WorldWideScience

Sample records for reset related links

  1. Quantum reversibility is relative, or does a quantum measurement reset initial conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, Wojciech H

    2018-07-13

    I compare the role of the information in classical and quantum dynamics by examining the relation between information flows in measurements and the ability of observers to reverse evolutions. I show that in the Newtonian dynamics reversibility is unaffected by the observer's retention of the information about the measurement outcome. By contrast-even though quantum dynamics is unitary, hence, reversible-reversing quantum evolution that led to a measurement becomes, in principle, impossible for an observer who keeps the record of its outcome. Thus, quantum irreversibility can result from the information gain rather than just its loss-rather than just an increase of the (von Neumann) entropy. Recording of the outcome of the measurement resets, in effect, initial conditions within the observer's (branch of) the Universe. Nevertheless, I also show that the observer's friend-an agent who knows what measurement was successfully carried out and can confirm that the observer knows the outcome but resists his curiosity and does not find out the result-can, in principle, undo the measurement. This relativity of quantum reversibility sheds new light on the origin of the arrow of time and elucidates the role of information in classical and quantum physics. Quantum discord appears as a natural measure of the extent to which dissemination of information about the outcome affects the ability to reverse the measurement.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Foundations of quantum mechanics and their impact on contemporary society'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  2. Reset Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Baños, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Reset Control Systems addresses the analysis for reset control treating both its basic form which requires only that the state of the controller be reinitialized to zero (the reset action) each time the tracking error crosses zero (the reset condition), and some useful variations of the reset action (partial reset with fixed or variable reset percentage) and of the reset condition (fixed or variable reset band and anticipative reset). The issues regarding reset control – concepts and motivation; analysis tools; and the application of design methodologies to real-world examples – are given comprehensive coverage. The text opens with an historical perspective which moves from the seminal work of the Clegg integrator and Horowitz FORE to more recent approaches based on impulsive/hybrid control systems and explains the motivation for reset compensation. Preliminary material dealing with notation, basic definitions and results, and with the definition of the control problem under study is also included. The fo...

  3. METODE RESET PASSWORD LEVEL ROOT PADA RELATIONAL DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (RDBMS MySQL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taqwa Hariguna

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Database merupakan sebuah hal yang penting untuk menyimpan data, dengan database organisasi akan mendapatkan keuntungan dalam beberapa hal, seperti kecepatan akases dan mengurangi penggunaan kertas, namun dengan implementasi database tidak jarang administrator database lupa akan password yang digunakan, hal ini akan mempersulit dalam proses penangganan database. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menggali cara mereset password level root pada relational database management system MySQL.

  4. Converting the reset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.K. Hoogland (Jiri); C.D.D. Neumann; D. Bloch

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe give a simple algorithm to incorporate the effects of resets in convertible bond prices, without having to add an extra factor to take into account the value of the reset. Furthermore we show that the effect of a notice period, and additional make-whole features, can be treated in a

  5. Resetting dynamic behaviour of pipework systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudin, M.

    1997-01-01

    Resetting models is applied to electricity generating plant pipework systems. A frequency approach to the problem is made in an original way thanks to the use of precise dynamic rigidity matrices. The method assumes two kinds of unknown: the usually processed mechanical characteristics (Young's Modulus, density etc.) and new resetting parameters acting on the dynamic behaviour of unknown connections. As the latter have a very wide range of possible variation, they benefit from a change of variable which allows the assumptions formulated to be complied with. The minimized cost function is based on a error in load. The frequencies required for building it are automatically selected thanks to different tests on measurements. Minimization uses a sensitivity technique linked with a method of least standard squares. The method has been programmed in Fortran 90 within the CIRCUS code and tried out on various examples which were simulated and sound effects cases as well as an actual case. (author)

  6. Self-Service Password Reset

    CERN Multimedia

    IT department

    2011-01-01

    Forgotten your password? Throughout the year, one of the most common requests to the Service Desk concerns password resets.  This is especially the case now that we are at the end of the holiday season and many of us return after a long break. Currently, the only way to have your password reset is to call the Service Desk during the week and within the service hours (07:30 to 18:30). Not anymore!   The IT department is putting up a new service that will allow you to reset the password of your primary CERN account by yourself. Note, that you will still be able to request a password reset by calling the Service Desk as usual and that you will still have to do this if your account has been blocked for any reason.  However, the new service provides you with more flexibility and convenience when your memory has failed you. In order to take advantage of this new service, you must:   • Have a valid, active account   • Register in advance an external...

  7. Reduction rules for reset/inhibitor nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, H.M.W.; Wynn, M.T.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Hofstede, ter A.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Reset/inhibitor nets are Petri nets extended with reset arcs and inhibitor arcs. These extensions can be used to model cancellation and blocking. A reset arc allows a transition to remove all tokens from a certain place when the transition fires. An inhibitor arc can stop a transition from being

  8. Effects of Linear Falling Ramp Reset Pulse on Addressing Operation in AC PDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zujun; Liang Zhihu; Liu Chunliang; Meng Lingguo

    2006-01-01

    The effects of linear falling ramp reset pulse related to addressing operation in an alternating current plasma display panel (AC PDP) were studied. The wall charge waveforms were measured by the electrode balance method in a 12-inch coplanar AC PDP. The wall charge waveforms show the relationship between the slope ratio of the falling ramp reset pulse and the wall charges at the end of the falling ramp reset pulse which influences the addressing stability. Then the effects of the slope ratio of the linear falling ramp reset pulse on the addressing voltage and addressing time were investigated. The experimental results show that the minimum addressing voltage increases with the increase of the slope ratio of the falling ramp reset pulse, and so does the minimum addressing time. Based on the experimental results, the optimization of the addressing time and the slope ratio of the falling ramp pulse is discussed

  9. Acoustic Coordinated Reset Neuromodulation in a Real Life Patient Population with Chronic Tonal Tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, Christian; Ströbel, Armin; Williams, Mark; Patel, Nitesh; Wurzer, Hannes; von Stackelberg, Tatjana; Brinkmann, Uwe; Langguth, Berthold; Tass, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Primary tinnitus has a severe negative influence on the quality of life of a significant portion of the general population. Acoustic coordinated reset neuromodulation is designed to induce a long-lasting reduction of tinnitus symptoms. To test acoustic coordinated reset neuromodulation as a treatment for chronic, tonal tinnitus under real life conditions, an outpatient study “RESET Real Life” was commissioned by ANM GmbH. Herein we present the results of this study. Methods. In a prospective, open-label, nonrandomized, noncontrolled multicenter clinical study with 200 chronic tinnitus patients, tinnitus questionnaire TBF-12 and Global Clinical Improvement-Impression Scale (CGI-I7) are used to study the safety and efficacy of acoustic coordinated reset neuromodulation. 189 patients completed the last 12-month visit, 11 patients dropped out (8 because of nontreatment related reasons; 2 because tinnitus did not change; and 1 because tinnitus got louder). Results. Acoustic coordinated reset neuromodulation caused a statistically and clinically significant decrease in TBF-12 scores as well as in CGI-I7 after 12 months of therapy under real life conditions. There were no persistent adverse events reported that were related to the therapy. Conclusion. The field study “RESET Real Life” provides evidence for safety and efficacy of acoustic coordinated reset neuromodulation in a prospective, open-label, real life setting. PMID:26568958

  10. Desynchronizing electrical and sensory coordinated reset neuromodulation

    OpenAIRE

    Popovych, Oleksandr V.; Tass, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    Coordinated reset (CR) stimulation is a desynchronizing stimulation technique based on timely coordinated phase resets of sub-populations of a synchronized neuronal ensemble. It has initially been computationally developed for electrical deep brain stimulation (DBS), to enable an effective desynchronization and unlearning of pathological synchrony and connectivity (anti-kindling). Here we computationally show for ensembles of spiking and bursting model neurons interacting via excitatory and i...

  11. Desynchronizing Electrical and Sensory Coordinated Reset Neuromodulation

    OpenAIRE

    Oleksandr V. Popovych; Peter A. Tass; Peter A. Tass

    2012-01-01

    Coordinated reset (CR) stimulation is a desynchronizing stimulation technique based on timely coordinated phase resets of sub-populations of a synchronized neuronal ensemble. It has initially been computationally developed for electrical deep brain stimulation (DBS),to enable an effective desynchronization and unlearning of pathological synchrony and connectivity (anti-kindling). Here we computationally show for ensembles of spiking and bursting model neurons interacting via excitatory and in...

  12. 39 CFR 501.15 - Computerized Meter Resetting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computerized Meter Resetting System. 501.15... AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.15 Computerized Meter Resetting System. (a) Description. The Computerized Meter Resetting System (CMRS) permits customers to reset their postage meters at...

  13. FPS camera sync and reset chassis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, G.J.

    1980-06-01

    The sync and reset chassis provides all the circuitry required to synchronize an event to be studied, a remote free-running focus projection and scanning (FPS) data-acquisition TV camera, and a video signal recording system. The functions, design, and operation of this chassis are described in detail

  14. Recensie "The Great Reset" : Richard Florida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy van Dalm

    2010-01-01

    Like the Great Depression and the Long Depression before it, experts have viewed prolonged economic downturns as crises. In The Great Reset , bestselling author Richard Florida argues that we should instead see the recent recession as an opportunity to create entirely new ways of working and living

  15. Reset Tree-Based Optical Fault Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howon Kim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new reset tree-based scheme to protect cryptographic hardware against optical fault injection attacks. As one of the most powerful invasive attacks on cryptographic hardware, optical fault attacks cause semiconductors to misbehave by injecting high-energy light into a decapped integrated circuit. The contaminated result from the affected chip is then used to reveal secret information, such as a key, from the cryptographic hardware. Since the advent of such attacks, various countermeasures have been proposed. Although most of these countermeasures are strong, there is still the possibility of attack. In this paper, we present a novel optical fault detection scheme that utilizes the buffers on a circuit’s reset signal tree as a fault detection sensor. To evaluate our proposal, we model radiation-induced currents into circuit components and perform a SPICE simulation. The proposed scheme is expected to be used as a supplemental security tool.

  16. Wave Pipelining Using Self Reset Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel E. Litvin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a novel design approach combining wave pipelining and self reset logic, which provides an elegant solution at high-speed data throughput with significant savings in power and area as compared with other dynamic CMOS logic implementations. To overcome some limitations in SRL art, we employ a new SRL family, namely, dual-rail self reset logic with input disable (DRSRL-ID. These gates depict fairly constant timing parameters, specially the width of the output pulse, for varying fan-out and logic depth, helping accommodate process, supply voltage, and temperature variations (PVT. These properties simplify the implementation of wave pipelined circuits. General timing analysis is provided and compared with previous implementations. Results of circuit implementation are presented together with conclusions and future work.

  17. Desynchronizing electrical and sensory coordinated reset neuromodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovych, Oleksandr V; Tass, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    Coordinated reset (CR) stimulation is a desynchronizing stimulation technique based on timely coordinated phase resets of sub-populations of a synchronized neuronal ensemble. It has initially been computationally developed for electrical deep brain stimulation (DBS), to enable an effective desynchronization and unlearning of pathological synchrony and connectivity (anti-kindling). Here we computationally show for ensembles of spiking and bursting model neurons interacting via excitatory and inhibitory adaptive synapses that a phase reset of neuronal populations as well as a desynchronization and an anti-kindling can robustly be achieved by direct electrical stimulation or indirect (synaptically-mediated) excitatory and inhibitory stimulation. Our findings are relevant for DBS as well as for sensory stimulation in neurological disorders characterized by pathological neuronal synchrony. Based on the obtained results, we may expect that the local effects in the vicinity of a depth electrode (realized by direct stimulation of the neurons' somata or stimulation of axon terminals) and the non-local CR effects (realized by stimulation of excitatory or inhibitory efferent fibers) of deep brain CR neuromodulation may be similar or even identical. Furthermore, our results indicate that an effective desynchronization and anti-kindling can even be achieved by non-invasive, sensory CR neuromodulation. We discuss the concept of sensory CR neuromodulation in the context of neurological disorders.

  18. Desynchronizing Electrical and Sensory Coordinated Reset Neuromodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr V. Popovych

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Coordinated reset (CR stimulation is a desynchronizing stimulation technique based on timely coordinated phase resets of sub-populations of a synchronized neuronal ensemble. It has initially been computationally developed for electrical deep brain stimulation (DBS,to enable an effective desynchronization and unlearning of pathological synchrony and connectivity (anti-kindling. Here we computationally show for ensembles of spiking and bursting model neurons interacting via excitatory and inhibitory adaptive synapses that a phase reset of neuronal populations as well as a desynchronization and an anti-kindling can robustly be achieved by direct electrical stimulation or indirect (synaptically-mediated excitatory and inhibitory stimulation.Our findings are relevant for DBS as well as for sensory stimulation in neurological disorders characterized by pathological neuronalsynchrony. Based on the obtained results, we may expect that the local effects in the vicinity of a depth electrode (realized by direct stimulation of the neurons' somata or stimulation of axon terminals and the non-local CR effects (realized by stimulation of excitatory or inhibitory efferent fibers of deep brain CR neuromodulation may be similar or even identical. Furthermore, ourresults indicate that an effective desynchronization and anti-kindlingcan even be achieved by non-invasive, sensory CR neuromodulation. We discuss the concept of sensory CR neuromodulation in the context of neurological disorders.

  19. Impaired theta phase-resetting underlying auditory N1 suppression in chronic alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentemilla, Lluis; Marco-Pallarés, Josep; Gual, Antoni; Escera, Carles; Polo, Maria Dolores; Grau, Carles

    2009-02-18

    It has been suggested that chronic alcoholism may lead to altered neural mechanisms related to inhibitory processes. Here, we studied auditory N1 suppression phenomena (i.e. amplitude reduction with repetitive stimuli) in chronic alcoholic patients as an early-stage information-processing brain function involving inhibition by the analysis of the N1 event-related potential and time-frequency computation (spectral power and phase-resetting). Our results showed enhanced neural theta oscillatory phase-resetting underlying N1 generation in suppressed N1 event-related potential. The present findings suggest that chronic alcoholism alters neural oscillatory synchrony dynamics at very early stages of information processing.

  20. Routes to Chaos Induced by a Discontinuous Resetting Process in a Hybrid Spiking Neuron Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobukawa, Sou; Nishimura, Haruhiko; Yamanishi, Teruya

    2018-01-10

    Several hybrid spiking neuron models combining continuous spike generation mechanisms and discontinuous resetting processes following spiking have been proposed. The Izhikevich neuron model, for example, can reproduce many spiking patterns. This model clearly possesses various types of bifurcations and routes to chaos under the effect of a state-dependent jump in the resetting process. In this study, we focus further on the relation between chaotic behaviour and the state-dependent jump, approaching the subject by comparing spiking neuron model versions with and without the resetting process. We first adopt a continuous two-dimensional spiking neuron model in which the orbit in the spiking state does not exhibit divergent behaviour. We then insert the resetting process into the model. An evaluation using the Lyapunov exponent with a saltation matrix and a characteristic multiplier of the Poincar'e map reveals that two types of chaotic behaviour (i.e. bursting chaotic spikes and near-period-two chaotic spikes) are induced by the resetting process. In addition, we confirm that this chaotic bursting state is generated from the periodic spiking state because of the slow- and fast-scale dynamics that arise when jumping to the hyperpolarization and depolarization regions, respectively.

  1. Can glacial shearing of sediment reset the signal used for luminescence dating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Mark D.; Swift, Darrel A.; Piotrowski, Jan A.; Rhodes, Edward J.; Damsgaard, Anders

    2018-04-01

    Understanding the geomorphology left by waxing and waning of former glaciers and ice sheets during the late Quaternary has been the focus of much research. This has been hampered by the difficulty in dating such features. Luminescence has the potential to be applied to glacial sediments but requires signal resetting prior to burial in order to provide accurate ages. This paper explores the possibility that, rather than relying on light to reset the luminescence signal, glacial processes underneath ice might cause resetting. Experiments were conducted on a ring-shear machine set up to replicate subglacial conditions and simulate the shearing that can occur within subglacial sediments. Luminescence measurement at the single grain level indicates that a number (albeit small) of zero-dosed grains were produced and that these increased in abundance with distance travelled within the shearing zone. Observed changes in grain shape characteristics with increasing shear distance indicate the presence of localised high pressure grain-to-grain stresses caused by grain bridges. This appears to explain why some grains became zeroed whilst others retained their palaeodose. Based on the observed experimental trend, it is thought that localised grain stress is a viable luminescence resetting mechanism. As such relatively short shearing distances might be sufficient to reset a small proportion of the luminescence signal within subglacial sediments. Dating of previously avoided subglacial sediments may therefore be possible.

  2. Effects of ramp reset pulses on the address discharge in a shadow mask plasma display panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lanlan; Tu Yan; Zhang Xiong; Jiang Youyan; Zhang Jian; Wang Baoping

    2007-01-01

    A two-dimensional self-consistent numerical simulation model is used to analyse the effects of the ramp reset pulses on the address discharge in a shadow mask plasma display panel (SM-PDP). Some basic parameters such as the slope of the ramp pulse and the terminal voltage of the ramp reset period are varied to investigate their effects. The simulation results illustrate that the wall voltage is mainly decided by the terminal voltage and the firing voltage at the end of the ramp reset period. Moreover, the variation of the ramp slope will also bring a few modifications to the wall voltage. The priming particles in the beginning of the addressing period are related to the slope of the ramping down voltage pulse. The simulation results can help us optimize the driving scheme of the SM-PDP

  3. Change in the CERN account password reset procedure

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2008-01-01

    From Since 19 August 19th 2008, the security of the CERN account password reset procedure has been strengthened. As a result, users requesting to have their password reset by the Computing Helpdesk will be asked to provide some private personal information prior to resetting their CERN account password. Please note that all relevant information about the CERN account and password can be found at http://cern.ch/it-dep/AccountsandpasswordsatCERN.htm Thank you in advance for your cooperation. IT Department

  4. Change in the CERN account password reset procedure

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2008-01-01

    Since 19 August 2008, the security of the CERN account password reset procedure has been strengthened. As a result, users asking to have their password reset by the Computing Helpdesk will be asked to provide some personal information prior to resetting their CERN account password. Please note that all relevant information about CERN accounts and passwords can be found at http://cern.ch/it-dep/AccountsandpasswordsatCERN.htm Thank you in advance for your cooperation. IT Department

  5. Quantum memory Write, read and reset

    CERN Document Server

    Wu Tai Tsun; Wu, Tai Tsun; Yu, Ming Lun

    2002-01-01

    A model is presented for the quantum memory, the content of which is a pure quantum state. In this model, the fundamental operations of writing on, reading, and resetting the memory are performed through scattering from the memory. The requirement that the quantum memory must remain in a pure state after scattering implies that the scattering is of a special type, and only certain incident waves are admissible. An example, based on the Fermi pseudo-potential in one dimension, is used to demonstrate that the requirements on the scattering process are consistent and can be satisfied. This model is compared with the commonly used model for the quantum memory; the most important difference is that the spatial dimensions and interference play a central role in the present model.

  6. Prospective Links between Social Anxiety and Adolescent Peer Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillfors, Maria; Persson, Stefan; Willen, Maria; Burk, William J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines bi-directional links between social anxiety and multiple aspects of peer relations (peer acceptance, peer victimization, and relationship quality) in a longitudinal sample of 1528 adolescents assessed twice with one year between (754 females and 774 males; M = 14.7 years of age). Lower levels of peer acceptance predicted…

  7. Resetting dynamic behaviour of pipework systems; Recalage du comportement dynamique des reseaux de tuyauteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudin, M [Electricite de France (EDF), Direction des Etudes et Recherches, 92 - Clamart (France)

    1998-12-31

    Resetting models is applied to electricity generating plant pipework systems. A frequency approach to the problem is made in an original way thanks to the use of precise dynamic rigidity matrices. The method assumes two kinds of unknown: the usually processed mechanical characteristics (Young`s Modulus, density etc.) and new resetting parameters acting on the dynamic behaviour of unknown connections. As the latter have a very wide range of possible variation, they benefit from a change of variable which allows the assumptions formulated to be complied with. The minimized cost function is based on a error in load. The frequencies required for building it are automatically selected thanks to different tests on measurements. Minimization uses a sensitivity technique linked with a method of least standard squares. The method has been programmed in Fortran 90 within the CIRCUS code and tried out on various examples which were simulated and sound effects cases as well as an actual case. (author). 128 refs.

  8. Resetting dynamic behaviour of pipework systems; Recalage du comportement dynamique des reseaux de tuyauteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudin, M. [Electricite de France (EDF), Direction des Etudes et Recherches, 92 - Clamart (France)

    1997-12-31

    Resetting models is applied to electricity generating plant pipework systems. A frequency approach to the problem is made in an original way thanks to the use of precise dynamic rigidity matrices. The method assumes two kinds of unknown: the usually processed mechanical characteristics (Young`s Modulus, density etc.) and new resetting parameters acting on the dynamic behaviour of unknown connections. As the latter have a very wide range of possible variation, they benefit from a change of variable which allows the assumptions formulated to be complied with. The minimized cost function is based on a error in load. The frequencies required for building it are automatically selected thanks to different tests on measurements. Minimization uses a sensitivity technique linked with a method of least standard squares. The method has been programmed in Fortran 90 within the CIRCUS code and tried out on various examples which were simulated and sound effects cases as well as an actual case. (author). 128 refs.

  9. A study of reset mode in advanced alarm system simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yenn, T. C.; Hwang, S. L.; Huang, F. H.; Yu, A. C.; Hsu, C. C.; Huang, H. W.

    2006-01-01

    An automation function has been widely applied in main control room of nuclear power plants. That leads to a new issue of human-automation interaction, which considers human operational performance in automated systems. In this research is the automation alarm reset in the advanced alarm system (AAS) of Advanced Nuclear Power Plant in Taiwan. Since alarms are very crucial for the understanding of the status of the plant as well as the reset function of alarm system will be changed from fully manual to fully automatic, it is very important to test and evaluate the performance and the effect of reset modes in AAS. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact of the auto-reset alarm system on the plant performance and on operators' preference and task load. To develop a dynamic simulator as an AAS was conducted to compare manual and automatic reset function of alarm system on task performance and subjective ratings of task workload, comprehension, and preference. The simulation includes PCTRAN model and alarm software processing. The final results revealed that, using the auto-reset mode, participants had lower task load index (TLX) on effort in the first test trial and was more satisfied in multiple tasks condition. In contrast, using manual reset mode, participants were more satisfied on alarm handling, monitoring, and decision making. In other words, either reset mode in the study has unique features to assist operator, but is insufficient. The reset function in AAS therefore should be very flexible. Additionally, the experimental results also pointed out that the user interfaces need to be improved. Those experiences will be helpful for human factors verification and validation in the near future. (authors)

  10. Well-Posedness of Reset Control Systems as State-Dependent Impulsive Dynamical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Baños

    2012-01-01

    existence and uniqueness of solutions, and in particular to the resetting times to be well defined and distinct. A sufficient condition is developed for a reset system to have well-posed resetting times, which is also a sufficient condition for avoiding Zeno solutions and, thus, for a reset control system to be well-posed.

  11. Defense Logistics: Army and Marine Corps Cannot Be Assured That Equipment Reset Strategies Will Sustain Equipment Availability While Meeting Ongoing Operational Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Solis, William M; Schmitt, David A; Brown, Renee; Cristinzio, Frank; Hartig, Luke; Helt, Brent; Rogers, Donna M; Song, Yong; Storts, Maria

    2007-01-01

    .... Because of the potential for equipment reset costs to affect the Department of Defense's (DoD) future budget requirements and related readiness concerns, GAO initiated this review under the Comptroller General's authority...

  12. Transistor reset preamplifier for high-rate high-resolution spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landis, D.A.; Cork, C.P.; Madden, N.W.; Goulding, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Pulsed transistor reset of high resolution charge sensitive preamplifiers used in cooled semiconductor spectrometers can sometimes have an advantage over pulsed light reset systems. Several versions of transistor reset spectrometers using both silicon and germanium detectors have been built. This paper discusses the advantages of the transistor reset system and illustrates several configurations of the packages used for the FET and reset transistor. It also describes the preamplifer circuit and shows the performance of the spectrometer at high rates

  13. Cortical dynamics of feature binding and reset: control of visual persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, G; Grossberg, S; Mingolla, E

    1994-04-01

    An analysis of the reset of visual cortical circuits responsible for the binding or segmentation of visual features into coherent visual forms yields a model that explains properties of visual persistence. The reset mechanisms prevent massive smearing of visual percepts in response to rapidly moving images. The model simulates relationships among psychophysical data showing inverse relations of persistence to flash luminance and duration, greater persistence of illusory contours than real contours, a U-shaped temporal function for persistence of illusory contours, a reduction of persistence due to adaptation with a stimulus of like orientation, an increase of persistence with spatial separation of a masking stimulus. The model suggests that a combination of habituative, opponent, and endstopping mechanisms prevent smearing and limit persistence. Earlier work with the model has analyzed data about boundary formation, texture segregation, shape-from-shading, and figure-ground separation. Thus, several types of data support each model mechanism and new predictions are made.

  14. LORETA EEG phase reset of the default mode network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Robert W; North, Duane M; Biver, Carl J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore phase reset of 3-dimensional current sources in Brodmann areas located in the human default mode network (DMN) using Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) of the human electroencephalogram (EEG). The EEG was recorded from 19 scalp locations from 70 healthy normal subjects ranging in age from 13 to 20 years. A time point by time point computation of LORETA current sources were computed for 14 Brodmann areas comprising the DMN in the delta frequency band. The Hilbert transform of the LORETA time series was used to compute the instantaneous phase differences between all pairs of Brodmann areas. Phase shift and lock durations were calculated based on the 1st and 2nd derivatives of the time series of phase differences. Phase shift duration exhibited three discrete modes at approximately: (1) 25 ms, (2) 50 ms, and (3) 65 ms. Phase lock duration present primarily at: (1) 300-350 ms and (2) 350-450 ms. Phase shift and lock durations were inversely related and exhibited an exponential change with distance between Brodmann areas. The results are explained by local neural packing density of network hubs and an exponential decrease in connections with distance from a hub. The results are consistent with a discrete temporal model of brain function where anatomical hubs behave like a "shutter" that opens and closes at specific durations as nodes of a network giving rise to temporarily phase locked clusters of neurons for specific durations.

  15. EEG phase reset due to auditory attention: an inverse time-scale approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, Yin Fen; Strauss, Daniel J

    2009-01-01

    We propose a novel tool to evaluate the electroencephalograph (EEG) phase reset due to auditory attention by utilizing an inverse analysis of the instantaneous phase for the first time. EEGs were acquired through auditory attention experiments with a maximum entropy stimulation paradigm. We examined single sweeps of auditory late response (ALR) with the complex continuous wavelet transform. The phase in the frequency band that is associated with auditory attention (6–10 Hz, termed as theta–alpha border) was reset to the mean phase of the averaged EEGs. The inverse transform was applied to reconstruct the phase-modified signal. We found significant enhancement of the N100 wave in the reconstructed signal. Analysis of the phase noise shows the effects of phase jittering on the generation of the N100 wave implying that a preferred phase is necessary to generate the event-related potential (ERP). Power spectrum analysis shows a remarkable increase of evoked power but little change of total power after stabilizing the phase of EEGs. Furthermore, by resetting the phase only at the theta border of no attention data to the mean phase of attention data yields a result that resembles attention data. These results show strong connections between EEGs and ERP, in particular, we suggest that the presentation of an auditory stimulus triggers the phase reset process at the theta–alpha border which leads to the emergence of the N100 wave. It is concluded that our study reinforces other studies on the importance of the EEG in ERP genesis

  16. EEG phase reset due to auditory attention: an inverse time-scale approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Yin Fen; Strauss, Daniel J

    2009-08-01

    We propose a novel tool to evaluate the electroencephalograph (EEG) phase reset due to auditory attention by utilizing an inverse analysis of the instantaneous phase for the first time. EEGs were acquired through auditory attention experiments with a maximum entropy stimulation paradigm. We examined single sweeps of auditory late response (ALR) with the complex continuous wavelet transform. The phase in the frequency band that is associated with auditory attention (6-10 Hz, termed as theta-alpha border) was reset to the mean phase of the averaged EEGs. The inverse transform was applied to reconstruct the phase-modified signal. We found significant enhancement of the N100 wave in the reconstructed signal. Analysis of the phase noise shows the effects of phase jittering on the generation of the N100 wave implying that a preferred phase is necessary to generate the event-related potential (ERP). Power spectrum analysis shows a remarkable increase of evoked power but little change of total power after stabilizing the phase of EEGs. Furthermore, by resetting the phase only at the theta border of no attention data to the mean phase of attention data yields a result that resembles attention data. These results show strong connections between EEGs and ERP, in particular, we suggest that the presentation of an auditory stimulus triggers the phase reset process at the theta-alpha border which leads to the emergence of the N100 wave. It is concluded that our study reinforces other studies on the importance of the EEG in ERP genesis.

  17. First and higher order, heuristically based generalized perturbation theory (HGPT) with optional control reset variable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandini, A.

    1996-01-01

    The heuristically based generalized perturbation theory (HGPT), to first and higher order, applied to the neutron field of a reactor system, is discussed in relation to the criticality reset procedure. This procedure is implicit within the GPT methodology, corresponding to the so called filtering of the importance function relevant to the neutron field from the fundamental mode contamination. It is common practice to use the so called ''lambda''-mode filter. In order to account for any possible reset option, a general definition is introduced of an intensive control variable (ρ) entering into the governing equations, and correspondingly a fundamental ρ-mode filtering of the importance function is defined, relevant to the real criticality reset (control) mechanism adopted. A simple example illustrates the need to take into account the correct filtering, so as to avoid significant inaccuracies in the sensitivity calculation results. The extension of this filtering technique to other functions entering into the GPT perturbative formulations at first and higher order is also discussed. (author)

  18. Set–Reset latch logical operation induced by colored noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Nan; Song, Aiguo

    2014-01-01

    We examine the possibility of obtaining Set–Reset latch logical operation in a symmetric bistable system subjected to OU noise. Three major results are presented. First, we prove the Set–Reset latch logical operation can be obtained driven by OU noise. Second, while increasing the correlation time, the optimal noise band shifts to higher level and becomes wider. Meanwhile, peak performance degrades from 100% accuracy, but the system can still perform reliable logical operation. Third, at fixed noise intensity, the success probability evolves non-monotonically as correlation time increases. The study might provide development of the new paradigm of memory device.

  19. Defense Logistics. Preliminary Observations on the Army's Implementation of Its Equipment Reset Strategies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Solis, William M

    2007-01-01

    .... In order to provide effective oversight of the Army's implementation of its equipment reset strategies and to plan for future reset initiatives, the Congress needs to be assured that the funds...

  20. Re-Setting Music Education's "Default Settings"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regelski, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the effects and problems of one highly influential default setting of the "normal style template" of music education and proposes some alternatives. These do not require abandoning all traditional templates for school music. But re-setting the default settings does depend on reconsidering the promised function of…

  1. The semaphore codes attached to a Turing machine via resets and their various limits

    OpenAIRE

    Rhodes, John; Schilling, Anne; Silva, Pedro V.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce semaphore codes associated to a Turing machine via resets. Semaphore codes provide an approximation theory for resets. In this paper we generalize the set-up of our previous paper "Random walks on semaphore codes and delay de Bruijn semigroups" to the infinite case by taking the profinite limit of $k$-resets to obtain $(-\\omega)$-resets. We mention how this opens new avenues to attack the P versus NP problem.

  2. EEG PHASE RESET OF THE DEFAULT MODE NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Thatcher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore phase reset of 3-dimensional current sources located in Brodmann areas located in the human default mode network (DMN using Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA of the human electroencephalogram (EEG. Methods: The EEG was recorded from 19 scalp locations from 70 healthy normal subjects ranging in age from 13 to 20 years. A time point by time point computation of LORETA current sources were computed for 14 Brodman areas comprising the DMN in the delta frequency band. The Hilbert transform of the LORETA time series was used to compute the instantaneous phase differences between all pairs of Brodmann areas. Phase shift and lock durations were calculated based on the 1st & 2nd derivatives of the time series of phase differences. Results: Phase shift duration exhibited three discrete modes at approximately: 1- 30 msec,, 2- 55 msec and, 3- 65 msec. Phase lock duration present primarily at: 1- 300 to 350 msec and, 2- 350 msec to 450 msec. Phase shift and lock durations were inversely related and exhibited an exponential change with distance between Brodmann areas. Conclusions: The results are explained by local neural packing density of network hubs and an exponential decrease in connections with distance from a hub. The results are consistent with a discrete temporal model of brain function where anatomical hubs behave like a ‘shutter’ that opens and closes at specific durations as nodes of a network giving rise to temporarily phase locked clusters of neurons for specific durations.

  3. Circadian phase resetting via single and multiple control targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Bagheri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Circadian entrainment is necessary for rhythmic physiological functions to be appropriately timed over the 24-hour day. Disruption of circadian rhythms has been associated with sleep and neuro-behavioral impairments as well as cancer. To date, light is widely accepted to be the most powerful circadian synchronizer, motivating its use as a key control input for phase resetting. Through sensitivity analysis, we identify additional control targets whose individual and simultaneous manipulation (via a model predictive control algorithm out-perform the open-loop light-based phase recovery dynamics by nearly 3-fold. We further demonstrate the robustness of phase resetting by synchronizing short- and long-period mutant phenotypes to the 24-hour environment; the control algorithm is robust in the presence of model mismatch. These studies prove the efficacy and immediate application of model predictive control in experimental studies and medicine. In particular, maintaining proper circadian regulation may significantly decrease the chance of acquiring chronic illness.

  4. Core reset system design for linear induction accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durga Praveen Kumar, D.; Mitra, S.; Sharma, Archana; Nagesh, K.V.; Chakravarthy, D.P.

    2006-01-01

    A repetitive pulsed power system based Linear Induction Accelerator (LIA-200) is being developed at BARC to get an electron beam of 200keV, 5kA, 50ns, 10-100 Hz. Amorphous core is the heart of these accelerators. It serves various functions in different subsystems viz. pulse power modulator, pulse transformer, magnetic switches and induction cavities. One of the factors that make the magnetic components compact is utilization of the total flux swing available in the core. In the present system, magnetic switches, pulse transformers, and induction cavity are designed to avail the full flux swing available in the core. For achieving this objective, flux density in the core has to be kept at the reverse saturation, before the main pulse is applied. The electrical circuit which makes it possible is called the core reset system. In this paper the details of core reset system designed for LIA-200 are described. (author)

  5. Shape memory alloy resetable spring lift for pedestrian protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Brian M.; Brei, Diann E.; Luntz, Jonathan E.; Strom, Kenneth; Browne, Alan L.; Johnson, Nancy

    2008-03-01

    Pedestrian protection has become an increasingly important aspect of automotive safety with new regulations taking effect around the world. Because it is increasingly difficult to meet these new regulations with traditional passive approaches, active lifts are being explored that increase the "crush zone" between the hood and rigid under-hood components as a means of mitigating the consequences of an impact with a non-occupant. Active lifts, however, are technically challenging because of the simultaneously high forces, stroke and quick timing resulting in most of the current devices being single use. This paper introduces the SMArt (Shape Memory Alloy ReseTable) Spring Lift, an automatically resetable and fully reusable device, which couples conventional standard compression springs to store the energy required for a hood lift, with Shape Memory Alloys actuators to achieve both an ultra high speed release of the spring and automatic reset of the system for multiple uses. Each of the four SMArt Device subsystems, lift, release, lower and reset/dissipate, are individually described. Two identical complete prototypes were fabricated and mounted at the rear corners of the hood, incorporated within a full-scale vehicle testbed at the SMARTT (Smart Material Advanced Research and Technology Transfer) lab at University of Michigan. Full operational cycle testing of a stationary vehicle in a laboratory setting confirms the ultrafast latch release, controlled lift profile, gravity lower to reposition the hood, and spring recompression via the ratchet engine successfully rearming the device for repeat cycles. While this is only a laboratory demonstration and extensive testing and development would be required for transition to a fielded product, this study does indicate that the SMArt Lift has promise as an alternative approach to pedestrian protection.

  6. Effects of the Factory Reset on Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riqui Schwamm

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile devices usually provide a “factory-reset” tool to erase user-specific data from the main secondary storage. 9 Apple iPhones, 10 Android devices, and 2 BlackBerry devices were tested in the first systematic evaluation of the effectiveness of factory resets. Tests used the Cellebrite UME-36 Pro with the UFED Physical Analyzer, the Bulk Extractor open-source tool, and our own programs for extracting metadata, classifying file paths, and comparing them between images. Two phones were subjected to more detailed analysis. Results showed that many kinds of data were removed by the resets, but much user-specific configuration data was left. Android devices did poorly at removing user documents and media, and occasional surprising user data was left on all devices including photo images, audio, documents, phone numbers, email addresses, geolocation data, configuration data, and keys. A conclusion is that reset devices can still provide some useful information to a forensic investigation.

  7. GHK and DNA: Resetting the Human Genome to Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren Pickart

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During human aging there is an increase in the activity of inflammatory, cancer promoting, and tissue destructive genes plus a decrease in the activity of regenerative and reparative genes. The human blood tripeptide GHK possesses many positive effects but declines with age. It improves wound healing and tissue regeneration (skin, hair follicles, stomach and intestinal linings, and boney tissue, increases collagen and glycosaminoglycans, stimulates synthesis of decorin, increases angiogenesis, and nerve outgrowth, possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, and increases cellular stemness and the secretion of trophic factors by mesenchymal stem cells. Recently, GHK has been found to reset genes of diseased cells from patients with cancer or COPD to a more healthy state. Cancer cells reset their programmed cell death system while COPD patients’ cells shut down tissue destructive genes and stimulate repair and remodeling activities. In this paper, we discuss GHK’s effect on genes that suppress fibrinogen synthesis, the insulin/insulin-like system, and cancer growth plus activation of genes that increase the ubiquitin-proteasome system, DNA repair, antioxidant systems, and healing by the TGF beta superfamily. A variety of methods and dosages to effectively use GHK to reset genes to a healthier state are also discussed.

  8. A Link between Mothers' Disciplinary Strategies and Children's Relational Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, Marlene J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the association between maternal disciplinary strategies and children's level of relational aggression, and then compares these associations with those found with overt aggression. Eighty-two 4th graders (aged 9-11 years) completed peer nomination measures of relational and overt aggression, and their mothers completed a…

  9. Emotional Intelligence and Its Link to Public Relations Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Timothy Lent

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the ethics chapters in five introduction-to-public relations textbooks and the codes of ethics of four major public relations associations contained within those chapters to determine the prevalence of language that either uses the same terms Daniel Goleman employs for his 25 competencies of emotional…

  10. Links between the Philippines and Spain: migration and bilateral relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelia Pe-Pua

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the implications which Spanish policy regarding foreign workers has on the living and working conditions of the Filipino community in Spain. The author pays special attention to bilateral relations between the Philippines and Spain in issues suchas Spanish investment in the Philippines, the trade balance between the two countries and labour relations. In conclusion the article considers the necessity of reaching a bilateral labour agreement which would be beneficial to both countries and which at the same time would improve the working conditions and the integration of Philippine nationals living in Spain.

  11. Possible Links among Mirror Neurons and Genes Related to Autism

    OpenAIRE

    MOCHIZUKI, Mai; 望月,麻衣

    2016-01-01

    Autism includes many neurodevelopmental disorders and defi cits in communication. Althoughresearchers have considered various origins, the onset mechanism is still not clear. The aim ofthis article is to provide some clues for interaction of autism with mirror neuronal and geneticfactors. First, the impact of neural brain cells considered to infl uence autism will be discussedwith reference to mirror neurons. Then, the discussion will move to genes related to autism.Consequently, it is argued...

  12. LINK BETWEEN SKELETAL RELATIONS AND ROOT RESORPTION IN ORTHODONTIC PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Teodora Preoteasa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available External root resorption is one of the possible complications of the orthodontic treatment, severe cases presenting a higher frequency. The aim of the present study was to test the existence of a relation between the severity of root resorption and the sagittal or vertical skeletal relations. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a group of 55 patients with fixed orthodontic devices, applied bimaxillarily for at least 6 months. The sample presented mostly mild or moderate apical root resorption, with an average value of 1.31 mm (standard deviation 0.60. Patients with abnormal sagittal skeletal relations presented a more severe root resorption compared to those with a normal pattern. The tendency towards more severe external root resorption was also noticed in cases with mandibular clockwise rotation and hiperdivergent facial pattern. A good knowledge on the variables associated to severe root resorption is essential for the identification of the high risk patients, as well as for the selection of the best suited treatment alternative in terms of low probability of root resorption occurrence.

  13. Resetting in time of recordings in ultra-fast cinematography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leduc, Michel

    In ultra-fast cinematography and photography the treatment and interpretation of the data contained in the recordings demand extremely precise readjustments in time. In the case of whole-image recordings by electro-optical cameras or flash sources the problem is resolved by the use of a chronometric unit taking into account the different events. For naving slit or spectrographic recordings the problem must be detail with differently and marking devices will be used to print resetting pulses on the recording themselves. Different marking devices are described [fr

  14. Effects of pay resets following drug use on attendance and hours worked in a therapeutic workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtyn, August F; Silverman, Kenneth

    2016-06-01

    This secondary data analysis examined effects of an abstinence contingency on participation in a therapeutic workplace. Participants exposed to a pay reset after drug use did not differ in overall attendance from participants who were not exposed to a pay reset after drug use; however, they initially worked less after a pay reset than participants who did not receive a pay reset, and their attendance increased as their pay increased. Overall participation was not influenced by the abstinence contingency, but transient decreases in attendance occurred. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  15. Cell protein cross-linking by erbstatin and related compounds | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The scheme depicts a possible mechanism of cross-linking by erbstatin and related analogues. A mechanism of action is proposed which involves initial oxidation to reactive quinone intermediates that subsequently cross-link protein nucleophiles via multiple 1,4-Michael-type additions. Similar alkylation of protein by protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as herbimycin A, has

  16. Warfighter Support: Army Has Taken Steps to Improve Reset Process, but More Complete Reporting of Equipment and Future Cost Is Needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    asphalt spreaders ), other semi-trucks and trailers, palletized loading systems, and heavy equipment transports. As table 3 shows, the actual reset...Copies of GAO Reports and Testimony Order by Phone Connect with GAO To Report Fraud, Waste, and Abuse in Federal Programs Congressional Relations Public Affairs Please Print on Recycled Paper.

  17. Path-integral formalism for stochastic resetting: Exactly solved examples and shortcuts to confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Édgar; Gupta, Shamik

    2017-08-01

    We study the dynamics of overdamped Brownian particles diffusing in conservative force fields and undergoing stochastic resetting to a given location at a generic space-dependent rate of resetting. We present a systematic approach involving path integrals and elements of renewal theory that allows us to derive analytical expressions for a variety of statistics of the dynamics such as (i) the propagator prior to first reset, (ii) the distribution of the first-reset time, and (iii) the spatial distribution of the particle at long times. We apply our approach to several representative and hitherto unexplored examples of resetting dynamics. A particularly interesting example for which we find analytical expressions for the statistics of resetting is that of a Brownian particle trapped in a harmonic potential with a rate of resetting that depends on the instantaneous energy of the particle. We find that using energy-dependent resetting processes is more effective in achieving spatial confinement of Brownian particles on a faster time scale than performing quenches of parameters of the harmonic potential.

  18. Pressing reset on Moscow is worth a little Nato anxiety / Jonathan Steele

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Steele, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    USA president Barack Obama on avaldanud soovi vajutada USA-Vene suhetes reset-nuppu. Eesti president Toomas Hendrik Ilves ütles NATO tippkohtumise eelõhtul kuivalt, et arvutil reset-nuppu vajutades ei kustu mällu salvestatud failid siiski ära. President T. H. Ilvese teravast sõnavõtust president Lennart Meri konverentsi avamisel Tallinnas

  19. Minimum airflow reset of single-duct VAV terminal boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Hum

    Single duct Variable Air Volume (VAV) systems are currently the most widely used type of HVAC system in the United States. When installing such a system, it is critical to determine the minimum airflow set point of the terminal box, as an optimally selected set point will improve the level of thermal comfort and indoor air quality (IAQ) while at the same time lower overall energy costs. In principle, this minimum rate should be calculated according to the minimum ventilation requirement based on ASHRAE standard 62.1 and maximum heating load of the zone. Several factors must be carefully considered when calculating this minimum rate. Terminal boxes with conventional control sequences may result in occupant discomfort and energy waste. If the minimum rate of airflow is set too high, the AHUs will consume excess fan power, and the terminal boxes may cause significant simultaneous room heating and cooling. At the same time, a rate that is too low will result in poor air circulation and indoor air quality in the air-conditioned space. Currently, many scholars are investigating how to change the algorithm of the advanced VAV terminal box controller without retrofitting. Some of these controllers have been found to effectively improve thermal comfort, indoor air quality, and energy efficiency. However, minimum airflow set points have not yet been identified, nor has controller performance been verified in confirmed studies. In this study, control algorithms were developed that automatically identify and reset terminal box minimum airflow set points, thereby improving indoor air quality and thermal comfort levels, and reducing the overall rate of energy consumption. A theoretical analysis of the optimal minimum airflow and discharge air temperature was performed to identify the potential energy benefits of resetting the terminal box minimum airflow set points. Applicable control algorithms for calculating the ideal values for the minimum airflow reset were developed and

  20. A self-resetting spiking phase-change neuron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobley, R. A.; Hayat, H.; Wright, C. D.

    2018-05-01

    Neuromorphic, or brain-inspired, computing applications of phase-change devices have to date concentrated primarily on the implementation of phase-change synapses. However, the so-called accumulation mode of operation inherent in phase-change materials and devices can also be used to mimic the integrative properties of a biological neuron. Here we demonstrate, using physical modelling of nanoscale devices and SPICE modelling of associated circuits, that a single phase-change memory cell integrated into a comparator type circuit can deliver a basic hardware mimic of an integrate-and-fire spiking neuron with self-resetting capabilities. Such phase-change neurons, in combination with phase-change synapses, can potentially open a new route for the realisation of all-phase-change neuromorphic computing.

  1. Simulation of static pressure reset control in comfort ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koulani, Chrysanthi Sofia; Prunescu, Remus Mihail; Hviid, Christian Anker

    2014-01-01

    Variable air volume (VAV) ventilation systems reduce fan power consumption compared to constant air volume (CAV) systems because they supply air according to the airflow demand. However VAV ventilation systems do not take fully into account the potential energy savings as the control strategy...... management system. In this way the operation of central plant equipment is adjusted in real time according to the actual pressure demand; this control scheme can be implemented by the static pressure reset (SPR) method. The SPR control method ensures that at least one damper remains fully opened; thus...... of the art is represented by the method of trim and respond based on pressure alarms. This study investigates the operation of the SPR control method of trim and respond based on pressure alarms in a CO2 demand application where large air volumes are provided to three classrooms. The investigation was based...

  2. Type Directed Partial Evaluation for Level-1 Shift and Reset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danko Ilik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an implementation in the Coq proof assistant of type directed partial evaluation (TDPE algorithms for call-by-name and call-by-value versions of shift and reset delimited control operators, and in presence of strong sum types. We prove that the algorithm transforms well-typed programs to ones in normal form. These normal forms can not always be arrived at using the so far known equational theories. The typing system does not allow answer-type modification for function types and allows delimiters to be set on at most one atomic type. The semantic domain for evaluation is expressed in Constructive Type Theory as a dependently typed monadic structure combining Kripke models and continuation passing style translations.

  3. A self-resetting spiking phase-change neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobley, R A; Hayat, H; Wright, C D

    2018-05-11

    Neuromorphic, or brain-inspired, computing applications of phase-change devices have to date concentrated primarily on the implementation of phase-change synapses. However, the so-called accumulation mode of operation inherent in phase-change materials and devices can also be used to mimic the integrative properties of a biological neuron. Here we demonstrate, using physical modelling of nanoscale devices and SPICE modelling of associated circuits, that a single phase-change memory cell integrated into a comparator type circuit can deliver a basic hardware mimic of an integrate-and-fire spiking neuron with self-resetting capabilities. Such phase-change neurons, in combination with phase-change synapses, can potentially open a new route for the realisation of all-phase-change neuromorphic computing.

  4. Managing coopetition through horizontal supply chain relations : Linking dyadic and network levels of analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelm, Miriam M.

    2011-01-01

    A growing research stream has expanded the level of analysis beyond single buyer-supplier relations to the network, including supplier-supplier relations. These supplier-supplier relations may constitute a missing link between the traditional analysis of the dyadic and the network level of analysis

  5. Managing coopetition through horizontal supply chain relations : Linking dyadic and network levels of analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelm, Miriam M.

    A growing research stream has expanded the level of analysis beyond single buyer-supplier relations to the network, including supplier-supplier relations. These supplier-supplier relations may constitute a missing link between the traditional analysis of the dyadic and the network level of analysis

  6. Interactive Links between Relational Aggression, Theory of Mind, and Moral Disengagement among Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Voulgaridou, Ioanna; Mandrali, Marianna; Parousidou, Chrysoula

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible interactive links between theory of mind (ToM), moral disengagement and relational aggression, using a moderated mediation analysis, with gender as a moderator, in a sample of 120 Greek preadolescents. Results indicated that relational aggression was significantly positively associated with moral…

  7. Learning of temporal motor patterns: An analysis of continuous vs. reset timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo eLaje

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to generate well-timed sequences of movements is critical to an array of behaviors, including the ability to play a musical instrument or a video game. Here we address two questions relating to timing with the goal of better understanding the neural mechanisms underlying temporal processing. First, how does accuracy and variance change over the course of learning of complex spatiotemporal patterns? Second, is the timing of sequential responses most consistent with starting and stopping an internal timer at each interval or with continuous timing?To address these questions we used a psychophysical task in which subjects learned to reproduce a sequence of finger taps in the correct order and at the correct times—much like playing a melody at the piano. This task allowed us to calculate the variance of the responses at different time points using data from the same trials. Our results show that while standard Weber’s law is clearly violated, variance does increase as a function of time squared, as expected according to the generalized form of Weber’s law—which separates the source of variance into time-dependent and time-independent components. Over the course of learning, both the time-independent variance and the coefficient of the time-dependent term decrease. Our analyses also suggest that timing of sequential events does not rely on the resetting of an internal timer at each event.We describe and interpret our results in the context of computer simulations that capture some of our psychophysical findings. Specifically, we show that continuous timing, as opposed to reset timing, is expected from population clock models in which timing emerges from the internal dynamics of recurrent neural networks.

  8. Bauhinia forficata Link authenticity using flavonoids profile: relation with their biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreres, Federico; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Vinholes, Juliana; Silva, Sara T; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2012-09-15

    HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n) was used to ascertain the authenticity of two certified and two commercial Bauhinia forficata Link samples. Different flavonoids profiles were obtained, involving 39 compounds. Just kaempferol-3-O-(2-rhamnosyl)rutinoside was found in all analysed samples. Five compounds were common to the certified samples of B. forficata Link and B. forficata Link subsp. pruinosa (Vogel) Fortunato & Wunderlin, being kaempferol derivatives the most representative ones. The phenolic composition of B. forficata Link subsp. pruinosa (Vogel) Fortunato & Wunderlin is described herein for the first time, accounting for eight compounds, while 10 new compounds were identified in B. forficata Link. Commercial B. forficata Link showed higher contents of quercetin derivatives, in addition to the presence of myricetin derivatives and flavonoids-(galloyl)glycosides, for which the MS fragmentation pattern is reported for the first time. B. forficata Link and the two commercial samples were able to inhibit α-glucosidase, with EC(50) values lower than that found for acarbose. Mild effects on cholinesterases were observed with the certified samples, while commercial ones were more effective. The same behaviour was observed concerning the scavenging of DPPH, nitric oxide and superoxide radicals. The presence of high contents of quercetin derivatives in commercial samples seems to directly influence their biological properties. The differences between phenolic profiles and their relation with the authenticity of commercial samples are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Voice Biometrics as a Way to Self-service Password Reset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohgräfe, Bernd; Jacobi, Sebastian

    Password resets are time consuming. Especially when urgent jobs need to be done, it is cumbersome to inform the user helpdesk, to identify oneself and then to wait for response. It is easy to enter a wrong password multiple times, which leads to the blocking of the application. Voice biometrics is an easy and secure way for individuals to reset their own password. Read more about how you can ease the burden of your user helpdesk and how voice biometric password resets benefit your expense situation without harming your security.

  10. A parabolic variational inequality arising from the valuation of strike reset options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhou; Yi, Fahuai; Dai, Min

    A strike reset option is an option that allows its holder to reset the strike price to the prevailing underlying asset price at a moment chosen by the holder. The pricing model of the option can be formulated as a one-dimensional parabolic variational inequality, or equivalently, a free boundary problem, where the free boundary just corresponds to the optimal reset strategy adopted by the holder of the option. This paper is concerned with the theoretical analysis of the model. The existence and uniqueness of the solution are established. Furthermore, we study properties of the free boundary. The monotonicity and C smoothness of the free boundary are proven in some situations.

  11. Rituximab does not reset defective early B cell tolerance checkpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Nicolas; Massad, Christopher; Oe, Tyler; Cantaert, Tineke; Herold, Kevan C.; Meffre, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients show abnormalities in early B cell tolerance checkpoints, resulting in the accumulation of large numbers of autoreactive B cells in their blood. Treatment with rituximab, an anti-CD20 mAb that depletes B cells, has been shown to preserve β cell function in T1D patients and improve other autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. However, it remains largely unknown how anti–B cell therapy thwarts autoimmunity in these pathologies. Here, we analyzed the reactivity of Abs expressed by single, mature naive B cells from 4 patients with T1D before and 52 weeks after treatment to determine whether rituximab resets early B cell tolerance checkpoints. We found that anti–B cell therapy did not alter the frequencies of autoreactive and polyreactive B cells, which remained elevated in the blood of all patients after rituximab treatment. Moreover, the limited proliferative history of autoreactive B cells after treatment revealed that these clones were newly generated B cells and not self-reactive B cells that had escaped depletion and repopulated the periphery through homeostatic expansion. We conclude that anti–B cell therapy may provide a temporary dampening of autoimmune processes through B cell depletion. However, repletion with autoreactive B cells may explain the relapse that occurs in many autoimmune patients after anti–B cell therapy. PMID:26642366

  12. Optimal number of stimulation contacts for coordinated reset neuromodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysyansky, Borys; Popovych, Oleksandr V.; Tass, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    In this computational study we investigate coordinated reset (CR) neuromodulation designed for an effective control of synchronization by multi-site stimulation of neuronal target populations. This method was suggested to effectively counteract pathological neuronal synchrony characteristic for several neurological disorders. We study how many stimulation sites are required for optimal CR-induced desynchronization. We found that a moderate increase of the number of stimulation sites may significantly prolong the post-stimulation desynchronized transient after the stimulation is completely switched off. This can, in turn, reduce the amount of the administered stimulation current for the intermittent ON–OFF CR stimulation protocol, where time intervals with stimulation ON are recurrently followed by time intervals with stimulation OFF. In addition, we found that the optimal number of stimulation sites essentially depends on how strongly the administered current decays within the neuronal tissue with increasing distance from the stimulation site. In particular, for a broad spatial stimulation profile, i.e., for a weak spatial decay rate of the stimulation current, CR stimulation can optimally be delivered via a small number of stimulation sites. Our findings may contribute to an optimization of therapeutic applications of CR neuromodulation. PMID:23885239

  13. Optimal number of stimulation contacts for coordinated reset neuromodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borys eLysyansky

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this computational study we investigatecoordinated reset (CR neuromodulation designed for an effective controlof synchronization by multi-site stimulation of neuronal target populations. This method was suggested to effectively counteract pathological neuronal synchronycharacteristic for several neurological disorders. We studyhow many stimulation sites are required for optimal CR-induced desynchronization. We found that a moderate increase of the number of stimulation sitesmay significantly prolong the post-stimulation desynchronized transientafter the stimulation is completely switched off. This can, in turn,reduce the amount of the administered stimulation current for theintermittent ON-OFF CR stimulation protocol, where time intervalswith stimulation ON are recurrently followed by time intervals withstimulation OFF. In addition, we found that the optimal number ofstimulation sites essentially depends on how strongly the administeredcurrent decays within the neuronal tissue with increasing distancefrom the stimulation site. In particular, for a broad spatial stimulationprofile, i.e., for a weak spatial decay rate of the stimulation current,CR stimulation can optimally be delivered via a small number of stimulationsites. Our findings may contribute to an optimization of therapeutic applications of CR neuromodulation.

