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Sample records for resheniya uravneniya perenosa

  1. Possible Solutions of Various Transport Problems; O nakhozhdenii reshenij nekotorykh zadach perenosa

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    Lebedev, V. I. [Institut Atomnoj Ehnergii Im. I.V. Kurchatova Moskva, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1968-01-15

    Symbol# L{sub 2}({Omega}) by {l_brace}{Phi}{sub v{omega}}{r_brace}. For q>3 the second component of v can be missing. 2{pi}T periodic solutions of non-homogeneous transport equations are found for cells of different dimensions. (author) [Russian] Pust' x = (x{sub 1}....,x{sub q}), R{sub q}(x) - ja-mernoe prostranstvo (q Greater-Than-Or-Equal-To 2), s - edinichnyj vektor, #Greek Capital Letter Omega With Tonos# - poverhnost' edinich- Zadacha reshenija uravnenij perenosa s vyrozhdennoj indikatrisoj rassejanija javljaetsja mnogomernoj zadachej v R{sub q}x#Greek Capital Letter Omega With Tonos#; specifika takih zadach trebuet razrabotki bystroshodjashhih- sja iteracionnyh metodov, trebujushhih zapominanija ne vsej informacii o provedennom iteracionnom shage. Izlagaetsja KR-metod; ideja ego sostoit v reshenii v Rja na kazhdom iteracionnom shage posledovatel'nosti ubyvajushhej trudnosti uproshhennyh zadach dlja oshibki. V KR vypolnjaetsja dve operacii: operacija K-prostaja iteracija v R{sub q}x Greek-Capital-Letter-Omega , i operacija P = {l_brace}P{sub 1}(n{sub 1}),...P{sub 0}(n{sub 0}){r_brace} dlja oshibki, zdes' P{sub k} (n{sub k}) oznachaet reshenie v R{sub q} kraevoj zadachi dlja differencial'nogo uravnenija 2n{sub k} go porjadka. Najdeny operacii R i issledovana shodimost' metodov: KP{sub 1}(n), P{sub 2}(0), K{sup 2}P{sub 1}(n), cyclic KP{sub 1}(1) ciklicheskogo KP{sub 1}(0) i KPi (0) i dr. Dlja 2{pi}T periodicheskih zadach ocenena shodimost', najdeny C(KR) (cena KR) i deshevye algorifmy, pokazana neuluchshaemost'. Chislennye raschety pokazali vysokuju jeffektivnost' KR-metoda. Obobshheny na ja-mernyj sluchaj rezul'taty Kejsa: v Rqx{Omega} najdena sistema reshenij odnorodnogo odnoskorostnogo uravnenija perenosa s postojannymi kojefficientami i izotropnoj indikatrisoj rassejanija {Phi}{sub {omega}}(S)exp({+-}(x, {omega})/v) javljajushhihsja obobshhennymi funkcijami, u kotoryh {sub v}#Greek Lunate Epsilon Symbol#{l_brace}(-1, 1], {+-} v{sub 0}{r_brace}, i {omega} #Greek

  2. On the energy spectrum of the Bethe-Salpeter equation; Ob ehnergeticheskom spektre uravneniya Bete-Solpitera

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    Dorkin, S M [Dal` nevostochnyj Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Kaptar` , L P; Semikh, S S [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation). Lab. of Theoretical Physics

    1997-12-31

    The problem of calculating the energy spectrum of a two-fermion bound state within the Bethe-Salpeter formalism is discussed. An expansion of the kernel of the spinor-spinor Bethe-Salpeter equation in the ladder approximation is found in terms of a bi-orthogonal basis of the generalized Gilbert-Schmidt series for symmetric equations of the Fredholm type. According to this expansion, a new method of solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation and finding the mass spectrum is proposed. Methodological result of numerical solutions of equations with scalar interaction is presented. (author). 20 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Large time asymptotics of solutions of the equations of principal chiral field. Asimptoticheskoe povedenie reshenij uravneniya glavnogo kiral'nogo polya pri bol'shikh vremenakh

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    Sukhanov, V V [Leningradskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Leningrad (USSR)

    1990-07-01

    Asymptotic behaviour of solutions of the equations of principal chiral field when one of the arguments tends to infinity is investigated. Asymptotics of solutions of the corresponding spectral problem is investigated as well. explicit formulas are constructed which connect the coefficients of the asymptotic decomposition of the potential with the data of the corresponding inverse problem by means of a birational transformation.

  4. 17 years after the Chernobyl' accident: problems and decisions. Proceedings of the International scientific and practical conference; 17 let posle Chernobylya: problemy i resheniya. Sbornik nauchnykh trudov Mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferentsii

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    Shevchuk, V E; Gurachevskij, V L; Kolbanov, V V

    2003-04-01

    The book contains proceedings of the scientific conference on difference medical and biological problems of consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident, as well as on the problems of rehabilitation of the contaminated territories and ecosystems.

  5. Atomic Transport Problems of Interest in Nuclear Systems; Problemes de Transport Atomique Presentant un Interet dans les Systemes Nucleaires; Problemy perenosa atomov, predstavlyayushchie interes v yadernykh sistemakh; Problemas de Transporte Atomico de Interes para la Ingenieria Nuclear

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    Lundy, T. S.; Winslow, F. R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1966-02-15

    Several problems encountered in the application of basic diffusion data to systems of practical interest such as those encountered in nuclear engineering will be discussed. These problems will include isothermal diffusion experiments, thermal gradient diffusion and radiation effects on diffusion processes. Most of the reliable information on diffusion in solids has been obtained from cases where there is essentially no concentration gradient of the diffusing species. In systems of interest to nuclear engineers, however, concentration gradients are almost invariably present. Thus, a working knowledge of the relation between self- and chemical-diffusion coefficients is necessary in order to estimate the proper coefficients to use in a given situation. Knowledge of thermodynamic activity coefficients as functions of compositions is necessary additional information. Recently it has been clearly demonstrated that indiscriminate use of an Arrhenius-type expression to describe the temperature dependence of diffusion data may lead to large errors in the prediction of diffusion coefficients. The ramifications of this finding will be discussed with emphasis on refractory, body-centred cubic systems. We have studied, both theoretically and experimentally, the effect of a thermal gradient on the redistribution of substitutional impurities in a metal. Such work has led to an increased appreciation of the importance of this effect in systems of interest in the nuclear field. The enhancement of diffusion by radiation fields remains a problem of justified interest. We have made the first successful direct measurements of the effect of fast-particle bombardment on diffusion in a metal. Our results correlate well with predictions based on a model of the annihilation of excess point defects (vacancies and interstitials) by three mechanisms - migration to homogeneously-distributed fixed sinks such as dislocations, migration to a free surface, and recombination of defects. (author) [French] Les auteurs discutent plusieurs problemes qui surgissent lorsqu'on veut appliquer les constantes fondamentales de diffusion a des systemes presentant un interet pratique, notamment a ceux que l'on rencontre dans le genie nucleaire. Ces problemes comprennent des experiences de diffusion isotherme, la diffusion sous gradient thermique et les effets de rayonnements sur les processus de diffusion. La plupart des donnees dignes de foi sur la diffusion dans les solides ont ete obtenues a partir de cas dans lesquels il n'y avait essentiellement pas de gradient de concentration des especes diffusantes. Toutefois, dans les systemes qui presentent un interet pour les specialistes du genie nucleaire, il y a presque invariablement des gradients de concentration. C'est pourquoi il faut avoir une connaissance pratique de la relation entre les coefficients d'autodiffusion et de diffusion chimique pour pouvoir determiner les coefficients applicables dans chaque cas d'espece. En outre, il faut egalement connaitre les coefficients d'activite thermodynamique en fonction de la composition. Recemment, il a ete clairement demontre qu'il est dangereux d'utiliser aveuglement une expression d'Arrhenius pour decrire les variations de la diffusion selon la temperature, car cela peut entrainer des erreurs considerables dans le calcul theorique des coefficients de diffusion. Les auteurs discutent les consequences qui en decoulent, particulierement pour les systemes cubiques centres refractaires. Ils ont etudie, tant theoriquement qu'experimentalement, l'effet d'un gradient thermique sur la distribution des impuretes de substitution dans un metal. Ces travaux ont permis de mieux apprecier l'importance de cet effet dans des systemes presentant un interet du point de vue nucleaire. L'accroissement de la diffusion par les champs de rayonnements demeure toujours un probleme d'un interet reel. Les auteurs ont fait les premieres mesures directes de l'effet du bombardement par des particules rapides sur la diffusion dans un metal. Leurs resultats sont en bon accord avec les calculs theoriques fondes sur un modele de 1)annihilation de l'excedent de defauts ponctuels (lacunes et interstices) par trois mecanismes, savoir la migration vers des puits fixes dont la distribution est homogene tels que les dislocations, la migration vers une surface libre et la recombinaison de defauts. (author) [Spanish] Se analizan en la memoria varios problemas encontrados al aplicar los datos basicos sobre difusion a sistemas de interes practico para la ingenierfa nuclear. Estos problemas se refieren a experimentos de difusion isotermica, difusion por gradiente termico y efectos de la radiacion sobre los procesos de difusion. La mayor parte de la informacion fidedigna sobre la difusion en solidos proviene de casos donde no existe, en esencia, gradiente alguno de concentracion de las especies que se difunden. Los sistemas que interesan a los ingenieros nucleares, en cambio, presentan casi invariablemente gradientes de concentracion. Asf, pues, para evaluarlos coeficientes adecuados es necesario contar con un conocimiento practico de la relacion existente entre los coeficientes de autodifusiOn y de difusion quimica. Ademas, es preciso conocer los coeficientes de actividad termodinamica como funciones de la composicion. Recientemente se ha demostrado sin lugar a dudas que el uso indiscriminado de una expresion del tipo de la de Arrhenius para describir la manera en que los datos de difusion dependen de la temperatura, puede introducir graves errores en el calculo de los coeficientes de difusion. Se analizan en la memoria las consecuencias de ese hecho, haciendo especial hincapie en los sistemas cubicos centrados en el cuerpo/ del tipo refractario. Los autores han estudiado teorica y experimentalmente el efecto de un gradiente termico sobre la redistribucion de impurezas sustitutivas en un metal. Ese trabajo ha contribuido a un mejor conocimiento de la importancia de este efecto en los sistemas de interes en la esfera nuclear. El fomento de la difusion por los campos de radiacion sigue siendo un problema de justificado interes. Los autores han hecho las primeras mediciones directas del efecto que el bombardeo con particulas rapidas ejerce sobre la difusion en un metal. Los resultados guardan una correlacion satisfactoria con los pronosticos basados en un modelo de la aniquilacion de los defectos puntiformes (huecos e intersticios) excesivos en virtud de tres mecanismos: migracion hacia trampas fijas y homogeneamente distribuidas tales como dislocaciones, migracion hacia una superficie libre, y recombinacion de defectos. (author) [Russian] Obsuzhdajutsja nekotorye problemy, voznikajushhie pri ispol'zovanii osnov- nyh dannyh otnositel'no diffuzii v sistemah, predstavljajushhih prakticheskij interes, napri- mer v sistemah, vstrechajushhihsja v jadernoj tehnike. V chislo jetih problem vkljucheny jeksperi- menty v oblasti izotermicheskoj diffuzii, problemy diffuzii temperaturnogo gradienta i vlijanija radiacii na processy diffuzii. Bol'shaja chast' nadezhnoj informacii otnositel'- no diffuzii v tverdyh telah poluchena v teh sluchajah, kogda po sushhestvu gradient koncen- tracii diffundirujushhih obrazcov otsutstvuet. V sistemah, predstavljajushhih interes dlja inzhenerov-atomnikov, odnako, gradienty koncentracii pochti vsegda prisutstvujut. V svja- zi s jetim neobhodimy rabochie znanija po voprosu o svjazi mezhdu kojefficientami samodiffu- zii i himicheskoj diffuzii, chtoby dat' ocenku sootvetstvujushhih kojefficientov s cel'ju ispol'zovanija v opredelennoj situacii. Znanie kojefficientov termodinamicheskoj aktivnosti kak funkcii struktury predstavljaet soboj neobhodimuju dopolnitel'nuju informaciju. Nedavno bylo jasno pokazano, chto pri nediskriminacionnom primenenii vyrazhenija tipa Arheniusa dlja opisanija temperaturnoj zavisimosti dannyh otnositel'no diffuzii mozhno dopu- stit' znachitel'nye oshibki v predskazanii kojefficientov diffuzii. Obsuzhdajutsja varianty jetogo vyvoda s uporom na refrakcionnye ob{sup e}mno-centrirovannye kubicheskie sistemy . Izuchalis' teoreticheski i jeksperimental'no voprosy vlijanija temperaturnogo gradienta na pereraspre- delenie sushhestvennyh primesej v metalle. Rezul'taty priveli k bolee vysokoj ocenke vazhnosti jetogo jeffekta v sistemah, predstavljajushhih interes v oblasti atomnoj jenergii. Usilenie diffuzii radiacionnymi poljamijeto po-prezhnemu problema, interes k koto- roj opravdan. Provedeno pervoe uspeshnoe neposredstvennoe izmerenie stepeni vlijanija bombardirovki bystrymi chasticami na velichinu diffuzii v metalle. Poluchennye rezul'- taty horosho soglasujutsja s predpolozhenijami, osnovannymi na modeli annigiljacii izbytochnyh defektov (vakansii i vnedrennye atomy) s ispol'zovaniem treh mehanizmov migracija v gomogenno raspredelennye fiksirovannye rakoviny, naprimer dislokacii, migracija na svobodnuju poverhnost' i rekombinacija defektov. (author)

