Schweitzer, Robert; Melville, Fritha; Steel, Zachary; Lacherez, Philippe
This paper explores the impact of pre-migration trauma, post-migration living difficulties and social support on the current mental health of 63 resettled Sudanese refugees. A semistructured interview including questionnaires assessing sociodemographic information, pre-migration trauma, anxiety, depression and posttraumatic stress, post-migration living difficulties and perceived social support were administered assisted by a bilingual community worker. Resettled refugees from Sudan evidenced a history of trauma. Less than 5% met criteria for posttraumatic stress but 25% reported clinically high levels of psychological distress. The results indicate that social support--particularly perceived social support from the migrant's ethnic community--play a significant role in predicting mental health outcomes. Pre-migration trauma, family status and gender were also associated with mental health outcomes. Refugees in Australia may constitute a particularly vulnerable group in terms of mental health outcomes. Culturally specific sequelae in terms of social isolation and acculturation may be particularly problematic for these migrants.
Davenport, Lisa A
Though the United States has become a place of increasing resettlement for refugees, particularly Iraqi refugees who have been forced to flee their homeland due to violence, persecution and civil unrest, little is known about Iraqi refugee resettlement in the United States, or the way in which resettlement impacts health and adjustment. A grounded theory study was conducted to develop a substantive theory of Iraqi refugee resettlement. Participants in the qualitative study included 29 Iraqi refugees and 2 community partners who participated in face-to face interviews. Data analysis and interpretation revealed fundamental concepts related to Iraqi refugee resettlement. Results of analysis showed that for Iraqis choosing to resettle here, the outcome is dichotomous: satisfaction or regret. The outcome is influenced by contextual factors as well as facilitating and hindering intervening conditions during the basic social process of resettlement transition. Each refugee's story is unique, yet all share common threads. This study allowed Iraqi refugees the opportunity to voice their personal experiences of resettling in America, and revealed life stories that inspire and illuminate a process that can guide health care delivery as they cope with the stresses of their journey. As a result, an in-depth storyline was established to explain the process of resettlement for Iraqi refugees. The development of this resettlement theory, grounded in Iraqi refugee experience, has the potential to guide nursing education, enhance the efficacy of practice, inform policy development and form the basis for research.
He, L.; Aitchison, J. C.; Hussey, K.
Population resettlement has been a customary strategy to protect people's lives following natural disasters. While there is plenty research evaluating the consequences of population resettlement programs, evidence of its long-term effects on post-disaster recovery is lacking. Using data from 60 in-depth household interviews, two focus group discussions and field observations, this research examines the recovery among resettled rural households in the 2008 Sichuan earthquake-impacted areas. Results suggest that most households considered themselves worse-off after being resettled, and a large proportion of the resettled population is struggling to meet their basic needs as their living expenses are barely covered by income. This research highlights two original findings: First, the resettled rural households have not recovered from impacts of the earthquake in spite of living in a secure place. Second, the unachieved restoration of familiar living mode amongst the resettled largely contributes to this perception, which is further attributed to the lagging restitution of agricultural assets and the absence of off-job opportunities at the resettled communities. Completing mature recovery is subject to the availability of these resources. Resettlement and reconstruction practice should not be isolated from the consideration of restoring previous livelihood assets and replenishing new income-generating activities. This enables restoration of a familiar living mode for the relocated population in which they are able to recover and develop with their own ability in post-disaster life. Findings in this research can be translated to recovery practice involving rural circumstances in disaster-prone areas. Future work will include the post-earthquake population resettlement programs in Nepal and New Zealand for a comparative study on the effects of these practices in different countries.
Full Text Available Resettlement programmes for Syrian refugees severely restrict access to resettlement for single Syrian men, despite the conditions of vulnerability, insecurity and danger in which they live.
Assessment of the resettlement compensation satisfaction of wood workers at Sokoban, Kumasi. ... Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) ... Abstract. Resettlement has been one of the strategies used to pave way for development and redevelopment of infrastructure in major cities of Ghana in the past few decades.
The Ryerson University Refugee Resettlement Project (RRP), a decade-long study of 1348 Southeast Asian refugees who came to Canada between 1979 and 1981, is one of the largest, most comprehensive and longest-lived investigations of refugee resettlement ever carried out. Knowledge gleaned from the RRP about research methodology, about the resettlement experience, about the social costs of resettling refugees, about factors that promote or hinder integration, about risk and protective factors for refugee mental health, and about the refugees' consumption of mental health and social services is summarized in the form of 18 "Lessons." The lessons are offered in order to encourage and stimulate further research, as well to suggest policy and practice innovations that could help make resettlement easier, less costly, more effective, and more humane.
Full Text Available The US offer to resettle 60,000 of the 106,000 Bhutaneserefugees in Nepal might offer a solution to this protractedrefugee situation. Resettlement may not be a perfect solutionbut after 16 years of exile refugees may well choose it as thebest option available.
Resettlement Revisited: The Post-Resettlement Assessment in Biftu Jalala. Resettlement Site .... assessment is done based on the field work held in 2009. 2.2. An overview of the Ethiopian experience of resettlement .... attain food security by the end of the year 2006. So far over 123,000 households have been voluntarily ...
Full Text Available A widely held misconception about the terrorist threat is particularly evident in refugee resettlement practices, where refugees are placed on a security continuum alongside transnational criminals and terrorists.
17 nov. 2016 ... Findings underline how residents' expectations, their prior living standards, and their treatment by state authorities can affect their ability to resettle successfully as much as the objective quality of their new surroundings. This community profile ... L'innovation au service de la lutte contre la dengue en Asie.
Lamkaddem, M.; Essink-Bot, M.; Gerritsen, A.A.M.; Devillé, W.; Stronks, K.
Introduction: Refugees and asylum seekers are an important group of new immigrants in today’s Europe. Despite recent research efforts information on changes in health upon resettlement is scarce. We analyzed the mechanisms underlying changes in mental and physical health after arrival in The
More information on this project and other publications related to the project can be accessed at http://www.crdf.org.in/cue/saic. Women residents of the Vatwa resettlement sites experience a sense of insecurity and fear in public spaces in and around the sites as well as in their homes. Many have personally experienced.
Fields, Noelle LeCrone; Koenig, Terry; Dabelko-Schoeny, Holly
This study explored key aspects of resident transitions to assisted living (AL), including the frequency and importance of preadmission resident education and the potential role of social workers in this setting. To examine the factors that may help or hinder resident transitions to AL, a written survey was administered to a statewide,…
Full Text Available Although its gold mining project has been locked in public debates and permit reviews for over a decade, a Canadian-Romanian company privately negotiated with the inhabitants of Roşia Montană commune, Romania, to buy their households and lands, and resettle them in a specially built neighbourhood in the city of Alba Iulia. This paper suggests that while the paternalistic character of resettlement has allowed resettlers to partially keep their group identity, and partially to reconstruct it in relation with the host community, it was also based on a misunderstanding of the relationship between resettlers and the organiser of resettlement. Drawing on field research, the resettlement was studied as a “continuous process” spanning three years (2010-12, during which this paper identifies (1 the changes in lifestyle, (2 the mechanisms of community regeneration, and (3 post-resettlement initiatives of resettlers. Although greater living costs (utility bills, real estate taxes, transportation and unemployment seem to be balanced by better living conditions and greater educational opportunities for their children, the ambivalent paternalistic aspect of the resettlement has negatively influenced the development of the new community. While at first community issues were unsuccessfully addressed to the company, recent public improvement initiatives by resettlers have caused tensions between the two sides.
Full Text Available Findings from a longitudinal study of long-term resettlement experiences of refugee youth living in Melbourne show that refugee experiences – both pre- and post-resettlement – continue to influence opportunities and outcomes many years after arrival.
This research project will examine the interplay between involuntary displacement, violence, inequality, and poverty on re-settled populations living in urban ... also seeks to identify the most effective strategies for addressing these challenges in Latin America and the Caribbean, South Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa.
Shinan-Altman, Shiri; Ayalon, Liat
To examine perceived control among live-in and live-out home care workers and to identify factors that contribute to perceived control among both types of caregiving. 338 migrant live-in home care workers and 185 local live-out home care workers were asked to report their perceived control. Burnout, satisfaction with the relationship with the care recipient and the care recipient's family, and satisfaction with social relationship were also gathered. Both types of caregivers reported high levels of perceived control, although live-in home care workers expressed more perceived control. Higher age, higher levels of satisfaction with the relationship with the care recipient and the care recipient's family and lower levels of burnout, predicted perceived control. Satisfaction with social relationship was a stronger predictor of one's perceived control among live-in home care workers. Promoting social relationships outside the home care context by allowing migrant live-in home care workers to take part in social gatherings is recommended as this can strengthen their sense of perceived control.
Jiang, Chilong; Zou, Dehua; Long, Chenhai; Yang, Miao; Zhang, Zhanlong; Mei, Daojun
Live-line working is an essential part in the operations in an electric power system. Live-line workers are required to wear shielding clothing. Shielding clothing, however, acts as a closed environment for the human body. Working in a closed environment for a long time can change the physiological responses of the body and even endanger personal safety. According to the typical conditions of live-line working, this study synthesizes environmental factors related to shielding clothing and the physiological factors of the body to establish the heart rate variability index RMSSD and the comprehensive security warning index SWI. On the basis of both indices, this paper proposes a security warning method and system for the safety live-line workers. The system can monitor the real-time status of workers during live-line working to provide security warning and facilitate the effective safety supervision by the live operation center during actual live-line working.
This thesis investigated how war-related traumatic experiences and stress associated with migration and adaptation to a new country of resettlement influenced the mental health of Bosnian refugees living in Australia and Austria. The findings suggested that everyday demands and stress associated with migration and adaptation to a new resettlement country, markedly influenced refugees’ ability to integrate and effectively negotiate culturally appropriate behaviours, acquire the host language n...
Harris, Jimmy D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Radiological worker training is the basic building block for any additional radiological training you may receive. Upon completing radiological worker training, you will have the basic knowledge needed to work safely, using proper radiological practices, in areas where radiological hazards exist. You will also have a better understanding of the hazards and responsibilities associated with radiological work to help prevent the carelessness that can occur when working continually with or around radioactive material. This course does not qualify you for any specific radiological work. You may be required to take additional training at individual facilities to address facility- and job-specific hazards and procedures.
Full Text Available A cross-sectional sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted among household food preparers to examine the association between home availability and consumption of traditional vegetables among resettled African refugees living in Queensland, Australia. Home availability of traditional African vegetables was associated with age, having a vegetable garden, employment status, and having a supermarket in the local neighborhood. Food preparers from homes with low vegetable availability were less likely to consume the recommended number of vegetable servings. Barriers faced in the food environment included language, lack of availability of traditional vegetables and lack of transport. All of these aspects contributed to the study findings that both individual and food environment characteristics may play a role in access to and availability of food and vegetable consumption of resettled refugees. Consumption of traditional foods among the resettled refugees continues post resettlement.
Gichunge, Catherine; Somerset, Shawn; Harris, Neil
A cross-sectional sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted among household food preparers to examine the association between home availability and consumption of traditional vegetables among resettled African refugees living in Queensland, Australia. Home availability of traditional African vegetables was associated with age, having a vegetable garden, employment status, and having a supermarket in the local neighborhood. Food preparers from homes with low vegetable availability were less likely to consume the recommended number of vegetable servings. Barriers faced in the food environment included language, lack of availability of traditional vegetables and lack of transport. All of these aspects contributed to the study findings that both individual and food environment characteristics may play a role in access to and availability of food and vegetable consumption of resettled refugees. Consumption of traditional foods among the resettled refugees continues post resettlement.
Thais Silva Menezes
Full Text Available Brazil’s resettlement programmes have been praised for demonstrating the country’s commitment to refugee protection but the number resettled remains small compared with international need. Brazil needs to address the financing of such programmes if it is to ensure their sustainability and growth.
Full Text Available Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI refugees facemyriad challenges within the resettlement context. Practical initiatives– such as creating a welcoming space, ensuring confidentiality,training staff, providing critical resources and fostering inclusiveworkplaces – can promote a more humane resettlement experience.
DePasquale, Nicole; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Darrell, Linda; Boyer, LaPricia Lewis; Ephraim, Patti; Boulware, L. Ebony
Live kidney transplantation (LKT) is underused by patients with end-stage renal disease. Easily implementable and effective interventions to improve patients' early consideration of LKT are needed. The Talking About Live Kidney Donation (TALK) social worker intervention (SWI) improved consideration and pursuit of LKT among patients with…
Burgess, Elisabeth O; Barmon, Christina; Moorhead, James R; Perkins, Molly M; Bender, Alexis A
In assisted living (AL) facilities, workers are intimately involved in the lives of residents. Existing research on AL demonstrates the imbalance of this environment, which is a personal home for the residents and a workplace for staff. Using observational and interview data collected from six AL facilities, this grounded theory project analyzes how AL staff define, understand, and negotiate sexual comments, joking, and physical touch. We developed a conceptual model to describe how such harassment was perceived, experienced by AL workers, and how they responded. Sexualized behavior or harassment was experienced by workers of every status. We found that words and actions were contextualized based on resident and worker characteristics and the behavior. Staff members refused to engage residents, redirected them, or reframed the words and gestures to get the job done. Reporting the incidents was less common. We conclude by discussing implications for policy and research.
Objectives: The researcher explored the lived experiences of HIV community workers participating in two CEPs in Ladysmith, KwaZulu-Natal in order to develop recommendations for CEPs. Method: Data were explored using a qualitative hermeneutic phenomenological approach. Ten participants who had been involved in HIV CEPs for more than six months were identified and individual interviews were held. Results: Three themes emerged, namely, giving of yourself, maintaining sustainability and assisting the CEPs and community workers. Each of these themes also contained a number of subthemes. Exploring the lived experience of the community workers revealed that there are a number of ways in which to promote the sustainability of CEPs. Conclusion: The community should be involved in all aspects of the CEP and community workers must respect the community and their knowledge, experience and value systems.
Lee, Ahyoung Anna; Lee, Sharon Narae; Armour, Marilyn
In response to the growing attention to integrated health care and the cultural change movement in nursing homes, this study examines the lived experiences of nursing home social workers to better understand their role perceptions, job satisfaction, and relationship with other staff members. Hermeneutic phenomenology was used in order to understand the lived experience of being a nursing home social worker. Ten nursing home social workers were recruited from a southern state and individual interviews were conducted. From the interviews, four themes emerged: challenge, coping, mattering, and rewarding. Guided by identity negotiation theory and social identity theory, these findings are discussed. Also, implications for social work education, nursing home administration, and policy is discussed.
Khalid, H N
The Malaysian government has employed 3 kinds of resettlement schemes: 1) resettlement of farmers under modern agricultural and land development programs to grow cash crops; 2) resettlement of rural population in well-guarded locations to isolate them from communist insurgents; and 3) resettlement and compensation of population displaced thorough resource exploitation such as construction of dams and mining. The Kinta Valley resettlement is examined in the example of 3 villages where tin mining encroached on their agricultural land. 98 households were included in the sample from Batu Bertudung, Tekka, and Jelutung that had been settled in the 1940s. The villagers were eventually evacuated and sustained technological, pecuniary, and psychological losses. The economic loses involved property, land, and crops, and social losses comprised social networks, neighborhood, and stability. 81.7% of the villagers who were left landless successfully insisted on complete relocation of their villagers in new villages in claims to the respective tin mining companies through their newly formed village action committees in the mid-1960s. The compensation consisted of 1) group compensation by planned resettlement, 2) cash payment, and 3) replacement of the former plot with another piece of land. Social needs were not included in the calculation and the compensation received reflected roughly their economic worth at the time. The villagers of Tekka and Jelutung had their houses rebuilt which were comparable to their old homes using new materials and stronger foundations. Those from Batu Bertudung were resettled in another village, and were compensated in cash to rebuild their homes themselves. Basic amenities were insufficient: new wells had to be dug, the public standpipe was overused, and only dirt roads were constructed. The government provided most basic amenities 5-6 years later under the rural development program.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has remained an integral part of Chinese culture and society for thousands of years. In Taiwan TCM is a recognized element of its National Health Insurance Scheme. However, there is no knowledge about how TCM is accessed by foreign workers from a non-Asian cultural background. The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence and patterns of TCM use among non-Asian white-collar workers living in Taiwan, and examine factors likely to influence their use of TCM. Methods This study applied a cross-sectional survey design. A total of 207 white-collar foreign workers of a non-Asian background currently holding National Health Insurance cards who had lived in Taiwan for 4 months or more participated in this study. Results The prevalence of TCM use was 45%. The most frequently used therapies were traditional Chinese herbs/medicine and acupuncture. Factors indicating the likelihood of TCM usage were age 31–40 years, visit to an allopathic medical doctor in the last year, ability to read Chinese, having a friend or family member available to assist in the use of TCM, and access to information about TCM services available in Taiwan. Conclusion Utilization of TCM by people of a non-Asian background living in Taiwan appears to be most influenced by enabling factors including language ability, access to information, and informal reference persons.
Nov 17, 2016 ... ... International Centre for Ethnic Studies. It followed an initial survey of over 800 relocated households in Colombo. Read the case study “Experiences of a relocated community in Colombo.” Explore the IDRC-supported project, Involuntary resettlement: A cross-country study on urban inequality and poverty.
Higgitt, Nancy C.; Horne, Lena
In focus groups the experiences of 12 Kurdish and 13 Vietnamese refugees who resettled in Winnipeg, Manitoba were explored. They lacked employment skills and their education was interrupted. The transition from home ownership to subsidized rent affected their self-perception. (JOW)
The flow rates of Chinese rivers are subject to major seasonal fluctuations, and as a result large reservoirs have to be constructed for flood control, irrigation, and power generation. As most of the river valleys are densely populated, the relocation and resettlement of people from the reservoir areas are major but unavoidable problems to be addressed in building hydro projects in China. (author)
Full Text Available Those working with asylum seekers and refugees in Turkey have noticed that a growing number of Iranian Shi’ite asylum seekers are converting to Christianity during their migratory passage through Turkey. With apostasy punishable by death in Iran, asylum claims and requests for resettlement can be based on or strengthened by such conversion.
Nagamine, Masanori; Harada, Nahoko; Shigemura, Jun; Dobashi, Kosuke; Yoshiga, Makiko; Esaki, Naoki; Tanaka, Miyuki; Tanichi, Masaaki; Yoshino, Aihide; Shimizu, Kunio
Defense Force workers engaged in disaster relief activities might suffer from strong psychological stress due to the tasks that they had been involved. We evaluated how living environments, work environments, and individual factors psychologically affect those who engaged in disaster relief activities. Data generated with 1506 personnel engaged in the Great East Japan Earthquake relief activity were analyzed. Those who scored ≥25 points on the Impact of Events Scale-Revised and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) were allocated into the high post-traumatic stress response (high-PTSR) group, and the high general psychological distress (high-GPD) group, respectively. The multiple logistic regression analysis extracted living environment (camping within the shelter sites) as the significant risk factor for both high-PTSR (OR = 3.39, 95 % CI 2.04-5.64, p living environment in which they can keep an appropriate distance from the victims.
S. Susela DEVI
Full Text Available This paper introduces action research as a possible new method to reduce the distance between idealism and accounting practice, thus contributing to the accounting literature. The source of this paper is an on-going large research project. The project has three objectives. Firstly, to provide evidence of the utilisation of accounting methods in the Malaya plantation industry from its earliest beginnings through to the introduction of accounting tools such as budgets, leading to the creation of a social and economic underclass in Malaysia. Secondly, to examine the extent to which accounting information provided in the Annual Reports of Malaysian plantation companies is used in determining the wages of plantation workers on the grounds that workers in the plantation industry have been and still are, among the most poorly paid in Malaysia, and perhaps the world. Interestingly, the wages of plantation workers are determined through a negotiation process between the National Union of Plantation Workers and the Malaysian Agricultural Producers Association. This paper draws from this research project and explicates the utilisation of the Action Research methodology in reporting the “lived experiences” of those affected by Management Accounting budgets and demonstrating how the parties to wage negotiation, the employers, union and employees, can better derive value from accounting information provided within the annual reports of Malaysian plantation companies.
Habib, Rima R; Mikati, Diana; Hojeij, Safa; El Asmar, Khalil; Chaaya, Monique; Zurayk, Rami
Syrian migrant farmworkers are among the most marginalized populations in Lebanon, living in poverty, lacking basic legal protections and frequent targets of discrimination. These realities produce living conditions that undermine their basic health and wellbeing. This study explores associations between household living conditions and acute and chronic health problems among Syrian migrant agricultural workers in the Bekaa region of Lebanon. A survey was carried out in summer of 2011 with a sample of 290 migrant agriculture workers and members of their household living in a migrant farmworker camp. The survey assessed participants living conditions, assets and health conditions. Regression analyses were carried out to examine associations between multi-morbidity and quality of household and neighborhood living conditions. The mean age for the population was 20 years. Forty-seven percent of participants reported health problems. Almost 20% reported either one acute or chronic illness, 15% reported two health problems and 13% reported three or more. The analysis showed a significant positive association between multi-morbidity and poor housing and infrastructure conditions among study participants. The situation for migrant communities in Lebanon has likely further deteriorated since the study was conducted, as hundreds of thousands of new migrants have entered Lebanon since the outbreak of the Syrian armed conflict in 2011. These findings should inspire multi-faceted community development initiatives that provide basic minimums of neighborhood infrastructure and housing quality for Syrian migrant informal settlements across Lebanon, safeguarding the health and wellbeing of community residents. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.
E. F. Aydynbekov
Full Text Available For the effective management of migration processes, maximizing the positive outcomes and minimizing the negative consequences, in 2012 the Russian Federation adopted the Concept of the state migration policy for the period up to 2025, which defined the main goals, objectives and principles of the Russian migration policy (hereinafter – the Concept.Stabilization and increasing permanent population of the country is one of the most important goals.However, the priority objective to achieve this goal is to create the conditions and incentives for the resettlement of compatriots, living abroad to the Russian Federation for the permanent residence, emigrants and certain categories of foreign nationals, necessary for the Russian economy.In this direction, the Concept of the state migration policy for the period up to 2025 provides as follows: • Assistance to voluntary resettlement of compatriots, living abroad to the Russian Federation and emigrants’ returning;• Implementation of the State program to assist the voluntary resettlement of compatriots, living abroad to the Russian Federation, its modernization and making it termless;• Facilitating resettlement of foreign nationals for the purpose of family reunification to the Russian Federation;• Upgrading of institutions of temporary residence permit and a residence permit.Taking into account the economic, demographic and political challenges and threats, assistance to the voluntary resettlement of compatriots, residing in other countries to the Russian Federation, is the most important strategic resource to solve a number of important issues and tasks.The implemented «State program to assist the voluntary resettlement of compatriots, living abroad to the Russian Federation»  is aimed to consolidate the potential of compatriots, to the needs of progressive development of the regions of the country and the economy as a whole.The objectives of the program are:• Promotion and
Full Text Available Social capital is often seen as a substitute for lack of other types of capital amongpoor people. Because of the recognized applicability of the social capital conceptand its correlation with the different dimensions of poverty, it has been used inevaluating the adaptation and integration of involuntarily displaced individualsinto their new environment. This paper presents insights based on a review of thefindings of studies that looked into the role of social capital in conflict- anddevelopment-induced displacement contexts. Althoughboth types of displace-ments are involuntary or forced in nature, they differ in terms of the role of socialcapital regarding its main sources, the formation pattern and its determinants.Social capital studies in forced resettlement appear to be relatively small innumber and are heavily concentrated on first worldcountries and conflict- anddevelopment-induced displacements. The conduct of similar studies in developingcountries and in a disaster-induced resettlement context, the third type ofinvoluntary displacement, should generate new and relevant findings regardingthe role of social capital in resettlement communities.
Regini Nuti, Mirian; Feitosa Garcia, Marcia
This paper aims to discuss the resettlement process caused by hydropower plants considering the Brazilian Power Sector ongoing context It is based on the analysis of the hydropower plants that started operation phase in the last tem years There are 17 projects provoking the displacement of 21000 families The paper presents the resettlement modalities used in these projects Finally, the main aspects of the resettlement process in the last decade are focused in order to contribute to the Brazilian Power Sector Resettlement Guidelines improvement and actualization
This PhD thesis by Marie Kolling is an ethnography of forced resettlement in the urban periphery of Salvador, Northeast Brazil, and the new lives the families tried to make for themselves in its aftermath in new state-built social housing. The resettlement was part of state-led slum upgrading...... millennium, and how it was experienced and acted upon by resettled families. It analyses their dreams for the future and their attempts to realize them in the rapidly changing Brazilian society. The thesis is based on fourteen months of fieldwork conducted in Brazil between July 2012 and March 2015. Extended...
A brief summary is provided of the pilot project on the resettlement of the agricultural population in Yangtze Reservoir Area, China. Population needed to be resettled from the area to be flooded by the construction of the Three Gorges Hydropower Station in the middle of the Yangtze River. The submerged area included 19 cities and counties of which 2 are county level cities, 11 county seats, 140 towns and market towns, 326 townships, and 1351 villages. The population to be evacuated totaled 725,500 residents, of whom 392,90 were urban residents and 332,600 were rural residents. The amount of cultivated land lost amounted to 3573 mu (1 mu = 17.5% of an acre). While the hydropower station is being constructed, the population will rise over 20 years to 1 million. The Chinese government has developed a program of resettlement, whereby displaced population receive financial support to develop the economy; the sum appropriated equaled 50 million yuan RMB. So far, the pilot project has been successful. Within the 326 townships affected, only part of the land lying below the highest water level of the reservoir would be affected; the remaining land could be used for resettlement, albeit the land is uncultivated grassland and barren mountains and hills. Resettlement in the area is preferred over long distance migration. The government program will help farmers make full use of the available lands. Suggested crops include mulberry trees, oranges, medical herbs, and other cash crops. Effort will be made to ensure each farmer will receive one mu of economic forest or one mu of cultivated land of high and stable yields. The program aims to guarantee sufficient food supplies and the same standard of living before displacement, as well as the opportunity to create better conditions for alleviating poverty and improvement through increased productivity.
Catherine Gichunge; Shawn Somerset; Neil Harris
A cross-sectional sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted among household food preparers to examine the association between home availability and consumption of traditional vegetables among resettled African refugees living in Queensland, Australia. Home availability of traditional African vegetables was associated with age, having a vegetable garden, employment status, and having a supermarket in the local neighborhood. Food preparers from homes with low vegetable availabili...
Sulaiman-Hill, Cheryl M R; Thompson, Sandra C
To examine the resettlement experiences and provide data of well being and psychological distress for Afghan and Kurdish refugees settled between eight and 20 years in New Zealand and Australia. Participants completed the Kessler-10 Psychological Distress Scale (K10) and Personal Well Being Index (PWI) for subjective well being. A mixed methods approach was used, with participants also discussing during interview resettlement difficulties, quality of life (QOL) and sources of stress. Data from 81 Muslim participants is reported; all spoke English, were generally well educated with 88% having secondary or tertiary level education, and the majority of those resettled before 2001 lived in Perth. Although psychological distress levels were mostly within the low-moderate risk range, significant differences were observed by gender and employment status. Participants identified a range of ongoing stressors with unemployment of particular concern. Social isolation and a sense that they would never really 'fit in' was also reported by some. Participants particularly valued the safety and improved quality of life in their host communities. Despite their appreciation of the overall resettlement experience, too much time to introspect, separation from family, status dissonance and still occasionally feeling overwhelmed by resettlement challenges is a long-term ongoing reality for some former refugees. Former refugees continue to struggle with unemployment, possible discrimination and loss of status long-term. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.
Renehan, Emma; Goeman, Dianne; Koch, Susan
In Australia, dementia is a national health priority. With the rising number of people living with dementia and shortage of formal and informal carers predicted in the near future, developing approaches to coordinating services in quality-focused ways is considered an urgent priority. Key worker support models are one approach that have been used to assist people living with dementia and their caring unit coordinate services and navigate service systems; however, there is limited literature outlining comprehensive frameworks for the implementation of community dementia key worker roles in practice. In this paper an optimised key worker framework for people with dementia, their family and caring unit living in the community is developed and presented. A number of processes were undertaken to inform the development of a co-designed optimised key worker framework: an expert working and reference group; a systematic review of the literature; and a qualitative evaluation of 14 dementia key worker models operating in Australia involving 14 interviews with organisation managers, 19 with key workers and 15 with people living with dementia and/or their caring unit. Data from the systematic review and evaluation of dementia key worker models were analysed by the researchers and the expert working and reference group using a constant comparative approach to define the essential components of the optimised framework. The developed framework consisted of four main components: overarching philosophies; organisational context; role definition; and key worker competencies. A number of more clearly defined sub-themes sat under each component. Reflected in the framework is the complexity of the dementia journey and the difficulty in trying to develop a 'one size fits all' approach. This co-designed study led to the development of an evidence based framework which outlines a comprehensive synthesis of components viewed as being essential to the implementation of a dementia key
..., ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM... voluntary agencies whose affiliate agencies will be responsible for implementing the public/private RCA program: (a) Must determine the training needed to enable local resettlement agencies to achieve a smooth...
Farkas, Livia J.
Describes the Refugee Data Center (RDC) (New York City), a hub for linking refugees with voluntary resettlement agencies. The RDC maintains a database on refugees as they progress toward final resettlement in the United States. At present, RDC files include refugees from Asia, Africa, Europe, and Latin America. (SLD)
Huang, Li; Huang, Jian; Wang, Wei
Resettlement affects not only the resettlers' production activities and life but also, directly or indirectly, the normal operation of power stations, the sustainable development of the resettlers, and regional social stability. Therefore, a scientific evaluation index system for the sustainable development of reservoir resettlement must be established that fits Chinese national conditions and not only promotes reservoir resettlement research but also improves resettlement practice. This essay builds an evaluation index system for resettlers' sustainable development based on a back-propagation (BP) neural network, which can be adopted in China, taking the resettlement necessitated by step hydropower stations along the Wujiang River cascade as an example. The assessment results show that the resettlement caused by step power stations along the Wujiang River is sustainable, and this evaluation supports the conclusion that national policies and regulations, which are undergoing constant improvement, and resettlement has increasingly improved. The results provide a reference for hydropower reservoir resettlement in developing countries.
Full Text Available Interviews with both refugees and organizational staff in two nonprofit refugee resettlement organizations in the United States reveal the ways in which knowledge(s and expertise are crafted, threatened, and understood in refugee organizations. Refugee-participants described the need for knowledgeable communication, barriers to the communication of knowledge, and processes of negotiating whose expertise is involved. Organizational staff participants described the duty of communicating expert knowledge, the limits of knowledge as expertise, and alternative communications of expertise. These tensions surrounding “knowing” in refugee resettlement organizations highlights the need for a more complex theoretical understanding of the processes of knowing present in refugee resettlement. These tensions also suggest areas in which refugee resettlement agencies and other nonprofit staff can make on-the-ground changes to better facilitate refugee resettlement processes.
Purpose: The study aims to examine job satisfaction of migrant live-in home care workers who provide care to frail older adults and to examine the extent to which quality of relationships between the care provider and care recipient and workplace characteristics is associated with job satisfaction. Design and Methods: A convenience sample that…
McCleary, Jennifer Simmelink; Chaudhry, Serena
In 2016 almost 39,000 Muslim refugees entered the United States, representing a record of admissions during a time of elevated anti-Muslim political rhetoric and public sentiment. Anti-Muslim attitudes and policies can affect refugees' ability to successfully resettle and contribute to decreased health status. Given the current social and political moment there is an ethical imperative for social workers to engage in resistance to anti-Muslim sentiment and the encoding of Islamophobia in resettlement policy. In this article, the authors explore constraints on resettlement social workers' engagement with advocacy and make suggestions for ethical practice that promotes social and emotional well-being.
Tobin, Mary; Lambert, Sharon; McCarthy, John
Recent data on the inequities in mortality, health, and access to health services experienced by the Traveller community in Ireland show higher rates of death by suicide and other sudden causes among members of this marginalized minority group than in the general population. Psychological literature on bereavement suggests that traumatic deaths and multiple deaths within a close network may be more likely to lead to complicated grief reactions. The aim of this study is to add to our understanding of the effects of the differential mortality rate by exploring how grief is experienced within the Traveller community in the context of bereavement from multiple deaths or sudden deaths (including suicide). Data from three semistructured focus group interviews with a total of 10 Traveller Community Health Worker participants (nine female and one male) were analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Two master themes organized the salient phenomenological aspects of the grief experience: Living with Tragic Loss and Communicating Tragic Loss. A picture emerged of individual and community-level loss that is extensive, profound, and enduring. The sequelae of deaths by suicide include difficulties in coping, a search for meaning, and a pervasive sense of fear. Silence, the embodied act of giving voice to tragic loss, and strategies for managing disclosure of tragic deaths with children were all strong themes which emerged from the analysis. This study uses interpretative phenomenological analysis to generate a vivid picture of the lived psychological experience of grief as it is experienced by members of a minority group with above average rates of sudden and early deaths. This contributes to understanding the burden of health inequality in an underresearched population. Findings in relation to challenges in communicating with children about tragic deaths can be integrated into bereavement support resources.
Soeker, Shaheed; Bonn, Gerri-Lee; de Vos, Zahraa; Gobhozi, Thobile; Pape, Candice; Ribaudo, Shelly
The South African constitution protects the rights of gays; however in the workplace gays experience discrimination and marginalization. As a result of marginalization they struggle to reach their potential regarding career development and the fulfilment of their worker role. The study explored the experiences and perceptions of gay males with regard to acquiring and maintaining their worker roles. The study is phenomenological and qualitative in design. Eleven of these men participated in two focus groups. One male participated in two in-depth interviews and one interview was conducted with a key informant. Three themes emerged: 1) Being boxed in, 2) The glass ceiling, 3) This is where I can wear my feather boa. The study findings clearly depicted the many barriers experienced by homosexual men and how this negatively impacts on their worker role. Minimal facilitatory factors exist, to assist gay males %in with regard to their worker role. It was found that homo-prejudice still exists in South Africa and its workplaces and has a negative impact not only on gay men's worker role but also their well-being. This significantly highlights the great need for occupational therapy intervention in the lives of these gay men, and their workplaces.
This article describes and analyzes an intervention program with social workers living and working in a situation of uncertainty created by political violence such as war and terrorism. The author used a social constructionist perspective as a theoretical framework, emphasizing the effect of the social and political context in constructing the experience and a recognition of the personal and professional knowledge acquired in the daily experience. The author used qualitative methods to evaluate the process and outcome. The narrative-holistic analysis focused on reconstructing meaning and adapting it to the new situation, the main thrust of the program. From the thematic analysis four main themes emerged: (1) loss as a result of political violence; (2) meaning of strength and weakness in situations of political violence; (3) preparation for terrorist attacks; and (4) definition of a safe place. The outcome evaluation describes the meaning of this kind of training program to the participants. The specific context of the training program is discussed as well as possibilities of using it in different contexts.
Cookson, Susan T.; Talley, Leisel; Rochat, Roger
Identifying and addressing malnutrition among US-bound refugee children is an important human rights issue. Failure to address childhood malnutrition can impair cognitive development and productivity. The target population was children aged 6–59 months, originating from eight countries representing 51 % of US-resettled refugees for 2005–2011, living in 22 camps prior to potential US-resettlement. The corresponding camp-level nutritional survey data were evaluated. State Refugee Health Coordinators were surveyed on nutritional assessment, reporting and referrals for their US-refugee medical screenings. From 2004 to 2010, half of the camps (63 total surveys) had global acute malnutrition prevalence over 15 % at least once (surveys not done annually) and anemia prevalence greater than 40 %. The majority of US-refugee medical screenings included height and weight measurements but few used national or WHO standards to evaluate presence or level of malnutrition. Improve overseas camp monitoring and link these nutritional data to US-resettling refugee children to inform potential nutritional interventions. Domestically, use WHO or US growth standards for anthropometrics to determine presence of malnutrition and need for corrective action. PMID:23430464
Slewa-Younan, Shameran; Yaser, Anisa; Guajardo, Maria Gabriela Uribe; Mannan, Haider; Smith, Caroline A; Mond, Jonathan M
Psychological trauma, in particular, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, are highly prevalent among resettled refugees. However, little is known regarding the mental health status and associated help-seeking behaviour of resettled Afghan refugees in Australia. A sample of 150 resettled Afghan refugees (74 males; mean age 32.8 years, SD = 12.2) living in Adelaide, South Australia were recruited. Self-reported measures of PTSD, depression, exposure to traumatic events, functional impairment, self-recognition of PTSD symptomatology and help-seeking behaviours were completed. Multivariate analysis of variables associated with help-seeking was conducted. Forty-four percent of participants met criteria for clinically significant PTSD symptoms and all but one participant reported being exposed to 1 or more traumatic and/or conflict related events, such as 'losing your property and wealth'. Moreover, 14.7% of participants had symptoms suggestive of clinically significant depression. General practitioners were the most common source of help in relation to mental health problems, with very few participants (4.6%) seeking help from specialist trauma and torture mental health services. Self-recognition of having a PTSD related mental health problem and functional impairment levels were both found to be independent predictors of help-seeking ( p ≤ .05). The findings provide further evidence for high rates of PTSD symptomatology and low uptake of mental care among resettled refugees. Poor self-recognition of the presence and/or adverse impact of PTSD symptoms may need to be targeted in mental health promotion programs designed to improve "mental health literacy" and thereby promote early and appropriate help-seeking where this is needed.
Felderhoff, Brandi Jean; Hoefer, Richard; Watson, Larry Dan
The National Association of Social Workers' (NASW's) Code of Ethics urges social workers to engage in political action. However, little recent research has been conducted to examine whether social workers support this admonition and the extent to which they actually engage in politics. The authors gathered data from a survey of social workers in Austin, Texas, to address three questions. First, because keeping informed about government and political news is an important basis for action, the authors asked what sources of knowledge social workers use. Second, they asked what the respondents believe are appropriate political behaviors for other social workers and NASW. Third, they asked for self-reports regarding respondents' own political behaviors. Results indicate that social workers use the Internet and traditional media services to stay informed; expect other social workers and NASW to be active; and are, overall, more active than the general public in many types of political activities. The comparisons made between expectations for others and their own behaviors are interesting in their complex outcomes. Social workers should strive for higher levels of adherence to the code's urgings on political activity. Implications for future work are discussed.
Full Text Available The passing of the Polish Resettlement Act and the creation of the different agencies related to it undoubtedly represented an unprecedented response to the challenge of mass migration in the UK.
Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to assess the impacts of off-site and on-site resettlement projects in Indore by comparing slum dwellers lives before and after the implementation of the projects, complimenting and corroborating a sister paper based on fieldwork in Ahmedabad (Patel, Sliuzas, Mathur, & Miscione, fortcoming. The impact analysis is based on the indicators of impoverishment risks due to displacement and resettlement formulated by Cernea (2000a in his Impoverishment Risks and Reconstruction (IRR model. The findings indicates the presence of the following forms of impoverishment which Cernea proposed for the displacees: significant loss in household assets, increased joblessness or unemployment, loss of access to common services, increased health risks, marginalisation and social disarticulation, all of which have compounded their vulnerability and chances of falling deeper into poverty. The paper also argues that compared to off-site and on-site resettlement displacees were less affected by negative consequences and impoverishment risks. The paper concludes with recommendations for slum resettlement policies of local government so that impoverishment risks can be reasonably averted.
Huang, Li; Huang, Jian
Resettlement affects not only the resettlers’ production activities and life but also, directly or indirectly, the normal operation of power stations, the sustainable development of the resettlers, and regional social stability. Therefore, a scientific evaluation index system for the sustainable development of reservoir resettlement must be established that fits Chinese national conditions and not only promotes reservoir resettlement research but also improves resettlement practice. This essay builds an evaluation index system for resettlers’ sustainable development based on a back-propagation (BP) neural network, which can be adopted in China, taking the resettlement necessitated by step hydropower stations along the Wujiang River cascade as an example. The assessment results show that the resettlement caused by step power stations along the Wujiang River is sustainable, and this evaluation supports the conclusion that national policies and regulations, which are undergoing constant improvement, and resettlement has increasingly improved. The results provide a reference for hydropower reservoir resettlement in developing countries. PMID:29346305
Full Text Available Resettlement affects not only the resettlers’ production activities and life but also, directly or indirectly, the normal operation of power stations, the sustainable development of the resettlers, and regional social stability. Therefore, a scientific evaluation index system for the sustainable development of reservoir resettlement must be established that fits Chinese national conditions and not only promotes reservoir resettlement research but also improves resettlement practice. This essay builds an evaluation index system for resettlers’ sustainable development based on a back-propagation (BP neural network, which can be adopted in China, taking the resettlement necessitated by step hydropower stations along the Wujiang River cascade as an example. The assessment results show that the resettlement caused by step power stations along the Wujiang River is sustainable, and this evaluation supports the conclusion that national policies and regulations, which are undergoing constant improvement, and resettlement has increasingly improved. The results provide a reference for hydropower reservoir resettlement in developing countries.
N. G. Ivlieva
Full Text Available This article describes the research on mapping modeling of Mordovians accommodation on the territory of Russia. The study discovers that a great number of Mordovians live outside the ethnic territory. The dynamics of its population in the regions can be most accurately traced accoding to population censuses. With the help of modern methods of cartographic visualization and mathematical-cartographic modeling were revealed spatiotemporal characteristics of Mordovians resettlement process on the territory of Russia since the end of XIX to the beginning of the XXI century.
Mohseni, Peyman Hossein; Farshad, Ali Asghar; Mirkazemi, Roksana; Orak, Rouhangiz Jamshidi
The purpose of this study was to assess living and workplace safety conditions of construction workers in Tehran, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 410 construction sites in a municipal area of Tehran whose municipal building permits were issued in 2011. Data on ventilation, workplace safety and hygiene were collected by direct observation and interviews with site foremen. Noise levels were estimated from 10 sound-level-meter stations in the municipality area. Lack of ventilation in the workers' rooms was abundant. Bathrooms were unhygienic and minimum requirements such as lighting and ventilation did not exist in 80% of the cases. In nearly 50% of large construction sites, sewage and garbage disposal were inappropriate. Elevator safety was poor at all sites and no measures for fall prevention were present in over 88% of active construction sites. This study showed that the mean 24-h equivalent continuous sound level Leq was over 70 dB in 80% of the sites during weekdays. The results of this study revealed poor health and safety living and working conditions of construction workers in Tehran.
Witter, Rebecca; Satterfield, Terre
The necessity of compensating people negatively affected by conservation and other development projects has been widely acknowledged. It is less widely acknowledged that because conventional compensation assessments focus on material resources and their economic equivalents, many important losses incurred by resettlers are invisible to project authorities. Through ethnographic observations and interviews, we documented losses identified by people facing resettlement from Mozambique's Limpopo National Park. We also examined resettlement planning documents to determine why decision makers' assessments of natural resource use and value neglect losses residents identified as critical. Identifying, preventing, and mitigating invisible losses in resettlement planning necessitates a better understanding of intangible benefits residents derive from resources, which are often as or more important than their readily apparent material properties. These benefits include but are not limited to decision-making authority linked to owning land versus having the use of fields; ancestral identity and social belonging linked to gravesites; the importance of tree roots that provide a powerful sense of security because they suppress hunger in periods of scarcity; and the importance of people's location within social networks and hierarchies as they determine the benefits versus risks that will be incurred through resettlement. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.
Julieta C. Mallari
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the characteristically dyadic political culture of Mauaque Resettlement Center, a government organized community of disaster victims (1991 Mt. Pinatubo eruption. It attempts to trace and understand the resettlers' proclivity for dyadic means of cooperation, dependency and even political action.The resettlement site is composed basically of three different barangays which retained their "sub-cultures," including their political ethos. What manifest at present are the comfortable reciprocal schemes developed by the resettlers and their leaders which inevitably create either positive or negative consequences relative to the political life of the whole community.To be considered will be the personal followings and system of alliances of the present barangay leaders within the context of the Filipino kinship system. Moreover, the other socio-cultural values and traits of the resettlers which serve as underpinning for their dyadic relationships will also be discussed.Interviewing the individuals concerned, particularly the barangay captains, has been the method employed in gathering the information needed for this qualitative study.
Marcia Vera Espinoza
Full Text Available South American countries have been increasingly opening their doors to resettle extra-regional refugees. One of the most visible initiatives was the resettlement of Palestinian refugees in Chile and Brazil during 2007 and 2008.
Sedat Benek; Şevket Ökten
This study is carried out to identify living standards of seasonal agricultural workers in Hilvan County of Şanlıurfa that largely rely on agriculture and have sufficient or little cultivable lands. Study sample is composed of families of the students who attend schools affiliated to Hilvan County Directorate of National Education and are involved in temporary migration before the school term ends in a year. “Face to face” interviews were held with and questionnaires were applied to heads of ...
Kiselev, Mikhail; Romanov, Vladimir; Shandala, Nataliya; Gneusheva, Galina; Titov, Alex; Novikova, Natalia; Smith, Graham
As part of the program of nuclear power development, the Russia Federation plans to increase uranium production and to improve supply from existing uranium mining and milling facilities. Moreover, development of new uranium ore deposits is also envisaged. A corollary of these developments is the placing of a high priority on environmental and human health protection Special attention should be paid to assurance of health protection both of workers and of the public living nearby such facilities. This paper reviews the status and development of understanding of facilities in the Russian Federation from a regulatory perspective. (author)
Argento, Elena; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Goldenberg, Shira; Braschel, Melissa; Montaner, Julio; Shannon, Kate
Despite rapid increases in crystal methamphetamine (CM) use worldwide and established gendered patterns of use, empirical research on CM injection initiation among sex workers is limited. Given the wide range of harms associated with CM, alongside stimulant effects including sexual dis-inhibition and prolonged awake-ness, this study aimed to longitudinally investigate socio-structural predictors of initiating CM injection among sex workers in Vancouver, Canada. Data (2010-2014) were drawn from a community-based cohort of women sex workers: AESHA (An Evaluation of Sex Workers Health Access). Participants completed bi-annual interviewer-administered questionnaires and HIV/STI testing. Kaplan Meier methods and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to model predictors of CM injection initiation among CM injection-naïve participants. Of 455 participants eligible at baseline, 14.3% (n=65) injected CM for the first time over follow-up, with an incidence density of 6.79 per 100 person-years (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 5.30-8.69). In multivariable analysis, injection heroin use (Adjusted Hazard Ratio [AHR] 6.11; 95%CI 3.24-11.52), having an intimate partner who injects drugs (AHR 2.93; 95%CI 1.57-5.46), workplace violence (AHR 2.85; 95%CI 1.74-4.67), HIV seropositivity (AHR 2.69; 95%CI 1.45-5.00), and childhood abuse (AHR 1.86; 95%CI 0.99-3.49) were independently associated with initiating CM injection. Findings underscore the gendered and social risk environment of CM injection initiation among sex workers. The strong influences of historical/workplace violence, coupled with heroin injection (known to be self-medicating for post-traumatic stress) as a primary risk pathway, emphasize the urgency of increasing access to integrated, trauma-informed addiction treatment and HIV care for marginalized women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study is carried out to identify living standards of seasonal agricultural workers in Hilvan County of Şanlıurfa that largely rely on agriculture and have sufficient or little cultivable lands. Study sample is composed of families of the students who attend schools affiliated to Hilvan County Directorate of National Education and are involved in temporary migration before the school term ends in a year. “Face to face” interviews were held with and questionnaires were applied to heads of 523 families which live on seasonal agricultural labor. The results were assessed by using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science through various statistical techniques required for the study purpose. Majority of the children of families who
Ross, Tara W.