  14. Macroscopic phase-resetting curves for spiking neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Grégory; Ermentrout, G. Bard; Gutkin, Boris

    2017-10-01

    The study of brain rhythms is an open-ended, and challenging, subject of interest in neuroscience. One of the best tools for the understanding of oscillations at the single neuron level is the phase-resetting curve (PRC). Synchronization in networks of neurons, effects of noise on the rhythms, effects of transient stimuli on the ongoing rhythmic activity, and many other features can be understood by the PRC. However, most macroscopic brain rhythms are generated by large populations of neurons, and so far it has been unclear how the PRC formulation can be extended to these more common rhythms. In this paper, we describe a framework to determine a macroscopic PRC (mPRC) for a network of spiking excitatory and inhibitory neurons that generate a macroscopic rhythm. We take advantage of a thermodynamic approach combined with a reduction method to simplify the network description to a small number of ordinary differential equations. From this simplified but exact reduction, we can compute the mPRC via the standard adjoint method. Our theoretical findings are illustrated with and supported by numerical simulations of the full spiking network. Notably our mPRC framework allows us to predict the difference between effects of transient inputs to the excitatory versus the inhibitory neurons in the network.

  15. Macroscopic phase-resetting curves for spiking neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Grégory; Ermentrout, G Bard; Gutkin, Boris

    2017-10-01

    The study of brain rhythms is an open-ended, and challenging, subject of interest in neuroscience. One of the best tools for the understanding of oscillations at the single neuron level is the phase-resetting curve (PRC). Synchronization in networks of neurons, effects of noise on the rhythms, effects of transient stimuli on the ongoing rhythmic activity, and many other features can be understood by the PRC. However, most macroscopic brain rhythms are generated by large populations of neurons, and so far it has been unclear how the PRC formulation can be extended to these more common rhythms. In this paper, we describe a framework to determine a macroscopic PRC (mPRC) for a network of spiking excitatory and inhibitory neurons that generate a macroscopic rhythm. We take advantage of a thermodynamic approach combined with a reduction method to simplify the network description to a small number of ordinary differential equations. From this simplified but exact reduction, we can compute the mPRC via the standard adjoint method. Our theoretical findings are illustrated with and supported by numerical simulations of the full spiking network. Notably our mPRC framework allows us to predict the difference between effects of transient inputs to the excitatory versus the inhibitory neurons in the network.

  16. Phase resetting reveals network dynamics underlying a bacterial cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yihan; Li, Ying; Crosson, Sean; Dinner, Aaron R; Scherer, Norbert F

    2012-01-01

    Genomic and proteomic methods yield networks of biological regulatory interactions but do not provide direct insight into how those interactions are organized into functional modules, or how information flows from one module to another. In this work we introduce an approach that provides this complementary information and apply it to the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus, a paradigm for cell-cycle control. Operationally, we use an inducible promoter to express the essential transcriptional regulatory gene ctrA in a periodic, pulsed fashion. This chemical perturbation causes the population of cells to divide synchronously, and we use the resulting advance or delay of the division times of single cells to construct a phase resetting curve. We find that delay is strongly favored over advance. This finding is surprising since it does not follow from the temporal expression profile of CtrA and, in turn, simulations of existing network models. We propose a phenomenological model that suggests that the cell-cycle network comprises two distinct functional modules that oscillate autonomously and couple in a highly asymmetric fashion. These features collectively provide a new mechanism for tight temporal control of the cell cycle in C. crescentus. We discuss how the procedure can serve as the basis for a general approach for probing network dynamics, which we term chemical perturbation spectroscopy (CPS).

  17. Assessing the completeness of optical resetting of quartz OSL in the natural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singarayer, J.S.; Bailey, R.M.; Ward, S.; Stokes, S.

    2005-01-01

    Resetting of previously accumulated optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signals during transport of sediment is a fundamental requirement for reliable optical dating. The completeness of optical resetting of 46 modern-age quartz samples from a variety of depositional environments was examined. All equivalent dose (D e ) estimates were e from easy-to-bleach through to hard-to-bleach components. For all modern fluvial samples with non-zero D e values, SAR D e (t) analysis and component-resolved linearly modulated OSL (LM OSL) D e estimates showed this to be the case, implying incomplete resetting of previously accumulated charge. LM OSL measurements were also made to investigate the extent of bleaching of the slow components in the natural environment. In aeolian sediments examined, the natural LM OSL was effectively zero (i.e. all components were fully reset). The slow components of modern fluvial samples displayed measurable residual signals up to 15Gy

  18. Testing links between childhood positive peer relations and externalizing outcomes through a randomized controlled intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witvliet, M.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Cuijpers, P.; Koot, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors used a randomized controlled trial to explore the link between having positive peer relations and externalizing outcomes in 758 children followed from kindergarten to the end of 2nd grade. Children were randomly assigned to the Good Behavior Game (GBG), a universal

  19. Augmented brain function by coordinated reset stimulation with slowly varying sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Magteld eZeitler; Peter A. Tass; Peter A. Tass; Peter A. Tass

    2015-01-01

    Several brain disorders are characterized by abnormally strong neuronal synchrony. Coordinated Reset (CR) stimulation was developed to selectively counteract abnormal neuronal synchrony by desynchronization. For this, phase resetting stimuli are delivered to different subpopulations in a timely coordinated way. In neural networks with spike timing-dependent plasticity CR stimulation may eventually lead to an anti-kindling, i.e. an unlearning of abnormal synaptic connectivity and abnormal sync...

  20. Augmented brain function by coordinated reset stimulation with slowly varying sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Zeitler, Magteld; Tass, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Several brain disorders are characterized by abnormally strong neuronal synchrony. Coordinated Reset (CR) stimulation was developed to selectively counteract abnormal neuronal synchrony by desynchronization. For this, phase resetting stimuli are delivered to different subpopulations in a timely coordinated way. In neural networks with spike timing-dependent plasticity CR stimulation may eventually lead to an anti-kindling, i.e., an unlearning of abnormal synaptic connectivity and abnormal syn...

  1. Relative tracking control of constellation satellites considering inter-satellite link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakoor, M.; Amozegary, F.; Bakhtiari, M.; Daneshjou, K.

    2017-11-01

    In this article, two main issues related to the large-scale relative motion of satellites in the constellation are investigated to establish the Inter Satellite Link (ISL) which means the dynamic and control problems. In the section related to dynamic problems, a detailed and effective analytical solution is initially provided for the problem of satellite relative motion considering perturbations. The direct geometric method utilizing spherical coordinates is employed to achieve this solution. The evaluation of simulation shows that the solution obtained from the geometric method calculates the relative motion of the satellite with high accuracy. Thus, the proposed analytical solution will be applicable and effective. In the section related to control problems, the relative tracking control system between two satellites will be designed in order to establish a communication link between the satellites utilizing analytical solution for relative motion of satellites with respect to the reference trajectory. Sliding mode control approach is employed to develop the relative tracking control system for body to body and payload to payload tracking control. Efficiency of sliding mode control approach is compared with PID and LQR controllers. Two types of payload to payload tracking control considering with and without payload degree of freedom are designed and suitable one for practical ISL applications is introduced. Also, Fuzzy controller is utilized to eliminate the control input in the sliding mode controller.

  2. Inter-firm relations in SME clusters and the link to marketing performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lamprinopoulou, C.; Tregear, A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Networks are increasingly recognised as being important to successful marketing amongst small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Thepurpose of this study is to investigate the structure and content of network relations amongst SME clusters, and explore the link to marketing performance.Design/methodology/approach – Following a review of the literature on SME networks and marketing performance, case study analysis isperformed on four SME clusters in the Greek agrifood sector.Findin...

  3. Dwelling on it may make it worse: the links between relational victimization, relational aggression, rumination, and depressive symptoms in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Lindsay C; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Crick, Nicki R

    2014-08-01

    Although there is considerable evidence that relational victimization is associated with depressive symptoms in youth, our understanding about the mechanisms by which victimization and depressive symptoms are linked is limited. The current study explored ruminating about victimization experiences as a potential mechanism that might contribute to an understanding of the association between relational victimization and depressive symptoms. We also tested the specificity of the proposed models by controlling for and testing parallel models of a highly related behavior: relational aggression. A sample of 499 adolescents from sixth through eighth grades participated. Teacher reports were used to assess relational victimization and relational aggression. Self-reports were used to assess depressive symptoms and rumination. The results showed that rumination partially mediated the association between relational victimization and depressive symptoms. No moderation effect was found. In contrast, rumination moderated the association between relational aggression and depressive symptoms. Specifically, relational aggression was associated with depressive symptoms for those adolescents who were also ruminators. Thus, ruminating about victimization experiences appears to be an important mechanism that functions differently for relational aggression and relational victimization in conferring risk for depressive symptoms. The findings offer important practical implications for those working with adolescents and also lay the groundwork for future research.

  4. Reliving emotional personal memories: affective biases linked to personality and sex-related differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denkova, Ekaterina; Dolcos, Sanda; Dolcos, Florin

    2012-06-01

    Although available evidence suggests that the emotional valence and recollective properties of autobiographical memories (AMs) may be influenced by personality- and sex-related differences, overall these relationships remain poorly understood. The present study investigated these issues by comparing the effect of general personality traits (extraversion and neuroticism) and specific traits linked to emotion regulation (ER) strategies (reappraisal and suppression) on the retrieval of emotional AMs and on the associated postretrieval emotional states, in men and women. First, extraversion predicted recollection of positive AMs in both men and women, whereas neuroticism predicted the proportion of negative AMs in men and the frequency of rehearsing negative AMs in women. Second, reappraisal predicted positive AMs in men, and suppression predicted negative AMs in women. Third, while reliving of positive memories had an overall indirect effect on postretrieval positive mood through extraversion, reliving of negative AMs had a direct effect on postretrieval negative mood, which was linked to inefficient engagement of suppression in women. Our findings suggest that personality traits associated with positive affect predict recollection of positive AMs and maintenance of a positive mood, whereas personality traits associated with negative affect, along with differential engagement of habitual ER strategies in men and women, predict sex-related differences in the recollection and experiencing of negative AMs. These findings provide insight into the factors that influence affective biases in reliving AMs, and into their possible link to sex-related differences in the susceptibility to affective disorders.

  5. Hybrid Multidimensional Relational and Link Analytical Knowledge Discovery for Law Enforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Gillen, David S.; Burke, John S.; Critchlow, Terence J.; Damante, Matt; Fernandes, Robert

    2008-08-01

    The challenges facing the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) require not only multi-dimensional, but also multi-scale data analysis. In particular, the ability to seamlessly move from summary information, such as trends, into detailed analysis of individual entities, while critical for law enforcement, typically requires manually transferring information among multiple tools. Such time-consuming and error prone processes significantly hamper the analysts' ability to quickly explore data and identify threats. As part of a DHS Science and Technology effort, we have been developing and deploying for Immigration and Customs Enforcement the CubeLink system integrating information between relational data cubes and link analytical semantic graphs. In this paper we describe CubeLink in terms of the underlying components, their integration, and the formal mapping from multidimensional data analysis into link analysis. In so doing, we provide a formal basis for one particular form of automatic schema-ontology mapping from OLAP data cubes to semantic graphs databases, and point the way towards future ``intelligent'' OLAP data cubes equipped with meta-data about their dimensional typing.

  6. Multiple Brain Markers are Linked to Age-Related Variation in Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedden, Trey; Schultz, Aaron P.; Rieckmann, Anna; Mormino, Elizabeth C.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Buckner, Randy L.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related alterations in brain structure and function have been challenging to link to cognition due to potential overlapping influences of multiple neurobiological cascades. We examined multiple brain markers associated with age-related variation in cognition. Clinically normal older humans aged 65–90 from the Harvard Aging Brain Study (N = 186) were characterized on a priori magnetic resonance imaging markers of gray matter thickness and volume, white matter hyperintensities, fractional anisotropy (FA), resting-state functional connectivity, positron emission tomography markers of glucose metabolism and amyloid burden, and cognitive factors of processing speed, executive function, and episodic memory. Partial correlation and mediation analyses estimated age-related variance in cognition shared with individual brain markers and unique to each marker. The largest relationships linked FA and striatum volume to processing speed and executive function, and hippocampal volume to episodic memory. Of the age-related variance in cognition, 70–80% was accounted for by combining all brain markers (but only ∼20% of total variance). Age had significant indirect effects on cognition via brain markers, with significant markers varying across cognitive domains. These results suggest that most age-related variation in cognition is shared among multiple brain markers, but potential specificity between some brain markers and cognitive domains motivates additional study of age-related markers of neural health. PMID:25316342

  7. Neural and Behavioral Evidence for an Online Resetting Process in Visual Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Halely; Luria, Roy

    2017-02-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) guides behavior by holding a set of active representations and modifying them according to changes in the environment. This updating process relies on a unique mapping between each VWM representation and an actual object in the environment. Here, we destroyed this mapping by either presenting a coherent object but then breaking it into independent parts or presenting an object but then abruptly replacing it with a different object. This allowed us to introduce the neural marker and behavioral consequence of an online resetting process in humans' VWM. Across seven experiments, we demonstrate that this resetting process involves abandoning the old VWM contents because they no longer correspond to the objects in the environment. Then, VWM encodes the novel information and reestablishes the correspondence between the new representations and the objects. The resetting process was marked by a unique neural signature: a sharp drop in the amplitude of the electrophysiological index of VWM contents (the contralateral delay activity), presumably indicating the loss of the existent object-to-representation mappings. This marker was missing when an updating process occurred. Moreover, when tracking moving items, VWM failed to detect salient changes in the object's shape when these changes occurred during the resetting process. This happened despite the object being fully visible, presumably because the mapping between the object and a VWM representation was lost. Importantly, we show that resetting, its neural marker, and the behavioral cost it entails, are specific to situations that involve a destruction of the objects-to-representations correspondence. Visual working memory (VWM) maintains task-relevant information in an online state. Previous studies showed that VWM representations are accessed and modified after changes in the environment. Here, we show that this updating process critically depends on an ongoing mapping between the

  8. Reset charge sensitive amplifier for NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Guoqiang; Tan, Chengjun; Li, Qiang; Ge, Liangquan; Liu, Xiyao; Luo, Qun

    2015-01-01

    The time constant of the output signal of the front-end readout circuit of a traditional gamma-ray spectrometer with a NaI(Tl)+PMT structure is affected by temperature, measurement environment and the signal transmission cable, so it is difficult to get a good resolution spectrum, especially at higher counting rates. In this paper, a reset charge sensitive amplifier (RCSA) is designed for the gamma-ray spectrometer with a NaI(Tl)+PMT structure. The designed RCSA outputs a step signal, thus enabling the acquisition of double-exponential signals with a stable time constant by using the next stage of a CR differentiating circuit. The designed RCSA is mainly composed of a basic amplifying circuit, a reset circuit and a dark current compensation circuit. It provides the output step signal through the integration of the PMT output charge signal. When the amplitude of the step signal exceeds a preset voltage threshold, it triggers the reset circuit to generate a reset pulse (about 5 µs pulse width) to reset the output signal. Experimental results demonstrated that the designed RCSA achieves a charge sensitivity of 4.26×10 10 V/C, with a zero capacitance noise of 51.09 fC and a noise slope of 1.98 fC/pF. Supported by the digital shaping algorithm of the digital multi-channel analyzer (DMCA), it can maintain good energy resolution with high counting rates up to 150 kcps and with a temperature range from −19 °C to 50 °C. - Highlights: • A new reset type charge sensitive amplifier for gamma-ray spectrometer based on a photomultiplier tube is proposed. • Reset circuit formed by constant current source output a fixed width pulse to reset charge sensitive amplifier. • Photomultiplier tube dark current compensation circuit could increase the pulse through rate by decreasing reset frequency. • This amplifier outputs a step function signal that could match next stage circuit easily

  9. Incorporation of covariates in simultaneous localization of two linked loci using affected relative pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Kung-Yee

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many dichotomous traits for complex diseases are often involved more than one locus and/or associated with quantitative biomarkers or environmental factors. Incorporating these quantitative variables into linkage analysis as well as localizing two linked disease loci simultaneously could therefore improve the efficiency in mapping genes. We extended the robust multipoint Identity-by-Descent (IBD approach with incorporation of covariates developed previously to simultaneously estimate two linked loci using different types of affected relative pairs (ARPs. Results We showed that the efficiency was enhanced by incorporating a quantitative covariate parametrically or non-parametrically while localizing two disease loci using ARPs. In addition to its help in identifying factors associated with the disease and in improving the efficiency in estimating disease loci, this extension also allows investigators to account for heterogeneity in risk-ratios for different ARPs. Data released from the collaborative study on the genetics of alcoholism (COGA for Genetic Analysis Workshop 14 (GAW 14 were used to illustrate the application of this extended method. Conclusions The simulation studies and example illustrated that the efficiency in estimating disease loci was demonstratively enhanced by incorporating a quantitative covariate and by using all relative pairs while mapping two linked loci simultaneously.

  10. Reverse Engineering the Inflammatory "Clock": From Computational Modeling to Rational Resetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodovotz, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    Properly-regulated inflammation is central to homeostasis. Traumatic injury, hemorrhagic shock, septic shock, and other injury-related processes such as wound healing are associated with dysregulated inflammation. Like many biological processes, inflammation is a dynamic, complex system whose function, like that of an analog clock, cannot be discerned simply from a laundry list of its parts (data). The advent of multiplexed platforms for gathering biological data, while providing an unprecedented level of detailed information about the inflammatory response, has paradoxically also proven to be overwhelming. This problem is especially acute when the datasets involve time courses, since typical statistical analyses and data-driven modeling are geared towards single time points. Various groups have addressed this problem using dynamic approaches to data-driven and mechanistic computational modeling. These modeling tools can be thought of as the "gears" and "hands" of the "clock," and have led to insights regarding principal drivers, dynamic networks, feedbacks, and regulatory switches that characterize and perhaps regulate the inflammatory response. In parallel, mechanistic computational models have given an abstracted sense of how the inflammatory "clock" works, leading to in silico models of critically ill individuals and populations. Integrating data-driven and mechanistic modeling may point the way to a rational "resetting" of inflammation via model-driven precision medicine.

  11. Resonator reset in circuit QED by optimal control for large open quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Samuel; Andersen, Christian Kraglund; Venkatraman, Jayameenakshi; Ferris, Andrew J.; Blais, Alexandre

    2017-10-01

    We study an implementation of the open GRAPE (gradient ascent pulse engineering) algorithm well suited for large open quantum systems. While typical implementations of optimal control algorithms for open quantum systems rely on explicit matrix exponential calculations, our implementation avoids these operations, leading to a polynomial speedup of the open GRAPE algorithm in cases of interest. This speedup, as well as the reduced memory requirements of our implementation, are illustrated by comparison to a standard implementation of open GRAPE. As a practical example, we apply this open-system optimization method to active reset of a readout resonator in circuit QED. In this problem, the shape of a microwave pulse is optimized such as to empty the cavity from measurement photons as fast as possible. Using our open GRAPE implementation, we obtain pulse shapes, leading to a reset time over 4 times faster than passive reset.

  12. Performance of adaptive DD-OFDM multicore fiber links and its relation with intercore crosstalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tiago M F; Luís, Ruben S; Puttnam, Benjamin J; Cartaxo, Adolfo V T; Awaji, Yoshinari; Wada, Naoya

    2017-07-10

    Adaptive direct-detection (DD) orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is proposed to guarantee signal quality over time in weakly-coupled homogenous multicore fiber (MCFs) links impaired by stochastic intercore crosstalk (ICXT). For the first time, the received electrical power of the ICXT and the performance of the adaptive DD-OFDM MCF link are experimentally monitored quasi-simultaneously over a 210 hour period. Experimental results show that the time evolution of the error vector magnitude due to the ICXT can be suitably estimated from the normalized power of the detected crosstalk. The detected crosstalk results from the beating between the carrier in the test core and ICXT originating from the carrier and modulated signal from interfering core. The results show that the operation of DD-OFDM systems employing fixed modulation can be severely impaired by the presence of ICXT that may unpredictable vary in both power and frequency. The system may suffer from deleterious impact of moderate ICXT levels over a time duration of several hours or from peak ICXT levels occurring over a number of minutes. Such power fluctuations can lead to large variations in bit error ratio (BER) for static modulation schemes. Here, we show that BER fluctuations may be minimized by the use of adaptive modulation techniques and that in particular, the adaptive OFDM is a viable solution to guarantee link quality in MCF-based systems. An experimental model of an adaptive DD-OFDM MCF link shows an average throughput of 12 Gb/s that represents a reduction of only 9% compared to the maximum throughput measured without ICXT and an improvement of 23% relative to throughput obtained with static modulation.

  13. Endurance Enhancement and High Speed Set/Reset of 50 nm Generation HfO2 Based Resistive Random Access Memory Cell by Intelligent Set/Reset Pulse Shape Optimization and Verify Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Kazuhide; Miyaji, Kousuke; Johguchi, Koh; Takeuchi, Ken

    2012-02-01

    This paper proposes a verify-programming method for the resistive random access memory (ReRAM) cell which achieves a 50-times higher endurance and a fast set and reset compared with the conventional method. The proposed verify-programming method uses the incremental pulse width with turnback (IPWWT) for the reset and the incremental voltage with turnback (IVWT) for the set. With the combination of IPWWT reset and IVWT set, the endurance-cycle increases from 48 ×103 to 2444 ×103 cycles. Furthermore, the measured data retention-time after 20 ×103 set/reset cycles is estimated to be 10 years. Additionally, the filamentary based physical model is proposed to explain the set/reset failure mechanism with various set/reset pulse shapes. The reset pulse width and set voltage correspond to the width and length of the conductive-filament, respectively. Consequently, since the proposed IPWWT and IVWT recover set and reset failures of ReRAM cells, the endurance-cycles are improved.

  14. Tuvan-Mongolian relations and links under the People’s Republic of Tuva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubov K. Hertek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the links and relations between Tuva and Mongolia during the two decades of People’s Republic of Tuva (1921-1944. Although some aspects of these relations have been studied by a number of Russian, Mongolian and Chinese scholars, they have so far failed to outline their general tendencies. In this article, we aim to study the Tuvan-Mongolian relations in the PRT period in the light of new archival materials, which will help us trace the main stages of their development and characterize the specific features of each stage. The first stage (1921-1925 opens with the establishment of Tuvan statehood and its non-recognition by Mongolia. Tuvan lamas and noyons retained their links to the highest-profile Mongolian clergy and the rulers of Mongolian aimags in the borderlands. The second stage (1926–1929 begins with the changes in leadership of both states, which led to PRT being officially recognized by the Mongolian People’s Republic. The recognition was followed by signing a Treaty of Friendship between the two states and the restoration of cultural links, given that traditional culture and the Mongolian written language still prevailed in Tuva. We have reconstructed a full list of Tuvan diplomatic envoys in Mongolia and Mongolian envoys in Tuva. The third stage (1930–1944 was marked by the victory of the political left in both Tuva and Mongolia. The new leaders of both states had been educated in Moscow, in Communist University of the Toilers of the East. This helped establish what was deemed ‘truly revolutionary mutual relations’ and build up an interparty network. Indirectly, it also helped enhance economic, trade and cultural links. Our study was based, among other sources, on archival documents from the State Archive of the Republic of Tuva, the research archive of Tuva Institute for Humanities and Applied Socioeconomic Studies, and some published sources from the Mongolian Ministry of Foreign Affairs’ archive

  15. Linking carbon and water relations to drought-induced mortality in Pinus flexilis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Keith; Germino, Matthew J; Kueppers, Lara M; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Mitton, Jeffry

    2015-07-01

    Survival of tree seedlings at high elevations has been shown to be limited by thermal constraints on carbon balance, but it is unknown if carbon relations also limit seedling survival at lower elevations, where water relations may be more important. We measured and modeled carbon fluxes and water relations in first-year Pinus flexilis seedlings in garden plots just beyond the warm edge of their natural range, and compared these with dry-mass gain and survival across two summers. We hypothesized that mortality in these seedlings would be associated with declines in water relations, more so than with carbon-balance limitations. Rather than gradual declines in survivorship across growing seasons, we observed sharp, large-scale mortality episodes that occurred once volumetric soil-moisture content dropped below 10%. By this point, seedling water potentials had decreased below -5 MPa, seedling hydraulic conductivity had decreased by 90% and seedling hydraulic resistance had increased by >900%. Additionally, non-structural carbohydrates accumulated in aboveground tissues at the end of both summers, suggesting impairments in phloem-transport from needles to roots. This resulted in low carbohydrate concentrations in roots, which likely impaired root growth and water uptake at the time of critically low soil moisture. While photosynthesis and respiration on a leaf area basis remained high until critical hydraulic thresholds were exceeded, modeled seedling gross primary productivity declined steadily throughout the summers. At the time of mortality, modeled productivity was insufficient to support seedling biomass-gain rates, metabolism and secondary costs. Thus the large-scale mortality events that we observed near the end of each summer were most directly linked with acute, episodic declines in plant hydraulic function that were linked with important changes in whole-seedling carbon relations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved

  16. Cancer-related inflammation, the seventh hallmark of cancer: links to genetic instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colotta, Francesco; Allavena, Paola; Sica, Antonio; Garlanda, Cecilia; Mantovani, Alberto

    2009-07-01

    Inflammatory conditions in selected organs increase the risk of cancer. An inflammatory component is present also in the microenvironment of tumors that are not epidemiologically related to inflammation. Recent studies have begun to unravel molecular pathways linking inflammation and cancer. In the tumor microenvironment, smoldering inflammation contributes to proliferation and survival of malignant cells, angiogenesis, metastasis, subversion of adaptive immunity, reduced response to hormones and chemotherapeutic agents. Recent data suggest that an additional mechanism involved in cancer-related inflammation (CRI) is induction of genetic instability by inflammatory mediators, leading to accumulation of random genetic alterations in cancer cells. In a seminal contribution, Hanahan and Weinberg [(2000) Cell, 100, 57-70] identified the six hallmarks of cancer. We surmise that CRI represents the seventh hallmark.

  17. UVA-induced reset of hydroxyl radical ultradian rhythm improves temporal lipid production in Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Ranjini; Suraishkumar, G K

    2014-01-01

    We report for the first time that the endogenous, pseudo-steady-state, specific intracellular levels of the hydroxyl radical (si-OH) oscillate in an ultradian fashion (model system: the microalga, Chlorella vulgaris), and also characterize the various rhythm parameters. The ultradian rhythm in the endogenous levels of the si-OH occurred with an approximately 6 h period in the daily cycle of light and darkness. Further, we expected that the rhythm reset to a shorter period could rapidly switch the cellular redox states that could favor lipid accumulation. We reset the endogenous rhythm through entrainment with UVA radiation, and generated two new ultradian rhythms with periods of approximately 2.97 h and 3.8 h in the light phase and dark phase, respectively. The reset increased the window of maximum lipid accumulation from 6 h to 12 h concomitant with the onset of the ultradian rhythms. Further, the saturated fatty acid content increased approximately to 80% of total lipid content, corresponding to the peak maxima of the hydroxyl radical levels in the reset rhythm. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  18. Identification of partial resetting using De as a function of illumination time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.M.; Singarayer, J.S.; Ward, S.; Stokes, S.

    2003-01-01

    Modern age samples from various depositional environments were examined for signal resetting. For 19 modern aeolian/beach samples all D e values obtained were e e values were e as a function of illumination (OSL measurement) time (D e (t)) plots were examined for all samples. Based on previous laboratory experiments, increases in D e (t) were expected for partially reset samples, and constant D e (t) for fully reset samples. All aeolian samples, both modern age and additional 'young' samples ( e (t) while all modern, non-zero D e , fluvial/colluvial samples showed increasing D e (t). 'Replacement plots', where a regenerated signal is substituted for the natural, yielded constant (flat) D e (t). These findings support strongly the use of D e (t) as a method of identifying incomplete resetting in fluvial samples. Potential complicating factors, such as illumination (bleaching) spectrum, thermal instability and component composition are discussed and a series of internal checks on the applicability of the D e (t) for each individual aliquot/grain level are outlined

  19. Distinction between added-energy and phase-resetting mechanisms in non-invasively detected somatosensory evoked responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedele, T; Scheer, H-J; Burghoff, M; Waterstraat, G; Nikulin, V V; Curio, G

    2013-01-01

    Non-invasively recorded averaged event-related potentials (ERP) represent a convenient opportunity to investigate human brain perceptive and cognitive processes. Nevertheless, generative ERP mechanisms are still debated. Two previous approaches have been contested in the past: the added-energy model in which the response raises independently from the ongoing background activity, and the phase-reset model, based on stimulus-driven synchronization of oscillatory ongoing activity. Many criteria for the distinction of these two models have been proposed, but there is no definitive methodology to disentangle them, owing also to the limited information at the single trial level. Here, we propose a new approach combining low-noise EEG technology and multivariate decomposition techniques. We present theoretical analyses based on simulated data and identify in high-frequency somatosensory evoked responses an optimal target for the distinction between the two mechanisms.

  20. Physical Activity and Telomere Biology: Exploring the Link with Aging-Related Disease Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T. Ludlow

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is associated with reduced risk of several age-related diseases as well as with increased longevity in both rodents and humans. Though these associations are well established, evidence of the molecular and cellular factors associated with reduced disease risk and increased longevity resulting from physical activity is sparse. A long-standing hypothesis of aging is the telomere hypothesis: as a cell divides, telomeres shorten resulting eventually in replicative senescence and an aged phenotype. Several reports have recently associated telomeres and telomere-related proteins to diseases associated with physical inactivity and aging including cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, and hypertension. Interestingly several reports have also shown that longer telomeres are associated with higher physical activity levels, indicating a potential mechanistic link between physical activity, reduced age-related disease risk, and longevity. The primary purpose of this review is to discuss the potential importance of physical activity in telomere biology in the context of inactivity- and age-related diseases. A secondary purpose is to explore potential mechanisms and important avenues for future research in the field of telomeres and diseases associated with physical inactivity and aging.

  1. College drinking behaviors: mediational links between parenting styles, impulse control, and alcohol-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A

    2006-06-01

    Mediational links between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), impulsiveness (general control), drinking control (specific control), and alcohol use and abuse were tested. A pattern-mixture approach (for modeling non-ignorable missing data) with multiple-group structural equation models with 421 (206 female, 215 male) college students was used. Gender was examined as a potential moderator of parenting styles on control processes related to drinking. Specifically, the parent-child gender match was found to have implications for increased levels of impulsiveness (a significant mediator of parenting effects on drinking control). These findings suggest that a parent with a permissive parenting style who is the same gender as the respondent can directly influence control processes and indirectly influence alcohol use and abuse.

  2. Testing links between childhood positive peer relations and externalizing outcomes through a randomized controlled intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witvliet, Miranda; van Lier, Pol A C; Cuijpers, Pim; Koot, Hans M

    2009-10-01

    In this study, the authors used a randomized controlled trial to explore the link between having positive peer relations and externalizing outcomes in 758 children followed from kindergarten to the end of 2nd grade. Children were randomly assigned to the Good Behavior Game (GBG), a universal classroom-based preventive intervention, or a control condition. Children's acceptance by peers, their number of mutual friends, and their proximity to others were assessed annually through peer ratings. Externalizing behavior was annually rated by teachers. Reductions in children's externalizing behavior and improvements in positive peer relations were found among GBG children, as compared with control-group children. Reductions in externalizing behavior appeared to be partly mediated by the improvements in peer acceptance. This mediating role of peer acceptance was found for boys only. The results suggest that positive peer relations are not just markers, but they are environmental mediators of boys' externalizing behavior development. Implications for research and prevention are discussed. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Sagittal synostosis in X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets and related diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currarino, Guido [Texas Scottish Rite Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2007-08-15

    The recent observations of two new cases of X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets associated with premature closure of the sagittal suture prompted a review of similar cases seen in this institution. To review the clinical records and skull radiographs of 28 children with hypophosphatemic rickets in order to investigate the frequency and type of craniosynostosis and other cranial vault changes seen in these conditions and to review the literature for relevant findings. Clinical and imaging records were reviewed on 28 patients with hypophosphatemic rickets, all younger than 18 years. Most patients had X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets and a few had autosomal-dominant hypophosphatemic rickets or were non-familial cases. Of the 28 patients, 13 had sagittal synostosis. Dolichocephaly was present in ten patients. The configuration of the cranial vault in some of these ten patients with dolichocephaly varied somewhat from that seen in nonsyndromic sagittal synostosis. In one patient, a Chiari I malformation was demonstrated by MRI. In another patient with increased intracranial pressure the sagittal suture closure was associated with lambdoidal synostosis. Dolichocephaly was not present in three patients, suggesting that the synostosis started later than in the other patients, probably in the second year of life, a period of slower brain growth than in the first year. The two patients in this group of three showed thickening and sclerosis of the cranial vault of uncertain etiology. There is an increased risk of sagittal synostosis in hypophosphatemic rickets and related diseases in children. The appearance of the cranial vault in this type of synostosis can vary from that seen in nonsyndromic synostosis. In this setting, careful clinical and imaging follow-up is warranted. (orig.)

  4. Sagittal synostosis in X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets and related diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currarino, Guido

    2007-01-01

    The recent observations of two new cases of X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets associated with premature closure of the sagittal suture prompted a review of similar cases seen in this institution. To review the clinical records and skull radiographs of 28 children with hypophosphatemic rickets in order to investigate the frequency and type of craniosynostosis and other cranial vault changes seen in these conditions and to review the literature for relevant findings. Clinical and imaging records were reviewed on 28 patients with hypophosphatemic rickets, all younger than 18 years. Most patients had X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets and a few had autosomal-dominant hypophosphatemic rickets or were non-familial cases. Of the 28 patients, 13 had sagittal synostosis. Dolichocephaly was present in ten patients. The configuration of the cranial vault in some of these ten patients with dolichocephaly varied somewhat from that seen in nonsyndromic sagittal synostosis. In one patient, a Chiari I malformation was demonstrated by MRI. In another patient with increased intracranial pressure the sagittal suture closure was associated with lambdoidal synostosis. Dolichocephaly was not present in three patients, suggesting that the synostosis started later than in the other patients, probably in the second year of life, a period of slower brain growth than in the first year. The two patients in this group of three showed thickening and sclerosis of the cranial vault of uncertain etiology. There is an increased risk of sagittal synostosis in hypophosphatemic rickets and related diseases in children. The appearance of the cranial vault in this type of synostosis can vary from that seen in nonsyndromic synostosis. In this setting, careful clinical and imaging follow-up is warranted. (orig.)

  5. Gender-specific mediational links between parenting styles, parental monitoring, impulsiveness, drinking control, and alcohol-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; King, Kevin M; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A; Ulloa, Emilio C; Moses, Jennifer M Filson

    2011-03-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that traits may dynamically change as conditions change. One possible mechanism that may influence impulsiveness is parental monitoring. Parental monitoring reflects a knowledge regarding one's offspring's whereabouts and social connections. The aim of this investigation was to examine potential gender-specific parental influences to impulsiveness (general behavioral control), control over one's own drinking (specific behavioral control), and alcohol-related problems among individuals in a period of emerging adulthood. Direct and mediational links between parenting styles (permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative), parental monitoring, impulsiveness, drinking control, and alcohol-related problems were investigated. A multiple-group, SEM model with (316 women, 265 men) university students was examined. In general, the overall pattern among male and female respondents was distinct. For daughters, perceptions of a permissive father were indirectly linked to more alcohol-related problems through lower levels of monitoring by fathers and more impulsive symptoms. Perceptions of an authoritative father were also indirectly linked to fewer impulsive symptoms through higher levels of monitoring by fathers among daughters. For men, perceptions of a permissive mother were indirectly linked to more alcohol-related problems through lower levels of monitoring by mothers and more impulsive symptoms. For sons, perceptions of mother authoritativeness were indirectly linked to fewer alcohol-related problems through more monitoring by mothers and fewer impulsive symptoms. Monitoring by an opposite-gender parent mediated the link between parenting styles (i.e., permissive, authoritative) on impulsiveness.

  6. Shame and Alienation Related to Child Maltreatment: Links to Symptoms Across Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock Fenerci, Rebecca L; DePrince, Anne P

    2017-11-20

    The current study investigated associations between appraisals of shame and alienation related to mothers' own experiences of child maltreatment and symptoms across generations-in mothers themselves as well as their toddler/preschool-aged children. Mothers who survived maltreatment (N = 113) with a child between the ages of 2 and 5 were recruited to participate in an online study on Maternal Coping, Attachment and Health. Mother participants completed a series of questionnaires, including those that asked about posttrauma appraisals of their own maltreatment experiences as well as their child's and their own mental health symptoms. When taking into account other posttrauma appraisals (e.g., fear, betrayal, anger, self-blame), maternal shame and alienation were both significantly associated with maternal trauma-related distress (a composite of anxiety, PTSD, dissociation, and depressive symptoms). Maternal shame was also significantly linked to child internalizing symptoms and externalizing symptoms. Lower levels of fear and higher levels of betrayal were associated with externalizing symptoms as well. Maternal trauma-related distress mediated the relationship between maternal shame and child externalizing symptoms, and partially mediated the relationship between shame and internalizing symptoms. This study is the first of its kind to examine the role of posttrauma appraisals among mother survivors of maltreatment as they relate to symptoms in their young children. Although additional research is necessary, findings suggest that mothers' posttrauma appraisals, such as shame, could be a relevant factor in the early social-emotional development of survivors' children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Linking families and facilities for care at birth: What works to avert intrapartum-related deaths?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anne CC; Lawn, Joy E.; Cousens, Simon; Kumar, Vishwajeet; Osrin, David; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Wall, Steven N.; Nandakumar, Allyala K.; Syed, Uzma; Darmstadt, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Delays in receiving effective care during labor and at birth may be fatal for the mother and fetus, contributing to 2 million annual intrapartum stillbirths and intrapartum-related neonatal deaths each year. Objective We present a systematic review of strategies to link families and facilities, including community mobilization, financial incentives, emergency referral and transport systems, prenatal risk screening, and maternity waiting homes. Results There is moderate quality evidence that community mobilization with high levels of community engagement can increase institutional births and significantly reduce perinatal and early neonatal mortality. Meta-analysis showed a doubling of skilled birth attendance and a 35% reduction in early neonatal mortality. However, no data are available on intrapartum-specific outcomes. Evidence is limited, but promising, that financial incentive schemes and community referral/transport systems may increase rates of skilled birth attendance and emergency obstetric care utilization; however, impact on mortality is unknown. Current evidence for maternity waiting homes and risk screening is low quality. Conclusions Empowering communities is an important strategy to reduce the large burden of intrapartum complications. Innovations are needed to bring the poor closer to obstetric care, such as financial incentives and cell phone technology. New questions need to be asked of “old” strategies such as risk screening and maternity waiting homes. The effect of all of these strategies on maternal and perinatal mortality, particularly intrapartum-related outcomes, requires further evaluation. PMID:19815201

  8. Synaptic Effects of Dopamine Breakdown and Their Relation to Schizophrenia-Linked Working Memory Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Bolton

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Working memory is the ability to hold information “online” over a time delay in order to perform a task. This kind of memory is encoded in the brain by persistent neural activity that outlasts the presentation of a stimulus. Patients with schizophrenia perform poorly in working memory tasks that require the brief memory of a target location in space. This deficit indicates that persistent neural activity related to spatial locations may be impaired in the disease. At the circuit level, many studies have shown that NMDA receptors and the dopamine system are involved in both schizophrenia pathology and working memory-related persistent activity. In this Hypothesis and Theory article, we examine the possible connection between NMDA receptors, the dopamine system, and schizophrenia-linked working memory deficits. In particular, we focus on the dopamine breakdown product homocysteine (HCY, which is consistently elevated in schizophrenia patients. Our previous studies have shown that HCY strongly reduces the desensitization of NMDA currents. Here, we show that HCY likely affects NMDA receptors in brain regions that support working memory; this is because these areas favor dopamine breakdown over transport to clear dopamine from synapses. Finally, within the context of two NMDA-based computational models of working memory, we suggest a mechanism by which HCY could give rise to the working memory deficits observed in schizophrenia patients.

  9. The Link between Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Relation to Atmospheric Haze Pollution in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pretto, Laura; Acreman, Stephen; Ashfold, Matthew J.; Mohankumar, Suresh K.; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa

    2015-01-01

    Transboundary haze episodes caused by seasonal forest fires have become a recurrent phenomenon in Southeast Asia, with serious environmental, economic, and public health implications. Here we present a cross-sectional survey conducted among people in Kuala Lumpur and surrounds to assess the links between knowledge, attitudes, and practices in relation to the transboundary haze episodes. Of 305 respondents, 125 were amateur athletes participating in a duathlon event and the remainder were surveyed in an inner-city shopping mall. Across the whole sample, people who possessed more factual information about the haze phenomenon showed significantly higher levels of concern. Duathletes were more knowledgeable than non-duathletes and also more concerned about the negative effects of haze, especially on health. For all people who regularly practice outdoor sports (including people interviewed at the shopping mall), higher levels of knowledge and concerned attitudes translated into a greater likelihood of engaging in protective practices, such as cancelling their outdoor training sessions, while those with greater knowledge were more likely to check the relevant air pollution index on a daily basis. Our results indicate that the provision of accurate and timely information about air quality to residents will translate into beneficial practices, at least among particularly exposed individuals, such as amateur athletes who regularly practice outdoor sports. PMID:26646896

  10. Link between Work-Related Prosocial Orientation and Professional Capability of Employees: A Preliminary Exploratory Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Adamska-Chudzińska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the link between work-related prosocial orientation of organizations and professional capabilities of employees suggesting that the prosocial orientation impacts the level of professional capability and proactive engagement. The article applies three main methods: literature studies, in-depth questionnaire surveys and multi-person method of assessment. The applied sub-measures for both leading constructs were formed and collinearity was tested using linear correlation coefficient. In prosocial environments psychological predispositions as essential aspects of personality and determinants of human behaviour, activate and stimulate professional activity. The implementation of a prosocial orientation leads to significant growth in professional capability and can influence employees’ entrepreneurial behaviour. An important aspect of employee proactive behaviour is building an internal policy based on prosocial mechanisms. Effective stimulation of prosocial and proactive attitudes and actions requires the creation of an environment where activities are realized alongside social values and with respect for individual personal determinants of activity. Considerations and findings presented in the paper contribute to the area of determinants of effective and lasting proactive employee development. The use of the multi-person method can be considered valuable in behavioural research in entrepreneurship.

  11. The Link between Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Relation to Atmospheric Haze Pollution in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura De Pretto

    Full Text Available Transboundary haze episodes caused by seasonal forest fires have become a recurrent phenomenon in Southeast Asia, with serious environmental, economic, and public health implications. Here we present a cross-sectional survey conducted among people in Kuala Lumpur and surrounds to assess the links between knowledge, attitudes, and practices in relation to the transboundary haze episodes. Of 305 respondents, 125 were amateur athletes participating in a duathlon event and the remainder were surveyed in an inner-city shopping mall. Across the whole sample, people who possessed more factual information about the haze phenomenon showed significantly higher levels of concern. Duathletes were more knowledgeable than non-duathletes and also more concerned about the negative effects of haze, especially on health. For all people who regularly practice outdoor sports (including people interviewed at the shopping mall, higher levels of knowledge and concerned attitudes translated into a greater likelihood of engaging in protective practices, such as cancelling their outdoor training sessions, while those with greater knowledge were more likely to check the relevant air pollution index on a daily basis. Our results indicate that the provision of accurate and timely information about air quality to residents will translate into beneficial practices, at least among particularly exposed individuals, such as amateur athletes who regularly practice outdoor sports.

  12. The Link between Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Relation to Atmospheric Haze Pollution in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pretto, Laura; Acreman, Stephen; Ashfold, Matthew J; Mohankumar, Suresh K; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa

    2015-01-01

    Transboundary haze episodes caused by seasonal forest fires have become a recurrent phenomenon in Southeast Asia, with serious environmental, economic, and public health implications. Here we present a cross-sectional survey conducted among people in Kuala Lumpur and surrounds to assess the links between knowledge, attitudes, and practices in relation to the transboundary haze episodes. Of 305 respondents, 125 were amateur athletes participating in a duathlon event and the remainder were surveyed in an inner-city shopping mall. Across the whole sample, people who possessed more factual information about the haze phenomenon showed significantly higher levels of concern. Duathletes were more knowledgeable than non-duathletes and also more concerned about the negative effects of haze, especially on health. For all people who regularly practice outdoor sports (including people interviewed at the shopping mall), higher levels of knowledge and concerned attitudes translated into a greater likelihood of engaging in protective practices, such as cancelling their outdoor training sessions, while those with greater knowledge were more likely to check the relevant air pollution index on a daily basis. Our results indicate that the provision of accurate and timely information about air quality to residents will translate into beneficial practices, at least among particularly exposed individuals, such as amateur athletes who regularly practice outdoor sports.

  13. Transient resetting: a novel mechanism for synchrony and its biological examples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunguang Li

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of synchronization in biological systems is essential for the understanding of the rhythmic phenomena of living organisms at both molecular and cellular levels. In this paper, by using simple dynamical systems theory, we present a novel mechanism, named transient resetting, for the synchronization of uncoupled biological oscillators with stimuli. This mechanism not only can unify and extend many existing results on (deterministic and stochastic stimulus-induced synchrony, but also may actually play an important role in biological rhythms. We argue that transient resetting is a possible mechanism for the synchronization in many biological organisms, which might also be further used in the medical therapy of rhythmic disorders. Examples of the synchronization of neural and circadian oscillators as well as a chaotic neuron model are presented to verify our hypothesis.

  14. Persistent resetting of the cerebral oxygen/glucose uptake ratio by brain activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P L; Hasselbalch, S G; Hagemann, L P

    1995-01-01

    fraction of the activation-induced excess glucose uptake. These data confirm earlier reports that brain activation can induce resetting of the cerebral oxygen/glucose consumption ratio, and indicate that the resetting persists for a long period after cerebral activation has been terminated and physiologic......Global cerebral blood flow (CBF), global cerebral metabolic rates for oxygen (CMRO2), and for glucose (CMRglc), and lactate efflux were measured during rest and during cerebral activation induced by the Wisconsin card sorting test. Measurements were performed in healthy volunteers using the Kety......-Schmidt technique. Global CMRO2 was unchanged during cerebral activation, whereas global CBF and global CMRglc both increased by 12%, reducing the molar ratio of oxygen to glucose consumption from 6.0 during baseline conditions to 5.4 during activation. Data obtained in the period following cerebral activation...

  15. Continuous-time random walks with reset events. Historical background and new perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Miquel; Masó-Puigdellosas, Axel; Villarroel, Javier

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we consider a stochastic process that may experience random reset events which relocate the system to its starting position. We focus our attention on a one-dimensional, monotonic continuous-time random walk with a constant drift: the process moves in a fixed direction between the reset events, either by the effect of the random jumps, or by the action of a deterministic bias. However, the orientation of its motion is randomly determined after each restart. As a result of these alternating dynamics, interesting properties do emerge. General formulas for the propagator as well as for two extreme statistics, the survival probability and the mean first-passage time, are also derived. The rigor of these analytical results is verified by numerical estimations, for particular but illuminating examples.

  16. Optimization of a PCRAM Chip for high-speed read and highly reliable reset operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyun; Chen, Houpeng; Li, Xi; Wang, Qian; Fan, Xi; Hu, Jiajun; Lei, Yu; Zhang, Qi; Tian, Zhen; Song, Zhitang

    2016-10-01

    The widely used traditional Flash memory suffers from its performance limits such as its serious crosstalk problems, and increasing complexity of floating gate scaling. Phase change random access memory (PCRAM) becomes one of the most potential nonvolatile memories among the new memory techniques. In this paper, a 1M-bit PCRAM chip is designed based on the SMIC 40nm CMOS technology. Focusing on the read and write performance, two new circuits with high-speed read operation and highly reliable reset operation are proposed. The high-speed read circuit effectively reduces the reading time from 74ns to 40ns. The double-mode reset circuit improves the chip yield. This 1M-bit PCRAM chip has been simulated on cadence. After layout design is completed, the chip will be taped out for post-test.

  17. DIA1R is an X-linked gene related to Deleted In Autism-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhari Aziz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDS are frequently occurring disorders diagnosed by deficits in three core functional areas: social skills, communication, and behaviours and/or interests. Mental retardation frequently accompanies the most severe forms of ASDs, while overall ASDs are more commonly diagnosed in males. Most ASDs have a genetic origin and one gene recently implicated in the etiology of autism is the Deleted-In-Autism-1 (DIA1 gene. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a bioinformatics-based approach, we have identified a human gene closely related to DIA1, we term DIA1R (DIA1-Related. While DIA1 is autosomal (chromosome 3, position 3q24, DIA1R localizes to the X chromosome at position Xp11.3 and is known to escape X-inactivation. The gene products are of similar size, with DIA1 encoding 430, and DIA1R 433, residues. At the amino acid level, DIA1 and DIA1R are 62% similar overall (28% identical, and both encode signal peptides for targeting to the secretory pathway. Both genes are ubiquitously expressed, including in fetal and adult brain tissue. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Examination of published literature revealed point mutations in DIA1R are associated with X-linked mental retardation (XLMR and DIA1R deletion is associated with syndromes with ASD-like traits and/or XLMR. Together, these results support a model where the DIA1 and DIA1R gene products regulate molecular traffic through the cellular secretory pathway or affect the function of secreted factors, and functional deficits cause disorders with ASD-like symptoms and/or mental retardation.

  18. Nonlinear reset integrator control design: Application to the active suspension control of vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Acho Zuppa, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    We present an unexampled reset integrator control design based on the Clegg integrator system. Using an appropriate mathematical model of our Clegg integrator controller, stability proof of the closed-loop system applied to the vibration control problem of a second-order system is shown without invoking hybrid system theory. Furthermore, we illustrate the pplicability of our controller, from the numerical experiment point of view, to the suspension vibration control of vehicles.

  19. The Inspection Process of the Army Reset Program for Equipment for Units Returning from Operation Iraqi Freedom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    The subject of this report directly applies to the work of DoD civilian and military personnel responsible for the reset of equipment provided to the warfighter deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom...

  20. Morning and Evening Oscillators Cooperate to Reset Circadian Behavior in Response to Light Input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Lamba

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Light is a crucial input for circadian clocks. In Drosophila, short light exposure can robustly shift the phase of circadian behavior. The model for this resetting posits that circadian photoreception is cell autonomous: CRYPTOCHROME senses light, binds to TIMELESS (TIM, and promotes its degradation, which is mediated by JETLAG (JET. However, it was recently proposed that interactions between circadian neurons are also required for phase resetting. We identify two groups of neurons critical for circadian photoreception: the morning (M and the evening (E oscillators. These neurons work synergistically to reset rhythmic behavior. JET promotes acute TIM degradation cell autonomously in M and E oscillators but also nonautonomously in E oscillators when expressed in M oscillators. Thus, upon light exposure, the M oscillators communicate with the E oscillators. Because the M oscillators drive circadian behavior, they must also receive inputs from the E oscillators. Hence, although photic TIM degradation is largely cell autonomous, neural cooperation between M and E oscillators is critical for circadian behavioral photoresponses.

  1. Rapid resetting of human peripheral clocks by phototherapy during simulated night shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Marc; Boudreau, Philippe; Cermakian, Nicolas; Boivin, Diane B

    2017-11-24

    A majority of night shift workers have their circadian rhythms misaligned to their atypical schedule. While bright light exposure at night is known to reset the human central circadian clock, the behavior of peripheral clocks under conditions of shift work is more elusive. The aim of the present study was to quantify the resetting effects of bright light exposure on both central (plasma cortisol and melatonin) and peripheral clocks markers (clock gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, PBMCs) in subjects living at night. Eighteen healthy subjects were enrolled to either a control (dim light) or a bright light group. Blood was sampled at baseline and on the 4 th day of simulated night shift. In response to a night-oriented schedule, the phase of PER1 and BMAL1 rhythms in PBMCs was delayed by ~2.5-3 h (P shift was observed for the other clock genes and the central markers. Three cycles of 8-h bright light induced significant phase delays (P night-oriented schedule and a rapid resetting effect of nocturnal bright light exposure on peripheral clocks.

  2. RESETTING AND REINVENTING PRINT MEDIA: LEARNING FROM COLLEGE MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa Jackson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A readership study, employing an online survey (n = 275, was conducted to determine the reading preferences of students, faculty, staff, and alumni for the student magazine and web site of a technological university. The print version (53% was preferred over the online version (22%, with 25% having no preference. Internet and social media were the preferred news media with Facebook dominating all other sites. Few had downloaded the app (7%, despite the fact that 92% owned smartphones. Attitudes toward news were positive and predictive of reading specific sections. Reading the technology section was significantly related to being “part of my daily habit,” “part of my civic duty,” “helpful in making choices,” and negatively related to “inconvenient.” Additional qualitative responses are discussed.

  3. Study on the Workspace of a 6-DOF Parallel Topology Robot Related to Binary Link Lengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calin-Octavian Miclosina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study on the workspace of a parallel topology robot with the structure FP3+6•SPS+MP3. The variable parameters are the binary link lengths, from both upper and lower levels, and the driving kinematical joint strokes. The workspace boundary is determined by SolidWorks software simulations. For different binary link lengths, workspace volume is determined and sections through the workspace are presented.

  4. Water relations link carbon and oxygen isotope discrimination to phloem sap sugar concentration in eucalyptus globulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cernusak, L.A.; Farquhar, G.D.; Arthur, D.J; Pate, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The carbon isotope ratio of phloem sap sugars has been previously observed to correlate strongly with the phloem sap sugar concentration in Eucalyptus globulus. We hypothesized that the correspondence between these two parameters results from co-linearity in their responses to variation in plant water potential. Carbon isotope discrimination is expected to decrease with decreasing plant water potential due to the influence of stomatal conductance on the ratio of intercellular to ambient CO 2 , concentrations (c 1 /c a ). Conversely, we expected the phloem sap sugar concentration to increase with decreasing plant water potential, thereby maintaining positive turgor pressure within the sieve tubes. The study comprised 40 individual Eucalyptus globulus trees growing in three plantations situated on opposing ends of a rainfall gradient in southwestern Australia. A strong correlation was observed between the carbon isotope ratio in phloem sap sugars and phloem sap sugar concentration. Carbon isotope discrimination correlated positively with shoot water potential, whereas phloem sap sugar concentration correlated negatively with shoot water potential. The relationship between carbon isotope discrimination measured in phloem sap sugars collected from the stem and c 1 /c a measured instantaneously on subtending leaves was close to that theoretically predicted. Accordingly, a strong, negative relationship was observed between instantaneous c 1 /c a and the phloem sap sugar concentration. Oxygen isotope discrimination in phloem sap sugars also correlated strongly with phloem sap sugar concentration. A theoretical model suggested that the observed variation in stomatal conductance was sufficient to account for the variation observed in oxygen isotope discrimination across the study. Results strongly support the contention that water relations form a mechanistic link between phloem sap sugar concentration and both instantaneous and integrated measures of the

  5. The Coordination Dynamics of Observational Learning: Relative Motion Direction and Relative Phase as Informational Content Linking Action-Perception to Action-Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, John J

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of this chapter is to merge together the visual perception perspective of observational learning and the coordination dynamics theory of pattern formation in perception and action. Emphasis is placed on identifying movement features that constrain and inform action-perception and action-production processes. Two sources of visual information are examined, relative motion direction and relative phase. The visual perception perspective states that the topological features of relative motion between limbs and joints remains invariant across an actor's motion and therefore are available for pickup by an observer. Relative phase has been put forth as an informational variable that links perception to action within the coordination dynamics theory. A primary assumption of the coordination dynamics approach is that environmental information is meaningful only in terms of the behavior it modifies. Across a series of single limb tasks and bimanual tasks it is shown that the relative motion and relative phase between limbs and joints is picked up through visual processes and supports observational learning of motor skills. Moreover, internal estimations of motor skill proficiency and competency are linked to the informational content found in relative motion and relative phase. Thus, the chapter links action to perception and vice versa and also links cognitive evaluations to the coordination dynamics that support action-perception and action-production processes.

