increase in the number of surgical pathology rotations coupled with a decline in stand-alone autopsy rotations. With ever-expanding medical knowledge that the graduating pathology resident must know, it is necessary to (1) reflect upon what are the critical need subjects, (2) identify areas that have become of lesser importance, and then (3) prioritize training accordingly. PMID:28725779

  4. Enhancing teamwork between chief residents and residency program directors: description and outcomes of an experiential workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhillips, Heather A; Frohna, John G; Murad, M Hassan; Batra, Maneesh; Panda, Mukta; Miller, Marsha A; Brigham, Timothy P; Doughty, Robert A

    2011-12-01

    An effective working relationship between chief residents and residency program directors is critical to a residency program's success. Despite the importance of this relationship, few studies have explored the characteristics of an effective program director-chief resident partnership or how to facilitate collaboration between the 2 roles, which collectively are important to program quality and resident satisfaction. We describe the development and impact of a novel workshop that paired program directors with their incoming chief residents to facilitate improved partnerships. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education sponsored a full-day workshop for residency program directors and their incoming chief residents. Sessions focused on increased understanding of personality styles, using experiential learning, and open communication between chief residents and program directors, related to feedback and expectations of each other. Participants completed an anonymous survey immediately after the workshop and again 8 months later to assess its long-term impact. Participants found the workshop to be a valuable experience, with comments revealing common themes. Program directors and chief residents expect each other to act as a role model for the residents, be approachable and available, and to be transparent and fair in their decision-making processes; both groups wanted feedback on performance and clear expectations from each other for roles and responsibilities; and both groups identified the need to be innovative and supportive of changes in the program. Respondents to the follow-up survey reported that workshop participation improved their relationships with their co-chiefs and program directors. Participation in this experiential workshop improved the working relationships between chief residents and program directors. The themes that were identified can be used to foster communication between incoming chief residents and residency directors and to

  5. Comparison of Emergency Medicine Malpractice Cases Involving Residents to Non-Resident Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurley, Kiersten L; Grossman, Shamai A; Janes, Margaret; Yu-Moe, C Winnie; Song, Ellen; Tibbles, Carrie D; Shapiro, Nathan I; Rosen, Carlo L

    2018-04-17

    Data are lacking on how emergency medicine (EM) malpractice cases with resident involvement differs from cases that do not name a resident. To compare malpractice case characteristics in cases where a resident is involved (resident case) to cases that do not involve a resident (non-resident case) and to determine factors that contribute to malpractice cases utilizing EM as a model for malpractice claims across other medical specialties. We used data from the Controlled Risk Insurance Company (CRICO) Strategies' division Comparative Benchmarking System (CBS) to analyze open and closed EM cases asserted from 2009-2013. The CBS database is a national repository that contains professional liability data on > 400 hospitals and > 165,000 physicians, representing over 30% of all malpractice cases in the U.S (> 350,000 claims). We compared cases naming residents (either alone or in combination with an attending) to those that did not involve a resident (non-resident cohort). We reported the case statistics, allegation categories, severity scores, procedural data, final diagnoses and contributing factors. Fisher's exact test or t-test was used for comparisons (alpha set at 0.05). Eight hundred and forty-five EM cases were identified of which 732 (87%) did not name a resident (non-resident cases), while 113 (13%) included a resident (resident cases) (Figure 1). There were higher total incurred losses for non-resident cases (Table 1). The most frequent allegation categories in both cohorts were "Failure or Delay in Diagnosis/Misdiagnosis" and "Medical Treatment" (non-surgical procedures or treatment regimens i.e. central line placement). Allegation categories of Safety and Security, Patient Monitoring, Hospital Policy and Procedure and Breach of Confidentiality were found in the non-resident cases. Resident cases incurred lower payments on average ($51,163 vs. $156,212 per case). Sixty six percent (75) of resident vs 57% (415) of non-resident cases were high severity claims

  6. Explaining Cross-Country Differences in Attitudes Towards Immigration in the EU-15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Schroll, Sanne

    2009-01-01

    in average attitudes. A larger part can be explained by differences in perceived consequences of immigration, but the main part is still left unexplained. Apart from providing useful input for policy makers working in the area of immigration policy, this raises a number of questions for further research......In this paper, we use data from the first two rounds of the European Social Survey to analyze the extent to which differences in average attitudes towards immigration across the EU-15 countries may be explained by differences in socioeconomic characteristics and individually perceived consequences...... of immigration, using an extension of a decomposition technique developed by Fairlie (2005). We find that despite the significant effects of socioeconomic characteristics on attitudes, differences in the distributions of these characteristics can only explain a modest share of the cross-country variation...

  7. Explaining Cross-Country Differences in Attitudes towards Immigration in the EU-15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Schroll, Sanne

    2007-01-01

    in average attitudes. A larger part can be explained by differences in perceived consequences of immigration, but the main part is still left unexplained. Apart from providing useful input for policy makers working in the area of immigration policy, this raises a number of questions for further research......In this paper, we use data from the first two rounds of the European Social Survey to analyze the extent to which differences in average attitudes towards immigration across the EU-15 countries may be explained by differences in socioeconomic characteristics and individually perceived consequences...... of immigration, using an extension of a decomposition technique developed by Fairlie (2005). We find that despite the significant effects of socioeconomic characteristics on attitudes, differences in the distributions of these characteristics can only explain a modest share of the cross-country variation...

