WorldWideScience

Sample records for reset related links

  1. Reset Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Baños, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Reset Control Systems addresses the analysis for reset control treating both its basic form which requires only that the state of the controller be reinitialized to zero (the reset action) each time the tracking error crosses zero (the reset condition), and some useful variations of the reset action (partial reset with fixed or variable reset percentage) and of the reset condition (fixed or variable reset band and anticipative reset). The issues regarding reset control – concepts and motivation; analysis tools; and the application of design methodologies to real-world examples – are given comprehensive coverage. The text opens with an historical perspective which moves from the seminal work of the Clegg integrator and Horowitz FORE to more recent approaches based on impulsive/hybrid control systems and explains the motivation for reset compensation. Preliminary material dealing with notation, basic definitions and results, and with the definition of the control problem under study is also included. The fo...

  2. Epigenetic resetting of human pluripotency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ge; von Meyenn, Ferdinand; Rostovskaya, Maria; Clarke, James; Dietmann, Sabine; Baker, Duncan; Sahakyan, Anna; Myers, Samuel; Bertone, Paul; Reik, Wolf; Plath, Kathrin; Smith, Austin

    2017-08-01

    Much attention has focussed on the conversion of human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) to a more naïve developmental status. Here we provide a method for resetting via transient histone deacetylase inhibition. The protocol is effective across multiple PSC lines and can proceed without karyotype change. Reset cells can be expanded without feeders with a doubling time of around 24 h. WNT inhibition stabilises the resetting process. The transcriptome of reset cells diverges markedly from that of primed PSCs and shares features with human inner cell mass (ICM). Reset cells activate expression of primate-specific transposable elements. DNA methylation is globally reduced to a level equivalent to that in the ICM and is non-random, with gain of methylation at specific loci. Methylation imprints are mostly lost, however. Reset cells can be re-primed to undergo tri-lineage differentiation and germline specification. In female reset cells, appearance of biallelic X-linked gene transcription indicates reactivation of the silenced X chromosome. On reconversion to primed status, XIST -induced silencing restores monoallelic gene expression. The facile and robust conversion routine with accompanying data resources will enable widespread utilisation, interrogation, and refinement of candidate naïve cells. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Integral fluctuation theorems for stochastic resetting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Arnab; Rahav, Saar

    2017-12-01

    We study the stochastic thermodynamics of resetting systems. Violation of microreversibility means that the well-known derivations of fluctuations theorems break down for dynamics with resetting. Despite that we show that stochastic resetting systems satisfy two integral fluctuation theorems. The first is the Hatano-Sasa relation describing the transition between two steady states. The second integral fluctuation theorem involves a functional that includes both dynamical and thermodynamic contributions. We find that the second law-like inequality found by Fuchs et al. for resetting systems [Europhys. Lett. 113, 60009 (2016), 10.1209/0295-5075/113/60009] can be recovered from this integral fluctuation theorem with the help of Jensen's inequality.

  4. Converting the reset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.K. Hoogland (Jiri); C.D.D. Neumann; D. Bloch

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe give a simple algorithm to incorporate the effects of resets in convertible bond prices, without having to add an extra factor to take into account the value of the reset. Furthermore we show that the effect of a notice period, and additional make-whole features, can be treated in a

  5. METODE RESET PASSWORD LEVEL ROOT PADA RELATIONAL DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (RDBMS MySQL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taqwa Hariguna

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Database merupakan sebuah hal yang penting untuk menyimpan data, dengan database organisasi akan mendapatkan keuntungan dalam beberapa hal, seperti kecepatan akases dan mengurangi penggunaan kertas, namun dengan implementasi database tidak jarang administrator database lupa akan password yang digunakan, hal ini akan mempersulit dalam proses penangganan database. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menggali cara mereset password level root pada relational database management system MySQL.

  6. Resetting U.S.-Turkish Relations: Charting a New Way Forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Stein

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available After nearly nine decades of benign neglect, Turkey has set about reestablishing its influence in the Middle East. Although most observers agree that the United States and Turkey share a number of overlapping goals in the Middle East, Turkey's recent rapprochement with Iran has drawn the ire of the United States. In tandem, Turkey's relations with Israel, Washington's closest ally in the region, have deteriorated rapidly following Israel's war in Gaza and the events aboard the Mavi Marmara. These coinciding events have further complicated U.S.-Turkish relations and have led a number of pundits in Washington to openly question Turkey's ideological orientation. If Ankara and Washington want to mend relations they should acknowledge that their disagreements are not about their overall vision or intention for the region, but over how to implement and carry out foreign policy. Both Ankara and Washington should do a better job of enumerating their long-term regional policy goals and engage in a broader dialogue to clearly transmit these ideas to each other, while working together to achieve them.

  7. The Complexity of Finding Reset Words in Finite Automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olschewski, Jörg; Ummels, Michael

    We study several problems related to finding reset words in deterministic finite automata. In particular, we establish that the problem of deciding whether a shortest reset word has length k is complete for the complexity class DP. This result answers a question posed by Volkov. For the search problems of finding a shortest reset word and the length of a shortest reset word, we establish membership in the complexity classes FPNP and FPNP[log], respectively. Moreover, we show that both these problems are hard for FPNP[log]. Finally, we observe that computing a reset word of a given length is FNP-complete.

  8. Resetting dynamic behaviour of pipework systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudin, M.

    1997-01-01

    Resetting models is applied to electricity generating plant pipework systems. A frequency approach to the problem is made in an original way thanks to the use of precise dynamic rigidity matrices. The method assumes two kinds of unknown: the usually processed mechanical characteristics (Young's Modulus, density etc.) and new resetting parameters acting on the dynamic behaviour of unknown connections. As the latter have a very wide range of possible variation, they benefit from a change of variable which allows the assumptions formulated to be complied with. The minimized cost function is based on a error in load. The frequencies required for building it are automatically selected thanks to different tests on measurements. Minimization uses a sensitivity technique linked with a method of least standard squares. The method has been programmed in Fortran 90 within the CIRCUS code and tried out on various examples which were simulated and sound effects cases as well as an actual case. (author)

  9. Sistemas de Control basados en Reset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Barreiro

    2012-10-01

    zeroing of some of the state coordinates is applied when certain condition holds. The condition that triggers resetting is usually the zero crossing of the tracking error. The idea of re-set control dates back to Clegg Integrator (CI in 1958, and was adopted in the 70's by I. Horowitz, who emphasized the ability of reset systems to overcome fundamental limitations of linear systems with delays or with poles or zeros in the right half-plane. Left aside for some time, the idea was recovered in the last decade and was given a new impulse by several research teams that contribute with advances in analysis, design and application of reset control systems. This interest appears in the context of the present boom of hybrid systems: a reset system is a particular case of hybrid system that, in spite of its simplicity, enables the possibility of overcoming linear limitations. The objetive of this work is to present, in the form of a tutorial, the current panorama in the field. First, a historical review is introduced, on the three main approaches to reset control: the classical approach (based on zero-crossing of the tracking error, the impulsive approach (where reset is applied on a temporal basis and the hybrid approach (where some sector reset condition is defined. Next, a summary of results is presented on analysis topics (relation to fundamental limitations, stability and finally several design proposals are discussed, focused to the tuning of PI+CI compensators. Palabras clave: control basado en reset, sistemas impulsivos, sistemas híbridos, limitaciones fundamentales, integrador reseteado o integrador de Clegg (CI, controlador PI+CI, sistema reseteado de primer orden (FORE, Keywords: Hybrid systems, Reset control systems, Fundamental limitations, Clegg Integrator, PI+CI compensator

  10. Self-Service Password Reset

    CERN Document Server

    IT department

    2011-01-01

    Forgotten your password? Throughout the year, one of the most common requests to the Service Desk concerns password resets.  This is especially the case now that we are at the end of the holiday season and many of us return after a long break. Currently, the only way to have your password reset is to call the Service Desk during the week and within the service hours (07:30 to 18:30). Not anymore!   The IT department is putting up a new service that will allow you to reset the password of your primary CERN account by yourself. Note, that you will still be able to request a password reset by calling the Service Desk as usual and that you will still have to do this if your account has been blocked for any reason.  However, the new service provides you with more flexibility and convenience when your memory has failed you. In order to take advantage of this new service, you must:   • Have a valid, active account   • Register in advance an external...

  11. Resetting of the carotid arterial baroreflex during dynamic exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norton, K H; Boushel, Robert Christopher; Andersen, Line Strange

    1999-01-01

    Recent investigations have demonstrated that at the onset of low-to-moderate-intensity leg cycling exercise (L) the carotid baroreflex (CBR) was classically reset in direct relation to the intensity of exercise. On the basis of these data, we proposed that the CBR would also be classically reset...

  12. Resetting Wave Forms in Dictyostelium Territories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung J.; Goldstein, Raymond E.; Cox, Edward C.

    2001-08-06

    The mechanism by which spiral wave patterns appear in populations of Dictyostelium was probed experimentally by external chemical perturbation. Spiral waves, which often arise from the breakup of circular waves driven by pacemakers, typically entrain those pacemakers. We studied these processes by resetting the waves with a spatially uniform pulse of extrinsic cyclic AMP. A pattern of spirals reappeared if resetting was early in the signaling stage, but only targets emerged following late resetting, in a manner analogous to cardiac defibrillation. This supports recent hypotheses that wave pattern selection naturally occurs by slow temporal variation of the excitability of the cells.

  13. Acoustic Coordinated Reset Neuromodulation in a Real Life Patient Population with Chronic Tonal Tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, Christian; Ströbel, Armin; Williams, Mark; Patel, Nitesh; Wurzer, Hannes; von Stackelberg, Tatjana; Brinkmann, Uwe; Langguth, Berthold; Tass, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Primary tinnitus has a severe negative influence on the quality of life of a significant portion of the general population. Acoustic coordinated reset neuromodulation is designed to induce a long-lasting reduction of tinnitus symptoms. To test acoustic coordinated reset neuromodulation as a treatment for chronic, tonal tinnitus under real life conditions, an outpatient study “RESET Real Life” was commissioned by ANM GmbH. Herein we present the results of this study. Methods. In a prospective, open-label, nonrandomized, noncontrolled multicenter clinical study with 200 chronic tinnitus patients, tinnitus questionnaire TBF-12 and Global Clinical Improvement-Impression Scale (CGI-I7) are used to study the safety and efficacy of acoustic coordinated reset neuromodulation. 189 patients completed the last 12-month visit, 11 patients dropped out (8 because of nontreatment related reasons; 2 because tinnitus did not change; and 1 because tinnitus got louder). Results. Acoustic coordinated reset neuromodulation caused a statistically and clinically significant decrease in TBF-12 scores as well as in CGI-I7 after 12 months of therapy under real life conditions. There were no persistent adverse events reported that were related to the therapy. Conclusion. The field study “RESET Real Life” provides evidence for safety and efficacy of acoustic coordinated reset neuromodulation in a prospective, open-label, real life setting. PMID:26568958

  14. Modulation of intestinal microbiota by the probiotic VSL#3 resets brain gene expression and ameliorates the age-related deficit in LTP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Distrutti

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota is increasingly recognized as a complex signaling network that impacts on many systems beyond the enteric system modulating, among others, cognitive functions including learning, memory and decision-making processes. This has led to the concept of a microbiota-driven gut-brain axis, reflecting a bidirectional interaction between the central nervous system and the intestine. A deficit in synaptic plasticity is one of the many changes that occurs with age. Specifically, the archetypal model of plasticity, long-term potentiation (LTP, is reduced in hippocampus of middle-aged and aged rats. Because the intestinal microbiota might change with age, we have investigated whether the age-related deficit in LTP might be attenuated by changing the composition of intestinal microbiota with VSL#3, a probiotic mixture comprising 8 Gram-positive bacterial strains. Here, we report that treatment of aged rats with VSL#3 induced a robust change in the composition of intestinal microbiota with an increase in the abundance of Actinobacteria and Bacterioidetes, which was reduced in control-treated aged rats. VSL#3 administration modulated the expression of a large group of genes in brain tissue as assessed by whole gene expression, with evidence of a change in genes that impact on inflammatory and neuronal plasticity processes. The age-related deficit in LTP was attenuated in VSL#3-treated aged rats and this was accompanied by a modest decrease in markers of microglial activation and an increase in expression of BDNF and synapsin. The data support the notion that intestinal microbiota can be manipulated to positively impact on neuronal function.

  15. FPS camera sync and reset chassis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, G.J.

    1980-06-01

    The sync and reset chassis provides all the circuitry required to synchronize an event to be studied, a remote free-running focus projection and scanning (FPS) data-acquisition TV camera, and a video signal recording system. The functions, design, and operation of this chassis are described in detail

  16. Recensie "The Great Reset" : Richard Florida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy van Dalm

    2010-01-01

    Like the Great Depression and the Long Depression before it, experts have viewed prolonged economic downturns as crises. In The Great Reset , bestselling author Richard Florida argues that we should instead see the recent recession as an opportunity to create entirely new ways of working and living

  17. Reset Tree-Based Optical Fault Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howon Kim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new reset tree-based scheme to protect cryptographic hardware against optical fault injection attacks. As one of the most powerful invasive attacks on cryptographic hardware, optical fault attacks cause semiconductors to misbehave by injecting high-energy light into a decapped integrated circuit. The contaminated result from the affected chip is then used to reveal secret information, such as a key, from the cryptographic hardware. Since the advent of such attacks, various countermeasures have been proposed. Although most of these countermeasures are strong, there is still the possibility of attack. In this paper, we present a novel optical fault detection scheme that utilizes the buffers on a circuit’s reset signal tree as a fault detection sensor. To evaluate our proposal, we model radiation-induced currents into circuit components and perform a SPICE simulation. The proposed scheme is expected to be used as a supplemental security tool.

  18. Baroreflex variability and "resetting": a new perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamir, M; Coverdale, N S; Barron, C C; Sawicki, C P; Shoemaker, J K

    2014-01-03

    A new framework is proposed for the interpretation of spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity data and the general concept of baroreflex resetting. The framework is used to explore baroreflex function along two separate lines of inquiry: one following a direct intervention in baroreflex function in individual subjects, another in a group of subjects where baroreflex function may have been compromised by coronary artery disease or aging. It is found that under baseline conditions the baroreflex is in a "free-floating" state in which the gain or "sensitivity" is highly variable, while under orthostatic stress or in the absence of or reduced vagal input the gain is more tightly controlled with an expected decline in sensitivity but a very large decline in the variability of that sensitivity. It is concluded that baroreflex "resetting" is better viewed not simply as a change in baroreflex sensitivity but rather as a change in the "focus" or "attention" of the baroreflex as expressed by an observed decline in the variability of the measured gain. The results do not support the interpretation of baroreflex "resetting" as a departure from or return to a universal "set point" as in homeostasis or open loop models. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Routes to Chaos Induced by a Discontinuous Resetting Process in a Hybrid Spiking Neuron Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobukawa, Sou; Nishimura, Haruhiko; Yamanishi, Teruya

    2018-01-10

    Several hybrid spiking neuron models combining continuous spike generation mechanisms and discontinuous resetting processes following spiking have been proposed. The Izhikevich neuron model, for example, can reproduce many spiking patterns. This model clearly possesses various types of bifurcations and routes to chaos under the effect of a state-dependent jump in the resetting process. In this study, we focus further on the relation between chaotic behaviour and the state-dependent jump, approaching the subject by comparing spiking neuron model versions with and without the resetting process. We first adopt a continuous two-dimensional spiking neuron model in which the orbit in the spiking state does not exhibit divergent behaviour. We then insert the resetting process into the model. An evaluation using the Lyapunov exponent with a saltation matrix and a characteristic multiplier of the Poincar'e map reveals that two types of chaotic behaviour (i.e. bursting chaotic spikes and near-period-two chaotic spikes) are induced by the resetting process. In addition, we confirm that this chaotic bursting state is generated from the periodic spiking state because of the slow- and fast-scale dynamics that arise when jumping to the hyperpolarization and depolarization regions, respectively.

  20. Change in the CERN account password reset procedure

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2008-01-01

    Since 19 August 2008, the security of the CERN account password reset procedure has been strengthened. As a result, users asking to have their password reset by the Computing Helpdesk will be asked to provide some personal information prior to resetting their CERN account password. Please note that all relevant information about CERN accounts and passwords can be found at http://cern.ch/it-dep/AccountsandpasswordsatCERN.htm Thank you in advance for your cooperation. IT Department

  1. Change in the CERN account password reset procedure

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2008-01-01

    From Since 19 August 19th 2008, the security of the CERN account password reset procedure has been strengthened. As a result, users requesting to have their password reset by the Computing Helpdesk will be asked to provide some private personal information prior to resetting their CERN account password. Please note that all relevant information about the CERN account and password can be found at http://cern.ch/it-dep/AccountsandpasswordsatCERN.htm Thank you in advance for your cooperation. IT Department

  2. Effects of ramp reset pulses on the address discharge in a shadow mask plasma display panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lanlan; Tu Yan; Zhang Xiong; Jiang Youyan; Zhang Jian; Wang Baoping

    2007-01-01

    A two-dimensional self-consistent numerical simulation model is used to analyse the effects of the ramp reset pulses on the address discharge in a shadow mask plasma display panel (SM-PDP). Some basic parameters such as the slope of the ramp pulse and the terminal voltage of the ramp reset period are varied to investigate their effects. The simulation results illustrate that the wall voltage is mainly decided by the terminal voltage and the firing voltage at the end of the ramp reset period. Moreover, the variation of the ramp slope will also bring a few modifications to the wall voltage. The priming particles in the beginning of the addressing period are related to the slope of the ramping down voltage pulse. The simulation results can help us optimize the driving scheme of the SM-PDP

  3. Quantum memory Write, read and reset

    CERN Document Server

    Wu Tai Tsun; Wu, Tai Tsun; Yu, Ming Lun

    2002-01-01

    A model is presented for the quantum memory, the content of which is a pure quantum state. In this model, the fundamental operations of writing on, reading, and resetting the memory are performed through scattering from the memory. The requirement that the quantum memory must remain in a pure state after scattering implies that the scattering is of a special type, and only certain incident waves are admissible. An example, based on the Fermi pseudo-potential in one dimension, is used to demonstrate that the requirements on the scattering process are consistent and can be satisfied. This model is compared with the commonly used model for the quantum memory; the most important difference is that the spatial dimensions and interference play a central role in the present model.

  4. Flexion Reflex Can Interrupt and Reset the Swimming Rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, Matthew S; Berkowitz, Ari

    2016-03-02

    The spinal cord can generate the hip flexor nerve activity underlying leg withdrawal (flexion reflex) and the rhythmic, alternating hip flexor and extensor activities underlying locomotion and scratching, even in the absence of brain inputs and movement-related sensory feedback. It has been hypothesized that a common set of spinal interneurons mediates flexion reflex and the flexion components of locomotion and scratching. Leg cutaneous stimuli that evoke flexion reflex can alter the timing of (i.e., reset) cat walking and turtle scratching rhythms; in addition, reflex responses to leg cutaneous stimuli can be modified during cat and human walking and turtle scratching. Both of these effects depend on the phase (flexion or extension) of the rhythm in which the stimuli occur. However, similar interactions between leg flexion reflex and swimming have not been reported. We show here that a tap to the foot interrupted and reset the rhythm of forward swimming in spinal, immobilized turtles if the tap occurred during the swim hip extensor phase. In addition, the hip flexor nerve response to an electrical foot stimulus was reduced or eliminated during the swim hip extensor phase. These two phase-dependent effects of flexion reflex on the swim rhythm and vice versa together demonstrate that the flexion reflex spinal circuit shares key components with or has strong interactions with the swimming spinal network, as has been shown previously for cat walking and turtle scratching. Therefore, leg flexion reflex circuits likely share key spinal interneurons with locomotion and scratching networks across limbed vertebrates generally. The spinal cord can generate leg withdrawal (flexion reflex), locomotion, and scratching in limbed vertebrates. It has been hypothesized that there is a common set of spinal cord neurons that produce hip flexion during flexion reflex, locomotion, and scratching based on evidence from studies of cat and human walking and turtle scratching. We show

  5. Simulation of Phase-Change Random Access Memory with Ring-Type Contactor for Low Reset Current by Finite Element Modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue-Feng, Gong; Yun, Ling; Zhi-Tang, Song; Song-Lin, Feng

    2008-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite element models for phase change random access memory (PCRAM) is established to simulate thermal and electrical behaviours during RESET operation. The RESET behaviours of the conventional structure (CS) and the ring-type contact in bottom electrode (RIB) are compared with each other. The simulation results indicate that the RIB cell has advantages of high heat efficiency for melting phase change material in cell, reduction of contact area and lower RESET current with maintaining good resistance contrast. The RESET current decreases from 1.26mA to 1.2mA and the heat consumption in GST material during programming increases from 12% to 37% in RIB structure. Thus the RIB structure PCRAM cell is suitable for future device with high heat efficiency and smaller RESET current. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  6. A study of reset mode in advanced alarm system simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yenn, T. C.; Hwang, S. L.; Huang, F. H.; Yu, A. C.; Hsu, C. C.; Huang, H. W.

    2006-01-01

    An automation function has been widely applied in main control room of nuclear power plants. That leads to a new issue of human-automation interaction, which considers human operational performance in automated systems. In this research is the automation alarm reset in the advanced alarm system (AAS) of Advanced Nuclear Power Plant in Taiwan. Since alarms are very crucial for the understanding of the status of the plant as well as the reset function of alarm system will be changed from fully manual to fully automatic, it is very important to test and evaluate the performance and the effect of reset modes in AAS. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact of the auto-reset alarm system on the plant performance and on operators' preference and task load. To develop a dynamic simulator as an AAS was conducted to compare manual and automatic reset function of alarm system on task performance and subjective ratings of task workload, comprehension, and preference. The simulation includes PCTRAN model and alarm software processing. The final results revealed that, using the auto-reset mode, participants had lower task load index (TLX) on effort in the first test trial and was more satisfied in multiple tasks condition. In contrast, using manual reset mode, participants were more satisfied on alarm handling, monitoring, and decision making. In other words, either reset mode in the study has unique features to assist operator, but is insufficient. The reset function in AAS therefore should be very flexible. Additionally, the experimental results also pointed out that the user interfaces need to be improved. Those experiences will be helpful for human factors verification and validation in the near future. (authors)

  7. Resetting dynamic behaviour of pipework systems; Recalage du comportement dynamique des reseaux de tuyauteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudin, M. [Electricite de France (EDF), Direction des Etudes et Recherches, 92 - Clamart (France)

    1997-12-31

    Resetting models is applied to electricity generating plant pipework systems. A frequency approach to the problem is made in an original way thanks to the use of precise dynamic rigidity matrices. The method assumes two kinds of unknown: the usually processed mechanical characteristics (Young`s Modulus, density etc.) and new resetting parameters acting on the dynamic behaviour of unknown connections. As the latter have a very wide range of possible variation, they benefit from a change of variable which allows the assumptions formulated to be complied with. The minimized cost function is based on a error in load. The frequencies required for building it are automatically selected thanks to different tests on measurements. Minimization uses a sensitivity technique linked with a method of least standard squares. The method has been programmed in Fortran 90 within the CIRCUS code and tried out on various examples which were simulated and sound effects cases as well as an actual case. (author). 128 refs.

  8. Prospective Links between Social Anxiety and Adolescent Peer Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillfors, Maria; Persson, Stefan; Willen, Maria; Burk, William J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines bi-directional links between social anxiety and multiple aspects of peer relations (peer acceptance, peer victimization, and relationship quality) in a longitudinal sample of 1528 adolescents assessed twice with one year between (754 females and 774 males; M = 14.7 years of age). Lower levels of peer acceptance predicted…

  9. Cold-start link prediction in multi-relational networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shun-yao; Zhang, Qi; Wu, Mei

    2017-10-01

    During the last decade, interaction data have accumulated exponentially in many fields and provide a new opportunity for cold start link prediction. It seems necessarily to take full advantages of diversified information. However, correlation between different interactions has to be pre-tested. Therefore, this paper abstracts complex systems as multi-relational networks, and employs latent space network model to extract low-dimensional factors of sub-networks and adopts likelihood ratio test to examine correlation between factors. Then, regression between target sub-networks and correlated auxiliary sub-networks could be established for cold start link prediction. Experiments on 8 bioinformatic data sets validate the effectiveness and potential of our strategy for network correlation analysis and cold-start link prediction.

  10. Well-Posedness of Reset Control Systems as State-Dependent Impulsive Dynamical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Baños

    2012-01-01

    existence and uniqueness of solutions, and in particular to the resetting times to be well defined and distinct. A sufficient condition is developed for a reset system to have well-posed resetting times, which is also a sufficient condition for avoiding Zeno solutions and, thus, for a reset control system to be well-posed.

  11. Clock and reset synchronization of high-integrity lockstep self-checking pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Brett D. (Inventor); Caltagirone, Joseph (Inventor); Brickner, Christopher (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An apparatus comprises first and second modules configured to operate in a lockstep mode and a reset mode. Each of the first and second modules is configured to asynchronously enter the reset mode when a parent reset signal is asserted at the respective each module. Each of the first and second modules is configured to, in response to the asserted parent reset signal being negated at the respective each module, indicate to the respective other module that the respective each module is ready to exit the reset mode and exit the reset mode when the respective other module has also indicated that the respective other module is ready to exit the reset mode.

  12. Defense Logistics: Army and Marine Corps Cannot Be Assured That Equipment Reset Strategies Will Sustain Equipment Availability While Meeting Ongoing Operational Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Solis, William M; Schmitt, David A; Brown, Renee; Cristinzio, Frank; Hartig, Luke; Helt, Brent; Rogers, Donna M; Song, Yong; Storts, Maria

    2007-01-01

    .... Because of the potential for equipment reset costs to affect the Department of Defense's (DoD) future budget requirements and related readiness concerns, GAO initiated this review under the Comptroller General's authority...

  13. Linking the levels: network and relational perspectives for community psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Jennifer Watling; Christens, Brian D

    2014-06-01

    In this article, we assert that relationships and networks are of paramount importance for understanding and improving settings, neighborhoods, communities, and larger social systems. Despite previous acknowledgements of their relevance, relational and social network perspectives and analyses remain underrepresented in community psychological research and action. Here, we claim that network and relational perspectives can provide conceptual and empirical 'links' between levels of analysis, more fully reflecting a transactional view. We also describe some of the sophisticated methodologies that can be employed in empirical studies drawing on these perspectives. Additionally, we contend that core concepts in community psychology such as health promotion, empowerment, coalition building, and dissemination and implementation can be better understood when employing relational and network perspectives. As an introduction to this special issue of American Journal of Community Psychology, we draw out themes and key points from the articles in the issue, and offer recommendations for future advancement of these perspectives in the field.

  14. LORETA EEG phase reset of the default mode network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Robert W; North, Duane M; Biver, Carl J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore phase reset of 3-dimensional current sources in Brodmann areas located in the human default mode network (DMN) using Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) of the human electroencephalogram (EEG). The EEG was recorded from 19 scalp locations from 70 healthy normal subjects ranging in age from 13 to 20 years. A time point by time point computation of LORETA current sources were computed for 14 Brodmann areas comprising the DMN in the delta frequency band. The Hilbert transform of the LORETA time series was used to compute the instantaneous phase differences between all pairs of Brodmann areas. Phase shift and lock durations were calculated based on the 1st and 2nd derivatives of the time series of phase differences. Phase shift duration exhibited three discrete modes at approximately: (1) 25 ms, (2) 50 ms, and (3) 65 ms. Phase lock duration present primarily at: (1) 300-350 ms and (2) 350-450 ms. Phase shift and lock durations were inversely related and exhibited an exponential change with distance between Brodmann areas. The results are explained by local neural packing density of network hubs and an exponential decrease in connections with distance from a hub. The results are consistent with a discrete temporal model of brain function where anatomical hubs behave like a "shutter" that opens and closes at specific durations as nodes of a network giving rise to temporarily phase locked clusters of neurons for specific durations.

  15. Set–Reset latch logical operation induced by colored noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Nan; Song, Aiguo

    2014-01-01

    We examine the possibility of obtaining Set–Reset latch logical operation in a symmetric bistable system subjected to OU noise. Three major results are presented. First, we prove the Set–Reset latch logical operation can be obtained driven by OU noise. Second, while increasing the correlation time, the optimal noise band shifts to higher level and becomes wider. Meanwhile, peak performance degrades from 100% accuracy, but the system can still perform reliable logical operation. Third, at fixed noise intensity, the success probability evolves non-monotonically as correlation time increases. The study might provide development of the new paradigm of memory device.

  16. EEG phase reset due to auditory attention: an inverse time-scale approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, Yin Fen; Strauss, Daniel J

    2009-01-01

    We propose a novel tool to evaluate the electroencephalograph (EEG) phase reset due to auditory attention by utilizing an inverse analysis of the instantaneous phase for the first time. EEGs were acquired through auditory attention experiments with a maximum entropy stimulation paradigm. We examined single sweeps of auditory late response (ALR) with the complex continuous wavelet transform. The phase in the frequency band that is associated with auditory attention (6–10 Hz, termed as theta–alpha border) was reset to the mean phase of the averaged EEGs. The inverse transform was applied to reconstruct the phase-modified signal. We found significant enhancement of the N100 wave in the reconstructed signal. Analysis of the phase noise shows the effects of phase jittering on the generation of the N100 wave implying that a preferred phase is necessary to generate the event-related potential (ERP). Power spectrum analysis shows a remarkable increase of evoked power but little change of total power after stabilizing the phase of EEGs. Furthermore, by resetting the phase only at the theta border of no attention data to the mean phase of attention data yields a result that resembles attention data. These results show strong connections between EEGs and ERP, in particular, we suggest that the presentation of an auditory stimulus triggers the phase reset process at the theta–alpha border which leads to the emergence of the N100 wave. It is concluded that our study reinforces other studies on the importance of the EEG in ERP genesis

  17. Re-Setting Music Education's "Default Settings"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regelski, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the effects and problems of one highly influential default setting of the "normal style template" of music education and proposes some alternatives. These do not require abandoning all traditional templates for school music. But re-setting the default settings does depend on reconsidering the promised function of…

  18. EEG PHASE RESET OF THE DEFAULT MODE NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Thatcher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore phase reset of 3-dimensional current sources located in Brodmann areas located in the human default mode network (DMN using Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA of the human electroencephalogram (EEG. Methods: The EEG was recorded from 19 scalp locations from 70 healthy normal subjects ranging in age from 13 to 20 years. A time point by time point computation of LORETA current sources were computed for 14 Brodman areas comprising the DMN in the delta frequency band. The Hilbert transform of the LORETA time series was used to compute the instantaneous phase differences between all pairs of Brodmann areas. Phase shift and lock durations were calculated based on the 1st & 2nd derivatives of the time series of phase differences. Results: Phase shift duration exhibited three discrete modes at approximately: 1- 30 msec,, 2- 55 msec and, 3- 65 msec. Phase lock duration present primarily at: 1- 300 to 350 msec and, 2- 350 msec to 450 msec. Phase shift and lock durations were inversely related and exhibited an exponential change with distance between Brodmann areas. Conclusions: The results are explained by local neural packing density of network hubs and an exponential decrease in connections with distance from a hub. The results are consistent with a discrete temporal model of brain function where anatomical hubs behave like a ‘shutter’ that opens and closes at specific durations as nodes of a network giving rise to temporarily phase locked clusters of neurons for specific durations.

  19. Arms Control and Proliferation Challenges to the Reset Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    large- scale nuclear reduc- tions or strategic harmony in the foreseeable future. At the same time, a key component of the reset policy is to obtain... scale 31 production of warships, primarily, nuclear subma- rines with cruise missiles and multi-purpose attack submarines. . . . We will also build...ter almost two years of procrastination , watering it down and leaving the S-300 issue ambiguous. During this time the Obama Administration saw its

  20. Dynamic stability and phase resetting during biped gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Taishin; Kawa, Kazuyoshi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Nakanishi, Masao; Yamasaki, Taiga

    2009-06-01

    Dynamic stability during periodic biped gait in humans and in a humanoid robot is considered. Here gait systems of human neuromusculoskeletal system and a humanoid are simply modeled while keeping their mechanical properties plausible. We prescribe periodic gait trajectories in terms of joint angles of the models as a function of time. The equations of motion of the models are then constrained by one of the prescribed gait trajectories to obtain types of periodically forced nonlinear dynamical systems. Simulated gait of the models may or may not fall down during gait, since the constraints are made only for joint angles of limbs but not for the motion of the body trunk. The equations of motion can exhibit a limit cycle solution (or an oscillatory solution that can be considered as a limit cycle practically) for each selected gait trajectory, if an initial condition is set appropriately. We analyze the stability of the limit cycle in terms of Poincaré maps and the basin of attraction of the limit cycle in order to examine how the stability depends on the prescribed trajectory. Moreover, the phase resetting of gait rhythm in response to external force perturbation is modeled. Since we always prescribe a gait trajectory in this study, reacting gait trajectories during the phase resetting are also prescribed. We show that an optimally prescribed reacting gait trajectory with an appropriate amount of the phase resetting can increase the gait stability. Neural mechanisms for generation and modulation of the gait trajectories are discussed.

  1. GHK and DNA: Resetting the Human Genome to Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren Pickart

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During human aging there is an increase in the activity of inflammatory, cancer promoting, and tissue destructive genes plus a decrease in the activity of regenerative and reparative genes. The human blood tripeptide GHK possesses many positive effects but declines with age. It improves wound healing and tissue regeneration (skin, hair follicles, stomach and intestinal linings, and boney tissue, increases collagen and glycosaminoglycans, stimulates synthesis of decorin, increases angiogenesis, and nerve outgrowth, possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, and increases cellular stemness and the secretion of trophic factors by mesenchymal stem cells. Recently, GHK has been found to reset genes of diseased cells from patients with cancer or COPD to a more healthy state. Cancer cells reset their programmed cell death system while COPD patients’ cells shut down tissue destructive genes and stimulate repair and remodeling activities. In this paper, we discuss GHK’s effect on genes that suppress fibrinogen synthesis, the insulin/insulin-like system, and cancer growth plus activation of genes that increase the ubiquitin-proteasome system, DNA repair, antioxidant systems, and healing by the TGF beta superfamily. A variety of methods and dosages to effectively use GHK to reset genes to a healthier state are also discussed.

  2. Resetting in time of recordings in ultra-fast cinematography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leduc, Michel

    In ultra-fast cinematography and photography the treatment and interpretation of the data contained in the recordings demand extremely precise readjustments in time. In the case of whole-image recordings by electro-optical cameras or flash sources the problem is resolved by the use of a chronometric unit taking into account the different events. For naving slit or spectrographic recordings the problem must be detail with differently and marking devices will be used to print resetting pulses on the recording themselves. Different marking devices are described [fr

  3. Effects of pay resets following drug use on attendance and hours worked in a therapeutic workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtyn, August F; Silverman, Kenneth

    2016-06-01

    This secondary data analysis examined effects of an abstinence contingency on participation in a therapeutic workplace. Participants exposed to a pay reset after drug use did not differ in overall attendance from participants who were not exposed to a pay reset after drug use; however, they initially worked less after a pay reset than participants who did not receive a pay reset, and their attendance increased as their pay increased. Overall participation was not influenced by the abstinence contingency, but transient decreases in attendance occurred. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  4. Emotional Intelligence and Its Link to Public Relations Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Timothy Lent

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the ethics chapters in five introduction-to-public relations textbooks and the codes of ethics of four major public relations associations contained within those chapters to determine the prevalence of language that either uses the same terms Daniel Goleman employs for his 25 competencies of emotional…

  5. A Link between Mothers' Disciplinary Strategies and Children's Relational Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, Marlene J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the association between maternal disciplinary strategies and children's level of relational aggression, and then compares these associations with those found with overt aggression. Eighty-two 4th graders (aged 9-11 years) completed peer nomination measures of relational and overt aggression, and their mothers completed a…

  6. Guaranteed energy-efficient bit reset in finite time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Cormac; Garner, Andrew J P; Dahlsten, Oscar C O; Vedral, Vlatko

    2014-09-05

    Landauer's principle states that it costs at least kBTln2 of work to reset one bit in the presence of a heat bath at temperature T. The bound of kBTln2 is achieved in the unphysical infinite-time limit. Here we ask what is possible if one is restricted to finite-time protocols. We prove analytically that it is possible to reset a bit with a work cost close to kBTln2 in a finite time. We construct an explicit protocol that achieves this, which involves thermalizing and changing the system's Hamiltonian so as to avoid quantum coherences. Using concepts and techniques pertaining to single-shot statistical mechanics, we furthermore prove that the heat dissipated is exponentially close to the minimal amount possible not just on average, but guaranteed with high confidence in every run. Moreover, we exploit the protocol to design a quantum heat engine that works near the Carnot efficiency in finite time.

  7. Links between the Philippines and Spain: migration and bilateral relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelia Pe-Pua

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the implications which Spanish policy regarding foreign workers has on the living and working conditions of the Filipino community in Spain. The author pays special attention to bilateral relations between the Philippines and Spain in issues suchas Spanish investment in the Philippines, the trade balance between the two countries and labour relations. In conclusion the article considers the necessity of reaching a bilateral labour agreement which would be beneficial to both countries and which at the same time would improve the working conditions and the integration of Philippine nationals living in Spain.

  8. Humanin and age-related diseases: a new link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhenwei; Tas, Emir; Muzumdar, Radhika

    2014-01-01

    Humanin (HN) is 24-amino acid mitochondria-associated peptide. Since its initial discovery over a decade ago, a role for HN has been reported in many biological processes such as apoptosis, cell survival, substrate metabolism, inflammatory response, and response to stressors such as oxidative stress, ischemia, and starvation. HN and its potent analogs have been shown to have beneficial effects in many age-related diseases including Alzheimer's disease, stroke, diabetes, myocardial ischemia and reperfusion, atherosclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and certain types of cancer both in vitro and in vivo. More recently, an association between HN levels, growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH/IGF axis), and life span was demonstrated using various mouse models with mutations in the GH/IGF axis. The goal of this review is to summarize the current understanding of the role of HN in aging and age-related diseases.

  9. Humanin and Age-related diseases: A new link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenwei eGong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Humanin (HN is 24-amino acid mitochondria-associated peptide. Since its initial discovery over a decade ago, a role for HN has been reported in many biological processes such as apoptosis, cell survival, substrate metabolism, inflammatory response and response to stressors such as oxidative stress, ischemia and starvation. HN and its potent analogs have been shown to have beneficial effects in many age-related diseases including Alzheimer’s disease (AD, stroke, diabetes, myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (MI-R, atherosclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and certain types of cancer both in vitro and in vivo. More recently, an association between HN levels, growth hormone/ insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH/IGF axis and life span was demonstrated using various mouse models with mutations in the GH/IGF axis. The goal of this review is to summarize the current understanding of the role of HN in aging and age-related diseases.

  10. Pathways linking obesity to health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangshin

    2017-08-01

    Obesity is a well-recognized risk factor for impaired health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Nevertheless, few studies have investigated the mechanisms underlying the obesity-HRQOL associations. In this study, we explored potential mediators of the associations between obesity and HRQOL. Body mass index (BMI), an indicator of obesity, and HRQOL data were available for the 34,565 individuals 20 years of age and older participating in the cross-sectional Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2012. HRQOL was measured by the EuroQol five-dimension descriptive system. Path analysis was performed to assess the contributions of obesity-related diseases and self-rated health (SRH) on the relationships between obesity and HRQOL. In men, obesity was negatively associated with HRQOL through diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia and positively associated with HRQOL through SRH. These opposite indirect effects offset one another and produced a non-significant association between obesity and HRQOL in men. However, in women, obesity was directly associated with HRQOL and indirectly associated with HRQOL through diabetes mellitus and SRH. Since these associations were in the same negative direction, the negative obesity-HRQOL association was clearly observed in women. Obesity was negatively associated with HRQOL through obesity-related diseases in both genders. However, in men, the positive association between obesity and SRH resulted in a non-significant association of obesity with HRQOL.

  11. Pressing reset on Moscow is worth a little Nato anxiety / Jonathan Steele

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Steele, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    USA president Barack Obama on avaldanud soovi vajutada USA-Vene suhetes reset-nuppu. Eesti president Toomas Hendrik Ilves ütles NATO tippkohtumise eelõhtul kuivalt, et arvutil reset-nuppu vajutades ei kustu mällu salvestatud failid siiski ära. President T. H. Ilvese teravast sõnavõtust president Lennart Meri konverentsi avamisel Tallinnas

  12. Persistent resetting of the cerebral oxygen/glucose uptake ratio by brain activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P L; Hasselbalch, S G; Hagemann, L P

    1995-01-01

    fraction of the activation-induced excess glucose uptake. These data confirm earlier reports that brain activation can induce resetting of the cerebral oxygen/glucose consumption ratio, and indicate that the resetting persists for a long period after cerebral activation has been terminated and physiologic...

  13. Path-integral formalism for stochastic resetting: Exactly solved examples and shortcuts to confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Édgar; Gupta, Shamik

    2017-08-01

    We study the dynamics of overdamped Brownian particles diffusing in conservative force fields and undergoing stochastic resetting to a given location at a generic space-dependent rate of resetting. We present a systematic approach involving path integrals and elements of renewal theory that allows us to derive analytical expressions for a variety of statistics of the dynamics such as (i) the propagator prior to first reset, (ii) the distribution of the first-reset time, and (iii) the spatial distribution of the particle at long times. We apply our approach to several representative and hitherto unexplored examples of resetting dynamics. A particularly interesting example for which we find analytical expressions for the statistics of resetting is that of a Brownian particle trapped in a harmonic potential with a rate of resetting that depends on the instantaneous energy of the particle. We find that using energy-dependent resetting processes is more effective in achieving spatial confinement of Brownian particles on a faster time scale than performing quenches of parameters of the harmonic potential.

  14. A self-resetting spiking phase-change neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobley, R A; Hayat, H; Wright, C D

    2018-05-11

    Neuromorphic, or brain-inspired, computing applications of phase-change devices have to date concentrated primarily on the implementation of phase-change synapses. However, the so-called accumulation mode of operation inherent in phase-change materials and devices can also be used to mimic the integrative properties of a biological neuron. Here we demonstrate, using physical modelling of nanoscale devices and SPICE modelling of associated circuits, that a single phase-change memory cell integrated into a comparator type circuit can deliver a basic hardware mimic of an integrate-and-fire spiking neuron with self-resetting capabilities. Such phase-change neurons, in combination with phase-change synapses, can potentially open a new route for the realisation of all-phase-change neuromorphic computing.

  15. Simulation of static pressure reset control in comfort ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koulani, Chrysanthi Sofia; Prunescu, Remus Mihail; Hviid, Christian Anker

    2014-01-01

    management system. In this way the operation of central plant equipment is adjusted in real time according to the actual pressure demand; this control scheme can be implemented by the static pressure reset (SPR) method. The SPR control method ensures that at least one damper remains fully opened; thus...... of the art is represented by the method of trim and respond based on pressure alarms. This study investigates the operation of the SPR control method of trim and respond based on pressure alarms in a CO2 demand application where large air volumes are provided to three classrooms. The investigation was based...... effectively establish the pressure conditions that satisfy the pressure demand under high airflows. In short the algorithm must be tuned to the application beforehand or, preferably, actively learn to perform from continuous feedback before it presents a real plug-and-play solution....

  16. Link Prediction in Complex Network via Penalizing Noncontribution Relations of Endpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuzhen Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Similarity based link prediction algorithms become the focus in complex network research. Although endpoint degree as source of influence diffusion plays an important role in link prediction, some noncontribution links, also called noncontribution relations, involved in the endpoint degree serve nothing to the similarity between the two nonadjacent endpoints. In this paper, we propose a novel link prediction algorithm to penalize those endpoints’ degrees including many null links in influence diffusion, namely, noncontribution relations penalization algorithm, briefly called NRP. Seven mainstream baselines are introduced for comparison on nine benchmark datasets, and numerical analysis shows great improvement of accuracy performance, measured by the Area Under roc Curve (AUC. At last, we simply discuss the complexity of our algorithm.

  17. Learning of temporal motor patterns: An analysis of continuous vs. reset timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo eLaje

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to generate well-timed sequences of movements is critical to an array of behaviors, including the ability to play a musical instrument or a video game. Here we address two questions relating to timing with the goal of better understanding the neural mechanisms underlying temporal processing. First, how does accuracy and variance change over the course of learning of complex spatiotemporal patterns? Second, is the timing of sequential responses most consistent with starting and stopping an internal timer at each interval or with continuous timing?To address these questions we used a psychophysical task in which subjects learned to reproduce a sequence of finger taps in the correct order and at the correct times—much like playing a melody at the piano. This task allowed us to calculate the variance of the responses at different time points using data from the same trials. Our results show that while standard Weber’s law is clearly violated, variance does increase as a function of time squared, as expected according to the generalized form of Weber’s law—which separates the source of variance into time-dependent and time-independent components. Over the course of learning, both the time-independent variance and the coefficient of the time-dependent term decrease. Our analyses also suggest that timing of sequential events does not rely on the resetting of an internal timer at each event.We describe and interpret our results in the context of computer simulations that capture some of our psychophysical findings. Specifically, we show that continuous timing, as opposed to reset timing, is expected from population clock models in which timing emerges from the internal dynamics of recurrent neural networks.

  18. Managing coopetition through horizontal supply chain relations : Linking dyadic and network levels of analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelm, Miriam M.

    2011-01-01

    A growing research stream has expanded the level of analysis beyond single buyer-supplier relations to the network, including supplier-supplier relations. These supplier-supplier relations may constitute a missing link between the traditional analysis of the dyadic and the network level of analysis

  19. Voice Biometrics as a Way to Self-service Password Reset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohgräfe, Bernd; Jacobi, Sebastian

    Password resets are time consuming. Especially when urgent jobs need to be done, it is cumbersome to inform the user helpdesk, to identify oneself and then to wait for response. It is easy to enter a wrong password multiple times, which leads to the blocking of the application. Voice biometrics is an easy and secure way for individuals to reset their own password. Read more about how you can ease the burden of your user helpdesk and how voice biometric password resets benefit your expense situation without harming your security.

  20. Stochastic resetting in backtrack recovery by RNA polymerases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Édgar; Lisica, Ana; Sánchez-Taltavull, Daniel; Grill, Stephan W.

    2016-06-01

    Transcription is a key process in gene expression, in which RNA polymerases produce a complementary RNA copy from a DNA template. RNA polymerization is frequently interrupted by backtracking, a process in which polymerases perform a random walk along the DNA template. Recovery of polymerases from the transcriptionally inactive backtracked state is determined by a kinetic competition between one-dimensional diffusion and RNA cleavage. Here we describe backtrack recovery as a continuous-time random walk, where the time for a polymerase to recover from a backtrack of a given depth is described as a first-passage time of a random walker to reach an absorbing state. We represent RNA cleavage as a stochastic resetting process and derive exact expressions for the recovery time distributions and mean recovery times from a given initial backtrack depth for both continuous and discrete-lattice descriptions of the random walk. We show that recovery time statistics do not depend on the discreteness of the DNA lattice when the rate of one-dimensional diffusion is large compared to the rate of cleavage.

  1. Macroscopic phase-resetting curves for spiking neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Grégory; Ermentrout, G. Bard; Gutkin, Boris

    2017-10-01

    The study of brain rhythms is an open-ended, and challenging, subject of interest in neuroscience. One of the best tools for the understanding of oscillations at the single neuron level is the phase-resetting curve (PRC). Synchronization in networks of neurons, effects of noise on the rhythms, effects of transient stimuli on the ongoing rhythmic activity, and many other features can be understood by the PRC. However, most macroscopic brain rhythms are generated by large populations of neurons, and so far it has been unclear how the PRC formulation can be extended to these more common rhythms. In this paper, we describe a framework to determine a macroscopic PRC (mPRC) for a network of spiking excitatory and inhibitory neurons that generate a macroscopic rhythm. We take advantage of a thermodynamic approach combined with a reduction method to simplify the network description to a small number of ordinary differential equations. From this simplified but exact reduction, we can compute the mPRC via the standard adjoint method. Our theoretical findings are illustrated with and supported by numerical simulations of the full spiking network. Notably our mPRC framework allows us to predict the difference between effects of transient inputs to the excitatory versus the inhibitory neurons in the network.

  2. Assessing the completeness of optical resetting of quartz OSL in the natural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singarayer, J.S.; Bailey, R.M.; Ward, S.; Stokes, S.

    2005-01-01

    Resetting of previously accumulated optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signals during transport of sediment is a fundamental requirement for reliable optical dating. The completeness of optical resetting of 46 modern-age quartz samples from a variety of depositional environments was examined. All equivalent dose (D e ) estimates were e from easy-to-bleach through to hard-to-bleach components. For all modern fluvial samples with non-zero D e values, SAR D e (t) analysis and component-resolved linearly modulated OSL (LM OSL) D e estimates showed this to be the case, implying incomplete resetting of previously accumulated charge. LM OSL measurements were also made to investigate the extent of bleaching of the slow components in the natural environment. In aeolian sediments examined, the natural LM OSL was effectively zero (i.e. all components were fully reset). The slow components of modern fluvial samples displayed measurable residual signals up to 15Gy

  3. Interactive Links between Relational Aggression, Theory of Mind, and Moral Disengagement among Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Voulgaridou, Ioanna; Mandrali, Marianna; Parousidou, Chrysoula

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible interactive links between theory of mind (ToM), moral disengagement and relational aggression, using a moderated mediation analysis, with gender as a moderator, in a sample of 120 Greek preadolescents. Results indicated that relational aggression was significantly positively associated with moral…

  4. Testing links between childhood positive peer relations and externalizing outcomes through a randomized controlled intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witvliet, M.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Cuijpers, P.; Koot, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors used a randomized controlled trial to explore the link between having positive peer relations and externalizing outcomes in 758 children followed from kindergarten to the end of 2nd grade. Children were randomly assigned to the Good Behavior Game (GBG), a universal

  5. A Child with X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia and Enthesitis-Related Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukesh Sukumaran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA is a primary immune deficiency characterized by recurrent bacterial infections and profoundly depressed serum immunoglobulin levels and circulating mature B cells. We describe a 12-year-old boy with XLA and enthesitis-related arthritis (ERA. To date, there has been a paucity of reports of noninfectious inflammatory arthritis in children with XLA. This case illustrates that functional B cells and/or immunoglobulin are not required for ERA pathogenesis. In addition, this case suggests a possible link between immune deficiency, immune dysregulation, and rheumatic illness.

  6. Psychoses and creativity: is the missing link a biological mechanism related to phospholipids turnover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folley, Bradley S; Doop, Mikisha L; Park, Sohee

    2003-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that genetic and biochemical factors associated with psychoses may also provide an increased propensity to think creatively. The evolutionary theories linking brain growth and diet to the appearance of creative endeavors have been made recently, but they lack a direct link to research on the biological correlates of divergent and creative thought. Expanding upon Horrobin's theory that changes in brain size and in neural microconnectivity came about as a result of changes in dietary fat and phospholipid incorporation of highly unsaturated fatty acids, we propose a theory relating phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity to the neuromodulatory effects of the noradrenergic system. This theory offers probable links between attention, divergent thinking, and arousal through a mechanism that emphasizes optimal individual functioning of the PLA2 and NE systems as they interact with structural and biochemical states of the brain. We hope that this theory will stimulate new research in the neural basis of creativity and its connection to psychoses.

  7. A Model Linked to E. Coli Related to Electrostrictive Energy in Cancer Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. BASAK

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper has focused on a new concept in respect of the status of oxidant/antioxidant in cancer cell following radiation therapy. And in this respect a model has been developed linked with an environment of E.Coli in which TrpRS II is induced after radiation damage. It is interesting to note that Electrostrictive energy is the input to the model the output of which is the oxidant/antioxidant ratio. This ratio is related to the status of Electrostrictive energy derived from capacitance relaxation phenomenon (US patent No. US Patent No. TK Basak 5691178, 1997 in cancer cell. The oxidant/antioxidant ratio is linked to Electrostrictive energy with increasing pH. This paper discusses about the status of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation after radiation therapy linked to E.Coli environment against the pH gradient is indicative for the treatment of cancer.

  8. Neural and Behavioral Evidence for an Online Resetting Process in Visual Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Halely; Luria, Roy

    2017-02-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) guides behavior by holding a set of active representations and modifying them according to changes in the environment. This updating process relies on a unique mapping between each VWM representation and an actual object in the environment. Here, we destroyed this mapping by either presenting a coherent object but then breaking it into independent parts or presenting an object but then abruptly replacing it with a different object. This allowed us to introduce the neural marker and behavioral consequence of an online resetting process in humans' VWM. Across seven experiments, we demonstrate that this resetting process involves abandoning the old VWM contents because they no longer correspond to the objects in the environment. Then, VWM encodes the novel information and reestablishes the correspondence between the new representations and the objects. The resetting process was marked by a unique neural signature: a sharp drop in the amplitude of the electrophysiological index of VWM contents (the contralateral delay activity), presumably indicating the loss of the existent object-to-representation mappings. This marker was missing when an updating process occurred. Moreover, when tracking moving items, VWM failed to detect salient changes in the object's shape when these changes occurred during the resetting process. This happened despite the object being fully visible, presumably because the mapping between the object and a VWM representation was lost. Importantly, we show that resetting, its neural marker, and the behavioral cost it entails, are specific to situations that involve a destruction of the objects-to-representations correspondence. Visual working memory (VWM) maintains task-relevant information in an online state. Previous studies showed that VWM representations are accessed and modified after changes in the environment. Here, we show that this updating process critically depends on an ongoing mapping between the

  9. Mastery matters most: How mastery and positive relations link attachment avoidance and anxiety to negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paech, Juliane; Schindler, Ines; Fagundes, Christopher P

    2016-08-01

    Attachment avoidance and anxiety are associated with negative emotions. However, the mechanisms underlying these associations are not fully understood. We investigated environmental mastery and positive relations with others as two mechanisms behind the attachment-emotion link in a sample of 343 adults. As predicted, attachment avoidance and anxiety were related to greater fear, hostility, envy and depression through lower mastery. Contrary to our hypothesis, positive relations mediated only the attachment-depression link. In addition, by adopting a moderated mediation approach, we were able to show that mastery mattered most for individuals high on avoidance: The indirect effect of avoidance through lack of mastery on fear, hostility and depression (but not on envy) increased with higher avoidance scores. Contrary to our predictions, poor relationships did not matter more as sources of negative emotions as anxiety increased. These findings underscore that the emotional life of avoidantly attached individuals is especially jeopardised by poor mastery.

  10. Relative tracking control of constellation satellites considering inter-satellite link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakoor, M.; Amozegary, F.; Bakhtiari, M.; Daneshjou, K.

