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Sample records for reservoir-east binger marchand

  1. Analysis and design of complex impedance transforming marchand baluns

    OpenAIRE

    Michaelsen, Rasmus Schandorph; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Tamborg, Kjeld M.

    2014-01-01

    A new type of Marchand balun is presented in this paper, which has the property of complex impedance transformation. To allow the Marchand balun to transform between arbitrary complex impedances, three reactances should be added to the circuit. A detailed analysis of the circuit gives the governing equations. To verify the theory, a design and electromagnetic simulation of a lumped element Marchand balun is made in a SiGe BiCMOS technology. The lumped element impementation is favorable becaus...

  2. Analysis and design of complex impedance transforming marchand baluns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Rasmus Schandorph; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Tamborg, Kjeld M.

    2014-01-01

    A new type of Marchand balun is presented in this paper, which has the property of complex impedance transformation. To allow the Marchand balun to transform between arbitrary complex impedances, three reactances should be added to the circuit. A detailed analysis of the circuit gives the governing...... equations. To verify the theory, a design and electromagnetic simulation of a lumped element Marchand balun is made in a SiGe BiCMOS technology. The lumped element impementation is favorable because capacitors are placed where the additional reactances should be added. Thus it is possible to absorb...... a positive reactance by reducing a capacitor. At the design frequency of 10.5 GHz it matches 50Ω to 50 - j66Ω. It has an insertion loss of 5.1 dB, an input reflection of −20.8 dB, as well as phase and magnitude imbalance better than 0.2° and 0.12 dB, respectively....

  3. « Mutations de l’espace marchand », DESSE R-P., LESTRADE S. (Dir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Demoyer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available L’ouvrage « Mutations de l’espace marchand » publié au printemps dernier aux Presses Universitaires de Rennes sous la direction de R-P.DESSE et S.LESTRADE est issu du colloque « Mutations commerciales et devenir de l’espace marchand » de la Commission Commerce du Comité National Français de Géographie (CNFG qui s’est tenu à Brest en 2014. Ce livre se structure en quatre parties. La première s’attache à évaluer l’influence des Technologies de l’Information et de la Communication sur l’appare...

  4. A 38 to 44GHz sub-harmonic balanced HBT mixer with integrated miniature spiral type marchand balun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Krozer, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    This work presents an active balanced sub-harmonic mixer (SHM) using InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor technology (DHBT) for Q-band applications. A miniature spiral type Marchand balun with five added capacitances for improved control of amplitude and phase balance is integrated with t...

  5. Sedimentation, sediment quality, and upstream channel stability, John Redmond Reservoir, east-central Kansas, 1964-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2010-01-01

    A combination of available bathymetric-survey information, bottom-sediment coring, and historical streamgage information was used to investigate sedimentation, sediment quality, and upstream channel stability for John Redmond Reservoir, east-central Kansas. Ongoing sedimentation is reducing the ability of the reservoir to serve several purposes including flood control, water supply, and recreation. The total estimated volume and mass of bottom sediment deposited between 1964 and 2009 in the conservation pool of the reservoir was 1.46 billion cubic feet and 55.8 billion pounds, respectively. The estimated sediment volume occupied about 41 percent of the conservation-pool, water-storage capacity of the reservoir. Water-storage capacity in the conservation pool has been lost to sedimentation at a rate of about 1 percent annually. Mean annual net sediment deposition since 1964 in the conservation pool of the reservoir was estimated to be 1.24 billion pounds per year. Mean annual net sediment yield from the reservoir basin was estimated to be 411,000 pounds per square mile per year Information from sediment cores shows that throughout the history of John Redmond Reservoir, total nitrogen concentrations in the deposited sediment generally were uniform indicating consistent nitrogen inputs to the reservoir. Total phosphorus concentrations in the deposited sediment were more variable than total nitrogen indicating the possibility of changing phosphorus inputs to the reservoir. As the principal limiting factor for primary production in most freshwater environments, phosphorus is of particular importance because increased inputs can contribute to accelerated reservoir eutrophication and the production of algal toxins and taste-and-odor compounds. The mean annual net loads of total nitrogen and total phosphorus deposited in the bottom sediment of the reservoir were estimated to be 2,350,000 pounds per year and 1,030,000 pounds per year, respectively. The estimated mean annual

  6. L’Entrepreneuriat au sein de la famille. Marchands et entrepreneurs en Inde Entrepreneurship in the Family Context: Merchants and Entrepreneurs in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Tambs-Lyche

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Malgré le déni de Max Weber, l’essor actuel de l’économie indienne montre que non seulement l’esprit du capitalisme, mais aussi l’entrepreneuriat, sont bien présents en Inde. Dans cet article, j’analyse les stratégies commerciales des Gauda Saraswat Brahmanes du Sud Kanara (autour de Mangalore, sur la côte Ouest de l’Inde, en utilisant le modèle d’entrepreneuriat proposé par Fredrik Barth (1962, 1967. Fidèle à la tradition du « capitalisme de portefeuille » (Baily 1989, ces marchands distribuent leur capital entre des filières sûres mais modérément rentables, et des projets novateurs et profitables mais risqués. L’entrepreneur, ici, n’est que rarement l’individu, car il s’agit le plus souvent d’une stratégie orchestrée par la famille, qui se confond à son tour avec la firme familiale. Cette orchestration exige des chefs de famille un souci constant de management qui se manifeste en écoutant les idées des cadets et en leur confiant des rôles qui les gratifient au sein de l’entreprise familiale, tout en gardant la main sur la stratégie globale de la firme.In spite of Max Weber’s views, the present growth in the Indian economy shows rather conclusively the presence both of the spirit of capitalism and of entrepreneurship in India. In this article, I analyse the commercial strategies of the Gauda Saraswat Brahmins of South Kanara (around Mangalore, on the West coast of India, using the model of entrepreneurship proposed by Fredrik Barth (1962, 1967. True to the tradition of portefeuille capitalism (Baily 1989, these merchants distribute their capital between safe but moderately remunerative ventures, and projects that are profitable but risky. The entrepreneur, here, is rarely an individual, rather we see a strategy orchestrated by the family, which in its turn corresponds to the family firm. This organisation demands constant attention from the head of the family, who must listen to the ideas of

  7. La « méthode Marchand » ou le parcours professionnel d’un chargé de cours à l’EPPFE durant l’entre-deux-guerres

    OpenAIRE

    Besse, Henri

    2014-01-01

    L. Marchand (1875-1948), agrégé d’allemand et admirateur de F. Brunot, méthodologue de l’enseignement du français L1, a été chargé de cours à l’École de préparation des professeurs de français à l’étranger (EPPFE), quand il n’enseignait pas le français L2 hors de France, de 1922 à 1940. Auteur d’un manuel d’allemand L2 pour francophones (1909) puis d’un manuel de français L2 pour germanophones (1920-1922), manuel qu’il adapta rapidement à d’autres publics et qui fut republié, sous une forme o...

  8. Aux origines de la préoccupation marchande à la SNCF (1960-2011 Origins of the SNCF French State Railways’ commercial focus (1960-2011 Los orígenes de la preocupación mercantil en la SNCF (1960-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Finez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cet article se propose d’étudier la convergence du secteur ferroviaire français, traditionnellement contrôlé par l’État, en direction du modèle de l’entreprise privée. Dans un premier temps, nous interrogeons l’opposition public/privé et soulignons que l’intensification de la régulation marchande dans les chemins de fer est une réalité ancienne, entamée dans les 1960, mais selon des degrés différents en fonction des sous-marchés ferroviaires considérés. Nous décrivons ensuite le cas spécifique d’une branche de la Sncf ayant adoptée de manière précoce une logique marchande. Dans un troisième temps, nous analysons les mutations du secteur en mobilisant le principe d’« isomorphisme institutionnel » : la réorganisation des chemins de fer français est tout à la fois le produit de la contrainte des institutions qui souhaitent intégrer les entreprises publiques dans l’économie de marché, du mimétisme de la Sncf qui reproduit les pratiques d’entreprises privées jugées performantes et d’un rapport de force interne en faveur de « nouveaux dirigeants » favorables à l’orientation marchande de l’entreprise publique.The paper studies the convergence between France’s traditionally State-controlled railway sector and the model of a commercial enterprise. It starts with the distinction between public and private sectors, emphasizing that the intensification of market regulation in the railway sector started as far back as the 1960s, albeit to varying degrees in different market segments. The discussion then covers the specific case of a Sncf branch that adopted a market-oriented approach at an early stage, before analyzing changes in the industry based on the theory of institutional isomorphism. The reorganization of the French railways is as much the product of constraints coming from institutions hoping to join state-owned enterprises in the market economy, as a reflection of the Sncf’s own

  9. Die Tübinger Südstadt. 20 Jahre Nutzungsmischung im Neubau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pätz, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Since the 90s, many cities have convert developed conversion areas into new housing. One of the most ambitious projects in Germany is Tubingen's south side. Creating a lively and attractive neighborhood was the goal of developing this neighborhood, and a wide variety of citizens took part in the process. The essential building blocks for the process were allocating the properties to building associations, mixed use, density, quality of the public spaces and participation. This neighborhood's social diversity was reflected in the various kinds of housing, business, and in the social and cultural infrastructure. The city provided the "hardware", the creation of free spaces and opportunities for participation. And the "software", the willingness to get involved, came from the citizens as builders, residents, entrepreneurs, and members of the initiative. The vibrancy and urbanity of the neighborhood is a testament to the feasibility of creating mix-use neighborhoods under certain conditions.

  10. Mobilität in der Tübinger Altstadt. Herausforderungen im Dreiklang von Verkehr, Bewohnerbelangen und Stadtentwicklung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Tilman

    2017-09-01

    Like many German cities, Tübingen has medieval historic origins. The narrow streets of the old town with its historic buildings are part of the city's specific character that is often used for its tourism marketing. The special scenery makes the centre of Tübingen an attractive place to spend free time, for shopping, and for living. But it also poses specific challenges leading to conflicting objectives when coping with traffic, the needs of its local inhabitants, and the future development of the city.