  8. Pediatric dermatology training during residency: a survey of the 2014 graduating residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Alaleh; Murphy-Chutorian, Blair; Friedman, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of pediatric dermatology is considered a core competency of dermatology training and should be expected of all practicing dermatologists. While the numbers of both pediatric dermatology fellowships and board certified pediatric dermatologists in the workforce have increased over the years, recent reports suggest that there is a gap in pediatric dermatology education during dermatology residency. The goal of this study is to assess the current state of pediatric education during residency, as well as the clinical experience, satisfaction and expectations of graduating dermatology residents. A 31-question self-report survey was distributed electronically to 294 third-year dermatology residents with questions pertaining to demographics, didactic education, resident experience in pediatric dermatology training, satisfaction with pediatric training and future plans. One hundred and twenty-three residents responded (41.8% response rate) representing approximately 29.1% of the total number of graduating residents. 69 (56.1%) residents reported academic time specifically devoted to pediatric dermatology, the majority (79.7%) of which was led by pediatric dermatologists. 82% of residents reported dedicated pediatric dermatology clinics at their program. 86.8% of respondents felt that their training in pediatric dermatology will allow them to confidently see pediatric dermatology patients in practice. This survey highlights a promising state of pediatric dermatology training among current graduating dermatology residents. The majority of current graduating dermatology residents are satisfied with their pediatric dermatology education, feel confident treating pediatric patients, and plan to see pediatric patients in clinical practice. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Association of Group Prenatal Care in US Family Medicine Residencies With Maternity Care Practice: A CERA Secondary Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Wendy B; Tong, Sebastian T; LeFevre, Nicholas M

    2017-03-01

    Group prenatal care has been shown to improve both maternal and neonatal outcomes. With increasing adaption of group prenatal care by family medicine residencies, this model may serve as a potential method to increase exposure to and interest in maternity care among trainees. This study aims to describe the penetration, regional and program variations, and potential impacts on future maternity care practice of group prenatal care in US family medicine residencies. The CAFM Educational Research Alliance (CERA) conducted a survey of all US family medicine residency program directors in 2013 containing questions about maternity care training. A secondary data analysis was completed to examine relevant data on group prenatal care in US family medicine residencies and maternity care practice patterns. 23.1% of family medicine residency programs report provision of group prenatal care. Programs with group prenatal care reported increased number of vaginal deliveries per resident. Controlling for average number of vaginal deliveries per resident, programs with group prenatal care had a 2.35 higher odds of having more than 10% of graduates practice obstetrics and a 2.93 higher odds of having at least one graduate in the past 5 years enter an obstetrics fellowship. Residency programs with group prenatal care models report more graduates entering OB fellowships and practicing maternity care. Implementing group prenatal care in residency training can be one method in a multifaceted approach to increasing maternity care practice among US family physicians.

  10. Microhabitat and Climatic Niche Change Explain Patterns of Diversification among Frog Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Daniel S; Wiens, John J

    2017-07-01

    A major goal of ecology and evolutionary biology is to explain patterns of species richness among clades. Differences in rates of net diversification (speciation minus extinction over time) may often explain these patterns, but the factors that drive variation in diversification rates remain uncertain. Three important candidates are climatic niche position (e.g., whether clades are primarily temperate or tropical), rates of climatic niche change among species within clades, and microhabitat (e.g., aquatic, terrestrial, arboreal). The first two factors have been tested separately in several studies, but the relative importance of all three is largely unknown. Here we explore the correlates of diversification among families of frogs, which collectively represent ∼88% of amphibian species. We assemble and analyze data on phylogeny, climate, and microhabitat for thousands of species. We find that the best-fitting phylogenetic multiple regression model includes all three types of variables: microhabitat, rates of climatic niche change, and climatic niche position. This model explains 67% of the variation in diversification rates among frog families, with arboreal microhabitat explaining ∼31%, niche rates ∼25%, and climatic niche position ∼11%. Surprisingly, we show that microhabitat can have a much stronger influence on diversification than climatic niche position or rates of climatic niche change.

  11. Do otolaryngology residency applicants relocate for training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhard, Grant M; Hauser, Leah J; Dally, Miranda J; Weitzenkamp, David A; Cabrera-Muffly, Cristina

    2016-04-01

    To determine whether there is an association between the geographic location of an applicant's undergraduate school, medical school, and residency program among matched otolaryngology residency applicants. Observational. Otolaryngology residency program applications to our institution from 2009 to 2013 were analyzed. The geographic location of each applicant's undergraduate education and medical education were collected. Online public records were queried to determine the residency program location of matched applicants. Applicants who did not match or who attended medical school outside the United States were excluded. Metro area, state, and region were determined according to US Census Bureau definitions. From 2009 to 2013, 1,089 (78%) of 1,405 applicants who matched into otolaryngology residency applied to our institution. The number of subjects who attended medical school and residency in the same geographic region was 241 (22%) for metropolitan area, 305 (28%) for state, and 436 (40%) for region. There was no difference in geographic location retention by gender or couples match status of the subject. United States Medical Licensing Exam step 1 scores correlated with an increased likelihood of subjects staying within the same geographic region (P = .03). Most otolaryngology applicants leave their previous geographic area to attend residency. Based on these data, the authors recommend against giving weight to geography as a factor when inviting applicants to interview. NA. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Neurosurgery resident leadership development: an innovative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Jeffrey E; Dahdaleh, Nader S; Albert, Gregory W; Greenlee, Jeremy D