    2017-11-01

    In this article, two main issues related to the large-scale relative motion of satellites in the constellation are investigated to establish the Inter Satellite Link (ISL) which means the dynamic and control problems. In the section related to dynamic problems, a detailed and effective analytical solution is initially provided for the problem of satellite relative motion considering perturbations. The direct geometric method utilizing spherical coordinates is employed to achieve this solution. The evaluation of simulation shows that the solution obtained from the geometric method calculates the relative motion of the satellite with high accuracy. Thus, the proposed analytical solution will be applicable and effective. In the section related to control problems, the relative tracking control system between two satellites will be designed in order to establish a communication link between the satellites utilizing analytical solution for relative motion of satellites with respect to the reference trajectory. Sliding mode control approach is employed to develop the relative tracking control system for body to body and payload to payload tracking control. Efficiency of sliding mode control approach is compared with PID and LQR controllers. Two types of payload to payload tracking control considering with and without payload degree of freedom are designed and suitable one for practical ISL applications is introduced. Also, Fuzzy controller is utilized to eliminate the control input in the sliding mode controller.

  11. Improved multi-level capability in Si3N4-based resistive switching memory using continuous gradual reset switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungjun; Park, Byung-Gook

    2017-01-01

    In this letter, we compare three different types of reset switching behavior in a bipolar resistive random-access memory (RRAM) system that is housed in a Ni/Si3N4/Si structure. The abrupt, step-like gradual and continuous gradual reset transitions are largely determined by the low-resistance state (LRS). For abrupt reset switching, the large conducting path shows ohmic behavior or has a weak nonlinear current-voltage (I-V) characteristics in the LRS. For gradual switching, including both the step-like and continuous reset types, trap-assisted direct tunneling is dominant in the low-voltage regime, while trap-assisted Fowler-Nordheim tunneling is dominant in the high-voltage regime, thus causing nonlinear I-V characteristics. More importantly, we evaluate the multi-level capabilities of the two different gradual switching types, including both step-like and continuous reset behavior, using identical and incremental voltage conditions. Finer control of the conductance level with good uniformity is achieved in continuous gradual reset switching when compared to that in step-like gradual reset switching. For continuous reset switching, a single conducting path, which initially has a tunneling gap, gradually responds to pulses with even and identical amplitudes, while for step-like reset switching, the multiple conducting paths only respond to incremental pulses to obtain effective multi-level states.

  12. Dwelling on it may make it worse: the links between relational victimization, relational aggression, rumination, and depressive symptoms in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Lindsay C; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Crick, Nicki R

    2014-08-01

    Although there is considerable evidence that relational victimization is associated with depressive symptoms in youth, our understanding about the mechanisms by which victimization and depressive symptoms are linked is limited. The current study explored ruminating about victimization experiences as a potential mechanism that might contribute to an understanding of the association between relational victimization and depressive symptoms. We also tested the specificity of the proposed models by controlling for and testing parallel models of a highly related behavior: relational aggression. A sample of 499 adolescents from sixth through eighth grades participated. Teacher reports were used to assess relational victimization and relational aggression. Self-reports were used to assess depressive symptoms and rumination. The results showed that rumination partially mediated the association between relational victimization and depressive symptoms. No moderation effect was found. In contrast, rumination moderated the association between relational aggression and depressive symptoms. Specifically, relational aggression was associated with depressive symptoms for those adolescents who were also ruminators. Thus, ruminating about victimization experiences appears to be an important mechanism that functions differently for relational aggression and relational victimization in conferring risk for depressive symptoms. The findings offer important practical implications for those working with adolescents and also lay the groundwork for future research.

  13. Hybrid Multidimensional Relational and Link Analytical Knowledge Discovery for Law Enforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Gillen, David S.; Burke, John S.; Critchlow, Terence J.; Damante, Matt; Fernandes, Robert

    2008-08-01

    The challenges facing the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) require not only multi-dimensional, but also multi-scale data analysis. In particular, the ability to seamlessly move from summary information, such as trends, into detailed analysis of individual entities, while critical for law enforcement, typically requires manually transferring information among multiple tools. Such time-consuming and error prone processes significantly hamper the analysts' ability to quickly explore data and identify threats. As part of a DHS Science and Technology effort, we have been developing and deploying for Immigration and Customs Enforcement the CubeLink system integrating information between relational data cubes and link analytical semantic graphs. In this paper we describe CubeLink in terms of the underlying components, their integration, and the formal mapping from multidimensional data analysis into link analysis. In so doing, we provide a formal basis for one particular form of automatic schema-ontology mapping from OLAP data cubes to semantic graphs databases, and point the way towards future ``intelligent'' OLAP data cubes equipped with meta-data about their dimensional typing.

  14. Endurance Enhancement and High Speed Set/Reset of 50 nm Generation HfO2 Based Resistive Random Access Memory Cell by Intelligent Set/Reset Pulse Shape Optimization and Verify Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Kazuhide; Miyaji, Kousuke; Johguchi, Koh; Takeuchi, Ken

    2012-02-01

    This paper proposes a verify-programming method for the resistive random access memory (ReRAM) cell which achieves a 50-times higher endurance and a fast set and reset compared with the conventional method. The proposed verify-programming method uses the incremental pulse width with turnback (IPWWT) for the reset and the incremental voltage with turnback (IVWT) for the set. With the combination of IPWWT reset and IVWT set, the endurance-cycle increases from 48 ×103 to 2444 ×103 cycles. Furthermore, the measured data retention-time after 20 ×103 set/reset cycles is estimated to be 10 years. Additionally, the filamentary based physical model is proposed to explain the set/reset failure mechanism with various set/reset pulse shapes. The reset pulse width and set voltage correspond to the width and length of the conductive-filament, respectively. Consequently, since the proposed IPWWT and IVWT recover set and reset failures of ReRAM cells, the endurance-cycles are improved.

  15. Incorporation of covariates in simultaneous localization of two linked loci using affected relative pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Kung-Yee

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many dichotomous traits for complex diseases are often involved more than one locus and/or associated with quantitative biomarkers or environmental factors. Incorporating these quantitative variables into linkage analysis as well as localizing two linked disease loci simultaneously could therefore improve the efficiency in mapping genes. We extended the robust multipoint Identity-by-Descent (IBD approach with incorporation of covariates developed previously to simultaneously estimate two linked loci using different types of affected relative pairs (ARPs. Results We showed that the efficiency was enhanced by incorporating a quantitative covariate parametrically or non-parametrically while localizing two disease loci using ARPs. In addition to its help in identifying factors associated with the disease and in improving the efficiency in estimating disease loci, this extension also allows investigators to account for heterogeneity in risk-ratios for different ARPs. Data released from the collaborative study on the genetics of alcoholism (COGA for Genetic Analysis Workshop 14 (GAW 14 were used to illustrate the application of this extended method. Conclusions The simulation studies and example illustrated that the efficiency in estimating disease loci was demonstratively enhanced by incorporating a quantitative covariate and by using all relative pairs while mapping two linked loci simultaneously.

  16. Daily mood and sleep: reciprocal relations and links with adjustment problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouros, Chrystyna D; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2015-02-01

    Children's sleep problems are common and associated with increased risk for adjustment problems. We examined daily links between children's sleep and mood, using a daily diary method and actigraphy. We also tested children's daily mood as a mediator of relations among sleep and children's broader internalizing and externalizing symptoms. A community sample of 142 children (mean age = 10.69 years; 57% girls; 69% European American, 31% African American) and their parents participated. For 1 week, children wore actigraphs and parents completed a daily telephone interview about their child's mood. Following the week of actigraphy, mothers and fathers reported on their child's adjustment. Multi-level models indicated within-person relations between children's mood and subsequent sleep fragmentation (indicated by increased activity) and sleep latency, and between-person relations between sleep latency and subsequent mood on the next day. Significant indirect effects were found such that a more negative daily mood (aggregated across diary days) mediated relations between poor sleep efficiency and longer sleep latency and parent-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Findings extend previous research by highlighting disruptions to children's daily mood as a potential mechanism linking sleep problems to children's mental health. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  17. Identification of partial resetting using De as a function of illumination time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.M.; Singarayer, J.S.; Ward, S.; Stokes, S.

    2003-01-01

    Modern age samples from various depositional environments were examined for signal resetting. For 19 modern aeolian/beach samples all D e values obtained were e e values were e as a function of illumination (OSL measurement) time (D e (t)) plots were examined for all samples. Based on previous laboratory experiments, increases in D e (t) were expected for partially reset samples, and constant D e (t) for fully reset samples. All aeolian samples, both modern age and additional 'young' samples ( e (t) while all modern, non-zero D e , fluvial/colluvial samples showed increasing D e (t). 'Replacement plots', where a regenerated signal is substituted for the natural, yielded constant (flat) D e (t). These findings support strongly the use of D e (t) as a method of identifying incomplete resetting in fluvial samples. Potential complicating factors, such as illumination (bleaching) spectrum, thermal instability and component composition are discussed and a series of internal checks on the applicability of the D e (t) for each individual aliquot/grain level are outlined

  18. A single-electron tunneling reset-set flip-flop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alencar, Bianca M. S. M. de; Guimarães, Janaina G. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Brasilia, Campus Universitário Darcy Ribeiro, Asa Norte, P.O. Box 4386, Brasilia-DF, 70919-970 (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    In this paper, a new Reset-Set flip-flop fully implemented with single-electron devices is proposed. Its topology derived from NAND gates and was validated at room temperature by simulation. Furthermore, a comparison between the proposed single-electron device and MOS devices in terms of power consumption and occupied area is presented.

  19. Performance of adaptive DD-OFDM multicore fiber links and its relation with intercore crosstalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tiago M F; Luís, Ruben S; Puttnam, Benjamin J; Cartaxo, Adolfo V T; Awaji, Yoshinari; Wada, Naoya

    2017-07-10

    Adaptive direct-detection (DD) orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is proposed to guarantee signal quality over time in weakly-coupled homogenous multicore fiber (MCFs) links impaired by stochastic intercore crosstalk (ICXT). For the first time, the received electrical power of the ICXT and the performance of the adaptive DD-OFDM MCF link are experimentally monitored quasi-simultaneously over a 210 hour period. Experimental results show that the time evolution of the error vector magnitude due to the ICXT can be suitably estimated from the normalized power of the detected crosstalk. The detected crosstalk results from the beating between the carrier in the test core and ICXT originating from the carrier and modulated signal from interfering core. The results show that the operation of DD-OFDM systems employing fixed modulation can be severely impaired by the presence of ICXT that may unpredictable vary in both power and frequency. The system may suffer from deleterious impact of moderate ICXT levels over a time duration of several hours or from peak ICXT levels occurring over a number of minutes. Such power fluctuations can lead to large variations in bit error ratio (BER) for static modulation schemes. Here, we show that BER fluctuations may be minimized by the use of adaptive modulation techniques and that in particular, the adaptive OFDM is a viable solution to guarantee link quality in MCF-based systems. An experimental model of an adaptive DD-OFDM MCF link shows an average throughput of 12 Gb/s that represents a reduction of only 9% compared to the maximum throughput measured without ICXT and an improvement of 23% relative to throughput obtained with static modulation.

  20. Reset charge sensitive amplifier for NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Guoqiang; Tan, Chengjun; Li, Qiang; Ge, Liangquan; Liu, Xiyao; Luo, Qun

    2015-03-01

    The time constant of the output signal of the front-end readout circuit of a traditional gamma-ray spectrometer with a NaI(Tl)+PMT structure is affected by temperature, measurement environment and the signal transmission cable, so it is difficult to get a good resolution spectrum, especially at higher counting rates. In this paper, a reset charge sensitive amplifier (RCSA) is designed for the gamma-ray spectrometer with a NaI(Tl)+PMT structure. The designed RCSA outputs a step signal, thus enabling the acquisition of double-exponential signals with a stable time constant by using the next stage of a CR differentiating circuit. The designed RCSA is mainly composed of a basic amplifying circuit, a reset circuit and a dark current compensation circuit. It provides the output step signal through the integration of the PMT output charge signal. When the amplitude of the step signal exceeds a preset voltage threshold, it triggers the reset circuit to generate a reset pulse (about 5µs pulse width) to reset the output signal. Experimental results demonstrated that the designed RCSA achieves a charge sensitivity of 4.26×10(10)V/C, with a zero capacitance noise of 51.09fC and a noise slope of 1.98fC/pF. Supported by the digital shaping algorithm of the digital multi-channel analyzer (DMCA), it can maintain good energy resolution with high counting rates up to 150kcps and with a temperature range from -19°C to 50°C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Melatonin Signal Transduction Pathways Require E-Box-Mediated Transcription of Per1 and Per2 to Reset the SCN Clock at Dusk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patty C Kandalepas

    Full Text Available Melatonin is released from the pineal gland into the circulatory system at night in the absence of light, acting as "hormone of darkness" to the brain and body. Melatonin also can regulate circadian phasing of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN. During the day-to-night transition, melatonin exposure advances intrinsic SCN neural activity rhythms via the melatonin type-2 (MT2 receptor and downstream activation of protein kinase C (PKC. The effects of melatonin on SCN phasing have not been linked to daily changes in the expression of core genes that constitute the molecular framework of the circadian clock. Using real-time RT-PCR, we found that melatonin induces an increase in the expression of two clock genes, Period 1 (Per1 and Period 2 (Per2. This effect occurs at CT 10, when melatonin advances SCN phase, but not at CT 6, when it does not. Using anti-sense oligodeoxynucleotides (α ODNs to Per 1 and Per 2, as well as to E-box enhancer sequences in the promoters of these genes, we show that their specific induction is necessary for the phase-altering effects of melatonin on SCN neural activity rhythms in the rat. These effects of melatonin on Per1 and Per2 were mediated by PKC. This is unlike day-active non-photic signals that reset the SCN clock by non-PCK signal transduction mechanisms and by decreasing Per1 expression. Rather, this finding extends roles for Per1 and Per2, which are critical to photic phase-resetting, to a nonphotic zeitgeber, melatonin, and suggest that the regulation of these clock gene transcripts is required for clock resetting by diverse regulatory cues.

  2. ``Gate-to-gate`` BJT obtained from the double-gate input JFET to reset charge preamplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazzi, A. [Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Dipartimento di Ingegneria Nucleare; Rehak, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    1996-08-01

    A novel charge restoration mechanism to reset charge sensitive preamplifiers is presented. The ``gate-to-gate`` Bipolar Junction Transistor transversal to the input JFET with independent top and bottom gates is exploited as a ``reset transistor`` embodied in the preamplifier input device. The p-n junction between the bottom gate and the channel is forward-biased by a proper feedback loop supplying the necessary restoration current to the input node capacitance through the top gate-channel reversed-biased junction. The continuous reset mode is here analysed with reference to the DC stability, the pulse response and the noise behaviour. Experimental results are reported. (orig.).

  3. Physical Activity and Telomere Biology: Exploring the Link with Aging-Related Disease Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T. Ludlow

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is associated with reduced risk of several age-related diseases as well as with increased longevity in both rodents and humans. Though these associations are well established, evidence of the molecular and cellular factors associated with reduced disease risk and increased longevity resulting from physical activity is sparse. A long-standing hypothesis of aging is the telomere hypothesis: as a cell divides, telomeres shorten resulting eventually in replicative senescence and an aged phenotype. Several reports have recently associated telomeres and telomere-related proteins to diseases associated with physical inactivity and aging including cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, and hypertension. Interestingly several reports have also shown that longer telomeres are associated with higher physical activity levels, indicating a potential mechanistic link between physical activity, reduced age-related disease risk, and longevity. The primary purpose of this review is to discuss the potential importance of physical activity in telomere biology in the context of inactivity- and age-related diseases. A secondary purpose is to explore potential mechanisms and important avenues for future research in the field of telomeres and diseases associated with physical inactivity and aging.

  4. College drinking behaviors: mediational links between parenting styles, impulse control, and alcohol-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A

    2006-06-01

    Mediational links between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), impulsiveness (general control), drinking control (specific control), and alcohol use and abuse were tested. A pattern-mixture approach (for modeling non-ignorable missing data) with multiple-group structural equation models with 421 (206 female, 215 male) college students was used. Gender was examined as a potential moderator of parenting styles on control processes related to drinking. Specifically, the parent-child gender match was found to have implications for increased levels of impulsiveness (a significant mediator of parenting effects on drinking control). These findings suggest that a parent with a permissive parenting style who is the same gender as the respondent can directly influence control processes and indirectly influence alcohol use and abuse.

  5. Emotional Labor: Links to Depression and Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Call Center Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Choo, Jina

    2017-08-01

    Little evidence links emotional labor to either psychological or physical health. This study determined whether the two types of emotional labor (i.e., surface vs. deep acting) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms and work-related musculoskeletal disorders in call center workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 274 workers recruited from a call center in Seoul, South Korea. In adjusted regression models, levels of surface, but not deep, acting were significantly and positively associated with depressive symptoms. Higher surface acting levels were significantly and positively associated with low back pain; higher deep acting levels were significantly and inversely associated with low back pain. Study findings could inform occupational health nurses as they delineate differentiated strategies, according to the nature of surface and deep acting, to promote psychological and physical health in call center workers.

  6. Optimization of a PCRAM Chip for high-speed read and highly reliable reset operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyun; Chen, Houpeng; Li, Xi; Wang, Qian; Fan, Xi; Hu, Jiajun; Lei, Yu; Zhang, Qi; Tian, Zhen; Song, Zhitang

    2016-10-01

    The widely used traditional Flash memory suffers from its performance limits such as its serious crosstalk problems, and increasing complexity of floating gate scaling. Phase change random access memory (PCRAM) becomes one of the most potential nonvolatile memories among the new memory techniques. In this paper, a 1M-bit PCRAM chip is designed based on the SMIC 40nm CMOS technology. Focusing on the read and write performance, two new circuits with high-speed read operation and highly reliable reset operation are proposed. The high-speed read circuit effectively reduces the reading time from 74ns to 40ns. The double-mode reset circuit improves the chip yield. This 1M-bit PCRAM chip has been simulated on cadence. After layout design is completed, the chip will be taped out for post-test.

  7. Transient resetting: a novel mechanism for synchrony and its biological examples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunguang Li

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of synchronization in biological systems is essential for the understanding of the rhythmic phenomena of living organisms at both molecular and cellular levels. In this paper, by using simple dynamical systems theory, we present a novel mechanism, named transient resetting, for the synchronization of uncoupled biological oscillators with stimuli. This mechanism not only can unify and extend many existing results on (deterministic and stochastic stimulus-induced synchrony, but also may actually play an important role in biological rhythms. We argue that transient resetting is a possible mechanism for the synchronization in many biological organisms, which might also be further used in the medical therapy of rhythmic disorders. Examples of the synchronization of neural and circadian oscillators as well as a chaotic neuron model are presented to verify our hypothesis.

  8. Testing links between childhood positive peer relations and externalizing outcomes through a randomized controlled intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witvliet, Miranda; van Lier, Pol A C; Cuijpers, Pim; Koot, Hans M

    2009-10-01

    In this study, the authors used a randomized controlled trial to explore the link between having positive peer relations and externalizing outcomes in 758 children followed from kindergarten to the end of 2nd grade. Children were randomly assigned to the Good Behavior Game (GBG), a universal classroom-based preventive intervention, or a control condition. Children's acceptance by peers, their number of mutual friends, and their proximity to others were assessed annually through peer ratings. Externalizing behavior was annually rated by teachers. Reductions in children's externalizing behavior and improvements in positive peer relations were found among GBG children, as compared with control-group children. Reductions in externalizing behavior appeared to be partly mediated by the improvements in peer acceptance. This mediating role of peer acceptance was found for boys only. The results suggest that positive peer relations are not just markers, but they are environmental mediators of boys' externalizing behavior development. Implications for research and prevention are discussed. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Emotion regulation strategies in trauma-related disorders: pathways linking neurobiology and clinical manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río-Casanova, Lucía; González, Anabel; Páramo, Mario; Van Dijke, Annemiek; Brenlla, Julio

    2016-06-01

    Emotion regulation impairments with traumatic origins have mainly been studied from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) models by studying cases of adult onset and single-incident trauma exposure. The effects of adverse traumatic experiences, however, go beyond the PTSD. Different authors have proposed that PTSD, borderline personality, dissociative, conversive and somatoform disorders constitute a full spectrum of trauma-related conditions. Therefore, a comprehensive review of the neurobiological findings covering this posttraumatic spectrum is needed in order to develop an all-encompassing model for trauma-related disorders with emotion regulation at its center. The present review has sought to link neurobiology findings concerning cortico-limbic function to the field of emotion regulation. In so doing, trauma-related disorders have been placed in a continuum between under- and over-regulation of affect strategies. Under-regulation of affect was predominant in borderline personality disorder, PTSD with re-experiencing symptoms and positive psychoform and somatoform dissociative symptoms. Over-regulation of affect was more prevalent in somatoform disorders and pathologies characterized by negative psychoform and somatoform symptoms. Throughout this continuum, different combinations between under- and over-regulation of affect strategies were also found.

  10. Postural perturbation does not reset stepping rhythm in humans, but brief intermission does.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, Koichi; Kinoshita, Atsushi; Kunimura, Hiroshi; Matsuoka, Masakazu; Hamada, Naoki

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, we tested a hypothesis that the rhythm generator in humans keeps the rhythm of periodic motor output during brief inactivation of the pattern generator. This investigation was made through testing whether the step rhythm was reset after an interruptive event. A reset of the step rhythm was defined as an observation that the step re-emerges at random timing after an interruptive event regardless of the step rhythm before the interruption. This observation reflects an intermission of rhythm-keeping activity. Healthy participants stepped on a platform that could translate forward or backward. They continued stepping after the platform translation (non-stop session) or stopped briefly after the translation before resuming step with their own timing (stop session). In the non-stop session, the second step after the platform translation appeared at the integer multiple of the pre-existing step period in most participants, indicating that step rhythm was not reset. This finding indicates that postural perturbation does not interfere the rhythm-keeping activity. In the stop session, the step immediately after the intermission of stepping appeared at random time regardless of the step rhythm before the intermission in most participants. The actual side of the first step after the intermission was consistent with the predicted first step side at a 0.5 probability. Those findings indicate that step rhythm is reset after brief intermission of stepping, and contradict with the hypothesis that the activity of the rhythm generator is maintained, while the pattern generator is temporally inactive during a brief intermission of periodic motor output. This analysis could help to determine whether rhythm-keeping activity is inactivated by an interruptive event during periodic motor activity.

  11. Mitochondrial resetting and metabolic reprogramming in induced pluripotent stem cells and mitochondrial disease modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yi-Chao; Chen, Chien-Tsun; Wei, Yau-Huei

    2016-04-01

    Nuclear reprogramming with pluripotency factors enables somatic cells to gain the properties of embryonic stem cells. Mitochondrial resetting and metabolic reprogramming are suggested to be key early events in the induction of human skin fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We review recent advances in the study of the molecular basis for mitochondrial resetting and metabolic reprogramming in the regulation of the formation of iPSCs. In particular, the recent progress in using iPSCs for mitochondrial disease modeling was discussed. iPSCs rely on glycolysis rather than oxidative phosphorylation as a major supply of energy. Mitochondrial resetting and metabolic reprogramming thus play crucial roles in the process of generation of iPSCs from somatic cells. Neurons, myocytes, and cardiomyocytes are cells containing abundant mitochondria in the human body, which can be differentiated from iPSCs or trans-differentiated from fibroblasts. Generating these cells from iPSCs derived from skin fibroblasts of patients with mitochondrial diseases or by trans-differentiation with cell-specific transcription factors will provide valuable insights into the role of mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy in mitochondrial disease modeling and serves as a novel platform for screening of drugs to treat patients with mitochondrial diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Morning and Evening Oscillators Cooperate to Reset Circadian Behavior in Response to Light Input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Lamba

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Light is a crucial input for circadian clocks. In Drosophila, short light exposure can robustly shift the phase of circadian behavior. The model for this resetting posits that circadian photoreception is cell autonomous: CRYPTOCHROME senses light, binds to TIMELESS (TIM, and promotes its degradation, which is mediated by JETLAG (JET. However, it was recently proposed that interactions between circadian neurons are also required for phase resetting. We identify two groups of neurons critical for circadian photoreception: the morning (M and the evening (E oscillators. These neurons work synergistically to reset rhythmic behavior. JET promotes acute TIM degradation cell autonomously in M and E oscillators but also nonautonomously in E oscillators when expressed in M oscillators. Thus, upon light exposure, the M oscillators communicate with the E oscillators. Because the M oscillators drive circadian behavior, they must also receive inputs from the E oscillators. Hence, although photic TIM degradation is largely cell autonomous, neural cooperation between M and E oscillators is critical for circadian behavioral photoresponses.

  13. The Inspection Process of the Army Reset Program for Equipment for Units Returning from Operation Iraqi Freedom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    The subject of this report directly applies to the work of DoD civilian and military personnel responsible for the reset of equipment provided to the warfighter deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom...

  14. Sagittal synostosis in X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets and related diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currarino, Guido [Texas Scottish Rite Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2007-08-15

    The recent observations of two new cases of X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets associated with premature closure of the sagittal suture prompted a review of similar cases seen in this institution. To review the clinical records and skull radiographs of 28 children with hypophosphatemic rickets in order to investigate the frequency and type of craniosynostosis and other cranial vault changes seen in these conditions and to review the literature for relevant findings. Clinical and imaging records were reviewed on 28 patients with hypophosphatemic rickets, all younger than 18 years. Most patients had X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets and a few had autosomal-dominant hypophosphatemic rickets or were non-familial cases. Of the 28 patients, 13 had sagittal synostosis. Dolichocephaly was present in ten patients. The configuration of the cranial vault in some of these ten patients with dolichocephaly varied somewhat from that seen in nonsyndromic sagittal synostosis. In one patient, a Chiari I malformation was demonstrated by MRI. In another patient with increased intracranial pressure the sagittal suture closure was associated with lambdoidal synostosis. Dolichocephaly was not present in three patients, suggesting that the synostosis started later than in the other patients, probably in the second year of life, a period of slower brain growth than in the first year. The two patients in this group of three showed thickening and sclerosis of the cranial vault of uncertain etiology. There is an increased risk of sagittal synostosis in hypophosphatemic rickets and related diseases in children. The appearance of the cranial vault in this type of synostosis can vary from that seen in nonsyndromic synostosis. In this setting, careful clinical and imaging follow-up is warranted. (orig.)

  15. Gender-specific mediational links between parenting styles, parental monitoring, impulsiveness, drinking control, and alcohol-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; King, Kevin M; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A; Ulloa, Emilio C; Moses, Jennifer M Filson

    2011-03-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that traits may dynamically change as conditions change. One possible mechanism that may influence impulsiveness is parental monitoring. Parental monitoring reflects a knowledge regarding one's offspring's whereabouts and social connections. The aim of this investigation was to examine potential gender-specific parental influences to impulsiveness (general behavioral control), control over one's own drinking (specific behavioral control), and alcohol-related problems among individuals in a period of emerging adulthood. Direct and mediational links between parenting styles (permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative), parental monitoring, impulsiveness, drinking control, and alcohol-related problems were investigated. A multiple-group, SEM model with (316 women, 265 men) university students was examined. In general, the overall pattern among male and female respondents was distinct. For daughters, perceptions of a permissive father were indirectly linked to more alcohol-related problems through lower levels of monitoring by fathers and more impulsive symptoms. Perceptions of an authoritative father were also indirectly linked to fewer impulsive symptoms through higher levels of monitoring by fathers among daughters. For men, perceptions of a permissive mother were indirectly linked to more alcohol-related problems through lower levels of monitoring by mothers and more impulsive symptoms. For sons, perceptions of mother authoritativeness were indirectly linked to fewer alcohol-related problems through more monitoring by mothers and fewer impulsive symptoms. Monitoring by an opposite-gender parent mediated the link between parenting styles (i.e., permissive, authoritative) on impulsiveness.

  16. Linking families and facilities for care at birth: What works to avert intrapartum-related deaths?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anne CC; Lawn, Joy E.; Cousens, Simon; Kumar, Vishwajeet; Osrin, David; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Wall, Steven N.; Nandakumar, Allyala K.; Syed, Uzma; Darmstadt, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Delays in receiving effective care during labor and at birth may be fatal for the mother and fetus, contributing to 2 million annual intrapartum stillbirths and intrapartum-related neonatal deaths each year. Objective We present a systematic review of strategies to link families and facilities, including community mobilization, financial incentives, emergency referral and transport systems, prenatal risk screening, and maternity waiting homes. Results There is moderate quality evidence that community mobilization with high levels of community engagement can increase institutional births and significantly reduce perinatal and early neonatal mortality. Meta-analysis showed a doubling of skilled birth attendance and a 35% reduction in early neonatal mortality. However, no data are available on intrapartum-specific outcomes. Evidence is limited, but promising, that financial incentive schemes and community referral/transport systems may increase rates of skilled birth attendance and emergency obstetric care utilization; however, impact on mortality is unknown. Current evidence for maternity waiting homes and risk screening is low quality. Conclusions Empowering communities is an important strategy to reduce the large burden of intrapartum complications. Innovations are needed to bring the poor closer to obstetric care, such as financial incentives and cell phone technology. New questions need to be asked of “old” strategies such as risk screening and maternity waiting homes. The effect of all of these strategies on maternal and perinatal mortality, particularly intrapartum-related outcomes, requires further evaluation. PMID:19815201

  17. 50 nm AlxOy ReRAM program 31% energy, 1.6× endurance, and 3.6× speed improvement by advanced cell condition adaptive verify-reset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Sheyang; Iwasaki, Tomoko Ogura; Takeuchi, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Two verify-reset schemes are proposed to improve the program energy, endurance and speed of 50 nm AlxOy ReRAM cells. Both of the proposed schemes improve the verify-reset program by adapting the program voltage and pulse width to the variation of ReRAM cell filament status during the verify-reset. In this paper, first, the reset resistance and cell endurance are compared using different reset voltages and reset pulse widths. Then, two proposed verify-reset schemes are introduced independently. The first proposed scheme controlled reset voltage (Vreset) increment demonstrates 32% program energy reduction and 6.7× program speed increase. In this scheme, the reset voltage stress is increased from -1.5 V to -1.65 V, only when the reset-tries fail continuously during verify-reset (hard-to-reset). The second proposed scheme set-before-reset applies the set pulse during verify-reset, to convert the filament from a hard-to-reset state to an easy-to-reset state. With this approach, 31% program energy reduction, 1.6× program endurance and 3.6× program speed increase can be obtained simultaneously.

  18. Fires: Pushing the Reset Button or a Flash in the Pan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, L. H.; Wagenbrenner, J. W.; Robichaud, P. R.; Nelson, P. A.; Kampf, S. K.; Brogan, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    High and moderate severity wildfires can reduce infiltration rates to less than 10 mm/hr, and the resulting surface runoff can increase small-scale peak flows by one or more orders of magnitude. Fires can increase hillslope erosion rates by several orders of magnitude, but this increase is less linear with rainfall intensity because it also depends on sediment supply and detachment processes as well as transport capacity. These localized and shorter-term effects have been relatively well documented, but there is much more uncertainty in how these fire-induced changes can lead to larger-scale and/or longer-term effects. The goal of this presentation is to provide a process-based analysis of how, where, and when wildfires can cause either longer-term or larger-scale changes, effectively resetting the system as opposed to a more transient "flash in the pan". An understanding of vegetation, climatic, and geomorphic dynamics are are critical for predicting larger-scale and longer-term effects. First is the potential for the vegetation to return to pre-fire conditions, and this depends on vegetation type, spatial extent of the fire, and if the pre-fire vegetation is marginalized by climate change, land use, or other factors. The trajectory of post-fire regrowth controls the duration of increased runoff and erosion as well as the size and severity of future fires, which then sets the scene for longer-term hydrologic and geomorphic change. Climate defines the dominant storm type and how they match up with the spatial extent of a fire. Historic data help estimate the extent and magnitude of post-fire rainfall, but there is a strong stochastic component and the more extreme events are of greatest concern. Geomorphic controls on larger-scale effects include the valley and drainage network characteristics that help govern the storage and delivery of water and sediment. Assessing each component involves multiple site factors, but the biggest problem is understanding their

  19. Link between Work-Related Prosocial Orientation and Professional Capability of Employees: A Preliminary Exploratory Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Adamska-Chudzińska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the link between work-related prosocial orientation of organizations and professional capabilities of employees suggesting that the prosocial orientation impacts the level of professional capability and proactive engagement. The article applies three main methods: literature studies, in-depth questionnaire surveys and multi-person method of assessment. The applied sub-measures for both leading constructs were formed and collinearity was tested using linear correlation coefficient. In prosocial environments psychological predispositions as essential aspects of personality and determinants of human behaviour, activate and stimulate professional activity. The implementation of a prosocial orientation leads to significant growth in professional capability and can influence employees’ entrepreneurial behaviour. An important aspect of employee proactive behaviour is building an internal policy based on prosocial mechanisms. Effective stimulation of prosocial and proactive attitudes and actions requires the creation of an environment where activities are realized alongside social values and with respect for individual personal determinants of activity. Considerations and findings presented in the paper contribute to the area of determinants of effective and lasting proactive employee development. The use of the multi-person method can be considered valuable in behavioural research in entrepreneurship.

  20. The Link between Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Relation to Atmospheric Haze Pollution in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura De Pretto

    Full Text Available Transboundary haze episodes caused by seasonal forest fires have become a recurrent phenomenon in Southeast Asia, with serious environmental, economic, and public health implications. Here we present a cross-sectional survey conducted among people in Kuala Lumpur and surrounds to assess the links between knowledge, attitudes, and practices in relation to the transboundary haze episodes. Of 305 respondents, 125 were amateur athletes participating in a duathlon event and the remainder were surveyed in an inner-city shopping mall. Across the whole sample, people who possessed more factual information about the haze phenomenon showed significantly higher levels of concern. Duathletes were more knowledgeable than non-duathletes and also more concerned about the negative effects of haze, especially on health. For all people who regularly practice outdoor sports (including people interviewed at the shopping mall, higher levels of knowledge and concerned attitudes translated into a greater likelihood of engaging in protective practices, such as cancelling their outdoor training sessions, while those with greater knowledge were more likely to check the relevant air pollution index on a daily basis. Our results indicate that the provision of accurate and timely information about air quality to residents will translate into beneficial practices, at least among particularly exposed individuals, such as amateur athletes who regularly practice outdoor sports.

  1. Direct electrochemical stripping detection of cystic-fibrosis-related DNA linked through cadmium sulfide quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Sergio; Merkoçi, Arben

    2009-02-01

    Electrochemical detection of a cadmium sulfide quantum dots (CdS QDs)-DNA complex connected to paramagnetic microbeads (MB) was performed without the need for chemical dissolving. The method is based on dropping 20 µl of CdS QD-DNA-MB suspension on the surface of a screen-printed electrode. It is followed by magnetic collection on the surface of the working electrode and electrochemical detection using square-wave voltammetry (SWV), giving a well-shaped and sensitive analytical signal. A cystic-fibrosis-related DNA sequence was sandwiched between the two DNA probes. One DNA probe is linked via biotin-streptavidin bonding with MB and the other one via thiol groups with the CdS QD used as tags. Nonspecific signals of DNA were minimized using a blocking agent and the results obtained were successfully employed in a model DNA sensor with an interest in future applications in the clinical field. The developed nanoparticle biosensing system may offer numerous opportunities in other fields where fast, low cost and efficient detection of small volume samples is required.

  2. Heightened inflammasome activation is linked to age-related cognitive impairment in Fischer 344 rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawhinney Lana J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the mammalian nucleotide binding domain, leucine-rich repeat (LRR-containing receptor (NLR family of proteins are key modulators of innate immunity regulating inflammation. Our previous work has shown that among the members of this family, NLRP1/NALP1, present in neurons, plays a crucial role in inflammasome formation and the production of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL -1β and IL-18 after various types of central nervous system injury. Results We investigated whether age-related cognitive decline may involve a heightened inflammatory response associated with activation of the NLRP1 inflammasome in the hippocampus. Young (3 months and aged (18 months male Fischer 344 rats were tested in a spatial acquisition task via Morris water maze. Following behavioral testing, hippocampal lysates were assayed for expression of NLRP1 inflammasome components and inflammatory cytokines. Hippocampal lysates from aged rats showed significantly higher levels of NLRP1 inflammasome constituents, caspase-1, caspase-11, the purinergic receptor P2X7, pannexin-1 and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP than lysates from younger animals. Following treatment with probenecid, an inhibitor or pannexin-1, aged animals demonstrated reduction in inflammasome activation and improvement in spatial learning performance. Conclusions Our behavioral findings are consistent with increases in IL-1β and IL-18 that have been previously shown to correlate with spatial learning deficits. Probenecid reduced activated caspase-1 and ameliorated spatial learning deficits in aged rats. Thus, aging processes stimulate activation of the NLRP1 inflammasome and secretion of IL-1β and IL-18 that may contribute to age-related cognitive decline in the growing elderly population. Moreover, probenecid may be potentially useful as a therapy to improve cognitive outcomes in the aging population.

  3. Surveying Medieval Archaeology: a New Form for Harris Paradigm Linking Photogrammetry and Temporal Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drap, P.; Papini, O.; Pruno, E.; Nucciotti, M.; Vannini, G.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents some reflexions concerning an interdisciplinary project between Medieval Archaeologists from the University of Florence (Italy) and ICT researchers from CNRS LSIS of Marseille (France), aiming towards a connection between 3D spatial representation and archaeological knowledge. It is well known that Laser Scanner, Photogrammetry and Computer Vision are very attractive tools for archaeologists, although the integration of representation of space and representation of archaeological time has not yet found a methodological standard of reference. We try to develop an integrated system for archaeological 3D survey and all other types of archaeological data and knowledge through integrating observable (material) and non-graphic (interpretive) data. Survey plays a central role, since it is both a metric representation of the archaeological site and, to a wider extent, an interpretation of it (being also a common basis for communication between the 2 teams). More specifically 3D survey is crucial, allowing archaeologists to connect actual spatial assets to the stratigraphic formation processes (i.e. to the archaeological time) and to translate spatial observations into historical interpretation of the site. We propose a common formalism for describing photogrammetrical survey and archaeological knowledge stemming from ontologies: Indeed, ontologies are fully used to model and store 3D data and archaeological knowledge. Xe equip this formalism with a qualitative representation of time. Stratigraphic analyses (both of excavated deposits and of upstanding structures) are closely related to E. C. Harris theory of "Stratigraphic Unit" ("US" from now on). Every US is connected to the others by geometric, topological and, eventually, temporal links, and are recorded by the 3D photogrammetric survey. However, the limitations of the Harris Matrix approach lead to use another representation formalism for stratigraphic relationships, namely Qualitative Constraints

  4. Ontological Reset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, William Francis

    2013-01-01

    We now exist in an era where for the first time, symbolic representation may precede the natural world in human experience. Aristotle's a priori terrain has been upstaged. We are changing the nature of our own evolution in profound ways. The question becomes, "How do we transcend the chaos of meaning in this post-modern condition or…

  5. Study on the Workspace of a 6-DOF Parallel Topology Robot Related to Binary Link Lengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calin-Octavian Miclosina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study on the workspace of a parallel topology robot with the structure FP3+6•SPS+MP3. The variable parameters are the binary link lengths, from both upper and lower levels, and the driving kinematical joint strokes. The workspace boundary is determined by SolidWorks software simulations. For different binary link lengths, workspace volume is determined and sections through the workspace are presented.

  6. Water relations link carbon and oxygen isotope discrimination to phloem sap sugar concentration in eucalyptus globulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cernusak, L.A.; Farquhar, G.D.; Arthur, D.J; Pate, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The carbon isotope ratio of phloem sap sugars has been previously observed to correlate strongly with the phloem sap sugar concentration in Eucalyptus globulus. We hypothesized that the correspondence between these two parameters results from co-linearity in their responses to variation in plant water potential. Carbon isotope discrimination is expected to decrease with decreasing plant water potential due to the influence of stomatal conductance on the ratio of intercellular to ambient CO 2 , concentrations (c 1 /c a ). Conversely, we expected the phloem sap sugar concentration to increase with decreasing plant water potential, thereby maintaining positive turgor pressure within the sieve tubes. The study comprised 40 individual Eucalyptus globulus trees growing in three plantations situated on opposing ends of a rainfall gradient in southwestern Australia. A strong correlation was observed between the carbon isotope ratio in phloem sap sugars and phloem sap sugar concentration. Carbon isotope discrimination correlated positively with shoot water potential, whereas phloem sap sugar concentration correlated negatively with shoot water potential. The relationship between carbon isotope discrimination measured in phloem sap sugars collected from the stem and c 1 /c a measured instantaneously on subtending leaves was close to that theoretically predicted. Accordingly, a strong, negative relationship was observed between instantaneous c 1 /c a and the phloem sap sugar concentration. Oxygen isotope discrimination in phloem sap sugars also correlated strongly with phloem sap sugar concentration. A theoretical model suggested that the observed variation in stomatal conductance was sufficient to account for the variation observed in oxygen isotope discrimination across the study. Results strongly support the contention that water relations form a mechanistic link between phloem sap sugar concentration and both instantaneous and integrated measures of the

  7. The link between mental health-related discrimination and suicidality: service user perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, S; Jeffery, D; Rüsch, N; Williams, P; Thornicroft, G; Clement, S

    2015-07-01

    Suicide is a major global public health issue. Mental illness is a risk factor for suicide, but as many individuals with a diagnosed mental health problem do not experience suicidal ideation or attempt suicide, other individual and societal factors must be considered. Mental illness-related discrimination is one potential risk factor. Using mixed methods, the influence of discrimination on suicidality amongst 194 individuals diagnosed with depression, bipolar or schizophrenia spectrum disorders was investigated. Qualitative interviews with a sub-sample of 58 individuals who reported a link between experience of discrimination and suicidality were analysed using framework analysis. Quantitative methods were used to examine the model derived from qualitative analyses. Results indicate that the experience of discrimination led 38% of the overall sample of 194 participants, to suicidal feelings and 20% reported that it contributed to making a suicide attempt. The qualitative model derived from interviews with a sub-sample of 58 participants suggested that the experience of discrimination is experienced as a stressor that exceeds coping resources, leading to a negative self-image and a perception of decreased supportive networks/social structure. The anticipation of further negative events and treatment, and the perception of a lack of supportive networks led individuals in this study to feelings of hopelessness and suicidality. Quantitative analyses provided support for the model. These data suggest that both psychological therapies aimed at improving coping skills and population-level anti-stigma interventions that reduce the occurrence of discrimination may provide some protection against suicide amongst individuals with mental health problems.

  8. Mechanical properties of the equine superficial digital flexor tendon relate to specific collagen cross-link levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, C T; Stark, R J F; Goodship, A E; Birch, H L

    2010-11-01

    Damage to the flexor tendons, particularly the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT), is one of the most common musculoskeletal injuries sustained by horses competing in all disciplines. Our previous work has shown that SDFTs from different individuals show a wide variation in mechanical strengths; this is important clinically as it may relate to predisposition to injury. The high mechanical strength of tendon relies on the correct orientation of collagen molecules within fibrils and stabilisation by the formation of chemical cross-links between collagen molecules. It is not known whether the variation in SDFT mechanical properties between individuals relates to differences in collagen cross-link levels. Enzyme-derived, intermolecular cross-linking of tendon collagen correlates with mechanical properties of the SDFT. SDFTs were collected from 38 horses and mechanically tested to failure. Structural and material properties were calculated from the load/deformation plot and cross-sectional area for each tendon. Following mechanical testing, pyrrolic cross-link levels were measured using a spectrophotometric assay for Ehrlich's reactivity and pyridinoline levels were quantified by HPLC. Cross-link levels were correlated with mechanical properties and statistical significance tested using a Pearson's correlation test. Pyrrole cross-link levels showed a significant positive correlation with ultimate stress (P = 0.004), yield stress (P = 0.003) and elastic modulus (P = 0.018) of the tendons, despite being a minor cross-link in these tendons. There was no significant correlation of mechanical properties with either hydroxylysyl- or lysyl-pyridinoline levels. Given the low absolute levels of pyrrole, we suggest that the correlation with high mechanical strength is through an indirect mechanism. Understanding the nature of the relationships between pyrrole cross-links, other matrix characteristics and tendon material properties may allow development of strategies to

  9. The RESET Mindset Model applied on decreasing antibiotic usage in dairy cattle in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, T J G M; Jansen, J; Wessels, R J

    2017-01-01

    Prudent use of antibiotics is important to prevent antibiotic resistance in humans and in animals. For this reason politicians demanded a decrease of total antibiotic use and of use of critically important antibiotics in animal husbandry in the Netherlands. In the dairy sector the use of antibiotics almost halved in the years 2009-2015, with a decrease of the use of critically important antibiotics to very low levels. To realize a sustainable decrease in antibiotic usage, the mindset towards the subject was considered crucial. Based on several models from social psychology, the RESET Mindset Model was used. This model contains the most important cues to change human behaviour, being Rules and regulations, Education and information, Social pressure, Economics, and Tools. To change behaviour of groups in order to reach a tipping point, it is of utmost importance to not choose among the different cues, but to use them all. In order to decrease antibiotic usage in dairy cattle in the Netherlands several actions, obliged as well as voluntary, were undertaken. An independent veterinary medicine authority was founded that became active for all animal sectors. In the dairy sector a national database on antibiotic usage called MediRund was developed, which made transparency and benchmarking on antibiotic usage at the national and the herd level possible. Several other activities are described, such as herd health and treatment plans, selective dry cow therapy, and the strong limitation on the use of critically important antibiotics. Antibiotic usage at the herd level, referred to as the 'antibiotic number', became an important and socially accepted herd level parameter. The actions undertaken worked through different cues, all part of the RESET Mindset Model. As such, different types of dairy farmers sensitive to different types of cues were motivated to change their behaviour. Antibiotic usage in dairy cattle in the Netherlands decreased significantly by intense

  10. Urban national parks in the global South: Linking management perceptions, policies and practices to water-related ecosystem services

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brill, G

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ): 185-195 Urban national parks in the global South: Linking management perceptions, policies and practices to water-related ecosystem services Brill G Anderson P O’Farrell PJ ABSTRACT: Protected areas have been the dominant means...

  11. Learning with LinkedIn: Students' Perceptions of Incorporating Subject-Related Blogging in an International Marketing Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galan, Nataliya; Khodabandehloo, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to report the results of implementation of blogging within a LinkedIn discussion group in an international marketing course for a multicultural group of students focusing on the students' perceptions of the subject-related blogging. Design/Methodology/ Approach: This study adopts a qualitative approach; data have been…

  12. Relational Regulation Theory : A New Approach to Explain the Link Between Perceived Social Support and Mental Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakey, Brian; Orehek, Edward

    Perceived support is consistently linked to good mental health, which is typically explained as resulting from objectively supportive actions that buffer stress. Yet this explanation has difficulty accounting for the often-observed main effects between support and mental health. Relational

  13. The Broader Context of Relational Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Predictions from Peer Pressure and Links to Psychosocial Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schad, Megan M.; Szwedo, David E.; Antonishak, Jill; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.

    2008-01-01

    The broader context of relational aggression in adolescent romantic relationships was assessed by considering the ways such aggression emerged from prior experiences of peer pressure and was linked to concurrent difficulties in psychosocial functioning. Longitudinal, multi-reporter data were obtained from 97 adolescents and their best friends at…

  14. Reactive and Proactive Subtypes of Relational and Physical Aggression in Middle Childhood: Links to Concurrent and Longitudinal Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Lindsay C.; Crick, Nicki R.

    2010-01-01

    Peer aggression in children is a serious issue that school psychologists often encounter on a daily basis. To develop a better understanding of aggression, it is important to look at specific subtypes of aggression and how they are related to adjustment difficulties. Past research has examined the links between reactive and proactive physical…

  15. Linking Prenatal Androgens to Gender-Related Attitudes, Identity, and Activities : Evidence From Girls With Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endendijk, Joyce J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330190865; Beltz, Adriene M.; McHale, Susan M.; Bryk, Kristina; Berenbaum, Sheri A.

    2016-01-01

    Key questions for developmentalists concern the origins of gender attitudes and their implications for behavior. We examined whether prenatal androgen exposure was related to gender attitudes, and whether and how the links between attitudes and gendered activity interest and participation were

  16. An Appraisal of Duct-Related Microwave Link Degradation in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have revealed considerable prevalence of surface ducts in Nigeria. This effort examines the climatic conditions that give rise to ducts and assesses their potential for degradation of microwave links in the country. The result based on analysis of clear-air meteorological data shows prevalence of strong surface ducts ...

  17. Children's Sleep Regulation Is Linked to Mothers' Sleep-Related Childhood Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviezer, Ora; Scher, Anat

    2013-01-01

    The present research explored how mothers' own childhood experiences are linked to their perceptions of their children's sleep regulation. It focused on collective sleeping; a practice used in the past in the Israeli kibbutz, and used a quasi-experimental research design to examine whether mothers who were raised in collective sleeping…

  18. Linking habitat selection to fitness-related traits in herbivores: the role of the energy landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan A. Long; R. T. Bowyer; Warren P. Porter; Paul Mathewson; Kevin L. Monteith; Scott L. Findholt; Brian L. Dick; John G. Kie

    2016-01-01

    Animals may partially overcome environmental constraints on fitness by behaviorally adjusting their exposure to costs and supplies of energy. Few studies, however, have linked spatiotemporal variation in the energy landscape to behaviorally mediated measures of performance that ostensibly influence individual fitness. We hypothesized that strength of selection by North...

  19. Particle Swarm Optimization with Power-Law Parameter Based on the Cross-Border Reset Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG, H.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of traditional particle swarm optimization, this paper introduces the principle of Levy flight and cross-border reset mechanism. In the proposed particle swarm optimization, the dynamic variation of parameters meets the power-law distribution and the pattern of particles transition conforms to the Levy flight in the process of algorithm optimization. It means the particles make long distance movements in the search space with a small probability and make short distance movements with a large probability. Therefore, the particles can jump out of local optimum more easily and coordinate the global search and local search of particle swarm optimization. This paper also designs the cross-border reset mechanism to make particles regain optimization ability when stranding on the border of search space after a long distance movement. The simulation results demonstrate the proposed algorithms are easier to jump out of local optimum and have higher accuracy when compared with the existing similar algorithms based on benchmark test functions and handwriting character recognition system.

  20. Sumoylation controls CLOCK-BMAL1-mediated clock resetting via CBP recruitment in nuclear transcriptional foci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yool; Chun, Sung Kook; Kim, Kyungjin

    2015-10-01

    CLOCK-BMAL1 is a key transcription factor complex of the molecular clock system that generates circadian gene expression and physiology in mammals. Here, we demonstrate that sumoylation of BMAL1 mediates the rapid activation of CLOCK-BMAL1 by CREB-binding protein (CBP) in nuclear foci and also the resetting of the circadian clock. Under physiological conditions, a bimolecular fluorescence complementation-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer (BiFC-FRET) assay revealed that CLOCK-BMAL1 rapidly dimerized and formed a ternary complex with CBP in discrete nuclear foci in response to serum stimuli. We found that the formation of this ternary complex requires sumoylation of BMAL1 by SUMO3. These processes were abolished by both the ectopic expression of the SUMP2/3-specific protease, SUSP1, and mutation of the major sumoylation site (Lys259) of BMAL1. Moreover, molecular inhibition of BMAL1 sumoylation abrogated acute Per1 transcription and severely dampened the circadian gene oscillation triggered by clock synchronization stimuli. Taken together, these findings suggest that sumoylation plays a critical role in the spatiotemporal co-activation of CLOCK-BMAL1 by CBP for immediate-early Per induction and the resetting of the circadian clock. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Chloroquine modulates antitumor immune response by resetting tumor-associated macrophages toward M1 phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Degao; Xie, Jing; Fiskesund, Roland; Dong, Wenqian; Liang, Xiaoyu; Lv, Jiadi; Jin, Xun; Liu, Jinyan; Mo, Siqi; Zhang, Tianzhen; Cheng, Feiran; Zhou, Yabo; Zhang, Huafeng; Tang, Ke; Ma, Jingwei; Liu, Yuying; Huang, Bo

    2018-02-28

    Resetting tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) is a promising strategy to ameliorate the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment and improve innate and adaptive antitumor immunity. Here we show that chloroquine (CQ), a proven anti-malarial drug, can function as an antitumor immune modulator that switches TAMs from M2 to tumor-killing M1 phenotype. Mechanistically, CQ increases macrophage lysosomal pH, causing Ca 2+ release via the lysosomal Ca 2+ channel mucolipin-1 (Mcoln1), which induces the activation of p38 and NF-κB, thus polarizing TAMs to M1 phenotype. In parallel, the released Ca 2+ activates transcription factor EB (TFEB), which reprograms the metabolism of TAMs from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis. As a result, CQ-reset macrophages ameliorate tumor immune microenvironment by decreasing immunosuppressive infiltration of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and Treg cells, thus enhancing antitumor T-cell immunity. These data illuminate a previously unrecognized antitumor mechanism of CQ, suggesting a potential new macrophage-based tumor immunotherapeutic modality.

  2. The induced motion of a probe coupled to a bath with random resettings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Christian; Thiery, Thimothée

    2017-10-01

    We consider a probe linearly coupled to the center of mass of a nonequilibrium bath. We study the induced motion on the probe for a model where a resetting mechanism is added to an overdamped bath dynamics with quadratic potentials. The fact that each bath particle is at random times reset to a fixed position is known for optimizing diffusive search strategies, but here stands for the nonequilibrium aspect of the bath. In the large bath scaling limit the probe is governed by an effective Langevin equation. Depending on the value of the parameters, there appear three regimes: (i) an equilibrium-like regime but with a reduced friction and an increased effective temperature; (ii) a regime where the noise felt by the probe is continuous but non-Gaussian and exhibits fat-tails; (iii) a regime with a non-Gaussian noise exhibiting power-law distributed jumps. The model thus represents an exactly solvable case for the origin of nonequilibrium probe dynamics.

  3. Evidence of Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Autism: Biochemical Links, Genetic-Based Associations, and Non-Energy-Related Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keren K. Griffiths

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD, the fastest growing developmental disability in the United States, represents a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impaired social interaction and communication as well as restricted and repetitive behavior. The underlying cause of autism is unknown and therapy is currently limited to targeting behavioral abnormalities. Emerging studies suggest a link between mitochondrial dysfunction and ASD. Here, we review the evidence demonstrating this potential connection. We focus specifically on biochemical links, genetic-based associations, non-energy related mechanisms, and novel therapeutic strategies.

  4. Developmental Links Between Children's Working Memory and their Social Relations with Teachers and Peers in the Early School Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wilde, Amber; Koot, Hans M; van Lier, Pol A C

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the developmental links between children's working memory development and their relations with teachers and peers across 2 years of kindergarten and early elementary school. Kindergarten and first grade children, N = 1109, 50% boys, were followed across 2 school-years. Children were assessed across 3 waves, in the fall and spring of the first school-year (within school-year), and finally in the spring of the second school-year. Working memory was assessed using a visuo-spatial working memory task. The developmental links between working memory and child-reported teacher-child relationship quality (warmth and conflict) and peer-nominated likeability and friendedness were assessed using autoregressive cross-lagged models. Lower working memory scores were related to increases in teacher-child conflict and decreases in teacher-child warmth one school-year later, in addition to decreases in likeability by peers within the same school-year. Conversely, teacher-child conflict was negatively associated with the development of working memory across the studied period. Path estimates between working memory and social relational factors were similar for boys and girls. Findings show developmental links between working memory and social-relational factors and vice versa. These results suggest that children's working memory development can be fostered through pro-social relations with teachers in early elementary school children.