  11. Characterization of Suspended-Sediment Loading to and from John Redmond Reservoir, East-Central Kansas, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Casey J.; Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2008-01-01

    Storage capacity in John Redmond Reservoir is being lost to sedimentation more rapidly than in other federal impoundments in Kansas. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, initiated a study to characterize suspended-sediment loading to and from John Redmond Reservoir from February 21, 2007, through February 21, 2008. Turbidity sensors were installed at two U.S. Geological Survey stream gages upstream (Neosho River near Americus and the Cottonwood River near Plymouth) and one stream gage downstream (Neosho River at Burlington) from the reservoir to compute continuous, real-time (15-minute) measurements of suspended-sediment concentration and loading. About 1,120,000 tons of suspended-sediment were transported to, and 100,700 tons were transported from John Redmond Reservoir during the study period. Dependent on the bulk density of sediment stored in the reservoir, 5.0 to 1.4 percent of the storage in the John Redmond conservation pool was lost during the study period, with an average deposition of 3.4 to 1.0 inches. Nearly all (98-99 percent) of the incoming sediment load was transported during 9 storms which occurred 25 to 27 percent of the time. The largest storm during the study period (peak-flow recurrence interval of about 4.6-4.9 years) transported about 37 percent of the sediment load to the reservoir. Suspended-sediment yield from the unregulated drainage area upstream from the Neosho River near Americus was 530 tons per square mile, compared to 400 tons per square mile upstream from the Cottonwood River near Plymouth. Comparison of historical (1964-78) to current (2007) sediment loading estimates indicate statistically insignificant (99 percent) decrease in sediment loading at the Neosho River at Burlington. Ninety-percent confidence intervals of streamflow-derived estimates of total sediment load were 7 to 21 times larger than turbidity-derived estimates. Results from this study can be used by natural resource managers to calibrate sediment models and estimate the ability of John Redmond Reservoir to support designated uses into the future.

  12. La gestion marchande, arme de destruction massive de l'Université

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchet, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    de se plier aux exigences du marketing et du management. Cependant, c’est la finalité même des universités qui est remise en question par l’introduction de la logique de gestion issue du marché. Comment peut-on espérer que l’Université puisse contribuer à une compréhension de la crise quand tout est...

  13. Resin secretory canals in Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl.) Marchand. (Burseraceae): a tridimensional branched and anastomosed system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Fernanda Helena; Rodrigues, Maria Ivanilde de Araújo; de Nicolai, Juan; Machado, Silvia Rodrigues; Rodrigues, Tatiane Maria

    2017-12-20

    Protium heptaphyllum is a Burseraceae species known by the production of aromatic resin with medicinal, economic, and ecological values. Information on the development, architecture, and lifetime of the secretory system are crucial to understand the resin production and contribute to a more sustainable tapping regime. We investigated the histology and ultrastructure of the secretory canals under a developmental point of view. Stem samples were analyzed under light and transmission electron microscopy by conventional and cytochemical methods. Secretory canals, originated from procambium and cambium, occurred immersed in the primary and secondary phloem. Mature canals have a secretory epithelium and a wide lumen where the exudate is accumulated. A sheath of parenchyma cells with meristematic features surrounds the epithelium. The canals originate by schizogenesis and develop by schyzolysigenesis. Canals active in secretion occurred since the shoot apex and near the cambium. In the dilation zone of the secondary phloem, secretory canals exhibit sclerified epithelial and sheath cells and are inactive in secretion. Secreting epithelial cells have subcellular apparatus consistent with oleoresin, polysaccharides, and enzymes secretion. Pectinase and cellulase were cytochemically detected in developing canals and are involved in cell wall changes associated to canal growth and release of exudate. In P. heptaphyllum, the secretory system has a complex structure resultant from longitudinal growth, lateral ramification, and fusion of the adjacent canals, in addition to intrusive growth of both epithelial and sheath cells. Although some anatomical results are already known, ultrastructural data represent the novelty of this work. Our findings can contribute to the establishment of more efficient and sustainable techniques for resin extraction in this species.

  14. Guerriers et marchands: éléments pour une économic Politique des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article focuses on the study of the new forms of conflict in Africa and their determinants – the new intra-state conflicts which have replaced the Cold War induced conflicts. The new conflict situations in some countries have become a means for dominance of politics of closure, a closure of spaces and a hindrance to ...

  15. Juan Friede, primer marchand de Bogotá y pionero de la moderna historiografía colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Rueda Enciso

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Conocí a Juan Friede (1901-1990 a través de las lecturas de los cursos de historia de Colombia que tan sabiamente daba en la Universidad Nacional la profesora Margarita González. Esas primeras referencias acerca de Friede constituyeron toda una revelación, pues, además de proporcionarme enseñanzas sobre temas desconocidos, me abrieron grandes perspectivas, despertaron en mí especiales inquietudes intelectuales y sobre todo me indicaron que ese extranjero que había investigado y escrito sobre los indígenas de manera tan apasionada debía de ser un personaje lleno de historia.

  16. Du vivrier au vivrier marchand et à l'intégration sous-régionale : le cas de la filière arachide

    OpenAIRE

    Essang , Timothée; Magrin , Géraud; Kadekoy-Tigague , David

    2003-01-01

    International audience; L'arachide, introduite pendant l'époque coloniale, est apparue lors des crises cotonnières comme une des pistes pour assurer des revenus complémentaires à ceux tirés du coton. L'étude dont l'objectif est de comprendre les conditions d'émergence de cette culture, fait ressortir que sa rentabilité en est une. Dans certaines conditions, cette rentabilité peut être supérieure à celle obtenue avec le coton. De plus, tout en assurant la sécurité alimentaire des populations, ...

  17. Limites du systeme de collecte du maïs comme vivrier marchand dans les hauts plateaux de l'Ouest Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEAN NOËL NGAPGUE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Limits of the system of maize collection developed by traders in West Cameroon plateau . In the Western high plateau region of Cameroon, maize is a cash crop but the farmers do not understand the marketing system giving way to middlemen traders to benefit from the disorganisation of the maize trade to exploit the relationship between the farme rs and the market. This paper seeks to know whether maize trade through middlemen can help peasant farmers to adequately fight against poverty. Findings show that in spite of adequate maize production the trade through middlemen presents limitations. The middlemen attend only the periodic markets and those one located in accessible places. They buy maize in small quantities at very low prices and stock in small relay centres for short periods of time. These centres therefore function simply loading maize and cannot serve as veritable poles of economic development. Such are the handicaps in the commercialisation of maize which cannot contribute to the development of maize farming with attendant improvements to the living conditions of the farmers.

  18. La responsabilité globale des entreprises du service public marchand : vers un élargissement de la notion de responsabilité sociale et environnementale

    OpenAIRE

    Merlin-Brogniart, Céline; Depret, Marc-Hubert

    2016-01-01

    Dans le contexte actuel de crise à la fois financière, sociale et climatique, le développement durable obtient l’adhésion d’une majorité d’acteurs. Parmi ceux-ci, les entreprises ont progressivement pris conscience des externalités négatives induites par leurs activités, tant dans le domaine environnemental que dans le domaine social. Ce phénomène s’inscrit, plus largement, dans ce qu’on appelle la responsabilité sociale de l’entreprise (RSE) qui a donné lieu à une riche littérature tant en é...

  19. Michael Mästlin as a Tübingen professor - academic everyday life at the beginning of the 17th century. (German Title: Michael Mästlin als Tübinger Professor - akademischer Alltag an der Schwelle zum 17. Jahrhundert)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wischnath, Johannes Michael

    This contribution elucidates everyday academic at Tübingen University at the beginning of the 17th century, which formed a framework for Michael Mästlin's life as a teacher ad researcher. These activities included administrative tasks, meetings and negotiations, disputations and examinations, church services, academic festivities, group ceremonies and meals. This reconstruction is not only based on unpublished files and minutes of the university and the faculty of arts, but also on the diary of the Greek scholar Martin Crusius, which contains numerous surprising and colourful details from the life of the astronomer.

  20. Chemical composition and acaricidal activity of the leaf and fruit essential oils of Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl. Marchand (Burseraceae Composição química e atividade acaricida do óleo essencial das folhas e frutos de Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl. Marchand (Burseraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendel José Teles Pontes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils from leaves and fruits of Protiumheptaphyllum collected in Tamandaré beach Pernambuco/Brazil were analysed by GC/MS and tested for toxicity and repellent effect against the two spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae. The major constituent identified in the fruits was alpha-terpinene (47.6 % whereas oil from leaf contained mainly sesquiterpenes such as 9-epi-caryophyllene (21.4 %, trans-isolongifolanone (10.7 % and 14-hydroxi-9-epi-caryophyllene (16.7 %. The fruit oil was found to be more effective against the mite when compared to the leaf oil. Both showed mortality properties and oviposition deterrence in higher concentration (10 µl.l-1 air, but only the essential oil from fruits induced repellence on T. urticae.O óleo essencial das folhas e frutos de Protiumheptaphyllum coletada em Tamandaré-Pernambuco foi analisado por CG/EM e testado sua toxicidade e efeito repelente contra ácaro rajado (Tetranychus urticae. O constituinte majoritário identificado nos frutos foi alfa-terpineno (47,6 % enquanto que nas folhas foram os sesquiterpenos 9-epi-cariofileno (21,4 %, trans-isolongifolanona (10,7 % and 14-hidroxi-9-epi-cariofileno (16,7 %. O óleo dos frutos foi mais eficiente contra o ácaro, comparado com o óleo das folhas. Ambos os óleos revelaram propriedades de mortalidade e deterrência de oviposição na maior concentração (10 µl.l-1 air e apenas o óleo essencial dos frutos induziu repelência no T. urticae.

  1. Déterminants de la confiance du consommateur vis-à-vis d’un marchand Internet non familier : une approche par le rôle des tiers

    OpenAIRE

    Chouk, Inès; Perrien, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Lack of trust has been identified as the major barrier to the growth of electronic commerce. Building trust is essential for the success of web vendors, especially less-known ones. If trust is a sine qua non condition of e-commerce development, then understanding its determinants should be a primary concern for web merchants. This research explores trust within the context of business-to-consumer e-commerce. More specifically, we focus on the role of third parties in building trust. Much rece...