    2011-02-01

    A great deal of time and resources go into the development and training of neurosurgeons. One area that has minimal literature and assessment is leadership development. Under the core competency of interpersonal and communication skills, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has indicated that residents are expected to work effectively as a member or leader of a healthcare team. This article reveals how a structured leadership program was developed so that residents are better prepared for the role of chief resident and future leadership roles. Beginning in October 2006, residents attended a series of 1-hour workshops conducted monthly. Topics included leadership style, conflict management, effective feedback, team building, team leadership, motivation, and moving from peer to leader. A retrospective pretest was conducted at the end of the program. Residents reported a significant knowledge gain for the majority of topics. Resident comments indicated a greater awareness of the impact of leading and ways to improve their personal leadership. Quantitatively and qualitatively, residents and faculty reported that the leadership program made a significant impact on the development of future neurosurgical leaders.

  13. Problem neurology residents: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabby, David S; Majeed, Muhammed H; Schwartzman, Robert J

    2011-06-14

    Problem residents are found across most medical specialties at a prevalence of about 10%. This study was designed to explore the prevalence and causes of problem neurology residents and to compare neurology programs' responses and outcomes. Directors of 126 US neurology residency programs were sent an electronic survey. We collected data on demographics, first and all "identifiers" of problem residents, and year of training in which the problem was found. We asked about observable signs, etiology, and who performed remediation. We asked what resources were used and what outcomes occurred. Ninety-five program directors completed surveys (75% response rate). Almost all neurology programs have problem residents (81%). Age, sex, marital status, being a US native, or attending a US medical school had no effect on problem status. Being a parent carried a lower likelihood of problems (32%). Most commonly the problem is acted on during the first year of training. Faculty members without defined educational roles were the most frequent first identifiers. Program directors were the most common remediators. The most common remediation techniques were increasing supervision and assigning a faculty mentor. Graduate medical education office and psychiatric or psychological counseling services were most often used. Eleven percent of problem residents required a program for impaired physicians and 14% required a leave of absence. Sixteen percent were dismissed from their programs. The prevalence of problem residents in neurology is similar to other disciplines, and various resources are available to remediate them.

  14. Are neurology residents interested in headache?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gago-Veiga, A B; Santos-Lasaosa, S; Viguera Romero, J; Pozo-Rosich, P

    The years of residency are the pillars of the subsequent practice in every medical specialty. The aim of our study is to evaluate the current situation, degree of involvement, main interests, and perceived quality of the training received by Spanish residents of neurology, specifically in the area of headache. A self-administered survey was designed by the Headache Study Group of the Spanish Society of Neurology (GECSEN) and was sent via e-mail to all residents who were members of the Society as of May 2015. Fifty-three residents completed the survey (N = 426, 12.4%): 6% were first year residents, 25.5% second year, 23.5% third year, and 45% fourth year residents, all from 13 different Spanish autonomous communities. The areas of greatest interest are, in this order: Vascular neurology, headache, and epilepsy. Of them, 85% believe that the area of headache is undervalued. More than half of residents (52.8%) do not rotate in specific Headache Units and only 35.8% complete their training dominating anaesthetic block and toxin infiltration techniques. Of them, 81.1% believe that research is scarce or absent; 69.8% have never made a poster/presentation, 79.3% have not published and only 15% collaborate on research projects in this area. Lastly, 40% believe that they have not received adequate training. Headache is among the areas that interest our residents the most; however, we believe that we must improve their training both at a patient healthcare level and as researchers. Thus, increasing the number of available courses, creating educational web pages, involving residents in research, and making a rotation in a specialised unit mandatory are among the fundamental objectives of the GECSEN. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Program for developing leadership in pharmacy residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Patrick D

    2012-07-15

    An innovative, structured approach to incorporating leadership development activities into pharmacy residency training is described. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) has called for increased efforts to make leadership development an integral component of the training of pharmacy students and new practitioners. In 2007, The Nebraska Medical Center (TNMC) took action to systematize leadership training in its pharmacy residency programs by launching a new Leadership Development Series. Throughout the residency year, trainees at TNMC participate in a variety of activities: (1) focused group discussions of selected articles on leadership concepts written by noted leaders of the past and present, (2) a two-day offsite retreat featuring trust-building exercises and physical challenges, (3) a self-assessment designed to help residents identify and use their untapped personal strengths, (4) training on the effective application of different styles of communication and conflict resolution, and (5) education on the history and evolution of health-system pharmacy, including a review and discussion of lectures by recipients of ASHP's Harvey A. K. Whitney Award. Feedback from residents who have completed the series has been positive, with many residents indicating that it has stimulated their professional growth and helped prepared them for leadership roles. A structured Leadership Development Series exposes pharmacy residents to various leadership philosophies and principles and, through the study of Harvey A. K. Whitney Award lectures, to the thoughts of past and present pharmacy leaders. Residents develop an increased self-awareness through a resident fall retreat, a StrengthsFinder assessment, and communication and conflict-mode assessment tools.

  16. 26 CFR 25.2702-5 - Personal residence trusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a portion of the residence is used in an activity meeting the requirements of section 280A(c) (1) or... provision of lodging (e.g. a hotel or a bed and breakfast). A residence is not a personal residence if... portion of their interests in the residence) to the same personal residence trust, provided that the...