  5. Fluorescence imaging under background light with a self-reset complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor image sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Yamaguchi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose and demonstrate the fluorescence imaging of green fluorescence protein (GFP expressed in a brain slice with a self-reset complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor image sensor under background light. By using a self-reset function to avoid pixel saturation, the weak fluorescence of GFP was successfully observed, even under background light. The result suggests that the sensor can be applied to in vivo imaging of laboratory animals during light–dark cycles, so that they can observe the different responses to bright and dark environments.

  6. The Afghanistan Question and the Reset in U.S.-Russian Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    the words of the official U.S. military history of the Af- ghan War, ‘the strong antipathy towards large- scale reconstruction and governance efforts...notice that he could not procrastinate any longer—he had to prepare for that outcome. To maintain a sig- nificant number of U.S. combat forces beyond 2014...in uniform have performed heroically in Afghanistan, but it is now time for the ANA to be battle-tested on a large scale and to take the lead in

  7. Adolescents' and mothers' conflict management constellations: Links with individual and relational functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Missotten, L.; Luyckx, Koen; Vanhalst, J.; Nelemans, S.A.; Branje, S.J.T.

    2017-01-01

    In the present multi-informant study, we examined dyadic combinations of adolescent and maternal conflict management styles through stepwise latent class analysis. We investigated how these dyadic conflict classes related to adolescents' and mothers' perceptions of individual and relational

  8. Direct and indirect links between parenting styles, self-concealment (secrets), impaired control over drinking and alcohol-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Jessica D; Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Corbin, William R; Gates, Jonathan R; Leeman, Robert F; Luk, Jeremy W; King, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Self-concealment reflects uncomfortable feelings, thoughts, and information people have about themselves that they avoid telling others (Larson & Chastain, 1990). According to Larson and Chastain (1990) these secrets range from the slightly embarrassing to the very distressing with an individual's most traumatic experiences often concealed. Parental attitudes including those involving self-disclosure are thought to be expressed in their choice of parenting style (Brand, Hatzinger, Beck, & Holsboer-Trachsler, 2009). The specific aim of this investigation was to examine the direct and indirect influences of parenting styles on self-concealment, impaired control over drinking (i.e. the inability to stop drinking when intended), alcohol use (quantity/frequency), and alcohol-related problems. A structural equation model with 419 (223 men, 196 women) university students was examined. Two and three path mediated effects were examined with the bias corrected bootstrap technique in Mplus. Having an authoritarian mother was directly linked to more self-concealment, while having an authoritative father was directly linked to less self-concealment. Higher levels of mother authoritarianism were indirectly linked to both increased alcohol use and alcohol-related problems through more self-concealment and more impaired control over drinking. Moreover, higher levels of father authoritativeness were indirectly linked to less alcohol use and alcohol-related problems through less self-concealment and less impaired control over drinking. These findings suggest that parenting styles influence vulnerabilities such as self-concealment in the impaired control over the drinking pathway to alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Long-lasting desynchronization in rat hippocampal slice induced by coordinated reset stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tass, P. A.; Barnikol, U. B.; Silchenko, A. N.; Hauptmann, C.; Speckmann, E.-J.

    2009-01-01

    In computational models it has been shown that appropriate stimulation protocols may reshape the connectivity pattern of neural or oscillator networks with synaptic plasticity in a way that the network learns or unlearns strong synchronization. The underlying mechanism is that a network is shifted from one attractor to another, so that long-lasting stimulation effects are caused which persist after the cessation of stimulation. Here we study long-lasting effects of multisite electrical stimulation in a rat hippocampal slice rendered epileptic by magnesium withdrawal. We show that desynchronizing coordinated reset stimulation causes a long-lasting desynchronization between hippocampal neuronal populations together with a widespread decrease in the amplitude of the epileptiform activity. In contrast, periodic stimulation induces a long-lasting increase in both synchronization and amplitude.

  10. A CMOS detector leakage current self-adaptable continuous reset system: Theoretical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    De Geronimo, G

    1999-01-01

    A continuous reset system for the discharge of the feedback capacitance of integrated charge preamplifiers is presented. The system, based on the use of a FET operating in the saturation region, is self-adaptable with respect to a wide range of detector leakage currents. A circuit which provides compensation of the signal from the charge amplifier is also proposed. The noise analysis, which takes into account both the stationary and non-stationary noise contributions and the effect of the rate, shows that the system, when carefully designed, can offer good signal/noise performance for applications in gamma-ray and high-energy X-ray spectroscopy. Practical layout considerations are also made.

  11. Resetting the evolution of marine reptiles at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Philippa M; Ruta, Marcello; Benton, Michael J

    2011-05-17

    Ichthyosaurs were important marine predators in the Early Jurassic, and an abundant and diverse component of Mesozoic marine ecosystems. Despite their ecological importance, however, the Early Jurassic species represent a reduced remnant of their former significance in the Triassic. Ichthyosaurs passed through an evolutionary bottleneck at, or close to, the Triassic-Jurassic boundary, which reduced their diversity to as few as three or four lineages. Diversity bounced back to some extent in the aftermath of the end-Triassic mass extinction, but disparity remained at less than one-tenth of pre-extinction levels, and never recovered. The group remained at low diversity and disparity for its final 100 Myr. The end-Triassic mass extinction had a previously unsuspected profound effect in resetting the evolution of apex marine predators of the Mesozoic.

  12. Resetting of circadian melatonin and cortisol rhythms in humans by ordinary room light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, D. B.; Czeisler, C. A.

    1998-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate whether a weak photic stimulus can reset the endogenous circadian rhythms of plasma melatonin and plasma cortisol in human subjects. A stimulus consisting of three cycles of 5 h exposures to ordinary room light (approximately 180 lux), centered 1.5 h after the endogenous temperature nadir, significantly phase-advanced the plasma melatonin rhythm in eight healthy young men compared with the phase delays observed in eight control subjects who underwent the same protocol but were exposed to darkness (p melatonin and plasma cortisol maintained stable temporal relationships with the endogenous core body temperature cycle, consistent with the conclusion that exposure to ordinary indoor room light had shifted a master circadian pacemaker.

  13. Current mirror reset for low-power BiCMOS charge amplifier

    CERN Document Server

    Sampietro, M; Fasoli, L

    2000-01-01

    We present a circuit solution to provide DC feedback and signal reset in charge amplifiers that overcomes the difficulty to integrate high value resistors in VLSI technology. The feedback resistor is substituted by a MOSFET current conveyor that re-direct to the input node the current already available at the output follower. The lower noise of this 'active resistor' with respect to a physical resistor of equal value makes possible a first shaping within the preamplifier. The circuit has been implemented for a fast shaping time system (20 ns peaking time) using a BJT as input transistor for best noise performance. The circuit has been powered with single supply as low as 1.6 V with a total power consumption down to 220 mu W/ch and has shown a measured noise of 660 electrons rms, in accordance with the theoretical expectation.

  14. Melanopsin resets circadian rhythms in cells by inducing clock gene Period1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Shuhei; Uehara, Tomoe; Matsuo, Minako; Kikuchi, Yo; Numano, Rika

    2014-02-01

    The biochemical, physiological and behavioral processes are under the control of internal clocks with the period of approximately 24 hr, circadian rhythms. The expression of clock gene Period1 (Per1) oscillates autonomously in cells and is induced immediately after a light pulse. Per1 is an indispensable member of the central clock system to maintain the autonomous oscillator and synchronize environmental light cycle. Per1 expression could be detected by Per1∷luc and Per1∷GFP plasmid DNA in which firefly luciferase and Green Fluorescence Protein were rhythmically expressed under the control of the mouse Per1 promoter in order to monitor mammalian circadian rhythms. Membrane protein, MELANOPSIN is activated by blue light in the morning on the retina and lead to signals transduction to induce Per1 expression and to reset the phase of circadian rhythms. In this report Per1 induction was measured by reporter signal assay in Per1∷luc and Per1∷GFP fibroblast cell at the input process of circadian rhythms. To the result all process to reset the rhythms by Melanopsin is completed in single cell like in the retina projected to the central clock in the brain. Moreover, the phase of circadian rhythm in Per1∷luc cells is synchronized by photo-activated Melanopsin, because the definite peak of luciferase activity in one dish was found one day after light illumination. That is an available means that physiological circadian rhythms could be real-time monitor as calculable reporter (bioluminescent and fluorescent) chronological signal in both single and groups of cells.

  15. Transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced global propagation of transient phase resetting associated with directional information flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro eKawasaki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalogram (EEG phase synchronization analyses can reveal large-scale communication between distant brain areas. However, it is not possible to identify the directional information flow between distant areas using conventional phase synchronization analyses. In the present study, we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to the occipital area in subjects who were resting with their eyes closed, and analyzed the spatial propagation of transient TMS-induced phase resetting by using the transfer entropy (TE, to quantify the causal and directional flow of information. The time-frequency EEG analysis indicated that the theta (5 Hz phase locking factor (PLF reached its highest value at the distant area (the motor area in this study, with a time lag that followed the peak of the transient PLF enhancements of the TMS-targeted area at the TMS onset. PPI (phase-preservation index analyses demonstrated significant phase resetting at the TMS-targeted area and distant area. Moreover, the TE from the TMS-targeted area to the distant area increased clearly during the delay that followed TMS onset. Interestingly, the time lags were almost coincident between the PLF and TE results (152 vs. 165 ms, which provides strong evidence that the emergence of the delayed PLF reflects the causal information flow. Such tendencies were observed only in the higher-intensity TMS condition, and not in the lower-intensity or sham TMS conditions. Thus, TMS may manipulate large-scale causal relationships between brain areas in an intensity-dependent manner. We demonstrated that single-pulse TMS modulated global phase dynamics and directional information flow among synchronized brain networks. Therefore, our results suggest that single-pulse TMS can manipulate both incoming and outgoing information in the TMS-targeted area associated with functional changes.

  16. Inter-relations between osteoarthritis and metabolic syndrome: A common link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Clanche, S; Bonnefont-Rousselot, D; Sari-Ali, E; Rannou, F; Borderie, D

    2016-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disorder of the joint, principally occurring during aging, and characterized by a focal degradation of cartilage. It is the most prevalent rheumatic disease in industrialized countries and represents the second cause of disability in France. However, the etiology of OA remains unclear. There is only one cell type found in cartilage, chondrocyte, which is responsible for its repair and the synthesis of the elements of the extra-cellular matrix. A dysfunction of these cells results in an imbalance between repair and degradation in cartilage, leading to its destruction. Recently, a link between OA and metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been suggested, introducing a notion of metabolic OA, and a new vision of the disease. MetS is characterized by a cluster of factors (insulin resistance, hypertension, dyslipidemia, visceral obesity), although there is still no clear definition of it. During the 20th century, MetS dramatically increased with changes in population lifestyle, becoming a major health issue in industrialized countries. MetS concerns 10-30% of the worldwide population, but is prevalent in 59% of OA patients. Patients with both OA and MetS have more severe symptoms, occurring sooner than in the general population. Indeed, OA is generally a disease concerning the population over 65 years old, but with an associated MetS the target population is around 50 years old. In this review, we will focus on common factors in OA and MetS, such as hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, mitochondrial dysfunction and hyperglycemia, linking one disease to the other. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  17. Offset and Gain error-compensated Low-Voltage Unity-Gain-Reset Switched-Capacitor Non-inverse Amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    大野, 憲司; 松本, 寛樹; 村尾, 健次

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, it is presented that a Offset and Gain error-compensated Low-Voltage Unity-Gain-Reset Switched-Capacitor Non-inverse Amplifier. The proposed circuit can operate using simple nonoverlapping three phase clocks. It consists of a switch, capacitor, MOSFET and op-amp. Circuit operation is evaluated by PSpice.

  18. Impact of the duct static pressure reset control strategy on the energy consumption by the HVAC system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaszczyk Juliusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses different duct static pressure control strategies which could be implemented in variable air volume air-conditioning systems (VAV. Two pressure reset control strategies are compared to the commonly used control solution based on the “Constant static pressure” method. First pressure reset control strategy, known as PID Control, uses signals from VAV boxes controllers to reset duct static pressure in a way that one of the VAV dampers is maintained almost entirely open. Second strategy decreases static pressure setpoint until an adjustable number of pressure requests occur. As a response to the certain amount of requests, static pressure setpoint is increased. This strategy is called Trim & Respond. Both static pressure reset control strategies described in this paper are considered to have more significant potential for energy savings than the “Constant static pressure” method. In order to validate this potential, several simulations for different control strategies were carried out and the obtained results are compared and analysed. The theoretical limit of the energy savings - set of the optimal control actions, was estimated with Nelder-Mead algorithm and also presented in this article. General description of the static pressure control strategies "Constant static pressure", PID Control and Trim & Respond is given.

  19. Resetting of the Baroreflex Control of Sympathetic Vasomotor Activity during Natural Behaviors: Description and Conceptual Model of Central Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger A. L. Dampney

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The baroreceptor reflex controls arterial pressure primarily via reflex changes in vascular resistance, rather than cardiac output. The vascular resistance in turn is dependent upon the activity of sympathetic vasomotor nerves innervating arterioles in different vascular beds. In this review, the major theme is that the baroreflex control of sympathetic vasomotor activity is not constant, but varies according to the behavioral state of the animal. In contrast to the view that was generally accepted up until the 1980s, I argue that the baroreflex control of sympathetic vasomotor activity is not inhibited or overridden during behaviors such as mental stress or exercise, but instead is reset under those conditions so that it continues to be highly effective in regulating sympathetic activity and arterial blood pressure at levels that are appropriate for the particular ongoing behavior. A major challenge is to identify the central mechanisms and neural pathways that subserve such resetting in different states. A model is proposed that is capable of simulating the different ways in which baroreflex resetting is occurred. Future studies are required to determine whether this proposed model is an accurate representation of the central mechanisms responsible for baroreflex resetting.

  20. Resetting of the Baroreflex Control of Sympathetic Vasomotor Activity during Natural Behaviors: Description and Conceptual Model of Central Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dampney, Roger A. L.

    2017-01-01

    The baroreceptor reflex controls arterial pressure primarily via reflex changes in vascular resistance, rather than cardiac output. The vascular resistance in turn is dependent upon the activity of sympathetic vasomotor nerves innervating arterioles in different vascular beds. In this review, the major theme is that the baroreflex control of sympathetic vasomotor activity is not constant, but varies according to the behavioral state of the animal. In contrast to the view that was generally accepted up until the 1980s, I argue that the baroreflex control of sympathetic vasomotor activity is not inhibited or overridden during behaviors such as mental stress or exercise, but instead is reset under those conditions so that it continues to be highly effective in regulating sympathetic activity and arterial blood pressure at levels that are appropriate for the particular ongoing behavior. A major challenge is to identify the central mechanisms and neural pathways that subserve such resetting in different states. A model is proposed that is capable of simulating the different ways in which baroreflex resetting is occurred. Future studies are required to determine whether this proposed model is an accurate representation of the central mechanisms responsible for baroreflex resetting. PMID:28860965

  1. The Work–Home Interface : Linking Work-Related Wellbeing and Volunteer Work

    OpenAIRE

    Brauchli, Rebecca; Peeters, Maria C W; van Steenbergen, Elianne F.; Wehner, Theo; Hämmig, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    An abundance of research shows the benefits of participation in volunteer work for individuals, employers and the society as a whole. However, relatively little is known about the precursors of volunteer work. In this study, we aim to fill this gap by investigating to what extent work-related well-being can function as a driver of volunteer work. Moreover, building on the Conservations of Resources Theory (Hobfoll,), we propose that the relationship between work-related well-being (burnout an...

  2. The Work–Home Interface : Linking Work-Related Wellbeing and Volunteer Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brauchli, Rebecca; Peeters, Maria C W; van Steenbergen, Elianne F.; Wehner, Theo; Hämmig, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    An abundance of research shows the benefits of participation in volunteer work for individuals, employers and the society as a whole. However, relatively little is known about the precursors of volunteer work. In this study, we aim to fill this gap by investigating to what extent work-related

  3. Decay of Iconic Memory Traces Is Related to Psychometric Intelligence: A Fixed-Links Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert; Rammsayer, Thomas H.; Schweizer, Karl; Troche, Stefan J.

    2010-01-01

    Several memory processes have been examined regarding their relation to psychometric intelligence with the exception of sensory memory. This study examined the relation between decay of iconic memory traces, measured with a partial-report task, and psychometric intelligence, assessed with the Berlin Intelligence Structure test, in 111…

  4. Relational Aggression in Peer and Dating Relationships: Links to Psychological and Behavioral Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Wendy E.; Crooks, Claire V.; Wolfe, David A.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the contribution of relational aggression in adolescents' peer and dating relationships to their psychological and behavioral adjustment. In the Fall and again four months later, 1279 (646 female) grade 9 students reported on relational aggression perpetration and victimization in their romantic and peer relationships,…

  5. Reading-Related Causal Attributions for Success and Failure: Dynamic Links With Reading Skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frijters, Jan C; Tsujimoto, Kimberley C; Boada, Richard; Gottwald, Stephanie; Hill, Dina; Jacobson, Lisa A; Lovett, Maureen W; Mahone, E Mark; Willcutt, Erik G; Wolf, Maryanne; Bosson-Heenan, Joan; Gruen, Jeffrey R

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated the relation among reading skills and attributions, naming speed, and phonological awareness across a wide range of reading skill. Participants were 1,105 school-age children and youths from two understudied populations: African Americans and Hispanic Americans. Individual assessments of children ranging in age from 8 to 15 years were conducted for reading outcomes, cognitive and linguistic predictors of reading, and attributions for success and failure in reading situations. Quantile regressions were formulated to estimate these relations across the full skill span of each outcome. Reading-related attributions predicted contextual word recognition, sight word and decoding fluency, and comprehension skills. Attributions to ability in success situations were positively related to each outcome across the full span. On three reading outcomes, this relation strengthened at higher skill levels. Attributions to effort in success situations were consistently and negatively related to all reading outcomes. The results provide evidence that the strength of the relation between reading and attributions varies according to reading skill levels, with the strongest evidence for ability-based attributions in situations of reading success.

  6. Prediction of N-linked glycosylation sites using position relative features and statistical moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmal, Muhammad Aizaz; Rasool, Nouman; Khan, Yaser Daanial

    2017-01-01

    Glycosylation is one of the most complex post translation modification in eukaryotic cells. Almost 50% of the human proteome is glycosylated as glycosylation plays a vital role in various biological functions such as antigen's recognition, cell-cell communication, expression of genes and protein folding. It is a significant challenge to identify glycosylation sites in protein sequences as experimental methods are time taking and expensive. A reliable computational method is desirable for the identification of glycosylation sites. In this study, a comprehensive technique for the identification of N-linked glycosylation sites has been proposed using machine learning. The proposed predictor was trained using an up-to-date dataset through back propagation algorithm for multilayer neural network. The results of ten-fold cross-validation and other performance measures such as accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and Mathew's correlation coefficient inferred that the accuracy of proposed tool is far better than the existing systems such as Glyomine, GlycoEP, Ensemble SVM and GPP.

  7. Prediction of N-linked glycosylation sites using position relative features and statistical moments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aizaz Akmal

    Full Text Available Glycosylation is one of the most complex post translation modification in eukaryotic cells. Almost 50% of the human proteome is glycosylated as glycosylation plays a vital role in various biological functions such as antigen's recognition, cell-cell communication, expression of genes and protein folding. It is a significant challenge to identify glycosylation sites in protein sequences as experimental methods are time taking and expensive. A reliable computational method is desirable for the identification of glycosylation sites. In this study, a comprehensive technique for the identification of N-linked glycosylation sites has been proposed using machine learning. The proposed predictor was trained using an up-to-date dataset through back propagation algorithm for multilayer neural network. The results of ten-fold cross-validation and other performance measures such as accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and Mathew's correlation coefficient inferred that the accuracy of proposed tool is far better than the existing systems such as Glyomine, GlycoEP, Ensemble SVM and GPP.

  8. Viruses as the causative agent related to 'dampness' and the missing link between allergen exposure and onset of allergic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hersoug, Lars-Georg

    2005-01-01

    concentration and symptoms indicate a missing link between allergen exposure and onset of asthma. Respiratory viruses have been identified in up to 85% cases of asthma or exacerbations of asthma. The missing link between respiratory diseases and humid indoor climates could therefore be attributed to viruses...... subjects. Therefore, a humid indoor climate could also represent a higher risk for persons already sensitized to one or more allergens. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: In epidemiological studies where the relationship between moisture in the indoor climate, respiratory symptoms and exposure to allergens...... is investigated it will be necessary to analyze the role of respiratory viruses in relation to respiratory symptoms. Today, the necessary techniques to address the presence of viruses [e.g. polymerase chain reaction (PCR), antibodies] are highly sensitive. In order to further our understanding of why...

  9. Motor Control and Aging: Links to Age-Related Brain Structural, Functional, and Biochemical Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Seidler, Rachael D.; Bernard, Jessica A.; Burutolu, Taritonye B.; Fling, Brett W.; Gordon, Mark T.; Gwin, Joseph T.; Kwak, Youngbin; Lipps, David B.

    2009-01-01

    Although connections between cognitive deficits and age-associated brain differences have been elucidated, relationships with motor performance are less well understood. Here, we broadly review age-related brain differences and motor deficits in older adults in addition to cognition-action theories. Age-related atrophy of the motor cortical regions and corpus callosum may precipitate or coincide with motor declines such as balance and gait deficits, coordination deficits, and movement slowing...

  10. Linking Family Characteristics with Poor Peer Relations: The Mediating Role of Conduct Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, Karen Linn; Smoot, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Parent, teacher, and peer ratings were collected for 75 grade school boys to test the hypothesis that certain family interaction patterns would be associated with poor peer relations. Path analyses provided support for a mediational model, in which punitive and ineffective discipline was related to child conduct problems in home and school settings which, in turn, predicted poor peer relations. Further analyses suggested that distinct subgroups of boys could be identified who exhibited conduct problems at home only, at school only, in both settings, or in neither setting. Boys who exhibited cross-situational conduct problems were more likely to experience multiple concurrent problems (e.g., in both home and school settings) and were more likely than any other group to experience poor peer relations. However, only about one-third of the boys with poor peer relations in this sample exhibited problem profiles consistent with the proposed model (e.g., experienced high rates of punitive/ineffective home discipline and exhibited conduct problems in home and school settings), suggesting that the proposed model reflects one common (but not exclusive) pathway to poor peer relations. PMID:1865049

  11. Helicobacter pylori-related gastroduodenal disease in children. Diagnostic utility of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, M S; Dallal, S; Berezin, S H; Bostwick, H E; Newman, L J; Perez-Perez, G I; Blaser, M J

    1990-08-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of IgG and IgA serological tests in establishing a diagnosis of Helicobacter (Campylobacter) pylori gastric infection, 60 children presenting with chronic abdominal pain were prospectively studied. Endoscopic antral biopsies were obtained and analyzed for the presence of H. pylori using three standard methods: culture and identification of bacterial isolates, microscopic examination for morphologically characteristic bacteria, and urease production by the biopsy specimen. Concomitantly obtained serum samples were analyzed for the presence of IgG and IgA antibodies against H. pylori surface antigens using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Thirty-four of 60 (56.6%) had histological evidence of chronic active gastritis, eight of whom (13.3%) also had evidence of H. pylori infection by at least one criteria. Six of the eight infected patients had H. pylori demonstrated by all three methods. Of the eight infected patients, seven had IgG antibodies against H. pylori (sensitivity of 87%) and six had IgA antibodies (sensitivity of 75%). Among the six patients who had H. pylori infection confirmed by all three methods, all had IgG antibodies (sensitivity of 100%). In the patients without evidence of H. pylori infection, the IgG ELISA had a specificity of 96% (50/52), and the IgA ELISA had a specificity of 100% (52/52). Our data suggest that serological testing for the presence of antibodies against H. pylori may be a useful diagnostic tool in screening children with chronic abdominal pain for the presence of gastric infection with H. pylori.

  12. Sexual orientation of trans adults is not linked to outcome of transition-related health care, but worth asking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieder, Timo O; Elaut, Els; Richards, Christina; Dekker, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of contemporary transition-related care at the outset of the 20th century, sexual orientation has ben considered to be closely connected with gender identity and the developmental trajectories of trans people. Specifically, health professionals have regarded the anticipated post-transitional heterosexual behaviour of trans adults as predictive of a good outcome of cross-sex hormones and gender-confirming surgeries. This article reviews the current literature according to the question of whether the sexual orientation of trans people is linked to outcome measures following transition-related interventions. A comprehensive review was undertaken using the Medline database, searching for empirical studies published between 2010 and 2015. Out of a total of 474 studies, only 10 studies reported a follow-up of trans adults and assessed sexual orientation in the study protocol at all. Sexual orientation was predominantly assessed as homosexual versus non-homosexual related to sex assigned at birth. Only one 1 of 10 follow-up studies found a significant association according to the outcome between groups differentiated by sexual orientation. Empirically there is no link between sexual orientation and outcome of transition-related health care for trans adults. In order to provide comprehensive health care, we recommend asking for sexual behaviours, attractions and identities, as well as for gender experiences and expressions; however, this knowledge should not drive, but simply inform, such comprehensive care.

  13. Current-phase relation of a Bose-Einstein condensate flowing through a weak link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piazza, F.; Smerzi, A.; Collins, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    We study the current-phase relation of a Bose-Einstein condensate flowing through a repulsive square barrier by solving analytically the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The barrier height and width fix the current-phase relation j(δφ), which tends to j∼cos(δφ/2) for weak barriers and to the Josephson sinusoidal relation j∼sin(δφ) for strong barriers. Between these two limits, the current-phase relation depends on the barrier width. In particular, for wide-enough barriers, we observe two families of multivalued current-phase relations. Diagrams belonging to the first family, already known in the literature, can have two different positive values of the current at the same phase difference. The second family, new to our knowledge, can instead allow for three different positive currents still corresponding to the same phase difference. Finally, we show that the multivalued behavior arises from the competition between hydrodynamic and nonlinear-dispersive components of the flow, the latter due to the presence of a soliton inside the barrier region.

  14. Drug-related nephrotoxic and ototoxic reactions : a link through a predictive mechanistic commonality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdel, Bertha Maria; van Puijenbroek, Eugène P; Souverein, Patrick C; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Egberts, Antoine C G

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Drug-induced ototoxicity is a subject of interest because many diseases are treated with drugs that have potential toxic effects on the ear. There is evidence that both inner ear and kidney tissue are immunologically, biochemically and functionally related. It has been suggested that

  15. Linking Shared Organisational Context and Relational Capital through Unlearning: An Initial Empirical Investigation in SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegarra-Navarro, Juan G.; Dewhurst, Frank W.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The environment provided by an organisation to facilitate learning and create knowledge has been defined as the shared organisational context. The value to an organisation of knowledge created by the shared organisational context is called intellectual capital, of which one key component is relational capital. The purpose of this paper is…

  16. Reading-Related Causal Attributions for Success and Failure: Dynamic Links with Reading Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frijters, Jan C.; Tsujimoto, Kimberley C.; Boada, Richard; Gottwald, Stephanie; Hill, Dina; Jacobson, Lisa A.; Lovett, Maureen W.; Mahone, E. Mark; Willcutt, Erik G.; Wolf, Maryanne; Bosson-Heenan, Joan; Gruen, Jeffrey R.

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated the relation among reading skills and attributions, naming speed, and phonological awareness across a wide range of reading skill. Participants were 1,105 school-age children and youths from two understudied populations: African Americans and Hispanic Americans. Individual assessments of children ranging in age from…

  17. Linking functional and relational service quality to customer satisfaction and loyalty: differences between men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Hernández, Rosa M; Martínez-Tur, Vicente; Peiró, José M; Moliner, Carolina

    2010-04-01

    This study assessed differences between men and women in the association of perceptions of service quality with customer evaluations. Functional (efficiency with which the service is delivered) and relational (customers' emotional benefits, beyond the core performance, related to the social interaction of customers with employees) dimensions of service quality were measured as well as customer satisfaction and loyalty. The sample of 277 customers (191 men, 86 women), surveyed in 29 Mexican hotels, had a mean age of 38.1 yr. (SD=9.7) for men and 34.5 yr. (SD=11.0) for women. To be eligible for survey, customers had to have spent at least one night in the hotel in question. Analysis indicated that the women and men differed in the association of functional and relational dimensions of service quality with their satisfaction and loyalty. Functional service quality was higher for the men than the women, while relational service quality showed greater predictive power for women than for men, although these accounted for only 4% of the customers' satisfaction variance and 6% of the loyalty variance.

  18. Motor control and aging: links to age-related brain structural, functional, and biochemical effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidler, Rachael D; Bernard, Jessica A; Burutolu, Taritonye B; Fling, Brett W; Gordon, Mark T; Gwin, Joseph T; Kwak, Youngbin; Lipps, David B

    2010-04-01

    Although connections between cognitive deficits and age-associated brain differences have been elucidated, relationships with motor performance are less well understood. Here, we broadly review age-related brain differences and motor deficits in older adults in addition to cognition-action theories. Age-related atrophy of the motor cortical regions and corpus callosum may precipitate or coincide with motor declines such as balance and gait deficits, coordination deficits, and movement slowing. Correspondingly, degeneration of neurotransmitter systems-primarily the dopaminergic system-may contribute to age-related gross and fine motor declines, as well as to higher cognitive deficits. In general, older adults exhibit involvement of more widespread brain regions for motor control than young adults, particularly the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia networks. Unfortunately these same regions are the most vulnerable to age-related effects, resulting in an imbalance of "supply and demand". Existing exercise, pharmaceutical, and motor training interventions may ameliorate motor deficits in older adults. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Relation between Family Literacy Practices and Children's Literacy Development: Exploring the Link between Home and School

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Jaclyn Roverud

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between family literacy practices and children's early literacy development. Drawing from a developmental-ecological framework, this study modified existing surveys (e.g., Family Involvement Questionnaire, a.k.a. FIQ, by Fantuzzo, Tighe, & Childs, 2000) to develop the "Family…

  20. Linking up the last mile: how humanitarian power relations shape community e-resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, F.; Boersma, F.K.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present a qualitative, social network based, power analysis of relief and recovery efforts in the aftermath of the 2015 earthquakes in Nepal. We examine how the interplay between humanitarian power relations and e-resilience influenced communities’ ability to respond to the

  1. Influence of relative humidity on radiosensitivity of Aspergillus flavus Link. infecting cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoako-Atta, B.; Odamtten, G.T.; Appiah, V.

    1981-01-01

    The first part of this paper deals with the moisture sorption isotherms of dried cocoa beans under different relative humidities of 55, 65, 75, 85 or 95%. The second part evaluates the effects of relative humidity (RH), initial moisture content (m.c.) of cocoa beans, and different radiation exposure doses (0, 250, 350, 450, 500 or 550 krad) on Aspergillus flavus spore inoculated cocoa beans kept in fixed RH environmental chamber of 75 or 85% RH post-irradiation for forty days. The results discussed suggest that the m.c. of beans increased from an initial level of 6.4% to 7, 7.8 and 8.9% at 55, 65, and 75% respectively, after a storage period of 6-8 days. However, beans stored under 85% or 95% RH continued to absorb moisture from their respective environments indefinitely during the 64-day storage period. Furthermore, the ambient relative humidity to which the beans are subjected before or after irradiation significantly affect the radiosensitivity of toxigenic A. flavus; the differences in such radiosensitivity are influenced by either the available moisture or the initial m.c. of the beans to the inoculum. The authors conclude from their study that high environmental RH increased the radio-resistance of A. flavus spores making it difficult to establish a radiation decontamination level of practical value under a tropical environment with high ambient relative humidity. (author)

  2. Inhibited attachment disordered behavior in institutionalized preschool children: links with early and current relational experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corval, Raquel; Belsky, Jay; Baptista, Joana; Oliveira, Paula; Mesquita, Ana; Soares, Isabel

    2017-12-01

    Inhibited attachment disordered behavior (IADB) is characterized by difficulty in establishing an attachment relationship with a primary caregiver; is associated with persistent social and emotional problems; and is observed most frequently in contexts of pathological care such as institutional rearing. Here, we seek to enhance understanding of the conditions that give rise to IADB among institutionalized children by examining prior family experiences of neglect and deprivation and concurrent relational experiences at the institution. The sample is comprised of 146 children, between 36 and 78 months. IADB was assessed using a semi-structured interview administered to the child's primary caregiver. Results revealed that both pre-institutionalization experiences (e.g. parental abandonment) and current relational ones (e.g. low quality of child-caregiver relationship) predicted IADB. Findings are discussed in light of the need to promote conditions which foster the establishment and maintenance of the child's selective attachment to a caregiving figure.

  3. Dark personality traits and impulsivity among adolescents: Differential links to problem behaviors and family relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubas, Judith Semon; Baams, Laura; Doornwaard, Suzan M; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2017-10-01

    Research on how dark personality traits develop and relate to risky behaviors and family relations during adolescence is scarce. This study used a person-oriented approach to examine (a) whether distinct groups of adolescents could be identified based on their developmental profiles of callous-unemotional (CU), grandiose manipulative (GM), and dysfunctional impulsivity (DI) traits and (b) whether these groups differ in their problem behaviors and parent-adolescent relationship quality. Latent class growth analyses on 4-wave data of 1,131 Dutch adolescents revealed 3 personality profiles: (1) a dark impulsive group (13.9%), with high scores on all 3 traits (CU, GM, and DI) that were stable over time; (2) an impulsive group (26.1%), with high and increasing levels of impulsivity and relatively low scores on CU and GM; and (3) and a low risk group (60.0%), with relatively low levels on all 3 personality characteristics, with impulsivity decreasing over time. Compared with adolescents in the low risk group, adolescents in the dark impulsive and impulsive groups reported higher initial levels of substance use, sexual risk behaviors, permissive sexual attitudes, parent-adolescent conflict, and lower parent-adolescent satisfaction, as well as greater increases in sexual risk behavior over time. Compared with adolescents in the impulsive group, those in the dark impulsive group showed the highest levels of risk behaviors. Hence, dark personality traits coupled with impulsivity may be indicative of an earlier and more severe trajectory of problem behaviors that may differ from the trajectory of youth who are only impulsive. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Linking public relations processes and organizational effectiveness at a state health department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored a state health department's relationships with strategic constituencies from a public relations perspective. The relationships were explored within the theoretical framework of the Excellence Theory, the dominant paradigm in public research. Findings indicate application of the Excellence Theory has the potential to increase organizational effectiveness at public health entities. With respect to the case investigated, findings indicate that the state health department could increase its organizational effectiveness through the adoption of recommendations based on the Excellence Theory.

  5. A Diaphanous-related formin links Ras signaling directly to actin assembly in macropinocytosis and phagocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junemann, Alexander; Filić, Vedrana; Winterhoff, Moritz; Nordholz, Benjamin; Litschko, Christof; Schwellenbach, Helena; Stephan, Till; Weber, Igor; Faix, Jan

    2016-11-22

    Phagocytosis and macropinocytosis are Ras-regulated and actin-driven processes that depend on the dynamic rearrangements of the plasma membrane that protrudes and internalizes extracellular material by cup-shaped structures. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying actin assembly in large-scale endocytosis remain elusive. Here, we show that the Diaphanous-related formin G (ForG) from the professional phagocyte Dictyostelium discoideum localizes to endocytic cups. Biochemical analyses revealed that ForG is a rather weak nucleator but efficiently elongates actin filaments in the presence of profilin. Notably, genetic inactivation of ForG is associated with a strongly impaired endocytosis and a markedly diminished F-actin content at the base of the cups. By contrast, ablation of the Arp2/3 (actin-related protein-2/3) complex activator SCAR (suppressor of cAMP receptor) diminishes F-actin mainly at the cup rim, being consistent with its known localization. These data therefore suggest that ForG acts as an actin polymerase of Arp2/3-nucleated filaments to allow for efficient membrane expansion and engulfment of extracellular material. Finally, we show that ForG is directly regulated in large-scale endocytosis by RasB and RasG, which are highly related to the human proto-oncogene KRas.

  6. Medical Care Tasks among Spousal Dementia Caregivers: Links to Care-Related Sleep Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polenick, Courtney A; Leggett, Amanda N; Maust, Donovan T; Kales, Helen C

    2018-02-01

    Medical care tasks are commonly provided by spouses caring for persons living with dementia (PLWDs). These tasks reflect complex care demands that may interfere with sleep, yet their implications for caregivers' sleep outcomes are unknown. The authors evaluated the association between caregivers' medical/nursing tasks (keeping track of medications; managing tasks such as ostomy care, intravenous lines, or blood testing; giving shots/injections; and caring for skin wounds/sores) and care-related sleep disturbances. A retrospective analysis of cross-sectional data from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study and National Study of Caregiving was conducted. Spousal caregivers and PLWDs/proxies were interviewed by telephone at home. The U.S. sample included 104 community-dwelling spousal caregivers and PLWDs. Caregivers reported on their sociodemographic and health characteristics, caregiving stressors, negative caregiving relationship quality, and sleep disturbances. PLWDs (or proxies) reported on their health conditions and sleep problems. Caregivers who performed a higher number of medical/nursing tasks reported significantly more frequent care-related sleep disturbances, controlling for sociodemographic and health characteristics, caregiving stressors, negative caregiving relationship quality, and PLWDs' sleep problems and health conditions. Post hoc tests showed that wound care was independently associated with more frequent care-related sleep disturbances after accounting for the other medical/nursing tasks and covariates. Spousal caregivers of PLWDs who perform medical/nursing tasks may be at heightened risk for sleep disturbances and associated adverse health consequences. Interventions to promote the well-being of both care partners may benefit from directly addressing caregivers' needs and concerns about their provision of medical/nursing care. Copyright © 2018 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  7. Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy and phase resetting of the sinoatrial node: A conjecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantini, Federico; Varanini, Maurizio; Macerata, Alberto; Piacenti, Marcello; Morales, Maria-Aurora; Balocchi, Rita

    2007-03-01

    Congestive heart failure is a severe chronic disease often associated with disorders that alter the mechanisms of excitation-contraction coupling that may result in an asynchronous left ventricular motion which may further impair the ability of the failing heart to eject blood. In recent years a therapeutic approach to resynchronize the ventricles (cardiac resynchronization therapy, CRT) has been performed through the use of a pacemaker device able to provide atrial-based biventricular stimulation. Atrial lead senses the spontaneous occurrence of cells depolarization and sends the information to the generator which, in turn, after a settled delay [atrioventricular (AV) delay], sends electrical impulses to both ventricles to stimulate their synchronous contraction. Recent studies performed on heart rate behavior of chronically implanted patients at different epochs after implantation have shown that CRT can lead to sustained overall improvement of heart function with a reduction in morbidity and mortality. At this moment, however, there are no studies about CRT effects on spontaneous heart activity of chronically implanted patients. We performed an experimental study in which the electrocardiographic signal of five subjects under chronic CRT was recorded during the activity of the pacemaker programmed at different AV delays and under spontaneous cardiac activity after pacemaker deactivation. The different behavior of heart rate variability during pacemaker activity and after pacemaker deactivation suggested the hypothesis of a phase resetting mechanism induced by the pacemaker stimulus on the sinoatrial (SA) node, a phenomenon already known in literature for aggregate of cardiac cells, but still unexplored in vivo. The constraints imposed by the nature of our study (in vivo tests) made it impossible to plan an experiment to prove our hypothesis directly. We therefore considered the best attainable result would be to prove the accordance of our data to the conjecture

  8. AltitudeOmics: Resetting of cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity following acclimatization to high altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Lin eFan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies reported enhanced cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity upon ascent to high altitude using linear models. However, there is evidence that this response may be sigmoidal in nature. Moreover, it was speculated that these changes at high altitude are mediated by alterations in acid-base buffering. Accordingly, we reanalyzed previously published data to assess middle cerebral blood flow velocity (MCAv responses to modified rebreathing at sea level (SL, upon ascent (ALT1 and following 16 days of acclimatization (ALT16 to 5,260 m in 21 lowlanders. Using sigmoid curve fitting of the MCAv responses to CO2, we found the amplitude (95% vs. 129%, SL vs. ALT1, 95% confidence intervals (CI [77, 112], [111, 145], respectively, P=0.024 and the slope of the sigmoid response (4.5 vs. 7.5 %/mmHg, SL vs. ALT1, 95% CIs [3.1, 5.9], [6.0, 9.0], respectively, P=0.026 to be enhanced at ALT1, which persisted with acclimatization at ALT16 (amplitude: 177%, 95% CI [139, 215], P<0.001; slope: 10.3 %/mmHg, 95% CI [8.2, 12.5], P=0.003 compared to SL. Meanwhile, the sigmoidal response midpoint was unchanged at ALT1 (SL: 36.5 mmHg; ALT1: 35.4 mmHg, 95% CIs [34.0, 39.0], [33.1, 37.7], respectively, P=0.982, while it was reduced by ~7 mmHg at ALT16 (28.6 mmHg, 95% CI [26.4, 30.8], P=0.001 vs. SL, indicating leftward shift of the cerebrovascular CO2 response to a lower arterial partial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2 following acclimatization to altitude. Sigmoid fitting revealed a leftward shift in the midpoint of the cerebrovascular response curve which could not be observed with linear fitting. These findings demonstrate that there is resetting of the cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity operating point to a lower PaCO2 following acclimatization to high altitude. This cerebrovascular resetting is likely the result of an altered acid-base buffer status resulting from prolonged exposure to the severe hypocapnia associated with ventilatory acclimatization to high altitude.

  9. Construction of an integrated gene regulatory network link to stress-related immune system in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behdani, Elham; Bakhtiarizadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2017-10-01

    The immune system is an important biological system that is negatively impacted by stress. This study constructed an integrated regulatory network to enhance our understanding of the regulatory gene network used in the stress-related immune system. Module inference was used to construct modules of co-expressed genes with bovine leukocyte RNA-Seq data. Transcription factors (TFs) were then assigned to these modules using Lemon-Tree algorithms. In addition, the TFs assigned to each module were confirmed using the promoter analysis and protein-protein interactions data. Therefore, our integrated method identified three TFs which include one TF that is previously known to be involved in immune response (MYBL2) and two TFs (E2F8 and FOXS1) that had not been recognized previously and were identified for the first time in this study as novel regulatory candidates in immune response. This study provides valuable insights on the regulatory programs of genes involved in the stress-related immune system.

  10. The missing link between sleep disorders and age-related dementia: recent evidence and plausible mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Zhong, Rujia; Li, Song; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; Le, Weidong

    2017-05-01

    Sleep disorders are among the most common clinical problems and possess a significant concern for the geriatric population. More importantly, while around 40% of elderly adults have sleep-related complaints, sleep disorders are more frequently associated with co-morbidities including age-related neurodegenerative diseases and mild cognitive impairment. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that disturbed sleep may not only serve as the consequence of brain atrophy, but also contribute to the pathogenesis of dementia and, therefore, significantly increase dementia risk. Since the current therapeutic interventions lack efficacies to prevent, delay or reverse the pathological progress of dementia, a better understanding of underlying mechanisms by which sleep disorders interact with the pathogenesis of dementia will provide possible targets for the prevention and treatment of dementia. In this review, we briefly describe the physiological roles of sleep in learning/memory, and specifically update the recent research evidence demonstrating the association between sleep disorders and dementia. Plausible mechanisms are further discussed. Moreover, we also evaluate the possibility of sleep therapy as a potential intervention for dementia.

  11. The rise of global health diplomacy: An interdisciplinary concept linking health and international relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattu, Vijay Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Global health diplomacy (GHD) is relatively a very new field that has yet to be clearly defined and developed though there are various definitions given by different experts from foreign policy, global health, diplomacy, international relations, governance, and law. With the intensification of globalization and increasing gaps between countries, new and reemerging health threats such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Ebola, and Zika and a gradual rethinking on security concepts framed a new political context. The health problems addressed diplomatically have also become diverse ranging from neglected tropical diseases, infectious diseases, sale of unsafe, counterfeit drugs to brain drain crisis. We see that global health has become more diverse as the actors widened and also the interests appealing not only to the traditional humanitarian ideals associated with health but also to the principles grounded in national and global security. Recently, we are witnessing the increased priority given to the GHD because the issue of health is discussed by various actors outside the WHO to shape the global policy for health determinants. In fact, the area of health has become the part of UN Summit Diplomacy involving the G8, G20, BRICS, and the EU. The recent WHO Pandemic Influenza Framework, UN High Level Framework on Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases, and the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control are some of the examples of long-term negotiation processes for agreements that took place.

  12. The links between healthy, problematic, and addicted Internet use regarding comorbidities and self-concept-related characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leménager, Tagrid; Hoffmann, Sabine; Dieter, Julia; Reinhard, Iris; Mann, Karl; Kiefer, Falk

    2018-03-01

    Background Addicted Internet users present with higher rates of comorbidities, e.g., attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depressive, and anxiety disorders. In addition, deficits in self-concept-related characteristics were found in addicted Internet gamers and social network users. The aim of this study was to examine the links between healthy, problematic, and addicted Internet use regarding comorbidities and self-concept-related characteristics. The association between recently developed ADHD-like symptoms without an underlying diagnosis and addictive Internet use was also examined. Methods n = 79 healthy controls, n = 35 problematic, and n = 93 addicted Internet users were assessed for comorbidities, social and emotional competencies, body image, self-esteem, and perceived stress. Apart from an ADHD-diagnosis, recently developed ADHD-like symptoms were also assessed. Results Addicted users showed more self-concept-related deficits and higher rates of comorbidities with ADHD, depressive, and anxiety disorders. Addicted and problematic users showed similarities in the prevalence of cluster B personality disorders and decreased levels of characteristics related to emotional intelligence. Participants with recently developed ADHD-like symptoms scored higher in lifetime and current severity of Internet use compared with those without ADHD symptoms. Addicted participants with recently developed ADHD symptoms showed higher lifetime Internet use severity compared with those without any symptoms. Conclusions Our findings indicate that cluster B personality disorders and premorbid problems in emotional intelligence might present a link between problematic and addictive Internet use. Furthermore, the findings provide a first indication that addictive Internet use is related to ADHD-like symptoms. Symptoms of ADHD should therefore be assessed against the background of possible addicted Internet use.

  13. Is butyrate the link between diet, intestinal microbiota and obesity-related metabolic diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahe, L K; Astrup, A; Larsen, L H

    2013-12-01

    It is increasingly recognized that there is a connection between diet, intestinal microbiota, intestinal barrier function and the low-grade inflammation that characterizes the progression from obesity to metabolic disturbances, making dietary strategies to modulate the intestinal environment relevant. In this context, the ability of some Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria to produce the short-chain fatty acid butyrate is interesting. A lower abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria has been associated with metabolic risk in humans, and recent studies suggest that butyrate might have an anti-inflammatory potential that can alleviate obesity-related metabolic complications, possibly due to its ability to enhance the intestinal barrier function. Here, we review and discuss the potential of butyrate as an anti-inflammatory mediator in metabolic diseases, and the potential for dietary interventions increasing the intestinal availability of butyrate. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  14. Water Relations Link Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Discrimination to Phloem Sap Sugar Concentration in Eucalyptus globulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernusak, Lucas A.; Arthur, David J.; Pate, John S.; Farquhar, Graham D.

    2003-01-01

    A strong correlation was previously observed between carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C) of phloem sap sugars and phloem sap sugar concentration in the phloem-bleeding tree Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (J. Pate, E. Shedley, D. Arthur, M. Adams [1998] Oecologia 117: 312–322). We hypothesized that correspondence between these two parameters results from covarying responses to plant water potential. We expected Δ13C to decrease with decreasing plant water potential and phloem sap sugar concentration to increase, thereby maintaining turgor within sieve tubes. The hypothesis was tested with analyses of E. globulus trees growing on opposite ends of a rainfall gradient in southwestern Australia. The Δ13C of phloem sap sugars was closely related to phloem sap sugar concentration (r = −0.90, P globulus. PMID:12692314

  15. Growing inter-Asian connections: Links, rivalries, and challenges in South Korean–Central Asian relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Fumagalli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The geopolitical context, which emerged from the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, combined with Korea's growing economic prowess, enabled greater dynamism and diversification in Seoul's foreign policy-making. Growing pressure from energy-intensive economies coupled with new developments and investment in logistics and infrastructure has brought different parts of the Eurasian landmass closer together in recent years. Inter-Asian connections are especially growing. This article uses the case of deepening relations between Korea and the post-Soviet Central Asian republics as a vantage point to reflect on one such example of unfolding Asian inter-connectedness. In addition it sees Seoul's engagement in the region as a fitting example of Korea's broader ambitions to assert itself as a global economic player. The article shows that Korea's policy toward Central Asia has been primarily driven by energy needs and is defined by pragmatism. It finds that the economic dimension of the relationship has greatly overshadowed other aspects such as politics and security. In its pursuit of closer ties with the region Seoul has sought to turn structural weaknesses into added value and has attempted to develop a distinctive, non-threatening profile built around the lack of a political baggage and geopolitical ambitions, and the desire to share its experience of formerly impoverished turned leading economy. In turn, Central Asia's selective integration in the world economy has continued, also thanks to its ties with Korea. The Central Asian republics welcomed the opportunity to diversify their foreign relations, the sources of foreign investment and export routes. At the same time the opaque business environment, a leadership succession, which cannot be postponed for much longer, and Seoul's “no-strings attached” approach expose Korea to some risks as regime stability might not last forever.

  16. Linking Excessive Heat with Daily Heat-Related Mortality over the Coterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Crosson, William L.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, extreme heat is the most deadly weather-related hazard. In the face of a warming climate and urbanization, which contributes to local-scale urban heat islands, it is very likely that extreme heat events (EHEs) will become more common and more severe in the U.S. This research seeks to provide historical and future measures of climate-driven extreme heat events to enable assessments of the impacts of heat on public health over the coterminous U.S. We use atmospheric temperature and humidity information from meteorological reanalysis and from Global Climate Models (GCMs) to provide data on past and future heat events. The focus of research is on providing assessments of the magnitude, frequency and geographic distribution of extreme heat in the U.S. to facilitate public health studies. In our approach, long-term climate change is captured with GCM outputs, and the temporal and spatial characteristics of short-term extremes are represented by the reanalysis data. Two future time horizons for 2040 and 2090 are compared to the recent past period of 1981- 2000. We characterize regional-scale temperature and humidity conditions using GCM outputs for two climate change scenarios (A2 and A1B) defined in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES). For each future period, 20 years of multi-model GCM outputs are analyzed to develop a 'heat stress climatology' based on statistics of extreme heat indicators. Differences between the two future and the past period are used to define temperature and humidity changes on a monthly time scale and regional spatial scale. These changes are combined with the historical meteorological data, which is hourly and at a spatial scale (12 km) much finer than that of GCMs, to create future climate realizations. From these realizations, we compute the daily heat stress measures and related spatially-specific climatological fields, such as the mean annual number of days above certain thresholds of maximum and minimum air

  17. LINKING MOTOR-RELATED BRAIN POTENTIALS AND VELOCITY PROFILES IN MULTI-JOINT ARM REACHING MOVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julià L Amengual

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of the movement related brain potentials (MRPBs needs accurate technical approaches to disentangle the specific patterns of bran activity during the preparation and execution of movements. During the last forty years, synchronizing the electromiographic activation (EMG of the muscle with the electrophysiological recordings (EEG has been commonly ussed for these purposes. However, new clinical approaches in the study of motor diseases and rehabilitation suggest the demand of new paradigms that might go further into the study of the brain activity associated with the kinematics of movement. As a response to this call, we have used a 3-D hand tracking system with the aim to record continuously the position of an ultrasonic sender located on the hand during the performance of multi-joint self-pace movements. We synchronized the time-series of position of velocity of the sender with the EEG recordings, obtaining specific patterns of brain activity as a function of the fluctuations of the kinematics during the natural movement performance. Additionally, the distribution of the brain activity during the preparation and execution phases of movement was similar that reported previously using the EMG, suggesting the validity of our technique. We claim that this paradigm could be usable in patients because of its simplicity and the potential knowledge that can be extracted from clinical protocols.

  18. Changes in the zonal propagation of El Niño-related SST anomalies: a possible link to the PDO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antico, Pablo L.; Barros, Vicente R.

    2017-07-01

    Long-term variability of El Niño (EN) cycle has been the topic of several studies, mainly because of its impacts on climate around the globe. This variability has been mainly described by changes in the intensity and frequency of EN events. In this study, interdecadal changes in the zonal evolution of EN-related sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) and their possible link with a well-known mode of Pacific interdecadal variability are analyzed. EN events are classified according to the sense of zonal propagation of SSTA along the equatorial Pacific during the period 1900-2012. As a result, two types of EN are defined: eastward-directed and westward-directed EN. It is found that EN-related SSTA preferably evolves to the east (west) during the warm (cold) phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Hence, this study offers new insights into the possible causes of long-term EN changes.

  19. Patient relation management: a relevant solution to connect the links of a healthcare chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel-Verkerke, Margreet B; Spil, Ton A; Schuring, Roel W

    2003-01-01

    The USIT-tool is used to investigate the health care chain of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) in a Dutch region. The advantage of the USIT-tool is that is results in insight in the relevant problems, solutions and constraints of the caregivers both in the organisational and the information technological area. The main problem in the MS-health care chain proved to be the lack of co-ordination and the inefficient communication between caregivers. Although most caregivers were convinced of the need to improve delivered care for MS-patient, most of them also expressed that they would spend little time and energy on improving MS-care, because of the low relevance of MS-care compared to other kinds of care. To improve care, taking in account this constraint we propose to build a Patient Relation Management (PRM) System. A PRM is a simple web-based application that is based on agreement by the caregivers about the route an MS-patient should follow through health care. PRM supports routing, tracking and tracing of a patient and supplies the caregivers with professional guidelines. The PRM-concept can easily be expanded to other patient groups or diseases and can serve as a first step to a regional Electronic Patient Record. It is likely that we would have suggested a far more complicated ICT solution if we had only analysed the MS-care process as such, without specific consideration of the USIT dimensions. The USIT analysis helped us to balance the breadth of the proposed solution with the nature of the situation the future users of the system are in.