  6. Critical experiments and nuclear calculations - LAMPRE-I; Experiences critiques et calculs nucleaires concernant le LAMPRE-I; Kriticheskie opyty i yadernye raschety - LAMPRE-I; Experimentos criticos u calculos nucleares relativos al LAMPRE-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battat, M E [Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, University of California, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1962-03-15

    1 megavatt, aktivnaya zona kotorogo soderzhit rasplavlennyj splav plutoniya i zheleza (90 atomnykh protsentov plutoniya, 10 atomnykh protsentov zheleza pri tochke plavleniya v 410{sup o} TS). Regulirovka reaktivnosti obespechena putem ispol'zovaniya otrazhatelya iz nerzhaveyushchej stali i chetyrekh nikelievykh reguliruyushchikh sterzhnej, raspolozhennykh vne aktivnoj zony. Byli provedeny opyty pri temperaturakh aktivnoj zony v 80, 160 i 480 deg. TS s tem, chtoby opredelit' kriticheskuyu massu i tsennost' otrazhatelya pri kazhdoj iz ehtikh temperatur. Byli izmereny temperaturnyj koehffitsient reaktivnosti, a takzhe tsennost' reguliruyushchikh sterzhnej po izmereniyam perioda. Byli sdelany raschety s ispol'zovaniem metoda S{sub n} dlya resheniya problemy perenosa nejtronov, chtoby opredelit' osnovnye yadernye parametry sistemy. Sravnenie mezhdu raschetnymi i izmerennymi velichinami parametrov takikh kak temperaturnyj koehffitsient, tsennost' reguliruyushchikh ehlementov i kriticheskaya massa predstavlyayut takzhe interes v otsenke nadezhnosti proektnykh raschetov. (author)

  7. The intersections between TRIZ and forecasting methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta BARBULESCU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors’ intention is to correlate the basic knowledge in using the TRIZ methodology (Theory of Inventive Problem Solving or in Russian: Teoriya Resheniya Izobretatelskikh Zadatch as a problem solving tools meant to help the decision makers to perform more significant forecasting exercises. The idea is to identify the TRIZ features and instruments (40 inventive principles, i.e. for putting in evidence the noise and signal problem, for trend identification (qualitative and quantitative tendencies and support tools in technological forecasting, to make the decision-makers able to refine and to increase the level of confidence in the forecasting results. The interest in connecting TRIZ to forecasting methodology, nowadays, relates to the massive application of TRIZ methods and techniques for engineering system development world-wide and in growing application of TRIZ’s concepts and paradigms for improvements of non-engineering systems (including the business and economic applications.

  8. The application of knowledge management and TRIZ for solving the safe shutdown capability of fire alarms in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chia-Nan; Chen, Hsin-Po; Hsueh, Ming-Hsien; Chin, Fong-Li

    2017-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear disaster in 2011 has raised widespread concern over the safety of nuclear power plants. This study employed knowledge management in conjunction with the Teoriya Resheniya Izobreatatelskih Zadatch (TRIZ) method in the formulation of a database to facilitate the evaluation of post-fire safe shutdown capability with the aim of safeguarding nuclear facilities in the event of fire. The proposed approach is meant to bring facilities in line with US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) standards. When implemented in a case study of an Asian nuclear power plant, our method proved highly effective in the detection of 22 cables that fell short of regulatory requirements, thereby reducing 850,000 paths to 0. This study could serve as reference for industry and academia in the development of systematic approaches to the upgrading of nuclear power plants.

  9. The application of knowledge management and TRIZ for solving the safe shutdown capability in case of fire alarms in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chia-Nan; Chen, Hsin-Po; Hsueh, Ming-Hsien; Chin, Fong-Li

    2018-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear disaster in 2011 has raised widespread concern over the safety of nuclear power plants. This study employed knowledge management in conjunction with the Teoriya Resheniya Izobreatatelskih Zadatch (TRIZ) method in the formulation of a database to facilitate the evaluation of post-fire safe shutdown capability with the aim of safeguarding nuclear facilities in the event of fire. The proposed approach is meant to bring facilities in line with US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) standards. When implemented in a case study of an Asian nuclear power plant, our method proved highly effective in the detection of 22 cables that fell short of regulatory requirements, thereby reducing 850,000 paths to 0. This study could serve as reference for industry and academia in the development of systematic approaches to the upgrading of nuclear power plants.

  10. The application of knowledge management and TRIZ for solving the safe shutdown capability of fire alarms in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chia-Nan; Chen, Hsin-Po; Hsueh, Ming-Hsien; Chin, Fong-Li [National Kaohsiung Univ. of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Industrial Engineering and Management

    2017-11-15

    The Fukushima nuclear disaster in 2011 has raised widespread concern over the safety of nuclear power plants. This study employed knowledge management in conjunction with the Teoriya Resheniya Izobreatatelskih Zadatch (TRIZ) method in the formulation of a database to facilitate the evaluation of post-fire safe shutdown capability with the aim of safeguarding nuclear facilities in the event of fire. The proposed approach is meant to bring facilities in line with US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) standards. When implemented in a case study of an Asian nuclear power plant, our method proved highly effective in the detection of 22 cables that fell short of regulatory requirements, thereby reducing 850,000 paths to 0. This study could serve as reference for industry and academia in the development of systematic approaches to the upgrading of nuclear power plants.

  11. The application of knowledge management and TRIZ for solving the safe shutdown capability in case of fire alarms in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chia-Nan; Chen, Hsin-Po; Hsueh, Ming-Hsien; Chin, Fong-Li [National Kaohsiung Univ. of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Industrial Engineering and Management

    2018-02-15

    The Fukushima nuclear disaster in 2011 has raised widespread concern over the safety of nuclear power plants. This study employed knowledge management in conjunction with the Teoriya Resheniya Izobreatatelskih Zadatch (TRIZ) method in the formulation of a database to facilitate the evaluation of post-fire safe shutdown capability with the aim of safeguarding nuclear facilities in the event of fire. The proposed approach is meant to bring facilities in line with US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) standards. When implemented in a case study of an Asian nuclear power plant, our method proved highly effective in the detection of 22 cables that fell short of regulatory requirements, thereby reducing 850,000 paths to 0. This study could serve as reference for industry and academia in the development of systematic approaches to the upgrading of nuclear power plants.

  12. Adsorption and Biocirculation in Oceanic Waters; 0410 0414

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenkevich, L. A.

    1960-07-01

    perenosa i raspredelenija radioaktivnyh veshhestv v vode, to vpolne ponjato, chto vnimanie uchenyh vse bolee sosredotochivaetsja na zhivyh organizmah. B. Ketchum i V. Bouen rassmatrivajut ponjatie ''biologicheskij perenos'' i delajut dovol'no interesnuju popytku vyrazit' ego matematicheski, a takzhe sopostavit' s issledovanijami fizicheskogo perenosa. Pojavilsja termin ''biocirkuljacija''. Ochevidno, chto jetot faktor kak sredstvo perenosa i sistema adsorbcii ne mozhet byt' ne prinjata v raschet. Bol'shoe kolichestvo suspenzij mineral'nyh veshhestv (ne soderzhashhej zhivyh organizmov) harakterizuetsja otnositel'no medlennoj podvizhnost'ju, i poverhnosti tel bakterij i fitoplanktona obrazujut ogromnuju adsorbirujushhuju poverhnost'. Stolb vody v okeane vkljuchaet ogromnoe kolichestvo vzvesi, soderzhashhej zhivye organizmy (bakterii, fito- i zooplankton), i komponenty, ne soderzhashhie zhivyh organizmov (bioseston i abioseston). Kolichestvennoe opredelenie vsego sestona daet vozmozhnost' ocenit' ego rol' kak adsorbirujushhej poverhnosti i kak mehanizma biocirkuljacii (v vertikal'nom i gorizontal'nom napravlenijah). Adsorbirujushhaja poverhnost' dlja razlichnyh grupp sestona v zonah raspredelenija srednej plotnosti i pokazatel' podpoverhnostnoj biocirkuljacii v stolbe vody pod 1 m{sup 2} v srede obitanija privedeny.

  13. Using TRIZ to Improve the Procurement Process of Spare Parts in the Taiwan Navy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Nan Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The Naval Maintenance and Repair Command Acquisition Management Unit (NMRC-AMU of the Taiwan Navy suffered from poor stock control of spare parts and inadequate modification of requested items and manufacturer/part codes during recent years. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate core categorization, coordination, and procurement (CCP problems, to formulate feasible solutions and then to improve the CCP performances of spare parts in NMRC-AMU. The Teoriya Resheniya Izobreatatelskih Zadatch (TRIZ method was applied to solve this issue. A problem hierarchy analysis (PHA was first used to identify the core problems. Then, the 40 principles were used to determine the ideal improvement solution and formulate a solution strategy that simultaneously simplified CCP processed and enhanced the correctness of procurement tasks, thereby elevating CCP efficiency, supporting the Taiwan Navy repair missions, and satisfying fleet maintenance and servicing demands. The results indicated that total 6925 requests for coordination and procurement were submitted. Of these requests, 4366 requests had been completed (with total 102 cases, and the CCP efficiency is 63.0%. After improvement by this study, a total of 4529 items were submitted and 3592 executed items were completed (with a total of 172 cases, and the CCP efficiency is 79.3%. The improvement percentage of the CCP efficiency and completed cases are 30.6% and 68.6%, respectively. The performances are good and the TRIZ could be applied for other military forces.

  14. The Sustainable Improvement of Manufacturing for Nano-Titanium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Nan Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Scientists have found that nanomaterials possess many outstanding features in their tiny grain structure compared to other common materials. Titanium at the nano-grain scale shows many novel characteristics which demonstrate suitability for use in surgical implants. In general, equal channel angular pressing (ECAP is the most popular and simple process to produce nano-titanium. However, ECAP is time-consuming, power-wasting, and insufficiently produces the ultrafine grain structure. Therefore, the objective of this research is to propose a new method to improve the ECAP’s performances to reach the ultrafine grain structure, and also to save production costs, based on the innovation theory of Teoriya Resheniya Izobreatatelskih Zadatch (TRIZ. Research results show that the process time is reduced by 80%, and 94% of the energy is saved. Moreover, the grain size of the diameter for nano-titanium can be reduced from 160 nanometers (nm to 80 nm. The results are a 50% reduction of diameter and a 75% improvement of volume. At the same time, the method creates a refined grain size and good mechanical properties in the nano-titanium. The proposed method can be applied to produce any nanomaterial as well as biomaterials.

  15. An Innovative Approach to Enhancing the Sustainable Development of Japanese Automobile Suppliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Nan Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese automobile industry has been hit sharply by the economic downturn of recent decades. The rise in costs and decline in sales have led to serious problems in the auto industry. In order to address these issues, most companies engage in downsizing and redesigning production operations. It is crucial to investigate the time wasted by replacing assembly boards occurring in manufacturing lines. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide an integrated approach, Teoriya Resheniya Izobreatatelskih Zadatch (TRIZ, to providing efficient solutions for the automobile industry. The first step of this methodology is to detail the technical problems using the Function and Attribute Analysis (FAA model. Secondly, a contradiction matrix and the inventive principle were applied to find the solutions. In this study, an auto part supplier named Sumi-Hanel located in Hanoi, Vietnam, was taken as a case study; the empirical results showed that waste time had been reduced to 67%, nearly 8400 square meters was saved, and a 20% cost reduction was achieved by reusing old frames. The research proves that the combination of TRIZ and lean manufacturing successfully increases production performance and reduces waste due to technological advancements.