  17. Script concordance testing: assessing residents' clinical decision-making skills for infant lumbar punctures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Todd P; Kessler, David; McAninch, Brett; Fein, Daniel M; Scherzer, D J; Seelbach, Elizabeth; Zaveri, Pavan; Jackson, Jennifer M; Auerbach, Marc; Mehta, Renuka; Van Ittersum, Wendy; Pusic, Martin V

    2014-01-01

    Residents must learn which infants require a lumbar puncture (LP), a clinical decision-making skill (CDMS) difficult to evaluate because of considerable practice variation. The authors created an assessment model of the CDMS to determine when an LP is indicated, taking practice variation into account. The objective was to detect whether script concordance testing (SCT) could measure CDMS competency among residents for performing infant LPs. In 2011, using a modified Delphi technique, an expert panel of 14 attending physicians constructed 15 case vignettes (each with 2 to 4 SCT questions) that represented various infant LP scenarios. The authors distributed the vignettes to residents at 10 academic pediatric centers within the International Simulation in Pediatric Innovation, Research, and Education Network. They compared SCT scores among residents of different postgraduate years (PGYs), specialties, training in adult medicine, LP experience, and practice within an endemic Lyme disease area. Of 730 eligible residents, 102 completed 47 SCT questions. They could earn a maximum score of 47. Median SCT scores were significantly higher in PGY-3s compared with PGY-1s (difference: 3.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-4.9; effect size d = 0.87). Scores also increased with increasing LP experience (difference: 3.3; 95% CI 1.1-5.5) and with adult medicine training (difference: 2.9; 95% CI 0.6-5.0). Residents in Lyme-endemic areas tended to perform more LPs than those in nonendemic areas. SCT questions may be useful as an assessment tool to determine CDMS competency among residents for performing infant LPs.

  18. Agricultural management explains historic changes in regional soil carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wesemael, Bas; Paustian, Keith; Meersmans, Jeroen; Goidts, Esther; Barancikova, Gabriela; Easter, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture is considered to be among the economic sectors having the greatest greenhouse gas mitigation potential, largely via soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. However, it remains a challenge to accurately quantify SOC stock changes at regional to national scales. SOC stock changes resulting from SOC inventory systems are only available for a few countries and the trends vary widely between studies. Process-based models can provide insight in the drivers of SOC changes, but accurate input data are currently not available at these spatial scales. Here we use measurements from a soil inventory dating from the 1960s and resampled in 2006 covering the major soil types and agricultural regions in Belgium together with region-specific land use and management data and a process-based model. The largest decreases in SOC stocks occurred in poorly drained grassland soils (clays and floodplain soils), consistent with drainage improvements since 1960. Large increases in SOC in well drained grassland soils appear to be a legacy effect of widespread conversion of cropland to grassland before 1960. SOC in cropland increased only in sandy lowland soils, driven by increasing manure additions. Modeled land use and management impacts accounted for more than 70% of the variation in observed SOC changes, and no bias could be demonstrated. There was no significant effect of climate trends since 1960 on observed SOC changes. SOC monitoring networks are being established in many countries. Our results demonstrate that detailed and long-term land management data are crucial to explain the observed SOC changes for such networks. PMID:20679194

  19. Agricultural management explains historic changes in regional soil carbon stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wesemael, Bas; Paustian, Keith; Meersmans, Jeroen; Goidts, Esther; Barancikova, Gabriela; Easter, Mark

    2010-08-17

    Agriculture is considered to be among the economic sectors having the greatest greenhouse gas mitigation potential, largely via soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. However, it remains a challenge to accurately quantify SOC stock changes at regional to national scales. SOC stock changes resulting from SOC inventory systems are only available for a few countries and the trends vary widely between studies. Process-based models can provide insight in the drivers of SOC changes, but accurate input data are currently not available at these spatial scales. Here we use measurements from a soil inventory dating from the 1960s and resampled in 2006 covering the major soil types and agricultural regions in Belgium together with region-specific land use and management data and a process-based model. The largest decreases in SOC stocks occurred in poorly drained grassland soils (clays and floodplain soils), consistent with drainage improvements since 1960. Large increases in SOC in well drained grassland soils appear to be a legacy effect of widespread conversion of cropland to grassland before 1960. SOC in cropland increased only in sandy lowland soils, driven by increasing manure additions. Modeled land use and management impacts accounted for more than 70% of the variation in observed SOC changes, and no bias could be demonstrated. There was no significant effect of climate trends since 1960 on observed SOC changes. SOC monitoring networks are being established in many countries. Our results demonstrate that detailed and long-term land management data are crucial to explain the observed SOC changes for such networks.