  6. National dental waitlists: what would it take to reset to zero?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudko, Yevgeni; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2016-06-01

    Objective Over the years, long public dental waitlists across Australia have received much attention from the media. The issue for eligible patients, namely a further deterioration of dental health because of not being able to address dental concerns relatively quickly, has been the subject of several state and Federal initiatives. The present study provides a cost model for eliminating public dental waitlists across Australia and compares these results with the cost of contracting out public dental care to private clinics. Methods Waitlist data from across Australia were collected from publicly available sources and confirmed through direct communication with each individual State or Territory Dental Health body. Average costs associated with employing key dental personnel and performance figures were used from previously published data to estimate the potential financial commitment and probable public benefits. Results The cost model suggests that, on average, it would be more than twice as expensive to contract the work out to private dental clinics as to treat eligible patients within public dental clinics. It is estimated that the cost of eliminating the legacy dental waiting lists (over 12 months) would be between A$50 and A$100million depending on the method adopted. The effort would require some 360 dental teams. Conclusion The design of the Australian public dental care system that is targeted at meeting the needs of eligible patients into the future, in addition to being effective and sustainable, must also offer a level of protection to the taxpayer. The ability to address waitlist backlog identified in the present study clearly would require a mix of service models depending on service availability at different locations. Further research is needed to optimise the mix of service providers to address community needs. What is known about the topic? Long public dental waitlists across Australia have received much attention from the media. The topic has

  7. Reactive and Proactive Subtypes of Relational and Physical Aggression in Middle Childhood: Links to Concurrent and Longitudinal Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Lindsay C.; Crick, Nicki R.

    2010-01-01

    Peer aggression in children is a serious issue that school psychologists often encounter on a daily basis. To develop a better understanding of aggression, it is important to look at specific subtypes of aggression and how they are related to adjustment difficulties. Past research has examined the links between reactive and proactive physical…

  8. Learning with LinkedIn: Students' Perceptions of Incorporating Subject-Related Blogging in an International Marketing Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galan, Nataliya; Khodabandehloo, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to report the results of implementation of blogging within a LinkedIn discussion group in an international marketing course for a multicultural group of students focusing on the students' perceptions of the subject-related blogging. Design/Methodology/ Approach: This study adopts a qualitative approach; data have been…

  9. Relational Regulation Theory : A New Approach to Explain the Link Between Perceived Social Support and Mental Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakey, Brian; Orehek, Edward

    Perceived support is consistently linked to good mental health, which is typically explained as resulting from objectively supportive actions that buffer stress. Yet this explanation has difficulty accounting for the often-observed main effects between support and mental health. Relational

  10. The Broader Context of Relational Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Predictions from Peer Pressure and Links to Psychosocial Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schad, Megan M.; Szwedo, David E.; Antonishak, Jill; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.

    2008-01-01

    The broader context of relational aggression in adolescent romantic relationships was assessed by considering the ways such aggression emerged from prior experiences of peer pressure and was linked to concurrent difficulties in psychosocial functioning. Longitudinal, multi-reporter data were obtained from 97 adolescents and their best friends at…

  11. Linking habitat selection to fitness-related traits in herbivores: the role of the energy landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan A. Long; R. T. Bowyer; Warren P. Porter; Paul Mathewson; Kevin L. Monteith; Scott L. Findholt; Brian L. Dick; John G. Kie

    2016-01-01

    Animals may partially overcome environmental constraints on fitness by behaviorally adjusting their exposure to costs and supplies of energy. Few studies, however, have linked spatiotemporal variation in the energy landscape to behaviorally mediated measures of performance that ostensibly influence individual fitness. We hypothesized that strength of selection by North...

  12. Viruses as the causative agent related to 'dampness' and the missing link between allergen exposure and onset of allergic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hersoug, Lars-Georg

    2005-01-01

    concentration and symptoms indicate a missing link between allergen exposure and onset of asthma. Respiratory viruses have been identified in up to 85% cases of asthma or exacerbations of asthma. The missing link between respiratory diseases and humid indoor climates could therefore be attributed to viruses....... The infectious effectiveness of respiratory viruses depends strongly on the environment where the viruses are spread. For respiratory viruses, survival and infectivity are dependent on temperature and relative humidity. A direct link between virus-induced inflammation and the asthmatogenic process has been...... subjects. Therefore, a humid indoor climate could also represent a higher risk for persons already sensitized to one or more allergens. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: In epidemiological studies where the relationship between moisture in the indoor climate, respiratory symptoms and exposure to allergens...

  13. Desynchronization boost by non-uniform coordinated reset stimulation in ensembles of pulse-coupled neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lücken, Leonhard; Yanchuk, Serhiy; Popovych, Oleksandr V.; Tass, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Several brain diseases are characterized by abnormal neuronal synchronization. Desynchronization of abnormal neural synchrony is theoretically compelling because of the complex dynamical mechanisms involved. We here present a novel type of coordinated reset (CR) stimulation. CR means to deliver phase resetting stimuli at different neuronal sub-populations sequentially, i.e., at times equidistantly distributed in a stimulation cycle. This uniform timing pattern seems to be intuitive and actually applies to the neural network models used for the study of CR so far. CR resets the population to an unstable cluster state from where it passes through a desynchronized transient, eventually resynchronizing if left unperturbed. In contrast, we show that the optimal stimulation times are non-uniform. Using the model of weakly pulse-coupled neurons with phase response curves, we provide an approach that enables to determine optimal stimulation timing patterns that substantially maximize the desynchronized transient time following the application of CR stimulation. This approach includes an optimization search for clusters in a low-dimensional pulse coupled map. As a consequence, model-specific non-uniformly spaced cluster states cause considerably longer desynchronization transients. Intriguingly, such a desynchronization boost with non-uniform CR stimulation can already be achieved by only slight modifications of the uniform CR timing pattern. Our results suggest that the non-uniformness of the stimulation times can be a medically valuable parameter in the calibration procedure for CR stimulation, where the latter has successfully been used in clinical and pre-clinical studies for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and tinnitus. PMID:23750134

  14. Saccadic reaction times to audiovisual stimuli show effects of oscillatory phase reset.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Diederich

    Full Text Available Initiating an eye movement towards a suddenly appearing visual target is faster when an accessory auditory stimulus occurs in close spatiotemporal vicinity. Such facilitation of saccadic reaction time (SRT is well-documented, but the exact neural mechanisms underlying the crossmodal effect remain to be elucidated. From EEG/MEG studies it has been hypothesized that coupled oscillatory activity in primary sensory cortices regulates multisensory processing. Specifically, it is assumed that the phase of an ongoing neural oscillation is shifted due to the occurrence of a sensory stimulus so that, across trials, phase values become highly consistent (phase reset. If one can identify the phase an oscillation is reset to, it is possible to predict when temporal windows of high and low excitability will occur. However, in behavioral experiments the pre-stimulus phase will be different on successive repetitions of the experimental trial, and average performance over many trials will show no signs of the modulation. Here we circumvent this problem by repeatedly presenting an auditory accessory stimulus followed by a visual target stimulus with a temporal delay varied in steps of 2 ms. Performing a discrete time series analysis on SRT as a function of the delay, we provide statistical evidence for the existence of distinct peak spectral components in the power spectrum. These frequencies, although varying across participants, fall within the beta and gamma range (20 to 40 Hz of neural oscillatory activity observed in neurophysiological studies of multisensory integration. Some evidence for high-theta/alpha activity was found as well. Our results are consistent with the phase reset hypothesis and demonstrate that it is amenable to testing by purely psychophysical methods. Thus, any theory of multisensory processes that connects specific brain states with patterns of saccadic responses should be able to account for traces of oscillatory activity in observable

  15. The RESET Mindset Model applied on decreasing antibiotic usage in dairy cattle in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, T J G M; Jansen, J; Wessels, R J

    2017-01-01

    Prudent use of antibiotics is important to prevent antibiotic resistance in humans and in animals. For this reason politicians demanded a decrease of total antibiotic use and of use of critically important antibiotics in animal husbandry in the Netherlands. In the dairy sector the use of antibiotics almost halved in the years 2009-2015, with a decrease of the use of critically important antibiotics to very low levels. To realize a sustainable decrease in antibiotic usage, the mindset towards the subject was considered crucial. Based on several models from social psychology, the RESET Mindset Model was used. This model contains the most important cues to change human behaviour, being Rules and regulations, Education and information, Social pressure, Economics, and Tools. To change behaviour of groups in order to reach a tipping point, it is of utmost importance to not choose among the different cues, but to use them all. In order to decrease antibiotic usage in dairy cattle in the Netherlands several actions, obliged as well as voluntary, were undertaken. An independent veterinary medicine authority was founded that became active for all animal sectors. In the dairy sector a national database on antibiotic usage called MediRund was developed, which made transparency and benchmarking on antibiotic usage at the national and the herd level possible. Several other activities are described, such as herd health and treatment plans, selective dry cow therapy, and the strong limitation on the use of critically important antibiotics. Antibiotic usage at the herd level, referred to as the 'antibiotic number', became an important and socially accepted herd level parameter. The actions undertaken worked through different cues, all part of the RESET Mindset Model. As such, different types of dairy farmers sensitive to different types of cues were motivated to change their behaviour. Antibiotic usage in dairy cattle in the Netherlands decreased significantly by intense

  16. The Foreign Policy of Modern China: from the Utopia of Nonpolar World to Chinese Reset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К И Аксёнова

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The author touches the strategic problem of building China's foreign policy, which in a multipolar world will soon make the country do its significative choice and find an opportunity of modernization. Successful exit strategy from the financial crisis has played a low-down trick with Beijing - the «donor of capital» image raised fears among the leading powers. So, the future of China's foreign policy will depend largely on its ability to transition to a more dynamic and flexible response to rapidly changing trends - the «reset».

  17. Inspiring students through an authentic polar science expedition: the RESEt Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattadori, Matteo

    2016-04-01

    RESEt (Research and Education Svalbard Experience www.resetsvalbard.it) is an ongoing educational project focusing mainly on polar and climate system topics. It started in 2014 and will end in 2017 with the high school diploma of the 22 students (16 y. o.) making the participant class. This class attend a school (Liceo Filzi, Rovereto, Trento. Italy) with a primary focus on disciplines like philosophy and education, rather then STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics). Nevertheless their science curricula include climate topics that are rather challenging to grasp and, at the same time, crucial for their scientific citizenship. Some questions arise: How to foster their interest in geosciences topics? How to engage them in authentic scientific knowledge? How to increase their interest in scientific university courses during their post-secondary career? RESEt project will attempt to answer these questions through the development of integrated activities distributed over the last three years of their high school cycle. The most important moment will be an educational scientific expedition at the Svalbard, an archipelago located in the Arctic. The expedition be entirely organized, planned, and directed by students. In Svalbard, students will visit the main scientific facilities devoted to climate studies including those of Italian CNR (National Research Council) and they will perform some environmental measurement using data-loggers. Students are even involved in the fundraising process to raise more than ten thousand Euros needed to for travel expenses. This work is aimed mainly at presenting some of the preliminary data collected during the RESEt project, including the fundraising aspects. The management of the RESEt project strongly relies on the experience and network gained by the abstract author during the participation to the Education and Public Outreach (EPO) program of International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2009 as well as the support of Polar

  18. Developmental Links Between Children's Working Memory and their Social Relations with Teachers and Peers in the Early School Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wilde, Amber; Koot, Hans M; van Lier, Pol A C

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the developmental links between children's working memory development and their relations with teachers and peers across 2 years of kindergarten and early elementary school. Kindergarten and first grade children, N = 1109, 50% boys, were followed across 2 school-years. Children were assessed across 3 waves, in the fall and spring of the first school-year (within school-year), and finally in the spring of the second school-year. Working memory was assessed using a visuo-spatial working memory task. The developmental links between working memory and child-reported teacher-child relationship quality (warmth and conflict) and peer-nominated likeability and friendedness were assessed using autoregressive cross-lagged models. Lower working memory scores were related to increases in teacher-child conflict and decreases in teacher-child warmth one school-year later, in addition to decreases in likeability by peers within the same school-year. Conversely, teacher-child conflict was negatively associated with the development of working memory across the studied period. Path estimates between working memory and social relational factors were similar for boys and girls. Findings show developmental links between working memory and social-relational factors and vice versa. These results suggest that children's working memory development can be fostered through pro-social relations with teachers in early elementary school children.

  19. Suspected X-linked facial dysmorphia and growth retardation in related Labrador retriever puppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierks, C; Hoffmann, H; Heinrich, F; Hellige, M; Hewicker-Trautwein, M; Distl, O

    2017-02-01

    Seven male Labrador retriever puppies from four different litters were identified with a brachycephalic-like face and skull, associated with low birth weight, severe growth retardation, and reduced abilities to crawl and suckle, which were not compatible with survival. Excessive doming of the cranium, brachygnathia superior and inferior, and an abnormally opened fontanelle were found in all affected puppies by computed tomography and at post-mortem examination. Pedigree analysis supported an X-linked recessive mode of inheritance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Temporal windows in visual processing: "prestimulus brain state" and "poststimulus phase reset" segregate visual transients on different temporal scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutz, Andreas; Weisz, Nathan; Braun, Christoph; Melcher, David

    2014-01-22

    Dynamic vision requires both stability of the current perceptual representation and sensitivity to the accumulation of sensory evidence over time. Here we study the electrophysiological signatures of this intricate balance between temporal segregation and integration in vision. Within a forward masking paradigm with short and long stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA), we manipulated the temporal overlap of the visual persistence of two successive transients. Human observers enumerated the items presented in the second target display as a measure of the informational capacity read-out from this partly temporally integrated visual percept. We observed higher β-power immediately before mask display onset in incorrect trials, in which enumeration failed due to stronger integration of mask and target visual information. This effect was timescale specific, distinguishing between segregation and integration of visual transients that were distant in time (long SOA). Conversely, for short SOA trials, mask onset evoked a stronger visual response when mask and targets were correctly segregated in time. Examination of the target-related response profile revealed the importance of an evoked α-phase reset for the segregation of those rapid visual transients. Investigating this precise mapping of the temporal relationships of visual signals onto electrophysiological responses highlights how the stream of visual information is carved up into discrete temporal windows that mediate between segregated and integrated percepts. Fragmenting the stream of visual information provides a means to stabilize perceptual events within one instant in time.

  1. Adolescents' and mothers' conflict management constellations: Links with individual and relational functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Missotten, L.; Luyckx, Koen; Vanhalst, J.; Nelemans, S.A.; Branje, S.J.T.

    2017-01-01

    In the present multi-informant study, we examined dyadic combinations of adolescent and maternal conflict management styles through stepwise latent class analysis. We investigated how these dyadic conflict classes related to adolescents' and mothers' perceptions of individual and relational

  2. Augmented brain function by coordinated reset stimulation with slowly varying sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magteld eZeitler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Several brain disorders are characterized by abnormally strong neuronal synchrony. Coordinated Reset (CR stimulation was developed to selectively counteract abnormal neuronal synchrony by desynchronization. For this, phase resetting stimuli are delivered to different subpopulations in a timely coordinated way. In neural networks with spike timing-dependent plasticity CR stimulation may eventually lead to an anti-kindling, i.e. an unlearning of abnormal synaptic connectivity and abnormal synchrony. The spatiotemporal sequence by which all stimulation sites are stimulated exactly once is called the stimulation site sequence, or briefly sequence. So far, in simulations, pre-clinical and clinical applications CR was applied either with fixed sequences or rapidly varying sequences (RVS. In this computational study we show that appropriate repetition of the sequence with occasional random switching to the next sequence may significantly improve the anti-kindling effect of CR. To this end, a sequence is applied many times before randomly switching to the next sequence. This new method is called SVS CR stimulation, i.e. CR with slowly varying sequences. In a neuronal network with strong short-range excitatory and weak long-range inhibitory dynamic couplings SVS CR stimulation turns out to be superior to CR stimulation with fixed sequences or RVS.

  3. Augmented brain function by coordinated reset stimulation with slowly varying sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitler, Magteld; Tass, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Several brain disorders are characterized by abnormally strong neuronal synchrony. Coordinated Reset (CR) stimulation was developed to selectively counteract abnormal neuronal synchrony by desynchronization. For this, phase resetting stimuli are delivered to different subpopulations in a timely coordinated way. In neural networks with spike timing-dependent plasticity CR stimulation may eventually lead to an anti-kindling, i.e., an unlearning of abnormal synaptic connectivity and abnormal synchrony. The spatiotemporal sequence by which all stimulation sites are stimulated exactly once is called the stimulation site sequence, or briefly sequence. So far, in simulations, pre-clinical and clinical applications CR was applied either with fixed sequences or rapidly varying sequences (RVS). In this computational study we show that appropriate repetition of the sequence with occasional random switching to the next sequence may significantly improve the anti-kindling effect of CR. To this end, a sequence is applied many times before randomly switching to the next sequence. This new method is called SVS CR stimulation, i.e., CR with slowly varying sequences. In a neuronal network with strong short-range excitatory and weak long-range inhibitory dynamic couplings SVS CR stimulation turns out to be superior to CR stimulation with fixed sequences or RVS.

  4. Direct and indirect links between parenting styles, self-concealment (secrets), impaired control over drinking and alcohol-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Jessica D; Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Corbin, William R; Gates, Jonathan R; Leeman, Robert F; Luk, Jeremy W; King, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Self-concealment reflects uncomfortable feelings, thoughts, and information people have about themselves that they avoid telling others (Larson & Chastain, 1990). According to Larson and Chastain (1990) these secrets range from the slightly embarrassing to the very distressing with an individual's most traumatic experiences often concealed. Parental attitudes including those involving self-disclosure are thought to be expressed in their choice of parenting style (Brand, Hatzinger, Beck, & Holsboer-Trachsler, 2009). The specific aim of this investigation was to examine the direct and indirect influences of parenting styles on self-concealment, impaired control over drinking (i.e. the inability to stop drinking when intended), alcohol use (quantity/frequency), and alcohol-related problems. A structural equation model with 419 (223 men, 196 women) university students was examined. Two and three path mediated effects were examined with the bias corrected bootstrap technique in Mplus. Having an authoritarian mother was directly linked to more self-concealment, while having an authoritative father was directly linked to less self-concealment. Higher levels of mother authoritarianism were indirectly linked to both increased alcohol use and alcohol-related problems through more self-concealment and more impaired control over drinking. Moreover, higher levels of father authoritativeness were indirectly linked to less alcohol use and alcohol-related problems through less self-concealment and less impaired control over drinking. These findings suggest that parenting styles influence vulnerabilities such as self-concealment in the impaired control over the drinking pathway to alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Work–Home Interface : Linking Work-Related Wellbeing and Volunteer Work

    OpenAIRE

    Brauchli, Rebecca; Peeters, Maria C W; van Steenbergen, Elianne F.; Wehner, Theo; Hämmig, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    An abundance of research shows the benefits of participation in volunteer work for individuals, employers and the society as a whole. However, relatively little is known about the precursors of volunteer work. In this study, we aim to fill this gap by investigating to what extent work-related well-being can function as a driver of volunteer work. Moreover, building on the Conservations of Resources Theory (Hobfoll,), we propose that the relationship between work-related well-being (burnout an...

  6. Dark personality traits and impulsivity among adolescents : Differential links to problem behaviors and family relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubas, Judith Semon; Baams, Laura; Doornwaard, Suzan M.; van Aken, Marcel A.G.

    2017-01-01

    Research on how dark personality traits develop and relate to risky behaviors and family relations during adolescence is scarce. This study used a person-oriented approach to examine (a) whether distinct groups of adolescents could be identified based on their developmental profiles of

  7. The Work–Home Interface : Linking Work-Related Wellbeing and Volunteer Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brauchli, Rebecca; Peeters, Maria C W; van Steenbergen, Elianne F.; Wehner, Theo; Hämmig, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    An abundance of research shows the benefits of participation in volunteer work for individuals, employers and the society as a whole. However, relatively little is known about the precursors of volunteer work. In this study, we aim to fill this gap by investigating to what extent work-related

  8. Relational Aggression in Peer and Dating Relationships: Links to Psychological and Behavioral Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Wendy E.; Crooks, Claire V.; Wolfe, David A.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the contribution of relational aggression in adolescents' peer and dating relationships to their psychological and behavioral adjustment. In the Fall and again four months later, 1279 (646 female) grade 9 students reported on relational aggression perpetration and victimization in their romantic and peer relationships,…

  9. Decay of Iconic Memory Traces Is Related to Psychometric Intelligence: A Fixed-Links Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert; Rammsayer, Thomas H.; Schweizer, Karl; Troche, Stefan J.

    2010-01-01

    Several memory processes have been examined regarding their relation to psychometric intelligence with the exception of sensory memory. This study examined the relation between decay of iconic memory traces, measured with a partial-report task, and psychometric intelligence, assessed with the Berlin Intelligence Structure test, in 111…

  10. The Afghanistan Question and the Reset in U.S.-Russian Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Pakistani cities. In the Pakistani Islamic coffee shops, the Arabs would 40 provide the intellectual framework for creating an Is- lamic government...of law, while his administration’s obsession with Iraq would lead the United States into fighting two wars in the Muslim world simultaneously...warp U.S. foreign policy and distort key American ideals about the rule of law, while his administration’s obsession with Iraq would lead the

  11. Reading-Related Causal Attributions for Success and Failure: Dynamic Links With Reading Skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frijters, Jan C; Tsujimoto, Kimberley C; Boada, Richard; Gottwald, Stephanie; Hill, Dina; Jacobson, Lisa A; Lovett, Maureen W; Mahone, E Mark; Willcutt, Erik G; Wolf, Maryanne; Bosson-Heenan, Joan; Gruen, Jeffrey R

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated the relation among reading skills and attributions, naming speed, and phonological awareness across a wide range of reading skill. Participants were 1,105 school-age children and youths from two understudied populations: African Americans and Hispanic Americans. Individual assessments of children ranging in age from 8 to 15 years were conducted for reading outcomes, cognitive and linguistic predictors of reading, and attributions for success and failure in reading situations. Quantile regressions were formulated to estimate these relations across the full skill span of each outcome. Reading-related attributions predicted contextual word recognition, sight word and decoding fluency, and comprehension skills. Attributions to ability in success situations were positively related to each outcome across the full span. On three reading outcomes, this relation strengthened at higher skill levels. Attributions to effort in success situations were consistently and negatively related to all reading outcomes. The results provide evidence that the strength of the relation between reading and attributions varies according to reading skill levels, with the strongest evidence for ability-based attributions in situations of reading success.

  12. Dolichol related intermediates involved in N-linked gloycoprotein synthesis in Drosophila Kc cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagami, H.; Chap, R.; Rivero, M.; Lennarz, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to study the regulation of the biosynthesis of dolichyl phosphate (Dol-P) in embryonic cells. Using embryonic Drosophila Kc cells which are known to lack the squalene-cholesterol branch of polyisoprenoid biosynthetic pathway, the authors labeled the cells in suspension culture for 4 hrs with [5- 3 H]mevalonic acid. After harvesting the cells, the incorporated radioactive lipids were extracted with CHCl 3 /CH 3 OH (2/1). Analysis of the extract by a combination of several methods consisting of ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, gel filtration on Fractogel TSK-HW 40, and silica gel thin layer chromatography revealed that the extract contained coenzyme Q, farnesol, dolichol (Dol), Dol-P, and dolichol-linked sugar (Dol-P-Sugar). In a pulse-chase experiment the metabolism of these intermediates was measured for various times up to 30 hrs. The amount of radioactivity in Dol slightly increased with the chase time, while that in Dol-P decreased. The amount of radioactive Dol-P-Sugar remained unchanged. These results suggest that the de novo end product in dolichol biosynthesis is Dol-P and that the level of Dol-P can be controlled by varying the rate of de novo biosynthesis and by dephosphorylation. The authors are now investigating the effect of ecdysone, the molting hormone, on the level of these intermediates and on incorporation of sugars into glycoproteins

  13. Framing Mechanisms Linking HIV-Related Stigma, Adherence to Treatment, and Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Abigail M.; Weiser, Sheri D.; Johnson, Mallory O.; Rice, Whitney S.; Turan, Janet M.

    2017-01-01

    We present a conceptual framework that highlights how unique dimensions of individual-level HIV-related stigma (perceived community stigma, experienced stigma, internalized stigma, and anticipated stigma) might differently affect the health of those living with HIV. HIV-related stigma is recognized as a barrier to both HIV prevention and engagement in HIV care, but little is known about the mechanisms through which stigma leads to worse health behaviors or outcomes. Our conceptual framework posits that, in the context of intersectional and structural stigmas, individual-level dimensions of HIV-related stigma operate through interpersonal factors, mental health, psychological resources, and biological stress pathways. A conceptual framework that encompasses recent advances in stigma science can inform future research and interventions aiming to address stigma as a driver of HIV-related health. PMID:28426316

  14. Links between human LINE-1 retrotransposons and hepatitis virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Tomoyuki

    2016-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for approximately 80% of liver cancers, the third most frequent cause of cancer mortality. The most prevalent risk factors for HCC are infections by hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus. Findings suggest that hepatitis virus-related HCC might be a cancer in which LINE-1 retrotransposons, often termed L1, activity plays a potential role. Firstly, hepatitis viruses can suppress host defense factors that also control L1 mobilization. Secondly, many recent studies also have indicated that hypomethylation of L1 affects the prognosis of HCC patients. Thirdly, endogenous L1 retrotransposition was demonstrated to activate oncogenic pathways in HCC. Fourthly, several L1 chimeric transcripts with host or viral genes are found in hepatitis virus-related HCC. Such lines of evidence suggest a linkage between L1 retrotransposons and hepatitis virus-related HCC. Here, I briefly summarize current understandings of the association between hepatitis virus-related HCC and L1. Then, I discuss potential mechanisms of how hepatitis viruses drive the development of HCC via L1 retrotransposons. An increased understanding of the contribution of L1 to hepatitis virus-related HCC may provide unique insights related to the development of novel therapeutics for this disease.

  15. Current-phase relation of a Bose-Einstein condensate flowing through a weak link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piazza, F.; Smerzi, A.; Collins, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    We study the current-phase relation of a Bose-Einstein condensate flowing through a repulsive square barrier by solving analytically the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The barrier height and width fix the current-phase relation j(δφ), which tends to j∼cos(δφ/2) for weak barriers and to the Josephson sinusoidal relation j∼sin(δφ) for strong barriers. Between these two limits, the current-phase relation depends on the barrier width. In particular, for wide-enough barriers, we observe two families of multivalued current-phase relations. Diagrams belonging to the first family, already known in the literature, can have two different positive values of the current at the same phase difference. The second family, new to our knowledge, can instead allow for three different positive currents still corresponding to the same phase difference. Finally, we show that the multivalued behavior arises from the competition between hydrodynamic and nonlinear-dispersive components of the flow, the latter due to the presence of a soliton inside the barrier region.

  16. Sexual orientation of trans adults is not linked to outcome of transition-related health care, but worth asking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieder, Timo O; Elaut, Els; Richards, Christina; Dekker, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of contemporary transition-related care at the outset of the 20th century, sexual orientation has ben considered to be closely connected with gender identity and the developmental trajectories of trans people. Specifically, health professionals have regarded the anticipated post-transitional heterosexual behaviour of trans adults as predictive of a good outcome of cross-sex hormones and gender-confirming surgeries. This article reviews the current literature according to the question of whether the sexual orientation of trans people is linked to outcome measures following transition-related interventions. A comprehensive review was undertaken using the Medline database, searching for empirical studies published between 2010 and 2015. Out of a total of 474 studies, only 10 studies reported a follow-up of trans adults and assessed sexual orientation in the study protocol at all. Sexual orientation was predominantly assessed as homosexual versus non-homosexual related to sex assigned at birth. Only one 1 of 10 follow-up studies found a significant association according to the outcome between groups differentiated by sexual orientation. Empirically there is no link between sexual orientation and outcome of transition-related health care for trans adults. In order to provide comprehensive health care, we recommend asking for sexual behaviours, attractions and identities, as well as for gender experiences and expressions; however, this knowledge should not drive, but simply inform, such comprehensive care.

  17. The User Interface: A Hypertext Model Linking Art Objects and Related Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moline, Judi

    This report presents a model combining the emerging technologies of hypertext and expert systems. Hypertext is relatively unexplored but promises an innovative approach to information retrieval. In contrast, expert systems have been used experimentally in many different application areas ranging from medical diagnosis to oil exploration. The…

  18. Linking Shared Organisational Context and Relational Capital through Unlearning: An Initial Empirical Investigation in SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegarra-Navarro, Juan G.; Dewhurst, Frank W.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The environment provided by an organisation to facilitate learning and create knowledge has been defined as the shared organisational context. The value to an organisation of knowledge created by the shared organisational context is called intellectual capital, of which one key component is relational capital. The purpose of this paper is…

  19. Influence of relative humidity on radiosensitivity of Aspergillus flavus Link. infecting cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoako-Atta, B.; Odamtten, G.T.; Appiah, V.

    1981-01-01

    The first part of this paper deals with the moisture sorption isotherms of dried cocoa beans under different relative humidities of 55, 65, 75, 85 or 95%. The second part evaluates the effects of relative humidity (RH), initial moisture content (m.c.) of cocoa beans, and different radiation exposure doses (0, 250, 350, 450, 500 or 550 krad) on Aspergillus flavus spore inoculated cocoa beans kept in fixed RH environmental chamber of 75 or 85% RH post-irradiation for forty days. The results discussed suggest that the m.c. of beans increased from an initial level of 6.4% to 7, 7.8 and 8.9% at 55, 65, and 75% respectively, after a storage period of 6-8 days. However, beans stored under 85% or 95% RH continued to absorb moisture from their respective environments indefinitely during the 64-day storage period. Furthermore, the ambient relative humidity to which the beans are subjected before or after irradiation significantly affect the radiosensitivity of toxigenic A. flavus; the differences in such radiosensitivity are influenced by either the available moisture or the initial m.c. of the beans to the inoculum. The authors conclude from their study that high environmental RH increased the radio-resistance of A. flavus spores making it difficult to establish a radiation decontamination level of practical value under a tropical environment with high ambient relative humidity. (author)

  20. Linking functional and relational service quality to customer satisfaction and loyalty: differences between men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Hernández, Rosa M; Martínez-Tur, Vicente; Peiró, José M; Moliner, Carolina

    2010-04-01

    This study assessed differences between men and women in the association of perceptions of service quality with customer evaluations. Functional (efficiency with which the service is delivered) and relational (customers' emotional benefits, beyond the core performance, related to the social interaction of customers with employees) dimensions of service quality were measured as well as customer satisfaction and loyalty. The sample of 277 customers (191 men, 86 women), surveyed in 29 Mexican hotels, had a mean age of 38.1 yr. (SD=9.7) for men and 34.5 yr. (SD=11.0) for women. To be eligible for survey, customers had to have spent at least one night in the hotel in question. Analysis indicated that the women and men differed in the association of functional and relational dimensions of service quality with their satisfaction and loyalty. Functional service quality was higher for the men than the women, while relational service quality showed greater predictive power for women than for men, although these accounted for only 4% of the customers' satisfaction variance and 6% of the loyalty variance.

  1. Reading-Related Causal Attributions for Success and Failure: Dynamic Links with Reading Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frijters, Jan C.; Tsujimoto, Kimberley C.; Boada, Richard; Gottwald, Stephanie; Hill, Dina; Jacobson, Lisa A.; Lovett, Maureen W.; Mahone, E. Mark; Willcutt, Erik G.; Wolf, Maryanne; Bosson-Heenan, Joan; Gruen, Jeffrey R.

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated the relation among reading skills and attributions, naming speed, and phonological awareness across a wide range of reading skill. Participants were 1,105 school-age children and youths from two understudied populations: African Americans and Hispanic Americans. Individual assessments of children ranging in age from…

  2. Longitudinal Pathways Linking Child Maltreatment, Emotion Regulation, Peer Relations, and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungmeen; Cicchetti, Dante

    2010-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate longitudinal relations among child maltreatment, emotion regulation, peer acceptance and rejection, and psychopathology. Methods: Data were collected on 215 maltreated and 206 nonmaltreated children (ages 6-12 years) from low-income families. Children were evaluated by camp counselors on emotion…

  3. Resetting the evolution of marine reptiles at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Philippa M; Ruta, Marcello; Benton, Michael J

    2011-05-17

    Ichthyosaurs were important marine predators in the Early Jurassic, and an abundant and diverse component of Mesozoic marine ecosystems. Despite their ecological importance, however, the Early Jurassic species represent a reduced remnant of their former significance in the Triassic. Ichthyosaurs passed through an evolutionary bottleneck at, or close to, the Triassic-Jurassic boundary, which reduced their diversity to as few as three or four lineages. Diversity bounced back to some extent in the aftermath of the end-Triassic mass extinction, but disparity remained at less than one-tenth of pre-extinction levels, and never recovered. The group remained at low diversity and disparity for its final 100 Myr. The end-Triassic mass extinction had a previously unsuspected profound effect in resetting the evolution of apex marine predators of the Mesozoic.

  4. Long-lasting desynchronization in rat hippocampal slice induced by coordinated reset stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tass, P. A.; Barnikol, U. B.; Silchenko, A. N.; Hauptmann, C.; Speckmann, E.-J.

    2009-01-01

    In computational models it has been shown that appropriate stimulation protocols may reshape the connectivity pattern of neural or oscillator networks with synaptic plasticity in a way that the network learns or unlearns strong synchronization. The underlying mechanism is that a network is shifted from one attractor to another, so that long-lasting stimulation effects are caused which persist after the cessation of stimulation. Here we study long-lasting effects of multisite electrical stimulation in a rat hippocampal slice rendered epileptic by magnesium withdrawal. We show that desynchronizing coordinated reset stimulation causes a long-lasting desynchronization between hippocampal neuronal populations together with a widespread decrease in the amplitude of the epileptiform activity. In contrast, periodic stimulation induces a long-lasting increase in both synchronization and amplitude.

  5. Simulation of thermal reset transitions in resistive switching memories including quantum effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villena, M. A.; Jiménez-Molinos, F.; Roldán, J. B. [Departamento de Electrónica y Tecnología de Computadores, Universidad de Granada, Facultad de Ciencias, Avd. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); González, M. B.; Campabadal, F. [Institut de Microelectrònica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM (CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Suñé, J.; Miranda, E. [Departament d' Enginyeria Electrònica, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra Cerdanyola del Vallès 08193 (Spain); Romera, E. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear and Instituto Carlos I de Física Teórica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, Avd. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)

    2014-06-07

    An in-depth study of reset processes in RRAMs (Resistive Random Access Memories) based on Ni/HfO{sub 2}/Si-n{sup +} structures has been performed. To do so, we have developed a physically based simulator where both ohmic and tunneling based conduction regimes are considered along with the thermal description of the devices. The devices under study have been successfully fabricated and measured. The experimental data are correctly reproduced with the simulator for devices with a single conductive filament as well as for devices including several conductive filaments. The contribution of each conduction regime has been explained as well as the operation regimes where these ohmic and tunneling conduction processes dominate.

  6. Linking public relations processes and organizational effectiveness at a state health department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored a state health department's relationships with strategic constituencies from a public relations perspective. The relationships were explored within the theoretical framework of the Excellence Theory, the dominant paradigm in public research. Findings indicate application of the Excellence Theory has the potential to increase organizational effectiveness at public health entities. With respect to the case investigated, findings indicate that the state health department could increase its organizational effectiveness through the adoption of recommendations based on the Excellence Theory.

  7. Dark personality traits and impulsivity among adolescents: Differential links to problem behaviors and family relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubas, Judith Semon; Baams, Laura; Doornwaard, Suzan M; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2017-10-01

    Research on how dark personality traits develop and relate to risky behaviors and family relations during adolescence is scarce. This study used a person-oriented approach to examine (a) whether distinct groups of adolescents could be identified based on their developmental profiles of callous-unemotional (CU), grandiose manipulative (GM), and dysfunctional impulsivity (DI) traits and (b) whether these groups differ in their problem behaviors and parent-adolescent relationship quality. Latent class growth analyses on 4-wave data of 1,131 Dutch adolescents revealed 3 personality profiles: (1) a dark impulsive group (13.9%), with high scores on all 3 traits (CU, GM, and DI) that were stable over time; (2) an impulsive group (26.1%), with high and increasing levels of impulsivity and relatively low scores on CU and GM; and (3) and a low risk group (60.0%), with relatively low levels on all 3 personality characteristics, with impulsivity decreasing over time. Compared with adolescents in the low risk group, adolescents in the dark impulsive and impulsive groups reported higher initial levels of substance use, sexual risk behaviors, permissive sexual attitudes, parent-adolescent conflict, and lower parent-adolescent satisfaction, as well as greater increases in sexual risk behavior over time. Compared with adolescents in the impulsive group, those in the dark impulsive group showed the highest levels of risk behaviors. Hence, dark personality traits coupled with impulsivity may be indicative of an earlier and more severe trajectory of problem behaviors that may differ from the trajectory of youth who are only impulsive. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Physical Activity and Telomere Biology: Exploring the Link with Aging-Related Disease Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew T. Ludlow; Stephen M. Roth

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity is associated with reduced risk of several age-related diseases as well as with increased longevity in both rodents and humans. Though these associations are well established, evidence of the molecular and cellular factors associated with reduced disease risk and increased longevity resulting from physical activity is sparse. A long-standing hypothesis of aging is the telomere hypothesis: as a cell divides, telomeres shorten resulting eventually in replicative senescence and...

  9. l-Serine Enhances Light-Induced Circadian Phase Resetting in Mice and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuo, Shinobu; Iwamoto, Ayaka; Lee, Sang-Il; Ochiai, Shotaro; Hitachi, Rina; Shibata, Satomi; Uotsu, Nobuo; Tarumizu, Chie; Matsuoka, Sayuri; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Higuchi, Shigekazu

    2017-12-01

    Background: The circadian clock is modulated by the timing of ingestion or food composition, but the effects of specific nutrients are poorly understood. Objective: We aimed to identify the amino acids that modulate the circadian clock and reset the light-induced circadian phase in mice and humans. Methods: Male CBA/N mice were orally administered 1 of 20 l-amino acids, and the circadian and light-induced phase shifts of wheel-running activity were analyzed. Antagonists of several neurotransmitter pathways were injected before l-serine administration, and light-induced phase shifts were analyzed. In addition, the effect of l-serine on the light-induced phase advance was investigated in healthy male students (mean ± SD age 22.2 ± 1.8 y) by using dim-light melatonin onset (DLMO) determined by saliva samples as an index of the circadian phase. Results: l-Serine administration enhanced light-induced phase shifts in mice (1.86-fold; P light-dark cycle by 6 h, l-serine administration slightly accelerated re-entrainment to the shifted cycle. In humans, l-serine ingestion before bedtime induced significantly larger phase advances of DLMO after bright-light exposure during the morning (means ± SEMs-l-serine: 25.9 ± 6.6 min; placebo: 12.1 ± 7.0 min; P light-induced phase resetting in mice and humans, and it may be useful for treating circadian disturbances. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Sensitivity of the human circadian pacemaker to nocturnal light: melatonin phase resetting and suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitzer, J. M.; Dijk, D. J.; Kronauer, R.; Brown, E.; Czeisler, C.

    2000-01-01

    Ocular exposure to early morning room light can significantly advance the timing of the human circadian pacemaker. The resetting response to such light has a non-linear relationship to illuminance. The dose-response relationship of the human circadian pacemaker to late evening light of dim to moderate intensity has not been well established. Twenty-three healthy young male and female volunteers took part in a 9 day protocol in which a single experimental light exposure6.5 h in duration was given in the early biological night. The effects of the light exposure on the endogenous circadian phase of the melatonin rhythm and the acute effects of the light exposure on plasma melatonin concentration were calculated. We demonstrate that humans are highly responsive to the phase-delaying effects of light during the early biological night and that both the phase resetting response to light and the acute suppressive effects of light on plasma melatonin follow a logistic dose-response curve, as do many circadian responses to light in mammals. Contrary to expectations, we found that half of the maximal phase-delaying response achieved in response to a single episode of evening bright light ( approximately 9000 lux (lx)) can be obtained with just over 1 % of this light (dim room light of approximately 100 lx). The same held true for the acute suppressive effects of light on plasma melatonin concentrations. This indicates that even small changes in ordinary light exposure during the late evening hours can significantly affect both plasma melatonin concentrations and the entrained phase of the human circadian pacemaker.

  11. Melanopsin resets circadian rhythms in cells by inducing clock gene Period1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Shuhei; Uehara, Tomoe; Matsuo, Minako; Kikuchi, Yo; Numano, Rika

    2014-02-01

    The biochemical, physiological and behavioral processes are under the control of internal clocks with the period of approximately 24 hr, circadian rhythms. The expression of clock gene Period1 (Per1) oscillates autonomously in cells and is induced immediately after a light pulse. Per1 is an indispensable member of the central clock system to maintain the autonomous oscillator and synchronize environmental light cycle. Per1 expression could be detected by Per1∷luc and Per1∷GFP plasmid DNA in which firefly luciferase and Green Fluorescence Protein were rhythmically expressed under the control of the mouse Per1 promoter in order to monitor mammalian circadian rhythms. Membrane protein, MELANOPSIN is activated by blue light in the morning on the retina and lead to signals transduction to induce Per1 expression and to reset the phase of circadian rhythms. In this report Per1 induction was measured by reporter signal assay in Per1∷luc and Per1∷GFP fibroblast cell at the input process of circadian rhythms. To the result all process to reset the rhythms by Melanopsin is completed in single cell like in the retina projected to the central clock in the brain. Moreover, the phase of circadian rhythm in Per1∷luc cells is synchronized by photo-activated Melanopsin, because the definite peak of luciferase activity in one dish was found one day after light illumination. That is an available means that physiological circadian rhythms could be real-time monitor as calculable reporter (bioluminescent and fluorescent) chronological signal in both single and groups of cells.

  12. Transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced global propagation of transient phase resetting associated with directional information flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro eKawasaki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalogram (EEG phase synchronization analyses can reveal large-scale communication between distant brain areas. However, it is not possible to identify the directional information flow between distant areas using conventional phase synchronization analyses. In the present study, we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to the occipital area in subjects who were resting with their eyes closed, and analyzed the spatial propagation of transient TMS-induced phase resetting by using the transfer entropy (TE, to quantify the causal and directional flow of information. The time-frequency EEG analysis indicated that the theta (5 Hz phase locking factor (PLF reached its highest value at the distant area (the motor area in this study, with a time lag that followed the peak of the transient PLF enhancements of the TMS-targeted area at the TMS onset. PPI (phase-preservation index analyses demonstrated significant phase resetting at the TMS-targeted area and distant area. Moreover, the TE from the TMS-targeted area to the distant area increased clearly during the delay that followed TMS onset. Interestingly, the time lags were almost coincident between the PLF and TE results (152 vs. 165 ms, which provides strong evidence that the emergence of the delayed PLF reflects the causal information flow. Such tendencies were observed only in the higher-intensity TMS condition, and not in the lower-intensity or sham TMS conditions. Thus, TMS may manipulate large-scale causal relationships between brain areas in an intensity-dependent manner. We demonstrated that single-pulse TMS modulated global phase dynamics and directional information flow among synchronized brain networks. Therefore, our results suggest that single-pulse TMS can manipulate both incoming and outgoing information in the TMS-targeted area associated with functional changes.

  13. Impact of the duct static pressure reset control strategy on the energy consumption by the HVAC system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaszczyk Juliusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses different duct static pressure control strategies which could be implemented in variable air volume air-conditioning systems (VAV. Two pressure reset control strategies are compared to the commonly used control solution based on the “Constant static pressure” method. First pressure reset control strategy, known as PID Control, uses signals from VAV boxes controllers to reset duct static pressure in a way that one of the VAV dampers is maintained almost entirely open. Second strategy decreases static pressure setpoint until an adjustable number of pressure requests occur. As a response to the certain amount of requests, static pressure setpoint is increased. This strategy is called Trim & Respond. Both static pressure reset control strategies described in this paper are considered to have more significant potential for energy savings than the “Constant static pressure” method. In order to validate this potential, several simulations for different control strategies were carried out and the obtained results are compared and analysed. The theoretical limit of the energy savings - set of the optimal control actions, was estimated with Nelder-Mead algorithm and also presented in this article. General description of the static pressure control strategies "Constant static pressure", PID Control and Trim & Respond is given.

  14. Medical Care Tasks among Spousal Dementia Caregivers: Links to Care-Related Sleep Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polenick, Courtney A; Leggett, Amanda N; Maust, Donovan T; Kales, Helen C

    2018-05-01

    Medical care tasks are commonly provided by spouses caring for persons living with dementia (PLWDs). These tasks reflect complex care demands that may interfere with sleep, yet their implications for caregivers' sleep outcomes are unknown. The authors evaluated the association between caregivers' medical/nursing tasks (keeping track of medications; managing tasks such as ostomy care, intravenous lines, or blood testing; giving shots/injections; and caring for skin wounds/sores) and care-related sleep disturbances. A retrospective analysis of cross-sectional data from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study and National Study of Caregiving was conducted. Spousal caregivers and PLWDs/proxies were interviewed by telephone at home. The U.S. sample included 104 community-dwelling spousal caregivers and PLWDs. Caregivers reported on their sociodemographic and health characteristics, caregiving stressors, negative caregiving relationship quality, and sleep disturbances. PLWDs (or proxies) reported on their health conditions and sleep problems. Caregivers who performed a higher number of medical/nursing tasks reported significantly more frequent care-related sleep disturbances, controlling for sociodemographic and health characteristics, caregiving stressors, negative caregiving relationship quality, and PLWDs' sleep problems and health conditions. Post hoc tests showed that wound care was independently associated with more frequent care-related sleep disturbances after accounting for the other medical/nursing tasks and covariates. Spousal caregivers of PLWDs who perform medical/nursing tasks may be at heightened risk for sleep disturbances and associated adverse health consequences. Interventions to promote the well-being of both care partners may benefit from directly addressing caregivers' needs and concerns about their provision of medical/nursing care. Copyright © 2018 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  15. The missing link: Mothers’ neural response to infant cry related to infant attachment behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Ablow, Jennifer C.

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses a gap in the attachment literature by investigating maternal neural response to cry related to infant attachment classifications and behaviors. Twenty-two primiparous mothers and their 18-month old infants completed the Strange Situation Procedure (SS) to elicit attachment behaviors. During a separate functional MRI session, mothers were exposed to their own infant’s cry sound, as well as an unfamiliar infant’s cry and control sound. Maternal neural response to own infant cry related to both overall attachment security and specific infant behaviors. Mothers of less secure infants maintained greater activation to their cry in left parahippocampal and amygdala regions and the right posterior insula. consistent with a negative schematic response bias. Mothers of infants exhibiting more avoidant or contact maintaining behaviors during the SS showed diminished response across left prefrontal, parietal, and cerebellar areas involved in attentional processing and cognitive control. Mothers of infants exhibiting more disorganized behavior showed reduced response in bilateral temporal and subcallosal areas relevant to social cognition and emotion regulation. No differences by attachment classification were found. Implications for attachment transmission models are discussed. PMID:22982277

  16. The missing link: mothers' neural response to infant cry related to infant attachment behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Ablow, Jennifer C

    2012-12-01

    This study addresses a gap in the attachment literature by investigating maternal neural response to cry related to infant attachment classifications and behaviors. Twenty-two primiparous mothers and their 18-month old infants completed the Strange Situation (SS) procedure to elicit attachment behaviors. During a separate functional MRI session, mothers were exposed to their own infant's cry sound, as well as an unfamiliar infant's cry and control sound. Maternal neural response to own infant cry related to both overall attachment security and specific infant behaviors. Mothers of less secure infants maintained greater activation to their cry in left parahippocampal and amygdala regions and the right posterior insula consistent with a negative schematic response bias. Mothers of infants exhibiting more avoidant or contact maintaining behaviors during the SS showed diminished response across left prefrontal, parietal, and cerebellar areas involved in attentional processing and cognitive control. Mothers of infants exhibiting more disorganized behavior showed reduced response in bilateral temporal and subcallosal areas relevant to social cognition and emotion regulation. No differences by attachment classification were found. Implications for attachment transmission models are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The missing link between sleep disorders and age-related dementia: recent evidence and plausible mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Zhong, Rujia; Li, Song; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; Le, Weidong

    2017-05-01

    Sleep disorders are among the most common clinical problems and possess a significant concern for the geriatric population. More importantly, while around 40% of elderly adults have sleep-related complaints, sleep disorders are more frequently associated with co-morbidities including age-related neurodegenerative diseases and mild cognitive impairment. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that disturbed sleep may not only serve as the consequence of brain atrophy, but also contribute to the pathogenesis of dementia and, therefore, significantly increase dementia risk. Since the current therapeutic interventions lack efficacies to prevent, delay or reverse the pathological progress of dementia, a better understanding of underlying mechanisms by which sleep disorders interact with the pathogenesis of dementia will provide possible targets for the prevention and treatment of dementia. In this review, we briefly describe the physiological roles of sleep in learning/memory, and specifically update the recent research evidence demonstrating the association between sleep disorders and dementia. Plausible mechanisms are further discussed. Moreover, we also evaluate the possibility of sleep therapy as a potential intervention for dementia.

  18. On the link between column density distribution and density scaling relation in star formation regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltchev, Todor; Donkov, Sava; Stanchev, Orlin

    2017-07-01

    We present a method to derive the density scaling relation ∝ L^{-α} in regions of star formation or in their turbulent vicinities from straightforward binning of the column-density distribution (N-pdf). The outcome of the method is studied for three types of N-pdf: power law (7/5≤α≤5/3), lognormal (0.7≲α≲1.4) and combination of lognormals. In the last case, the method of Stanchev et al. (2015) was also applied for comparison and a very weak (or close to zero) correlation was found. We conclude that the considered `binning approach' reflects rather the local morphology of the N-pdf with no reference to the physical conditions in a considered region. The rough consistency of the derived slopes with the widely adopted Larson's (1981) value α˜1.1 is suggested to support claims that the density-size relation in molecular clouds is indeed an artifact of the observed N-pdf.

  19. Construction of an integrated gene regulatory network link to stress-related immune system in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behdani, Elham; Bakhtiarizadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2017-10-01

    The immune system is an important biological system that is negatively impacted by stress. This study constructed an integrated regulatory network to enhance our understanding of the regulatory gene network used in the stress-related immune system. Module inference was used to construct modules of co-expressed genes with bovine leukocyte RNA-Seq data. Transcription factors (TFs) were then assigned to these modules using Lemon-Tree algorithms. In addition, the TFs assigned to each module were confirmed using the promoter analysis and protein-protein interactions data. Therefore, our integrated method identified three TFs which include one TF that is previously known to be involved in immune response (MYBL2) and two TFs (E2F8 and FOXS1) that had not been recognized previously and were identified for the first time in this study as novel regulatory candidates in immune response. This study provides valuable insights on the regulatory programs of genes involved in the stress-related immune system.

  20. The rise of global health diplomacy: An interdisciplinary concept linking health and international relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattu, Vijay Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Global health diplomacy (GHD) is relatively a very new field that has yet to be clearly defined and developed though there are various definitions given by different experts from foreign policy, global health, diplomacy, international relations, governance, and law. With the intensification of globalization and increasing gaps between countries, new and reemerging health threats such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Ebola, and Zika and a gradual rethinking on security concepts framed a new political context. The health problems addressed diplomatically have also become diverse ranging from neglected tropical diseases, infectious diseases, sale of unsafe, counterfeit drugs to brain drain crisis. We see that global health has become more diverse as the actors widened and also the interests appealing not only to the traditional humanitarian ideals associated with health but also to the principles grounded in national and global security. Recently, we are witnessing the increased priority given to the GHD because the issue of health is discussed by various actors outside the WHO to shape the global policy for health determinants. In fact, the area of health has become the part of UN Summit Diplomacy involving the G8, G20, BRICS, and the EU. The recent WHO Pandemic Influenza Framework, UN High Level Framework on Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases, and the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control are some of the examples of long-term negotiation processes for agreements that took place.

  1. Growing inter-Asian connections: Links, rivalries, and challenges in South Korean–Central Asian relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Fumagalli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The geopolitical context, which emerged from the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, combined with Korea's growing economic prowess, enabled greater dynamism and diversification in Seoul's foreign policy-making. Growing pressure from energy-intensive economies coupled with new developments and investment in logistics and infrastructure has brought different parts of the Eurasian landmass closer together in recent years. Inter-Asian connections are especially growing. This article uses the case of deepening relations between Korea and the post-Soviet Central Asian republics as a vantage point to reflect on one such example of unfolding Asian inter-connectedness. In addition it sees Seoul's engagement in the region as a fitting example of Korea's broader ambitions to assert itself as a global economic player. The article shows that Korea's policy toward Central Asia has been primarily driven by energy needs and is defined by pragmatism. It finds that the economic dimension of the relationship has greatly overshadowed other aspects such as politics and security. In its pursuit of closer ties with the region Seoul has sought to turn structural weaknesses into added value and has attempted to develop a distinctive, non-threatening profile built around the lack of a political baggage and geopolitical ambitions, and the desire to share its experience of formerly impoverished turned leading economy. In turn, Central Asia's selective integration in the world economy has continued, also thanks to its ties with Korea. The Central Asian republics welcomed the opportunity to diversify their foreign relations, the sources of foreign investment and export routes. At the same time the opaque business environment, a leadership succession, which cannot be postponed for much longer, and Seoul's “no-strings attached” approach expose Korea to some risks as regime stability might not last forever.

  2. The links between healthy, problematic, and addicted Internet use regarding comorbidities and self-concept-related characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leménager, Tagrid; Hoffmann, Sabine; Dieter, Julia; Reinhard, Iris; Mann, Karl; Kiefer, Falk

    2018-03-01

    Background Addicted Internet users present with higher rates of comorbidities, e.g., attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depressive, and anxiety disorders. In addition, deficits in self-concept-related characteristics were found in addicted Internet gamers and social network users. The aim of this study was to examine the links between healthy, problematic, and addicted Internet use regarding comorbidities and self-concept-related characteristics. The association between recently developed ADHD-like symptoms without an underlying diagnosis and addictive Internet use was also examined. Methods n = 79 healthy controls, n = 35 problematic, and n = 93 addicted Internet users were assessed for comorbidities, social and emotional competencies, body image, self-esteem, and perceived stress. Apart from an ADHD-diagnosis, recently developed ADHD-like symptoms were also assessed. Results Addicted users showed more self-concept-related deficits and higher rates of comorbidities with ADHD, depressive, and anxiety disorders. Addicted and problematic users showed similarities in the prevalence of cluster B personality disorders and decreased levels of characteristics related to emotional intelligence. Participants with recently developed ADHD-like symptoms scored higher in lifetime and current severity of Internet use compared with those without ADHD symptoms. Addicted participants with recently developed ADHD symptoms showed higher lifetime Internet use severity compared with those without any symptoms. Conclusions Our findings indicate that cluster B personality disorders and premorbid problems in emotional intelligence might present a link between problematic and addictive Internet use. Furthermore, the findings provide a first indication that addictive Internet use is related to ADHD-like symptoms. Symptoms of ADHD should therefore be assessed against the background of possible addicted Internet use.

  3. Linking Excessive Heat with Daily Heat-Related Mortality over the Coterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Crosson, William L.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, extreme heat is the most deadly weather-related hazard. In the face of a warming climate and urbanization, which contributes to local-scale urban heat islands, it is very likely that extreme heat events (EHEs) will become more common and more severe in the U.S. This research seeks to provide historical and future measures of climate-driven extreme heat events to enable assessments of the impacts of heat on public health over the coterminous U.S. We use atmospheric temperature and humidity information from meteorological reanalysis and from Global Climate Models (GCMs) to provide data on past and future heat events. The focus of research is on providing assessments of the magnitude, frequency and geographic distribution of extreme heat in the U.S. to facilitate public health studies. In our approach, long-term climate change is captured with GCM outputs, and the temporal and spatial characteristics of short-term extremes are represented by the reanalysis data. Two future time horizons for 2040 and 2090 are compared to the recent past period of 1981- 2000. We characterize regional-scale temperature and humidity conditions using GCM outputs for two climate change scenarios (A2 and A1B) defined in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES). For each future period, 20 years of multi-model GCM outputs are analyzed to develop a 'heat stress climatology' based on statistics of extreme heat indicators. Differences between the two future and the past period are used to define temperature and humidity changes on a monthly time scale and regional spatial scale. These changes are combined with the historical meteorological data, which is hourly and at a spatial scale (12 km) much finer than that of GCMs, to create future climate realizations. From these realizations, we compute the daily heat stress measures and related spatially-specific climatological fields, such as the mean annual number of days above certain thresholds of maximum and minimum air

  4. Link between Motor Competence and Health Related Fitness in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Luz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined motor competence (MC behavior in 6- to 14-year-old children, and investigated the differences in health-related fitness (HRF between high and low MC groups, according to sex and age. A sample of 564 children (288 males participated in this study, divided into three age groups (6–8 years; 9–11 years; 12–14 years. Total MC and its three components (stability, locomotor, and manipulative were assessed with a quantitative instrument. HRF was evaluated using a maximal multistage 20-m shuttle-run test and the handgrip test. Participants were divided into tertiles according to their MC level and high and low MC groups were analyzed. Overall, MC increased across age groups for both sexes, but boys presented better results than girls. The high MC group outperformed their low MC peers in all HRF variables, independent of their age group. Although cardiovascular fitness increased with age for both the high and low MC groups, the differences between these groups were greater in older children compared to younger children, within the study age range. The findings suggest that MC interventions should be considered as an important strategy to enhance HRF, and girls at a young age should be a priority target.