A global refugee crisis necessitates an understanding of policymaking governing the resettlement of refugees in the United States. Resettling more refugees than all other countries combined, the United States emphasizes rapid employment over post-secondary education for adult resettled refugees in order to compel their self-sufficiency. However,…
Zimbabwe's resettlement programme is nearly twenty years old. The first families were resettled in 1980, just a few months after independence, and the programme has to date resettled over 70,000 families, well short of the target of 162,000 set in the early 1980s. A tension exists over where the
Ellis, Roger; Hogard, Elaine; Sines, David
This article describes a risk audit carried out on the support provided for 36 people with profound learning disabilities who had been resettled from hospital care to supported housing. The risks were those factors identified in the literature as associated with deleterious effects on quality of life. The audit was carried out with a specially designed tool that covered 24 possible risks and involved a support worker familiar with the service user choosing the most appropriate statement regarding each risk. Their judgements were verified by care managers and social needs assessors. Whilst one or more risks were identified for 32 of the 36 service users, the overall result showed relatively low risks for the group as a whole with 62 incidences (7%) from a possible 864, which nevertheless highlighted several areas that needed attention. The results of the audit have led to action plans for the provision and for the individual service users for whom risks were identified.
The study examines the socio-economic and political impediments to the planned resettlement scheme for Loko flood disaster victims. A simple random sampling technique was employed to interview 280 household heads by administering to each a questionnaire schedule. Furthermore, purposeful interviews with the ...
The overriding purpose of the dissertation was to investigate whether or not the current government-sponsored resettlement program (alternatively termed access to improved land program) is a successful option to attain sustainable food security and improved livelihoods in rural Ethiopia. In order to achieve the ...
A synopsis of cattle performance in Zimbabwe's 'initial' resettlement areas after land reforms and redistribution. ... Cattle in the study were monitored over a two year period for reproduction (calving rate and frequency, re-calving rates) and exit records (sales, slaughters, deaths, exchange, and buy-in) under farmer ...
This article examines the outcomes of recent slum resettlement projects on the socio-economic well-being of the relocated people in Addis Ababa. Drawing on qualitative methods involving observation, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, the paper examines the benefits and challenges of urban development ...
Background: This study aims to examine the possible impacts of resettlement on birth rates by using the length of stay variable in the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). Methods: Data in all three rounds of Gambella Administrative Region's Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) are analyzed. The neighboring ...
Evans, T B; Mador, M J; Glick, M; Ahmad, I
Discordance in the classification of tuberculosis (TB) disease overseas compared to classification in the United States has been observed among immigrant populations. To examine TB misclassification among recently resettled refugees in Buffalo, NY, between 2005 and 2012. Retrospective study of refugees resettled to Buffalo from 2005 to 2012 and evaluated at a refugee/community health center. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) Class B1-B3 and American Thoracic Society (ATS) Class 2 (LTBI) cases were abstracted. Independent variables were demographics, countries of origin and refugee camp internment, year of resettlement, purified protein derivative induration, and chest X-ray findings, while CDC DGMQ and ATS classification were dependent variables. Independent samples t-test and analysis of variance were performed. Of 284 charts reviewed, 233 (81.2%) were misclassified. Among 101 cases of LTBI (B1/B2) diagnosed outside the United States, 51 (50.5%) were overdiagnosed. Underdiagnoses occurred among 181/182 refugees (99.5%) originally classified as normal overseas. These findings suggest that TB misclassification among recent immigrants remains widespread. Screening procedures both before and after resettlement should be better synchronized. Public health implications range from morbidity and costs of unnecessary treatment to the spread of a highly communicable disease.
Abstract. This article examines the outcomes of recent slum resettlement projects on the socio-economic well-being of the relocated people in Addis Ababa. Drawing on qualitative methods involving observation, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, the paper examines the benefits and challenges of urban ...
Granek, Leeat; Nakash, Ora; Ariad, Samuel; Chen, Wendy; Birenstock-Cohen, Shira; Shapira, Shahar; Ben-David, Merav
The purpose of this research was to examine how oncologists, nurses, and social workers identify suicidality in cancer patients. Sixty-one healthcare professionals (23 oncologists, 18 social workers, and 20 nurses) at two academic cancer centers were interviewed using an in-depth interview guide. This was a qualitative study based on grounded theory methodology. Analysis involved line-by-line coding, with categories and themes emerging from participants' narratives. Suicidality in cancer patients exists on a wide spectrum that ranges from an active will to live to an active will to die. Four phases were identified that included: (A) a strong will to live expressed in themes of active treatments, seeking second opinions, overtreatment, and alternative treatments; (B) a decreasing will to live indicated in themes of mental health distress and physical pain and suffering; (C) a readiness to die expressed in themes of mental health distress, previous mental health diagnoses, physical pain, avoiding more suffering, preserving quality of life in old age, nearing end of life, lack of social support, and maintaining a sense of control; and (D) a will to die indicated in themes of euthanasia and active suicidality. Suicidality in cancer patients exists on a continuum. Cancer patients fluctuate on this spectrum depending on circumstances such as degree of suffering, their personalities and life circumstances, and whether they are nearing the end of life. Results of the study emphasize the need to collect more context specific data on suicidality among cancer patients and the importance of early integration of psychosocial and palliative care in the cancer treatment trajectory.
Maragos, J.E.; Agegian, Catherine
This environmental assessment evaluates various alternatives to return the Bikini people to their homeland on Bikini Atoll. Eneu Island was spared the heavy nuclear contamination that rendered Bikini Island, the largest and main inhabitable island on the atoll, presently unsuitable for resettlement. The economic, social, technical and environmental consequences of all alternatives were compared, and alternative sites, purposes and scales for resettlement were included in the analysis. This environmental assessment explores these alternatives in detail and concludes that the resettlement of Eneu Island by some of the Bikini people at this time will not result in significant adverse effects to the environment nor will it foreclose any other full scale resettlement option involving the cleanup of Bikini Atoll. In addition, it concludes that the resettlement of Eneu can be accomplished independently from the planned cleanup and resettlement of Bikini Island. Plans and combination of plans involving the early resettlement of Eneu are fully feasible and implementable at this time. (author)
Shahrokh Ehtesham zadeh
Full Text Available As the industry develops in the societies, human being is more likely to exposed to high level of noises and be at risk of hearing loss. Urbanism and working in the situation which are not in accordance with the personal nature make people even more susceptible to risk factors of hearing loss. Exposure of workers to industrial noise has been the subject to several studies and it seems that reconsidering the situations in both society and nature can be a key to change environment for decreasing noise in the society.For example in Tehran, geographically, the slope of the earth from north to south is 5-10% which is a main factor contributing in noise pollution.Moreover, the source of most outdoor noise worldwide is mainly construction and transportation systems including motor vehicles, air craft noises and rail noises. Poor urban planning may give rise to noise pollution, since side-by-side industrial and residential buildings can result in noise pollution in the residential area.In the current article we have examined both conditions in the hearing condition of workers with high levels of noise exposure.
Rees, Susan; Silove, Derrick M; Tay, Kuowei; Kareth, Moses
To document the extent and nature of human rights violations and other traumatic events reported by West Papuan refugees resettled in Australia and to assess trauma-related psychological disorders, distress and disability. Australian-based sample, mixed-methods design with 44 participants, conducted in Australia between October 2007 and November 2010 in communities in North Queensland and Melbourne. West Papuan refugees aged 18 years and over (88% response rate). Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms (Harvard Trauma Questionnaire) and premigration potentially traumatic events (PTEs), psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale [K10]), post-migration living difficulties, days out of role. Of the 44 West Papuan refugees, 40 reported one or more PTE, including inability to access medical care for family (40), lack of food and water (39) and lack of access to medical treatment (38). The most frequent postmigration stressors were separation from and worries about family members remaining in West Papua (43) and being unable to return home in an emergency because of ongoing conflict (41). Twenty-six participants reached a lower threshold for PTSD symptoms of 2.0, and 13 reached the clinical threshold of 2.5. Fourteen reported severe psychological distress. West Papuan refugees resettled in Australia report a wide range of premigration PTEs including human rights violations, as well as symptoms of PTSD and distress. The data add to concerns about the state of human rights and mental health among West Papuans.
Speller, Brittany; Stolee, Paul
As the population ages, the demand for long-term care settings is expected to increase. Assisted living is a suitable and favourable residence for older individuals to receive care services specific to their needs while maintaining their independence and privacy. With the growing transition of older individuals into assisted living, facilities need to ensure that safe care is continually maintained. The purpose of this study was to determine the gaps and strengths in care related to safety in assisted living facilities (ALFs). A qualitative descriptive research design was used to provide a comprehensive understanding of client safety from the perspectives of clients, administrative staff and personal support workers. Interviews were conducted with 22 key informants from three ALFs in Toronto, Ontario throughout July 2012. All interviews were semi-structured, audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Initial deductive analysis used directed coding based on a prior literature review, followed by inductive analysis to determine themes. Three themes emerged relating to the safety of clients in ALFs: meaning of safety, a multi-faceted approach to providing safe care and perceived areas of improvement. Sub-themes also emerged including physical safety, multiple factors, working as a team, respecting clients' independence, communication and increased education and available resources. The study findings can contribute to the improvement and development of new processes to maintain and continually ensure safe care in ALFs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available “(Late resettlers”, or to put it in simple terms, people of German ancestry who came to Germany from Eastern Europe after World War II, constitute a peculiar case within the spectrum of German migration. On one hand, they are distinct from foreigners, on the other hand, despite having German citizenship, they stand out from the native German population. L. Wilkiewicz refers to this category as “quasi-forced resettlers”. The forced nature of the young resettlers migration may then be seen as doubly strengthened by the fact that they had no impact on their parents decision to leave the country. They were, in a sort of way, uprooted from their original environment and planted into a new, alien one. Having accepted German citizenship and having been attributed the purpose of “living as Germans among Germans”, the resettlers were expected to show a higher degree of integration with local society than “ordinary” migrants. In this study, I shall confine myself to a few selected aspects affecting the success of integration. Presented below are some of the memories that the young resettlers have of the moment of their “(quasi-forced” migration, of their early days in Germany, of Poland as the country of their childhood, of the reasons for departure as given by their parents, and of the main factors – apart from those personality-related such as intelligence – that contributed to their successful integration.
Wahra, G N; Rahman, F
According to a survey conducted in 1989, there are 772 approved and registered garment factories in Bangladesh. These factories employ approximately 300,000 individuals, 90% of whom are women. A more recent estimate in a Bangladeshi newspaper, however, posits that up to five million people are directly or indirectly dependent upon the garment industry. Many of the women who work in Bangladesh's garment factories are under age 15 years. In some countries, such as the US, the employment of such young individuals constitutes a violation of child labor laws. Therefore, under the Harkin Bill, the US will no longer import garments produced by children younger than age 15 years. Many garment workers under age 15 years have already been put out of work or will soon be terminated. The authors explain that while the intent of the Harkin Bill may be to protect children, it is difficult to adopt the moral high ground in a poor country like Bangladesh. Regardless of one's age in Bangladesh, having a job may be the only way to survive. No job often means no food or shelter. The authors discuss women in the garment industry, one girl's case, alternative employment opportunities, and the future.
Full Text Available Noi siamo la generazione post-socialista, la generazione del dopo guerra fredda, della fine delle burocrazie verticali e del controllo sull'informazione. Siamo un movimento globale e neuropeo, che porta avanti la rivoluzione democratica scaturita dal Sessantotto mondiale e lotta contro la distopia neoliberista oggi al culmine. Siamo ecoattivisti e mediattivisti, siamo i libertari della Rete e i metroradicali dello spazio urbano, siamo le mutazioni transgender del femminismo globale, siamo gli hacker del terribile reale. Siamo gli agitatori del precariato e gli insorti del cognitariato. Siamo anarcosindacalisti e postsocialisti. Siamo tutti migranti alla ricerca di una vita migliore. E non ci iconosciamo in voi, stratificazioni tetre e tetragone di ceti politici sconfitti già nel XX secolo. Non ci riconosciamo nella sinistra italyana.Manifesto Bio/Pop del Precariato Metroradicale, 20042004 has marked the beginning of the spreading "cult" of San Precario, Patron Saint of precarious, casual, sessional, temporary, flexible and fractional workers. The Saint appears in public spaces in occasion of rallies, marches, interventions and demonstrations, and its popularity has lead to development of a precise and colorful iconography, hagiography and rituals. This popularity conversely is also the sign of the gravity of the issue of precarity in Italy and Europe .San Precario epitomises current Italian activist practices. These practices, although specifically Italian, intersect with similar realities in Europe and are based on mythopoetic narratives and actions and mediatic embodiments. This paper analysis a variety of texts produced around San Precario, from posters, saint cards, product cards, videos, "official" narratives, personal accounts, relating them to the political debate surrounding precarity.
Previous research has identified that most families who become homeless are women with dependent children. Homeless families are reported to have a variety of complex needs however little is known about the experiences of families once they are re-housed. The aim of this study was to explore psychosocial issues related to the resettlement experiences of single mothers following a period of homelessness. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were used to gather data from twenty one women livi...
Robison, W.L.; Phillips, W.A.; Mount, M.E.; Clegg, B.R.; Conrado, C.L.
The purpose of this report is to refine the dose predictions, subsequent to the cleanup effort, for alternate living patterns proposed for resettlement of Enewetak Atoll. The most recent data developed from projects at Enewetak and Bikini Atolls for concentration and uptake of Cs, Sr, Pu, and Am were used in conjunction with recent dietary information and current dose models to predict annual dose rates and 30- and 50-y integral doses (dose commitments). The terrestrial food chain in the most significant exposure pathway - it contributes more than 50% of the total dose - and external gamma exposure is the second most significant pathway. Other pathways evaluated are the marine food chain, drinking water, and inhalation
Thomas, Roger E; Jefferson, Tom; Lasserson, Toby J
of blinding, contamination in the control groups and low rates of vaccination coverage in the intervention arms, leading us to downgrade the quality of evidence for all outcomes due to serious risk of bias.Offering influenza vaccination to HCWs based in long term care homes may have little or no effect on the number of residents who develop laboratory-proven influenza compared with those living in care homes where no vaccination is offered (RD 0 (95% CI -0.03 to 0.03), two studies with samples taken from 752 participants; low quality evidence). HCW vaccination probably leads to a reduction in lower respiratory tract infection in residents from 6% to 4% (RD -0.02 (95% CI -0.04 to 0.01), one study of 3400 people; moderate quality evidence). HCW vaccination programmes may have little or no effect on the number of residents admitted to hospital for respiratory illness (RD 0 (95% CI -0.02 to 0.02, one study of 1059 people; low quality evidence). We decided not to combine data on deaths from lower respiratory tract infection (two studies of 4459 people) or all cause deaths (four studies of 8468 people). The direction and size of difference in risk varied between the studies. We are uncertain as to the effect of vaccination on these outcomes due to the very low quality of evidence. Adjusted analyses, which took into account the cluster design, did not differ substantively from the pooled analysis with unadjusted data. Our review findings have not identified conclusive evidence of benefit of HCW vaccination programmes on specific outcomes of laboratory-proven influenza, its complications (lower respiratory tract infection, hospitalisation or death due to lower respiratory tract illness), or all cause mortality in people over the age of 60 who live in care institutions. This review did not find information on co-interventions with healthcare worker vaccination: hand-washing, face masks, early detection of laboratory-proven influenza, quarantine, avoiding admissions
Burmaster, Katharine B; Landefeld, John C; Rehkopf, David H; Lahiff, Maureen; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen; Adler-Milstein, Sarah; Fernald, Lia C H
Poverty reduction interventions through cash transfers and microcredit have had mixed effects on mental health. In this quasi-experimental study, we evaluate the effect of a living wage intervention on depressive symptoms of apparel factory workers in the Dominican Republic. Two apparel factories in the Dominican Republic. The final sample consisted of 204 hourly wage workers from the intervention (99) and comparison (105) factories. In 2010, an apparel factory began a living wage intervention including a 350% wage increase and significant workplace improvements. The wage increase was plausibly exogenous because workers were not aware of the living wage when applying for jobs and expected to be paid the usual minimum wage. These individuals were compared with workers at a similar local factory paying minimum wage, 15-16 months postintervention. Workers' depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). Ordinary least squares and Poisson regressions were used to evaluate treatment effect of the intervention, adjusted for covariates. Intervention factory workers had fewer depressive symptoms than comparison factory workers (unadjusted mean CES-D scores: 10.6 ± 9.3 vs 14.7 ± 11.6, p = 0.007). These results were sustained when controlling for covariates (β = -5.4, 95% CI -8.5 to -2.3, p = 0.001). In adjusted analyses using the standard CES-D clinical cut-off of 16, workers at the intervention factory had a 47% reduced risk of clinically significant levels of depressive symptoms compared with workers at the comparison factory (23% vs 40%). Policymakers have long grappled with how best to improve mental health among populations in low-income and middle-income countries. We find that providing a living wage and workplace improvements to improve income and well-being in a disadvantaged population is associated with reduced depressive symptoms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where
Shimizu, Kazufumi; Wulandari, Laksmi; Poetranto, Emmanuel D; Setyoningrum, Retno A; Yudhawati, Resti; Sholikhah, Amelia; Nastri, Aldise M; Poetranto, Anna L; Candra, Adithya Y R; Puruhito, Edith F; Takahara, Yusuke; Yamagishi, Yoshiaki; Yamaoka, Masaoki; Hotta, Hak; Ustumi, Takako; Lusida, Maria I; Soetjipto; Shimizu, Yohko K; Soegiarto, Gatot; Mori, Yasuko
In Indonesia, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus has become endemic in poultry and has caused sporadic deadly infections in human. Since 2012, we have conducted fixed-point surveillance of avian influenza viruses at a live-poultry market in East Java, Indonesia. In this study, we examined the seroprevalence of avian influenza A(H5N1) virus infection among market workers. Sera were collected from 101 workers in early 2014 and examined for antibody activity against avian A(H5N1) Eurasian lineage virus by a hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay. By the HI assay, 84% of the sera tested positive for antibody activity against the avian virus. Further analysis revealed that the average HI titer in 2014 was 2.9-fold higher than in 2012 and that seroconversion occurred in 44% of paired sera (11 of 25) between 2012 and 2014. A medical history survey was performed in 2016; responses to questionnaires indicated that none of workers had had severe acute respiratory illness during 2013. This study provides evidence of a high prevalence of avian A(H5N1) virus infection in 2013 among workers at a live-poultry market. However, because no instances of hospitalizations were reported, we can conclude the virus did not manifest any clinical symptoms in workers. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
Eguchi, Akifumi; Nomiyama, Kei; Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Subramanian, Annamalai; Bulbule, Kesav A; Parthasarathy, Peethambaram; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke
We determined the contamination status and accumulation profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hydroxylated PCB congeners (OH-PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs), methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs), and bromophenols (BPhs) in serum from e-waste recycling workers and residents near a coastal area in India. Residue levels of penta- to octa-chlorinated PCBs, penta- to octa-chlorinated OH-PCBs, 6MeO-BDE47, 6OH-BDE47, and 2,4,6-tri-BPh in serum from residents living near the coastal area were significantly higher than those in serum from e-waste recycling workers. Residue levels of tri- to tetra-chlorinated PCBs, tri- to tetra-chlorinated OH-PCBs, PBDEs, octa-brominated OH-PBDEs, and tetra-BPhs in serum from e-waste recycling workers were higher than those in serum from residents living near the coastal area. Principal component analysis revealed that residents living near the coastal area and e-waste recycling workers had different serum profiles of chlorinated and brominated compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van der Ploeg, Lidewij; Vanclay, Frank
Respecting, protecting and fulfilling human rights must become more prominent in both the processes and outcomes of resettlement. We have developed a Human Rights-Based Approach to Resettlement for use by project operators, rights holders and governments so that they can better understand what the
Resettlement to third countries is regarded as a durable solution to refugee crises. In Kakuma refugee camp in north-west Kenya, seeking a better life in industrialized countries has become a preoccupation for many refugees. In this article the effects of the practice of third country resettlement
Navarra, M.Q.; Niehof, Anke; Horst, van der H.M.; Vaart, van der W.
Involuntary resettlement often impoverishes the displaced households. Cernea argued that impover-ishment can be avoided with his Involuntary Risks and Reconstruction Model (IRR). The IRR Model has been widely utilized in resettlement studies and identi¿es nine interlinked potential risks inherent to
van der Ploeg, Lidewij; Vanclay, Frank
AbstractRespecting, protecting and fulfilling human rights must become more prominent in both the processes and outcomes of resettlement. We have developed a Human Rights-Based Approach to Resettlement for use by project operators, rights holders and governments so that they can better understand
Full Text Available World War II caused the displacement of millions of people throughout Europe. In response, the United States initiated a public-private partnership that assisted in the resettlement of hundreds of thousands of the region’s displaced persons. For nearly 40 years after the War, the US commitment to refugee resettlement played out in an ad hoc fashion as it responded to emerging crises in different ways. During this period the government’s involvement with resettlement became gradually intertwined with that of nongovernmental resettlement agencies, which came to play an increasingly vital role in the resettlement process. The budding relationship that began in the middle decades of the twentieth century set the foundation for an expansive and dynamic public-private partnership that continues to this day. The Refugee Act of 1980 solidified the relationship between resettlement agencies and the federal government, established political asylum in US law, and created the refugee resettlement program and a series of assistance programs to help refugees transition to life in the United States. This legislation marked a decisive turning point in the field of refugee resettlement.Since passage of the Act, the United States has resettled more than two million refugees, providing them with the opportunity to start a new life. Nevertheless, almost as soon as it was established, federal backing for the domestic resettlement program began to erode, placing the program under increasing stress. Financial and programmatic support was quickly reduced because of budgetary pressures and a changing political climate in Washington, DC. Administrative control of the program was assigned to federal agencies that are responsible for different facets of the process. However, coordination and information sharing between these agencies and with resettlement agencies has been less than optimal. The lack of adequate support for the resettlement program has placed
Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Refugee Service Center.
This resettlement guide, entirely in Spanish, describes the initial stage of resettlement and the processes that refugees undergo as new arrivals. Subjects covered in this guide include pre-arrival procedures, admissions criteria, immigrant's statement of understanding, travel costs and U.S. Customs; resettlement procedures, immigrants'…
....676] Office of Refugee Resettlement; Announcing the Award of a Single- Source Program Expansion... (BCFS) in San Antonio, TX AGENCY: Office of Refugee Resettlement, ACF, HHS. ACTION: The Office of Refugee Resettlement announces the award of a single-source program expansion supplement grant from its...
Choudhury, Shonali M
Many studies of female sex work focus on HIV and other sexually transmitted infections because sex workers are considered bridges between high-risk and low-risk populations. The voices of female sex workers as they pertain to health issues are often lacking in the literature. This paper offers a feminist constructivist grounded theory study with establishment-based female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico. Analyses of interviews with 20 women reveal that they are aware of the impact of their work on their bodies, but conceptualise their health holistically and not just in terms of HIV. They emphasise that working in the sex industry has implications for sexual health, non-sexual physical health and mental health. The paper concludes that in order for public health interventions to have more sustainable impact on the lives of female sex workers, they should take into account the voices of the women, including how they define their health. The findings suggest that public health professionals need to be more aware that female sex workers have agency and a desire to control their health and their bodies.
Darroudi, F.; Natarajan, A.T.
In order to perform retrospective estimations of radiation doses seven years after the nuclear accident in Chernobyl, the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of individuals living in contaminated areas around Chernobyl and the Estonian clean-up workers were determined. The first study group composed of 45 individuals living in four areas (i.e. Rechitsa, Komsomolski, Choiniki and Zaspa) in the vicinity (80-125 km) of Chernobyl and 20 individuals living in Minsk (control group - 340 km from Chernobyl). The second study group (Estonian clean-up workers) composed of 26 individuals involved in cleaning up the Chernobyl for a different period of time (up to 7 months) and a matched control group consisting of 9 probands. Unstable aberrations (dicentrics and rings) were scored in Giemsa stained preparations and stable aberrations (translocations) were analyzed using chromosome specific DNA libraries and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. For both study groups the estimated average dose is between 0,1-0,4 Gy. Among the people living in the contaminated areas in the vicinity of Chernobyl, a higher frequency of numerical aberrations (i.e. trisomy, hyper diploidy) was evident
Full Text Available Resettlement resulting from dam construction has raised several concerns due to the negative aftermath impacts. In Ghana, the construction of three hydroelectric dams resulted in large-scale resettlements. Given the little experience that Ghana has in resettlements, it is necessary for a robust monitoring structure for resettlements. However, this was not available in the last resettlement undertaken for the Bui Dam Project. This paper aims at developing an assessment framework for monitoring resettlement activities on customary lands from a good governance perspective. Based on four good governance principles, transparency, public participation and inclusiveness, equity and rule of law and accountability, a good governance assessment framework is built and applied to the Bui Dam Project using a case study approach. Data were collected through interviews and focus group discussion with the key actors of the resettlement project. It was first found that the planning stage of the resettlement came out with a robust plan that was to prevent the impoverishment of the affected persons. However, in the implementation of the resettlement, not all good governance principles were adhered to. In conclusion, it was found that by deconstructing the resettlement process with a good governance framework, the problematic areas of the resettlement can be effectively differentiated between the planning and implementation phases.
War-related traumas impact refugees' mental health. Recent literature suggests that structural and sociocultural factors related to the resettlement also become critical in shaping refugees' mental health. So far, there is limited empirical evidence to support this claim among resettled refugees. Resettlement contextual factors that influence mental health outcomes were examined using Latino and Asian refugees (n = 656) from a nationally representative survey. Linear and logistic regressions predicted factors associated with the study's outcomes (self-reported mental health, mood disorders, and anxiety disorders). Post-resettlement traumas were significantly associated with mental health outcomes, but pre-resettlement traumas were not. Unemployment, everyday discrimination, and limited English were significantly associated with mental health outcomes among both Latino and Asian refugees. The outcomes indicate that resettlement contextual factors have a significant association with refugees' mental health. Therefore, future studies with refugees must pay closer attention to structural and sociocultural factors after resettlement.
Marshall, Grant N; Schell, Terry L; Elliott, Marc N; Berthold, S Megan; Chun, Chi-Ah
Little is known about the long-term mental health of trauma-exposed refugees years after permanent resettlement in host countries. To assess the prevalence, comorbidity, and correlates of psychiatric disorders in the US Cambodian refugee community. A cross-sectional, face-to-face interview conducted in Khmer language on a random sample of households from the Cambodian community in Long Beach, Calif, the largest such community in the United States, between October 2003 and February 2005. A total of 586 adults aged 35 to 75 years who lived in Cambodia during the Khmer Rouge reign and immigrated to the United States prior to 1993 were selected. One eligible individual was randomly sampled from each household, with an overall response rate (eligibility screening and interview) of 87% (n = 490). Exposure to trauma and violence before and after immigration (using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and Survey of Exposure to Community Violence); weighted past-year prevalence rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression (using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 2.1); and alcohol use disorder (by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). All participants had been exposed to trauma before immigration. Ninety-nine percent (n = 483) experienced near-death due to starvation and 90% (n = 437) had a family member or friend murdered. Seventy percent (n = 338) reported exposure to violence after settlement in the United States. High rates of PTSD (62%, weighted), major depression (51%, weighted), and low rates of alcohol use disorder were found (4%, weighted). PTSD and major depression were highly comorbid in this population (n = 209; 42%, weighted) and each showed a strong dose-response relationship with measures of traumatic exposure. In bivariate analyses, older age, having poor English-speaking proficiency, unemployment, being retired or disabled, and living in poverty were also associated with higher rates of PTSD and major
Irina V. Voloshinova
Full Text Available The activities of the Russian Resettlement Office during the First World War are considered on the basis of the archival materials. The Office was in charge of the resettlement of peasants and land management. It took care of refugees since the beginning of the war. Resettlement posts were transformed into the epidemic control and isolation points for the prisoners of war. The Office solved the important problems of examination and development of new territories of the country, especially the North of the European Russia, in which it secceeded.
Full Text Available Revitalizing slum-area has been recognized as one of the most complicated parts in urban resettlement program. With such a context we need a particular mode of communication to initiate and generate the project based on people's own aspiration. There are problem characteristics here, which are usually executed by Information Technology (IT. It is a potential to overcome the problem by using IT based on its ability to manage abundant information with various variables. At least there are three prospective opportunities in applying IT in this area. Firstly, it is the role of visualization, where computer can execute several visual features of the projects, which will be more representative than the previous ones. Secondly, it is the role of IT in generating the customization process to everyone involved in the projects. The last is the role of IT as executing tool for project's database management.
Women form a minority (5%) in the UK prison system, which is predominantly designed for men. A high number of women prisoners bring experiences of trauma and abuse with them into the system. The incidence of mental health problems is inordinately high compared to the general population. Whilst...... an increasing number of UK music therapists work in forensic psychiatry providing treatment for mentally disordered offenders, there is a dearth of music therapists working in UK prisons. There is correspondingly little research into music therapy and women prisoners. This embedded QUAL(quan) mixed methods...... study investigates whether there is a change in the self-perception of women prisoners attending music therapy, and whether, if this is the case, they show an improved ability to engage with prison resettlement interventions. It also examines the impact of different treatment lengths on outcomes. 10...
Peterman, Jerusha Nelson; Wilde, Parke E; Silka, Linda; Bermudez, Odilia I; Rogers, Beatrice Lorge
Resettled refugees have high rates of chronic disease, which may be partially due to persistent food insecurity. This study describes food experiences on arrival in the U.S. and current food security status and examines characteristics related to food insecurity in a well-established refugee community. Focus groups and a survey assessed food security status and personal characteristics of Cambodian women in Lowell, MA, USA. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine relationships with food insecurity. Current rates of food insecurity are high. In multivariate models, food insecurity was positively associated with being depressed and being widowed, and negatively associated with higher income and acculturation. Early arrivers (1980s) had difficulty in the U.S. food system on arrival, while later arrivers (1990s-2000s) did not. Refugee agencies should consider strategically devoting resources to ensure successful early transition to the U.S. food environment and long-term food security of refugees.
Poppe, Annelien; Wojczewski, Silvia; Taylor, Katherine; Kutalek, Ruth; Peersman, Wim
The negative consequences of the brain drain of sub-Saharan African health workers for source countries are well documented and include understaffed facilities, decreased standards of care and higher workloads. However, studies suggest that, if migrated health workers eventually return to their home countries, this may lead to beneficial effects following the transfer of their acquired skills and knowledge (brain gain). The present study aims to explore the factors influencing the intentions for return migration of sub-Saharan African health workers who emigrated to Austria and Belgium, and gain further insight into the potential of circular migration. Semi-structured interviews with 27 sub-Saharan African health workers in Belgium and Austria were conducted. As mentioned by the respondents, the main barriers for returning were family, structural crises in the source country, and insecurity. These barriers overrule the perceived drivers, which were nearly all pull factors and emotion driven. Despite the fact that only a minority plans to return permanently, many wish to return regularly to work in the healthcare sector or to contribute to the development of their source country. As long as safety and structural stability cannot be guaranteed in source countries, the number of return migrants is likely to remain low. National governments and regional organizations could play a role in facilitating the engagement of migrant health workers in the development of the healthcare system in source countries.
Carrasco, Maria Augusta; Barrington, Clare; Kennedy, Caitlin; Perez, Martha; Donastorg, Yeycy; Kerrigan, Deanna
This study explores social cohesion as a strategy used by female sex workers to address layered HIV and sex work-related stigma. Data derive from a thematic analysis of 23 in-depth interviews and 2 focus groups with female sex workers living with HIV enrolled in a multi-level HIV/STI prevention, treatment and care intervention in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Drawing on Foucault's conceptualisation of modern power, discipline and resistance, we argue that social cohesion provides the psychosocial space (of trust, solidarity and mutual aid) to subvert oppressive societal norms, enabling the reconstruction of identity. Among study participants, identity reconstruction happened through the production, repetition and performance of new de-stigmatised narratives that emerged and were solidified through collective interaction. Findings highlight that enabling the collective reconstruction of identity through social cohesion - rather than solely attempting to change individual beliefs - is a successful approach to addressing stigma.
Guiguet, M; Dionou, S; Volant, J; Samba, M C; Benammar, N; Chauvin, P; Simon, A
Delayed presentation to care among HIV-infected individuals continued to be frequent in France. Migrants are at high risk for late presentation. This cross-sectional study investigated barriers to HIV testing in the specific population of men from sub-Saharan Africa living in four migrant worker hostels in Paris, France. Factors associated with never having been tested for HIV were examined using logistic regression. In all, 550 men participated, coming mainly from Mali and Senegal, with 31 % having lived in France for less than 5 years, and 25 % without any health insurance. Only 37 % have ever been tested for HIV. Not having health insurance was the main risk factor for never-testing [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.4; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.4-4.0]. Despite free and anonymous HIV testing available at dedicated public screening centers, 63 % of men living in migrant worker hostels had never been tested for HIV.
Marcelo Lopes Justino
Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the (un sustainability of socioeconomic resettlements of Mariana and Olericultores in the city of Porto Nacional / TO created due to the construction of Luís Eduardo Magalhães Hydroelectric Plant, located in the central state of Tocantins. The analysis was built in six dimensions of sustainability, Sachs (2000, they are social, economic, ecological, spatial, cultural and political. We researched the documentation relating to the entrepreneurial commitments in relation to resettlement, as well as documentation that evaluated the whole process. The interviews with the resettlers were indispensable to the finding that the definitions of sustainability provided in the official documentation are limited; in addition, many actions mitigated under such plans have not been realized, thus preventing socioeconomic advances to resettlers.
While the World Bank safeguard policies and International Finance Corporation Performance Standards specify the requirements to be observed when project-induced displacement and resettlement occurs, these international standards are not always followed. Governments often invoke the power of eminent
Kramer, Boris H.; Schaible, Ralf; Scheuerlein, Alexander
Eusociality has been recognized as a strong driver of lifespan evolution. While queens show extraordinary lifespans of 20 years and more, worker lifespan is short and variable. A recent comparative study found that in eusocial species with larger average colony sizes the disparities in the lifespans
Cleef, van B.A.G.L.; Broens, E.M.; Voss, A.; Huijsdens, X.W.; Züchner, L.; Benthem, van B.H.B.; Kluytmans, J.A.J.W.; Mulders, M.N.; Giessen, van de A.W.
Livestock-associated MRSA has been found in various animals, livestock farmers and retail meat. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and determinants of nasal MRSA carriage in pig slaughterhouse workers. Three large pig slaughterhouses in The Netherlands were studied in 2008 using human and
Martin, Deirdre Christine
Each year millions of people throughout the world are forced from their homes to make way for new roads, dams and other infrastructure developments. The World Bank funds many of these projects in developing countries and has been both harshly criticised for its track record with involuntary resettlement and a global leader in producing guidelines aimed at ensuring those forced to relocate are not harmed by the process. The Bank’s policy on involuntary resettlement is backed up by an Inspecti...
Coma Auli, Núria; Mejía-Lancheros, Cília; Berenguera, Anna; Mayans, Martí Vall; Lasagabaster, Maider Arando; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta
Introduction Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV are a serious global public health issue. These diseases are largely preventable, as they are directly and indirectly associated with potentially modifiable factors, including socioeconomic conditions. Sexual transmission is responsible for over 75% of new HIV infections worldwide. Moreover, commercial sex workers and their clients are two of the groups at the highest risk of acquiring and transmitting these infectious diseases, due to an extensive number of sexual encounters and the various factors related to commercial sex situations. This qualitative study aims to deepen the understanding of the risk perception of STIs and HIV and their associated factors in Nigerian commercial sex workers in the city of Barcelona. Methods and analysis This is a qualitative, descriptive, interpretive study based on a social constructivist and phenomenological perspective conducted on a saturated sample of Nigerian commercial sex workers in the city of Barcelona. Data will be collected through semistructured individual and triangular group interviews. Information will be examined using a sociological discourse analysis, allowing us to understand the social and individual factors related to the risk perception of STIs and HIV in commercial sex workers. Discussion Qualitative studies are an important element in identifying individual, social and contextual factors directly or indirectly related to the health/disease process. This qualitative study will provide essential knowledge to improve health promotion, prevention strategies and effective management of STIs both for commercial sex workers and their clients. Ethics This study has been approved by the clinical research ethics committee (CEIC) of IDIAP Jordi Gol in Barcelona, 2012. PMID:23901029
Full Text Available This article contributes to the understanding of young people’s media cultures by addressing the question whether and to what extent young people with different cultural backgrounds differ in their exposure to and usage of traditional mass media and new digital media as well as in their engagement in various online activities. It presents empirical data of a German survey about the social environment, media use and Internet behaviour among 605 German resettlers and people with a Turkish migration background aged between 12 and 29 years living in North Rhine-Westphalia and compares the results of the 12- to 19-year old youth with data of the same age group within the German general population. To further assess how cultural and social factors might explain the variation within the youth and young adults with migration background, similarities and differences in their media use patterns are traced with respect to their cultural contexts as well as the factors education, age and gender. The findings are discussed in the context of societal integration of young people with migration background, the homogeneity of mediatised youth cultures and the thesis of the digital divide.
Roussy, Véronique; Thomacos, Nikos; Rudd, Annette; Crockett, Belinda
Stigma and judgemental assumptions by health workers have been identified as key barriers to accessing health care for people living with co-occurring mental health and substance use issues (dual diagnosis). To evaluate the effectiveness of consumer-led training by people with dual diagnosis in improving the knowledge, understanding and role adequacy of community health staff to work with this consumer group. A controlled before-and-after study design with four waves of quantitative data collection was used. Qualitative data were collected to explore participants' views about training. Participants were staff from two community health services from Victoria, Australia. Recruitment occurred across various work areas: reception, oral health, allied health, counselling and health promotion. At baseline, all participants attended a 4-h clinician-led training session. The intervention consisted of a 3-h consumer-led training session, developed and delivered by seven individuals living with dual diagnosis. Outcome measures included understanding of dual diagnosis, participants' feelings of role adequacy and role legitimacy, personal views, and training outcomes and relevance. Consumer-led training was associated with a significant increase in understanding. The combination of clinician-led and consumer-led training was associated with a positive change in role adequacy. Consumer-led training is a promising approach to enhance primary health-care workers' understanding of the issues faced by dual-diagnosis consumers, with such positive effects persisting over time. Used alongside other organizational capacity building strategies, consumer-led training has the potential to help address stigma and judgemental attitudes by health workers and improve access to services for this consumer group. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ybema,J.F.; Giesen, F.
Due to an ageing population and global economic competition, there is a societal need for people to extend their working lives while maintaining high work productivity. This article presents an overview of the labour participation, job performance, and job characteristics of older workers in the
Full Text Available Background: Iran has received Afghan refugees for many years. Few studies have been done to assess psychiatric morbidity among Afghan refugees in Iran, especially those who are resettled in camps. This study has been designed to determine the prevalence of mental health problems and the associated demographic factors, in Afghan refugees resettled in Dalakee refugee camp of Bushehr Province, in 2005. Methods: In this cross-sectional survey, a Persian version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 was administered to 321 resettled Afghan refugees with the minimum age of 15 years old who were randomly selected among 2200 residents of Dalakee refugee camp in Bushehr Province. Results: Among mental health subscales, the prevalence of social dysfunction, psychosomatic problem, anxiety and depression in the studied population were 80.1%, 48.9%, 39.3% and 22.1%, respectively. The total prevalence of mental health disorders in this camp was 88.5%. Male gender, living with more than eight persons per house, and being age ten or under at migration time were associated with higher level of social dysfunction. Higher rate of psychosomatic problem was associated with unemployment, being born in Iran, being age ten or under at migration time, and having no entertaining programs. Having 1-3 children, living with more than eight persons per house, and positive history of chronic disease were associated with higher level of anxiety. Having no entertaining programs, and family members' death during migration were associated with higher level of depression. Conclusion: Mental health problems related to immigration and living in camps, are common among Afghan refugees.
Rushing, Rosanne; Watts, Charlotte; Rushing, Sharon
Young women are often lured or forced into selling sex as a result of migrating from rural to urban areas to find work. In this setting, they are exposed to high-risk situations, which may leave them vulnerable to exploitation. Using interviews with young migrant women currently working as sex workers in northern Vietnam, we recorded the perspectives of their initiation into sex work and life as a sex worker. The study found that high levels of forced sex and sexual exploitation were experienced by the majority of the young women interviewed. The young women describe their entry into sex work, first sexual experience (intercourse), violence, and condom negotiation and use. Although access to health care was available, the young women perceived the stigma attached to sex work as a barrier to receiving health care, and thus, preferred health education and care from peers. Health education programs focusing on peer education and support are essential for protecting and empowering these young women. In addition, policies and programs must work toward effective strategies to protect young migrant women.
Kemp, Candace L.; Ball, Mary M.; Perkins, Molly M.; Hollingsworth, Carole; Lepore, Michael J.
Purpose: The purpose of this article was to explore staff-family relationships in assisted living facilities (ALFs) as they are experienced by care staff and perceived by administrators. We identify factors that influence relationships and explore how interactions with residents' families affect care staff's caregiving experiences. Design and…
Ferwerda, Jeremy; Flynn, D J; Horiuchi, Yusaku
One week after President Donald Trump signed a controversial executive order to reduce the influx of refugees to the United States, we conducted a survey experiment to understand American citizens' attitudes toward refugee resettlement. Specifically, we evaluated whether citizens consider the geographic context of the resettlement program (that is, local versus national) and the degree to which they are swayed by media frames that increasingly associate refugees with terrorist threats. Our findings highlight a collective action problem: Participants are consistently less supportive of resettlement within their own communities than resettlement elsewhere in the country. This pattern holds across all measured demographic, political, and geographic subsamples within our data. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that threatening media frames significantly reduce support for both national and local resettlement. Conversely, media frames rebutting the threat posed by refugees have no significant effect. Finally, the results indicate that participants in refugee-dense counties are less responsive to threatening frames, suggesting that proximity to previously settled refugees may reduce the impact of perceived security threats.
Lisa K. Hartley
Full Text Available While most of the world's refugees reside in developing countries, their arrival to western countries is highly politicised, giving rise to questions about the types of entitlements and rights that should, or should not, be granted. In this study, using a mixed-methods community questionnaire (N = 185, we examined attitudes towards social policies aimed at providing assistance to two categories of new arrivals to Australia: resettled refugees (who arrive via its official refugee resettlement program and asylum seekers (who arrive via boat and then seek refugee status. Social policy attitude was examined as a consequence of feelings of anger, fear, and threat, as well as levels of prejudice. Participants felt significantly higher levels of anger, fear, threat, and prejudice towards asylum seekers compared to resettled refugees. For both resettled refugees and asylum seekers, prejudice was an independent predictor of more restrictive social policy attitudes. For resettled refugees, fear and perceived threat were independent predictors for more restrictive social policy whereas for asylum seekers anger was an independent predictor of restrictive social policy. The qualitative data reinforced the quantitative findings and extended understanding on the appraisals that underpin negative attitudes and emotional responses. Practical implications relating to challenging community attitudes are discussed.
Collins, Shane P.; Goldenberg, Shira M.; Burke, Nancy J.; Bojorquez, Ietza; Silverman, Jay G.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.
Due to stigma and the psychosocial repercussions of past trauma and abuse, survivors of sex trafficking may experience increased susceptibility to violence, revictimization, and various harmful health outcomes, including HIV infection. Given the paucity of research characterizing the experiences of formerly trafficked female sex workers (FSWs), we set out to describe and contextualize perceptions of HIV risk among women who have experienced past episodes of sex trafficking and who are currently engaged in sex work in Tijuana, Mexico. Based on semi-structured interviews and ethnographic fieldwork, we describe the following interrelated themes as influencing formerly trafficked FSWs' perceptions and experiences of HIV risk: economic vulnerability; susceptibility to violence; and psychological trauma. Our findings highlight the need for HIV prevention efforts to incorporate broader structural and social interventions aimed at reducing vulnerability to violence and human rights abuses among this population and improving their general economic, psychological, and social well-being. PMID:22963518
Chibanda, Dixon; Cowan, Frances; Verhey, Ruth; Machando, Debra; Abas, Melanie; Lund, Crick
There is growing evidence supporting the use of lay health workers (LHWs) to address the treatment gap for common mental disorders (CMD) through task-shifting. This study looks at the experience of LHWs delivering a problem solving therapy (PST) intervention for CMD for people living with HIV (PLWH) in a primary health care setting. Semi-structured interviews of LHWs (n = 7) and PLWH (10) who received PST were carried out using thematic content analysis. Over a 4 year period LHWs developed indigenous concepts of PST which were: Opening the mind (Kuvhura pfungwa), uplifting (kusimudzira), strengthening and strengthening further (kusimbisa and kusimbisisa) respectively. Using terms locally conceived through knowledge sharing amongst LHWs made it acceptable to deliver PST as part of their daily work. Indigenous terms conceived and developed by LWHs to describe components and processes of PST contribute to the therapy's acceptability and continued use in primary care facilities.