  20. Exploring faecal incontinence in nursing home patients: a cross-sectional study of prevalence and associations derived from the Residents Assessment Instrument for Long-Term Care Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blekken, Lene Elisabeth; Vinsnes, Anne Guttormsen; Gjeilo, Kari Hanne; Norton, Christine; Mørkved, Siv; Salvesen, Øyvind; Nakrem, Sigrid

    2016-07-01

    To explore prevalence and associations of faecal incontinence among nursing home patients, to examine the effect of clustering of observations and to study the variation in faecal incontinence rates on both the level of nursing home units and individual patients. Faecal incontinence affects 40-55% of the patients in nursing homes and is associated with increased risk of morbidity and reduced quality of life. There is a lack of studies investigating faecal incontinence with validated instruments. More studies need to include models of analyses that allow for clustering of observations. Cross-sectional. Data on 261 patients from 20 nursing home units were collected during September-October 2014. The Norwegian version of the Resident Assessment Instrument for Long-Term Care Facilities was used. Mixed effect models were conducted. Prevalence of faecal incontinence was 42·1% or 54% depending on the frequency labelling chosen. The effect of clustering by nursing home unit was not statistically significant. Most of the variation in faecal incontinence rates was explained by differences in patient characteristics, the most important being deficiencies in activities of daily living, cognitive impairment, diarrhoea and not participating in activities. Nursing home patients should be offered individualized assessment and continence care matching their patient characteristics. The Resident Assessment Instrument for Long-Term Care Facilities is a useful instrument because of its' combination of a comprehensive range of individual items and scales allowing for comparison of immediate or long-term change in patients status. Studies evaluating interventions targeting faecal incontinence are warranted. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Perspectives of Residents of Mashhad School of Dentistry about the Curriculum of Residency Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Sarabadani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study was carried out to analyze the viewpoint of the residents of school of dentistry about the curriculum presented in the residency program to students of Mashhad School of Dentistry. Methods: To evaluate the perspectives of residents of dental school about the curriculum and regulations of residency program, a questionnaire was designed whose validity and reliability were confirmed by the authorities of School of Dentistry and test-retest reliability, respectively. The questionnaire was distributed among 100 residents and 80 of them completed the questionnaires. The data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 11.5. Results: A total of 43% of residents were informed of the curriculum (e.g. academic leave, transfer, removal of semester, etc.. As for the ability to write research proposal, 42.7% of residents were reported to have a favorable status, i.e. they were able to write more than 80% of their proposal. From among the residents, 30.4% had specialized English language certificate. Most of them (77% were satisfied with the professional staff, faculty members, of the faculty. Many students liked to participate in the teaching method courses of the residency program. Conclusion: Residents maintained that the curriculum in such domains as educational and research issues and special capabilities had some weak points. Thus, appropriate strategies are recommended to be applied to revise the curriculum using the residents’ views on these programs.

  2. Confidence, knowledge, and skills at the beginning of residency. A survey of pathology residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Cindy M; Nolan, Norris J

    2015-01-01

    To document the pathology learning experiences of pathology residents prior to residency and to determine how confident they were in their knowledge and technical skills. An online survey was distributed to all pathology residency program directors in the United States, who were requested to forward the survey link to their residents. Data were obtained on pathology electives, grossing experience, and frozen section experience. Likert scale questions assessed confidence level in knowledge and skills. In total, 201 pathology residents responded (8% of residents in the United States). Prior to starting residency, most respondents had exposure to anatomic pathology through elective rotations. Few respondents had work-related experience. Most did not feel confident in their pathology-related knowledge or skills, and many did not understand what pathology resident duties entail. Respondents gained exposure to pathology primarily through elective rotations, and most felt the elective experience prepared them for pathology residency. However, elective time may be enhanced by providing opportunities for students to increase hands-on experience and understanding of resident duties. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  3. Changes in Personal Relationships During Residency and Their Effects on Resident Wellness: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Marcus; Lam, Michelle; Wu, Diana; Veinot, Paula; Mylopoulos, Maria

    2017-11-01

    Residency poses challenges for residents' personal relationships. Research suggests residents rely on family and friends for support during their training. The authors explored the impact of residency demands on residents' personal relationships and the effects changes in those relationships could have on their wellness. The authors used a constructivist grounded theory approach. In 2012-2014, they conducted semistructured interviews with a purposive and theoretical sample of 16 Canadian residents from various specialties and training levels. Data analysis occurred concurrently with data collection, allowing authors to use a constant comparative approach to explore emergent themes. Transcripts were coded; codes were organized into categories and then themes to develop a substantive theory. Residents perceived their relationships to be influenced by their evolving professional identity: Although personal relationships were important, being a doctor superseded them. Participants suggested they were forced to adapt their personal relationships, which resulted in the evolution of a hierarchy of relationships that was reinforced by the work-life imbalance imposed by their training. This poor work-life balance seemed to result in relationship issues and diminish residents' wellness. Participants applied coping mechanisms to manage the conflict arising from the adaptation and protect their relationships. To minimize the effects of identity dissonance, some gravitated toward relationships with others who shared their professional identity or sought social comparison as affirmation. Erosion of personal relationships could affect resident wellness and lead to burnout. Educators must consider how educational programs impact relationships and the subsequent effects on resident wellness.

  4. Emergency Medicine Residency Applicant Characteristics Associated with Measured Adverse Outcomes During Residency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Bohrer-Clancy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Negative outcomes in emergency medicine (EM programs use a disproportionate amount of educational resources to the detriment of other residents. We sought to determine if any applicant characteristics identifiable during the selection process are associated with negative outcomes during residency. Methods Primary analysis consisted of looking at the association of each of the descriptors including resident characteristics and events during residency with a composite measure of negative outcomes. Components of the negative outcome composite were any formal remediation, failure to complete residency, or extension of residency. Results From a dataset of 260 residents who completed their residency over a 19-year period, 26 (10% were osteopaths and 33 (13% were international medical school graduates A leave of absence during medical school (p <.001, failure to send a thank-you note (p=.008, a failing score on United States Medical Licensing Examination Step I (p=.002, and a prior career in health (p=.034 were factors associated with greater likelihood of a negative outcome. All four residents with a “red flag” during their medicine clerkships experienced a negative outcome (p <.001. Conclusion “Red flags” during EM clerkships, a leave of absence during medical school for any reason and failure to send post-interview thank-you notes may be associated with negative outcomes during an EM residency.