  2. Redescription, systematic status and molecular characterisation of Multicaecum heterotis Petter, Vassiliadès et Marchand, 1979 (Nematoda: Heterocheilidae), an intestinal parasite of Heterotis niloticus (Osteichthyes: Arapaimidae) in Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mašová, Š.; Moravec, František; Baruš, V.; Seifertová, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2010), s. 280-288 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GD526/09/H025 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Nematoda * Brevimulticaecum * Multicaecum * Senegal * Sudan * Africa * Heterotis * barcoding * 18S rDNA sequences * ITS2 sequences Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.533, year: 2010

  3. La confiance à travers l'échange. Accès aux pâturages au Nord-Cameroun et échanges non-marchands : des simulations dans des systèmes multi-agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Rouchier, Juliette

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes two agent-based models that develop the emergence of relational patterns through exchange, and in particular trust and reputation. After reviewing the literature on trust, we describe these two models, which are based on observation of herdmen's behaviour in Nord-Cameroon when they negotiate their access to rangeland. To develop trust, these actors rely on three mechanisms: familiarity, reputation and the way they show themselves as reliable people through accepted behav...

  4. H:\\PMKER 25(2)\\PDF 25(2)\\BAN KOFFI.xps

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    159. Fermentations et qualité marchande des fèves de cacao. IMPACTS DE LA FERMENTATION DU CACAO. SUR LA CROISSANCE DE LA FLORE MICROBIENNE. ET LA QUALITE DES FEVES MARCHANDES. L. BAN KOFFI1, G. H. OUATTARA2, T. G. KAROU1-2, S. TAGRO GUEHI3, J. G. NEMLIN1 et J. K. DIOPOH2.

  5. The effect of different replications of humic acid fertilization on yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-22

    Jun 22, 2011 ... humic substances. Some researchers found that humic acid increased the yields in some plants. Studies have shown that this substance has caused yield increase of. 22 to 23% (Adani et al., 1998) and 36.3% (Togun and. Akanbi, 2003) in tomato, 32.5 to 42.5% in maize (Tan and Binger, 1986), 10 to 30% ...

  6. The Art of Mud Building in Djenné, Mali

    OpenAIRE

    Marchand, Trevor H.J.

    2016-01-01

    An introduction to the documentary film Masons of Djenné by the film's director, Emeritus Prof. Trevor H.J. Marchand of Social Anthropology at the school of Oriental and African Studies at the University of London.

  7. Adolescent Mice Are Resilient to Alcohol Withdrawal-Induced Anxiety and Changes in Indices of Glutamate Function within the Nucleus Accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kaziya M; Coelho, Michal A; McGregor, Hadley A; Solton, Noah R; Cohen, Matan; Szumlinski, Karen K

    2016-01-01

    Binge-drinking is the most prevalent form of alcohol abuse and while an early life history of binge-drinking is a significant risk factor for subsequent alcoholism and co-morbid affective disorders, relatively little is known regarding the biobehavioral impact of binge-drinking during the sensitive neurodevelopmental period of adolescence. In adult mice, a month-long history of binge-drinking elicits a hyper-glutamatergic state within the nucleus accumbens (Acb), coinciding with hyper-anxiety. Herein, we employed a murine model of binge-drinking to determine whether or not: (1) withdrawal-induced changes in brain and behavior differ between adult and adolescent bingers; and (2) increased behavioral signs of negative affect and changes in Acb expression of glutamate-related proteins would be apparent in adult mice with less chronic binge-drinking experience (14 days, approximating the duration of mouse adolescence). Adult and adolescent male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to a 14-day binge-drinking protocol (5, 10, 20 and 40% alcohol (v/v) for 2 h/day), while age-matched controls received water. At 24 h withdrawal, half of the animals from each group were assayed for negative affect, while tissue was sampled from the shell (AcbSh) and core (AcbC) subregions of the remaining mice for immunoblotting analyses. Adult bingers exhibited hyper-anxiety when tested for defensive marble burying. Additionally, adult bingers showed increased mGlu1, mGlu5, and GluN2b expression in the AcbSh and PKCε and CAMKII in the AcbC. Compared to adults, adolescent mice exhibited higher alcohol intake and blood alcohol concentrations (BACs); however, adolescent bingers did not show increased anxiety in the marble-burying test. Furthermore, adolescent bingers also failed to exhibit the same alcohol-induced changes in mGlu and kinase protein expression seen in the adult bingers. Irrespective of age, bingers exhibited behavioral hyperactivity in the forced swim test (FST) compared to water

  8. Fashoda: Turning Point in Anglo-French Relations: a Study in Military-Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Ministere des Affaires Etrang~res, Documents diplomrtiques frangais, 1871-1914 (1st series, 16 volumes, Paris: amprimerin N tioial , 1929-59), XII, no. 152...Minister of Finance Paul Peytral Minister of Foreign Affairs Th~ophile Delcasse Minister of Justice M. Lebret Minister of War Charles-Louis de Freycinet...Michel’s La Mission Marchand is a precise examination of the financing , orga- nization, and support of the Marchand Expedition, as well as its progress, mile

  9. Piezosurgery in implant dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    St?binger, Stefan; Stricker, Andres; Berg, Britt-Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Stefan Stübinger,1 Andres Stricker,2 Britt-Isabelle Berg3,4 1Hightech Research Center of Cranio-maxillofacial Surgery, University of Basel, Allschwil, Switzerland; 2Private Practice, Konstanz, Germany; 3Department of Cranio-maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 4Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Piezosurgery, or the use of piezoelectric devices, is being applied increasingly i...

  10. Gender-Dynamiken in der Rekonstruktion von Bildungsprozessen in Medienprojekten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Stauber

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Dieser Beitrag basiert auf Erfahrungen aus einem aktuellen Praxisforschungsprojekt des tifs (Tübinger Institut für frauenpolitische Sozialforschung. Es wurde in Auftrag gegeben von der Landesstiftung Baden-Württemberg zur Evaluation ihres Programms «Jugend und verantwortungsvolle Mediennutzung», mit dem sie medienpädagogische Projekte in unterschiedlichen Jugendhilfe-Kontexten (Projekte der offenen und der verbandlichen Jugendarbeit, der Hilfen zur Erziehung, der Jugendberatung etc. förderte.

  11. Advances in bone surgery: the Er:YAG laser in oral surgery and implant dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    St?binger, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Stefan StübingerCompetence Center for Applied Biotechnology and Molecular Medicine, University of Zürich, Zürich, SwitzerlandAbstract: The erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Er:YAG) laser has emerged as a possible alternative to conventional methods of bone ablation because of its wavelength of 2.94 μm, which coincides with the absorption peak of water. Over the last decades in several experimental and clinical studies, the widespread initial assumption t...

  12. Commentary on "Risks of primary extracolonic cancers following colorectal cancer in Lynch syndrome." Win AK, Lindor NM, Young JP, Macrae FA, Young GP, Williamson E, Parry S, Goldblatt J, Lipton L, Winship I, Leggett B, Tucker KM, Giles GG, Buchanan DD, Clendenning M, Rosty C, Arnold J, Levine AJ, Haile RW, Gallinger S, Le Marchand L, Newcomb PA, Hopper JL, Jenkins MA, Centre for Molecular, Environmental, Genetic and Analytic Epidemiology, Melbourne School of Population Health, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: J Natl Cancer Inst 2012;104(18):1363-72 [Epub 2012 Aug 28].

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, William A

    2013-07-01

    Lynch syndrome is a highly penetrant cancer predisposition syndrome caused by germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. We estimated the risks of primary cancers other than colorectal cancer following a diagnosis of colorectal cancer in mutation carriers. We obtained data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry for 764 carriers of an MMR gene mutation (316 MLH1, 357 MSH2, 49 MSH6, and 42 PMS2), who had a previous diagnosis of colorectal cancer. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate their cumulative risk of cancers 10 and 20 years after colorectal cancer. We estimated the age-, sex-, country- and calendar period-specific standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of cancers following colorectal cancer, compared with the general population. Following colorectal cancer, carriers of MMR gene mutations had the following 10-year risk of cancers in other organs: kidney, renal pelvis, ureter, and bladder (2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1% to 3%); small intestine, stomach, and hepatobiliary tract (1%, 95% CI = 0.2% to 2%); prostate (3%, 95% CI = 1% to 5%); endometrium (12%, 95% CI = 8% to 17%); breast (2%, 95% CI = 1% to 4%); and ovary (1%, 95% CI = 0% to 2%). They were at elevated risk compared with the general population: cancers of the kidney, renal pelvis, and ureter (SIR = 12.54, 95% CI = 7.97 to 17.94), urinary bladder (SIR = 7.22, 95% CI = 4.08 to 10.99), small intestine (SIR = 72.68, 95% CI = 39.95 to 111.29), stomach (SIR = 5.65, 95% CI = 2.32 to 9.69), and hepatobiliary tract (SIR = 5.94, 95% CI = 1.81 to 10.94) for both sexes; cancer of the prostate (SIR = 2.05, 95% CI = 1.23 to 3.01), endometrium (SIR = 40.23, 95% CI = 27.91 to 56.06), breast (SIR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.07 to 2.59), and ovary (SIR = 4.19, 95% CI = 1.28 to 7.97). Carriers of MMR gene mutations who have already had a colorectal cancer are at increased risk of a greater range of cancers than the recognized spectrum of Lynch syndrome cancers, including breast and prostate cancers. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Design of a broadband passive X-band double-balanced mixer in SiGe HBT technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Rasmus Schandorph; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Tamborg, Kjeld M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a passive double-balanced mixer in SiGe HBT technology is presented. Owing to lack of suitable passive mixing elements in the technology, the mixing elements are formed by diode-connected HBTs. The mixer uses lumped element Marchand baluns on both the local oscillator (LO) and the ...