Hiscox, A; Hirooka, R; Vongphayloth, K; Hill, N; Lindsay, S W; Grandadam, M; Brey, P T
During the resettlement of 6500 persons living around the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project in Laos, more than 1200 pour-flush latrines were constructed. To assess the role of these latrines as productive larval habitats for mosquitoes, entomological investigations using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps, visual inspection and emergence trapping were carried out in over 300 latrines during the rainy seasons of 2008-2010. Armigeres subalbatus (Diptera: Culicidae) were nine times more likely to be found in latrines (mean catch: 3.09) than in adjacent bedrooms (mean catch: 0.37) [odds ratio (OR) 9.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 6.74-15.11] and mosquitoes were active in and around 59% of latrines at dusk. Armigeres subalbatus was strongly associated with latrines with damaged or improperly sealed septic tank covers (OR 5.44, 95% CI 2.02-14.67; P < 0.001). Armigeres subalbatus is a nuisance biter and a putative vector of Japanese encephalitis and dengue viruses. Dengue virus serotype 3 was identified from a single pool of non-blood-fed female A. subalbatus using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Maintaining a good seal around septic tanks by covering them with a layer of soil is a simple intervention to block mosquito exit/entry and contribute to vector control in resettlement villages. The scale-up of this simple, cheap intervention would have global impact in preventing the colonization of septic tanks by nuisance biting and disease-transmitting mosquitoes. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.
Kemp, Candace L.; Ball, Mary M.; Perkins, Molly M.; Hollingsworth, Carole; Lepore, Michael J.
Purpose: The purpose of this article was to explore staff–family relationships in assisted living facilities (ALFs) as they are experienced by care staff and perceived by administrators. We identify factors that influence relationships and explore how interactions with residents’ families affect care staff’s caregiving experiences. Design and Methods: The data are drawn from a statewide study involving 45 ALFs in Georgia. Using grounded theory methods, we analyze qualitative data from in-dept...
Artyom V. Vasilyev
Full Text Available The article deals with the maps of Resettlements Administration as a valuable source for the history of social infrastructure of Tomsk-Chulym taiga in beginning of 20 century. Due the lack of available areas for colonization, the flow of migrants was forwarded into Siberian taiga spaces. This required a great effort form authorities on the preparation of resettlements: a study of the region, development of communications, construction of social infrastructure, the church building etc. Measures taken by the Resettlement Administration has found its reflection in the map data, attached to the reports of the Administration. Maps of Resettlement Administration are an informative source for the study of colonization of Tomsk-Chulym taiga. More than any other source, they provide a glimpse on the direction of government policies on settling the area, allow to make conclusions about the success of various measures of the authorities and to reconstruct the main stages of the infrastructure and administrative development of the region, as well as the economic activities of migrants. In diachronic aspect they reveal the development of resettlement processes of region; in compression with other sources they allow to analyze the role of those factors, which on a small degree depended on the policy of Resettlement Administration, but affected the colonization of taiga. This is such a strong source as an illegal skit colonization, the influence of which can be traced on the maps. Considering the maps in terms of the audiences for which they were intended, we can also analyze the peasant and official representation of colonial space.
Full Text Available The urban agglomeration of the Vietnamese southeast industrial driving force Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC has become the most outstanding benefi ciary of the remarkable economic growth and foreign investments in the Vietnamese economy since the start of a comprehensive economic reform process in the mid 1980s. The notable development towards the foremost economic centre led to a high influx of migrant workers. In the course of an ongoing expansion process towards a megacity of tomorrow, the defi cient provision of adequate housing remains one of the most challenging problems of rural migrants in Greater HCMC. However, a future-oriented sustainable megacity concept is strongly dependent on the successful integration of migrants into the urban society. Within this context, the housing market is considered to be a key aspect of comprehensive urban planning. Hereby, housing microfinance (HMF will be presented as an alternative housing finance scheme meeting the demand of a noteworthy number of poor and low-income people. Thereby HMF can do both: focus on specifi c needs of migrants with respect to their current life situation and enhance its outreach to a potential target group.
Shrestha, N R; Conway, D
This analysis considers the question of whether resettlement schemes really relieve population pressure or help achieve a better regional balance between population and resource distribution in a manner consistent with Nepal's national objective of agricultural growth with social justice. The 1st part of the analysis discusses population pressure, followed by the conceptualization of ecodemographic relations and sociodemographic relations. The 2nd part of the analysis considers Nepal's agrarian economy along with a case-study examination of its contemporary resettlement project in Chitwan district. Finally, information is presented from a field survey conducted in Chitwan in 1979, which support the assertions that: the sociodemographic relations -- not population pressure as such -- are the primary roots of agrarian development problems in a country like Nepal; and resettlement schemes, when implemented without due consideration of the pervasive sociodemographic relations, are a deficient technical fix to imbalances in ecodemographic relations. Nepal provides a typical example of ecodemographic imbalances in the regional distribution of population and resources. Although the Hill and Mountain regions make up almost 60% of Nepal's total population, they share less than 30% of the total land under cultivation. The Tarai region, which is the northern extension of the Gangetic Plain in India, occupies over 70% of the cultivated land and supports only slightly over 40% of the population. As the case study illustrates, development strategies such as land resettlement are invariably formulated and implemented as a technical solution within the framework of ecodemographic relations. Little attention is directed to addressing the social dimension of these programs, i.e., the structual problems directly associated with the existing sociodemographic relations. Development, or land resettlement in the present case, is not simply a technical issue concerned with land
Lacourse, Sylvia; Rybak, Natasha; Lewis, Carol; Gartman, Jennifer; Larkin, Jerome; McLaughlin, Suzanne; Toll, Elizabeth T
Since October 2008, the Medicine/Pediatrics Primary Care Center (MPPCC) has been working with Rhode Island's refugee resettlement agency to coordinate medial care for newly resettled adults and adolescent refugees. The process includes obtaining extensive screening labs and providing immunizations. This review discusses the results of selected screening tests for latent TB, stool parasites, vitamin D, and vaccine-preventable diseases, such as hepatitis, performed as part of the initial intake exam during the first two years of operation of the MPPCC Refugee Clinic.
Cueva, Melany; Hicks, Teresa; Kuhnley, Regina; Cueva, Katie
To develop, implement, and evaluate a culturally respectful Wellness Course with and for Alaska's village-based Community Health Workers (CHWs) to support community health promotion and disease prevention. This article describes Wellness Course development, implementation, and evaluation. Five 5-day Wellness Courses were provided for 55 CHWs from communities throughout Alaska. Fifty-two of 55 participants completed a post-course written evaluation. Post-course telephone interviews were conducted with participants (11/32) from the first 3 courses. On written post-course evaluations, all participants wrote detailed descriptions of what they learned and 98% (51/52) felt more confident in their knowledge and ability to present community wellness information. As a result of course participation, 88% (46/52) of CHWs wrote ways they would support family and community wellness, and 85% (44/52) wrote ways they planned to take better care of their health. During the in-depth post-course interviews, all 11 CHWs interviewed described ways the Wellness Course increased their health knowledge, helped them in their work, and prepared them to effectively engage with their communities to promote health. Learning wellness information with hands-on activities and practising health presentation and community engagement skills within the course design increased participants' wellness knowledge and skills, confidence, and motivation to provide community wellness activities. Techniques for active listening, engaging community, and using the arts and storytelling as culturally respectful health promotion are tools that when used by CHWs within their own community have potential to empower community wellness.
Analysis of the Influencing Factors on Resettled Farmer’s Satisfaction under the Policy of the Balance between Urban Construction Land Increasing and Rural Construction Land Decreasing: A Case Study of China’s Xinjin County in Chengdu City
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore what are the influencing factors on resettled farmer’s satisfaction and occupancy under the policy of the balance between urban construction land increasing and rural construction land decreasing in Xinjin County, Chengdu City. Questionnaires, statistical analysis and logistic regressions were employed. The results indicate that the higher educated farmers will be more satisfied with the relocation areas. An increase in the number of public facilities and the associated maintenance costs will decrease the resettled farmer’s satisfaction. Farmers who have moved to new communities are more satisfied with infrastructure, supporting facilities and property management, especially the living environment. The main tasks completed by farmers are the tillage land and to do work for their new community. The positive factors that contribute to the famer’s satisfaction, include land-rights guarantees, compensation for land consolidation, sewage treatment and the living environment. In contrast, public facilities, commercial service networks and resettled area’s maintenance are negative factors for farmer’s satisfaction. Meanwhile, the key factors to promoting harmony between urban and rural construction are to establish relevant laws and regulations, reasonable operation and management mechanisms, farmer-rights protection mechanisms, and to protect famer household income, as well as to improve agricultural production and farmer’s non-agricultural employment opportunity.
On a 2,600 square kilometres parcel of grassland that was once home to 300 species of dinosaurs, three Canadian entities, the military, the Alberta Energy Company and a community of rare and endangered animals provide an example of peaceful co-existence. For eight months of the year the Alberta Energy Company shares the land with Canadian and British military units; all shallow wells have been placed underground so the military can hold annual live-fire exercises. Gas reservoirs exists beneath 57 square kilometres of the range lying at 1,000 metres depth at 4,540 pounds of pressure, which can be increased to 2,050 pounds. The surface of the Suffield range belongs to the federal government, the mineral rights are held by the Province of Alberta, and proghorn antelopes, apparently unconcerned, graze on the ground as if the land belonged to them. They, and the golden eagles that nest in the banks of the South Saskatchewan River appear to be surviving the activities of their two giant co-habitants relatively well
Ellis, Roger; Hogard, Elaine; Sines, David
This article describes a risk audit carried out on the support provided for 36 people with profound learning disabilities who had been resettled from hospital care to supported housing. The risks were those factors identified in the literature as associated with deleterious effects on quality of life. The audit was carried out with a specially…
Displacement of poor families contribute to the worsening of their poverty situation yet involuntary resettlement still takes place. According to the latest Report of the Indonesian Centre on Housing Rights and Eviction, more than 12,000 people were reportedly evicted in August 2008 to give way
Full Text Available Argentina’s human rights-based migration policy has helped regulariseregional migrant flows and has also benefitted refugees with specialprotection needs. Far from jeopardizing the local economy orundermining social cohesion, migrants and resettled refugeeshave been instrumental in Argentina’s swift economic recoveryin recent years.
Data from 1981, 1983, and 1991 to 1993 permit an analysis of the changes in stress, social resources, coping, mental health, employment, English proficiency, family reunification, consumer practices, and traditional and Canadian customs over the first decade of resettlement for Southeast Asian refugees in Canada. (SLD)
Kohn, H.I.; Dreyer, N.A.
The Department of Energy (DOE) has concluded that the Bikini atoll is unsafe for resettlement. In response to the Bikinians' request for an independent review, we have examined the following DOE findings: (a) radionuclide contamination of Eneu and Bikini Islands, (b) radiation dosage to those who might resettle the islands, and (c) risks to the health of such settlers. We are in practical agreement with the DOE estimates. Resettlement of either island in 1983 would lead to a range of annual or 30-year cumulative doses that exceed the Federal Radiation Council (FRC) guides for the general population, but not those for occupation exposure. By 2013 resettlement of Eneu probably would be permissible. The principal source of radiation dose is local food, especially coconut, owing to contamination of the soil by cesium-137. A precise estimate of dose is impossible. The availability of imported foods would lessen local food consumption, but not sufficiently to meet the FRC guides for the general population. The 30-year cumulative index dose is 61 (25-122) rem for Bikini, and about 8 (3-16) rem for Eneu
Xi, Juan; Hwang, Sean-Shong
The involuntary relocation of people for development purposes has become prevalent across the world in recent decades. Depression is one of the documented negative outcomes of involuntary relocation among resettlers. Viewing the affected population simply as passive victims, past studies have largely ignored the coping strategies employed by…
Hadley, Craig; Sellen, Daniel
Little is known about the food insecurity situation among families resettled into the United States as part of the refugee resettlement program. This paper reports on a pilot study examining food insecurity among recently arrived refugee families (n=33). Objectives were to evaluate the usefulness and feasibility of methods to assess the prevalence of food insecurity and child hunger, and to examine associations between child hunger and measures of socio-economic status and measures of acculturation. Results indicated that 85% of households were food insecure, and 42% experienced child hunger. Hunger was more likely to be indicated in households using foods stamps, with lower income, and lower education. Hunger was also more likely to be indicated in households where the primary shopper experienced difficulty shopping and with language. Results are in broad agreement with those reported in other studies and highlight economic and information barriers to achieving food security. These data suggest that further study of food insecurity is warranted among recently resettled refugee communities resettled in the United States.
The Soviet repression of the Hungarian uprising in 1956 caused an exodus of 200,000 refugees. Most of the refugees fled to Austria. Austria immediately called on states to help both financially and by physically sharing the refugees by means of resettlement. As a result, most of the refugees were
Anne-Marie Bélanger McMurdo
Full Text Available By the end of February 2016, Canada had fulfilled its promise to resettle 25,000 Syrian refugees. However, this initiative has put a considerable strain on the settlement services that refugees receive after arrival, and raises questions about fair treatment for other refugees.
Bal, Aydin; Arzubiaga, Angela E.
In this article, we report on an ethnographic study of figured worlds of resettlement and identities that Muslim refugee youth from the Russian Federation coconstructed in an urban school at the Southwestern U.S. border. In the school, multiple cultural-historical discourses came together within a global context: refugee families, a global Islamic…
Full Text Available More than 100,000 Bhutanese refugees have been found homes in third countries. The other side to the story of this successful resettlement programme, however, is the failure to tackle the impact it has had on the remaining camp populations.
This study was undertaken with the objective of assessing the socio-economic impacts that have taken place since the arrival of different batches of settlers following the resettlement scheme. These impacts include damages exerted on the natural environment, accessibility to sites, provision of infrastructural facilities and ...
The primary concern of this research is the justice of using government resources for poverty reduction, in other words investigating whether or not such investment has served its claimed purpose. My central argument is that government organized resettlement projects have
Joshi, Chandni; Russell, Grant; Cheng, I-Hao; Kay, Margaret; Pottie, Kevin; Alston, Margaret; Smith, Mitchell; Chan, Bibiana; Vasi, Shiva; Lo, Winston; Wahidi, Sayed Shukrullah; Harris, Mark F
Refugees have many complex health care needs which should be addressed by the primary health care services, both on their arrival in resettlement countries and in their transition to long-term care. The aim of this narrative synthesis is to identify the components of primary health care service delivery models for such populations which have been effective in improving access, quality and coordination of care. A systematic review of the literature, including published systematic reviews, was undertaken. Studies between 1990 and 2011 were identified by searching Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Australian Public Affairs Information Service - Health, Health and Society Database, Multicultural Australian and Immigration Studies and Google Scholar. A limited snowballing search of the reference lists of all included studies was also undertaken. A stakeholder advisory committee and international advisers provided papers from grey literature. Only English language studies of evaluated primary health care models of care for refugees in developed countries of resettlement were included. Twenty-five studies met the inclusion criteria for this review of which 15 were Australian and 10 overseas models. These could be categorised into six themes: service context, clinical model, workforce capacity, cost to clients, health and non-health services. Access was improved by multidisciplinary staff, use of interpreters and bilingual staff, no-cost or low-cost services, outreach services, free transport to and from appointments, longer clinic opening hours, patient advocacy, and use of gender-concordant providers. These services were affordable, appropriate and acceptable to the target groups. Coordination between the different health care services and services responding to the social needs of clients was improved through case management by specialist workers. Quality of care was improved by training in cultural sensitivity and appropriate use of interpreters. The
Full Text Available This study explores the relationships between forest cover change and the village resettlement and land planning policies implemented in Laos, which have led to the relocation of remote and dispersed populations into clustered villages with easier access to state services and market facilities. We used the Global Forest Cover Change (2000–2012 and the most recent Lao Agricultural Census (2011 datasets to assess forest cover change in resettled and non-resettled villages throughout the country. We also reviewed a set of six case studies and performed an original case study in two villages of Luang Prabang province with 55 households, inquiring about relocation, land losses and intensification options. Our results show that resettled villages have greater baseline forest cover and total forest loss than most villages in Laos but not significant forest loss relative to that baseline. Resettled villages are consistently associated with forested areas, minority groups, and intermediate accessibility. The case studies highlight that resettlement coupled with land use planning does not necessarily lead to the abandonment of shifting cultivation or affect forest loss but lead to a re-spatialization of land use. This includes clustering of forest clearings, which might lead to fallow shortening and land degradation while limited intensification options exist in the resettled villages. This study provides a contribution to studying relationships between migration, forest cover change, livelihood strategies, land governance and agricultural practices in tropical forest environments.
Whitsett, David; Sherman, Martin F
Mental health clinicians who work with asylum seekers provide services to patients who face stressful everyday living conditions. However, little is known about how these problems potentially impact psychiatric treatment within these populations. The purpose of this study was thus to examine whether resettlement factors predict outcomes of a mental health intervention for a sample of asylum-seeking survivors of torture. The study included data from a US outpatient clinic that specialized in treating asylum-seeking survivors of torture. Patients (primarily from Iraq, Afghanistan and African Countries) were evaluated on demographic factors at intake and psychiatric symptoms throughout the course of treatment. Patients experienced significant reductions in depression, anxiety and trauma symptoms, although symptoms still remained near or above clinical thresholds. Stable, uncrowded housing conditions significantly predicted lower depression, anxiety and trauma symptoms at follow-up. These findings support the hypotheses that individuals seeking asylum within the United States who have survived torture can benefit from psychiatric treatment and emphasize the importance of stable living conditions in improving treatment effectiveness. This suggests the need for further research on social predictors of treatment outcomes, as well as the need for clinicians and policymakers to target improved housing as a potentially important tool to reduce psychiatric problems related to torture and forced migration.
Sastre, Lauren; Haldeman, Lauren
INTRODUCTION In 2012, North Carolina ranked in the top ten states in refugee resettlement, with central Guilford County one of the most diverse in the southeast. OBJECTIVE Examine the local resettlement environmental, nutrition and health barriers and needs of refugees in Guilford County, as perceived by individuals providing services to them. METHODS Participants (n = 40) included: medical and social service providers, educators, faith-based volunteers, resettlement agency caseworkers and liaisons to a variety of refugee communities. Guided semistructured interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Themes were identified using deductive content analysis and categorized by frequency of reporting by participants. RESULTS Perceptions were consistent across participants regarding a diverse local refugee population. Resettlement housing was observed to be in poor condition, located in areas of poverty with transportation barriers. However, refugees rarely relocated, due to strong community relationships and support. Perceived dietary risks included: difficulties budgeting and maintaining food assistance, hoarding food, high consumption of sodas and sweets, misperceptions regarding US products (e.g., perceived need for infant formula), and limited health knowledge. Respondents observed that most refugees preferred "fresh" foods, and had strong agricultural skills but lacked green space. Major barriers to health care reported were: poverty, short duration of initial Medicaid coverage, and language (both lack of interpretation services and translated materials). Providers consistently observed type 2 diabetes, weight gain and dental problems across refugee groups. CONCLUSIONS Direct service providers' experiences and observations working with a diverse resettlement population provide unique insight into consistent barriers to achieving good health that confront refugees. While refugees face many barriers, groups often have impressive strengths, such as
Andriushchenko, I V; Liubenzon, R T; Liakhov, N T
A relationship was examined between the blood pressures and the social and living conditions in 2026 female workers at a ship-repairing plant. The persons having a primary or incomplete secondary education and those periodically working at night were demonstrated to constitute an elevated blood pressure risk groups. The regression analysis indicated that the blood pressure values were significantly affected by the following variables: education, extra or overtime work, average income per household, and living conditions. The influence of social and living factors on the systolic blood pressure was 9.4% of the total number of impacts. This parameter accounted for 7.9% for diastolic blood pressure. The examination of the relationship of blood pressure to the labour pattern in the female workers demonstrated a significant increase in the mean systolic and diastolic pressures and in the incidence of systolic and diastolic arterial hypertensions in manual workers. The social and living conditions and the labour pattern can exert a substantial action on the blood pressure values in females, so they may be regarded as risk factors for arterial hypertension and borne in mind in implementing therapeutical and prophylactic measures to control arterial hypertension at the industrial enterprises.
Michael M. Cernea
Full Text Available Many public and private sector projects, such as hydropower dams or mines, trigger forced population displacement but fail to resettle people sustainably and instead cause their impoverishment. Social science research has found that one root cause of such failures and of impoverishment is asset dispossession and the insufficient financing of resettlement. Most governments, however, state that (1 compensation alone is sufficient for restoring the income and livelihood of those displaced, and (2 resources to supplement compensation with additional financing are not available. The author critiques and rejects these positions. He offers a theoretical analysis of the limits and flaws of compensation payments for expropriated assets, and argues that resources are available for supplementing compensation with financial investments for resettlers’ development. The sources for supplementary financing are the economic rent (windfall profits generated by natural resource projects such as hydropower or mining and the regular stream of benefits generated by all projects that require resettlement. Further, the author argues that financial investments in resettlers’ welfare are indispensable and that benefit sharing is feasible. Therefore, both should become basic principles of resettlement legislation and practice. In addition to theoretical analysis, the author documents with empirical evidence that some countries (China, Brazil, Canada, Columbia and Japan already make investments additional to compensation for post-displacement reconstruction. The author sums up his argument in these key points: (1Compensation alone cannot prevent the impoverishment of resettlers and cannot in itself restore and improve their livelihoods; (2Additional financing is needed for direct investments in resettlement with development; (3Compensation levels must be increased; (4Financing resources are available in most cases for investing in resettlers’ development, but
Roč. 2016, č. 18 (2016), s. 152-166 ISSN 1464-8172 Institutional support: RVO:68378009 Keywords : river damming * spatial and social changes * resettlement Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology
Focusing on China's Three Gorges Project (TGP)-Induced Resettlement, the largest scale resettlement induced by a single development project, this study aims to investigate different types of integration patterns among the TGP re-settlers and how modes of integration associate with depressive symptoms. Using Latent Class Analysis, we analyzed survey data on 407 TGP re-settlers. We detected three integration patterns among these re-settlers: the fully integrated (68%), the culturally and economically integrated (21%) and the unintegrated (11%). We found that different integration types were linked to different levels of depressive symptoms. Unless fully integrated and experienced a warm feeling toward new community, re-settlers were vulnerable to elevated depressive symptoms. Our findings that culturally and economically integrated re-settlers had similar levels of depressive symptoms as the unintegrated re-settlers highlighted the importance of subjective dimension of integration and resettlement. We also found that rural re-settlers and those who move with the whole village were more likely to fall into the unintegrated category. Policy implications were discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Usamah, Muhibuddin; Haynes, Katharine
This paper investigates a resettlement program for communities impacted by volcanic hazards from Mayon volcano in the Philippines. Two resettlement sites are selected, the first FVR-FNM village (named after President Fidel V. Ramos and Mayor Florencio N. Munoz) was settled after the 1993 eruption. The second, Bungkaras Village, was settled after the 2006 eruption and associated typhoon Reming lahar event. These two sites were selected in order to explore the process of relocation over the short and longer term, although the main focus of the study is in the more recently settled Bungkaras Village. The overall aim is to determine if exposure to volcanic hazards has decreased without adding to vulnerability through loss of livelihood, community and culture, and exposure to new risks. A mixed method qualitative approach was utilized including semistructured interviews, participant observations, and a participatory workshop. This enabled an in-depth understanding of life and the challenges faced at the resettlement sites vis-à-vis the original settlements. In order to document the process of site selection, planning, and building, semistructured interviews were conducted with key government officials, emergency managers, and donors of the resettlement projects. This research demonstrates that a volcanic resettlement program must be directed by meaningful consultation with the impacted community who also share in the decision making. Successful resettlement must consider aspects of livelihood security, house design, and the availability of public and lifeline facilities.
Getahun, Kefelegn; Poesen, Jean; Van Rompaey, Anton
Severe land degradation and the consequent series of drought and famine episodes have caused major waves of human migration in Ethiopia over the past 5 decades. The main objective of this study was to assess the impacts of consecutive resettlement programs (spontaneous and planned) on Afromontane forests in southwest Ethiopia. The spatial distribution and extent of forest cover was mapped for the periods 1957, 1975, and 2007 based on visual interpretation of aerial photographs and satellite i...
Full Text Available The normative documents, statistic data concerning the people, who are forcedly resettled, are analysed in the article. The aim of the article is to describe the organizational stages of social workers; to determine the features of each stage, to consider the most effective methods and forms of each of the identified stages. Separate facts of creating towns for settlers are studied; information, given in scientific sociological and psychological works, is generalized. The stages of social activity of educators with children of compelled settlers (preparatory, organizational-active and analytical-corrective are determined on the basis of the carried out analysis. The essence of the activity, the methods and forms, the efficiency in realization of work with children, who are forcedly resettled, will be higher upon condition of drawing parents into corresponding forms and kinds of social pedagogical work. The author singles out three stages of work: the preparatory, organizational and activity, analytical and corrective stage. The methods and techniques of social work that shold be applied on each stage are disclosed. The author emphasizes, that not only professionals in the field of education but also representatives of state institutions – organs of executive power, health service, town centers of social service for family, children and youth, public organizations, charity funds and volunteers, which have corresponding specialization or special training, should be drown into realization of proposed stages of work with children-settlers. The author comes to the conclusion that in sprite of existence of already organized work with settlers’ families in Ukraine, more attention should be paid just to work with children because this generation creates the future of our country.
Famoroti, Temitayo O; Fernandes, Lucy; Chima, Sylvester C
The issue of stigma is very important in the battle against HIV/AIDS in Africa since it may affect patient attendance at healthcare centres for obtaining antiretroviral (ARV) medications and regular medical check-ups. Stigmatization creates an unnecessary culture of secrecy and silence based on ignorance and fear of victimization. This study was designed to determine if there is external stigmatization of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) by health care workers (HCWs) at a tertiary hospital in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) province, South Africa. The study investigated the impact of knowledge of HIV/AIDS by HCWs on treatment of patients, as well as the comfort level and attitude of HCWs when rendering care to PLWHA. A descriptive cross sectional study was designed to collect data using an anonymous self-administered structured questionnaire from 334 HCWs. The study was conducted in clinical departments of a large multidisciplinary 922-bed tertiary care teaching hospital in Durban, KZN. Overall HCWs had an above average knowledge about HIV/AIDS although some gaps in knowledge were identified. Tests of statistical significance showed that there was association between level of education and knowledge of HIV/AIDs (p ≤ 0.001); occupation and knowledge of HIV/AIDS (p ≤ 0.001); and gender and knowledge of HIV/AIDS (p = 0.004). Test for comfort level was only significant for gender, with males showing more comfort and empathy when dealing with PLWHA (p = 0.003). The study also revealed that patients were sometimes tested for HIV without informed consent before surgery, due to fear of being infected, and there was some gossiping about patients' HIV status by HCWs, thereby compromising patient confidentiality. The majority of HCWs showed a willingness to report incidents of stigmatization and discrimination to higher authorities, for better monitoring and control. Although knowledge, attitude and comfort level of HCWs taking care of PLWHA was above average, enforcement of
Evaluates the experience of worker entrepreneurship, highlighting successes and failures in Europe, and analyzes the relative importance of factors to worker entrepreneurship such as access to finance, education and training, organizational culture, and worker risk taking. (JOW)
Guo, Xuesong; Kapucu, Naim
Disaster resettlement, as a mitigation and preparedness measure, entails significant economic, physical, and social impacts, which continue to challenge understanding of recovery from major events, especially regarding the extent of the context and environmental efforts to rebuild livelihoods. Based on a case study of Qinling Mountains, China, this research investigates the effects of disaster resettlement from a livelihoods perspective. Methodologically, it proposes a framework that combines the pressure-state-response framework and the sustainable livelihoods approach, and it employs a structural equation model to examine how specific factors affect disaster resettlement. The results indicate that conflicts may occur during and after resettlement owing to the difference or disparity between the concerns of resettled peasants and those of the government. Consequently, the risks related to livelihoods need to be taken seriously. Effective risk communication is critical to bridge the gap between different stakeholders. The paper concludes with some practical and policy recommendations. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.
Agnarson, Abela Mpobela; Masanja, Honorati; Ekström, Anna Mia; Eriksen, Jaran; Tomson, Göran; Thorson, Anna
To explore attitudes, perceptions and practices among health care workers, antiretroviral treatment (ART) patients and community members regarding ART care and the social consequences of ART roll-out in rural Tanzania. We performed focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with health care workers, community members, ART patients, religious leaders, as well as social workers. Field observations and ethnographic assessments were conducted in parallel. We found widespread negative attitudes and perceptions of ART care HIV testing and the ART programme, a lack of trust in its sustainability, as well as lack of community and health worker involvement in the programme planning and treatment. HIV-positive individuals on ART reported risky behaviours with the aim of revenge and were feared by community members. We also found that the ART availability was seen as an incentive to engage in HIV testing among some community members. Our findings underline the importance of involving health workers and the community at a high level and their important role in promoting trust in the ART programme. There is an immense need to adjust interventions focusing on stigma reduction in the direction of ART scale-up and to build awareness among ART patients so they understand how risky behaviours affect their personal well-being and the community at large. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Scott, Kevin C; Taylor, Eboni M; Mamo, Blain; Herr, Nathaniel D; Cronkright, Peter J; Yun, Katherine; Altshuler, Marc; Shetty, Sharmila
Globally, more than two billion persons have been infected at some time with the hepatitis B virus (HBV), and approximately 3.5 million refugees have chronic HBV infection. The endemicity of HBV varies by region. Because chronic hepatitis B is infectious and persons with chronic infection benefit from treatment, CDC recommends screening for HBV among all refugees who originate in countries where the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg; a marker for acute or chronic infection) is ≥2% or who are at risk for HBV because of personal characteristics such as injection drug use or household contact with an individual with HBV infection. Currently, almost all refugees are routinely screened for hepatitis B. However, prevalence rates of HBV infection in refugee populations recently resettled in the United States have not been determined. A multisite, retrospective study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of past HBV infection, current infection, and immunity among refugees resettled in the United States; to better characterize the burden of hepatitis B in this population; and to inform screening recommendations. The study incorporated surveillance data from a large state refugee health program and chart reviews from three U.S. sites that conduct medical screenings of refugees. The prevalence of HBV infection (current or past as determined by available titer levels) varied among refugees originating in different countries and was higher among Burmese refugees than among refugees from Bhutan or Iraq. Current or past HBV infection was also higher among adults (aged >18 years) and male refugees. These data might help inform planning by states and resettlement agencies, as well as screening decisions by health care providers.
Dræbel, Tania; Gueth Kueil, Bill
Background Approximately 95% of South Sudan is malaria-endemic and transmission is high throughout the year. Annually, 2.3 million people are at risk of malarial infection, but children under 5 years, pregnant women and their unborn children are particularly at high risk. Appropriate policies...... for malarial prevention and control require a better understanding of the populations' malarial perceptions and treatment itinerary. Methods A qualitative study was carried out to explore malarial lay perceptions and therapeutic itinerary among 30 resettled pregnant women in Unity State, South Sudan. Results...
Full Text Available This article adopts internal colonization as an interpretative framework for the analysis of resettlement practices in the 1940s and 1950s in Rotterdam, a city that had been heavily bombed during the Second World War. The use of internal colonization presents a new vista on the experiments with population management, in particular with regard to perceived social misfits, in Rotterdam. Internal colonization permits a much more critical reading than existing historiography of postwar reconstruction policies that involved the displacement and isolation of part of the urban population.
Anjum Tanvir M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about how positive phenomena can support resettlement of refugees in a new country. The aim of this study was to examine the hopeful thinking in a group of West African quota refugees at arrival and after 6 years in Sweden and compare these thoughts to the views of resettlement support professionals. Method The primary study population comprised 56 adult refugees and 13 resettlement professionals. Qualitative data were collected from the refugees by questionnaires on arrival and 6 years later. Data were collected from the resettlement professionals by interview about 3 years after arrival of the refugees. Snyder's cognitive model of hope was used to inform the comparative data analyses. Results Hopes regarding education were in focus for the refugees shortly after arrival, but thoughts on family reunion were central later in the resettlement process. During the later stages of the resettlement process, the unresponsiveness of the support organization to the family reunion problem became as issue for the refugees. The professionals reported a complex mix of "silent agency thoughts" underlying the local resettlement process as a contributing reason for this unresponsiveness. Conclusion Hopes regarding education and family reunion were central in the resettlement of West African refugees in Sweden. These thoughts were not systematically followed up by the support organization; possibly the resources for refugees were not fully released. More studies are needed to further investigate the motivational factors underpinning host community support of refugees' hopes and plans.
Seglem, Karoline B.; Oppedal, Brit; Roysamb, Espen
This study examined daily hassles and coping dispositions in relation to life satisfaction and depressive symptoms among resettled unaccompanied refugees and other youth in the resettlement country. A total of 223 unaccompanied refugees ("M" = 20 years) was compared with 609 ethnic minority and 427 majority youth in Norway. Unaccompanied…
van Melle, Marije A.; Lamkaddem, Majda; Stuiver, Martijn M.; Gerritsen, Annette A. M.; Devillé, Walter L. J. M.; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise
A high prevalence of mental and physical ill health among refugees resettled in the Netherlands has been reported. With this study we aim to assess the quality of primary healthcare for resettled refugees in the Netherlands with chronic mental and non-communicable health problems, we examined: a)
Melle, M.A. van; Lamkaddem, M.; Stuiver, M.M.; Gerritsen, A.A.M.; Devillé, W.L.J.M.; Essink-Bot, M.L.
Background: A high prevalence of mental and physical ill health among refugees resettled in the Netherlands has been reported. With this study we aim to assess the quality of primary healthcare for resettled refugees in the Netherlands with chronic mental and non-communicable health problems, we
Hvass, Anne Mette Fløe; Wejse, Christian
Health screening of refugees after settlement in a recipient country is an important tool to find and treat diseases. Currently, there are no available reviews on refugee health screening after resettlement. A systematic literature search was conducted using the online Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System ('MEDLINE') database. Data extraction and synthesis were performed according to the PRISMA statement. The search retrieved 342 articles. Relevance screening was conducted on all abstracts/titles. The final 53 studies included only original scientific articles on health screening of refugees conducted after settlement in another country. The 53 studies were all from North America, Australia/New Zealand and Europe. Because of differences in country policies, the screenings were conducted differently in the various locations. The studies demonstrated great variation in who was targeted for screening and how screening was conducted. The disease most frequently screened for was tuberculosis; this was done in approximately half of the studies. Few studies included screening for mental health and non-infectious diseases like diabetes and hypertension. Health screening of refugees after resettlement is conducted according to varying local policies and there are vast differences in which health conditions are covered in the screening and whom the screening is available to.
Full Text Available Medical treatment for people living with HIV/AIDS started in Mali as early as 1997 thanks to civil society. The national response was officialised by the adoption of the Malian Initiative for Access to Antiretroviral Therapy (Initiative Malienne d’Accès aux Antirétroviraux IMAARV. In 2004 ART, drugs against opportunistic infections and basic biological monitoring were made available free of charge by decree. In 2005, decentralisation of health-care to regions and circles became one of the main thrusts of the national strategy for the ﬁght against the pandemic. Sub-Saharan African countries are making signiﬁcant efforts to provide full geographical coverage of their national territory.It is in this “scaling-up” context that the Solthis NGO (Solidarité Thérapeutique et Initiatives contre le Sida began cooperating with Malian actors to extend access to quality treatment for patients living with HIV/AIDS in the city and region of Ségou. Based on a developmental approach, Solthis opted for continuing in situ technical support for national actors in the ﬁght against AIDS. Thanks to the daily presence of a team “in the ﬁeld” Solthis devotes a large part of its activities to capacity-building for health-care workers through an exchange of medical and scientiﬁc expertise. Efforts were also made to improve health-care workers’ working conditions and to make various tests and drugs accessible to patients infected with HIV. The initial aim was to encourage universal access to ART. Today, the Ségou programme supported by Solthis has developed over 1,500 new treatments in the region. In addition, every PMTCT centre in the region offers prevention and treatment services to mothers and children. Today, the Ségou region is an integral part of the IMAARV initiative as a decentralisation pilot project.Le traitement médical des malades atteints du VIH/SIDA a débuté au Mali dès 1997 grâce à la société civile. La r
Lamkaddem, M.; Stronks, K.; Devillé, W.D.; Olff, M.; Gerritsen, A.A.M.; Essink-Bot, M.L.
Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a major health problem among refugees worldwide. After resettlement, the prevalence of PTSD remains high despite the fact that various PTSD treatments are known to be effective. Methods: We examined the course of PTSD and the role of mental health
The number of refugees who have fled across international borders due to conflict and persecution is at the highest level in recorded history. The vast majority of these refugees find exile in low-income countries neighboring their countries of origin. The refugee children who are resettled to North America, Europe, and Australia arrive with…
Daniel, Shannon M.; Eley, Caitlin
Analysis of data in an after-school writing workshop wherein resettled refugee teens were reading and writing identity texts to prepare for achieving their postsecondary goals suggests that a discursive practice of the connective press was productive in helping teens develop cohesion in their writing. Although true communicative competence in an…
LA SAFE, or Louisiana's Strategic Adaptations for Future Environments, is a strategic framework for community development utilizing future projections of coastal land loss and flood risk as a determining factor in regional growth management and local planning initiatives along a 10, 25, and 50 year timeline. LA SAFE utilizes the input of passionate local citizen leaders and organizations committed to enabling community members to take proactive steps towards mitigating risk and increasing resilience against coastal issues. The project aims to acknowledge that adaptation and restoration must go hand-in-hand with addressing community growth and contraction, as well as realizing Louisiana's most vulnerable coastal communities will need to contemplate resettlement over the next 50 years. The project's outlook is to become a global leader for adaptation and cultural design and restoration. Connecting a global interest with the project and offering extensive ways for people to learn about the issues and get involved will provide an immense amount of support necessary for future coastal environments around the world. This presentation will focus on the output of a year-long planning effort across a six-parish target area encompassing several vulnerable coastal Louisiana locales. The Resettlement of Isle de Jean Charles is a federally-funded and first-of-its kind initiative marking Louisiana's first attempt to relocate a vulnerable coastal community at-scale and as a group. Due to a myriad of environmental factors, the Island has experienced 98 percent land loss since 1955, leading to many of the Island's historical inhabitants to retreat to higher, drier landscapes. In moving the community at-scale, the project seeks to inject new life into the community and its residents in relocating the community to higher, safer ground, while also developing the new community in such a way that it maximizes economic development, job training, and educational opportunities and can be a
Gadaga, B M; Etter, E M C; Mukamuri, B; Makwangudze, K J; Pfukenyi, D M; Matope, G
In the great Limpopo transfrontier conservation area (GLTFCA), there is an increased interface between wildlife and domestic animals, because rural households move their cattle into the game park in search of grazing and watering resources. This creates opportunities for inter-species transmission of infectious diseases, including zoonoses like brucellosis and tuberculosis, which may also pose a health risk to the local rural communities. This study investigated the awareness, perceptions and practices on zoonoses amongst rural cattle owners, commodity chain- and health-workers in three different localities around Gonarezhou National Park (GNP), Zimbabwe, where the interface between wild and domestic animals varies. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Malipati, Chikombedzi and Chiredzi that are considered to be high-, medium- and low-domestic animal-wildlife interface areas, respectively. Data was collected from cattle owners, commodity chain and health-workers using a semi-structured questionnaire. To determine the public health risk of food-borne zoonoses, their practices with regard to meat and milk consumptions, and measures they take to prevent exposure to infections were assessed. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and principal component analysis. Most respondents (52.8 %, 102/193) were cattle owners, followed by health (30.1 %, 58/193) and lastly commodity chain workers (17.1 %, 33/193). Overall 67.4 % (130/193) of the respondents were aware of zoonoses with respective 48, 81.8, and 93.1 % of cattle owners, commodity chain, and health workers, being aware. Significantly more cattle owners (P zoonoses compared to those from high interface areas. All categories of respondents cited anthrax (69.2 %), rabies (57.7 %), tuberculosis (41.5 %) and brucellosis (23.9 %) as important zoonoses. About half (46.1 %; 89/193) of the respondents perceive wildlife as important reservoirs of zoonoses. High proportions 98.4 % (190/193) and 96.4 % (186/193) of
Slewa-Younan, Shameran; Mond, Jonathan; Bussion, Elise; Mohammad, Yaser; Uribe Guajardo, Maria Gabriela; Smith, Mitchell; Milosevic, Diana; Lujic, Sanja; Jorm, Anthony Francis
Resettled refugees are a particularly vulnerable group. They have very high levels of mental health problems, in particular, trauma-related disorders, but very low uptake of mental health care. Evidence suggests that poor "mental health literacy", namely, poor knowledge and understanding of the nature and treatment of mental health problems is a major factor in low or inappropriate treatment-seeking among individuals with mental health problems. This study used a culturally adapted Mental Health Literacy Survey method to determine knowledge of, and beliefs about, helpfulness of treatment interventions and providers for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) amongst resettled Iraqi refugees. 225 resettled Iraqi refugees in Western Sydney attending the Adult Migrant English Program (AMEP), federally funded English language tuition, were surveyed. A vignette of a fictional character meeting diagnostic criteria for PTSD was presented followed by the Mental Health Literacy Survey. PTSD symptomology was measured using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire part IV (HTQ part IV), with Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) used to measure levels of general psychological distress. Only 14.2% of participants labelled the problem as PTSD, with "a problem with fear" being the modal response (41.8%). A total of 84.9% respondents indicated that seeing a psychiatrist would be helpful, followed by reading the Koran or Bible selected by 79.2% of those surveyed. There was some variation in problem recognition and helpfulness of treatment, most notably influenced by the length of resettlement in Australia of the respondents. These findings have important implications for the design and implementation of mental health promotion and treatment programs for resettled refugees and those who work with them.
Richardson, Marie; Kennedy, Noel; Hoey, Ruth; Rhatigan, Jim; Lloyd, Rebecca; McLoughlin, Kathleen
Milford Care Centre's Compassionate Communities Project has developed a series of animated films - The 'Let's Talk' Series. These films are used by the project to encourage people to have think about having difficult conversations about illness and death. The films are available on the project website, via You Tube and are shown during Café Conversations as part of the Compassionate Communities Project. More recently, members of the Specialist Palliative Care Social Work department have been using the films during their direct work with patients and their families. This presentation aims to introduce participants to the Let's Talk film series and describe the learning from social workers who have used the films at home, and in the inpatient unit, with patients, their partners and their children. Social workers were interviewed, sharing their experience and reflection on using the animated films as a practice tool. A number of case studies will be presented to describe the use and impact of the films in practice. The films are a very useful addition to the social work toolbox. Guidelines for their use in practice will be presented. © 2015, Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Full Text Available The interaction between immigrants and members of the host society has been and still is an important issue during processes of migration. This study analyses inter-ethnic aggressive antisocial actions among adolescents. A descriptive analysis reveals the frequency of such behaviour among German, Turkish and Resettler (Aussiedler adolescents. The explanatory analysis concentrates on the influence of a attitudes towards violence (justifications, b an approval with social dominance, c bargaining as a conflict resolution strategy, and d trust in the judicial system (a fair treatment according to the law. It is assumed that justifications for violent behaviour and the approval with social dominance are likely to increase inter-ethnic aggressive antisocial actions. In contrast, bargaining as a preference for conflict resolution and trust in the judicial system are supposed to reduce such behaviour. A final comparison reveals whether the explanations are substantial across the groups.
Stool examinations of 186 Indochinese refugees and 90 immigrants from Mexico resettled in Contra Costa, County, California, have shown that 60 percent of refugees and 39 percent of immigrants are infected with one or more species of pathogenic protozoa and helminths. The mean prevalences of infections among refugees and immigrants, respectively, were: hookworms, 25 and 2 percent; whipworm, 22 and 12 percent; Ascaris, 20 and 12 percent; Giardia lamblia, 11 and 11 percent; Strongyloides, 9 and 1 percent; and Entamoeba histolytica, 2 and 4 percent. clonorchis sinensis was found in 13 percent of refugees and dwarf tapeworm in 9 percent of immigrants. Rates of infection varied with age and sex. Treatment of these parasitic infections is important and justified because: the prevalence is high; some species are highly pathogenic and directly transmittable; most species have long life spans; and safe broad-spectrum drugs are now available.
Companion animals play various roles in people's lives and these roles can impact on loss, grief, bereavement and mourning when the animal has been lost, whether that is through death, when missing, or when relinquished. This paper considers not only companion animal owners, but also those who own farm animals and those who work in animal service…
Mkandawire-Valhmu, Lucy; Stevens, Patricia E
In this study, we responded to the human rights challenges posed in Malawi by burgeoning poverty, rapid urbanization, lack of employment opportunity for women, and AIDS-related morbidity and mortality as they affect young women in domestic service. Through focus groups and individual interviews with 48 female domestic workers, we examined violence from a postcolonial feminist perspective. In this article, we tell the story of how we operationalized our feminist science and forged relationships with Malawian women to identify the jeopardy they face and make steps toward an emancipatory change. We highlight substantive findings, but direct our focus to methodology, theoretical grounding, and implications for nursing research undertaken with vulnerable populations in the Third World.
Greta Jean Yates; Michael Joseph Silverman
On a single night in January in 2014 there were 194,000 children living with their families in shelters in the United States (National Center on Family Homelessness, 2015). A typical family experiencing homelessness consists of a single mother with two to three children. Children experiencing homelessness are more likely to face academic, social, and emotional problems compared to children in poverty. As there is currently a dearth of peer reviewed publications related to music therapy with c...
El-Bialy, Rowan; Mulay, Shree
For refugees who undergo permanent resettlement, characteristics of the resettlement context influence their ability to heal from pre-migration persecution and achieve a sense of wellbeing. This ethnographic study examines the impact of place-related determinants on the sense of wellbeing experienced by refugees resettled in a small urban center. The paper reports on the results of in-depth interviews that were conducted with ten former refugees in St. John's, Canada. We found that challenges and coping resources both emerged from the same aspects of the city, including its built environment, natural environment, history, culture, and low ethnic diversity. Future research should attend to how aspects of the resettlement context can simultaneously challenge and support refugees' sense of wellbeing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
St James-Roberts, Ian; Roberts, Marion; Hovish, Kimberly; Owen, Charlie
Most infants become settled at night by 3 months of age, whereas infants not settled by 5 months are likely to have long-term sleep-waking problems. We assessed whether normal infant development in the first 3 months involves increasing sleep-period length or the ability to resettle autonomously after waking in the night. One hundred one infants were assessed at 5 weeks and 3 months of age using nighttime infrared video recordings and parental questionnaires. The clearest development was in sleep length; 45% of infants slept continuously for ≥5 hours at night at 3 months compared with 10% at 5 weeks. In addition, around a quarter of infants woke and resettled themselves back to sleep in the night at each age. Autonomous resettling at 5 weeks predicted prolonged sleeping at 3 months suggesting it may be a developmental precursor. Infants reported by parents to sleep for a period of 5 hours or more included infants who resettled themselves and those with long sleeps. Three-month olds fed solely breast milk were as likely to self-resettle or have long sleep bouts as infants fed formula or mixed breast and formula milk. Infants are capable of resettling themselves back to sleep in the first 3 months of age; both autonomous resettling and prolonged sleeping are involved in "sleeping through the night" at an early age. Findings indicate the need for physiological studies of how arousal, waking, and resettling develop into sustained sleeping and of how environmental factors support these endogenous and behavioral processes.