  5. Link between Motor Competence and Health Related Fitness in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Carlos; Cordovil, Rita; Almeida, Gabriela; Rodrigues, Luis P

    2017-06-15

    This study examined motor competence (MC) behavior in 6- to 14-year-old children, and investigated the differences in health-related fitness (HRF) between high and low MC groups, according to sex and age. A sample of 564 children (288 males) participated in this study, divided into three age groups (6⁻8 years; 9⁻11 years; 12⁻14 years). Total MC and its three components (stability, locomotor, and manipulative) were assessed with a quantitative instrument. HRF was evaluated using a maximal multistage 20-m shuttle-run test and the handgrip test. Participants were divided into tertiles according to their MC level and high and low MC groups were analyzed. Overall, MC increased across age groups for both sexes, but boys presented better results than girls. The high MC group outperformed their low MC peers in all HRF variables, independent of their age group. Although cardiovascular fitness increased with age for both the high and low MC groups, the differences between these groups were greater in older children compared to younger children, within the study age range. The findings suggest that MC interventions should be considered as an important strategy to enhance HRF, and girls at a young age should be a priority target.

  6. Linking Mitochondria to Synapses: New Insights for Stress-Related Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Jeanneteau

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The brain evolved cellular mechanisms for adapting synaptic function to energy supply. This is particularly evident when homeostasis is challenged by stress. Signaling loops between the mitochondria and synapses scale neuronal connectivity with bioenergetics capacity. A biphasic “inverted U shape” response to the stress hormone glucocorticoids is demonstrated in mitochondria and at synapses, modulating neural plasticity and physiological responses. Low dose enhances neurotransmission, synaptic growth, mitochondrial functions, learning, and memory whereas chronic, higher doses produce inhibition of these functions. The range of physiological effects by stress and glucocorticoid depends on the dose, duration, and context at exposure. These criteria are met by neuronal activity and the circadian, stress-sensitive and ultradian, stress-insensitive modes of glucocorticoid secretion. A major hallmark of stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders is the disrupted glucocorticoid rhythms and tissue resistance to signaling with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR. GR resistance could result from the loss of context-dependent glucocorticoid signaling mediated by the downregulation of the activity-dependent neurotrophin BDNF. The coincidence of BDNF and GR signaling changes glucocorticoid signaling output with consequences on mitochondrial respiration efficiency, synaptic plasticity, and adaptive trajectories.

  7. LINKING MOTOR-RELATED BRAIN POTENTIALS AND VELOCITY PROFILES IN MULTI-JOINT ARM REACHING MOVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julià L Amengual

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of the movement related brain potentials (MRPBs needs accurate technical approaches to disentangle the specific patterns of bran activity during the preparation and execution of movements. During the last forty years, synchronizing the electromiographic activation (EMG of the muscle with the electrophysiological recordings (EEG has been commonly ussed for these purposes. However, new clinical approaches in the study of motor diseases and rehabilitation suggest the demand of new paradigms that might go further into the study of the brain activity associated with the kinematics of movement. As a response to this call, we have used a 3-D hand tracking system with the aim to record continuously the position of an ultrasonic sender located on the hand during the performance of multi-joint self-pace movements. We synchronized the time-series of position of velocity of the sender with the EEG recordings, obtaining specific patterns of brain activity as a function of the fluctuations of the kinematics during the natural movement performance. Additionally, the distribution of the brain activity during the preparation and execution phases of movement was similar that reported previously using the EMG, suggesting the validity of our technique. We claim that this paradigm could be usable in patients because of its simplicity and the potential knowledge that can be extracted from clinical protocols.

  8. Regorafenib-induced hypothyroidism and cancer-related fatigue: is there a potential link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Fabiana; Massidda, Matteo; Pusceddu, Valeria; Puzzoni, Marco; Massa, Elena; Madeddu, Clelia; Scartozzi, Mario; Mariotti, Stefano

    2017-07-01

    Thyroid dysfunction has been reported during Regorafenib (Reg) administration, but no detailed study is presently available. Prospective, observational cohort study. Patients with documented metastatic colorectal cancer and progression of disease during or within 3 months after the last standard therapy, with no evidence and history of previous thyroid disease were enrolled. Twenty-five consecutive patients were evaluated before and 8-50 weeks after initiating Reg therapy by monthly clinical, ultrasound and laboratory (thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), antithyroglobulin (TgAb) and antithyroid peroxidase (TPOAb)) evaluation. Thirteen/25 patients (52%) became hypothyroid (TSH: 12.5 ± 4.01 IU/L, range: 4.6-22.0) within 5 months of therapy. TPOAb became detectable (99-155 IU/mL) in 2/25 (8%) patients. Thyroid volume progressively decreased (from 8.6  ±  2.2 mL to 4.9 ± 2.4 mL after 5 months of Reg therapy, P  hypothyroidism (43 weeks) than in those remaining euthyroid (17 weeks, P  hypothyroidism severity and reversed after levothyroxine therapy (L-T4). Reg rapidly causes hypothyroidism in about 50% of patients and in a minority of them also triggers thyroid autoimmunity. Reg-induced hypothyroidism was strictly related to fatigue, easily reversed by L-T4 administration and associated to longer survival. These results suggest that prompt recognition of hypothyroidism in patients with severe fatigue may prevent unnecessary Reg dose reduction or withdrawal. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  9. Osteomalacia: the missing link in the pathogenesis of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedogni, Alberto; Saia, Giorgia; Bettini, Giordana; Tronchet, Anita; Totola, Andrea; Bedogni, Giorgio; Tregnago, Paolo; Valenti, Maria Teresa; Bertoldo, Francesco; Ferronato, Giuseppe; Nocini, Pier Francesco; Blandamura, Stella; Dalle Carbonare, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a well-documented adverse event from treatment with nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (NBPs). During a preliminary histomorphometric study aimed at assessing the rate of bone remodeling in the jaws of patients with surgically resected BRONJ, we found a defect of bone mineralization (unpublished data). We hypothesized that osteomalacia could be a risk factor for BRONJ in patients taking NBPs. Therefore, we looked for static and dynamic histomorphometric evidence of osteomalacia in biopsies from subjects with and without BRONJ. This case-control study used histomorphometric analysis of bone specimens of patients using NBPs (22 patients with BRONJ and 21 patients without BRONJ) who required oral surgical interventions for the treatment/prevention of osteonecrosis. Patients were given tetracycline hydrochloride according to a standardized protocol before taking bone biopsies from their jaws. Biopsies with evidence of osteomyelitis or necrosis at histology were excluded from the study. Osteomalacia was defined as a mineralization lag time >100 days, a corrected mean osteoid thickness >12.5 mm, and an osteoid volume >10%. In all, 77% of patients with BRONJ were osteomalacic compared with 5% of patients without BRONJ, according to histomorphometry. Because osteomalacia was found almost exclusively in NBP users with BRONJ, this is likely to be a generalized process in which the use of NBPs further deteriorates mechanisms of bone repair. Osteomalacia represents a new and previously unreported risk factor for disease development. This finding may contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease and help with the development of strategies to increase the safety of NBP administration.

  10. Absorbing aerosols at high relative humidity: linking hygroscopic growth to optical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Michel Flores

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the major uncertainties in the understanding of Earth's climate system is the interaction between solar radiation and aerosols in the atmosphere. Aerosols exposed to high humidity will change their chemical, physical, and optical properties due to their increased water content. To model hydrated aerosols, atmospheric chemistry and climate models often use the volume weighted mixing rule to predict the complex refractive index (RI of aerosols when they interact with high relative humidity, and, in general, assume homogeneous mixing. This study explores the validity of these assumptions. A humidified cavity ring down aerosol spectrometer (CRD-AS and a tandem hygroscopic DMA (differential mobility analyzer are used to measure the extinction coefficient and hygroscopic growth factors of humidified aerosols, respectively. The measurements are performed at 80% and 90%RH at wavelengths of 532 nm and 355 nm using size-selected aerosols with different degrees of absorption; from purely scattering to highly absorbing particles. The ratio of the humidified to the dry extinction coefficients (fRHext(%RH, Dry is measured and compared to theoretical calculations based on Mie theory. Using the measured hygroscopic growth factors and assuming homogeneous mixing, the expected RIs using the volume weighted mixing rule are compared to the RIs derived from the extinction measurements.

    We found a weak linear dependence or no dependence of fRH(%RH, Dry with size for hydrated absorbing aerosols in contrast to the non-monotonically decreasing behavior with size for purely scattering aerosols. No discernible difference could be made between the two wavelengths used. Less than 7% differences were found between the real parts of the complex refractive indices derived and those calculated using the volume weighted mixing rule, and the imaginary parts had up to a 20% difference. However, for substances with growth factor less than 1

  11. AltitudeOmics: Resetting of cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity following acclimatization to high altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Lin eFan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies reported enhanced cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity upon ascent to high altitude using linear models. However, there is evidence that this response may be sigmoidal in nature. Moreover, it was speculated that these changes at high altitude are mediated by alterations in acid-base buffering. Accordingly, we reanalyzed previously published data to assess middle cerebral blood flow velocity (MCAv responses to modified rebreathing at sea level (SL, upon ascent (ALT1 and following 16 days of acclimatization (ALT16 to 5,260 m in 21 lowlanders. Using sigmoid curve fitting of the MCAv responses to CO2, we found the amplitude (95% vs. 129%, SL vs. ALT1, 95% confidence intervals (CI [77, 112], [111, 145], respectively, P=0.024 and the slope of the sigmoid response (4.5 vs. 7.5 %/mmHg, SL vs. ALT1, 95% CIs [3.1, 5.9], [6.0, 9.0], respectively, P=0.026 to be enhanced at ALT1, which persisted with acclimatization at ALT16 (amplitude: 177%, 95% CI [139, 215], P<0.001; slope: 10.3 %/mmHg, 95% CI [8.2, 12.5], P=0.003 compared to SL. Meanwhile, the sigmoidal response midpoint was unchanged at ALT1 (SL: 36.5 mmHg; ALT1: 35.4 mmHg, 95% CIs [34.0, 39.0], [33.1, 37.7], respectively, P=0.982, while it was reduced by ~7 mmHg at ALT16 (28.6 mmHg, 95% CI [26.4, 30.8], P=0.001 vs. SL, indicating leftward shift of the cerebrovascular CO2 response to a lower arterial partial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2 following acclimatization to altitude. Sigmoid fitting revealed a leftward shift in the midpoint of the cerebrovascular response curve which could not be observed with linear fitting. These findings demonstrate that there is resetting of the cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity operating point to a lower PaCO2 following acclimatization to high altitude. This cerebrovascular resetting is likely the result of an altered acid-base buffer status resulting from prolonged exposure to the severe hypocapnia associated with ventilatory acclimatization to high altitude.

  12. Quantitative variation in obesity-related traits and insulin precursors linked to the OB gene region on human chromosome 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggirala, R.; Stern, M.P.; Reinhart, L.J. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    Despite the evidence that human obesity has strong genetic determinants, efforts at identifying specific genes that influence human obesity have largely been unsuccessful. Using the sibship data obtained from 32 low-income Mexican American pedigrees ascertained on a type II diabetic proband and a multipoint variance-components method, we tested for linkage between various obesity-related traits plus associated metabolic traits and 15 markers on human chromosome 7. We found evidence for linkage between markers in the OB gene region and various traits, as follows: D7S514 and extremity skinfolds (LOD = 3.1), human carboxypeptidase A1 (HCPA1) and 32,33-split proinsulin level (LOD = 4.2), and HCPA1 and proinsulin level (LOD = 3.2). A putative susceptibility locus linked to the marker D7S514 explained 56% of the total phenotypic variation in extremity skinfolds. Variation at the HCPA1 locus explained 64% of phenotypic variation in proinsulin level and {approximately}73% of phenotypic variation in split proinsulin concentration, respectively. Weaker evidence for linkage to several other obesity-related traits (e.g., waist circumference, body-mass index, fat mass by bioimpedance, etc.) was observed for a genetic location, which is {approximately}15 cM telomeric to OB. In conclusion, our study reveals that the OB region plays a significant role in determining the phenotypic variation of both insulin precursors and obesity-related traits, at least in Mexican Americans. 66 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. High amplitude phase resetting in rev-erbalpha/per1 double mutant mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Jud

    Full Text Available Over time, organisms developed various strategies to adapt to their environment. Circadian clocks are thought to have evolved to adjust to the predictable rhythms of the light-dark cycle caused by the rotation of the Earth around its own axis. The rhythms these clocks generate persist even in the absence of environmental cues with a period of about 24 hours. To tick in time, they continuously synchronize themselves to the prevailing photoperiod by appropriate phase shifts. In this study, we disrupted two molecular components of the mammalian circadian oscillator, Rev-Erbalpha and Period1 (Per1. We found that mice lacking these genes displayed robust circadian rhythms with significantly shorter periods under constant darkness conditions. Strikingly, they showed high amplitude resetting in response to a brief light pulse at the end of their subjective night phase, which is rare in mammals. Surprisingly, Cry1, a clock component not inducible by light in mammals, became slightly inducible in these mice. Taken together, Rev-Erbalpha and Per1 may be part of a mechanism preventing drastic phase shifts in mammals.

  14. Resetting translational homeostasis restores myelination in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1B mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antonio, Maurizio; Musner, Nicolò; Scapin, Cristina; Ungaro, Daniela; Del Carro, Ubaldo; Ron, David; Feltri, M Laura; Wrabetz, Lawrence

    2013-04-08

    P0 glycoprotein is an abundant product of terminal differentiation in myelinating Schwann cells. The mutant P0S63del causes Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1B neuropathy in humans, and a very similar demyelinating neuropathy in transgenic mice. P0S63del is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum of Schwann cells, where it promotes unfolded protein stress and elicits an unfolded protein response (UPR) associated with translational attenuation. Ablation of Chop, a UPR mediator, from S63del mice completely rescues their motor deficit and reduces active demyelination by half. Here, we show that Gadd34 is a detrimental effector of CHOP that reactivates translation too aggressively in myelinating Schwann cells. Genetic or pharmacological limitation of Gadd34 function moderates translational reactivation, improves myelination in S63del nerves, and reduces accumulation of P0S63del in the ER. Resetting translational homeostasis may provide a therapeutic strategy in tissues impaired by misfolded proteins that are synthesized during terminal differentiation.

  15. Transgenerational inheritance or resetting of stress-induced epigenetic modifications: two sides of the same coin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny J Tricker

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The transgenerational inheritance of stress-induced epigenetic modifications is still controversial. Despite several examples of defence ‘priming’ and induced genetic rearrangements, the involvement and persistence of transgenerational epigenetic modifications is not known to be general. Here I argue that non-transmission of epigenetic marks through meiosis may be regarded as an epigenetic modification in itself, and that we should understand the implications for plant evolution in the context of both selection for and selection against transgenerational epigenetic memory. Recent data suggest that both epigenetic inheritance and resetting are mechanistically directed and targeted. Stress-induced epigenetic modifications may buffer against DNA sequence-based evolution to maintain plasticity, or may form part of plasticity’s adaptive potential. To date we have tended to concentrate on the question of whether and for how long epigenetic memory persists. I argue that we should now re-direct our question to investigate the differences between where it persists and where it does not, to understand the higher order evolutionary methods in play and their contribution.

  16. Transgenerational inheritance or resetting of stress-induced epigenetic modifications: two sides of the same coin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricker, Penny J

    2015-01-01

    The transgenerational inheritance of stress-induced epigenetic modifications is still controversial. Despite several examples of defense "priming" and induced genetic rearrangements, the involvement and persistence of transgenerational epigenetic modifications is not known to be general. Here I argue that non-transmission of epigenetic marks through meiosis may be regarded as an epigenetic modification in itself, and that we should understand the implications for plant evolution in the context of both selection for and selection against transgenerational epigenetic memory. Recent data suggest that both epigenetic inheritance and resetting are mechanistically directed and targeted. Stress-induced epigenetic modifications may buffer against DNA sequence-based evolution to maintain plasticity, or may form part of plasticity's adaptive potential. To date we have tended to concentrate on the question of whether and for how long epigenetic memory persists. I argue that we should now re-direct our question to investigate the differences between where it persists and where it does not, to understand the higher order evolutionary methods in play and their contribution.

  17. Qualitative models and experimental investigation of chaotic NOR gates and set/reset flip-flops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Aminur; Jordan, Ian; Blackmore, Denis

    2018-01-01

    It has been observed through experiments and SPICE simulations that logical circuits based upon Chua's circuit exhibit complex dynamical behaviour. This behaviour can be used to design analogues of more complex logic families and some properties can be exploited for electronics applications. Some of these circuits have been modelled as systems of ordinary differential equations. However, as the number of components in newer circuits increases so does the complexity. This renders continuous dynamical systems models impractical and necessitates new modelling techniques. In recent years, some discrete dynamical models have been developed using various simplifying assumptions. To create a robust modelling framework for chaotic logical circuits, we developed both deterministic and stochastic discrete dynamical models, which exploit the natural recurrence behaviour, for two chaotic NOR gates and a chaotic set/reset flip-flop. This work presents a complete applied mathematical investigation of logical circuits. Experiments on our own designs of the above circuits are modelled and the models are rigorously analysed and simulated showing surprisingly close qualitative agreement with the experiments. Furthermore, the models are designed to accommodate dynamics of similarly designed circuits. This will allow researchers to develop ever more complex chaotic logical circuits with a simple modelling framework.

  18. Coordinated reset stimulation in a large-scale model of the STN-GPe circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eEbert

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Synchronization of populations of neurons is a hallmark of several brain diseases. Coordinated reset (CR stimulation is a model-based stimulation technique which specifically counteracts abnormal synchrony by desynchronization. Electrical CR stimulation, e.g. for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD, is administered via depth electrodes. In order to get a deeper understanding of this technique, we extended the top-down approach of previous studies and constructed a large-scale computational model of the respective brain areas. Furthermore, we took into account the spatial anatomical properties of the simulated brain structures and incor- porated a detailed numerical representation of 2·104 simulated neurons. We simulated the subthalamic nucleus (STN and the globus pallidus externus (GPe. Connections within the STN were governed by spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP. In this way, we modeled the physiological and pathological activity of the considered brain structures. In particular, we investigated how plasticity could be exploited and how the model could be shifted from strongly synchronized (pathological activity to strongly desynchronized (healthy activity of the neuronal populations via CR stimulation of the STN neurons. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of specific stimulation parameters especially the electrode position on the stimulation outcome. Our model provides a step forward towards a biophysically realistic model of the brain areas relevant to the emergence of pathological neuronal activity in PD. Furthermore, our model constitutes a test bench for the optimization of both stimulation parameters and novel electrode geometries for efficient CR stimulation.

  19. Selective Interareal Synchronization through Gamma Frequency Differences and Slower-Rhythm Gamma Phase Reset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burwick, Thomas; Bouras, Alexandros

    2017-03-01

    The communication-through-coherence (CTC) hypothesis states that a sending group of neurons will have a particularly strong effect on a receiving group if both groups oscillate in a phase-locked ("coherent") manner (Fries, 2005 , 2015 ). Here, we consider a situation with two visual stimuli, one in the focus of attention and the other distracting, resulting in two sites of excitation at an early cortical area that project to a common site in a next area. Taking a modeler's perspective, we confirm the workings of a mechanism that was proposed by Bosman et al. ( 2012 ) in the context of providing experimental evidence for the CTC hypothesis: a slightly higher gamma frequency of the attended sending site compared to the distracting site may cause selective interareal synchronization with the receiving site if combined with a slow-rhythm gamma phase reset. We also demonstrate the relevance of a slightly lower intrinsic frequency of the receiving site for this scenario. Moreover, we discuss conditions for a transition from bottom-up to top-down driven phase locking.

  20. Detection efficiency characteristics of free-running InGaAs/InP single photon detector using passive quenching active reset IC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Fu; Wang Chao; Sun Zhi-Bin; Zhai Guang-Jie

    2016-01-01

    InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes (APD) are rarely used in a free-running regime for near-infrared single photon detection. In order to overcome the detrimental afterpulsing, we demonstrate a passive quenching active reset integrated circuit. Taking advantage of the inherent fast passive quenching process and active reset to reduce reset time, the integrated circuit is useful for reducing afterpulses and is also area-efficient. We investigate the free-running single photon detector’s afterpulsing effect, de-trapping time, dark count rate, and photon detection efficiency, and also compare with gated regime operation. After correction for deadtime and afterpulse, we find that the passive quenching active reset free-running single photon detector’s performance is consistent with gated operation. (paper)

  1. Compliance-Free, Digital SET and Analog RESET Synaptic Characteristics of Sub-Tantalum Oxide Based Neuromorphic Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Yawar; Jeon, Yu-Rim; Sokolov, Andrey Sergeevich; Kim, Sohyeon; Ku, Boncheol; Choi, Changhwan

    2018-01-19

    A two terminal semiconducting device like a memristor is indispensable to emulate the function of synapse in the working memory. The analog switching characteristics of memristor play a vital role in the emulation of biological synapses. The application of consecutive voltage sweeps or pulses (action potentials) changes the conductivity of the memristor which is considered as the fundamental cause of the synaptic plasticity. In this study, a neuromorphic device using an in-situ growth of sub-tantalum oxide switching layer is fabricated, which exhibits the digital SET and analog RESET switching with an electroforming process without any compliance current (compliance free). The process of electroforming and SET is observed at the positive sweeps of +2.4 V and +0.86 V, respectively, while multilevel RESET is observed with the consecutive negative sweeps in the range of 0 V to -1.2 V. The movement of oxygen vacancies and gradual change in the anatomy of the filament is attributed to digital SET and analog RESET switching characteristics. For the Ti/Ta 2 O 3-x /Pt neuromorphic device, the Ti top and Pt bottom electrodes are considered as counterparts of the pre-synaptic input terminal and a post-synaptic output terminal, respectively.

  2. Are the metabolomic responses to folivory of closely related plant species linked to macroevolutionary and plant-folivore coevolutionary processes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas-Ubach, Albert [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99354 USA; CREAF, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain; Hódar, José A. [Grupo de Ecología Terrestre, Departamento de Biología Animal y Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada Spain; Sardans, Jordi [CREAF, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain; CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain; Kyle, Jennifer E. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99354 USA; Kim, Young-Mo [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99354 USA; Oravec, Michal [Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Bĕlidla 4a CZ-603 00 Brno Czech Republic; Urban, Otmar [Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Bĕlidla 4a CZ-603 00 Brno Czech Republic; Guenther, Alex [Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine California 92697 USA; Peñuelas, Josep [CREAF, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain; CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain

    2016-06-02

    The debate whether the coevolution of plants and insects or macroevolutionary processes (phylogeny) is the main driver determining the arsenal of molecular defensive compounds of plants remains unresolved. Attacks by herbivorous insects affect not only the composition of defensive compounds in plants but the entire metabolome (the set of molecular metabolites), including defensive compounds. Metabolomes are the final products of genotypes and are directly affected by macroevolutionary processes, so closely related species should have similar metabolomic compositions and may respond in similar ways to attacks by folivores. We analyzed the elemental compositions and metabolomes of needles from Pinus pinaster, P. nigra and P. sylvestris to determine if these closely related Pinus species with different coevolutionary histories with the caterpillars of the processionary moth respond similarly to attacks by this lepidopteran. All pines had different metabolomes and metabolic responses to herbivorous attack. The metabolomic variation among the pine species and the responses to folivory reflected their macroevolutionary relationships, with P. pinaster having the most divergent metabolome. The concentrations of phenolic metabolites were generally not higher in the attacked trees, which had lower concentrations of terpenes, suggesting that herbivores avoid individuals with high concentrations of terpenes. Our results suggest that macroevolutionary history plays important roles in the metabolomic responses of these pine species to folivory, but plant-insect coevolution probably constrains those responses. Combinations of different evolutionary factors and trade-offs are likely responsible for the different responses of each species to folivory, which is not necessarily exclusively linked to plant-insect coevolution.

  3. Exclusion of NFAT5 from mitotic chromatin resets its nucleo-cytoplasmic distribution in interphase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaïs Estrada-Gelonch

    signals acting in interphase, resets the cytoplasmic localization of NFAT5 and prevents its nuclear accumulation and association with DNA in the absence of hypertonic stress.

  4. Anti-kindling induced by two-stage coordinated reset stimulation with weak onset intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magteld eZeitler

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal neuronal synchrony plays an important role in a number of brain diseases. To specifically counteract abnormal neuronal synchrony by desynchronization, Coordinated Reset (CR stimulation, a spatiotemporally patterned stimulation technique, was designed with computational means. In neuronal networks with spike timing–dependent plasticity CR stimulation causes a decrease of synaptic weights and finally anti-kindling, i.e. unlearning of abnormally strong synaptic connectivity and abnormal neuronal synchrony. Long-lasting desynchronizing aftereffects of CR stimulation have been verified in pre-clinical and clinical proof of concept studies. In general, for different neuromodulation approaches, both invasive and non-invasive, it is desirable to enable effective stimulation at reduced stimulation intensities, thereby avoiding side effects. For the first time, we here present a two-stage CR stimulation protocol, where two qualitatively different types of CR stimulation are delivered one after another, and the first stage comes at a particularly weak stimulation intensity. Numerical simulations show that a two-stage CR stimulation can induce the same degree of anti-kindling as a single-stage CR stimulation with intermediate stimulation intensity. This stimulation approach might be clinically beneficial in patients suffering from brain diseases characterized by abnormal neuronal synchrony where a first treatment stage should be performed at particularly weak stimulation intensities in order to avoid side effects. This might, e.g., be relevant in the context of acoustic CR stimulation in tinnitus patients with hyperacusis or in the case of electrical deep brain CR stimulation with sub-optimally positioned leads or side effects caused by stimulation of the target itself. We discuss how to apply our method in first in man and proof of concept studies.

  5. Linked data management

    CERN Document Server

    Hose, Katja; Schenkel, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Linked Data Management presents techniques for querying and managing Linked Data that is available on today’s Web. The book shows how the abundance of Linked Data can serve as fertile ground for research and commercial applications. The text focuses on aspects of managing large-scale collections of Linked Data. It offers a detailed introduction to Linked Data and related standards, including the main principles distinguishing Linked Data from standard database technology. Chapters also describe how to generate links between datasets and explain the overall architecture of data integration systems based on Linked Data. A large part of the text is devoted to query processing in different setups. After presenting methods to publish relational data as Linked Data and efficient centralized processing, the book explores lookup-based, distributed, and parallel solutions. It then addresses advanced topics, such as reasoning, and discusses work related to read-write Linked Data for system interoperation. Desp...

  6. Activation of a PGC-1-related Coactivator (PRC)-dependent Inflammatory Stress Program Linked to Apoptosis and Premature Senescence*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleyzer, Natalie; Scarpulla, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    PGC-1-related coactivator (PRC), a growth-regulated member of the PGC-1 coactivator family, contributes to the expression of the mitochondrial respiratory apparatus. PRC also orchestrates a robust response to metabolic stress by promoting the expression of multiple genes specifying inflammation, proliferation, and metabolic reprogramming. Here, we demonstrate that this PRC-dependent stress program is activated during apoptosis and senescence, two major protective mechanisms against cellular dysfunction. Both PRC and its targets (IL1α, SPRR2D, and SPRR2F) were rapidly induced by menadione, an agent that promotes apoptosis through the generation of intracellular oxidants. Menadione-induced apoptosis and the PRC stress program were blocked by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. The PRC stress response was also activated by the topoisomerase I inhibitor 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38), an inducer of premature senescence in tumor cells. Cells treated with SN-38 displayed morphological characteristics of senescence and express senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. In contrast to menadione, the SN-38 induction of the PRC program occurred over an extended time course and was antioxidant-insensitive. The potential adaptive function of the PRC stress response was investigated by treating cells with meclizine, a drug that promotes glycolytic energy metabolism and has been linked to cardio- and neuroprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury. Meclizine increased lactate production and was a potent inducer of the PRC stress program, suggesting that PRC may contribute to the protective effects of meclizine. Finally, c-MYC and PRC were coordinately induced under all conditions tested, implicating c-MYC in the biological response to metabolic stress. The results suggest a general role for PRC in the adaptive response to cellular dysfunction. PMID:23364789

  7. Possible Link Between Stress-related Factors and Altered Body Composition in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Barnali Ray; Chowdhury, Olivia; Saha, Sudip Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Stress is an invisible factor affecting modern day living and is strongly associated with many disease pathogenesis including polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) in women. PCOS is the most frequent endocrinological disorder that affects women of reproductive age, leading to metabolic dysfunction and body composition alterations. Salivary amylase and cortisol are major stress mediators that have been implicated in PCOS. However, their role in altering body composition in PCOS is yet to be deciphered. The present study aimed at understanding the relation between stress-associated factors and alterations in body composition among PCOS patients. This study enrolled a total of 100 patients (PCOS) and 60 age-matched controls. The female patients were of ages between 13 and 30 years. Standard assay kits were used to evaluate the α-amylase activity and cortisol level in saliva. The participants were chosen on the basis of the Rotterdam American Society for Reproductive Medicine/European Society of Human Reproduction criteria. Saliva was collected from each participant as per the protocol of Salimetrics, USA. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 20 for Windows. The quantitative variables are described as mean ± standard deviation. P stress scenario in their system. Moreover, overweight PCOS participants reflected higher amylase activity than the lean patients participants. Pulse rate, body mass index (BMI), visceral adiposity, and waist-hip ratio (WHR) was considerably higher in the PCOS patients participants compared to controls. A significant correlation could be drawn between the α-amylase activity and BMI or WHR, respectively, among PCOS patients. These observations indicate a strong link between the stress marker and alterations in the body composition parameters of PCOS patients participants. Higher prevalence of stress in PCOS patients participants has a critical role in their altered body composition.

  8. Validation of a Mobile Device for Acoustic Coordinated Reset Neuromodulation Tinnitus Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, Christian; Wegener, Alexander; Poppe, Hendrik; Williams, Mark; Popelka, Gerald; Tass, Peter A

    2016-10-01

    Sound-based tinnitus intervention stimuli include broad-band noise signals with subjectively adjusted bandwidths used as maskers delivered by commercial devices or hearing aids, environmental sounds broadly described and delivered by both consumer devices and hearing aids, music recordings specifically modified and delivered in a variety of different ways, and other stimuli. Acoustic coordinated reset neuromodulation therapy for tinnitus reduction has unique and more stringent requirements compared to all other sound-based tinnitus interventions. These include precise characterization of tinnitus pitch and loudness, and effective provision of patient-controlled daily therapy signals at defined frequencies, levels, and durations outside of the clinic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an approach to accommodate these requirements including evaluation of a mobile device, validation of an automated tinnitus pitch-matching algorithm and assessment of a patient's ability to control stimuli and collect repeated outcome measures. The experimental design involved direct laboratory measurements of the sound delivery capabilities of a mobile device, comparison of an automated, adaptive pitch-matching method to a traditional manual method and measures of a patient's ability to understand and manipulate a mobile device graphic user interface to both deliver the therapy signals and collect the outcome measures. This study consisted of 5 samples of a common mobile device for the laboratory measures and a total of 30 adult participants: 15 randomly selected normal-hearing participants with simulated tinnitus for validation of a tinnitus pitch-matching algorithm and 15 sequentially selected patients already undergoing tinnitus therapy for evaluation of patient usability. No tinnitus intervention(s) were specifically studied as a component of this study. Data collection involved laboratory measures of mobile devices, comparison of manual and automated adaptive tinnitus

  9. Resetting the Abnormal Circadian Cortisol Rhythm in Adrenal Incidentaloma Patients With Mild Autonomous Cortisol Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debono, Miguel; Harrison, Robert F; Chadarevian, Rita; Gueroult, Carole; Abitbol, Jean-Louis; Newell-Price, John

    2017-09-01

    Adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) are found commonly on axial imaging. Around 30% exhibit autonomous cortisol secretion (ACS) associated with increased cardiovascular events and death. We hypothesized that AI/ACS patients have an abnormal cortisol rhythm that could be reversed by use of carefully timed short-acting cortisol synthesis blockade, with improvement in cardiovascular disease markers. In a phase 1/2a, prospective study (Eudract no. 2012-002586-35), we recruited six patients with AI/ACS and two control groups of six sex-, age-, and body mass index-matched individuals: (1) patients with AI and no ACS (AI/NoACS) and (2) healthy volunteers with no AI [healthy controls (HC)]. Twenty-four-hour circadian cortisol analysis was performed to determine any differences between groups and timing of intervention for cortisol lowering using the 11β-hydroxylase inhibitor metyrapone. Circadian profiles of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) were assessed. Serum cortisol levels in group AI/ACS were significantly higher than both group AI/NoACS and group HC from 6 pm to 10 pm [area under the curve (AUC) difference: 0.81 nmol/L/h; P = 0.01] and from 10 pm to 2 am (AUC difference: 0.86 nmol/L/h; P cortisol rhythms were reassessed. Postintervention evening serum cortisol was lowered, similar to controls [6 pm to 10 pm (AUC difference: -0.06 nmol/L/h; P = 0.85); 10 pm to 2 am (AUC difference: 0.10 nmol/L/h; P = 0.76)]. Salivary cortisone showed analogous changes. IL-6 levels were elevated before treatment [10 pm to 2 pm (AUC difference: 0.42 pg/mL/h; P = 0.01)] and normalized post treatment. In AI/ACS, the evening and nocturnal cortisol exposure is increased. Use of timed evening doses of metyrapone resets the cortisol rhythm to normal. This unique treatment paradigm is associated with a reduction in the cardiovascular risk marker IL-6. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  10. Possible link between stress-related factors and altered body composition in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnali Ray Basu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress is an invisible factor affecting modern day living and is strongly associated with many disease pathogenesis including polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS in women. PCOS is the most frequent endocrinological disorder that affects women of reproductive age, leading to metabolic dysfunction and body composition alterations. Salivary amylase and cortisol are major stress mediators that have been implicated in PCOS. However, their role in altering body composition in PCOS is yet to be deciphered. Aim: The present study aimed at understanding the relation between stress-associated factors and alterations in body composition among PCOS patients. Design: This study enrolled a total of 100 patients (PCOS and 60 age-matched controls. The female patients were of ages between 13 and 30 years. Materials and Methods: Standard assay kits were used to evaluate the α-amylase activity and cortisol level in saliva. The participants were chosen on the basis of the Rotterdam American Society for Reproductive Medicine/European Society of Human Reproduction criteria. Saliva was collected from each participant as per the protocol of Salimetrics, USA. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 20 for Windows. The quantitative variables are described as mean ± standard deviation. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Increased salivary cortisol level and α-amylase activity were seen in the PCOS population as compared to age-matched controls suggesting patients a sustained stress scenario in their system. Moreover, overweight PCOS participants reflected higher amylase activity than the lean patients participants. Pulse rate, body mass index (BMI, visceral adiposity, and waist-hip ratio (WHR was considerably higher in the PCOS patients participants compared to controls. A significant correlation could be drawn between the α-amylase activity and BMI or WHR, respectively, among PCOS patients. These observations

  11. Missing rings in Pinus halepensis – the missing link to relate the tree-ring record to extreme climatic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemen eNovak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate predictions for the Mediterranean Basin include increased temperatures, decreased precipitation, and increased frequency of extreme climatic events (ECE. These conditions are associated with decreased growth of trees and their increased vulnerability to pests and diseases. The anatomy of tree rings is responsive to these environmental conditions. Quantitatively, the width of a tree ring is largely determined by the rate and duration of cell division by the vascular cambium. In the Mediterranean climate, cambial cell division may occur throughout almost the entire year. Alternatively, cell division may stop during relatively cool and dry winters, only to resume in the same year with milder temperatures and increased availability of water. Under particularly adverse conditions, no xylem may be produced in parts of the stem, resulting in a missing ring (MR, which can link tree-ring anatomy to the occurrence of extreme events. A dendrochronological network of Pinus halepensis, a widespread tree species in the Mediterranean basin, was used to determine the relationship of MR to ECE. The network consisted of 113 sites throughout its distribution range. Binomial logistic regression analysis of 2595 MR series determined that MR increased in frequency with increased cambial age. Spatial analysis indicated that the geographic areas of southeastern Spain and northern Algeria contained the greatest frequency of MR. Further regression analysis indicated that the relationship of MR to total monthly precipitation and mean temperature was non-linear. In this first determination of climatic influences on MR, the formation of MR was most strongly associated with the combination of monthly mean temperature above 10°C from previous October till current February and total precipitation below 50 mm from previous September till current May. This conclusion is global and can be applied to every site across the distribution area. Rather than simply being a

  12. MgADP-induced changes in the structure of myosin S1 near the ATPase-related thiol SH1 probed by cross-linking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajasekharan, K.N.; Mayadevi, M.; Agarwal, R.; Burke, M.

    1990-01-01

    The structural consequence of MgADP binding at the vicinity of the ATPase-related thiol SH1 (Cys-707) have been examined by subjecting myosin subfragment 1, premodified at SH2 (Cys-697) with N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), to reaction with the bifunctional reagent p-phenylenedimaleimide (pPDM) in the presence and absence of MgADP. By monitoring the changes in the Ca 2+ -ATPase activity as a function of reaction time, it appears that the reagent rapidly modifies SH1 irrespective of whether MgADP is present or not. In the absence of nucleotide, only extremely low levels of cross-linking to the 50-kDa middle segment of S1 can be detected, while in the presence of MgADP substantial cross-linking to this segment is observed. A similar cross-link is also formed if MgADP is added subsequent to the reaction of the SH2-NEM-premodified S1 with pPDM in the absence of nucleotide. Isolation of the labeled tryptic peptide from the cross-linked adduct formed with [ 14 C]pPDM, and subsequent partial sequence analyses, indicates that the cross-link is made from SH1 to Cys-522. Moreover, it appears that this cross-link results in the trapping of MgADP in this S1 species. These data suggest that the binding of MgADP results in a change in the structure of S1 in the vicinity of the SH1 thiol relative to the 50-kDa domain which enables Cys-522 to adopt the appropriate configuration to enable it to be cross-linked to SH1 by pPDM

  13. Links between Local Language Competence and Peer Relations among Swiss and Immigrant Children: The Mediating Role of Social Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Grunigen, Renate; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky; Perren, Sonja; Alsaker, Francoise D.

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of this investigation was to evaluate a model in which children's social behaviors, including prosocial behavior, setting limits, and social withdrawal, were hypothesized to mediate the links between local language competence (LLC) and peer acceptance and victimization. Longitudinal data were collected via teacher and peer reports…

  14. A thorough investigation of the progressive reset dynamics in HfO{sub 2}-based resistive switching structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzi, P., E-mail: lorenzi@die.uniroma1.it; Rao, R.; Irrera, F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Elettronica e Telecomunicazioni, Università di Roma “Sapienza,” 00184 Rome (Italy); Suñé, J.; Miranda, E. [Departament d' Enginyeria Electrònica, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2015-09-14

    According to previous reports, filamentary electron transport in resistive switching HfO{sub 2}-based metal-insulator-metal structures can be modeled using a diode-like conduction mechanism with a series resistance. Taking the appropriate limits, the model allows simulating the high (HRS) and low (LRS) resistance states of the devices in terms of exponential and linear current-voltage relationships, respectively. In this letter, we show that this simple equivalent circuit approach can be extended to represent the progressive reset transition between the LRS and HRS if a generalized logistic growth model for the pre-exponential diode current factor is considered. In this regard, it is demonstrated here that a Verhulst logistic model does not provide accurate results. The reset dynamics is interpreted as the sequential deactivation of multiple conduction channels spanning the dielectric film. Fitting results for the current-voltage characteristics indicate that the voltage sweep rate only affects the deactivation rate of the filaments without altering the main features of the switching dynamics.

  15. Argon-plasma-controlled optical reset in the SiO2/Cu filamentary resistive memory stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, T.; Yew, K. S.; Zhou, Y.; Ang, D. S.; Zhang, H. Z.; Kyuno, K.

    2018-05-01

    We show that resistive switching in the SiO2/Cu stack can be modified by a brief exposure of the oxide to an Ar plasma. The set voltage of the SiO2/Cu stack is reduced by 33%, while the breakdown voltage of the SiO2/Si stack (control) is almost unchanged. Besides, the Ar plasma treatment suppresses the negative photoconductivity or optical resistance reset effect, where the electrically formed filamentary conductive path consisting of Cu-ion and oxygen-vacancy clusters is disrupted by the recombination of the oxygen vacancies with nearby light-excited oxygen ions. From the enhanced O-H peak in the Fourier-transform infrared spectrum of the plasma-treated oxide, it is proposed that the Ar plasma has created more oxygen vacancies in the surface region of the oxide. These vacancies in turn adsorb water molecules, which act as counter anions (OH-) promoting the migration of Cu cations into the oxide and forming a more complete Cu filament that is less responsive to light. The finding points to the prospect of a control over the optical resistance reset effect by a simple surface treatment step.

  16. Characterization and modeling of SET/RESET cycling induced read-disturb failure time degradation in a resistive switching memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Po-Cheng; Hsu, Chun-Chi; Du, Sin-I.; Wang, Tahui

    2017-12-01

    Read operation induced disturbance in SET-state in a tungsten oxide resistive switching memory is investigated. We observe that the reduction of oxygen vacancy density during read-disturb follows power-law dependence on cumulative read-disturb time. Our study shows that the SET-state read-disturb immunity progressively degrades by orders of magnitude as SET/RESET cycle number increases. To explore the cause of the read-disturb degradation, we perform a constant voltage stress to emulate high-field stress effects in SET/RESET cycling. We find that the read-disturb failure time degradation is attributed to high-field stress-generated oxide traps. Since the stress-generated traps may substitute for some of oxygen vacancies in forming conductive percolation paths in a switching dielectric, a stressed cell has a reduced oxygen vacancy density in SET-state, which in turn results in a shorter read-disturb failure time. We develop an analytical read-disturb degradation model including both cycling induced oxide trap creation and read-disturb induced oxygen vacancy reduction. Our model can well reproduce the measured read-disturb failure time degradation in a cycled cell without using fitting parameters.

  17. A thorough investigation of the progressive reset dynamics in HfO2-based resistive switching structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzi, P.; Rao, R.; Irrera, F.; Suñé, J.; Miranda, E.

    2015-01-01

    According to previous reports, filamentary electron transport in resistive switching HfO 2 -based metal-insulator-metal structures can be modeled using a diode-like conduction mechanism with a series resistance. Taking the appropriate limits, the model allows simulating the high (HRS) and low (LRS) resistance states of the devices in terms of exponential and linear current-voltage relationships, respectively. In this letter, we show that this simple equivalent circuit approach can be extended to represent the progressive reset transition between the LRS and HRS if a generalized logistic growth model for the pre-exponential diode current factor is considered. In this regard, it is demonstrated here that a Verhulst logistic model does not provide accurate results. The reset dynamics is interpreted as the sequential deactivation of multiple conduction channels spanning the dielectric film. Fitting results for the current-voltage characteristics indicate that the voltage sweep rate only affects the deactivation rate of the filaments without altering the main features of the switching dynamics

  18. The relative stabilities of cyclic dicationic derivatives of diphosphanes with three (3P) or four (4P) linked phosphorus atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashforth, Rachel; Boyall, Alice J; Coffer, Philippa K; Dillon, Keith B; Goeta, Andrés E; Howard, Judith A K; Kenwright, Alan M; Probert, Michael R; Shepherd, Helena J; Thompson, Amber L

    2012-01-28

    Reaction of a diphosphane with a chlorophosphane in the presence of SnCl(2) or AlCl(3) leads to the formation of dicationic heterocycles with three (3P) or four (4P) linked phosphorus atoms. Some 3P derivatives with small alkyl substituents may also be prepared by direct alkylation of cyclic triphosphenium ions. Several new species were prepared in solution, some of which were isolated and characterised by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Investigations into the factors favouring formation of 3P or 4P species are described.

  19. Resetting of Quartz OSL (optically stimulated luminescence) Signals by Frictional Heating in Experimentally Sheared Gouges at Seismic Slip Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. H.; Choi, J. H.; Chauhan, N.; Lee, S.; Hirose, T.; Ree, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies on natural and experimental seismic faults have revealed that frictional heating plays an important role in earthquake dynamics as well as in producing mineralogical and microstructural signatures of seismic faulting. Here, we report changes in OSL signals in quartz by frictional heating in experimental fault gouges. The gouges (80% of quartz and 20% of bentonite by weight) with a thickness of 1 mm were sheared between sandstone cylinders (diameter: 25 mm) at a normal stress of 1 MPa and slip rate of 1.31 m/s. The quartz grains from a sand dune on the western coast of South Korea were sieved to select size fractions between 90 and 250 μm. The equivalent dose (De) of the undeformed quartz grains was 8.0 ± 0.3 Gy. Upon displacement, the friction abruptly increases to the 1st peak (with friction coefficient μ ≈ 0.75) followed by slip weakening. Then the fault zones show two more peak frictions (μ ≈ 0.53~0.75) and finally reach a steady-state friction (μ ≈ 0.2~0.35). The fault can be divided into three zones based grain size (thus slip rate); slip localization (SLZ), intermediate slip-rate (ISZ) and low slip-rate (LSZ) zones. SLZ develops adjacent to the moving side of the sandstone cylinder with P-foliation and shear band. The size of quartz (Dq) in ISZ and LSZ is 5-30 μm and 50-250 μm, respectively. SEM and TEM analyses indicate that the fault gouge of SLZ consists of subangular quartz clasts (Dq ≈ 3 μm) and matrix of nano-scale quartz, unidentified silicate minerals and amorphous material. The fault zones were sectioned into six layers (~160 µm thick for each layer) parallel to the fault zone boundary for OSL analyses. Quartz grains from all the layers except the one immediately adjacent to the stationary side of the sandstone cylinder show De of 'effectively' 0 Gy indicating a full resetting of OSL signals. The partial resetting of OSL signal in the layer adjacent to the stationary side of the cylinder indicates the temperature (T

  20. Social outcomes associated with alcohol-related diagnoses: a population-based analysis using linked administrative data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Nickel

    2017-04-01

    Receiving an alcohol-related diagnosis is associated with subsequent increased use of social services and contacts with the justice system. Upstream efforts to reduce alcohol-related diagnoses may result in reduced use of social services and justice contacts.

  1. Resetting the compass: exploring the implicit messages of orientation to a community-engaged medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Helen Ellaway

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: Orientation to undergraduate medical training can be successfully linked to a school’s social mission, but in doing so it can send complex and unintended messages to the participants that may be perceived quite differently based on their circumstances and expectations.

  2. A qualitative study exploring the experiences and emotional responses of female community continence link workers and female patients in relation to performing clean intermittent self-catheterisation

    OpenAIRE

    Ramm, Dianne; Kane, Ros

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This paper represents a report of a study designed to explore the experiences of female community continence link nurses in relation to female catheterisation and their psychological and educational preparedness to teach it. The lived experiences and emotional responses of female patients learning to perform Clean Intermittent Self-Catheterisation (CISC) are also examined. Background: There is general consensus that CISC should be considered in preference to indwelling catheterisat...

  3. Hybrid Z-Source DC-DC Converter with ZVZCS and Power Transformer Resetting: Design, Modeling, and Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Torkaman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel two transistors forward topology employing a z-source to achieve ZVZCS and power transformer resetting for various applications. Comparing with the forward converter, this topology has the advantage of displaying ZCS condition with an added Z-Source and no additional switches when the switches turn on, and that ZVS condition happens when the switches turn off. Duty cycle of the topology can exceed 50 percent. As a result, these converters are suitable for applications with high efficiency. In this paper, structure and properties of the topology will be discussed in details. Then the design principles will be presented. Finally, the benefits aforementioned will be approved in practice through a simple forward converter.

  4. Relating follicly-challenged compact stars to bald black holes: A link between two no-hair properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolás

    2015-05-01

    Compact stars satisfy certain no-hair relations through which their multipole moments are given by their mass, spin and quadrupole moment. These relations are approximately independent of their equation of state, relating pressure to density. Such relations are similar to the black hole no-hair theorems, but these possess event horizons inside which information that led to their formation can hide. Compact stars do not possess horizons, so whether their no-hair relations are related to the black hole ones is unclear. We investigate how the two relations are related by studying relations among multipole moments for compact stars with anisotropic pressure as a toy model, which allows such stars to be more compact than those with isotropic pressure. We here show numerically that the compact star no-hair relations approach the black hole ones as the compactness approaches that of a black hole. We also prove analytically that the current dipole moment exactly reaches the black hole limit quadratically in compactness as strongly anisotropic stars approach the black hole limit. We moreover show that compact stars become progressively oblate in this limit, even if prolate at low compactness due to strong anisotropies.

  5. Bullying perpetration and victimization as externalizing and internalizing pathways: A retrospective study linking parenting styles and self-esteem to depression, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Medina, Mia; Terrell, Nathan; Belton, Daniel; King, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Emerging research suggests significant positive associations between bullying and substance use behaviors. However, these studies typically focused either on the link between substance use and bullying perpetration or victimization, and few have conceptualized bullying perpetration and/or victimization as mediators. In this study, we simultaneously tested past bullying perpetration and victimization as mediational pathways from retrospective report of parenting styles and global self-esteem to current depressive symptoms, alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Data were collected from a college sample of 419 drinkers. Mediation effects were conducted using a bias-corrected bootstrap technique in structural equation modeling. Two-path mediation analyses indicated that mother and father authoritativeness were protective against bully victimization and depression through higher self-esteem. Conversely, having a permissive or authoritarian mother was positively linked to bullying perpetration, which in turn was associated with increased alcohol use, and to a lesser degree, more alcohol-related problems. Mother authoritarianism was associated with alcohol-related problems through depressive symptoms. Three-path mediation analyses suggested a trend in which individuals with higher self-esteem were less likely to report alcohol-related problems through lower levels of bullying victimization and depression. Results suggested that bullying perpetration and victimization may respectively serve as externalizing and internalizing pathways through which parenting styles and self-esteem are linked to depression and alcohol-related outcomes. The present study identified multiple modifiable precursors of, and mediational pathways to, alcohol-related problems which could guide the development and implementation of prevention programs targeting problematic alcohol use. PMID:26757486

  6. Bullying Perpetration and Victimization as Externalizing and Internalizing Pathways: A Retrospective Study Linking Parenting Styles and Self-Esteem to Depression, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jeremy W; Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Medina, Mia; Terrell, Nathan; Belton, Daniel; King, Kevin M

    2016-01-02

    Emerging research suggests significant positive associations between bullying and substance use behaviors. However, these studies typically focused either on the link between substance use and bullying perpetration or victimization, and few have conceptualized bullying perpetration and/or victimization as mediators. In this study, we simultaneously tested past bullying perpetration and victimization as mediational pathways from retrospective report of parenting styles and global self-esteem to current depressive symptoms, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems. Data were collected from a college sample of 419 drinkers. Mediation effects were conducted using a bias-corrected bootstrap technique within a structural equation modeling framework. Two-path mediation analyses indicated that mother and father authoritativeness were protective against bully victimization and depression through higher self-esteem. Conversely, having a permissive or authoritarian mother was positively linked to bullying perpetration, which in turn, was associated with increased alcohol use, and to a lesser degree, more alcohol-related problems. Mother authoritarianism was associated with alcohol-related problems through depressive symptoms. Three-path mediation analyses suggested a trend in which individuals with higher self-esteem were less likely to report alcohol-related problems through lower levels of bullying victimization and depression. Results suggested that bullying perpetration and victimization may, respectively, serve as externalizing and internalizing pathways through which parenting styles and self-esteem are linked to depression and alcohol-related outcomes. The present study identified multiple modifiable precursors of, and mediational pathways to, alcohol-related problems which could guide the development and implementation of prevention programs targeting problematic alcohol use.

  7. The Role of Preschool Relational and Physical Aggression in the Transition to Kindergarten: Links with Social-Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Amy L.; Lingras, Katherine A.; Mathieson, Lindsay C.; Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The transition to kindergarten has important ramifications for future achievement and psychosocial outcomes. Research suggests that physical aggression may be related to difficulty during school transitions, yet no studies to date have examined the role of relational aggression in these transitions. This article examines how…

  8. Inherent X-Linked Genetic Variability and Cellular Mosaicism Unique to Females Contribute to Sex-Related Differences in the Innate Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Spolarics

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Females have a longer lifespan and better general health than males. Considerable number of studies also demonstrated that, after trauma and sepsis, females present better outcomes as compared to males indicating sex-related differences in the innate immune response. The current notion is that differences in the immuno-modulatory effects of sex hormones are the underlying causative mechanism. However, the field remains controversial and the exclusive role of sex hormones has been challenged. Here, we propose that polymorphic X-linked immune competent genes, which are abundant in the population are important players in sex-based immuno-modulation and play a key role in causing sex-related outcome differences following trauma or sepsis. We describe the differences in X chromosome (ChrX regulation between males and females and its consequences in the context of common X-linked polymorphisms at the individual as well as population level. We also discuss the potential pathophysiological and immune-modulatory aspects of ChrX cellular mosaicism, which is unique to females and how this may contribute to sex-biased immune-modulation. The potential confounding effects of ChrX skewing of cell progenitors at the bone marrow is also presented together with aspects of acute trauma-induced de novo ChrX skewing at the periphery. In support of the hypothesis, novel observations indicating ChrX skewing in a female trauma cohort as well as case studies depicting the temporal relationship between trauma-induced cellular skewing and the clinical course are also described. Finally, we list and discuss a selected set of polymorphic X-linked genes, which are frequent in the population and have key regulatory or metabolic functions in the innate immune response and, therefore, are primary candidates for mediating sex-biased immune responses. We conclude that sex-related differences in a variety of disease processes including the innate inflammatory response to injury

  9. PERIPHERAL IMMUNE SYSTEM SUPPRESSION IN EARLY ABSTINENT ALCOHOL DEPENDENT INDIVIDUALS: LINKS TO STRESS AND CUE-RELATED CRAVING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Helen C; Milivojevic, Verica; Angarita, Gustavo A; Stowe, Raymond; Sinha, Rajita

    2017-01-01

    Background Peripheral immune system cytokines may play an integral role in underlying sensitized stress response and alcohol craving during early withdrawal. To date, the nature of these immune changes during early abstinence have not been examined. Methods Thirty-nine early abstinent, treatment-seeking alcohol dependent individuals and 46 socially drinking controls were exposed to three guided imageries: stress, alcohol cue and neutral. These were presented randomly across consecutive days. Plasma measures of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-10 (IL-10), were collected at baseline, immediately after imagery and at various recovery time-points. Ratings of alcohol craving, negative mood and anxiety were also obtained at the same time-points. Results The alcohol group demonstrated decreased basal IL-10 compared with controls particularly following exposure to alcohol cue. They also showed a dampened TNFα and TNFR1 response to stress and cue, respectively, and a generalized suppression of IL-6. In the alcohol group, these immune system adaptations occurred alongside significant elevations in anxiety, negative mood and alcohol craving. Conclusions Findings demonstrate that broad immuno-suppression is still observed in alcohol dependent individuals after three weeks of abstinence and may be linked to motivation for alcohol. PMID:28675117

  10. Reducing Risks to Women Linked to Shift Work, Long Work Hours, and Related Workplace Sleep and Fatigue Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Claire C

    2015-10-01

    In the United States, an estimated 12% to 28% of working women are on shift work schedules, and 12% work more than 48 hours per week. Shift work and long work hours are associated with many health and safety risks, including obesity, injuries, and negative reproductive outcomes. Over time, the worker is at risk for developing a wide range of chronic diseases. These work schedules can also strain personal relationships, owing to fatigue and poor mood from sleep deprivation and reduced quality time to spend with family and friends. Worker errors from fatigue can lead to reduced quality of goods and services, negatively impacting the employer. In addition, mistakes by fatigued workers can have far-reaching negative effects on the community, ranging from medical care errors to motor vehicle crashes and industrial disasters that endanger others. To reduce the many risks that are linked to these demanding work hours, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducts research, develops guidance and authoritative recommendations, and translates and disseminates scientific information to protect workers, their families, employers, and the community. The key message to reduce these risks is making sleep a priority in the employer's systems for organizing work and in the worker's personal life. The NIOSH website has freely available online training programs with suggestions for workers and their managers to help them better cope with this workplace hazard.