  5. Effectiveness of resident as teacher curriculum in preparing emergency medicine residents for their teaching role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosein Nejad, Hooman; Bagherabadi, Mehdi; Sistani, Alireza; Dargahi, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, recognizing the need and importance of training residents in teaching skills has resulted in several resident-as-teacher programs. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of this teaching initiative and investigate the improvement in residents' teaching skills through evaluating their satisfaction and perceived effectiveness as well as assessing medical students' perception of the residents' teaching quality. This research is a quasi-experimental study with pre- and post-tests, continuing from Dec 2010 to May 2011 in Imam Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. In this survey, Emergency Medicine Residents (n=32) participated in an 8-hour workshop. The program evaluation was performed based on Kirkpatrick's model by evaluation of residents in two aspects: self-assessment and evaluation by interns who were trained by these residents. Content validity of the questionnaires was judged by experts and reliability was carried out by test re-test. The questionnaires were completed before and after the intervention. Paired sample t-test was applied to analyze the effect of RAT curriculum and workshop on the improvement of residents' teaching skills based on their self-evaluation and Mann-Whitney U test was used to identify significant differences between the two evaluator groups before and after the workshop. The results indicated that residents' attitude towards their teaching ability was improved significantly after participating in the workshop (pTeacher for emergency medicine residents resulted in favorable outcomes in the second evaluated level of Kirkpatrick's model, i.e. it showed measurable positive changes in the self-assessments of medical residents about different aspects of teaching ability and performance. However, implementing training sessions for resident physicians, although effective in improving their confidence and self-assessment of their teaching skills, seems to cause no positive change in the third

  6. Identifying Gaps and Launching Resident Wellness Initiatives: The 2017 Resident Wellness Consensus Summit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Battaglioli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Burnout, depression, and suicidality among residents of all specialties have become a critical focus for the medical education community, especially among learners in graduate medical education. In 2017 the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME updated the Common Program Requirements to focus more on resident wellbeing. To address this issue, one working group from the 2017 Resident Wellness Consensus Summit (RWCS focused on wellness program innovations and initiatives in emergency medicine (EM residency programs. Methods: Over a seven-month period leading up to the RWCS event, the Programmatic Initiatives workgroup convened virtually in the Wellness Think Tank, an online, resident community consisting of 142 residents from 100 EM residencies in North America. A 15-person subgroup (13 residents, two faculty facilitators met at the RWCS to develop a public, central repository of initiatives for programs, as well as tools to assist programs in identifying gaps in their overarching wellness programs. Results: An online submission form and central database of wellness initiatives were created and accessible to the public. Wellness Think Tank members collected an initial 36 submissions for the database by the time of the RWCS event. Based on general workplace, needs-assessment tools on employee wellbeing and Kern’s model for curriculum development, a resident-based needs-assessment survey and an implementation worksheet were created to assist residency programs in wellness program development. Conclusion: The Programmatic Initiatives workgroup from the resident-driven RWCS event created tools to assist EM residency programs in identifying existing initiatives and gaps in their wellness programs to meet the ACGME’s expanded focus on resident wellbeing.

  7. Anesthesiology resident personality type correlates with faculty assessment of resident performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Randall M; Dilorenzo, Amy N; Li, Hsin-Fang; Fragneto, Regina Y; Bowe, Edwin A; Hessel, Eugene A

    2012-11-01

    To study the association between anesthesiology residents' personality preference types, faculty evaluations of residents' performance, and knowledge. Convenience sample and prospective study. Academic department of anesthesiology. Consenting anesthesiology residents (n = 36). All participants completed the Myers Briggs Type Indicator® (MBTI®). All residents' 6-month summation of daily focal evaluations completed by faculty [daily performance score (DPS); 1 = unsatisfactory, 2 = needs improvement, 3 = meets expectations, 4 = exceeds expectations], as well as a global assessment of performance (GAP) score based on placement of each resident into perceived quartile compared with their peers (ie,1 = first, or top, quartile) by senior faculty (n = 7) who also completed the MBTI, were obtained. The resident MBTI personality preferences were compared with the DPS and GAP scores, the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) I and II scores, and faculty MBTI personality type. There was no association between personality preference type and performance on standardized examinations (USMLE I, II). The mean GAP score was better (higher quartile score) for Extraverts than Introverts (median 2.0 vs 2.6, P = 0.0047) and for Sensing versus Intuition (median 2.0 vs 2.6, P = 0.0206) preference. Faculty evaluator MBTI preference type did not influence the GAP scores they assigned residents. Like GAP, the DPS was better for residents with Sensing versus Intuition preference (median 3.5 vs 3.3, P = 0.0111). No difference in DPS was noted between Extraverts and Introverts. Personality preference type was not associated with resident performance on standardized examinations, but it was associated with faculty evaluations of resident performance. Residents with Sensing personality preference were evaluated more favorably on global and focal faculty evaluations than those residents who chose the Intuition preference. Extraverted residents were evaluated more favorably on