Thaler, Thomas; Seebauer, Sebastian; Babcicky, Philipp
Flood risk management has developed a large inventory of adaptive responses to climate-induced and socio-economic driven hazards. This inventory comprises a wide array of structural and non-structural measures. Yet, one of the most effective responses is planned resettlement of people at risk, were largely ignored as a possible adaptation option towards climate changes in the national flood risk management policies. The study investigates current developments of flood relocation projects and introduces the theoretical concept of place attachment and identity to analyse the challenges when putting flood resettlement initiatives into practice. Two study sites in Austria (Eferdinger Basin and Machland region) illustrate the social and individual dynamics as relocation schemes unfold over time. The relocation scheme is voluntary with the authorities offering to buy out buildings at 80% of their estimated market values, but without compensating for devaluation of the building plot. Legal and administrative processes for executing relocations are well institutionalized. From an engineering standpoint, relocation is the most effective and cost-efficient adaptive response to flood risk in the study areas. However, the measure is socially and politically highly contested. For residents in relocation zones, many profound changes they are confronted with are linked to their place of living, such as iterms of their livelihood, e.g. by no longer passing the family agricultural business to the next generation; in terms of their self-identity, e.g. when tasked to reformulate everyday practices tied to the home left behind; or in terms of rebuilding social networks, e.g. when those who remain have to cope with the thinning out of trusted neighbours. To explore the role of place attachment and identity in individual decision-making, we conducted semi-structured interviews with residents. Our results show that place attachment and identity is a key factor guiding individual
Tham Chi Dung
Full Text Available Objective: Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1 is endemic in poultry in Viet Nam. The country has experienced the third highest number of human infections with influenza A(H5N1 in the world. A study in Hanoi in 2001, before the epizootic that was identified in 2003, found influenza A(H5N1 specific antibodies in 4% of poultry market workers (PMWs. We conducted a seroprevalence survey to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies to influenza A(H5N1 among PMWs in Hanoi, Thaibinh and Thanhhoa provinces. Methods: We selected PMWs from five markets, interviewed them and collected blood samples. These were then tested using a horse haemagglutination inhibition assay and a microneutralization assay with all three clades of influenza A(H5N1 viruses that have circulated in Viet Nam since 2004. Results: The overall seroprevalence was 6.1% (95% confidence interval: 4.6–8.3. The highest proportion (7.2% was found in PMWs in Hanoi, and the majority of seropositive subjects (70.3% were slaughterers or sellers of poultry. Discussion: The continued circulation and evolution of influenza A(H5N1 requires comprehensive surveillance of both human and animal sites throughout the country with follow-up studies on PMWs to estimate the risk of avian–human transmission of influenza A(H5N1 in Viet Nam.
Foddai, Alessandro; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Krogh, Kaspar
Denmark has been recognized as officially free (OTF) from bovine tuberculosis (bTB) since 1980. In this study, we estimated the annual probability (PIntro) of introducing Mycobacterium bovis into the Danish cattle population, through (a) imports of cattle and (b) foreign personnel working in Dani...... easily in other countries with similar bTB status to Denmark, where wildlife represents a negligible probability of infection for domestic cattle and where the imported live cattle represent the main pathway of bTB introduction into the local cattle population....
Humberto José Da Rocha
Full Text Available The Brazilian electrical sector, with a predominant hydric matrix, generates social and environmental impacts, among which stands out the compulsory displacement of local populations. The de-territorialization and re-territorialization caused by hydroelectric plants produce a process characterized by “multiterritorialization” of conflict. This paper discusses this conflict, which involves consortiums of construction companies and the Movement of People Affected by Dams (MAB, as a contesting movement. The objective is to analyze to what extent resettlements produced by the construction of hydroelectric dams and organized by MAB potentiate actions against future constructions. Combining qualitative research with quantitative data, we present the case of the Uruguay basin, in order to demonstrate that, although they represent empowerment points, the potential of resettlements must be relativized from the standpoint of a broader social process.
Artyom Y. Peretyatko
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the negative effects of the Emancipation Reform of 1861 on the Don region. The author shows that the result of this reform was mass resettlement of peasants in Mius District without the right of choice of land and compensation for real estate. The main attention is paid to the passive resistance of the inhabitants of one village attempts to evict them on unprepared areas, selected by their former landlord. Results of the research are the findings that the interests of the peasants living on the land of the yurt were completely ignored during the conduct of the Emancipation Reform, and that until 1868 the local officials refused to go on any compromise. Only after the complete failure of the brutal policies local administration made concessions and allowed peasants to select sites for relocation.
Lawlis, Tanya; Islam, Wasima; Upton, Penney
Food security is defined by four dimensions: food availability, access, utilisation and stability. Resettled refugees face unique struggles securing these dimensions and, thus, food security when moving to a new country. This systematic review aimed to identify the challenges Australian refugees experience in achieving the four dimensions of food security. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed; the SPIDER tool was used to determine eligibility criteria. Three databases were searched using terms relating to food in/security and refugees from 2000 to 20 May 2017. Seven articles were retained for analysis. Studies were categorised against the four dimensions, with four studies identifying challenges against all dimensions. Challenges contributing to high levels of food insecurity in each dimension included: availability and cost of traditional foods, difficulty in accessing preferred food outlets, limited food knowledge and preparation skills and food stability due to low income and social support. Food insecurity adversely impacts refugee health and integration. Methodical research framed by the four dimensions of food security is imperative to address challenges to securing food security in refugee groups and assisting in the development of sustainable interventions. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.
Alemi, Qais; James, Sigrid; Montgomery, Susanne
This qualitative study explored how Afghan refugees conceptualize frames of mind that may reflect depression in general and as it relates to trauma they experienced. We performed in-depth interviews with 18 Afghans residing in the San Diego area. Views regarding the causes, symptoms, and perceived treatments of depression were gathered through free-listing techniques, and supplemented with narratives relating to pre- and post-resettlement stressors and coping mechanisms. Data were analyzed with standard qualitative content analysis methods. Items endorsed with relation to depression causality included pre-migration war traumas, notably separation from family, and post-migration stressors including status dissonance and cultural conflicts that ranged from linguistic challenges to intergenerational problems. Depressive symptoms were viewed as highly debilitating, and included changes in temperament, altered cognitions, avoidance and dissociative behaviors, and somatic complaints. Relief was sought through family reunification and community support, reliance on prayer, and the academic success of their children in the US. The findings underscore the need for practitioners to take into account situational stressors, cultural aspects of mourning and symptomatology, and existing coping mechanisms in developing interventions that are based on refugees' articulated needs. © The Author(s) 2016.
Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Montagnani, Francesca; Tordini, Giacinta; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Bisoffi, Zeno; Bartoloni, Alessandro; De Luca, Andrea
We describe a case of persistent strongyloidiasis complicated by recurrent meningitis, in a human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) seropositive Peruvian migrant adult resettled in Italy. He was admitted with signs and symptoms of acute bacterial meningitis, reporting four other meningitis episodes in the past 6 years, with an etiological diagnosis of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecium in two cases. He had been previously treated with several antihelmintic regimens not including ivermectin, without eradication of strongyloidiasis, and he had never been tested for HTLV before. During the described episode, the patient was treated for meningitis with broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy and 200 μg/kg/dose oral ivermectin once daily on day 1, 2, 15 and 16 with full recovery and no further episodes of meningitis. The presented case underlines several critical points concerning the management of poorly known neglected diseases such as strongyloidiasis and HTLV infection in low-endemic areas. Despite several admissions for meningitis and strongyloidiasis, the parasitic infection was not adequately treated and the patient was not previously tested for HTLV. The supply of ivermectin and the choice of treatment scheme was challenging since ivermectin is not approved in Italy and there are no standardized guidelines for the treatment of severe strongyloidiasis in HTLV seropositive subjects. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Full Text Available Studies show that involuntary displacement often creates various threats for the community and individuals. To reduce these risks, Environmental and Social Impact Assessment, Health Impact Assessment, and Social Assessment are recommended. Whereas assessments focus mostly on the community level and studies describe cases of large population displacements, there is a lack of empirical evidence about how individuals cope with involuntary displacement and what factors contribute or hinder their successful adaptation in the target location. This study uses semi-structured interviews with 21 people about their experience of resettlement due to a mine collapse in Bytom, Poland, that led to involuntary displacement of 560 people. Data was analyzed according to the constructivist grounded theory principles. Results show that this case illustrates a mixture of post-disaster and development-induced displacement. Various factors and resources that affected coping strategies were analyzed, including: material and legal status, health and age, communication skills, and relocation experience. Our findings suggest that, when circumstances allow, an individual resources assessment should also be conducted to counteract impoverishment and further marginalization of the disprivileged and vulnerable individuals.
spent much time reading and generally responds to problems on instinct and "common sense" rather than a conceptually defined worldview developed by academics and intellectuals (Fisher 2016. Nevertheless, during the presidential campaign, and continuing after his victory, Trump surrounded himself with high-level advisers, political appointees, and staff who, if they have nothing else in common, embrace something roughly akin to the Clash of Civilizations perspective (Ashford 2016. The paper will focus primarily on Trump’s approach to refugee resettlement. One might think that refugees would elicit an almost knee-jerk sympathy given the tragic circumstances that drove their migration, but perceptions of refugees are often tied up with geopolitical considerations and domestic political realities. Following 9/11, the threat of Islamic-inspired terrorism emerged as a national security priority. With the onset of the Syrian Civil War and the significant refugee crisis that ensued in its wake, paired with some high-profile terrorist attacks in the United States and Europe, the “Islamic threat” became even more pronounced. The perception that Islamic-inspired terrorism is a real and imminent threat has contributed to a growing antagonism toward the resettlement of refugees, and particularly Muslims. When viewed through the lens of the CoC paradigm, victims of persecution can easily be transformed into potential threats. Insofar as Islam is understood as an external and even existential threat to the American way life, the admission of these migrants and refugees could be deemed a serious threat to national security. This paper will begin by examining some of Trump’s campaign promises and his efforts to implement them during the early days of his administration. Although the underlying rationale feeding into the contemporary reaction against refugee resettlement is unique in many respects, it is rooted in a much longer history that extends back to the World War II
Board, Amy R; Suzuki, Sumihiro
Previous research has documented that parasite infection may increase vulnerability to TB among certain at risk populations. The purpose of this study was to identify whether an association exists between latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and intestinal parasite infection among newly resettled refugees in Texas while controlling for additional effects of region of origin, age and sex. Data for all refugees screened for both TB and intestinal parasites between January 2010 and mid-October 2013 were obtained from the Texas Refugee Health Screening Program and were analyzed using logistic regression. A total of 9860 refugees were included. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, pathogenic and non-pathogenic intestinal parasite infections yielded statistically significant reduced odds of LTBI. However, when individual parasite species were analyzed, hookworm infection indicated statistically significant increased odds of LTBI (OR 1.674, CI: 1.126-2.488). A positive association exists between hookworm infection and LTBI in newly arrived refugees to Texas. More research is needed to assess the nature and extent of these associations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Soller, Brian; Goodkind, Jessica R; Greene, R Neil; Browning, Christopher R; Shantzek, Cece
Interventions aimed at enhancing mental health are increasingly centered around promoting community attachment and support. However, few have examined and tested the specific ecological factors that give rise to these key community processes. Drawing from insights from the ecological network perspective, we tested whether spatial and social overlap in routine activity settings (e.g., work, school, childcare) with fellow ethnic community members is associated with individuals' attachment to their ethnic communities and access to social resources embedded in their communities. Data on routine activity locations drawn from the Refugee Well-Being Project (based in a city in the Southwestern United States) were used to reconstruct the ecological networks of recently resettled refugee communities, which were two-mode networks that comprise individuals and their routine activity locations. Results indicated that respondents' community attachment and support increased with their ecological network extensity-which taps the extent to which respondents share routine activity locations with other community members. Our study highlights a key ecological process that potentially enhances individuals' ethnic community attachment that extends beyond residential neighborhoods. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.
Dræbel, Tania; Gueth Kueil, Bill
Approximately 95% of South Sudan is malaria-endemic and transmission is high throughout the year. Annually, 2.3 million people are at risk of malarial infection, but children under 5 years, pregnant women and their unborn children are particularly at high risk. Appropriate policies for malarial prevention and control require a better understanding of the populations' malarial perceptions and treatment itinerary. A qualitative study was carried out to explore malarial lay perceptions and therapeutic itinerary among 30 resettled pregnant women in Unity State, South Sudan. The study showed that the therapeutic itinerary was prompted by fever and composed of five steps that were simultaneously or successively explored. The household and community constitute the first-line treatment options for fever. Interviewees relied on homemade remedies and concoctions, traditional healers' cures, magician's rituals and private formal and informal medicine vendors at the local market before seeking malarial diagnosis and treatment at the health centre. Improving capacities for proper identification and management of malarial fever at household and community level is a priority for reducing the delay in seeking timely and proper treatment. The formal health system may, in time, aspire to address the economic and cultural barriers within the system that contribute to delaying effective treatment-seeking. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available Severe land degradation and the consequent series of drought and famine episodes have caused major waves of human migration in Ethiopia over the past 5 decades. The main objective of this study was to assess the impacts of consecutive resettlement programs (spontaneous and planned on the forests in southwest Ethiopia. The spatial distribution and extent of forest cover were mapped for the periods 1957, 1975, and 2007 based on visual interpretation of aerial photographs and satellite images. The rate of deforestation was analyzed using overlay and buffer analysis techniques available in ArcGIS software. Focus group discussions and household surveys were conducted to collect information on landscape (forest change and the causes and consequences of deforestation. Results from the forest cover change analysis revealed that the study area lost large tracts (80% of its forest cover between 1957 and 2007. Demographic, socioeconomic, and cultural changes introduced by migrants were the leading drivers of deforestation in the study area. In addition, the rate of deforestation in the region has been exacerbated by a low level of education and awareness of the local people about the benefits of forests, lack of regulations to protect the forests, habitat destruction to deter crop-damaging wild pests, forest clearing for fuelwood and charcoal making, and wood extraction for construction and household furniture purposes.
Blessing Uchenna Mberu
Full Text Available Using the 1998 Migration, Gender and Health Survey in Five Regions of Ethiopia, and multivariate regression techniques, this paper examines the relationship between internal migration and household living conditions. The analysis finds significant living condition advantage of permanent and temporary migrants over non-migrants. These advantages are primarily linked to migration selectivity by education and non-agricultural income. Once the independent effects of these variables are controlled, no statistical significant independent association exists between migration status and living conditions. Government policies of resettlement in the 1980s and ethnic federalism of the 1990s may have engendered stress migration and exacerbated poor living outcomes for return migrants. The resort to migration and/or resettlement as an individual or government policy response to periodic unfavorable conditions in places of origin is not strongly supported by this analysis as the key to improved living conditions. Promoting higher education and opportunities for employment outside the agricultural sector are more likely to yield improved living conditions in Ethiopia.
Full Text Available Background: Anemia of any degree contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality and has a significant effect on the quality of life of elderly women. Despite its clinical importance, anemia in the elderly women is underrecognized. Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude and correlates of anemia in elderly women of a resettlement colony of Delhi. Materials and Methods: A community-based, cross-sectional study for the duration of 1 year was conducted among 512 geriatric women (≥60 years. Demographic characteristics, dietary assessment, and behavioral risk factors were determined by interview, and the participants underwent physical examination followed by hemoglobin estimation by HemoCue. Anemia was defined using the WHO criteria of hemoglobin <12 g/dl. Chi-square test was employed to study the association between sociodemographic factors and anemia followed by multivariate regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of anemia was 79.9% according to the WHO criteria of hemoglobin <12 g/dl in females. Age, education, marital status, financial dependence, diagnosed chronic disease, diet, calorie intake, history of worm infestation, and body mass index (BMI were significantly associated with anemia on univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, age, marital status, financial dependence, diagnosed chronic disease, diet, calorie intake, and BMI were significant explanatory variables for anemia. Conclusion: Our study points out high prevalence of and some of the major factors associated with anemia in elderly women. The need of the hour is to include our elderly women under the gamut of National Anemia Prophylaxis Program.
Full Text Available Background: Dental caries remains the most important dental health problem in developing countries. In India the prevalence of dental caries is reported to be about 50-60%. Most of the Indian studies have been carried out in school children and very few in adults. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of dental caries in the adult population (aged 35-44 years and in the elderly (60 years and above in an urban resettlement colony in New Delhi. Methodology: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Dakshinpuri, New Delhi, from January to February 2007. A local adaptation of the WHO questionnaire was used. Oral examination was done and dentition status was recorded by trained investigators and according to the standard procedures. Results: A total of 452 participants were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of dental caries in the 35-44 years age-group was 82.4% and it was 91.9% in those ≥60 years. The DMF index was 5.7 ± 4.7 in the 35-44 years age-group and 13.8 ± 9.6 in the ≥60 years age-group. Of the participants, 27.9% were currently using tobacco. A statistically significant association was found between tobacco consumption and dental caries ( P = 0.026. The awareness about good and bad dental practices was found to be low among the study participants. One-fifth of the individuals with dental problems relied on home remedies. Conclusion: The prevalence of dental caries among adults is high in this population. There is a need to generate awareness about oral health and the prevention of dental caries and to institute measures for the provision of dental care services at the primary level.
Full Text Available Background: Research indicates that exposure to war-related traumatic events impacts on the mental health of refugees and leads to higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression, and anxiety symptoms. Furthermore, stress associated with the migration process has also been shown to impact negatively on refugees’ mental health, but the extent of these experiences is highly debatable as the relationships between traumatic events, migration, and mental health outcomes are complex and poorly understood. Objective: This study aimed to examine the influence of trauma-related and post-migratory factors on symptoms of PTSD, depression, and anxiety in two samples of Bosnian refugees that have resettled in two different host nations—Austria and Australia. Method: Using multiple recruitment methods, 138 participants were recruited to complete self-report measures assessing acculturative stress, PTSD, depressive, and anxiety symptoms. Results: Hierarchical regressions indicated that after controlling for age, sex, and exposure to traumatic events, acculturative stress associated with post-migratory experiences predicted severity of PTSD and anxiety symptoms, while depressive symptoms were only predicted by exposure to traumatic events. This model, however, was only significant for Bosnian refugees resettled in Austria, as PTSD, depressive, and anxiety symptoms were only predicted by traumatic exposure in the Bosnian refugees resettled in Australia. Conclusion: These findings point toward the importance of assessing both psychological and social stressors when assessing mental health of refugees. Furthermore, these results draw attention to the influence of the host society on post-migratory adaptation and mental health of refugees. Further research is needed to replicate these findings among other refugee samples in other host nations.
Full Text Available Resettlement to their radiation-contaminated hometown could be an option for people displaced at the time of a nuclear disaster; however, little information is available on the safety implications of these resettlement programs. Kawauchi village, located 12-30 km southwest of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, was one of the 11 municipalities where mandatory evacuation was ordered by the central government. This village was also the first municipality to organize the return of the villagers. To assess the validity of the Kawauchi villagers' resettlement program, the levels of internal Cesium (Cs exposures were comparatively measured in returnees, commuters, and non-returnees among the Kawauchi villagers using a whole body counter. Of 149 individuals, 5 villagers had traceable levels of Cs exposure; the median detected level was 333 Bq/body (range, 309-1050 Bq/kg, and 5.3 Bq/kg (range, 5.1-18.2 Bq/kg. Median annual effective doses of villagers with traceable Cs were 1.1 x 10(-2 mSv/y (range, 1.0 x 10(-2-4.1 x 10(-2 mSv/y. Although returnees had higher chances of consuming locally produced vegetables, Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test showed that their level of internal radiation exposure was not significantly higher than that in the other 2 groups (p=0.643. The present findings in Kawauchi village imply that it is possible to maintain internal radiation exposure at very low levels even in a highly radiation-contaminated region at the time of a nuclear disaster. Moreover, the risks for internal radiation exposure could be limited with a strict food control intervention after resettlement to the radiation-contaminated village. It is crucial to establish an adequate number of radio-contaminated testing sites within the village, to provide immediate test result feedback to the villagers, and to provide education regarding the importance of re-testing in reducing the risk of high internal radiation exposure.
"Modernidad" y polarización de la salud en México. Condiciones de vida de los trabajadores y sus familias "Modernity" and polarization of health in Mexico. Living conditions for workers and their families
Jorge Villegas Rodríguez
Full Text Available Se analizan las características del proceso de modernización en México y el deterioro y polarización que ha producido en las condiciones de vida y salud de la población general y de los trabajadores y sus familias. Para ello se muestran diversos indicadores socioeconómicos y de salud. Respecto a la morbilidad, las enfermedades infecciosas ocupan un porcentaje muy elevado, pero otros fenómenos como diabetes, cirrosis hepática, infarto cardiaco, tumores malignos y accidentes y violencias son también serios problemas de salud pública. En regiones del país con características socioeconómicas bien diferenciadas, como los estados de Chiapas y Nuevo León, la polarización de la salud resulta más evidente aún. Por otra parte, el deterioro de las condiciones laborales y la información existente respecto a la salud de los trabajadores, a pesar de sus limitaciones, indican que los trabajadores deben ser considerados como un grupo prioritario. Se muestra el comportamiento paradójico de los accidentes y enfermedades laborales objetos de compensación, con menos accidentes pero más graves, y detección de enfermedades en grados muy avanzados, así como diferencias significativas en la morbilidad laboral en distintas ramas de la producción manufacturera.This article analyzes the characteristics of the modernization process in Mexico and the polarization produced in living and health conditions for the general population as well as workers and their families. We studied socioeconomic and health indicators for this purpose. Infectious diseases occupy a high percentage of general morbidity, yet diseases such as diabetes, hepatic cirrhosis, myocardial infarction, malignant tumors, and accidents and violence are also serious public health problems as causes of morbidity and mortality. In some regions of the country with specific socioeconomic characteristics, polarization of health conditions is even more evident, as in the state of Chiapas as
This is the preliminary report on the results obtained in the Migrating Worker-project. This project was initiated by the Danish Ministry of Finance with the aim of illustrating the effects of the 1408/71 agreement and the bilateral double taxation agreements Denmark has with the countries included...
Péronard, Jean-Paul de Cros
This paper is a comparative analysis between workers in healthcare with high and low degree of readiness for living technology such as robotics. To explore the differences among workers’ readiness for robotics in healthcare, statistical analysis was conducted in the data set obtained from 200...
Os sentidos do cooperativismo de trabalho: as cooperativas de mão-de-obra à luz da vivência dos trabalhadores The senses of labor cooperativism: manpower cooperatives from the standpoint of the worker's living experience
Fábio de Oliveira
Full Text Available O artigo, síntese de pesquisa apresentada como tese de doutorado, discute os sentidos do cooperativismo a partir de observações e de relatos de trabalhadores sobre suas vivências, sobre as relações de trabalho estabelecidas em suas cooperativas e procura construir uma crítica de viés psicossocial às cooperativas de mão-de-obra. Foram realizadas observações, conversas informais e 14 entrevistas semi-estruturadas em diversas cooperativas. Os aspectos mais importantes de diferenciação presentes nas entrevistas referem-se a: formas distintas de participação nas diferentes cooperativas; relação entre gestão da cooperativa e gestão do trabalho. Conclui que o sentido do cooperativismo nas cooperativas industrial e populares estudadas é marcado pelos dilemas próprios da autogestão, enquanto, na cooperativa de mão-de-obra, pela precarização do trabalho em relação ao vínculo empregatício tradicional.This article, synthesis of a research presented as doctoral thesis, discusses the senses produced about the cooperativism taken from observations and the descriptions from workers about their living experiences on work relations present in their cooperatives and tries to build a psychosocial critic concerning manpower cooperatives. It is based on observations, informal talks and 14 semi-structured interviews with cooperators from various cooperatives. The most important elements of differentiation in the interviews are: different ways of participation in different cooperatives; cooperative management and work management relationship. It concludes that the sense of cooperativism from the industrial and popular cooperatives that were studied is marked by self-management dilemmas, while, at manpower cooperatives, it is marked by precarious conditions of work in relation to the traditional employment contract.
Nosè, Michela; Turrini, Giulia; Imoli, Maria; Ballette, Francesca; Ostuzzi, Giovanni; Cucchi, Francesca; Padoan, Chiara; Ruggeri, Mirella; Barbui, Corrado
In recent years there has been a progressive rise in the number of asylum seekers and refugees displaced from their country of origin, with significant social, economic, humanitarian and public health implications. The aim of this study is to describe the frequency and correlates of psychological distress and psychiatric disorders in asylum seekers and refugees resettled in an Italian catchment area. In the catchment area of Verona, all male asylum seekers and refugees aged 18 or above included in the Italian protection system for asylum seekers and refugees during a period of 1 year were screened for psychological distress and psychiatric disorders using validated questionnaires. During the study period, 109 asylum seekers or refugees were recruited. The frequency of traumatic events experienced was very high. More than one-third of the participants (36%) showed clinically relevant psychological distress, and one-fourth (25%), met the criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis, mainly PTSD and depressive disorders. In multivariate analyses, time after departure, length of stay in the host country and number of traumatic events were independent factors associated with psychological distress and psychiatric disorders. In an unselected sample of male asylum seekers and refugees, after around 1 year of resettlement in an Italian catchment area, the frequency of psychological distress and psychiatric disorders was substantial and clinically relevant. Health care systems should include a mental health component to recognise and effectively treat mental health conditions.
Frounfelker, Rochelle L; Assefa, Mehret T; Smith, Emily; Hussein, Aweis; Betancourt, Theresa S
Somali refugees are resettling in large numbers in the US, but little is known about the Somali Bantu, an ethnic minority within this population. Refugee youth mental health is linked to the functioning of the larger family unit. Understanding how the process of culturally adjusting to life after resettlement relates to family functioning can help identify what kind of interventions might strengthen families and lead to better mental health outcomes for youth. This paper seeks to address the following research questions: (1) How do different groups of Somali Bantu refugees describe their experiences of culturally adapting to life in the US?; and (2) How, if at all, do processes of cultural adaptation in a new country affect Somali Bantu family functioning? We conducted 14 focus groups with a total of 81 Somali Bantu refugees in New England. Authors analyzed focus groups using principles of thematic analysis to develop codes and an overarching theoretical model about the relationship between cultural adaptation, parent-child relationships, and family functioning. Views and expectations of parent-child relationships were compared between Somali Bantu youth and adults. Cultural negotiation was dependent upon broader sociocultural contexts in the United States that were most salient to the experience of the individual. Adult and youth participants had conflicting views around negotiating Somali Bantu culture, which often led to strained parent-child relationships. In contrast, youth sibling relationships were strengthened, as they turned to each other for support in navigating the process of cultural adaptation.
Daehnert, D. [Lausitzer Braunkohle AG (LAUBAG), Senftenberg (Germany); Bayer, M. [GMB, Senftenberg (Germany)
Due to the new ways followed by the residents concerned by actively participating in the shaping and planning process of resettlements in the Lusatian mining region, different factors of influence as to the search for and layout of the location have clearly gained in significance. The illustrated examples show the compelling acceptance of the typical character of the Lower Lusatian region, with its low population density and its location in the Land Brandenburg of the Federal Republic of Germany, for the layout of resettlement locations under consideration of the integrative and active participation of the residents and their community representatives - out of their own self-image. (orig.) [German] Durch die neuen Wege bei der Mitgestaltung und Mitplanung von Umsiedlungen im Lausitzer Revier durch die betroffenen Buergerinnen und Buerger haben sich unterschiedliche Einflussfaktoren in der Standortsuche und -gestaltung deutlich staerker aktzentuiert bzw. hervorgehoben. Die dargelegten Beispiele wiesen fuer die Gestaltung von Umsiedlungsstandorten, unter Beruecksichtigung des integrativen Mitgestaltungsprozesses der Buerger und ihrer Gemeindevertretung - aus ihrem eigenen Selbstverstaendnis heraus -, die zwingende Anerkennung des regionaltypischen Charakters der Niederlausitz, mit ihrer geringen Bevoelkerungsdichte und ihrer Lage im Flaechenbundesland Brandenburg, auf. (orig.)
Kang, S D
"After presenting the three major types of migrant workers currently in South Korea--professional employees, technical trainees and illegal workers--this article examines the role of contractors and other middle-men to expose the possibility of ¿intermediary exploitation'. The results of such exploitation are illustrated in the living and working conditions of foreign workers." excerpt
Huijts, I.; Kleijn, W.C.; van Emmerik, A.A.P.; Noordhof, A.; Smith, A.J.M.
This study investigated the relationship between coping style, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and quality of life in traumatized refugees (N = 335). Participants had resettled in the Netherlands on average 13 years prior and were referred to a Dutch clinic for the treatment of
Cook, Tonya L; Shannon, Patricia J; Vinson, Gregory A; Letts, James P; Dwee, Ehtaw
Karen refugees have suffered traumatic experiences that affect their physical and mental health in resettlement. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends assessing traumatic histories and mental health symptoms during initial public health screening. This article reports the traumatic experiences that Karen refugees were able to describe during a short screening and contributes knowledge to existing human rights documentation systems. Four semi-structured and open-ended items asked about lifetime experiences of war trauma and torture. Interviews were completed with adult, Karen refugees during their initial public health screening. Experiences of war trauma and torture were coded using the extensive Human Rights Information and Documentation (HURIDOCS) Micro-thesauri coding system. Additional codes were created to describe experiences not captured by existing codes. Over 85% of 179 Karen people interviewed experienced life-threatening war trauma. All participants who reported war trauma or torture stories were able to describe at least one event. New war trauma codes proposed include: widespread community fear, systematic destruction/burning of house or village, exposure to dead bodies, orphaned in the context of war, injury caused by a landmine, fear of Thai police or deportation from Thailand, and harm or killings in the context of war. New torture codes include: forced portering; forced to be a human landmine sweep; forced to be a soldier, including child soldier; forced contact with a dead body; and removal of the eyes. Karen refugees were able to report traumatic experiences in the context of a brief health screening. The findings confirm existing reports of human rights violations against Karen people and suggest that additional codes be added to the HURIDOCS Micro-thesauri system that is used by torture treatment centers. Understanding the nature of traumatic experiences of this group is important for health providers working
Slewa-Younan, Shameran; Mond, Jonathan M; Bussion, Elise; Melkonian, Maral; Mohammad, Yaser; Dover, Hanan; Smith, Mitchell; Milosevic, Diana; Jorm, Anthony Francis
To examine levels of psychological distress and help seeking behaviour in resettled refugees attending English tuition classes in Australia, and their associations with participants' demographic characteristics. Data was collected by bilingual interviewers between March and November 2013. A volunteer sample of attendees of Adult Migrant English Programs (AMEP) in Western Sydney were recruited. Participants were two hundred and twenty five Iraqi refugees resettled in Western Sydney, who had left Iraq no earlier than 1991, were fluent in Arabic and/or English, and were between the ages of 18 and 70. The chief outcome measures used were the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K-10) as well as The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). On the K-10, 39.8% of participants had severe psychological distress, 19.4% moderate distress, and 40.7% had low to mild distress. Ninety-five percent of participants reported having experienced one or more potentially traumatic event (PTE) as defined by the HTQ prior to leaving Iraq, with a mean of 14.28 events (SD = 8.69). Thirty-one percent of participants met the threshold (≥2.5) for clinically significant PTSD symptomatology, with a significantly higher occurrence among participants with lower education attainment (χ (2) (3) = 8.26, p = .04). Of those participants with clinically significant PTSD symptomatology according to the HTQ, only 32.9% reported ever having ever sought help for a mental health problem. The high level of distress found in this sample, combined with low uptake of mental health care, highlights the need for programs targeted to promote help-seeking among Iraqi refugees who have resettled in Australia. Further, the higher level of PTSD symptomatology found amongst those with lower education attainment has mental health promotion and treatment implications. Specifically, in designing service and treatment programs, consideration should be given to the possible impact excessive levels of psychological
There are approximately 50,000 workers employed in the light assembly industry in Haiti. About 70% are women, the majority of whom are aged between 25 and 34 years, and are either single or in a nonpermanent relationship with the father of their children. Many live and work in appalling conditions, surviving on very low wages to support several children and an extended family. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is now a visible problem in many factories. In October 1988, the Center for the Promotion of Women Workers (Centre de Promotion des Femmes Ouvriers/CPFO) launched a pilot AIDS education program for factory women. The Center, based in a large industrial zone near the airport, runs a health clinic and courses in literacy, communications skills, health promotion and family planning. The new AIDS program allowed CPFO staff to gain entry into factories for the 1st time. Other courses were held outside working hours and outside factory premises. Staff contacted manages by telephone to arrange a meeting to discuss AIDS and to ask permission to hold educational "round tables" with workers. Of 18 managers in the factories approached over a 12-month period, only 2 refused entry to CPFO staff. Almost all managers reported they had registered between 2 and 5 deaths from AIDS among their employees over the past couple of years. A total of 85 educational sessions, each lasting about 2 hours, were held within 28 different factories, community or labor organizations reaching 3063 workers (male and female). In each session, the presentation was carried out by 2 CPFO trained monitors and included a slide show, flip charts, and the video "Met ko," originally produced for Haitian immigrants in New York. The most important aspect of the program was the training of 38 volunteer factory-based health promoters. These promoters attended the round table sessions, where they facilitated discussion and distributed condoms and were subsequently available for counseling co-workers
José Alonso Andrade Salazar
Full Text Available This paper aims to establish the mental health conditions prevalent in 20 displaced persons (36 families resettled in the Municipality of Cairo - Valley in 2008, for it is used, self-applied scale for measuring the Zung Depression and Conde The mood disorder questionnaire (MDQ, and Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS which makes the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The results showed the presence of mild depression (20%, moderate (60%“higher in women”, and major depression (30%, with a gender relationship in 2 women for every man. It was found that 100% of the population has indicators PTSD, with extreme gravity of 50% and 40% moderate.Regarding the 30% Bipolar disorder was not the case, a possible case and 65%, 5% cases. The data indicate that the psychological impact of conflict persist in populations "especially women", becoming even comorbid psychopathology decrease insecure environment.
Teodorescu, Dinu-Stefan; Heir, Trond; Hauff, Edvard; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Lien, Lars
Refugees have often been exposed to multiple traumas making them prone to mental health problems later. The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence and symptom load of psychiatric disorders in refugees admitted to psychiatric outpatient clinics and to investigate the relationship between multiple exposure to traumatic events, the severity of traumatic symptoms and post-migration stressors. A clinical sample of 61 refugee outpatients from psychiatric clinics in Southern Norway was cross-sectionally examined using three structured clinical interviews (SCID-PTSD, SIDES and MINI) and self-report psychometric instruments (HSCL-25, IES-R). Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) was diagnosed in 82% of the patients, while Disorders of Extreme Stress Not Otherwise Specified (DESNOS) was present in 16% of them. Comorbidity was considerable; 64% of the patients had both PTSD and major depression disorder (MDD) and 80% of those who had PTSD had three or more additional diagnoses. Multi-traumatized refugees in outpatient clinics have high prevalence of PTSD, DESNOS, comorbid depression and anxiety disorders. A more severe symptomatology was found in patients diagnosed with both PTSD and DESNOS, than in those diagnosed with only PTSD. Higher rates of unemployment, weak social network and weak social integration were also prevalent in these outpatients, and related to increased psychiatric comorbidity and severity of symptoms. Further research may clarify the existence of a cumulative relationship between pre-resettlement traumas and post-resettlement stressors in the mental health of refugees, which in turn may help to improve therapeutic interventions. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.
The first part of this volume describes the effects of radiation on living organism, both at the overall and at the molecular level. Special attention is paid to the metabolism and toxicity of radioactivity substances. The second part deals with radiological exposure, natural, medical and occupational. The third part provides data on radiological protection standards, and the fourth part addresses the health supervision of workers exposed to ionizing radiation, covering both physical and medical control.
Wagner, Julie; Berthold, S Megan; Buckley, Thomas; Kong, Sengly; Kuoch, Theanvy; Scully, Mary
A growing body of literature suggests that cardiometabolic disease generally and type 2 diabetes specifically are problems among refugee groups. This paper reviews rates of cardiometabolic disease and type 2 diabetes among refugees and highlights their unique risk factors including history of malnutrition, psychiatric disorders, psychiatric medications, lifestyle changes toward urbanization and industrialization, social isolation, and a poor profile on the social determinants of health. Promising interventions are presented for preventing and treating diabetes in these groups. Such interventions emphasize well-coordinated medical and mental health care delivered by cross-cultural and multidisciplinary teams including community health workers that are well integrated into the community. Finally, recommendations for service, policy, and research are made. The authors draw on local data and clinical experience of our collective work with Cambodian American refugees whose 30-year trajectory illustrates the consequences of ignoring diabetes and its risk factors in more recent, and soon to be arriving, refugee cohorts.
Mayers-Beecks, E. [Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany). Unterabteilung Planung; Temburg, M. [Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany). Abt. Liegenschaftem und Umsiedlungen
It is essential that a critical examination of the question of civic participation in resettlement projects should include all communication sectors, that is to say, information, consulting, counselling and cooperation. An adequate communiction system is of decisive importance for the success of resettlement projects. The aim of this communication system is to ensure that the individual person is in a position both to follow and understand the various stages of the project and also to express a definite opinion and voice a decision on the various topics to be dealt with. In order to achieve this aim it is imperative that communication should be oriented to the needs of the population to be resettled and that attractive participation opportunities should be offered, which are in keeping with the overall social conditions and the local situation. With its communication concept of 1997 Rheinbraun not only meets requirements as regards constant checking of the relevant offers, but has also evolved optimization principles for communication that are related to the resettlement project in question as well as being generally applicable. (orig./MSK) [Deutsch] Eine ernsthafte Auseinandersetzung mit der Buergerbeteiligung muss sich auf alle Bereiche der Kommunikation, also auf Information, Beratung, Betreuung und Mitwirkung beziehen. Eine angemessene Kommunikation ist fuer das Gelingen von Umsiedlungsverfahren von entscheidender Bedeutung. Sie zielt darauf ab, dass der Einzelne sich sowohl in den jeweiligen Verfahrensschritten zurecht findet, als auch in der Lage ist, sich zielgerichtet zu den behandelten Themen zu aeusseren und zu entscheiden. Zum Erreichen dieses Ziels ist eine Orientierung der Kommunikation an den Beduefnissen der Umsiedler genauso unerlaesslich wie die Bereitstellung attraktiver, an den gesellschaftlichen Rahmenbedingungen ausgerichteter und auf die oertliche Situation zugeschnittener Beteiligungsangebote. Rheinbraun hat sich mit seinem
Full Text Available Objectives Refugees resettled in the US may be at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD. However, little is known about CVD-related issues among Karen refugees who have migrated to the US from the Thai-Myanmar border. The purpose of this study was to examine CVD-related health beliefs and lifestyle issues among Karen refugees resettled in the US. Methods Karen refugees resettled in the US from the Thai-Myanmar border (n=195 participated in a survey study on health beliefs related to CVD, salt intake, physical activity (PA, and smoking in the fall of 2016. Results A high-salt diet, physical inactivity, and smoking were major lifestyle problems. Participants who adhered to a low-salt diet considered themselves to be susceptible to CVD. Most participants did not engage in regular PA. Regular PA was associated with less perceived susceptibility to CVD and greater perceived benefits of a healthy lifestyle for decreasing the likelihood of CVD. Conclusions Each refugee population may require individualized strategies to promote PA and a healthy diet. Future studies should develop health education programs that are specifically designed for Karen refugees and evaluate such programs. In addition to health education programs on healthy lifestyle choices, tobacco cessation programs seem to be necessary for Karen refugees. At the same time, it is important to foster strategies to increase the utilization of preventive care among this population by promoting free or reduced-fee resources in the community to further promote their health.
Worker participation relates to the involvement of workers in the management decision-making processes. In this article attention is focused on worker participation related to occupational safety and health in the Netherlands. Worker participation can refer either to direct or indirect participation
Ícaro Gonçalves Santos
Full Text Available The objective was to analyze the floristic, diversity and equability of the tree shrub stratum of home gardens (QA in Mariana re-settlement located between Palmas and Porto Nacional municipalities in Tocantins State, Brazil. Three 20 x 30 m plots were installed in each home garden, totalizing 0.72 ha of sampled area. All shrub-tree individuals had its circumference at 1.3 m above ground level (CBH measured when CBH ≥ 10 cm. A total of 477 individuals, 81 species, 34 families and 73 genera were verified in all QA. Shannon diversity index (H’ was 3.68 and Pielou equability indice (J’ was 0.83, for all sampled area. Individually, QA1, QA2, QA3 and QA4 presented H’ = 2.52; 3.27; 2.66 and 2.94, and J’ = 0.78; 0.90; 0.77 and 0.85, respectively. It was possible to infer that the studied QA showed high richness and diversity, evidencing great environmental heterogeneity and low ecological dominance.
Bellamy, Kim; Ostini, Remo; Martini, Nataly; Kairuz, Therese
Introduction There are challenges associated with selecting a qualitative research approach. In a field abundant with terminology and theories, it may be difficult for a pharmacist to know where and how to begin a qualitative research journey. The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into generic qualitative research and to describe the journey of data collection of a novice qualitative researcher in the quest to answer her research question: 'What are the barriers to accessing medicines and pharmacy services for resettled refugees in Queensland, Australia?' Methodology Generic qualitative research draws on the strengths of one or more qualitative approaches. The aim is to draw out participants' ideas about things that are 'outside themselves'; rather than focussing on their inner feelings the research seeks to understand a phenomenon, a process, or the perspectives of participants. Sampling is designed to obtain a broad range of opinions about events and experiences and data collection includes interviews, questionnaires or surveys; thematic analysis is often used to analyse data. When to use Generic qualitative research provides an opportunity to develop research designs that fit researchers' epistemological stance and discipline, with research choices, including methodology and methods, being informed by the research question. Limitations Generic qualitative research is one of many methodologies that may be used to answer a research question and there is a paucity of literature about how to do it well. There is also debate about its validity as a qualitative methodology.
Nelson, Matthew; Hess, Julia Meredith; Isakson, Brian; Goodkind, Jessica
Social and geographic displacement is a global phenomenon that precipitates novel stressors and disruptions that intersect with longstanding familial and social roles. Among the displaced are war-torn Iraqi refugee families, who must address these new obstacles in unconventional ways. This study explores how such disruptions have influenced associations between gender and apparent self-worth experienced by Iraqi refugee families upon relocation to the United States. Further, the psychosocial mechanisms requisite of any novel approach to a new social construct are explored and reveal that production in the family is at the core of instability and shifting power dynamics during resettlement, preventing family members from "seeing the life" in the United States that they had envisioned prior to immigration. Over 200 semi-structured qualitative interviews with Iraqi participants and mental health providers were conducted over the course of the study, and demonstrate a plasticity among social roles in the family and community that transcends the notion of a simple role reversal, and illustrate the complex positionalities that families under stress must approximate during such physical and social displacement.
Full Text Available This article presents our analysis of Australian media reporting of the 2006 Tamworth City Council’s decision to refuse the resettlement of five Sudanese families in Tamworth (NSW and subsequent reversal, supposedly due to the pressure brought to bear on the council as a result of the media “hype.” The question at the core of our analyses is as follows: Did the media play a role in the over-(representation of this case as racist or was it just a case of the media reporting racism? Informed by media framing theory, we examine print media reports for patterns of presentation as well as representations of both the council and the refugees who were the focus of the reporting. We conclude that while the media played a significant role in making visible a case built on racial stereotypes, their reporting also contained racializing and paternalistic stereotyping that contribute to the reproduction of both everyday and systemic racism.
The participants were interviewed with a structured questionnaire used to elicit the knowledge of health workers on health determinants. Results: When individual factors were considered, a greater percentage of health workers, believed that safe drinking water (98.9%), where a person lives (96.6%) and a balanced diet, ...
Green, Paul E.
Partly because of mobility, but mostly because of poverty, migrant children are systematically denied their right to equal educational opportunity. This review covers migrant families' immigration and illegal immigration, migration patterns, poor living conditions, impact of migrant workers on the U.S. economy, children as migrant workers, impact…
Plant, Peter; Lopez-Sanchez, Maria Jose
Guidance has a role to play in helping older workers to lead meaningful and fruitful lives; inside, outside, on the edge of the labour market, or in voluntary work with examples from two very different European countries: Denmark and Spain. This paper aims to draw attention to older workers guidance from an economic policy approach. It will be…
In many areas, the number of people transitioning to retirement is starting to outnumber the number of young people negotiating their way into the labor market. To sustain economic prosperity, these regions need to prolong the working lives of older workers. Maintaining older workers' earning power and employment until and past the traditional…
Михаил Юрьевич Мухин
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the work of the factories in 1941-1945 in the evacuation. The author analyzes the living conditions of workers in evacuated aviation plants, their daily life, maintenance, etc. The author concludes that in the early years of the War the conditions of life of the aviation industry's workers were very difficult, and the welfare and financial situation improved in 1944, the sure sign of fracture in the Second world war.
Assisted living is for adults who need help with everyday tasks. They may need help with dressing, bathing, ... don't need full-time nursing care. Some assisted living facilities are part of retirement communities. Others are ...
Miller, Jacqueline; Ritchie, Brett; Tran, Cuong; Beggs, Sean; Lada, Christina Olly; Whetter, Kathryn; Cobiac, Lynne
Childhood malnutrition remains a public health issue in Indonesia with a national prevalence of wasting of 13% and stunting of 36%. In rural areas nutritional status depends on local agriculture and may fluctuate in relation to harvest time. The aim of this study was to characterise seasonal variations in nutritional status in two resettlement villages in the Oesao district, Nusa Tenggara Timur. A cross sectional study was conducted in a convenience sample of children after the wet season (March). Children aged 6 to 60 months were assessed for nutritional status using anthropometric and biochemical measures. A subset of these children was re-assessed for anthropometry after the dry season (November). Weight-for-height z scores improved significantly from mean±SD of -1.7± 0.9 in March to -1.3±0.9 in November (p<0.001). There was no significant change in height between seasons. Prevalence of wasting, (weight-for-height z score <-2), was 42% in March and 19% in November (p<0.001). However, stunting rates increased significantly from 42% in March to 45% in November (p<0.001). Thirty six per cent of children were anaemic (Hb level <11 mg/100 mL), 68% were vitamin A deficient (plasma vitamin A level <0.8 μmol/L) and 50% were zinc deficient (plasma zinc <9.94 μmol/L). All children except one were positive for intestinal parasites. These data indicate seasonal changes in anthropometry with inconsistent effects depending on the anthropometric index measured. Wasting and stunting were higher than the national average, alongside high rates of anaemia, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies.