  11. A link between double-strand break-related repair and V(D)J recombination: the scid mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, E.A.; Qin, X.Q.; Bump, E.A.; Schatz, D.G.; Oettinger, M.; Weaver, D.T.

    1991-01-01

    We show here that mammalian site-specific recombination and DNA-repair pathways share a common factor. The effects of DNA-damaging agents on cell lines derived from mice homozygous for the scid (severe combined immune deficiency) mutation were studied. Surprisingly, all scid cell lines exhibited a profound hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging agents that caused double-strand breaks (x-irradiation and bleomycin) but not to other chemicals that caused single-strand breaks or cross-links. Neutral filter elution assays demonstrated that the x-irradiation hypersensitivity could be correlated with a deficiency in repairing double-strand breaks. These data suggest that the scid gene product is involved in two pathways: DNA repair of random double-strand breaks and the site-specific and lymphoid-restricted variable-(diversity)-joining [V(D)J] DNA rearrangement process. We propose that the scid gene product performs a similar function in both pathways and may be a ubiquitous protein

  12. Can the dopaminergic-related effects of general anesthetics be linked to mechanisms involved in drug abuse and addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, A; Tavares, I; Sousa, N; Pêgo, J M

    2015-08-01

    General anesthetics (GA) are well known for the ability to induce a state of reversible loss of consciousness and unresponsiveness to painful stimuli. However, evidence from animal models and clinical studies show that GA exposure may induce behavioral changes beyond acute effects. Most research and concerns are focused on changes in cognition and memory. We will look at effects of GA on behavior that is mediated by the dopaminergic system. Pharmacological resemblance of GA with drugs of abuse, and the complexity and importance of dopaminergic systems in both reward seeking and addictive illnesses make us believe that it deserves an overview about what is already known and what matters to us as healthcare workers and specifically as anesthesiologists. A review of available evidence strongly suggests that there may be a link between the effects of GA on the brain and substance abuse, partly explained by their influence on the dopaminergic system. © 2015 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Socio-Economic Factors Related to Moral Reasoning in Childhood and Adolescence: The Missing Link between Brain and Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Carla Silvia eCaravita

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuroscientific and psychological research on moral development has until now developed independently, referring to distinct theoretical models, contents and methods. In particular, the influence of socio-economic and cultural factors on morality has been broadly investigated by psychologists but as yet has not been investigated by neuroscientists. The value of bridging these two areas both theoretically and methodologically has, however, been suggested. This study aims at providing a first connection between neuroscientific and psychological literature on morality by investigating whether socio-economic dimensions, i.e. living socio-geographic/economic area, immigrant status and SES, affect moral reasoning as operationalized in moral domain theory (a seminal approach in psychological studies on morality and in Greene and colleagues’ (2001 perspective (one of the main approaches in neuroethics research. Participants were 81 primary school (M = 8.98 yrs.; SD = 0.39, 72 middle school (M = 12.14 yrs.; SD = 0.61 and 73 high school (M = 15.10 yrs.; SD = 0.38 students from rural and urban areas. Participants’ immigrant status (native vs. immigrant and family SES level were recorded. Moral reasoning was assessed by means of a series of personal and impersonal dilemmas based on Greene and colleagues' (2001 neuroimaging experiment and a series of moral and socio-conventional rule dilemmas based on the moral domain theory. Living socio-geographic/economic area, immigrant status and SES mainly affected evaluations of moral and, to a higher extent, socio-conventional dilemmas, but had no impact on judgment of personal and impersonal dilemmas. Results are mainly discussed from the angle of possible theoretical links and suggestions emerging for studies on moral reasoning in the frameworks of neuroscience and psychology.

  14. Mediational links among parenting styles, perceptions of parental confidence, self-esteem, and depression on alcohol-related problems in emerging adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A

    2009-03-01

    Depression is often found to be comorbid with alcohol-related problems. Parental overprotection, which may be of particular importance during emerging adulthood, has been linked to internalizing symptoms in offspring. This article evaluates the impact of parenting styles and parental confidence in their offspring on an internalizing pathway to alcohol-related problems through self-esteem and depression. Mediational links were tested among parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), parental confidence (overprotection, autonomy), self-esteem, depression, and alcohol-related problems. A two-group, multiple indicator multiple-cause structural equation model with 441 (216 female, 225 male) college students was examined. Overall, having a father who was confident in his child's ability to make autonomous decisions was protective against depression for both genders. Perceptions of paternal autonomy mediated the impact of the fathers' parenting styles (authoritative, permissive) on depression for both genders. For men, parental overprotection mediated the impact of an authoritarian father on self-esteem, and self-esteem mediated the impact of parental overprotection on depression. Moreover, among men, perceptions of maternal autonomy mediated the impact of the mothers' parenting styles (authoritative, permissive) on self-esteem, and self-esteem mediated the impact of maternal autonomy on depression. The current pattern of findings is distinct from pathways through behavioral undercontrol with influences from the same-sex parent for both genders. These findings indicate that parenting may have differential influences on internalizing pathways to alcohol-related problems.

  15. Mediational Links Among Parenting Styles, Perceptions of Parental Confidence, Self-Esteem, and Depression on Alcohol-Related Problems in Emerging Adulthood*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Depression is often found to be comorbid with alcohol-related problems. Parental overprotection, which may be of particular importance during emerging adulthood, has been linked to internalizing symptoms in offspring. This article evaluates the impact of parenting styles and parental confidence in their offspring on an internalizing pathway to alcohol-related problems through self-esteem and depression. Method: Mediational links were tested among parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), parental confidence (overprotection, autonomy), self-esteem, depression, and alcohol-related problems. A two-group, multiple indicator multiple-cause structural equation model with 441 (216 female, 225 male) college students was examined. Results: Overall, having a father who was confident in his child's ability to make autonomous decisions was protective against depression for both genders. Perceptions of paternal autonomy mediated the impact of the fathers' parenting styles (authoritative, permissive) on depression for both genders. For men, parental overprotection mediated the impact of an authoritarian father on self-esteem, and self-esteem mediated the impact of parental overprotection on depression. Moreover, among men, perceptions of maternal autonomy mediated the impact of the mothers' parenting styles (authoritative, permissive) on self-esteem, and self-esteem mediated the impact of maternal autonomy on depression. Conclusions: The current pattern of findings is distinct from pathways through behavioral undercontrol with influences from the same-sex parent for both genders. These findings indicate that parenting may have differential influences on internalizing pathways to alcohol-related problems. PMID:19261233

  16. Peering into the Brain to Predict Behavior: Peer-Reported, but not Self-Reported, Conscientiousness Links Threat-Related Amygdala Activity to Future Problem Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Johnna R.; Knodt, Annchen R.; Radtke, Spenser R.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2016-01-01

    Personality traits such as conscientiousness as self-reported by individuals can help predict a range of outcomes, from job performance to longevity. Asking others to rate the personality of their acquaintances often provides even better predictive power than using self-report. Here, we examine whether peer-reported personality can provide a better link between brain function, namely threat-related amygdala activity, and future health-related behavior, namely problem drinking, than self-reported personality. Using data from a sample of 377 young adult university students who were rated on five personality traits by peers, we find that higher threat-related amygdala activity to fearful facial expressions is associated with higher peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness. Moreover, higher peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness predicts lower future problem drinking more than one year later, an effect specific to men. Remarkably, relatively higher amygdala activity has an indirect effect on future drinking behavior in men, linked by peer-reported conscientiousness to lower future problem drinking. Our results provide initial evidence that the perceived conscientiousness of an individual by their peers uniquely reflects variability in a core neural mechanism supporting threat responsiveness. These novel patterns further suggest that incorporating peer-reported measures of personality into individual differences research can reveal novel predictive pathways of risk and protection for problem behaviors. PMID:27717769

  17. Peering into the brain to predict behavior: Peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness links threat-related amygdala activity to future problem drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Johnna R; Knodt, Annchen R; Radtke, Spenser R; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2017-02-01

    Personality traits such as conscientiousness as self-reported by individuals can help predict a range of outcomes, from job performance to longevity. Asking others to rate the personality of their acquaintances often provides even better predictive power than using self-report. Here, we examine whether peer-reported personality can provide a better link between brain function, namely threat-related amygdala activity, and future health-related behavior, namely problem drinking, than self-reported personality. Using data from a sample of 377 young adult university students who were rated on five personality traits by peers, we find that higher threat-related amygdala activity to fearful facial expressions is associated with higher peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness. Moreover, higher peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness predicts lower future problem drinking more than one year later, an effect specific to men. Remarkably, relatively higher amygdala activity has an indirect effect on future drinking behavior in men, linked by peer-reported conscientiousness to lower future problem drinking. Our results provide initial evidence that the perceived conscientiousness of an individual by their peers uniquely reflects variability in a core neural mechanism supporting threat responsiveness. These novel patterns further suggest that incorporating peer-reported measures of personality into individual differences research can reveal novel predictive pathways of risk and protection for problem behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Knowledge Cities and Transport Sustainability: The Link between the Travel Behavior of Knowledge Workers and Car-Related Job Perks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenkel, Amnon; Bendit, Edward; Kaplan, Sigal

    2014-01-01

    from a survey among knowledge workers in Tel-Aviv. Results show that car-related job perks are associated with (1) high annual kilometrage, (2) increased commute by car, (3) long commute travel times, (4) high trip chaining frequency, and (5) many long-distance leisure trips. Results suggest......This study analyzes the linkage between the travel behavior of knowledge workers and car-related job perks. The importance of this issue derives from the tendency of knowledge economy to concentrate in highly populated metropolitan regions. The analyzed data comprise 750 observations, retrieved...... that the development of sustainable knowledge-based cities should consider decoupling knowledge workers from car-related job perks. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC....

  19. Peer Victimization and Social Dominance as Intervening Variables of the Link between Peer Liking and Relational Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ryan E.; Bartlett, Nancy H.; Bukowski, William M.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined social dominance and peer victimization as possible intervening and moderating variables of the association between peer liking and relational aggression because previous findings suggest that social dominance and peer victimization are important for predicting the acceptableness and success of aggression. A total of 367…

  20. Academic Procrastination in Linking Motivation and Achievement-Related Behaviours: A Perspective of Expectancy-Value Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Fan, Weihua

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationships among college students' achievement motivation (subjective task value and academic self-efficacy), academic procrastination (delay and missing deadlines) and achievement-related behaviours (effort and persistence). More specifically, the study investigated the mediating role…

  1. Bullying-related behaviour in adolescents with autism: Links with autism severity and emotional and behavioural problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, Elian; Olthof, Tjeert; Goossens, Frits; van der Meijden, Sandra; Begeer, Sander

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the association between peer-reported bullying-related behaviours (bully, victim, outsider and defender), age, gender, autism severity and teacher-rated emotional and behavioural problems in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder, using a multi-informant approach. The sample

  2. Goals and everyday problem solving: examining the link between age-related goals and problem-solving strategy use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppmann, Christiane A; Coats, Abby Heckman; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda

    2008-07-01

    Qualitative interviews on family and financial problems from 332 adolescents, young, middle-aged, and older adults, demonstrated that developmentally relevant goals predicted problem-solving strategy use over and above problem domain. Four focal goals concerned autonomy, generativity, maintaining good relationships with others, and changing another person. We examined both self- and other-focused problem-solving strategies. Autonomy goals were associated with self-focused instrumental problem solving and generative goals were related to other-focused instrumental problem solving in family and financial problems. Goals of changing another person were related to other-focused instrumental problem solving in the family domain only. The match between goals and strategies, an indicator of problem-solving adaptiveness, showed that young individuals displayed the greatest match between autonomy goals and self-focused problem solving, whereas older adults showed a greater match between generative goals and other-focused problem solving. Findings speak to the importance of considering goals in investigations of age-related differences in everyday problem solving.

  3. Questioning the link between Self-Expressed Attitudes and Repurchasing Behavior: Relations Between Cognitive, Affective and Action Loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guven Ordun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In psychology attitude is defined as favorable or unfavorable evaluations towards a person, group, object or event. Attitudes are formed by past and present experiences and are expected to change as a function of experience. Three components of the attitude defined as cognitive (what we know about the subject, affective (how we feel towards the subject and behavioral (intention to behave towards the subject. Our behavior is defined as a complex combination of beliefs, feelings, capabilities and norms. The majority of consumer behavior literature examined the main antecedents of purchase behavior. Attitudes are described as one of the most important determinant of the behavior. There are several methods and techniques to assess attitude; the most used one is the self-report paper and pencil measures. Brand loyalty is another important concept related with repetitive purchasing behavior. While cognitive loyalty is related with the information, affective loyalty is related with feelings. Behavioral loyalty is described as the past behaviors or experiences. Some of our behaviors are determined by the cognitive component of the attitude while others may be directed by the affective part. Main focus of the research is to find out whether there is a level of compliance between cognitive, affective and behavioral attitude of consumers. 1000 forms are distributed in order to identify the attitudes and purchasing behaviors of consumers 783 forms are evaluated

  4. Questioning the Link between Self-Expressed Attitudes and Repurchasing Behavior: Relations Between Cognitive, Affective and Action Loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guven Ordun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In psychology attitude is defined as favorable or unfavorable evaluations towards a person, group, object or event. Attitudes are formed by past and present experiences and are expected to change as a function of experience. Three components of the attitude defined as cognitive (what we know about the subject, affective (how we feel towards the subject and behavioral (intention to behave towards the subject. Our behavior is defined as a complex combination of beliefs, feelings, capabilities and norms. The majority of consumer behavior literature examined the main antecedents of purchase behavior. Attitudes are described as one of the most important determinant of the behavior. There are several methods and techniques to assess attitude; the most used one is the self-report paper and pencil measures. Brand loyalty is another important concept related with repetitive purchasing behavior. While cognitive loyalty is related with the information, affective loyalty is related with feelings. Behavioral loyalty is described as the past behaviors or experiences. Some of our behaviors are determined by the cognitive component of the attitude while others may be directed by the affective part. Main focus of the research is to find out whether there is a level of compliance between cognitive, affective and behavioral attitude of consumers. 1000 forms are distributed in order to identify the attitudes and purchasing behaviors of consumers 783 forms are evaluated

  5. Activity-related parenting practices: development of the Parenting Related to Activity Measure (PRAM) and links with mothers' eating psychopathology and compulsive exercise beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycraft, Emma; Powell, Faye; Meyer, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    This is a two-study paper that developed a measure to assess parenting practices related to children's physical activity and explored maternal predictors of such parenting practices. Study 1: A self-report measure of parents' activity-related practices (the Parenting Related to Activity Measure) was developed, and a principal component analysis was carried out using data from 233 mothers of 4.5- to 9-year-old children. The results supported a six-factor model and yielded the following subscales: Responsibility/monitoring; Activity regulation; Control of active behaviours; Overweight concern; Rewarding parenting; and Pressure to exercise. Study 2: Mothers (N = 170) completed the Parenting Related to Activity Measure, alongside measures of eating psychopathology and compulsive exercise, to identify predictors of activity-related parenting practices. Mothers' eating psychopathology and exercise beliefs predicted activity parenting practices with their sons and daughters, but different predictors were seen for mothers of daughters versus sons. Mothers' eating and exercise attitudes are important predictors of their activity-related parenting practices, particularly with girls. Identifying early interactions around activity/exercise could be important in preventing the development of problematic beliefs about exercise, which are often a key symptom of eating disorders. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  6. Expectations and experiences of gamete donors and donor-conceived adults searching for genetic relatives using DNA linking through a voluntary register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Akker, O B A; Crawshaw, M A; Blyth, E D; Frith, L J

    2015-01-01

    What are the experiences of donor-conceived adults and donors who are searching for a genetic link through the use of a DNA-based voluntary register service? Donor-conceived adults and donors held positive beliefs about their search and although some concerns in relation to finding a genetically linked relative were reported, these were not a barrier to searching. Research with donor-conceived people has consistently identified their interest in learning about-and in some cases making contact with-their donor and other genetic relatives. However, donor-conceived individuals or donors rarely have the opportunity to act on these desires. A questionnaire was administered for online completion using Bristol Online Surveys. The survey was live for 3 months and responses were collected anonymously. The survey was completed by 65 donor-conceived adults, 21 sperm donors and 5 oocyte donors who had registered with a DNA-based voluntary contact register in the UK. The questionnaire included socio-demographic questions, questions specifically developed for the purposes of this study and the standardized Aspects of Identity Questionnaire (AIQ). Motivations for searching for genetic relatives were varied, with the most common reasons being curiosity and passing on information. Overall, participants who were already linked and those awaiting a link were positive about being linked and valued access to a DNA-based register. Collective identity (reflecting self-defining feelings of continuity and uniqueness), as assessed by the AIQ, was significantly lower for donor-conceived adults when compared with the donor groups (P 0.05) for donor-conceived adults. Participants were members of a UK DNA-based registry which is unique. It was therefore not possible to determine how representative participants were of those who did not register for the service, those in other countries or of those who do not seek information exchange or contact. This is the first survey exploring the

  7. SH2/SH3 adaptor proteins can link tyrosine kinases to a Ste20-related protein kinase, HPK1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anafi, M; Kiefer, F; Gish, G D; Mbamalu, G; Iscove, N N; Pawson, T

    1997-10-31

    Ste20-related protein kinases have been implicated as regulating a range of cellular responses, including stress-activated protein kinase pathways and the control of cytoskeletal architecture. An important issue involves the identities of the upstream signals and regulators that might control the biological functions of mammalian Ste20-related protein kinases. HPK1 is a protein-serine/threonine kinase that possesses a Ste20-like kinase domain, and in transfected cells activates a protein kinase pathway leading to the stress-activated protein kinase SAPK/JNK. Here we have investigated candidate upstream regulators that might interact with HPK1. HPK1 possesses an N-terminal catalytic domain and an extended C-terminal tail with four proline-rich motifs. The SH3 domains of Grb2 bound in vitro to specific proline-rich motifs in the HPK1 tail and functioned synergistically to direct the stable binding of Grb2 to HPK1 in transfected Cos1 cells. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation did not affect the binding of Grb2 to HPK1 but induced recruitment of the Grb2.HPK1 complex to the autophosphorylated EGF receptor and to the Shc docking protein. Several activated receptor and cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases, including the EGF receptor, stimulated the tyrosine phosphorylation of the HPK1 serine/threonine kinase. These results suggest that HPK1, a mammalian Ste20-related protein-serine/threonine kinase, can potentially associate with protein-tyrosine kinases through interactions mediated by SH2/SH3 adaptors such as Grb2. Such interaction may provide a possible mechanism for cross-talk between distinct biochemical pathways following the activation of tyrosine kinases.

  8. Linking black hole growth with host galaxies: the accretion-stellar mass relation and its cosmic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G.; Brandt, W. N.; Vito, F.; Chen, C.-T. J.; Trump, J. R.; Luo, B.; Sun, M. Y.; Xue, Y. Q.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Schneider, D. P.; Vignali, C.; Wang, J.-X.

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies suggest that the growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) may be fundamentally related to host-galaxy stellar mass (M⋆). To investigate this SMBH growth-M⋆ relation in detail, we calculate long-term SMBH accretion rate as a function of M⋆ and redshift [\\overlineBHAR(M_{\\star }, z)] over ranges of log (M⋆/M⊙) = 9.5-12 and z = 0.4-4. Our \\overlineBHAR(M_{\\star }, z) is constrained by high-quality survey data (GOODS-South, GOODS-North and COSMOS), and by the stellar mass function and the X-ray luminosity function. At a given M⋆, \\overlineBHAR is higher at high redshift. This redshift dependence is stronger in more massive systems [for log (M⋆/M⊙) ≈ 11.5, \\overlineBHAR is three decades higher at z = 4 than at z = 0.5], possibly due to AGN feedback. Our results indicate that the ratio between \\overlineBHAR and average star formation rate (\\overlineSFR) rises towards high M⋆ at a given redshift. This \\overlineBHAR/\\overlineSFR dependence on M⋆ does not support the scenario that SMBH and galaxy growth are in lockstep. We calculate SMBH mass history [MBH(z)] based on our \\overlineBHAR(M_{\\star }, z) and the M⋆(z) from the literature, and find that the MBH-M⋆ relation has weak redshift evolution since z ≈ 2. The MBH/M⋆ ratio is higher towards massive galaxies: it rises from ≈1/5000 at log M⋆ ≲ 10.5 to ≈1/500 at log M⋆ ≳ 11.2. Our predicted MBH/M⋆ ratio at high M⋆ is similar to that observed in local giant ellipticals, suggesting that SMBH growth from mergers is unlikely to dominate over growth from accretion.

  9. Operative Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Højlund, Holger

    2012-01-01

    educational goals, learning content, or value clarification. Health pedagogy is often a matter of retrospective rationalization rather than the starting point of planning. Health and risk behaviour approaches override health educational approaches. Conclusions: Operational links between health education......, health professionalism, and management strategies pose the foremost challenge. Operational links indicates cooperative levels that facilitate a creative and innovative effort across traditional professional boundaries. It is proposed that such links are supported by network structures, shared semantics...

  10. The mediating role of work-related musculoskeletal disorders on the link between psychosocial factors and absenteeism among administrative workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mohd Zulkifli; Othman, Abdul Kadir; Ahmad, Mohamad Fahimi; Justine, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between psychosocial factors (i.e., job demand, decision latitude, social support, physical environment, and personal risk factors), work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs), and productivity as measured by workers' perceived absenteeism. Data were collected from the selected administrative workers (administrative assistant) and analyzed using cross tabulation. The results indicate that all psychological factors are not significantly associated with WRMDs, except for the association between personal risk factors and hip/thigh disorders. Subsequently, WRMDs do not significantly contribute to explaining absenteeism. The managerial and research implications of this study are deliberately discussed.

  11. Linking Indigenous Peoplesr Health-Related Decision Making to Information Communication Technology: Insights from an Emerging Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Jahir Uddin Palas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous peoples are being marginalised globally from a socioeconomic perspective and are often excluded from mainstream communities for social and/or geographic reasons. Historically, they tend to have lower living standards, including poor health conditions as compared to the rest of the population. Literature suggests that information and communication technologies (ICTs have the potential to improve awareness about how to improve health and wellbeing. In order to both deepen and broaden the understanding of how ICTs can influence Indigenous peoplesr health-related decision-making, this study has developed a conceptual framework based on the capability approach, focusing on the five dimensions of freedoms suggested by Amartya Sen. Data collected from a sample of members of an Indigenous community in Bangladesh, using a purposive sampling method, were analysed through qualitative techniques to identify ways in which a mobile-based health system have influenced the lives of indigenous people. The findings revealed that the mobile healthcare system explored in this study addressed a number of factors pertaining to indigenous peoplesr quality of life. These findings are useful for policy formulation related to the design and implementation of healthcare strategies in Bangladesh. The conceptual framework, following further validation, could serve as a platform for the advancement of research towards understanding how mobile healthcare systems can improve the wellbeing of individuals in indigenous communities.

  12. Resetting of Mg isotopes between calcite and dolomite during burial metamorphism: Outlook of Mg isotopes as geothermometer and seawater proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhongya; Hu, Wenxuan; Wang, Xiaomin; Lu, Yizhou; Wang, Lichao; Liao, Zhiwei; Li, Weiqiang

    2017-07-01

    Magnesium isotopes are an emerging tool to study the geological processes recorded in carbonates. Calcite, due to its ubiquitous occurrence and the large Mg isotope fractionation associated with the mineral, has attracted great interests in applications of Mg isotope geochemistry. However, the fidelity of Mg isotopes in geological records of carbonate minerals (e.g., calcite and dolomite) against burial metamorphism remains poorly constrained. Here we report our investigation on the Mg isotope systematics of a dolomitized Middle Triassic Geshan carbonate section in eastern China. Magnesium isotope analysis was complemented by analyses of Sr-C-O isotopic compositions, major and trace element concentrations, and petrographic and mineralogical features. Multiple lines of evidence consistently indicated that post-depositional diagenesis of carbonate minerals occurred to the carbonate rocks. Magnesium isotope compositions of the carbonate rocks closely follow a mixing trend between a high δ26Mg dolomite end member and a low δ26Mg calcite end member, irrespective of sample positions in the section and calcite/dolomite ratio in the samples. By fitting the measured Mg isotope data using a two-end member mixing model, an inter-mineral Δ26Mgdolomite-calcite fractionation of 0.72‰ was obtained. Based on the experimentally derived Mg isotope fractionation factors for dolomite and calcite, a temperature of 150-190 °C was calculated to correspond to the 0.72‰ Δ26Mgdolomite-calcite fractionation. Such temperature range matches with the burial-thermal history of the local strata, making a successful case of Mg isotope geothermometry. Our results indicate that both calcite and dolomite had been re-equilibrated during burial metamorphism, and based on isotope mass balance of Mg, the system was buffered by dolomite in the section. Therefore, burial metamorphism may reset Mg isotope signature of calcite, and Mg isotope compositions in calcite should be dealt with caution in

  13. Geriatric Patient Safety Indicators Based on Linked Administrative Health Data to Assess Anticoagulant-Related Thromboembolic and Hemorrhagic Adverse Events in Older Inpatients: A Study Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pogam, Marie-Annick; Quantin, Catherine; Reich, Oliver; Tuppin, Philippe; Fagot-Campagna, Anne; Paccaud, Fred; Peytremann-Bridevaux, Isabelle; Burnand, Bernard

    2017-05-11

    Frail older people with multiple interacting conditions, polypharmacy, and complex care needs are particularly exposed to health care-related adverse events. Among these, anticoagulant-related thromboembolic and hemorrhagic events are particularly frequent and serious in older inpatients. The growing use of anticoagulants in this population and their substantial risk of toxicity and inefficacy have therefore become an important patient safety and public health concern worldwide. Anticoagulant-related adverse events and the quality of anticoagulation management should thus be routinely assessed to improve patient safety in vulnerable older inpatients. This project aims to develop and validate a set of outcome and process indicators based on linked administrative health data (ie, insurance claims data linked to hospital discharge data) assessing older inpatient safety related to anticoagulation in both Switzerland and France, and enabling comparisons across time and among hospitals, health territories, and countries. Geriatric patient safety indicators (GPSIs) will assess anticoagulant-related adverse events. Geriatric quality indicators (GQIs) will evaluate the management of anticoagulants for the prevention and treatment of arterial or venous thromboembolism in older inpatients. GPSIs will measure cumulative incidences of thromboembolic and bleeding adverse events based on hospital discharge data linked to insurance claims data. Using linked administrative health data will improve GPSI risk adjustment on patients' conditions that are present at admission and will capture in-hospital and postdischarge adverse events. GQIs will estimate the proportion of index hospital stays resulting in recommended anticoagulation at discharge and up to various time frames based on the same electronic health data. The GPSI and GQI development and validation process will comprise 6 stages: (1) selection and specification of candidate indicators, (2) definition of administrative data

  14. Lung Cancer Cell Line Screen Links Fanconi Anemia/BRCA Pathway Defects to Increased Relative Biological Effectiveness of Proton Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qi; Ghosh, Priyanjali; Magpayo, Nicole; Testa, Mauro; Tang, Shikui; Gheorghiu, Liliana; Biggs, Peter; Paganetti, Harald; Efstathiou, Jason A.; Lu, Hsiao-Ming; Held, Kathryn D.; Willers, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Growing knowledge of genomic heterogeneity in cancer, especially when it results in altered DNA damage responses, requires re-examination of the generic relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 1.1 of protons. Methods and Materials: For determination of cellular radiosensitivity, we irradiated 17 lung cancer cell lines at the mid-spread-out Bragg peak of a clinical proton beam (linear energy transfer, 2.5 keV/μm). For comparison, 250-kVp X rays and 137 Cs γ-rays were used. To estimate the RBE of protons relative to 60 Co (Co60eq), we assigned an RBE(Co60Eq) of 1.1 to X rays to correct the physical dose measured. Standard DNA repair foci assays were used to monitor damage responses. FANCD2 was depleted using RNA interference. Results: Five lung cancer cell lines (29.4%) exhibited reduced clonogenic survival after proton irradiation compared with X-irradiation with the same physical doses. This was confirmed in a 3-dimensional sphere assay. Corresponding proton RBE(Co60Eq) estimates were statistically significantly different from 1.1 (P≤.05): 1.31 to 1.77 (for a survival fraction of 0.5). In 3 of these lines, increased RBE was correlated with alterations in the Fanconi anemia (FA)/BRCA pathway of DNA repair. In Calu-6 cells, the data pointed toward an FA pathway defect, leading to a previously unreported persistence of proton-induced RAD51 foci. The FA/BRCA-defective cells displayed a 25% increase in the size of subnuclear 53BP1 foci 18 hours after proton irradiation. Conclusions: Our cell line screen has revealed variations in proton RBE that are partly due to FA/BRCA pathway defects, suggesting that the use of a generic RBE for cancers should be revisited. We propose that functional biomarkers, such as size of residual 53BP1 foci, may be used to identify cancers with increased sensitivity to proton radiation

  15. Lung Cancer Cell Line Screen Links Fanconi Anemia/BRCA Pathway Defects to Increased Relative Biological Effectiveness of Proton Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qi; Ghosh, Priyanjali; Magpayo, Nicole [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Testa, Mauro; Tang, Shikui [Division of Radiation Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Gheorghiu, Liliana [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Biggs, Peter; Paganetti, Harald [Division of Radiation Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Efstathiou, Jason A. [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Lu, Hsiao-Ming [Division of Radiation Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Held, Kathryn D. [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Willers, Henning, E-mail: hwillers@mgh.harvard.edu [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: Growing knowledge of genomic heterogeneity in cancer, especially when it results in altered DNA damage responses, requires re-examination of the generic relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 1.1 of protons. Methods and Materials: For determination of cellular radiosensitivity, we irradiated 17 lung cancer cell lines at the mid-spread-out Bragg peak of a clinical proton beam (linear energy transfer, 2.5 keV/μm). For comparison, 250-kVp X rays and {sup 137}Cs γ-rays were used. To estimate the RBE of protons relative to {sup 60}Co (Co60eq), we assigned an RBE(Co60Eq) of 1.1 to X rays to correct the physical dose measured. Standard DNA repair foci assays were used to monitor damage responses. FANCD2 was depleted using RNA interference. Results: Five lung cancer cell lines (29.4%) exhibited reduced clonogenic survival after proton irradiation compared with X-irradiation with the same physical doses. This was confirmed in a 3-dimensional sphere assay. Corresponding proton RBE(Co60Eq) estimates were statistically significantly different from 1.1 (P≤.05): 1.31 to 1.77 (for a survival fraction of 0.5). In 3 of these lines, increased RBE was correlated with alterations in the Fanconi anemia (FA)/BRCA pathway of DNA repair. In Calu-6 cells, the data pointed toward an FA pathway defect, leading to a previously unreported persistence of proton-induced RAD51 foci. The FA/BRCA-defective cells displayed a 25% increase in the size of subnuclear 53BP1 foci 18 hours after proton irradiation. Conclusions: Our cell line screen has revealed variations in proton RBE that are partly due to FA/BRCA pathway defects, suggesting that the use of a generic RBE for cancers should be revisited. We propose that functional biomarkers, such as size of residual 53BP1 foci, may be used to identify cancers with increased sensitivity to proton radiation.

  16. Pain Processing in a Social Context and the Link with Psychopathic Personality Traits—An Event-Related Potential Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper H. van Heck

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Empathy describes the ability to understand another person’s feelings. Psychopathy is a disorder that is characterized by a lack of empathy. Therefore, empathy and psychopathy are interesting traits to investigate with respect to experiencing and observing pain. The present study aimed to investigate pain empathy and pain sensitivity by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs extracted from the ongoing EEG in an interactive setup. Each participant fulfilled subsequently the role of “villain” and “victim”. In addition, mode of control was modulated resulting in four different conditions; passive villain, active villain, active victim and passive victim. Response-, visual- and pain ERPs were compared between the four conditions. Furthermore, the role of psychopathic traits in these outcomes was investigated. Our findings suggested that people experience more conflict when hurting someone else than hurting themselves. Furthermore, our results indicated that self-controlled pain was experienced as more painful than uncontrolled pain. People that scored high on psychopathic traits seemed to process and experience pain differently. According to the results of the current study, social context, attention and personality traits seem to modulate pain processing and the empathic response to pain in self and others. The within-subject experimental design described here provides an excellent approach to further unravel the influence of social context and personality traits on social cognition.

  17. Children and Nature: Linking Accessibility of Natural Environments and Children’s Health-Related Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Tillmann

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of research suggests that increasing children’s nature interactions can have positive benefits for their health-related quality of life (HRQOL; however, researchers have yet to examine how geographical context influences this relationship. The purpose of this study was to examine individual-level and environmental factors that are associated with HRQOL of children from different geographical contexts. Data were collected for 851 children from 34 elementary schools in Ontario, Canada. The natural environments around each child’s home were computed using geospatial analyses in a geographic information system. Natural environment measures were combined with HRQOL and the demographics from child surveys to be used in a series of step-wise linear regression models. These models explored the relationship between children’s HRQOL and the natural environment in urban/suburban and rural populations. In addition to important individual-level determinants, the findings revealed that characteristics of the natural environment, including the amount of greenness, park, and water, show significant relationships in the urban/suburban population. Interpersonal variables were the key predictors of HRQOL in the rural population. Where children live influences relationships between nature and HRQOL. These findings have implications for policymakers, health practitioners, educators, and parents in the design and the promotion of nature for children’s HRQOL.

  18. Relation between enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and radioimmunoassay for detection of antibodies to the capsular polysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae type b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristensen, K.; Weis Bentzon, M.

    1992-01-01

    The measurement of antibodies to the capsular polysaccharide (PRP) of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is important because vaccines inducing such antibodies are now available. We developed and evaluated an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of these antibodies based on direct coating of the plates with tyraminated PRP. The assay fulfilled the requirements for parallel line assays; it was sensitive, specific, and reproducible with a coefficient of variation between days of 19%. Results from the ELISA were compared with results from radioimmunoassay and a correlation coefficient of 0.93 was found. Results obtained by the two methods were proportional and the relation was indepenedent of the antibody level. The relation between them was also unaffected by the contribution of different antibody isotypes, indicating that these were measured to the same extent by both methods. ELISA employing direct coating of the plates with tyraminated PRP represents a useful alternative for detection of antibodies when studying immunogenicity of Hib vaccines. (au)

  19. Weierstrass polynomials for links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1997-01-01

    There is a natural way of identifying links in3-space with polynomial covering spaces over thecircle. Thereby any link in 3-space can be definedby a Weierstrass polynomial over the circle. Theequivalence relation for covering spaces over thecircle is, however, completely different from...

  20. Missing Rings in Pinus halepensis – The Missing Link to Relate the Tree-Ring Record to Extreme Climatic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Klemen; de Luis, Martin; Saz, Miguel A.; Longares, Luis A.; Serrano-Notivoli, Roberto; Raventós, Josep; Čufar, Katarina; Gričar, Jožica; Di Filippo, Alfredo; Piovesan, Gianluca; Rathgeber, Cyrille B. K.; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Smith, Kevin T.

    2016-01-01

    Climate predictions for the Mediterranean Basin include increased temperatures, decreased precipitation, and increased frequency of extreme climatic events (ECE). These conditions are associated with decreased tree growth and increased vulnerability to pests and diseases. The anatomy of tree rings responds to these environmental conditions. Quantitatively, the width of a tree ring is largely determined by the rate and duration of cell division by the vascular cambium. In the Mediterranean climate, this division may occur throughout almost the entire year. Alternatively, cell division may cease during relatively cool and dry winters, only to resume in the same calendar year with milder temperatures and increased availability of water. Under particularly adverse conditions, no xylem may be produced in parts of the stem, resulting in a missing ring (MR). A dendrochronological network of Pinus halepensis was used to determine the relationship of MR to ECE. The network consisted of 113 sites, 1,509 trees, 2,593 cores, and 225,428 tree rings throughout the distribution range of the species. A total of 4,150 MR were identified. Binomial logistic regression analysis determined that MR frequency increased with increased cambial age. Spatial analysis indicated that the geographic areas of south-eastern Spain and northern Algeria contained the greatest frequency of MR. Dendroclimatic regression analysis indicated a non-linear relationship of MR to total monthly precipitation and mean temperature. MR are strongly associated with the combination of monthly mean temperature from previous October till current February and total precipitation from previous September till current May. They are likely to occur with total precipitation lower than 50 mm and temperatures higher than 5°C. This conclusion is global and can be applied to every site across the distribution area. Rather than simply being a complication for dendrochronology, MR formation is a fundamental response of trees

  1. Missing Rings in Pinus halepensis - The Missing Link to Relate the Tree-Ring Record to Extreme Climatic Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Klemen; de Luis, Martin; Saz, Miguel A; Longares, Luis A; Serrano-Notivoli, Roberto; Raventós, Josep; Čufar, Katarina; Gričar, Jožica; Di Filippo, Alfredo; Piovesan, Gianluca; Rathgeber, Cyrille B K; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Smith, Kevin T

    2016-01-01

    Climate predictions for the Mediterranean Basin include increased temperatures, decreased precipitation, and increased frequency of extreme climatic events (ECE). These conditions are associated with decreased tree growth and increased vulnerability to pests and diseases. The anatomy of tree rings responds to these environmental conditions. Quantitatively, the width of a tree ring is largely determined by the rate and duration of cell division by the vascular cambium. In the Mediterranean climate, this division may occur throughout almost the entire year. Alternatively, cell division may cease during relatively cool and dry winters, only to resume in the same calendar year with milder temperatures and increased availability of water. Under particularly adverse conditions, no xylem may be produced in parts of the stem, resulting in a missing ring (MR). A dendrochronological network of Pinus halepensis was used to determine the relationship of MR to ECE. The network consisted of 113 sites, 1,509 trees, 2,593 cores, and 225,428 tree rings throughout the distribution range of the species. A total of 4,150 MR were identified. Binomial logistic regression analysis determined that MR frequency increased with increased cambial age. Spatial analysis indicated that the geographic areas of south-eastern Spain and northern Algeria contained the greatest frequency of MR. Dendroclimatic regression analysis indicated a non-linear relationship of MR to total monthly precipitation and mean temperature. MR are strongly associated with the combination of monthly mean temperature from previous October till current February and total precipitation from previous September till current May. They are likely to occur with total precipitation lower than 50 mm and temperatures higher than 5°C. This conclusion is global and can be applied to every site across the distribution area. Rather than simply being a complication for dendrochronology, MR formation is a fundamental response of trees

  2. Concatenated logic circuits based on a three-way DNA junction: a keypad-lock security system with visible readout and an automatic reset function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junhua; Zhou, Shungui; Wen, Junlin

    2015-01-07

    Concatenated logic circuits operating as a biocomputing keypad-lock security system with an automatic reset function have been successfully constructed on the basis of toehold-mediated strand displacement and three-way-DNA-junction architecture. In comparison with previously reported keypad locks, the distinctive advantage of the proposed security system is that it can be reset and cycled spontaneously a large number of times without an external stimulus, thus making practical applications possible. By the use of a split-G-quadruplex DNAzyme as the signal reporter, the output of the keypad lock can be recognized readily by the naked eye. The "lock" is opened only when the inputs are introduced in an exact order. This requirement provides defense against illegal invasion to protect information at the molecular scale. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Modeling how shark and dolphin skin patterns control transitional wall-turbulence vorticity patterns using spatiotemporal phase reset mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R; Hellum, Aren M

    2014-10-23

    Many slow-moving biological systems like seashells and zebrafish that do not contend with wall turbulence have somewhat organized pigmentation patterns flush with their outer surfaces that are formed by underlying autonomous reaction-diffusion (RD) mechanisms. In contrast, sharks and dolphins contend with wall turbulence, are fast swimmers, and have more organized skin patterns that are proud and sometimes vibrate. A nonlinear spatiotemporal analytical model is not available that explains the mechanism underlying control of flow with such proud patterns, despite the fact that shark and dolphin skins are major targets of reverse engineering mechanisms of drag and noise reduction. Comparable to RD, a minimal self-regulation model is given for wall turbulence regeneration in the transitional regime--laterally coupled, diffusively--which, although restricted to pre-breakdown durations and to a plane close and parallel to the wall, correctly reproduces many experimentally observed spatiotemporal organizations of vorticity in both laminar-to-turbulence transitioning and very low Reynolds number but turbulent regions. We further show that the onset of vorticity disorganization is delayed if the skin organization is treated as a spatiotemporal template of olivo-cerebellar phase reset mechanism. The model shows that the adaptation mechanisms of sharks and dolphins to their fluid environment have much in common.

  4. Roles of body image-related experiential avoidance and uncommitted living in the link between body image and women's quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Inês A; Ferreira, Cláudia; Pinto-Gouveia, José

    2018-01-01

    The current study aimed to test whether the associations of body mass index, body image discrepancy, and social comparison based on physical appearance with women's psychological quality of life (QoL) would be explained by the mechanisms of body image-related experiential avoidance and patterns of uncommitted living. The sample was collected from October 2014 to March 2015 and included 737 female college students (aged between 18 and 25 years) who completed validated self-report measures. Results demonstrated that the final path model explained 43% of psychological QoL and revealed an excellent fit. Body image-related experiential avoidance had a meditational role in the association between body image discrepancy and psychological QoL. Further, the link between social comparison based on physical appearance and psychological QoL was partially mediated by body image-related experiential avoidance and uncommitted living. These findings indicate that the key mechanisms of the relationship between body image and young women's QoL were those related to maladaptive emotion regulation. It thus seems that interventions aiming to promote mental health in this population should promote acceptance of internal experiences related to physical appearance (e.g., sensations, thoughts, or emotions) and the engagement in behaviors committed to life values.

  5. Improvement in R{sub off}/R{sub on} ratio and reset current via combining compliance current with multilayer structure in tantalum oxide-based RRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaorong; Feng, Jie [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication of Ministry of Education, Department of Micro/Nano Electronics, Shanghai (China)

    2015-07-15

    Improvements in the R{sub off}/R{sub on} ratio and reset current are required prior to the practical application of RRAM. To achieve this improvement, tantalum oxide-based RRAM devices with multilayer structure (bi-layer and tri-layer) were fabricated and various compliance currents were adopted. The reset current of 40 μA was observed; the R{sub off}/R{sub on} ratio increased to more than 20 in the tri-layer structure device. Resistance changes in two types of devices under voltage pulses with different pulse width were also conducted. The tri-layer device exhibited lower reset voltage and higher R{sub off}/R{sub on} ratio than the bi-layer device under voltage pulses. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrated the formation of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} via plasma oxidation, and there was an oxygen gradient in the multilayer devices. The results demonstrated that the tri-layer structure with oxygen gradient was an effective method for achieving better device performance. Additionally, it is implied that reasonable control of the proportion of TaO{sub 2} and Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} and compliance current can improve device performance. (orig.)

  6. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Link - Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors ... GA: CDC, DHHS. Retrieved November 2017. How are Drug Misuse and HIV Related? Drug misuse and addiction ...

  7. A dual-color luciferase assay system reveals circadian resetting of cultured fibroblasts by co-cultured adrenal glands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Noguchi

    Full Text Available In mammals, circadian rhythms of various organs and tissues are synchronized by pacemaker neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN of the hypothalamus. Glucocorticoids released from the adrenal glands can synchronize circadian rhythms in other tissues. Many hormones show circadian rhythms in their plasma concentrations; however, whether organs outside the SCN can serve as master synchronizers to entrain circadian rhythms in target tissues is not well understood. To further delineate the function of the adrenal glands and the interactions of circadian rhythms in putative master synchronizing organs and their target tissues, here we report a simple co-culture system using a dual-color luciferase assay to monitor circadian rhythms separately in various explanted tissues and fibroblasts. In this system, circadian rhythms of organs and target cells were simultaneously tracked by the green-emitting beetle luciferase from Pyrearinus termitilluminans (ELuc and the red-emitting beetle luciferase from Phrixothrix hirtus (SLR, respectively. We obtained tissues from the adrenal glands, thyroid glands, and lungs of transgenic mice that expressed ELuc under control of the promoter from a canonical clock gene, mBmal1. The tissues were co-cultured with Rat-1 fibroblasts as representative target cells expressing SLR under control of the mBmal1 promoter. Amplitudes of the circadian rhythms of Rat-1 fibroblasts were potentiated when the fibroblasts were co-cultured with adrenal gland tissue, but not when co-cultured with thyroid gland or lung tissue. The phases of Rat-1 fibroblasts were reset by application of adrenal gland tissue, whereas the phases of adrenal gland tissue were not influenced by Rat-1 fibroblasts. Furthermore, the effect of the adrenal gland tissue on the fibroblasts was blocked by application of a glucocorticoid receptor (GR antagonist. These results demonstrate that glucocorticoids are strong circadian synchronizers for fibroblasts and that

  8. Extreme Hypoxic Conditions Induce Selective Molecular Responses and Metabolic Reset in Detached Apple Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukrov, Dubravka; Zermiani, Monica; Brizzolara, Stefano; Cestaro, Alessandro; Licausi, Francesco; Luchinat, Claudio; Santucci, Claudio; Tenori, Leonardo; Van Veen, Hans; Zuccolo, Andrea; Ruperti, Benedetto; Tonutti, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    The ripening physiology of detached fruit is altered by low oxygen conditions with profound effects on quality parameters. To study hypoxia-related processes and regulatory mechanisms, apple (Malus domestica, cv Granny Smith) fruit, harvested at commercial ripening, were kept at 1°C under normoxic (control) and hypoxic (0.4 and 0.8 kPa oxygen) conditions for up to 60 days. NMR analyses of cortex tissue identified eight metabolites showing significantly different accumulations between samples, with ethanol and alanine displaying the most pronounced difference between hypoxic and normoxic treatments. A rapid up-regulation of alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate-related metabolism (lactate dehydrogenase, pyruvate decarboxylase, alanine aminotransferase) gene expression was detected under both hypoxic conditions with a more pronounced effect induced by the lowest (0.4 kPa) oxygen concentration. Both hypoxic conditions negatively affected ACC synthase and ACC oxidase transcript accumulation. Analysis of RNA-seq data of samples collected after 24 days of hypoxic treatment identified more than 1000 genes differentially expressed when comparing 0.4 vs. 0.8 kPa oxygen concentration samples. Genes involved in cell-wall, minor and major CHO, amino acid and secondary metabolisms, fermentation and glycolysis as well as genes involved in transport, defense responses, and oxidation-reduction appeared to be selectively affected by treatments. The lowest oxygen concentration induced a higher expression of transcription factors belonging to AUX/IAA, WRKY, HB, Zinc-finger families, while MADS box family genes were more expressed when apples were kept under 0.8 kPa oxygen. Out of the eight group VII ERF members present in apple genome, two genes showed a rapid up-regulation under hypoxia, and western blot analysis showed that apple MdRAP2.12 proteins were differentially accumulated in normoxic and hypoxic samples, with the highest level reached under 0.4 kPa oxygen. These data suggest

  9. Operative Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Højlund, Holger

    2012-01-01

    and have been the object of great expectations concerning the ability to incorporate health concerns into every welfare area through health promotion strategies. The paper draws on results and analyses of a collective research project funded by the Danish National Research Council and carried out...... links' that indicate cooperative levels which facilitate a creative and innovative effort in disease prevention and health promotion targeted at children and adolescents - across traditional professional boundaries. It is proposed that such links are supported by network structures, shared semantics...

  10. A workplace email-linked website intervention for modifying cancer-related dietary and lifestyle risk factors: rationale, design and baseline findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Y K; Mirnalini, K; Zalilah, M S

    2013-04-01

    The use of email and website as channels for workplace health information delivery is not fully explored. This study aims to describe the rationale, design, and baseline findings of an email-linked website intervention to improve modifiable cancer risk factors. Employees of a Malaysian public university were recruited by systematic random sampling and randomised into an intervention (n = 174) or control group (n = 165). A website was developed for the intervention and educational modules were uploaded onto the website. The intervention group received ten consecutive weekly emails with hypertext links to the website for downloading the modules and two individual phone calls as motivational support whilst the control group received none. Diet, lifestyle, anthropometric measurements, psychosocial factors and stages of change related to dietary fat, fruit and vegetable intake, and physical activity were assessed. Participants were predominantly female and in non-academic positions. Obesity was prevalent in 15% and 37% were at risk of co-morbidities. Mean intake of fats was 31%, fruit was -1 serving/day and vegetable was < 1 serving/day. Less than 20% smoked and drank alcohol and about 40% were physically inactive. The majority of the participants fell into the Preparation stage for decreasing fat intake, eating more fruit and vegetables, and increasing physical activity. Self-efficacy and perceived benefits were lowest among participants in the Precontemplation/Contemplation stage compared to the Preparation and Action/Maintenance stages. Baseline data show that dietary and lifestyle practices among the employees did not meet the international guidelines for cancer prevention. Hence the findings warrant the intervention planned.

  11. Changing epidemiology of maternal mortality in rural India: time to reset strategies for MDG-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pankaj; Shah, Shobha; Kutty, Raman V; Modi, Dhiren

    2014-05-01

    To understand changes in epidemiology of maternal mortality in rural India in the context of increasing institutional deliveries and implementation of community-based interventions that can inform policies to reach MDG-5. This study is a secondary analysis of prospectively collected community-based data of every pregnancy and its outcomes from 2002 to 2011 in a rural, tribal area of Gujarat, India as part of safe-motherhood programme implemented by voluntary organisation, SEWA Rural. The programme consisted of community-based interventions supported by a first referral unit, and promotion of institutional deliveries. For every maternal death, a verbal autopsy was conducted. The incidence rates for maternal mortality according to place, cause and timing of maternal deaths in relation to pregnancy were computed. Annual incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals, adjusted for caste and maternal education, were estimated using Poisson regression to test for linear trend in reduction in mortality during the study period. Thirty-two thousand eight hundred and ninety-three pregnancies, 29,817 live births and 80 maternal deaths were recorded. Maternal mortality ratio improved from 607 (19 deaths) in 2002-2003 to 161 (five deaths) in 2010-2011. The institutional delivery rate increased from 23% to 65%. The trend of falling maternal deaths was significant over time, with an annual reduction of 17% (adjusted IRR 0.83 CI 0.75-0.91, P-value rate of maternal deaths due to direct causes, during intrapartum and post-partum periods, and those which occurred at home. However, reductions in incidence of maternal deaths due to indirect causes, at hospital and during antepartum period were not statistically significant. Most maternal deaths are now occurring at hospitals and due to indirect causes. Gains in institutional deliveries and community-based interventions resulting in fewer maternal deaths due to direct causes should be maintained. However, it would be essential

  12. Privacy preserving probabilistic record linkage (P3RL): a novel method for linking existing health-related data and maintaining participant confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidlin, Kurt; Clough-Gorr, Kerri M; Spoerri, Adrian

    2015-05-30

    Record linkage of existing individual health care data is an efficient way to answer important epidemiological research questions. Reuse of individual health-related data faces several problems: Either a unique personal identifier, like social security number, is not available or non-unique person identifiable information, like names, are privacy protected and cannot be accessed. A solution to protect privacy in probabilistic record linkages is to encrypt these sensitive information. Unfortunately, encrypted hash codes of two names differ completely if the plain names differ only by a single character. Therefore, standard encryption methods cannot be applied. To overcome these challenges, we developed the Privacy Preserving Probabilistic Record Linkage (P3RL) method. In this Privacy Preserving Probabilistic Record Linkage method we apply a three-party protocol, with two sites collecting individual data and an independent trusted linkage center as the third partner. Our method consists of three main steps: pre-processing, encryption and probabilistic record linkage. Data pre-processing and encryption are done at the sites by local personnel. To guarantee similar quality and format of variables and identical encryption procedure at each site, the linkage center generates semi-automated pre-processing and encryption templates. To retrieve information (i.e. data structure) for the creation of templates without ever accessing plain person identifiable information, we introduced a novel method of data masking. Sensitive string variables are encrypted using Bloom filters, which enables calculation of similarity coefficients. For date variables, we developed special encryption procedures to handle the most common date errors. The linkage center performs probabilistic record linkage with encrypted person identifiable information and plain non-sensitive variables. In this paper we describe step by step how to link existing health-related data using encryption methods to

  13. Identification of sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers linked to the red leaf trait in ornamental kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y S; Liu, Z Y; Li, Y F; Zhang, Y; Yang, X F; Feng, H

    2013-04-02

    Artistic diversiform leaf color is an important agronomic trait that affects the market value of ornamental kale. In the present study, genetic analysis showed that a single-dominant gene, Re (red leaf), determines the red leaf trait in ornamental kale. An F2 population consisting of 500 individuals from the cross of a red leaf double-haploid line 'D05' with a white leaf double-haploid line 'D10' was analyzed for the red leaf trait. By combining bulked segregant analysis and sequence-related amplified polymorphism technology, we identified 3 markers linked to the Re/re locus. A genetic map of the Re locus was constructed using these sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers. Two of the markers, Me8Em4 and Me8Em17, were located on one side of Re/re at distances of 2.2 and 6.4 cM, whereas the other marker, Me9Em11, was located on the other side of Re/re at a distance of 3.7 cM. These markers could be helpful for the subsequent cloning of the red trait gene and marker-assisted selection in ornamental kale breeding programs.

  14. Scandinavian links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann; Knowles, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    are impressive mega structures spanning international waterways. These waterways between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea have played major roles in history. The length of each of the crossings are around 20 km. The fixed links closes gaps between the Scandinavian and European motorway and rail networks...

  15. Seismic link at plate boundary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    time series to determine the causality and related orientation. The resulting link ... Triggering causes changes in the Coulomb stress on a specified fault, which is ... work link shows that the alignment of the links is parallel to the Honshu Trench ...

  16. Sleep Deprivation and Caffeine Treatment Potentiate Photic Resetting of the Master Circadian Clock in a Diurnal Rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Pawan Kumar; Bouâouda, Hanan; Gourmelen, Sylviane; Dumont, Stephanie; Fuchs, Fanny; Goumon, Yannick; Bourgin, Patrice; Kalsbeek, Andries; Challet, Etienne

    2017-04-19

    Circadian rhythms in nocturnal and diurnal mammals are primarily synchronized to local time by the light/dark cycle. However, nonphotic factors, such as behavioral arousal and metabolic cues, can also phase shift the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCNs) and/or reduce the synchronizing effects of light in nocturnal rodents. In diurnal rodents, the role of arousal or insufficient sleep in these functions is still poorly understood. In the present study, diurnal Sudanian grass rats, Arvicanthis ansorgei , were aroused at night by sleep deprivation (gentle handling) or caffeine treatment that both prevented sleep. Phase shifts of locomotor activity were analyzed in grass rats transferred from a light/dark cycle to constant darkness and aroused in early night or late night. Early night, but not late night, sleep deprivation induced a significant phase shift. Caffeine on its own induced no phase shifts. Both sleep deprivation and caffeine treatment potentiated light-induced phase delays and phase advances in response to a 30 min light pulse, respectively. Sleep deprivation in early night, but not late night, potentiated light-induced c-Fos expression in the ventral SCN. Caffeine treatment in midnight triggered c-Fos expression in dorsal SCN. Both sleep deprivation and caffeine treatment potentiated light-induced c-Fos expression in calbindin-containing cells of the ventral SCN in early and late night. These findings indicate that, in contrast to nocturnal rodents, behavioral arousal induced either by sleep deprivation or caffeine during the sleeping period potentiates light resetting of the master circadian clock in diurnal rodents, and activation of calbindin-containing suprachiasmatic cells may be involved in this effect. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Arousing stimuli have the ability to regulate circadian rhythms in mammals. Behavioral arousal in the sleeping period phase shifts the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei and/or slows down the photic

  17. Relative efficiency of polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay in determination of viral etiology in congenital cataract in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamala G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Perinatal viral infections of fetus are among the leading causes of congenital cataract and identifying the viral etiology is important. Objectives: To detect the presence of Rubella virus (RV, herpes simplex virus (HSV and cytomegalovirus (CMV in lens aspirate specimens obtained from patients with congenital cataract and relate the results with serology. Setting and Design: Prospective study carried out in tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: Fifty lens aspirates from 50 infants with congenital cataract were subjected to HSV, RV isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR for detection of HSV and CMV. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was applied for RV detection. Peripheral blood specimens were screened for anti-HSV, RV and CMV antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA. Results: Rubella virus was detected in nine (18% lens aspirates, by nRT-PCR which includes six positive by culture. HSV-2 DNA was detected in nine other lens aspirates, while CMV was not detected by PCR. Serological results did not correlate with the presence of viruses in the lens aspirates. This is the first report of detection of HSV-2 DNA in cases of congenital cataract. Conclusions: Cytomegalovirus may not be playing a significant role in causation of congenital cataract. The role of serology in identifying causative viral infection for congenital cataract needs to be re-evaluated.