  8. Effectiveness of iterative interventions to increase research productivity in one residency program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Alweis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requires residency programs to expose residents to research opportunities. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a series of iterative interventions to increase scholarly activity in one internal medicine residency. Methods: Retrospective analysis of the effectiveness of a series of interventions to increase resident and faculty scholarly productivity over a 14-year period was performed using quality improvement methodology. Outcomes measured were accepted regional and national abstracts and PubMed indexed manuscripts of residents and faculty. Results: Initially, regional meeting abstracts increased and then were supplanted by national meeting abstracts. Sustained gains in manuscript productivity occurred in the eighth year of interventions, increasing from a baseline of 0.01 publications/FTE/year to 1.57 publications/FTE/year in the final year measured. Run chart analysis indicated special cause variation associated with the interventions performed. Conclusions: Programs attempting to stimulate research production among faculty and residents can choose among many interventions cited in the literature. Since success of any group of interventions is likely additive and may take years to show benefit, measuring outcomes using quality improvement methodology may be an effective way to determine success.

  9. General Surgery Resident Satisfaction on Cardiothoracic Rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussiez, Alisha; Bevins, Jack; Plaska, Andrew; Rosin, Vadim; Reddy, Rishindra M

    2016-01-01

    General surgery residents' exposure to cardiothoracic (CT) surgery rotations has decreased, which may affect resident satisfaction. We surveyed general surgery graduates to assess the relationships among rotation satisfaction, CT disease exposure, rotation length, mentorship, and mistreatment. A survey assessing CT curriculum, exposure, mentorship, and satisfaction was forwarded to general surgery graduates from 17 residency programs. A Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to assess statistical significance of ordinal level data. Statistical significance was defined as p surgery residency programs who graduated between the years of 1999 to 2014. A total of 94 responses were completed and received. Receiving adequate exposure to CT procedures and disease management was significantly associated with higher satisfaction ratings for all procedures, particularly thoracotomy incisions (p Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Introducing "optimal challenges" in resident training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anette Bagger; Christensen, Mette Krogh

    Background: Residents are often caught between two interests: the resident’s desire to participate in challenging learning situations and the department’s work planning. However, these interests may clash if they are not coordinated by the senior doctors, and challenging learning situations risk...... that the residents benefit from the intervention because they experienced more optimal challenges than before the intervention. However, the matching of resident and case seems to work against the established culture in the department: The daily work has for many years been organized so that senior doctors have...... relationships in order to meet the health system’s and the patients’ call for continuity in the treatment. Take-home message: The matching of resident and case stimulates optimal learning situations, but cultural and organizational values concerning the doctor-patient continuity are challenged....

  11. Drug target residence time: a misleading concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folmer, Rutger H A

    2018-01-01

    Since the importance of drug target residence time was first highlighted more 10 years ago, slow binding kinetics has received much attention in the drug discovery literature, and indeed within pharmaceutical research. However, the residence concept as presented in most papers is supported by rather misleading simulations and arguments, and by examples where compounds are taken out of their pharmacokinetic context. Moreover, fast association is typically more desirable than slow, and advantages of long residence time, notably a potential disconnect between pharmacodynamics (PD) and pharmacokinetics (PK), would be partially or completely offset by slow on-rate. Therefore, plain potency is likely a better predictor of drug development success than is residence time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Resident Station Contact Information for Application Developers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — SSA provides a web service and downloadable file for SSA Resident Station locations, telephone numbers, and hours of operation. (Note: If you think an office might...

  13. Request by the Resident Representative of Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The attached clarification by a spokesman of the Iraqi Ministry of Foreign Affairs is being circulated for the information of Member States pursuant to a request made by the Resident Representative of Iraq

  14. Partitioning sources of variation in vertebrate species richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, R.B.; Krohn, W.B.

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To explore biogeographic patterns of terrestrial vertebrates in Maine, USA using techniques that would describe local and spatial correlations with the environment. Location: Maine, USA. Methods: We delineated the ranges within Maine (86,156 km2) of 275 species using literature and expert review. Ranges were combined into species richness maps, and compared to geomorphology, climate, and woody plant distributions. Methods were adapted that compared richness of all vertebrate classes to each environmental correlate, rather than assessing a single explanatory theory. We partitioned variation in species richness into components using tree and multiple linear regression. Methods were used that allowed for useful comparisons between tree and linear regression results. For both methods we partitioned variation into broad-scale (spatially autocorrelated) and fine-scale (spatially uncorrelated) explained and unexplained components. By partitioning variance, and using both tree and linear regression in analyses, we explored the degree of variation in species richness for each vertebrate group that Could be explained by the relative contribution of each environmental variable. Results: In tree regression, climate variation explained richness better (92% of mean deviance explained for all species) than woody plant variation (87%) and geomorphology (86%). Reptiles were highly correlated with environmental variation (93%), followed by mammals, amphibians, and birds (each with 84-82% deviance explained). In multiple linear regression, climate was most closely associated with total vertebrate richness (78%), followed by woody plants (67%) and geomorphology (56%). Again, reptiles were closely correlated with the environment (95%), followed by mammals (73%), amphibians (63%) and birds (57%). Main conclusions: Comparing variation explained using tree and multiple linear regression quantified the importance of nonlinear relationships and local interactions between species

  15. Mainframe computer use and residency cohort data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotch, D; Helford, M; Rivers, D

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a computer based method that was developed to prepare a profile of the patient care experiences of a cohort in a three-year, university based family practice residency. Sample pages from the report produced by this method and a description of the computer program are presented. This method of presenting patient encounter information may be particularly useful for program-level evaluation and for monitoring resident training.