  16. Improved organic scintillation detectors; Possibilites de perfectionnement des detecteurs organiques a scintillations; Usovershenstvovannye organicheskie stsintillyatsionnye detektory; Detectores organicos de centelleo perfeccionados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birks, J B [University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1962-04-15

    fotomultiplicadores con respuestas S11 (ventana de vidrio) y S13 (ventana de cuarzo). Los resultados sugieren la posibilidad de perfeccionar de varias maneras los actuales metodos de utilizacion de detectores organicos: empleo de soluciones binarias con preferencia a las ternarias; empleo de ventanas de cuarzo con preferencia a las de vidrio; nueva evaluacion de los detectores de cristales mixtos basados en el naftaleno. El indice de calidad (rendimiento practico/periodo de caida de la luminiscencia) puede llegar a aumentar al doble para el contaje rapido con detectores de centelleo. (author) [Russian] Byli vyvedeny uravneniya dlya opredeleniya dejstvitel'noj ehffektivnosti stsintillyatsii-(chislo foto- ehlektronov na 1 mehv) organicheskikh kristallov i rastvorov s tochki zreniya molekulyarnykh parametrov; ehti uravneniya byli primeneny k bolee slozhnym sistemam stsintillyatorov dlya fotoumnozhitelej s kharakteristikami S11 (steklyannoe okno) i S13 (kvartsevoe okno). Rezul'taty ukazyvayut na vozmozhnost' vneseniya ryada usovershenstvovanij v sushchestvuyushchuyu konstruktsiyu organicheskikh stsintillyatsionnykh detektorov, a imenno: ispol'zovanie binarnykh rastvorov vmesto trojnykh; ispol'zovanie kvartsevogo okna vmesto steklyannogo; peresmotr stsintillyatorov so smeshannymi kristallami na osnove naftalina. Takim obrazom mozhno uvelichit' vdvoe ili dazhe eshche bol'she chuvstvitel'nost' (dejstvitel'naya ehffektivnost', otnesennaya ko vremeni raspada) bystro stsintillyatsionnogo scheta. (author)

  17. Some physics aspects of cermet and ceramic fast systems; Quelques aspects de la physique des reacteurs a neutrons rapides utilisant des cermets et des ceramiques comme combustibles; Nekotorye fizicheskie aspekty kermetnykh i keramicheskikh sistem na bystrykh nejtronakh; Algunos aspectos fisicos de los sistemas rapidos a base de combustibles cermet y ceramicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codd, J; James, M F; Mann, J E [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Reactor Group (United Kingdom)

    1962-03-15

    The characteristics of a system using an iron-based oxide cermet as fuel material are discussed. A transport theory investigation to develop methods of predicting the effect of core heterogeneity on reactivity and flux distribution is described. Some preliminary calculations are also given of resonance self-shielding and Doppler temperature effects in a cermet system. (author) [French] Les auteurs etudient les caracteristique s d'un reacteur utilisant comme combustible un cermet d'oxydes a armature de fer. Ils exposent une application de la theorie du transport a la mise au point des methodes permettant de prevoir l'effet de l'heterogeneite du coeur sur la reactivite et sur la distribution du flux. Ils donnent egalement quelques calculs preliminaires d'effets d'autoprotection due a la resonance et d'effet Doppler du a la chaleur dans un reacteur utilisant un cermet. (author) [Spanish] La memoria discute las caracteristicas de un sistema que emplea como combustible un oxido tipo cermet a base de hierro. Describe una investigacion de la teoria de transporte con miras a desarrollar metodos para evaluar el efecto de la heterogeneidad del cuerpo sobre la reactividad y la distribucion de flujo. Tambien da algunos calculos preliminares de los efectos del autoblindaje por resonancia y de la temperatura de Doppler en un sistema de tipo cermet. (author) [Russian] Obsuzhdayutsya kharakteristiki sistemy, ispol'zuyushchej v kachestve toplivnogo materiala oksidnye kermety, razrabotannye na osnove zheleza. Opisyvaetsya issledovanie teorii perenosa, chtoby razvit' metody predskazaniya vliyaniya geterogennosti aktivnoj zony na reaktivnost' i raspredelenie potoka. Dayutsya takzhe nekotorye predvaritel'nye raschety ehffektov rezonansnoj samozashchity i temperaturnogo ehffekta Dopplera v kermetnoj sisteme. (author)

  18. Reactivity coefficients by perturbation theory; Calcul des coefficients de re activite par la theorie des perturbations; Koehffitsienty reaktivnosti, opredelennye pri pomoshchi teorii vozmushchenij; Determinacion, de coeficientes de reactividad con ayuda de la teoria de las perturbaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, J W [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1962-03-15

    (MCBR). Al calcular la reactividad, se comprueba que el coeficiente correspondiente a la densidad neta del mercurio en el primer proyecto del MCBR es negativo en algunas regiones, y positivo en otras. Es negativo en las regiones de peso estadistico maximo y en las que los cambios de densidad serian mayores al variar la potencia. Por lo tanto, el coeficiente global de densidad del mercurio es negativo, esto es, el coeficiente de vacios es positivo, lo que constituye una condicion que implica peligro. En la formulacion de dos grupos, se aprecia facilmente que modificaciones es preciso introducir en el diseno para que el coeficiente de cavidad sea negativo. Nuevas investigaciones demostraron que era posible introducir dichas modificaciones, lograndose establecer para el MCBR un diseno cuyo coeficiente de vacios es negativo. (author) [Russian] Razvitie formuly teorii vozmushchenij daet khoroshuyu vozmozhnost' ispol'zovat' odin iz glavnykh metodov matematicheskogo issledovaniya, t.e. proizvesti dejstvie po analogii ot prostogo k bolee slozhnomu. V ehtom doklade: a) Rassmatrivaets ya formulirovka teorii vozmushchenij v kachestve metoda rascheta koehffitsientov reaktivnosti. On sostoit, glavnym obrazom, iz razvitiya differentsial'nog o uravneniya dlya sopryazhennogo potoka kak postoyannoj funktsii polozheniya i letargii, vyvodimoe po analogii ot odnoj gruppy differentsial'nog o uravneniya dlya sopryazhennogo potoka. b) Daetsya primenenie dvukhgruppovoj formy teorii vozmushchenij dlya kipyashchego reaktorarazmnozhitelya na bystrykh nejtronakh s rtutnym teplonositelem (MCBR). Vidno, chto koehffitsient reaktivnosti rtuti nizshej plotnosti v khode pervogo ispytaniya proekta MCBR yavlyaetsya otritsatel'nym dlya nekotorykh oblastej i polozhitel'nym dlya drugikh. Odnako on yavlyaetsya otritsatel'nym dlya oblastej naivysshego statisticheskogo vesa i tam, gde izmenenie plotnosti s izmeneniem ehnergii okazyvaetsya naibol'shim. Obshchij koehffitsient plotnosti rtuti yavlyaetsya, takim

  19. Sovremennaja serbskaja jazykovaja situacija (s točki zrenija vzaimootnošenija meždu standartnym i razgovornym jazykami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Likomanova Iskra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available V stat'e s točki zrenija tradicionoj PLŠ s nekotoroj sovremennoj modifikacii ee postulatov otnositel'no slavjanskih literaturnyh jazykov rassmatrivaetsja sovremennaja jazykovaja situacija v serbskom jazykovom prostranstve (JaP, tipologičeski sravnivaja ee s drugimi slavjanskimi jazykami. Osnovnaja ideja raboty v sosuščestvovanii vseh raznovidnostej nacional'nogo jazyka na protjaženii danogo JaP, na kotoroe skladyvaetsja kak standartnyj literaturnyj jazyk, tak i vse drugie, v t.č. ustnye idiomy: dialektnaja reč', povsednevnaja reč', razgovornaja reč', idiolekty nositelej jazyka. Vvedeno i ëksplicirovano ponjatie „otstojanija“ meždu dvumja osnovnymi normami nacional'nogo jazyka - literaturnoj i kollokvial'noj, kotorye dlja serbskogo (vpročem i dlja bolgarskogo otličaetsja bol'šoj blizost'ju A+ i A-, t.e. fokusov norm. Ëto utverždenie provoditsja s učetom genezisa norm, s učetom ih vysokoj stepen'ju variancii i segodnja i s učetom aktual'nogo vzaimodejstvija meždu nimi. Na sociolingvističeskie ponjatija bifokal'nosti norm skladyvaetsja i rjad političeskih ponjatij kak oficial'nye i regional'nye men'šinstvennye jazyki, kotorye tože vhodjat v kartinu JaP, nahodjas' v kommunikativnom prostranstve nacii. Vvidu dinamičeskih ekstra- i intralingvističeskih processov, novyh sposobov sovremennoj komunikacii v sovremennom serbskom jazyke-angloamerikanizacii, perenosa terminologičeskoj, razgovornoj leksiki iz ustnuju reč' v pis'mennuju, standartnuju - ešče bol'še sužaetsja rasstojanie meždu dvumja osnovnymi raznovidnostjami serbskogo jazyka. V etom plane zasluživaet osoboe vnimanie teoretičeskoe i praktičeskoe opisanie ne tol'ko norm standartnogo jazyka, no i opisanie živoj kollokvial'noj normy, kotoraja dlja serbskogo jazyka predstavljaet osobuju slavjanskuju specifiku - v tipologičeskom plane.

  20. Research Applications of Beta-Particle Techniques: Back-Scattering and X-Ray Excitation; Applications de l'irradiation beta dans la recherche: retrodiffusion et excitation de rayons X; Primenenie metodov beta-chastits v issledovatel'skoj rabote: obratnoe rasseyanie i vozbuzhdenie rentgenovskikh luchej; Aplicacion de la irradiacion beta en la investigacion: retrodispersion y excitacion de rayos X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, R H [Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, University of California, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1962-01-15

    vyvedeny tochnye uravneniya dlya vsekh ehtikh yavlenij; nekotorye iz nikh ehmpiricheskim putem, a nekotorye sushchestvenno na teoreticheskoj osnove. Interesno otmetit', chto ehti uravneniya pravil'no predusmatrivayut optimal'nye parametry istochnika, soglasno opredeleniyam drugikh issledovatelej, kak v SSHA, tak i zagranitsej. Nuzhno dumat', chto ehti metody ukreplyayut mnenie, chto radioaktivnym izotopam suzhdena gromadnaya nauchnaya i tekhnicheskaya budushchnost'. CHto zhe kasaetsya istochnikov rentgenovskikh luchej, nuzhno skazat', chto vse v tekhnologii rentgenovskikh luchej, za isklyucheniem vyyavleniya kristallicheskoj struktury, mozhet byt' bolee legko dostignuto ehtimi sposobami. Pri nalichii istochnikov moshchnost'yu v neskol'ko kyuri, veroyatno, mozhno budet razreshit' dazhe i ehtu poslednyuyu zadachu. (author)

  1. High-dilution on-stream isotopic tracer techniques; Emploi d'indicateurs radioactifs tres dilues pour le controle les courants; Metody primeneniya sil'no razbavlennykh v potokakh izotopnykh indikatorov; Empleo de indicadores radiactivos muy diluidos en el control de corrientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, W H; Findeis, A F; Vestal, M [William H . Johnston Laboratories, Inc., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1962-01-15

    eficacia del detector, el grado de exactitud estadistica necesaria, el margen de tiempo mas conveniente para las mediciones de las muestras y de la actividad de fondo, el caudal de la corriente y las caracteristicas del nuclido utilizado como indicador. Estas ecuaciones, representadas graficamente, permiten seleccionar facilmente las concentraciones del trazador mas adecuadas para una aplicacion concreta. La memoria analiza tambien el programa de muestreo que conviene seguir en las aplicaciones de trazadores en gran escala, tanto para adiciones intermitentes de trazador como para adiciones en regimen continuo. En el primer caso, la mezcla longitudinal se trata con arreglo a las leyes de la difusion turbulenta. Si se evaluan determinados parametros, se obtienen la distancia maxima de deteccion del trazador y el tiempo minimo de llegada en funcion de la distancia entre el lugar de descarga y el de la toma de muestras. En la marcacion de corrientes con ayuda de emisores beta muy diluidos, se utilizan como detectores grandes contadores de gas interno para bajas actividades, contadores de flujo con lamina detectora y centelleadores plasticos. Tambien describen nuevos contadores de anticoincidencias y subrayan las ventajas del blindaje con elementos de bajo numero atomico. La memoria expone los adelantos recientemente realizados en materia de circuitos electronicos estables con transistores para recuentos de baja actividad, y describe un nuevo amplificador y un nuevo circuito sumador de diodo tunel. Tambien dan ejemplos de varias aplicaciones nuevas de trazadores muy diluidos a la resolucion de problemas relativos a la identificacion de fuentes de contaminacion en rios y corrientes. (author) [Russian] V nastoyashchem doklade razbirayutsya voprosy primeneniya v shirokom masshtabe indikatorov v operatsiyakh, pri kotorykh mechenie izotopami proizvoditsya na pritoke glavnogo potoka zhidkosti ili ruch'ya bez dal'nejshego otklyucheniya glavnoj magistrali. Vyvodyatsya uravneniya

  2. Photo-Induced Electron-Exchange Reactions Exhibiting Chain Characteristics; Echanges d'Electrons Photoinduits Presentant les Caracteristiques d'une Reaction en Chaine; Vyzvannye fotonami reaktsii ehlektronnogo obmena, proyavlyayushchie kharakteristiki tsepochki; Intercambio de Electrones Fotoinducido del Tipo de Cadena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stranks, D. R.; Yandell, J. R. [University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia)

    1965-10-15

    reacciones de propagacion Tl{sup +} + Tl{sup 2+} -> Tl{sup 2+} + T1+ and Tl{sup 2+} + Tl{sup 3+} -> Tl{sup 3+} + Tl{sup 2+} referidas a la reaccion de terminacion 2 Tl{sup 2+} -> Tl{sup +} + Tl{sup 3+}. Esta reaccion de dismutacion es compatible con un exponente de 0,50 para la intensidad . de la luz, que puede observarse en soluciones de reactivos sumamente puros. Sin embargo, en las soluciones con concentraciones micromolares de impurezas, dicho exponente puede aumentar a 0,70 debido a la importancia de la reaccion de depuracion. Tl{sup 2}+ + S ->Tl{sup +} (or Tl{sup 3+}) + S'. El corto periodo de vida del TI{sup 2+} (probablemente del orden de los milisegundos) ha impedido hasta ahora medir la velocidad de'la reaccion de dismutacion del Tl + por el metodo del sector rotativo. Las velocidades relativas de estas reacciones de intercambio electronico se examinan aplicando la teoria del efecto tunel electronico. Se demuestra que el rendimiento cuantico primario observado en el caso de la reaccion Tl{sup 3+}. OH{sup -} + hv -> Tl{sup 2+} + OH es compatible con la teoria de difusion de radicales geminados de Noyes. (author) [Russian] Pogloshhenie sveta opredelennoj dliny volny mozhet zametno uvelichit' skorost' protekanija reakcii obmena dvuh jelektronov. Pogloshhenie perenosa za- rjada porozhdaet sostojanie promezhutochnogo okislenija, kotoroe privodit k rasprostraneniju cepnoj reakcii mezhdu dvumja ustojchivymi sostojanijami okislenija. Vyvodjatsja obshhie kineticheskie uravnenija dlja sistem obmena, svjazannye s rasprostra- neniem cepochki i libo linejnym, libo kvadratichnym prekrashheniem. Pokazyvaetsja, chto zavisimost' otmechaemogo vyhoda kvanta ot koncentracij reagentov i intensivnosti po- gloshhennogo sveta javljaetsja bolee slozhnoj, chem jeto predpolagalos' ranee. V principe v rezul'tate izuchenija kinetiki takoj sistemy obmena mozhno ocenit' vyhod pervichnogo kvanta dlja pervonachal'nogo processa pogloshhenija perenosa zarjada, opredelit' skorosti perenosa