  20. Regorafenib-induced hypothyroidism and cancer-related fatigue: is there a potential link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Fabiana; Massidda, Matteo; Pusceddu, Valeria; Puzzoni, Marco; Massa, Elena; Madeddu, Clelia; Scartozzi, Mario; Mariotti, Stefano

    2017-07-01

    Thyroid dysfunction has been reported during Regorafenib (Reg) administration, but no detailed study is presently available. Prospective, observational cohort study. Patients with documented metastatic colorectal cancer and progression of disease during or within 3 months after the last standard therapy, with no evidence and history of previous thyroid disease were enrolled. Twenty-five consecutive patients were evaluated before and 8-50 weeks after initiating Reg therapy by monthly clinical, ultrasound and laboratory (thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), antithyroglobulin (TgAb) and antithyroid peroxidase (TPOAb)) evaluation. Thirteen/25 patients (52%) became hypothyroid (TSH: 12.5 ± 4.01 IU/L, range: 4.6-22.0) within 5 months of therapy. TPOAb became detectable (99-155 IU/mL) in 2/25 (8%) patients. Thyroid volume progressively decreased (from 8.6  ±  2.2 mL to 4.9 ± 2.4 mL after 5 months of Reg therapy, P  hypothyroidism (43 weeks) than in those remaining euthyroid (17 weeks, P  hypothyroidism severity and reversed after levothyroxine therapy (L-T4). Reg rapidly causes hypothyroidism in about 50% of patients and in a minority of them also triggers thyroid autoimmunity. Reg-induced hypothyroidism was strictly related to fatigue, easily reversed by L-T4 administration and associated to longer survival. These results suggest that prompt recognition of hypothyroidism in patients with severe fatigue may prevent unnecessary Reg dose reduction or withdrawal. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  1. A novel pulse processing scheme using embedded pulsed reset charge sensitive preamplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, G.; Jayapandian, J.; Sheela, O. K.; Amarendra, G.

    2016-05-01

    A novel, cost effective pulse height digitization scheme for spectroscopy applications, utilizing a CMOS analog switch as reset element in the feedback of preamplifier stage is designed. The CMOS switch resistance is controlled by a signal generated from a firmware, run in parallel with a digitizer. While the very high open-state resistance of the switch reduces the thermal noise in the preamplifier output, eliminating the need for pulse shaping, it increases the probability of pulse pile-up. A state machine run in conjunction with the firmware eliminates the pile-up event error contribution by prompting the firmware to prevent the piled-up pulse levels from getting registered. The Pulse height digitization and pile up elimination functions are implemented on a single-chip Programmable System on Chip (PSoC) mixed signal platform from Cypress Semiconductor. The digitized pulse heights are communicated to a PC based virtual instrument graphical user interface developed using National Instruments Lab VIEW. The new scheme is functionally verified with Planar PIN diode detectors in obtaining alpha particle spectra.

  2. Coordinated reset stimulation in a large-scale model of the STN-GPe circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eEbert

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Synchronization of populations of neurons is a hallmark of several brain diseases. Coordinated reset (CR stimulation is a model-based stimulation technique which specifically counteracts abnormal synchrony by desynchronization. Electrical CR stimulation, e.g. for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD, is administered via depth electrodes. In order to get a deeper understanding of this technique, we extended the top-down approach of previous studies and constructed a large-scale computational model of the respective brain areas. Furthermore, we took into account the spatial anatomical properties of the simulated brain structures and incor- porated a detailed numerical representation of 2·104 simulated neurons. We simulated the subthalamic nucleus (STN and the globus pallidus externus (GPe. Connections within the STN were governed by spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP. In this way, we modeled the physiological and pathological activity of the considered brain structures. In particular, we investigated how plasticity could be exploited and how the model could be shifted from strongly synchronized (pathological activity to strongly desynchronized (healthy activity of the neuronal populations via CR stimulation of the STN neurons. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of specific stimulation parameters especially the electrode position on the stimulation outcome. Our model provides a step forward towards a biophysically realistic model of the brain areas relevant to the emergence of pathological neuronal activity in PD. Furthermore, our model constitutes a test bench for the optimization of both stimulation parameters and novel electrode geometries for efficient CR stimulation.

  3. High amplitude phase resetting in rev-erbalpha/per1 double mutant mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Jud

    Full Text Available Over time, organisms developed various strategies to adapt to their environment. Circadian clocks are thought to have evolved to adjust to the predictable rhythms of the light-dark cycle caused by the rotation of the Earth around its own axis. The rhythms these clocks generate persist even in the absence of environmental cues with a period of about 24 hours. To tick in time, they continuously synchronize themselves to the prevailing photoperiod by appropriate phase shifts. In this study, we disrupted two molecular components of the mammalian circadian oscillator, Rev-Erbalpha and Period1 (Per1. We found that mice lacking these genes displayed robust circadian rhythms with significantly shorter periods under constant darkness conditions. Strikingly, they showed high amplitude resetting in response to a brief light pulse at the end of their subjective night phase, which is rare in mammals. Surprisingly, Cry1, a clock component not inducible by light in mammals, became slightly inducible in these mice. Taken together, Rev-Erbalpha and Per1 may be part of a mechanism preventing drastic phase shifts in mammals.

  4. Qualitative models and experimental investigation of chaotic NOR gates and set/reset flip-flops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Aminur; Jordan, Ian; Blackmore, Denis

    2018-01-01

    It has been observed through experiments and SPICE simulations that logical circuits based upon Chua's circuit exhibit complex dynamical behaviour. This behaviour can be used to design analogues of more complex logic families and some properties can be exploited for electronics applications. Some of these circuits have been modelled as systems of ordinary differential equations. However, as the number of components in newer circuits increases so does the complexity. This renders continuous dynamical systems models impractical and necessitates new modelling techniques. In recent years, some discrete dynamical models have been developed using various simplifying assumptions. To create a robust modelling framework for chaotic logical circuits, we developed both deterministic and stochastic discrete dynamical models, which exploit the natural recurrence behaviour, for two chaotic NOR gates and a chaotic set/reset flip-flop. This work presents a complete applied mathematical investigation of logical circuits. Experiments on our own designs of the above circuits are modelled and the models are rigorously analysed and simulated showing surprisingly close qualitative agreement with the experiments. Furthermore, the models are designed to accommodate dynamics of similarly designed circuits. This will allow researchers to develop ever more complex chaotic logical circuits with a simple modelling framework.

  5. Transgenerational inheritance or resetting of stress-induced epigenetic modifications: two sides of the same coin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny J Tricker

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The transgenerational inheritance of stress-induced epigenetic modifications is still controversial. Despite several examples of defence ‘priming’ and induced genetic rearrangements, the involvement and persistence of transgenerational epigenetic modifications is not known to be general. Here I argue that non-transmission of epigenetic marks through meiosis may be regarded as an epigenetic modification in itself, and that we should understand the implications for plant evolution in the context of both selection for and selection against transgenerational epigenetic memory. Recent data suggest that both epigenetic inheritance and resetting are mechanistically directed and targeted. Stress-induced epigenetic modifications may buffer against DNA sequence-based evolution to maintain plasticity, or may form part of plasticity’s adaptive potential. To date we have tended to concentrate on the question of whether and for how long epigenetic memory persists. I argue that we should now re-direct our question to investigate the differences between where it persists and where it does not, to understand the higher order evolutionary methods in play and their contribution.

  6. A static pressure reset control system with a new type of flow damper for use in low pressure ventilation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkildsen, Søren; Svendsen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    The control strategy for mechanical ventilation systems has significant impact on the performance of the system, in terms of energy consumption and correct air distribution. This paper presents a static pressure reset control system employing a new type of flow damper with lower pressure loss...... for use in low pressure ventilation systems. The flow damper has a droplet shape that minimizes turbulence generation and the resulting pressure loss. The performance of the damper was examined by making measurements of pressure loss and airflow. These were used to determine the required pressure loss...... for operation and the airflow accuracy. Results were compared to similar tests carried out with conventional flat plate dampers. A static pressure reset control algorithm was programmed and analyzed on a test system consisting of three dampers, representing three office rooms. The comparison of the dampers...

  7. Absorbing aerosols at high relative humidity: linking hygroscopic growth to optical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Michel Flores

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the major uncertainties in the understanding of Earth's climate system is the interaction between solar radiation and aerosols in the atmosphere. Aerosols exposed to high humidity will change their chemical, physical, and optical properties due to their increased water content. To model hydrated aerosols, atmospheric chemistry and climate models often use the volume weighted mixing rule to predict the complex refractive index (RI of aerosols when they interact with high relative humidity, and, in general, assume homogeneous mixing. This study explores the validity of these assumptions. A humidified cavity ring down aerosol spectrometer (CRD-AS and a tandem hygroscopic DMA (differential mobility analyzer are used to measure the extinction coefficient and hygroscopic growth factors of humidified aerosols, respectively. The measurements are performed at 80% and 90%RH at wavelengths of 532 nm and 355 nm using size-selected aerosols with different degrees of absorption; from purely scattering to highly absorbing particles. The ratio of the humidified to the dry extinction coefficients (fRHext(%RH, Dry is measured and compared to theoretical calculations based on Mie theory. Using the measured hygroscopic growth factors and assuming homogeneous mixing, the expected RIs using the volume weighted mixing rule are compared to the RIs derived from the extinction measurements.

    We found a weak linear dependence or no dependence of fRH(%RH, Dry with size for hydrated absorbing aerosols in contrast to the non-monotonically decreasing behavior with size for purely scattering aerosols. No discernible difference could be made between the two wavelengths used. Less than 7% differences were found between the real parts of the complex refractive indices derived and those calculated using the volume weighted mixing rule, and the imaginary parts had up to a 20% difference. However, for substances with growth factor less than 1

  8. Dynamic Relation Logic Is the Logic of DPL-Relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we prove that the principles in the language with relation composition and dynamic implication, valid for all binary relations, are the same ones as the principles valid when we restrict ourselves to DPL-relations ,i.e. relations generated from conditions (tests) and resettings.

  9. Sensation and Psychiatry: Linking Age-Related Hearing Loss to Late-Life Depression and Cognitive Decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Bret R; Brewster, Katharine; Golub, Justin S; Kim, Ana H; Roose, Steven P

    2018-03-01

    Recent research has linked age-related hearing loss to impaired performance across cognitive domains and increased risk for dementia diagnosis. The data linking hearing impairment to incident late-life depression are more mixed but suggest that diminished hearing does increase risk for depression. Behavioral mechanisms may explain these associations, such as the withdrawal of older adults from situations in which they may have difficulty hearing and communicating, which may contribute to the development of social isolation, loneliness, and consequent cognitive decline and depression. At a neural level, chronic hearing loss leads to reduced activation in central auditory pathways, resulting in compensatory increased activation in the cognitive control network, dysfunctional auditory-limbic connectivity, and deafferentation-induced atrophy in frontal brain regions. These pathologic changes decrease cognitive performance and increase depression risk by reducing cognitive reserve, increasing executive dysfunction, and disrupting normative emotion reactivity and regulation. Based on the available data and informed by this model, evidence-based suggestions are proposed for clinicians treating older adults, and a research agenda is advanced to facilitate the development of rationally designed and age-appropriate psychiatric treatments for older adults with age-related hearing loss. First and foremost, treating hearing loss should be investigated as a means of improving cognitive and depressive outcomes in well-designed studies incorporating comprehensive psychiatric assessments, randomization, objective documentation of compliance, and analyses of treatment mediators that will facilitate further therapeutic development. Multimodal neuroimaging studies integrating audiometric, neuropsychological, and clinical assessments also are needed to further evaluate the model proposed. [AJP at 175: Remembering Our Past As We Envision Our Future April 1995: Effect of Hearing

  10. Quantitative variation in obesity-related traits and insulin precursors linked to the OB gene region on human chromosome 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggirala, R.; Stern, M.P.; Reinhart, L.J. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    Despite the evidence that human obesity has strong genetic determinants, efforts at identifying specific genes that influence human obesity have largely been unsuccessful. Using the sibship data obtained from 32 low-income Mexican American pedigrees ascertained on a type II diabetic proband and a multipoint variance-components method, we tested for linkage between various obesity-related traits plus associated metabolic traits and 15 markers on human chromosome 7. We found evidence for linkage between markers in the OB gene region and various traits, as follows: D7S514 and extremity skinfolds (LOD = 3.1), human carboxypeptidase A1 (HCPA1) and 32,33-split proinsulin level (LOD = 4.2), and HCPA1 and proinsulin level (LOD = 3.2). A putative susceptibility locus linked to the marker D7S514 explained 56% of the total phenotypic variation in extremity skinfolds. Variation at the HCPA1 locus explained 64% of phenotypic variation in proinsulin level and {approximately}73% of phenotypic variation in split proinsulin concentration, respectively. Weaker evidence for linkage to several other obesity-related traits (e.g., waist circumference, body-mass index, fat mass by bioimpedance, etc.) was observed for a genetic location, which is {approximately}15 cM telomeric to OB. In conclusion, our study reveals that the OB region plays a significant role in determining the phenotypic variation of both insulin precursors and obesity-related traits, at least in Mexican Americans. 66 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. C1q/TNF-related protein 6 (CTRP6) links obesity to adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xia; Seldin, Marcus M; Little, Hannah C; Choy, Nicholas; Klonisch, Thomas; Wong, G William

    2017-09-08

    Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, and metabolic regulators linking obesity to inflammation have therefore received much attention. Secreted C1q/TNF-related proteins (CTRPs) are one such group of regulators that regulate glucose and fat metabolism in peripheral tissues and modulate inflammation in adipose tissue. We have previously shown that expression of CTRP6 is up-regulated in leptin-deficient mice and, conversely, down-regulated by the anti-diabetic drug rosiglitazone. Here, we provide evidence for a novel role of CTRP6 in modulating both inflammation and insulin sensitivity. We found that in obese and diabetic humans and mouse models, CTRP6 expression was markedly up-regulated in adipose tissue and that stromal vascular cells, such as macrophages, are a major CTRP6 source. Overexpressing mouse or human CTRP6 impaired glucose disposal in peripheral tissues in response to glucose and insulin challenge in wild-type mice. Conversely, Ctrp6 gene deletion improved insulin action and increased metabolic rate and energy expenditure in diet-induced obese mice. Mechanistically, CTRP6 regulates local inflammation and glucose metabolism by targeting macrophages and adipocytes, respectively. In cultured macrophages, recombinant CTRP6 dose-dependently up-regulated the expression and production of TNF-α. Conversely, CTRP6 deficiency reduced circulating inflammatory cytokines and pro-inflammatory macrophages in adipose tissue. CTRP6-overexpressing mice or CTRP6-treated adipocytes had reduced insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and glucose uptake. In contrast, loss of CTRP6 enhanced insulin-stimulated Akt activation in adipose tissue. Together, these results establish CTRP6 as a novel metabolic/immune regulator linking obesity to adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Are the metabolomic responses to folivory of closely related plant species linked to macroevolutionary and plant-folivore coevolutionary processes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas-Ubach, Albert [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99354 USA; CREAF, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain; Hódar, José A. [Grupo de Ecología Terrestre, Departamento de Biología Animal y Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada Spain; Sardans, Jordi [CREAF, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain; CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain; Kyle, Jennifer E. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99354 USA; Kim, Young-Mo [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99354 USA; Oravec, Michal [Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Bĕlidla 4a CZ-603 00 Brno Czech Republic; Urban, Otmar [Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Bĕlidla 4a CZ-603 00 Brno Czech Republic; Guenther, Alex [Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine California 92697 USA; Peñuelas, Josep [CREAF, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain; CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain

    2016-06-02

    The debate whether the coevolution of plants and insects or macroevolutionary processes (phylogeny) is the main driver determining the arsenal of molecular defensive compounds of plants remains unresolved. Attacks by herbivorous insects affect not only the composition of defensive compounds in plants but the entire metabolome (the set of molecular metabolites), including defensive compounds. Metabolomes are the final products of genotypes and are directly affected by macroevolutionary processes, so closely related species should have similar metabolomic compositions and may respond in similar ways to attacks by folivores. We analyzed the elemental compositions and metabolomes of needles from Pinus pinaster, P. nigra and P. sylvestris to determine if these closely related Pinus species with different coevolutionary histories with the caterpillars of the processionary moth respond similarly to attacks by this lepidopteran. All pines had different metabolomes and metabolic responses to herbivorous attack. The metabolomic variation among the pine species and the responses to folivory reflected their macroevolutionary relationships, with P. pinaster having the most divergent metabolome. The concentrations of phenolic metabolites were generally not higher in the attacked trees, which had lower concentrations of terpenes, suggesting that herbivores avoid individuals with high concentrations of terpenes. Our results suggest that macroevolutionary history plays important roles in the metabolomic responses of these pine species to folivory, but plant-insect coevolution probably constrains those responses. Combinations of different evolutionary factors and trade-offs are likely responsible for the different responses of each species to folivory, which is not necessarily exclusively linked to plant-insect coevolution.

  13. Common Genetic Variation Near Melatonin Receptor 1A Gene Linked to Job-Related Exhaustion in Shift Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulkava, Sonja; Ollila, Hanna M; Alasaari, Jukka; Puttonen, Sampsa; Härmä, Mikko; Viitasalo, Katriina; Lahtinen, Alexandra; Lindström, Jaana; Toivola, Auli; Sulkava, Raimo; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Partonen, Timo; Silander, Kaisa; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Paunio, Tiina

    2017-01-01

    Tolerance to shift work varies; only some shift workers suffer from disturbed sleep, fatigue, and job-related exhaustion. Our aim was to explore molecular genetic risk factors for intolerance to shift work. We assessed intolerance to shift work with job-related exhaustion symptoms in shift workers using the emotional exhaustion subscale of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, and carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using Illumina's Human610-Quad BeadChip (n = 176). The most significant findings were further studied in three groups of Finnish shift workers (n = 577). We assessed methylation in blood cells with the Illumina HumanMethylation450K BeadChip, and examined gene expression levels in the publicly available eGWAS Mayo data. The second strongest signal identified in the GWAS (p = 2.3 × 10E-6) was replicated in two of the replication studies with p exhaustion in shift workers with rs12506228, located downstream of the melatonin receptor 1A gene (MTNR1A). The risk allele was also associated with reduced in silico gene expression levels of MTNR1A in brain tissue and suggestively associated with changes in DNA methylation in the 5' regulatory region of MTNR1A. These findings suggest that a variant near MTNR1A may be associated with job-related exhaustion in shift workers. The risk variant may exert its effect via epigenetic mechanisms, potentially leading to reduced melatonin signaling in the brain. These results could indicate a link between melatonin signaling, a key circadian regulatory mechanism, and tolerance to shift work.

  14. l-5-hydroxytryptophan resets the circadian locomotor activity rhythm of the nocturnal Indian pygmy field mouse, Mus terricolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Priyoneel; Singaravel, Muniyandi; Haldar, Chandana

    2012-03-01

    We report that l-5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), a serotonin precursor, resets the overt circadian rhythm in the Indian pygmy field mouse, Mus terricolor, in a phase- and dose-dependent manner. We used wheel running to assess phase shifts in the free-running locomotor activity rhythm. Following entrainment to a 12:12 h light-dark cycle, 5-HTP (100 mg/kg in saline) was intraperitoneally administered in complete darkness at circadian time (CT)s 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 21, and the ensuing phase shifts in the locomotor activity rhythm were calculated. The results show that 5-HTP differentially shifts the phase of the rhythm, causing phase advances from CT 0 to CT 12 and phase delays from CT 12 to CT 21. Maximum advance phase shift was at CT 6 (1.18 ± 0.37 h) and maximum delay was at CT 18 (-2.36 ± 0.56 h). No extended dead zone is apparent. Vehicle (saline) at any CT did not evoke a significant phase shift. Investigations with different doses (10, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) of 5-HTP revealed that the phase resetting effect is dose-dependent. The shape of the phase-response curve (PRC) has a strong similarity to PRCs obtained using some serotonergic agents. There was no significant increase in wheel-running activity after 5-HTP injection, ruling out behavioral arousal-dependent shifts. This suggests that this phase resetting does not completely depend on feedback of the overt rhythmic behavior on the circadian clock. A mechanistic explanation of these shifts is currently lacking.

  15. Resetting of Rb-Sr whole-rock isochrons during Sveconorwegian low-grade events in the Gjerstad augen gneiss, Telemark, southern Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalley, P.C.; Field, D.; Raaheim, A.

    1983-01-01

    The Gjerstad augen gneiss comprises a single igneous body that shows intrusive relationships to the surrounding older Telemark gneisses. The formation of the gneissic structure and augen texture was due to mylonitic deformation along a major shear zone, the Porsgrunn-Kristiansand fault zone. The augen gneiss can be divided petrographically into green, grey (both pyroxene-bearing) and pink types. Samples from three locations were analysed isotopically. Two distinct (at 2sigma level) groups of ages were obtained which are interpreted as: (a) (approx. 1250 Ma) cooling after high temperature deformation and formation of retrogressive corona structures; (b) (approx. 1080 Ma) resetting of whole-rock systems during low-grade mineral alteration by hydrous fluids. At approx. 900 Ma, there was further isotopic disturbance during low-grade alteration related to the intrusion of pegmatite veins. The significant age differences are not related to colour (=grade) of samples, and significantly different ages have been found in the same rock body within a single locality. As the Gjerstad augen gneiss was intruded before approx. 1250 Ma into a previously; existing gneissic terrain, the gneiss-forming event and associated upper amphibolite facies metamorphism in the Gjerstad region is constrained to be pre approx. 1250 Ma, i.e. Pre-Sveconorwegian. (Auth.)

  16. Linked data management

    CERN Document Server

    Hose, Katja; Schenkel, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Linked Data Management presents techniques for querying and managing Linked Data that is available on today’s Web. The book shows how the abundance of Linked Data can serve as fertile ground for research and commercial applications. The text focuses on aspects of managing large-scale collections of Linked Data. It offers a detailed introduction to Linked Data and related standards, including the main principles distinguishing Linked Data from standard database technology. Chapters also describe how to generate links between datasets and explain the overall architecture of data integration systems based on Linked Data. A large part of the text is devoted to query processing in different setups. After presenting methods to publish relational data as Linked Data and efficient centralized processing, the book explores lookup-based, distributed, and parallel solutions. It then addresses advanced topics, such as reasoning, and discusses work related to read-write Linked Data for system interoperation. Desp...

  17. Assessing brain structural associations with working memory related brain patterns in schizophrenia and healthy controls using linked independent component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Lycke Brandt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia (SZ is a psychotic disorder with significant cognitive dysfunction. Abnormal brain activation during cognitive processing has been reported, both in task-positive and task-negative networks. Further, structural cortical and subcortical brain abnormalities have been documented, but little is known about how task-related brain activation is associated with brain anatomy in SZ compared to healthy controls (HC. Utilizing linked independent component analysis (LICA, a data-driven multimodal analysis approach, we investigated structure–function associations in a large sample of SZ (n = 96 and HC (n = 142. We tested for associations between task-positive (fronto-parietal and task-negative (default-mode brain networks derived from fMRI activation during an n-back working memory task, and brain structural measures of surface area, cortical thickness, and gray matter volume, and to what extent these associations differed in SZ compared to HC. A significant association (p < .05, corrected for multiple comparisons was found between a component reflecting the task-positive fronto-parietal network and another component reflecting cortical thickness in fronto-temporal brain regions in SZ, indicating increased activation with increased thickness. Other structure–function associations across, between and within groups were generally moderate and significant at a nominal p-level only, with more numerous and stronger associations in SZ compared to HC. These results indicate a complex pattern of moderate associations between brain activation during cognitive processing and brain morphometry, and extend previous findings of fronto-temporal brain abnormalities in SZ by suggesting a coupling between cortical thickness of these brain regions and working memory-related brain activation.

  18. Resetting the compass: exploring the implicit messages of orientation to a community-engaged medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellaway, Rachel; Dubé, Tim; Cooper, Gerry; Graves, Lisa

    2017-02-01

    Although students' transition into medical school is a critical step in their professional journey, orientation has been relatively under-researched, particularly with regard to its intersections with schools' social missions. This paper reports on a study looking at the implicit messages of orientation to the Northern Ontario School of Medicine's undergraduate program. An extended mixed methods study was conducted to look at different aspects of the School's Orientation Week. The term "hidden curriculum" was used to shape inquiry, both in its broad sense of implicit educational experiences and messages and in its more specific sense of the educational messages sent by a medical school's culture and activities. Data were collected using participant surveys, focus groups, and interviews. Transcripts and free-text survey responses were analyzed to identify underlying themes. Orientation Week was generally well received and was generally perceived by different stakeholders (such as students, school leaders, and community members) as a positive and necessary undertaking. However, there were points of contention and confusion that created a hidden curriculum with respect to participants' identities, both as students and as future health professionals. Orientation to undergraduate medical training can be successfully linked to a school's social mission, but in doing so it can send complex and unintended messages to the participants that may be perceived quite differently based on their circumstances and expectations.

  19. The intricate link between violence and mental disorder: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbogen, Eric B; Johnson, Sally C

    2009-02-01

    The relationship between mental illness and violence has a significant effect on mental health policy, clinical practice, and public opinion about the dangerousness of people with psychiatric disorders. To use a longitudinal data set representative of the US population to clarify whether or how severe mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression lead to violent behavior. Data on mental disorder and violence were collected as part of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a 2-wave face-to-face survey conducted by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. A total of 34 653 subjects completed NESARC waves 1 (2001-2003) and 2 (2004-2005) interviews. Wave 1 data on severe mental illness and risk factors were analyzed to predict wave 2 data on violent behavior. Reported violent acts committed between waves 1 and 2. Bivariate analyses showed that the incidence of violence was higher for people with severe mental illness, but only significantly so for those with co-occurring substance abuse and/or dependence. Multivariate analyses revealed that severe mental illness alone did not predict future violence; it was associated instead with historical (past violence, juvenile detention, physical abuse, parental arrest record), clinical (substance abuse, perceived threats), dispositional (age, sex, income), and contextual (recent divorce, unemployment, victimization) factors. Most of these factors were endorsed more often by subjects with severe mental illness. Because severe mental illness did not independently predict future violent behavior, these findings challenge perceptions that mental illness is a leading cause of violence in the general population. Still, people with mental illness did report violence more often, largely because they showed other factors associated with violence. Consequently, understanding the link between violent acts and mental disorder requires consideration of its

  20. Characterization and modeling of SET/RESET cycling induced read-disturb failure time degradation in a resistive switching memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Po-Cheng; Hsu, Chun-Chi; Du, Sin-I.; Wang, Tahui

    2017-12-01

    Read operation induced disturbance in SET-state in a tungsten oxide resistive switching memory is investigated. We observe that the reduction of oxygen vacancy density during read-disturb follows power-law dependence on cumulative read-disturb time. Our study shows that the SET-state read-disturb immunity progressively degrades by orders of magnitude as SET/RESET cycle number increases. To explore the cause of the read-disturb degradation, we perform a constant voltage stress to emulate high-field stress effects in SET/RESET cycling. We find that the read-disturb failure time degradation is attributed to high-field stress-generated oxide traps. Since the stress-generated traps may substitute for some of oxygen vacancies in forming conductive percolation paths in a switching dielectric, a stressed cell has a reduced oxygen vacancy density in SET-state, which in turn results in a shorter read-disturb failure time. We develop an analytical read-disturb degradation model including both cycling induced oxide trap creation and read-disturb induced oxygen vacancy reduction. Our model can well reproduce the measured read-disturb failure time degradation in a cycled cell without using fitting parameters.

  1. Untreated sleep-disordered breathing: links to aging-related decline in sleep-dependent memory consolidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Djonlagic

    Full Text Available Increasing age is associated with a decline in cognition and motor skills, while at the same time exacerbating one's risk of developing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. OSA-related cognitive deficits are highly prevalent and can affect various memory systems including overnight memory consolidation on a motor sequence task. Thus, the aim of our study was to examine the effect of aging on sleep-dependent motor memory consolidation in patients with and without OSA.We studied 44 patients (19-68 years who had been referred by a physician for a baseline polysomnography (PSG evaluation. Based on their PSG, patients were assigned either to the OSA group (AHI>5/h, or control (Non-OSA group (AHI<5/h. All subjects performed the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT and the Motor Sequence Learning Task (MST in the evening and again in the morning after their PSG.Despite similar learning in the evening, OSA subjects showed significantly less overnight improvement on the MST, both for immediate (OSA -2.7% ± 2.8% vs. controls 12.2% ± 3.5%; p = 0.002 and plateau improvement (OSA 4.9% ± 2.3% vs. controls 21.1%± 4.0%; p = 0.001. Within the OSA group, there was a significant negative correlation between overnight MST improvement and age (r(2 = 0.3; p = 0.01, an effect that was not observed in the Non-OSA group (r(2 = 0.08; p = 0.23.Consistent with previous research, healthy sleepers demonstrated a higher degree of sleep-dependent overnight improvement on the MST, an effect not mitigated by increasing age. However, the presence of untreated obstructive sleep apnea is associated with an aging-related cognitive deficit, otherwise not present in individuals without OSA. As other research has linked the presence of OSA to a higher likelihood of developing dementia, future studies are necessary to examine if the inhibition of memory consolidation is tied to the onset of neurodegenerative disease.

  2. Aging- and task-related resilience decline is linked to food responsiveness in highly social honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Martin T; Kreibich, Claus D; Amdam, Gro V; Münch, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    Conventional invertebrate models of aging have provided striking examples for the influence of food- and nutrient-sensing on lifespan and stress resilience. On the other hand, studies in highly social insects, such as honey bees, have revealed how social context can shape very plastic life-history traits, for example flexible aging dynamics in the helper caste (workers). It is, however, not understood how food perception and stress resilience are connected in honey bee workers with different social task behaviors and aging dynamics. To explore this linkage, we tested if starvation resilience, which normally declines with age, depends on food responsiveness in honey bees. We studied two typically non-senesced groups of worker bees with different social task behaviors: mature nurses (caregivers) and mature foragers (food collectors). In addition, we included a group of old foragers for which functional senescence is well-established. Bees were individually scored for their food perception by measuring the gustatory response to different sucrose concentrations. Subsequently, individuals were tested for survival under starvation stress. We found that starvation stress resilience, but not gustatory responsiveness differed between workers with different social task behaviors (mature nurses vs. mature foragers). In addition starvation stress resilience differed between foragers with different aging progressions (mature foragers vs. old foragers). Control experiments confirmed that differences in starvation resilience between mature nurses and mature foragers were robust against changing experimental conditions, such as water provision and activity. For all worker groups we established that individuals with low gustatory responsiveness were more resilient to starvation stress. Finally, for the group of rapidly aging foragers we found that low food responsiveness was linked to a delayed age-related decline in starvation resilience. Our study highlights associations between

  3. Scandinavian links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann; Knowles, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    centres, one joins more thinly populated regions, and the last one links peripheral areas. Two of them (The Great Belt Link and the Oresund Link) have been constructed and are in full operation. The third (the Fehmarnbelt Link) has been decided 2008 on bilateral government level. The three links...

  4. Links between Local Language Competence and Peer Relations among Swiss and Immigrant Children: The Mediating Role of Social Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Grunigen, Renate; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky; Perren, Sonja; Alsaker, Francoise D.

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of this investigation was to evaluate a model in which children's social behaviors, including prosocial behavior, setting limits, and social withdrawal, were hypothesized to mediate the links between local language competence (LLC) and peer acceptance and victimization. Longitudinal data were collected via teacher and peer reports…

  5. Resetting of Quartz OSL (optically stimulated luminescence) Signals by Frictional Heating in Experimentally Sheared Gouges at Seismic Slip Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. H.; Choi, J. H.; Chauhan, N.; Lee, S.; Hirose, T.; Ree, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies on natural and experimental seismic faults have revealed that frictional heating plays an important role in earthquake dynamics as well as in producing mineralogical and microstructural signatures of seismic faulting. Here, we report changes in OSL signals in quartz by frictional heating in experimental fault gouges. The gouges (80% of quartz and 20% of bentonite by weight) with a thickness of 1 mm were sheared between sandstone cylinders (diameter: 25 mm) at a normal stress of 1 MPa and slip rate of 1.31 m/s. The quartz grains from a sand dune on the western coast of South Korea were sieved to select size fractions between 90 and 250 μm. The equivalent dose (De) of the undeformed quartz grains was 8.0 ± 0.3 Gy. Upon displacement, the friction abruptly increases to the 1st peak (with friction coefficient μ ≈ 0.75) followed by slip weakening. Then the fault zones show two more peak frictions (μ ≈ 0.53~0.75) and finally reach a steady-state friction (μ ≈ 0.2~0.35). The fault can be divided into three zones based grain size (thus slip rate); slip localization (SLZ), intermediate slip-rate (ISZ) and low slip-rate (LSZ) zones. SLZ develops adjacent to the moving side of the sandstone cylinder with P-foliation and shear band. The size of quartz (Dq) in ISZ and LSZ is 5-30 μm and 50-250 μm, respectively. SEM and TEM analyses indicate that the fault gouge of SLZ consists of subangular quartz clasts (Dq ≈ 3 μm) and matrix of nano-scale quartz, unidentified silicate minerals and amorphous material. The fault zones were sectioned into six layers (~160 µm thick for each layer) parallel to the fault zone boundary for OSL analyses. Quartz grains from all the layers except the one immediately adjacent to the stationary side of the sandstone cylinder show De of 'effectively' 0 Gy indicating a full resetting of OSL signals. The partial resetting of OSL signal in the layer adjacent to the stationary side of the cylinder indicates the temperature (T

  6. Peering into the Brain to Predict Behavior: Peer-Reported, but not Self-Reported, Conscientiousness Links Threat-Related Amygdala Activity to Future Problem Drinking

    OpenAIRE

    Swartz, Johnna R.; Knodt, Annchen R.; Radtke, Spenser R.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2016-01-01

    Personality traits such as conscientiousness as self-reported by individuals can help predict a range of outcomes, from job performance to longevity. Asking others to rate the personality of their acquaintances often provides even better predictive power than using self-report. Here, we examine whether peer-reported personality can provide a better link between brain function, namely threat-related amygdala activity, and future health-related behavior, namely problem drinking, than self-repor...

  7. Resetting the compass: exploring the implicit messages of orientation to a community-engaged medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Helen Ellaway

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: Orientation to undergraduate medical training can be successfully linked to a school’s social mission, but in doing so it can send complex and unintended messages to the participants that may be perceived quite differently based on their circumstances and expectations.

  8. A static pressure reset control system with a new type of flow damper for use in low pressure ventilation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkildsen, Søren; Svendsen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    The control strategy for mechanical ventilation systems has significant impact on the performance of the system, in terms of energy consumption and correct air distribution. This paper presents a static pressure reset control system employing a new type of flow damper with lower pressure loss...... shows that the droplet shaped damper resulted in an airflow of 234 L/s at 30 Pa pressure loss, more than twice the airflow past a flat-plate damper at the same pressure loss (114 L/s). Also the droplet shaped damper could operate precisely down to 5 Pa pressure loss. The programmed control algorithm...... significant fan power saving compared to a fixed static pressure control. A maximum static pressure of 15 Pa is a reduction of more than 50% compared to flat-plate dampers that required at least 30 Pa to operate precisely; this is expected to yield fan energy savings in practice....

  9. Hybrid Z-Source DC-DC Converter with ZVZCS and Power Transformer Resetting: Design, Modeling, and Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Torkaman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel two transistors forward topology employing a z-source to achieve ZVZCS and power transformer resetting for various applications. Comparing with the forward converter, this topology has the advantage of displaying ZCS condition with an added Z-Source and no additional switches when the switches turn on, and that ZVS condition happens when the switches turn off. Duty cycle of the topology can exceed 50 percent. As a result, these converters are suitable for applications with high efficiency. In this paper, structure and properties of the topology will be discussed in details. Then the design principles will be presented. Finally, the benefits aforementioned will be approved in practice through a simple forward converter.

  10. Alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors and Temporal Memory: Synergistic Effects of Combining Prenatal Choline and Nicotine on Reinforcement-Induced Resetting of an Interval Clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ruey-Kuang; Meck, Warren H.; Williams, Christina L.

    2006-01-01

    We previously showed that prenatal choline supplementation could increase the precision of timing and temporal memory and facilitate simultaneous temporal processing in mature and aged rats. In the present study, we investigated the ability of adult rats to selectively control the reinforcement-induced resetting of an internal clock as a function…

  11. The relative stabilities of cyclic dicationic derivatives of diphosphanes with three (3P) or four (4P) linked phosphorus atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashforth, Rachel; Boyall, Alice J; Coffer, Philippa K; Dillon, Keith B; Goeta, Andrés E; Howard, Judith A K; Kenwright, Alan M; Probert, Michael R; Shepherd, Helena J; Thompson, Amber L

    2012-01-28

    Reaction of a diphosphane with a chlorophosphane in the presence of SnCl(2) or AlCl(3) leads to the formation of dicationic heterocycles with three (3P) or four (4P) linked phosphorus atoms. Some 3P derivatives with small alkyl substituents may also be prepared by direct alkylation of cyclic triphosphenium ions. Several new species were prepared in solution, some of which were isolated and characterised by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Investigations into the factors favouring formation of 3P or 4P species are described.

  12. Uneven dietary development: linking the policies and processes of globalization with the nutrition transition, obesity and diet-related chronic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In a "nutrition transition", the consumption of foods high in fats and sweeteners is increasing throughout the developing world. The transition, implicated in the rapid rise of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases worldwide, is rooted in the processes of globalization. Globalization affects the nature of agri-food systems, thereby altering the quantity, type, cost and desirability of foods available for consumption. Understanding the links between globalization and the nutrition...

  13. Bullying perpetration and victimization as externalizing and internalizing pathways: A retrospective study linking parenting styles and self-esteem to depression, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Medina, Mia; Terrell, Nathan; Belton, Daniel; King, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Emerging research suggests significant positive associations between bullying and substance use behaviors. However, these studies typically focused either on the link between substance use and bullying perpetration or victimization, and few have conceptualized bullying perpetration and/or victimization as mediators. In this study, we simultaneously tested past bullying perpetration and victimization as mediational pathways from retrospective report of parenting styles and global self-esteem to current depressive symptoms, alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Data were collected from a college sample of 419 drinkers. Mediation effects were conducted using a bias-corrected bootstrap technique in structural equation modeling. Two-path mediation analyses indicated that mother and father authoritativeness were protective against bully victimization and depression through higher self-esteem. Conversely, having a permissive or authoritarian mother was positively linked to bullying perpetration, which in turn was associated with increased alcohol use, and to a lesser degree, more alcohol-related problems. Mother authoritarianism was associated with alcohol-related problems through depressive symptoms. Three-path mediation analyses suggested a trend in which individuals with higher self-esteem were less likely to report alcohol-related problems through lower levels of bullying victimization and depression. Results suggested that bullying perpetration and victimization may respectively serve as externalizing and internalizing pathways through which parenting styles and self-esteem are linked to depression and alcohol-related outcomes. The present study identified multiple modifiable precursors of, and mediational pathways to, alcohol-related problems which could guide the development and implementation of prevention programs targeting problematic alcohol use. PMID:26757486

  14. Bullying Perpetration and Victimization as Externalizing and Internalizing Pathways: A Retrospective Study Linking Parenting Styles and Self-Esteem to Depression, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jeremy W; Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Medina, Mia; Terrell, Nathan; Belton, Daniel; King, Kevin M

    2016-01-02

    Emerging research suggests significant positive associations between bullying and substance use behaviors. However, these studies typically focused either on the link between substance use and bullying perpetration or victimization, and few have conceptualized bullying perpetration and/or victimization as mediators. In this study, we simultaneously tested past bullying perpetration and victimization as mediational pathways from retrospective report of parenting styles and global self-esteem to current depressive symptoms, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems. Data were collected from a college sample of 419 drinkers. Mediation effects were conducted using a bias-corrected bootstrap technique within a structural equation modeling framework. Two-path mediation analyses indicated that mother and father authoritativeness were protective against bully victimization and depression through higher self-esteem. Conversely, having a permissive or authoritarian mother was positively linked to bullying perpetration, which in turn, was associated with increased alcohol use, and to a lesser degree, more alcohol-related problems. Mother authoritarianism was associated with alcohol-related problems through depressive symptoms. Three-path mediation analyses suggested a trend in which individuals with higher self-esteem were less likely to report alcohol-related problems through lower levels of bullying victimization and depression. Results suggested that bullying perpetration and victimization may, respectively, serve as externalizing and internalizing pathways through which parenting styles and self-esteem are linked to depression and alcohol-related outcomes. The present study identified multiple modifiable precursors of, and mediational pathways to, alcohol-related problems which could guide the development and implementation of prevention programs targeting problematic alcohol use.

  15. The Role of Preschool Relational and Physical Aggression in the Transition to Kindergarten: Links with Social-Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Amy L.; Lingras, Katherine A.; Mathieson, Lindsay C.; Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The transition to kindergarten has important ramifications for future achievement and psychosocial outcomes. Research suggests that physical aggression may be related to difficulty during school transitions, yet no studies to date have examined the role of relational aggression in these transitions. This article examines how…

  16. Resetting of Mg isotopes between calcite and dolomite during burial metamorphism: Outlook of Mg isotopes as geothermometer and seawater proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhongya; Hu, Wenxuan; Wang, Xiaomin; Lu, Yizhou; Wang, Lichao; Liao, Zhiwei; Li, Weiqiang

    2017-07-01

    Magnesium isotopes are an emerging tool to study the geological processes recorded in carbonates. Calcite, due to its ubiquitous occurrence and the large Mg isotope fractionation associated with the mineral, has attracted great interests in applications of Mg isotope geochemistry. However, the fidelity of Mg isotopes in geological records of carbonate minerals (e.g., calcite and dolomite) against burial metamorphism remains poorly constrained. Here we report our investigation on the Mg isotope systematics of a dolomitized Middle Triassic Geshan carbonate section in eastern China. Magnesium isotope analysis was complemented by analyses of Sr-C-O isotopic compositions, major and trace element concentrations, and petrographic and mineralogical features. Multiple lines of evidence consistently indicated that post-depositional diagenesis of carbonate minerals occurred to the carbonate rocks. Magnesium isotope compositions of the carbonate rocks closely follow a mixing trend between a high δ26Mg dolomite end member and a low δ26Mg calcite end member, irrespective of sample positions in the section and calcite/dolomite ratio in the samples. By fitting the measured Mg isotope data using a two-end member mixing model, an inter-mineral Δ26Mgdolomite-calcite fractionation of 0.72‰ was obtained. Based on the experimentally derived Mg isotope fractionation factors for dolomite and calcite, a temperature of 150-190 °C was calculated to correspond to the 0.72‰ Δ26Mgdolomite-calcite fractionation. Such temperature range matches with the burial-thermal history of the local strata, making a successful case of Mg isotope geothermometry. Our results indicate that both calcite and dolomite had been re-equilibrated during burial metamorphism, and based on isotope mass balance of Mg, the system was buffered by dolomite in the section. Therefore, burial metamorphism may reset Mg isotope signature of calcite, and Mg isotope compositions in calcite should be dealt with caution in

  17. Can the dopaminergic-related effects of general anesthetics be linked to mechanisms involved in drug abuse and addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, A; Tavares, I; Sousa, N; Pêgo, J M

    2015-08-01

    General anesthetics (GA) are well known for the ability to induce a state of reversible loss of consciousness and unresponsiveness to painful stimuli. However, evidence from animal models and clinical studies show that GA exposure may induce behavioral changes beyond acute effects. Most research and concerns are focused on changes in cognition and memory. We will look at effects of GA on behavior that is mediated by the dopaminergic system. Pharmacological resemblance of GA with drugs of abuse, and the complexity and importance of dopaminergic systems in both reward seeking and addictive illnesses make us believe that it deserves an overview about what is already known and what matters to us as healthcare workers and specifically as anesthesiologists. A review of available evidence strongly suggests that there may be a link between the effects of GA on the brain and substance abuse, partly explained by their influence on the dopaminergic system. © 2015 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A link between double-strand break-related repair and V(D)J recombination: the scid mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, E.A.; Qin, X.Q.; Bump, E.A.; Schatz, D.G.; Oettinger, M.; Weaver, D.T.

    1991-01-01

    We show here that mammalian site-specific recombination and DNA-repair pathways share a common factor. The effects of DNA-damaging agents on cell lines derived from mice homozygous for the scid (severe combined immune deficiency) mutation were studied. Surprisingly, all scid cell lines exhibited a profound hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging agents that caused double-strand breaks (x-irradiation and bleomycin) but not to other chemicals that caused single-strand breaks or cross-links. Neutral filter elution assays demonstrated that the x-irradiation hypersensitivity could be correlated with a deficiency in repairing double-strand breaks. These data suggest that the scid gene product is involved in two pathways: DNA repair of random double-strand breaks and the site-specific and lymphoid-restricted variable-(diversity)-joining [V(D)J] DNA rearrangement process. We propose that the scid gene product performs a similar function in both pathways and may be a ubiquitous protein

  19. Reducing Risks to Women Linked to Shift Work, Long Work Hours, and Related Workplace Sleep and Fatigue Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Claire C

    2015-10-01

    In the United States, an estimated 12% to 28% of working women are on shift work schedules, and 12% work more than 48 hours per week. Shift work and long work hours are associated with many health and safety risks, including obesity, injuries, and negative reproductive outcomes. Over time, the worker is at risk for developing a wide range of chronic diseases. These work schedules can also strain personal relationships, owing to fatigue and poor mood from sleep deprivation and reduced quality time to spend with family and friends. Worker errors from fatigue can lead to reduced quality of goods and services, negatively impacting the employer. In addition, mistakes by fatigued workers can have far-reaching negative effects on the community, ranging from medical care errors to motor vehicle crashes and industrial disasters that endanger others. To reduce the many risks that are linked to these demanding work hours, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducts research, develops guidance and authoritative recommendations, and translates and disseminates scientific information to protect workers, their families, employers, and the community. The key message to reduce these risks is making sleep a priority in the employer's systems for organizing work and in the worker's personal life. The NIOSH website has freely available online training programs with suggestions for workers and their managers to help them better cope with this workplace hazard.

  20. Protease-Activated Receptor 2: Are Common Functions in Glial and Immune Cells Linked to Inflammation-Related CNS Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushell, Trevor J; Cunningham, Margaret R; McIntosh, Kathryn A; Moudio, Serge; Plevin, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are a novel family of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) whose activation requires the cleavage of the N-terminus by a serine protease. However, recent evidence reveals that alternative routes of activation also occur, that PARs signal via multiple pathways and that pathway activation is activator- dependent. Given our increased understanding of PAR function both under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, one aspect that has remained constant is the link between PAR2 and inflammation. PAR2 is expressed in immune cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system and has been shown to play a role in several peripheral inflammatory conditions. PAR2 is similarly expressed on astrocytes and microglia within the CNS and its activation is either protective or detrimental to CNS function depending on the conditions or disease state investigated. With a clear similarity between the function of PAR2 on both immune cells and CNS glial cells, here we have reviewed their roles in both these systems. We suggest that the recent development of novel PAR2 modulators, including those that show biased signalling, will further increase our understanding of PAR2 function and the development of potential therapeutics for CNS disorders in which inflammation is proposed to play a role.

  1. PERIPHERAL IMMUNE SYSTEM SUPPRESSION IN EARLY ABSTINENT ALCOHOL DEPENDENT INDIVIDUALS: LINKS TO STRESS AND CUE-RELATED CRAVING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Helen C; Milivojevic, Verica; Angarita, Gustavo A; Stowe, Raymond; Sinha, Rajita

    2017-01-01

    Background Peripheral immune system cytokines may play an integral role in underlying sensitized stress response and alcohol craving during early withdrawal. To date, the nature of these immune changes during early abstinence have not been examined. Methods Thirty-nine early abstinent, treatment-seeking alcohol dependent individuals and 46 socially drinking controls were exposed to three guided imageries: stress, alcohol cue and neutral. These were presented randomly across consecutive days. Plasma measures of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-10 (IL-10), were collected at baseline, immediately after imagery and at various recovery time-points. Ratings of alcohol craving, negative mood and anxiety were also obtained at the same time-points. Results The alcohol group demonstrated decreased basal IL-10 compared with controls particularly following exposure to alcohol cue. They also showed a dampened TNFα and TNFR1 response to stress and cue, respectively, and a generalized suppression of IL-6. In the alcohol group, these immune system adaptations occurred alongside significant elevations in anxiety, negative mood and alcohol craving. Conclusions Findings demonstrate that broad immuno-suppression is still observed in alcohol dependent individuals after three weeks of abstinence and may be linked to motivation for alcohol. PMID:28675117

  2. Socio-economic factors related to moral reasoning in childhood and adolescence: the missing link between brain and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravita, Simona C. S.; Giardino, Simona; Lenzi, Leonardo; Salvaterra, Mariaelena; Antonietti, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Neuroscientific and psychological research on moral development has until now developed independently, referring to distinct theoretical models, contents, and methods. In particular, the influence of socio-economic and cultural factors on morality has been broadly investigated by psychologists but as yet has not been investigated by neuroscientists. The value of bridging these two areas both theoretically and methodologically has, however, been suggested. This study aims at providing a first connection between neuroscientific and psychological literature on morality by investigating whether socio-economic dimensions, i.e., living socio-geographic/economic area, immigrant status and socio-economic status (SES), affect moral reasoning as operationalized in moral domain theory (a seminal approach in psychological studies on morality) and in Greene et al. (2001) perspective (one of the main approaches in neuroethics research). Participants were 81 primary school (M = 8.98 years; SD = 0.39), 72 middle school (M = 12.14 years; SD = 0.61), and 73 high school (M = 15.10 years; SD = 0.38) students from rural and urban areas. Participants' immigrant status (native vs. immigrant) and family SES level were recorded. Moral reasoning was assessed by means of a series of personal and impersonal dilemmas based on Greene et al. (2001) neuroimaging experiment and a series of moral and socio-conventional rule dilemmas based on the moral domain theory. Living socio-geographic/economic area, immigrant status and SES mainly affected evaluations of moral and, to a higher extent, socio-conventional dilemmas, but had no impact on judgment of personal and impersonal dilemmas. Results are mainly discussed from the angle of possible theoretical links and suggestions emerging for studies on moral reasoning in the frameworks of neuroscience and psychology. PMID:23015787

  3. Socio-Economic Factors Related to Moral Reasoning in Childhood and Adolescence: The Missing Link between Brain and Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Carla Silvia eCaravita

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuroscientific and psychological research on moral development has until now developed independently, referring to distinct theoretical models, contents and methods. In particular, the influence of socio-economic and cultural factors on morality has been broadly investigated by psychologists but as yet has not been investigated by neuroscientists. The value of bridging these two areas both theoretically and methodologically has, however, been suggested. This study aims at providing a first connection between neuroscientific and psychological literature on morality by investigating whether socio-economic dimensions, i.e. living socio-geographic/economic area, immigrant status and SES, affect moral reasoning as operationalized in moral domain theory (a seminal approach in psychological studies on morality and in Greene and colleagues’ (2001 perspective (one of the main approaches in neuroethics research. Participants were 81 primary school (M = 8.98 yrs.; SD = 0.39, 72 middle school (M = 12.14 yrs.; SD = 0.61 and 73 high school (M = 15.10 yrs.; SD = 0.38 students from rural and urban areas. Participants’ immigrant status (native vs. immigrant and family SES level were recorded. Moral reasoning was assessed by means of a series of personal and impersonal dilemmas based on Greene and colleagues' (2001 neuroimaging experiment and a series of moral and socio-conventional rule dilemmas based on the moral domain theory. Living socio-geographic/economic area, immigrant status and SES mainly affected evaluations of moral and, to a higher extent, socio-conventional dilemmas, but had no impact on judgment of personal and impersonal dilemmas. Results are mainly discussed from the angle of possible theoretical links and suggestions emerging for studies on moral reasoning in the frameworks of neuroscience and psychology.

  4. Peering into the brain to predict behavior: Peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness links threat-related amygdala activity to future problem drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Johnna R; Knodt, Annchen R; Radtke, Spenser R; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2017-02-01

    Personality traits such as conscientiousness as self-reported by individuals can help predict a range of outcomes, from job performance to longevity. Asking others to rate the personality of their acquaintances often provides even better predictive power than using self-report. Here, we examine whether peer-reported personality can provide a better link between brain function, namely threat-related amygdala activity, and future health-related behavior, namely problem drinking, than self-reported personality. Using data from a sample of 377 young adult university students who were rated on five personality traits by peers, we find that higher threat-related amygdala activity to fearful facial expressions is associated with higher peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness. Moreover, higher peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness predicts lower future problem drinking more than one year later, an effect specific to men. Remarkably, relatively higher amygdala activity has an indirect effect on future drinking behavior in men, linked by peer-reported conscientiousness to lower future problem drinking. Our results provide initial evidence that the perceived conscientiousness of an individual by their peers uniquely reflects variability in a core neural mechanism supporting threat responsiveness. These novel patterns further suggest that incorporating peer-reported measures of personality into individual differences research can reveal novel predictive pathways of risk and protection for problem behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mediational Links Among Parenting Styles, Perceptions of Parental Confidence, Self-Esteem, and Depression on Alcohol-Related Problems in Emerging Adulthood*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Depression is often found to be comorbid with alcohol-related problems. Parental overprotection, which may be of particular importance during emerging adulthood, has been linked to internalizing symptoms in offspring. This article evaluates the impact of parenting styles and parental confidence in their offspring on an internalizing pathway to alcohol-related problems through self-esteem and depression. Method: Mediational links were tested among parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), parental confidence (overprotection, autonomy), self-esteem, depression, and alcohol-related problems. A two-group, multiple indicator multiple-cause structural equation model with 441 (216 female, 225 male) college students was examined. Results: Overall, having a father who was confident in his child's ability to make autonomous decisions was protective against depression for both genders. Perceptions of paternal autonomy mediated the impact of the fathers' parenting styles (authoritative, permissive) on depression for both genders. For men, parental overprotection mediated the impact of an authoritarian father on self-esteem, and self-esteem mediated the impact of parental overprotection on depression. Moreover, among men, perceptions of maternal autonomy mediated the impact of the mothers' parenting styles (authoritative, permissive) on self-esteem, and self-esteem mediated the impact of maternal autonomy on depression. Conclusions: The current pattern of findings is distinct from pathways through behavioral undercontrol with influences from the same-sex parent for both genders. These findings indicate that parenting may have differential influences on internalizing pathways to alcohol-related problems. PMID:19261233

  6. Mediational links among parenting styles, perceptions of parental confidence, self-esteem, and depression on alcohol-related problems in emerging adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A

    2009-03-01

    Depression is often found to be comorbid with alcohol-related problems. Parental overprotection, which may be of particular importance during emerging adulthood, has been linked to internalizing symptoms in offspring. This article evaluates the impact of parenting styles and parental confidence in their offspring on an internalizing pathway to alcohol-related problems through self-esteem and depression. Mediational links were tested among parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), parental confidence (overprotection, autonomy), self-esteem, depression, and alcohol-related problems. A two-group, multiple indicator multiple-cause structural equation model with 441 (216 female, 225 male) college students was examined. Overall, having a father who was confident in his child's ability to make autonomous decisions was protective against depression for both genders. Perceptions of paternal autonomy mediated the impact of the fathers' parenting styles (authoritative, permissive) on depression for both genders. For men, parental overprotection mediated the impact of an authoritarian father on self-esteem, and self-esteem mediated the impact of parental overprotection on depression. Moreover, among men, perceptions of maternal autonomy mediated the impact of the mothers' parenting styles (authoritative, permissive) on self-esteem, and self-esteem mediated the impact of maternal autonomy on depression. The current pattern of findings is distinct from pathways through behavioral undercontrol with influences from the same-sex parent for both genders. These findings indicate that parenting may have differential influences on internalizing pathways to alcohol-related problems.