  18. Activation of mas-related G-protein-coupled receptors by the house dust mite cysteine protease Der p1 provides a new mechanism linking allergy and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Vemuri B; Lerner, Ethan A

    2017-10-20

    Cysteine and serine proteases function via protease-activated and mas-related G-protein-coupled receptors (Mrgprs) to contribute to allergy and inflammation. Der p1 is a cysteine protease and major allergen from the house dust mite and is associated with allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. Der p1 activates protease-activated receptor 2 and induces the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 from cells. However, the possibility that Der p1 acts on Mrgprs has not been considered. We report here that ratiometric calcium imaging reveals that Der p1 activates the human receptor MRGPRX1 and the mouse homolog MrgprC11, implicated previously in itch. Der p1 cleavage of N-terminal receptor peptides followed by site-directed mutagenesis of the cleavage sites links receptor activation to specific amino acid residues. Der p1 also induced the release of IL-6 from heterologous cells expressing MRGPRX1. In summary, activation of Mrgprs by the allergen Der p1 may contribute to inflammation. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Tasimelteon for non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder in totally blind people (SET and RESET): two multicentre, randomised, double-masked, placebo-controlled phase 3 trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockley, Steven W; Dressman, Marlene A; Licamele, Louis; Xiao, Changfu; Fisher, Dennis M; Flynn-Evans, Erin E; Hull, Joseph T; Torres, Rosarelis; Lavedan, Christian; Polymeropoulos, Mihael H

    2015-10-31

    Most totally blind people have non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder (non-24), a rare circadian rhythm disorder caused by an inability of light to reset their circadian pacemaker. In two consecutive placebo-controlled trials (SET and RESET), we assessed safety and efficacy (in terms of circadian entrainment and maintenance) of once-daily tasimelteon, a novel dual-melatonin receptor agonist. We undertook the placebo-controlled, randomised, double-masked trials in 27 US and six German clinical research centres and sleep centres. We screened totally blind adults (18-75 years of age), who were eligible for the randomisation phase of SET if they had a non-24-hour circadian period (τ) of 24·25 h or longer (95% CI greater than 24·0 and up to 24·9 h), as calculated from measurements of urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin rhythms. For SET, we used block randomisation to assign patients (1:1) to receive tasimelteon (20 mg) or placebo every 24 h at a fixed clock time 1 h before target bedtime for 26 weeks. Patients who entered the open-label group receiving tasimelteon in SET or who did not meet the SET inclusion criteria but did meet the RESET inclusion criteria were screened for RESET. A subset of the patients who entered the open-label group before the RESET study and who had eligible τ values were screened for RESET after completing the open-label treatment. In RESET, we withdrew tasimelteon in a randomised manner (1:1) in patients who responded (ie, entrained) after a tasimelteon run-in period. Entrainment was defined as having τ of 24·1 h or less and a 95% CI that included 24·0 h. In SET, the primary endpoint was the proportion of entrained patients, assessed in the intention-to-treat population. The planned step-down primary endpoint assessed the proportion of patients who had a clinical response (entrainment at month 1 or month 7 plus clinical improvement, measured by the Non-24 Clinical Response Scale). In RESET, the primary endpoint was the proportion of non

  20. A two-state comparative implementation of peer-support intervention to link veterans to health-related services after incarceration: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Molly M; Fincke, Benjamin G; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn; Kim, Bo; Byrne, Tom; Smelson, David; Casey, Kevin; Ellison, Marsha L; Visher, Christy; Blue-Howells, Jessica; McInnes, D Keith

    2017-09-12

    Approximately 600,000 persons are released from prison annually in the United States. Relatively few receive sufficient re-entry services and are at risk for unemployment, homelessness, poverty, substance abuse relapse and recidivism. Persons leaving prison who have a mental illness and/or a substance use disorder are particularly challenged. This project aims to create a peer mentor program to extend the reach and effectiveness of reentry services provided by the Department of Veterans' Affairs (VA). We will implement a peer support for reentry veterans sequentially in two states. Our outcome measures are 1) fidelity of the intervention, 2) linkage to VA health care and, 3) continued engagement in health care. The aims for this project are as follows: (1) Conduct contextual analysis to identify VA and community reentry resources, and describe how reentry veterans use them. (2) Implement peer-support, in one state, to link reentry veterans to Veterans' Health Administration (VHA) primary care, mental health, and SUD services. (3) Port the peer-support intervention to another, geographically, and contextually different state. This intervention involves a 2-state sequential implementation study (Massachusetts, followed by Pennsylvania) using a Facilitation Implementation strategy. We will conduct formative and summative analyses, including assessment of fidelity, and a matched comparison group to evaluate the intervention's outcomes of veteran linkage and engagement in VHA health care (using health care utilization measures). The study proceeds in 3 phases. We anticipate that a peer support program will be effective at improving the reentry process for veterans, particularly in linking them to health, mental health, and SUD services and helping them to stay engaged in those services. It will fill a gap by providing veterans with access to a trusted individual, who understands their experience as a veteran and who has experienced justice involvement. The outputs from

  1. Preliminary study of highly cross-linked hyaluronic acid-based combination therapy for management of knee osteoarthritis-related pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmieri B

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Beniamino Palmieri,1,2 Valentina Rottigni,1,2 Tommaso Iannitti2,31Department of General Surgery and Surgical Specialties, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia Medical School, Surgical Clinic, Modena, Italy; 2Poliambulatorio del Secondo Parere, Modena, Italy; 3Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, KY, USABackground: Hyaluronic acid has been extensively used for treatment of knee osteoarthritis due to its anti-inflammatory properties and its ability to act as a synovial lubricant. Furthermore, it has found application in combination with other drugs in the dermatological field and in pre-clinical studies in animal models of osteoarthritis. Experimental evidence suggests that a combination of this macromolecule with other drugs may act as a slow-release depot. However, to date, to the best of our knowledge, no one has tested local intra-articular delivery of highly cross-linked hyaluronic acid combined with bisphosphonate or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for management of knee osteoarthritis pain in the clinical setting. The aim of the present randomized double-blind study was to investigate, for the first time, the effect of a highly cross-linked hyaluronic acid, Variofill®, alone or in combination with diclofenac sodium or sodium clodronate, for management of bilateral knee osteoarthritis-related pain.Methods: Sixty-two patients with symptomatic bilateral medial tibiofemoral knee osteoarthritis (Kellgren–Lawrence grade II and III and pain in both knees corresponding to a daily visual analog scale (VAS score ≥ 30 in the month before the beginning of the study were included in this investigation. Patients were divided into three groups: group 1, treated with an injection of hyaluronic acid alone (66 mg into each knee; group 2, treated with an injection of hyaluronic acid (49.5 mg plus diclofenac sodium (5 mg into each knee; group 3, treated with an injection of hyaluronic acid

  2. Milk progesterone enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as a tool to investigate ovarian cyclicity of water buffaloes in relation to body condition score and milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Turgish A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Application of assisted reproductive technologies in buffaloes is limited to some extent by farmers’ inability to detect oestrus because of its poor expression. The present study aimed at investigating reliability of a milk progesterone enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to assess the ovarian cyclicity during post partum, oestrus and post-breeding periods in water buffaloes. Methods Progesterone concentrations were measured by an ELISA in milk of 23 postpartum buffaloes in relation to oestrus, pregnancy, body condition score (BCS and milk production. Two milk samples were taken at 10 days intervals, every month starting from day 30 and continued to day 150 post partum. BCS and milk production were recorded during sample collection. Milk samples from bred buffaloes were collected at Day 0 (day of breeding, Days 10–12 and Days 22–24. Defatted milk was preserved at −80°C until analysis. Pregnancy was confirmed by palpation per rectum on Days 70–90. Results Seventeen buffaloes had 47 ovulatory cycles, one to four in each, 13 were detected in oestrus once (28 % oestrus detection rate. Progesterone concentration ≥1 ng/ml in one of the two 10-day-interval milk samples reflected ovulation and corpus luteum formation. The intervals between calving to first luteal activity and to first detected oestrus varied from 41 to 123 days (n = 17 and 83 to 135 (n = 13 days, respectively. Eight buffaloes were bred in the course of the study and seven were found pregnant. These buffaloes had a progesterone profile of low (P P  Conclusions Milk progesterone ELISA is a reliable tool for monitoring ovarian cyclicity and good BCS may be an indicator of resuming cyclicity in water buffalo.

  3. Milk progesterone enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as a tool to investigate ovarian cyclicity of water buffaloes in relation to body condition score and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, Turgish A; Shamsuddin, Mohammed; Bhattacharjee, Jayonta; Islam, Mohammad F; Khan, Saiful I; Ahmed, Jalal U

    2012-05-03

    Application of assisted reproductive technologies in buffaloes is limited to some extent by farmers' inability to detect oestrus because of its poor expression. The present study aimed at investigating reliability of a milk progesterone enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to assess the ovarian cyclicity during post partum, oestrus and post-breeding periods in water buffaloes. Progesterone concentrations were measured by an ELISA in milk of 23 postpartum buffaloes in relation to oestrus, pregnancy, body condition score (BCS) and milk production. Two milk samples were taken at 10 days intervals, every month starting from day 30 and continued to day 150 post partum. BCS and milk production were recorded during sample collection. Milk samples from bred buffaloes were collected at Day 0 (day of breeding), Days 10-12 and Days 22-24. Defatted milk was preserved at -80°C until analysis. Pregnancy was confirmed by palpation per rectum on Days 70-90. Seventeen buffaloes had 47 ovulatory cycles, one to four in each, 13 were detected in oestrus once (28 % oestrus detection rate). Progesterone concentration ≥1 ng/ml in one of the two 10-day-interval milk samples reflected ovulation and corpus luteum formation. The intervals between calving to first luteal activity and to first detected oestrus varied from 41 to 123 days (n = 17) and 83 to 135 (n = 13) days, respectively. Eight buffaloes were bred in the course of the study and seven were found pregnant. These buffaloes had a progesterone profile of low (progesterone ELISA is a reliable tool for monitoring ovarian cyclicity and good BCS may be an indicator of resuming cyclicity in water buffalo.

  4. The Restoration of Chronotropic CompEtence in Heart Failure PatientS with Normal Ejection FracTion (RESET) Study: Rationale and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, David A.; Kitzman, Dalane W.; Alvarez, Guy E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is the predominant form of HF among the elderly and in women. However, there are few if any evidence-based therapeutic options for HFpEF. The chief complaint of HFpEF is reduced tolerance to physical exertion. Recent data revealed that one potential mechanism of exertional intolerance in HFpEF patients is inadequate chronotropic response. Although there is considerable evidence demonstrating the benefits of rate-adaptive pacing (RAP) provided from implantable cardiac devices in patients with an impaired chronotropic response, the effect of RAP in HFpEF is unknown. Methods and Results The RESET study is a prospective, multi-center, double-blind, randomized with stratification, study assessing the effect of RAP on peak VO2 and quality of life. RAP therapy will be evaluated in a cross-over paired fashion for each patient within each study stratum. Study strata are based on patient beta-blocker usage at time of enrollment. The study is powered to assess the impact of pacing independently in both strata. Conclusions The RESET study seeks to evaluate the potential benefit of RAP in patients with symptomatic mild to moderate HFpEF and chronotropic impairment. Study enrollment began in July 2008. PMID:20123314

  5. Low-power priority Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder data-driven readout for Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for tracker system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, P.; Aglieri, G.; Cavicchioli, C.; Chalmet, P. L.; Chanlek, N.; Collu, A.; Gao, C.; Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A.; Kofarago, M.; Keil, M.; Kugathasan, T.; Kim, D.; Kim, J.; Lattuca, A.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Marras, D.; Mager, M.; Martinengo, P.; Mazza, G.; Mugnier, H.; Musa, L.; Puggioni, C.; Rousset, J.; Reidt, F.; Riedler, P.; Snoeys, W.; Siddhanta, S.; Usai, G.; van Hoorne, J. W.; Yi, J.

    2015-06-01

    Active Pixel Sensors used in High Energy Particle Physics require low power consumption to reduce the detector material budget, low integration time to reduce the possibilities of pile-up and fast readout to improve the detector data capability. To satisfy these requirements, a novel Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder (AERD) asynchronous circuit for a fast readout of a pixel matrix has been developed. The AERD data-driven readout architecture operates the address encoding and reset decoding based on an arbitration tree, and allows us to readout only the hit pixels. Compared to the traditional readout structure of the rolling shutter scheme in Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), AERD can achieve a low readout time and a low power consumption especially for low hit occupancies. The readout is controlled at the chip periphery with a signal synchronous with the clock, allows a good digital and analogue signal separation in the matrix and a reduction of the power consumption. The AERD circuit has been implemented in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor (CIS) process with full complementary CMOS logic in the pixel. It works at 10 MHz with a matrix height of 15 mm. The energy consumed to read out one pixel is around 72 pJ. A scheme to boost the readout speed to 40 MHz is also discussed. The sensor chip equipped with AERD has been produced and characterised. Test results including electrical beam measurement are presented.

  6. Low-power priority Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder data-driven readout for Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for tracker system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, P.; Aglieri, G.; Cavicchioli, C.; Chalmet, P.L.; Chanlek, N.; Collu, A.; Gao, C.; Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A.; Kofarago, M.; Keil, M.; Kugathasan, T.; Kim, D.; Kim, J.; Lattuca, A.; Marin Tobon, C.A.; Marras, D.; Mager, M.; Martinengo, P.; Mazza, G.

    2015-01-01

    Active Pixel Sensors used in High Energy Particle Physics require low power consumption to reduce the detector material budget, low integration time to reduce the possibilities of pile-up and fast readout to improve the detector data capability. To satisfy these requirements, a novel Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder (AERD) asynchronous circuit for a fast readout of a pixel matrix has been developed. The AERD data-driven readout architecture operates the address encoding and reset decoding based on an arbitration tree, and allows us to readout only the hit pixels. Compared to the traditional readout structure of the rolling shutter scheme in Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), AERD can achieve a low readout time and a low power consumption especially for low hit occupancies. The readout is controlled at the chip periphery with a signal synchronous with the clock, allows a good digital and analogue signal separation in the matrix and a reduction of the power consumption. The AERD circuit has been implemented in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor (CIS) process with full complementary CMOS logic in the pixel. It works at 10 MHz with a matrix height of 15 mm. The energy consumed to read out one pixel is around 72 pJ. A scheme to boost the readout speed to 40 MHz is also discussed. The sensor chip equipped with AERD has been produced and characterised. Test results including electrical beam measurement are presented

  7. Low-power priority Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder data-driven readout for Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for tracker system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, P., E-mail: yangping0710@126.com [Central China Normal University, Wuhan (China); Aglieri, G.; Cavicchioli, C. [CERN, 1210 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Chalmet, P.L. [MIND, Archamps (France); Chanlek, N. [Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima (Thailand); Collu, A. [University of Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); INFN (Italy); Gao, C. [Central China Normal University, Wuhan (China); Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A. [CERN, 1210 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Kofarago, M. [CERN, 1210 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); University of Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Keil, M.; Kugathasan, T. [CERN, 1210 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Kim, D. [Dongguk and Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lattuca, A. [University of Torino, Torino (Italy); INFN (Italy); Marin Tobon, C.A. [CERN, 1210 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Marras, D. [University of Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); INFN (Italy); Mager, M.; Martinengo, P. [CERN, 1210 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Mazza, G. [University of Torino, Torino (Italy); INFN (Italy); and others

    2015-06-11

    Active Pixel Sensors used in High Energy Particle Physics require low power consumption to reduce the detector material budget, low integration time to reduce the possibilities of pile-up and fast readout to improve the detector data capability. To satisfy these requirements, a novel Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder (AERD) asynchronous circuit for a fast readout of a pixel matrix has been developed. The AERD data-driven readout architecture operates the address encoding and reset decoding based on an arbitration tree, and allows us to readout only the hit pixels. Compared to the traditional readout structure of the rolling shutter scheme in Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), AERD can achieve a low readout time and a low power consumption especially for low hit occupancies. The readout is controlled at the chip periphery with a signal synchronous with the clock, allows a good digital and analogue signal separation in the matrix and a reduction of the power consumption. The AERD circuit has been implemented in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor (CIS) process with full complementary CMOS logic in the pixel. It works at 10 MHz with a matrix height of 15 mm. The energy consumed to read out one pixel is around 72 pJ. A scheme to boost the readout speed to 40 MHz is also discussed. The sensor chip equipped with AERD has been produced and characterised. Test results including electrical beam measurement are presented.

  8. Uneven dietary development: linking the policies and processes of globalization with the nutrition transition, obesity and diet-related chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawkes Corinna

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a "nutrition transition", the consumption of foods high in fats and sweeteners is increasing throughout the developing world. The transition, implicated in the rapid rise of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases worldwide, is rooted in the processes of globalization. Globalization affects the nature of agri-food systems, thereby altering the quantity, type, cost and desirability of foods available for consumption. Understanding the links between globalization and the nutrition transition is therefore necessary to help policy makers develop policies, including food policies, for addressing the global burden of chronic disease. While the subject has been much discussed, tracing the specific pathways between globalization and dietary change remains a challenge. To help address this challenge, this paper explores how one of the central mechanisms of globalization, the integration of the global marketplace, is affecting the specific diet patterns. Focusing on middle-income countries, it highlights the importance of three major processes of market integration: (I production and trade of agricultural goods; (II foreign direct investment in food processing and retailing; and (III global food advertising and promotion. The paper reveals how specific policies implemented to advance the globalization agenda account in part for some recent trends in the global diet. Agricultural production and trade policies have enabled more vegetable oil consumption; policies on foreign direct investment have facilitated higher consumption of highly-processed foods, as has global food marketing. These dietary outcomes also reflect the socioeconomic and cultural context in which these policies are operating. An important finding is that the dynamic, competitive forces unleashed as a result of global market integration facilitates not only convergence in consumption habits (as is commonly assumed in the "Coca-Colonization" hypothesis, but adaptation to

  9. Uneven dietary development: linking the policies and processes of globalization with the nutrition transition, obesity and diet-related chronic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2006-01-01

    In a "nutrition transition", the consumption of foods high in fats and sweeteners is increasing throughout the developing world. The transition, implicated in the rapid rise of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases worldwide, is rooted in the processes of globalization. Globalization affects the nature of agri-food systems, thereby altering the quantity, type, cost and desirability of foods available for consumption. Understanding the links between globalization and the nutrition transition is therefore necessary to help policy makers develop policies, including food policies, for addressing the global burden of chronic disease. While the subject has been much discussed, tracing the specific pathways between globalization and dietary change remains a challenge. To help address this challenge, this paper explores how one of the central mechanisms of globalization, the integration of the global marketplace, is affecting the specific diet patterns. Focusing on middle-income countries, it highlights the importance of three major processes of market integration: (I) production and trade of agricultural goods; (II) foreign direct investment in food processing and retailing; and (III) global food advertising and promotion. The paper reveals how specific policies implemented to advance the globalization agenda account in part for some recent trends in the global diet. Agricultural production and trade policies have enabled more vegetable oil consumption; policies on foreign direct investment have facilitated higher consumption of highly-processed foods, as has global food marketing. These dietary outcomes also reflect the socioeconomic and cultural context in which these policies are operating. An important finding is that the dynamic, competitive forces unleashed as a result of global market integration facilitates not only convergence in consumption habits (as is commonly assumed in the "Coca-Colonization" hypothesis), but adaptation to products targeted at different

  10. The Age-Related Macular Degeneration Complex: Linking Epidemiology and Histopathology Using the Minnesota Grading System (The Inaugural Frederick C. Blodi Lecture).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Timothy W; Bottini, Alexander R; Mendoza, Pia; Grossniklausk, Hans E

    2015-09-01

    To describe the histopathologic findings of the four stages of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) as defined by the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) using the Minnesota grading system (MGS). There are no animal models for AMD. Eye banks enable access to human tissue with AMD. The level of AMD (grades 1 through 4) as defined by AREDS is determined ex vivo using the MGS. The AREDS has the largest collection to date of prospectively gathered data on the natural history of AMD. Since the MGS uses the same clinical criteria as AREDS, the addition of histopathologic findings of graded tissue confirms important pathophysiology at each stage of AMD. Four eye bank eyes were graded according to the MGS. Only the right eyes were dissected for phenotype grading. The fellow (left) eyes were fixed for histopathologic study. The eyes were serially sectioned (7 μm) through the macula. Individual slides were examined, and a two-dimensional reconstruction of the topography of the macula was created for each donor. Selected, unstained slides were used for immunohistochemical staining. In one donor, portions of tissue were obtained for transmission electron microscopic (TEM) processing. Donor 1 had a rare hard, nodular druse (MGS1). Donor 2 had intermediate confluent drusen (MGS2). Donor 3 had numerous intermediate drusen (MGS3) in the right eye. Histopathology of the fellow left showed basal laminar deposits (BLamD), soft drusen, and an area of occult choroidal neovascularization underlying the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) with endothelial cells (CD31-positive). Donor 4 also had MGS 3 along with reticular pseudodrusen (RPD). Histologic and TEM examination demonstrated diffuse BLamD, thickening of Bruch's membrane, hard drusen, and focal nodules underlying the RPE that corresponded to the RPD. EM examination demonstrated both BLamD and electron-dense material located just external to the elastic layer of Bruch's membrane. Eye bank eyes graded using the MGS serve as an

  11. Major Links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  12. Pedagogical Staff in Children's Day Care Centres in Germany--Links between Working Conditions, Job Satisfaction, Commitment and Work-Related Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreyer, Inge; Krause, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates links between staff working conditions in children's day care centres ("Kindertageseinrichtungen"--known as "Kitas" in Germany), job satisfaction, commitment and perceived stress at work. Data are based on the nationwide, representative questionnaire survey AQUA ("Arbeitsplatz und Qualität in…

  13. Cerebral, cerebellar, and colobomatous anomalies in three related males: Sex-linked inheritance in a newly recognized syndrome with features overlapping with Joubert syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, Hester Y.; Nievelstein, Rutger-Jan A. J.; Barth, Peter G.; Nikkels, Peter G. J.; Bergmann, Carsten; Gooskens, Rob H. J. M.; Visser, Gepke; van Amstel, Hans-Kristian Ploos; Beemer, Frits A.

    2005-01-01

    We present a so far unrecognized X-linked mental retardation syndrome with features overlapping with Joubert syndrome (JBS). Two brothers showed hypotonia, mental retardation, ocular abnormalities with impaired vision and colobomas and a breathing pattern compatible with JBS. Neuroimaging revealed

  14. Changes in the referent body location and configuration may underlie human gait, as confirmed by findings of multi-muscle activity minimizations and phase resetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Anatol G; Krasovsky, Tal; Baniña, Melanie C; Lamontagne, Anouk; Levin, Mindy F

    2011-04-01

    Locomotion is presumably guided by feed-forward shifts in the referent body location in the desired direction in the environment. We propose that the difference between the actual and the referent body locations is transmitted to neurons that virtually diminish this difference by appropriately changing the referent body configuration, i.e. the body posture at which muscles reach their recruitment thresholds. Muscles are activated depending on the gap between the actual and the referent body configurations resulting in a step being made to minimize this gap. This hypothesis implies that the actual and the referent leg configurations can match each other at certain phases of the gait cycle, resulting in minimization of leg muscle activity. We found several leg configurations at which EMG minima occurred, both during forward and backward gait. It was also found that the set of limb configurations associated with EMG minima can be changed by modifying the pattern of forward and backward gait. Our hypothesis predicts that, in response to perturbations of gait, the rate of shifts in the referent body location can temporarily be changed to avoid falling. The rate influences the phase of rhythmic limb movements during gait. Therefore, following the change in the rate of the referent body location, the whole gait pattern, for all four limbs, will irreversibly be shifted in time (long-lasting and global phase resetting) with only transient changes in the gait speed, swing and stance timing and cycle duration. Aside from transient changes in the duration of the swing and/or stance phase in response to perturbation, few previous studies have documented long-lasting and global phase resetting of human gait in response to perturbation. Such resetting was a robust finding in our study. By confirming the notion that feed-forward changes in the referent body location and configuration underlie human locomotion, this study solves the classical problem in the relationship between

  15. Linking unlinkability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brusó, Mayla; Chatzikokolakis, Konstantinos; Etalle, Sandro; den Hartog, Jeremy

    Unlinkability is a privacy property of crucial importance for several systems (such as RFID or voting systems). Informally, unlinkability states that, given two events/items in a system, an attacker is not able to infer whether they are related to each other. However, in the literature we find

  16. Bullying perpetration and victimization as externalizing and internalizing pathways: A retrospective study linking parenting styles and self-esteem to depression, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems

    OpenAIRE

    Luk, Jeremy W; Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Medina, Mia; Terrell, Nathan; Belton, Daniel; King, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Emerging research suggests significant positive associations between bullying and substance use behaviors. However, these studies typically focused either on the link between substance use and bullying perpetration or victimization, and few have conceptualized bullying perpetration and/or victimization as mediators. In this study, we simultaneously tested past bullying perpetration and victimization as mediational pathways from retrospective report of parenting styles and global self-esteem t...

  17. The A-chain of insulin contacts the insert domain of the insulin receptor. Photo-cross-linking and mutagenesis of a diabetes-related crevice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kun; Chan, Shu Jin; Hua, Qing-xin; Chu, Ying-Chi; Wang, Run-ying; Klaproth, Birgit; Jia, Wenhua; Whittaker, Jonathan; De Meyts, Pierre; Nakagawa, Satoe H; Steiner, Donald F; Katsoyannis, Panayotis G; Weiss, Michael A

    2007-11-30

    The contribution of the insulin A-chain to receptor binding is investigated by photo-cross-linking and nonstandard mutagenesis. Studies focus on the role of Val(A3), which projects within a crevice between the A- and B-chains. Engineered receptor alpha-subunits containing specific protease sites ("midi-receptors") are employed to map the site of photo-cross-linking by an analog containing a photoactivable A3 side chain (para-azido-Phe (Pap)). The probe cross-links to a C-terminal peptide (residues 703-719 of the receptor A isoform, KTFEDYLHNVVFVPRPS) containing side chains critical for hormone binding (underlined); the corresponding segment of the holoreceptor was shown previously to cross-link to a Pap(B25)-insulin analog. Because Pap is larger than Val and so may protrude beyond the A3-associated crevice, we investigated analogs containing A3 substitutions comparable in size to Val as follows: Thr, allo-Thr, and alpha-aminobutyric acid (Aba). Substitutions were introduced within an engineered monomer. Whereas previous studies of smaller substitutions (Gly(A3) and Ser(A3)) encountered nonlocal conformational perturbations, NMR structures of the present analogs are similar to wild-type insulin; the variant side chains are accommodated within a native-like crevice with minimal distortion. Receptor binding activities of Aba(A3) and allo-Thr(A3) analogs are reduced at least 10-fold; the activity of Thr(A3)-DKP-insulin is reduced 5-fold. The hormone-receptor interface is presumably destabilized either by a packing defect (Aba(A3)) or by altered polarity (allo-Thr(A3) and Thr(A3)). Our results provide evidence that Val(A3), a site of mutation causing diabetes mellitus, contacts the insert domain-derived tail of the alpha-subunit in a hormone-receptor complex.

  18. Sex-linked dominant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... can be either an autosomal chromosome or a sex chromosome. It also depends on whether the trait ...

  19. Childhood IQ of parents related to characteristics of their offspring: linking the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 to the Midspan Family Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, C L; Deary, Ian J; Davey Smith, G; Upton, M N; Whalley, Lawrence J; Starr, John M; Hole, D J; Wilson, V; Watt, G C M

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between childhood IQ of parents and characteristics of their adult offspring. It was a prospective family cohort study linked to a mental ability survey of the parents and set in Renfrew and Paisley in Scotland. Participants were 1921-born men and women who took part in the Scottish Mental Survey in 1932 and the Renfrew/Paisley study in the 1970s, and whose,offspring took part in the Midspan Family study in 1996. There were 286 of...

  20. Social Anxiety-Linked Attention Bias to Threat Is Indirectly Related to Post-Event Processing Via Subjective Emotional Reactivity to Social Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çek, Demet; Sánchez, Alvaro; Timpano, Kiara R

    2016-05-01

    Attention bias to threat (e.g., disgust faces) is a cognitive vulnerability factor for social anxiety occurring in early stages of information processing. Few studies have investigated the relationship between social anxiety and attention biases, in conjunction with emotional and cognitive responses to a social stressor. Elucidating these links would shed light on maintenance factors of social anxiety and could help identify malleable treatment targets. This study examined the associations between social anxiety level, attention bias to disgust (AB-disgust), subjective emotional and physiological reactivity to a social stressor, and subsequent post-event processing (PEP). We tested a mediational model where social anxiety level indirectly predicted subsequent PEP via its association with AB-disgust and immediate subjective emotional reactivity to social stress. Fifty-five undergraduates (45% female) completed a passive viewing task. Eye movements were tracked during the presentation of social stimuli (e.g., disgust faces) and used to calculate AB-disgust. Next, participants gave an impromptu speech in front of a video camera and watched a neutral video, followed by the completion of a PEP measure. Although there was no association between AB-disgust and physiological reactivity to the stressor, AB-disgust was significantly associated with greater subjective emotional reactivity from baseline to the speech. Analyses supported a partial mediation model where AB-disgust and subjective emotional reactivity to a social stressor partially accounted for the link between social anxiety levels and PEP. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... November 2017. How are Drug Misuse and HIV Related? Drug misuse and addiction have been linked with ... Campaign messages and materials were tested among various groups of young people, guiding the use of technology, ...

  2. Competitivity of the common-bean plant relative to the weed alexandergrass [Brachiaria plantaginea (link hitch.] Competitividade do feijoeiro-comum com o capim-marmelada [Brachiaria plantaginea (link hitch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Passini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Methodologies of competitive interaction quantification between weeds and crops are not widely elucidated and compared in the literature. The competitive ability of common-bean (Phaseolus vulgaris relative to alexandergrass (Brachiaria plantaginea was assessed and two approaches of replacement series experiment analysis were compared. The response of the species to the presence of each other at different densities and proportion was evaluated. Replacement series at total densities of 625, 816 and 1,111 plants m-2 were performed at the proportions of common-bean:alexandergrass of 100:0 (pure stand of common-bean, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100% (pure stand of alexandergrass, at four replicates in a randomized block design. Data analyses were performed by the qualitative compared to the quantitative approach. The quantitative approach provided larger number of information than did the qualitative approach, and indicated that there was intraspecific competition among common-bean plants, and a minimum of interspecific competition from alexandergrass. There was no intraspecific competition among alexandergrass plants, being the crop effect on the weed larger than the effect among alexandergrass plants. The ecological niche differentiation was partial, since the crop intraspecific competition was larger than the interspecific, and the last one was negligible, at the same time that the weed interspecific competition was larger than the intraspecific. Common-bean, as a competitor species, is superior to alexandergrass.As metodologias de quantificação das interações competitivas entre plantas cultivadas e daninhas não estão amplamente elucidadas e comparadas na literatura. A competitividade da cultura de feijão-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris em relação ao capim-marmelada (Brachiaria plantaginea foi avaliada pela comparação entre o método qualitativo e um método quantitativo de análise de resultados. A resposta de cada espécie à presença da

  3. Characteristics of equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) in relation to transionospheric satellite links around the northern crest in the Indian longitude sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A.; Paul, K. S.; Halder, S.; Basu, K.; Paul, A.

    2014-02-01

    The poleward gradient of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) introduces more intense propagation effects on transionospheric satellite links in comparison to the equatorward gradient. Characterization of the poleward gradient was performed during March-April, August-October 2011 and March-April 2012 using GPS total electron content (TEC) recorded from a chain of stations located more or less along the same meridian (88.5° E) at Calcutta, Baharampore, Farakka and Siliguri. The poleward gradients calculated on magnetically quiet days at elevation in excess of 50° at 14:00, 15:00 and 16:00 LT were found to have a strong correlation with GPS S4 observed from Calcutta during post-sunset-to-midnight hours. A threshold value of poleward TEC gradient is calculated above which there is a probability of scintillation at Calcutta with S4 ≥ 0.4.

  4. Characteristics of equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA in relation to transionospheric satellite links around the northern crest in the Indian longitude sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Das

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The poleward gradient of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA introduces more intense propagation effects on transionospheric satellite links in comparison to the equatorward gradient. Characterization of the poleward gradient was performed during March–April, August–October 2011 and March–April 2012 using GPS total electron content (TEC recorded from a chain of stations located more or less along the same meridian (88.5° E at Calcutta, Baharampore, Farakka and Siliguri. The poleward gradients calculated on magnetically quiet days at elevation in excess of 50° at 14:00, 15:00 and 16:00 LT were found to have a strong correlation with GPS S4 observed from Calcutta during post-sunset-to-midnight hours. A threshold value of poleward TEC gradient is calculated above which there is a probability of scintillation at Calcutta with S4 ≥ 0.4.

  5. Smart Industry Research in the Field of HRM : Resetting Job Design as an Example of Upcoming Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habraken, Milou Maria Petronella; Bondarouk, Tatiana; Bondarouk, Tanya; Ruel, Huub; Parry, Emma

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – This chapter aims to encourage and guide Smart Industry HRM-related research by addressing upcoming challenges developed using a Job Design lens. Methodology/approach – The challenges are constructed based on a developed overview of the existing body of work related to Job Design and a

  6. Assessment of the relatives or spouses cohabiting with the fibromyalgia patients: is there a link regarding fibromyalgia symptoms, quality of life, general health and psychologic status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Sebnem Koldas; Aytur, Yesim Kurtais; Atbasoglu, Cem

    2011-09-01

    It was aimed to investigate the existence of the symptoms related to fibromyalgia in the first-degree relatives or spouses of the patients and to assess the psychologic and general health status of these individuals and the correlation of these with the patients' status. Thirty-seven patients with FS, 32 first-degree relatives or spouses of the patients and 30 healthy subjects as a control group were included. Symptoms related to FS were recorded in all subjects. Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and Nottingham Health Profile were used to assess the components of functional status and quality of life. General health status was evaluated by General Health Questionnaire. Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory were used to assess the psychologic status. There were significant differences in the frequency of the symptoms between three groups (P 0.05). No fibromyalgia symptoms or signs were detected in the relatives/spouses. The general health status, psychologic status and quality of life were found to be not impaired in relatives/spouses of the patients with FS.

  7. Succumbing to the Call of Violence – Sex-Linked Development of Appetitive Aggression in Relation to Familial and Organized Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Augsburger

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Appetitive aggression is the attraction to violent behavior, which can peak in the experience of a combat high. In various war and conflict scenarios, members of armed groups have reported developing a desire to hunt and even kill humans. More recently, we reported that the phenomenon has also been observed in female ex-combatants with varying participation in warfare. Despite recent investigations on risk factors for appetitive aggression, sex-specific pathways in the development of appetitive aggression have not yet been delineated. This study investigated moderation effects of sex on previously identified risk factors for appetitive aggression by means of regression analyses in a sample of individuals with varying degrees of warfare participation (overall sample, n = 602. First examining a sample characterized by backgrounds heterogeneous in both sociodemographic data and war experiences, the analysis was then replicated in a subsample of fighters active during the civil war (combatant sample, n = 109. In both samples, regression analyses revealed significant moderation effects of sex. Childhood maltreatment and traumatic events had positive associations on the development of appetitive aggression for males but a negative (childhood maltreatment or no (traumatic events association for females. Perpetrated events were more strongly correlated with appetitive aggression for females than for males. This pattern was pronounced for the combatant sample. These results are in favor of sex-linked pathways. In both sexes, appetitive aggression may have evolved as a biologically prepared response to cruel environments but might develop along different trajectories. The current study highlights the need for addressing appetitive aggression in order to support peace-building processes and emphasizes sex specific starting-points.

  8. Linking CHHiP prostate cancer RCT with GP records: A study proposal to investigate the effect of co-morbidities and medications on long-term symptoms and radiotherapy-related toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Lemanska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients receiving cancer treatment often have one or more co-morbid conditions that are treated pharmacologically. Co-morbidities are recorded in clinical trials usually only at baseline. However, co-morbidities evolve and new ones emerge during cancer treatment. The interaction between multi-morbidity and cancer recovery is significant but poorly understood. Purpose: To investigate the effect of co-morbidities (e.g. cardiovascular and diabetes and medications (e.g. statins, antihypertensives, metformin on radiotherapy-related toxicity and long-term symptoms in order to identify potential risk factors. The possible protective effect of medications such as statins or antihypertensives in reducing radiotherapy-related toxicity will also be explored. Methods: Two datasets will be linked. (1 CHHiP (Conventional or Hypofractionated High Dose Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer randomised control trial. CHHiP contains pelvic symptoms and radiation-related toxicity reported by patients and clinicians. (2 GP (General Practice data from RCGP RSC (Royal College of General Practitioners Research and Surveillance Centre. The GP records of CHHiP patients will be extracted, including cardiovascular co-morbidities, diabetes and prescription medications. Statistical analysis of the combined dataset will be performed in order to investigate the effect. Conclusions: Linking two sources of healthcare data is an exciting area of big healthcare data research. With limited data in clinical trials (not all clinical trials collect information on co-morbidities or medications and limited lengths of follow-up, linking different sources of information is increasingly needed to investigate long-term outcomes. With increasing pressures to collect detailed information in clinical trials (e.g. co-morbidities, medications, linkage to routinely collected data offers the potential to support efficient conduct of clinical trials. Keywords: Data

  9. Linking women who test HIV-positive in pregnancy-related services to long-term HIV care and treatment services: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Laura; Grant, Alison D; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Kahawita, Tanya; Ong'ech, John O; Ross, David A

    2012-05-01

    To quantify attrition between women testing HIV-positive in pregnancy-related services and accessing long-term HIV care and treatment services in low- or middle-income countries and to explore the reasons underlying client drop-out by synthesising current literature on this topic. A systematic search in Medline, EMBASE, Global Health and the International Bibliography of the Social Sciences of literature published 2000-2010. Only studies meeting pre-defined quality criteria were included. Of 2543 articles retrieved, 20 met the inclusion criteria. Sixteen (80%) drew on data from sub-Saharan Africa. The pathway between testing HIV-positive in pregnancy-related services and accessing long-term HIV-related services is complex, and attrition was usually high. There was a failure to initiate highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among 38-88% of known-eligible women. Providing 'family-focused care', and integrating CD4 testing and HAART provision into prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission services appear promising for increasing women's uptake of HIV-related services. Individual-level factors that need to be addressed include financial constraints and fear of stigma. Too few women negotiate the many steps between testing HIV-positive in pregnancy-related services and accessing HIV-related services for themselves. Recent efforts to stem patient drop-out, such as the MTCT-Plus Initiative, hold promise. Addressing barriers and enabling factors both within health facilities and at the levels of the individual woman, her family and society will be essential to improve the uptake of services. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Tri-state resistive switching characteristics of MnO/Ta2O5 resistive random access memory device by a controllable reset process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, N. J.; Kang, T. S.; Hu, Q.; Lee, T. S.; Yoon, T.-S.; Lee, H. H.; Yoo, E. J.; Choi, Y. J.; Kang, C. J.

    2018-06-01

    Tri-state resistive switching characteristics of bilayer resistive random access memory devices based on manganese oxide (MnO)/tantalum oxide (Ta2O5) have been studied. The current–voltage (I–V) characteristics of the Ag/MnO/Ta2O5/Pt device show tri-state resistive switching (RS) behavior with a high resistance state (HRS), intermediate resistance state (IRS), and low resistance state (LRS), which are controlled by the reset process. The MnO/Ta2O5 film shows bipolar RS behavior through the formation and rupture of conducting filaments without the forming process. The device shows reproducible and stable RS both from the HRS to the LRS and from the IRS to the LRS. In order to elucidate the tri-state RS mechanism in the Ag/MnO/Ta2O5/Pt device, transmission electron microscope (TEM) images are measured in the LRS, IRS and HRS. White lines like dendrites are observed in the Ta2O5 film in both the LRS and the IRS. Poole–Frenkel conduction, space charge limited conduction, and Ohmic conduction are proposed as the dominant conduction mechanisms for the Ag/MnO/Ta2O5/Pt device based on the obtained I–V characteristics and TEM images.

  11. “I Will Take a Shot for Every ‘Like’ I Get on This Status”: Posting Alcohol-Related Facebook Content Is Linked to Drinking Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, Erin C; Neighbors, Clayton; Heppner, Hannes; Jahn, Susanna; Lindgren, Kristen P

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated whether self-reports of alcohol-related postings on Facebook by oneself or one’s Facebook friends were related to common motives for drinking and were uniquely predictive of self-reported alcohol outcomes (alcohol consumption, problems, and cravings). Method: Pacific Northwest undergraduates completed a survey of alcohol outcomes, drinking motives, and alcoholrelated Facebook postings. Participants completed the survey online as part of a larger study on alcohol use and cognitive associations. Participants were randomly selected through the university registrar’s office and consisted of 1,106 undergraduates (449 men, 654 women, 2 transgender, 1 declined to answer) between the ages of 18 and 25 years (M = 20.40, SD = 1.60) at a large university in the Pacific Northwest. Seven participants were excluded from analyses because of missing or suspect data. Results: Alcohol-related postings on Facebook were significantly correlated with social, enhancement, conformity, and coping motives for drinking (all ps Facebook is associated with common motivations for drinking and is, in itself, a strong predictive indicator of drinking outcomes independent of drinking motives. Moreover, self-related posting activity appears to be more predictive than Facebook friends’ activity. These findings suggest that social media platforms may be a useful target for future preventative and intervention efforts. PMID:24766750

  12. Universal or Commodified Healthcare? Linking Out-of-Pocket Payments to Income-Related Inequalities in Unmet Health Needs in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaminska, Monika Ewa; Wulfgramm, Melike

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the outcomes out-of-pocket payments (OOPP) produce in terms of income-related disparities in unmet health needs (UHN) due to inability to pay and highlights the commodifying effect of OOPP in European healthcare systems. It merges micro data from the European Union...

  13. Linking the tectonic evolution with fluid history in magma-poor rifted margins: tracking mantle- and continental crust-related fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, V. H. G.; Manatschal, G.; Karpoff, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    The thinning of the crust and the exhumation of subcontinental mantle is accompanied by a series of extensional detachment faults. Exhumation of mantle and crustal rocks is intimately related to percolation of fluids along detachment faults leading to changes in mineralogy and chemistry of the mantle, crustal and sedimentary rocks. Field observation, analytical methods, refraction/reflection and well-core data, allowed us to investigate the role of fluids in the Iberian margin and former Alpine Tethys distal margins and the Pyrenees rifted system. In the continental crust, fluid-rock interaction leads to saussuritization that produces Si and Ca enriched fluids found in forms of veins along the fault zone. In the zone of exhumed mantle, large amounts of water are absorbed in the first 5-6 km of serpentinized mantle, which has the counter-effect of depleting the mantle of elements (e.g., Si, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Ni and Cr) forming mantle-related fluids. Using Cr-Ni-V and Fe-Mn as tracers, we show that in the distal margin, mantle-related fluids used detachment faults as pathways and interacted with the overlying crust, the sedimentary basin and the seawater, while further inward parts of the margin, continental crust-related fluids enriched in Si and Ca impregnated the fault zone and may have affected the sedimentary basin. The overall observations and results enable us to show when, where and how these interactions occurred during the formation of the rifted margin. In a first stage, continental crust-related fluids dominated the rifted systems. During the second stage, mantle-related fluids affected the overlying syn-tectonic sediments through direct migration along detachment faults at the future distal margin. In a third stage, these fluids reached the seafloor, "polluted" the seawater and were absorbed by post-tectonic sediments. We conclude that a significant amount of serpentinization occurred underneath the thinned continental crust, that the mantle-related fluids

  14. Depressive Symptom Trajectories, Aging-Related Stress, and Sexual Minority Stress Among Midlife and Older Gay Men: Linking Past and Present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, Richard G; Harig, Frederick; Aneshensel, Carol S; Detels, Roger

    2016-05-01

    We concatenate 28 years of historical depressive symptoms data from a longitudinal cohort study of U.S. gay men who are now midlife and older (n = 312), with newly collected survey data to analyze trajectories of depressive symptomatology over time and their impact on associations between current stress and depressive symptoms. Symptoms are high over time, on average, and follow multiple trajectories. Aging-related stress, persistent life-course sexual minority stress, and increasing sexual minority stress are positively associated with depressive symptoms, net of symptom trajectories. Men who had experienced elevated and increasing trajectories of depressive symptoms are less susceptible to the damaging effects of aging-related stress than those who experienced a decrease in symptoms over time. Intervention efforts aimed at assisting gay men as they age should take into account life-course depressive symptom histories to appropriately contextualize the health effects of current social stressors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Linking women who test HIV-positive in pregnancy-related services to HIV care and treatment services in Kenya: a mixed methods prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ferguson

    Full Text Available There has been insufficient attention to long-term care and treatment for pregnant women diagnosed with HIV.This prospective cohort study of 100 HIV-positive women recruited within pregnancy-related services in a district hospital in Kenya employed quantitative methods to assess attrition between women testing HIV-positive in pregnancy-related services and accessing long-term HIV care and treatment services. Qualitative methods were used to explore barriers and facilitators to navigating these services. Structured questionnaires were administered to cohort participants at enrolment and 90+ days later. Participants' medical records were monitored prospectively. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were carried out with a sub-set of 19 participants.Only 53/100 (53% women registered at an HIV clinic within 90 days of HIV diagnosis, of whom 27/53 (51% had a CD4 count result in their file. 11/27 (41% women were eligible for immediate antiretroviral therapy (ART; only 6/11 (55% started ART during study follow-up. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, factors associated with registration at the HIV clinic within 90 days of HIV diagnosis were: having cared for someone with HIV (aOR:3.67(95%CI:1.22, 11.09, not having to pay for transport to the hospital (aOR:2.73(95%CI:1.09, 6.84, and having received enough information to decide to have an HIV test (aOR:3.61(95%CI:0.83, 15.71. Qualitative data revealed multiple factors underlying high patient drop-out related to women's social support networks (e.g. partner's attitude to HIV status, interactions with health workers (e.g. being given unclear/incorrect HIV-related information and health services characteristics (e.g. restricted opening hours, long waiting times.HIV testing within pregnancy-related services is an important entry point to HIV care and treatment services, but few women successfully completed the steps needed for assessment of their treatment needs within three months of diagnosis

  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Bath Salts) Tobacco/Nicotine and E-Cigs Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults ... 2017. How are Drug Misuse and HIV Related? Drug misuse and addiction have been linked with HIV/AIDS since the ...

  17. System Re-set: High LET Radiation or Transient Musculoskeletal Disuse Cause Lasting Changes in Oxidative Defense Pathways Within Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Akhilesh; Chatterjee, A.; Alwood, Joshua S.; Dvorochkin, Natalya; Almeida, Eduardo A. C.

    2011-01-01

    Six months post-IR, there were no notable changes in skeletal expression of 84 principal genes in the p53 signaling pathway due to low dose IR (0.5Gy), HU, or both. In contrast, numerous genes relevant to oxidative stress were regulated by the treatments, typically in a direction indicative of increased oxidative stress and impaired defense. IR and HU independently reduced (between 0.46 to 0.88 fold) expression levels of Noxa1, Gpx3, Prdx2, Prdx3, and Zmynd17. Surprisingly, transient HU alone (sham-irradiated) decreased expression of several redox-related genes (Gpx1,Gstk1, Prdx1, Txnrd2), which were not affected significantly by IR alone. Irradiation increased (1.13 fold) expression of a gene responsible for production of superoxides by neutrophils (NCF2). Of interest, only combined treatment with HU and IR led to increased expression levels of Ercc2, (1.19 fold), a DNA excision repair enzyme. Differences in gene expression levels may reflect a change in gene expression on a per cell basis, a shift in the repertoire of specific cell types within the tissue, or both. Serum nitrite/nitrate levels were elevated to comparable levels (1.6-fold) due to IR, HU or both, indicative of elevated systemic nitrosyl stress. CONCLUSIONS The magnitude of changes in skeletal expression of oxidative stress-related genes six months after irradiation and/or transient unloading tended to be relatively modest (0.46-1.15 fold), whereas the p53 pathway was not affected. The finding that many different oxidative stress-related genes differed from controls at this late time point implicates a generalized impairment of oxidative defense within skeletal tissue, which coincides with both profound radiation damage to osteoprogenitors/stem cells in bone marrow and impaired remodeling of mineralized tissue.

  18. Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Einstein, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Time magazine's ""Man of the Century"", Albert Einstein is the founder of modern physics and his theory of relativity is the most important scientific idea of the modern era. In this short book, Einstein explains, using the minimum of mathematical terms, the basic ideas and principles of the theory that has shaped the world we live in today. Unsurpassed by any subsequent books on relativity, this remains the most popular and useful exposition of Einstein's immense contribution to human knowledge.With a new foreword by Derek Raine.

  19. Altering young tomato plant growth by nitrate and CO2 preserves the proportionate relation linking long-term organic-nitrogen accumulation to intercepted radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, Stéphane; Le Bot, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    * A previously published model of crop nitrogen (N) status based on intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (R(i), mol per plant) suggested that plant organic N accumulation is related to R(i) by a constant ratio, defined hereafter as the radiation use efficiency for N (NRUE). The aim of this paper was to compare the effects of N nutrition and CO2 enrichment on NRUE and RUE (radiation use efficiency for biomass accumulation). * In three unrelated glasshouse experiments, tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) grown in hydroponics were fed for 28 d (exponential growth) with full solutions containing constant NO3(-) concentrations ([NO3(-)]) ranging from 0.05 to 15 mol m(-3), both under ambient or CO2-enriched (1000 microl l(-1)) air. * Each experiment comprised five harvests. Low [NO3(-)] (radiation efficiency for organic N acquisition (NRUE) did not depend on C or N nutrition for young plants grown under unstressed conditions.

  20. An age-related study of morphology and cross-link composition of collagen fibrils in the digital flexor tendons of young thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson-Kane, J C; Parry, D A; Birch, H L; Goodship, A E; Firth, E C

    1997-01-01

    The superficial digital flexor tendon is the most commonly injured tendon in the racing Thoroughbred. Despite the clinical significance of this structure, only limited data exist regarding normal age-related morphology of the tensile units, the collagen fibrils. The age at which these collagen fibrils become mature in composition and structure may be of importance. Consequently, the association of age and collagen fibril crosslink composition, diameter distribution and crimp morphology in the superficial and deep digital flexor tendons of Thoroughbreds up to and including three years of age has been studied. Replacement of immature crosslinks, peaking of the collagen fibril mass-average diameter and collagen fibril index, and stabilization of collagen crimp morphology changes supported the hypothesis that both digital flexor tendons become mature in structure by two years of age.

  1. Purchases of prescription drugs before an alcohol-related death: A ten-year follow-up study using linked routine data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paljärvi, Tapio; Martikainen, Pekka; Leinonen, Taina; Vuori, Erkki; Mäkelä, Pia

    2018-05-01

    Physician's intention to prescribe drugs could potentially be used to improve targeting of alcohol interventions and enhanced disease management to patients with a high risk of severe alcohol-related harm within outpatient settings. Comparison of ten-year incidence trajectories of 13.8 million reimbursed purchases of prescription drugs among 303,057 Finnish men and women of whom 7490 ultimately died due to alcohol-related causes (Alc+), 14,954 died without alcohol involvement (Alc-), and 280,613 survived until the end of 2007. 5-10 years before death, 88% of the persons with an Alc+ death had received prescription medication, and over two-thirds (69%) had at least one reimbursed purchase of drugs for the alimentary tract and metabolism, the cardiovascular system, or the nervous system. Among persons with an Alc+ death, the incidence rate (IR) for purchases of hypnotics, and sedatives was 1.38 times higher (95% confidence interval (CI):1.32,1.44) compared to those with an Alc- death, and 4.07 times higher (95%CI:3.92,4.22) compared to survivors; and the IR for purchases of anxiolytics was 1.40 times higher (95%CI:1.34,1.47) compared to those with an Alc- death, and 3.61 times higher (95%CI:3.48,3.78) compared to survivors. Using physician's intention to prescribe drugs affecting the alimentary tract and metabolism, cardiovascular system and nervous system could potentially be used to flag patients who might benefit from screening, targeted interventions or enhanced disease management. In particular, patients who are to be prescribed anxiolytics, hypnotics, and sedatives, and antidepressants may benefit from enhanced interventions targeted to problem drinking. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Soil organic matter dynamics and CO2 fluxes in relation to landscape scale processes: linking process understanding to regional scale carbon mass-balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oost, Kristof; Nadeu, Elisabet; Wiaux, François; Wang, Zhengang; Stevens, François; Vanclooster, Marnik; Tran, Anh; Bogaert, Patrick; Doetterl, Sebastian; Lambot, Sébastien; Van wesemael, Bas

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we synthesize the main outcomes of a collaborative project (2009-2014) initiated at the UCL (Belgium). The main objective of the project was to increase our understanding of soil organic matter dynamics in complex landscapes and use this to improve predictions of regional scale soil carbon balances. In a first phase, the project characterized the emergent spatial variability in soil organic matter storage and key soil properties at the regional scale. Based on the integration of remote sensing, geomorphological and soil analysis techniques, we quantified the temporal and spatial variability of soil carbon stock and pool distribution at the local and regional scales. This work showed a linkage between lateral fluxes of C in relation with sediment transport and the spatial variation in carbon storage at multiple spatial scales. In a second phase, the project focused on characterizing key controlling factors and process interactions at the catena scale. In-situ experiments of soil CO2 respiration showed that the soil carbon response at the catena scale was spatially heterogeneous and was mainly controlled by the catenary variation of soil physical attributes (soil moisture, temperature, C quality). The hillslope scale characterization relied on advanced hydrogeophysical techniques such as GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar), EMI (Electromagnetic induction), ERT (Electrical Resistivity Tomography), and geophysical inversion and data mining tools. Finally, we report on the integration of these insights into a coupled and spatially explicit model and its application. Simulations showed that C stocks and redistribution of mass and energy fluxes are closely coupled, they induce structured spatial and temporal patterns with non negligible attached uncertainties. We discuss the main outcomes of these activities in relation to sink-source behavior and relevance of erosion processes for larger-scale C budgets.