Full Text Available Land acquisition and resettlement (LAR is an important step in urban development. As one of the ‘externalities of development’, LAR conflicts have affected social stability and development in rural areas of China. With social conflict research shifting from value identity to resource allocation, few studies have examined the relationship between the spatial injustice of urban public resources and LAR conflict. To mitigate this research gap and formulate effective policies, this study aims to reinterpret the obstacles of LAR conflicts from the perspective of the spatial injustice of urban public facilities allocation in Hangzhou City by examining 195 administrative litigation cases. Spatial accessibility was used for estimating the spatial justice of urban public resources allocation. A classification and regression tree (CART model was applied to identify the advantage and disadvantage factors behind LAR conflict, and explored the logical and structural relationships among these factors. Results showed that a spatial mismatch between the spatial behavior preferences of human activity and the spatial injustice of urban public resources allocation had significantly accelerated LAR conflicts. When the spatial behavior preferences of human activity and spatial distribution of urban public resources correspond to each other pre- and after LAR, basic rights to social space are safeguarded and various groups can equitably share spatial resources. There are no conflicts. Conversely, respondents expressed a high level of dissatisfaction in comparison to their pre-LAR conditions, and LAR conflict undeniably occurs. This approach also proposes some good LAR policies by regulating the spatial injustice of urban public resources allocation associated with LAR with the aim of long-term urban sustainable development for Hangzhou.
Mukhtar, F.; Kokab, F.
Brucellosis is an occupational hazard with those particularly at risk either living in close proximity with animals or handling them. It is a public health problem in developing countries with adverse health implications both for animals and human beings as well as economic implications for individuals and communities. The Objectives were to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis among abattoir workers of Lahore District and to determine the association of brucellosis with nature of job of the workers. Data was collected in April 2008. It was a cross-sectional study in which four main slaughterhouses in Lahore were included. The slaughterhouse workers were divided into seven strata based on their nature of job: meat sellers, slaughterers, animal keepers, drivers, cleaners, loaders and vets/paravets. A total of 360 such workers were selected using stratified random sampling technique. Sampling frames for different strata were prepared and from each frame, proportionate numbers, were selected through simple random method using random number tables. Data was obtained using a questionnaire. Additionally blood samples were collected and analyzed for anti-Brucella Immunoglobulin G (IgG) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. The seroprevalence of anti-Brucella IgG was found to be 21.7%. A statistically significant difference was observed between the immune status of the respondents and their nature of job (p=0.005), age groups (p=0.013), and duration of job (p=0.003). The disease is an important public health problem in Pakistan. The disease can be prevented in the slaughterhouse workers through the use of personal protective devices. Public health authorities should educate the general public regarding prevention of the disease with specific emphasis on people working in slaughterhouses. (author)
... it, too. Back to top What is the Cost for Assisted Living? Although assisted living costs less than nursing home ... Primarily, older persons or their families pay the cost of assisted living. Some health and long-term care insurance policies ...
Nosè, Michela; Ballette, Francesca; Bighelli, Irene; Turrini, Giulia; Purgato, Marianna; Tol, Wietse; Priebe, Stefan; Barbui, Corrado
Treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in refugees and asylum seekers resettled in high-income countries presents specific challenges. This systematic review examined the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for this group. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of randomised trials, CINAHL, EMBASE, PILOTS, PsycINFO, PubMed and Web of Science up to July 2016. Studies included randomised and controlled clinical trials comparing psychosocial interventions with waiting list or treatment as usual in adult refugees and asylum seekers with PTSD resettled in high-income countries. PTSD symptoms post-intervention was the primary outcome. We computed standardized mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). This study is registered with PROSPERO: CRD42015027843. Twelve studies were included in the meta-analysis. Psychosocial interventions were effective in decreasing PTSD symptoms relative to control groups (SMD -1·03, 95% CI -1·55 to -0·51; number needed to treat 4·4; I2 86%; 95% CI 77 to 91). Narrative exposure therapy, a manualized short-term variant of cognitive behavioural therapy with a trauma focus, was the best-supported intervention (5 RCTs, 187 participants, SMD -0·78, 95% CI -1·18 to -0·38, I2 37%; 95% CI 0 to 77). Methodological quality of the included studies was limited. Overall, psychosocial interventions for asylum seekers and refugees with PTSD resettled in high-income countries were found to provide significant benefits in reducing PTSD symptoms. Yet, the number of studies is small and their methodological quality limited, so that more rigorous trials should be conducted in the future.
This book is aimed at anyone who is interested in learning more about living technology, whether coming from business, the government, policy centers, academia, or anywhere else. Its purpose is to help people to learn what living technology is, what it might develop into, and how it might impact...... our lives. The phrase 'living technology' was coined to refer to technology that is alive as well as technology that is useful because it shares the fundamental properties of living systems. In particular, the invention of this phrase was called for to describe the trend of our technology becoming...... increasingly life-like or literally alive. Still, the phrase has different interpretations depending on how one views what life is. This book presents nineteen perspectives on living technology. Taken together, the interviews convey the collective wisdom on living technology's power and promise, as well as its...
Harris, Kelly; Krygsman, Sarah; Waschenko, Jessica; Laliberte Rudman, Debbie
Given the policy shifts toward extended work lives, it is critically important to address barriers that older workers may face in attaining and maintaining satisfactory work. This article presents a scoping review of research addressing ageism and its implications for the employment experiences and opportunities of older workers. The five-step scoping review process outlined by Arksey and O'Malley was followed. The data set included 43 research articles. The majority of articles were cross-sectional quantitative surveys, and various types of study participants (older workers, human resource personnel/manager, employers, younger workers, undergraduate students) were included. Four main themes, representing key research emphases, were identified: stereotypes and perceptions of older workers; intended behavior toward older workers; reported behavior toward older workers; and older workers' negotiation of ageism. Existing research provides a foundational evidence base for the existence of ageist stereotypes and perceptions about older workers and has begun to demonstrate implications in relation to intended behaviors and, to a lesser extent, actual behaviors toward older workers. A few studies have explored how aging workers attempt to negotiate ageism. Further research that extends beyond cross-sectional surveys is required to achieve more complex understandings of the implications of ageism and inform policies and practices that work against ageism.
Evaluation of a support worker role, within a nurse delegation and supervision model, for provision of medicines support for older people living at home: the Workforce Innovation for Safe and Effective (WISE) Medicines Care study.
Lee, Cik Yin; Beanland, Christine; Goeman, Dianne; Johnson, Ann; Thorn, Juliet; Koch, Susan; Elliott, Rohan A
Support with managing medicines at home is a common reason for older people to receive community nursing services. With population ageing and projected nurse shortages, reliance on nurses may not be sustainable. We developed and tested a new workforce model: 'Workforce Innovation for Safe and Effective (WISE) Medicines Care', which enabled nurses to delegate medicines support home visits for low-risk clients to support workers (known as community care aides [CCAs]). Primary study aims were to assess whether the model increased the number of medicines support home visits conducted by CCAs, explore nurses', CCAs' and consumers' experiences with the CCAs' expanded role, and identify enablers and barriers to delegation of medicines support. A prospective before-after mixed-methods study was conducted within a community nursing service that employed a small number of CCAs. The CCAs' main role prior to the WISE Medicines Care model was personal care, with a very limited role in medicines support. CCAs received training in medicines support, and nurses received training in assessment, delegation and supervision. Home visit data over two three-month periods were compared. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with purposive samples of nurses (n = 27), CCAs (n = 7) and consumers (n = 28). Medicines support visits by CCAs increased from 43/16,863 (0.25 %) to 714/21,552 (3.3 %) (p delegating to CCAs sometimes eliminated the need for duplicate nurse and CCA visits (for people requiring personal care plus medicines support) and enabled them to visit people with more complex needs. CCAs enjoyed their expanded role and were accepted by clients and/or carers. Nurses and CCAs reported effective communication when medicine-related problems occurred. No medication incidents involving CCAs were reported. Barriers to implementation included the limited number of CCAs employed in the organisation and reluctance from some nurses to delegate medicines support to CCAs
Climate change is expected to cause significant changes in water quantity and water quality in river basins throughout the world, with particularly significant impacts in developing regions. Climate change effects are often exacerbated by other simultaneous activities in developing countries, such as population growth, reliance on subsistence agriculture, and expanding provision of electricity. Each of these activities requires access to readily-available freshwater. For example, population growth requires more water for irrigation as food production needs increase. Additionally, water is needed for generating electricity in hydropower facilities as well as other facilities, which require water to run steam turbines or to cool facilities. As such, many developing countries face the real and immediate need to anticipate and adapt to climatic stresses on water resources in both the agricultural and residential sectors. Water withdrawal in both of these sectors is largely driven by individual behaviors, such as electricity use in the home and irrigation practices on farmland, aggregated at the household, community, and regional level. Our ongoing project in Sri Lanka focuses on understanding aforementioned issues in coupled natural and human systems in the Mahaweli River Watershed (MWR) to inform decision-makers to streamline policies and strategies for effective adaptation to worsening drought conditions. MWR produces more than 60% of the rice demand and nearly 40% of the energy requirement of the country. Although irrigation is currently the sector that withdraws the most water, with government plans for resettling farmer communities and developing new urban centers in the region by 2030, electricity production is expected to compete for water against irrigation in the future. Thus, understanding the water-energy nexus is crucial to planning for conservation and efficiency. Through a pilot survey conducted by our interdisciplinary research team, in five locations in
Diercke, Katja; Zimmermann, Heiko; Hellmann, Daniel; Kim, Ti-Sun; Fricke, Julia; El Sayed, Nihad; Hagenfeld, Daniel; Kühnisch, Jan; Schmitter, Marc; Becher, Heiko
The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) symptoms among Turks and re-settlers with German origin from Russia and to compare those findings with a German group from the same area. Sixty-nine Turkish migrants, 50 re-settlers, and 96 Germans were clinically examined according to a short version of the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC/TMD) protocol. The subjects participated in a feasibility study of the German National Cohort and were recruited from the study center Heidelberg/Mannheim of the cluster Baden-Württemberg/Saarland. Significant differences emerged between the three ethnic groups for unassisted opening without pain, maximum unassisted opening, and overbite, with highest values for the German group. No significant differences were found for muscle pain on palpation or muscle and joint pain during opening. As the authors identified significant differences between the different ethnic groups for metric measurements, it might be beneficial to include questions concerning the ethnicity to the German version of the RDC/TMD for further research, to make the results more comparable.
Sumner, Seirian; Nash, David R; Boomsma, Jacobus J
Social parasites exploit the socially managed resources of their host's society. Inquiline social parasites are dependent on their host throughout their life cycle, and so many of the traits inherited from their free-living ancestor are removed by natural selection. One trait that is commonly lost...... a vital role in ensuring the parasite's fitness. We show that the presence of these parasite workers has a positive effect on the production of parasite sexuals and a negative effect on the production of host sexuals. This suggests that inquiline workers play a vital role in suppressing host queen...
Shirono, Ryozo; Yoshida, Shusaku
Radiographic survey carried out on rubber workers revealed that 32 % (24/76) of the workers showed pneumoconiosis. The cases of pneumoconiosis were found in workers who had been exposed to dust for more than 10 years. Among the 24 cases of pneumoconiosis, 15 workers had been exposed to talc dust for more than 12 years. Chest radiographs of the rubber workers who had been exposed to dust for more than 10 years demonstrated radiographic findings and incidences as follows; nodular pattern (16 %), fine reticular and granular pattern (52 %), reticular pattern (36 %), irregularity of lung markings (61 %), ground-glass appearance (8 %), and pleural thickening (15 %). Irregular opacities such as fine reticular and granular pattern, reticular pattern and irregularity of lung markings seen to be major radiographic findings of pneumoconiosis of the rubber workers. While, nodular pattern seen in upper and middle lung zones and pleural thickening seen in apices and upper lung zones seen to be minor changes. (author)
... Kids Health Kids Environment Kids Health Menu Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works ... Scientist Coloring Science Experiments Stories Lessons Topics Expand Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works ...
... may also be higher than in other supported-living environments. Adult Foster Care Foster care homes generally provide ... board, and some help with activities of daily living. This is provided by ... more home-like environment. Regulations for foster care vary by state, and ...
Rosineide de L. Meira Cordeiro
Full Text Available O artigo enfoca como as mulheres agricultoras, ao terem acesso a direitos sociais, especialmente à Previdência Social, lidam com a normatização e a regulamentação dos processos de nascimento, envelhecimento e morte. O objetivo é analisar as dificuldades e as estratégias que as mulheres utilizam para cumprirem as exigências legais de comprovação do trabalho na agricultura familiar através de documentos civis e profissionais. A pesquisa foi realizada nos municípios de Santa Cruz da Baixa Verde e Triunfo, situados no Sertão de Pernambuco, Nordeste do Brasil. A ausência de documentos é reveladora dos parâmetros de modernidade instaurados no país e deve ser entendida à luz das intersecções de gênero, classe, raça, etnia e critérios geopolíticos.The article focuses on how peasant and worker women deal with norms and rules about birth, ageing and death, in the process of getting access to social rights, especially to Social Security. The aim is to analyze difficulties and strategies used by women in order to comply with the legal demands of proof of work experience in family farming by way of civil and professional documents. Research was undertaken in the municipalities of Santa Cruz da Baixa Verde and Triunfo, in the Pernambuco Sertão in Northeast Brazil. The absence of documents reveals how parameters of modernity are installed in the nation, understanding them as necessarily related to gender, class, race, ethnicity and geopolitical criteria.
José Luis Villamarín-Vázquez
Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la seroprevalencia de brucelosis en trabajadores agrícolas. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal efectuado durante 1996 y 1997 en la Unidad de Salud Laboral del Centro de Salud Pública (CSP de Castellón, España, con 482 aspirantes a su acreditación como manipulador de plaguicidas para aplicación agrícola y a quienes se les hicieron las pruebas serológicas de rosa de Bengala, seroaglutinación de Wright y Coombs antibrucela. En el análisis estadístico se estimó la prevalencia y se usó regresión logística. Resultados. 15 personas (3.1%, IC 95% 1.8%-5.1% presentaron títulos de 1/40 o mayores a las pruebas de Wright o Coombs, y todas negativas al rosa de Bengala. No se apreció riesgo profesional elevado. Conclusiones. La prevalencia estimada fue baja.Objective. To estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis in agricultural workers. Material and Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted between 1996 and 1997 at Unidad de Salud Laboral del Centro de Salud Pública (CSP in Castellon, España (Public Health Center Occupational Health Unit, among 482 subjects applying for certification to handle pesticides for agricultural use. Serologic testing consisted of rose Bengal staining, Wright's agglutination, and antibrucella Coombs tests. Statistical analysis consisted in estimation of prevalence figures and logistic regression modelling. Results. Fifteen subjects (3.1%, 95% CI 1.8%-5.1% had titers of 1/40 or higher to Wright and/or Coombs tests; all were negative to rose Bengal staining. No high occupational risk was observed. Conclusions. A low prevalence of brucellosis was found.
effect on mothers' age at first birth (p < 0.001), the number of children born within the five years of the survey (p<0.001), and the total number of ... approach that compares reported numbers of births for settlers and non-settlers in ... 1Department of Geography, Sonoma State University, USA. 2. Department of Epidemiology ...
examining structural or indirect violence (material deprivation, inequality, exclusion), direct violence (direct infliction of physical or psychological harm), overt conflict and its links to violence and different types of crime. We note that not all types of violence are considered as crime (for example, violence by the state), and not ...
High transport costs must also be incurred to access public healthcare and the public distribution system (i.e. ration shops). There are also increased expenditures on basic services (especially electricity bills) and maintenance of infrastructure. (especially on water and drainage infrastructures and building corridor lights).
to incur high expenses for medical treatment. They also contrasted the poor quality of water at the BSUP sites ... from one of its water treatment plants. This has alleviated the hard water / drinking water problem to .... responded slowly which would leave them without running water for days on end. The mobilizations and.
The radioactive blow-outs after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant catastrophe reached many states. The largest amount of them (according to experts' estimations - 70%) fell out on the Belarus territory. The estimation of radioecological, medico-biological, economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe has shown that unimaginable damage was incurred on Belarus and its territory became the zone of ecological calamity. More than 14 years have passed since the Chernobyl NPP accident but some of the problems caused by the catastrophe have not been solved. This is bound up, first of all, with a high collective dosage absorbed by the population, with difficulties in forecasting and prophylactics of remote radiological effects, with ecological and economic crisis. The consequences of the disaster greatly affect all the aspects of vital activities of the affected regions and the state as a whole. Destructive tendencies have been revealed in all spheres of the life activity of people who experienced radiation effects. The processes of social adaptation and socio-psychological support of the population inhabiting the contaminated territory and resettled as well, require considerable optimisation. Negative factors of the Chernobyl catastrophe, which are significant for human health can be divided into two groups as follows: radiation-based, directly related to influence of ionising radiation and non radiation based, related to changes in habitat and prolonged psychological stress. The specific peculiarities of psychogenic disorders caused by the catastrophe are determined by the following reasons: insufficient knowledge of radiation effects; constant apprehension for the health and well-being of themselves and their families, especially children; unexpected change of the life stereotype (forced resettlement, the break of the former life, changing the place and the character of work, etc.); the necessity of constant keeping precaution measures and prophylactic
Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.
The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D ampersand D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D ampersand D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration
... the bones, heart, and lungs, tones muscles, improves vitality, relieves depression, and helps you sleep better. Talk ... has a problem with alcohol. Many people whose lives have been affected by alcohol get benefit from ...
Male high school students in a Bachelor Living Class observed methods of child care including bottle feeding, spoon feeding, changing diapers, and method of holding. The purpose was for the students to grasp a better understanding of child development. (EK)
... Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets Act Against AIDS Live Well Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Being aware of your overall health beyond HIV can ...
The aim of this presentation is to gain an understanding of the requirements for a PSA to be considered a Living PSA. The presentation is divided into the following topics: Definition; Planning/Documentation; Task Performance; Maintenance; Management. 4 figs
Due to the political context and the restrictions placed on general freedoms and trade union activities, workers' education in Palestine remained informal and largely reliant on oral memory until the early 1990s. For decades, it was an integral part of political education. Workers' education only became a stand-alone field after the establishment…
Goodson, Elizabeth; And Others
The issue discusses the role of the International Labour Office in the field of workers' education for rural workers and their organizations. Articles discuss labor conditions, child labor in agriculture, gender and equality training, trade unions, fair trade, and changing patterns of food production. Appendixes include information about…
Hurd, Christine R; Jeanne, Robert L; Nordheim, Erik V
Temporal polyethism is a common mechanism of worker specialization observed in social insect species with large colony sizes, Vespula wasp colonies consist of thousands of monomorphic workers, yet studies based on small cohorts of workers report that temporal polyethism is either weak or completely absent in different Vespula species. Concerned that the small sample size of these studies precluded detection of temporal polyethism, several hundred, known-age Vespula germanica (F.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) workers were studied. High variability was found in the sequence and diversity of tasks workers perform, suggesting that V. germanica colonies exhibit weak temporal polyethism. The most common order in which tasks were taken up was 1) nest work, 2) pulp foraging, 3) carbohydrate foraging, and 4) protein foraging. However, only 61% of the wasps performed more than two of the tasks during their lives. Thorax size had a significant negative effect on the age at first foraging, but the magnitude of the effect was small. The daily ratio of task generalists to specialists was relatively constant despite the high turnover of workers, growth of the colony, and the colony's transition from rearing worker larvae to rearing reproductives. Over the course of their lives, 43% of the workers averaged more than one kind of task performed per day. Life history traits are identified that may explain why vespines with large colonies use a generalist strategy of labor division rather than the specialist strategy observed in honey bees (Apis mellifera) and large colonies of wasps (Polybia occidentalis).
Malone, Kevin M; McGuinness, Seamus G; Cleary, Eimear; Jefferies, Janis; Owens, Christabel; Kelleher, Cecily C
Background: Suicide is a significant public health concern, which impacts on health outcomes. Few suicide research studies have been interdisciplinary. We combined a psychobiographical autopsy with a visual arts autopsy, in which families donated stories, images and objects associated with the lived life of a loved one lost to suicide. From this interdisciplinary research platform, a mediated exhibition was created ( Lived Lives ) with artist, scientist and families, co-curated by communities, facilitating dialogue, response and public action around suicide prevention. Indigenous ethnic minorities (IEMs) bear a significant increased risk for suicide. Irish Travellers are an IEM with social and cultural parallels with IEMs internationally, experiencing racism, discrimination, and poor health outcomes including elevated suicide rates (SMR 6.6). Methods: An adjusted Lived Lives exhibition, Lived Lives: A Pavee Perspective manifested in Pavee Point, the national Traveller and Roma Centre. The project was evaluated by the Travelling Community as to how it related to suicide in their community, how it has shaped their understanding of suicide and its impacts, and its relevance to other socio-cultural contexts, nationally and internationally. The project also obtained feedback from all relevant stakeholders. Evaluation was carried out by an international visual arts research advisor and an independent observer from the field of suicide research. Results: Outputs included an arts-science mediated exhibition with reference to elevated Irish Traveller suicide rates. Digital online learning materials about suicide and its aftermath among Irish Travellers were also produced. The project reached its target audience, with a high level of engagement from members of the Travelling Community. Discussion: The Lived Lives methodology navigated the societal barriers of stigma and silence to foster communication and engagement, working with cultural values, consistent with an adapted
De Silva, Angela; Senarath, Upul; Mbuya, Nkosinathi; Navaratne, Kumari
Full text: Introduction: Over 250000 persons were displaced within the Northern Province, Sri Lanka at the end of the war (2009/10). With the ensuing resettlement process, the Japan Social Development Fund emergency project (JSDF) on Local Nutrition interventions for the Northern Province was implemented to combat undernutrition in children. A baseline survey was undertaken to describe prevalence of acute malnutrition among children < 5 years in the Northern Province and associated factors that would inform project activities of supplementary feeding, community mobilization and behavior change communication. Methodology: A cross sectional survey using a multistage cluster sampling design evaluated nutrition status in a representative sample of 2600 children aged 0-5 years from the Northern Province. Height and weight were measured using standard survey equipment, and anthropometric indices (height-for-age Z, weight-for-age Z, weight-for-height) were calculated using WHO growth standards and Anthro software. An interviewer-administered questionnaire elicited data on breastfeeding, complementary feeding and nutrition knowledge and practices of caregivers. Significant factors associated with nutrition indicators were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis [presented as Adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR)]. Results: Prevalence of Global Acute Malnutrition (WHZ<-2) among children aged 0-5 years was 20.1%; Moderate Acute Malnutrition (MAM; WHZ<-2 and ≥-3) was 15.7% and 5.6 % had Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM; WHZ<-3). Multivariate analysis of younger children (0-23 months) showed that SAM and MAM were associated with increasing age [12-17 month olds were more likely to be wasted compared to younger children (AOR 1.7)]. Other associated factors were low birth weight (AOR 1.54) and lack of toilets (AOR 2.02), a proxy indicator of poor socioeconomic status. Risk of wasting was greater with recent episodes of acute respiratory infection (AOR 1.51). Assessment of
Palic, Sabina; Kappel, Michelle Lind; Nielsen, Monica Stougaard
BACKGROUND: Currently, the mental health issues of traumatized refugees are mainly documented in terms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety. Importantly, there are no reports of the level of psychiatric disability in treatment seeking traumatized refugees resettled in the West...... and social domains. The rate of pre- to post-treatment improvement on the HoNOS was smaller for the traumatized refugees than it was for the psychiatric inpatients. CONCLUSIONS: The level, and the versatile profile, of psychiatric disability on the HoNOS point to complex bio-psycho-social problems....... Insufficient acknowledgment of the collective load of bio-psycho-social problems in this patient group hinders effective psychiatric and social service utilization outside the specialized clinics for traumatized refugees. METHODS: The level of psychiatric disability in traumatized refugees from Danish...
Anderson, Laura; Hadzibegovic, Diana S; Moseley, Jeanne M; Sellen, Daniel W
Forced migration puts families at risk of household food insecurity and economic hardship. We administered a questionnaire to examine household food insecurity in a sample of 49 recently legally resettled Sudanese refugees with at least one child under age 3 years. Of households polled, 37% had experienced household food insecurity and 12% reported child hunger within the previous month. Increasing severity of household food insecurity was associated with decreased consumption of high-cost, high-nutrient-density food items and increased consumption of some low-cost traditional Sudanese foods by adult caregivers of young children. Furthermore, household food insecurity was associated with decreased household and per capita food expenditure, indicators of more limited dietary change with migration, and indicators of increased social support.
Grøntved, Berit; Carstensen, Ole; Petersen, Rolf
urine. The second case is about a mink farm worker, who had an asthma attack when handling mink furs. Peak flow monitoring showed a clear relation to this work, but there were no signs of allergy. We conclude that these two cases suggest an increased risk of asthma among mink workers.......We report two cases of asthma among mink workers. The first case is about a mink farmer who had asthma that was difficult to treat. In the medical history there was no clear relation to work, and no conclusive work relation with peak flow monitoring. He had a positive histamine release test to mink...
Grøntved, Berit; Carstensen, Ole; Petersen, Rolf
We report two cases of asthma among mink workers. The first case is about a mink farmer who had asthma that was difficult to treat. In the medical history there was no clear relation to work, and no conclusive work relation with peak flow monitoring. He had a positive histamine release test to mink...... urine. The second case is about a mink farm worker, who had an asthma attack when handling mink furs. Peak flow monitoring showed a clear relation to this work, but there were no signs of allergy. We conclude that these two cases suggest an increased risk of asthma among mink workers....
Ariza-Montes, Antonio; Muniz, Noel M.; Montero-Simó, María José; Araque-Padilla, Rafael Angel
This paper aims to assess consistent predictors through the use of a sample that includes different actors from the healthcare work force to identify certain key elements in a set of job-related organizational contexts. The utilized data were obtained from the 5th European Working Conditions Survey, conducted in 2010 by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. In light of these objectives, we collected a subsample of 284 health professionals, some of them from the International Standard Classification of Occupations—subgroup 22—(ISCO-08). The results indicated that the chance of a healthcare worker referring to him/herself as bullied increases among those who work on a shift schedule, perform monotonous and rotating tasks, suffer from work stress, enjoy little satisfaction from their working conditions, and do not perceive opportunities for promotions in their organizations. The present work summarizes an array of outcomes and proposes within the usual course of events that workplace bullying could be reduced if job demands were limited and job resources were increased. The implications of these findings could assist human resource managers in facilitating, to some extent, good social relationships among healthcare workers. PMID:23887621
Selevan, S.G.; Landrigan, P.J.; Stern, F.B.; Jones, J.H.
To examine patterns of death in lead smelter workers, a retrospective analysis of mortality was conducted in a cohort of 1,987 males employed between 1940 and 1965 at a primary lead smelter in Idaho. Overall mortality was similar to that of the United States white male population (standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 98). Excess mortality, however, was found from chronic renal disease (SMR = 192; confidence interval (CI) = 88-364), and the risk of death from renal disease increased with increasing duration of employment, such that after 20 years employment, the standardized mortality ratio reached 392 (CI = 107-1,004). Excess mortality was also noted for nonmalignant respiratory disease (SMR = 187, CI = 128-264). Eight of 32 deaths in this category were caused by silicosis; at least five workers who died of silicosis had been miners for a part of their lives. An additional 11 deaths resulted from tuberculosis (SMR = 139; CI = 69-249); in six of these cases, silicosis was a contributory cause of death. Cancer mortality was not increased overall (SMR = 95; CI = 78-114). An increase, however, was noted for deaths from kidney cancer (six cases; SMR = 204; CI = 75-444). Finally, excess mortality was noted for injuries (SMR = 138; CI = 104-179); 13 (23%) of the 56 deaths in this category were caused by mining injuries. The data from this study are consistent with previous reports of increased mortality from chronic renal disease in persons exposed occupationally to lead.
María José Montero-Simó
Full Text Available This paper aims to assess consistent predictors through the use of a sample that includes different actors from the healthcare work force to identify certain key elements in a set of job-related organizational contexts. The utilized data were obtained from the 5th European Working Conditions Survey, conducted in 2010 by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. In light of these objectives, we collected a subsample of 284 health professionals, some of them from the International Standard Classification of Occupations—subgroup 22—(ISCO-08. The results indicated that the chance of a healthcare worker referring to him/herself as bullied increases among those who work on a shift schedule, perform monotonous and rotating tasks, suffer from work stress, enjoy little satisfaction from their working conditions, and do not perceive opportunities for promotions in their organizations. The present work summarizes an array of outcomes and proposes within the usual course of events that workplace bullying could be reduced if job demands were limited and job resources were increased. The implications of these findings could assist human resource managers in facilitating, to some extent, good social relationships among healthcare workers.
Dahl, Michael S.; Sorenson, Olav
Using panel data on the Danish population, we estimated the revealed preferences of scientists and engineers for the places in which they choose to work. Our results indicate that these technical workers exhibit substantial sensitivity to differences in wages but that they have even stronger...... preferences for living close to family and friends. The magnitude of these preferences, moreover, suggests that the greater geographic mobility of scientists and engineers, relative to the population as a whole, stems from more pronounced variation across regions in the wages that they can expect....... These results remain robust to estimation on a sample of individuals who must select new places of work for reasons unrelated to their preferences—those who had been employed at establishments that discontinued operations....
Hanson, Ginger C; Perrin, Nancy A; Moss, Helen; Laharnar, Naima; Glass, Nancy
Consumer-driven homecare models support aging and disabled individuals to live independently through the services of homecare workers. Although these models have benefits, including autonomy and control over services, little evidence exists about challenges homecare workers may face when providing services, including workplace violence and the negative outcomes associated with workplace violence. This study investigates the prevalence of workplace violence among homecare workers and examines the relationship between these experiences and homecare worker stress, burnout, depression, and sleep. We recruited female homecare workers in Oregon, the first US state to implement a consumer driven homecare model, to complete an on-line or telephone survey with peer interviewers. The survey asked about demographics and included measures to assess workplace violence, fear, stress, burnout, depression and sleep problems. Homecare workers (n = 1,214) reported past-year incidents of verbal aggression (50.3% of respondents), workplace aggression (26.9%), workplace violence (23.6%), sexual harassment (25.7%), and sexual aggression (12.8%). Exposure was associated with greater stress (p workplace aggression buffered homecare workers against negative work and health outcomes. To ensure homecare worker safety and positive health outcomes in the provision of services, it is critical to develop and implement preventive safety training programs with policies and procedures that support homecare workers who experience harassment and violence.
1) To determine mercury levels in urine samples from garbage workers in Southern Thailand, and 2) to describe the association between work characteristics, work positions, behavioral factors, and acute symptoms; and levels of mercury in urine samples. A case-control study was conducted by interviewing 60 workers in 5 hazardous-waste-management factories, and 60 matched non-exposed persons living in the same area of Southern Thailand. Urine samples were collected to determine mercury levels by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometer mercury analyzer. The hazardous-waste workers' urinary mercury levels (10.07 µg/g creatinine) were significantly higher than the control group (1.33 µg/g creatinine) (p garbage workers' hygiene habits can reduce urinary mercury levels. Personal hygiene is important, and should be stressed in education programs. Employers should institute engineering controls to reduce urinary mercury levels among garbage workers.
Department of Transportation — This data set contains DOT employee workers compensation claim data for current and past DOT employees. Types of data include claim data consisting of PII data (SSN,...
Nilles, Jack M.
Examines the use of home computers and how they allow the worker to work at home rather than commuting. Discusses the growing trend of telecommuting, cost of operation, how it will affect company structure, and productivity. (CT)
Radiation workers are healthier than the average person in the general population and appear to be as healthy as workers in other ΣsafeΣ industries. It is, however, assumed that there is no safe dose of radiation and that any exposure to radiation will cause a small increase in the incidence of cancer, this increase being directly proportional to the total radiation dose. On the basis of the risk estimates given by ICRP, radiation exposures up to 1 rem per year for 47 years are predicted to cause fewer work-related deaths than expected for the average worker in Canadian industry. Radiation exposures of 5 rem per year from age 18 to 65 would result in predicted risk which is about four times higher than that for most workers in Canada and might increase the chances of death before age 75 to nearly the same level as for the average member of the general public. (auth)
Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.
The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D ampersand D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D ampersand D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment
Provides an overview of the construction industry in Singapore. Studies the structure of the construction workforce, the terms of employment, policies towards worker, the effects of employment of foreign workers on local industry, the reducing reliance on foreign construction workers, and the future trends in Singapore's requirements for construction workers.
Hulsegge, Gerben; Gupta, Nidhi; Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Proper, Karin I; van der Beek, Allard J
Objective Physical inactivity has been hypothesized as an underlying factor for the association between shift work and adverse health outcomes. We compared leisure-time and occupational physical activity and sedentary behavior between day, night, and non-night shift workers. Methods We identified 612 day workers, 139 night shift workers and 61 non-night shift workers aged 18-65 years (54% men) in two Danish studies: the New method for Objective Measurements of physical Activity in Daily living (NOMAD) and the Danish Physical ACTivity cohort with Objective measurements (DPhacto) between 2011-2013. Sedentary behavior, light, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were measured using an accelerometer. Physical activity was expressed as percentage of leisure and work time spent in each activity. Linear regression analyses were used to test differences in physical activity and sedentary behavior between day, night, and non-night shift workers. Results No differences in leisure-time sedentary behavior and physical activity were observed between day and shift workers (P>0.05). Non-night shift workers spent 7.2% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.3-12.1) more time in occupational sedentary behavior than day workers and 5.9% (95% CI -10.1- -1.7) and 1.9% (95% CI -3.7- -0.2) less time in occupational light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, respectively. Compared to day workers, night shift workers spent 4.3% (95% CI 2.4-6.1) more time at work in uninterrupted sedentary periods of ≥30 minutes. Conclusions Shift workers had similar leisure-time physical activity patterns as day workers, but were more sedentary at work. Future research should elucidate whether occupational physical inactivity and sedentary behavior contributes to shift work-related adverse health effects.
Foeken, D.W.J.; Tellegen, N.
In some areas in sub-Saharan Africa a rural proletariat has emerged, consisting mainly of labourers living and working on plantations and large mixed farms. Besides these fully proletarianized estate workers, there is also a category of workers that can be labelled 'semi-proletarianized'. They live
Full Text Available Background: Incinerator workers are not considered to have arsenic overexposure although they have the risk of overexposure to other heavy metals. Aim: To examine the relationship between arsenic burden and risk of occupational exposure in employees working at a municipal refuse incinerator by determining the concentrations of arsenic in the blood and urine. Settings and Design: The workers were divided into three groups based on their probability of contact with combustion-generated residues, namely Group 1: indirect contact, Group 2: direct contact and Group 3: no contact. Healthy age- and sex-matched residents living in the vicinity were enrolled as the control group. Materials and Methods: Heavy metal concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Downstream rivers and drinking water of the residents were examined for environmental arsenic pollution. A questionnaire survey concerning the contact history of arsenic was simultaneously conducted. Statistical analysis: Non-parametric tests, cross-tabulation and multinomial logistic regression. Results: This study recruited 122 incinerator workers. The urine and blood arsenic concentrations as well as incidences of overexposure were significantly higher in the workers than in control subjects. The workers who had indirect or no contact with combustion-generated residues had significantly higher blood arsenic level. Arsenic contact history could not explain the difference. Airborne and waterborne arsenic pollution were not detected. Conclusion: Incinerator workers run the risk of being exposed to arsenic pollution, especially those who have incomplete protection in the workplace even though they only have indirect or no contact with combustion-generated pollutants.
Dixon, Luke; Kuster, Ryan; Rueppell, Olav
While a negative correlation between reproduction and life span is commonly observed, specialized reproductive individuals outlive their non-reproductive nestmates in all eusocial species, including the honeybee, Apis mellifera (L). The consequences of reproduction for individual life expectancy can be studied directly by comparing reproductive and non-reproductive workers. We quantified the life span consequences of reproduction in honeybee workers by removal of the queen to trigger worker reproduction. Furthermore, we observed the social behavior of large cohorts of workers under experimental and control conditions to test for associations with individual life expectancy. Worker life expectancy was moderately increased by queen removal. Queenless colonies contained a few long-lived workers, and oviposition behavior was associated with a strong reduction in mortality risk, indicating that a reproductive role confers a significant survival advantage. This finding is further substantiated by an association between brood care behavior and worker longevity that depends on the social environment. In contrast, other in-hive activities, such as fanning, trophallaxis, and allogrooming did not consistently affect worker life expectancy. The influence of foraging varied among replicates. An earlier age of transitioning from in-hive tasks to outside foraging was always associated with shorter life spans, in accordance with previous studies. In sum, our studies quantify how individual mortality is affected by particular social roles and colony environments and demonstrate interactions between the two. The exceptional, positive association between reproduction and longevity in honeybees extends to within-caste plasticity, which may be exploited for mechanistic studies.
This paper discusses relocation stress experienced by an agro-pastoral community of Makueni district during eviction from their former settlement areas thus causing the untold socio-cultural and economic suffering during eviction, transitional, shifting and resettlement stages. The relocation involved three communities formerly settled in Chyulu hills in Makueni district, Kalembwani in Kajiado district and Kibwezi township in Makueni district whose occupation was agro-pastoral production. The relocation was involuntary and unplanned and had adversely disrupted their food-security, socio-cultural and economic welfare. The study of the Muuni community spanned a period of over three years (1996 - 1999). The '5-stage socio-economic change model' studied in this study shows the ensuring adjustment process most likely to be experienced when top-down policy decisions are taken and how this affects farming communities within semi-arid lands of Kenya where involuntary and unplanned resettlement of people takes place
Progress on the Lloydminster Heavy Oil Interpretive Centre, sponsored by the Lloydminster Oilfield Technical Society and expected to open in late 1998, was discussed. Some $150,000 of the $750,000 budget is already in the bank, and another $150,000 is in the pipeline. The Centre will be added to an existing and well-established visitor's site. It is reported to contain a lively and imaginatively-designed exhibit package, and promises to become a combination of educational tool and tourist attraction for the town of Lloydminster, Saskatchewan, in the heart of heavy oil country
Al-Emad, N. H.; Rahman, I. A.
This paper presents an exploratory study conducted in Makkah city to uncover issues faced by construction workers from the construction leaders’ perspective. Eleven construction leaders/experts were interviewed to unleash their experiences on handling the foreign workers working in Makkah construction projects. Most of the experts are senior management staffs with more than 10 years’ working experience in Saudi Arabia construction industry. The interviews were carried out in semi structured mode where all the information was captured manually and also electronically. The identified issues were sorted based on its commonality into 10 clusters. Hence in each cluster, the numbers of issue considered by the experts are reflecting the importance of that particular cluster. The result of the clusters according to the number of issues mentioned by the experts are safety issues, restricted government regulation, demotivated issues, lack of quality workers, poor living quality, communication barriers, adaption issues, poor attitudes, lack of logistical arrangements and lack of education. With these identified issues it will assist the construction players in the construction industry of Saudi Arabia in dealing with their workers.
Elouyse Fernandes Leitão
Full Text Available Objective: To describe the health practices adopted by sex workers in their daily lives. Methods: A qualitative study that took place at bars where sex workers of Maceió –AL, Brazil, work. The universe of participant subjects was integrated by 15 female sex workers, aged between 20 and 39 years, assisted by the team of a Street Clinic. The research took place between August and October 2011 and women were randomly selected. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews, which were all audio-recorded and transcribed for further analysis and interpretation. Results: Thematic analysis of the data produced and the theoretical framework of health promotion enabled the categorization of the health practices in daily life of these women, such as: prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, body care and aesthetics, physical activity, nutrition, leisure, interpersonal relationships, consumption of alcohol and others drugs, self-medication, and quest for health services. The ways they appropriate themselves of such practices are conditioned by the social vulnerability and economic and sociocultural context they are in. Conclusion: Despite the deficiencies found in the development of these practices, sex workers seek to preserve habits that improve their physical, social and mental health, as well as the pursuit of professional care and services to promote their health.
Senser, Robert A.
Notes that about half of U.S. toys are made in China, mainly by young women who work extremely long shifts, 7 days a week, "amid sickening vapors and under draconian rules." Describes corporate codes of conduct, the role consumers can play in changing extremely poor working conditions, and the impact of international trade reforms.…
The discussion and debate stimulated by these papers focused across a range of issues but there were four main areas of questioning: "measuring" and monitoring migration (issues related to comparability, completeness and accuracy of data sets on human resources); the impact of migration of health workers on health systems; the motivations of individual health workers to migrate (the "push" and "pull" factors) and the effect of policies designed either to reduce migration (e.g "self ufficiency") or to stimulate it (e.g active international recruitment). It was recognised that there was a critical need to examine migratory flows within the broader context of all health care labour market dynamics within a country, that increasing migration of health workers was an inevitable consequence of globalisation, and that there was a critical need to improve monitoring so as to better inform policy formulation and policy testing in this area.
Mace, Ariel Olivia; Mulheron, Shani; Jones, Caleb; Cherian, Sarah
There are limited data regarding the educational backgrounds and associated psychological and developmental outcomes of refugee children resettling in Western Australia (WA). The WA paediatric Refugee Health Service (RHS) revised its first consult questionnaire (August 2011) to increase educational and psychosocial documentation, concurrent with engagement of a School of Special Educational Needs: Medical and Mental Health (SSEN: MMH) liaison teacher. This study aims to utilise these data to increase understanding of this cohort's educational, developmental and psychological needs and to describe SSEN: MMH's role within the RHS. Retrospective audit and analyses were performed on all initial standardised questionnaires for school-aged refugee children (4-18 years) and SSEN: MMH referrals between August 2011 and December 2012. Demographic data from 332 refugees are described (mean age 9.58 ± standard deviation 3.43 years). Detailed educational information was available for 205 children. Prior education was limited (median 2 years), 64.9% experienced likely schooling interruption and 55.8% received education in their primary language. Language development concerns were significantly associated with previous education in a second language (odds ratio (OR) 4.55, P < 0.05). Other severe developmental and schooling issues were uncommon at presentation, with few correlations to prior education. In contrast, several migration factors, including family separation and mandatory detention, were significantly associated with psychological comorbidities such as post-traumatic stress disorder (OR 5.60, P < 0.001 and OR 14.57, P < 0.001, respectively). SSEN: MMH reviewed 59 complex cases. Referral was significantly associated with multiple educational, developmental and psychological concerns. Refugee children have varied migration, trauma and educational backgrounds, impacting on health and psychological outcomes. In-depth multidisciplinary history including prior education and
Murray, Michael; Ziegler, Friederike
Community health psychology is an approach which promotes community mobilisation as a means of enhancing community capacity and well-being and challenging health inequalities. Much of the research on this approach has been at the more strategic and policy level with less reference to the everyday experiences of community workers who are actively involved in promoting various forms of community change. This article considers the narrative accounts of a sample of 12 community workers who were interviewed about their lives. Their accounts were analysed in terms of narrative content. This revealed the tensions in their everyday practice as they attempted to overcome community divisions and management demands for evidence. Common to all accounts was a commitment to social justice. These findings are discussed with reference to opportunities and challenges in the practice of community work. © The Author(s) 2015.
Christensen, Suna Møller
in West Greenland were carried out when it was hunting season for mux ox and caribou, exploring relations between education and perception of environment. All these trips have called for attention to the relation between actual engagement with ‘nature’ and experienced human-nature relations. Based on my......, hunters attended to questions like safe-journeying on ice or the role of natural surroundings in children’s education, in ways revealing a relational perception of ‘nature’ and dissolving culture-nature dualisms. Hunters’ experiences in living the land afforded children a dwelling position from which...... to grow with the features of the land. Framed this way, ‘nature’ was regarded as part of the social world. I suggest that learning among Arctic hunters is social and twofold. First, we can learn how human-environment relations influence individual life trajectories. Secondly, ‘nature’ as part...
Rasmussen, Trine Bernholdt; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Moons, Philip
BACKGROUND:: Infective endocarditis (IE) is a traumatic health event, and recovery is often associated with massive physical deconditioning and reduced quality of life. Patients also report reduced cognitive functioning and are at risk of developing anxiety and depression as well as posttraumatic...... stress disorder. Although studies have found that survivors of IE have impaired physical functioning and mental health, little is known about patient experiences contributing to these findings. OBJECTIVE:: The aim of this study was to describe patient experiences of recovery after IE. SUBJECTS...... interpretation and discussion. FINDINGS:: The overall concept that emerged was "Insufficient Living." Patients all experienced a life after illness, which was perceived as insufficient. The overall concept can be interpreted in terms of the following 3 themes. The first was "an altered life," where participants...
on the ground level, but there is a lack of recognition in the significance of communicative characters as well at the higher part of the edge. The city’s planning approach is “Consider urban life before urban space. Consider urban space before buildings” This urban strategy neglects the possible architectural...... is a collection of material from the case study of an ongoing PhD study titled: LIVING EDGE - The Architectural and Urban Prospect of Domestic Borders. The paper includes a description of the problem analysis, research question, method, discussion and conclusion.......“What is an edge? We can think about an edge as having been of two sorts. In one, it is a border. In the other, it is a boundary. A border is a zone of interaction where things meet and intersect. A boundary is a place where something ends” Architects and planners normally approach domestic borders...
Faux, Jeff; Lee, Thea
The proposed North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) will result in lower wages, fewer jobs, and generally reduced living standards for the majority of U.S. workers. Substantial costs to the U.S. economy will occur in job and income loss and few off-setting benefits for most workers. Proponents argue that NAFTA will create upward mobility for…
Due to the severe economic decline in the automobile manufacturing industry in southeastern Michigan, a Dislocated Workers Program has been developed through the partnership of the Flint Area Chamber of Commerce, three community colleges, the National Center for Research in Vocational Education, the Michigan State Department of Education, the…
Stress in Humanitarian Workers: Case of the UNHCR Office in Senegal. S A Dia, A S Mohamed, M C Gaye Fall,. M Ndiaye. NB Dieng,. Department of Occupational Medicine and Forensic Medicine, Cheikh Anta Diop University at Dakar, Senegal. Corresponding author. Azhar Salim Mohamed. Dakar Fann, Sénégal, Tel: + ...