  14. An InP HBT sub-harmonic mixer for E-band wireless communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Krozer, Viktor

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a novel balanced HBT subharmonic mixer (SHM) for E-band wireless communication. An LO spiral type Marchand balun is integrated with the SHM. The SHM has been fabricated in a InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT) circuit-oriented technology with fT /fmax = 180GHz...

  15. Balanced G-band Gm-boosted frequency doublers in transferred substrate InP HBT technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Thualfiqar, Al-Sawaf; Weimann, Nils

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, balanced G-band Gm-boosted frequency doublers in transferred substrate (TS) InP HBT technology are reported for the first time. The Gm-boosted frequency doublers consist of a phase compensated Marchand balun, Gm-boosted doubler stage, and an optional cascode gain stage at the outpu...

  16. Chemical composition of the essential oils from two subspecies of Protium heptaphyllum Composição química do óleo essencial de duas subespécies do Protium heptaphyllum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delcio Dias Marques

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the volatile constituents from resin of Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl. Marchand subsp. ulei (Swat Daly (PHU, and Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl. Marchand subsp. heptaphyllum (PHH, Burseraceae were performed using GC-MS and GC-FID. The resins were collected around the city of Cruzeiro do Sul, state of Acre, Brazil. Essential oils from the two subspecies were extracted by hydrodistillation with a yield of 8.6% (PHU and 11.3% (PHH; the main components were terpinolene (42.31% and p-cymene (39.93% for subspecies ulei (PHU and heptaphyllum (PHH, respectively.As análises qualitativa e quantitativa dos óleos essenciais obtidos das resinas das espécies Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl. Marchand subespécie ulei (Swat Daly (PHU e Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl. Marchand subespécie heptaphyllum (PHH, Burseraceae, foram realizadas utilizando cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplado a um espectrômetro de massa (CG-EM e cromatografia a gás com detector de chama (CG-DIC. As resinas foram coletadas no Município de Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre, Brasil. O óleo essencial das oleoresinas foi extraído por hidrodestilação fornecendo rendimento 8,6% para PHU e 11,3% para PHH. Os monoterpenos terpinoleno (42.31% e p-cimeno (39.93% foram os constituintes principais para PHU e PHH, respectivamente.

  17. In Memoriam Books

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the MASA was to assist with and to co-ordinate the work of the Central Committee for Contract Practice - a task for which he showed outstanding aptitUde and enthusiasm, thus making the task of both the. Committee and the Federal Council that much easier and more effective. Or Marchand should without doubt, be seen as ...

  18. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    recognized by Hippocrates and was carefully described in the sixth century by Actues of Amida, who was the first to use the term hydatid. However, it was not until 1903 that Marchand identified uterine choriocarcinoma as a chorionic malignancy rather than a uterine malignancy arising in the decidua (2). Though gestational.

  19. Kirg prantsuse, sakslased austraalia ja huumor briti moodi / Tiit Merisalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Merisalu, Tiit

    1997-01-01

    Seriaalid "Punane ja must" ("Le rouge et le noir"), režissöör Jean-Daniel Verhaeghe : Prantsusmaa 1997; "Päike kõrrepõllu kohal" ("The Valley Between"), režissöör Robert Marchand : Austraalia 1996 ja "Smith ja Jones" ("Smith and Jones"), režissöörid John Kilby jt. : Inglismaa

  20. Comparison of trace element contamination levels (Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... A comparative survey of the levels of contamination of the two gastropods, of the Potomidae family, has been done in the lagoon Ebrié .... rinsed with demineralised water, air-dried, then maintain plugged and wrapped before being ..... Marchand M, Martin JL (1985). Détermination de la pollution chimique.

  1. Welche Zukunft für die Demokratie? Welche Demokratie für die Zukunft?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Pinzani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2010v9n1p149 Otfried Höffes neuestes Buch zum Thema, Demokratie in der heutigen Welt“ – ein Thema, dem der Tübinger Sozialphilosoph schon die vorausgegangenen Bände Demokratie im Zeitalter der Globalisierung (1999 und Wirstschaftsbürger, Staatsbürger, Weltbürger (2004 gewidmet hatte – stellt einen wichtigen Versuch dar, die Frage der Zukunftsfähigkeit der Demokratie zu beantworten.

  2. Differential segmentation responses to an alcohol social marketing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Timo; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn; Schuster, Lisa; Drennan, Judy; Russell-Bennett, Rebekah; Leo, Cheryl; Gullo, Matthew J; Connor, Jason P

    2015-10-01

    This study seeks to establish whether meaningful subgroups exist within a 14-16 year old adolescent population and if these segments respond differently to the Game On: Know Alcohol (GOKA) intervention, a school-based alcohol social marketing program. This study is part of a larger cluster randomized controlled evaluation of the GOKA program implemented in 14 schools in 2013/2014. TwoStep cluster analysis was conducted to segment 2,114 high school adolescents (14-16 years old) on the basis of 22 demographic, behavioral, and psychographic variables. Program effects on knowledge, attitudes, behavioral intentions, social norms, alcohol expectancies, and drinking refusal self-efficacy of identified segments were subsequently examined. Three segments were identified: (1) Abstainers, (2) Bingers, and (3) Moderate Drinkers. Program effects varied significantly across segments. The strongest positive change effects post-participation were observed for Bingers, while mixed effects were evident for Moderate Drinkers and Abstainers. These findings provide preliminary empirical evidence supporting the application of social marketing segmentation in alcohol education programs. Development of targeted programs that meet the unique needs of each of the three identified segments will extend the social marketing footprint in alcohol education. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. éphémérides ou biographie sommaire de Savinien de Cyrano de Bergerac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Alcover

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Biographie15519 avril : mariage, à Paris, des grands-parents paternels de l’écrivain, Savinien I de Cyrano et Anne Le Maire : celle-ci est la petite-fille d’Étienne Cardon, marchand parisien. À ce jour, l’origine du grand-père paternel n’est pas résolue (sarde ? descendant d’un marchand bourrelier de Sens ?.1555Le couple signe une donation entre vifs qui, en cas de décès, fait du survivant son légataire universel. Quatre enfants leur survivront : Abel, Samuel, Pierre et Anne.1555-1560Savinie...

  4. Associative Memories for Supercomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Engineering. March 1991. The Hague. The Netherlands. 5) "Application des hologrammes synth6tiques au stockage sur disque optique" P. Marchand, A...1upprimer tous Its meuvements m~caniques de la tete de lecture au-dessus de Ia surface du disque. 2.4 Encodage des hologrammes Ainsi I’adressage des...de lecture. De plus, Its donrindes sent stockdes suir le disque tasiie des hologrammes vanec, modifiant proportionneliernent Ia sous ferme

  5. Book Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Redactie KITLV

    2008-01-01

    Trevor Wilson (ed.); Myanmar’s long road to national reconciliation (Jean A. Berley) Jennifer Lindsay (ed.); Between tongues; Translation and/of/in performance in Asia (Michael Bodden) Volker Grabowsky; Bevölkerung und Staat in Lan Na; Ein Beitrag zur Bevölkerungsgeschichte Südostasiens Peter Boomgaard) Odille Gannier, Cécile Picquoin (eds); Journal de bord d’Etienne Marchand; Le voyage du Solide autour du monde (1790-1792 (H.J.M. Claessen) Arjan va...

  6. Mgbakoigba, Journal of African Studies. Vol.5 No.2. June 2016 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MRS ADAOBl

    2016-06-02

    Jun 2, 2016 ... That is, a compound consists of a combination of two words in which one word modifies the ... For Marchand (1958), compounds consist of two elements ..... BLENDING IN ETULO COMPOUND WORDS------- Adaobi Ngozi Okoye oil car petrol g.ènì , +àde < ènìàdê. Water palm palmwine h ènì '' + àb <ènìàb.

  7. Utilisation et gestion des pesticides en cultures maraîchères : cas de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 nov. 2017 ... Mises à part ces deux raisons majeures, un des maraîchers enquêtés a également évoqué la grande valeur marchande des cultures maraîchères, notamment les légumes fruits dont la tomate, le poivron. Tableau 2 : Principales cultures maraîchères cultivées, et les principales raisons de leurs choix par les ...

  8. 6- LATRECHE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrateur

    E : La part, ignorée par les statistiques, de la production non marchande des ménages;. F : Opérations de corruption, pots de vin, commissions sur les marchés, détournements de biens publics, etc. Graphe 1: Les causes du non enregistrement des activités souterraines. Institutions. Secteur privé. Secteur étatique. Activité.

  9. Gestion agro-écologique des mouches de fruits de manguier dans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectif : Dans la Province Nord de Guinée-Bissau, les Tephritidae font partie des insectes redoutables du manguier. Les Tephritidae attaquent les fruits altérant leurs qualités nutritionnelle et marchande. L'objectif de l'étude est de tester l'efficacité d'un dispositif agro-écologique de gestion durable des mouches de fruits du ...

  10. Theoretical Perspectives on Gender and Development | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Elle a dirigé avec Marianne Marchand la publication d'une collection intitulée Feminism/Postmodernism/Development et elle effectue des recherches et enseigne sur les questions d'égalité entre les sexes et la théorie du développement, ainsi que sur la grande question de l'égalité entre les sexes dans la création d'une ...

  11. Analyse anthropotechnique du port de charge sur la tete au Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les difficultés auxquelles les femmes marchandes ambulantes de Porto-Novo sont confrontées sont dues à la qualité et à l'efficacité des moyens et des techniques de transport de leurs marchandises dans les marchés. En effet, ces femmes ont choisi de porter leurs marchandises sur la tête à travers les cinq grands ...

  12. Amélioration de la gouvernance du secteur piscicole dans le bassin ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    pisciculteurs, ont lancé le projet “Peces para la. Vida” (Poissons pour la vie), ou PPV. À l'époque, la FEUPECOPINAB (acronyme espagnol désignant la fédération unique des pêcheurs, des marchands de poisson et des pisciculteurs de la région amazonienne du nord de la Bolivie) était confrontée à la marginalisation et ...