  16. CanMEDS scholars: A national survey on urology residents' attitudes towards research during training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaja, Ogi; Skinner, Thomas A A; Mcgregor, Thomas B; Siemens, D Robert

    2017-12-22

    Participation in scholarly activity is an important tenet of residency training and is firmly entrenched in Canada since the introduction of CANMEDS roles by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons. As Canadian residency programs transition to competency-based training, it will remain important to understand how to best implement and encourage scholarly pursuits among resident trainees. The objective of this study was to understand the experiences, attitudes, and barriers that surgical residents face when pursuing research during their training. An anonymous, cross-sectional, self-report questionnaire was administered to chief residents of all English-speaking urology programs in Canada in 2015. Questions were open- and closed-ended, including an agreement score based on a five-point Likert scale. Questions addressed residents' involvement in and attitudes towards research, as well as their perceptions of the utility of research involvement during training. The residents were also asked about the support they received and potential areas to improve the attainment of this competency. Descriptive and correlative statistics were used to analyze the responses. There was a 100% overall response rate to the questionnaire. This study revealed that Canadian urology residents have a high rate of participation in scholarly work, with the vast majority (94%) publishing at least one manuscript with a mean of four papers. Despite this, there appeared to be significant variation in the respondent's experiences, including protected time for research. Furthermore, many residents appeared unconvinced of the importance of research involvement, with only 51% agreement that participation was important to their overall training. As well, a significant number of residents reported largely external, rather than internal, motivations for research participation, such as attaining a preferred fellowship (66% agreement). While the majority of respondents felt (66% agreement) that the

  17. Prostate Cancer Genetics: Variation by Race, Ethnicity, and Geography

    OpenAIRE

    Rebbeck, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer rates vary substantially by race, ethnicity, and geography. These disparities can be explained by variation in access to screening and treatment, variation in exposure to prostate cancer risk factors, and variation in the underlying biology of prostate carcinogenesis (including genomic propensity of some groups to develop biologically aggressive disease). It is clear that access to screening and treatment are critical influencers of prostate cancer rates, yet even among geogra...

  18. Thoracic surgical resident education: a costly endeavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoon, John H; Baisden, Clint; Holler, Ben; Hicks, George L; Bove, Ed L; Wright, Cameron D; Merrill, Walter H; Fullerton, Dave A

    2014-12-01

    We sought to define an accurate measure of thoracic surgical education costs. Program directors from six distinct and differently sized and geographically located thoracic surgical training programs used a common template to provide estimates of resident educational costs. These data were reviewed, clarifying questions or discrepancies when noted and using best estimates when exact data were unavailable. Subsequently, a composite of previously published cost-estimation products was used to capture accurate cost data. Data were then compiled and averaged to provide an accurate picture of all costs associated with thoracic surgical education. Before formal accounting was performed, the estimated average for all programs was approximately $250,000 per year per resident. However, when formal evaluations by the six programs were performed, the annual cost of resident education ranged from $330,000 to $667,000 per year per resident. The average cost of $483,000 per year was almost double the initial estimates. Variability was noted by region and size of program. Faculty teaching costs varied from $208,000 to $346,000 per year. Simulation costs ranged from $0 to $80,000 per year. Resident savings to program ranged from $0 to $135,000 per year and averaged $37,000 per year per resident. Thoracic surgical education costs are considerably higher than initial estimates from program directors and probably represent an unappreciated source of financial burden for cardiothoracic surgical educational programs. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Informatics and Technology in Resident Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaus, William

    2017-05-01

    Biomedical or clinical informatics is the transdisciplinary field that studies and develops effective uses of biomedical data, information technology innovations, and medical knowledge for scientific inquiry, problem solving, and decision making, with an emphasis on improving human health. Given the ongoing advances in information technology, the field of informatics is becoming important to clinical practice and to residency education. This article will discuss how informatics is specifically relevant to residency education and the different ways to incorporate informatics into residency education, and will highlight applications of current technology in the context of residency education. How informatics can optimize communication for residents, promote information technology use, refine documentation techniques, reduce medical errors, and improve clinical decision making will be reviewed. It is hoped that this article will increase faculty and trainees' knowledge of the field of informatics, awareness of available technology, and will assist practitioners to maximize their ability to provide quality care to their patients. This article will also introduce the idea of incorporating informatics specialists into residency programs to help practitioners deliver more evidenced-based care and to further improve their efficiency. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Documentation and billing for services provided by midwives teaching obstetrics and gynecology residents and medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Liverman, Angela; Slager, Joan; Wage, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Certified nurse-midwives are teaching obstetrics and gynecology residents and medical students in major academic institutions across the United States. In these instances, the ability to appropriately document services rendered to support a billable service is paramount. This article explains the difference in requirements for midwives' documentation when working with residents compared with documentation required of an attending obstetrician-gynecologist. It also reviews the teaching physician guidelines developed by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) as well as current evaluation and management documentation requirements. Several examples of documentation are provided, as are suggestions for enhancement and simplification of the guidelines to include midwives. An important point to remember is that the CMS rules do not prohibit a certified nurse-midwife from teaching a resident.