A recent study of health records of the workforce at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, operated by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), has shown that radiation workers have lower mortality rates from all causes and from all cancers than the general population. The Lucas Heights data cover more than 7000 past and present employees, from 1957-1998. This study was part of a research programme being carried out in conjunction with the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in France and its results add to the much larger pool of data already held by IARC. This finding of the Australian study is similar to the findings of epidemiological studies of the health of workers who have been exposed to low levels of ionising radiation in the course of their occupations elsewhere in the world, and has often been explained as the healthy worker effect. According to this argument, it is reasonable to expect that any group of workers should be more healthy than an average group (with the same age and sex distribution) from the general population. After all, they must at least be healthy enough to get out of bed regularly and go to work. The purpose of the present paper is to ask whether this is the whole story
Full Text Available Previous studies have convincingly shown that employees' family lives can affect their work outcomes. We investigate whether family-to-work conflict (FWC experienced by the employee also affects the turnover intention of a co-worker. We predict that the employee's FWC has an effect on the co-worker's turnover intention through the crossover of positive and negative work attitudes. Using a sample of 154 co-worker dyads, we found that the employee FWC was positively related to co-worker turnover intention through the crossover of (reduced work engagement. Results show that family matters at work, affecting employee. In addition, employee's job engagement was positively related to his (her co-worker job engagement and it was negatively related co-worker turnover intention and employee's FWC was not positively related to co-worker turnover intention trough the crossover of (reduced feelings of engagement.
Jessup, Denise; Greenberg, Barbara
Describes program innovations to keep older workers employed: retraining, job sharing, flexible working hours, job redesign, and phased retirement. Addresses costs and savings, disincentives for workers and employers, and future trends. (SK)
Women now comprise 30 percent of trade union membership worldwide. The International Labour Organisation's Workers' Education Branch is attempting to improve the status of women workers and increase their participation in union activities and labor education. (SK)
Whitehouse, John R. W.
The author suggests that labor education, by its organization through trade unions, is clearly distinguished from general adult education activities, although workers obviously participate in adult education. He discusses various ILO workers' education programs around the world. (MF)
Tsuji, Kazuki; Kikuta, Noritsugu; Kikuchi, Tomonori
Workers of social Hymenoptera can usually produce male offspring, but rarely do so in the presence of a queen despite the potential individual fitness benefit. Various mechanisms have been hypothesized to regulate worker reproduction, including avoiding the colony-level cost of worker reproduction. However, firm quantitative evidence is lacking to support that hypothesis. Here, we accurately quantified this cost by studying an ant species (Diacamma sp.) in which worker reproduction is rare in the presence of the gamergate (the functional queen). A series of experiments to manipulate worker-gamergate contact revealed that short-term brood-production efficiency is not changed by the presence of worker reproduction. However, when workers reproduce, their average life span is reduced to between 74% and 88% of that in the absence of reproduction, indicating a long-term cost to the colony. In theory, this cost can explain the policing of worker reproduction under a queen-single mating system, but the cost does not appear to be high enough to stop worker reproduction. When contact with the gamergate is lost, it is only the nonreproductive workers whose life span was reduced; the reproductive workers lived as long as nonorphaned workers. We suggest that an increased workload can account for the reduction in life span better than a trade-off between reproduction and longevity. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Nilvarangkul, Kessarawan; Rungreangkulkij, Somporn; Wongprom, Jaranya
Globalization and the movement of workers across borders in search of a better life or employment are presenting healthcare systems and researchers with problems of increasing complexity. This study focused on how migrant workers in Thailand from the Lao People's Democratic Republic conceptualized their stress and stressing factors. Participant observation, in-depth interviews, and field notes were employed in the study, which analyzed data from seventy subjects through qualitative content analysis. The migrant workers in this sample perceived stress as a state of being unable to fulfill their preferences or expectations revolving around issues of: living with poverty, employment, loneliness, poor relationships, competition in the workplace combined with job uncertainty, and invisibility. To provide care for the minority migrant workers, nurses need to focus on identifying how these users perceive stress, and urgent action and further research are needed.
Zulkifli, A; Khairul, A A; Atiya, A S; Abdullah, B; Yano, A
A study of the prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminthiasis among pre-school children aged 0 to 7 years from an Orang Asli village resettlement scheme in Gua Musang, Kelantan was undertaken. The overall prevalence of soil transmitted helminthic (STH) infections was 56.0%. The predominant helminth found was Ascaris lumbricoides while the commonest type of infection was a mixed infection with Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura. The prevalence rates of Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworm infections were 47.5%, 33.9% and 6.2% respectively. The intensity of Ascaris infections were 64.5% light, 27.3% moderate and 8.3% heavy whilst the intensity of Trichuris infections were 80.5% light, 18.3% moderate and 1.2% heavy. However, the intensity of hookworm infections were 86.7% light, 13.3% moderate and no heavy infection. The prevalence of helminthiasis (STH) shows an-age dependent relationship, with the lowest prevalence in 0-< 1 year age group and highest in the 6-< 7 year age group.
Full Text Available Background: The delivery of health education through mobile phones either through voice calls or text messages (mHealth provide valuable opportunities for bridging gaps in maternal and child healthcare in resource constrained settings. Aims & Objectives: The objective of the present study was to assess willingness to receive m-Health services among women caregivers of under-5 children. Material & Methods: We conducted a cross sectional study in an urban resettlement colony of North East District of Delhi during the period from September’ 2016 to Feb’ 2017. We enrolled 201 adult women up to 35 years of age who were active caregiver of at-least one under 5 child in their familial household. Results: The mean age of the women was 26.4 and mean years of schooling was 10.1 years. Nearly three-fourth (73.2% could read text messages (SMS while more than a third (36.8% were using mobile internet services. The willingness to receive mHealth services for health promotion was affirmed by 157 (78.2% subjects but it was significantly lower in women with low educational attainment. Conclusion: There exists a strong unmet need for mHealth services among young women caregivers of under 5 children. However, bridging the digital divide is a key challenge towards advancing mHealth for all.
Nelson, Matthew; Hess, Julia Meredith; Isakson, Brian; Goodkind, Jessica
Social and geographic displacement is a global phenomenon that precipitates novel stressors and disruptions that intersect with longstanding familial and social roles. Among the displaced are war-torn Iraqi refugee families, who must address these new obstacles in unconventional ways. This study explores how such disruptions have influenced associations between gender and apparent self-worth experienced by Iraqi refugee families upon relocation to the United States. Further, the psychosocial mechanisms requisite of any novel approach to a new social construct are explored and reveal that production in the family is at the core of instability and shifting power dynamics during resettlement, preventing family members from “seeing the life” in the United States that they had envisioned prior to immigration. Over 200 semi-structured qualitative interviews with Iraqi participants and mental health providers were conducted over the course of the study, and demonstrate a plasticity among social roles in the family and community that transcends the notion of a simple role reversal, and illustrate the complex positionalities that families under stress must approximate during such physical and social displacement. PMID:28966556
Full Text Available Background / Objectives: Migration is suspected to increase the risk for psychological distress for those who enter a new cultural environment. We investigated the association between sociodemographic characteristics, premigratory and migratory factors and psychological distress in rural-to-urban migrants just after migration and after resettlement. Methods: Data from the cross-sectional sib-pair designed Indian Migration Study (IMS, 2005-2007 were used. The analysis focused on 2112 participants aged ≥18 years from the total IMS sample (n = 7067 who reported being migrant. Psychological distress was assessed based on the responses of the 7-questions in a five-point scale, where the respondents were asked to report about their feelings now and also asked to recall these feelings when they first migrated. The associations were analyzed using multiple logistic regression models. Results: High prevalence of psychological distress was found just after migration (7.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.2-8.4 than after settlement (4.7%; 95% CI: 3.8-5.6. Push factors as a reason behind migration and not being able to adjust in the new environment were the main correlates of psychological distress among both the male and female migrants, just after migration. Conclusions: Rural-urban migration is a major phenomenon in India and given the impact of premigratory and migratory related stressors on mental health, early intervention could prevent the development of psychological distress among the migrants.
We live in an information society, in which effective and efficient interaction with information is crucial. Many people are knowledge workers, whose main job it is to interpret and generate information. Due to their typical working conditions these people often experience stress while working with
Visser, Miranda; Mills, Melinda; Heyse, Liesbet; Wittek, Rafael; Bollettino, Vincenzo
A limited body of research has examined satisfaction with work-life balance of expatriate workers who live abroad, residing outside the typical family or life domain. This study aims to demonstrate how and under which organizational circumstances job autonomy can increase work-life balance
Full Text Available Global Production System has changed remarkably over the period of time. In order to cope up with the change in the nature and type of production, the small and household garment and textile units are employing the younger and skilled labor force. The workers in these units are employed on the contract, causal and temporary basis. They are not given the different benefits as applicable to the large scale unit workers. Such workers are employed more hours and weekly holidays are not given to them. The small and household units are simply maximizing their interest and profit. Such capitalist nature of productive activities makes the labor worse. They are given less wages and classified as unskilled workers. Workers are not given proper training and security of work by these units. Their access to productive assets and standard of living is low as compare to the large unit’s workers. In order to improve the workers conditions, minimum wage should be given to all workers in small and household units. Such units must maintain their annual records of transactions. Small and household units must send their workers for compulsory training. Work place environment, minimum hours of work are required to regulate in these sectors. Immediate steps will have positive impact on workers earning and standard of living. It will help for further productivity enhancement.
Full Text Available The paper looks at the phenomenon of migrant workers who emigrated to Western European countries after World War II. The labor demands created by the economic reconstruction of these countries, most notably Great Britain, West Germany, France, Switzerland, the Benelux countries, Sweden and Austria, coupled with low birth rates and high death rates, made it necessary for them to hire immigrant workers. On the other hand, poor economic conditions, few employment opportunities and a yearning for a higher standard of living drove workers from Italy, Spain, Portugal, Turkey, Yugoslavia, Greece, Ireland, Finland and North Africa to seek work abroad. These temporary migrant workers represent a link between their countries of origin and their host countries, and, as a group of people maintaining links with their native countries, they can also be considered their countries’ diaspora. However, considering the temporary nature of their residence abroad, it is questionable whether they actually are a diaspora. It is for this reason that the paper juxtaposes the phenomena of the diaspora and temporary migrant workers in order to analyze the question of whether, when and how these workers become a diaspora. In particular, it focuses on migrant workers from Yugoslavia, usually referred to as “gastarbajteri” (gastarbeiter, who in the 1960s and 1970s migrated mostly to West Germany, Austria, Australia, France and Switzerland, and on their political treatment by the Yugoslav state.
J S Pasricha
Full Text Available A survey of 112 workers of a silk facory near Bangalore, for dermatologic diseases revealed (1 a characteristic wearing off of the medial halves of the distal free edges of the finger nail plates in 10 of the 15 cocoonsorters, (2 maceration of the palms in 58 workers of the boiling and reeling section, and (3 pitted keratolysis of the palms, in 42 workers, also from the boiling and reeling section. There was no clinical evidence of contact dermatitis, and patch tests with the silk thread from the cocoons in 25 workers showed a very mild reaction in 2 workers and a doubtful reaction in another two. In addition, one worker from the skeining section had crisscross superficial fissures on the finger tips caused by friction, two workers had paronychia ′of the fingers and four workers had dermatophytFNx01t fingers webs. As in the previous survey, these workers also had a high incidence of ichthyosis (92 workers and hyperketatosis of the palms (62 workers and soles (110 workers.
van Ommeren, Jos; Fosgerau, Mogens
This paper applies a dynamic search model to estimate workers' marginal costs of commuting, including monetary and time costs. Using data on workers' job search activity as well as moving behaviour, for the Netherlands, we provide evidence that, on average, workers' marginal costs of one hour...
Castle, Nicholas G; Handler, Steven M; Wagner, Laura M
Prescription drug misuse among older adults includes inappropriate and harmful use of these drugs. In this study, prescription drug misuse in assisted living settings as reported by direct care workers (DCWs) was examined. Data came from DCWs in 45 assisted living settings located in Pennsylvania. A total of 944 DCWs completed a questionnaire on their opinions of prescription drug misuse. DCWs believed most assisted living residents take prescription medications. In addition, 10% of DCWs observed or had evidence that residents used unnecessarily high doses, 30% were preoccupied with the cost of prescription drugs, and 26% had problems understanding the complexity of their drug treatment regimen. Prescription drug misuse may be a problem of importance in assisted living settings. Assisted living has experienced rapid growth in capacity, yet the ability of these settings and their residents to manage prescription drugs may not have kept pace with this growth. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.
Price, Jennifer; Harris, Philip; Hochstetler, Bruce; Guerra, Mark; Mendez, Israel; Healy, Matthew; Khan, Ahmed
International Space Station Live! (ISSLive!) is a Web application that uses a proprietary commercial technology called Lightstreamer to push data across the Internet using the standard http port (port 80). ISSLive! uses the push technology to display real-time telemetry and mission timeline data from the space station in any common Web browser or Internet- enabled mobile device. ISSLive! is designed to fill a unique niche in the education and outreach areas by providing access to real-time space station data without a physical presence in the mission control center. The technology conforms to Internet standards, supports the throughput needed for real-time space station data, and is flexible enough to work on a large number of Internet-enabled devices. ISSLive! consists of two custom components: (1) a series of data adapters that resides server-side in the mission control center at Johnson Space Center, and (2) a set of public html that renders the data pushed from the data adapters. A third component, the Lightstreamer server, is commercially available from a third party and acts as an intermediary between custom components (1) and (2). Lightstreamer also provides proprietary software libraries that are required to use the custom components. At the time of this reporting, this is the first usage of Web-based, push streaming technology in the aerospace industry.
Glicken, Morley D
In the current economy, companies are expected to turn on a dime in response to changing market needs to stay vibrant. What that means is that companies are constantly reorganizing. Employees are living in a constant state of change. This dynamic in the workplace has affected worker satisfaction, morale, and burnout. This is the first treatment manual to focus on treating job-related issues, whether it's conflict in the workplace, stress, burnout, performance, and more. Divided into two parts, Part One sets the stage with a discussion of the economic climate and how it impacts businesses, h
Full Text Available Abstract Background Shortage of human resources is a major problem facing Malawi, where more than 50% of the population lives in rural areas. Most of the district health services are provided by clinical health officers specially trained to provide services that would normally be provided by fully qualified doctors or specialists. As this cadre and the cadre of enrolled nurses are the mainstay of the Malawian health service at the district level, it is important that they are supported and motivated to deliver a good standard of service to the population. This study explores how these cadres are managed and motivated and the impact this has on their performance. Methods A quantitative survey measured health workers' job satisfaction, perceptions of the work environment and sense of justice in the workplace, and was reported elsewhere. It emerged that health workers were particularly dissatisfied with what they perceived as unfair access to continuous education and career advancement opportunities, as well as inadequate supervision. These issues and their contribution to demotivation, from the perspective of both management and health workers, were further explored by means of qualitative techniques. Focus group discussions were held with health workers, and key-informant interviews were conducted with members of district health management teams and human resource officers in the Ministry of Health. The focus groups used convenience sampling that included all the different cadres of health workers available and willing to participate on the day the research team visited the health facility. The interviews targeted district health management teams in three districts and the human resources personnel in the Ministry of Health, also sampling those who were available and agreed to participate. Results The results showed that health workers consider continuous education and career progression strategies to be inadequate. Standard human resource
Foged, Mette; Peri, Giovanni
Using a database that includes the universe of individuals and establishments in Denmark over the period 1991-2008 we analyze the effect of a large inflow of non-European (EU) immigrants on Danish workers. We first identify a sharp and sustained supply-driven increase in the inflow of non......-EU immigrants in Denmark, beginning in 1995 and driven by a sequence of international events such as the Bosnian, Somalian and Iraqi crises. We then look at the response of occupational complexity, job upgrading and downgrading, wage and employment of natives in the short and long run. We find...... that the increased supply of non-EU low skilled immigrants pushed native workers to pursue more complex occupations. This reallocation happened mainly through movement across firms. Immigration increased mobility of natives across firms and across municipalities but it did not increase their probability...
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Yelland, Nicola; Andrew, Yarrow; Blaise, Mindy; Chan, Yee On
Despite the ongoing global financial crisis, there is an increasing deployment of migrant workers across the globe, and in Hong Kong the foreign domestic worker occupies a ubiquitous presence in the lives of many families. Seven domestic workers from Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand were interviewed to gain insight into their role in…
Carlier, M.-F.; Helfer, E.; Wade, R.; Haraux, F.
The living cell is a kind of factory on the microscopic scale, in which an assembly of modular machines carries out, in a spatially and temporally coordinated way, a whole range of activities internal to the cell, including the synthesis of substances essential to its survival, intracellular traffic, waste disposal, and cell division, but also activities related to intercellular communication and exchanges with the outside world, i.e., the ability of the cell to change shape, to move within a tissue, or to organise its own defence against attack by pathogens, injury, and so on. These nanomachines are made up of macromolecular assemblies with varying degrees of complexity, forged by evolution, within which work is done as a result of changes in interactions between proteins, or between proteins and nucleic acids, or between proteins and membrane components. All these cell components measure a few nanometers across, so the mechanical activity of these nanomachines all happens on the nanometric scale. The directional nature of the work carried out by biological nanomachines is associated with a dissipation of energy. As examples of protein assemblies, one could mention the proteasome, which is responsible for the degradation of proteins, and linear molecular motors such as actomyosin, responsible for muscle contraction, the dynein-microtubule system, responsible for flagellar motility, and the kinesin-microtubule system, responsible for transport of vesicles, which transform chemical energy into motion. Nucleic acid-protein assemblies include the ribosome, responsible for synthesising proteins, polymerases, helicases, elongation factors, and the machinery of DNA replication and repair; the mitotic spindle is an integrated system involving several of these activities which drive chromosome segregation. The machinery coupling membranes and proteins includes systems involved in the energy metabolism, such as the ATP synthase rotary motor, signalling cascades, endocytosis
Vicente Angel S. Ybiernas
Prior to the 1980s, the South Korean workplace was not reliant on migrant workers. However, roughly just before the Seoul Olympics of 1988 were held, there was a noticeable increase in the number of foreign workers in South Korea. From the 1980s onwards, the South Korean government and its export-dependent industries struggled with the rising cost of living in the country and the attendant rise in the wages of Korean workers, creating a need for migrant workers. This essay tackles the challen...
Ben-Arie, Ayala; Iecovich, Esther
There are high levels of turnover among home care workers. The study goal was to examine factors connected with job satisfaction of home care workers who resigned from their jobs. A survey (self-administered questionnaire) was conducted of 197 home care workers who resigned from their jobs with a home care agency in Jerusalem. Overall job satisfaction of the home care workers was low to moderate. Memory impairment of the care recipient and quality of the relationship between the care worker and the care recipient were significant in explaining overall and intrinsic job satisfaction of the workers. Functional status (activities of daily living) and the impact of the care recipient's cognitive status on the care worker were significant in explaining job benefit satisfaction. Home care workers who provide care to severely disabled and cognitively impaired older persons experience great work stress. They need ongoing support and training as well as better job benefits.
Tartakovsky, Eugene; Walsh, Sophie D
The current study examines value preferences of social workers in Israel. Using a theoretical framework of person-environment fit paradigm and theory of values, the study compared social workers (N = 641, mean age = 37.7 years, 91 percent female) with a representative sample of Israeli Jews (N = 1,600, mean age = 44.2, 52 percent female). Questionnaires included personal value preferences and sociodemographic variables (gender, age, education, religiosity, and immigrant status). Multivariate analysis of covariance showed that value preferences of social workers differed significantly from those of the general population. Analyses of covariance showed that social workers reported a higher preference for self-transcendence and a lower preference for conservation and self-enhancement values. Results have significance for the selection, training, and supervision of social workers. They suggest that it is important to assess to what extent selection processes for social workers are primarily recruiting social workers with shared values, thus creating an overly homogenous population of social workers. An understanding of personal value motivations can help social workers in their own process of self-development and growth, and to understand how the profession can fulfill their basic motivations. © 2018 National Association of Social Workers.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural township health centres and urban community health centres play a crucial role in the delivery of primary health care in China. Over the past two-and-a-half decades, these health institutions have not been as well developed as high-level hospitals. The limited availability and low qualifications of human resources in health are among the main challenges facing lower-level health facilities. This paper aims to analyse the mobility of health workers in township and community health centres. Methods Data used in this paper come from a nationwide survey of health facilities in 2006. Ten provinces in different locations and of varying levels of economic development were selected. From these provinces, 119 rural township health centres and 89 urban community health centres were selected to participate in a questionnaire survey. Thirty key informants were selected from these health facilities to be interviewed. Results In 2005, 8.1% and 8.9% of health workers left township and community health centres, respectively. The health workers in rural township health centres had three to 13 years of work experience and typically had received a formal medical education. The majority of the mobile health workers moved to higher-level health facilities; very few moved to other rural township health centres. The rates of workers leaving township and community health centres increased between 2000 and 2005, with the main reasons for leaving being low salaries, limited opportunities for professional development and poor living conditions. Conclusion In China, primary health workers in township health centres and community health centres move to higher-level facilities due to low salaries, limited opportunities for promotion and poor living conditions. The government already has policies in place to counteract this migration, but it must step up enforcement if rural township health centres and urban community centres are to retain health
Meng, Qingyue; Yuan, Jing; Jing, Limei; Zhang, Junhua
Rural township health centres and urban community health centres play a crucial role in the delivery of primary health care in China. Over the past two-and-a-half decades, these health institutions have not been as well developed as high-level hospitals. The limited availability and low qualifications of human resources in health are among the main challenges facing lower-level health facilities. This paper aims to analyse the mobility of health workers in township and community health centres. Data used in this paper come from a nationwide survey of health facilities in 2006. Ten provinces in different locations and of varying levels of economic development were selected. From these provinces, 119 rural township health centres and 89 urban community health centres were selected to participate in a questionnaire survey. Thirty key informants were selected from these health facilities to be interviewed. In 2005, 8.1% and 8.9% of health workers left township and community health centres, respectively. The health workers in rural township health centres had three to 13 years of work experience and typically had received a formal medical education. The majority of the mobile health workers moved to higher-level health facilities; very few moved to other rural township health centres. The rates of workers leaving township and community health centres increased between 2000 and 2005, with the main reasons for leaving being low salaries, limited opportunities for professional development and poor living conditions. In China, primary health workers in township health centres and community health centres move to higher-level facilities due to low salaries, limited opportunities for promotion and poor living conditions. The government already has policies in place to counteract this migration, but it must step up enforcement if rural township health centres and urban community centres are to retain health professionals and recruit qualified health workers.
Quality of life (QOL) is a general term applied to the totality of physical, psychological, and social functioning. The World Health Organization (WHO) regards health as a state of complete physical, mental, and social well being, and not merely the absence of disease. Every person's life is different, and thus the way in which each person experiences a QOL is unique. Individuals lead complex lives that have many dimensions. A QOL approach recognizes that there are many different aspects of living that may contribute to quality. In this study, Quality of life was evaluated using the Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire for one hundred and fifty radiation workers who handled ionizing radiation for at least twelve years, and one hundred fifty control individuals who did not knowingly come in contact with any radiation source., the QOL effects on work and achievements were also evaluated. Results revealed that radiation workers have lower quality of life compared to those who never come in contact with a radiation source
This work provides an overview of the different types of female sex workers in Mexico City, and discusses the recent trend toward politicizing of female sex workers. The sex industry, traditionally known as prostitution, encompasses a variety of activities that are economically and socially hierarchical, and that may be clandestine, public, or semiofficial. The penal code in Mexico does not outlaw prostitution as such, but specifies procuring as an infraction, while the police regulations contain a category of offenses against morals and good customs, which is used to control prostitution. The laws have lent themselves to exploitation and mistreatment of prostitutes, who are also systematically exploited by their "representatives." The stigma of prostitution has prevented political organization of sex industry workers. In Mexico, the AIDS epidemic directly affected prostitutes' lives and initiated their political awakening. In some AIDS-control campaigns, prostitution came to be spoken of as a means of earning a living rather than as a sin, vice, or destiny. AIDS control activities also gave some indication of preoccupation with the human rights of prostitutes. Efforts are underway to form a national organization of prostitutes that would seek to improve their working conditions and social status. To the extent that prostitutes reflect on their circumstances and organize to defend their basic rights, including recognition of their work, they redefine the symbolic terms of gender in which female sexuality is repressed and women are dichotomized as good women or prostitutes. Prostitution is a social institution reflecting the hierarchy of gender. Prostitution should be analyzed as a political problem and not just a personal or individual problem. It should also be studied as a problem of social relations, with attention to the demand side as well as the supply.
This Handbook describes an implementation process for core training as recommended in Implementation Guide G441.12, Radiation Safety Training, and as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Standard (RCS). The Handbook is meant to assist those individuals within the Department of Energy, Managing and Operating contractors, and Managing and Integrating contractors identified as having responsibility for implementing core training recommended by the RCS. This training is intended for radiological workers to assist in meeting their job-specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835. While this Handbook addresses many requirements of 10 CFR 835 Subpart J, it must be supplemented with facility-specific information to achieve full compliance.
This Handbook describes an implementation process for core training as recommended in Implementation Guide G441.12, Radiation Safety Training, and as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Standard (RCS). The Handbook is meant to assist those individuals within the Department of Energy, Managing and Operating contractors, and Managing and Integrating contractors identified as having responsibility for implementing core training recommended by the RCS. This training is intended for radiological workers to assist in meeting their job-specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835. While this Handbook addresses many requirements of 10 CFR 835 Subpart J, it must be supplemented with facility-specific information to achieve full compliance
Vicente Angel S. Ybiernas
Full Text Available Prior to the 1980s, the South Korean workplace was not reliant on migrant workers. However, roughly just before the Seoul Olympics of 1988 were held, there was a noticeable increase in the number of foreign workers in South Korea. From the 1980s onwards, the South Korean government and its export-dependent industries struggled with the rising cost of living in the country and the attendant rise in the wages of Korean workers, creating a need for migrant workers. This essay tackles the challenges faced by South Korea vis-à-vis itsgrowing migrant worker population. Specifically, South Korea had to balance the need of its export-oriented industries to keep labor costs low by maintaining the wages (and other benefits of migrant workers minimal and the pressures, both internally and externally, to limit exploitation of, and improve the working conditions for, these laborers.
Nakadaira, Hiroto; Yamamoto, Masaharu; Matsubara, Toh
This paper investigates the effects of tanshin funin, a posting without family, on the health of married male workers. A prospective study using the pair-matched method was performed. One hundred and twenty-nine married male tanshin funin workers in their 40s and 50s and as many matched workers living with their family (regular workers) participated. Fewer tanshin funin workers took breakfast everyday (OR=3.3, phealth problems, namely headache (OR=4.7, p=0.013) and gastric/duodenal ulcers (OR=8.7, pmental stress were thus important effects of tanshin funin. Tanshin funin workers should be provided with health and lifestyle education programs and mental health care before and during tanshin funin. Doctors and nurses in the healthcare departments of companies should play a leading role.
M.Com. (Business Management) The knowledge economy developed out of the need for more complex products and services. The workers who are able to create such complex products and services are called knowledge workers. The term knowledge worker refers to the fact that the worker needs to be able to deal with large amounts of information, analyse and then generate knowledge out of this vast wealth of data and then be able to use this knowledge to create the necessary products and services to ...
Bible, Jesse E; Spengler, Dan M; Mir, Hassan R
A physician's role within a workers' compensation injury extends far beyond just evaluation and treatment with several socioeconomic and psychological factors at play compared with similar injuries occurring outside of the workplace. Although workers' compensation statutes vary among states, all have several basic features with the overall goal of returning the injured worker to maximal function in the shortest time period, with the least residual disability and shortest time away from work. To help physicians unfamiliar with the workers' compensation process accomplish these goals. Review. Educational review. The streamlined review addresses the topics of why is workers' compensation necessary; what does workers' compensation cover; progression after work injury; impairment and maximum medical improvement, including how to use the sixth edition of American Medical Association's (AMA) Guides to the evaluation of permanent impairment (Guides); completion of work injury claim after impairment rating; independent medical evaluation; and causation. In the "no-fault" workers' compensation system, physicians play a key role in progressing the claim along and, more importantly, getting the injured worker back to work as soon as safely possible. Physicians should remain familiar with the workers' compensation process, along with how to properly use the AMA Guides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Song, He Xue
In China, more than 10 million rural migrants move to cities every year. Because of the Household Registration System, migrant workers are not entitled to subsidised housing, education, social security or medical benefits. Using a resilience perspective, this study attempted to explore not only the migration stress that is experienced by migrant workers, but also the protective function of meaning of migration in helping migrant workers withstand the stress of migration. A survey design with multistage cluster sampling was used and 475 migrant workers were recruited. The questionnaire contained demographic data, the Brief Symptom Inventory, a migration stress scale and meaning of migration scale. Financial and employment difficulties stood out as the most stressful issues for migrant workers. More financial and material gains and personal aspirations and achievement were the most common reasons for living in Shanghai. Regression analyses revealed that financial and employment difficulties and interpersonal tensions and conflicts significantly predicted the mental health of both male and female migrant workers. In addition, while marital status significantly predicted the mental health of male migrant workers, the subscale 'more financial and material gains' in the meaning of migration scale predicted the mental health of female migrant workers. Finally, there was a moderating effect of meaning of migration on the mental health of female migrant workers. There is a need to consolidate and develop policies to protect the rights of migrant workers in China. Mental health counselling for migrant workers who are experiencing difficulties living in Shanghai should be introduced.
From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Unfortunately, technical and programmatic difficulties prevented us from obtaining NIOSH certification. Despite the inability of NIOSH to certify
From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Unfortunately, technical and programmatic difficulties prevented us from obtaining NIOSH certification. Despite the inability of NIOSH to certify
Full Text Available An aging population and the corresponding shrinkage of the labor force will create a significant drag on economic growth and may jeopardize the economic well-being of some of the elderly. Thus working longer is an imperative – but extending working lives has proven difficult, both because workers do not want to work longer and because employers are lukewarm about employing older workers. As measures that can be taken to motivate workers to work longer, the paper proposes providing retirement incentives and attractive, flexible working arrangements. To induce employers to hire old workers, it suggests removing the obstacles imposed by restrictive labor market institutions, an increase in the human capital of workers via life-long learning, and addressing age-discrimination. Chances for extending working lives will also increase as the health of elderly workers is improved.
Full Text Available In recent years, the diffusion of mobile applications (mobile apps has risen significantly. Nowadays, mobile business apps are strongly emerging in business, enhancing productivity and employees’ satisfaction, whilst the usage of customized individual enterprise apps is still an exception. Standardized business apps enable basic functionalities, for example, mobile data storage and exchange (e.g., Dropbox, communication (e.g., Skype, and other routine processes, which support mobile workers. In addition, mobile apps can, for example, increase the flexibility of mobile workers by easing the access to firm’s information from outside the enterprise and by enabling ubiquitous collaboration. Hence, mobile apps can generate competitive advantages and can increase work efficiency on a broad scale. But mobile workers form no coherent group. Our research reveals, based on two case studies, that they can be clustered into two groups: knowledge workers and field workers. Knowledge workers and field workers fulfill different tasks and work in different environments. Hence, they have different requirements for mobile support. In this paper we conclude that standardized mobile business apps cannot meet the different requirements of various groups of mobile workers. Task- and firm-specific (individualized requirements determine the specification, implementation, and application of mobile apps.
... With Parkinson's › Managing Parkinson's › Activities of Daily Living Activities of Daily Living Sometimes Parkinson’s disease (PD) can complicate the basic daily activities a person with living with Parkinson’s once did ...
Noriega, Mariano; Gutiérrez, Guadalupe; Méndez, Ignacio; Pulido, Margarita
The relationships were studied between daily life, work, and mental disorders in female health workers from the Mexican Health Insurance Institute. The study sample (n = 170) included female physicians, nurses, laboratory workers, and medical assistants. Primary data were obtained through an interview which had been previously validated in a population of workers in Mexico. Relationships were found between mental disorders and all facets of women's lives. In relation to the domestic environment, women with higher rates of mental disorders were those who were mothers, had more children, did not have household help, and had husbands or partners. Prevalence of mental disorders in relation to paid work was associated with the length of the workday, absenteeism, and lack of job content. Skills development, job satisfaction, and creativity had a "protective" or preventive effect against mental disorders and fatigue. The main risks and conditions that functioned as stressors were heat, noise, physical effort, awkward positions, and intense, repetitive work.
E-J. Visser (Evert-Jan); M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)
textabstractThis dossier deals with the impact of economic globalisation on workers, especially in developing nations: their employment opportunities, wage income, job security and other aspects of decent work (ILO 1999, 2002). This is a highly relevant theme. Not only do workers in the EU, the
The primary purpose of the study was to determine extension worker's opinions regarding the influence of the National Maize Competition (NAMCOM) on the farmers' agricultural practices and experiences in the Manzini region. A census population of front-line extension workers in charge of the participating areas in ...
Bilingual education programs in West Germany and Sweden for the children of foreign workers are described. The 4.5 million foreign workers come particularly from Turkey, but also from other southern European countries, from other member nations of the European Economic Community, and from Asia and Latin America. Some are immigrants, some political…
Garattini, Siria; Sarnico, Michela; Benvenuti, Alessandra; Barbieri, P G
There has been interest in evaluating the potential carcinogenicity of bitumen fumes in asphalt workers since the 1960's. The IARC classified air-refined bitumens as possible human carcinogens, while coal-tar fumes were classified as known carcinogens. Occupational/environmental PAH exposure can be measured by several urinary markers. Urinary 1-OHP has become the most commonly used biological marker of PAH exposure in asphalt workers. The aim of this study was to assess asphalt workers' exposure levels by monitoring 1-OHP urinary excretion and compare this data with those of non-occupationally exposed subjects. We investigated three groups of asphalt workers: 100 in summer 2007, 29 in winter 2007, and 148 during summer 2008 and compared 1-OHP urinary concentrations using Kruskall-Wallis test. Median 1-OHP urinary concentrations during the three biomonitoring sampling periods were 0.65, 0.17 and 0.53 microg/g creatinine respectively. There was a significant difference in 1-OHP values between the three groups (p < 0.001). our study showed that PAH exposure of asphalt workers' is higher than that observed in the general population and in workers in urban areas. Our results suggest that PAH exposure in the three groups studied is not sufficiently kept under control by the use of personal protective equipment and that biomonitoring is useful in evaluating PAH exposure and for risk assessment. Regulations need to be enforced for workers exposed to cancer risk, such as the register of workers exposed to carcinogens.
Wright, Mike; Tartari, Valentina; Huang, Kenneth G.
Scholars are paying more attention to knowledge workers (KW) as they gain importance in the knowledge-based economy. Knowledge worker mobility (KWM) can involve various forms of employee and entrepreneurial movements: the transfer of employees from one organization to another either through...
Rowland, R.E.; Lucas, H.F. Jr.
The population of radium dial workers who were exposed to radium 30 to 50 years ago are currently being followed by the Center for Human Radiobiology at the Argonne National Laboratory. It is not clear that radium has induced additional malignancies in this population, other than the well-known bone sarcomas and head carcinomas, but elevated incidence rates for multiple myeloma and cancers of the colon, rectum, stomach, and breast suggest that radium might be involved. Continued follow-up of this population may resolve these questions. Finally, the question of the effect of fetal irradiation on the offspring of these women remains to be resolved. No evidence exists to suggest that any effects have occurred, but there is no question that a chronic irradiation of the developing fetus did take place. No formal follow-up of these children has yet been initiated
Romano, Eugenia; Elklit, Ask
Introduction: This study investigates which factors had the biggest impact on developing distress in rescue workers who were involved in a firework factory explosion. Method: Four hundred sixty-five rescuers were assessed using items investigating demographic factors, organizational variables......, social support, personality variables, and distress symptoms. Correlation and regression analyses were performed. Results: Our final model provided 70 percent of the predictive model for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity. Waiting time, lack of rest, problems at work, and perceived level...... of danger seemed to have the highest impact on protective factors. Discussion: In addition to perceived life danger and personality, small organizational factors seem to play an important role in the prediction of PTSD. The importance of such factors needs further investigation in future research...
He, Xuesong; Wong, Daniel Fu Keung
There are approximately 47.5 million female migrant workers living in major cities in China. Numerous studies have documented the marginalized living conditions confronting migrant workers in cities, such as employment difficulties, unjustifiably demanding working conditions, lack of medical insurance and social provision, poor housing conditions, unfavourable educational arrangements for migrant children, and discrimination by urban residents. In addition, female migrant workers may suffer from discrimination, exploitation and oppression. This study aimed to explore the difficulties and perceived meaningfulness of migration and their effect on the mental health status of female migrant workers in Shanghai, Kunshan, Dongguan and Shenzhen. A total of 959 female migrant workers from 12 factories completed the questionnaires, which included the Brief Symptom Inventory, the Migration Stress Scale and the Meaning in Migration Scale. The findings indicate that 24% of female migrant workers could be classified as having poor mental health and the percentage in Shenzhen (35%) was far greater than in the three other cities in China. 'Financial and employment-related difficulties', 'cultural differences', gender-specific stressors and 'better future for self and children' significantly accounted for the mental health outcomes of female migrant workers. Recommendations for policy change and service initiatives targeted at improving the mental health of female migrant workers are discussed.
Labour Education, 1975
Several issues concerning rural workers' organizations and workers' education are discussed: motivation for self-organization, workers' education needs of rural workers, workers' education methods and techniques, training institutions and training personnel, financial resources, and the role of the International Labor Organization workers'…
DeSouza, Eros R.; Cerqueira, Elder
Sexual harassment has been investigated mostly in developed countries. The authors examined frequency rates and consequences of sexual harassment among female domestic workers in Brazil. Twenty-six percent had been sexually harassed at work during the past year. Live-in workers were at significantly greater risk for experiencing sexual harassment…
Sanders, J.; Dorenbosch, L.; Grundemann, R.; Blonk, R.W.B.
This study examines directions for work redesign which might lead to the creation of sustainable jobs for lower-educated older workers (45 years or over, ISCED 0-2) and thus motivate and enable them to extend their working lives. We use longitudinal data on 1,264 older Dutch workers collected by the
Tinghög, Petter; Malm, Andreas; Arwidson, Charlotta; Sigvardsdotter, Erika; Lundin, Andreas; Saboonchi, Fredrik
To estimate the prevalence of and associations between anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), low subjective well-being (SWB), potential traumas and postmigration stress among refugees from Syria resettled in Sweden. A cross-sectional and population-based questionnaire study based on a known and complete sample frame. The survey included multiple measures of mental ill health and factors of particular relevance for refugees. Weighted analyses were conducted to calculate representative prevalence rates and associations. Associations were investigated through a series of logistic regression analyses. All analyses were supplemented with robust 95% CIs. Sweden. A random sample of 1215 individuals (response rate 30.4%) from Syria aged 18-64 years that were granted residency in Sweden on grounds of asylum between 2011 and 2013. Anxiety, depression, PTSD and low SWB were assessed through Hopkins Symptom Checklist, Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and WHO-5 Well-being Index, using established cut-offs. A majority of the participants met the criteria for at least one of the studied types of mental ill health, and the comorbidity was high. Depression was the most the common type with 40.2% (95% CI 36.9% to 43.3%), followed by low SWB with 37.7% (95% CI 34.8% to 40.1%), anxiety with 31.8% (95% CI 29.2% to 34.7%) and PTSD with 29.9% (95% CI 27.2% to 32.6%). Refugee-related potentially traumatic events (PTEs) experienced before or during migration was common as was substantial levels of postmigration stress. Most types of refugee-related PTEs, especially being exposed to interpersonal violence, and postmigration stress were associated with increased risks for anxiety, depression, low SWB and PTSD. Mental ill health, in terms of anxiety, depression, low SWB and PTSD, are highly elevated and comorbid among refugees from Syria. Increased attention from multiple societal sectors to adequately support Syrian refugees' mental health needs, promoting recovery and
Upon completion of this training course, the participant will have the knowledge to work safely in areas controlled for radiological purposes using proper radiological practices. Radiological Worker H Training, for the worker whose job assignment involves entry into Radiological Buffer Areas and all types of Radiation Contamination and Airborne Radioactivity Areas. This course is designed to prepare the worker to work safely in and around radiological areas and present methods to use to ensure individual radiation exposure is maintained As Low As Reasonably Achievable
The Former Hanford Worker Medical Monitoring Program, directed by the Occupational and Environmental Medicine Program at the University of Washington, served former production and other non-construction workers who were potentially exposed to workplace hazards while working for the USDOE or its contractors at Hanford. The USDOE Former Workers Program arose from Congressional action in the Defense Authorization of 1993 (Public Law 102). Section 3162 stated that, “The Secretary shall establish and carry out a program for the identification and ongoing medical evaluation of current and former Department of Energy employees who are subject to significant health risks as a result of exposure of such employees to hazardous or radioactive substances during such employment.” (This also covers former employees of USDOE contractors and subcontractors.) The key objective has been to provide these former workers with medical evaluations in order to determine whether workers have experienced significant risk due to workplace exposure to hazards. Exposures to asbestos, beryllium, and noise can produce specific medical conditions: asbestosis, berylliosis, and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Each of these conditions can be identified by specific, non-invasive screening tests, which are widely available. Treatments are also available for individuals affected by these conditions. This project involved two phases. Phase I involved a needs and risk assessment, characterizing the nature and extent of workplace health hazards which may have increased the risk for long-term health effects. We categorized jobs and tasks by likelihood of exposures to specific workplace health hazards; and located and established contact with former Hanford workers. Phase II involved implementation of medical monitoring programs for former workers whose individual work history indicated significant risk for adverse health effects. We identified 118,000 former workers, employed from 1943 to 1997
While the protection of Emergency Workers is regulated in most countries, national definitions, respectively interpretations differ. The prevailing regulatory frameworks are: - Basic Safety Standards (2013/59/EURATOM) The Basis Safety Standards (BSS) are binding for members of the EU. The BSS give a definition of Emergency Workers. - IAEA General Safety Requirements Part 7 (Draft). The Agency's definition is consistent with the BSS-definition. In addition, the Helper is defined. - The Nordic Flag-book. The Nordic Flag-book's Emergency Worker is consistent with the BSS-definition. In addition, workers are defined. Flag-book-Workers (FBW) are neither coterminous with GSR-P-7-helpers nor with BSS-workers. The possible need for harmonization was assessed by the means of a questionnaire, asking members of the Working Group Emergencies to attribute regulatory categories to different roles that might arise in an emergency. While showing a rich variation in interpretations, there is general agreement for the most important roles. Wherever differences are found, the bilateral impact is deemed to be marginal at worst. Therefore, no need for harmonisation with respect to the concept of Emergency Workers is seen
Chivato, T; Valovirta, E; Dahl, R
Allergy Living and Learning (ALL) is a European initiative designed to increase knowledge and understanding of people living with allergies in order to improve respiratory allergy care.......Allergy Living and Learning (ALL) is a European initiative designed to increase knowledge and understanding of people living with allergies in order to improve respiratory allergy care....
Wang, X M; Wu, H; Jiao, J; Li, Y H; Zhang, Z R; Zhou, W H; Yu, S F
Objective: To investigate the incidence of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and related influencing factors in workers exposed to noise in a cement plant. Methods: In October 2015, cluster sampling was used for questionnaire investigation and health examination of workers exposed to noise in a cement plant in Henan Province, China. The association of demographic features, living habits, cumulative noise exposure (CNE) , hypertension, and hyperlipidemia with NIHL was analyzed. Results: There was mainly medium-or high-frequency noise in the working place of this cement plant. The prevalence rate of NIHL was 18.4%, and male workers had a significantly higher prevalence rate than female workers (χ(2)=28.09, P workers who smoked had a significantly higher prevalence rate of NIHL than those who did not smoke (χ(2)=14.15, P workers with a drinking habit had a significantly higher prevalence rate of NIHL than those without such habit (χ(2)=7.95, P workers who did not wear earplugs had a significantly higher prevalence rate of NIHL than those who wore earplugs (χ(2)=19.93, P workers with hyperlipidemiahad a significantly higher prevalence rate of NIHL than those without hyperlipidemia (χ(2)=12.43, P workers in a cement plant have a high prevalence rate of NIHL, and CNE, sex, age, degree of education, use of earplugs, and hyperlipidemia may be influencing factors for NIHL.
Lindhe, J.C. [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst. (Sweden)
This section briefly reviews the principles applicable to radiation protection and safety of workers, and methods that could be used to minimise occupational exposure in reclamation work. In considering the clean up of areas shortly after an accident, a decision would have to be made whether to implement clean-up actions early and thus cause higher occupational doses, or wait until short-lived isotopes have decayed and/or weathering has reduced the radiation levels. For example, the decision may be to stabilise the contamination using sprays to prevent re-suspension followed by a delay before actual clean-up starts. The timing of such actions would depend on many factors, including weather conditions, the area involved, equipment available and the competence of the work force. Means of reducing occupational exposure while carrying out the tasks should, as far as possible, be clearly defined in `work procedures`. In general, reductions in occupational exposure during operational tasks can be accomplished by the use of shielding and limiting the time that workers spend exposed to radiation. (au). 10 refs.
This section briefly reviews the principles applicable to radiation protection and safety of workers, and methods that could be used to minimise occupational exposure in reclamation work. In considering the clean up of areas shortly after an accident, a decision would have to be made whether to implement clean-up actions early and thus cause higher occupational doses, or wait until short-lived isotopes have decayed and/or weathering has reduced the radiation levels. For example, the decision may be to stabilise the contamination using sprays to prevent re-suspension followed by a delay before actual clean-up starts. The timing of such actions would depend on many factors, including weather conditions, the area involved, equipment available and the competence of the work force. Means of reducing occupational exposure while carrying out the tasks should, as far as possible, be clearly defined in 'work procedures'. In general, reductions in occupational exposure during operational tasks can be accomplished by the use of shielding and limiting the time that workers spend exposed to radiation. (au)
Enterline, P E; Henderson, V
A total of 416 men, retiring during the period 1945 to 1972 from six plants engaged mainly in the manufacture of fibrous glass insulation, were studied to see how their mortality experience compared with that of white men in the entire United States living in comparable age and time intervals. The mean follow-up period from first exposure was about 30 years. Overall mortality was low and there was no evidence of an excess in respiratory cancer mortality. No mesotheliomas were noted. For 115 men retiring from the same six plants during the period 1945 to 1972 due to a disability the distribution of disabilities by cause was compared with an expected distribution based on the experience of the Social Security Administration. This comparison showed no evidence of any unusual health hazards among fibrous glass workers, except a possible excess in chronic bronchitis.