  13. ÉTUDE DE CAS – Côte d'Ivoire : De la forêt aux champs en Côte d ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    11 janv. 2011 ... Aujourd'hui, Buyo fait partie de la « nouvelle ceinture du café et du cacao » de la Côte d'Ivoire et est devenu un pôle d'attraction pour les immigrants. La plupart y viennent en quête de terres où s'adonner aux cultures marchandes. Certains trouvent du travail dans lesexploitations forestières ou dans les ...

  14. Améliorer l'environnement, améliorer la santé en Côte d'Ivoire ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    12 juil. 2011 ... Aujourd'hui, Buyo fait partie de la « nouvelle ceinture du café et du cacao » de la Côte d'Ivoire et est devenu un pôle d'attraction pour les immigrants. La plupart y viennent en quête de terres où s'adonner aux cultures marchandes. Certains trouvent du travail dans des exploitations forestières ou dans les ...

  15. Étude de l'influence du chlorure mercurique sur la survie in vitro d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    29 mai 2013 ... clonage conforme d'individus sélectionnés, devrait donc permettre d'améliorer considérablement la valeur marchande des plantations de teck en gagnant en qualité et en homogénéité (Mascarenhas et Muraudharan, 1993). Cependant, les méthodes traditionnelles de propagation végétative (greffage,.

  16. Armes contre diamants | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    15 juil. 2011 ... En 2000, l'industrie mondiale du diamant a produit plus de 120 millions de carats de diamants bruts ayant une valeur marchande de 7,5 milliards $US. Ces diamants bruts ont été transformés en 70 millions de bijoux valant presque 58 milliards $US. Le trafic auquel se livrent les armées rebelles en Sierra ...

  17. Worldline calculation of the three-gluon vertex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadiniaz, N.; Schubert, C.

    2012-01-01

    The three-gluon vertex is a basic object of interest in nonabelian gauge theory. At the one-loop level, it has been calculated and analyzed by a number of authors. Here we use the worldline formalism to unify the calculations of the scalar, spinor and gluon loop contributions to the one-loop vertex, leading to an extremely compact representation in terms of field strength tensors. We verify its equivalence with previously obtained representations, and explain the relation of its structure to the low-energy effective action. The sum rule found by Binger and Brodsky for the scalar, spinor and gluon loop contributions in the present approach relates to worldline supersymmetry.

  18. Perception of emotional prosody in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, B; Guberina, N; Kraemer, M; Niklewski, F; Dziobek, I; Wiltfang, J; Abdel-Hamid, M

    2017-06-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with social conflicts. The purpose of this study was to explore domains of social cognition in adult patients with ADHD. The assessment of social cognition was based on established neuropsychological tests: the Tübinger Affect Battery (TAB) for prosody and the Cambridge Behaviour Scale (CBS) for empathy. The performance of adults with ADHD (N = 28) was compared with the performance of a control group (N = 29) matched according to basic demographic variables. Treatment-naïve adults with ADHD showed deficits in emotional prosody (P = 0.02) and in the ability to empathize (P 0.2). No gender differences concerning social cognitive skills were detected. ADHD is associated with social cognition impairments involving both emotional prosody and empathy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Self-reported alcohol use and binge drinking in South Africa: Evidence from the National Income Dynamics Study, 2014 - 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellios, N G; Van Walbeek, C P

    2017-12-13

     Although the South African (SA) government has implemented alcohol control measures, alcohol consumption remains high. To quantify the prevalence of self-reported current drinking and binge drinking in SA, and to determine important covariates.  We used the 2014 - 2015 National Income Dynamics Study, a nationally representative dataset of just over 20 000 individuals aged ≥15 years. Multiple regression logit analyses were performed separately by gender for self-reported current drinkers (any amount), self-reported bingers as a proportion of drinkers, and self-reported bingers as a proportion of the total population. An individual was defined as a binge drinker if he/she reported consumption of ≥5 standard drinks on an average drinking day. Current alcohol use (any amount) in 2014 - 2015 was reported by 33.1% of the population (47.7% males, 20.2% females). Of drinkers, 43.0% reported binge drinking (48.2% males, 32.4% females). The prevalence of self-reported binge drinking as a percentage of the total population was 14.1% (22.8% males, 6.4% females). Although black African males and females were less likely than white males and females to report drinking any amount, they were more likely to report binge drinking. Coloured (mixed race) females were more likely than black African females to report drinking any amount. Males and females who professed a religious affiliation were less likely than those who did not to report drinking any alcohol. The prevalence of self-reported binge drinking was highest among males and females aged 25 - 34 years. Smoking cigarettes substantially increased the likelihood of drinking any amount and of binge drinking for both genders. In SA, one in three individuals reported drinking alcohol, while one in seven reported binge drinking on an average day on which alcohol was consumed. Strong, evidence-based policies are needed to reduce the detrimental effects of alcohol use.

  20. Long-term interdisciplinary therapy decreases symptoms of binge eating disorder and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adults with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Paula Bresciani; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda; Poli, Vanessa Schoenardie; Sanches, Ricardo Badan; Silva, Stephan Garcia Andrade; Fidalgo, João Pedro Novo; Nascimento, Maythe Amaral; de Oliveira, Camila Aparecida Machado; Caranti, Danielle Arisa

    2017-04-01

    Obesity-associated comorbidities greatly impact the quality and expectancy of life. Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most prevalent eating disorder and it is an important risk factor for obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). For these reasons, we aimed to assess the effect of an interdisciplinary therapy on the symptoms of BED and the prevalence of MetS in obese adults. It was hypothesized that the interdisciplinary therapy would decrease symptoms of BED and markers of MetS. Twenty-four volunteers (BMI 34.80±3.17 kg/m 2 ; 41.21±6.28 years old) completed a 32-week intervention. Biochemical characteristics, body composition, the degree of symptoms of binge eating, and macronutrients, and sodium consumption pre- and post-treatment were determined. The prevalence of MetS dropped from 75% to 45.8%, post-therapy. Among the markers of MetS, waist circumference and systolic blood pressure decreased significantly, whereas high-density lipoprotein levels increased. Fasting plasma glucose, diastolic blood pressure, and triglycerides did not change. Based on binge-eating scale (BES) scores, before therapy, 33.3% of volunteers were classified as moderate bingers, and after therapy all volunteers were classified as having no BED symptoms. No difference in the prevalence of MetS between individuals classified as normal or moderate bingers was observed, but we found a positive post-therapy correlation between the BES score and body fat, gynoid fat and trunk fat. Sodium, fat, and carbohydrate consumption decreased. Protein intake did not change. In conclusion, the interdisciplinary approach was efficient in reducing symptoms of BED and MetS prevalence in this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Entre le néolibéralisme et la morale, la conception musulmane du développement en Turquie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Ünsaldi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Malgré ses crises et ses remises en cause, le modèle de développement fondé sur la centralité de la norme marchande semble préserver son hégémonie planétaire, éclipsant d’autant les modèles de développement « hérétiques ». On assiste alors à un recentrage des pratiques discursives et des catégories analytiques sur ce qui est pensable et dicible du point de vue de cette norme marchande. C’est le cas d’un certain islam politique en Turquie, qui s’est remarquablement « adouci » après s’être rangé sous sa bannière uniformisatrice. Cet article propose de cerner de façon empirique l’alignement de l’islam politique en Turquie sur l’approche néolibérale du développement. Du point de vue de l’islam modéré, le développement est synonyme d’entrée progressive dans l’ère de la modernité marchande, revueà l’aune de quelques impératifs moraux. L’article décrypte la valorisation d’un modèle social fondé sur la charité et pointe les nombreuses contradictions entre le développement économique et le développement moral, notamment celui défendu par le parti de l’islam modéré AKP.

  2. Les facteurs de choix des localisations : les infrastructures de transport

    OpenAIRE

    Bouinot, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Introduction : Où ? – Combien ? Depuis les travaux pionniers d’ASCHAUER (1989) les chercheurs anglo-saxons ont multiplié les investigations relatives à l’incidence du stock d’équipements publics sur la croissance économique. La réponse, généralement positive, est fondée sur le traitement du capital public comme un facteur de production. L’équation correspondante permet de calculer y % , le taux de croissance du volume produit marchand imputable à une augmentation de x % du patrimoine public. ...

  3. Les facteurs de choix des localisations : les infrastructures de transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Bouinot

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Où ? – Combien ? Depuis les travaux pionniers d’ASCHAUER (1989 les chercheurs anglo-saxons ont multiplié les investigations relatives à l’incidence du stock d’équipements publics sur la croissance économique. La réponse, généralement positive, est fondée sur le traitement du capital public comme un facteur de production. L’équation correspondante permet de calculer y % , le taux de croissance du volume produit marchand imputable à une augmentation de x % du patrimoine public. ...

  4. Réduction des coûts alimentaires des lapins (Oryctolagus cuniculus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 mars 2016 ... une stratégie de réduction du coût de l'alimentation des lapins (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) leur garantissant un poids vif marchand d'au moins 1500 g à trois mois d'âge. Cette étude vise donc à comparer l'effet de deux modes de supplémentation d'un régime à base d'un aliment concentré granulé.

  5. François Gipouloux, The Asian Mediterranean: Port Cities and Trading Networks in China, Japan and Southeast Asia, 13th-21st Century,

    OpenAIRE

    Schottenhammer, Angela

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, François Gipouloux published his La Méditerranée asiatique. Villes portuaires et réseaux marchands en Chine, au Japon et en Asie du Sud-Est, xvie-xxie siècle (Paris, CNRS Éditions), providing scholars for the first time with a general Braudelian synthesis that compared the European and the Asian “Mediterraneans.” He distinguished three different Mediterranean spaces: the European Méditerranées of the repubbliche marinare, the Hanseatic League in the Baltic Seas, and the Asian Mediter...

  6. "Sister to the tailor"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonton, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Milliners, and their sisters, mantuamakers, modistes and marchandes de mode, were skilled artisans, businesswomen and tradeswomen. During the eighteenth century, they commandeered the high-class sewing that set fashion and created stars of their most famous, like Rose Bertrand, milliner to Marie...... Antoinette. They populated the growing towns of Europe and used their design and business acumen to create a virtual profession out of a handicraft. They also encountered resistance from guilds and guildsmen who tried to retain their control over commercial sewing, and certainly the bespoke and honourable...