  3. Positron Scanning of Liver and Pancreas; Exploration de Foie et du Pancreas par les Positrons; Pozitronoskopiya pecheni i podzheludochnoj zhelezy; Exploracion del higado y del pancreas mediante positrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aronow, S; Thors, R; Brownell, G L [Physics Research Laboratory and Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    1959-07-01

    para determinar el contorno del pancreas y del higado, respectivamente. Es singularmente dificil el problema de lograr una representacion visual del pancreas dado su reducido tamano y la presencia en su proximidad de organos de grandes dimensiones en los que el zinc se concentra. Los autores examinan diferentes procedimientos para abordar este problema. El cobre-64 en forma ionica sencilla y en forma de sal del acido etilendiaminotetra-acetico se concentra notablemente en el higado. Las exploraciones de ese organo mediante positrones parecen facilitar de modo considerable el diagnostico correcto de diferentes trastornos hepaticos. Los autores presentan datos sobre la distribucion de diferentes isotopos y compuestos en organismos animales. (author) [Russian] Uspeshnoe primenenie pozitronoskopi i v lokalizatsii mozgovykh opukholej vydvinulo ideyu o primenenii ehtogo tekhnicheskogo priema dlya analogichnykh tselej v lechenii drugikh organov. V obsledovaniyakh podzheludochno j zhelezy i pecheni ispol'zuyutsya sootvetstvenno Zn{sup 62} i Si{sup 64} v razlichnykh vida''. Vvidu obychno nebol'shogo razmera podzheludochno j zhelezy i nalichiya vblizi nee bol'shikh sosredotochivayushchi kh v sebe tsink organov problema obsledovaniya ee predstavlyaet osobye zatrudneniya. V dokumente rassmatrivayuts ya razlichnye sposoby resheniya ehtoj problemy. Kontsentratsiya v pecheni Si{sup 64} v prostom ionizirovanno m vide i v vide mednogo versenata dostigaet znachitel'nykh razmerov. Pozitronoskopi ya pecheni veroyatno pozvolit uspeshno provodit' diagnostiku razlichnykh narushenij deyatel'nosti pecheni. V dokumente privodyatsya dannye o raspredeleni i razlichnykh izotopov i khimicheskikh soedinenij v zhivykh organizmakh. (author)

  4. New counting circuits with E1T tubes; Nouveaux circuits de comptage a tubes E1T; Novye schetnye kontury s lampami E1T; Nuevos circuitos de contaje con valvulas E1T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radeka, V [Institut Rudjer Boskovic, Zagreb, Yugoslavia (Croatia)

    1962-04-15

    continu non stabilise. (author) [Spanish] Se dan soluciones nuevas para circuitos deflectores de haz que permiten montar circuitos contadores sencillos y seguros. La precision con que tiene que ser desviado el haz es deducida por el autor partiendo de investigaciones teoricas del proceso de contaje publicadas anteriormente. Calcula la disminucion de los limites de error en la deflexion que resulta de la diferencia entre las caracteristicas real e ideal de la valvula. Se demuestra que el limite de error en la deflexion es maximo hasta unos 3x10{sup 5} impulsos por segundo, e independiente de la velocidad de contaje, por lo que es posible disenar circuitos mas simples. Para contar hasta 10{sup 6} impulsos por segundo, se requieren circuitos deflectores de mayor precision. La memoria describe dos circuitos que se pueden emplear hasta estos limites de velocidad de recuento. No es necesario que los componentes del circuito sean muy estables o muy exactos. Solamente se precisa una tension continua de alimentacion no estabilizada. (author) [Russian] Dayutsya novye resheniya dlya polucheniya otklonyayushchikh puchek luchej konturov, chto pozvolyaet osushchestvlyat' prostye i nadezhnye schetnye kontury. Trebovaniya tochnosti otkloneniya puchka luchej vyvedeny iz teoreticheskikh izyskanij schetnykh protsessov, opublikovannykh avtorom ranee. Podschityvaetsya umen'shenie predela pogreshnosti otkloneniya, vytekayushchej iz raznitsy mezhdu dejstvitel'noj i teoreticheskoj kharakteristikami ehlektronnoj lampy. Dokazyvaetsya, chto priblizitel'no okolo 3 x 10{sup 5} impul'sov v sekundu predel pogreshnosti otkloneniya dostigaet svoego maksimal'nogo znacheniya; on ne zavisit ot skorosti scheta, chto daet vozmozhnost' uprostit' konstruktsiyu konturov. Dlya otscheta do 10{sup 6} impul'sov v sekundu trebuyutsya bolee tochnye kontury otkloneniya. Opisyvayutsya dva kontura dlya ispol'zovaniya ikh do ehtikh predelov skorosti scheta. Trebovaniya, pred{sup y}avlyaemye k sostavnym chastyam kontura v

  5. A review of calculation methods for fast and intermediate reactors; Expose des methodes pour le calcul de reacteurs a neutrons rapides et intermediaires; Obzor metodov rascheta reaktorov na promezhutochnykh i bystrykh nejtronakh; Estudio panoramico de los metodos de calculo de los reactores rapidos e intermedios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchuk, G I [Akademiya Nauk, Moskva, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian Federation)

    1962-03-15

    de ecuaciones fundamentales y conjugadas de la teoria de los multigrupos. Expone luego diversas aplicaciones de la teoria de la perturbacion a los problemas del calculo fisico del reactor. Examina los metodos numericos de resolucion de las ecuaciones fundamentales y conjugadas que expresan el funcionamiento del reactor sobre la base del metodo de los armonicos esfericos. Explica asimismo como se utiliza el metodo de las caracteristicas en la solucion de problemas relativos a la masa critica del reactor. Describe los metodos de calculo de los reactores con moderadores que contienen hidrogeno y, por fin, expone las bases de un modelo efectivo fundado en la teoria de un solo grupo, aplicable al reactor. (author) [Russian] Obsuzhdaetsya razvitie metodov rascheta yadernykh reaktorov na promezhutochnykh i bystrykh nejtronakh. Rassmatrivayuts ya razlichnye postanovki zadach fizicheskogo rascheta. Obsuzhdaetsya uchet rezonansnykh ehffektov. Vvodyatsya v rassmotrenie mnogogruppovy e sistemy 'osnovnykh i sopryazhennykh uravnenij. Daetsya razlichnoe primenenie teorii vozmushchenij k zadacham fizicheskogo rascheta reaktora. Rassmatrivayuts ya chislennye metody resheniya osnovnykh i sopryazhennykh uravnenij reaktora v priblizhenii metoda sfericheskikh garmonik. Daetsya primenenie metoda kharakteristik k resheniyu zadach na kriticheskuyu massu reaktora. Izlagayutsya metody rascheta reaktorov s vodorodsoderzhashchim i zamedlitelyami . Izlagayutsya osnovy ehffektivnoj odnogruppovoj modeli reaktora. (author)

  6. Action of Mercaptan and Disulfide in Hydrogen Atom Exchange Reactions; Action des Thioalcools et des Disulfures dans les Reactions d'Echange d'Atomes d'Hydrogene; Vozdejstvie merkaptanov i disul'fidov v reaktsiyakh obmena atoma vodoroda; Accion de los Mercaptanos y Disulfuros en las Reacciones de Intercambio del Hidrogeno Atomico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, S. G. [Brandeis University Waltham, MA (United States)

    1965-10-15

    radikalami, a takzhe fotohimicheskie i navedennye radiaciej bol'shoj jenergii reakcii mogut byt' katalizirovany ili zatormozheny bystrymi reakcijami obmena atoma vodoroda merkaptanov i disul'fidov. Navedennye pod vlijaniem sveta radikaly i senzitivirovannye benzofenonom reakcii dekarbonizacii aldegidov katalizirujutsja merkaptanami. Cepnaja reakcija posledovatel'nogo perenosa vodoroda R' + RCH = O -> RH + RC = O uskorjaetsja analogichnoj posledovatel'nost'ju perenosov atoma vodoroda s uchastiem slozhnyh soedinenij sery: R' + C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CH{sub 2}SH -> RH + C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CH{sub 2}S'; C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CH{sub 2}S + RCH = 0 -> C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CH{sub 2}SH + RC = 0. Fotovosstanovlenie benzofenona v 2-propanole vedet k obrazovaniju benzpinakola cherez necepnuju reakciju posredstvom radikalov (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2}C-OH and (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}COH. Jeta reakcija zamedljaetsja i tormozitsja merkaptanom i disul'fidom, kotorye vnov' prevrashhajut radikaly v ishodnye materialy bystrymi reakcijami perenosa vodoroda, a sami reagenty regenerirujutsja v svoi sostojanija drugoj valentnosti, prichem kazhdaja molekula slozhnogo soedinenija sery prohodit bez himicheskih posledstvij cherez mnogie kvanty: (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2}C-OH + AS' -> (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2}C = O + ASH; (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}C-OH + ASH -> (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}C = 0 + AS'. Dokazatel'stvami takogo mehanizma mogut sluzhit': privedenie v sostojanie ravnovesija pervonachal'no prisutstvovavshego merkaptana ili disul'fida vo vremja tormozhenija; grozdevanie opticheski aktivnogo spirta vo vremja tormozhenija; obmen dejterija vo vremja tormozhenija. Analogichnoe tormozhenie nabljudaetsja pri obrazovanii odnogo tol'ko promezhutochnogo radikala, kak jeto proishodit v spirtovyh sostavah benzofenona - benzgidrola i acetofenona - {alpha} - metilbenzila. Tormozhenie slozhnymi soedinenijami sery putem takogo zhe mehanizma nabljudaetsja v navedennom gamma-luchami kobal'ta-60 prevrashhenii benzofenona v benzpinakol; naftalin ne proizvodit

  7. Indirect Lymphography and its Importance in Oncology; La Lymphographie Indirecte et son Interet en Oncologie; Kosvennaya limfografiya i ee znachenie v onkologii; La Linfografia Indirecta y su Interes en Oncologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delaloye, B.; Magnenat, P. [Laboratoire des Radioisotopes, Clinique Medicale Universitaire de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1964-10-15

    par injection sous-capsulaire d'or-198 colloiedal par voie transcutanee. Cette technique permet de mettre en evidence la chaine mediastinale lymphatique anterieure et posterieure. (author) [Spanish] La linfografia indirecta, para la cual solo se requiere una inyeccion subcutanea de oro-198 coloidal, cuyas particulas tienen un diametro de 50 A. en los tributarios del sistema linfatico que se quieren explorar, permite visualizar por registro centelleo- grafico las cadenas ganglionares linfaticas. Los autores examinan los problemas de colimacion a fin de obtener la mejor definicion posible. Esta tecnica de investigacion del sistema linfatico facilita indirectamente, cuando se mide el tiempo de aparicion del oro en la sangre, informaciones sobre la velocidad de circulacion de las particulas de oro coloidal por los vasos linfaticos. Permite tambien obtener informaciones utiles sobre las infiltraciones neoplasticas de los ganglios, con lo que es posible conocer el alcance de una infiltracion metastatica. Los autores presentan algunos ejemplos clinicos. Describen, ademas, una nueva tecnica de linfografia hepatica por inyeccion intracapsular de oro-198 coloidal por vfa transcutanea. Esta tecnica permite visualizar la cadena mediastuiica linfatica anterior y posterior. (author) [Russian] Kosvennaja Limfo- Grafija, Kotoraja Trebuet Lish' Podkozhnogo Vvedenija Kolloidal'Nogo Zolota-198 (Diametr Chastic 50a) V Sootvetstvujushhem Uchastke Limfaticheskoj Sistemy, Daet S Pomoshh'Ju Scinti- Graficheskoj Registracii Vozmozhnost' S Dostatochnoj Ochevidnost'Ju Vyjavljat' Cepi Limfaticheskih Uzlov. Obsuzhdajutsja Problemy Kollimacii V Celjah Nailuchshego Opredelenija. Takoj Metod Issledovanija Limfaticheskoj Sistemy Pozvoljaet Pri Izmerenii Vremeni Pojavlenija Zolota V Krovi Poluchat' Kosvennym Putem Svedenija O Skorosti Perenosa Chastic Kolloidal'Nogo Zolota Po Limfaticheskim Sosudam. Tak Zhe Byli Polucheny Poleznye Svedenija O Neoplasticheskoj Infil'Tracii Uzlov, Chto Daet