  7. The Role of Preschool Relational and Physical Aggression in the Transition to Kindergarten: Links with Social-Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Amy L.; Lingras, Katherine A.; Mathieson, Lindsay C.; Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings The transition to kindergarten has important ramifications for future achievement and psychosocial outcomes. Research suggests that physical aggression may be related to difficulty during school transitions, yet no studies to date have examined the role of relational aggression in these transitions. This paper examined how engagement in preschool physical and relational aggression predicted psychosocial adjustment during the kindergarten school year. Observations and teacher reports of aggression were collected in preschool, and kindergarten teachers reported on student-teacher relationship quality, child internalizing problems, and peer acceptance in kindergarten. Results suggested that preschool physical aggression predicted reduced peer acceptance and increased conflict with the kindergarten teacher. High levels of relational aggression, when not combined with physical aggression, were related to more positive transitions to kindergarten in the domains assessed. Practice or Policy These data lend support to the need for interventions among physically aggressive preschoolers to target not only concurrent behavior but also future aggression and adjustment in kindergarten. Thus, educators should work to encourage social influence in more prosocial ways amongst aggressive preschoolers. PMID:26146468

  8. The Role of Preschool Relational and Physical Aggression in the Transition to Kindergarten: Links with Social-Psychological Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Amy L; Lingras, Katherine A; Mathieson, Lindsay C; Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R

    2014-07-01

    The transition to kindergarten has important ramifications for future achievement and psychosocial outcomes. Research suggests that physical aggression may be related to difficulty during school transitions, yet no studies to date have examined the role of relational aggression in these transitions. This paper examined how engagement in preschool physical and relational aggression predicted psychosocial adjustment during the kindergarten school year. Observations and teacher reports of aggression were collected in preschool, and kindergarten teachers reported on student-teacher relationship quality, child internalizing problems, and peer acceptance in kindergarten. Results suggested that preschool physical aggression predicted reduced peer acceptance and increased conflict with the kindergarten teacher. High levels of relational aggression, when not combined with physical aggression, were related to more positive transitions to kindergarten in the domains assessed. These data lend support to the need for interventions among physically aggressive preschoolers to target not only concurrent behavior but also future aggression and adjustment in kindergarten. Thus, educators should work to encourage social influence in more prosocial ways amongst aggressive preschoolers.

  9. Links Between Workplace Spirituality, Job-Related Attitudes, and Value Fit in a Non-Profit Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Kimberly T; DeSouza, Eros R; Durst, Renee N

    2015-01-01

    We examined perceptions of spirituality and meaning among 192 employees (77% female) from a non-profit organization in a mid-sized Midwestern city in the United States. We hypothesized that employees' values related to workplace spirituality would be positively related to various measures of job satisfaction and general meaning in life. We also examined employees' perceptions of the fit of their co-workers' values with the agency mission and predicted that these perceptions would act as a moderator of the relationship between employees' workplace spirituality and job satisfaction. Our hypotheses were generally supported. Spirituality predicted work contributing to the meaning of life and various facets of job satisfaction. Implications of the importance of employees' perceptions of organizational fit related to spirituality and the perceived fit of co-workers' values with the organizational mission are discussed.

  10. Modeling how shark and dolphin skin patterns control transitional wall-turbulence vorticity patterns using spatiotemporal phase reset mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R.; Hellum, Aren M.

    2014-10-01

    Many slow-moving biological systems like seashells and zebrafish that do not contend with wall turbulence have somewhat organized pigmentation patterns flush with their outer surfaces that are formed by underlying autonomous reaction-diffusion (RD) mechanisms. In contrast, sharks and dolphins contend with wall turbulence, are fast swimmers, and have more organized skin patterns that are proud and sometimes vibrate. A nonlinear spatiotemporal analytical model is not available that explains the mechanism underlying control of flow with such proud patterns, despite the fact that shark and dolphin skins are major targets of reverse engineering mechanisms of drag and noise reduction. Comparable to RD, a minimal self-regulation model is given for wall turbulence regeneration in the transitional regime--laterally coupled, diffusively--which, although restricted to pre-breakdown durations and to a plane close and parallel to the wall, correctly reproduces many experimentally observed spatiotemporal organizations of vorticity in both laminar-to-turbulence transitioning and very low Reynolds number but turbulent regions. We further show that the onset of vorticity disorganization is delayed if the skin organization is treated as a spatiotemporal template of olivo-cerebellar phase reset mechanism. The model shows that the adaptation mechanisms of sharks and dolphins to their fluid environment have much in common.

  11. Knowledge Cities and Transport Sustainability: The Link between the Travel Behavior of Knowledge Workers and Car-Related Job Perks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenkel, Amnon; Bendit, Edward; Kaplan, Sigal

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the linkage between the travel behavior of knowledge workers and car-related job perks. The importance of this issue derives from the tendency of knowledge economy to concentrate in highly populated metropolitan regions. The analyzed data comprise 750 observations, retrieved...

  12. Academic Procrastination in Linking Motivation and Achievement-Related Behaviours: A Perspective of Expectancy-Value Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Fan, Weihua

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationships among college students' achievement motivation (subjective task value and academic self-efficacy), academic procrastination (delay and missing deadlines) and achievement-related behaviours (effort and persistence). More specifically, the study investigated the mediating role…

  13. Peer Victimization and Social Dominance as Intervening Variables of the Link between Peer Liking and Relational Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ryan E.; Bartlett, Nancy H.; Bukowski, William M.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined social dominance and peer victimization as possible intervening and moderating variables of the association between peer liking and relational aggression because previous findings suggest that social dominance and peer victimization are important for predicting the acceptableness and success of aggression. A total of 367…

  14. How Are Links between a National Qualifications Framework, Job Roles and Pay Mediated by Industrial Relations Institutions in Manufacturing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Damian; Walpole, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    National Qualifications Frameworks (NQFs) are intended to promote stronger linkages between education institutions and the labour market. This paper examines how industrial relations institutions mediate the relationship between formal qualifications, job classifications and pay outcomes in Australian manufacturing. In Australia a tribunal sets…

  15. Concatenated logic circuits based on a three-way DNA junction: a keypad-lock security system with visible readout and an automatic reset function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junhua; Zhou, Shungui; Wen, Junlin

    2015-01-07

    Concatenated logic circuits operating as a biocomputing keypad-lock security system with an automatic reset function have been successfully constructed on the basis of toehold-mediated strand displacement and three-way-DNA-junction architecture. In comparison with previously reported keypad locks, the distinctive advantage of the proposed security system is that it can be reset and cycled spontaneously a large number of times without an external stimulus, thus making practical applications possible. By the use of a split-G-quadruplex DNAzyme as the signal reporter, the output of the keypad lock can be recognized readily by the naked eye. The "lock" is opened only when the inputs are introduced in an exact order. This requirement provides defense against illegal invasion to protect information at the molecular scale. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Measuring the Value of Renewal: Age, Operational Tempo, Deployment, and Reset Effects on the Readiness and Maintenance Costs of Army Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    prepared two datasets, each integrating serial number–level data from multiple sources. The first dataset (hereafter called the “ SDC dataset”) included...vehicle usage, location, and field maintenance records from the Army Materiel Systems Analysis Activity (AMSAA) Sample Data Collection ( SDC ) program...vehicle manufacture dates from both SDC and the Logistics Integrated Database (LIDB); and reset dates and costs from Tank-automotive and Armaments

  17. Questioning the link between Self-Expressed Attitudes and Repurchasing Behavior: Relations Between Cognitive, Affective and Action Loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guven Ordun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In psychology attitude is defined as favorable or unfavorable evaluations towards a person, group, object or event. Attitudes are formed by past and present experiences and are expected to change as a function of experience. Three components of the attitude defined as cognitive (what we know about the subject, affective (how we feel towards the subject and behavioral (intention to behave towards the subject. Our behavior is defined as a complex combination of beliefs, feelings, capabilities and norms. The majority of consumer behavior literature examined the main antecedents of purchase behavior. Attitudes are described as one of the most important determinant of the behavior. There are several methods and techniques to assess attitude; the most used one is the self-report paper and pencil measures. Brand loyalty is another important concept related with repetitive purchasing behavior. While cognitive loyalty is related with the information, affective loyalty is related with feelings. Behavioral loyalty is described as the past behaviors or experiences. Some of our behaviors are determined by the cognitive component of the attitude while others may be directed by the affective part. Main focus of the research is to find out whether there is a level of compliance between cognitive, affective and behavioral attitude of consumers. 1000 forms are distributed in order to identify the attitudes and purchasing behaviors of consumers 783 forms are evaluated

  18. Questioning the Link between Self-Expressed Attitudes and Repurchasing Behavior: Relations Between Cognitive, Affective and Action Loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guven Ordun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In psychology attitude is defined as favorable or unfavorable evaluations towards a person, group, object or event. Attitudes are formed by past and present experiences and are expected to change as a function of experience. Three components of the attitude defined as cognitive (what we know about the subject, affective (how we feel towards the subject and behavioral (intention to behave towards the subject. Our behavior is defined as a complex combination of beliefs, feelings, capabilities and norms. The majority of consumer behavior literature examined the main antecedents of purchase behavior. Attitudes are described as one of the most important determinant of the behavior. There are several methods and techniques to assess attitude; the most used one is the self-report paper and pencil measures. Brand loyalty is another important concept related with repetitive purchasing behavior. While cognitive loyalty is related with the information, affective loyalty is related with feelings. Behavioral loyalty is described as the past behaviors or experiences. Some of our behaviors are determined by the cognitive component of the attitude while others may be directed by the affective part. Main focus of the research is to find out whether there is a level of compliance between cognitive, affective and behavioral attitude of consumers. 1000 forms are distributed in order to identify the attitudes and purchasing behaviors of consumers 783 forms are evaluated

  19. Linking black hole growth with host galaxies: the accretion-stellar mass relation and its cosmic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G.; Brandt, W. N.; Vito, F.; Chen, C.-T. J.; Trump, J. R.; Luo, B.; Sun, M. Y.; Xue, Y. Q.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Schneider, D. P.; Vignali, C.; Wang, J.-X.

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies suggest that the growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) may be fundamentally related to host-galaxy stellar mass (M⋆). To investigate this SMBH growth-M⋆ relation in detail, we calculate long-term SMBH accretion rate as a function of M⋆ and redshift [\\overlineBHAR(M_{\\star }, z)] over ranges of log (M⋆/M⊙) = 9.5-12 and z = 0.4-4. Our \\overlineBHAR(M_{\\star }, z) is constrained by high-quality survey data (GOODS-South, GOODS-North and COSMOS), and by the stellar mass function and the X-ray luminosity function. At a given M⋆, \\overlineBHAR is higher at high redshift. This redshift dependence is stronger in more massive systems [for log (M⋆/M⊙) ≈ 11.5, \\overlineBHAR is three decades higher at z = 4 than at z = 0.5], possibly due to AGN feedback. Our results indicate that the ratio between \\overlineBHAR and average star formation rate (\\overlineSFR) rises towards high M⋆ at a given redshift. This \\overlineBHAR/\\overlineSFR dependence on M⋆ does not support the scenario that SMBH and galaxy growth are in lockstep. We calculate SMBH mass history [MBH(z)] based on our \\overlineBHAR(M_{\\star }, z) and the M⋆(z) from the literature, and find that the MBH-M⋆ relation has weak redshift evolution since z ≈ 2. The MBH/M⋆ ratio is higher towards massive galaxies: it rises from ≈1/5000 at log M⋆ ≲ 10.5 to ≈1/500 at log M⋆ ≳ 11.2. Our predicted MBH/M⋆ ratio at high M⋆ is similar to that observed in local giant ellipticals, suggesting that SMBH growth from mergers is unlikely to dominate over growth from accretion.

  20. Geriatric Patient Safety Indicators Based on Linked Administrative Health Data to Assess Anticoagulant-Related Thromboembolic and Hemorrhagic Adverse Events in Older Inpatients: A Study Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pogam, Marie-Annick; Quantin, Catherine; Reich, Oliver; Tuppin, Philippe; Fagot-Campagna, Anne; Paccaud, Fred; Peytremann-Bridevaux, Isabelle; Burnand, Bernard

    2017-05-11

    Frail older people with multiple interacting conditions, polypharmacy, and complex care needs are particularly exposed to health care-related adverse events. Among these, anticoagulant-related thromboembolic and hemorrhagic events are particularly frequent and serious in older inpatients. The growing use of anticoagulants in this population and their substantial risk of toxicity and inefficacy have therefore become an important patient safety and public health concern worldwide. Anticoagulant-related adverse events and the quality of anticoagulation management should thus be routinely assessed to improve patient safety in vulnerable older inpatients. This project aims to develop and validate a set of outcome and process indicators based on linked administrative health data (ie, insurance claims data linked to hospital discharge data) assessing older inpatient safety related to anticoagulation in both Switzerland and France, and enabling comparisons across time and among hospitals, health territories, and countries. Geriatric patient safety indicators (GPSIs) will assess anticoagulant-related adverse events. Geriatric quality indicators (GQIs) will evaluate the management of anticoagulants for the prevention and treatment of arterial or venous thromboembolism in older inpatients. GPSIs will measure cumulative incidences of thromboembolic and bleeding adverse events based on hospital discharge data linked to insurance claims data. Using linked administrative health data will improve GPSI risk adjustment on patients' conditions that are present at admission and will capture in-hospital and postdischarge adverse events. GQIs will estimate the proportion of index hospital stays resulting in recommended anticoagulation at discharge and up to various time frames based on the same electronic health data. The GPSI and GQI development and validation process will comprise 6 stages: (1) selection and specification of candidate indicators, (2) definition of administrative data

  1. Lung Cancer Cell Line Screen Links Fanconi Anemia/BRCA Pathway Defects to Increased Relative Biological Effectiveness of Proton Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qi; Ghosh, Priyanjali; Magpayo, Nicole [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Testa, Mauro; Tang, Shikui [Division of Radiation Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Gheorghiu, Liliana [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Biggs, Peter; Paganetti, Harald [Division of Radiation Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Efstathiou, Jason A. [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Lu, Hsiao-Ming [Division of Radiation Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Held, Kathryn D. [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Willers, Henning, E-mail: hwillers@mgh.harvard.edu [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: Growing knowledge of genomic heterogeneity in cancer, especially when it results in altered DNA damage responses, requires re-examination of the generic relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 1.1 of protons. Methods and Materials: For determination of cellular radiosensitivity, we irradiated 17 lung cancer cell lines at the mid-spread-out Bragg peak of a clinical proton beam (linear energy transfer, 2.5 keV/μm). For comparison, 250-kVp X rays and {sup 137}Cs γ-rays were used. To estimate the RBE of protons relative to {sup 60}Co (Co60eq), we assigned an RBE(Co60Eq) of 1.1 to X rays to correct the physical dose measured. Standard DNA repair foci assays were used to monitor damage responses. FANCD2 was depleted using RNA interference. Results: Five lung cancer cell lines (29.4%) exhibited reduced clonogenic survival after proton irradiation compared with X-irradiation with the same physical doses. This was confirmed in a 3-dimensional sphere assay. Corresponding proton RBE(Co60Eq) estimates were statistically significantly different from 1.1 (P≤.05): 1.31 to 1.77 (for a survival fraction of 0.5). In 3 of these lines, increased RBE was correlated with alterations in the Fanconi anemia (FA)/BRCA pathway of DNA repair. In Calu-6 cells, the data pointed toward an FA pathway defect, leading to a previously unreported persistence of proton-induced RAD51 foci. The FA/BRCA-defective cells displayed a 25% increase in the size of subnuclear 53BP1 foci 18 hours after proton irradiation. Conclusions: Our cell line screen has revealed variations in proton RBE that are partly due to FA/BRCA pathway defects, suggesting that the use of a generic RBE for cancers should be revisited. We propose that functional biomarkers, such as size of residual 53BP1 foci, may be used to identify cancers with increased sensitivity to proton radiation.

  2. Pain Processing in a Social Context and the Link with Psychopathic Personality Traits—An Event-Related Potential Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper H. van Heck

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Empathy describes the ability to understand another person’s feelings. Psychopathy is a disorder that is characterized by a lack of empathy. Therefore, empathy and psychopathy are interesting traits to investigate with respect to experiencing and observing pain. The present study aimed to investigate pain empathy and pain sensitivity by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs extracted from the ongoing EEG in an interactive setup. Each participant fulfilled subsequently the role of “villain” and “victim”. In addition, mode of control was modulated resulting in four different conditions; passive villain, active villain, active victim and passive victim. Response-, visual- and pain ERPs were compared between the four conditions. Furthermore, the role of psychopathic traits in these outcomes was investigated. Our findings suggested that people experience more conflict when hurting someone else than hurting themselves. Furthermore, our results indicated that self-controlled pain was experienced as more painful than uncontrolled pain. People that scored high on psychopathic traits seemed to process and experience pain differently. According to the results of the current study, social context, attention and personality traits seem to modulate pain processing and the empathic response to pain in self and others. The within-subject experimental design described here provides an excellent approach to further unravel the influence of social context and personality traits on social cognition.

  3. Inference of Longevity-Related Genes from a Robust Coexpression Network of Seed Maturation Identifies Regulators Linking Seed Storability to Biotic Defense-Related Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righetti, Karima; Vu, Joseph Ly; Pelletier, Sandra; Vu, Benoit Ly; Glaab, Enrico; Lalanne, David; Pasha, Asher; Patel, Rohan V; Provart, Nicholas J; Verdier, Jerome; Leprince, Olivier; Buitink, Julia

    2015-10-01

    Seed longevity, the maintenance of viability during storage, is a crucial factor for preservation of genetic resources and ensuring proper seedling establishment and high crop yield. We used a systems biology approach to identify key genes regulating the acquisition of longevity during seed maturation of Medicago truncatula. Using 104 transcriptomes from seed developmental time courses obtained in five growth environments, we generated a robust, stable coexpression network (MatNet), thereby capturing the conserved backbone of maturation. Using a trait-based gene significance measure, a coexpression module related to the acquisition of longevity was inferred from MatNet. Comparative analysis of the maturation processes in M. truncatula and Arabidopsis thaliana seeds and mining Arabidopsis interaction databases revealed conserved connectivity for 87% of longevity module nodes between both species. Arabidopsis mutant screening for longevity and maturation phenotypes demonstrated high predictive power of the longevity cross-species network. Overrepresentation analysis of the network nodes indicated biological functions related to defense, light, and auxin. Characterization of defense-related wrky3 and nf-x1-like1 (nfxl1) transcription factor mutants demonstrated that these genes regulate some of the network nodes and exhibit impaired acquisition of longevity during maturation. These data suggest that seed longevity evolved by co-opting existing genetic pathways regulating the activation of defense against pathogens. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  4. Relation between enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and radioimmunoassay for detection of antibodies to the capsular polysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae type b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristensen, K.; Weis Bentzon, M.

    1992-01-01

    The measurement of antibodies to the capsular polysaccharide (PRP) of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is important because vaccines inducing such antibodies are now available. We developed and evaluated an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of these antibodies based on direct coating of the plates with tyraminated PRP. The assay fulfilled the requirements for parallel line assays; it was sensitive, specific, and reproducible with a coefficient of variation between days of 19%. Results from the ELISA were compared with results from radioimmunoassay and a correlation coefficient of 0.93 was found. Results obtained by the two methods were proportional and the relation was indepenedent of the antibody level. The relation between them was also unaffected by the contribution of different antibody isotypes, indicating that these were measured to the same extent by both methods. ELISA employing direct coating of the plates with tyraminated PRP represents a useful alternative for detection of antibodies when studying immunogenicity of Hib vaccines. (au)

  5. Relation between enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and radioimmunoassay for detection of antibodies to the capsular polysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae type b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, K. (Streptococcus Department, Statens Seruminstitut, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Weis Bentzon, M. (Department of Biostatistics, Statens Seruminstitut, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    1992-01-01

    The measurement of antibodies to the capsular polysaccharide (PRP) of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is important because vaccines inducing such antibodies are now available. We developed and evaluated an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of these antibodies based on direct coating of the plates with tyraminated PRP. The assay fulfilled the requirements for parallel line assays; it was sensitive, specific, and reproducible with a coefficient of variation between days of 19%. Results from the ELISA were compared with results from radioimmunoassay and a correlation coefficient of 0.93 was found. Results obtained by the two methods were proportional and the relation was indepenedent of the antibody level. The relation between them was also unaffected by the contribution of different antibody isotypes, indicating that these were measured to the same extent by both methods. ELISA employing direct coating of the plates with tyraminated PRP represents a useful alternative for detection of antibodies when studying immunogenicity of Hib vaccines. (au).

  6. Refined Hopf Link Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Iqbal, Amer

    2012-01-01

    We establish a relation between the refined Hopf link invariant and the S-matrix of the refined Chern-Simons theory. We show that the refined open string partition function corresponding to the Hopf link, calculated using the refined topological vertex, when expressed in the basis of Macdonald polynomials gives the S-matrix of the refined Chern-Simons theory.

  7. Weierstrass polynomials for links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1997-01-01

    There is a natural way of identifying links in3-space with polynomial covering spaces over thecircle. Thereby any link in 3-space can be definedby a Weierstrass polynomial over the circle. Theequivalence relation for covering spaces over thecircle is, however, completely different from...

  8. NordicWelfAir - Understanding the link between Air pollution and Distribution of related Health Impacts and Welfare in the Nordic countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jørgen

    2017-04-01

    Air pollution has serious impacts on human health, wellbeing and welfare. The main challenge is to understand how to regulate air pollution in an optimal way both on global and local scales. Linking the detailed information of the spatio-temporal distribution of air pollution levels and the chemical composition of the atmospheric particles with register data for mortality and morbidity, we have a unique opportunity in the Nordic countries to gain new understanding of the various health impacts from different kinds of air pollution from different kind of sources. This will provide the basic understanding needed for policy making of strategies to optimally reduce the air pollution challenge and to assess the related impacts on the distribution of health impacts and related societal costs and welfare. The large interdisciplinary NordicWelfAir project (http://nordicwelfair.au.dk), funded by NordForsk, will take advantage of the unique Nordic data. The results from the project will be used in both a Nordic as well as global perspective to improve the health and welfare by finding the optimal solutions to societal and public health challenges from air pollution through high-quality research. The results from the research in this project have the potential to act as new international standards in our understanding of health impacts from air pollution for different population groups due to the possibility to integrate the unique data and knowledge of air pollution, register, health, socio-economics, and welfare research in the Nordic countries in a highly interdisciplinary project. The study will provide a Nordic contribution to international research on the topics of environmental equality and justice within the area of air quality related risks, amenities and wellbeing. Acknowledgements This project is funded by NordForsk under the Nordic Programme on Health and Welfare. Project #75007: Understanding the link between air pollution and distribution of related health

  9. Roles of body image-related experiential avoidance and uncommitted living in the link between body image and women's quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Inês A; Ferreira, Cláudia; Pinto-Gouveia, José

    2018-01-01

    The current study aimed to test whether the associations of body mass index, body image discrepancy, and social comparison based on physical appearance with women's psychological quality of life (QoL) would be explained by the mechanisms of body image-related experiential avoidance and patterns of uncommitted living. The sample was collected from October 2014 to March 2015 and included 737 female college students (aged between 18 and 25 years) who completed validated self-report measures. Results demonstrated that the final path model explained 43% of psychological QoL and revealed an excellent fit. Body image-related experiential avoidance had a meditational role in the association between body image discrepancy and psychological QoL. Further, the link between social comparison based on physical appearance and psychological QoL was partially mediated by body image-related experiential avoidance and uncommitted living. These findings indicate that the key mechanisms of the relationship between body image and young women's QoL were those related to maladaptive emotion regulation. It thus seems that interventions aiming to promote mental health in this population should promote acceptance of internal experiences related to physical appearance (e.g., sensations, thoughts, or emotions) and the engagement in behaviors committed to life values.

  10. Statistics Related Self-Efficacy A Confirmatory Factor Analysis Demonstrating a Significant Link to Prior Mathematics Experiences for Graduate Level Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Larwin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined students' statistics-related self-efficacy, as measured with the current statistics self-efficacy (CSSE inventory developed by Finney and Schraw (2003. Structural equation modeling was used to check the confirmatory factor analysis of the one-dimensional factor of CSSE. Once confirmed, this factor was used to test whether a significant link to prior mathematics experiences exists. Additionally a new post-structural equation modeling (SEM application was employed to compute error-free latent variable score for CSSE in an effort to examine the ancillary effects of gender, age, ethnicity, department, degree level, hours completed, expected course grade, number of college-level math classes, current GPA on students' CSSE scores. Results support the one-dimensional construct and as expected, the model demonstrated a significant link between CSSE scores and prior mathematics experiences to CSSE. Additionally the students' department, expected grade, and number of prior math classes were found to have a significant effect on student's CSSE scores.

  11. Anxiety disorders and anxiety-related traits and serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) in adolescents: case-control and trio studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoluzzi, Andressa; Blaya, Carolina; Salum, Giovanni A; Cappi, Carolina; Leistner-Segal, Sandra; Manfro, Gisele G

    2014-08-01

    The role of the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) in anxiety disorder and anxiety-related traits is controversial. Besides this study, few studies have evaluated the triallelic genotype in adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate whether anxiety disorders and anxiety-related traits are associated with 5-HTTLPR (biallelic and triallelic) in adolescents, integrating both case-control-based and family-based designs in a community sample. This is a cross-sectional community study of 504 individuals and their families: 225 adolescents (129 adolescents with anxiety disorder and 96 controls) and their biological families. We assessed psychiatric diagnosis using the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. The Temperament and Character Inventory and the Resnick Behavioral Inhibition Scale were used to evaluate harm avoidance and behavioral inhibition. DNA was extracted from saliva and genotyped, including biallelic and triallelic 5-HTTLPR classification, by PCR-RFLP followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. We were not able to find any associations between 5-HTTLPR and anxiety-related phenotypes in both case-control and trio analyses. Further investigation and meta-analytic studies are needed to better clarify the inconsistent results with regard to the association between 5-HTTLPR and anxiety-related phenotypes in adolescents.

  12. Link Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoho, Steve

    Link analysis is a collection of techniques that operate on data that can be represented as nodes and links. This chapter surveys a variety of techniques including subgraph matching, finding cliques and K-plexes, maximizing spread of influence, visualization, finding hubs and authorities, and combining with traditional techniques (classification, clustering, etc). It also surveys applications including social network analysis, viral marketing, Internet search, fraud detection, and crime prevention.

  13. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Misuse and HIV Related? Drug misuse and addiction have been linked with HIV/AIDS since the beginning ... the link between drug misuse and HIV. We have produced a set of multicultural public service announcements ( ...

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Link - Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors ... GA: CDC, DHHS. Retrieved November 2017. How are Drug Misuse and HIV Related? Drug misuse and addiction ...

  15. Large-scale adverse effects related to treatment evidence standardization (LAERTES): an open scalable system for linking pharmacovigilance evidence sources with clinical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-07

    Integrating multiple sources of pharmacovigilance evidence has the potential to advance the science of safety signal detection and evaluation. In this regard, there is a need for more research on how to integrate multiple disparate evidence sources while making the evidence computable from a knowledge representation perspective (i.e., semantic enrichment). Existing frameworks suggest well-promising outcomes for such integration but employ a rather limited number of sources. In particular, none have been specifically designed to support both regulatory and clinical use cases, nor have any been designed to add new resources and use cases through an open architecture. This paper discusses the architecture and functionality of a system called Large-scale Adverse Effects Related to Treatment Evidence Standardization (LAERTES) that aims to address these shortcomings. LAERTES provides a standardized, open, and scalable architecture for linking evidence sources relevant to the association of drugs with health outcomes of interest (HOIs). Standard terminologies are used to represent different entities. For example, drugs and HOIs are represented in RxNorm and Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine -- Clinical Terms respectively. At the time of this writing, six evidence sources have been loaded into the LAERTES evidence base and are accessible through prototype evidence exploration user interface and a set of Web application programming interface services. This system operates within a larger software stack provided by the Observational Health Data Sciences and Informatics clinical research framework, including the relational Common Data Model for observational patient data created by the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership. Elements of the Linked Data paradigm facilitate the systematic and scalable integration of relevant evidence sources. The prototype LAERTES system provides useful functionality while creating opportunities for further research. Future work will

  16. A potential psychological mechanism linking disaster-related prenatal maternal stress with child cognitive and motor development at 16 months: The QF2011 Queensland Flood Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Katrina M; Simcock, Gabrielle; Cobham, Vanessa; Kildea, Sue; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Laplante, David P; King, Suzanne

    2017-04-01

    Fetal exposure to prenatal maternal stress can have lifelong consequences, with different types of maternal stress associated with different areas of child development. Fewer studies have focused on motor skills, even though they are strongly predictive of later development across a range of domains. Research on mechanisms of transmission has identified biological cascades of stress reactions, yet links between psychological stress reactions are rarely studied. This study investigates the relationship between different aspects of disaster-related prenatal maternal stress and child cognitive and motor development, and proposes a cascade of stress reactions as a potential mechanism of transmission. Mothers in the Queensland Flood Study (QF2011) exposed to a major flood during pregnancy completed questionnaires assessing flood exposure, symptoms of peritraumatic distress, dissociation, and posttraumatic stress (PTSD), and cognitive appraisal of the overall flood consequences. At 16 months post-partum, children's (N = 145) cognitive and motor development was assessed using the Bayley-III. Flood exposure predicted child cognitive development and maternal PTSD symptoms and negative cognitive appraisal were significantly negatively related to child motor development, with all relationships moderated by timing of exposure. Together, a cascade of stress reactions linked maternal flood exposure to poorer fine motor development. These findings suggest that the way stress reactions operate together is as important as the way they operate in isolation, and identifies a potential psychological mechanism of transmission for the effects of prenatal stress. Results have implications for conceptualizing prenatal stress research and optimizing child development in the wake of natural disasters. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Sleep Deprivation and Caffeine Treatment Potentiate Photic Resetting of the Master Circadian Clock in a Diurnal Rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Pawan Kumar; Bouâouda, Hanan; Gourmelen, Sylviane; Dumont, Stephanie; Fuchs, Fanny; Goumon, Yannick; Bourgin, Patrice; Kalsbeek, Andries; Challet, Etienne

    2017-04-19

    Circadian rhythms in nocturnal and diurnal mammals are primarily synchronized to local time by the light/dark cycle. However, nonphotic factors, such as behavioral arousal and metabolic cues, can also phase shift the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCNs) and/or reduce the synchronizing effects of light in nocturnal rodents. In diurnal rodents, the role of arousal or insufficient sleep in these functions is still poorly understood. In the present study, diurnal Sudanian grass rats, Arvicanthis ansorgei , were aroused at night by sleep deprivation (gentle handling) or caffeine treatment that both prevented sleep. Phase shifts of locomotor activity were analyzed in grass rats transferred from a light/dark cycle to constant darkness and aroused in early night or late night. Early night, but not late night, sleep deprivation induced a significant phase shift. Caffeine on its own induced no phase shifts. Both sleep deprivation and caffeine treatment potentiated light-induced phase delays and phase advances in response to a 30 min light pulse, respectively. Sleep deprivation in early night, but not late night, potentiated light-induced c-Fos expression in the ventral SCN. Caffeine treatment in midnight triggered c-Fos expression in dorsal SCN. Both sleep deprivation and caffeine treatment potentiated light-induced c-Fos expression in calbindin-containing cells of the ventral SCN in early and late night. These findings indicate that, in contrast to nocturnal rodents, behavioral arousal induced either by sleep deprivation or caffeine during the sleeping period potentiates light resetting of the master circadian clock in diurnal rodents, and activation of calbindin-containing suprachiasmatic cells may be involved in this effect. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Arousing stimuli have the ability to regulate circadian rhythms in mammals. Behavioral arousal in the sleeping period phase shifts the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei and/or slows down the photic

  18. Operative links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen

    2010-01-01

    and have been the object of great expectations concerning the ability to incorporate health concerns into every welfare area through health promotion strategies. The paper draws on results and analyses of a collective research project funded by the Danish National Research Council and carried out...... as networks: second, a semantic perspective on discourses and concepts of health, and, third, a health pedagogical perspective on participation, intervention, and roles. This paper argues for the importance of 'operative links' between different levels in health strategies. It is proposed that such links...

  19. Operative Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Højlund, Holger

    2012-01-01

    and have been the object of great expectations concerning the ability to incorporate health concerns into every welfare area through health promotion strategies. The paper draws on results and analyses of a collective research project funded by the Danish National Research Council and carried out...... links' that indicate cooperative levels which facilitate a creative and innovative effort in disease prevention and health promotion targeted at children and adolescents - across traditional professional boundaries. It is proposed that such links are supported by network structures, shared semantics...

  20. A workplace email-linked website intervention for modifying cancer-related dietary and lifestyle risk factors: rationale, design and baseline findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Y K; Mirnalini, K; Zalilah, M S

    2013-04-01

    The use of email and website as channels for workplace health information delivery is not fully explored. This study aims to describe the rationale, design, and baseline findings of an email-linked website intervention to improve modifiable cancer risk factors. Employees of a Malaysian public university were recruited by systematic random sampling and randomised into an intervention (n = 174) or control group (n = 165). A website was developed for the intervention and educational modules were uploaded onto the website. The intervention group received ten consecutive weekly emails with hypertext links to the website for downloading the modules and two individual phone calls as motivational support whilst the control group received none. Diet, lifestyle, anthropometric measurements, psychosocial factors and stages of change related to dietary fat, fruit and vegetable intake, and physical activity were assessed. Participants were predominantly female and in non-academic positions. Obesity was prevalent in 15% and 37% were at risk of co-morbidities. Mean intake of fats was 31%, fruit was -1 serving/day and vegetable was < 1 serving/day. Less than 20% smoked and drank alcohol and about 40% were physically inactive. The majority of the participants fell into the Preparation stage for decreasing fat intake, eating more fruit and vegetables, and increasing physical activity. Self-efficacy and perceived benefits were lowest among participants in the Precontemplation/Contemplation stage compared to the Preparation and Action/Maintenance stages. Baseline data show that dietary and lifestyle practices among the employees did not meet the international guidelines for cancer prevention. Hence the findings warrant the intervention planned.

  1. A Structural Equation Model Linking Health Literacy to Self-efficacy, Self-care Activities, and Health-related Quality of Life in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Hyun; Lee, Young Whee; Moon, Seung Hei

    2016-03-01

    Health literacy has been attracting increasing attention because low health literacy is considered an important predictor of adverse health outcomes in many chronic conditions, including diabetes. However, it is unclear how health literacy is associated with health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to formulate a hypothetical structural equation model linking health literacy to self-efficacy, self-care activities, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional survey design was employed, and 459 patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited from outpatient clinics in two university hospitals. The patients completed a pack of questionnaires. The hypothetical model was tested using structural equation modeling analysis. The values of multiple fit indices indicated that the proposed model provided a good fit to the data. Health literacy exerted not only a direct effect on self-care activities, but also an indirect effect on self-care activities via self-efficacy. However, health literacy exerted only an indirect effect on HRQOL. This structural model was invariant across hemoglobin-A1c-controlled and hemoglobin-A1c-uncontrolled groups. Based on R(2) values, the final model accounted for 20.0% of the variance in self-efficacy, 61.0% of the variance in self-care activities, and 16.0% of the variance in HRQOL. This study suggests that self-care activities are crucial to the link between health literacy and HRQOL. Both health literacy and self-efficacy need to be considered in clinical practice for enhancing self-care activities in patients with type 2 diabetes. This approach may ultimately improve HRQOL in these patients. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Privacy preserving probabilistic record linkage (P3RL): a novel method for linking existing health-related data and maintaining participant confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidlin, Kurt; Clough-Gorr, Kerri M; Spoerri, Adrian

    2015-05-30

    Record linkage of existing individual health care data is an efficient way to answer important epidemiological research questions. Reuse of individual health-related data faces several problems: Either a unique personal identifier, like social security number, is not available or non-unique person identifiable information, like names, are privacy protected and cannot be accessed. A solution to protect privacy in probabilistic record linkages is to encrypt these sensitive information. Unfortunately, encrypted hash codes of two names differ completely if the plain names differ only by a single character. Therefore, standard encryption methods cannot be applied. To overcome these challenges, we developed the Privacy Preserving Probabilistic Record Linkage (P3RL) method. In this Privacy Preserving Probabilistic Record Linkage method we apply a three-party protocol, with two sites collecting individual data and an independent trusted linkage center as the third partner. Our method consists of three main steps: pre-processing, encryption and probabilistic record linkage. Data pre-processing and encryption are done at the sites by local personnel. To guarantee similar quality and format of variables and identical encryption procedure at each site, the linkage center generates semi-automated pre-processing and encryption templates. To retrieve information (i.e. data structure) for the creation of templates without ever accessing plain person identifiable information, we introduced a novel method of data masking. Sensitive string variables are encrypted using Bloom filters, which enables calculation of similarity coefficients. For date variables, we developed special encryption procedures to handle the most common date errors. The linkage center performs probabilistic record linkage with encrypted person identifiable information and plain non-sensitive variables. In this paper we describe step by step how to link existing health-related data using encryption methods to

  3. Alcohol abstinence, non-hazardous use and hazardous use a decade after alcohol-related hospitalization: registry data linked to population-based representative postal surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahacic, Kozma; Kennison, Robert F; Kåreholt, Ingemar

    2014-08-24

    Although there is evident association between alcohol-related hospitalization and alcohol use, the relationship has not been well examined. This study analyzed the extent of alcohol abstinence, non-hazardous use and hazardous use among people who had experienced alcohol-related hospitalization during the preceding decade. Registry data concerning alcohol-related hospitalizations between 1996 and 2007 were linked to two representative surveys, in 2006 and 2007, of residents of Stockholm County. Relevant contrasts were modeled, using logistic regression, in the pooled sample (n = 54 955). Ages were 23-84 years at follow-up. Among persons previously hospitalized (n = 576), half reported non-hazardous use. Non-hazardous use was less prevalent than in the general population--and the extent of non-hazardous use did not change over time following hospitalization. There were no significant age differences, but non-hazardous use was less frequent among people with repeated episodes of care. One in six was abstinent. Abstinence was more common among the old, while hazardous use (exceeding 14 drinks per week for men, and 9 drinks per week for women) decreased with age. Abstinence also increased over time; among persons hospitalized ten years ago, the abstinence rate was twice that of the general population. Associations with hazardous use over time were less conclusive. Hazardous use among those previously hospitalized decreased over time in one sample but not in the other. After pooling the data, there were indications of a decrease over time following hospitalization, but more prevalent hazardous use than in the general population. Following alcohol-related hospitalization, abstinence increased, and there was no evidence of regression towards the mean, i.e., towards non-hazardous use. Abstinence was also more widespread among previously hospitalized persons of older ages. With advancing age, changing hazardous alcohol habits among previously hospitalized appears to yield a

  4. Preliminary study of highly cross-linked hyaluronic acid-based combination therapy for management of knee osteoarthritis-related pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Beniamino; Rottigni, Valentina; Iannitti, Tommaso

    2013-01-01

    Background Hyaluronic acid has been extensively used for treatment of knee osteoarthritis due to its anti-inflammatory properties and its ability to act as a synovial lubricant. Furthermore, it has found application in combination with other drugs in the dermatological field and in pre-clinical studies in animal models of osteoarthritis. Experimental evidence suggests that a combination of this macromolecule with other drugs may act as a slow-release depot. However, to date, to the best of our knowledge, no one has tested local intra-articular delivery of highly cross-linked hyaluronic acid combined with bisphosphonate or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for management of knee osteoarthritis pain in the clinical setting. The aim of the present randomized double-blind study was to investigate, for the first time, the effect of a highly cross-linked hyaluronic acid, Variofill®, alone or in combination with diclofenac sodium or sodium clodronate, for management of bilateral knee osteoarthritis-related pain. Methods Sixty-two patients with symptomatic bilateral medial tibiofemoral knee osteoarthritis (Kellgren–Lawrence grade II and III) and pain in both knees corresponding to a daily visual analog scale (VAS) score ≥ 30 in the month before the beginning of the study were included in this investigation. Patients were divided into three groups: group 1, treated with an injection of hyaluronic acid alone (66 mg) into each knee; group 2, treated with an injection of hyaluronic acid (49.5 mg) plus diclofenac sodium (5 mg) into each knee; group 3, treated with an injection of hyaluronic acid (49.5 mg) plus sodium clodronate (5 mg) into each knee. Patients also underwent blood tests for measurement of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) immediately before and at 6-month follow-up. Results Hyaluronic acid alone and in combination with sodium clodronate or diclofenac sodium produced a significant improvement in mean VAS pain score at 3 and

  5. The Restoration of Chronotropic CompEtence in Heart Failure PatientS with Normal Ejection FracTion (RESET) Study: Rationale and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, David A.; Kitzman, Dalane W.; Alvarez, Guy E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is the predominant form of HF among the elderly and in women. However, there are few if any evidence-based therapeutic options for HFpEF. The chief complaint of HFpEF is reduced tolerance to physical exertion. Recent data revealed that one potential mechanism of exertional intolerance in HFpEF patients is inadequate chronotropic response. Although there is considerable evidence demonstrating the benefits of rate-adaptive pacing (RAP) provided from implantable cardiac devices in patients with an impaired chronotropic response, the effect of RAP in HFpEF is unknown. Methods and Results The RESET study is a prospective, multi-center, double-blind, randomized with stratification, study assessing the effect of RAP on peak VO2 and quality of life. RAP therapy will be evaluated in a cross-over paired fashion for each patient within each study stratum. Study strata are based on patient beta-blocker usage at time of enrollment. The study is powered to assess the impact of pacing independently in both strata. Conclusions The RESET study seeks to evaluate the potential benefit of RAP in patients with symptomatic mild to moderate HFpEF and chronotropic impairment. Study enrollment began in July 2008. PMID:20123314

  6. Low-power priority Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder data-driven readout for Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for tracker system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, P.; Aglieri, G.; Cavicchioli, C.; Chalmet, P. L.; Chanlek, N.; Collu, A.; Gao, C.; Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A.; Kofarago, M.; Keil, M.; Kugathasan, T.; Kim, D.; Kim, J.; Lattuca, A.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Marras, D.; Mager, M.; Martinengo, P.; Mazza, G.; Mugnier, H.; Musa, L.; Puggioni, C.; Rousset, J.; Reidt, F.; Riedler, P.; Snoeys, W.; Siddhanta, S.; Usai, G.; van Hoorne, J. W.; Yi, J.

    2015-06-01

    Active Pixel Sensors used in High Energy Particle Physics require low power consumption to reduce the detector material budget, low integration time to reduce the possibilities of pile-up and fast readout to improve the detector data capability. To satisfy these requirements, a novel Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder (AERD) asynchronous circuit for a fast readout of a pixel matrix has been developed. The AERD data-driven readout architecture operates the address encoding and reset decoding based on an arbitration tree, and allows us to readout only the hit pixels. Compared to the traditional readout structure of the rolling shutter scheme in Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), AERD can achieve a low readout time and a low power consumption especially for low hit occupancies. The readout is controlled at the chip periphery with a signal synchronous with the clock, allows a good digital and analogue signal separation in the matrix and a reduction of the power consumption. The AERD circuit has been implemented in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor (CIS) process with full complementary CMOS logic in the pixel. It works at 10 MHz with a matrix height of 15 mm. The energy consumed to read out one pixel is around 72 pJ. A scheme to boost the readout speed to 40 MHz is also discussed. The sensor chip equipped with AERD has been produced and characterised. Test results including electrical beam measurement are presented.

  7. IMPRESS YOUR FRIENDS AND PREDICT THE FINAL SCORE: An analysis of the psychic ability of four target resetting methods used in One-Day International Cricket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara J. O'Riley

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One-Day cricket's eternal problem is how to fairly account for an interruption that occurs during a team's innings. Several methods have been applied in the past, some more successfully than others. Numerous articles have been written about different target resetting methods applicable in one-day international cricket and how they "favour" one team over another. In this paper we use an alternative approach looking at the psychic ability of four target resetting methods and compare how well they predict the final score based on the present state of the first innings. We attempt to convert each of methods we investigate into a ball-by-ball predictive tool. We introduce a terminal interruption to the first innings at every ball and compute the predicted final score. We ascribe a nominal value to the difference between the final achieved score and the prediction given by each method. We compute our own 'Psychic Metric' to enable a comparison between the four methods. We also develop a computer package to manipulate the data from matches in which the first innings was completed

  8. Low-power priority Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder data-driven readout for Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for tracker system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, P.; Aglieri, G.; Cavicchioli, C.; Chalmet, P.L.; Chanlek, N.; Collu, A.; Gao, C.; Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A.; Kofarago, M.; Keil, M.; Kugathasan, T.; Kim, D.; Kim, J.; Lattuca, A.; Marin Tobon, C.A.; Marras, D.; Mager, M.; Martinengo, P.; Mazza, G.

    2015-01-01

    Active Pixel Sensors used in High Energy Particle Physics require low power consumption to reduce the detector material budget, low integration time to reduce the possibilities of pile-up and fast readout to improve the detector data capability. To satisfy these requirements, a novel Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder (AERD) asynchronous circuit for a fast readout of a pixel matrix has been developed. The AERD data-driven readout architecture operates the address encoding and reset decoding based on an arbitration tree, and allows us to readout only the hit pixels. Compared to the traditional readout structure of the rolling shutter scheme in Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), AERD can achieve a low readout time and a low power consumption especially for low hit occupancies. The readout is controlled at the chip periphery with a signal synchronous with the clock, allows a good digital and analogue signal separation in the matrix and a reduction of the power consumption. The AERD circuit has been implemented in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor (CIS) process with full complementary CMOS logic in the pixel. It works at 10 MHz with a matrix height of 15 mm. The energy consumed to read out one pixel is around 72 pJ. A scheme to boost the readout speed to 40 MHz is also discussed. The sensor chip equipped with AERD has been produced and characterised. Test results including electrical beam measurement are presented

  9. Low-power priority Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder data-driven readout for Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for tracker system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, P., E-mail: yangping0710@126.com [Central China Normal University, Wuhan (China); Aglieri, G.; Cavicchioli, C. [CERN, 1210 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Chalmet, P.L. [MIND, Archamps (France); Chanlek, N. [Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima (Thailand); Collu, A. [University of Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); INFN (Italy); Gao, C. [Central China Normal University, Wuhan (China); Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A. [CERN, 1210 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Kofarago, M. [CERN, 1210 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); University of Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Keil, M.; Kugathasan, T. [CERN, 1210 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Kim, D. [Dongguk and Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lattuca, A. [University of Torino, Torino (Italy); INFN (Italy); Marin Tobon, C.A. [CERN, 1210 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Marras, D. [University of Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); INFN (Italy); Mager, M.; Martinengo, P. [CERN, 1210 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Mazza, G. [University of Torino, Torino (Italy); INFN (Italy); and others

    2015-06-11

    Active Pixel Sensors used in High Energy Particle Physics require low power consumption to reduce the detector material budget, low integration time to reduce the possibilities of pile-up and fast readout to improve the detector data capability. To satisfy these requirements, a novel Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder (AERD) asynchronous circuit for a fast readout of a pixel matrix has been developed. The AERD data-driven readout architecture operates the address encoding and reset decoding based on an arbitration tree, and allows us to readout only the hit pixels. Compared to the traditional readout structure of the rolling shutter scheme in Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), AERD can achieve a low readout time and a low power consumption especially for low hit occupancies. The readout is controlled at the chip periphery with a signal synchronous with the clock, allows a good digital and analogue signal separation in the matrix and a reduction of the power consumption. The AERD circuit has been implemented in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor (CIS) process with full complementary CMOS logic in the pixel. It works at 10 MHz with a matrix height of 15 mm. The energy consumed to read out one pixel is around 72 pJ. A scheme to boost the readout speed to 40 MHz is also discussed. The sensor chip equipped with AERD has been produced and characterised. Test results including electrical beam measurement are presented.

  10. Operative Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Højlund, Holger

    2012-01-01

    educational approaches. Methods: Mixed qualitative design: survey based on telephone interviews with health managers (n=72), personal and focus group interviews with health professionals (n=84) and pupils (n=108) from 18 school classes, and comparative case studies in five selected municipalities of various...... educational goals, learning content, or value clarification. Health pedagogy is often a matter of retrospective rationalization rather than the starting point of planning. Health and risk behaviour approaches override health educational approaches. Conclusions: Operational links between health education...

  11. Hearing, Cognition, and Healthy Aging: Social and Public Health Implications of the Links between Age-Related Declines in Hearing and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichora-Fuller, M. Kathleen; Mick, Paul; Reed, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    Sensory input provides the signals used by the brain when listeners understand speech and participate in social activities with other people in a range of everyday situations. When sensory inputs are diminished, there can be short-term consequences to brain functioning, and long-term deprivation can affect brain neuroplasticity. Indeed, the association between hearing loss and cognitive declines in older adults is supported by experimental and epidemiologic evidence, although the causal mechanisms remain unknown. These interactions of auditory and cognitive aging play out in the challenges confronted by people with age-related hearing problems when understanding speech and engaging in social interactions. In the present article, we use the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and the Selective Optimization with Compensation models to highlight the importance of adopting a healthy aging perspective that focuses on facilitating active social participation by older adults. First, we examine epidemiologic evidence linking ARHL to cognitive declines and other health issues. Next, we examine how social factors influence and are influenced by auditory and cognitive aging and if they may provide a possible explanation for the association between ARHL and cognitive decline. Finally, we outline how audiologists could reposition hearing health care within the broader context of healthy aging. PMID:27516713

  12. Altered functional connectivity links in neuroleptic-naïve and neuroleptic-treated patients with schizophrenia, and their relation to symptoms including volition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidan Pu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze functional connectivity in untreated and treated patients with schizophrenia, resting-state fMRI data were obtained for whole-brain functional connectivity analysis from 22 first-episode neuroleptic-naïve schizophrenia (NNS, 61 first-episode neuroleptic-treated schizophrenia (NTS patients, and 60 healthy controls (HC. Reductions were found in untreated and treated patients in the functional connectivity between the posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus, and this was correlated with the reduction in volition from the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS, that is in the willful initiation, sustenance, and control of thoughts, behavior, movements, and speech, and with the general and negative symptoms. In addition in both patient groups interhemispheric functional connectivity was weaker between the orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala and temporal pole. These functional connectivity changes and the related symptoms were not treated by the neuroleptics. Differences between the patient groups were that there were more strong functional connectivity links in the NNS patients (including in hippocampal, frontal, and striatal circuits than in the NTS patients. These findings with a whole brain analysis in untreated and treated patients with schizophrenia provide evidence on some of the brain regions implicated in the volitional, other general, and negative symptoms, of schizophrenia that are not treated by neuroleptics so have implications for the development of other treatments; and provide evidence on some brain systems in which neuroleptics do alter the functional connectivity.

  13. Relative efficiency of polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay in determination of viral etiology in congenital cataract in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamala G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Perinatal viral infections of fetus are among the leading causes of congenital cataract and identifying the viral etiology is important. Objectives: To detect the presence of Rubella virus (RV, herpes simplex virus (HSV and cytomegalovirus (CMV in lens aspirate specimens obtained from patients with congenital cataract and relate the results with serology. Setting and Design: Prospective study carried out in tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: Fifty lens aspirates from 50 infants with congenital cataract were subjected to HSV, RV isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR for detection of HSV and CMV. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was applied for RV detection. Peripheral blood specimens were screened for anti-HSV, RV and CMV antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA. Results: Rubella virus was detected in nine (18% lens aspirates, by nRT-PCR which includes six positive by culture. HSV-2 DNA was detected in nine other lens aspirates, while CMV was not detected by PCR. Serological results did not correlate with the presence of viruses in the lens aspirates. This is the first report of detection of HSV-2 DNA in cases of congenital cataract. Conclusions: Cytomegalovirus may not be playing a significant role in causation of congenital cataract. The role of serology in identifying causative viral infection for congenital cataract needs to be re-evaluated.

  14. Evidence for a Link Between Fkbp5/FKBP5, Early Life Social Relations and Alcohol Drinking in Young Adult Rats and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylander, Ingrid; Todkar, Aniruddha; Granholm, Linnea; Vrettou, Maria; Bendre, Megha; Boon, Wout; Andershed, Henrik; Tuvblad, Catherine; Nilsson, Kent W; Comasco, Erika

    2017-10-01

    Alcohol misuse has been linked to dysregulation of stress, emotion, and reward brain circuitries. A candidate key mediator of this association is the FK506-binding protein (FKBP5), a negative regulator of the glucocorticoid receptor. The aim of the present study was to further understand the Fkbp5/FKBP5-related genetic underpinnings underlying the relationship between early life social relations and alcohol drinking. The effect of maternal separation and voluntary alcohol drinking on Fkbp5 expression was investigated in the brain of young adult rats, whereas the interaction effect of the functional FKBP5 single nucleotide polymorphism rs1360780 genotype and parent-child relationship on problematic drinking was examined in young adult humans. In rats, Fkbp5 expression in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area, core regions of the reward system, was affected in a region-dependent manner and in opposite direction by maternal separation and alcohol drinking. Fkbp5 expression in the cingulate cortex was affected by the combined effect of maternal separation and alcohol drinking. In humans, the TT genotype, in the presence of a poor relationship between the child and parents, was associated with problematic drinking behavior. The present findings suggest that Fkbp5 expression in mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic regions associates with early life stress-mediated sensitivity to alcohol drinking and that FKBP5 genotype interacts with parent-child relationship to influence alcohol drinking. These findings are the first to point to a role of FKBP5 in propensity to alcohol misuse and call for studies of the underlying molecular mechanisms to identify potential drug targets.