Full Text Available The focus of this article is on the use of Niklas Luhmann’s systems theoretical approach in order to analyse interviews conducted with media workers concerning their experiences of ethnic diversity in newsrooms. Applying systems theory means constructing the interview as a social system and seeing the “data” as observations produced by the observer and not as representations of a reality. The first part of the article describes the interview methodology and the second part provides examples, from the current study, of how systems theory can be applied in order to analyse interviews. Using a difference-theoretical approach means looking at the distinctions the informants make when talking about their experiences. These main guiding distinctions can be summarised as immigrant background/competence as well as advantage/competence. Using the guiding distinction of inclusion/exclusion when interpreting the interviewees’ statements, the interdependencies of mechanisms of inclusion and exclusion in newsrooms related to ethnic background can be examined.
Kunz, Egon F.
Analyzes factors affecting refugee outcomes in those areas preceding and succeeding flight. Indicates that, although refugee situations may appear unique, recurring elements offer explanations of the events actually observed and enable the prediction of the course that future events may take. (Author/MK)
Full Text Available The Remuneration feasibility is one of workers’ fundamental principle, must be implemented in national development program on employment by setting policy of composing planning labor, employment information, and job training. Professional workers will increase the productivity and company profit. Positive impact to workers, will receive their right for reasonable wages, so that reached welfare for them and their family, and live honorably and dignified in society.
Matias, Susana L.; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria T.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Schenker, Marc B.
We examined adherence to dietary recommendations on fruit/vegetable and fat intake and identified correlates with acculturation indicators as well as with family, lifestyle, and occupational factors in a farm worker cohort in central California. Interviewer-administered questionnaires for this cross-sectional study were completed from January 2006 to April 2007. Participants were 18- to 55-y-old Latinos living in Mendota in a farm worker household. We assessed fruit/vegetable consumption and ...
Phrasisombath, Ketkesone; Faxelid, Elisabeth; Sychareun, Vanphanom; Thomsen, Sarah
Abstract Background Female sex workers (FSWs) are vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and encounter socio-economic and health problems, including STIs/HIV, unintended pregnancy and complications from unsafe abortion, stigma, violence, and drug addiction. Reducing risks associated with sex work requires an understanding of the social and cultural context in which sex workers live and work. This study aimed to explore the working environment and perceived risks among FSWs in Sa...
van Egeraat, Leonie; Hanass-Hancock, Jill; Myezwa, Hellen
Healthcare workers have been at the forefront of dealing with the impact of HIV and AIDS at all stages of the pandemic. This brings new challenges to include disability into HIV care. However, the implications for healthcare workers in an already fragile health system along with HIV-related disabilities in persons living with HIV are little understood. This study examined the healthcare workers' perspective on disability in HIV care. This article describes a qualitative study using in-depth interviews with 10 healthcare workers in a semi-urban hospital setting in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The study aimed to understand healthcare workers' experiences with disability in the context of HIV. The International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF) was used as a guiding framework to understand disability. Healthcare workers described HIV-related disabilities on all three levels of disability, namely impairments/ body function, activity limitations and participation restrictions, as affecting the livelihood of their patients and household members. Issues also arose from disability and stigma that were perceived as affecting adherence to antiretroviral treatment. In addition, healthcare workers encounter challenges in dealing with the increased needs of care and support for those people living with HIV who experience HIV-related disabilities. They indicated a limited ability to cope and respond to these needs. Primarily they arrange additional referrals to manage complex or episodic disabilities. Participants also identified issues such as excessive work load, lack of resources and training and emotional challenges in dealing with disability. Healthcare workers need support to respond to the increased needs of people living with HIV who have HIV-related disabilities. Responses need to reflect: 1) increase in rehabilitative staff including in community outreach programmes; 2) skills training in HIV-related disability; and 3) psychosocial support for
Rafael Oliveira do Prado
Full Text Available This article examines the adoption of ILO Convention 189 on domestic workers adopted in 2011, focusing on the way in which this new framework can affect the lives of migrant women who are domestic workers. The article first overviews domestic work, particularly the situation of female Latin American domestic workers. Thereafter follows an examination of the international law prior to Convention 189 –both in the field of international labor law and in the field of international human rights law– that allowed for the protection of these workers but that did not take into account the specifics of domestic work. Finally, the article examines some of Convention 189’s norms that allow for the targeted protection of this vulnerable group. The article concludes that this Convention moves forward in the protection of the rights of migrant women domestic workers and thus demonstrates the need for States to ratify this new international treaty.
Objective: The main objective of this study was to assess the reproductive choices for Women Living with HIV on ART in the urban health centres within Lusaka. Methods: Nine hundred and fifty six HIV-positive women receiving care in the zoned health centres were randomly sampled and 12 health care workers who were ...
Vidya Sagar, D.; Tripathy, S.K.; Khan, A.H.; Maharana, L.N.
In addition to thoron, thoron daughters and gamma radiation, the New Thorium Plant workers are exposed to long lived alpha emitters due to inhalation of thorium fine dust present in the working environment. Air samplers were used for measurement of thoron daughters and long lived alpha concentration. Each sample was counted for 3-4 hours for alpha activity and the long lived alpha concentration was calculated after taking the self absorption effect of the deposit on the filter paper into account. Internal dose of individual workers due to thoron daughter concentration and long lived alpha concentration was determined using time weighted factors. Based on the results, it is observed that contribution of thoron daughters, long lived alpha and external gamma is about 2 mSv /y, 1 mSv /y and 5 mSv/y, respectively, to total dose to the workers. (author)
Muhammad Haroon SIDDIQUE
Full Text Available NGOs came into the society in their present form after World War II and more precisely in 1960s. Before that also different forms of philanthropy existed. Like elsewhere in the world, in Pakistan also state and the market were the two sectors catering for different needs of the people. When foreign funding started coming into the poor countries, the channel of NGOs was considered more appropriate including the fact they had roots in the society and the benefit could reach the far flung areas. NGO field workers are the real actors in the NGOs’ activities but sadly the NGOs those raise the slogans of working for the destitute do not bother to facilitate the NGO field workers. Eventually the NGO field workers are facing problems of job insecurity, poor salary structure, unhealthy working environment and even harassment especially in case of women NGO field workers in Pakistan
... Join NASW today! What's New NASW Condemns President Trump's DACA Decision Decision to rescind Deferred Action for ... the vital services social workers provide. NASW monitoring Trump Election Commission The Association is concerned that the ...
The worker safety program cooperative agreements fund projects to educate pesticide applicators, handlers, and farmworkers on working safely with, and around, pesticides. Read about pesticide related grant opportunities and reports from previous grants.
This report presents the contribution of CEPN (study center on protection evaluation in nuclear area) to the Days of the French Radiation Protection Society (SFRP) on optimization of workers radiation protection in electronuclear, industrial and medical areas
Ghawabi, Samir H. El; Mansour, Mohamed B.; Youssef, Fatma L.; Ghawabi, Mohamed H. El; Latif, Mohamed M. Abd El
El Ghawabi, S. H., Mansour, M. B., Youssef, F. L., El Ghawabi, M. H., and Abd El Latif, M. M. (1971).Brit. J. industr. Med.,28, 323-329. Decompression sickness in caisson workers. An investigation of 55 bridge construction workers is reported. The overall bends rate was 0·97%. (The term `bends' as used in this study is defined in the paper.) Chokes were encountered in 67·27% of workers. A clinical, haematological, and radiological study was performed. Definite bony changes were found in 43·6% of all workers; 91·6% of these had lesions around the elbow. The presence of dense areas in the neck of the scapula is reported in two cases for the first time. The relatively high haematocrit value is thought to play a part in the pathogenesis of bone infarction through its relation with blood viscosity. Images PMID:5124832
This paper argues that the main cause of the deteriorating economic position of unskilled workers in the United States and other developed countries has been expansion of trade with developing countries. In the framework of a Heckscher-Ohlin model, it outlines the evidence in support of this view, responds to criticisms of this evidence, and challenges the evidence for the alternative view that the problems of unskilled workers are caused mainly by new technology. The paper concludes with a l...
This report is also to be published by ETUI (Euruopean Trade Unions' Institute) in a book on Active Strategies for Older Workers. It is the National report for Denmark and contains a short section on characteristics of the Danish labour market, with a special focus on the situation of the elderly...... the older workers in the labour force. A third section will focus on the initiatives taken to promote senior policies also from the government....
Abowd, John M; Kramarz, Francis
We study the relation between product quality and worker quality using an economic model that, under certain conditions, provides a direct link between product price, product quality and work-force quality. Our measures of product quality are the evolution in the detailed product price relative to its product group, and the level of the product price relative to this group. Our worker quality measures are the firm's average person effect and personal characteristics effect from individual wag...
John M. ABOWD; Françis KRAMARZ; Antoine MOREAU
We study the relation between product quality and worker quality using an economic model that, under certain conditions, provides a direct link between product price, product quality and work force quality. Our measures of product quality are the evolution in the detailed product price relative to its product group and the level of the product price relative to this group. Our worker quality measures are the firm's average person effect and personal characteristics effect from individual wage...
Stasiulis, D K; Bakan, A B
This article "is divided into three parts. The first part locates the Canadian migrant domestic/live-in caregiver program in the global context of domestic worker migration, and provides data on its scope. The second part addresses the obstacles to protection of domestic worker rights in the regulatory scheme composed of policies and laws of sending and receiving societies. The third part discusses some of the strategies employed by migrant domestic workers and their advocates to resist exploitation, and to attempt to provide meaningful rather than merely symbolic rights for migrant domestics." excerpt
Agha, Sohail; Chulu Nchima, Mwaba
The principal objective of this study was to conduct formative research among sex workers in Lusaka, Zambia, to understand how sex workers' perceptions of their personal identity influences safer sex practices. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 sex workers in Lusaka, Zambia, including both nightclub and street-based sex workers. Findings indicate important differences of self perception and identity between nightclub-based sex workers and street-based sex workers. The latter have a professional identity and are willing to be publicly acknowledged as sex workers. This makes it easier for them to convince clients to use condoms. In contrast, nightclub-based sex workers are less likely to wish to be identified as sex workers. They are motivated by the desire to meet a man who will perhaps marry them and change their lives. As a consequence, they do not publicly acknowledge their risk of STI/HIV infection and many go against their better judgement by not using condoms. Factors such as the stigmatization of sex work, the harassment of sex workers and the lack of protection available to them interact with sex workers' perceptions of their personal identities and influence their ability to take precautions during high-risk sexual encounters.
Kanda, Hideyuki; Hayakawa, Takehito; Koyama, Kikuo
The nuclear power plant accidents in Fukushima resulted in a widespread release of radioactive substances in the Fukushima prefecture. To clarify what factors led to precautions among general workers who displayed preventive behaviours against radiation following the nuclear disasters in Fukushima. Descriptive study of preventive behaviours among general workers 3-5 months following the nuclear disasters. The subjects were 1394 regular workers who took part in radiation seminars conducted by the Fukushima Occupational Health Promotion Center between July and August 2011. Of 1217 responses, 1110 eligible responses were included in this study. This anonymous questionnaire survey was asking for characteristics and questions on preventive behaviours following the nuclear disasters. The authors assessed the contribution of each variable by a logistic regression analysis. Keeping track of environmental radiation levels and washing hands and gargling were significantly more frequent among female subjects, older age and workers residing up to approximately 80 km away from the power plants. Washing hands and gargling were also related with living with children. Wearing a mask when leaving home and buying bottled water were significantly more often observed with female subjects and workers residing up to 80 km. Refraining from going outdoors was positively associated with workers residing up to 80 km and workers living with children. These results provide information that may help with the targeting of health information after a nuclear disaster. This may contribute to determining an order of priority when distributing information after a nuclear disaster.
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Handicapped workers. 779.409 Section 779.409 Labor... Students, Learners, and Handicapped Workers § 779.409 Handicapped workers. Regulations have been issued... handicapped workers at wages lower than the minimum wage applicable under section 6 of the Act. These...
Was there a disparity in age appropriate infant immunization uptake in the theatre of war in the North of Sri Lanka at the height of the hostilities?: a cross-sectional study in resettled areas in the Kilinochchi district
Full Text Available Abstract Background It was long speculated that there could be under-immunized pockets in the war affected Northern part of Sri Lanka relative to other areas. With the cessation of hostilities following the military suppression of the rebellion, opportunities have arisen to appraise the immunization status of children in areas of re-settlement in former war ravaged districts. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to describe the coverage and age appropriateness of infant vaccinations in a former conflict district during the phase of re-settlement. The target population comprised all children of re-settled families in the age group of 12 – 23 months in the district. We selected a study sample of 300 children from among the target population using the WHO’s 30 cluster EPI survey method. Trained surveyors collected data using a structured checklist. The infant vaccination status was ascertained by reviewing vaccination records in the Child Health Development Record or any other alternative documentary evidence. Results The survey revealed that the proportion of fully vaccinated children in the district was 91%. For individual vaccines, it ranged from 92% (measles to 100% (BCG, DPT/OPV1. However, the age appropriateness of vaccination was less than 50% for all antigens except for BCG (94%. The maximum number of days of delay of vaccinations ranged from 21 days for BCG to 253 days for measles. Age appropriate vaccination rates significantly differed for DPT/OPV1-3 and measles during the conflict and post-conflict stages while it did not for the BCG. Age appropriate vaccination rates were significantly higher for DPT/OPV1-3 during the conflict while for the measles it was higher in the post conflict stage. Conclusions Though the vaccination coverage for infant vaccines in the war affected Kilinochchi district was similar to other districts in the country, it masked a disparity in terms of low age-appropriateness of infant immunizations
... Public Input Working Together, in Our Communities The Administration for Community Living was created around the fundamental ... Meals on Wheels America - November 16, 2017 The Administration for Community Living recently awarded a three-year ...
Kawasaki, Yurika; Nishitani, Naoko; Sakakibara, Hisataka
Mental disorders are increasing and their influence on productivity is a concern in the workplace. However, few studies have investigated depression among blue-collar and white-collar workers in the manufacturing industry. The purpose of this study was to clarify the factors associated with depressive symptoms, focusing on lifestyles and insomnia. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted of 1,963 workers at an annual health checkup in a manufacturing company. Of the 1,712 respondents (response rate: 87%), 1,258 male worker subjects (blue-collar 674; white-collar 584) were analyzed after excluding those with mental diseases. The questionnaire included items on basic attributes and lifestyle. The Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) and The Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression Scale (CES-D) were used to evaluate insomnia and depressive symptoms. The incidence of depressive symptoms with CES-D scores of ≥16 was 15.1% in both the blue-collar and the white-collar workers. Insomnia with AIS scores of ≥6 were encountered in 18.8% of the blue-collar workers and 18.3% of the white-collar workers. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that for the blue-collar workers, depressive symptoms were associated with "AIS scores ≥6" (Odds ratio (OR): 10.93; 95% confidence interval (CI): 6.12-19.15), "not get rid of fatigue with sleep" (OR: 3.36; 95%CI: 1.85-6.09), "skip breakfast over 3 times a week" (OR: 3.10; 95%CI:1.42-6.76), "no family living together" (OR: 2.08; 95%CI: 1.05-4.12), and "commuting time" (OR: 1.01; 95%CI: 1.00-1.02). For the white-collar workers, depressive symptoms were related to "AIS scores ≥6" (OR: 14.91; 95%CI: 7.54-29.49), and "no family living together" (OR: 2.54; 95%CI: 1.27-5.09). Sleep time was not associated with depression in both blue- and white-collar workers. Depressive symptoms were found in 51.6% of the blue-collar workers with insomnia with AIS scores ≥6 and 53.8% of white-collar workers. Depressive symptoms were
Eriksen, Kristin Ådnøy; Dahl, Hellen; Karlsson, Bengt; Arman, Maria
Practical wisdom, understood as knowing how to be or act in any present situation with clients, is believed to be an essential part of the knowledge needed to be a professional mental health worker. Exploring processes of adapting, extending knowledge and refining tacit knowledge grounded in mental health workers' experiences with being in practice may bring awareness of how mental health workers reflect, learn and practice professional 'artistry'. The aim of the article was to explore mental health workers' processes of development and learning as they appeared in focus groups intended to develop practical wisdom. The main research question was 'How might the processes of development and learning contribute to developing practical wisdom in the individual as well as in the practice culture?' The design was multi-stage focus groups, and the same participants met four times. A phenomenological hermeneutical method for researching lived experience guided the analysis. Eight experienced mental health workers representing four Norwegian municipalities participated. The research context was community-based mental health services. The study was reported to Norwegian Social Data Services, and procedures for informed consent were followed. Two examples of processes of re-evaluation of experience (Association, Integration, Validation, Appropriation and Outcomes and action) were explored. The health workers had developed knowledge in previous encounters with clients. In sharing practice experiences, this knowledge was expressed and developed, and also tested and validated against the aims of practice. Discussions led to adapted and extended knowledge, and as tacit knowledge was expressed it could be used actively. Learning to reflect, being ready to be provoked and learning to endure indecisiveness may be foundational in developing practical wisdom. Openness is demanding, and changing habits of mind is difficult. Reflection on, and confrontation with, set practices are
Full Text Available An informal sector in any economy provides different kinds of employment opportunities to people. In Mumbai Metropolitan Region, the female are more involved in regular jobs as compare to the causal and self-employed workers. The secondary and college studied male and female are found more in regular jobs. The high school studied male and illiterate female are working on causal jobs. The causal jobs do not require more education and skills. In self-employed category, the secondary school studied male and high school studied female are found more. The monthly income of workers involved in regular jobs is much higher than the causal and self-employed workers. The moderate malnourished females are found more as compare to the male in causal and self-employed category. The multi nominal logit regression model shows that the causal workers have positive correlation with illiterate male but it is negatively co-related with high school studied male, illiterate and secondary studied female. The monthly income, source of water, refrigerator and condom use is negatively co-related with causal workers as compare to regular workers. The self-employed workers have negative co-relation with monthly wage, source of water and watch cinema regularly as compare to the regular workers. Therefore government must provide infrastructural facilities in all slums of region. The infrastructural facilities such as water supply, electricity, sewage and solid waste collection must be provided in all slums of region. Causal workers must be provided the vocational training to start their own business. Commercial and co-operative banks must provide loans to poor people of slums. Females must be encouraged to take loan and start small business. Government must provide low cost housing to causal and self-employed workers in region. Such policies will certainly improve standard of living of informal sector workers in region.
Full Text Available The most common hazards in the forestry that may induce disorders of the musculoskeletal system are vibrations, unfavorable microclimatic conditions, noise, over-time working hours, work load and long-term repeated movements. The objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of musculoskeletal diseases and its difference among workers engaged in various jobs in the forestry. Two groups of workers were selected: woodcutters operating with chain-saw (N=33 and other loggers (N=32. Selected workers were of the similar age and had similar total length of employment as well as the length of service in the forestry. Both groups of workers employed in the forestry had the high prevalence of musculoskeletal diseases (woodcutters 69.7% and other loggers 62.5%, respectively. Degenerative diseases of spinal column were very frequent, in dependently of the type of activity in the forestry. Non-significantly higher risk of carpal tunnel syndrome was found in woodcutters with chain-saw compared to workers having other jobs in the forestry (OR=3.09; 95%CI=0.64-19.72. The lateral epicondylitis was found only in woodcutters operating with chain-saw with the prevalence of 18.2%.
Kunugita, Naoki; Igari, Kazuyuki
People in Japan have expressed great anxiety about possible radiation and radioactivity after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of Tokyo Electric Power Company's (TEPCO), due to the great earthquake and tsunami in eastern Japan on 11 March 2011. A large number of workers were engaged in response and recovery operations, and they were possibly exposed to high doses of radiation as compared to the general population. In the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 1986, high doses of radiation to 134 plant staff and emergency personnel resulted in acute radiation syndrome (ARS), which proved fatal for 28 of them. In the Fukushima accident, six workers were exposed to more than 250 mSv of radiation during the initial response phase, but no one showed ARS. It is necessary to continue registration of radiation doses for all workers who were exposed to radiation to facilitate suitable healthcare management in the future. In addition to radiation exposure, a group of workers were also exposed to other health hazards. Frequent occurrence of heat disorders has been a concern for the workers wearing protective clothing with poor ventilation. A comprehensive program to prevent heat illness was implemented by TEPCO under the guidance of the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare. It is important to provide effective systems not only for prevention of radiation exposure but also for general management of other health risks including heat disorders and infection. (author)
Chang, Huan-Cheng; Wang, Mei-Chin; Liao, Hung-Chang; Cheng, Shu-Fang; Wang, Ya-Huei
Since 1989, blue-collar foreign workers have been permitted to work in Taiwanese industries. Most blue-collar foreign workers apply for jobs in Taiwan through blue-collar foreign workers' agencies. Because blue-collar foreign workers are not familiar with the language and culture in Taiwan, in occupational accident education and hazard prevention, the agencies play an important role in the coordination and translation between employees and blue-collar foreign workers. The purpose of this study is to establish the agencies' role in the occupational accidents education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. This study uses a qualitative method-grounded theory-to collect, code, and analyze the data in order to understand the agencies' role in occupational accident education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. The results show that the duty of agencies in occupational accident education and hazard prevention includes selecting appropriate blue-collar foreign workers, communicating between employees and blue-collar foreign workers, collecting occupational safety and health information, assisting in the training of occupational safety and health, and helping blue-collar foreign workers adapt to their lives in Taiwan. Finally, this study suggests seven important points and discusses the implementation process necessary to improve governmental policies. The government and employees should pay attention to the education/training of occupational safety and health for blue-collar foreign workers to eliminate unsafe behavior in order to protect the lives of blue-collar foreign workers.
Quezada-Ortega, Martín Rafael; Razo-Mondragón, José Luis Pedro; Marín-Cotoñieto, Irma Araceli; Salinas-Tovar, Santiago; López-Rojas, Pablo
Describe the frequency and characteristics of Mexican Social Security workers with malingering disorder that request disability pension. Comparative survey made among 136 workers seen during 2001, which were divided into three groups: malingering workers (MW), workers without disability (WOD), and workers with disability (WWD). We administered the Z Test for scaled variables and Z2 Test for nominal variables to identify group differences The incidence ofmalingering was of 2.2/100,000 workers. Mean age was 41.9 +/- 10.1 years, 440 was the average number of days of labor disability; 51 (37%) workers were malingerers. 35 (26%) workers were work disabled and 50 (37%) without disability. Malingerers had higher level of schooling compared with WOD and WWD (p pensions follow a particular pattern that differs from other workers that request disability assessment at the Social Security Institute of Mexico.
Bindra, Supreet; Sinha, A G K; Benjamin, A I
Low back pain affects up to 90% of the world's population at some point in their lives. Until date no questionnaire has been designed for back pain in the garment industry workers. Therefore, the objective of this study is to design a questionnaire to determine the prevalence, risk factors, impact, health care service utilization and back pain features in the garment industry workers and gain preliminary experience of its use. The content validity and reliability of the questionnaire was established. Items showing acceptable internal consistency and moderate to high test re-test reliability were retained in the questionnaire. Items showing unacceptable internal consistency, low test re-test reliability or poor differentiation were reworded, redrafted and re-tested on the workers. It took 20 min to complete one interview schedule. Environmental factors such as the absence of the garment industry owner/supervisor or co-workers at the time of the interview and interview during leisure hours need to be standardized. Thus, final questionnaire is ready for use after necessary amendments and will be used on the larger sample size in the main study.
Huang, Rong-Hwa; Shih, Yi-Nuo
Background music is a common element in daily living and the workplace. Determination of whether background music affects human work concentration is a relevant concern. Studies have found background music influences human behavior, and this study attempts to understand how background music and listener fondness for types of music affects worker concentration. This study analyzes how different types of background music--and how listeners' degree of preference for the background music--can affect listener concentration in attention testing through Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT). Data were collected from 89 workers. The participants ranged in age between 19 and 28 years old, with an average age of 24 years old. We conclude background music influenced listener attention. This influence has more to do with listener fondness for the music than with type of music. Compared to situations without background music, the likelihood of background music affecting test-taker attention performance is likely to increase with the degree to which the test-taker likes or dislikes the music. It is important not to select music that workers strongly like or dislike when making a selection of background music to avoid negatively affecting worker concentration.
Harris, Rachel C; Lundin, Jessica I; Criswell, Susan R; Hobson, Angela; Swisher, Laura M; Evanoff, Bradley A; Checkoway, Harvey; Racette, Brad A
Previous studies suggest that welders frequently display parkinsonian signs, such as bradykinesia and tremor. Demonstrating that these parkinsonian findings are associated with reductions in quality of life (QoL) or health status could have important repercussions for worker safety and performance. Subjects included 394 active workers exposed to welding fumes and evaluated for parkinsonism by movement disorders experts in a worksite-based epidemiology study. Subjects were diagnosed with parkinsonism if the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale motor subsection part 3 (UPDRS3) score was ≥15. All subjects completed a Parkinson's disease (PD) symptom questionnaire and the PDQ39, a widely used QoL and health status measure for PD. Total PDQ39 score and all subscores were greater in welders with parkinsonism than welders without parkinsonism, with the most significant differences observed for mobility, emotional well-being, and activities of daily living (ADL's). The PDQ39 scores for welding exposed workers with parkinsonism were similar to scores seen in a group of early PD patients. Parkinsonism in active, welding exposed workers is associated with reductions in health status and QoL affecting a broad range of categories and within the range seen in early PD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cabieses, Baltica; Tunstall, Helena
Most research on the phenomenon of "brain drain" (one-way flow of highly skilled/educated individuals) has focused on movement between the least developed and most highly developed countries. Therefore, the significance of patterns of migration to middle-income countries such as those in Latin America is less clear. The aim of this study was to outline key features of international health worker "brain drain" to Chile to promote discussion and further research on this phenomenon as it pertains to the Latin American region. The study compared immigrant health workers living in Chile to both Chilean-born health workers and other immigrants living in Chile using a qualitative nationwide dataset (the results of Chile's 2009 National Socioeconomic Characterization Survey). Demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related variables were included in the analyses, which were weighted by population to obtain nationally representative estimates. In 2009, immigrant health workers represented 2.2% of all health personnel and 2.6% of all resident immigrants in the country. While most immigrant health workers had a universitylevel education, about 25% had only a high school-level education or less. There was no statistically significant difference between the distribution of immigrant health workers' household income and that of Chilean-born health workers. A significantly higher proportion of the immigrant group reported no entitlement to health care provision. While the results of this study do not indicate a significant international health worker "brain drain" to Chile, they do suggest distinctive patterns of migration within the Latin American region. Future studies in Chile could confirm the validity of these results, using a larger sample of immigrant health workers.
Full Text Available Most research on the phenomenon of "brain drain" (one-way flow of highly skilled/educated individuals has focused on movement between the least developed and most highly developed countries. Therefore, the significance of patterns of migration to middle-income countries such as those in Latin America is less clear. The aim of this study was to outline key features of international health worker "brain drain" to Chile to promote discussion and further research on this phenomenon as it pertains to the Latin American region. The study compared immigrant health workers living in Chile to both Chilean-born health workers and other immigrants living in Chile using a qualitative nationwide dataset (the results of Chile's 2009 National Socioeconomic Characterization Survey. Demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related variables were included in the analyses, which were weighted by population to obtain nationally representative estimates. In 2009, immigrant health workers represented 2.2% of all health personnel and 2.6% of all resident immigrants in the country. While most immigrant health workers had a universitylevel education, about 25% had only a high school-level education or less. There was no statistically significant difference between the distribution of immigrant health workers' household income and that of Chilean-born health workers. A significantly higher proportion of the immigrant group reported no entitlement to health care provision. While the results of this study do not indicate a significant international health worker "brain drain" to Chile, they do suggest distinctive patterns of migration within the Latin American region. Future studies in Chile could confirm the validity of these results, using a larger sample of immigrant health workers.
As low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) is a simple concept that has come to be a complicated and expensive regulatory goal. There are essentially three factors that can be manipulated to achieve ALARA: (1) radionuclide inventory (source), (2) physical arrangement (primarily distance and shielding); (3) radiation worker performance (radiation safety responsibilities and functions). Of these three elements, item 3 is utilized the least and yet has the greatest potential for reducing exposure per dollar expended. By establishing a relationship with radiation workers consisting of credible leadership and expecting the radiation workers to be responsible for specific elements of radiological safety. Health Physics can gain a degree of cooperation and performance that will provide significant ALARA gains at a very small expense
Guerci, Alba M.; Pinero, Adalberto; Zubiria, M. Guillermina; Sanz, Vanesa; Larragueta, Nicolas; Puntigliano, Diego
Full text: Previous studies realized by our group have demonstrated radio-induction of genotoxic damage in peripheral blood of hospital workers exposed to chronic X-ray. The cytogenetic and cytomolecular damage was significant in the radiologists evaluated. Accordingly, we have researched the knowledge of risk radiation in 57 workers to different health centres, private and public, in La Plata city. Most of respondents (96.4%) answered to know the risk of working with radiation ionizing, but a large portion do not carry out with the appropriate safety rules. The workers have not interest in this rules, it is evidenced by negligence in the use of protective clothing and personal dosimeters. These results suggested that individuals could be sensitising to minimize their risk. For this purpose we are working in scientific literacy conferences which are organized by 'Asociacion de Tecnicos Radiologos y de Diagnostico por Imagenes de La Plata (ASTEDIRLP)'. (author)
Wimmelmann, Camilla L.; Vallgårda, Signild; Jensen, Anja MB
Reporting on an interview and observation based study in Danish municipalities, this article deals with local policy workers, and takes departure in the great variation we observed in implementation of centrally issued health promotion guidelines. We present five types of local policy workers, each...... of whom we found typified a specific way of reasoning and implementing the guidelines. This typology illustrates the diversity found within a group of local policy workers, and helps explain the variability reported in most studies on policy/guideline implementation. On the level of individuals, variation...... in the same positions receiving the same set of guidelines implement them differently, and suggest that local policy workers’ professionally related experiences affect the frames in which they translate the guidelines and decide upon the strategies of implementation. As such, this article illustrates...
This textbook is addressed to all those concerned with the protection of radiation workers. It provides full coverage of the implications of radiation in exposed workers, and, after a chapter outlining, in simple terms, the basic facts about radiation, deals with measurement of ionising radiation; radiation dosimetry; effectiveness of absorbed dose; general biological effects of ionising radiation; somatic effects of radiation; the acute radiation syndrome; other somatic effects; hereditary effects; radiation protection standards and regulations; radiation protection; medical supervision of radiation workers; general methods of diagnosis and treatment; metabolism and health problems of some radioisotopes; plutonium and other transuranium elements; radiation accidents; emergency plans and medical care; atomic power plants; medico-legal problems
Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Occupational hearing loss is one of the most common work-related illnesses in the United States (US). From 22 to 30 million US workers are exposed to hazardous noise levels at work, and 25% of these workers will develop permanent hearing loss. Hearing loss from noise is slow and painless, and you can have a disability before you notice it. This course presents the hazards associated with workplace noise, the purpose and elements of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hearing Conservation Program (HCP), and controls that are available to reduce your exposure to hazardous levels of noise.
Essential information on the health protection of radiation workers which has accumulated since the advent of nuclear fission thirty years ago is presented in simple terms. Basic facts on ionizing radiation, its measurement, and dosimetry are presented. Acute and chronic somatic and genetic effects are discussed with emphasis on prevention. Radiation protection standards and regulations are outlined, and methods for maintaining these standards are described. Diagnosis and treatment of radiation injury from external radiation and/or internally deposited radionuclides is considered generally as well as specifically for each radioisotope. The medical supervision of radiation workers, radiation accidents, atomic power plants, and medicolegal problems is also covered. (853 references) (U.S.)
Efi Yuliati Yovi
Full Text Available Timber harvesting activities are unquestionably related with high risk of work accidents and health disorders.Such activities were not only burdened the workers with heavy physical workloads due to uneasy workingenvironment, and massive work materials and tools, but also physiopsychologically burdened workers as theywere imposed with both mechanical and acoustic vibrations (noise produced by the chainsaw. However, it is acommon practice that most of the workers still ignored the importance of the use of noise reduction devices suchas earmuff or ear plug. This study was aimed to reveal the factual effects of noise on work concentration of theworkers to provide a scientific basis in supporting efforts in improving workers’ attitude. The results confirmedthat chainsaw might produce noise during operation. Noise intensities received by both right and left ears werenot significantly different, indicating that left-handed and normal workers received similar degree of noise inboth side of ears. Further, results also showed that there was a significant difference on the perception and workconcentration of chainsaw operators versus sedentary people to the noise. These findings proved that hearingability of chainsaw operators had declined due to frequent noise exposure.Keywords: timber harvesting, physio-psychological disorder, noise, chainsaw
Dijkstra, Michiel B.; van Zweden, Jelle Stijn; Dirchsen, Maria
Nonreproductive workers of many eusocial Hymenoptera 'police' the colony, that is, they attack reproductive sister workers or destroy their eggs (unfertilized; developing into haploid males). Several ultimate causes of policing have been proposed, including (1) an increase in colony productivity,...
Full Text Available Employment and working conditions are key social determinants of health, yet current information is lacking regarding relationships between foreign background status, working conditions and health among workers in Sweden. This study utilized cross-sectional data from the 2010 Swedish Level of Living Survey (LNU and the Level of Living Survey for Foreign Born Persons and their Children (LNU-UFB to assess whether or not health inequalities exist between native Swedish and foreign background workers and if exposure to adverse psychosocial and physical working conditions contributes to the risk for poor health among foreign background workers. A sub-sample of 4,021 employed individuals aged 18–65 was analyzed using logistic regression. Eastern European, Latin American and Other Non-Western workers had an increased risk of both poor self-rated health and mental distress compared to native Swedish workers. Exposure to adverse working conditions only minimally influenced the risk of poor health. Further research should examine workers who are less integrated or who have less secure labor market attachments and also investigate how additional working conditions may influence associations between health and foreign background status.
Jairo Ernesto Luna García
Full Text Available The health of workers in Colombia traverses multiple challenges and difficulties, starting from the national, political and economic context, crossroads living social security system and the trends in the world of work. Faced with this situation, the ergonomics as a field of knowledge and action has multiple possibilities of contribution, which depend on not to see this disciplined reduced to a technical dimension, but encourage their contribution within a framework of action located and contextualized. Although it has emphasized the action of ergonomics in its contribu-tion to the prevention of muscle-skeletal disorders, their contribution to the health of workers can be very important, in a setting of search of the labor and social welfare as a complement to the prevention of occupational risks.
'Live Your Questions Now' is a case study for Cubitt Education's publication 'Aging in Public: creative practice in ageing and the public realm from across the UK', edited by Daniel Baker and published by Cubitt Gallery, Studios and Education, London in 2016. The publication was linked to Cubitt's programme 'Public Wisdom' (2011-2015). My case study is about 'Live your questions now', a group exhibition I curated in 2011 for Mackintosh Museum, The Glasgow School of Art. 'Live your questions n...
Argentero, P; Bonfiglio, N S; Pasero, R
While diverse studies carried out in nursing and medical personnel have demonstrated that health workers can be subject to burnout, little effort has been focused on investigating burnout in volunteer hospital workers. The aim of the present study was to verify if burnout exists with volunteer auxiliary personnel and investigate what organizational conditions may favour it. The study was carried out on 80 volunteer workers of the Red Cross of Mortara (PV), subdivided into two categories: those performing emergency interventions and those performing routine services. For the evaluation of burnout, the Italian version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory was used, together with a qualitative type of methodology. A 5-factor multivariate analysis (sex x shift x team x seniority x role), having as dependent variables the three scales of the MBI, showed that the highest values of depersonalization and fulfillment are found in the emergency team, and that subjects with least seniority are those who are least satisfied or fulfilled. The category of team-leader resulted as that with the highest values of emotional burnout, while sex- and shift-based differences were restricted to routine service workers. Despite these differences, findings showed that subjects are minimally affected by problems linked to burnout, although some relational and organizational difficulties emerged with the medical staff that underlie a certain degree of professional dissatisfaction.
The Council of the European Communities in its Directive of June 1, 1976 has laid down revised basic safety standards for the health protection of the general public and workers against the danger of ionising radiation. The Directive requires each Member State of the Community 'for the guidance of medical practitioners.....to draw up a list, which need not be exhaustive, of the criteria which should be taken into account when judging a worker's fitness to be exposed to ionising radiation'. Medical officers with current responsibility for radiation workers in the U.K. therefore met recently for informal exploratory discussion at the National Radiological Protection Board's headquarters, and an account is given of the views expressed there about the composition of the required 'list', and the possibility of standardizing the procedure adopted. Consideration was given to the objectives of medical examinations, the form of examination, and specific conditions which may give rise to difficulty in making a fitness assessment. These conditions are skin abnormalities, blood abnormalities, cataract, pregnancy, and psychological and psychiatric conditions. It was concluded that the medical examination of radiation workers, including blood examinations, are of value to the extent that they form part of any good general occupational health practice. The promulgation of the Euratom Directive has provided an opportunity for reviewing and standardising procedures for medical surveillance in the light of current knowledge concerning average occupational radiation doses and dose-response relationships. (U.K.)
Moreno Romero, Ana María; Mahou Fernández, Ángel; Varanki, H.
The use of Information and Communication Technologies in work pro- cesses has not brought the expected productivity improvement. Some studies even suggest that the always-on model decreases productivity. This article proposes work teams as a new unit for knowledge worker productivity analysis in organizations. Organizations? ability to adopt new analysis measures is analyzed in three case studies.
The economic downturn and growing skills mismatch dramatically highlight the importance of programs that retrain workers for the demands of the current workplace. The career and technical education (CTE) system has played a large role in the development of these programs, and CTE educators are leading efforts to ensure that new and newly…
Full Text Available Workplace violence is a threatening worldwide public health problem. Healthcare workers have under particular risk of workplace violence, and they are being exposed to violence 4-16 times more than other service workers. The frequency of violence in the health sector in the world has indicated in different range of results since there is no consistent definition of workplace violence and differences in research methodology (any type of violence: 22,0% - 60,0%; physical violence: 2,6% - 57,0%; verbal violence: 24,3% - 82,0%; sexual harassment: %1,9 - 10,5%. All healthcare workers have right to work in a safe working place. The safety of healthcare workers should deserve the same priority as patient safety. Various risk factors including social, cultural, environmental, organizational and personal elements play a role in the formation of workplace violence that is very important for our country. Considering all those factors, the workplace violence in health sector should be seriously handled and the strategies and policies must be developed for prevention. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(3.000: 315-326
Full Text Available The claim of health workers to the way they are outraged in the exercise of their profession has become reiterative. Let's start with the inadequate input of supplies to care agencies. Because of the dreadful 100 law, the poor working conditions in the different hospitals, especially public hospitals, are well known.
A case study of quality circles in an appliance factory found that circle members and nonmembers obtained better working conditions by improving quality through the direct impact of their work on the company's market position. The study of the quality improvement process shows that workers seek more than psychological rewards for their…
Christensen, Mette Krogh
Writing lives in sport is a book of stories about sports-persons. The people concerned include sports stars, sports people who are not quite so famous, and relatively unknown physical education teachers and sports scientists.Writing lives in sport raises questions about writing biographies...... in the academis world of sport studies. It does not set out to be a methodological treatise but through the writing of lives in sports does raise questions of method. Each essay in this collection deals with problems of writing sports-people's lives. These essays could be said to fall along a spectrum from those...
Diallo, Abdoulaye Lelouma
Workers' education is the irreplaceable instrument of trade unions in the exercise of their new functions as they become more complex. Workers' education in Africa must develop in such a way as to meet a plurality of needs. (JOW)
Labour Education, 1994
Includes papers from symposium on "Workers' Education and the Environment": "All Mobilizing to Contribute" (Taylor); "Trade Union Participation in Environmental Protection and Sustainable Development" (Brett); "ILO's Environment Policy and Programmes" (Kohler); "Workers' Education and the Environment in…
... workers either burned or jumped to their deaths when a fire ignited in the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory... full force of the law is brought to bear in cases where workers are put in harm's way. Many of our...
Full Text Available Since 1989, blue-collar foreign workers have been permitted to work in Taiwanese industries. Most blue-collar foreign workers apply for jobs in Taiwan through blue-collar foreign workers’ agencies. Because blue-collar foreign workers are not familiar with the language and culture in Taiwan, in occupational accident education and hazard prevention, the agencies play an important role in the coordination and translation between employees and blue-collar foreign workers. The purpose of this study is to establish the agencies’ role in the occupational accidents education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. This study uses a qualitative method—grounded theory—to collect, code, and analyze the data in order to understand the agencies’ role in occupational accident education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. The results show that the duty of agencies in occupational accident education and hazard prevention includes selecting appropriate blue-collar foreign workers, communicating between employees and blue-collar foreign workers, collecting occupational safety and health information, assisting in the training of occupational safety and health, and helping blue-collar foreign workers adapt to their lives in Taiwan. Finally, this study suggests seven important points and discusses the implementation process necessary to improve governmental policies. The government and employees should pay attention to the education/training of occupational safety and health for blue-collar foreign workers to eliminate unsafe behavior in order to protect the lives of blue-collar foreign workers.
André R Maddison
Full Text Available The United Nations millennium development goal of providing universal access to antiretroviral therapy (ART for patients living with HIV/AIDS by 2010 is unachievable. Currently, four million people are receiving ART, of an estimated 13.7 million who need it. A major challenge to achieving this goal is the shortage of health care workers in low-income and low-resource areas of the world. Sub-Saharan African countries have 68% of the world’s burden of illness from AIDS, yet have only 3% of health care workers worldwide. The shortage of health care providers is primarily caused by a national and international ‘brain drain,’ poor distribution of health care workers within countries, and health care worker burnout.
Galon, Tanyse; Briones-Vozmediano, Erica; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A; Felt, Emily B; Benavides, Fernando G; Ronda, Elena
Previous economic recessions show that immigrant workers may experience longer periods of unemployment, a situation that may lead employees to presenteeism, the act of working in spite of a health problem. This study explored perceptions about the factors that lead to presenteeism in immigrant workers considering the context of economic crisis. Six focus group discussions were held (February 2012), with men and women from Colombia, Ecuador, and Morocco (n=44) living in Spain and selected by theoretical sample. A qualitative content analysis was performed. Four categories were identified as factors that influence the occurrence of presenteeism in a context of economic crisis: poor employment conditions, fear of unemployment, employer/employee relationship, and difficulties in finding temporary replacement workers. Furthermore, musculoskeletal, respiratory, and mental problems were related to presenteeism. It is important to develop strategies to protect workers from negative working conditions that are associated with deterioration of health. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Objective: To examine the effect of smoking on sick leave. Methods: Nationally representative data on 14 272 workers aged 16-65 years from the 1988-91 waves of the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions were used for the analyses. The data are linked to register-based data, on the annual number of
Gallo, Melina L.
Multicultural immigrant workers (n=23) studying English as a second language took photographs about their lives, wrote about them, and displayed them on the Internet. The materials depicted their cross-cultural journeys and transformative experiences. The process increased their communication skills and empowered them to make workplace changes.…
Full Text Available Honeybees live in complex societies whose capabilities far exceed those of the sum of their single members. This social synergism is achieved mainly by the worker bees, which form a female caste. The worker bees display diverse collaborative behaviors and engage in different behavioral tasks, which are controlled by the central nervous system (CNS. The development of the worker brain is determined by the female sex and the worker caste determination signal. Here, we report on genes that are controlled by sex or by caste during differentiation of the worker's pupal brain. We sequenced and compared transcriptomes from the pupal brains of honeybee workers, queens and drones. We detected 333 genes that are differently expressed and 519 genes that are differentially spliced between the sexes, and 1760 genes that are differentially expressed and 692 genes that are differentially spliced between castes. We further found that 403 genes are differentially regulated by both the sex and caste signals, providing evidence of the integration of both signals through differential gene regulation. In this gene set, we found that the molecular processes of restructuring the cell shape and cell-to-cell signaling are overrepresented. Our approach identified candidate genes that may be involved in brain differentiation that ensures the various social worker behaviors.
Sekoni, O O; Owoaje, E T
Stigma and discrimination pose major obstacles to accessing care and support by People Living With HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Information on HIV stigma and discrimination towards PLWHA among Nigerian health workers has mainly been at higher levels of care. This paper examined HIV stigma and discrimination at the primary health care level with the objective of identifying its occurrence and determinants among health workers at this level. A total sample of all health care workers (341) at the primary health care level in Ilorin, Kwara State were surveyed via questionnaire between July and August 2007 to obtain information on their sociodemographic characteristics and the four domains of stigma viz: fear of casual transmission of HIV, shame and blame, discrimination and disclosure. Majority of the respondents had fear of casual transmission of HIV (87.7%), exhibited shame and blame (89.4%), reported observing discrimination against PLWHA by other health workers in their facilities (97.7%) and believed that disclosure of patients HIV status to health workers was imperative. Nurses/midwives were more likely to have fear of casual transmission of HIV and believe that disclosure of HIV status of patients was imperative. Respondents who had received in service training were less likely to exhibit shame and blame (p Stigma occurred in all stigma domains among this group of health workers but previous training was found to play a role in the reduction of shame and blame. Training of health care workers within the context of the various stigma domains is advocated.
Cotten, G.B.; Jenkins, S.L.
The construction industry has struggled for many years with the answer to the question posed in the title: Can Management Prevent All Accidents or Are Workers Responsible for Their Own Actions? In the litigious society that we live, it has become more important to find someone open-quotes at faultclose quotes for an accident than it is to find out how we can prevent it from ever happening again. Most successful companies subscribe to the theme that open-quotes all accidents can be prevented.close quotes They institute training and qualification programs, safe performance incentives, and culture-change-driven directorates such as the Voluntary Protection Program (VPP); yet we still see construction accidents that result in lost time, and occasionally death, which is extremely costly in the shortsighted measure of money and, in real terms, impact to the worker''s family. Workers need to be properly trained in safety and health protection before they are assigned to a job that may expose them to safety and health hazards. A management committed to improving worker safety and health will bring about significant results in terms of financial savings, improved employee morale, enhanced communities, and increased production. But how can this happen, you say? Reduction in injury and lost workdays are the rewards. A decline in reduction of injuries and lost workdays results in lower workers'' compensation premiums and insurance rates. In 1991, United States workplace injuries and illnesses cost public and private sector employers an estimated $62 billion in workers'' compensation expenditures
Full Text Available In the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, queens and workers have different longevity although they share the same genome. Queens consume royal jelly (RJ as the main food throughout their life, including as adults, but workers only eat worker jelly when they are larvae less than 3 days old. In order to explore the effect of RJ and the components affecting longevity of worker honey bees, we first determined the optimal dose for prolonging longevity of workers as 4% RJ in 50% sucrose solution, and developed a method of obtaining long lived workers. We then compared the effects of longevity extension by RJ 4% with bee-collected pollen from rapeseed (Brassica napus. Lastly, we determined that a water soluble RJ protein obtained by precipitation with 60% ammonium sulfate (RJP60 contained the main component for longevity extension after comparing the effects of RJ crude protein extract (RJCP, RJP30 (obtained by precipitation with 30% ammonium sulfate, and RJ ethanol extract (RJEE. Understanding what regulates worker longevity has potential to help increase colony productivity and improve crop pollination efficiency.