  8. Major accident analyses for experimental zero-power fast reactor assemblies; Analyse des accidents graves pouvant survenir dans les reacteurs experimentaux a neutrons rapides de puissance zero; Analiz krupnoj avarii dlya ehksperimental'ny kh reaktornykh ustanovok nulevoj moshchnosti na bystrykh nejtronakh; Analisis de los accidentes graves que pueden producirse en los reactores experimentales rapidos de potencia cero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, G.; Barts, E. W.; Kapil, S.; Tomabechi, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1962-03-15

    'shogo reaktora s aktivnoj zonoj obychnogo sostava. Byla issledovana men'shaya aktivnaya zona s vysokim pustotnym koehffitsientom, kak potentsial'no bolee opasnaya sistema. U ehtikh dvukh sistem obnaruzhen ochen' razlichnyj vremennoj rezhim. V sluchayakh ser'eznykh avarij na ustanovkakh nulevoj moshchnosti atomy U{sup 235}, kotorye raspredeleny v plastinakh obogashchennogo urana, ochen' bystro nagrevayutsya, togda kak ostal'naya chast' aktivnoj zony po sushchestvu ostaetsya kholodnoj, i takim obrazom gazoobraznyj U{sup 235} sozdaet raspredelennoe davlenie. V doklade budet dano opisanie primeneniya k gazu Van der Vaalsa koda AX-I nejtronnoj fiziki i gidrodinamiki. Drugim vazhnym izmeneniem uravneniya sostoyaniya, ispol'zovannogo v kode, yavlyaetsya primenenie uravneniya Mie-Grinejzena, vyvedennoe iz teorii tverdogo sostoyaniya. EHto izmenenie daet vozmozhnost' bolee udovletvoritel'n o vyrazit' chlen davleniya dlya aktivnykh zon razlichnogo sostava. Vvidu togo, chto plastiny U{sup 235} s vysokim obogashcheniem v ustanovke nulevoj moshchnosti nagrevayutsya gorazdo bystree, chem obednennye uranovye plastiny, vozmozhnost' polucheniya rezul'tiruyushcheg o polozhitel'nogo ehffekta Dopplera namnogo bol'she v ehksperimental'noj ustanovke, chem v reaktore-razmnozhitel e ehkvivalentnoj moshchnosti. EHtot risk byl issledovan v otnoshenii ryada vozmozhnykh ustanovok. Ehti raschety ukazyvayut na to, chto koehffitsient Dopplera ustanovki nulevoj moshchnosti ne priobretaet opasnogo znacheniya, poka ne budut sozdany sistemy krupnykh ehnergeticheskikh reaktorov-razmnozhitelej na oksidnom toplive s ochen' myagkimi spektrami ehnergii nejtronov. (author)

  9. Copolymerization of Ethylene Induced by Cobalt-60 Gamma Radiation; Copolymerisation de l'ethylene induite par des rayons gamma du cobalt-60; Sopolimerizatsiya ehtilena pod dejstviem gamma-izlucheniya ot istochnika ks'yali-60; Copolimerizacion del etileno inducida por las radiaciones gamma del cobalto-60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, M.; Colombo, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Long Island, NY (United States)

    1963-11-15

    , venilatsetatom, akrilonitrilom, allilatsetatom, izobutilenom, khlorotriftoroehtilenom, trans-2-butenom, metilakrilatom, izoprenom, propilenom, khloristym vinilom, 1-butenom, tsis-2-butenom, okis'yu ugleroda, vinilpirrolidonom, metilvinilketonom i divinilbenzolom. Ustanovleno, chto dannye,-poluchennye ehksperimental'nym putem pri izuchenii, sistemy ehtilen-okis' ugleroda, udovletvoryayut linejnoj forme uravneniya sostava sopolimera. Ustanovleno, chto otnoshenie konstant udel'nykh skorostej dlya okisi ugleroda i ehtilena ({alpha}) sostavlyaet 22,0, chto oznachaet, chto okis' uglerode kak monomer aktivirovana v takop stepeni, chto ona prisoedinyaetsya k kontsu tsepochki svobodnykh radikalov ehtilena v 22 raza bystree chem ehtilenovyj monomer. (author)

  10. Electrical limitations to energy resolution in semiconductor particle detectors; Limitations electriques du pouvoir de resolution en energie des detecteurs a semi-conducteurs; Ehlektricheskie ogranicheniya razreshayushchej sposobnosti po ehnergii v poluprovodnikovykh detektorakh chastits; Limitaciones electricas en la resolucion energetica de detectores de particulas a base de semiconductores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, W L; Goulding, F S [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1962-04-15

    isklyuchitel'no svojstvami massy poluprovodnika, privodyatsya uravneniya, dayushchie teoreticheskie predely shuma pri sovmeshchenii detektorov s usilitelyami. Iz ehtikh uravnenij vidno, chto imeyutsya optimal'naya konstanta vremeni dlya usilitelya i napryazhenie smeshcheniya dlya detektora; pri soblyudenii ehtikh uslovij minimal'nyj shum ne zavisit ot udel'nogo soprotivleniya poluprovodnika. Dokazyvaetsya, chto nailuchshie rezul'taty raboty sistemy detektor-usilitel' zavisyat tol'ko ot ploshchadi detektiruyushchej poverkhnosti, vkhodnoj emkosti (za vychetom emkosti samogo detektora), sroka zhizni naimenee mnogochislennogo iz nositelej v poluprovodnike i ot krutizny vkhodnoj ehlektronnoj lampy usilitelya. Opisyvaetsya novaya konstruktsiya detektora s kol'tsevym ograditel'nym ehlektrodom v kachestve neot{sup e}mlemoj chasti konstruktsii detektora, chto v shirokoj mere ustranyaet shum, vyzyvaemyj poverkhnostnoj utechkoj. Soobshchayutsya ehksperimental'nye rezul'taty opredeleniya utechki detektora i razreshayushchej sposobnosti po ehnergii, khorosho sovpadayushchie s teoreticheskimi dannymi. Teoreticheskij predel shuma, vyrazhennogo v vide polnoj shiriny na polovine maksimuma, lezhit dlya kremnievykh detektorov tipa ''p'' v intervale ot 7 do 10 kev na 1 kv.cm pri 25{sup o}C. (author)

  11. Data Evaluation Problems in the Pulsed Neutron Source Method; Problemes d'Evaluation des Donnees dans les Applications de la Methode de la Source Pulsee; Problemy otsenki dannykh pri primenenii metoda istochnika impul'snykh nejtronov; Problemas de Evaluacion de Datos en el Metodo de la Fuente de Neutrones Pulsados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, L.; Bod, L.; Szatmary, Z. [Central Research Institute for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)

    1965-08-15

    ' nadlezhashhuju tochnost'. Opredeljaetsja takzhe vlijanie vremeni otstava- nija detektora nejtronov i usilitel'noj shemy na velichinu konstanty raspada i dokazyvaetsja, chto vremenem otstavanija mozhno prenebrech', es [i(t) {tau}]{sup 2} << 1, gde i/t/d t vyrazhaet chislo nejtronov, obnaruzhennyh za promezhutok vremeni (t, t + dt) , a {tau} oboznachaet vremja otstavanija. Dlja ocenki konstanty raspada primenjaetsja metod maksimal'noj verojatnosti. Dlja odno- znachnogo opredelenija funkcii verojatnosti byl vybran mnogokanal'nyj analizator, kotoryj rabotal takim obrazom, chto dlja kazhdogo cikla analiza i dlja kazhdogo kanala zanosilos' v pamjat' tol'ko odno zaregistrirovannoe sobytie.' Obnaruzheno, chto vvedenie v funkciju ve- rojatnosti parametra, harakterizujushhego fon, imeet pervostepennoe znachenie. Parametry funkcii maksimal'noj verojatnosti byli opredeleny na schetno-reshajushhem ustrojstve po N'jutonovskomu metodu povtorenij. Esli ne prinimat' v raschet fonovye shumy, to jeto mozhet vyzvat' javnoe, bolee sil'noe garmonicheskoe zagrjaznenie, a ono v svoju ochered', mozhet byt' prinjato za javnyj fon. Po- jetomu predstavljaetsja osobenno vazhnym opredelit' harakterizujushhij fon parametr nepo- sredstvenno iz dannyh raspada, poluchennyh dlja raznyh vremen zamedlenija. Diffuzionnye parametry podschityvali po metodu vzveshennyh naimen'shih kvadratov s ispol'zovaniem konstant raspada naimen'shego standartnogo otklonenija, opredelennyh po funkcii maksimal'noj verojatnosti. Tak kak dlja issleduemyh materialov ne byli iz- vestny velichiny srednego svobodnogo puti perenosa, to dlja opredelenija srednego svobod- nogo puti perenosa byla vyrabotana bystro konvergirujushhaja povtornaja formula. Ispol'- zovanie schetno-reshajushhego ustrojstva dalo vozmozhnost' opredelit' kojefficienty konstanty raspada porjadka V' i dazhe bolee vysokih porjadkov. Diffuzionnye parametry issleduemyh gidrogennyh materialov byli podschitany s pomoshh'ju osazhdenija po metodu Radkovskogo na osnovanii

  12. The Pulsed Neutron Technique Applied to Fast Non-Multiplying Assemblies; Application de la Methode des Neutrons Pulses aux Assemblages Non Multiplicateurs a Neutrons Rapides; Primenenie metoda impul'snykh nejtronov pri izuchenii povedeniya bystrykh nejtronov v nerazmnozhayushchikh sborkakh; Aplicacion de la Tecnica de los Neutrones Pulsados a Conjuntos Rapidos de Materiales No Multiplicadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beghian, L. E.; Wilensky, S. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1965-10-15

    mozhno opredelit' putem izmerenija postojannoj spada v zavisimosti ot razmera sborki. Predstavlen teoreticheskij vyvod dlja rascheta doli uprugogo rassejanija v chlene utechki i, sledovatel'no, mozhno opredelit' sechenie neuprugogo rassejanija. Teoreticheskaja traktovka dlja rascheta vklada uprugogo rassejanija proverena jeksperimental'nym putem. Sechenie neuprugogo rassejanija zheleza izmereno s pomoshh'ju jetogo metoda dlja pervichnoj jenergii nejtronov v diapazone 0,8 -1,5 Mjev. Vysheopisannyj metod impul'snogo istochnika nejtronov byl ispol'zovan dlja. izmere nija postojannoj spada v otnoshenii svincovyh plastin. Jeksperimental'nye dannye primerno soglasujutsja s predpolozhenijami, kotorye obychno delajut pri reshenii bol'cmanovskogo uravnenija perenosa s vremennoj zavisimost'ju (t.e. odnomernoe, odnoskorostnoe). Postojannye spada izmereny dlja svincovyh plastin razmerom 28x32 djujma i tolshhinoj 2; 4; b i 8 djujmov. Posle vnesenija popravki na poterju jenergii i konechnye razmery sborki rezul'taty sravnivajutsja s priblizitel'nymi reshenijami bol'cmanovskogo uravnenija perenosa. (author)

  13. Anisotropic Migration in Slab Lattices; Migration Anisotrope dans les Reseaux a Plaques; Anizotropicheskaya migratsiya v reshetkakh iz plastin; Migracion Anisotropica en Reticulados de Placas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honeck, H. C.; Quiquemelle, B. C. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1965-08-15

    }{sub n} dara los coeficientes de difusion. En el Brookhaven National Laboratory se estan haciendo experimentos con placas alternadas de aluminio y polietileno. Los autores han seleccionado las siguientes secciones eficaces en un solo grupo: aluminio, {Sigma}a = 0, 01228 cm{sup -1}, {Sigma}s = 0, 08428 cm{sup -1}, {mu} = 0; polietileno, {Sigma}a - 0, 01947 cm-1, {Sigma}s = 2,593 cm{sup -1}, {mu} = 0,25. (author) [Russian] Odnoj iz samyh novyh oblastej primenenija jeksperimentov s impul'snymi nejtronami javljaetsja izmerenie kojefficienta diffuzii teplovyh nejtronov v razlichnyh napravlenijah v geterogennoj srede. Opisyvaetsja teoreticheskij metod, razrabotannyj s celyo predskazanija takih kojefficientov diffuzii, i predstavljajutsja nekotorye rezul'taty jeksperimentov, provodimyh v nastojashhee vremja v Brukhejvene. Interpretacija jetih jeksperimentov v znachitel'noj stepeni uproshhaetsja, esli jeksperimental'naja sborka javljaetsja bol'shoj. V jetom sluchae mozhno prenebregat' diffuzionnym ohlazhdeniem, spektry schitat' maksvellovskimi i rassmatrivat' edinstvennuju gruppu energii. Pri takom uproshhenii mozhno chislenno reshit' uravnenie perekosa dlja sluchaja plastinchatoj geometrii. My podstavljaem reshenie modeli Empty-Set (x, y, z, {Omega}, t) = exp (iB{sub 1}X + iB{sub 2}y - {lambda}t) Empty-Set (x, {Omega}) v uravnenie perenosa i reshaem Empty-Set (x, {Omega}) putem sochetanija metodov fil'trov dlja vyravnivanija dannyh i integral'noj teorii perenosa. Osnovnye preimushhestva jetogo metoda po sravneniju s sushhestvujushhimi sostojat v tom, chto legko vkljuchajutsja pogloshhenie i anijeotropiches- koe rassejanie i jachejka mozhet sostojat' iz mnogih podoblastej. Hotja sdelana popytka najti B{sub 1} i B{sub 2} s dannym sobstvennym znacheniem {lambda}, udobnee vmesto iB{sub l} postavit' kj i vmesto i V{sub 2} - k{sub 2} i opredelit' k{sub 2} s dannym k{sub 1} i {lambda} takom sluchae {lambda} mozhno vyrazit' v vide stelennogo rjada K{sup 2}{sub 1} i K{sup 2}{sub 2