  15. Preliminary study of highly cross-linked hyaluronic acid-based combination therapy for management of knee osteoarthritis-related pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmieri B

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Beniamino Palmieri,1,2 Valentina Rottigni,1,2 Tommaso Iannitti2,31Department of General Surgery and Surgical Specialties, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia Medical School, Surgical Clinic, Modena, Italy; 2Poliambulatorio del Secondo Parere, Modena, Italy; 3Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, KY, USABackground: Hyaluronic acid has been extensively used for treatment of knee osteoarthritis due to its anti-inflammatory properties and its ability to act as a synovial lubricant. Furthermore, it has found application in combination with other drugs in the dermatological field and in pre-clinical studies in animal models of osteoarthritis. Experimental evidence suggests that a combination of this macromolecule with other drugs may act as a slow-release depot. However, to date, to the best of our knowledge, no one has tested local intra-articular delivery of highly cross-linked hyaluronic acid combined with bisphosphonate or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for management of knee osteoarthritis pain in the clinical setting. The aim of the present randomized double-blind study was to investigate, for the first time, the effect of a highly cross-linked hyaluronic acid, Variofill®, alone or in combination with diclofenac sodium or sodium clodronate, for management of bilateral knee osteoarthritis-related pain.Methods: Sixty-two patients with symptomatic bilateral medial tibiofemoral knee osteoarthritis (Kellgren–Lawrence grade II and III and pain in both knees corresponding to a daily visual analog scale (VAS score ≥ 30 in the month before the beginning of the study were included in this investigation. Patients were divided into three groups: group 1, treated with an injection of hyaluronic acid alone (66 mg into each knee; group 2, treated with an injection of hyaluronic acid (49.5 mg plus diclofenac sodium (5 mg into each knee; group 3, treated with an injection of hyaluronic acid

  16. Uneven dietary development: linking the policies and processes of globalization with the nutrition transition, obesity and diet-related chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2006-03-28

    In a "nutrition transition", the consumption of foods high in fats and sweeteners is increasing throughout the developing world. The transition, implicated in the rapid rise of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases worldwide, is rooted in the processes of globalization. Globalization affects the nature of agri-food systems, thereby altering the quantity, type, cost and desirability of foods available for consumption. Understanding the links between globalization and the nutrition transition is therefore necessary to help policy makers develop policies, including food policies, for addressing the global burden of chronic disease. While the subject has been much discussed, tracing the specific pathways between globalization and dietary change remains a challenge. To help address this challenge, this paper explores how one of the central mechanisms of globalization, the integration of the global marketplace, is affecting the specific diet patterns. Focusing on middle-income countries, it highlights the importance of three major processes of market integration: (I) production and trade of agricultural goods; (II) foreign direct investment in food processing and retailing; and (III) global food advertising and promotion. The paper reveals how specific policies implemented to advance the globalization agenda account in part for some recent trends in the global diet. Agricultural production and trade policies have enabled more vegetable oil consumption; policies on foreign direct investment have facilitated higher consumption of highly-processed foods, as has global food marketing. These dietary outcomes also reflect the socioeconomic and cultural context in which these policies are operating. An important finding is that the dynamic, competitive forces unleashed as a result of global market integration facilitates not only convergence in consumption habits (as is commonly assumed in the "Coca-Colonization" hypothesis), but adaptation to products targeted at different

  17. Uneven dietary development: linking the policies and processes of globalization with the nutrition transition, obesity and diet-related chronic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2006-01-01

    In a "nutrition transition", the consumption of foods high in fats and sweeteners is increasing throughout the developing world. The transition, implicated in the rapid rise of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases worldwide, is rooted in the processes of globalization. Globalization affects the nature of agri-food systems, thereby altering the quantity, type, cost and desirability of foods available for consumption. Understanding the links between globalization and the nutrition transition is therefore necessary to help policy makers develop policies, including food policies, for addressing the global burden of chronic disease. While the subject has been much discussed, tracing the specific pathways between globalization and dietary change remains a challenge. To help address this challenge, this paper explores how one of the central mechanisms of globalization, the integration of the global marketplace, is affecting the specific diet patterns. Focusing on middle-income countries, it highlights the importance of three major processes of market integration: (I) production and trade of agricultural goods; (II) foreign direct investment in food processing and retailing; and (III) global food advertising and promotion. The paper reveals how specific policies implemented to advance the globalization agenda account in part for some recent trends in the global diet. Agricultural production and trade policies have enabled more vegetable oil consumption; policies on foreign direct investment have facilitated higher consumption of highly-processed foods, as has global food marketing. These dietary outcomes also reflect the socioeconomic and cultural context in which these policies are operating. An important finding is that the dynamic, competitive forces unleashed as a result of global market integration facilitates not only convergence in consumption habits (as is commonly assumed in the "Coca-Colonization" hypothesis), but adaptation to products targeted at different

  18. Uneven dietary development: linking the policies and processes of globalization with the nutrition transition, obesity and diet-related chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawkes Corinna

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a "nutrition transition", the consumption of foods high in fats and sweeteners is increasing throughout the developing world. The transition, implicated in the rapid rise of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases worldwide, is rooted in the processes of globalization. Globalization affects the nature of agri-food systems, thereby altering the quantity, type, cost and desirability of foods available for consumption. Understanding the links between globalization and the nutrition transition is therefore necessary to help policy makers develop policies, including food policies, for addressing the global burden of chronic disease. While the subject has been much discussed, tracing the specific pathways between globalization and dietary change remains a challenge. To help address this challenge, this paper explores how one of the central mechanisms of globalization, the integration of the global marketplace, is affecting the specific diet patterns. Focusing on middle-income countries, it highlights the importance of three major processes of market integration: (I production and trade of agricultural goods; (II foreign direct investment in food processing and retailing; and (III global food advertising and promotion. The paper reveals how specific policies implemented to advance the globalization agenda account in part for some recent trends in the global diet. Agricultural production and trade policies have enabled more vegetable oil consumption; policies on foreign direct investment have facilitated higher consumption of highly-processed foods, as has global food marketing. These dietary outcomes also reflect the socioeconomic and cultural context in which these policies are operating. An important finding is that the dynamic, competitive forces unleashed as a result of global market integration facilitates not only convergence in consumption habits (as is commonly assumed in the "Coca-Colonization" hypothesis, but adaptation to

  19. Effectiveness of a school-community linked program on physical activity levels and health-related quality of life for adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Meghan M; Harvey, Jack T; Telford, Amanda; Eime, Rochelle M; Mooney, Amanda; Payne, Warren R

    2014-06-25

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a school-community program on Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL; the primary outcome), physical activity (PA), and potential mediators of PA among adolescent girls living in low-socioeconomic rural/regional settings. The study was a cluster-randomized controlled trial. Twelve communities with the requisite sports clubs and facilities were paired according to relevant criteria; one of each pair was randomly assigned to the intervention or control condition. Eight schools per condition were randomly selected from these communities and the intervention was conducted over one school year (2011). Female students in grades 7-9 in intervention schools participated in two 6-session PA units - a sport unit (football or tennis) and a recreational unit (leisure centre-based). These were incorporated into physical education (PE) curriculum and linked to PA opportunities for participation outside school. Students were surveyed at baseline and endpoint, self-reporting impact on primary and secondary outcome measures (HRQoL, PA) and PA mediators (e.g. self-efficacy). Linear mixed models for two-group (intervention, control) and three-group (completers, non-completers, control) analyses were conducted with baseline value, age and BMI as covariates, group as a fixed effect and school as random cluster effect. Participants completing baseline and endpoint measures included: 358 intervention (baseline response rate 33.7%, retention rate 61.3%) and 256 control (14.1% and 84.0%). Adjustment for age and BMI made no substantive difference to outcomes, and there were no cluster effects. For HRQoL, after adjustment for baseline scores, the intervention group showed significantly higher scores on all three PedsQL scores (physical functioning: M ± SE = 83.9 ± 0.7, p = .005; psychosocial: 79.9 ± 0.8, p = .001; total score: 81.3 ± 0.7, p = .001) than the control group (80.9 ± 0.8; 76.1 ± 0.9 and 77.8

  20. Histamine resets the circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus through the H1R-CaV 1.3-RyR pathway in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Sik; Kim, Young-Beom; Kim, Woong Bin; Yoon, Bo-Eun; Shen, Feng-Yan; Lee, Seung Won; Soong, Tuck-Wah; Han, Hee-Chul; Colwell, Christopher S; Lee, C Justin; Kim, Yang In

    2015-10-01

    Histamine, a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator implicated in the control of arousal state, exerts a potent phase-shifting effect on the circadian clock in the rodent suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). In this study, the mechanisms by which histamine resets the circadian clock in the mouse SCN were investigated. As a first step, Ca(2+) -imaging techniques were used to demonstrate that histamine increases intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+) ]i ) in acutely dissociated SCN neurons and that this increase is blocked by the H1 histamine receptor (H1R) antagonist pyrilamine, the removal of extracellular Ca(2+) and the L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker nimodipine. The histamine-induced Ca(2+) transient is reduced, but not blocked, by application of the ryanodine receptor (RyR) blocker dantrolene. Immunohistochemical techniques indicated that CaV 1.3 L-type Ca(2+) channels are expressed mainly in the somata of SCN cells along with the H1R, whereas CaV 1.2 channels are located primarily in the processes. Finally, extracellular single-unit recordings demonstrated that the histamine-elicited phase delay of the circadian neural activity rhythm recorded from SCN slices is blocked by pyrilamine, nimodipine and the knockout of CaV 1.3 channel. Again, application of dantrolene reduced but did not block the histamine-induced phase delays. Collectively, these results indicate that, to reset the circadian clock, histamine increases [Ca(2+) ]i in SCN neurons by activating CaV 1.3 channels through H1R, and secondarily by causing Ca(2+) -induced Ca(2+) release from RyR-mediated internal stores. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Major Links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  2. Pedagogical Staff in Children's Day Care Centres in Germany--Links between Working Conditions, Job Satisfaction, Commitment and Work-Related Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreyer, Inge; Krause, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates links between staff working conditions in children's day care centres ("Kindertageseinrichtungen"--known as "Kitas" in Germany), job satisfaction, commitment and perceived stress at work. Data are based on the nationwide, representative questionnaire survey AQUA ("Arbeitsplatz und Qualität in…

  3. Cerebral, cerebellar, and colobomatous anomalies in three related males: Sex-linked inheritance in a newly recognized syndrome with features overlapping with Joubert syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, Hester Y.; Nievelstein, Rutger-Jan A. J.; Barth, Peter G.; Nikkels, Peter G. J.; Bergmann, Carsten; Gooskens, Rob H. J. M.; Visser, Gepke; van Amstel, Hans-Kristian Ploos; Beemer, Frits A.

    2005-01-01

    We present a so far unrecognized X-linked mental retardation syndrome with features overlapping with Joubert syndrome (JBS). Two brothers showed hypotonia, mental retardation, ocular abnormalities with impaired vision and colobomas and a breathing pattern compatible with JBS. Neuroimaging revealed

  4. Bullying perpetration and victimization as externalizing and internalizing pathways: A retrospective study linking parenting styles and self-esteem to depression, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems

    OpenAIRE

    Luk, Jeremy W; Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Medina, Mia; Terrell, Nathan; Belton, Daniel; King, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Emerging research suggests significant positive associations between bullying and substance use behaviors. However, these studies typically focused either on the link between substance use and bullying perpetration or victimization, and few have conceptualized bullying perpetration and/or victimization as mediators. In this study, we simultaneously tested past bullying perpetration and victimization as mediational pathways from retrospective report of parenting styles and global self-esteem t...

  5. Re: Hormonal contraception use among teenagers linked to depression - Yet another example of a never ending confusion between relative and absolute risks?

    OpenAIRE

    Kritsotakis, E.

    2016-01-01

    Millions of women worldwide use hormonal contraception (HC) and it is recognised that some women report that they experience mood changes associated with HC (1) . But is there an increased frequency (or risk) of depression among women using HC compared to non-users? If so, would this imply a causal link between HC and depression? Would it then be reasonable to expect that stopping contraceptive use would reverse the symptoms in many women who suffer from depression?

  6. Sex-linked dominant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... can be either an autosomal chromosome or a sex chromosome. It also depends on whether the trait ...

  7. Micrometer-scale U–Pb age domains in eucrite zircons, impact re-setting, and the thermal history of the HED parent body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, M.D.; Mojzsis, S.J.; Bottke, W.F.; Abramov, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    Meteoritic zircons are rare, but some are documented to occur in asteroidal meteorites, including those of the howardite–eucrite–diogenite (HED) achondrite clan (Rubin, A. [1997]. Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 32, 231–247). The HEDs are widely considered to originate from the Asteroid 4 Vesta. Vesta and the other large main belt asteroids record an early bombardment history. To explore this record, we describe sub-micrometer distributions of trace elements (U, Th) and 235,238U–207,206Pb ages from four zircons (>7–40 μm ∅) separated from bulk samples of the brecciated eucrite Millbillillie. Ultra-high resolution (∼100 nm) ion microprobe depth profiles reveal different zircon age domains correlative to mineral chemistry and to possible impact scenarios. Our new U–Pb zircon geochronology shows that Vesta’s crust solidified within a few million years of Solar System formation (4561 ± 13 Ma), in good agreement with previous work (e.g. Carlson, R.W., Lugmair, G.W. [2000]. Timescales of planetesimal formation and differentiation based on extinct and extant radioisotopes. In: Canup, R., Righter, K. (Eds.), Origin of the Earth and Moon. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 25–44). Younger zircon age domains (ca. 4530 Ma) also record crustal processes, but these are interpreted to be exogenous because they are well after the effective extinction of 26Al (t1/2 = 0.72 Myr). An origin via impact-resetting was evaluated with a suite of analytical impact models. Output shows that if a single impactor was responsible for the ca. 4530 Ma zircon ages, it had to have been ⩾10 km in diameter and at high enough velocity (>5 km s−1) to account for the thermal field required to re-set U–Pb ages. Such an impact would have penetrated at least 10 km into Vesta’s crust. Later events at ca. 4200 Ma are documented in HED apatite 235,238U–207,206Pb ages (Zhou, Q. et al. [2011]. Early basaltic volcanism and Late Heavy Bombardment on Vesta: U–Pb ages of small

  8. Smart Industry Research in the Field of HRM : Resetting Job Design as an Example of Upcoming Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habraken, Milou Maria Petronella; Bondarouk, Tatiana; Bondarouk, Tanya; Ruel, Huub; Parry, Emma

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – This chapter aims to encourage and guide Smart Industry HRM-related research by addressing upcoming challenges developed using a Job Design lens. Methodology/approach – The challenges are constructed based on a developed overview of the existing body of work related to Job Design and a

  9. Linking a short-stature specific health-related quality of life measure (QoLISSY) to the International Classification of Functioning - Children and Youth (ICF-CY).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Rachel; Bullinger, Monika; Rohenkohl, Anja; Quitmann, Julia; Brütt, Anna Levke

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to examine and compare the content of the quality of life in short-stature youth questionnaire (QoLISSY) with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Children and Youth (ICF-CY). Items of the QoLISSY questionnaire for children/adolescents and their parents were coded within the framework of the ICF-CY. Linkage was performed according to predetermined standards by two health professionals experienced in the conceptual fundaments of the ICF-CY. Within the linking process 58 meaningful concepts were identified from the 55 items out of the QoLISSY parent questionnaire and 55 meaningful concepts from the 50 items of the QoLISSY (children) questionnaire. In total, 57 concepts (parent-questionnaire) and 54 concepts (children-questionnaire) were linked to the different categories of the ICF-CY. Twenty-seven categories (parents-version) and 20 categories (child-version) referred to the component body functions, 34 categories (parent-version) and 30 categories (child-version) represented the activity and participation component and in each version 30 categories represented the environmental factors component. The present study indicates that the ICF-CY provides a useful frame of reference to compare and examine the content of HrQoL instruments for short-statured children and adolescents and their parents. The linkage of the QoLISSY instrument within the framework of the ICF-CY translates its content into a universal language.

  10. Social Anxiety-Linked Attention Bias to Threat Is Indirectly Related to Post-Event Processing Via Subjective Emotional Reactivity to Social Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çek, Demet; Sánchez, Alvaro; Timpano, Kiara R

    2016-05-01

    Attention bias to threat (e.g., disgust faces) is a cognitive vulnerability factor for social anxiety occurring in early stages of information processing. Few studies have investigated the relationship between social anxiety and attention biases, in conjunction with emotional and cognitive responses to a social stressor. Elucidating these links would shed light on maintenance factors of social anxiety and could help identify malleable treatment targets. This study examined the associations between social anxiety level, attention bias to disgust (AB-disgust), subjective emotional and physiological reactivity to a social stressor, and subsequent post-event processing (PEP). We tested a mediational model where social anxiety level indirectly predicted subsequent PEP via its association with AB-disgust and immediate subjective emotional reactivity to social stress. Fifty-five undergraduates (45% female) completed a passive viewing task. Eye movements were tracked during the presentation of social stimuli (e.g., disgust faces) and used to calculate AB-disgust. Next, participants gave an impromptu speech in front of a video camera and watched a neutral video, followed by the completion of a PEP measure. Although there was no association between AB-disgust and physiological reactivity to the stressor, AB-disgust was significantly associated with greater subjective emotional reactivity from baseline to the speech. Analyses supported a partial mediation model where AB-disgust and subjective emotional reactivity to a social stressor partially accounted for the link between social anxiety levels and PEP. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Competitivity of the common-bean plant relative to the weed alexandergrass [Brachiaria plantaginea (link hitch.] Competitividade do feijoeiro-comum com o capim-marmelada [Brachiaria plantaginea (link hitch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Passini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Methodologies of competitive interaction quantification between weeds and crops are not widely elucidated and compared in the literature. The competitive ability of common-bean (Phaseolus vulgaris relative to alexandergrass (Brachiaria plantaginea was assessed and two approaches of replacement series experiment analysis were compared. The response of the species to the presence of each other at different densities and proportion was evaluated. Replacement series at total densities of 625, 816 and 1,111 plants m-2 were performed at the proportions of common-bean:alexandergrass of 100:0 (pure stand of common-bean, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100% (pure stand of alexandergrass, at four replicates in a randomized block design. Data analyses were performed by the qualitative compared to the quantitative approach. The quantitative approach provided larger number of information than did the qualitative approach, and indicated that there was intraspecific competition among common-bean plants, and a minimum of interspecific competition from alexandergrass. There was no intraspecific competition among alexandergrass plants, being the crop effect on the weed larger than the effect among alexandergrass plants. The ecological niche differentiation was partial, since the crop intraspecific competition was larger than the interspecific, and the last one was negligible, at the same time that the weed interspecific competition was larger than the intraspecific. Common-bean, as a competitor species, is superior to alexandergrass.As metodologias de quantificação das interações competitivas entre plantas cultivadas e daninhas não estão amplamente elucidadas e comparadas na literatura. A competitividade da cultura de feijão-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris em relação ao capim-marmelada (Brachiaria plantaginea foi avaliada pela comparação entre o método qualitativo e um método quantitativo de análise de resultados. A resposta de cada espécie à presença da

  12. Comparing Greek-Affiliated Students and Student Athletes: An Examination of the Behavior-Intention Link, Reasons for Drinking, and Alcohol-Related Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchting, Karie K; Lac, Andrew; Hummer, Justin F; LaBrie, Joseph W

    2011-12-01

    While affiliation with Greek fraternities/sororities and intercollegiate athletic teams is associated with heavier drinking (Meilman et al., 1999), few studies have compared reasons for drinking among these groups. A sample of 1,541 students, identifying as either Greeks or athletes, completed an online survey. Athletes were significantly higher than Greeks on conformity reason for drinking. Tests of independent correlations indicated the magnitude of the past behavior to intention link was considerably stronger for Greeks. Greeks experienced significantly more social problems from drinking. Several group by gender ANOVA models found significant main effects with highest drinking rates, usually among Greek males, and lowest among female athletes. Understanding these specific group differences informs recommendations for group-specific and tailored educational interventions, which are discussed.

  13. Integrating ReSET with glycosyl iodide glycosylation in step-economy syntheses of tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens and immunogenic glycolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hsiao-Wu; Schombs, Matthew W; Gervay-Hague, Jacquelyn

    2014-02-21

    Carbohydrates mediate a wide range of biological processes, and understanding these events and how they might be influenced is a complex undertaking that requires access to pure glycoconjugates. The isolation of sufficient quantities of carbohydrates and glycolipids from biological samples remains a significant challenge that has redirected efforts toward chemical synthesis. However, progress toward complex glycoconjugate total synthesis has been slowed by the need for multiple protection and deprotection steps owing to the large number of similarly reactive hydroxyls in carbohydrates. Two methodologies, regioselective silyl exchange technology (ReSET) and glycosyl iodide glycosylation have now been integrated to streamline the synthesis of the globo series trisaccharides (globotriaose and isoglobotriaose) and α-lactosylceramide (α-LacCer). These glycoconjugates include tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs) and immunostimulatory glycolipids that hold promise as immunotherapeutics. Beyond the utility of the step-economy syntheses afforded by this synthetic platform, the studies also reveal a unique electronic interplay between acetate and silyl ether protecting groups. Incorporation of acetates proximal to silyl ethers attenuates their reactivity while reducing undesirable side reactions. This phenomenon can be used to fine-tune the reactivity of silylated/acetylated sugar building blocks.

  14. Fully Burdened Cost of Retrograde, Redeployment, Reconstitution, and Reset and Analysis of Alternatives (FBCR4 & AoA): New Model to Formulate Strategic Decisions for Deployed Ground Vehicle Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    Kandahar, and Camp Leatherneck (DLA, 2012a). There are also other OCONUS Disposition Services offices located at Camp Arifjan, Kuwait, and Abu Dhabi ...heavy equipment, limited aircraft capacities result in moving very few vehicles at a high cost, unlike sealift economies of scale in which ocean liner...smaller and the world economy bigger. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Lopez, C. (2012). Pakistan route critical to reset, retrograde in

  15. X-linked Christianson syndrome: heterozygous female Slc9a6 knockout mice develop mosaic neuropathological changes and related behavioral abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Jakub; Leddy, Jennifer; Gulinello, Maria; Walkley, Steven U.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Christianson syndrome (CS) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental and neurological disorder characterized in males by core symptoms that include non-verbal status, intellectual disability, epilepsy, truncal ataxia, postnatal microcephaly and hyperkinesis. CS is caused by mutations in the SLC9A6 gene, which encodes a multipass transmembrane sodium (potassium)-hydrogen exchanger 6 (NHE6) protein, functional in early recycling endosomes. The extent and variability of the CS phenotype in female heterozygotes, who presumably express the wild-type and mutant SLC9A6 alleles mosaically as a result of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), have not yet been systematically characterized. Slc9a6 knockout mice (Slc9a6 KO) were generated by insertion of the bacterial lacZ/β-galactosidase (β-Gal) reporter into exon 6 of the X-linked gene. Mutant Slc9a6 KO male mice have been shown to develop late endosomal/lysosomal dysfunction associated with glycolipid accumulation in selected neuronal populations and patterned degeneration of Purkinje cells (PCs). In heterozygous female Slc9a6 KO mice, β-Gal serves as a transcriptional/XCI reporter and thus facilitates testing of effects of mosaic expression of the mutant allele on penetrance of the abnormal phenotype. Using β-Gal, we demonstrated mosaic expression of the mutant Slc9a6 allele and mosaically distributed lysosomal glycolipid accumulation and PC pathology in the brains of heterozygous Slc9a6 KO female mice. At the behavioral level, we showed that heterozygous female mice suffer from visuospatial memory and motor coordination deficits similar to but less severe than those observed in X-chromosome hemizygous mutant males. Our studies in heterozygous Slc9a6 KO female mice provide important clues for understanding the likely phenotypic range of Christianson syndrome among females heterozygous for SLC9A6 mutations and might improve diagnostic practice and genetic counseling by helping to characterize this presumably

  16. System Re-set: High LET Radiation or Transient Musculoskeletal Disuse Cause Lasting Changes in Oxidative Defense Pathways Within Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Akhilesh; Chatterjee, A.; Alwood, Joshua S.; Dvorochkin, Natalya; Almeida, Eduardo A. C.

    2011-01-01

    Six months post-IR, there were no notable changes in skeletal expression of 84 principal genes in the p53 signaling pathway due to low dose IR (0.5Gy), HU, or both. In contrast, numerous genes relevant to oxidative stress were regulated by the treatments, typically in a direction indicative of increased oxidative stress and impaired defense. IR and HU independently reduced (between 0.46 to 0.88 fold) expression levels of Noxa1, Gpx3, Prdx2, Prdx3, and Zmynd17. Surprisingly, transient HU alone (sham-irradiated) decreased expression of several redox-related genes (Gpx1,Gstk1, Prdx1, Txnrd2), which were not affected significantly by IR alone. Irradiation increased (1.13 fold) expression of a gene responsible for production of superoxides by neutrophils (NCF2). Of interest, only combined treatment with HU and IR led to increased expression levels of Ercc2, (1.19 fold), a DNA excision repair enzyme. Differences in gene expression levels may reflect a change in gene expression on a per cell basis, a shift in the repertoire of specific cell types within the tissue, or both. Serum nitrite/nitrate levels were elevated to comparable levels (1.6-fold) due to IR, HU or both, indicative of elevated systemic nitrosyl stress. CONCLUSIONS The magnitude of changes in skeletal expression of oxidative stress-related genes six months after irradiation and/or transient unloading tended to be relatively modest (0.46-1.15 fold), whereas the p53 pathway was not affected. The finding that many different oxidative stress-related genes differed from controls at this late time point implicates a generalized impairment of oxidative defense within skeletal tissue, which coincides with both profound radiation damage to osteoprogenitors/stem cells in bone marrow and impaired remodeling of mineralized tissue.

  17. Reduced susceptibility to eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage in resistance-trained men is not linked to resistance training-related neural adaptations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X Ye

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of maximal concentric vs. eccentric exercise on the isometric strength of the elbow flexor, as well as the biceps brachii muscle electromyographic (EMG responses in resistance-trained (RT vs. untrained (UT men. Thirteen RT men (age: 24 ± 4 years; height: 180.2 ± 7.7 cm; body weight: 92.2 ± 16.9 kg and twelve UT men (age: 23 ± 4 years; height: 179.2 ± 5.0 cm; body weight: 81.5 ± 8.6 kg performed six sets of ten maximal concentric isokinetic (CON or eccentric isokinetic (ECC elbow flexion exercise in two separate visits. Before and after the exercise interventions, maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs were performed for testing isometric strength. In addition, bipolar surface EMG signals were detected from the biceps brachii muscle during the strength testing. Both CON and ECC caused isometric strength to decrease, regardless of the training status. However, ECC caused greater isometric strength decline than CON did for the UT group (p = 0.006, but not for the RT group. Both EMG amplitude and mean frequency significantly decreased and increased, respectively, regardless of the training status and exercise intervention. Resistance-trained men are less susceptible to eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage, but this advantage is not likely linked to the chronic resistance training-induced neural adaptations.

  18. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy in Spain. Identification of 26 novel mutations in the ABCD1 gene in 80 patients. Improvement of genetic counseling in 162 relative females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, M J; Palau, N; Camps, C; Ruiz, M; Pàmpols, T; Girós, M

    2005-05-01

    In this study, we analyzed the ABCD1 gene in 80 X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) patients from 62 unrelated families. We identified 53 different mutations, of which 26 are novel and two are non-pathogenic sequence variants (L516L and 3'UTR, 2246C/G) that have been previously described. The Spanish population had significant allelic heterogeneity, in which most of the mutations were exclusive to a single family 47/53 (88.7%). Only six mutations (Y174S, G277R, FsE471, R518Q, P543L, and R554H) were found in more than one family. Mutations G277R, P543L, and R554H were the most frequent, each of them being found in three patients (5%). Intra-familiar phenotype variability was observed in most of the families, but in one, with the novel mutation R120P, only the adult mild phenotype was present (five hemizygous family members). We detected 80 heterozygous women by mutation analysis, but only 78 of them showed increased very-long-chain fatty acid levels. In conclusion, this study extends the spectrum of mutations in X-ALD and facilitates the identification of heterozygous females. Our results are also consistent with previous studies reporting the difficulty of predicting genotype-phenotype correlation.

  19. Relative performance of 8.5-GHz and 32-GHz telemetry links on the basis of total data return per pass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerner, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    The performance of X-band (8.5-GHz) and 32-GHz telemetry links is compared on the basis of the total data return per DSN station pass. Differences in spacecraft transmitter efficiency, transmit circuit loss, and transmitting antenna area efficiency and pointing loss are not considered in these calculations. Thus, the performance differentials calculated in this memo are those produced by a DSN 70-m station antenna gain and clear weather receiving system noise temperature and by weather. These calculations show that, assuming mechanical compensation of the DSN 70-m antenna for 32-GHz operation, a performance advantage for 32 GHz over X-band of 8.2 dB can be achieved for at least one DSN station location. Even if only Canberra and Madrid are used, a performance advantage of 7.7 dB can be obtained for at least one DSN station location. A system using a multiple beam feed (electronic compensation) should achieve similar results.

  20. Linking CHHiP prostate cancer RCT with GP records: A study proposal to investigate the effect of co-morbidities and medications on long-term symptoms and radiotherapy-related toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Lemanska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients receiving cancer treatment often have one or more co-morbid conditions that are treated pharmacologically. Co-morbidities are recorded in clinical trials usually only at baseline. However, co-morbidities evolve and new ones emerge during cancer treatment. The interaction between multi-morbidity and cancer recovery is significant but poorly understood. Purpose: To investigate the effect of co-morbidities (e.g. cardiovascular and diabetes and medications (e.g. statins, antihypertensives, metformin on radiotherapy-related toxicity and long-term symptoms in order to identify potential risk factors. The possible protective effect of medications such as statins or antihypertensives in reducing radiotherapy-related toxicity will also be explored. Methods: Two datasets will be linked. (1 CHHiP (Conventional or Hypofractionated High Dose Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer randomised control trial. CHHiP contains pelvic symptoms and radiation-related toxicity reported by patients and clinicians. (2 GP (General Practice data from RCGP RSC (Royal College of General Practitioners Research and Surveillance Centre. The GP records of CHHiP patients will be extracted, including cardiovascular co-morbidities, diabetes and prescription medications. Statistical analysis of the combined dataset will be performed in order to investigate the effect. Conclusions: Linking two sources of healthcare data is an exciting area of big healthcare data research. With limited data in clinical trials (not all clinical trials collect information on co-morbidities or medications and limited lengths of follow-up, linking different sources of information is increasingly needed to investigate long-term outcomes. With increasing pressures to collect detailed information in clinical trials (e.g. co-morbidities, medications, linkage to routinely collected data offers the potential to support efficient conduct of clinical trials. Keywords: Data

  1. Succumbing to the Call of Violence – Sex-Linked Development of Appetitive Aggression in Relation to Familial and Organized Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Augsburger

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Appetitive aggression is the attraction to violent behavior, which can peak in the experience of a combat high. In various war and conflict scenarios, members of armed groups have reported developing a desire to hunt and even kill humans. More recently, we reported that the phenomenon has also been observed in female ex-combatants with varying participation in warfare. Despite recent investigations on risk factors for appetitive aggression, sex-specific pathways in the development of appetitive aggression have not yet been delineated. This study investigated moderation effects of sex on previously identified risk factors for appetitive aggression by means of regression analyses in a sample of individuals with varying degrees of warfare participation (overall sample, n = 602. First examining a sample characterized by backgrounds heterogeneous in both sociodemographic data and war experiences, the analysis was then replicated in a subsample of fighters active during the civil war (combatant sample, n = 109. In both samples, regression analyses revealed significant moderation effects of sex. Childhood maltreatment and traumatic events had positive associations on the development of appetitive aggression for males but a negative (childhood maltreatment or no (traumatic events association for females. Perpetrated events were more strongly correlated with appetitive aggression for females than for males. This pattern was pronounced for the combatant sample. These results are in favor of sex-linked pathways. In both sexes, appetitive aggression may have evolved as a biologically prepared response to cruel environments but might develop along different trajectories. The current study highlights the need for addressing appetitive aggression in order to support peace-building processes and emphasizes sex specific starting-points.

  2. "I will take a shot for every 'like' I get on this status": posting alcohol-related Facebook content is linked to drinking outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, Erin C; Neighbors, Clayton; Heppner, Hannes; Jahn, Susanna; Lindgren, Kristen P

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated whether self-reports of alcohol-related postings on Facebook by oneself or one's Facebook friends were related to common motives for drinking and were uniquely predictive of self-reported alcohol outcomes (alcohol consumption, problems, and cravings). Pacific Northwest undergraduates completed a survey of alcohol outcomes, drinking motives, and alcohol-related Facebook postings. Participants completed the survey online as part of a larger study on alcohol use and cognitive associations. Participants were randomly selected through the university registrar's office and consisted of 1,106 undergraduates (449 men, 654 women, 2 transgender, 1 declined to answer) between the ages of 18 and 25 years (M = 20.40, SD = 1.60) at a large university in the Pacific Northwest. Seven participants were excluded from analyses because of missing or suspect data. Alcohol-related postings on Facebook were significantly correlated with social, enhancement, conformity, and coping motives for drinking (all ps social media platforms such as Facebook is associated with common motivations for drinking and is, in itself, a strong predictive indicator of drinking outcomes independent of drinking motives. Moreover, self-related posting activity appears to be more predictive than Facebook friends' activity. These findings suggest that social media platforms may be a useful target for future preventative and intervention efforts.

  3. “I Will Take a Shot for Every ‘Like’ I Get on This Status”: Posting Alcohol-Related Facebook Content Is Linked to Drinking Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, Erin C; Neighbors, Clayton; Heppner, Hannes; Jahn, Susanna; Lindgren, Kristen P

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated whether self-reports of alcohol-related postings on Facebook by oneself or one’s Facebook friends were related to common motives for drinking and were uniquely predictive of self-reported alcohol outcomes (alcohol consumption, problems, and cravings). Method: Pacific Northwest undergraduates completed a survey of alcohol outcomes, drinking motives, and alcoholrelated Facebook postings. Participants completed the survey online as part of a larger study on alcohol use and cognitive associations. Participants were randomly selected through the university registrar’s office and consisted of 1,106 undergraduates (449 men, 654 women, 2 transgender, 1 declined to answer) between the ages of 18 and 25 years (M = 20.40, SD = 1.60) at a large university in the Pacific Northwest. Seven participants were excluded from analyses because of missing or suspect data. Results: Alcohol-related postings on Facebook were significantly correlated with social, enhancement, conformity, and coping motives for drinking (all ps Facebook is associated with common motivations for drinking and is, in itself, a strong predictive indicator of drinking outcomes independent of drinking motives. Moreover, self-related posting activity appears to be more predictive than Facebook friends’ activity. These findings suggest that social media platforms may be a useful target for future preventative and intervention efforts. PMID:24766750

  4. Histamine 1 receptor-Gβγ-cAMP/PKA-CFTR pathway mediates the histamine-induced resetting of the suprachiasmatic circadian clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Sik; Kim, Young-Beom; Kim, Woong Bin; Lee, Seung Won; Oh, Seog Bae; Han, Hee-Chul; Lee, C Justin; Colwell, Christopher S; Kim, Yang In

    2016-05-06

    Recent evidence indicates that histamine, acting on histamine 1 receptor (H1R), resets the circadian clock in the mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) by increasing intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) through the activation of CaV1.3 L-type Ca(2+) channels and Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release from ryanodine receptor-mediated internal stores. In the current study, we explored the underlying mechanisms with various techniques including Ca(2+)- and Cl(-)-imaging and extracellular single-unit recording. Our hypothesis was that histamine causes Cl(-) efflux through cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) to elicit membrane depolarization needed for the activation of CaV1.3 Ca(2+) channels in SCN neurons. We found that histamine elicited Cl(-) efflux and increased [Ca(2+)]i in dissociated mouse SCN cells. Both of these events were suppressed by bumetanide [Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter isotype 1 (NKCC1) blocker], CFTRinh-172 (CFTR inhibitor), gallein (Gβγ protein inhibitor) and H89 [protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor]. By itself, H1R activation with 2-pyridylethylamine increased the level of cAMP in the SCN and this regulation was prevented by gallein. Finally, histamine-evoked phase shifts of the circadian neural activity rhythm in the mouse SCN slice were blocked by bumetanide, CFTRinh-172, gallein or H89 and were not observed in NKCC1 or CFTR KO mice. Taken together, these results indicate that histamine recruits the H1R-Gβγ-cAMP/PKA pathway in the SCN neurons to activate CaV1.3 channels through CFTR-mediated Cl(-) efflux and ultimately to phase-shift the circadian clock. This pathway and NKCC1 may well be potential targets for agents designed to treat problems resulting from the disturbance of the circadian system.

  5. Roles of body image-related experiential avoidance and uncommitted living in the link between body image and women’s quality of life

    OpenAIRE

    Trindade, Inês A.; Ferreira, Cláudia; Pinto-Gouveia, José

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to test whether the associations of body mass index, body image discrepancy, and social comparison based on physical appearance with women's psychological quality of life (QoL) would be explained by the mechanisms of body image-related experiential avoidance and patterns of uncommitted living. The sample was collected from October 2014 to March 2015 and included 737 female college students (aged between 18 and 25 years) who completed validated self-report measures. Res...

  6. The dopamine-related polymorphisms BDNF, COMT, DRD2, DRD3, and DRD4 are not linked with changes in CSF dopamine levels and frequency of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Anne; Scheller, C; du Plessis, S; Burger, R; Arendt, G; Joska, J; Sopper, S; Maschke, C M; Obermann, M; Husstedt, I W; Hain, J; Riederer, P; Koutsilieri, E

    2017-04-01

    We showed previously that higher levels in CSF dopamine in HIV patients are associated with the presence of the dopamine transporter (DAT) 10/10-repeat allele which was also detected more frequently in HIV-infected individuals compared to uninfected subjects. In the current study, we investigated further whether other genetic dopamine (DA)-related polymorphisms may be related with changes in CSF DA levels and frequency of HIV infection in HIV-infected subjects. Specifically, we studied genetic polymorphisms of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, catechol-O-methyltransferase, and dopamine receptors DRD2, DRD3, and DRD4 genetic polymorphisms in uninfected and HIV-infected people in two different ethnical groups, a German cohort (Caucasian, 72 individuals with HIV infection and 22 individuals without HIV infection) and a South African cohort (Xhosan, 54 individuals with HIV infection and 19 individuals without HIV infection). We correlated the polymorphisms with CSF DA levels, HIV dementia score, CD4 + T cell counts, and HIV viral load. None of the investigated DA-related polymorphisms was associated with altered CSF DA levels, CD4 + T cell count, viral load, and HIV dementia score. The respective allele frequencies were equally distributed between HIV-infected patients and controls. Our findings do not show any influence of the studied genetic polymorphisms on CSF DA levels and HIV infection. This is in contrast to what we found previously for the DAT 3'UTR VNTR and highlights the specific role of the DAT VNTR in HIV infection and disease.

  7. Linking women who test HIV-positive in pregnancy-related services to HIV care and treatment services in Kenya: a mixed methods prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ferguson

    Full Text Available There has been insufficient attention to long-term care and treatment for pregnant women diagnosed with HIV.This prospective cohort study of 100 HIV-positive women recruited within pregnancy-related services in a district hospital in Kenya employed quantitative methods to assess attrition between women testing HIV-positive in pregnancy-related services and accessing long-term HIV care and treatment services. Qualitative methods were used to explore barriers and facilitators to navigating these services. Structured questionnaires were administered to cohort participants at enrolment and 90+ days later. Participants' medical records were monitored prospectively. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were carried out with a sub-set of 19 participants.Only 53/100 (53% women registered at an HIV clinic within 90 days of HIV diagnosis, of whom 27/53 (51% had a CD4 count result in their file. 11/27 (41% women were eligible for immediate antiretroviral therapy (ART; only 6/11 (55% started ART during study follow-up. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, factors associated with registration at the HIV clinic within 90 days of HIV diagnosis were: having cared for someone with HIV (aOR:3.67(95%CI:1.22, 11.09, not having to pay for transport to the hospital (aOR:2.73(95%CI:1.09, 6.84, and having received enough information to decide to have an HIV test (aOR:3.61(95%CI:0.83, 15.71. Qualitative data revealed multiple factors underlying high patient drop-out related to women's social support networks (e.g. partner's attitude to HIV status, interactions with health workers (e.g. being given unclear/incorrect HIV-related information and health services characteristics (e.g. restricted opening hours, long waiting times.HIV testing within pregnancy-related services is an important entry point to HIV care and treatment services, but few women successfully completed the steps needed for assessment of their treatment needs within three months of diagnosis

  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Bath Salts) Tobacco/Nicotine and E-Cigs Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults ... 2017. How are Drug Misuse and HIV Related? Drug misuse and addiction have been linked with HIV/AIDS since the ...

  9. Relativity theory and time perception: single or multiple clocks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhusi, Catalin V; Meck, Warren H

    2009-07-22

    Current theories of interval timing assume that humans and other animals time as if using a single, absolute stopwatch that can be stopped or reset on command. Here we evaluate the alternative view that psychological time is represented by multiple clocks, and that these clocks create separate temporal contexts by which duration is judged in a relative manner. Two predictions of the multiple-clock hypothesis were tested. First, that the multiple clocks can be manipulated (stopped and/or reset) independently. Second, that an event of a given physical duration would be perceived as having different durations in different temporal contexts, i.e., would be judged differently by each clock. Rats were trained to time three durations (e.g., 10, 30, and 90 s). When timing was interrupted by an unexpected gap in the signal, rats reset the clock used to time the "short" duration, stopped the "medium" duration clock, and continued to run the "long" duration clock. When the duration of the gap was manipulated, the rats reset these clocks in a hierarchical order, first the "short", then the "medium", and finally the "long" clock. Quantitative modeling assuming re-allocation of cognitive resources in proportion to the relative duration of the gap to the multiple, simultaneously timed event durations was used to account for the results. These results indicate that the three event durations were effectively timed by separate clocks operated independently, and that the same gap duration was judged relative to these three temporal contexts. Results suggest that the brain processes the duration of an event in a manner similar to Einstein's special relativity theory: A given time interval is registered differently by independent clocks dependent upon the context.

  10. Relativity theory and time perception: single or multiple clocks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin V Buhusi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Current theories of interval timing assume that humans and other animals time as if using a single, absolute stopwatch that can be stopped or reset on command. Here we evaluate the alternative view that psychological time is represented by multiple clocks, and that these clocks create separate temporal contexts by which duration is judged in a relative manner. Two predictions of the multiple-clock hypothesis were tested. First, that the multiple clocks can be manipulated (stopped and/or reset independently. Second, that an event of a given physical duration would be perceived as having different durations in different temporal contexts, i.e., would be judged differently by each clock.Rats were trained to time three durations (e.g., 10, 30, and 90 s. When timing was interrupted by an unexpected gap in the signal, rats reset the clock used to time the "short" duration, stopped the "medium" duration clock, and continued to run the "long" duration clock. When the duration of the gap was manipulated, the rats reset these clocks in a hierarchical order, first the "short", then the "medium", and finally the "long" clock. Quantitative modeling assuming re-allocation of cognitive resources in proportion to the relative duration of the gap to the multiple, simultaneously timed event durations was used to account for the results.These results indicate that the three event durations were effectively timed by separate clocks operated independently, and that the same gap duration was judged relative to these three temporal contexts. Results suggest that the brain processes the duration of an event in a manner similar to Einstein's special relativity theory: A given time interval is registered differently by independent clocks dependent upon the context.

  11. TWSTFT Link Calibration Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    traveling calibration station (calibrator) consisting of N (≥2) GNSS receivers+antennas+cables and PPS/frequency-distributors. It is a pre-cabled black...the PTB is taken as the reference of the calibration, a GNSS time link correction is equal to the classic GNSS equipment calibration correction [8...TWSTFT link calibration. If we replace the TWSTFT link by a GNSS link or a optical fiber (OF), it becomes a GNSS or an OF time link calibration. This

  12. Linking boundary crossing from work to nonwork to work-related rumination across time: A variable- and person-oriented approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Ulla; Feldt, Taru; de Bloom, Jessica; Sianoja, Marjaana; Korpela, Kalevi; Geurts, Sabine

    2017-10-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 22(4) of Journal of Occupational Health Psychology (see record 2017-05746-001). There were errors in two separate sections of the article. The final sentence preceding Hypothesis 4 in "The Present Study" section should read, "We did not hypothesize that the specific forms of work-related thoughts (i.e., affective rumination, problem-solving pondering, or lack of psychological detachment) would be differently associated with stability or changes in boundary crossing behavior." The fifth sentence in the second paragraph of the "Identifying Subgroups of Boundary Crossing Behavior Across Time" subsection of the "Results" section should read, "Group 5 (n = 162, 19%), characterized by stable low boundary crossing behavior across time (M = 1.37 for Time 1 and M = 1.34 for Time 2), and Group 6 (n = 154, 18%), characterized by stable high boundary crossing behavior (M = 4.54 for Time 1 and M = 4.60 for Time 2), were almost equally large in size."] This 1-year follow-up study (N = 841) investigated the relationship between boundary crossing behavior from work to nonwork and work-related rumination (i.e., affective rumination, problem-solving pondering, and lack of psychological detachment from work during off-job time). This relationship is important to examine as work-related rumination is a risk factor for poor recovery and ill-health over time. The aims were twofold: first, to examine these relationships in terms of temporal ordering, and, second, to show how individual differences regarding stability and change of boundaries from work to nonwork are reflected in work-related rumination across time. The structural equation modeling analyses lent support to the hypothesized normal causation model compared with the reversed causation and reciprocal models. However, only the cross-lagged relationship between high boundary crossing behavior at T1 and lack of psychological detachment at T2 was significant

  13. Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Einstein, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Time magazine's ""Man of the Century"", Albert Einstein is the founder of modern physics and his theory of relativity is the most important scientific idea of the modern era. In this short book, Einstein explains, using the minimum of mathematical terms, the basic ideas and principles of the theory that has shaped the world we live in today. Unsurpassed by any subsequent books on relativity, this remains the most popular and useful exposition of Einstein's immense contribution to human knowledge.With a new foreword by Derek Raine.

  14. Universal or Commodified Healthcare? Linking Out-of-Pocket Payments to Income-Related Inequalities in Unmet Health Needs in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaminska, Monika Ewa; Wulfgramm, Melike

    2018-01-01

    Statistics on Income and Living Conditions survey (EU-SILC) for 2005-2012, with macro data from the World Bank, OECD and WHO. Our results show that, first, across all European countries and years under study income determines whether a person reports an occasion within the last year where she needed medical...... treatment or examination but did not receive it due to inability to pay. Second, the more a country relies on OOPP as a means of healthcare financing, the higher the proportion of respondents that report UHN. Third, the share of OOPP amplifies the effect of income considerably. While the poorest decile has......This study investigates the outcomes out-of-pocket payments (OOPP) produce in terms of income-related disparities in unmet health needs (UHN) due to inability to pay and highlights the commodifying effect of OOPP in European healthcare systems. It merges micro data from the European Union...

  15. Review of the possible relationship and hypothetical links between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the simple sleep related movement disorders, parasomnias, hypersomnias, and circadian rhythm disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Arthur S; Silvestri, Rosalia; Zucconi, Marco; Chandrashekariah, Ranju; Konofal, Eric

    2008-12-15

    Recent evidence has been accumulating that the sleep of individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not only disrupted in a nonspecific way but that ADHD has an increased association with simple sleep related movement disorders such as restless legs syndrome/periodic limb movements in sleep (RLS/PLMS), rhythmic movement disorder (body rocking and head banging), and parasomnias, such as disorders of partial arousal (sleep walking, sleep terrors, and confusional arousals). In addition increased associations have been reported between ADHD and hypersomnias such as narcolepsy and sleep apnea as well as circadian rhythm disorders, such as delayed sleep phase syndrome. These relationships are reviewed and the implications for such associations are explored. Patients with sleep disorders should be queried about the symptoms of ADHD and vice versa.

  16. Purchases of prescription drugs before an alcohol-related death: A ten-year follow-up study using linked routine data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paljärvi, Tapio; Martikainen, Pekka; Leinonen, Taina; Vuori, Erkki; Mäkelä, Pia

    2018-05-01

    Physician's intention to prescribe drugs could potentially be used to improve targeting of alcohol interventions and enhanced disease management to patients with a high risk of severe alcohol-related harm within outpatient settings. Comparison of ten-year incidence trajectories of 13.8 million reimbursed purchases of prescription drugs among 303,057 Finnish men and women of whom 7490 ultimately died due to alcohol-related causes (Alc+), 14,954 died without alcohol involvement (Alc-), and 280,613 survived until the end of 2007. 5-10 years before death, 88% of the persons with an Alc+ death had received prescription medication, and over two-thirds (69%) had at least one reimbursed purchase of drugs for the alimentary tract and metabolism, the cardiovascular system, or the nervous system. Among persons with an Alc+ death, the incidence rate (IR) for purchases of hypnotics, and sedatives was 1.38 times higher (95% confidence interval (CI):1.32,1.44) compared to those with an Alc- death, and 4.07 times higher (95%CI:3.92,4.22) compared to survivors; and the IR for purchases of anxiolytics was 1.40 times higher (95%CI:1.34,1.47) compared to those with an Alc- death, and 3.61 times higher (95%CI:3.48,3.78) compared to survivors. Using physician's intention to prescribe drugs affecting the alimentary tract and metabolism, cardiovascular system and nervous system could potentially be used to flag patients who might benefit from screening, targeted interventions or enhanced disease management. In particular, patients who are to be prescribed anxiolytics, hypnotics, and sedatives, and antidepressants may benefit from enhanced interventions targeted to problem drinking. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. War-Related Abduction and History of Incarceration Linked to High Burden of HIV Among Female Sex Workers in Conflict-Affected Northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Muzaaya, Godfrey; Akello, Monica; Nguyen, Paul; Birungi, Josephine; Shannon, Kate

    2016-09-01

    Sex workers (SWs) in sub-Saharan Africa face a disproportionate HIV burden and growing concerns of severe human rights violations. Given the dearth of evidence on the burden and correlates of HIV among SWs in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly within conflict-affected settings, we examined the relationship between structural determinants (eg, war-related abduction, incarceration) and HIV infection among conflict-affected SWs in Northern Uganda. Cross-sectional community-based research study among female SWs in conflict-affected Gulu, Northern Uganda. Interview questionnaires and voluntary HIV testing were conducted with participants recruited through SW/peer-led outreach and time-location sampling from 2011 to 2012. HIV prevalence was calculated, and bivariable and multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent associations with HIV seroprevalence. Of 400 SWs, 135 (33.75%) were HIV seropositive; of whom one-third were new/previously undiagnosed HIV infections. In multivariable analysis, after adjusting for age of sex work entry and education, lifetime incarceration (adjusted odds ratio: 1.93, 95% confidence interval: 1.17 to -3.20) was independently associated with HIV seroprevalence, and history of wartime abduction (adjusted odds ratio: 1.62, 95% confidence interval: 1.00 to 2.63) was marginally associated (P = 0.051). This study documented a high rate of undiagnosed HIV infections and associations between war-related human rights violations, incarceration, and a heavy HIV burden among SWs in conflict-affected Northern Uganda. These findings highlight the serious harms of conflict and criminalization of marginalized women in sub-Saharan African contexts. SW-led interventions that address conflict experiences and policy shifts to promote a rights-based approach to HIV prevention and care remain critically needed.

  18. Isolated sleep paralysis linked to impaired nocturnal sleep quality and health-related quality of life in Chinese-Taiwanese patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sun-Wung; Lai, Chiou-Lian; Liu, Ching-Kuan; Lan, Sheng-Hsing; Hsu, Chung-Yao

    2010-11-01

    Isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) is a rapid eye movement (REM) sleep parasomnia and has a special meaning in Chinese population. Worsening of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) occurs especially during REM sleep. The relationship between ISP and OSA is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of ISP on sleep and life quality in Chinese-Taiwanese OSA patients. We recruited 107 OSA patients diagnosed by polysomnography (PSG) in Southern Taiwan. ISP was evaluated by self-reported sleep questionnaire. We used Chinese version of Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Short-Form 36 (SF36) to evaluate daytime sleepiness, nocturnal sleep quality, and health-related quality of life, respectively for OSA patients. Student's t-test was used to compare PSG parameters, ESS, PSQI, physical and mental component of SF-36 (P-SF36 and M-SF36) between OSA patients with and without ISP. Stepwise multiple regression was used to find out the factors independently associated with ESS, PSQI, P-SF36, and M-SF36. Forty-one of 107 patients (38.3%) had ISP. It showed no significant difference in PSG parameters between OSA patients with and without ISP. OSA patients with ISP had significantly higher ESS (P = 0.010), higher PSQI (P = 0.007), lower P-SF36 (P = 0.020), and lower M-SF36 (P = 0.001) than those without ISP. ISP was an independent factor associated with ESS (P = 0.017), PSQI (P = 0.001), and M-SF36 (P = 0.030) after adjusting for other confounding variables. ISP was independently associated with excessive daytime sleepiness, worse sleep quality, and impaired mental health-related quality of life in Chinese-Taiwanese OSA patients.

  19. DNA methylation differences at growth related genes correlate with birth weight: a molecular signature linked to developmental origins of adult disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turan Nahid

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant birth weight is a complex quantitative trait associated with both neonatal and long-term health outcomes. Numerous studies have been published in which candidate genes (IGF1, IGF2, IGF2R, IGF binding proteins, PHLDA2 and PLAGL1 have been associated with birth weight, but these studies are difficult to reproduce in man and large cohort studies are needed due to the large inter individual variance in transcription levels. Also, very little of the trait variance is explained. We decided to identify additional candidates without regard for what is known about the genes. We hypothesize that DNA methylation differences between individuals can serve as markers of gene "expression potential" at growth related genes throughout development and that these differences may correlate with birth weight better than single time point measures of gene expression. Methods We performed DNA methylation and transcript profiling on cord blood and placenta from newborns. We then used novel computational approaches to identify genes correlated with birth weight. Results We identified 23 genes whose methylation levels explain 70-87% of the variance in birth weight. Six of these (ANGPT4, APOE, CDK2, GRB10, OSBPL5 and REG1B are associated with growth phenotypes in human or mouse models. Gene expression profiling explained a much smaller fraction of variance in birth weight than did DNA methylation. We further show that two genes, the transcriptional repressor MSX1 and the growth factor receptor adaptor protein GRB10, are correlated with transcriptional control of at least seven genes reported to be involved in fetal or placental growth, suggesting that we have identified important networks in growth control. GRB10 methylation is also correlated with genes involved in reactive oxygen species signaling, stress signaling and oxygen sensing and more recent data implicate GRB10 in insulin signaling. Conclusions Single time point measurements of gene

  20. DNA methylome and transcriptome sequencing in human ovarian granulosa cells links age-related changes in gene expression to gene body methylation and 3ʹ-end GC density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bo; Russanova, Valya R.; Gravina, Silvia; Hartley, Stephen; Mullikin, James C.; Ignezweski, Alice; Graham, James; Segars, James H.; DeCherney, Alan H.; Howard, Bruce H.