  3. Functional MRI examination of empathy for pain in people with schizophrenia reveals abnormal activation related to cognitive perspective-taking but typical activation linked to affective sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vistoli, Damien; Lavoie, Marie-Audrey; Sutliff, Stephanie; Jackson, Philip L.; Achim, Amélie M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia is associated with important disturbances in empathy that are related to everyday functioning. Empathy is classically defined as including affective (sharing others’ emotions) and cognitive (taking others’ cognitive perspectives) processes. In healthy individuals, studies on empathy for pain revealed specific brain systems associated with these sets of processes, notably the anterior middle cingulate (aMCC) and anterior insula (AI) for affective sharing and the bilateral temporoparietal junction (TPJ) for the cognitive processes, but the integrity of these systems in patients with schizophrenia remains uncertain. Methods Patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls performed a pain empathy task while undergoing fMRI scanning. Participants observed pictures of hands in either painful or nonpainful situations and rated the level of pain while imagining either themselves (self) or an unknown person (other) in these situations. Results We included 27 patients with schizophrenia and 21 healthy controls in our analyses. For the pain versus no pain contrast, patients showed overall typical activation patterns in the aMCC and AI, with only a small part of the aMCC showing reduced activation compared with controls. For the other versus self contrast, patients showed an abnormal modulation of activation in the TPJ bilaterally (extending to the posterior superior temporal sulcus, referred to as the TPJ/pSTS). Limitations The design included an unnecessary manipulation of the visual perspective that reduced the number of trials for analysis. The sample size may not account for the heterogeneity of schizophrenia. Conclusion People with schizophrenia showed relatively intact brain activation when observing others’ pain, but showed abnormalities when asked to take the cognitive perspectives of others. PMID:28556774

  4. War-Related Abduction and History of Incarceration Linked to High Burden of HIV Among Female Sex Workers in Conflict-Affected Northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Muzaaya, Godfrey; Akello, Monica; Nguyen, Paul; Birungi, Josephine; Shannon, Kate

    2016-09-01

    Sex workers (SWs) in sub-Saharan Africa face a disproportionate HIV burden and growing concerns of severe human rights violations. Given the dearth of evidence on the burden and correlates of HIV among SWs in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly within conflict-affected settings, we examined the relationship between structural determinants (eg, war-related abduction, incarceration) and HIV infection among conflict-affected SWs in Northern Uganda. Cross-sectional community-based research study among female SWs in conflict-affected Gulu, Northern Uganda. Interview questionnaires and voluntary HIV testing were conducted with participants recruited through SW/peer-led outreach and time-location sampling from 2011 to 2012. HIV prevalence was calculated, and bivariable and multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent associations with HIV seroprevalence. Of 400 SWs, 135 (33.75%) were HIV seropositive; of whom one-third were new/previously undiagnosed HIV infections. In multivariable analysis, after adjusting for age of sex work entry and education, lifetime incarceration (adjusted odds ratio: 1.93, 95% confidence interval: 1.17 to -3.20) was independently associated with HIV seroprevalence, and history of wartime abduction (adjusted odds ratio: 1.62, 95% confidence interval: 1.00 to 2.63) was marginally associated (P = 0.051). This study documented a high rate of undiagnosed HIV infections and associations between war-related human rights violations, incarceration, and a heavy HIV burden among SWs in conflict-affected Northern Uganda. These findings highlight the serious harms of conflict and criminalization of marginalized women in sub-Saharan African contexts. SW-led interventions that address conflict experiences and policy shifts to promote a rights-based approach to HIV prevention and care remain critically needed.

  5. Relativity theory and time perception: single or multiple clocks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhusi, Catalin V; Meck, Warren H

    2009-07-22

    Current theories of interval timing assume that humans and other animals time as if using a single, absolute stopwatch that can be stopped or reset on command. Here we evaluate the alternative view that psychological time is represented by multiple clocks, and that these clocks create separate temporal contexts by which duration is judged in a relative manner. Two predictions of the multiple-clock hypothesis were tested. First, that the multiple clocks can be manipulated (stopped and/or reset) independently. Second, that an event of a given physical duration would be perceived as having different durations in different temporal contexts, i.e., would be judged differently by each clock. Rats were trained to time three durations (e.g., 10, 30, and 90 s). When timing was interrupted by an unexpected gap in the signal, rats reset the clock used to time the "short" duration, stopped the "medium" duration clock, and continued to run the "long" duration clock. When the duration of the gap was manipulated, the rats reset these clocks in a hierarchical order, first the "short", then the "medium", and finally the "long" clock. Quantitative modeling assuming re-allocation of cognitive resources in proportion to the relative duration of the gap to the multiple, simultaneously timed event durations was used to account for the results. These results indicate that the three event durations were effectively timed by separate clocks operated independently, and that the same gap duration was judged relative to these three temporal contexts. Results suggest that the brain processes the duration of an event in a manner similar to Einstein's special relativity theory: A given time interval is registered differently by independent clocks dependent upon the context.

  6. Relativity theory and time perception: single or multiple clocks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin V Buhusi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Current theories of interval timing assume that humans and other animals time as if using a single, absolute stopwatch that can be stopped or reset on command. Here we evaluate the alternative view that psychological time is represented by multiple clocks, and that these clocks create separate temporal contexts by which duration is judged in a relative manner. Two predictions of the multiple-clock hypothesis were tested. First, that the multiple clocks can be manipulated (stopped and/or reset independently. Second, that an event of a given physical duration would be perceived as having different durations in different temporal contexts, i.e., would be judged differently by each clock.Rats were trained to time three durations (e.g., 10, 30, and 90 s. When timing was interrupted by an unexpected gap in the signal, rats reset the clock used to time the "short" duration, stopped the "medium" duration clock, and continued to run the "long" duration clock. When the duration of the gap was manipulated, the rats reset these clocks in a hierarchical order, first the "short", then the "medium", and finally the "long" clock. Quantitative modeling assuming re-allocation of cognitive resources in proportion to the relative duration of the gap to the multiple, simultaneously timed event durations was used to account for the results.These results indicate that the three event durations were effectively timed by separate clocks operated independently, and that the same gap duration was judged relative to these three temporal contexts. Results suggest that the brain processes the duration of an event in a manner similar to Einstein's special relativity theory: A given time interval is registered differently by independent clocks dependent upon the context.

  7. DNA methylation differences at growth related genes correlate with birth weight: a molecular signature linked to developmental origins of adult disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turan Nahid

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant birth weight is a complex quantitative trait associated with both neonatal and long-term health outcomes. Numerous studies have been published in which candidate genes (IGF1, IGF2, IGF2R, IGF binding proteins, PHLDA2 and PLAGL1 have been associated with birth weight, but these studies are difficult to reproduce in man and large cohort studies are needed due to the large inter individual variance in transcription levels. Also, very little of the trait variance is explained. We decided to identify additional candidates without regard for what is known about the genes. We hypothesize that DNA methylation differences between individuals can serve as markers of gene "expression potential" at growth related genes throughout development and that these differences may correlate with birth weight better than single time point measures of gene expression. Methods We performed DNA methylation and transcript profiling on cord blood and placenta from newborns. We then used novel computational approaches to identify genes correlated with birth weight. Results We identified 23 genes whose methylation levels explain 70-87% of the variance in birth weight. Six of these (ANGPT4, APOE, CDK2, GRB10, OSBPL5 and REG1B are associated with growth phenotypes in human or mouse models. Gene expression profiling explained a much smaller fraction of variance in birth weight than did DNA methylation. We further show that two genes, the transcriptional repressor MSX1 and the growth factor receptor adaptor protein GRB10, are correlated with transcriptional control of at least seven genes reported to be involved in fetal or placental growth, suggesting that we have identified important networks in growth control. GRB10 methylation is also correlated with genes involved in reactive oxygen species signaling, stress signaling and oxygen sensing and more recent data implicate GRB10 in insulin signaling. Conclusions Single time point measurements of gene

  8. [Airway oxidative stress and inflammation markers in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases(COPD) patients are linked with exposure to traffic-related air pollution: a panel study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Zhao, Q; Liu, B B; Wang, J; Xu, H B; Zhang, Y; Song, X M; He, B; Huang, W

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the effects of short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution on airway oxidative stress and inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) patients. A panel of forty-five diagnosed COPD patients were recruited and followed with repeated measurements of biomarkers reflecting airway oxidative stress and inflammation in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), including nitrate and nitrite, 8-isoprostane, interleukin-8 and acidity of EBC (pH), between 5(th) September in 2014 and 26(th) May in 2015. The associations between air pollution and biomarkers were analyzed with mixed-effects models, controlling for confounding covariates. The concentration of PM2.5, black carbon, NO2 and number concentration of particles with diameter less than 100 nm (PNC100), and particles in size ranges between 100 nm to 200 nm (PNC100-200) during the first follow-up were (156.5±117.7), (10.7±0.7), (165.9±66.0)μg/m(3) and 397 521±96 712, 79 421±44 090 per cubic meter, respectively; the concentration were (67.9±29.6), (3.4±1.3), (126.1±10.9) μg/m(3) and (295 682±39 430), (24 693±12 369) per cubic meter, respectively during the second follow-up. The differences were of significance, with t value being 3.10, 4.42, 2.61, 4.02, 5.12, respectively and P value being 0.005,stress. For an IQR increase in PM2.5, black carbon and PNC100-200, respective increases of 0.17 ng/ml (95% CI: 0.02-0.33), 0.12 ng/ml (95% CI: 0.01-0.24) and 0.13 ng/ml (95% CI:0.02-0.24) in interleukin-8 in EBC reflecting airway inflammation were also observed. An IQR increase in ozone was also associated with a 0.24 (95%CI: 0.05-0.42) decrease in pH of EBC reflecting increased airway inflammation. No significant association observed between air pollution and 8-isoprostane in EBC in COPD patients. Our results suggested that short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution was responsible for exacerbation of airway oxidative stress and inflammation in COPD patients.

  9. Defects in mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 are linked to apoptotic resistance and autophagy in a lung cancer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Jean Thomas

    Full Text Available Evasion of apoptosis is implicated in almost all aspects of cancer progression, as well as treatment resistance. In this study, resistance to apoptosis was identified in tumorigenic lung epithelial (A549 cells as a consequence of defects in mitochondrial and autophagic function. Mitochondrial function is determined in part by mitochondrial morphology, a process regulated by mitochondrial dynamics whereby the joining of two mitochondria, fusion, inhibits apoptosis while fission, the division of a mitochondrion, initiates apoptosis. Mitochondrial morphology of A549 cells displayed an elongated phenotype-mimicking cells deficient in mitochondrial fission protein, Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1. A549 cells had impaired Drp1 mitochondrial recruitment and decreased Drp1-dependent fission. Cytochrome c release and caspase-3 and PARP cleavage were impaired both basally and with apoptotic stimuli in A549 cells. Increased mitochondrial mass was observed in A549 cells, suggesting defects in mitophagy (mitochondrial selective autophagy. A549 cells had decreased LC3-II lipidation and lysosomal inhibition suggesting defects in autophagy occur upstream of lysosomal degradation. Immunostaining indicated mitochondrial localized LC3 punctae in A549 cells increased after mitochondrial uncoupling or with a combination of mitochondrial depolarization and ectopic Drp1 expression. Increased inhibition of apoptosis in A549 cells is correlated with impeded mitochondrial fission and mitophagy. We suggest mitochondrial fission defects contribute to apoptotic resistance in A549 cells.

  10. Pitch Syntax Violations Are Linked to Greater Skin Conductance Changes, Relative to Timbral Violations - The Predictive Role of the Reward System in Perspective of Cortico-subcortical Loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzelańczyk, Edward J; Podlipniak, Piotr; Walecki, Piotr; Karpiński, Maciej; Tarnowska, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    According to contemporary opinion emotional reactions to syntactic violations are due to surprise as a result of the general mechanism of prediction. The classic view is that, the processing of musical syntax can be explained by activity of the cerebral cortex. However, some recent studies have indicated that subcortical brain structures, including those related to the processing of emotions, are also important during the processing of syntax. In order to check whether emotional reactions play a role in the processing of pitch syntax or are only the result of the general mechanism of prediction, the comparison of skin conductance levels reacting to three types of melodies were recorded. In this study, 28 subjects listened to three types of short melodies prepared in Musical Instrument Digital Interface Standard files (MIDI) - tonally correct, tonally violated (with one out-of-key - i.e., of high information content), and tonally correct but with one note played in a different timbre. The BioSemi ActiveTwo with two passive Nihon Kohden electrodes was used. Skin conductance levels were positively correlated with the presented stimuli (timbral changes and tonal violations). Although changes in skin conductance levels were also observed in response to the change in timbre, the reactions to tonal violations were significantly stronger. Therefore, despite the fact that timbral change is at least as equally unexpected as an out-of-key note, the processing of pitch syntax mainly generates increased activation of the sympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system. These results suggest that the cortico-subcortical loops (especially the anterior cingulate - limbic loop) may play an important role in the processing of musical syntax.

  11. A defence-related Olea europaea β-glucosidase hydrolyses and activates oleuropein into a potent protein cross-linking agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudounas, Konstantinos; Banilas, Georgios; Michaelidis, Christos; Demoliou, Catherine; Rigas, Stamatis; Hatzopoulos, Polydefkis

    2015-04-01

    Oleuropein, the major secoiridoid compound in olive, is involved in a sophisticated two-component defence system comprising a β-glucosidase enzyme that activates oleuropein into a toxic glutaraldehyde-like structure. Although oleuropein deglycosylation studies have been monitored extensively, an oleuropein β-glucosidase gene has not been characterized as yet. Here, we report the isolation of OeGLU cDNA from olive encoding a β-glucosidase belonging to the defence-related group of terpenoid-specific glucosidases. In planta recombinant protein expression assays showed that OeGLU deglycosylated and activated oleuropein into a strong protein cross-linker. Homology and docking modelling predicted that OeGLU has a characteristic (β/α)8 TIM barrel conformation and a typical construction of a pocket-shaped substrate recognition domain composed of conserved amino acids supporting the β-glucosidase activity and non-conserved residues associated with aglycon specificity. Transcriptional analysis in various olive organs revealed that the gene was developmentally regulated, with its transcript levels coinciding well with the spatiotemporal patterns of oleuropein degradation and aglycon accumulation in drupes. OeGLU upregulation in young organs reflects its prominent role in oleuropein-mediated defence system. High gene expression during drupe maturation implies an additional role in olive secondary metabolism, through the degradation of oleuropein and reutilization of hydrolysis products. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Exploring the link between maternal attachment-related anxiety and avoidance and mindful parenting: The mediating role of self-compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Helena; Carona, Carlos; Silva, Neuza; Nunes, Joana; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2016-12-01

    Mindful parenting has been described as a set of parental practices or skills that seek to enhance moment-to-moment awareness in the parent-child relationship. Although it has been suggested that adopting a mindful approach in parenting may foster positive parent-child relationships and promote the psychological functioning of children and parents, little is known about the factors that may be associated with this parental skill. In this study, we aimed to examine whether attachment-related anxiety and avoidance were associated with mindful parenting through self-compassion. The sample included 290 mothers of school-aged children and adolescents recruited in school settings, who completed self-reported measures of adult attachment (Experiences in Close Relationships - Relationships Structures), self-compassion (Self-compassion Scale), and mindful parenting (Interpersonal Mindfulness in Parenting Scale). Structural equation modelling was used to test the proposed mediation model and to ascertain direct and indirect effects among study variables. Whereas attachment avoidance had a direct effect on mindful parenting, attachment anxiety was indirectly associated with mindful parenting through self-compassion. Specifically, higher levels of anxiety were associated with lower self-compassion, which, in turn, was associated with lower levels of mindful parenting. Higher levels of avoidance were directly associated with lower levels of mindful parenting. These results demonstrate that mothers' attachment dimensions play an important role in their levels of mindful parenting, although through different pathways. Interventions aimed at promoting mindful parenting skills should attempt to promote parents' self-compassion and consider parents' levels of attachment insecurity. The results underline the important role of mothers' attachment on levels of mindful parenting and evidence different pathways through which attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance are associated with

  13. Estrogenic and anti-estrogenic influences in cultured brown trout hepatocytes: Focus on the expression of some estrogen and peroxisomal related genes and linked phenotypic anchors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madureira, Tânia Vieira; Malhão, Fernanda; Pinheiro, Ivone; Lopes, Célia; Ferreira, Nádia; Urbatzka, Ralph; Castro, L Filipe C; Rocha, Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    Estrogens, estrogenic mimics and anti-estrogenic compounds are known to target estrogen receptors (ER) that can modulate other nuclear receptor signaling pathways, such as those controlled by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), and alter organelle (inc. peroxisome) morphodynamics. By using primary isolated brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario) hepatocytes after 72 and 96h of exposure we evaluated some effects in selected molecular targets and in peroxisomal morphological features caused by: (1) an ER agonist (ethinylestradiol-EE2) at 1, 10 and 50μM; (2) an ER antagonist (ICI 182,780) at 10 and 50μM; and (3) mixtures of both (Mix I-10μM EE2 and 50μM ICI; Mix II-1μM EE2 and 10μM ICI and Mix III-1μM EE2 and 50μM ICI). The mRNA levels of the estrogenic targets (ERα, ERβ-1 and vitellogenin A-VtgA) and the peroxisome structure/function related genes (catalase, urate oxidase-Uox, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 4-17β-HSD4, peroxin 11α-Pex11α and PPARα) were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Stereology combined with catalase immunofluorescence revealed a significant reduction in peroxisome volume densities at 50μM of EE2 exposure. Concomitantly, at the same concentration, electron microscopy showed smaller peroxisome profiles, exacerbated proliferation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, and a generalized cytoplasmic vacuolization of hepatocytes. Catalase and Uox mRNA levels decreased in all estrogenic stimuli conditions. VtgA and ERα mRNA increased after all EE2 treatments, while ERβ-1 had an inverse pattern. The EE2 action was reversed by ICI 182,780 in a concentration-dependent manner, for VtgA, ERα and Uox. Overall, our data show the great value of primary brown trout hepatocytes to study the effects of estrogenic/anti-estrogenic inputs in peroxisome kinetics and in ER and PPARα signaling, backing the still open hypothesis of crosstalk interactions between these pathways and calling for more mechanistic

  14. Estrogenic and anti-estrogenic influences in cultured brown trout hepatocytes: Focus on the expression of some estrogen and peroxisomal related genes and linked phenotypic anchors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madureira, Tânia Vieira; Malhão, Fernanda; Pinheiro, Ivone; Lopes, Célia; Ferreira, Nádia; Urbatzka, Ralph; Castro, L. Filipe C.; Rocha, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Evidence of crosstalk between estrogens and peroxisomal pathways in brown trout. • VtgA and ERα mRNA levels increased after 1, 10 and 50 μM of ethinylestradiol (EE2). • ERβ-1, catalase and urate oxidase mRNA levels decreased after estrogenic stimuli. • Estrogenic effects in VtgA, ERα and Uox mRNA levels were reverted by ICI 182,780. • Immunofluorescence/electron microscopy shows smaller peroxisomes after 50 μM of EE2. - Abstract: Estrogens, estrogenic mimics and anti-estrogenic compounds are known to target estrogen receptors (ER) that can modulate other nuclear receptor signaling pathways, such as those controlled by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), and alter organelle (inc. peroxisome) morphodynamics. By using primary isolated brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario) hepatocytes after 72 and 96 h of exposure we evaluated some effects in selected molecular targets and in peroxisomal morphological features caused by: (1) an ER agonist (ethinylestradiol—EE2) at 1, 10 and 50 μM; (2) an ER antagonist (ICI 182,780) at 10 and 50 μM; and (3) mixtures of both (Mix I—10 μM EE2 and 50 μM ICI; Mix II—1 μM EE2 and 10 μM ICI and Mix III—1 μM EE2 and 50 μM ICI). The mRNA levels of the estrogenic targets (ERα, ERβ-1 and vitellogenin A—VtgA) and the peroxisome structure/function related genes (catalase, urate oxidase—Uox, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 4—17β-HSD4, peroxin 11α—Pex11α and PPARα) were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Stereology combined with catalase immunofluorescence revealed a significant reduction in peroxisome volume densities at 50 μM of EE2 exposure. Concomitantly, at the same concentration, electron microscopy showed smaller peroxisome profiles, exacerbated proliferation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, and a generalized cytoplasmic vacuolization of hepatocytes. Catalase and Uox mRNA levels decreased in all estrogenic stimuli conditions. VtgA and ERα m

  15. Estrogenic and anti-estrogenic influences in cultured brown trout hepatocytes: Focus on the expression of some estrogen and peroxisomal related genes and linked phenotypic anchors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madureira, Tânia Vieira, E-mail: tvmadureira@icbas.up.pt [Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), U.Porto—University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, U.Porto (ICBAS)—University of Porto, Laboratory of Histology and Embryology, Department of Microscopy, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, P 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Malhão, Fernanda; Pinheiro, Ivone; Lopes, Célia; Ferreira, Nádia [Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), U.Porto—University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, U.Porto (ICBAS)—University of Porto, Laboratory of Histology and Embryology, Department of Microscopy, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, P 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Urbatzka, Ralph [Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), U.Porto—University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Castro, L. Filipe C. [Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), U.Porto—University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Faculty of Sciences (FCUP), U.Porto—University of Porto, Department of Biology, Rua do Campo Alegre, P 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Rocha, Eduardo [Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), U.Porto—University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, U.Porto (ICBAS)—University of Porto, Laboratory of Histology and Embryology, Department of Microscopy, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, P 4050-313 Porto (Portugal)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Evidence of crosstalk between estrogens and peroxisomal pathways in brown trout. • VtgA and ERα mRNA levels increased after 1, 10 and 50 μM of ethinylestradiol (EE2). • ERβ-1, catalase and urate oxidase mRNA levels decreased after estrogenic stimuli. • Estrogenic effects in VtgA, ERα and Uox mRNA levels were reverted by ICI 182,780. • Immunofluorescence/electron microscopy shows smaller peroxisomes after 50 μM of EE2. - Abstract: Estrogens, estrogenic mimics and anti-estrogenic compounds are known to target estrogen receptors (ER) that can modulate other nuclear receptor signaling pathways, such as those controlled by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), and alter organelle (inc. peroxisome) morphodynamics. By using primary isolated brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario) hepatocytes after 72 and 96 h of exposure we evaluated some effects in selected molecular targets and in peroxisomal morphological features caused by: (1) an ER agonist (ethinylestradiol—EE2) at 1, 10 and 50 μM; (2) an ER antagonist (ICI 182,780) at 10 and 50 μM; and (3) mixtures of both (Mix I—10 μM EE2 and 50 μM ICI; Mix II—1 μM EE2 and 10 μM ICI and Mix III—1 μM EE2 and 50 μM ICI). The mRNA levels of the estrogenic targets (ERα, ERβ-1 and vitellogenin A—VtgA) and the peroxisome structure/function related genes (catalase, urate oxidase—Uox, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 4—17β-HSD4, peroxin 11α—Pex11α and PPARα) were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Stereology combined with catalase immunofluorescence revealed a significant reduction in peroxisome volume densities at 50 μM of EE2 exposure. Concomitantly, at the same concentration, electron microscopy showed smaller peroxisome profiles, exacerbated proliferation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, and a generalized cytoplasmic vacuolization of hepatocytes. Catalase and Uox mRNA levels decreased in all estrogenic stimuli conditions. VtgA and ERα m

  16. Fermions and link invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, L.; Saleur, H.

    1991-01-01

    Various aspects of knot theory are discussed when fermionic degrees of freedom are taken into account in the braid group representations and in the state models. It is discussed how the R matrix for the Alexander polynomial arises from the Fox differential calculus, and how it is related to the quantum group U q gl(1,1). New families of solutions of the Yang Baxter equation obtained from ''linear'' representations of the braid group and exterior algebra are investigated. State models associated with U q sl(n,m), and in the case n=m=1 a state model for the multivariable Alexander polynomial are studied. Invariants of links in solid handlebodies are considered and it is shown how the non trivial topology lifts the boson fermion degeneracy is present in S 3 . (author) 36 refs

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Related Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    or other domestic, renewable resources using sustainable agricultural methods and encourages its use Engineering Associates, LLC Process Engineering Associates is an independent process design company providing ) Commodity Operations The Commodity Operations Program seeks to expand industrial consumption of agricultural

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Related Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    marketing zero-emission proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells for transportation and power generation production and use. Energy Management Institute The Energy Management Institute publishes the Alternative

  19. Dynamic link: user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Hiroo; Asai, Kiyoshi; Kihara, Kazuhisa.

    1981-09-01

    The purpose of dynamic link facility is to link a load module dynamically only when it is used in execution time. The facility is very useful for development, execution and maintenance of a large scale computer program which is too big to be saved as one load module in main memory, or it is poor economy to save it due to many unused subroutines depending on an input. It is also useful for standardization and common utilization of programs. Standard usage of dynamic link facility of FACOM M-200 computer system, a software tool which analyzes the effect of dynamic link facility and application of dynamic link to nuclear codes are described. (author)

  20. What Is Linked Historical Data?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meroño-Peñuela, Albert; Hoekstra, Rinke; Janowicz, Krzysztof; Schlobach, Stefan; Lambrix, Patrick; Hyvönen, Eero

    2014-01-01

    Datasets that represent historical sources are relative new- comers in the Linked Open Data (LOD) cloud. Following the standard LOD practices for publishing historical sources raises several questions: how can we distinguish between RDF graphs of primary and secondary sources? Should we treat

  1. Current Leads, Links and Buses

    CERN Document Server

    Ballarino, A

    2014-01-01

    Electrical transfer from a room temperature power source to a superconducting system is done via conventional or superconducting current leads and superconducting buses or links. The principles of optimization of these devices are presented, with emphasis on the cryogenic, electrical, and superconductor related aspects that drive choices for a system.

  2. Current Leads, Links and Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballarino, A [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    Electrical transfer from a room temperature power source to a superconducting system is done via conventional or superconducting current leads and superconducting buses or links. The principles of optimization of these devices are presented, with emphasis on the cryogenic, electrical, and superconductor related aspects that drive choices for a system.

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tobacco/Nicotine and E-Cigs Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young ... parties or hanging out with friends? It’s a topic you can’t ignore. Learn the Link: http:// ...

  4. Study protocol for a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of S-ketamine for pain treatment in patients with chronic pancreatitis (RESET trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juel, Jacob; Olesen, Søren Schou; Olesen, Anne Estrup; Poulsen, Jakob Lykke; Dahan, Albert; Wilder-Smith, Oliver; Madzak, Adnan; Frøkjær, Jens Brøndum; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2015-03-10

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an inflammatory disease that causes irreversible damage to pancreatic tissue. Pain is its most prominent symptom. In the absence of pathology suitable for endoscopic or surgical interventions, pain treatment usually includes opioids. However, opioids often have limited efficacy. Moreover, side effects are common and bothersome. Hence, novel approaches to control pain associated with CP are highly desirable. Sensitisation of the central nervous system is reported to play a key role in pain generation and chronification. Fundamental to the process of central sensitisation is abnormal activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, which can be antagonised by S-ketamine. The RESET trial is investigating the analgaesic and antihyperalgesic effect of S-ketamine in patients with CP. 40 patients with CP will be enrolled. Patients are randomised to receive 8 h of intravenous S-ketamine followed by oral S-ketamine, or matching placebo, for 4 weeks. To improve blinding, 1 mg of midazolam will be added to active and placebo treatment. The primary end point is clinical pain relief as assessed by a daily pain diary. Secondary end points include changes in patient-reported outcome measures, opioid consumption and rates of side effects. The end points are registered through the 4-week medication period and for an additional follow-up period of 8 weeks to investigate long-term effects. In addition, experimental pain measures also serves as secondary end points, and neurophysiological imaging parameters are collected. Furthermore, experimental baseline recordings are compared to recordings from a group of healthy controls to evaluate general aspects of pain processing in CP. The protocol is approved by the North Denmark Region Committee on Health Research Ethics (N-20130040) and the Danish Health and Medicines Authorities (EudraCT number: 2013-003357-17). The results will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and at scientific conferences

  5. Named Entity Linking Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Panteleev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the tasks of processing text in natural language, Named Entity Linking (NEL represents the task to define and link some entity, which is found in the text, with some entity in the knowledge base (for example, Dbpedia. Currently, there is a diversity of approaches to solve this problem, but two main classes can be identified: graph-based approaches and machine learning-based ones. Graph and Machine Learning approaches-based algorithm is proposed accordingly to the stated assumptions about the interrelations of named entities in a sentence and in general.In the case of graph-based approaches, it is necessary to solve the problem of identifying an optimal set of the related entities according to some metric that characterizes the distance between these entities in a graph built on some knowledge base. Due to limitations in processing power, to solve this task directly is impossible. Therefore, its modification is proposed. Based on the algorithms of machine learning, an independent solution cannot be built due to small volumes of training datasets relevant to NEL task. However, their use can contribute to improving the quality of the algorithm. The adaptation of the Latent Dirichlet Allocation model is proposed in order to obtain a measure of the compatibility of attributes of various entities encountered in one context.The efficiency of the proposed algorithm was experimentally tested. A test dataset was independently generated. On its basis the performance of the model was compared using the proposed algorithm with the open source product DBpedia Spotlight, which solves the NEL problem.The mockup, based on the proposed algorithm, showed a low speed as compared to DBpedia Spotlight. However, the fact that it has shown higher accuracy, stipulates the prospects for work in this direction.The main directions of development were proposed in order to increase the accuracy of the system and its productivity.

  6. The CMS link system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vila, I.

    1999-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a multi-purpose detector that is going to be installed in the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Muons are one of the main physical signatures of the expected new physics. The muons are going to be detected by the Central Tracker (CT) and the Muon Spectrometer (MS). Both, the CT and MS can provide an independent muon momentum measurement, but for all η and momentum values the highest precision for muon momentum measurement is achieved when the muon tracks are reconstructed using both tracking detectors. The calorimeters and the solenoid volumes separate about three meters the CT and the MS. It has been shown that the alignment of the CT with respect to the MS can not be guaranteed by a software alignment in a reasonable time scale. Therefore, an opto-mechanical system (the multipoint link system) have been designed to monitor, on-line, the relative position of both sub-detectors providing a common reference frame for both of them. The local alignment of the muon barrel spectrometer determines the relative position of the muon chambers with respect to themselves and also with respect to a carbon fiber rigid structure called MAB (Module for the Alignment of the Barrel). There are a total of 36 MABs distributed in the boundary planes of each muon spectrometer sector. This paper describes all the equipment and presents the principle of measurement. (author)

  7. Visualisierung von typisierten Links in Linked Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Neubauer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Das Themengebiet der Arbeit behandelt Visualisierungen von typisierten Links in Linked Data. Die wissenschaftlichen Gebiete, die im Allgemeinen den Inhalt des Beitrags abgrenzen, sind das Semantic Web, das Web of Data und Informationsvisualisierung. Das Semantic Web, das von Tim Berners Lee 2001 erfunden wurde, stellt eine Erweiterung zum World Wide Web (Web 2.0 dar. Aktuelle Forschungen beziehen sich auf die Verknüpfbarkeit von Informationen im World Wide Web. Um es zu ermöglichen, solche Verbindungen wahrnehmen und verarbeiten zu können sind Visualisierungen die wichtigsten Anforderungen als Hauptteil der Datenverarbeitung. Im Zusammenhang mit dem Sematic Web werden Repräsentationen von zuhammenhängenden Informationen anhand von Graphen gehandhabt. Der Grund des Entstehens dieser Arbeit ist in erster Linie die Beschreibung der Gestaltung von Linked Data-Visualisierungskonzepten, deren Prinzipien im Rahmen einer theoretischen Annäherung eingeführt werden. Anhand des Kontexts führt eine schrittweise Erweiterung der Informationen mit dem Ziel, praktische Richtlinien anzubieten, zur Vernetzung dieser ausgearbeiteten Gestaltungsrichtlinien. Indem die Entwürfe zweier alternativer Visualisierungen einer standardisierten Webapplikation beschrieben werden, die Linked Data als Netzwerk visualisiert, konnte ein Test durchgeführt werden, der deren Kompatibilität zum Inhalt hatte. Der praktische Teil behandelt daher die Designphase, die Resultate, und zukünftige Anforderungen des Projektes, die durch die Testung ausgearbeitet wurden.

  8. Linking open vocabularies

    CERN Document Server

    Greifender, Elke; Seadle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Linked Data (LD), Linked Open Data (LOD) and generating a web of data, present the new knowledge sharing frontier. In a philosophical context, LD is an evolving environment that reflects humankinds' desire to understand the world by drawing on the latest technologies and capabilities of the time. LD, while seemingly a new phenomenon did not emerge overnight; rather it represents the natural progression by which knowledge structures are developed, used, and shared. Linked Open Vocabularies is a significant trajectory of LD. Linked Open Vocabularies targets vocabularies that have traditionally b

  9. Let's "Downscale" Linked Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gueret, C.D.M.; de Boer, V.; Schlobach, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    Open data policies and linked data publication are powerful tools for increasing transparency, participatory governance, and accountability. The linked data community proudly emphasizes the economic and societal impact such technology shows. But a closer look proves that the design and deployment of

  10. Let's "Downscale" Linked Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gueret, Christophe; de Boer, Victor; Schlobach, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Open data policies and linked data publication are powerful tools for increasing transparency, participatory governance, and accountability. A closer look at linked data technologies, however, proves that their design and deployment exclude the majority of the world’s population. It will take small

  11. Heuristic Decision Making in Network Linking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.W. Harmsen - Van Hout (Marjolein); B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); P.J.J. Herings (Jean-Jacques)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractNetwork formation among individuals constitutes an important part of many OR processes, but relatively little is known about how individuals make their linking decisions in networks. This article provides an investigation of heuristic effects in individual linking decisions for

  12. Hierarchical Linked Views

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erbacher, Robert; Frincke, Deb

    2007-07-02

    Coordinated views have proven critical to the development of effective visualization environments. This results from the fact that a single view or representation of the data cannot show all of the intricacies of a given data set. Additionally, users will often need to correlate more data parameters than can effectively be integrated into a single visual display. Typically, development of multiple-linked views results in an adhoc configuration of views and associated interactions. The hierarchical model we are proposing is geared towards more effective organization of such environments and the views they encompass. At the same time, this model can effectively integrate much of the prior work on interactive and visual frameworks. Additionally, we expand the concept of views to incorporate perceptual views. This is related to the fact that visual displays can have information encoded at various levels of focus. Thus, a global view of the display provides overall trends of the data while focusing in on individual elements provides detailed specifics. By integrating interaction and perception into a single model, we show how one impacts the other. Typically, interaction and perception are considered separately, however, when interaction is being considered at a fundamental level and allowed to direct/modify the visualization directly we must consider them simultaneously and how they impact one another.

  13. Materializing the web of linked data

    CERN Document Server

    Konstantinou, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the Linked Data domain by adopting a bottom-up approach: it introduces the fundamental Semantic Web technologies and building blocks, which are then combined into methodologies and end-to-end examples for publishing datasets as Linked Data, and use cases that harness scholarly information and sensor data. It presents how Linked Data is used for web-scale data integration, information management and search. Special emphasis is given to the publication of Linked Data from relational databases as well as from real-time sensor data streams. The authors also trace the transformation from the document-based World Wide Web into a Web of Data. Materializing the Web of Linked Data is addressed to researchers and professionals studying software technologies, tools and approaches that drive the Linked Data ecosystem, and the Web in general.

  14. Linking to the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-09-01

    of JCE in the mail each month, and I expect you do too. I can glance at the cover to get an overview of an issue's content, and I usually am enticed inside by intriguing cover art. I can scan the table of contents to find articles I want to read, or I can just browse through the issue to see what looks interesting. Usually the editors have juxtaposed related articles so that I often find a small treasure trove. The printed Journal is quite portable and can be read in a car or airplane. It will last a long time, and until the paper deteriorates, I will never have a problem reading back issues. I have almost every issue from the first day I subscribed and have even added some older ones from collections of retired colleagues who no longer had shelf space for them. I certainly would not want to give up my printed copies, and I want to keep getting them. I find that JCE Online provides a different kind of resource that is equally valuable. It contains more information, and information that is more appropriate in electronic form. It links related ideas into a much more complex web of information than is possible in print. And it opens pathways to lots of information that is not part of JCE but resides elsewhere. Using this issue as an example, let's take a tour of what JCE Online can do. Point your Web browser to http://jchemed.chem.wisc.edu Click on Journal and then on Current Issue (unless September 1999 is no longer the current issue, in which case you will find it in Past Issues). In the table of contents, find the article "UV Catalysis, Cyanotype Photography, and Sunscreens". Click on the title. When the abstract appears, click on Full Text (PDF) to see the article, just as it appears on page 1199 in this issue. When you are prompted, enter the name and subscriber number from your address label. At the end of the article you will find that supplementary materials are available (including a procedure for testing sunscreens) and you can click on the link to view them

  15. Cross-linking of polymeric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, L.I.; Du Plessis, T.A.; Meij, G.O.

    1991-01-01

    The invention provides a method of producing a cured polymeric artifact from a polymeric thermoplastic starting material, the material of the artifact having reduced thermoplasticity relative to the starting material and exhibiting an enhanced degree of cross-linking relative to the starting material. The method includes subjecting a polymeric thermoplastic starting material, which is capable of being cross-linked by irradiation, to sufficient irradiation partially to cross-linked the starting material to produce a thermoplastic partially cross-linked intermediate material. The thermoplasticity of the intermediate material is then reduced by heating it to raise its melting point. The invention also provides a method of making a partially cross-linked feedstocks and a master batch for use in making such artifacts

  16. Prenatal Inflammation Linked to Autism Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thursday, January 24, 2013 Prenatal inflammation linked to autism risk Maternal inflammation during early pregnancy may be related to an increased risk of autism in children, according to new findings supported by ...

  17. Link to paper

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Link to the paper. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Naile, J., A.W. Garrison, J. Avants, and J. Washington. Isomers/enantiomers of...

  18. The Missing Link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Laura Luise

    2014-01-01

    Paper presented at A Valentine to Gertrude Stein. The Reception of Gertrude Stein in the Arts and Humanities, held at the University of Copenhagen 8. - 10. May 2014, in collaboration with the universities of Ghent and Linköping......Paper presented at A Valentine to Gertrude Stein. The Reception of Gertrude Stein in the Arts and Humanities, held at the University of Copenhagen 8. - 10. May 2014, in collaboration with the universities of Ghent and Linköping...

  19. Linked Ocean Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbetter, Adam; Arko, Robert; Chandler, Cynthia; Shepherd, Adam

    2014-05-01

    "Linked Data" is a term used in Computer Science to encapsulate a methodology for publishing data and metadata in a structured format so that links may be created and exploited between objects. Berners-Lee (2006) outlines the following four design principles of a Linked Data system: Use Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) as names for things. Use HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) URIs so that people can look up those names. When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (Resource Description Framework [RDF] and the RDF query language [SPARQL]). Include links to other URIs so that they can discover more things. In 2010, Berners-Lee revisited his original design plan for Linked Data to encourage data owners along a path to "good Linked Data". This revision involved the creation of a five star rating system for Linked Data outlined below. One star: Available on the web (in any format). Two stars: Available as machine-readable structured data (e.g. An Excel spreadsheet instead of an image scan of a table). Three stars: As two stars plus the use of a non-proprietary format (e.g. Comma Separated Values instead of Excel). Four stars: As three stars plus the use of open standards from the World Wide Web Commission (W3C) (i.e. RDF and SPARQL) to identify things, so that people can point to your data and metadata. Five stars: All the above plus link your data to other people's data to provide context Here we present work building on the SeaDataNet common vocabularies served by the NERC Vocabulary Server, connecting projects such as the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) and the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) and other vocabularies such as the Marine Metadata Interoperability Ontology Register and Repository and the NASA Global Change Master Directory to create a Linked Ocean Data cloud. Publishing the vocabularies and metadata in standard RDF XML and exposing SPARQL endpoints renders them five-star Linked

  20. Fluid status monitoring with a wireless network to reduce cardiovascular-related hospitalizations and mortality in heart failure: rationale and design of the OptiLink HF Study (Optimization of Heart Failure Management using OptiVol Fluid Status Monitoring and CareLink)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachmann, Johannes; Böhm, Michael; Rybak, Karin; Klein, Gunnar; Butter, Christian; Klemm, Hanno; Schomburg, Rolf; Siebermair, Johannes; Israel, Carsten; Sinha, Anil-Martin; Drexler, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Aims The Optimization of Heart Failure Management using OptiVol Fluid Status Monitoring and CareLink (OptiLink HF) study is designed to investigate whether OptiVol fluid status monitoring with an automatically generated wireless CareAlert notification via the CareLink Network can reduce all-cause death and cardiovascular hospitalizations in an HF population, compared with standard clinical assessment. Methods Patients with newly implanted or replacement cardioverter-defibrillator devices with or without cardiac resynchronization therapy, who have chronic HF in New York Heart Association class II or III and a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35% will be eligible to participate. Following device implantation, patients are randomized to either OptiVol fluid status monitoring through CareAlert notification or regular care (OptiLink ‘on' vs. ‘off'). The primary endpoint is a composite of all-cause death or cardiovascular hospitalization. It is estimated that 1000 patients will be required to demonstrate superiority of the intervention group to reduce the primary outcome by 30% with 80% power. Conclusion The OptiLink HF study is designed to investigate whether early detection of congestion reduces mortality and cardiovascular hospitalization in patients with chronic HF. The study is expected to close recruitment in September 2012 and to report first results in May 2014. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00769457 PMID:21555324

  1. Origin of the current discretization in deep reset states of an Al2O3/Cu-based conductive-bridging memory, and impact on state level and variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, A.; Degraeve, R.; Fantini, A.; Kim, W.; Houssa, M.; Jurczak, M.; Goux, L.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we develop a Quantum-Point-Contact (QPC) model describing the state conduction in a W/Al2O3/TiW/Cu Conductive-Bridging Memory cell (CBRAM). The model allows describing both the voltage- and the temperature-dependence of the conduction. For deep current levels, a resistance component is added in series to the point-contact constriction to account for electron scattering in the residual filament. The fitting of single-particle perturbation also allowed to estimate the number and effective size of the conduction-controlling particles in the QPC constriction. The results clearly point to smaller particles for CBRAM (Cu particles) as compared to oxide-based resistive RAM involving oxygen-vacancy defects, which is discussed as a possible origin of deeper reset level obtained in CBRAM. We also evidence a beneficial impact of this smaller particle size on lower Random-Telegraph-Noise amplitude measured on CBRAM devices.

  2. Propagation engineering in radio links design

    CERN Document Server

    Ghasemi, Abdollah; Ghasemi, Farshid

    2013-01-01

    Propagation Engineering in Radio Link Design covers the basic principles of radiowaves propagation in a practical manner.  This fundamental understanding enables the readers to design radio links efficiently. This book elaborates on new achievements as well as recently developed propagation models.  This is in addition to a comprehensive overview of fundamentals of propagation in various scenarios. It examines theoretical calculations, approaches and applied procedures needed for radio links design. The authors study and analysis of the main propagation phenomena and its mechanisms based on the recommendations of International Telecommunications Union, (ITU). The book has been organized in 9 chapters and examines the role of antennas and passive reflectors in radio services, propagation mechanisms related to radar, satellite, short distance, broadcasting and trans-horizon radio links, with two chapters devoted to radio noise and main  parameters of radio link design. The book presents some 278 illustration...

  3. Link til hjemmesider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bervild, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Link til læringsobjekter/undervisningsportalhttp://videoportal.ucc.dk/channel/10492641/charlotte-bervilds-undervisninghttp://videoportal.ucc.dk/video/8248508/3d-printer-v-lektor-charlotte-bervildFotoblog:http://charlottebervild.blogspot.dk/2008/10/fotocollager-af-charlotte-bervild.html......Link til læringsobjekter/undervisningsportalhttp://videoportal.ucc.dk/channel/10492641/charlotte-bervilds-undervisninghttp://videoportal.ucc.dk/video/8248508/3d-printer-v-lektor-charlotte-bervildFotoblog:http://charlottebervild.blogspot.dk/2008/10/fotocollager-af-charlotte-bervild.html...

  4. Thermo-mechanical behavior of bituminous mixtures at low temperatures. Links between the binder characteristics and the mix properties; Comportement thermomecanique des enrobes bitumeux a basses temperatures: relations entre les proprietes du liant et de l'enrobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olard, F.

    2003-10-01

    This thesis has been realized within the framework of a partnership between the Ecole Nationale des TPE, APPIA and EUROVIA. The company Total has also been associated to this project. The study deals with the thermo-mechanical behavior of bituminous materials at low temperatures. The aim is to establish the links between the characteristics of the binder and the properties of bituminous mixes at low temperatures, and to better understand the existing low-temperature parameters and criteria for binders (or to propose new ones), related to the in-situ behavior of bituminous mixtures. A large experimental campaign has been carried out so as to fulfill this goal. After a bibliographical study on the rheology and the thermo-mechanical properties of (pure or modified) binders, putties and mixes, the experimental campaign carried out both in the small strain domain and in the large strain domain, is presented. The low temperature behavior of binders has been evaluated with three common fundamental tests: i)the complex modulus determination, ii)the Bending Beam Rheometer and iii)the tensile strength at a constant strain rate and constant temperatures. A new three point bending test on pre-notched bitumen beams has also been developed at the ENTPE. The low-temperature fracture properties of bitumens were studied at constant temperatures and cross-head speeds considering the Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) assumptions. The thermo-mechanical behavior of bituminous mixtures has been studied by performing i)complex modulus tests, ii)measurements of the coefficient of thermal dilatation and contraction, iii)tensile tests at constant temperatures and strain rates, and iv)Thermal Stress Restrained Specimen Tests. Apart from the determination of some pertinent links between binder and mix properties and discriminating characteristics with regard to the thermal cracking of bituminous mixes at low temperatures, the analysis has also consisted in modeling the behavior of

  5. Circadian control of p75 neurotrophin receptor leads to alternate activation of Nrf2 and c-Rel to reset energy metabolism in astrocytes via brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Tetsuro; Warabi, Eiji; Mann, Giovanni E

    2018-05-01

    Circadian clock genes regulate energy metabolism partly through neurotrophins in the body. The low affinity neurotrophin receptor p75 NTR is a clock component directly regulated by the transcriptional factor Clock:Bmal1 complex. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is expressed in the brain and plays a key role in coordinating metabolic interactions between neurons and astrocytes. BDNF transduces signals through TrkB and p75 NTR receptors. This review highlights a novel molecular mechanism by which BDNF via circadian control of p75 NTR leads to daily resetting of glucose and glycogen metabolism in brain astrocytes to accommodate their functional interaction with neurons. Astrocytes store glycogen as an energy reservoir to provide active neurons with the glycolytic metabolite lactate. Astrocytes predominantly express the truncated receptor TrkB.T1 which lacks an intracellular receptor tyrosine kinase domain. TrkB.T1 retains the capacity to regulate cell morphology through regulation of Rho GTPases. In contrast, p75 NTR mediates generation of the bioactive lipid ceramide upon stimulation with BDNF and inhibits PKA activation. As ceramide directly activates PKCζ, we discuss the importance of the TrkB.T1-p75 NTR -ceramide-PKCζ signaling axis in the stimulation of glycogen and lipid synthesis and activation of RhoA. Ceramide-PKCζ-casein kinase 2 signaling activates Nrf2 to support oxidative phosphorylation via upregulation of antioxidant enzymes. In the absence of p75 NTR , TrkB.T1 functionally interacts with adenosine A 2A R and dopamine D1R receptors to enhance cAMP-PKA signaling and activate Rac1 and NF-κB c-Rel, favoring glycogen hydrolysis, gluconeogenesis and aerobic glycolysis. Thus, diurnal changes in p75 NTR levels in astrocytes resets energy metabolism via BDNF to accommodate their metabolic interaction with neurons. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiation-induced linking reactions in polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoepfl, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    Three types of measurements are reported relating to chemical reactions in polyethylene induced by ionizing radiation: 1) viscometric and low-angle laser light scattering measurements to determine the effect of a radical scavenger on the yield of links; 2) calorimetric measurements to determine the effect of radiation-induced linking on the melting behavior of polyethylene; and 3) high-resolution solution carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry measurements to determine the nature of the links and the method of their formation. The NMR results present the first direct detection of radiation-induced long-chain branching (Y links) in polyethylene, and place an apparent upper limit on the yield of H-shaped crosslinks that are formed when polyethylene is irradiated to low absorbed doses. The effect of radiation-induced linking on the melting behavior of polyethylene was examined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It was found that radiation-induced links do not change the heat of fusion of polythylene crystals, but decrease the melt entropy and increase the fold surface free energy per unit area of the crystals. The carbon 13 NMR results demonstrate that long-chain branches (Y links) are formed much more frequently than H-shaped crosslinks at low absorbed doses. The Y links are produced by reactions of alkyl free radicals with terminal vinyl groups in polyethylene

  7. Helically linked mirror arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjan, P.

    1986-08-01

    A scheme is described for helical linking of mirror sections, which endeavors to combine the better features of toroidal and mirror devices by eliminating the longitudinal loss of mirror machines, having moderately high average β and steady state operation. This scheme is aimed at a device, with closed magnetic surfaces having rotational transform for equilibrium, one or more axisymmetric straight sections for reduced radial loss, a simple geometrical axis for the links and an overall positive magnetic well depth for stability. We start by describing several other attempts at linking of mirror sections, made both in the past and the present. Then a description of our helically linked mirror scheme is given. This example has three identical straight sections connected by three sections having helical geometric axes. A theoretical analysis of the magnetic field and single-particle orbits in them leads to the conclusion that most of the passing particles would be confined in the device and they would have orbits independent of pitch angle under certain conditions. Numerical results are presented, which agree well with the theoretical results as far as passing particle orbits are concerned

  8. Linking DC together with TRSL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Yong, X.

    2000-01-01

    in a method for real-time developments. An operational semantics with behavior is specified for TRSL. It is defined what its means for a TRSL process to satisfy a DC requirement, and a method for verifying whether the satisfaction relation holds or not is provided. Our contribution also demonstrates a general......Duration Calculus (DC) is an interval-based real-time logic, which can be used in capturing and eliciting users' real-time requirements. The Timed RAISE Specification Language (TRSL) is an extension of the RAISE Specification Language with real-time features. This paper links DC and TRSL together...

  9. Link invariant and $G_2$ web space

    OpenAIRE

    Sakamoto, Takuro; Yonezawa, Yasuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we reconstruct Kuperberg’s $G_2$ web space [5, 6]. We introduce a new web diagram (a trivalent graph with only double edges) and new relations between Kuperberg’s web diagrams and the new web diagram. Using the web diagrams, we give crossing formulas for the $R$-matrices associated to some irreducible representations of $U_q(G_2)$ and calculate $G_2$ quantum link invariants for generalized twist links.

  10. Linked Data - the story so far

    OpenAIRE

    Bizer, Christian; Heath, Tom; Berners-Lee, Tim

    2009-01-01

    The term “Linked Data” refers to a set of best practices for publishing and connecting structured data on the Web. These best practices have been adopted by an increasing number of data providers over the last three years, leading to the creation of a global data space containing billions of assertions— the Web of Data. In this article, the authors present the concept and technical principles of Linked Data, and situate these within the broader context of related technological developments. T...

  11. OhioLINK: Implementing Integrated Library Services across Institutional Boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawks, Carol Pitts

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the implementation of the OhioLINK (Ohio Library and Information Network) system, an integrated library system linking 23 public and private academic institutions and the Ohio State Library. Topics include a history of OhioLINK; organizational structure; decision-making procedures; public relations strategies; cooperative circulation;…

  12. Website Policies / Important Links | DOepatents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links Website Policies / Important Links Javascript Not Enabled OSTI Security Website Policies and first) Publication Date (oldest first) Close Clear All Find DOepatents Website Policies / Important Important Links Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from

  13. Bottom-linked innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Catharina Juul

    2018-01-01

    hitherto been paid little explicit attention, namely collaboration between middle managers and employees in innovation processes. In contrast to most studies, middle managers and employees are here both subjects of explicit investigation. The collaboration processes explored in this article are termed...... ‘bottom-linked innovation’. The empirical analysis is based on an in-depth qualitative study of bottom-linked innovation in a public frontline institution in Denmark. By combining research on employee-driven innovation and middle management, the article offers new insights into such collaborative......Employee-driven innovation is gaining ground as a strategy for developing sustainable organisations in the public and private sector. This type of innovation is characterised by active employee participation, and the bottom-up perspective is often emphasised. This article explores an issue that has...

  14. Energy care in relation to your management system. Linking lists between the Reference Energy Care and ISO 14001, ISO 9001 and HACCP; Energiezorg in relatie tot uw zorgsysteem. Linking lists tussen de Referentie Energiezorg en ISO 14001, ISO 9001 en HACCP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Several so-called care systems are in use at institutes and companies. For efficiency reasons it makes sense to integrate an energy care system to the existing care system. For the so-called Reference Energy Care, developed by the Netherlands Agency for Energy and the Environment (Novem) links to three of the most important care systems have been elaborated: environmental care according to ISO 14001, the quality care system ISO 9001:2000 and the food safety system Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP). The elaboration resulted in three tables, indicating the connections ('linking lists') between each of those care systems and the Reference Energy Care system and how energy care can be integrated into those systems. [Dutch] Bij instellingen en bedrijven zijn diverse zorgsystemen in gebruik. Het is zinvol om energiezorg - waar mogelijk - in een dergelijk bestaand systeem op te nemen. Meerdere zorgsystemen naast elkaar in stand houden is minder efficient dan de systemen integreren tot een systeem. Novem heeft daarom voor haar Referentie Energiezorg de link laten uitwerken naar drie van de meest voorkomende systemen: milieuzorg volgens ISO 14001, het kwaliteitszorgsysteem ISO 9001:2000 en het voedselveiligheidssysteem HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points). Hieruit zijn drie tabellen voortgekomen, die aangeven welke verbanden er zijn tussen elk van deze zorgsystemen en de Referentie Energiezorg en hoe u energiezorg kunt integreren in elk van deze systemen. Deze tabellen worden aangeduid als 'linking lists' en u kunt ze gebruiken als hulpmiddel bij het integreren van energiezorg in uw eigen zorgsysteem. U vindt ze in deze brochure.

  15. Energy care in relation to your management system. Linking lists between the Reference Energy Care and ISO 14001, ISO 9001 and HACCP; Energiezorg in relatie tot uw zorgsysteem. Linking lists tussen de Referentie Energiezorg en ISO 14001, ISO 9001 en HACCP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Several so-called care systems are in use at institutes and companies. For efficiency reasons it makes sense to integrate an energy care system to the existing care system. For the so-called Reference Energy Care, developed by the Netherlands Agency for Energy and the Environment (Novem) links to three of the most important care systems have been elaborated: environmental care according to ISO 14001, the quality care system ISO 9001:2000 and the food safety system Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP). The elaboration resulted in three tables, indicating the connections ('linking lists') between each of those care systems and the Reference Energy Care system and how energy care can be integrated into those systems. [Dutch] Bij instellingen en bedrijven zijn diverse zorgsystemen in gebruik. Het is zinvol om energiezorg - waar mogelijk - in een dergelijk bestaand systeem op te nemen. Meerdere zorgsystemen naast elkaar in stand houden is minder efficient dan de systemen integreren tot een systeem. Novem heeft daarom voor haar Referentie Energiezorg de link laten uitwerken naar drie van de meest voorkomende systemen: milieuzorg volgens ISO 14001, het kwaliteitszorgsysteem ISO 9001:2000 en het voedselveiligheidssysteem HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points). Hieruit zijn drie tabellen voortgekomen, die aangeven welke verbanden er zijn tussen elk van deze zorgsystemen en de Referentie Energiezorg en hoe u energiezorg kunt integreren in elk van deze systemen. Deze tabellen worden aangeduid als 'linking lists' en u kunt ze gebruiken als hulpmiddel bij het integreren van energiezorg in uw eigen zorgsysteem. U vindt ze in deze brochure.

  16. Linking lab and field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronje, P.B.

    1988-01-01

    The multitude of different supplements recommended for animals grazing natural pastures, which testifies to the need for a metabolic basis for supplementary feeding practices. The first approach to this problem was to simulate different feeding conditions in the laboratory, where the metabolic responses of body tissues to changes in the supply of purified nutrients could be studied using radioisotope techniques. The second step was to link these fundamental studies to field conditions. The results of these studies suggest that the efficiency of feed conversion and growth rates of ruminants grazing winter pastures in the highveld region of South Africa could be substantially improved by strategic supplementation with glucose precursors. Acetate clearance rate represents a valuable link in the process of applying information obtained from controlled laboratory experiments to field conditions. As this technique is inexpensive, quick and simple to carry out, it is ideally suited to application under field conditions where the use of isotopes is impractical. By providing a link with field conditions, it greatly extended the scope and practical application of isotope tracer techniques

  17. Age differences in search of web pages: the effects of link size, link number, and clutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahame, Michael; Laberge, Jason; Scialfa, Charles T

    2004-01-01

    Reaction time, eye movements, and errors were measured during visual search of Web pages to determine age-related differences in performance as a function of link size, link number, link location, and clutter. Participants (15 young adults, M = 23 years; 14 older adults, M = 57 years) searched Web pages for target links that varied from trial to trial. During one half of the trials, links were enlarged from 10-point to 12-point font. Target location was distributed among the left, center, and bottom portions of the screen. Clutter was manipulated according to the percentage of used space, including graphics and text, and the number of potentially distracting nontarget links was varied. Increased link size improved performance, whereas increased clutter and links hampered search, especially for older adults. Results also showed that links located in the left region of the page were found most easily. Actual or potential applications of this research include Web site design to increase usability, particularly for older adults.