  14. Group cross-sections for fast reactors; Sections efficaces de groupes pour les reacteurs a neutrons rapides; Gruppovye secheniya reaktorov na bystrykh nejtronakh; Secciones eficaces de grupos para reactores rapidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweifel, P P [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ball, G L [Atomic Power Development Associates, Inc., Detroit, MI (United States)

    1962-03-15

    entre coeficientes de difusion de grupos, capacidad de moderacion y secciones eficaces de absorcion. Se demuestra que la definicion de las secciones eficaces de absorcion de grupos basada en integrales de resonancia eficaz que se emplea frecuentemente no es correcta, siendo preciso modificarla de acuerdo con el metodo de grupos multiples que se utilice. (author) [Russian] Daetsya obshchij obzor mnogogruppovykh diffuzionnykh uravnenij i rassmatrivaetsya pravil'naya forma gruppovykh poperechnykh sechenij. V chastnosti, pokazano, chto srednee poperechnoe sechenie perenosa mozhet do nekotoroj stepeni priblizitel'no byt' vyrazheno v vide srednej velichiny svobodnogo probega. Podschet takogo kolichestva zanimaet mnogo vremeni, tak kak on ne poddaetsya vyrazheniyu v vide ehlementarnogo usredneniya ; odnako podtverdilis' nekotorye neravnomernosti chto uproshchaet neobkhodimyj metod usredneniya. Rassmatrivayutsya tri sleduyushchikh voprosa gruppovykh poperechnykh sechenij, kotorye chasto ignoriruyutsya, no kotorye mogut imet' znachenie pri detal'nom izuchenii proekta : a) Ispol'zovanie odnoj i toj zhe serii usrednennykh po gruppam sechenij dlya vsekh reaktorov na bystrykh nejtronakh nichego ne daet, esli spektry razlichnykh reaktorov ne odinakovy i esli secheniya bystro izmenyayutsya v gruppe; takoe polozhenie chasto imeet mesto. Daetsya opisanie metoda povtoreniya, posredstvom kotorogo ustanavlivaetsya pravil'noe usrednenie, i ehtot metod ispol'zuetsya dlya opredeleniya vliyaniya spektral'nykh ehffektov na reaktornye raschety. b) Pri raschetakh perenosa, takikh, kak S{sub n} usredneniya dolzhny byt' vypolneny kak po uglu, tak i po ehnergii. Tak kak potok nel'zya razdelit' na 'uglovoj' i 'ehnergeticheskij', neobkhodimo ochen' tshchatel'no izbegat' oshibochnykh rezul'tatov. Uravnenie S{sub n} izuchaetsya v vide prostoj modeli, i poluchaetsya kriterij, kotoryj mozhet okazat'sya poleznym pri opredelenii znacheniya uglovoj nerazdelimosti v reaktornykh raschetakh. c) Na osnove

  15. The geological processes time scale of the Ingozersky block TTG complex (Kola Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitkina, Elena

    2013-04-01

    complex rocks, the following age-formation stages are determined: protolith of the biotite gneisses - 3149±46 Ma; metamorphism, deformation of rocks, foliation - 2727±5 - 2725±2 - 2697±9 - 2667±7 Ma, granite bodies formation - 2615±8 Ma and biotite gneisses migmatization - 2549±30 Ma, formation of different pegmatite and granite veins -1644±7 Ma. Author are grateful to Akad. Mitrofanov F.P. and Bayanova T.B. for the consultations. The work is supported by RFBR 12-05-31063, 11-05-00570. 1.Batieva I.D., Belkov I.V. Granitoidnie formacii Kolskogo poluostrova. // Ocgerki po petrologiy, mineralogiy i metallogeniy Kolskogo poluostrova. L.: Nauka. 1968. p. 5-143. (in russian) 2. Belkov I.V., Zagorodny V.G., Predovsky A.A. et al. Stratigraficheskoe raschlenenie i korrelyacia dokembria severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita. L.: Nauka. 1971. p. 141-150. (in russian) 3. Docembriskaya tektonica severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita (Ob'asnitelnaya zapiska k tektonicheskoi karte severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita 1:500000) / ed.: F.P.Mitrofanov. Apatity: KFAN SSSR. 1992. 112 P. (in russian) 4. Zagorodny V.G., Radchenko A.T. Tectonika i glubinnoe stroenie severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita. Apatity: KFA SSSR. 1978. p. 3-12. (in russian) 5. Kozlov N.E., Sorohtin N.O., Glaznev V.N. et al. Geologia Arhea Baltiskogo shita. S.Pb.: Nauka. 2006. 329 p. (in russian) 6. Mitrofanov F.P. Sovremennie problemy i nekotorie resheniya dokembriskoy geologii kratonov. (2001) Litosphera.2001. V 1. P. 5-14. (in russian) 7. Ob'asnitelnaya zapiska k geologicheskoy karte severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita 1:500000 / ed.: F.P.Mitrofanov. Apatity: KFAN SSSR. 1994. 95 P. (in russian) 8. Haritonov L.Y. Structura i stratigraphia karelid vostoka Baltiskogo shita. M.: Nedra. 1966. 354 P. (in russian)

  16. Status of computational and experimental correlations for Los Alamos fast-neutron critical assemblies; Correlation entre les calculs et les experiences sur les ensembles critiques a neutrons rapides de Los Alamos; Sostoyanie vychislitel'nykh i ehksperimental'nykh korrelyatsij dlya Los-Alamosskoj kriticheskoj sistemy na bystrykh nejtronakh; Conjuntos criticos de neutrones rapidos de Los Alamos; correlacion entre resultados calculados y experimentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, G E [Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, University of California, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1962-03-15

    'nost ' vychislennogo spektra i kriticheskikh razmerov k razlichnym modelyam perenosa nejtronov (transportnye i linejnye priblizheniya) i arifmeticheskim priblizheniyam (ogranichennye uglovye segmentatsii i mnogogruppovy e predstavleniya) dlya neskol'kikh tipichnykh sistem, chtoby pomoch' ustanovit' neobkhodimye raschetnye detali. Sravneniya mezhdu ehksperimentom i vychislennymi dannymi budut vklyuchat' takzhe v dopolnenie k spektral'nym indeksam i kriticheskim razmeram, vremya zhizni nejtronov i doli zapazdyvayushchikh nejtronov. (author)

  17. Anomalous Escape of Ions into the ''Loss Cone''; Sortie Anormale d'Ions dans Le Cone de Pert; Anomal'nyj ukhod ionov v konus poter'; Escape Anomalo de Iones al Cono de Perdid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galeev, A. A. [Institut Jadernoj Fiziki so AN SSSR, Novosibirsk, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1966-04-15

    anizotropija raspredelenija ionov po skorostjam iz-za nalichija konusa poter' privodit k razvitiju korotkovolnovoj neustojchivosti. V svjazi s jetim v rabote podrobno analizirujutsja spektr voznikajushhego turbulentnogo dvizhenija i anomal'nye processy perenosa v neustojchivoj plazme. V lovushkah konechnoj dliny L okazyvaetsja, chto anomal'no bystraja diffuzija chastic v konus poter' privodit k ego zapolneniju i neustojchivost' oslabljaetsja. Jeto pozvoljaet vospol'zovat'sja dlja opisanija turbulentnyh processov perenosa kvazilinejnoj teoriej, dopolnennoj kineticheskim uravneniem dlja spektral'noj plotnosti jenergii kolebanij plazmy. Naibol'shij masshtab raskachivaemyh pul'sacij opredeljaetsja usloviem malosti ih zatuhanija v oblasti torcov lovushki, gde fazovaja skorost' stanovitsja sravnimoj so srednej teplovoj skorost'ju jelektronov. Pojetomu vremja vyhoda v konus poter' za schet rassejanija ionov v osnovnom na krupnomasshtabnyh pul'sacijah sushhestvenno zavisit ot dliny ustanovki ({Omega}{sub H}{tau}-10{sup 5}R{sub H}/L; R{sub H} - larmorovskij radius teplovyh ionov). Vremja vyhoda iz lovushki cherez mag-- nitnye probki opredeljaetsja maksimal'nym iz vremen ({tau}, T Almost-Equal-To L/v{sub i}; v{sub i} -teplovaja skorost' iona). Poluchennye rezul'taty primenjajutsja k ocenke vozmozhnosti osushhestvlenija reguliruemogo termojadernogo sinteza v lovushke s magnitnymi probkami. Pri ocenke ispol'zovalis' znachenija optimal'nyh parametrov lovushki, najdennyh Postom iz sravnenija poter' jenergii iz spokojnoj plazmy v probkotrone, poter' vo vspomogatel'nyh sistemah s summarnym vyhodom jenergii v termojadernoj reakcii. Pokazano, chto vremja zhizni plazmy v takoj lovushke opredeljaetsja vremenem proleta teplovyh ionov mezhdu magnitnymi probkami i nedostatochno dlja osushhestvlenija jekonomicheski vygodnogo termojadernogo sinteza. (author)

  18. Non-Destructive Testing Methods Applied to Multi-Finned SAP Tubing for Nuclear-Fuel Elements; Essais Non Destructifs de Gaines a Ailettes, en Poudre d'Aluminium Frittee, pour Elements Combustibles; Nedestruktivnye metody ispytaniya rebristykh trub iz spechennogo alyuminikiog'o poroshka dlya yadernykh toplivnykh ehlementov; Metodos de Ensayo No Destructivo Aplicados a Tubos de SAP con Aletas Multiples Destinados a Elementos Combustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, S. A. [Danish Central Welding Institution, Copenhagen (Denmark); Knudsen, P. [Danish Atomic Energy Commission, Research Establishment, Risoe (Denmark)

    1965-09-15

    corrientes de Foucault. (author) [Russian] Komissija po atomnoj jenergii Danii predprinjala izuchenie jenergeticheskogo reaktora s organicheskim teplonositelem i tjazhelovodnym zamedlitelem. Toplivnym jelementom dlja reaktora javljaetsja puchok iz 19 sterzhnej; toplivnyj sterzhen' soderzhit spechennye tabletki iz dvuokisi urana v dvuhmetrovoj trube iz spechennogo aljuminievogo poroshka. Truby dolzhny byt' ochen' horoshego kachestva, chtoby obespechit' optimal'nye uslovija perenosa tepla i sohranenija celostnosti toplivnyh jelementov vo vremja jekspluatacii reaktora. Dva primera otnositel'no konstrukcii trub svidetel'stvujut ob ochen' nebol'shih razmernyh dopuskah. Dlja obespechenija sootvetstvujushhego kachestva trub razrabotan strogij kontrol' v znachitel'noj stepeni osnovannyj na nedestruktivnyh metodah. Privoditsja opisanie jetih metodov, razrabotannyh dlja izmerenija tolshhiny stenok i diametrov i dlja obnaruzhenija defektov. Slozhnoe poperechnoe sechenie 24-rebernoj truby ne pozvoljaet primenjat' ul'trazvukovye metody ili metody vihrevyh tokov dlja izmerenija tolshhiny stenok. Pojetomu razrabotan special'nyj kontrol'no-izmeritel'nyj pribor, registrirujushhij beta-izluchenie, osnovannyj na principe oslablenija beta-izluchenija, poluchaemogo ot istochnika stroncija-90, pomeshhennogo vnutri truby. Metod ul'trazvukovogo rezonansa pri pogruzhenii primenjaetsja dlja postojannoj registracii tolshhiny stenok bolee prostyh konstrukcij 12-rebernyh trub. Vnutrennij i vneshnij (mezhdu granjami reber) diametry postojanno registrirujutsja bystrodejstvujushhimi sistemami vozduhomerov. Defekty obnaruzhivajut s pomoshh'ju ul'trazvuka metodom impul's-jeho i metodom vihrevyh tokov. Metodom ul'trazvuka mozhno legko obnaruzhivat' poperechnye no ne prodol'nye treshhiny. Pojetomu, krome proverki ul'trazvukom, primenjaetsja ispytanie vihrevymi tokami. (author)

  19. Tritium Content of Rainwater from the Eastern Mediterranean Area; Teneur en tritium des eaux de pluie dans la region de la Mediterranee orientale; Soderzhanie tritiya v dozhdevoj vode, vzyatoj iz vostochnogo rajona sredizemnogo morya; Contenido del tritio en las aguas de lluvia de la zona del Mediterraneo oriental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gat, J R; Karfunkel, U; Nir, A [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovoth (Israel)