    2015-01-01

    Diminished ovarian function occurs early and is a primary cause for age-related decline in female fertility; however, its underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated the roles that genome and epigenome structure play in age-related changes in gene expression and ovarian function, using human ovarian granulosa cells as an experimental system. DNA methylomes were compared between two groups of women with distinct age-related differences in ovarian functions, using both Methylated DNA Capture followed by Next Generation Sequencing (MethylCap-seq) and Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing (RRBS); their transcriptomes were investigated using mRNA-seq. Significant, non-random changes in transcriptome and DNA methylome features are observed in human ovarian granulosa cells as women age and their ovarian functions deteriorate. The strongest correlations between methylation and the age-related changes in gene expression are not confined to the promoter region; rather, high densities of hypomethylated CpG-rich regions spanning the gene body are preferentially associated with gene down-regulation. This association is further enhanced where CpG regions are localized near the 3ʹ-end of the gene. Such features characterize several genes crucial in age-related decline in ovarian function, most notably the AMH (Anti-Müllerian Hormone) gene. The genome-wide correlation between the density of hypomethylated intragenic and 3ʹ-end regions and gene expression suggests previously unexplored mechanisms linking epigenome structure to age-related physiology and pathology. PMID:25682867

  1. Context Based Wikipedia Linking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granitzer, Michael; Seifert, Christin; Zechner, Mario

    Automatically linking Wikipedia pages can be done either content based by exploiting word similarities or structure based by exploiting characteristics of the link graph. Our approach focuses on a content based strategy by detecting Wikipedia titles as link candidates and selecting the most relevant ones as links. The relevance calculation is based on the context, i.e. the surrounding text of a link candidate. Our goal was to evaluate the influence of the link-context on selecting relevant links and determining a links best-entry-point. Results show, that a whole Wikipedia page provides the best context for resolving link and that straight forward inverse document frequency based scoring of anchor texts achieves around 4% less Mean Average Precision on the provided data set.

  2. FE65 constitutes the functional link between the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein and the amyloid precursor protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzik, Claus U; Yoon, Il-Sang; Jaeger, Sebastian; Busse, Tracy; Weggen, Sascha; Koo, Edward H

    2004-04-28

    Increasing evidence has implicated the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) and the adaptor protein FE65 in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. We have shown previously that LRP mediates beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing and affects amyloid beta-protein and APP secretion and APP-c-terminal fragment generation. Furthermore, LRP mediates APP processing through its intracellular domain. Here, we set out to examine whether this interaction is of direct or indirect nature. Specifically, we asked whether adaptor proteins such as FE65 influence the LRP-mediated effect on APP processing by forming a protein complex. In coimmunoprecipitation experiments, we confirmed the postulated APP-FE65 and the LRP-FE65 interaction. However, we also showed an LRP-FE65-APP trimeric complex using pull-down techniques. Because FE65 alters APP processing, we investigated whether this effect is LRP dependent. Indeed, FE65 was only able to increase APP secretion in the presence of LRP. In the absence of LRP, APP secretion was unchanged compared with the LRP knock-out phenotype. Using RNA short interference techniques against FE65, we demonstrated that a reduction in FE65 protein mimics the LRP knock-out phenotype on APP processing. These results clearly demonstrate that FE65 acts as a functional linker between APP and LRP.

  3. Defects in mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 are linked to apoptotic resistance and autophagy in a lung cancer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Jean Thomas

    Full Text Available Evasion of apoptosis is implicated in almost all aspects of cancer progression, as well as treatment resistance. In this study, resistance to apoptosis was identified in tumorigenic lung epithelial (A549 cells as a consequence of defects in mitochondrial and autophagic function. Mitochondrial function is determined in part by mitochondrial morphology, a process regulated by mitochondrial dynamics whereby the joining of two mitochondria, fusion, inhibits apoptosis while fission, the division of a mitochondrion, initiates apoptosis. Mitochondrial morphology of A549 cells displayed an elongated phenotype-mimicking cells deficient in mitochondrial fission protein, Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1. A549 cells had impaired Drp1 mitochondrial recruitment and decreased Drp1-dependent fission. Cytochrome c release and caspase-3 and PARP cleavage were impaired both basally and with apoptotic stimuli in A549 cells. Increased mitochondrial mass was observed in A549 cells, suggesting defects in mitophagy (mitochondrial selective autophagy. A549 cells had decreased LC3-II lipidation and lysosomal inhibition suggesting defects in autophagy occur upstream of lysosomal degradation. Immunostaining indicated mitochondrial localized LC3 punctae in A549 cells increased after mitochondrial uncoupling or with a combination of mitochondrial depolarization and ectopic Drp1 expression. Increased inhibition of apoptosis in A549 cells is correlated with impeded mitochondrial fission and mitophagy. We suggest mitochondrial fission defects contribute to apoptotic resistance in A549 cells.

  4. The missing link: Creating science policies that facilitate the use of research in environmental and water-related decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilling, L.; Pielke, R.; Sarewitz, D.

    2005-12-01

    Despite all good intentions, it is clear that science intended to serve decision making needs often fails to achieve that purpose. The aftermath of Hurricane Katrina provides a recent, tragic example. The reasons for failures of science to support decision making are varied. Researchers studying forecasts of climate variability have found, for example, cases where information provided is not needed; information is needed but not provided; information lacks regional specificity; information is provided in an inaccessible form; poor communication exists between potential users and providers; there is a lack of trust in information or deliverers; institutional constraints prevent use of new information; and so on. Traditional science policies have institutionalized the separation of the conduct of science from its application and use. It is clear that as long as such a separation, reinforced by tradition, institution and culture, is the dominant paradigm of science policies, the efficient and effective use of science in environmental and water-related decision making will be hampered. We introduce here a research methodology for examining the decision making involved in setting science policies for research aimed at being useful. Based on the economic concept, the notion of "reconciling supply and demand" for information offers a framework for identifying missed opportunities where science policies can be adjusted to improve the usefulness of a given research portfolio. We present results from a case study focused on internal science policies and decision making within the Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISA) projects. The RISA program aims to "expand the range of choices available to private and public communities in a region, by...enabling practical decisions...using research-based knowledge" and so provides an excellent opportunity for harvesting lessons for creating usable science.

  5. Exploring the link between maternal attachment-related anxiety and avoidance and mindful parenting: The mediating role of self-compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Helena; Carona, Carlos; Silva, Neuza; Nunes, Joana; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2016-12-01

    Mindful parenting has been described as a set of parental practices or skills that seek to enhance moment-to-moment awareness in the parent-child relationship. Although it has been suggested that adopting a mindful approach in parenting may foster positive parent-child relationships and promote the psychological functioning of children and parents, little is known about the factors that may be associated with this parental skill. In this study, we aimed to examine whether attachment-related anxiety and avoidance were associated with mindful parenting through self-compassion. The sample included 290 mothers of school-aged children and adolescents recruited in school settings, who completed self-reported measures of adult attachment (Experiences in Close Relationships - Relationships Structures), self-compassion (Self-compassion Scale), and mindful parenting (Interpersonal Mindfulness in Parenting Scale). Structural equation modelling was used to test the proposed mediation model and to ascertain direct and indirect effects among study variables. Whereas attachment avoidance had a direct effect on mindful parenting, attachment anxiety was indirectly associated with mindful parenting through self-compassion. Specifically, higher levels of anxiety were associated with lower self-compassion, which, in turn, was associated with lower levels of mindful parenting. Higher levels of avoidance were directly associated with lower levels of mindful parenting. These results demonstrate that mothers' attachment dimensions play an important role in their levels of mindful parenting, although through different pathways. Interventions aimed at promoting mindful parenting skills should attempt to promote parents' self-compassion and consider parents' levels of attachment insecurity. The results underline the important role of mothers' attachment on levels of mindful parenting and evidence different pathways through which attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance are associated with

  6. Phosphorylation of p27(KIP1) homologs KRP6 and 7 by SNF1-related protein kinase-1 links plant energy homeostasis and cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérinier, Thomas; Millan, Laurine; Crozet, Pierre; Oury, Céline; Rey, François; Valot, Benoit; Mathieu, Chantal; Vidal, Jean; Hodges, Michael; Thomas, Martine; Glab, Nathalie

    2013-08-01

    SNF1-related protein kinase-1 (SnRK1), the plant kinase homolog of mammalian AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), is a sensor that maintains cellular energy homeostasis via control of anabolism/catabolism balance. AMPK-dependent phosphorylation of p27(KIP1) affects cell-cycle progression, autophagy and apoptosis. Here, we show that SnRK1 phosphorylates the Arabidopsis thaliana cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(KIP1) homologs AtKRP6 and AtKRP7, thus extending the role of this kinase to regulation of cell-cycle progression. AtKRP6 and 7 were phosphorylated in vitro by a recombinant activated catalytic subunit of SnRK1 (AtSnRK1α1). Tandem mass spectrometry and site-specific mutagenesis identified Thr152 and Thr151 as the phosphorylated residues on AtKRP6- and AtKRP7, respectively. AtSnRK1 physically interacts with AtKRP6 in the nucleus of transformed BY-2 tobacco protoplasts, but, in contrast to mammals, the AtKRP6 Thr152 phosphorylation state alone did not modify its nuclear localization. Using a heterologous yeast system, consisting of a cdc28 yeast mutant complemented by A. thaliana CDKA;1, cell proliferation was shown to be abolished by AtKRP6(WT) and by the non-phosphorylatable form AtKRP6(T152A) , but not by the phosphorylation-mimetic form AtKRP6(T152D). Moreover, A. thaliana SnRK1α1/KRP6 double over-expressor plants showed an attenuated AtKRP6-associated phenotype (strongly serrated leaves and inability to undergo callogenesis). Furthermore, this severe phenotype was not observed in AtKRP6(T152D) over-expressor plants. Overall, these results establish that the energy sensor AtSnRK1 plays a cardinal role in the control of cell proliferation in A. thaliana plants through inhibition of AtKRP6 biological function by phosphorylation. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Estrogenic and anti-estrogenic influences in cultured brown trout hepatocytes: Focus on the expression of some estrogen and peroxisomal related genes and linked phenotypic anchors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madureira, Tânia Vieira; Malhão, Fernanda; Pinheiro, Ivone; Lopes, Célia; Ferreira, Nádia; Urbatzka, Ralph; Castro, L. Filipe C.; Rocha, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Evidence of crosstalk between estrogens and peroxisomal pathways in brown trout. • VtgA and ERα mRNA levels increased after 1, 10 and 50 μM of ethinylestradiol (EE2). • ERβ-1, catalase and urate oxidase mRNA levels decreased after estrogenic stimuli. • Estrogenic effects in VtgA, ERα and Uox mRNA levels were reverted by ICI 182,780. • Immunofluorescence/electron microscopy shows smaller peroxisomes after 50 μM of EE2. - Abstract: Estrogens, estrogenic mimics and anti-estrogenic compounds are known to target estrogen receptors (ER) that can modulate other nuclear receptor signaling pathways, such as those controlled by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), and alter organelle (inc. peroxisome) morphodynamics. By using primary isolated brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario) hepatocytes after 72 and 96 h of exposure we evaluated some effects in selected molecular targets and in peroxisomal morphological features caused by: (1) an ER agonist (ethinylestradiol—EE2) at 1, 10 and 50 μM; (2) an ER antagonist (ICI 182,780) at 10 and 50 μM; and (3) mixtures of both (Mix I—10 μM EE2 and 50 μM ICI; Mix II—1 μM EE2 and 10 μM ICI and Mix III—1 μM EE2 and 50 μM ICI). The mRNA levels of the estrogenic targets (ERα, ERβ-1 and vitellogenin A—VtgA) and the peroxisome structure/function related genes (catalase, urate oxidase—Uox, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 4—17β-HSD4, peroxin 11α—Pex11α and PPARα) were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Stereology combined with catalase immunofluorescence revealed a significant reduction in peroxisome volume densities at 50 μM of EE2 exposure. Concomitantly, at the same concentration, electron microscopy showed smaller peroxisome profiles, exacerbated proliferation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, and a generalized cytoplasmic vacuolization of hepatocytes. Catalase and Uox mRNA levels decreased in all estrogenic stimuli conditions. VtgA and ERα m

  8. Estrogenic and anti-estrogenic influences in cultured brown trout hepatocytes: Focus on the expression of some estrogen and peroxisomal related genes and linked phenotypic anchors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madureira, Tânia Vieira, E-mail: tvmadureira@icbas.up.pt [Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), U.Porto—University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, U.Porto (ICBAS)—University of Porto, Laboratory of Histology and Embryology, Department of Microscopy, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, P 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Malhão, Fernanda; Pinheiro, Ivone; Lopes, Célia; Ferreira, Nádia [Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), U.Porto—University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, U.Porto (ICBAS)—University of Porto, Laboratory of Histology and Embryology, Department of Microscopy, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, P 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Urbatzka, Ralph [Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), U.Porto—University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Castro, L. Filipe C. [Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), U.Porto—University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Faculty of Sciences (FCUP), U.Porto—University of Porto, Department of Biology, Rua do Campo Alegre, P 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Rocha, Eduardo [Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), U.Porto—University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, U.Porto (ICBAS)—University of Porto, Laboratory of Histology and Embryology, Department of Microscopy, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, P 4050-313 Porto (Portugal)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Evidence of crosstalk between estrogens and peroxisomal pathways in brown trout. • VtgA and ERα mRNA levels increased after 1, 10 and 50 μM of ethinylestradiol (EE2). • ERβ-1, catalase and urate oxidase mRNA levels decreased after estrogenic stimuli. • Estrogenic effects in VtgA, ERα and Uox mRNA levels were reverted by ICI 182,780. • Immunofluorescence/electron microscopy shows smaller peroxisomes after 50 μM of EE2. - Abstract: Estrogens, estrogenic mimics and anti-estrogenic compounds are known to target estrogen receptors (ER) that can modulate other nuclear receptor signaling pathways, such as those controlled by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), and alter organelle (inc. peroxisome) morphodynamics. By using primary isolated brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario) hepatocytes after 72 and 96 h of exposure we evaluated some effects in selected molecular targets and in peroxisomal morphological features caused by: (1) an ER agonist (ethinylestradiol—EE2) at 1, 10 and 50 μM; (2) an ER antagonist (ICI 182,780) at 10 and 50 μM; and (3) mixtures of both (Mix I—10 μM EE2 and 50 μM ICI; Mix II—1 μM EE2 and 10 μM ICI and Mix III—1 μM EE2 and 50 μM ICI). The mRNA levels of the estrogenic targets (ERα, ERβ-1 and vitellogenin A—VtgA) and the peroxisome structure/function related genes (catalase, urate oxidase—Uox, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 4—17β-HSD4, peroxin 11α—Pex11α and PPARα) were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Stereology combined with catalase immunofluorescence revealed a significant reduction in peroxisome volume densities at 50 μM of EE2 exposure. Concomitantly, at the same concentration, electron microscopy showed smaller peroxisome profiles, exacerbated proliferation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, and a generalized cytoplasmic vacuolization of hepatocytes. Catalase and Uox mRNA levels decreased in all estrogenic stimuli conditions. VtgA and ERα m

  9. Distributed Secondary Voltage and Frequency Control for Islanded Microgrids with Uncertain Communication Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xiaoqing; Yu, Xinghuo; Lai, Jingang

    2017-01-01

    intermittently in a low-bandwidth communication manner. This way, the communication costs are greatly reduced, and some sufficient conditions on the system stability and robustness to the uncertainties are also derived by using the tools of Lyapunov stability theory, algebraic graph theory, and matrix inequality......This paper presents a robust distributed secondary control (DSC) scheme for inverter-based microgrids (MGs) in a distribution sparse network with uncertain communication links. By using the iterative learning mechanics, two discrete-time DSC controllers are designed, which enable all distributed...... theory. The proposed controllers are implemented on local DERs, and thus no central controller is required. Moreover, the desired control objective can also be guaranteed even if all DERs are subject to internal uncertainties and external noises including initial voltage and/or frequency resetting errors...

  10. Dynamic link: user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Hiroo; Asai, Kiyoshi; Kihara, Kazuhisa.

    1981-09-01

    The purpose of dynamic link facility is to link a load module dynamically only when it is used in execution time. The facility is very useful for development, execution and maintenance of a large scale computer program which is too big to be saved as one load module in main memory, or it is poor economy to save it due to many unused subroutines depending on an input. It is also useful for standardization and common utilization of programs. Standard usage of dynamic link facility of FACOM M-200 computer system, a software tool which analyzes the effect of dynamic link facility and application of dynamic link to nuclear codes are described. (author)

  11. Seismic link at plate boundary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    time series to determine the causality and related orientation. The resulting link orientations at the plate boundary conditions indicate that causal triggering seems to be localized along a major fault, as a stress transfer between two major faults, and parallel to the geothermal area extension. 1. Introduction. Plate boundaries ...

  12. Seismic link at plate boundary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... tested using the coherence of time series to determine the causality and related orientation. The resulting link orientations at the plate boundary conditions indicate that causal triggering seems to be localized along a major fault, as a stress transfer between two major faults, and parallel to the geothermal area extension.

  13. Named Entity Linking Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Panteleev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the tasks of processing text in natural language, Named Entity Linking (NEL represents the task to define and link some entity, which is found in the text, with some entity in the knowledge base (for example, Dbpedia. Currently, there is a diversity of approaches to solve this problem, but two main classes can be identified: graph-based approaches and machine learning-based ones. Graph and Machine Learning approaches-based algorithm is proposed accordingly to the stated assumptions about the interrelations of named entities in a sentence and in general.In the case of graph-based approaches, it is necessary to solve the problem of identifying an optimal set of the related entities according to some metric that characterizes the distance between these entities in a graph built on some knowledge base. Due to limitations in processing power, to solve this task directly is impossible. Therefore, its modification is proposed. Based on the algorithms of machine learning, an independent solution cannot be built due to small volumes of training datasets relevant to NEL task. However, their use can contribute to improving the quality of the algorithm. The adaptation of the Latent Dirichlet Allocation model is proposed in order to obtain a measure of the compatibility of attributes of various entities encountered in one context.The efficiency of the proposed algorithm was experimentally tested. A test dataset was independently generated. On its basis the performance of the model was compared using the proposed algorithm with the open source product DBpedia Spotlight, which solves the NEL problem.The mockup, based on the proposed algorithm, showed a low speed as compared to DBpedia Spotlight. However, the fact that it has shown higher accuracy, stipulates the prospects for work in this direction.The main directions of development were proposed in order to increase the accuracy of the system and its productivity.

  14. Resetting of Neoarchaean hornblendes from the Murmansk Terrane (Kola Peninsula, Russia) revealed by a combined 40Ar/39Ar and Rb-Sr analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, K.; Timmerman, M. J.; Cliff, R. A.; Wijbrans, J. R.; Daly, J. S.; Balagansky, V. V.

    2003-04-01

    We present isotope data from amphiboles from the 2.6--2.8 Ga Murmansk Terrane in the northern foreland of the 1.9 Ga Lapland-Kola Orogen of northern Fennoscandia. Most amphiboles are zoned with tschermakitic cores that progressively change to actinolite in 5--10 μm wide areas in rims, defect zones or adjacent to biotite. Biotite chiefly occurs along cleavages, fractures and grain boundaries of amphibole, showing that its hydration and fluid ingress are confined to lattice imperfections. Furnace step heating of hornblende separate MT-11 gave spectra with increasing apparent ages and Ca/K ratios (a proxy for 37ArCa/39Ar_K). Hornblende is intergrown with biotite that also occurs in the matrix. Yet, laser step heating of single hornblende grain MT-11 yielded flat spectra with Neoarchaean apparent ages and constant Ca/K ratios. This suggests that the hornblende grain that was drilled from a thin section and which was not affected by biotite growth retained its Neoarchaean age. In contrast, the hornblende separate with intergrown biotite from this sample has a partially reset Neoarchaean isotope system. Hornblende MT-27 has Neoarchaean apparent ages and lacks low Ca/K ratios in both single grain and mineral separate spectra; it is not affected by biotite growth and this mineral is also absent from the matrix. Age spectra of other hornblende separates have increasing apparent ages to 2.56--2.65 Ga during final 39Ar release; their Ca/K ratio spectra similarly increase. Low Ca/K ratios for gas release below 950^oC imply degassing of included biotite. Apparent ages of the first heating increments may be as young as 1.8 Ga, comparable to the K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar ages of the youngest biotites. Hornblende-plagioclase pairs from aliquots used for 40Ar/39Ar furnace step heating yielded sharply discordant Rb-Sr ages. MT-11 yielded an 1881 ± 23 Ma Rb-Sr age that compares well with the K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar ages of biotite in the sample. In contrast, hornblende of sample MT-27 has a

  15. Visualisierung von typisierten Links in Linked Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Neubauer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Das Themengebiet der Arbeit behandelt Visualisierungen von typisierten Links in Linked Data. Die wissenschaftlichen Gebiete, die im Allgemeinen den Inhalt des Beitrags abgrenzen, sind das Semantic Web, das Web of Data und Informationsvisualisierung. Das Semantic Web, das von Tim Berners Lee 2001 erfunden wurde, stellt eine Erweiterung zum World Wide Web (Web 2.0 dar. Aktuelle Forschungen beziehen sich auf die Verknüpfbarkeit von Informationen im World Wide Web. Um es zu ermöglichen, solche Verbindungen wahrnehmen und verarbeiten zu können sind Visualisierungen die wichtigsten Anforderungen als Hauptteil der Datenverarbeitung. Im Zusammenhang mit dem Sematic Web werden Repräsentationen von zuhammenhängenden Informationen anhand von Graphen gehandhabt. Der Grund des Entstehens dieser Arbeit ist in erster Linie die Beschreibung der Gestaltung von Linked Data-Visualisierungskonzepten, deren Prinzipien im Rahmen einer theoretischen Annäherung eingeführt werden. Anhand des Kontexts führt eine schrittweise Erweiterung der Informationen mit dem Ziel, praktische Richtlinien anzubieten, zur Vernetzung dieser ausgearbeiteten Gestaltungsrichtlinien. Indem die Entwürfe zweier alternativer Visualisierungen einer standardisierten Webapplikation beschrieben werden, die Linked Data als Netzwerk visualisiert, konnte ein Test durchgeführt werden, der deren Kompatibilität zum Inhalt hatte. Der praktische Teil behandelt daher die Designphase, die Resultate, und zukünftige Anforderungen des Projektes, die durch die Testung ausgearbeitet wurden.

  16. Linking open vocabularies

    CERN Document Server

    Greifender, Elke; Seadle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Linked Data (LD), Linked Open Data (LOD) and generating a web of data, present the new knowledge sharing frontier. In a philosophical context, LD is an evolving environment that reflects humankinds' desire to understand the world by drawing on the latest technologies and capabilities of the time. LD, while seemingly a new phenomenon did not emerge overnight; rather it represents the natural progression by which knowledge structures are developed, used, and shared. Linked Open Vocabularies is a significant trajectory of LD. Linked Open Vocabularies targets vocabularies that have traditionally b

  17. Method of preparing cross-linked enzyme particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo, C.; Van Langen, L.M.; Van Rantwijk, F.

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of preparing cross-linked enzyme particles using a cross-linking agent. According to the invention, the enzyme particles are formed and subsequently cross-linked using a cross-linking agent having at least n reactive groups where N>=3 and a molecular weight of

  18. The Emotional Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ian

    1989-01-01

    Describes the emotional link to the text that an author and an illustrator must create for the reader. Traces the development of that link while the author illustrated "Very Last First Time," by Jan Andrews, a rite-of-passage tale about a young Inuit girl. (RAE)

  19. Let's "Downscale" Linked Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gueret, C.D.M.; de Boer, V.; Schlobach, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    Open data policies and linked data publication are powerful tools for increasing transparency, participatory governance, and accountability. The linked data community proudly emphasizes the economic and societal impact such technology shows. But a closer look proves that the design and deployment of

  20. Link Detection with Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiyin

    This paper describes our participation in the INEX 2008 Link the Wiki track. We focused on the file-to-file task and submitted three runs, which were designed to compare the impact of different features on link generation. For outgoing links, we introduce the anchor likelihood ratio as an indicator for anchor detection, and explore two types of evidence for target identification, namely, the title field evidence and the topic article content evidence. We find that the anchor likelihood ratio is a useful indicator for anchor detection, and that in addition to the title field evidence, re-ranking with the topic article content evidence is effective for improving target identification. For incoming links, we use exact match and retrieval method with language modeling approach, and find that the exact match approach works best. On top of that, our experiment shows that the semantic relatedness between Wikipedia articles also has certain ability to indicate links.

  1. The political dimension of "linking social capital"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    . Through an analysis of existing analytical practices, the article concludes that linking social capital is often subordinated to the two related social capital concepts of bonding and bridging, and that linking social capital is often exclusively defined and operationalized based on expressions...

  2. Materializing the web of linked data

    CERN Document Server

    Konstantinou, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the Linked Data domain by adopting a bottom-up approach: it introduces the fundamental Semantic Web technologies and building blocks, which are then combined into methodologies and end-to-end examples for publishing datasets as Linked Data, and use cases that harness scholarly information and sensor data. It presents how Linked Data is used for web-scale data integration, information management and search. Special emphasis is given to the publication of Linked Data from relational databases as well as from real-time sensor data streams. The authors also trace the transformation from the document-based World Wide Web into a Web of Data. Materializing the Web of Linked Data is addressed to researchers and professionals studying software technologies, tools and approaches that drive the Linked Data ecosystem, and the Web in general.

  3. Estrone sulfate source of estrone and estradiol formation in isolated human hair roots: identification of a pathway linked to hair growth phase and subject to site-, gender-, and age-related modulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Gabriele; Schweikert, Hans-Udo

    2014-04-01

    The present study investigated the metabolism of estrone sulfate into bioactive estrogens in the human hair root, including the effects of hair growth phase, anatomical site, gender, and age. Healthy male (n = 18) and female (n = 20) subjects were investigated. Growing (anagen) and resting (telogen) hair roots were collected from selected scalp and body sites. Estrone sulfate metabolism in the hair root yielded substantial levels of estrone and estradiol. Estrogen synthesis exceeded that associated with aromatization of androgens in a previous study. In subjects hair was lower in men than in women. Comparable levels of estrogen formation were observed in 1) male and female axillary and pubic hair and 2) male beard hair. These levels were higher than the estrogen levels detected in the in scalp hair of men women. In telogen hair from all body sites, the capacity to form estrone from estrone sulfate remained unaffected, whereas the ability to form estradiol decreased by 62% and 86% in men and women, respectively. Estrogen formation from estrone sulfate in sexually dimorphic hair is linked to the hair growth phase and is subject to gender- and age-related modulations. The magnitude of the in situ estrogen synthesis from estrone sulfate and the selective arrest of estradiol synthesis at the end of the hair cycle suggest that this pathway plays a crucial role in the regulation of human hair growth.

  4. Radio link quality estimation in low-power wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive survey on related work for radio link quality estimation, which covers the characteristics of low-power links, the fundamental concepts of link quality estimation in wireless sensor networks, a taxonomy of existing link quality estimators and their performance analysis. It then shows how link quality estimation can be used for designing protocols and mechanisms such as routing and hand-off. The final part is dedicated to radio interference estimation, generation and mitigation.

  5. Linking to the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-09-01

    of JCE in the mail each month, and I expect you do too. I can glance at the cover to get an overview of an issue's content, and I usually am enticed inside by intriguing cover art. I can scan the table of contents to find articles I want to read, or I can just browse through the issue to see what looks interesting. Usually the editors have juxtaposed related articles so that I often find a small treasure trove. The printed Journal is quite portable and can be read in a car or airplane. It will last a long time, and until the paper deteriorates, I will never have a problem reading back issues. I have almost every issue from the first day I subscribed and have even added some older ones from collections of retired colleagues who no longer had shelf space for them. I certainly would not want to give up my printed copies, and I want to keep getting them. I find that JCE Online provides a different kind of resource that is equally valuable. It contains more information, and information that is more appropriate in electronic form. It links related ideas into a much more complex web of information than is possible in print. And it opens pathways to lots of information that is not part of JCE but resides elsewhere. Using this issue as an example, let's take a tour of what JCE Online can do. Point your Web browser to http://jchemed.chem.wisc.edu Click on Journal and then on Current Issue (unless September 1999 is no longer the current issue, in which case you will find it in Past Issues). In the table of contents, find the article "UV Catalysis, Cyanotype Photography, and Sunscreens". Click on the title. When the abstract appears, click on Full Text (PDF) to see the article, just as it appears on page 1199 in this issue. When you are prompted, enter the name and subscriber number from your address label. At the end of the article you will find that supplementary materials are available (including a procedure for testing sunscreens) and you can click on the link to view them

  6. Cross-linking of polymeric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, L.I.; Du Plessis, T.A.; Meij, G.O.

    1991-01-01

    The invention provides a method of producing a cured polymeric artifact from a polymeric thermoplastic starting material, the material of the artifact having reduced thermoplasticity relative to the starting material and exhibiting an enhanced degree of cross-linking relative to the starting material. The method includes subjecting a polymeric thermoplastic starting material, which is capable of being cross-linked by irradiation, to sufficient irradiation partially to cross-linked the starting material to produce a thermoplastic partially cross-linked intermediate material. The thermoplasticity of the intermediate material is then reduced by heating it to raise its melting point. The invention also provides a method of making a partially cross-linked feedstocks and a master batch for use in making such artifacts

  7. Origin of the current discretization in deep reset states of an Al2O3/Cu-based conductive-bridging memory, and impact on state level and variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, A.; Degraeve, R.; Fantini, A.; Kim, W.; Houssa, M.; Jurczak, M.; Goux, L.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we develop a Quantum-Point-Contact (QPC) model describing the state conduction in a W/Al2O3/TiW/Cu Conductive-Bridging Memory cell (CBRAM). The model allows describing both the voltage- and the temperature-dependence of the conduction. For deep current levels, a resistance component is added in series to the point-contact constriction to account for electron scattering in the residual filament. The fitting of single-particle perturbation also allowed to estimate the number and effective size of the conduction-controlling particles in the QPC constriction. The results clearly point to smaller particles for CBRAM (Cu particles) as compared to oxide-based resistive RAM involving oxygen-vacancy defects, which is discussed as a possible origin of deeper reset level obtained in CBRAM. We also evidence a beneficial impact of this smaller particle size on lower Random-Telegraph-Noise amplitude measured on CBRAM devices.

  8. Link to paper

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Link to the paper. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Naile, J., A.W. Garrison, J. Avants, and J. Washington. Isomers/enantiomers of...

  9. Impact of data link technology on railroad dispatching operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-01

    This study examined data link communication as an alternative channel to voice radio for railroad dispatchers. The goal was to compare how data link affected performance compared to voice radio only communications on measures related to safety, produ...

  10. Linked Ocean Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbetter, Adam; Arko, Robert; Chandler, Cynthia; Shepherd, Adam

    2014-05-01

    "Linked Data" is a term used in Computer Science to encapsulate a methodology for publishing data and metadata in a structured format so that links may be created and exploited between objects. Berners-Lee (2006) outlines the following four design principles of a Linked Data system: Use Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) as names for things. Use HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) URIs so that people can look up those names. When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (Resource Description Framework [RDF] and the RDF query language [SPARQL]). Include links to other URIs so that they can discover more things. In 2010, Berners-Lee revisited his original design plan for Linked Data to encourage data owners along a path to "good Linked Data". This revision involved the creation of a five star rating system for Linked Data outlined below. One star: Available on the web (in any format). Two stars: Available as machine-readable structured data (e.g. An Excel spreadsheet instead of an image scan of a table). Three stars: As two stars plus the use of a non-proprietary format (e.g. Comma Separated Values instead of Excel). Four stars: As three stars plus the use of open standards from the World Wide Web Commission (W3C) (i.e. RDF and SPARQL) to identify things, so that people can point to your data and metadata. Five stars: All the above plus link your data to other people's data to provide context Here we present work building on the SeaDataNet common vocabularies served by the NERC Vocabulary Server, connecting projects such as the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) and the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) and other vocabularies such as the Marine Metadata Interoperability Ontology Register and Repository and the NASA Global Change Master Directory to create a Linked Ocean Data cloud. Publishing the vocabularies and metadata in standard RDF XML and exposing SPARQL endpoints renders them five-star Linked

  11. Linking DC together with TRSL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Yong, X.

    2000-01-01

    Duration Calculus (DC) is an interval-based real-time logic, which can be used in capturing and eliciting users' real-time requirements. The Timed RAISE Specification Language (TRSL) is an extension of the RAISE Specification Language with real-time features. This paper links DC and TRSL together...... in a method for real-time developments. An operational semantics with behavior is specified for TRSL. It is defined what its means for a TRSL process to satisfy a DC requirement, and a method for verifying whether the satisfaction relation holds or not is provided. Our contribution also demonstrates a general...... approach for linking state-based real-time logics together with event-based, timed process algebra languages....

  12. Propagation engineering in radio links design

    CERN Document Server

    Ghasemi, Abdollah; Ghasemi, Farshid

    2013-01-01

    Propagation Engineering in Radio Link Design covers the basic principles of radiowaves propagation in a practical manner.  This fundamental understanding enables the readers to design radio links efficiently. This book elaborates on new achievements as well as recently developed propagation models.  This is in addition to a comprehensive overview of fundamentals of propagation in various scenarios. It examines theoretical calculations, approaches and applied procedures needed for radio links design. The authors study and analysis of the main propagation phenomena and its mechanisms based on the recommendations of International Telecommunications Union, (ITU). The book has been organized in 9 chapters and examines the role of antennas and passive reflectors in radio services, propagation mechanisms related to radar, satellite, short distance, broadcasting and trans-horizon radio links, with two chapters devoted to radio noise and main  parameters of radio link design. The book presents some 278 illustration...

  13. X-linked Agammaglobulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Deepti; Rawat, Amit; Singh, Surjit

    2016-04-01

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is one of the commonest primary immune deficiencies encountered in pediatric clinical practice. In adults, common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common primary immunodeficiency disease (PID). It is an X-linked disorder characterized by increased susceptibility to encapsulated bacteria, severe hypergammaglobulinemia and absent circulating B cells in the peripheral blood. Replacement immunoglobulin therapy is the main cornerstone of treatment. Aggressive management of intercurrent infections and prophylactic antimicrobials are needed. This review attempts to highlight varied clinical manifestations and management of XLA, especially in the context of developing country.

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Projects » Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter ... research findings and news updates. Read on to Learn the Link between drug use and HIV and ...

  15. Thermo-mechanical behavior of bituminous mixtures at low temperatures. Links between the binder characteristics and the mix properties; Comportement thermomecanique des enrobes bitumeux a basses temperatures: relations entre les proprietes du liant et de l'enrobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olard, F.

    2003-10-01

    This thesis has been realized within the framework of a partnership between the Ecole Nationale des TPE, APPIA and EUROVIA. The company Total has also been associated to this project. The study deals with the thermo-mechanical behavior of bituminous materials at low temperatures. The aim is to establish the links between the characteristics of the binder and the properties of bituminous mixes at low temperatures, and to better understand the existing low-temperature parameters and criteria for binders (or to propose new ones), related to the in-situ behavior of bituminous mixtures. A large experimental campaign has been carried out so as to fulfill this goal. After a bibliographical study on the rheology and the thermo-mechanical properties of (pure or modified) binders, putties and mixes, the experimental campaign carried out both in the small strain domain and in the large strain domain, is presented. The low temperature behavior of binders has been evaluated with three common fundamental tests: i)the complex modulus determination, ii)the Bending Beam Rheometer and iii)the tensile strength at a constant strain rate and constant temperatures. A new three point bending test on pre-notched bitumen beams has also been developed at the ENTPE. The low-temperature fracture properties of bitumens were studied at constant temperatures and cross-head speeds considering the Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) assumptions. The thermo-mechanical behavior of bituminous mixtures has been studied by performing i)complex modulus tests, ii)measurements of the coefficient of thermal dilatation and contraction, iii)tensile tests at constant temperatures and strain rates, and iv)Thermal Stress Restrained Specimen Tests. Apart from the determination of some pertinent links between binder and mix properties and discriminating characteristics with regard to the thermal cracking of bituminous mixes at low temperatures, the analysis has also consisted in modeling the behavior of

  16. Radiation-induced linking reactions in polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoepfl, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    Three types of measurements are reported relating to chemical reactions in polyethylene induced by ionizing radiation: 1) viscometric and low-angle laser light scattering measurements to determine the effect of a radical scavenger on the yield of links; 2) calorimetric measurements to determine the effect of radiation-induced linking on the melting behavior of polyethylene; and 3) high-resolution solution carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry measurements to determine the nature of the links and the method of their formation. The NMR results present the first direct detection of radiation-induced long-chain branching (Y links) in polyethylene, and place an apparent upper limit on the yield of H-shaped crosslinks that are formed when polyethylene is irradiated to low absorbed doses. The effect of radiation-induced linking on the melting behavior of polyethylene was examined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It was found that radiation-induced links do not change the heat of fusion of polythylene crystals, but decrease the melt entropy and increase the fold surface free energy per unit area of the crystals. The carbon 13 NMR results demonstrate that long-chain branches (Y links) are formed much more frequently than H-shaped crosslinks at low absorbed doses. The Y links are produced by reactions of alkyl free radicals with terminal vinyl groups in polyethylene

  17. Link Monotonic Allocation Schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.

    1999-01-01

    A network is a graph where the nodes represent players and the links represent bilateral interaction between the players. A reward game assigns a value to every network on a fixed set of players. An allocation scheme specifies how to distribute the worth of every network among the players. This

  18. Linking place and mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Møller

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the salience of vernacular Tyneside forms on the basis of theories of enregisterment and exemplar processing. On one level, exemplar theory provides a psycholinguistic account of how the link between social value and linguistic features is possible. Conversely, integrating...

  19. Linking Wayfinding and Wayfaring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanng, Ditte Bendix; Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    -called mobilities turn in which mobility is viewed as a complex, multilayered process that entails much more than simply getting from point A to point B (see Cresswell 2006 ; Jensen 2013 ; Urry 2007 ).The structure of the chapter is simple: We fi rst introduce the concepts that are key to linking wayfi nding...

  20. Link til hjemmesider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bervild, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Link til læringsobjekter/undervisningsportalhttp://videoportal.ucc.dk/channel/10492641/charlotte-bervilds-undervisninghttp://videoportal.ucc.dk/video/8248508/3d-printer-v-lektor-charlotte-bervildFotoblog:http://charlottebervild.blogspot.dk/2008/10/fotocollager-af-charlotte-bervild.html...

  1. Knots and Links

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 3. Knots and Links. K L Sebastian. General Article Volume 11 Issue 3 March 2006 pp 25-35 ... Author Affiliations. K L Sebastian1. Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560012, India ...

  2. Response model parameter linking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrett, M.L.D.

    2015-01-01

    With a few exceptions, the problem of linking item response model parameters from different item calibrations has been conceptualized as an instance of the problem of equating observed scores on different test forms. This thesis argues, however, that the use of item response models does not require

  3. Methods of Evaluating Protective Clothing Relative to Heat and Cold Stress: Thermal Manikin, Biomedical Modeling, and Human Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    1996. pp. 419–438. 47. O’Brien, C., A.J. Young, and M.N. Sawka: Hypohydration and thermoregulation in cold air. J. Appl. Physiol. 84:185–189 (1998...code) 2011 Journal Article-Journal of Occup and Env Hygiene Methods of Evaluating Protective Clothing Relative to Heat and cold Stress: Thermal...hazard assessment, thermal strain, thermoregulation Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified 12 Catherine O’Brien 508-233-5973 Reset Journal

  4. Isolated Tracklet Linking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weryk, Robert J.; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Williams, Gareth

    2017-10-01

    We discuss our on-going work to reduce the size of the Isolated Tracklet File (ITF) : a database hosted by the Minor Planet Center (MPC) containing 14+ million unlinked detections of asteroids. The ITF is dominated by observations from Pan-STARRS1 (F51), the Catalina Sky Survey (G96), and the Spacewatch Project (691).Survey telescopes are dependent on the follow-up capabilities of other telescopes, but many of their detected objects are not linked to already known objects, are are either not posted to the NEO Confirmation Page and/or are not followed up sufficiently, and therefore have their astrometry relegated to the ITF. While many of these asteroids may have in fact been previously observed sufficiently over longer timescales (enough to become designated objects), the linking of their astrometry can pose a challenge.We have developed a search method capable of finding and linking these isolated detections for distinct types of orbit classes, including main-belt and Hungaria objects (which often appear on the NEOCP due to their apparent motion). We use a brute-force technique which compares tracklets having motion which suggests they are the same object. Suspected linkages are further tested by searching for additional tracklets over multiple oppositions.So far, we have linked a significant portion of the ITF and have submitted these linkages to the MPC. We are confident in being able to link even more tracklets. Our method can even associate these new linkages with already designated objects, which will eventually lead to them becoming numbered objects. We hope to improve the efficiency of all asteroid surveys as future detections can be batch submitted without manual review, and more objects which are well known will not be posted to the NEOCP.

  5. Link mining models, algorithms, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Philip S; Faloutsos, Christos

    2010-01-01

    This book presents in-depth surveys and systematic discussions on models, algorithms and applications for link mining. Link mining is an important field of data mining. Traditional data mining focuses on 'flat' data in which each data object is represented as a fixed-length attribute vector. However, many real-world data sets are much richer in structure, involving objects of multiple types that are related to each other. Hence, recently link mining has become an emerging field of data mining, which has a high impact in various important applications such as text mining, social network analysi

  6. The reciprocal links between synaptophysin serum levels and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to selected low-grade inflammation indices and age-related androgen serum level changes in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Waldemar Adam; Wójcicka, Marlena; Kołodziejczak, Barbara; Losy, Jacek; Łącka, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    The correlations between synaptophysin (SYP) plasma levels and the brain neurotransmission activity are still not strictly identified. However, the efficiency of neurotransmission depends, inter alia, on the age, hormonal status, and coexistence of a low-grade systemic inflammation (LGSI) which is regarded as a pathogenic link with obesity and insulin resistance, atherogenesis and aging per se. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between synaptophysin serum levels and age, LGSI indices, homocysteine and selected hormonal parameters (dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate, free-testosterone, SHBG) and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in men over the age of 40. After randomization, 157 male volunteers aged 40-80 years were included in a retrospective study. MS was diagnosed according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria. For the diagnosis of late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) we adopted the criteria proposed by the European Male Aging Study (EMAS). Synaptophysin plasma concentrations in respondents decreased with age, but only between the ages of 40 to 70 years. There were no differences in SYP plasma concentrations in men suffering from MS compared to healthy subjects (p=0.845). Men suffering from MS demonstrated while higher hs-CRP (high sensitive C - reactive protein) levels than healthy (p=0.019), contrary to the α1-antichymotrypsin and transferrin. A positive monotonic correlation between synaptophysin and hs-CRP was demonstrated (r=0.235; p=0.003). No statistically significant relationships between SYP and homocysteine plasma levels were presented (r=0.047; p=0.562), although in men diagnosed with MS higher homocysteine levels compared to healthy subjects were demonstrated. No correlations between synaptophysin and free testosterone (r=-0.036; p=0.651), DHEA (r=-0.122; p=0.128) and its sulphate (r=-0.024; p=0.764) as well as SHBG (r=-0.088; p=0.288) were demonstrated. Although the correlations between synaptophysin plasma

  7. Comparing Library and User Related Costs of Print and Electronic Journal Collections; Open Citation Linking; Toward a Global Digital Library; Information Retrieval by Semantic Analysis and Visualization of the Concept Space of D-Lib[R] Magazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Carol Hansen; King, Donald W.; Hitchcock, Steve; Brody, Tim; Carr, Les; Gutteridge, Christopher; Hall, Wendy; Harnad, Stevan; Bergmark, Donna; Lagoze, Carl; Fox, Edward A.; Moore, Reagan W.; Larsen, Ronald L.; Myaeng, Sung Hyon; Kim, Sung-Hyuk; Zhang, Junliang; Mostafa, Javed; Tripathy, Himansu

    2002-01-01

    Includes four articles that discuss the impact of academic libraries' shift to electronic journals on staff and costs; open citation linking for improved access and the Open Archives Initiative; development of global digital libraries, particularly between the United States and Korea; and retrieving documents from a digital library through a…

  8. OhioLINK: Implementing Integrated Library Services across Institutional Boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawks, Carol Pitts

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the implementation of the OhioLINK (Ohio Library and Information Network) system, an integrated library system linking 23 public and private academic institutions and the Ohio State Library. Topics include a history of OhioLINK; organizational structure; decision-making procedures; public relations strategies; cooperative circulation;…

  9. Remote controlled signal conditioner and fiber optic data link system development CPRF (Confinement Physics Research Facility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrank, L.S.; Caudill, L.D.; Haberstich, A.; Klare, K.A.; Reass, W.A.

    1989-01-01

    The ZTH reversed-field pinch to be installed in the Confinement Physics Research Facility (CPRF) will produce a significant ambient magnetic field. To avoid ground-loop and other electrical problems, the diagnostics in direct or possible contact with the experiment will be accessed through a fiber optic data way. The frequency-modulated analog links developed for this system have a bandwidth of dc to 100 kHz and a signal-to-noise ratio of better than 60 dB. The fiber optic transmitter units include a signal conditioner and a microprocessor controller. The conditioners can be configured as dc-coupled, low-noise differential amplifiers, or as high-gain, low-drift differential integrators with a very long droop time constant. Magnetic field pickup is minimized by balancing sensitive circuit areas to within 5 mm 2 in all three planes of the PC boards. The gain, offset, and integrator reset are controlled and monitored by the microprocessor, and their status is displayed on the front panel of the transmitter unit. The signal conditioner can be controlled locally, or by way of a fiber optic coupled control network. The system allows fast, convenient, noise-immune control of a large number of signal conditioners from a central host computer. By varying the offset, the computer can verify the operational integrity of the data links. 2 refs., 6 figs

  10. Interprocedural Definition-Use Chains of Dynamic Pointer-Linked Data Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan-Shin Hwang; Joel Saltz

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a flow-sensitive algorithm to compute interprocedural definition-use chains of dynamic pointer-linked data structures. The goal is to relate the statements that construct links of dynamic pointer-linked data structures (i.e. definitions) to the statements that might traverse the structures through the links (i.e. uses). Specifically, for each statement S that defines links of pointer-linked data structures, the algorithm finds the set of statements that traverse the links ...

  11. Bottom-linked innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Catharina Juul

    2018-01-01

    Employee-driven innovation is gaining ground as a strategy for developing sustainable organisations in the public and private sector. This type of innovation is characterised by active employee participation, and the bottom-up perspective is often emphasised. This article explores an issue that has...... hitherto been paid little explicit attention, namely collaboration between middle managers and employees in innovation processes. In contrast to most studies, middle managers and employees are here both subjects of explicit investigation. The collaboration processes explored in this article are termed...... ‘bottom-linked innovation’. The empirical analysis is based on an in-depth qualitative study of bottom-linked innovation in a public frontline institution in Denmark. By combining research on employee-driven innovation and middle management, the article offers new insights into such collaborative...

  12. Energy care in relation to your management system. Linking lists between the Reference Energy Care and ISO 14001, ISO 9001 and HACCP; Energiezorg in relatie tot uw zorgsysteem. Linking lists tussen de Referentie Energiezorg en ISO 14001, ISO 9001 en HACCP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Several so-called care systems are in use at institutes and companies. For efficiency reasons it makes sense to integrate an energy care system to the existing care system. For the so-called Reference Energy Care, developed by the Netherlands Agency for Energy and the Environment (Novem) links to three of the most important care systems have been elaborated: environmental care according to ISO 14001, the quality care system ISO 9001:2000 and the food safety system Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP). The elaboration resulted in three tables, indicating the connections ('linking lists') between each of those care systems and the Reference Energy Care system and how energy care can be integrated into those systems. [Dutch] Bij instellingen en bedrijven zijn diverse zorgsystemen in gebruik. Het is zinvol om energiezorg - waar mogelijk - in een dergelijk bestaand systeem op te nemen. Meerdere zorgsystemen naast elkaar in stand houden is minder efficient dan de systemen integreren tot een systeem. Novem heeft daarom voor haar Referentie Energiezorg de link laten uitwerken naar drie van de meest voorkomende systemen: milieuzorg volgens ISO 14001, het kwaliteitszorgsysteem ISO 9001:2000 en het voedselveiligheidssysteem HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points). Hieruit zijn drie tabellen voortgekomen, die aangeven welke verbanden er zijn tussen elk van deze zorgsystemen en de Referentie Energiezorg en hoe u energiezorg kunt integreren in elk van deze systemen. Deze tabellen worden aangeduid als 'linking lists' en u kunt ze gebruiken als hulpmiddel bij het integreren van energiezorg in uw eigen zorgsysteem. U vindt ze in deze brochure.

  13. Linking assumptions in amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEVI, DENNIS M.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 35 years or so, there has been substantial progress in revealing and characterizing the many interesting and sometimes mysterious sensory abnormalities that accompany amblyopia. A goal of many of the studies has been to try to make the link between the sensory losses and the underlying neural losses, resulting in several hypotheses about the site, nature, and cause of amblyopia. This article reviews some of these hypotheses, and the assumptions that link the sensory losses to specific physiological alterations in the brain. Despite intensive study, it turns out to be quite difficult to make a simple linking hypothesis, at least at the level of single neurons, and the locus of the sensory loss remains elusive. It is now clear that the simplest notion—that reduced contrast sensitivity of neurons in cortical area V1 explains the reduction in contrast sensitivity—is too simplistic. Considerations of noise, noise correlations, pooling, and the weighting of information also play a critically important role in making perceptual decisions, and our current models of amblyopia do not adequately take these into account. Indeed, although the reduction of contrast sensitivity is generally considered to reflect “early” neural changes, it seems plausible that it reflects changes at many stages of visual processing. PMID:23879956

  14. Finding Entities in Wikipedia Using Links and Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptein, Rianne; Kamps, Jaap

    In this paper we describe our participation in the INEX Entity Ranking track. We explored the relations between Wikipedia pages, categories and links. Our approach is to exploit both category and link information. Category information is used by calculating distances between document categories and target categories. Link information is used for relevance propagation and in the form of a document link prior. Both sources of information have value, but using category information leads to the biggest improvements.

  15. Linking consumer experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Karina Madsen

    become part of the individual self, worldview, and behaviour. This paper seeks to explore links between consumer experiences through the exploration of narrative sequences in travel blogs. Findings indicate that non-consumption is a central element to the bloggers and also indicative of a community......Consumers consume products in various ways serving a number of purposes. Much attention has been paid to experiences attached to consumption, sometimes very explicitly, e.g. in tourism, the essence of which is experiences of various sorts, but often also implicitly as internalised experiences...

  16. Knots and links

    CERN Document Server

    Rolfsen, Dale

    2003-01-01

    Rolfsen's beautiful book on knots and links can be read by anyone, from beginner to expert, who wants to learn about knot theory. Beginners with a basic background find an inviting introduction to the elements of topology, emphasizing the tools needed for understanding knots, the fundamental group and van Kampen's theorem, for example, which are then applied to concrete problems, such as computing knot groups. For experts, Rolfsen explains advanced topics, such as the connections between knot theory and surgery and how they are useful to understanding three-manifolds. Besides providing a guide

  17. Semantic analysis of links in the musical Wikipedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti; Hansen, Lars Kai; Larsen, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Wikipedia has significant potential in music information retrieval research. In this work we analyze the of the link structure in the musical Wikipedia. Wikipedia links differ in certain ways from links on the Web at large. There are an over-abundance of internal links in Wikipedia, links...... are generated automatically, and they may even maliciously be used to promote certain topics. Wikipedia has been analyzed recently using methods fromWeb and text mining, however, the fact the link structure is different from the Web’s makes this approach questionable. To better understand the link structure...... and specifically to test the level of consistency of links and page content we perform Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis to extract topics from Wikipedia articles. The PLSA model is used to quantify how articles are related. The PLSA-based similarity of documents is then used to evaluate the semantic...

  18. Linking world scan and image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmer, H.; Alcamo, J.; Bollen, J.; Gielen, A.; Gerlach, R.; Den Ouden, A.; Zuidema, G.

    1995-01-01

    In march 1994 the Central Planning Bureau (CPB) in the Hague, the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM) in Bilthoven and the Institute of Environmental Studies (IES) in Amsterdam started the first phase of a joint research program aimed at creating integrated scenarios of the global economy, GHG emissions, and climate impacts. The goal of the first phase of this project was to design and test a linked version of the economic model WORLD SCAN of the former, and the climate model IMAGE 2 of the latter institute. This first phase has resulted in the planned test runs with an operational version of the linked models by May 1995. The experiences in the first year were encouraging, both in the scientific and the organizational sense. In a sense, a link was made between scientific disciplines: a coupling of disciplines concerning with global economic development and the global physical climate system is difficult and novel. The goal of the project was to integrate long-term economic developments and effects of climate change. Both the WORLD SCAN model and IMAGE 2 provide a consistent analysis of the global system, but from different perspectives. IMAGE 2 simulates climate change and its effects in a global context but treats the economic system as exogenous. WORLD SCAN covers the world economic system in a consistent manner but does not take into account the global environment. The links are constructed in the area of agriculture and energy. The basic idea is that WORLD SCAN determines demand and supply on economic principles, while IMAGE 2 provides information on changes of land area and average quality of productive land, and other damage costs based on its three sub-systems. The demand for energy is fed into IMAGE 2's Energy Industry subsystem (EIS), which in turn determines emissions of greenhouse gases. Furthermore, some additional output from WORLD SCAN on activity levels, prices and capital structure can be used to determine

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and to parents, teachers, and the media about the link between drug misuse and HIV. ...

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Projects » Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 – ... and to help us Send the Message . Get the Facts What are HIV and AIDS? HIV (human ...

  1. Linking DC together with TRSL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne; Yong, Xia

    1999-01-01

    (parts of) the history of the observables of the system,and then define a satisfaction relation in terms of behaviours. DC has previously been linked together with subsets of other event-based process algebra languages, but using another approach:the event-based languages were given a denotational...... of constraints on the durations of states of the system, i.e. at a high level of abstraction.However, as a state-based logic, it lacks the ability to specifysequential programs and communicating concurrent processes at a concrete level. The Timed RAISE Specification Language (TRSL) [XG99] has this ability.......TRSL is a real-time extension of the RAISE Specification Language (RSL) [Rlg92] which together with its associated method [Rmg95]and tools has shown to be very useful in the industrial development of software systems. Therefore, a promising approach for the development of real-time systemscould be to use DC...

  2. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about the link between drug misuse and HIV. Post on Facebook or Twitter ; add photos to your Flickr , Pinterest , ... about the link between drug misuse and HIV. Post on Facebook About Learn the Link Need ideas for posts? ...

  3. LinkLights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grönvall, Erik; Kramp, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    The project described in this paper aims to provide assistive tools to support elderly people affected by vestibular dysfunction (i.e. a form of balance disorder leading to dizziness and nausea) in their home-based rehabilitation activities. Challenges emerge as the rehabilitation moves from...... a supervised hospital setting to private homes. Our studies have shown that the elderly people are less motivated to perform the training at home. This paper presents a tangible, portable, two dimensional modular platform called LinkLights that has been developed to sustain the home-based rehabilitation......, giving clear guidelines what to do, adding motivational cues and elements of variation and surprise in the activity. Furthermore, a set of challenges for successful translocation of the therapeutic regimen from a supervised, hospital setting to an unsupervised home-based setting together with some early...