  7. Protein Compatible Polymer Brushes on Polymeric Substrates Prepared by Surface-Initiated Transfer Radica Polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Charlotte Juel; Eskimergen, Rüya; Burkrinsky, J.T.

    2008-01-01

    have been made with model systems of poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) films as they can easily be functionalized [1]. Moreover, the inert material polypropylene has successfully beel! activated using a photochemical method [2]. Different polymers including PEG-like matenals have been investigated...... when the PEEK films were modified. The surface roughness should either be unchanged or decreased as it 'will affect the protein adsorption [3]. 1. O. Noiset, C. Henneuse, Y.-J. Schneider, J. Marchand-Brynaert Macromolecules 30 (1997) 540-548 2. J. Huang, H. Murata, R.R. Koepsel, A.J. Russell, K...

  8. De la forêt aux champs en Côte d'Ivoire | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    3 févr. 2011 ... Aujourd'hui, Buyo fait partie de la « nouvelle ceinture du café et du cacao » de la Côte d'Ivoire et est devenu un pôle d'attraction pour les immigrants économiques. La plupart y viennent en quête de terres où s'adonner aux cultures marchandes destinées à l'exportation ou aux marchés locaux. Certains ...

  9. Révélations et impasses d’une approche radicale de la mondialisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Giraut

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Une approche critique de la mondialisation peut consister à montrer l’environnement de pauvreté, de misère et d’exploitation de l’amont des filières marchandes globalisées qui exploitent une ressource localisée dans le Sud, notamment en Afrique. Une telle approche critique devient militante et terriblement efficace lorsqu’elle établit des liens de cause à effet entre l’environnement misérable et l’activité de production destinée au marché mondial. C’est le projet du ...

  10. Midday Meeting- The Noise of Planes

    CERN Multimedia

    Richner; Stucki; Bratschi; Laporte

    1970-01-01

    Mons.Blackwell demande à Mons.Laporte, chef de la division SP, de présenter les conférenciers: Mons.Marchand, Président de l'association des riverains de l'aèroport et le Docteur Richner, médecin et membre du comité de cette association; Messieurs Stucki et Bratschi prennent aussi la parole. Exposé et questions concernant le bruit des avions et l'effet du bruit à long terme

  11. Study and characterization of FeNi and NiCr(80-20) % w alloys, during and after neutron irradiation, using the resistivity method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otero, Mauro Pereira

    1978-01-01

    We have used the resistivity method with and without neutron irradiation to study the parameters that appear in the Order-Disorder Transitions of Fe Ni(50-50)% at. and Ni Cr( 80 - 20) % w. alloys. The results obtained with Fe Ni are in agreement with those obtained by Marchand at the University of Grenoble. Several isothermal annealings were made in the range 400 - 302 deg C in which T c (Order-Disorder Transition Critical Temperature) was determined between 327 and 310 deg C. The activation energy obtained was E a = 0,49 eV and is in agreement with works of Marchand, Dienes and Damask. As for Ni Cr(80-20)% the following has been done: a) Electrical Properties characterizations, having in mind the technological applications; b) Linear and isothermal annealings were performed to determine the Order-Disorder Transition Critical Temperature (I ) supported by hypothesis made, taking into account the Yano's and Taylor's marks. The-result is T c = (536 +- 4) deg C; c) determination of activation energy E a = (1,36 +- 0.14) eV. The resistivity measurements mere performed by means of the classical 4-wire method. An anisotropy of electrical resistivity was found to exist depending on the sense of the applied electrical field. (author)

  12. Traces et espaces de consommation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Cochoy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available L’avènement des technologies numériques mobiles contribue à une évolution des modalités de distribution et de consommation. Le présent article porte sur l’usage des QR-codes, ces codes-barres bidimensionnels qui offrent à tout usager équipé d’un smartphone l’accès à des contenus commerciaux en ligne. Ils participent à l’Internet des objets et donc au couplage entre espace physique et univers numérique. Ils permettent aussi la collecte de traces numériques porteuses de sens pour les professionnels mais aussi pour les sciences sociales. Grâce à ces traces, on peut comprendre les nouveaux liens marchands tissés entre l’espace physique et le développement de flux informationnels continus. À partir de l’analyse des traces enregistrées à l’occasion de la visite des QR-codes apposés sur trois produits alimentaires (une boîte de sel, une barre chocolatée, une bouteille d’eau, notre enquête s’attache à expliciter les enjeux théoriques, méthodologiques et analytiques du processus de numérisation de l’espace de mobilité physique marchand.

  13. Centenarian athletes: Examples of ultimate human performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepers, Romuald; Stapley, Paul J; Cattagni, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    some centenarians are engaged in regular physical activity and sometimes in sporting events. we aimed to identify world records of centenarian athletes in several sports and determine which represented the best performance when compared to all-age world records, all disciplines taken together. all of the best performances achieved by centenarians were identified and compared in three disciplines: athletics, swimming and cycling. The performances were considered as an average of the respective speeds, except for jumping and throwing events for which the maximum distances performed were considered. Within each discipline, the decline in performance of centenarian athletes was expressed as a percentage of the world record for that discipline. In total, 60 performances of centenarian athletes were found. These performances belong to 19 individuals: 10 in athletics, 8 in swimming and 1 in cycling. the centenarian world record performed by Robert Marchand in one hour track cycling appears to be the best performance (-50.6% compared with the all-age world record in this discipline) achieved by a centenarian. although the physiological characteristics of Robert Marchand are certainly exceptional, his remarkable performance could also be due to the lower age-related decline for cycling performances compared with running and swimming. Our observations offer new perspectives on how the human body can resist the deleterious effects of ageing. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. A covariant representation of the Ball–Chiu vertex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadiniaz, Naser; Schubert, Christian

    2013-01-01

    In nonabelian gauge theory the three-gluon vertex function contains important structural information, in particular on infrared divergences, and is also an essential ingredient in the Schwinger–Dyson equations. Much effort has gone into analyzing its general structure, and at the one-loop level also a number of explicit computations have been done, using various approaches. Here we use the string-inspired formalism to unify the calculations of the scalar, spinor and gluon loop contributions to the one-loop vertex, leading to an extremely compact representation in all cases. The vertex is computed fully off-shell and in dimensionally continued form, so that it can be used as a building block for higher-loop calculations. We find that the Bern–Kosower loop replacement rules, originally derived for the on-shell case, hold off-shell as well. We explain the relation of the structure of this representation to the low-energy effective action, and establish the precise connection with the standard Ball–Chiu decomposition of the vertex. This allows us also to predict that the vanishing of the completely antisymmetric coefficient function S of this decomposition is not a one-loop accident, but persists at higher-loop orders. The sum rule found by Binger and Brodsky, which leads to the vanishing of the one-loop vertex in N=4 SYM theory, in the present approach relates to worldline supersymmetry

  15. A covariant representation of the Ball–Chiu vertex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadiniaz, Naser, E-mail: naser@ifm.umich.mx [Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Edificio C-3, Apdo. Postal 2-82, C.P. 58040, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Bologna and INFN, Sezione di Bologna, Via Irnerio 46, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Schubert, Christian, E-mail: schubert@ifm.umich.mx [Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Edificio C-3, Apdo. Postal 2-82, C.P. 58040, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Bologna and INFN, Sezione di Bologna, Via Irnerio 46, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2013-04-21

    In nonabelian gauge theory the three-gluon vertex function contains important structural information, in particular on infrared divergences, and is also an essential ingredient in the Schwinger–Dyson equations. Much effort has gone into analyzing its general structure, and at the one-loop level also a number of explicit computations have been done, using various approaches. Here we use the string-inspired formalism to unify the calculations of the scalar, spinor and gluon loop contributions to the one-loop vertex, leading to an extremely compact representation in all cases. The vertex is computed fully off-shell and in dimensionally continued form, so that it can be used as a building block for higher-loop calculations. We find that the Bern–Kosower loop replacement rules, originally derived for the on-shell case, hold off-shell as well. We explain the relation of the structure of this representation to the low-energy effective action, and establish the precise connection with the standard Ball–Chiu decomposition of the vertex. This allows us also to predict that the vanishing of the completely antisymmetric coefficient function S of this decomposition is not a one-loop accident, but persists at higher-loop orders. The sum rule found by Binger and Brodsky, which leads to the vanishing of the one-loop vertex in N=4 SYM theory, in the present approach relates to worldline supersymmetry.

  16. Advances in bone surgery: the Er:YAG laser in oral surgery and implant dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Stübinger

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Stefan StübingerCompetence Center for Applied Biotechnology and Molecular Medicine, University of Zürich, Zürich, SwitzerlandAbstract: The erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Er:YAG laser has emerged as a possible alternative to conventional methods of bone ablation because of its wavelength of 2.94 μm, which coincides with the absorption peak of water. Over the last decades in several experimental and clinical studies, the widespread initial assumption that light amplification for stimulated emission of radiation (laser osteotomy inevitably provokes profound tissue damage and delayed wound healing has been refuted. In addition, the supposed disadvantage of prolonged osteotomy times could be overcome by modern short-pulsed Er:YAG laser systems. Currently, the limiting factors for a routine application of lasers for bone ablation are mainly technical drawbacks such as missing depth control and a difficult and safe guidance of the laser beam. This article gives a short overview of the development process and current possibilities of noncontact Er:YAG laser osteotomy in oral and implant surgery.Keywords: carbonization, laser osteotomy, ablation, dental implants