    1962-01-15

    del lugar de la explosion a la zona estudiada. Por lo tanto, la presencia de tritio en las capas inferiores de la atmosfera se debe a la difusion desde las capas superiores. Los tiempos medios de permanencia atmosferica del tritio han sido calculados para el tritio estratosferico procedente de distintas fuentes. Parece demostrado que el proceso de mezcla del tritio en la estratosfera es lento. Las diferencias entre las concentraciones de tritio que aparecen sistematicamente en distintos lugares se explican por las circunstancias variables que determinan la precipitacion pluvial. Se demuestra que el grado en que se mezclan las masas de aire maritimo y continental ejerce una influencia decisiva sobre el contenido de tritio de las aguas pluviales, y que las dimensiones del Mar Mediterraneo son pequenas en comparacion con la escala en que suceden los fenomenos meteorologicos que intervienen en dicho proceso. (author) [Russian] V techenie 1958-1960 gg. okolo 50 prob dozhdevoj vody bylo vzyato v Izraile i sosednikh stranakh i podvergnuto kolichestvennomu analizu na soderazhnie v nikh tritiya s pomoshch'yu gazovogoschetchika posle ehlektroliticheskogo obogashcheniya. Syuda vkhodili proby otdel'nykh livnej, vzyatye na dvukh stantsiyakh v Izraile i odnoj stantsii na Kipre, a takzhe proby vody, sobrannye v techenie kazhdogo sezona dozhdej v ryade mest v Izraile, na Kipre, Turtsii i Gretsii. Krome togo, byli takzhe proanalizirovany proby vody, vzyatoj iz vodoemov, kotorye sootvetstvuyut sezonam dozhdej v 1956/57 i v 1957/58 gg. Na osnovanii skhemy tsirkulyatsii vozdukha i vremeni provedeniya ispytatel'nykh termoyadernykh vzryvov v svyazi s mestnym sezonom dozhdej ustanovleno, chto ne proiskhodit pryamogo troposfernogo perenosa tritiya iz rajonov ispytanij v dannyj rajon. Sledovatel'no, izmerennye urovni tritiya vyzyvayutsya proniknoveniem tritiya iz bol'shikh vysot v nizkie sloi vozdukha. Opredelyaetsya srednee vremya prebyvaniya v atmosfere stratosfernogo tritiya iz razlichnykh

  20. The Technology and Applications of Large Fission Product Beta Sources; Technologie et applications des grandes sources beta de fission; Tekhnologiya i primenenie krupnykh istochnikov beta-izluchenij, ispuskaemykh produktami deleniya; Tecnologia y utilizacion de los productos de fision como fuentes de irradiacion beta de elevada intensidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, Joseph [Radiation Applications Incorporated (United States)

    1960-07-15

    poverkhnostnykh sloev plastmassy i tekstilya. 2. Massivnye, prochnye, inertnye, bezopasnye i nedorogie istochniki beta-izluchenij mogut stroit'sya putem nadlezhashchego rasshireniya sushchestvuyushchikh tekhnicheskikh ustanovok. Osobenno mnogoobeshchayushchimi predstavlyayutsya zaklyuchayushchie v sebe istochniki steklyannye ampuly. 3. Podschety pogloshcheniya beta-izluchenij pokazyvayut, chto predstavlyaetsya vozmozhnym skonstruirovat netochechnye istochniki s dostatochno vysokim kpd ispol'zovani ya moshchnosti, dokhodyashchim do 20%. Byli vyvedeny uravneniya i sostavleny krivye dayushchie dozirovku i kpd ispol'zovani ya beta-izluchenij v zavisimosti ot konfiguratsii izluchatelya, sostava veshchestv i materialov, vkhodyashchikh v konstruktsiyu istochnika i misheni. Dlya proverki pravil'nosti ehtikh podschetov v nastoyashchee vremya provoditsya ehksperimental'na ya programma. 4. Izuchenie proizvodstvennoj sebestoimosti ukazyvat, chto beta-izlucheniya, ispuskaemye produktami deleniya, mogut konkurirovat' s drugimi istochnikami izluchenij. (author)

  1. Radiation Polymerization of Acetylene Hydrocarbons. Special Features; Particularites de la polymerisation radiochimique des hydrocarbures acetyleniques; Radiatsionnaya polimerizatsiya atsetilenovykh proizvodnykh; Particularidades de la radiopolimerizacion de los hidrocarburos acetilenicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkalov, I. M.; Gol' danskij, V. I.; Go, Min' -Gao

    1963-11-15

    termo- i fotookislitel'noj destruktsii polimerov. Udobnym sposobom polucheniya podobnykh polimerov yavlyaetsya radiatsionnaya polimerizatsiya atsetilenovykh proizvodnykh. Tol'ko ehtot sposob obespechivaet poluchenie polimerov, svobodnykh ot zagryazneniya initsiatorami pri nizkikh temperaturakh. Kinetika radiatsionnoj polimerizatsii fenilatsetilena i drugikh atsetilenovykh proizvodnykh imeet ryad osobennostej, kharakternykh dlya ionnoj polimerizatsii, no sovershenno neobychnykh dlya radikal'noj (skorost' polimerizatsii proportsional'na pervoj stepeni skorosti initsiirovaniya; ehnergiya aktivatsii ochen' mala; ket ingibirovaniya kislorodom). Tem ne menee ehta polimerizatsiya yavlyaetsya, vidimo, radikal'noj. K takomu vyvodu my prishli na osnove issledovaniya initsiirovaniya polimerizatsii atsetilenovykh uglevodorodov tipichno radikal'nymi initsiatorami - perekis'yu benzoila i dinitrilom azoizomaslyanoj kisloty. V ehtoj svyazi izuchalis' osobennosti kinetiki i mekhanizma raspada perekisi v prisutstvii atsetilenovykh uglevodorodov (naprimer, fenilatsetilena, dejtero-fenilatsetilena i metilfenilatsetilena). Izuchalis' takzhe kinetika radiatsionnoj sopolimerizatsii fenilatsetilena s razlichnymi vinilovymi monomerami i sostav sopolimerov pri razlichnykh iskhodnykh smesyakh. EHti dannye, a takzhe rezul'taty izucheniya kinetiki ingibirovannoj polimerizatsii fenilatsetilena (ingibitor - benzokhinon) ukazyvayut na maluyu reaktsionnuyu spooobnost' fenilatsetilenovogo radikala. Sil'nye otkloneniya ot pravila additivnosti pri radiatsionnoj polimerizatsii v razlichnykh rastvoritelyakh svidetel'stvuyut o nalichii sil'nogo perenosa ehnergii k atsetilenovym uglevodorodam i ikh polimeram. (author)

  2. Differential Neutron Scattering from Hydrogenous Moderators; Diffusion Differentielle des Neutrons par des Ralentisseurs Hydrogenes; Differentsial'noe rasseyanie nejtronov iz vodorodosoderzhashchikh zamedlitelej; Dispersion Diferencial de Neutrones en Moderadores Hidrogenados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyster, J. R.; Young, J. C.; Neill, J. M.; Mowry, W. R. [General Atomic Division of General Dynamics Corporation, John Jay Hopkins Laboratory for Pure and Applied Science, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1965-08-15

    vozmozhnym podschityvat' neposredstvenno sechenija perenosa dlja ispol'zovanija ih v analize reaktorov mnogih grupp. (author)

  3. Summary of Current Geological Research in the United States of America Pertinent to Radioactive Waste Disposal on Land; Bilan des Recherches Geologiques Actuelles aux Etats-Unis, du Point de Vue de l'Elimination des Dechets Radioactifs dans le Sol; 041a 0420 0414 ; Resena de las Investigaciones Geologicas que Actualmente se Efectuan en los Estados Unidos Sobre la Evacuacion de Desechos Radiactivos en el Subsuelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, E. S. [Geologist, US Geological Survey, Washington, DC (United States)

    1960-07-01

    togo, kak othody smogut vojti v soprikosnovenie s chelovekom ili ego pishhej. Primerom promezhutochnogo udalenija javljaetsja neglubokoe zahoronenie upakovannyh othodov i slivanie zhidkih othodov v stochnye jamy. Privoditsja issledovanie po izucheniju sovmestnogo vlijanija perenosa radioaktivnyh izotopov podzemnymi vodami i uderzhanija ih na porodah pri pomoshhi sorbcii. III. Sreda, v kotoroj othody prakticheski ne uderzhivajutsja, javljaetsja sredoj, gde radioizotopy nemedlenno vhodjat v kontakt s chelovekom ili s ego rastitel'noj i zhivotnoj pishhej. Issledovatel'skie raboty kak s cel'ju opredelenija vozmozhnosti udalenija othodov v takuju sredu v predelah norm ohrany zdorov'ja i tehniki bezopasnosti, tak i s cel'ju uluchshenija tehnicheskih priemov udalenija othodov. Issledovanija vkljuchajut: a) klassifikaciju grunta v sootvetstvii s problemami udalenija othodov, . b) izuchenie sposobnosti izotopov k rasprostraneniju, c) vlijanie organicheskih i neorganicheskih formacij tverdyh veshhestv na koncentraciju radioaktivnosti i d) vlijanie osadochnogo otlozhenija i rechnogo ila na perenos radioizotopov. (author)

  4. Measurements and Calculations of the Slowing-Down and Migration Time; Mesures et Calcul du Temps de Ralentissement et de Migration; Izmereniya i raschety vremeni zamedleniya i migratsii; Medicion y Calculo del Tiempo de Moderacion y de Migracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Profio, A. E.; Koppel, J. U. [General Atomic Division of General Dynamics Corporation, John Jay Hopkins Laboratory for Pure and Applied Science, San Diego, CA (United States); Adamantiades, A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1965-08-15

    impulsos para observar la atenuacion neutronica de caracter termico) y a las escasas probabilidades de captura. (author) [Russian] Srednee vremja i izmenenie vo vremeni zhizni nejtronov, poluchaemyh ot impul'snogo istochnika, s cel'ju ih zamedlenija i migracii do velichiny energii, ugla i polozhenija, udobnogo dlja nabljudenija, javljajutsja sushhestvennymi kolichestvennymi velichinami vo mnogih jeksperimentah. Srednee vremja javljaetsja popravkoj v izmerenijah nejtronnyh spektrov po metodu vremeni proleta v bol'shih ob{sup e}mah materialov, a izmenenie ogranichivaet maksimal'nuju razreshajushhuju spo- sobnost' takih jeksperimentov. Jeti parametry odinakovo vazhny v detektorah, zavisjashhih ot zamedlenija, v jeksperimentah po vremeni proleta, gde nejtrony s maloj energiej postu- pajut iz zamedlitelja, nahodjashhegosja vblizi pul'sirujushhego istochnika, a takzhe spektrometrii vremeni zamedlenija. Razrabotany razlichnye analiticheskie i cifrovye sposoby dlja vychislenija zavisimosti prostranstvennogo-energeticheskogo-uglovogo i vremennogo raspredelenija ili integralov po nim. Pokazano, chto momenty vremeni Empty-Set {sup (n)} (r, {Omega}, v, t) = {integral}{sub 0}{sup {infinity}}t{sup n} Empty-Set (r, {Omega}, v, t)dt, mozhno vyschitat' putem povtornogo primenenija programmy rascheta dlja stacionarnogo so- stojanija perenosa. Uslovie istochnika dlja vychislenija momenta ''p'' ravno nv{sup -1} Empty-Set {sup (n-1)}. Pri- vodjatsja rezul'taty dlja razmnozhajushhih i nerazmnozhajushih modelej reaktora {sup T}riga{sup .} Dru- gim metodom energeticheskogo rascheta javljaetsja metod vremennoj zavisimosti Monte Karlo. Dajutsja takzhe rezul'taty vychislenija potoka utechki iz tonkoj svincovoj plastiny. Izmerenija provodili na zamedlenii po vremeni po otnosheniju kadmievoj grani i re- zonansa v 1,46 jev indija v vode i toluole. Zahvatnoe gamma-izluchenie detektiruetsja s po- moshh'ju scintilljacionnogo schetchika. Jetot metod trebuet iskljuchitel'no intensivnogo is- tochnika i