  4. Multilevel DC link inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gui-Jia

    2003-06-10

    A multilevel DC link inverter and method for improving torque response and current regulation in permanent magnet motors and switched reluctance motors having a low inductance includes a plurality of voltage controlled cells connected in series for applying a resulting dc voltage comprised of one or more incremental dc voltages. The cells are provided with switches for increasing the resulting applied dc voltage as speed and back EMF increase, while limiting the voltage that is applied to the commutation switches to perform PWM or dc voltage stepping functions, so as to limit current ripple in the stator windings below an acceptable level, typically 5%. Several embodiments are disclosed including inverters using IGBT's, inverters using thyristors. All of the inverters are operable in both motoring and regenerating modes.

  5. Authority Control and Linked Bibliographic Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, Doris H.

    1988-01-01

    Explores issues related to bibliographic database authority control, including the nature of standards, quality control, library cooperation, centralized and decentralized databases and authority control systems, and economic considerations. The implications of authority control for linking large scale databases are discussed. (18 references)…

  6. Mitochondrial-Associated Cell Death Mechanisms Are Reset to an Embryonic-Like State in Aged Donor-Derived iPS Cells Harboring Chromosomal Aberrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigione, Alessandro; Hossini, Amir M.; Lichtner, Björn; Serin, Akdes; Fauler, Beatrix; Megges, Matthias; Lurz, Rudi; Lehrach, Hans; Zouboulis, Christos C.

    2011-01-01

    Somatic cells reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) acquire features of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and thus represent a promising source for cellular therapy of debilitating diseases, such as age-related disorders. However, reprogrammed cell lines have been found to harbor various genomic alterations. In addition, we recently discovered that the mitochondrial DNA of human fibroblasts also undergoes random mutational events upon reprogramming. Aged somatic cells might possess high susceptibility to nuclear and mitochondrial genome instability. Hence, concerns over the oncogenic potential of reprogrammed cells due to the lack of genomic integrity may hinder the applicability of iPSC-based therapies for age-associated conditions. Here, we investigated whether aged reprogrammed cells harboring chromosomal abnormalities show resistance to apoptotic cell death or mitochondrial-associated oxidative stress, both hallmarks of cancer transformation. Four iPSC lines were generated from dermal fibroblasts derived from an 84-year-old woman, representing the oldest human donor so far reprogrammed to pluripotency. Despite the presence of karyotype aberrations, all aged-iPSCs were able to differentiate into neurons, re-establish telomerase activity, and reconfigure mitochondrial ultra-structure and functionality to a hESC-like state. Importantly, aged-iPSCs exhibited high sensitivity to drug-induced apoptosis and low levels of oxidative stress and DNA damage, in a similar fashion as iPSCs derived from young donors and hESCs. Thus, the occurrence of chromosomal abnormalities within aged reprogrammed cells might not be sufficient to over-ride the cellular surveillance machinery and induce malignant transformation through the alteration of mitochondrial-associated cell death. Taken together, we unveiled that cellular reprogramming is capable of reversing aging-related features in somatic cells from a very old subject, despite the presence of genomic

  7. Mitochondrial-associated cell death mechanisms are reset to an embryonic-like state in aged donor-derived iPS cells harboring chromosomal aberrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Prigione

    Full Text Available Somatic cells reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs acquire features of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and thus represent a promising source for cellular therapy of debilitating diseases, such as age-related disorders. However, reprogrammed cell lines have been found to harbor various genomic alterations. In addition, we recently discovered that the mitochondrial DNA of human fibroblasts also undergoes random mutational events upon reprogramming. Aged somatic cells might possess high susceptibility to nuclear and mitochondrial genome instability. Hence, concerns over the oncogenic potential of reprogrammed cells due to the lack of genomic integrity may hinder the applicability of iPSC-based therapies for age-associated conditions. Here, we investigated whether aged reprogrammed cells harboring chromosomal abnormalities show resistance to apoptotic cell death or mitochondrial-associated oxidative stress, both hallmarks of cancer transformation. Four iPSC lines were generated from dermal fibroblasts derived from an 84-year-old woman, representing the oldest human donor so far reprogrammed to pluripotency. Despite the presence of karyotype aberrations, all aged-iPSCs were able to differentiate into neurons, re-establish telomerase activity, and reconfigure mitochondrial ultra-structure and functionality to a hESC-like state. Importantly, aged-iPSCs exhibited high sensitivity to drug-induced apoptosis and low levels of oxidative stress and DNA damage, in a similar fashion as iPSCs derived from young donors and hESCs. Thus, the occurrence of chromosomal abnormalities within aged reprogrammed cells might not be sufficient to over-ride the cellular surveillance machinery and induce malignant transformation through the alteration of mitochondrial-associated cell death. Taken together, we unveiled that cellular reprogramming is capable of reversing aging-related features in somatic cells from a very old subject, despite the presence

  8. SKIP is a component of the spliceosome linking alternative splicing and the circadian clock in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxue; Wu, Fangming; Xie, Qiguang; Wang, Huamei; Wang, Ying; Yue, Yanling; Gahura, Ondrej; Ma, Shuangshuang; Liu, Lei; Cao, Ying; Jiao, Yuling; Puta, Frantisek; McClung, C Robertson; Xu, Xiaodong; Ma, Ligeng

    2012-08-01

    Circadian clocks generate endogenous rhythms in most organisms from cyanobacteria to humans and facilitate entrainment to environmental diurnal cycles, thus conferring a fitness advantage. Both transcriptional and posttranslational mechanisms are prominent in the basic network architecture of circadian systems. Posttranscriptional regulation, including mRNA processing, is emerging as a critical step for clock function. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms linking RNA metabolism to the circadian clock network. Here, we report that a conserved SNW/Ski-interacting protein (SKIP) domain protein, SKIP, a splicing factor and component of the spliceosome, is involved in posttranscriptional regulation of circadian clock genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mutation in SKIP lengthens the circadian period in a temperature-sensitive manner and affects light input and the sensitivity of the clock to light resetting. SKIP physically interacts with the spliceosomal splicing factor Ser/Arg-rich protein45 and associates with the pre-mRNA of clock genes, such as PSEUDORESPONSE REGULATOR7 (PRR7) and PRR9, and is necessary for the regulation of their alternative splicing and mRNA maturation. Genome-wide investigations reveal that SKIP functions in regulating alternative splicing of many genes, presumably through modulating recognition or cleavage of 5' and 3' splice donor and acceptor sites. Our study addresses a fundamental question on how the mRNA splicing machinery contributes to circadian clock function at a posttranscriptional level.

  9. Is the population level link between drinking and harm similar for women and men?--a time series analysis with focus on gender-specific drinking and alcohol-related hospitalizations in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engdahl, Barbro; Ramstedt, Mats

    2011-08-01

    A question that has not been addressed in the literature is whether the population level association between alcohol and harm differs between men and women. The main aim of this article is to fill this gap by analysing recently collected time series data of male and female self-reported drinking in relation to gender-specific harm indicators in Sweden. Male and female per capita and risk consumption was estimated on the basis of self-reported data from monthly alcohol surveys for the period 2002-07. Overall per capita consumption including recorded sales and estimates of unrecorded consumption were also collected for the same period. Alcohol-related hospitalizations were used as indicators of alcohol-related harm. Data were aggregated into quarterly observations and analysed by means of time series analyses (ARIMA-modelling). Overall per capita consumption was significantly related to both male and female alcohol-related hospitalizations. Male per capita consumption and risk consumption were also significantly related to alcohol-related hospitalizations among men. Female per capita consumption and risk consumption had also a positive association with alcohol-related hospitalizations but statistical significance was only reached for alcohol poisonings where the association was even stronger than for men. Changes in alcohol consumption in Sweden was associated with changes in male and female alcohol-related hospitalizations also in analyses based on gender-specific consumption measures. There was no clear evidence that the population level association between alcohol and harm differed between men and women.

  10. Object linking in repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, David (Editor); Beck, Jon; Atkins, John; Bailey, Bill

    1992-01-01

    This topic is covered in three sections. The first section explores some of the architectural ramifications of extending the Eichmann/Atkins lattice-based classification scheme to encompass the assets of the full life cycle of software development. A model is considered that provides explicit links between objects in addition to the edges connecting classification vertices in the standard lattice. The second section gives a description of the efforts to implement the repository architecture using a commercially available object-oriented database management system. Some of the features of this implementation are described, and some of the next steps to be taken to produce a working prototype of the repository are pointed out. In the final section, it is argued that design and instantiation of reusable components have competing criteria (design-for-reuse strives for generality, design-with-reuse strives for specificity) and that providing mechanisms for each can be complementary rather than antagonistic. In particular, it is demonstrated how program slicing techniques can be applied to customization of reusable components.

  11. Local Type Checking for Linked Data Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Ciobanu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Web of Linked Data is the cumulation of over a decade of work by the Web standards community in their effort to make data more Web-like. We provide an introduction to the Web of Linked Data from the perspective of a Web developer that would like to build an application using Linked Data. We identify a weakness in the development stack as being a lack of domain specific scripting languages for designing background processes that consume Linked Data. To address this weakness, we design a scripting language with a simple but appropriate type system. In our proposed architecture some data is consumed from sources outside of the control of the system and some data is held locally. Stronger type assumptions can be made about the local data than external data, hence our type system mixes static and dynamic typing. Throughout, we relate our work to the W3C recommendations that drive Linked Data, so our syntax is accessible to Web developers.

  12. Linking policy and creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvistgaard, Peter

    2008-01-01

    When dealing with creativity in tourism development, this paper argues that it is imparative 1) to recognise the importance of the power set-up of any given destination/city and 2) to map the positions and relations between the different important, less important and perhaps in time potentially...... important actors. It is claimed that it is a precondition for creating creativity or working towards the creation of a 'creative ethos' (Florida 2005:5 ff) in the tourism field at any level could be said to be knowledge of power relations between the participating actors....

  13. Analysis of Azari Language based on Parsing using Link Gram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Arabzadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There are different classes of theories for the natural lanuguage syntactic parsing problem and for creating the related grammars .This paper presents a syntactic grammar developed in the link grammar formalism for Turkish which is an agglutinative language. In the link grammar formalism, the words of a sentence are linked with each other depending on their syntactic roles. Turkish has complex derivational and inflectional morphology, and derivational and inflection morphemes play important syntactic roles in the sentences. In order to develop a link grammar for Turkish, the lexical parts in the morphological representations of Turkish words are removed, and the links are created depending on the part of speech tags and inflectional morphemes in words. Furthermore, a derived word is separated at the derivational boundaries in order to treat each derivation morpheme as a special distinct word, and allow it to be linked with the rest of the sentence. The derivational morphemes of a word are also linked with each other with special links to indicate that they are parts of the same word. Finally the adapted unique link grammar formalism for Turkish provides flexibility for the linkage construction, and similar methods can be used for other languages with complex morphology. Finally, using the Delphi programming language, the link grammar related to the Azeri language was developed and implemented and then by selecting 250 random sentences, this grammar is evaluated and then tested. For 84.31% of the sentences, the result set of the parser contains the correct parse.

  14. Linked Vocabulary API for the Earth Sciences Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zednik, S.; Fox, P. A.; Fu, L.; West, P.; Ma, X.

    2014-12-01

    The Linked Vocabulary API is a specification for publishing RESTful APIs of vocabularies represented in the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) as Linked Data on the web. This work began as part of the Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning Vocabularies (CMSPV) project in response to the need for a standard manner for agencies to publish and consume hierarchical vocabularies on the web. The RESTful architecture of the API provides a simple mechanism for consumption of full vocabularies, single vocabulary terms, related terms, and searches on terms. The Linked Data nature of the API promotes interoperability by exposing vocabulary resources as resolvable URIs that may be referenced from other vocabularies or sources of Linked Data and by allowing the published vocabulary to contain references as links to terms from other vocabularies. The Linked Vocabulary API is formally defined in a Linked Data API specification and may be deployed using standard implementations of the Linked Data API such as the Epimorphics Linked Data API (ELDA). Recent presentations of work done with the Linked Vocabulary API as part of the CMSPV project have resulted in the API receiving growing interest from the broader scientific community. In this contribution we present the Linked Vocabulary API design and deployment process.

  15. LinkMind: Link Optimization in Swarming Mobile Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Trung Dung

    2012-01-01

    of the most advantageous properties of the swarming wireless sensor network is that mobile nodes can work cooperatively to organize an ad-hoc network and optimize the network link capacity to maximize the transmission of gathered data from a source to a target. This paper describes a new method of link...

  16. Physical Samples Linked Data in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, P.; Arko, R. A.; Lehnert, K.; Bristol, S.

    2017-12-01

    Most data and metadata related to physical samples currently reside in isolated relational databases driven by diverse data models. How to approach the challenge for sharing, interchanging and integrating data from these difference relational databases motivated us to publish Linked Open Data for collections of physical samples, using Semantic Web technologies including the Resource Description Framework (RDF), RDF Query Language (SPARQL), and Web Ontology Language (OWL). In last few years, we have released four knowledge graphs concentrated on physical samples, including System for Earth Sample Registration (SESAR), USGS National Geochemical Database (NGDC), Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS), and Earthchem Database. Currently the four knowledge graphs contain over 12 million facets (triples) about objects of interest to the geoscience domain. Choosing appropriate domain ontologies for representing context of data is the core of the whole work. Geolink ontology developed by Earthcube Geolink project was used as top level to represent common concepts like person, organization, cruise, etc. Physical sample ontology developed by Interdisciplinary Earth Data Alliance (IEDA) and Darwin Core vocabulary were used as second level to describe details about geological samples and biological diversity. We also focused on finding and building best tool chains to support the whole life cycle of publishing linked data we have, including information retrieval, linked data browsing and data visualization. Currently, Morph, Virtuoso Server, LodView, LodLive, and YASGUI were employed for converting, storing, representing, and querying data in a knowledge base (RDF triplestore). Persistent digital identifier is another main point we concentrated on. Open Researcher & Contributor IDs (ORCIDs), International Geo Sample Numbers (IGSNs), Global Research Identifier Database (GRID) and other persistent identifiers were used to link different resources from various graphs with

  17. Nonce Generators and the Nonce Reset Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenner, Erik

    2009-01-01

    A nonce is a cryptographic input value which must never repeat within a given context. Nonces are important for the security of many cryptographic building blocks, such as stream ciphers, block cipher modes of operation, and message authentication codes. Nonetheless, the correct generation of non...... generator for their application. Thus, we conclude by giving recommendations indicating the most suitable nonce generators for certain applications....

  18. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/public-education-projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and to parents, teachers, and the media about the link between drug ...

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Plan Search Share Print Home » News & Events » Public Education Projects » Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with drug misuse are among the main factors in the spread of HIV infection in the ...

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and to parents, teachers, and the media about the link between drug misuse and HIV. Post on Facebook or Twitter ; add photos to your Flickr , Pinterest , ...

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging ... Badges Other Resources Strategic Plan Search Share Print Home » News & Events » Public Education Projects » Learn the Link - ...

  2. Optimizing pointer linked data structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holm, Carl Wilhelm Mattias

    2013-01-01

    The thesis explores different ways of optimizing pointer linked data structures, and especially restructuring them. The mechanisms are based on compiler technology, theory, computer languages and hardware architecture that are capable of optimizing the memory layout of complex pointer linked data

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Learn the Link campaign uses TV, print, and Web public service announcements (PSAs), as well as posters, e-cards, ... to misuse drugs. The Learn the Link public service campaign is just one ... this Web site. Sincerely, Nora D. Volkow, M.D. Director ...

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and ... HIV/AIDS and the discovery of promising treatment interventions for breaking the harmful links between them, we ...

  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs of Abuse ... Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with drug misuse are ...

  6. Linking Wikipedia to the web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, R.; Serdyukov, P.; Kamps, J.; Chen, H.-H.; Efthimiadis, E.N.; Savoy, J.; Crestani, F.; Marchand-Maillet, S.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the task of finding links from Wikipedia pages to external web pages. Such external links significantly extend the information in Wikipedia with information from the Web at large, while retaining the encyclopedic organization of Wikipedia. We use a language modeling approach to create

  7. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs ... HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with drug misuse ...

  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Link Need ideas for posts? We’ve provided sample Facebook status updates that you can easily copy ... LearntheLink. Need ideas for tweets? We’ve provided sample tweets that you can easily copy and paste ...

  9. Linking Item Response Model Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Wim J; Barrett, Michelle D

    2016-09-01

    With a few exceptions, the problem of linking item response model parameters from different item calibrations has been conceptualized as an instance of the problem of test equating scores on different test forms. This paper argues, however, that the use of item response models does not require any test score equating. Instead, it involves the necessity of parameter linking due to a fundamental problem inherent in the formal nature of these models-their general lack of identifiability. More specifically, item response model parameters need to be linked to adjust for the different effects of the identifiability restrictions used in separate item calibrations. Our main theorems characterize the formal nature of these linking functions for monotone, continuous response models, derive their specific shapes for different parameterizations of the 3PL model, and show how to identify them from the parameter values of the common items or persons in different linking designs.

  10. The link between BMI and waist circumference in northern Iranian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objectives: Waist circumference and not body mass index explains a greater variance in obesity-related health risk. The present study assesses the link between BMI and WC in Iranian adults. Methods: In a population based cross- sectional study on 3600 adults, northern Iran, we investigated the link ...

  11. Essays on sovereign bond pricing and inflation-linked products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, Zorka

    2016-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation consists of three chapters on the pricing of sovereign debt and inflation-linked products. The first chapter examines the relative pricing of nominal and inflation-linked debt of the three largest Eurozone sovereign issuers. Its main contribution is to present evidence of

  12. LSD Dimensions: Use and Reuse of Linked Statistical Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meroño-Peñuela, Albert

    2014-01-01

    RDF Data Cube (QB) has boosted the publication of Linked Statistical Data (LSD) on the Web, making them linkable to other related datasets and concepts following the Linked Data paradigm. In this demo we present LSD Dimensions, a web based application that monitors the usage of dimensions and codes

  13. Why should we publish Linked Data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blower, Jon; Riechert, Maik; Koubarakis, Manolis; Pace, Nino

    2016-04-01

    We use the Web every day to access information from all kinds of different sources. But the complexity and diversity of scientific data mean that discovering accessing and interpreting data remains a large challenge to researchers, decision-makers and other users. Different sources of useful information on data, algorithms, instruments and publications are scattered around the Web. How can we link all these things together to help users to better understand and exploit earth science data? How can we combine scientific data with other relevant data sources, when standards for describing and sharing data vary so widely between communities? "Linked Data" is a term that describes a set of standards and "best practices" for sharing data on the Web (http://www.w3.org/standards/semanticweb/data). These principles can be summarised as follows: 1. Create unique and persistent identifiers for the important "things" in a community (e.g. datasets, publications, algorithms, instruments). 2. Allow users to "look up" these identifiers on the web to find out more information about them. 3. Make this information machine-readable in a community-neutral format (such as RDF, Resource Description Framework). 4. Within this information, embed links to other things and concepts and say how these are related. 5. Optionally, provide web service interfaces to allow the user to perform sophisticated queries over this information (using a language such as SPARQL). The promise of Linked Data is that, through these techniques, data will be more discoverable, more comprehensible and more usable by different communities, not just the community that produced the data. As a result, many data providers (particularly public-sector institutions) are now publishing data in this way. However, this area is still in its infancy in terms of real-world applications. Data users need guidance and tools to help them use Linked Data. Data providers need reassurance that the investments they are making in

  14. A Verified Algebra for Linked Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Horne

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A foundation is investigated for the application of loosely structured data on the Web. This area is often referred to as Linked Data, due to the use of URIs in data to establish links. This work focuses on emerging W3C standards which specify query languages for Linked Data. The approach is to provide an abstract syntax to capture Linked Data structures and queries, which are then internalised in a process calculus. An operational semantics for the calculus specifies how queries, data and processes interact. A labelled transition system is shown to be sound with respect to the operational semantics. Bisimulation over the labelled transition system is used to verify an algebra over queries. The derived algebra is a contribution to the application domain. For instance, the algebra may be used to rewrite a query to optimise its distribution across a cluster of servers. The framework used to provide the operational semantics is powerful enough to model related calculi for the Web.

  15. Linking Diversity and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Rolf Gregorius

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Generally speaking, the term differentiation refers to differences between collections for the distribution of specified traits of their members, while diversity deals with (effective numbers of trait states (types. Counting numbers of types implies discrete traits such as alleles and genotypes in population genetics or species and taxa in ecology. Comparisons between the concepts of differentiation and diversity therefore primarily refer to discrete traits. Diversity is related to differentiation through the idea that the total diversity of a subdivided collection should be composed of the diversity within the subcollections and a complement called “diversity between subcollections”. The idea goes back to the perception that the mixing of differentiated collections increases diversity. Several existing concepts of “diversity between subcollections” are based on this idea. Among them, β-diversity and fixation (inadvertently called differentiation are the most prominent in ecology and in population genetics, respectively. The pertaining measures are shown to quantify the effect of differentiation in terms of diversity components, though from a dual perspective: the classical perspective of differentiation between collections for their type compositions, and the reverse perspective of differentiation between types for their collection affiliations. A series of measures of diversity-oriented differentiation is presented that consider this dual perspective at two levels of diversity partitioning: the overall type or subcollection diversity and the joint type-subcollection diversity. It turns out that, in contrast with common notions, the measures of fixation (such as FST or GST refer to the perspective of type rather than subcollection differentiation. This unexpected observation strongly suggests that the popular interpretations of fixation measures must be reconsidered.

  16. Direct determination of IMF B-Y-related cusp current systems, using SuperDARN radar and multiple ground magnetometer data: A link to theory on cusp current origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amm, O.; Engebretson, M.J.; Greenwald, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    , respectively, with magnitudes of around 0.5 A/km(2). The geometry of the current system resembles a DPY current system [Friis-Christensen and Wilhjelm, 1975]. Using our results, we test alternative theories on cusp current origin that lead to different predictions of the relative location of the cusp current...... system with respect to the open-closed field line boundary. The location of this boundary is inferred from DMSP F10 satellite data. The center of our resulting current system is located clearly poleward of the open-closed field line boundary, thus favoring the idea of Lee et al. [1985] that the cusp FACs...... are caused by a rotational discontinuity of the magnetic field at the magnetopause. In contrast, the idea of Clauer and Banks [1986] that a mapping of the solar wind E-z component to the ionosphere is responsible for the cusp current system is not supported....

  17. Link prediction in the network of global virtual water trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuninetti, Marta; Tamea, Stefania; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Through the international food-trade, water resources are 'virtually' transferred from the country of production to the country of consumption. The international food-trade, thus, implies a network of virtual water flows from exporting to importing countries (i.e., nodes). Given the dynamical behavior of the network, where food-trade relations (i.e., links) are created and dismissed every year, link prediction becomes a challenge. In this study, we propose a novel methodology for link prediction in the virtual water network. The model aims at identifying the main factors (among 17 different variables) driving the creation of a food-trade relation between any two countries, along the period between 1986 and 2011. Furthermore, the model can be exploited to investigate the network configuration in the future, under different possible (climatic and demographic) scenarios. The model grounds the existence of a link between any two nodes on the link weight (i.e., the virtual water flow): a link exists when the nodes exchange a minimum (fixed) volume of virtual water. Starting from a set of potential links between any two nodes, we fit the associated virtual water flows (both the real and the null ones) by means of multivariate linear regressions. Then, links with estimated flows higher than a minimum value (i.e., threshold) are considered active-links, while the others are non-active ones. The discrimination between active and non-active links through the threshold introduces an error (called link-prediction error) because some real links are lost (i.e., missed links) and some non-existing links (i.e., spurious links) are inevitably introduced in the network. The major drivers are those significantly minimizing the link-prediction error. Once the structure of the unweighted virtual water network is known, we apply, again, linear regressions to assess the major factors driving the fluxes traded along (modelled) active-links. Results indicate that, on the one hand

  18. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Science of Addiction Funding Funding Opportunities Clinical Research Post-Award Concerns General Information Grant & Contract Application Process ... about the link between drug misuse and HIV. Post on Facebook or Twitter ; add photos to your ...

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Researchers Medical & Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter ... Network TV Organizations: AIDS.gov AIDS Alliance for Children, Youth and Families The American Academy of Child & ...

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... other organizations in your tweets to spread the word even further. Tweet About Learn the Link To ... other organizations in your tweets to spread the word even further. Share with Flickr, Pinterest or Instagram ...

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available Skip to main content En español Researchers Medical & Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr ...

  2. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available Skip to main content En español Researchers Medical & Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS ...

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts ...

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... you can easily copy and paste to help let folks know about Learn the Link. Be sure ... once can have serious health consequences. We also work to reach parents and teachers—influential figures in ...

  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with ... Send the Message . Get the Facts What are HIV and AIDS? HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the ...

  6. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... for contracting or transmitting HIV/AIDS or other infectious diseases. Research Reports: HIV/AIDS : Explores the link between ... AIDS medical practice guidelines, HIV treatment and prevention clinical trials, and other research information for health care ...

  7. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... have been linked with HIV/AIDS since the beginning of the epidemic. Although injection drug use is ... transmitted between users. Other infections, such as hepatitis C, can also be spread this way. Hepatitis C ...

  8. Front end data link processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    It is possible to expand the data acquisition capabilities of an existing process computer to include other dedicated computer based systems, provided each system has at least minimal data link capabilities. The following paper discusses the addition of three computer based acquisition systems to a Honeywell 4500C (also designated the 45000) running the SEER system. Only one data link port was required to support the link. Each of the three specialized systems implemented data link protocols used by their suppliers in previous projects: none of the three were compatible with Honeywell's protocol. Part one of the following provides a generic overview of the project and would be relevent to the operator of any process system interested in expansion. Part two provides specific details of this project and may serve to provide performance benchmarks to those who wish to consider a similar project

  9. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... or transmitting HIV/AIDS or other infectious diseases. Research Reports: HIV/AIDS : Explores the link between drug misuse and HIV/AIDS, populations most at risk, trends in HIV/AIDS, and ...

  10. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... the main factors in the spread of HIV infection in the United States. Drugs can change the ... about the link between drug misuse and HIV infection. It contains information for young people, parents and ...

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Prevention Recovery Substance Use and SUDs in LGBT Populations Treatment Trends & Statistics Women and Drugs Publications Search ... the link between drug misuse and HIV/AIDS, populations most at risk, trends in HIV/AIDS, and ...

  12. EPA Linked Open Data (Collection)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a collection item referencing the following EPA Linked Data resources: - EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS) - EPA Substance Registry Service (SRS) -...

  13. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... events, and radio stations for helping to raise awareness of the link between non-injection drug use and HIV. Television Networks: MunDos Azteca America Univision Telemundo Galavision ...

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... educational institutions, magazines, newspapers, companies, events, and radio stations for helping to raise awareness of the link ... Poets Sistahs Getting Real About HIV Conference Radio Stations: WTOP Radio WPFW Radio WOL Radio News & Events ...

  15. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... people on HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy), for example, who continue to misuse drugs. The Learn the Link public service campaign is just one example of how NIDA continues to respond to the ...

  16. Analytic invariants of boundary links

    OpenAIRE

    Garoufalidis, Stavros; Levine, Jerome

    2001-01-01

    Using basic topology and linear algebra, we define a plethora of invariants of boundary links whose values are power series with noncommuting variables. These turn out to be useful and elementary reformulations of an invariant originally defined by M. Farber.

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Learn the Link campaign uses TV, print, and Web public service announcements (PSAs), as well as posters, e-cards, and other tools to send the message to America's youth that ...

  18. Medicare and Medicaid Linked Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare-Medicaid Linked Enrollee Analytic Data Source (MMLEADS) has been developed to allow for the examination of all Medicare and Medicaid enrollment and...

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Campaign Overview The Learn the Link campaign uses TV, print, and Web public service announcements (PSAs), as ... CW BET NBC ABC FOX LATV My Network TV Organizations: AIDS.gov AIDS Alliance for Children, Youth ...

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... among the main factors in the spread of HIV infection in the United States. Drugs can change the ... information about the link between drug misuse and HIV infection. It contains information for young people, parents and ...

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    Full Text Available ... Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and ... Link campaign. This campaign shows teens and young adults that non-injection drug use and alcohol use ...

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    Full Text Available ... works, disrupting the parts of the brain that people use to weigh risks and benefits when making ... and HIV infection. It contains information for young people, parents and teachers, and the media with links ...

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Drug & Alcohol Facts Week NIDA TV PEERx Drugs & Health Blog The NIDA Science Fair Award for Addiction Science USA Science & Engineering Festival Drug & Alcohol Chat Day HBO Addiction Project Learn the Link Videos NIDA ...

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    Full Text Available ... pictures from NIDA images. Visit the NIDA Flickr account for images. Share your favorite image! Check out ... your use to share on your social media accounts. About the Campaign Overview The Learn the Link ...

  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available Skip to main content En español Researchers Medical & Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube ...

  6. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... teens and young adults have never known a world without it. NIDA’s "Learn the Link" campaign continues ... drug misuse and HIV/AIDS. In the early years of the HIV epidemic, it became clear that ...

  7. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contracting or transmitting HIV/AIDS or other infectious diseases. Research Reports: HIV/AIDS : Explores the link between drug misuse and HIV/AIDS, populations most at risk, trends in HIV/AIDS, and ...

  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... En español Researchers Medical & Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook ... HIV infection. It contains information for young people, parents and teachers, and the media with links to ...

  9. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NIDA Science Fair Award for Addiction Science USA Science & Engineering Festival Drug & Alcohol Chat Day HBO Addiction Project Learn the Link Videos NIDA and Scholastic - Heads Up NIDA Media Campaign Postcards Public Service Announcements Other Government Observances ...

  10. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV ... the parts of the brain that people use to weigh risks and benefits when making decisions. This page connects you to information about the ...

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for breaking the harmful links between them, we will continue to update this Web site. Sincerely, Nora D. Volkow, M.D. ... require the free Adobe Reader . Microsoft PowerPoint documents require the free ...

  12. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Skip to main content En español Researchers Medical & Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu ...

  13. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the virus that causes AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). AIDS is a ... time. The virus (HIV) and the disease it causes (AIDS) are often linked and referred to as " ...

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... causes AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). AIDS is a disease of the immune system for which there ... causes (AIDS) are often linked and referred to as "HIV/AIDS." HIV can be transferred between people ...

  15. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... updates. Read on to Learn the Link between drug use and HIV and to help us Send the ... since the beginning of the epidemic. Although injection drug use is well known in this regard, the role ...

  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... It contains information for young people, parents and teachers, and the media with links to our latest ... through 15 (as well as their parents and teachers). It provides them with useful information on the ...

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Notes Podcasts E-Newsletters Public Education Projects National Drug & Alcohol Facts Week NIDA TV PEERx Drugs & Health Blog ... Award for Addiction Science USA Science & Engineering Festival Drug & Alcohol Chat Day HBO Addiction Project Learn the Link ...

  18. Differential expansion for link polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, C.; Jiang, J.; Liang, J.; Mironov, A.; Morozov, A.; Morozov, An.; Sleptsov, A.

    2018-03-01

    The differential expansion is one of the key structures reflecting group theory properties of colored knot polynomials, which also becomes an important tool for evaluation of non-trivial Racah matrices. This makes highly desirable its extension from knots to links, which, however, requires knowledge of the 6j-symbols, at least, for the simplest triples of non-coincident representations. Based on the recent achievements in this direction, we conjecture a shape of the differential expansion for symmetrically-colored links and provide a set of examples. Within this study, we use a special framing that is an unusual extension of the topological framing from knots to links. In the particular cases of Whitehead and Borromean rings links, the differential expansions are different from the previously discovered.

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can affect anyone. Watch the “d’cisions” Videos Campaign Materials After the Party Posters: We have developed ... share on your social media accounts. About the Campaign Overview The Learn the Link campaign uses TV, ...

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... En español Researchers Medical & Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube ...

  1. Protein Linked to Atopic Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters January 14, 2013 Protein Linked to Atopic Dermatitis Normal skin from a ... in mice suggests that lack of a certain protein may trigger atopic dermatitis, the most common type ...

  2. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... affect anyone. Watch the “d’cisions” Videos Campaign Materials After the Party Posters: We have developed posters ... the Learn the Link message. Campaign messages and materials were tested among various groups of young people, ...

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). AIDS is a disease of the immune system for which there is ... the present time. The virus (HIV) and the disease it causes (AIDS) are often linked and referred ...

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to-Read Drug Facts Web site describes the dangers of drug misuse and its link to HIV ... groups of young people, guiding the use of technology, the discussion between friends, and the importance of ...

  5. Linked data and user interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Cervone, H Frank

    2015-01-01

    This collection of research papers provides extensive information on deploying services, concepts, and approaches for using open linked data from libraries and other cultural heritage institutions. With a special emphasis on how libraries and other cultural heritage institutions can create effective end user interfaces using open, linked data or other datasets. These papers are essential reading for any one interesting in user interface design or the semantic web.

  6. Linking Ethics and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2012-01-01

    Hunt (2012) builds on his work concerning ethics and resource-advantage theory to link personal ethical standards, societal norms, and economic growth but offers few details concerning the precise mechanisms that link ethics and growth. This comment suggests a number of such mechanisms...... – for example, the influence of prevailing ethical norms on the aggregate elasticity of substitution and, therefore, total factor productivity and growth....

  7. Manual de LinkedIn

    OpenAIRE

    Blázquez Sevilla, Alegría; Borrás Gené, Oriol

    2016-01-01

    Manual básico sobre la red profesional LinkedIn, donde se analiza la red y se explica a fondo cómo crear un perfil y gestionarlo. Incluye información sobre las diferentes secciones características de la red LinkedIn y ofrece consejos para la correcta gestión de un perfil, buscando su mejor rendimiento.

  8. Links and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    , Anglo-Saxons and Vikings in Britain; and the Football museum in Preston plans to help local pupils with their literacy and numeracy skills by preparing newspaper reports and football results tables. In this role of supporting education the various bodies will be both helping teachers to deliver the curriculum and also bringing their own cultural resources to life for the students. On a related theme, the Royal Observatory at Greenwich has just introduced its own Open Museum course to prepare adults with an interest in astronomy to study for a GCSE in the subject. The course begins in October and lasts for nine months, covering topics such as the Earth and Moon, solar system, stars, galaxies and observing techniques. Those undertaking the course will be able to use the Observatory's 28 inch refractor and a Meade LX10 Schmidt Cassegrain telescope. Further information on the course and the Open Museum is available from Joy Affection (tel: 0181 312 6747) or from the NMM website at www.nmm.ac.uk.

  9. High speed radiation tolerant data links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, Forrest [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Incandela, Joseph [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This project was slated to design and develop Rad-Hard IP components for 1Gb/s links and supporting hardware designs such as PLL, SER/DES, pad drivers and receivers and custom protocol hardware for the 1Gb/s channel. Also included in the proposal was a study of a hardened memory to be used as a packet buffer for channel and data concentrator components to meet the 1 Gb/s specification. Over the course of the proposal, technology change and innovation of hardware designs lead us away from the 1 Gb/s goal to contemplate much higher performance link IP which, we believed better met the goals of physics experiments. Note that CERN microelectronics had managed to create a 4.7 Gb/s link designed to drive optical fibers and containing infrastructure for connecting much lower bandwidth front-end devices. Our own work to that point had shown the possibility of constructing a link with much lower power, lower physical overhead but of equivalent performance that could be designed to integrate directly onto the front-end ASIC (ADC and data encoding) designs. Substantial overall power savings and experimental simplicity could be achieved by eliminating data transmission to data concentrators and data concentrators and related hardened buffering themselves, with conversion to optical media at a removed distance from the experiment core. We had already developed and tested Rad-Hard SER/DES components (1Gb in 130nm standard cells) and redundant Pad Drivers/Receivers (3+ Gb/s designed and measured performance), and had a viable 1Gb/s link design based on redundant a stuttered clock receiver and classical PLL, so the basic goals of the proposal had been achieved. Below, in chronological order, are the products and tools we constructed, as well as our tests and publications.

  10. [Biophysical principles of collagen cross-linking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spörl, E; Raiskup-Wolf, F; Pillunat, L E

    2008-02-01

    The reduced mechanical stability of the cornea in keratoconus or in keratectasia after Lasik may be increased by photooxidative cross-linking of corneal collagen. The biophysical principles are compiled for the safe and effective application of this new treatment method. The setting of the therapy parameters should be elucidated from the absorption behaviour of the cornea. The safety of the method for the endothelium cells and the lens will be discussed. The induced cross-links are shown to be the result of changes in the physico-chemical properties of the cornea. To reach a high absorption of the irradiation energy in the cornea, riboflavin of a concentration of 0.1% and UV light of a wavelength of 370 nm, corresponding to the relative maximum of absorption of riboflavin, were used. An irradiance of 3 mW/cm(2) and an irradiation time of 30 min lead to an increase of the mechanical stiffness. The endothelium cells will be protected due to the high absorption within the cornea, that means the damaging threshold of the endothelium cells will not be reached in a 400 microm thick stroma. As evidence for cross-links we can consider the increase of the biomechanical stiffness, the increased resistance against enzymatic degradation, a higher shrinkage temperature, a lower swelling rate and an increased diameter of collagen fibres. The therapy parameters were tested experimentally and have been proven clinically in the corneal collagen cross-linking. These parameters should be respected to reach a safe cross-linking effect without damage of the adjacent tissues.

  11. Food restriction-induced changes in motivation differ with stages of the estrous cycle and are closely linked to RFamide-related peptide-3 but not kisspeptin in Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Noah A; Russo, Kim A; Brozek, Jeremy M; Andrews, Ryan J; Kim, Veronica J; Kriegsfeld, Lance J; Schneider, Jill E

    2017-06-15

    We tested the hypothesis that the effects of food restriction on behavioral motivation are mediated by one or both of the RFamide peptides, RFamide-related peptide-3 (RFRP-3) and kisspeptin (Kp) in female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Female hamsters fed ad libitum and given a choice between food and adult male hamsters are highly motivated to visit males instead of food on all four days of the estrous cycle, but after 8days of mild food restriction (75% of ad libitum intake) they shift their preference toward food every day of the estrous cycle until the day of estrus, when they shift their preference back toward the males. In support of a role for RFRP-3 in these behavioral changes, the preference for food and the activation of RFRP-3-immunoreactive (Ir) cells in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) showed the same estrous cycle pattern in food-restricted females, but no association was observed between behavior and the activation of Kp cells in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus or preoptic area. Next, we tested the hypothesis that food-restriction-induced activation of RFRP-3-Ir cells is modulated by high levels of ovarian steroids at the time of estrus. In support of this idea, on nonestrous days, mild food restriction increased activation of RFRP-3-Ir cells, but failed to do so on the day of estrus even though this level of food restriction did not significantly decrease circulating concentrations of estradiol or progesterone. Furthermore, in ovariectomized females, food-restriction-induced increases in activation of RFRP-3-Ir cells were blocked by systemic treatment with progesterone alone, estradiol plus progesterone, but not estradiol alone. Central infusion with RFRP-3 in ad libitum-fed females significantly decreased sexual motivation and produced significant increases in 90-minute food hoarding, in support of the hypothesis that elevated central levels of RFRP-3 are sufficient to create the shift in behavioral motivation in females fed ad libitum

  12. Linking algal growth inhibition to chemical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Stine N.; Mayer, Philipp

    Unitless chemical activity, expressing the energetic level of a compound relative to its energetic level in pure liquid [0-1], has proven useful to quantify the effective exposure to hydrophobic organic compounds through both aerial and aqueous media. Several studies have linked toxicity to chemi......Unitless chemical activity, expressing the energetic level of a compound relative to its energetic level in pure liquid [0-1], has proven useful to quantify the effective exposure to hydrophobic organic compounds through both aerial and aqueous media. Several studies have linked toxicity...... to chemical activity, as opposed to e.g. the total concentration. Baseline toxicity (narcosis) for neutral hydrophobic organic compounds has been shown to initiate in the narrow chemical activity range of 0.01 to 0.1. This presentation focuses on linking algal growth inhibition to chemical activity...... with the aims to (1) further challenge the current chemical activity range for baseline toxicity, and (2) extend the utilisation of the chemical activity concept across compounds and species. The first part of the presentation focuses on results from a recently published study, in which toxicity data for 39 non...

  13. LinkMind: link optimization in swarming mobile sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Trung Dung

    2011-01-01

    A swarming mobile sensor network is comprised of a swarm of wirelessly connected mobile robots equipped with various sensors. Such a network can be applied in an uncertain environment for services such as cooperative navigation and exploration, object identification and information gathering. One of the most advantageous properties of the swarming wireless sensor network is that mobile nodes can work cooperatively to organize an ad-hoc network and optimize the network link capacity to maximize the transmission of gathered data from a source to a target. This paper describes a new method of link optimization of swarming mobile sensor networks. The new method is based on combination of the artificial potential force guaranteeing connectivities of the mobile sensor nodes and the max-flow min-cut theorem of graph theory ensuring optimization of the network link capacity. The developed algorithm is demonstrated and evaluated in simulation.

  14. SetLink the CERN Document Server Link Manager

    CERN Document Server

    Le Meur, Jean-Yves

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyses the problems encountered by electronic libraries to cope with long term keeping of on-line documents. What is thebest solution not to fill in a library system with non persistent addresses ? Different possible solutions are studied, based on theexperience of the CERN Document Server and its library. This paper will stress the importance of using a Link Manager for any long term Web server. It will explain how the CERN SetLink Link Manager is designed to handle a wide range of document types and formats, from photos in JPEG to eprints in PDF. It will also focus onother possibilities offered by using such an application, like automatic figures extraction or concatenation, full text searching andon-the-fly format conversions.

  15. LinkMind: Link Optimization in Swarming Mobile Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung Dung Ngo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A swarming mobile sensor network is comprised of a swarm of wirelessly connected mobile robots equipped with various sensors. Such a network can be applied in an uncertain environment for services such as cooperative navigation and exploration, object identification and information gathering. One of the most advantageous properties of the swarming wireless sensor network is that mobile nodes can work cooperatively to organize an ad-hoc network and optimize the network link capacity to maximize the transmission of gathered data from a source to a target. This paper describes a new method of link optimization of swarming mobile sensor networks. The new method is based on combination of the artificial potential force guaranteeing connectivities of the mobile sensor nodes and the max-flow min-cut theorem of graph theory ensuring optimization of the network link capacity. The developed algorithm is demonstrated and evaluated in simulation.

  16. Links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Russo

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available La lista de enlaces ofrecida a continuación tiene como objetivo la creación de una base de datos sobre los principales sitios de interés para el estudio de la imagen (en America Latina y más allá. Se ha tratado de incluir una vasta gama de instituciones (museos, colecciones, institutos, representando sin embargo también a revistas, proyectos de investigación, y catálogos en línea. Sin tener la pretensión de ser exhaustiva, esta selección es evolutiva y se pone al día continuamente. MuseosI...

  17. Links

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Russo

    2006-01-01

    La lista de enlaces ofrecida a continuación tiene como objetivo la creación de una base de datos sobre los principales sitios de interés para el estudio de la imagen (en America Latina y más allá). Se ha tratado de incluir una vasta gama de instituciones (museos, colecciones, institutos), representando sin embargo también a revistas, proyectos de investigación, y catálogos en línea. Sin tener la pretensión de ser exhaustiva, esta selección es evolutiva y se pone al día continuamente. MuseosI...

  18. The Øresund Link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob Steen

    "Øresundsbron" is the combined bridge and tunnel connecting Denmark and Sweden adjacent to Copenhagen. Øresundsbron was built and is operated by a consortium owned jointly by the Danish and Swedish states. The Link was inaugurated 1 July 2000 by the Queen of Denmark and the King of Sweden. The 16......-km link across the Sound could potentially impact the water exchange between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, and the dredging activities during construction were a threat to the local marine environment. The public interest in the environmental issues together with a pro-active environmental policy...... conducted by the owner of the link constituted the basis for an innovative environmental management plan that resulted in zero impact on the water exchange and full compliance with authorities regulations regarding the local environment. The environmental management was based on integrated use...

  19. View relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Søren; Carpendale, Sheelagh

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the potential of using visual representations to support people in managing, organizing, and understanding relations between multiple visualization views. Multiple views can help people understand different facets of data and data processing, and are a crucial part of data...... analysis particularly when it is done collaboratively. Both the growing use of multiple views and the increasing display sizes have amplified the need to explore how to better help people to understand the relations between many views. To improve our understanding of how to visualize view relations, we...... invited visualization and interaction designers to critique and sketch representations of view relations. The participants provided design critiques, and sketched their own relation representations. Our findings expand the range and palette of ways of visually linking visualization views and suggest new...

  20. Test equating, scaling, and linking methods and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Kolen, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to test equating, scaling, and linking, including those concepts and practical issues that are critical for developers and all other testing professionals.  In addition to statistical procedures, successful equating, scaling, and linking involves many aspects of testing, including procedures to develop tests, to administer and score tests, and to interpret scores earned on tests. Test equating methods are used with many standardized tests in education and psychology to ensure that scores from multiple test forms can be used interchangeably.  Test scaling is the process of developing score scales that are used when scores on standardized tests are reported. In test linking, scores from two or more tests are related to one another. Linking has received much recent attention, due largely to investigations of linking similarly named tests from different test publishers or tests constructed for different purposes. In recent years, researchers from the education, psychology, and...

  1. Wireless communication link for capsule endoscope at 600 MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleghi, A; Balasingham, I

    2015-01-01

    Simulation of a wireless communication link for a capsule endoscopy is presented for monitoring of small intestine in humans. The realized communication link includes the transmitting capsule antenna, the outside body receiving antenna and the model of the human body. The capsule antenna is designed for operating at the frequency band of 600 MHz with an impedance bandwidth of 10 MHz and omnidirectional radiation pattern. The quality of the communication link is improved by using directive antenna outside body inside matching layer for electromagnetic wave tuning to the body. The outside body antenna has circular polarization that guaranteeing the communication link for different orientations of the capsule inside intestine. It is shown that the path loss for the capsule in 60 mm from the abdomen surface varies between 37-47 dB in relation to the antenna orientation. This link can establish high data rate wireless communications for capsule endoscopy.

  2. SKIP Is a Component of the Spliceosome Linking Alternative Splicing and the Circadian Clock in Arabidopsis[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxue; Wu, Fangming; Xie, Qiguang; Wang, Huamei; Wang, Ying; Yue, Yanling; Gahura, Ondrej; Ma, Shuangshuang; Liu, Lei; Cao, Ying; Jiao, Yuling; Puta, Frantisek; McClung, C. Robertson; Xu, Xiaodong; Ma, Ligeng

    2012-01-01

    Circadian clocks generate endogenous rhythms in most organisms from cyanobacteria to humans and facilitate entrainment to environmental diurnal cycles, thus conferring a fitness advantage. Both transcriptional and posttranslational mechanisms are prominent in the basic network architecture of circadian systems. Posttranscriptional regulation, including mRNA processing, is emerging as a critical step for clock function. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms linking RNA metabolism to the circadian clock network. Here, we report that a conserved SNW/Ski-interacting protein (SKIP) domain protein, SKIP, a splicing factor and component of the spliceosome, is involved in posttranscriptional regulation of circadian clock genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mutation in SKIP lengthens the circadian period in a temperature-sensitive manner and affects light input and the sensitivity of the clock to light resetting. SKIP physically interacts with the spliceosomal splicing factor Ser/Arg-rich protein45 and associates with the pre-mRNA of clock genes, such as PSEUDORESPONSE REGULATOR7 (PRR7) and PRR9, and is necessary for the regulation of their alternative splicing and mRNA maturation. Genome-wide investigations reveal that SKIP functions in regulating alternative splicing of many genes, presumably through modulating recognition or cleavage of 5′ and 3′ splice donor and acceptor sites. Our study addresses a fundamental question on how the mRNA splicing machinery contributes to circadian clock function at a posttranscriptional level. PMID:22942380

  3. Decouplink: Dynamic Links for Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Lykke Rytter; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2011-01-01

    Software entities should be open for extension, but closed to modification. Unfortunately, unanticipated requirements emerging during software evolution makes it difficult to always enforce this principle. This situation poses a dilemma that is particularly important when considering component...... of dimensions of extension that can be exploited without performing modification of existing types. Thus, dynamic links make it possible to enforce the open/closed principle in situations where it would otherwise not be possible. We present Decouplink – a library-based implementation of dynamic links for Java...

  4. Versatile Link PLUS transceiver development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soós, C.; Détraz, S.; Olanterä, L.; Sigaud, C.; Troska, J.; Vasey, F.; Zeiler, M.

    2017-01-01

    The Versatile Link PLUS project targets the phase II upgrades of the ATLAS and CMS experiments. It will develop a radiation resistant optical link, operating at up to 10 Gb/s in the upstream and up to 5 Gb/s in the downstream directions with a smaller footprint and higher channel count than its predecessor. A low-profile package is being developed that allows volume production at reduced costs, but which nevertheless can be configured to suit the individual channel count needs of different detectors. This paper describes the development strategies and summarizes the status of the feasibility demonstration phase of the project.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked agammaglobulinemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions X-linked agammaglobulinemia X-linked agammaglobulinemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a condition that affects the immune ...

  6. micromap: A Package for Linked Micromaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    The R package micromap is used to create linked micromaps, which display statistical summaries associated with areal units, or polygons. Linked micromaps provide a means to simultaneously summarize and display both statistical and geographic distributions by linking statistical ...

  7. Linked lives : Young adults’ life course and relations with parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucx, A.J.E.H.

    2009-01-01

    The focal point of this dissertation is the middle phase of the parent-child relationship. During this phase children are in young adulthood (roughly 18 to 35 years of age) and parents are in early old age (roughly 50 to 75 years of age). The phase of young adulthood marks the transition from the

  8. Links related to the Western Lake Erie Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Lake Erie Basin, near Toledo (Ohio) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts

  9. A bibliographic study on entity linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Habib Bechelane Maia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Linking Entities (LE is an important research topic that has recently attracted great attention from researchers. In the LE tasks, textual mentions found in natural language are linked to their corresponding entry in a knowledge database. This task is challenging due to problems such as name variation, entity ambiguity, or because the entity mentioned may not exist in the knowledge database. Goals: To present the problems related to LE, its typical applications, as well as to synthesize their main approaches in the context of concept linkage. Methodology: Survey research with the current literature, for a detailed description of the state of the art of the approaches in LE, as well as for the systematization and categorization of the identified approaches. Results: Most of the studies in LE divide this process into two stages: recognition and linking of entities. However, new proposals have unified these steps into a single process. Conclusion: Although more complex, the new LE approaches allow us to capture the dependence between Entity Liaison and Entity Recognition decisions, minimizing errors and inconsistencies. Evaluations should occur in unified databases, considering the difficulty of comparing different database results due to the influence they have on testing outputs.

  10. Arthritis and X-linked agammaglobulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Pedro; Santos, Alexandra; Faria, Emília; Silva, Jorge; Malcata, Armando; Chieira, Celso

    2008-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies are defined as genetically determined functional and/or quantitative abnormalities in one or more of the components of the immune system. Immunodeficiency and arthritis can be related, although the mechanisms are not always clear. Different causes for immunodeficiency can secondarily be found in patients with arthritis; on the other hand, arthritis can be a manifestation of primary immunodeficiency. Arthritis occurs chiefly in humoral primary immunodeficiencies, namely in X-linked agammaglobulinemia and common variable immunodeficiency, and may be one of the warning signs for primary immunodeficiency. We report a case of arthritis as the presenting feature of X-linked agammaglobulinemia. In X-linked agammaglobulinemia, arthritis may be a consequence of infection, most notably by Mycoplasma, or of immune dysfunction itself. In children, and occasionally in young adults, a combination of arthritis and hypogammaglobulinemia should suggest primary immunodeficiency, although other causes of hypogammaglobulinemia must be excluded. Physicians evaluating patients with arthritis should be aware of this fact so that an early diagnosis can be pursued as it is of extreme importance in the optimal management and prognosis of these patients.

  11. Predicting Hidden Links in Supply Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Brintrup

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing companies often lack visibility of the procurement interdependencies between the suppliers within their supply network. However, knowledge of these interdependencies is useful to plan for potential operational disruptions. In this paper, we develop the Supply Network Link Predictor (SNLP method to infer supplier interdependencies using the manufacturer’s incomplete knowledge of the network. SNLP uses topological data to extract relational features from the known network to train a classifier for predicting potential links. Using a test case from the automotive industry, four features are extracted: (i number of existing supplier links, (ii overlaps between supplier product portfolios, (iii product outsourcing associations, and (iv likelihood of buyers purchasing from two suppliers together. Naïve Bayes and Logistic Regression are then employed to predict whether these features can help predict interdependencies between two suppliers. Our results show that these features can indeed be used to predict interdependencies in the network and that predictive accuracy is maximised by (i and (iii. The findings give rise to the exciting possibility of using data analytics for improving supply chain visibility. We then proceed to discuss to what extent such approaches can be adopted and their limitations, highlighting next steps for future work in this area.

  12. The intersubjective links in perversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiguer, Alberto

    2007-10-01

    The author studies the intersubjective links which the pervert maintains with analyst or partner, attempting to indicate the differences between the investments in each case. Rather than accepting that empathy towards these patients is impossible to achieve and disturbs the countertransference profoundly, it attempts to show that these difficulties may be overcome if they are reinterpreted in the light of the theory of the intersubjective link. The author examines the theories and the practice of intersubjectivity and gives a definition of his approach to the link between two subjects. He applies these ideas to the case of a sexually masochistic female patient. The countertransference is marked successively by indifference, rejection and smothering. The analysis of the analyst's dream allows the situation to evolve. Failures in primary identification can result in domination over others and utilitarianism. The author examines the place of the challenge to the 'Law' and the father (in the attempt by the patient to put a theory to the test) in order to identify the figure of the witness in the pervert's intersubjective links. The desire of the transference would be marked by the figure of the witness rather than by that of the analyst as accomplice.

  13. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... drug injection paraphernalia—HIV can be transmitted between users. Other infections, such as hepatitis C, can also ... at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/public-education-projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 ...

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV/AIDS, and the general public. U.S. National Library of Medicine HIV/AIDS Information : Specialized Information Services. ... at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/public-education-projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 ...

  15. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Science & Engineering Festival Drug & Alcohol Chat Day HBO Addiction Project Learn the Link Videos NIDA and Scholastic - Heads Up NIDA Media Campaign Postcards Public Service Announcements Other Government Observances for Substance Abuse Education Contact the Press Office Meetings & Events Media Guide ...

  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Send the Message . Get the Facts What are HIV and AIDS? HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the virus that ... AIDS) are often linked and referred to as "HIV/AIDS." HIV can be transferred between people if an ...

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in recent years, HIV is no longer a death sentence, as it was when the epidemic began. ... at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/public-education-projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 ...

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