  17. Piezosurgery in implant dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stübinger S

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Stefan Stübinger,1 Andres Stricker,2 Britt-Isabelle Berg3,4 1Hightech Research Center of Cranio-maxillofacial Surgery, University of Basel, Allschwil, Switzerland; 2Private Practice, Konstanz, Germany; 3Department of Cranio-maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 4Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Piezosurgery, or the use of piezoelectric devices, is being applied increasingly in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The main advantages of this technique are precise and selective cuttings, the avoidance of thermal damage, and the preservation of soft-tissue structures. Through the application of piezoelectric surgery, implant-site preparation, bone grafting, sinus-floor elevation, edentulous ridge splitting or the lateralization of the inferior alveolar nerve are very technically feasible. This clinical overview gives a short summary of the current literature and outlines the advantages and disadvantages of piezoelectric bone surgery in implant dentistry. Overall, piezoelectric surgery is superior to other methods that utilize mechanical instruments. Handling of delicate or compromised hard- and soft-tissue conditions can be performed with less risk for the patient. With respect to current and future innovative surgical concepts, piezoelectric surgery offers a wide range of new possibilities to perform customized and minimally invasive osteotomies. Keywords: implantology, piezoelectric device, piezosurgery, maxillary sinus elevation, bone grafting, osteotomy, edentulous ridge splitting

  18. The effect of telehealth systems and satisfaction with health expenditure among patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uei, Shu-Lin; Tsai, Chung-Hung; Kuo, Yu-Ming

    2016-04-29

    Telehealth cost analysis has become a crucial issue for governments in recent years. In this study, we examined cases of metabolic syndrome in Hualien County, Taiwan. This research adopted the framework proposed by Marchand to establish a study process. In addition, descriptive statistics, a t test, analysis of variance, and regression analysis were employed to analyze 100 questionnaires. The results of the t$ test revealed significant differences in medical health expenditure, number of clinical visits for medical treatment, average amount of time spent commuting to clinics, amount of time spent undergoing medical treatment, and average number of people accompanying patients to medical care facilities or assisting with other tasks in the past one month, indicating that offering telehealth care services can reduce health expenditure. The statistical analysis results revealed that customer satisfaction has a positive effect on reducing health expenditure. Therefore, this study proves that telehealth care systems can effectively reduce health expenditure and directly improve customer satisfaction with medical treatment.

  19. Information management: The case of companies participating in the programo of business incubation of Universidade Federal de Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Gomes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to point out the information management strategic profile of companies participating in the program of business incubation of Universidade Federal de Goiás (PROINE-UFG. This new alignment of social network aims to promote the competitiveness of micro and small business by approaching them to the knowledge producers that, in the Brazilian case, are the universities. The strategic information aligning model, proposed by Marchand, was used as the theoretical framework. The research took the design of a case study, as it limited to study the UFG incubation program. Nine companies of PROINE-UFG were investigated. The main conclusions are that the PROINE-UFG companies have a tendency of proactivity. Nevertheless the financial and technological resources are scarce to monitor the external environment as demanded by the strategy. They use few information sources and the interaction with the university is still incipient

  20. The development and the use of a climatic database for CEOS using the COADS dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Claude; Mendelssohn, R.

    1998-01-01

    La base de données COADS (Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Dataset) a été sélectionnée par CEOS pour analyser la variabilité climatique des zones d'upwelling mondiales au cours des quarante dernières années. Cette base de données rassemble 100 millions d'observations météorologiques de surface collectées par les navires marchands et d'autres plates-formes sur les océans du monde entier. La couverture est mondiale et les premières données remontent à 1854. Les principaux biais rencontrés lors de...

  1. Bruno Milly, Le travail dans le secteur public. Entre institutions, organisations et professions

    OpenAIRE

    Hély, Matthieu

    2012-01-01

    L’intérêt principal de l’ouvrage de Bruno Milly est de mettre en évidence les limites d’une analyse du travail dans le secteur public qui se limiterait à l’appréhender uniquement à partir de son cadre institutionnel et normatif, un peu à la manière de la « science administrative » qui essentialise certainement un peu trop le travail public par rapport au travail dans le secteur marchand. En effet, si la sociologie du travail et des organisations s’est intéressée aux métiers de l’État social, ...

  2. Mobiliser les externalités de savoir au service de développement local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Bouinot

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : un processus invisible mais efficace Les externalités de savoir représentent des transferts de savoir gratuits d’un territoire à un autre (villes, régions, … : i.e. une ville (i bénéficie des effets de R&D et / ou des activités innovantes d’une autre ville (j « sans bourse délier ». Le savoir qui nous intéressera ici sera celui qui « féconde » la R&D et des innovations marchandes (dépôt de brevets. Ce processus de « spillover » de (j vers (2 fait tout d’abord l’objet d’un...

  3. High Resolution Magnetostratigraphy of the Middle Pleistocene Turlock Lake Formation, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trayler, R. B.; Pluhar, C. J.

    2010-12-01

    Composed of Sierra-Nevada-derived alluvium (Marchand and Allwardt, 1981) the Turlock Lake Formation spans the eastern San Joaquin Valley, California, and contains a rich Irvingtonian fauna. (Dundas et al., 1996) Determining an accurate age for these fossils has proven difficult since the maximum age of the formation is poorly constrained. Previous magnetostratigraphy has not seen peer review (Packer et al., 1977) and that sampling may have missed short magnetozones. We present a more-detailed study of the magnetostratigraphy of the Turlock Lake Formation. The Turlock Lake Formation consists of an upper and lower unit. The upper unit contains the Friant Pumice Member, correlated to the Bishop Tuff (750.1±4.3 ka; (Sarna-Wojcicki et al., 2000). The Friant Pumice overlies the locally-important and areally extensive Corcoran Clay member near the base of the upper unit. The lower unit is composed of gravels and coarse sands that overlie silts, clays and fine sands and occurs only in small outcrops in areas of great relief near the major rivers of the eastern San Joaquin Valley. The lower unit has been inferred to be entirely magnetically reversed (Marchand and Allwardt, 1981) based on; 1) the stratigraphic position of the Friant Pumice Member near the Matuyama-Brunhes reversal (0.781 Ma; (Ogg and Smith, 2004) and 2) the previous magnetostratigraphy at the Turlock Lake Formation type section (Packer et al., 1977). We sampled Turlock Lake Formation at two localities, the quarry containing the Friant Pumice near Friant, California and the type section in Turlock State Park north east of Merced, California. At the Friant Quarry we sampled 5.3 m of vertical section at roughly 30 cm intervals, revealing magnetically normal polarities, consistent with the age constraint of the Friant Pumice and deposition during the Bruhnes normal chron (0-0.781 Ma) (Ogg and Smith, 2004). The Turlock Lake Formation type section is exposed along road cuts in Turlock Lake State Park (Marchand

  4. Genoese Domain in the Crimea (the Second Half of 14th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey G. Bocharov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the domain of the Genoese republic in the Crimea in the middle of the 14th century. During this period, the Genoese possessions in the northern Black Sea region consist of one major city Caffa. In the second half of 14th century in the city was reaches the highest point of development. During the second half of the 14th the first half of 15th centuries Caffa played a leading role in marchand and political life of the Black Sea region. After 1365 the administration of Caffa passes from the defense to the captures of the land previously depending from the Golden Horde. As a result, creates a new political entity on the Crimean Black Sea coast a system of cities, castles and villages, subject to Genoa, called the Genoesе Gazaria and covered the all coastline including the settlement of the South Coast of Crimea, Soldaya (Sudak, Cembalo (Balaclava and Vosporo (Bosporus, Kerch.

  5. [Cholesterol and atherosclerosis. Historical considerations and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárate, Arturo; Manuel-Apolinar, Leticia; Basurto, Lourdes; De la Chesnaye, Elsa; Saldívar, Iván

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol is a precursor of steroid hormones and an essential component of the cell membrane, however, altered regulation of the synthesis, absorption and excretion of cholesterol predispose to cardiovascular diseases of atherosclerotic origin. Despite, the recognition of historical events for 200 years, starting with Michel Chevreul naming «cholesterol»; later on, Lobstein coining the term atherosclerosis and Marchand introducing it, Anichkov identifying cholesterol in atheromatous plaque, and Brown and Goldstein discovering LDL receptor; as well as the emerging of different drugs, such as fibrates, statins and cetrapibs this decade, promising to increase HDL and the most recent ezetimibe and anti-PCSK9 to inhibit the degradation of LDL receptor, however morbidity has not been reduced in cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2016. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A.

  6. Seismic imaging of reservoir flow properties: Time-lapse amplitude changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasco, D.W.; Datta-Gupta, Akhil; Behrens, Ron; Condon, Pat; Rickett, Jame s

    2003-03-13

    Asymptotic methods provide an efficient means by which to infer reservoir flow properties, such as permeability, from time-lapse seismic data. A trajectory-based methodology, much like ray-based methods for medical and seismic imaging, is the basis for an iterative inversion of time-lapse amplitude changes. In this approach a single reservoir simulation is required for each iteration of the algorithm. A comparison between purely numerical and the trajectory-based sensitivities demonstrates their accuracy. An application to a set of synthetic amplitude changes indicates that they can recover large-scale reservoir permeability variations from time-lapse data. In an application of actual time-lapse amplitude changes from the Bay Marchand field in the Gulf of Mexico we are able to reduce the misfit by 81% in twelve iterations. The time-lapse observations indicate lower permeabilities are required in the central portion of the reservoir.

  7. Évaluation des rejets sur la pêcherie de langoustine de Mer celtique

    OpenAIRE

    Charuau, Anatole

    1985-01-01

    INTRODUCTION : Les pêcheries de langoustine de Mer Celtique se situent essentiellement dans les subdivisions Vllg et Vllh. La réglementation communautaire sur les maillages à langoustine y a été appliquée à partir de 1978. L'emploi d'un maillage dérogataire pour la pêche de la langoustine n'est possible que si le pourcentage d'espèces protégées par une taille marchande pêchées en même temps que la langoustine est inférieur à un seuil déterminé en relation avec le maillage en vigueur. L'applic...

  8. Kiakhta ou l’épaisseur des frontières

    OpenAIRE

    Savelli, Dany

    2009-01-01

    Cet article s’ordonne autour d’une réflexion sur la frontière. L’histoire de la triple ville de Kiakhta (celle-ci désignant également Troitskosavsk et Maimaicheng, la ville marchande chinoise) révèle, tout au long des xviiie et xixe siècles, des particularités assez exceptionnelles qui tiennent à sa position aux limites des Empires russe et chinois. La frontière, en ce lieu, a réuni plus qu’elle n’a séparé ; elle s’est animée grâce à un commerce fondé sur le troc et à un trafic d’envergure ; ...