  5. Nuclear Calculations of Light-Water Moderated Reactors and Experimental Correlations; Calculs de Riacteurs Ralentis a l'Eau Ordinaire et Comparaison avec les Risultats Expirimentaux; Raschet reaktorov s zamedlitelem iz obychnoj vody i sravnenie s ehksperimental'nymi rezul'tatami; Calculos Nucleares de Reactores Moderados por Agua Ligera y Correlacion Experimental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solanilla, R. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1964-02-15

    efecto 'Daneoff' . La La correlacion con los resultados experimentales disponibles, que comprenden un vasto campo de moderacion, composicion de materiales y geometria, realizada, a traves de la comparacion con algunos de los. principales parametros de un reticulado y/o de la multiplication efectiva, muestra resultados satisfactorios, consiguiendose dispersiones entre reactividad calculada y experimental que en general no superan el 2%. (author) [Russian] S pomoshh'ju teorii dvuh grupp, izmenennoj s uchetom nadteplovyh delenij, byla proanalizirovana serija kriticheskih sborok s otrazha- telem i zamedlitelem iz obychnoj vody. Otlichie sostojalo v stepeni obogashhenija uranom-235. Jeffektivnye sechenija teplovoj gruppy te zhe, chto i v tablicah Amstera dlja vodorodnyh smesej pri razlichnyh temperaturah, a takzhe dlja razlichnyh koncentracij urana-235 i poglo- titelej v 1/v. Vozdejstvie geterogennosti jeffektivnyh sechenij bylo opredeleno pribli- zitel'no putem izmenenija koncentracii poglotitelja s pomoshh'ju prostranstvennyh otklonenij teplovogo potoka v kamere. S primeneniem formuly Amuajjalja-Benoista byl rasschitan kojefficient proigrysha. Po sushhestvu kojefficient termodiffuzii vtroe men'she makrosko- picheskogo jeffektivnogo sechenija perenosa, kotoryj byl gomogenizirovan po vsej kamere. V sootvetstvii s sistemoj Ombrellaro byli rasschitany parametry gruppy bystryh chastic po trem diffuzionnym gruppam bystryh chastic (ot 10 do 0,821 Mjev; ot 0,821 Mjev do 5,5 kjev; ot 5,5 kjev do 0,625 jev) vmeste s mikroskopicheskimi jeffektivnymi sechenijami, prime- nimymi dlja kazhdoj gruppy. Opredelenie, kotoroe dajot Ombrellaro dlja nejtronnyh para- metrov treh grupp bystryh chastic v zavisimosti ot ustanovlennyh jeffektivnyh sechenij, bylo izmeneno dlja tret'ej gruppy v sootvetstvii s rezul'tatami obrabotki jeffektivnogo rezonansnogo pogloshhenija urana-238. Jeto predlozhennoe Nikom opredelenie bylo osnovano na raschete jeffektivnogo rezonansnogo integrala. Jeffektivnyj

  6. Release of Fission Products from UC-ZrC Fuel Inserts; Degagement des produits de fission liberes dans des noyaux combustibles UC-ZrC; Vydelenie produktov deleniya iz topliv UC - ZrC; Liberacion de productos de fision por pastillas de combustible de UC-ZrC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, F.; Von der Decken, C. B.; Schifferstein, K. [Brown Boveri/Krupp Reaktorbau G.M.B.H., Duesseldorf (Germany); Clauss, A.; Reichel, H.; Rygaert, J.; Ruston, W. R. [Societe d' Etudes de Recherches et d' Applications pour l' Industrie (S.E.R.A.I.), Brussels (Belgium)

    1963-11-15

    reaktora. Krome togo sushchestvovala vozmozhnost' otdel'nogo izmereniya doli otdachi {epsilon}{sub R} , esli toplivnaya serdtsevina byla podveshana v pechi s bol'shim diametrom. Izmerennye velichiny {epsilon}{sub R} lish' neznachitel'no prevyshali vychislennye. Pri bolee vysokikh temperaturakh obraztsa mozhno bylo vychislit' dolyu diffuzii {epsilon}{sub D} vychitaniem doli otdachi iz polnogo vydeleniya. Poluchiv {epsilon}{sub D}, mozhno vychislit' D/r{sub 0}''2 sek, upotreblyaya uravneniya priblizheniya S. Flyugge i K.EH.Tsimensa, gde D - konstanta diffuzii, r{sub 0} rasschitannyj matematicheskim putem srednij radius chastitsy. Grafik zavisimosti logarifma ehtikh velichin ot 1/T daet ehnergiyu aktivatsii (T - temperatura obraztsa, {sup o}K). Raznitsa mezhdu ehnergiyami aktivatsii diffuzii kriptona i ksenona'okaehalas' neznachitel'noj. Malo otlichalis' drug ot druga takzhe i ehnergii aktivatsii, opredelennye dlya razlichnykh tipov tabletok, nesmotrya na to, chto velichiny D/r{sub 0}{sup 2} v nekotorykh sluchayakh pri tekh zhe temperaturakh obraztsa razlichalis' na 4 poryadka. V grafite kapsul posle oblucheniya byli opredeleny aktivnosti izotopov I{sup 131}, Sr{sup 85}, Ba{sup 140} i Ce{sup 141}. 3a isklyucheniem I{sup 131}, aktivnosti byli vyshe ozhidaemykh dlya vydeleniya tol'ko za schet otdachi. Velichiny dlya Sr{sup 85}, Ba{sup 140}, i Ce{sup 141} byli slishkom veliki, chtoby ikh mozhno bylo ob{sup y}asnit' diffuziej sootvetstvuyushchikh im inertnykh gazov-predshestvennikov. Predpolagaetsya, chto izmerennye izotopy ili ikh neinertnye gazy-predshestvenniki vedelyayutsya putem diffuzii. (author)

  7. The Impulse Response of an Exponential Assembly; Reponse d'un Assemblage Exponentiel aux Impulsions; Impul'snaya kharakteristika ehksponentsial'noj sborki; Respuesta de un Conjunto Exponencial a los Impulsos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhrig, R. E. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1964-04-15

    perturbacion, esta se propaga alejandose de la fuente de modo similar a la propagacion de ondas neutronicas. En 1962, se demostro experimentalmente en la Universidad de Florida la propagacion de un impulso de neutrones termicos empleando una fuente pulsante y una 'caja termalizadora'. Sin embargo, el metodo empleado para los experimentos descritos en la presente memoria consistio en establecer una correlacion entre la variacion binaria (parormarcha) pseudo-aleatoria de la intensidad de la fuente y las variaciones de la densidad neutronica a que da lugar en el conjunto exponencial. La memoria expone datos relativos a experimentos llevados a cabo en conjuntos de uranio natural moderados con agua ligera y agua pesada. Discute los resultados basandose en las relaciones teoricas establecidas y en los fenomenos fisicos correspondientes. Examina sucintamente la validez de las relaciones deducidas y la necesidad de tener en cuenta armonicos superiores en el caso de diversas disposiciones de combustible y moderador. (author) [Russian] Vyvoditsja prostranstvenno zavisimaja funkcija perenosa jeksponencial'noj sborki s prjamougol'noj geometriej i nejtronnym istochnikom, raspolozhennym v ishodnom punkte v seredine odnoj storony . Pri jetom ispol'zujutsja teorija diffuzii i obychnyh priblizhenij. Esli ne uchityvat' konechnyj kojefficient popravki, to poluchaetsja sledujushhij rezul'tat: G (x, y, z, s) = ({Delta}#Greek Phi Symbol#(x, y, z, s))/{Delta}S (o, o, o, o, s) = 2/abD {sup {infinity}}{Sigma}{sub m} {sub =} {sub 1} {sup {infinity}}{Sigma}{sub n} {sub =} {sub 1} 1/({rho}{sub mn}(s) cos (m{pi}x)/a cos (n{pi}y)/b e{sup -{rho}}mn{sup (s)Z} (1) {rho}{sub mn}{sup (s)} = [s/(VD) + B{sup 2}{sub Up-Tack mn} - B{sup 2}{sub m}]{sup 1/2} = [s/VD - {gamma}{sup 2}{sub mn}]{sup 1/2} (2) Obratnoe laplasovo preobrazovanie uravnenija (A -1) daet prostranstvenno zavisimuju funkciju impul'snoj harakteristiki (funkcija Grina) sledujushhego vida: g (x, y, z, t) = 2/ab Square-Root v/{pi}D 1/ Square-Root t e

  8. Thermal Neutron Spectral and Spatial Distributions in Light-Water-Moderated Uranium Lattices; Distributions Spectrale et Spatiale des Neutrons Thermiques dans des Reseaux a Uranium et a Eau Leger; Spektral'noe i prostranstvennoe raspredelenie teplovykh nejtronov v uranovykh reshetkakh s vodnym zamedlitelem; Distribuciones Espectral y Espacial de los Neutrones Termicos en los Reticulados de Uranio Moderados por Agua Ligera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, J.; Volpe, J. J.; Klein, D.; Schmidt, E.; Gelbard, E. [Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1964-02-15

    razlichnymi priblizhenijami k teorii perenosa i integral'nomu jadru rassejanija terlovyh nejtronov. Pervaja serija opytov zakljuchaetsja v izmerenii blok-jeffektov teplovyh nejtronov v raz- nyh jachejkah reshetki sborki TRH, reaktora s vodnym zamedlitelem na slegka obogashhennom urane s cilindricheskimi toplivnymi jelementami, raspolozhennymi po geksagonal'noj sisteme. Sravnivalis' dannye ob ispol'zovanii teplovyh nejtronov s dannymi, poluchennymi v Monte Karlo. Primenjalis' funkcii Radkovskogo i Nelkina. Funkcija vlijanija Radkovskogo daet priblizhenie pervogo porjadka, shiroko ispol'zuemoe pri proektirovanii reaktorov. Funk- cija vlijanija Nelkina predstavljaet soboj bolee novoe i bolee podrobnoe opisanie integral'- nogo jadra rassejanija. Poskol'ku raschetnye znachenija pogloshhenija teplovyh nejtronov zavisjat ot vybora in- tegral'nogo jadra rassejanija, v osobennosti esli jeto ne maksvellovskij spektr potokov nej- tronov, drugaja serija opytov po izmereniju aktivacii na sborke TRH prednaznachalas' dlja bolee neposredstvennogo opredelenija integral'nogo jadra rassejanija. Opyty provodilis' v uslovijah, pri kotoryh iskazhenie spektra v osnovnom vyzyvalos' ravnomernym otravleniem. Izmerenija provodilis' v zapolnennoj vodoj trubke diametrom 10sm v reshetke TRX. Stenka trubki byla napolnena poroshkom B{sup 10}, jeffektivno razryvaja svjaz' mezhdu vnutrennej poverh- nost'ju trubki i reshetkoj reaktora pri jenergii nizhe 10 kjev. Otnositel'nye znachenija aktivacii teplovymi nejtronami i radial'nye konfiguracii chuvstvitel'nyh v otnoshenii spektrov detektorov izmerjalis' v dvuh sluchajah s polucheniem sootvetstvenno pochti maksvellovskogo spektra (dlja chistoj vody) i spektra, sil'no iskazhen- nogo v rezul'tate otravlenija kadmiem. Dlja jetogo opyta raschety s kazhdoj funkciej provodilis' v gruppe jenergii 12 s pribli- zheniem P{sub 3} . V rezul'tate rascheta sobstvennyh znachenij prostranstvennyh form, jeksponen- cial'no raspadajushhihsja v letargii, kotorye podderzhivajutsja v

  9. A Kinetic Description of the Van Hove Correlation Functions; Description Cinetique des Fonctions de Correlation de Van Hove; 041a 0418 041d 0415 0422 0418 0427 0415 0421 041a 041e 0415 041e 041f 0418 0421 0410 041d 0418 0415 0424 0423 041d 041a 0426 0418 0419 041a 041e 0420 0420 0415 041b 042f 0426 0418 0418 0412 0410 041d 0413 041e 0412 0415 ; Descripcion Cinetica de las Funciones de Correlacion de Van Hove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelkin, M.; Van Leeuwen, J. M.J.; Yip, S. [Cornell University Ithaca N.Y. (United States)

    1965-06-15

    linearizirovannogo uravnenija Bol'cmana, vkljuchajushhego popravki na nepolnye stolknovenija. Esli prenebrech' jetimi popravkami, to sootvetstvujushhee uravnenie dlja F(r, p,t) stanovitsja linearizirovannym uravneniem Bol'cmana v tom vide, v kotorom ono ispol'zuetsja v teorii rasprostranenija zvuka v gazah. Sootvetstvujushhee uravnenie dlja F{sub s} (r, p, t) stanovitsja uravneniem dlja perenosa nejtronov. Poskol'ku izvestno, chto jeti uravnenija imejut pravil'nyj gidrodinamicheskij predel, pojetomu legko vyvoditsja dlinnovolnovaja harakteristika G(r,t) i G{sub s}(r, t). Kineticheskie uravnenija neposredstvenno primenimy tol'ko k razbavlennym sistemam. Odnako oni prigodny dlja sistematicheskogo izuchenija dinamicheskih korreljacij. Sushhestvennym razlichiem mezhdu jetimi dvumja uravnenijami javljaetsja nalichie protivorechivyh invariantnyh velichin. V uravnenii, opredeljajushhem F(r,p, t), invariantami javljajutsja kolichestvo chast tic, impul's i jenergija, v to vremja kak v uravnenii, opredeljajushhem F{sub s}(r,p,t), tol'ko kolichestvo chastic javljaetsja invariantom. Vvidu togo, chto v jetih dvuh sluchajah snizhenie nulevogo sobstvennogo znachenija svjazannyh operatorov stolknovenija ne odinakovo, gidrodinamicheskie uravnenija, sootvetstvujushhie G(r,t) i G{sub s}(r,t) ne imejut odinakovoj formy. Znachenija jetih dvuh opisanij demonstrirujutsja raschetami modelej v plane prostyh priblizhenij oslablenija. V rezul'tate rascheta G{sub s}(r,t) vyvoditsja funkcija korreljacii s negaussovymi jeffektami, kotorye podobny v kachestvennom otnoshenii, no bolee vyrazitel'ny, chem jeffekty, rasschitannye Ramanom pri izuchenii molekuljarnoj dinamiki v zhidkom argone. V nastojashhee vremja izuchaetsja vopros o bolee usovershenstvovannoj obrabotke integrala stolknovenij. Raschet G(r,t) svidetel'stvuet o nalichii predpolagaemyh jeffektov teplovoj diffuzii i rasprostranenii zatuhajushhih zvukovyh voln pri bol'shoj dline voln, i takoj raschet otlichaetsja ot obychnogo gidrodinamicheskogo opisanija