Yang, Wenchao; Tian, Yuanyuan; Han, Mingfeng; Miao, Xiaoqing
In the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera , queens and workers have different longevity although they share the same genome. Queens consume royal jelly (RJ) as the main food throughout their life, including as adults, but workers only eat worker jelly when they are larvae less than 3 days old. In order to explore the effect of RJ and the components affecting longevity of worker honey bees, we first determined the optimal dose for prolonging longevity of workers as 4% RJ in 50% sucrose solution, and developed a method of obtaining long lived workers. We then compared the effects of longevity extension by RJ 4% with bee-collected pollen from rapeseed ( Brassica napus ). Lastly, we determined that a water soluble RJ protein obtained by precipitation with 60% ammonium sulfate (RJP 60 ) contained the main component for longevity extension after comparing the effects of RJ crude protein extract (RJCP), RJP 30 (obtained by precipitation with 30% ammonium sulfate), and RJ ethanol extract (RJEE). Understanding what regulates worker longevity has potential to help increase colony productivity and improve crop pollination efficiency.
During World War II, Arsenal workers from Huntsville, Alabama. and surrounding areas responded to the call for civilian defense workers. This February 20, 1945 photo shows workers filling colored smoke grenades that were used for signaling. (Courtesy of Huntsville/Madison County Public Library)
Hernandez, Mayra Lee
Written in Spanish and English (on facing pages), this manual is a practical guide for those interested in forming a worker-owned cooperative. It includes examples based on the personal experience of teaching about cooperativism and worker-owned cooperatives to a group of construction workers with diverse levels of education; vocabulary and…
International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).
Devoted to providing industrial workers with a greater knowledge of precautionary measures undertaken and enforced by industries for the protection of workers, this safety education manual contains 14 lessons ranging from "The Problems of Accidents during Work" to "Trade Unions and Workers and Industrial Safety." Fire protection, safety equipment…
Kuiper, H.; de Jongh, B. M.; Nauta, A. P.; Houweling, H.; Wiessing, L. G.; van Charante, A. W.; Spanjaard, L.
Serum samples from 127 Dutch forestry workers and 127 matched controls were tested for antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi in an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Those of the forestry workers were also tested by Western blotting. The forestry workers were examined clinically for evidence
J. Delfgaauw (Josse); A.J. Dur (Robert)
textabstractThis paper develops a model in which workers to a certain extent like to exert effort at the workplace. We examine the implications of workers' motivation for optimal monetary incentive schemes. We show that in the optimum motivated workers work harder and are willing to work for a lower
It is commonly recognized that knowledge is the only source of core competence in the knowledge based companies, but the productivity rate of Knowledge Workers is always Low. Based on Knowledge Workers' characteristics, in this paper, we seek to identify factors influencing the Productivity of Knowledge Workers, and ...
Labour Education, 1975
The background, achievements, problems, and future plans of various workers' organizations in agriculture are discussed: International Federation of Plantation, Agricultural, and Allied Workers; Trade Union International of Agricultural, Forestry, and Plantation Workers; World Federation of Agricultural Workers; and the Asian Trade Union College.…
Gaugler, Joseph E.; Kane, Robert L.
Purpose: Despite growing research on assisted living (AL) as a residential care option for older adults, the social ramifications of residents' transitions to AL are relatively unexplored. This article examines family involvement in AL, including family structures of residents, types of involvement from family members living outside the AL…
Davis, John; Warring, Anette Elisabeth
This article examines experiments in communal living in Britain and Denmark in the early 1970s, using life-story interviews from seventeen members of two British and two Danish communes. It examines communal living as a fusion of radical political principles with the practice of experimental coll...
The purpose of psychotherapy is to help clients address and overcome problems troubling them in their everyday lives. Therapy can therefore only work if clients include it in their ongoing lives to deal with their problems. Detailed, systematic research is needed on how clients do so in their eve...
Scorgie, Fiona; Vasey, Katie; Harper, Eric; Richter, Marlise; Nare, Prince; Maseko, Sian; Chersich, Matthew F
Sex work is a criminal offence, virtually throughout Africa. This criminalisation and the intense stigma attached to the profession shapes interactions between sex workers and their clients, family, fellow community members, and societal structures such as the police and social services. We explore the impact of violence and related human rights abuses on the lives of sex workers, and how they have responded to these conditions, as individuals and within small collectives. These analyses are based on data from 55 in-depth interviews and 12 focus group discussions with female, male and transgender sex workers in Kenya, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Data were collected by sex worker outreach workers trained to conduct qualitative research among their peers. In describing their experiences of unlawful arrests and detention, violence, extortion, vilification and exclusions, participants present a picture of profound exploitation and repeated human rights violations. This situation has had an extreme impact on the physical, mental and social wellbeing of this population. Overall, the article details the multiple effects of sex work criminalisation on the everyday lives of sex workers and on their social interactions and relationships. Underlying their stories, however, are narratives of resilience and resistance. Sex workers in our study draw on their own individual survival strategies and informal forms of support and very occasionally opt to seek recourse through formal channels. They generally recognize the benefits of unified actions in assisting them to counter risks in their environment and mobilise against human rights violations, but note how the fluctuant and stigmatised nature of their profession often undermines collective action. While criminal laws urgently need reform, supporting sex work self-organisation and community-building are key interim strategies for safeguarding sex workers' human rights and improving health outcomes in these communities. If
Sadarangani, Sapna P; Lim, Poh Lian; Vasoo, Shawn
Approximately 1.4 million migrant workers reside in Singapore, presenting unique infectious disease challenges to both migrants and Singapore. A Pubmed, MEDLINE (Ovid), EBSCO Host (Global Health) and Google Scholar search was performed for both peer, non-peer reviewed articles and reports relevant to migrant health in Singapore, published between 1 January 1989 and 1 September 2016. Additional studies were identified from citations within searched articles. We also reviewed published data and policy documents from the Ministries of Health and Manpower, Singapore. A significant proportion of malaria, enteric fevers, hepatitis A and E and tuberculosis diagnosed in Singapore involve migrant workers. From the 1990-2000 through 2009-11, while malaria and hepatitis A cases have decreased and remain sporadic, enteric fevers and tuberculosis cases have increased, possibly due to greater influx of migrant workers. Hepatitis E numbers remain low but migrant workers account for half of diagnosed cases. In an interplay of immune naivete, work and living conditions, migrants in the construction industry are at higher risk of arboviral infections such as dengue, Zika and chikungunya. Infections such as chikungunya were likely introduced into Singapore by travellers including migrant workers from the Indian subcontinent but autochthonous transmission continued due to the presence of competent mosquito vectors. There is less data regarding sexual health, networks and infections amongst migrant workers, an area which merits further attention. Migrant workers appear to be at higher risk than Singaporeans for specific infectious diseases, probably due to a complex interplay of several factors, including higher disease prevalence in their countries of origin, socio-economic factors, their living conditions in Singapore and financial, language and cultural barriers to healthcare access. Receiving countries need improved surveillance, expansion of preventive measures and decreased
Stefan Stieglitz; Christoph Lattemann; Tobias Brockmann
In recent years, the diffusion of mobile applications (mobile apps) has risen significantly. Nowadays, mobile business apps are strongly emerging in business, enhancing productivity and employees’ satisfaction, whilst the usage of customized individual enterprise apps is still an exception. Standardized business apps enable basic functionalities, for example, mobile data storage and exchange (e.g., Dropbox), communication (e.g., Skype), and other routine processes, which support mobile worker...
Full Text Available This paper deals with the evaluation of selected available indicators of living standards, divided into three groups, namely economic, environmental, and social. We have selected six countries of the European Union for analysis: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Luxembourg, France, and Great Britain. The aim of this paper is to evaluate indicators measuring living standards and suggest the most important factors which should be included in the final measurement. We have tried to determine what factors influence each indicator and what factors affect living standards. We have chosen regression analysis as our main method. From the study of factors, we can deduce their impact on living standards, and thus the value of indicators of living standards. Indicators with a high degree of reliability include the following factors: size and density of population, health care and spending on education. Emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere also have a certain lower degree of reliability.
Full Text Available Background : Automobile repair shop is a place where workers are exposed to harmful chemicals and toxic substances. Objective : To study the occurrence of obstructive and restrictive pulmonary impairment among automobile garage workers. Methods : A cross sectional study involving 151 automobile garage workers from 14 randomly selected garages of urban Kolkata. The study variables were Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV 1 , Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PE FR, age, smoking habit, duration of work, type of work, and respiratory symptoms. The study was analysed using Regression equations, and Chi-square test. Results : All the workers were male. Obstructive impairment was seen in 25.83% of the workers whereas restrictive impairment was seen in 21.19% of the workers. Mixed obstructive and restrictive impairment was seen in 10.6% of the workers. The frequency of obstructive impairment was higher in older workers. In the age group of less than 20 years, 13.6% of the workers had obstructive impairment while 42.86% of workers above 40 years of age had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in battery repair workers (58.33% and spray painters (37.5% while 16.67% of the body repair workers and 30.19% of the engine mechanics had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in smokers (53.1 % as compared to ex-smokers (33.3% and non-smokers (6.4%. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in workers who had been working for a longer duration. Conclusion: Nearly 36.4% of the automobile garage workers had some form of pulmonary function impairment; obstructive and/or restrictive. The use of personal protective equipment, worker education, and discontinuation of the use of paints containing toxic pigments are recommended.
Ha-Vinh, Philippe; Régnard, Pierre; Sauze, Laurent
INTERESTS OF THE STUDY: In the self-employed workers population (shop keepers, craft men, industrialists and liberal professions), psychotropic medications use and discrepancies between occupational situations have never been evaluated before. It is nevertheless a prerequisite in preventive actions against addictions, stress and injuries caused by disorders of attentiveness at work. The French Self Employed Workers Health Care Insurance Fund affiliate members data base was analysed for active workers from 18 to 60 years of age living in the Provence Alpes Côte d'Azur Region. From this population the cases were defined as having refunded ambulatory prescription of behind the counter psychotropic treatment during the year 2009 (anxiolytic, antidepressant, hypnotic, neuroleptic, lithium, alcoholic or opioid dependance therapy) and the randomised control sample was constituted by drawing the key of the social security number. A case-control multivariate logistic regression adjusted for gender, age and place of abode was used for searching discrepancy between occupational situations. Anxiolytic, antidepressant or hypnotic consumers are the most numerous (906; 557 and 446 consumers per 10 000 persons-year respectively). Antidepressant, neuroleptic and opioid dependance therapy are the three main posts of expense for the health insurance (584 505; 169 947 and 151 201 € per year respectively). When compared to workers of the construction sector, workers of retail trade of clothes had an Odd Ratio of 2,04 [95%CI 1,46-2,85] for anxiolytics consumption and 2,29 [95%CI 1,67-3,14] for antidepressants consumption, workers in the sector of the hotel and catering had an Odd Ratio of 1,62 [95%CI 1,19-2,22] for alcoholic dependance therapy medicines consumption, workers in the accountant, legal and financial sector had an Odd Ratio of 0,05 [95%CI 0,01-0,32] for opioid dependence therapy medicines consumption. Occupations associated with increased psychotropic medicines
Bryson, Alex; Clark, Andrew E; Freeman, Richard B; Green, Colin P
We show that worker wellbeing is determined not only by the amount of compensation workers receive but also by how compensation is determined. While previous theoretical and empirical work has often been preoccupied with individual performance-related pay, we find that the receipt of a range of group-performance schemes (profit shares, group bonuses and share ownership) is associated with higher job satisfaction. This holds conditional on wage levels, so that pay methods are associated with greater job satisfaction in addition to that coming from higher wages. We use a variety of methods to control for unobserved individual and job-specific characteristics. We suggest that half of the share-capitalism effect is accounted for by employees reciprocating for the "gift"; we also show that share capitalism helps dampen the negative wellbeing effects of what we typically think of as "bad" aspects of job quality.
The aim of this diploma thesis is to create a new system to measure and evaluate the productivity of warehouse processes in Euromedia books wholesale warehouse. The Warehouse management system (WMS) is implemented in the warehouse, so the company has information about processes within warehouse. However, the system does not have any tool to measure and report the productivity of individual workers and shifts. So the manager of the warehouse does not have enough data for efficient human resour...
Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Garde, Anne Helene; Clausen, Thomas
Shift workers are exposed to more physical and psychosocial stressors in the working environment as compared to day workers. Despite the need for targeted prevention, it is likely that workplace interventions less frequently reach shift workers. The aim was therefore to investigate whether the reach of workplace interventions varied between shift workers and day workers and whether such differences could be explained by the quality of leadership exhibited at different times of the day. We used questionnaire data from 5361 female care workers in the Danish eldercare sector. The questions concerned usual working hours, quality of leadership, and self-reported implementation of workplace activities aimed at stress reduction, reorganization of the working hours, and participation in improvements of working procedures or qualifications. Compared with day workers, shift workers were less likely to be reached by workplace interventions. For example, night workers less frequently reported that they had got more flexibility (OR 0.5; 95 % CI 0.3-0.7) or that they had participated in improvements of the working procedures (OR 0.6; 95 % CI 0.5-0.8). Quality of leadership to some extent explained the lack of reach of interventions especially among fixed evening workers. In the light of the evidence of shift workers' stressful working conditions, we suggest that future studies focus on the generalizability of results of the present study and on how to reach this group and meet their needs when designing and implementing workplace interventions.
Abbate, C; Giorgianni, C; Munaò, F; Beninato, G; D'Arrigo, Graziella; D'Arrigo, Patrizia; Brecciaroli, Renato
Obesity is an international social problem. This study was aimed at evaluating the relationship of overweight and obesity with social dynamics and correlated biological indicators. The study was carried out on a group of healthcare workers employed in a large hospital in the province of Messina (Sicily, Italy). A total of 1010 subjects (377 men and 633 women) aged between 16 and 64 years, living in the province of Messina since birth. The educational level, BMI (Body mass index), arterial blood pressure and ECG of each subject was examined. The results showed that 52% of the men and 66.5% of the women were of normal weight, while the men showed greater susceptibility to overweight (M 33.2% > F 16%). Obesity was found in both sexes (M 13.3%, F 13.6%). Moreover, it was observed that arterial blood pressure tends to increase with age and body weight, and that the incidence of overweight falls as educational level rises. The study supports the hypothesis that there is a growing incidence of overweight and obesity in subjects of working age employed in the healthcare sector.
Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Clausen, Thomas
OBJECTIVES: One reason for health disparities between shift and day workers may be that workplace health promotion does not reach shift workers to the same extent as it reaches day workers. This study aimed to investigate the association between shift work and the availability of and participatio...... could not confirm that shift workers in general report a lower availability of and participation in workplace health promotion.......OBJECTIVES: One reason for health disparities between shift and day workers may be that workplace health promotion does not reach shift workers to the same extent as it reaches day workers. This study aimed to investigate the association between shift work and the availability of and participation...... in workplace health promotion. METHODS: We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from a large representative sample of all employed people in Denmark. We obtained information on the availability of and participation in six types of workplace health promotion. We also obtained information on working hours, ie...
Full Text Available In today’s global age many people cross national borders in search of better work and more wages. According to IOM, more than 100 000 000 workers leave their homeland and migrate to another country for this reason. Europe and North America have already experienced increase in foreign labor for many decades but nowadays, it is very common to see foreign laborers in Asian countries. As the number of foreign laborers rapidly increased, however, so did many social problems in relation to these workers. No country is safe from or immune to such social problems in regards to the foreign workers especially with a much easier and more efficient transportation system. In case of South Korea, the history of foreign labor may not be as long as other nations but as of 2007, it boasts of more than 250 000 foreign laborers and is thus facing just as many social problems as well. In order to investigate such social issues, this article explores the history of foreign laborers and their current situation in South Korea. Furthermore, this artticle examines both internal and external factors which may have caused exponential growth of foreign labor market in South Korea in the past decade.
The Power Workers' Union represents workers at Ontario Hydro's nuclear stations and AECL operators at Chalk River. Although labour relations are far from perfect, the union does its best to protect the industry. Avoiding confrontation as much as possible, this union is happy to be regarded as a partner in the business. The union is impressed by the consultants' report on Ontario Hydro's nuclear operations. Whatever the future may bring, the present is not really pleasant for nuclear workers generally, in that the work itself is very demanding technically, and must be performed with great diligence because the responsibility for safety is enormous. Considering the actual safety record, some caricatures or ''cheap shots'' from antinuclear politicians and special interest groups seem quite offensive. As a partner in public relations, the union has produced draft fact sheets on topics such as: transporting radioactive material; the burning of plutonium from dismantled weaponry; deep geological storage of nuclear waste; the sale of Candu reactors to China. The author closes with some advice on how to improve industrial relations, based on the union's experience
Andersen, Pernille Viktoria Kathja; Christiansen, Ellen Tove
of these user voices has directed us towards a ‘home-keeping’ design discourse, which opens new horizons for design of digital home control systems by allowing users to perform as self-determined controllers and groomers of their habitat. The paper concludes by outlining the implications of a ‘home......Does living with digital technology inevitably lead to digital living? Users talking about a digital home control system, they have had in their homes for eight years, indicate that there is more to living with digital technology than a functional-operational grip on regulation. Our analysis...
Sönmez, Sevil; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Tran, Diane; Rentrope, Shantyana
Systematic violations of migrant workers' human rights and striking health disparities among these populations in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) are the norm in member countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Migrant laborers comprise about 90 percent of the UAE workforce and include approximately 500,000 construction workers and 450,000 domestic workers. Like many other GCC members countries, the UAE witnessed an unprecedented construction boom during the early 2000s, attracting large numbers of Western expatriates and increasing demand for cheap migrant labor. Elite Emiratis' and Western expatriates' dependence on household staff further promoted labor migration. This paper offers a summary of existing literature on migrant workers and human rights in the UAE, focusing on their impact on related health ramifications and disparities, with specific attention to construction workers, domestic workers, and trafficked women and children. Construction workers and domestic laborers are victims of debt bondage and face severe wage exploitation, and experience serious health and safety problems resulting from inhumane work and living conditions. High rates of physical, sexual, and psychological abuse impact the health of domestic workers. Through a review of available literature, including official reports, scientific papers, and media reports, the paper discusses the responsibility of employers, governments, and the global community in mitigating these problems and reveals the paucity of systematic data on the health of migrant workers in the Gulf. Copyright © 2011 Sonmez, Apostolopoulos, Tran, and Rentrope. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Lawrence H. Travers
Analysis of the Hong Kong experience of adaptation to urban living can provide insights into some of the problems that can be expected to occur in the rapidly expanding cities of the Third World. Population densities in Hong Kong are among the highest in the world, exceeding 400,000 persons per square mile in parts of Kowloon. Research based upon residence in a worker...
Timonen, Virpi; O'Dwyer, Ciara
Insights into daily living in residential care settings are rare. This article draws on a qualitative dataset (semi-structured interviews and recordings of residents' council meetings) that gives a glimpse of the experiences and coping strategies of (older) people living in residential care. The data highlight the range of unmet needs of the residents, similar to the categories of physiological, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization needs in Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory. Our analysis indicates that "higher" and "lower" needs are closely intertwined and mutually reinforcing and should therefore be accorded equal emphasis by professionals (including social workers) employed within residential care settings.
Full Text Available We describe a new species of carpenter ants from Ecuador, which apparently has an obligatory relationship with the ant plants Cecropia membranacea Trécul, C. herthae Diels and C. marginalis Cuatrec. The workers are relatively small and hairy, and based on a number of collections, it does not appear to have major workers. We compare the new species to Camponotus balzani, to which it appears to be similar and which has normal major workers, and also lives in Cecropia spp.
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... the lives of people with communication disorders. "Human communication research now has more possibilities for productive exploration than at any other time in history," says James F. Battey, Jr., M.D., Ph. ...
Ball, Mary M.; Perkins, Molly M.; Hollingsworth, Carole; Whittington, Frank J.; King, Sharon V.
This article examines how race and class influence decisions to move to assisted living facilities. Qualitative methods were used to study moving decisions of residents in 10 assisted living facilities varying in size and location, as well as race and socioeconomic status of residents. Data were derived from in-depth interviews with 60 residents, 43 family members and friends, and 12 administrators. Grounded theory analysis identified three types of residents based on their decision-making control: proactive, compliant, and passive/resistant. Only proactive residents (less than a quarter of residents) had primary control. Findings show that control of decision making for elders who are moving to assisted living is influenced by class, though not directly by race. The impact of class primarily related to assisted-living placement options and strategies available to forestall moves. Factors influencing the decision-making process were similar for Black and White elders of comparable socioeconomic status. PMID:19756172
Ettinger, Andreas; Wittmann, Torsten
Fluorescence microscopy of live cells has become an integral part of modern cell biology. Fluorescent protein (FP) tags, live cell dyes, and other methods to fluorescently label proteins of interest provide a range of tools to investigate virtually any cellular process under the microscope. The two main experimental challenges in collecting meaningful live cell microscopy data are to minimize photodamage while retaining a useful signal-to-noise ratio and to provide a suitable environment for cells or tissues to replicate physiological cell dynamics. This chapter aims to give a general overview on microscope design choices critical for fluorescence live cell imaging that apply to most fluorescence microscopy modalities and on environmental control with a focus on mammalian tissue culture cells. In addition, we provide guidance on how to design and evaluate FP constructs by spinning disk confocal microscopy. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kidney transplantation is the best approach for treating patients with end stage renal disease, offering patients the best chance of returning to normal health. While the techniques used in kidney transplantation surgery are mature and highly successful, there is a severe shortage of donor organs. Statistics show a serious imbalance between organ donations and patients on the waiting list for organ transplantation. Moreover, evidence from empirical studies has shown a better transplantation outcome for patients who receive living donor transplantation than for those who receive organs from cadavers. Although using relatives as donors offers an effective way to reduce the problem of organ shortage, this strategy faces many challenges and many other factors affect the promotion of living donor transplantation. This article elaborates how cultural and psychological factors, kidney transplantation awareness, and ethics and laws impact upon living kidney donations and then proposes coping strategies for promoting living kidney transplantation.
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Hansen, Kristian Frausing; Munk, Karen Pallesgaard
Background: Even in the Danish welfare state inequality in health proves hard to overcome. According to the literature elderly men living alone seem to be a vulnerable group in several respects: they lead shorter lives; are at increased risk of committing suicide; and some are found to have....... 1. An electronic survey is distributed nationwide to municipal preventive home visitors in order to obtain information about their views on the men’s particular needs and the suitability of current health care services. 2. A group of elderly men living alone is interviewed about their own opinions...... and views on the matters. Results: It is expected that the study will contribute to a nuanced basis of knowledge for the public health care services for elderly men living alone. Also importantly, we wish to focus health care professionals’ attention to the question of realistic and meaningful goals...
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... Thalassemia” More What can a person living with thalassemia do to stay healthy? A healthy lifestyle is ... disorder”, as well as making healthy choices. Managing Thalassemia Thalassemia is a treatable disorder that can be ...
Our Urban Living Room is an exhibition and a book, created by Cobe. The theme is based on Cobe’s ten years of practice, grounded in social livability and urban democracy, and our aim to create buildings and spaces that invite Copenhageners to use and define them; as an extended living room, where...... the boundaries between private and public space become fluid. Based on specific Cobe projects, Our Urban Living Room tells stories about the architectural development of Copenhagen, while exploring the progression of the Danish Capital - from an industrial city into an urban living room, known as one...... of the world’s most livable places. Photography by Rasmus Hjortshøj....
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Full Text Available We conducted a cross-sectional study in 2009 to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors for highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1 [HPAI H5N1] virus antibodies among poultry workers at farms and live bird markets with confirmed/suspected poultry outbreaks during 2009 in Bangladesh. We tested sera by microneutralization assay using A/Bangladesh/207095/2008 (H5N1; clade 2.2.2 virus with confirmation by horse red blood cell hemagglutination inhibition and H5-specific Western blot assays. We enrolled 212 workers from 87 farms and 210 workers from three live bird markets. One hundred and two farm workers (48% culled poultry. One hundred and ninety-three farm workers (91% and 178 market workers (85% reported direct contact with poultry that died during a laboratory confirmed HPAI H5N1 poultry farm outbreak or market poultry die-offs from suspected HPAI H5N1. Despite exposure to sick poultry, no farm or market poultry workers were seropositive for HPAI H5N1 virus antibodies (95% confidence interval 0-1%.
Škerjanc, Alenka; Fikfak, Metoda Dodič
The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between sickness presence and stressful life events among health care workers. Data were gathered from all health care workers at the University Medical Centre Ljubljana employed there in the period between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2010. Each employee obtained a questionnaire composed of two standardized international questionnaires. There were 57% of sickness present health care workers among the participants. The sickness present reported to have more diseases of family member than the non-sickness present (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.2-2.0), loan (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.1-1.6), their partner lost job (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.0-1.8), or they changed the place of living (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.0-2.0). The results of the study indicate that stressful life events with economic consequences might have an important influence on sickness presence.
Full Text Available The Middle East is seen by many developing nations as a region of opportunity and prosperity. With the cost of living spiralling, coupled with mass unemployment, most Indian families are left economically strangulated. Education, healthcare, rent, fuel, electricity and other essential commodities are becoming unaffordable to the ordinary masses. In lieu of a better future for their families, most workers migrate to the Middle East in search of well paying jobs. Although the workers are paid as promised, their lives are burdened with many obstacles. Immigrants are discriminated against and made to endure strenuous working conditions. These workers are met with harsh realities, both during the course of employment and otherwise. With a poor dispute redressal mechanism and forcefully signed indemnity agreements, these workers are left neglected and abused. Although free trade agreements have been entered into, the discrimination and hostility has persisted. Religion and nationality are often used as a ground to discriminate. Wages below minimum wages, restriction on job applications, heavy taxation on foreigners, etc. are often used tactics to propagate nepotism towards locals. The international community has warned the Gulf States and surrounding States of the same. Yet, there has been no visible change in the system. The paper seeks to identify, through primary and secondary sources of information, a suitable mechanism to help protect these migrant workers from such inequalities.
Kasl, S.V.; Chisholm, R.F.; Eskenazi, B.
Three Mile Island (TMI) workers experienced much greater job tension and lower occupational self-esteem (supervisors only) in comparison with workers interviewed at the Peach Bottom Plant. At the time of the accident, TMI workers reported experiencing more periods of anger, extreme worrry and extreme upset, and more psychophysiological symptoms. Six months after the accident, some persistence of these feelings and symptoms was evident. Demoralization was greater primarily among TMI non-supervisory workers. The impact of the accident was not greater among TMI workers living closer to the plant. Presence of a preschool child at home enhanced the impact of the accident, but primarily among TMI supervisors. 39 references, 17 tables
BACKGROUND: Nurses working with patients with advanced heart failure need knowledge that will help us to help patients cope with their situations of chronic illness. However, our knowledge bank is deficient due to the scarcity of inquiry that takes the affected person\\'s point of view as its central focus. AIM: The aim of this study was to describe patients\\' experiences of living with advanced heart failure. METHODS: The study sample (N=9) consisted of male (N=6) and female (N=3) patients with advanced (NYHA classes III-IV) heart failure. The design was qualitative and open unstructured interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim during 2006. RESULTS: Four main themes emerged: Living in the Shadow of Fear; Running on Empty; Living a Restricted life; and Battling the System. The experience of living with advanced heart failure was described as a fearful and tired sort of living characterised by escalating impotence and dependence. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that there may be an illogical but enduring ethos of \\'cure\\' pervading health care worker\\'s attitudes to advanced heart failure care. This mindset might be working to hinder the application of additional or alternative therapies, which might better palliate the physical and psychosocial distress of patients.
Stilz, R; Madan, I
Worker beliefs and expectations influence their health and rehabilitation. However, little is known about worker expectations of occupational health (OH) consultations and if these are associated with their perceptions of health and work. To examine worker expectations of OH consultations, and whether the variability of worker expectations is associated with their perception of health and work and personal characteristics. A questionnaire on OH physicians' professional standards was developed from national guidance and validated by a survey of OH physicians. We explored 81 workers' expectations of professional standards along with their perception of health and work. Worker expectations were compared with the OH physician validation score. Associations of worker characteristics, their health and work perceptions and their expectations of professional standards were analysed by linear regression. Worker expectations of professional standards were lower when compared with the OH physician validation score (E = 3.9 versus 4.3, ΔE = 0.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.30-0.66). Perceived manager support and work apprehension were associated with worker expectations (ΔE = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.29-0.86 for least versus most support; ΔE = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.41-1.36 for least versus highest apprehension). Job title, previous OH consultations and recovery expectations were not associated with worker expectations. Worker expectations of OH physicians' professional standards were lower than the standards set by national guidance as validated by the sampled OH physicians. Workers who felt more supported by their manager, and workers who were more apprehensive about the health impact of work had higher expectations of OH physicians' standards.
Golikov, V.Yu.; Balonov, M.I.; Bruk, G.Ya.
In the beginning of the fifties, planned releases of liquid radioactive wastes were performed from the radiochemical enterprise Mayak to the riverbed of the Techa river flowing in the area of the Chelyabinsk region. These releases caused high contamination of the riverbed and water meadows of the Techa river especially by 9 0S r and 1 37C s. After the termination of intensive releases, a part of the population living in the riverside settlements (15 settlements with total population of 72000 persons) was resettled from 1954-1962. Within the Chelyabinsk region, four inhabited settlements remained on the river: Muslyumovo, Brodokalmak, Russkaya Techa and Nizhnepetropavlovskoye with a total population of 9229 persons according to the census of 1989. The second, but much less significant, source of contamination to this environment was the dispersion and transport of contaminated sediments from Lake Karachay in 1967 [Romanov et al. 1995; Kryshev et al. 1998; Kravtsova et al. 1998]. The overall purpose of this work was determination of ways and estimation of current levels of exposure to population of two settlements, Muslyumovo and Brodokalmak, which is necessary for development of measures on radiation and social protection of population
Kim, Jungmin; De Bellis, Anita Marie; Xiao, Lily Dongxia
The South Korean government introduced the universal long-term care insurance program in 2008 that created a new employment category of "paid family-care worker" to assist the elderly with chronic illnesses including dementia. The aim of this study was to understand the lived experience of paid family-care workers of people with dementia in South Korea. The study was a qualitative research design underpinned by interpretive description principles involving eight paid family-care workers. The participants were recruited by attaching the advertisement flyer in a notice board of an educational facility for paid family-care workers. Paid family-care workers struggled to manage the behavioral and psychological symptoms of their care recipients. Their workloads created physical, emotional, social, and financial burdens. However, the care-giving activities were encouraged through their sense of responsibility, filial piety, and personal religious beliefs. Financial subsidies from the government and help received from others were also identified as encouragements. The education course provided to them assisted them to improve their dementia-care capabilities. Understanding paid family-care workers' lived experience in dementia care in South Korea assists with the identification of their educational needs and level of support they require to improve dementia care in the home care environment. A number of suggestions are made to increase paid family-care workers' knowledge, clinical skills, and job satisfaction to reduce their burdens and work-related incidents, such as challenging behaviors from those being cared for. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Background Sex work is a criminal offence, virtually throughout Africa. This criminalisation and the intense stigma attached to the profession shapes interactions between sex workers and their clients, family, fellow community members, and societal structures such as the police and social services. Methods We explore the impact of violence and related human rights abuses on the lives of sex workers, and how they have responded to these conditions, as individuals and within small collectives. These analyses are based on data from 55 in-depth interviews and 12 focus group discussions with female, male and transgender sex workers in Kenya, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Data were collected by sex worker outreach workers trained to conduct qualitative research among their peers. Results In describing their experiences of unlawful arrests and detention, violence, extortion, vilification and exclusions, participants present a picture of profound exploitation and repeated human rights violations. This situation has had an extreme impact on the physical, mental and social wellbeing of this population. Overall, the article details the multiple effects of sex work criminalisation on the everyday lives of sex workers and on their social interactions and relationships. Underlying their stories, however, are narratives of resilience and resistance. Sex workers in our study draw on their own individual survival strategies and informal forms of support and very occasionally opt to seek recourse through formal channels. They generally recognize the benefits of unified actions in assisting them to counter risks in their environment and mobilise against human rights violations, but note how the fluctuant and stigmatised nature of their profession often undermines collective action. Conclusions While criminal laws urgently need reform, supporting sex work self-organisation and community-building are key interim strategies for safeguarding sex workers’ human rights and improving
Maizlish, N; Beaumont, J; Singleton, J
Standardized proportional mortality ratios (PMR) were computed for a population of highway workers. Hazards of highway maintenance work include exposure to solvents, herbicides, asphalt and welding fumes, diesel and auto exhaust, asbestos, abrasive dusts, hazardous material spills, and moving motor vehicles. Underlying cause of death was obtained for 1,570 workers who separated from the California Department of Transportation between 1970 and 1983, and who died in California between 1970 and 1983 (inclusive). Among 1,260 white males, the major findings were statistically significant excesses of cancers of digestive organs (PMR = 128), skin (PMR = 218), lymphopoietic cancer (PMR = 157), benign neoplasms (PMR = 343), motor vehicle accidents (PMR = 141), and suicide (PMR = 154). Black males (N = 66) experienced nonsignificant excesses of cancer of the digestive organs (PMR = 191) and arteriosclerotic heart disease (PMR = 143). Among 168 white females, deaths from lung cancer (PMR = 189) and suicide (PMR = 215) were elevated. White male retirees, a subgroup with 5 or more years of service, experienced excess mortality due to cancers of the colon (PMR = 245), skin (PMR = 738), brain (PMR = 556), and lymphosarcomas and reticulosarcomas (PMR = 514). Deaths from external causes (PMR = 135) and cirrhosis of the liver (PMR = 229) were elevated among white males with a last job in landscape maintenance. White males whose last job was highway maintenance experienced a deficit in mortality from circulatory diseases (PMR = 83) and excess mortality from emphysema (PMR = 250) and motor vehicle accidents (PMR = 196). Further epidemiologic and industrial hygiene studies are needed to confirm the apparent excess mortality and to quantify occupational and nonoccupational exposures. However, reduction of recognized hazards among highway maintenance workers is a prudent precautionary measure.
Salami, Bukola; Nelson, Sioban
Despite the fact that there is unmet demand for nurses in health services around the world, some nurses migrate to destination countries to work as domestic workers. According to the literature, these nurses experience contradictions in class mobility and are at increased risk of exploitation and abuse. This article presents a critical discussion of the migration of nurses as domestic workers using the concept of 'global care chain'. Although several scholars have used the concept of global care chains to illustrate south to north migration of domestic workers and nurses, there is a paucity of literature on the migration of nurses to destination countries as domestic workers. The migration of nurses to destination countries as domestic workers involves the extraction of reproductive and skilled care labor without adequate compensatory mechanisms to such skilled nurses. Using the case of the Canadian Live-in Caregiver Program, the study illustrates how the global movement of internationally educated nurses as migrant domestic workers reinforces inequities that are structured along the power gradient of gender, class, race, nationality, and ethnicity, especially within an era of global nursing shortage. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wong, Fu Keung Daniel; Chang, Ying Li; He, Xue Song
It is estimated that approximately 20 million migrant school-aged children have accompanied their parents in relocating to cities in China. However, little research on the lives of these children has been conducted. The purpose of the present study is to identify the risk factors associated with the psychological wellbeing of children of migrant workers in Shanghai, China. A total of 625 children of migrant workers were recruited from ten primary and secondary schools in Shanghai through a survey design using the multistage cluster sampling method. Children of migrant workers were identified as mentally healthy or unhealthy using The revised child anxiety and depression scale. Socio-demographic characteristics, parent-child relationship, peer relationship and relationships in schools were explored as correlates of the psychological wellbeing of children of migrant workers. Compared to overseas studies, children of migrant workers suffered from symptoms of separation anxiety, depression and generalized anxiety disorder. They were male (OR = 1.88, 95% CI 0.99-3.60), older in age (OR = 1.18, 95% CI 0.99-1.40), experiencing parent-child conflicts (OR = 1.92, 95% CI 1.28-2.89), discipline from teacher (OR = 2.29, 95% CI 1.26-4.16) and discrimination in school (OR = 4.53, 95% CI 1.11-18.48). The findings provide information for the prevention of mental ill-health among children of migrant workers in China. The implications and limitations are also discussed.
Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Garde, Anne Helene
. The questions concerned usual working hours, quality of leadership, and self-reported implementation of workplace activities aimed at stress reduction, reorganization of the working hours, and participation in improvements of working procedures or qualifications. RESULTS: Compared with day workers, shift...... the reach of workplace interventions varied between shift workers and day workers and whether such differences could be explained by the quality of leadership exhibited at different times of the day. METHODS: We used questionnaire data from 5361 female care workers in the Danish eldercare sector...... workers were less likely to be reached by workplace interventions. For example, night workers less frequently reported that they had got more flexibility (OR 0.5; 95 % CI 0.3-0.7) or that they had participated in improvements of the working procedures (OR 0.6; 95 % CI 0.5-0.8). Quality of leadership...
Jerry P. Haenisch
Full Text Available While there have been a variety of studies concerning government worker motivation and productivity, few, if any, studies have focused specifically on state government workers’ perceptions about what factors affect their productivity. With more than 5 million workers employed by state governments in the United States, any improvement in state workplace productivity could have significant financial and service impact for society. In this study, state government workers identified those factors perceived as most affecting their workplace productivity. Data were collected through a survey offered to state government workers in the state of Wyoming. Factor analysis was used to derive key productivity factors from survey responses. The results indicate that state government workers appreciate having freedom and autonomy, like their jobs and the sense of achievement, and welcome teamwork, but feel limited by poor supervision and management, poor communications, and insufficient budgets and staffing. To improve productivity, the workers would eliminate bureaucracy, supervise better, and improve communication.
Roelof van Staden; Adeline du Toit
The demand for knowledge workers is on the increase, yet little is known about their career perceptions and attitudes. The objective of this article is to determine the factors affecting the career development of knowledge workers in South Africa. Part-time learners of a postgraduate course were used as a purposive sample and 82 completed questionnaires were received. The results of the online survey provide an interesting look at the unique career issues knowledge workers experience from a S...
"This article presents the basic characteristics of the foreign workers recruiting policy in Japan, which consists [of] barring entry to unskilled workers, and confronts it with the actual tolerance for a large number of illegal unskilled workers. After a historical overview of the reasons for the current policy, the article examines elements which reveal that a seclusionist policy is based on mistaken assumptions and reviews policy options to deal with the issue of illegal migration." excerpt
This paper discusses discrimination against women workers in Japan. Japan ratified the UNConvention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women in 1985. In April1986, the Equal Employment Opportunity Act (EEOA), a law which stipulates equal treatmentof women workers with men, became effective. The law was a major condition which enabled theJapanese government to ratify the UN Convention.More than thirty years have passed since then; however, women workers in Japan continue...
Gönültaş, Tülin; Aytaç, Necdet; Akbaba, Muhsin
Therapid development of today's technology has led to an increase in office-styledesk workers, especially in the use of computers, in every sector andworkplace.At desk workers; the continuity of repetitive movements, the fixed orinappropriate position of the body, the loading of small parts of the body suchas hands and wrists, and the speed and continuity of movements threaten thehealth of workers in mid-long term. Especially problems related tomusculoskeletal diseases are seen. The prev...
Kontos, P; Grigorovich, A; Nowrouzi, B; Sharma, B; Lewko, J; Mollayeva, T; Colantonio, A
Work-related head injury is a critical public health issue due to its rising prevalence; the association with profound disruption of workers' lives; and significant economic burdens in terms of medical costs and lost wages. Efforts to understand and prevent these types of injuries have largely been dominated by epidemiological research and safety science, which has focused on identifying risk at the level of the individual worker, population group, or organizational sector. Limited research has focused on the perspectives of the workers, a key stakeholder group for informing understanding of vulnerability to work-related head injury. This study explored workers' perspectives to better understand their decision-making and how and why their injuries occurred. We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth semi-structured interviews with thirty-two adult workers who had sustained a work-related head injury. Workers were recruited from an urban clinic in central Ontario, Canada. Labour Process Theory informed the thematic analysis. Three hazardous work conditions were identified: insufficient training; inadequate staffing; and inattention to the physical environment. In addition, professional and organizational norms were implicated in vulnerability to head injury including putting the client before the worker and the pressure to work unsafely. The findings also highlight a complex interrelationship between workers' decision-making and professional and organizational norms that produces vulnerability to head injury, a vulnerability which oftentimes is reproduced by workers' decisions to work despite hazardous conditions. Our findings suggest that, beyond the need to redress the inattention to hazards in the physical environment, there is a need to address norms that influence worker decision-making to improve the safety of workers. Using Labour Process Theory highlights an important social dynamic within workplace sectors that could inform future development and
Full Text Available Introduction: Oral health is a vital part of general health which not only depends on the environment in which a person lives but also the one in which he/she works. Exposure to various harmful substances in lead acid battery factory affects various organ systems of the body including tissues of the oral cavity. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the oral health status among production line workers of lead acid battery factories in Ghaziabad. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1400 production line workers of twenty lead acid battery factories in Ghaziabad. The sample comprised all the workers in the factories including the production line. Oral health status was assessed using the WHO oral health assessment form, 2013. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 19. Results: The mean age of the study group (production line workers was 32.15 ± 7.91 years and of control group (nonproduction line workers was 31.49 ± 7.62 years. Mean years of experience were 10.90 ± 7.35 for production line workers and 9.07 ± 5.97 years for nonproduction line workers. Prevalence of gingival bleeding was present among 89.10% of the study group workers and 80.90% of control group workers (P < 0.001. Periodontal pockets were found to be present in 43.3% of workers when compared to 25.6% of control group workers (P = 0.001. Prevalence of dental erosion was found to be 55.5% among study groups as compared to 1.4% among the controls (P < 0.001. Conclusion: This study documents the association of various oral conditions with workplace environment. The present study points the need of establishing appropriate educational, preventive, and treatment measures coupled with efficient surveillance and monitoring in the workplace environment.
Wahlberg, Ayo; Rose, Nikolas
of the twentieth century. As is well known, the compilation and tabulation of vital statistics – death-rates, birth-rates, morbidity rates – contributed to the birth of the ‘population’ in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The population is reformatted from the middle of the twentieth century by ‘modified...... life tables’ made up of disability weightings, health state valuations, quality of life scores, disease burden estimates, etc. The problem of morbid death gives way to that of morbid living, made calculable through a metrics of ‘severity’, ‘disability’ and ‘impairment’. A series of new indices...... and scales (e.g. the QALY and DALY) has contributed to a governmentalization of living, in the course of which the social and personal consequences of living with disease come to be an object of political concern, and made knowable, calculable and thereby amenable to various strategies of intervention. We...
Rubin, Jeffrey B
Psychoanalysis is ambivalent about creativity and its own creative potential. On the one hand, psychoanalysis offers enormous resources for elucidating obstacles to creativity, that way of living, making and relating to self and others that is fresh, vital, unpredictable and open to feedback and evolution. On the other hand, when we analysts know too much beforehand about what a work of art really means or the fundamental and singular motives of creativity, then psychoanalysis unconsciously partakes of a perverse scenario in which the work of art serves as merely a means to the author's ends and is psychologically colonized. When psychoanalysis is The Discipline That Knows, then art has nothing new to teach psychoanalysts and our field is impoverished. "Psychoanalysis and Creative Living" attempts to elucidate how psychoanalysis could work through this tension between its creative and perverse possibilities and foster creative living.
O'Laughlin, Kelli N; Rouhani, Shada A; Kasozi, Julius; Greenwald, Kelsy E; Perkons, Nicholas R; Faustin, Zikama M; Bassett, Ingrid V; Ware, Norma C
Refugees living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa suffer unique hardships that may increase their vulnerability to interruptions in antiretroviral therapy (ART). To investigate refugees' experiences adhering to ART, we conducted inperson interviews with refugees on ART ( n = 73) and HIV clinic staff ( n = 4) in Nakivale Refugee Settlement in southwest Uganda from March to July 2011. Three analysts used a conventional content analysis approach to evaluate these data. Refugees described profound motivation to adhere to ART and employed adherence strategies to facilitate success despite the austere setting. However, refugees spoke of specific hardships living in Nakivale that served as barriers to ART adherence, including difficulty accessing clinic when ill, food insecurity, drug stockouts, and violence and unrest in the settlement. For some refugees, need for ART inextricably linked them to the HIV clinic and prevented them from transitioning permanently away from the settlement. By learning about refugees' experiences we can design informed interventions to enhance ART adherence, thus minimizing morbidity and mortality, preventing transmission of HIV, and supporting refugees' abilities to move freely toward repatriation, resettlement or integration in their host country.
Xu, X; Ding, M; Li, B; Christiani, D C
1035 married women workers in three modern textile mills in Anhui, China were surveyed to investigate the association of rotating shiftwork with low birth weight and preterm birth in 1992. Information on reproductive health, occupational exposure history, and other covariates including age at pregnancy, time and duration of leave from job since pregnancy, and mill location was obtained by trained nurses with a standardised questionnaire. This analysis was limited to 845 women (887 live births), who were middle or high school graduates, never smokers, and non-alcohol drinkers. About 72% of the women worked an eight day cycle with shift changes every two days throughout pregnancy. Mean gestational age was 38.8 and 39.0 weeks for shift and regular schedule workers, respectively. Multiple linear regression was used to adjust for confounding factors including maternal age at pregnancy, order of live birth, mill location, job title, occupational exposure to dust/gases/fumes, stress, carrying and lifting of heavy loads, working in a squat position, time and duration of leave from the job since pregnancy, and indoor coal combustion for heating. The adjusted difference in gestational age associated with rotating shifts was statistically significant (beta = -0.44 (SE 0.20) weeks.) Mean birth weights were 3248 g and 3338 g for rotating shift workers and regular schedule workers respectively. The estimated effect of rotating shiftwork on birth weight was -79 (SE 42) g. When the analysis was restricted to first order live births or to production workers, the estimated effects of rotating shiftwork on both gestational age and birth weight were significant. The proportions of preterm birth (regular schedule workers. The adjusted odds ratio of shiftwork was 2.0 (95% CI) 1.1-3.4) for preterm birth and 2.1 (95% CI 1.1-4.1) for low birth weight. This association remained significant when the analysis was restricted to production workers or first order live births.