  18. Linking consumer experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Karina Madsen

    become part of the individual self, worldview, and behaviour. This paper seeks to explore links between consumer experiences through the exploration of narrative sequences in travel blogs. Findings indicate that non-consumption is a central element to the bloggers and also indicative of a community......Consumers consume products in various ways serving a number of purposes. Much attention has been paid to experiences attached to consumption, sometimes very explicitly, e.g. in tourism, the essence of which is experiences of various sorts, but often also implicitly as internalised experiences...

  19. Knots and links

    CERN Document Server

    Rolfsen, Dale

    2003-01-01

    Rolfsen's beautiful book on knots and links can be read by anyone, from beginner to expert, who wants to learn about knot theory. Beginners with a basic background find an inviting introduction to the elements of topology, emphasizing the tools needed for understanding knots, the fundamental group and van Kampen's theorem, for example, which are then applied to concrete problems, such as computing knot groups. For experts, Rolfsen explains advanced topics, such as the connections between knot theory and surgery and how they are useful to understanding three-manifolds. Besides providing a guide

  20. Regression estimators for generic health-related quality of life and quality-adjusted life years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Anirban; Manca, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    To develop regression models for outcomes with truncated supports, such as health-related quality of life (HRQoL) data, and account for features typical of such data such as a skewed distribution, spikes at 1 or 0, and heteroskedasticity. Regression estimators based on features of the Beta distribution. First, both a single equation and a 2-part model are presented, along with estimation algorithms based on maximum-likelihood, quasi-likelihood, and Bayesian Markov-chain Monte Carlo methods. A novel Bayesian quasi-likelihood estimator is proposed. Second, a simulation exercise is presented to assess the performance of the proposed estimators against ordinary least squares (OLS) regression for a variety of HRQoL distributions that are encountered in practice. Finally, the performance of the proposed estimators is assessed by using them to quantify the treatment effect on QALYs in the EVALUATE hysterectomy trial. Overall model fit is studied using several goodness-of-fit tests such as Pearson's correlation test, link and reset tests, and a modified Hosmer-Lemeshow test. The simulation results indicate that the proposed methods are more robust in estimating covariate effects than OLS, especially when the effects are large or the HRQoL distribution has a large spike at 1. Quasi-likelihood techniques are more robust than maximum likelihood estimators. When applied to the EVALUATE trial, all but the maximum likelihood estimators produce unbiased estimates of the treatment effect. One and 2-part Beta regression models provide flexible approaches to regress the outcomes with truncated supports, such as HRQoL, on covariates, after accounting for many idiosyncratic features of the outcomes distribution. This work will provide applied researchers with a practical set of tools to model outcomes in cost-effectiveness analysis.

  1. Linking world scan and image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmer, H.; Alcamo, J.; Bollen, J.; Gielen, A.; Gerlach, R.; Den Ouden, A.; Zuidema, G.

    1995-01-01

    In march 1994 the Central Planning Bureau (CPB) in the Hague, the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM) in Bilthoven and the Institute of Environmental Studies (IES) in Amsterdam started the first phase of a joint research program aimed at creating integrated scenarios of the global economy, GHG emissions, and climate impacts. The goal of the first phase of this project was to design and test a linked version of the economic model WORLD SCAN of the former, and the climate model IMAGE 2 of the latter institute. This first phase has resulted in the planned test runs with an operational version of the linked models by May 1995. The experiences in the first year were encouraging, both in the scientific and the organizational sense. In a sense, a link was made between scientific disciplines: a coupling of disciplines concerning with global economic development and the global physical climate system is difficult and novel. The goal of the project was to integrate long-term economic developments and effects of climate change. Both the WORLD SCAN model and IMAGE 2 provide a consistent analysis of the global system, but from different perspectives. IMAGE 2 simulates climate change and its effects in a global context but treats the economic system as exogenous. WORLD SCAN covers the world economic system in a consistent manner but does not take into account the global environment. The links are constructed in the area of agriculture and energy. The basic idea is that WORLD SCAN determines demand and supply on economic principles, while IMAGE 2 provides information on changes of land area and average quality of productive land, and other damage costs based on its three sub-systems. The demand for energy is fed into IMAGE 2's Energy Industry subsystem (EIS), which in turn determines emissions of greenhouse gases. Furthermore, some additional output from WORLD SCAN on activity levels, prices and capital structure can be used to determine

  2. The Advisory Opinion of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea: Matters related to the determination of effective link between the States and the legal persons they sponsor to carry out activities in the Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Nicolás Guerrero Peniche

    2012-12-01

    Tribunal for the Law of the Sea so it could be clarified. The advisory opinion of the Tribunal advanced conclusions particularly relevant for the determination of a nationality link between the legal persons and the States that sponsor them. This matter, which plays an essential role for achieving an effective protection of the marine environment within the sponsorship mechanisms for exploration and exploitation of the resources of the Area, also has some relevant consequences for the activities in reserved areas.

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the link between drug misuse and HIV infection. It contains information for young people, parents and teachers, ... present time. The virus (HIV) and the disease it causes (AIDS) are often linked and referred to ...

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... teens and young adults have never known a world without it. NIDA’s "Learn the Link" campaign continues ... for HIV infection through risky sexual behaviors. NIDA researchers have studied and continue to study the links ...

  5. The HANDSS-55 Linking Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosby, S.

    2001-01-01

    The Bucket Translation Unit (BTU) and the Drum Handler are two of the HANDSS-55 subsystems identified as linking components. Both subsystems link other modules together by moving material to or from another module

  6. Phosphorylation of human link proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oester, D.A.; Caterson, B.; Schwartz, E.R.

    1986-01-01

    Three link proteins of 48, 44 and 40 kDa were purified from human articular cartilage and identified with monoclonal anti-link protein antibody 8-A-4. Two sets of lower molecular weight proteins of 30-31 kDa and 24-26 kDa also contained link protein epitopes recognized by the monoclonal antibody and were most likely degradative products of the intact link proteins. The link proteins of 48 and 40 kDa were identified as phosphoproteins while the 44 kDa link protein did not contain 32 P. The phosphorylated 48 and 40 kDa link proteins contained approximately 2 moles PO 4 /mole link protein

  7. ITK optical links backup document

    CERN Document Server

    Huffman, B T; The ATLAS collaboration; Flick, T; Ye, J

    2013-01-01

    This document describes the proposed optical links to be used for the ITK in the phase II upgrade. The current R&D for optical links pursued in the Versatile Link group is reviewed. In particular the results demonstrating the radiation tolerance of all the on-detector components are documented. The bandwidth requirements and the resulting numerology are given.

  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for young people, parents and teachers, and the media with links to our latest research findings and news updates. Read on to Learn the Link between ... to this site at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/public-education-projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . ... Social Media Send the message to young people and to ...

  9. Link between physics and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaider, M.; Brenner, D.J.; Hall, E.J.; Kliauga, P.

    1988-01-01

    In the general causative chain: radiation physics-radiation chemistry - radiobiology - cancer treatment, physics, the initiating and therefore cardinal agent, continues to play the role of the poor relation. The main reason for this state of affairs rests with the fact that most models of radiation action - the actual link between physics and biology - make very little or no use of information concerning the radiation field: they are simply convenient vehicles for describing a large body of radiobiological data with analytical expressions containing a minimum number of parameters. In spite of their practical usefulness such models will not be further considered here. It is a reasonable assertion that the main goal of radiation biophysics is to elucidate the mechanisms of radiation action on biological entities

  10. Multilevel DC link inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gui-Jia

    2003-06-10

    A multilevel DC link inverter and method for improving torque response and current regulation in permanent magnet motors and switched reluctance motors having a low inductance includes a plurality of voltage controlled cells connected in series for applying a resulting dc voltage comprised of one or more incremental dc voltages. The cells are provided with switches for increasing the resulting applied dc voltage as speed and back EMF increase, while limiting the voltage that is applied to the commutation switches to perform PWM or dc voltage stepping functions, so as to limit current ripple in the stator windings below an acceptable level, typically 5%. Several embodiments are disclosed including inverters using IGBT's, inverters using thyristors. All of the inverters are operable in both motoring and regenerating modes.

  11. Linking Wayfinding and Wayfaring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanng, Ditte Bendix; Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter we propose to expand and enhance the understanding of wayfi nding beyond the strictly “instrumental” (i.e., getting from point A to point B), to include the qualities and multi-sensorial inputs that inform and shape people’s movement through space. We take as a point of departure...... of environmental information , which includes the embodied, multi-sensorial experience of moving through physical space. We base our examination in part on the classic positions of the wayfi nding literature—for example, Lynch’s seminal study, The Image of the City ( 1960 ). However, we also examine the so......-called mobilities turn in which mobility is viewed as a complex, multilayered process that entails much more than simply getting from point A to point B (see Cresswell 2006 ; Jensen 2013 ; Urry 2007 ).The structure of the chapter is simple: We fi rst introduce the concepts that are key to linking wayfi nding...

  12. LinkLights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grönvall, Erik; Kramp, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    The project described in this paper aims to provide assistive tools to support elderly people affected by vestibular dysfunction (i.e. a form of balance disorder leading to dizziness and nausea) in their home-based rehabilitation activities. Challenges emerge as the rehabilitation moves from...... a supervised hospital setting to private homes. Our studies have shown that the elderly people are less motivated to perform the training at home. This paper presents a tangible, portable, two dimensional modular platform called LinkLights that has been developed to sustain the home-based rehabilitation......, giving clear guidelines what to do, adding motivational cues and elements of variation and surprise in the activity. Furthermore, a set of challenges for successful translocation of the therapeutic regimen from a supervised, hospital setting to an unsupervised home-based setting together with some early...

  13. New initiative links scientists and entertainers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The US National Academy of Sciences has teamed up with Hollywood to improve the quality of science portrayed in films, TV shows and video games. The new Science and Entertainment Exchange (SEE) aims to create better links between entertainment-industry professionals and scientists to improve the credibility of programming related to science.

  14. Authority Control and Linked Bibliographic Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, Doris H.

    1988-01-01

    Explores issues related to bibliographic database authority control, including the nature of standards, quality control, library cooperation, centralized and decentralized databases and authority control systems, and economic considerations. The implications of authority control for linking large scale databases are discussed. (18 references)…

  15. Quantum field theory and link invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotta-Ramusino, P.; Guadagnini, E.; Mintchev, M.; Martellini, M.

    1990-01-01

    A skein relation for the expectation values of Wilson line operators in three-dimensional SU(N) Chern-Simons gauge theory is derived at first order in the coupling constant. We use a variational method based on the properties of the three-dimensional field theory. The relationship between the above expectation values and the known link invariants is established. (orig.)

  16. Too Many Links in the Horizon; What is Next? Linked Views and Linked History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Liarou (Erietta); S. Idreos (Stratos)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe trend for more online linked data becomes stronger. Foreseeing a future where ``everything" will be online and linked, we ask the critical question; what is next? We envision that managing, querying and storing large amounts of links and data is far from yet another query

  17. Is the population level link between drinking and harm similar for women and men?--a time series analysis with focus on gender-specific drinking and alcohol-related hospitalizations in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engdahl, Barbro; Ramstedt, Mats

    2011-08-01

    A question that has not been addressed in the literature is whether the population level association between alcohol and harm differs between men and women. The main aim of this article is to fill this gap by analysing recently collected time series data of male and female self-reported drinking in relation to gender-specific harm indicators in Sweden. Male and female per capita and risk consumption was estimated on the basis of self-reported data from monthly alcohol surveys for the period 2002-07. Overall per capita consumption including recorded sales and estimates of unrecorded consumption were also collected for the same period. Alcohol-related hospitalizations were used as indicators of alcohol-related harm. Data were aggregated into quarterly observations and analysed by means of time series analyses (ARIMA-modelling). Overall per capita consumption was significantly related to both male and female alcohol-related hospitalizations. Male per capita consumption and risk consumption were also significantly related to alcohol-related hospitalizations among men. Female per capita consumption and risk consumption had also a positive association with alcohol-related hospitalizations but statistical significance was only reached for alcohol poisonings where the association was even stronger than for men. Changes in alcohol consumption in Sweden was associated with changes in male and female alcohol-related hospitalizations also in analyses based on gender-specific consumption measures. There was no clear evidence that the population level association between alcohol and harm differed between men and women.

  18. Deploying Linked Open Vocabulary (LOV to Enhance Library Linked Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh, Sam Gyun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of Linked Data (LD as a method for building webs of data, there have been many attempts to apply and implement LD in various settings. Efforts have been made to convert bibliographic data in libraries into Linked Data, thereby generating Library Linked Data (LLD. However, when memory institutions have tried to link their data with external sources based on principles suggested by Tim Berners-Lee, identifying appropriate vocabularies for use in describing their bibliographic data has proved challenging. The objective of this paper is to discuss the potential role of Linked Open Vocabularies (LOV in providing better access to various open datasets and facilitating effective linking. The paper will also examine the ways in which memory institutions can utilize LOV to enhance the quality of LLD and LLD-based ontology design.

  19. Link for Injured Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Marizen; Toussaint, Maisha; Woods-Jaeger, Briana; Harland, Karisa; Wetjen, Kristel; Wilgenbusch, Tammy; Pitcher, Graeme; Jennissen, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Objective Injury, the most common type of pediatric trauma, can lead to a number of adverse psychosocial outcomes, including posttraumatic stress disorder. Currently, few evidence-based parent programs exist to support children hospitalized after a traumatic injury. Using methods in evaluation and intervention research, we completed a formative research study to develop a new program of psychological first aid, Link for Injured Kids, aimed to educate parents in supporting their children after a severe traumatic injury. Methods Using qualitative methods, we held focus groups with parents and pediatric trauma providers of children hospitalized at a Level I Children's Hospital because of an injury in 2012. We asked focus group participants to describe reactions to trauma and review drafts of our intervention materials. Results Health professionals and caregivers reported a broad spectrum of emotional responses by their children or patients; however, difficulties were experienced during recovery at home and upon returning to school. All parents and health professionals recommended that interventions be offered to parents either in the emergency department or close to discharge among admissions. Conclusions Results from this study strongly indicate a need for posttrauma interventions, particularly in rural settings, to support families of children to address the psychosocial outcomes in the aftermath of an injury. Findings presented here describe the process of intervention development that responds to the needs of an affected population. PMID:26428077

  20. Diabetes and dementia links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Jankowska

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The number of patients suffering from diabetes mellitus is growing globally. It is expected to observe 253.4 million sufferers in geriatric population in 2045. In this time, also 131.5 million of people is going to have dementia and other cognitive problems. In people aged over 65 these two diseases are concomitant quite often. What are the connections in the area of etiology and treatment? Aim The purpose of this study is to present links between dementia and diabetes are depicted in professional literature. Results Diabetes and dementia are associated on many levels. These conditions have common risk factors. Diabetes may contribute to cognitive impairment in many ways, promoting development of atherosclerosis, brain vessel damage and vascular dementia. Alzheimer disease may be promoted by hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. On contrary also hypoglycaemia, often met in elderly diabetic patients has negative impact on cognitive function. Dementia seriously affects treatment of diabetes. The main problems are not satisfying adherence and diabetes self-management. Conclusions Prevention of diabetes and dementia risk factors can be performed simultaneously as the are common for both diseases. Enhancing physical activity, reducing saturated fats consumption, levels of cholesterol and body mass are considered to be beneficial in the context of described conditions. Furthermore, treatment of diabetes is strongly affected by cognitive dysfunction. Management of dementive diabetics requires individualization and using long-acting drugs. It is crucial to reduce risk of life-threatening hypoglycaemias and to create wide team to take care of these patients.

  1. Object linking in repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, David (Editor); Beck, Jon; Atkins, John; Bailey, Bill

    1992-01-01

    This topic is covered in three sections. The first section explores some of the architectural ramifications of extending the Eichmann/Atkins lattice-based classification scheme to encompass the assets of the full life cycle of software development. A model is considered that provides explicit links between objects in addition to the edges connecting classification vertices in the standard lattice. The second section gives a description of the efforts to implement the repository architecture using a commercially available object-oriented database management system. Some of the features of this implementation are described, and some of the next steps to be taken to produce a working prototype of the repository are pointed out. In the final section, it is argued that design and instantiation of reusable components have competing criteria (design-for-reuse strives for generality, design-with-reuse strives for specificity) and that providing mechanisms for each can be complementary rather than antagonistic. In particular, it is demonstrated how program slicing techniques can be applied to customization of reusable components.

  2. Link polynomial, crossing multiplier and surgery formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deguchi, Tetsuo; Yamada, Yasuhiko.

    1989-01-01

    Relations between link polynomials constructed from exactly solvable lattice models and topological field theory are reviewed. It is found that the surgery formula for a three-sphere S 3 with Wilson lines corresponds to the Markov trace constructed from the exactly solvable models. This indicates that knot theory intimately relates various important subjects such as exactly solvable models, conformal field theories and topological quantum field theories. (author)

  3. The political dimension of "linking social capital"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    . Through an analysis of existing analytical practices, the article concludes that linking social capital is often subordinated to the two related social capital concepts of bonding and bridging, and that linking social capital is often exclusively defined and operationalized based on expressions...... of organizational trust and participation. The article proposes a recalibration to encompass the political dynamics, and political survival theory is recommended as a way to address the hitherto underexplored governance dimension. Rather than using trust as the analytical pivot, this analytical entry point may...

  4. A generalized theory of preferential linking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haibo; Guo, Jinli; Liu, Xuan; Wang, Xiaofan

    2014-12-01

    There are diverse mechanisms driving the evolution of social networks. A key open question dealing with understanding their evolution is: How do various preferential linking mechanisms produce networks with different features? In this paper we first empirically study preferential linking phenomena in an evolving online social network, find and validate the linear preference. We propose an analyzable model which captures the real growth process of the network and reveals the underlying mechanism dominating its evolution. Furthermore based on preferential linking we propose a generalized model reproducing the evolution of online social networks, and present unified analytical results describing network characteristics for 27 preference scenarios. We study the mathematical structure of degree distributions and find that within the framework of preferential linking analytical degree distributions can only be the combinations of finite kinds of functions which are related to rational, logarithmic and inverse tangent functions, and extremely complex network structure will emerge even for very simple sublinear preferential linking. This work not only provides a verifiable origin for the emergence of various network characteristics in social networks, but bridges the micro individuals' behaviors and the global organization of social networks.

  5. Local Type Checking for Linked Data Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Ciobanu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Web of Linked Data is the cumulation of over a decade of work by the Web standards community in their effort to make data more Web-like. We provide an introduction to the Web of Linked Data from the perspective of a Web developer that would like to build an application using Linked Data. We identify a weakness in the development stack as being a lack of domain specific scripting languages for designing background processes that consume Linked Data. To address this weakness, we design a scripting language with a simple but appropriate type system. In our proposed architecture some data is consumed from sources outside of the control of the system and some data is held locally. Stronger type assumptions can be made about the local data than external data, hence our type system mixes static and dynamic typing. Throughout, we relate our work to the W3C recommendations that drive Linked Data, so our syntax is accessible to Web developers.

  6. Linking policy and creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvistgaard, Peter

    2008-01-01

    When dealing with creativity in tourism development, this paper argues that it is imparative 1) to recognise the importance of the power set-up of any given destination/city and 2) to map the positions and relations between the different important, less important and perhaps in time potentially...... important actors. It is claimed that it is a precondition for creating creativity or working towards the creation of a 'creative ethos' (Florida 2005:5 ff) in the tourism field at any level could be said to be knowledge of power relations between the participating actors....

  7. Analysis of Azari Language based on Parsing using Link Gram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Arabzadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There are different classes of theories for the natural lanuguage syntactic parsing problem and for creating the related grammars .This paper presents a syntactic grammar developed in the link grammar formalism for Turkish which is an agglutinative language. In the link grammar formalism, the words of a sentence are linked with each other depending on their syntactic roles. Turkish has complex derivational and inflectional morphology, and derivational and inflection morphemes play important syntactic roles in the sentences. In order to develop a link grammar for Turkish, the lexical parts in the morphological representations of Turkish words are removed, and the links are created depending on the part of speech tags and inflectional morphemes in words. Furthermore, a derived word is separated at the derivational boundaries in order to treat each derivation morpheme as a special distinct word, and allow it to be linked with the rest of the sentence. The derivational morphemes of a word are also linked with each other with special links to indicate that they are parts of the same word. Finally the adapted unique link grammar formalism for Turkish provides flexibility for the linkage construction, and similar methods can be used for other languages with complex morphology. Finally, using the Delphi programming language, the link grammar related to the Azeri language was developed and implemented and then by selecting 250 random sentences, this grammar is evaluated and then tested. For 84.31% of the sentences, the result set of the parser contains the correct parse.

  8. Establishing the link between money laundering and tax evasion

    OpenAIRE

    Storm, Ansia

    2013-01-01

    No clear link has yet been made between tax evasion and money laundering although many (or all) of the professionals in this field may have already assumed the relation. The aim of the research that was conducted for the purposes of this article was to explore whether there is a clear link between tax evasion and money laundering. This was done by studying the relevant literature available on both subjects. The findings, that there is a clear link between these two offences, we...

  9. Logistics. Crucial link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, M.

    1996-01-01

    The article relates to offshore cost reduction in the UK and Norwegian sectors. Improvements within logistics and industrial co-operation are discussed being inspired by the joint government and industry NORSOK programme and the similar UK CRINE programme. Examples on cost reduction in various projects are given. 1 fig

  10. Aggregating Linked Sensor Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stasch, Christoph; Schade, Sven; Llaves, Alejandro; Janowicz, K.; Bröring, Arne; Taylor, Kerry; Ayyagari, Arun; De Roure, David

    2011-01-01

    Sensor observations are usually oered in relation to a specific purpose, e.g., for reporting fine dust emissions, following strict procedures, and spatio-temporal scales. Consequently, the huge amount of data gathered by today's public and private sensor networks is most often not reused outside of

  11. Articulated elevator links for top drive drill rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasnov, I.

    1988-12-27

    This patent describes for a drill rig having a derrick, a drive head assembly suspended in the derrick having a drive stem for connection to and for rotating a string of drill pipe, an improved means for connecting a stand of the drill pipe to the drive stem, comprising in combination: a pair of upper link sections, each pivotally suspended from the drive head assembly and having a lower end; a pair of lower link sections, each having an upper end pivotally connected to one of the lower ends of the upper link sections and each having a lower end; a set of elevators mounted to lower ends of the lower link sections for clamping about the stand of drill pipe; upper lifting means connected between the upper link sections and the drive head assembly for pivoting the upper link sections relative to the drive head assembly; and lowering lifting means connected between the upper and lower link sections for pivoting the lower link sections relative to the upper link sections for lifting the elevators upward relative to the drive head assembly to engage the stand of drill pipe with the drive stem. The patent also describes a method for connecting a stand of the drill pipe to the drive stem.

  12. Physical Samples Linked Data in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, P.; Arko, R. A.; Lehnert, K.; Bristol, S.

    2017-12-01

    Most data and metadata related to physical samples currently reside in isolated relational databases driven by diverse data models. How to approach the challenge for sharing, interchanging and integrating data from these difference relational databases motivated us to publish Linked Open Data for collections of physical samples, using Semantic Web technologies including the Resource Description Framework (RDF), RDF Query Language (SPARQL), and Web Ontology Language (OWL). In last few years, we have released four knowledge graphs concentrated on physical samples, including System for Earth Sample Registration (SESAR), USGS National Geochemical Database (NGDC), Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS), and Earthchem Database. Currently the four knowledge graphs contain over 12 million facets (triples) about objects of interest to the geoscience domain. Choosing appropriate domain ontologies for representing context of data is the core of the whole work. Geolink ontology developed by Earthcube Geolink project was used as top level to represent common concepts like person, organization, cruise, etc. Physical sample ontology developed by Interdisciplinary Earth Data Alliance (IEDA) and Darwin Core vocabulary were used as second level to describe details about geological samples and biological diversity. We also focused on finding and building best tool chains to support the whole life cycle of publishing linked data we have, including information retrieval, linked data browsing and data visualization. Currently, Morph, Virtuoso Server, LodView, LodLive, and YASGUI were employed for converting, storing, representing, and querying data in a knowledge base (RDF triplestore). Persistent digital identifier is another main point we concentrated on. Open Researcher & Contributor IDs (ORCIDs), International Geo Sample Numbers (IGSNs), Global Research Identifier Database (GRID) and other persistent identifiers were used to link different resources from various graphs with

  13. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... link between drug misuse and HIV. http://1.usa.gov/1z20ww6 How many of us think about ... can’t ignore. Learn the Link: http://1.usa.gov/1uSUAI3 Think you’re not at risk? ...

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/public-education-projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and to parents, teachers, and the media about the link between drug misuse and HIV. Post on Facebook or Twitter ; add photos to your Flickr , ...

  15. Decouplink: Dynamic Links for Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Lykke Rytter; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2011-01-01

    of dimensions of extension that can be exploited without performing modification of existing types. Thus, dynamic links make it possible to enforce the open/closed principle in situations where it would otherwise not be possible. We present Decouplink – a library-based implementation of dynamic links for Java...

  16. [Sex-linked juvenile retinoschisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, P; Turut, P; Soltysik, C; Hache, J C

    1976-02-01

    About 13 observations of sexe linked juvenile retinoschisis, the authors describe the ophthalmoscopic, fluorographic and functional aspects of the disease whose caracteristics are:--its sexe linked recessive heredity; --its clinical characterestics associating: a microcystic macular degeneration, peripheral retinal lesions, vitreous body alterations, --an electroretinogram of the negative type.

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Learn the Link campaign uses TV, print, and Web public service announcements (PSAs), as well as posters, e-cards, ... to misuse drugs. The Learn the Link public service campaign is just one ... site. Sincerely, Nora D. Volkow, M.D. Director ...

  18. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Link Need ideas for posts? We’ve provided sample Facebook status updates that you can easily copy ... LearntheLink. Need ideas for tweets? We’ve provided sample tweets that you can easily copy and paste ...

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and ... HIV/AIDS and the discovery of promising treatment interventions for breaking the harmful links between them, we ...

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/public-education-projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and to parents, teachers, and the media about the link between drug ...

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs of Abuse ... Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with drug misuse are ...

  2. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV. Post on Facebook About Learn the Link Need ideas for posts? We’ve provided sample Facebook ... HIV, be sure to use the hashtag #LearntheLink. Need ideas for tweets? We’ve provided sample tweets ...

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging ... Badges Other Resources Strategic Plan Search Share Print Home » News & Events » Public Education Projects » Learn the Link - ...

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... site. Please link these banners back to this site at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/public-education-projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and to ...

  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs ... HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with drug misuse ...

  6. The link between BMI and waist circumference in northern Iranian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objectives: Waist circumference and not body mass index explains a greater variance in obesity-related health risk. The present study assesses the link between BMI and WC in Iranian adults. Methods: In a population based cross- sectional study on 3600 adults, northern Iran, we investigated the link ...

  7. Essays on sovereign bond pricing and inflation-linked products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, Zorka

    2016-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation consists of three chapters on the pricing of sovereign debt and inflation-linked products. The first chapter examines the relative pricing of nominal and inflation-linked debt of the three largest Eurozone sovereign issuers. Its main contribution is to present evidence of

  8. LSD Dimensions: Use and Reuse of Linked Statistical Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meroño-Peñuela, Albert

    2014-01-01

    RDF Data Cube (QB) has boosted the publication of Linked Statistical Data (LSD) on the Web, making them linkable to other related datasets and concepts following the Linked Data paradigm. In this demo we present LSD Dimensions, a web based application that monitors the usage of dimensions and codes

  9. LinkMind: Link Optimization in Swarming Mobile Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Trung Dung

    2012-01-01

    of the most advantageous properties of the swarming wireless sensor network is that mobile nodes can work cooperatively to organize an ad-hoc network and optimize the network link capacity to maximize the transmission of gathered data from a source to a target. This paper describes a new method of link...... optimization of swarming mobile sensor networks. The new method is based on combination of the artificial potential force guaranteeing connectivities of the mobile sensor nodes and the max-flow min-cut theorem of graph theory ensuring optimization of the network link capacity. The developed algorithm...

  10. Shuttle/TDRSS modelling and link simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, W. R.; Mckenzie, T. M.; Biederman, L.; Lindsey, W. C.

    1979-01-01

    A Shuttle/TDRSS S-band and Ku-band link simulation package called LinCsim was developed for the evaluation of link performance for specific Shuttle signal designs. The link models were described in detail and the transmitter distortion parameters or user constraints were carefully defined. The overall link degradation (excluding hardware degradations) relative to an ideal BPSK channel were given for various sets of user constraint values. The performance sensitivity to each individual user constraint was then illustrated. The effect of excessive Spacelab clock jitter on the return link BER performance was also investigated as was the problem of subcarrier recovery for the K-band Shuttle return link signal.

  11. Linking corporate strategy and supply chain management

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of this paper: The paper researches the linkages between corporate and supply chain strategy. It represents a stage of an on-going research initiative aimed at providing a framework for understanding systematically the integration of corporate strategy making and supply chain management. Design/methodology/approach: The paper engaged itself in the theory/literature related to strategic and supply chain management. Four generic levels of strategy are linked to supply chain ma...

  12. Why should we publish Linked Data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blower, Jon; Riechert, Maik; Koubarakis, Manolis; Pace, Nino

    2016-04-01

    We use the Web every day to access information from all kinds of different sources. But the complexity and diversity of scientific data mean that discovering accessing and interpreting data remains a large challenge to researchers, decision-makers and other users. Different sources of useful information on data, algorithms, instruments and publications are scattered around the Web. How can we link all these things together to help users to better understand and exploit earth science data? How can we combine scientific data with other relevant data sources, when standards for describing and sharing data vary so widely between communities? "Linked Data" is a term that describes a set of standards and "best practices" for sharing data on the Web (http://www.w3.org/standards/semanticweb/data). These principles can be summarised as follows: 1. Create unique and persistent identifiers for the important "things" in a community (e.g. datasets, publications, algorithms, instruments). 2. Allow users to "look up" these identifiers on the web to find out more information about them. 3. Make this information machine-readable in a community-neutral format (such as RDF, Resource Description Framework). 4. Within this information, embed links to other things and concepts and say how these are related. 5. Optionally, provide web service interfaces to allow the user to perform sophisticated queries over this information (using a language such as SPARQL). The promise of Linked Data is that, through these techniques, data will be more discoverable, more comprehensible and more usable by different communities, not just the community that produced the data. As a result, many data providers (particularly public-sector institutions) are now publishing data in this way. However, this area is still in its infancy in terms of real-world applications. Data users need guidance and tools to help them use Linked Data. Data providers need reassurance that the investments they are making in

  13. Direct determination of IMF B-Y-related cusp current systems, using SuperDARN radar and multiple ground magnetometer data: A link to theory on cusp current origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amm, O.; Engebretson, M.J.; Greenwald, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    , respectively, with magnitudes of around 0.5 A/km(2). The geometry of the current system resembles a DPY current system [Friis-Christensen and Wilhjelm, 1975]. Using our results, we test alternative theories on cusp current origin that lead to different predictions of the relative location of the cusp current...... are caused by a rotational discontinuity of the magnetic field at the magnetopause. In contrast, the idea of Clauer and Banks [1986] that a mapping of the solar wind E-z component to the ionosphere is responsible for the cusp current system is not supported....... system with respect to the open-closed field line boundary. The location of this boundary is inferred from DMSP F10 satellite data. The center of our resulting current system is located clearly poleward of the open-closed field line boundary, thus favoring the idea of Lee et al. [1985] that the cusp FACs...

  14. Linking Diversity and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Rolf Gregorius

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Generally speaking, the term differentiation refers to differences between collections for the distribution of specified traits of their members, while diversity deals with (effective numbers of trait states (types. Counting numbers of types implies discrete traits such as alleles and genotypes in population genetics or species and taxa in ecology. Comparisons between the concepts of differentiation and diversity therefore primarily refer to discrete traits. Diversity is related to differentiation through the idea that the total diversity of a subdivided collection should be composed of the diversity within the subcollections and a complement called “diversity between subcollections”. The idea goes back to the perception that the mixing of differentiated collections increases diversity. Several existing concepts of “diversity between subcollections” are based on this idea. Among them, β-diversity and fixation (inadvertently called differentiation are the most prominent in ecology and in population genetics, respectively. The pertaining measures are shown to quantify the effect of differentiation in terms of diversity components, though from a dual perspective: the classical perspective of differentiation between collections for their type compositions, and the reverse perspective of differentiation between types for their collection affiliations. A series of measures of diversity-oriented differentiation is presented that consider this dual perspective at two levels of diversity partitioning: the overall type or subcollection diversity and the joint type-subcollection diversity. It turns out that, in contrast with common notions, the measures of fixation (such as FST or GST refer to the perspective of type rather than subcollection differentiation. This unexpected observation strongly suggests that the popular interpretations of fixation measures must be reconsidered.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The other conditions in the spectrum, Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy , are characterized by progressive weakness and wasting of ... linked dilated cardiomyopathy is sometimes classified as subclinical Becker muscular dystrophy. Related Information What does it mean if a ...

  16. FAA airborne data link human factors research plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    This report contains a five-year plan to perform research of human factors issues and topics : related to Data Link implementations in general aviation and transport category aircraft. : Elements such as resource allocation and management and coordin...

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Notes Podcasts E-Newsletters Public Education Projects National Drug & Alcohol Facts Week NIDA TV PEERx Drugs & Health Blog ... Award for Addiction Science USA Science & Engineering Festival Drug & Alcohol Chat Day HBO Addiction Project Learn the Link ...

  18. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... she went to a party and under the influence of drugs and alcohol engaged in risky sexual ... the message to young people and to parents, teachers, and the media about the link between drug ...

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with ... Send the Message . Get the Facts What are HIV and AIDS? HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the ...

  20. Medicare and Medicaid Linked Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare-Medicaid Linked Enrollee Analytic Data Source (MMLEADS) has been developed to allow for the examination of all Medicare and Medicaid enrollment and...

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Skip to main content En español Researchers Medical & Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu ...

  2. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Link between drug use and HIV and to help us Send the Message . Get the Facts What ... and the public. Send the Message Overview Please help us send the message to young people and ...

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... people on HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy), for example, who continue to misuse drugs. The Learn the Link public service campaign is just one example of how NIDA continues to respond to the ...

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV ... Drugs can change the way the brain works, disrupting the parts of the brain that people use to weigh risks and benefits when making decisions. ...

  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the virus that causes AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). AIDS is a ... time. The virus (HIV) and the disease it causes (AIDS) are often linked and referred to as " ...

  6. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... It contains information for young people, parents and teachers, and the media with links to our latest ... greater injury to cells in the brain and cognitive impairment among people who use methamphetamine than among ...

  7. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of many drugs, which can alter judgment and inhibition and lead people to engage in impulsive and ... easily copy and paste to help show your support for Learn the Link . Be sure to check ...

  8. Front end data link processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    It is possible to expand the data acquisition capabilities of an existing process computer to include other dedicated computer based systems, provided each system has at least minimal data link capabilities. The following paper discusses the addition of three computer based acquisition systems to a Honeywell 4500C (also designated the 45000) running the SEER system. Only one data link port was required to support the link. Each of the three specialized systems implemented data link protocols used by their suppliers in previous projects: none of the three were compatible with Honeywell's protocol. Part one of the following provides a generic overview of the project and would be relevent to the operator of any process system interested in expansion. Part two provides specific details of this project and may serve to provide performance benchmarks to those who wish to consider a similar project

  9. EPA Linked Open Data (Collection)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a collection item referencing the following EPA Linked Data resources: - EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS) - EPA Substance Registry Service (SRS) -...

  10. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NIDA Donating to NIDA Frequently Asked Questions Contact Us Sharing Tools and Badges Other Resources Strategic Plan Search Share Print Home » News & Events » Public Education Projects » Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Learn ...

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contracting or transmitting HIV/AIDS or other infectious diseases. Research Reports: HIV/AIDS : Explores the link between drug misuse and HIV/AIDS, populations most at risk, trends in HIV/AIDS, and ...

  12. Protein Linked to Atopic Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters January 14, 2013 Protein Linked to Atopic Dermatitis Normal skin from a ... in mice suggests that lack of a certain protein may trigger atopic dermatitis, the most common type ...

  13. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Process Funding Priorities Research Training News & Events News Nora's Blog NIDA in the News NIDA Notes Podcasts ... of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, Dr. Nora D. Volkow. Message from the Director The Link ...

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... their lives , but now their night out always will be associated with HIV/AIDS. The “d’cisions” ... for breaking the harmful links between them, we will continue to update this Web site. Sincerely, Nora ...

  15. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Link" campaign continues to raise awareness among this generation of the real risks of drug use for ... Resource Center (NWHRC) Mujeres Unidas Contra el SIDA New Mexico AIDS Services African Advocates Against AIDS The ...

  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... link between non-injection drug use and HIV. Television Networks: MunDos Azteca America ... and Families The American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) The United Negro College Fund, ...

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of people infected with HIV, drug misuse can interfere with an individual's likelihood of adhering to the ... HIV/AIDS and the discovery of promising treatment interventions for breaking the harmful links between them, we ...

  18. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other organizations in your tweets to spread the word even further. Tweet About Learn the Link To ... other organizations in your tweets to spread the word even further. Share with Flickr, Pinterest or Instagram ...

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can affect anyone. Watch the “d’cisions” Videos Campaign Materials After the Party Posters: We have developed ... share on your social media accounts. About the Campaign Overview The Learn the Link campaign uses TV, ...

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the main factors in the spread of HIV infection in the United States. Drugs can change the ... about the link between drug misuse and HIV infection. It contains information for young people, parents and ...

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts ...

  2. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... En español Researchers Medical & Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook ... HIV infection. It contains information for young people, parents and teachers, and the media with links to ...

  3. Analytic invariants of boundary links

    OpenAIRE

    Garoufalidis, Stavros; Levine, Jerome

    2001-01-01

    Using basic topology and linear algebra, we define a plethora of invariants of boundary links whose values are power series with noncommuting variables. These turn out to be useful and elementary reformulations of an invariant originally defined by M. Farber.

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that use text messaging as a means of communication. The "Text Message" PSA features two young girls ... about the link between drug misuse and HIV. Post on Facebook or Twitter ; add photos to your ...

  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NIDA’s "Learn the Link" campaign continues to raise awareness among this generation of the real risks of ... Collaborators Thanks to Those Who Have Helped Raise Awareness of Our Campaign! NIDA acknowledges the following television ...

  6. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... educational institutions, magazines, newspapers, companies, events, and radio stations for helping to raise awareness of the link ... Poets Sistahs Getting Real About HIV Conference Radio Stations: WTOP Radio WPFW Radio WOL Radio News & Events ...

  7. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and ... Link campaign. This campaign shows teens and young adults that non-injection drug use and alcohol use ...

  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... works, disrupting the parts of the brain that people use to weigh risks and benefits when making ... and HIV infection. It contains information for young people, parents and teachers, and the media with links ...

  9. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... causes (AIDS) are often linked and referred to as "HIV/AIDS." HIV can be transferred between people ... years, HIV is no longer a death sentence, as it was when the epidemic began. This is ...

  10. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Campaign Overview The Learn the Link campaign uses TV, print, and Web public service announcements (PSAs), as ... CW BET NBC ABC FOX LATV My Network TV Organizations: AIDS.gov AIDS Alliance for Children, Youth ...

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... risky behavior. Drug misuse by any route (not just injection) can put a person at risk for ... The Learn the Link public service campaign is just one example of how NIDA continues to respond ...

  12. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your Flickr, Pinterest, Instagram or other visually interesting page using pictures from NIDA ... Link campaign uses TV, print, and Web public service announcements (PSAs), as well as posters, ...

  13. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of HIV infection in the United States. Drugs can change the way the brain works, disrupting the ... linked and referred to as "HIV/AIDS." HIV can be transferred between people if an infected person's ...

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Researchers Medical & Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter ... Network TV Organizations: AIDS.gov AIDS Alliance for Children, Youth and Families The American Academy of Child & ...

  15. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Link Videos NIDA and Scholastic - Heads Up NIDA Media Campaign Postcards Public Service Announcements Other Government Observances for Substance Abuse Education Contact the Press Office Meetings & Events Media Guide ...

  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Link campaign. This campaign shows teens and young adults that non-injection drug use and alcohol ... After the Party Posters: We have developed posters with our campaign ...

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Learn the Link campaign uses TV, print, and Web public service announcements (PSAs), as well as posters, e-cards, and other tools to send the message to America's youth that ...

  18. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Learn the Link message. Campaign messages and materials were tested among various groups of young people, guiding the use of technology, the discussion between friends, and the importance of family. For ...

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Learn the Link with Videos We have numerous videos on our website that are available for your use to share on your social media accounts. About the Campaign Overview The Learn the ...

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... increases brain viral load and activates natural killer cells in simian immunodeficiency ... out with friends? It’s a topic you can’t ignore. Learn the Link: http://1.usa.gov/ ...

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pictures from NIDA images. Visit the NIDA Flickr account for images. Share your favorite image! Check out ... your use to share on your social media accounts. About the Campaign Overview The Learn the Link ...

  2. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Prevention Recovery Substance Use and SUDs in LGBT Populations Treatment Trends & Statistics Women and Drugs Publications Search ... the link between drug misuse and HIV/AIDS, populations most at risk, trends in HIV/AIDS, and ...

  3. Linked data and user interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Cervone, H Frank

    2015-01-01

    This collection of research papers provides extensive information on deploying services, concepts, and approaches for using open linked data from libraries and other cultural heritage institutions. With a special emphasis on how libraries and other cultural heritage institutions can create effective end user interfaces using open, linked data or other datasets. These papers are essential reading for any one interesting in user interface design or the semantic web.

  4. Wireless data link for FBTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundararajan, M.K.; Prabhakara Rao, G.; Ilango Sambasivan, S.; Swaminathan, P.; Ramakrishna, P.V.

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the design and development of a wireless data link for transmission of block pile signals at the Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) of Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research (IGCAR). This link is to establish wireless connectivity, typically at RS232C rates, over distances of the order of 50 m, and is expected to operate under electrically hostile conditions. (author)

  5. Linking Ethics and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2012-01-01

    Hunt (2012) builds on his work concerning ethics and resource-advantage theory to link personal ethical standards, societal norms, and economic growth but offers few details concerning the precise mechanisms that link ethics and growth. This comment suggests a number of such mechanisms – for exam...... – for example, the influence of prevailing ethical norms on the aggregate elasticity of substitution and, therefore, total factor productivity and growth....

  6. Manual de LinkedIn

    OpenAIRE

    Blázquez Sevilla, Alegría; Borrás Gené, Oriol

    2016-01-01

    Manual básico sobre la red profesional LinkedIn, donde se analiza la red y se explica a fondo cómo crear un perfil y gestionarlo. Incluye información sobre las diferentes secciones características de la red LinkedIn y ofrece consejos para la correcta gestión de un perfil, buscando su mejor rendimiento.

  7. Links and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    , Anglo-Saxons and Vikings in Britain; and the Football museum in Preston plans to help local pupils with their literacy and numeracy skills by preparing newspaper reports and football results tables. In this role of supporting education the various bodies will be both helping teachers to deliver the curriculum and also bringing their own cultural resources to life for the students. On a related theme, the Royal Observatory at Greenwich has just introduced its own Open Museum course to prepare adults with an interest in astronomy to study for a GCSE in the subject. The course begins in October and lasts for nine months, covering topics such as the Earth and Moon, solar system, stars, galaxies and observing techniques. Those undertaking the course will be able to use the Observatory's 28 inch refractor and a Meade LX10 Schmidt Cassegrain telescope. Further information on the course and the Open Museum is available from Joy Affection (tel: 0181 312 6747) or from the NMM website at www.nmm.ac.uk.

  8. Khovanov homology of graph-links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikonov, Igor M [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-08-31

    Graph-links arise as the intersection graphs of turning chord diagrams of links. Speaking informally, graph-links provide a combinatorial description of links up to mutations. Many link invariants can be reformulated in the language of graph-links. Khovanov homology, a well-known and useful knot invariant, is defined for graph-links in this paper (in the case of the ground field of characteristic two). Bibliography: 14 titles.

  9. High speed radiation tolerant data links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, Forrest [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Incandela, Joseph [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This project was slated to design and develop Rad-Hard IP components for 1Gb/s links and supporting hardware designs such as PLL, SER/DES, pad drivers and receivers and custom protocol hardware for the 1Gb/s channel. Also included in the proposal was a study of a hardened memory to be used as a packet buffer for channel and data concentrator components to meet the 1 Gb/s specification. Over the course of the proposal, technology change and innovation of hardware designs lead us away from the 1 Gb/s goal to contemplate much higher performance link IP which, we believed better met the goals of physics experiments. Note that CERN microelectronics had managed to create a 4.7 Gb/s link designed to drive optical fibers and containing infrastructure for connecting much lower bandwidth front-end devices. Our own work to that point had shown the possibility of constructing a link with much lower power, lower physical overhead but of equivalent performance that could be designed to integrate directly onto the front-end ASIC (ADC and data encoding) designs. Substantial overall power savings and experimental simplicity could be achieved by eliminating data transmission to data concentrators and data concentrators and related hardened buffering themselves, with conversion to optical media at a removed distance from the experiment core. We had already developed and tested Rad-Hard SER/DES components (1Gb in 130nm standard cells) and redundant Pad Drivers/Receivers (3+ Gb/s designed and measured performance), and had a viable 1Gb/s link design based on redundant a stuttered clock receiver and classical PLL, so the basic goals of the proposal had been achieved. Below, in chronological order, are the products and tools we constructed, as well as our tests and publications.

  10. [Biophysical principles of collagen cross-linking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spörl, E; Raiskup-Wolf, F; Pillunat, L E

    2008-02-01

    The reduced mechanical stability of the cornea in keratoconus or in keratectasia after Lasik may be increased by photooxidative cross-linking of corneal collagen. The biophysical principles are compiled for the safe and effective application of this new treatment method. The setting of the therapy parameters should be elucidated from the absorption behaviour of the cornea. The safety of the method for the endothelium cells and the lens will be discussed. The induced cross-links are shown to be the result of changes in the physico-chemical properties of the cornea. To reach a high absorption of the irradiation energy in the cornea, riboflavin of a concentration of 0.1% and UV light of a wavelength of 370 nm, corresponding to the relative maximum of absorption of riboflavin, were used. An irradiance of 3 mW/cm(2) and an irradiation time of 30 min lead to an increase of the mechanical stiffness. The endothelium cells will be protected due to the high absorption within the cornea, that means the damaging threshold of the endothelium cells will not be reached in a 400 microm thick stroma. As evidence for cross-links we can consider the increase of the biomechanical stiffness, the increased resistance against enzymatic degradation, a higher shrinkage temperature, a lower swelling rate and an increased diameter of collagen fibres. The therapy parameters were tested experimentally and have been proven clinically in the corneal collagen cross-linking. These parameters should be respected to reach a safe cross-linking effect without damage of the adjacent tissues.

  11. Linking algal growth inhibition to chemical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Stine N.; Mayer, Philipp

    Unitless chemical activity, expressing the energetic level of a compound relative to its energetic level in pure liquid [0-1], has proven useful to quantify the effective exposure to hydrophobic organic compounds through both aerial and aqueous media. Several studies have linked toxicity to chemi......Unitless chemical activity, expressing the energetic level of a compound relative to its energetic level in pure liquid [0-1], has proven useful to quantify the effective exposure to hydrophobic organic compounds through both aerial and aqueous media. Several studies have linked toxicity...... to chemical activity, as opposed to e.g. the total concentration. Baseline toxicity (narcosis) for neutral hydrophobic organic compounds has been shown to initiate in the narrow chemical activity range of 0.01 to 0.1. This presentation focuses on linking algal growth inhibition to chemical activity......-polar liquids were applied to challenge the chemical activity range for baseline toxicity. For each compound, the effective activity (Ea50) was estimated as the ratio of the effective concentration (EC50) and water solubility. Of these ratios, 90% were within the expected chemical activity range of 0.01 to 0...

  12. LinkMind: link optimization in swarming mobile sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Trung Dung

    2011-01-01

    A swarming mobile sensor network is comprised of a swarm of wirelessly connected mobile robots equipped with various sensors. Such a network can be applied in an uncertain environment for services such as cooperative navigation and exploration, object identification and information gathering. One of the most advantageous properties of the swarming wireless sensor network is that mobile nodes can work cooperatively to organize an ad-hoc network and optimize the network link capacity to maximize the transmission of gathered data from a source to a target. This paper describes a new method of link optimization of swarming mobile sensor networks. The new method is based on combination of the artificial potential force guaranteeing connectivities of the mobile sensor nodes and the max-flow min-cut theorem of graph theory ensuring optimization of the network link capacity. The developed algorithm is demonstrated and evaluated in simulation.

  13. LinkMind: Link Optimization in Swarming Mobile Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung Dung Ngo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A swarming mobile sensor network is comprised of a swarm of wirelessly connected mobile robots equipped with various sensors. Such a network can be applied in an uncertain environment for services such as cooperative navigation and exploration, object identification and information gathering. One of the most advantageous properties of the swarming wireless sensor network is that mobile nodes can work cooperatively to organize an ad-hoc network and optimize the network link capacity to maximize the transmission of gathered data from a source to a target. This paper describes a new method of link optimization of swarming mobile sensor networks. The new method is based on combination of the artificial potential force guaranteeing connectivities of the mobile sensor nodes and the max-flow min-cut theorem of graph theory ensuring optimization of the network link capacity. The developed algorithm is demonstrated and evaluated in simulation.

  14. kpath: integration of metabolic pathway linked data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas-Delgado, Ismael; García-Godoy, María Jesús; López-Camacho, Esteban; Rybinski, Maciej; Reyes-Palomares, Armando; Medina, Miguel Ángel; Aldana-Montes, José F

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years, the Life Sciences domain has experienced a rapid growth in the amount of available biological databases. The heterogeneity of these databases makes data integration a challenging issue. Some integration challenges are locating resources, relationships, data formats, synonyms or ambiguity. The Linked Data approach partially solves the heterogeneity problems by introducing a uniform data representation model. Linked Data refers to a set of best practices for publishing and connecting structured data on the Web. This article introduces kpath, a database that integrates information related to metabolic pathways. kpath also provides a navigational interface that enables not only the browsing, but also the deep use of the integrated data to build metabolic networks based on existing disperse knowledge. This user interface has been used to showcase relationships that can be inferred from the information available in several public databases. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  15. Towards linked open gene mutations data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background With the advent of high-throughput technologies, a great wealth of variation data is being produced. Such information may constitute the basis for correlation analyses between genotypes and phenotypes and, in the future, for personalized medicine. Several databases on gene variation exist, but this kind of information is still scarce in the Semantic Web framework. In this paper, we discuss issues related to the integration of mutation data in the Linked Open Data infrastructure, part of the Semantic Web framework. We present the development of a mapping from the IARC TP53 Mutation database to RDF and the implementation of servers publishing this data. Methods A version of the IARC TP53 Mutation database implemented in a relational database was used as first test set. Automatic mappings to RDF were first created by using D2RQ and later manually refined by introducing concepts and properties from domain vocabularies and ontologies, as well as links to Linked Open Data implementations of various systems of biomedical interest. Since D2RQ query performances are lower than those that can be achieved by using an RDF archive, generated data was also loaded into a dedicated system based on tools from the Jena software suite. Results We have implemented a D2RQ Server for TP53 mutation data, providing data on a subset of the IARC database, including gene variations, somatic mutations, and bibliographic references. The server allows to browse the RDF graph by using links both between classes and to external systems. An alternative interface offers improved performances for SPARQL queries. The resulting data can be explored by using any Semantic Web browser or application. Conclusions This has been the first case of a mutation database exposed as Linked Data. A revised version of our prototype, including further concepts and IARC TP53 Mutation database data sets, is under development. The publication of variation information as Linked Data opens new perspectives

  16. Towards linked open gene mutations data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappa, Achille; Splendiani, Andrea; Romano, Paolo

    2012-03-28

    With the advent of high-throughput technologies, a great wealth of variation data is being produced. Such information may constitute the basis for correlation analyses between genotypes and phenotypes and, in the future, for personalized medicine. Several databases on gene variation exist, but this kind of information is still scarce in the Semantic Web framework. In this paper, we discuss issues related to the integration of mutation data in the Linked Open Data infrastructure, part of the Semantic Web framework. We present the development of a mapping from the IARC TP53 Mutation database to RDF and the implementation of servers publishing this data. A version of the IARC TP53 Mutation database implemented in a relational database was used as first test set. Automatic mappings to RDF were first created by using D2RQ and later manually refined by introducing concepts and properties from domain vocabularies and ontologies, as well as links to Linked Open Data implementations of various systems of biomedical interest. Since D2RQ query performances are lower than those that can be achieved by using an RDF archive, generated data was also loaded into a dedicated system based on tools from the Jena software suite. We have implemented a D2RQ Server for TP53 mutation data, providing data on a subset of the IARC database, including gene variations, somatic mutations, and bibliographic references. The server allows to browse the RDF graph by using links both between classes and to external systems. An alternative interface offers improved performances for SPARQL queries. The resulting data can be explored by using any Semantic Web browser or application. This has been the first case of a mutation database exposed as Linked Data. A revised version of our prototype, including further concepts and IARC TP53 Mutation database data sets, is under development.The publication of variation information as Linked Data opens new perspectives: the exploitation of SPARQL searches on

  17. Links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Russo

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available La lista de enlaces ofrecida a continuación tiene como objetivo la creación de una base de datos sobre los principales sitios de interés para el estudio de la imagen (en America Latina y más allá. Se ha tratado de incluir una vasta gama de instituciones (museos, colecciones, institutos, representando sin embargo también a revistas, proyectos de investigación, y catálogos en línea. Sin tener la pretensión de ser exhaustiva, esta selección es evolutiva y se pone al día continuamente. MuseosI...

  18. Links

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Russo

    2006-01-01

    La lista de enlaces ofrecida a continuación tiene como objetivo la creación de una base de datos sobre los principales sitios de interés para el estudio de la imagen (en America Latina y más allá). Se ha tratado de incluir una vasta gama de instituciones (museos, colecciones, institutos), representando sin embargo también a revistas, proyectos de investigación, y catálogos en línea. Sin tener la pretensión de ser exhaustiva, esta selección es evolutiva y se pone al día continuamente. MuseosI...

  19. The OceanLink Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narock, T.; Arko, R. A.; Carbotte, S. M.; Chandler, C. L.; Cheatham, M.; Finin, T.; Hitzler, P.; Krisnadhi, A.; Raymond, L. M.; Shepherd, A.; Wiebe, P. H.

    2014-12-01

    A wide spectrum of maturing methods and tools, collectively characterized as the Semantic Web, is helping to vastly improve the dissemination of scientific research. Creating semantic integration requires input from both domain and cyberinfrastructure scientists. OceanLink, an NSF EarthCube Building Block, is demonstrating semantic technologies through the integration of geoscience data repositories, library holdings, conference abstracts, and funded research awards. Meeting project objectives involves applying semantic technologies to support data representation, discovery, sharing and integration. Our semantic cyberinfrastructure components include ontology design patterns, Linked Data collections, semantic provenance, and associated services to enhance data and knowledge discovery, interoperation, and integration. We discuss how these components are integrated, the continued automated and semi-automated creation of semantic metadata, and techniques we have developed to integrate ontologies, link resources, and preserve provenance and attribution.

  20. The ALICE detector data link

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, G; Csató, P; Dénes, E; Kiss, T; Meggyesi, Z; Sulyán, J; Vesztergombi, G; Eged, B; Gerencsér, I; Novák, I; Soós, C; Tarján, D; Telegdy, A; Tóth, N

    1999-01-01

    The ALICE detector data link has been designed to cover all the needs for data transfer between the detector and the data-acquisition system. It is a 1 Gbit/s, full-duplex, multi-purpose fibre optic link that can be used as a medium for the bi-directional transmission of data blocks between the front-end electronics and the data- acquisition system and also for the remote control and test of the front-end electronics, In this paper the concept, the protocol, the specific test tools, the prototypes of the detector data link and the read-out receiver card, their application in the ALICE-TPC test system and the integration with the DATE software are presented. The test results on the performance are also shown. (14 refs).