  9. The rich history of gynaecological pathology: brief notes on some of its personalities and their contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert H

    2007-02-01

    The careers and contributions of some of those who have played a major role in the development of knowledge concerning gynaecological pathology are summarised. The emphasis is on workers of prior times beginning with those of the German-speaking school: Carl Ruge, Felix Marchand, Hermann Pfannenstiel, Oskar Frankl, Walter Schiller, and Robert Meyer. The two great Scandinavian investigators Lars Santesson and Gunnar Teilum are then considered, followed by those of the British school: John H. Teacher, Elizabeth Hurdon, Magnus Haines, Claud Taylor, Fred Langley, and Harold Fox. North American workers reviewed are: Thomas S. Cullen, Emil Novak, John Albertson Sampson, Arthur Hertig, and Robert E. Scully. The essay concludes with Australasian contributors, those considered in detail being: Hans Frederick Bettinger, Rupert A. Willis, Hazel (Mansell) Gore, Robert Barter, Harold Attwood, Andrew Ostör (the last two also noted historians), Denys Fortune, Alan Ng, and Peter Russell.

  10. THE RACE TO THE BOTTOM AND ITS IMPACT ON THE PROVISION OF PUBLIC SERVICES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADINA TRANDAFIR

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature is addressed by tax competition to attract capital and the measures taken in this regard. These measures aim, in most cases, reducing tax rates. Most authors, especially the classics, believes that this reduction creates an underprovision of goods and services and addresses the problem in terms of their level. Very few scholars have revealed that this race to the bottom lead to a different structure in delivering public services. Thus, from the idea of Keen-Marchand (1997, this paper addresses this issue, using as basic data in the Romanian economy, through a regression model. The analysis results show that the race to reduce the tax burden, in which Romania joined in the impact of tax competition, leads to an underprovision welfare services aimed directly at a taxpayer and those aimed at infrastructure overprovision.

  11. Les i-jumelages au service de la solidarité internationale et du développement local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Durand-Tornare

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available L’association « Villes internet » propose depuis plusieurs années aux collectivités françaises de mettre en action des i-jumelages. L’idée est simple : utiliser Internet comme vecteur pour la construction de ces nouvelles solidarités internationales entre acteurs locaux, collectivités locales et acteurs du tiers secteur non marchand. Il s’agit de mettre très concrètement en place via Internet de nouveaux modes de co-développement, basés sur des logiques de réciprocité, d’échanges de savoir et...

  12. « L’urne ne parle pas » : multipartismes et mobilisations électorales des liens sociaux (Mali, Maasina)

    OpenAIRE

    Fay, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Si les élections africaines n’apparaissent pas, au premier abord, être « comme les autres », c’est à cause de l’apparente originalité du processus électoral lui-même (on évoque alors les thèmes de la contrainte, de l’irrégularité et de la fraude, de la violence) et de celle des motivations des électeurs (on évoque alors les thèmes des votes « communautaires », « clientélistes » ou « marchands »). Cette vision stéréotypée, qui ne définit son objet que par un contraste péjoratif avec les électi...

  13. Complementary Constrains on Component based Multiphase Flow Problems, Should It Be Implemented Locally or Globally?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, H.; Huang, Y.; Kolditz, O.

    2015-12-01

    Multiphase flow problems are numerically difficult to solve, as it often contains nonlinear Phase transition phenomena A conventional technique is to introduce the complementarity constraints where fluid properties such as liquid saturations are confined within a physically reasonable range. Based on such constraints, the mathematical model can be reformulated into a system of nonlinear partial differential equations coupled with variational inequalities. They can be then numerically handled by optimization algorithms. In this work, two different approaches utilizing the complementarity constraints based on persistent primary variables formulation[4] are implemented and investigated. The first approach proposed by Marchand et.al[1] is using "local complementary constraints", i.e. coupling the constraints with the local constitutive equations. The second approach[2],[3] , namely the "global complementary constrains", applies the constraints globally with the mass conservation equation. We will discuss how these two approaches are applied to solve non-isothermal componential multiphase flow problem with the phase change phenomenon. Several benchmarks will be presented for investigating the overall numerical performance of different approaches. The advantages and disadvantages of different models will also be concluded. References[1] E.Marchand, T.Mueller and P.Knabner. Fully coupled generalized hybrid-mixed finite element approximation of two-phase two-component flow in porous media. Part I: formulation and properties of the mathematical model, Computational Geosciences 17(2): 431-442, (2013). [2] A. Lauser, C. Hager, R. Helmig, B. Wohlmuth. A new approach for phase transitions in miscible multi-phase flow in porous media. Water Resour., 34,(2011), 957-966. [3] J. Jaffré, and A. Sboui. Henry's Law and Gas Phase Disappearance. Transp. Porous Media. 82, (2010), 521-526. [4] A. Bourgeat, M. Jurak and F. Smaï. Two-phase partially miscible flow and transport modeling in

  14. Patrimoine et tourisme urbain. La valorisation de l’authenticité à Lyon et Pékin Heritage and urban tourism. Valorizing authenticity in Lyon and Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Bonard

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Le tourisme est au cœur des processus de valorisation des territoires urbains. Le patrimoine – pilier majeur de la touristification – tend à prendre un caractère marchand, en tant que produit à valoriser économiquement dans un contexte de villes en compétition. À partir de l’analyse de deux centres urbains en mutations – Lyon et Pékin –, cette recherche montre d’une part l’usage marchand du patrimoine, produit et mobilisé par les pouvoirs publics. D’autre part, ce papier questionne la notion d’authenticité – centrale dans les discours sur la mise en valeur du patrimoine. Apparaissant comme inopérante du point de vue heuristique, nous faisons l’hypothèse qu’elle détient une dimension proprement « fétiche », concourant à la perception déformée de la réalité des rapports sociaux en jeu dans la production patrimoniale.Tourism lies at the heart of urban territorial valorization. The urban heritage – itself a major pillar of urban tourism – is becoming increasingly commodified, within a context of generalized urban competition. Based on the analysis of two changing urban centers – Lyon and Beijing – this paper analyzes the commodified valorization of heritage, produced by entrepreneurial urban governments, and challenges the notion of « authenticity », itself central to discourses on the valorization of urban heritage. This concept of authenticity bears very little heuristic value, and is itself a « fetish », resulting from a deformed perception of reality under the social conditions of capitalism.

  15. Identité et marché dans une situation de pluralisme institutionnel : le cas du secteur agricole à Mayotte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Sourisseau

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available L’île de Mayotte, où dominent encore des règles musulmanes et coutumières privilégiant les dynamiques collectives aux initiatives individuelles, est engagée dans une série de réformes institutionnelles devant la conduire au statut de département français. L’ancrage dans l’ensemble français entretient un fort développement économique mais remet aussi en cause les institutions anciennes de régulation, fondées sur la réciprocité et la solidarité familiale et villageoise. En s’appuyant sur l’exemple du secteur agricole, l’article examine conjointement les mécanismes de pénétration marchande et les contre mouvements de nature non marchande que les acteurs locaux mettent en œuvre pour gérer cette situation de pluralisme institutionnel.The island of Mayotte, where still dominate Moslem and customary rules privileging the collective dynamics to the individual initiatives, is engaged in huge institutional reforms that must lead it to the status of French department. The anchoring in the French republic maintains a rapid and consequent economic development but also questions former institutions, based on reciprocity and on local solidarity. The article focuses on agriculture and examines both the mechanisms of trade penetration and their opposite movements toward reciprocity that local actors implement to manage this situation of institutional pluralism.

  16. Effectiveness of lifestyle interventions to reduce binge eating symptoms in African American and Hispanic women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mama, Scherezade K.; Schembre, Susan M.; O’Connor, Daniel P.; Kaplan, Charles D.; Bode, Sharon; Lee, Rebecca E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Lifestyle interventions that promote physical activity and healthy dietary habits may reduce binge eating symptoms and be more feasible and sustainable among ethnic minority women, who are less likely to seek clinical treatment for eating disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate (1) whether participating in a lifestyle intervention is a feasible way to decrease binge eating symptoms (BES) and (2) whether changes in BES differed by intervention (physical activity vs. dietary habits) and binge eating status at baseline (binger eater vs. non-binge eater) in African American and Hispanic women. Method Health Is Power (HIP) was a longitudinal randomized controlled trial to promote physical activity and improve dietary habits. Women (N=180) who completed anthropometric measures and questionnaires assessing fruit and vegetable and dietary fat intake, BES and demographics at baseline and post-intervention six months later were included in the current study. Results Over one-fourth (27.8%) of participants were categorized as binge-eaters. Repeated measures ANCOVA analyses ANOVA demonstrated significant two- and three-way interactions. Decreases in BES over time were greater in binge eaters than in non-binge eaters (F(1,164)=33.253, pbinge eaters who participated in the physical activity intervention reported greater decreases in BES than non-binge eaters in the dietary habits intervention (F(1,157)=5.170, p=.024). Discussion Findings suggest behavioral interventions to increase physical activity may lead to reductions in BES among ethnic minority women and ultimately reduce the prevalence of binge eating disorder and health disparities in this population. PMID:26188275

  17. Razón y amor en la teología medieval incipiente: Aproximación desde la confluencia de las fuentes griegas y latinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneliese Meis

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio escoje un período de gran envergadura teológica y excepcionalmente sensible al problema razón y amor. En el siglo XII se va gestando la subjetividad moderna, de tanta relevancia para la Teología, pero, sobre todo, se produce aquella confluencia de fuentes latinas y griegas, que como problema requiere máxima atención, ya que su recepción patrística medieval es vital para la búsqueda de la verdad a través de la ciencia. Se estudian siete autores que remontan al siglo XII: -Hildegard von Bingen, Guillermo de St. Thierry, Ricardo de San Víctor-, pero tres le preceden: -Gregorio Magno, Juan Escoto Eriúgena, Anselmo de Canterbury- y uno los complementa: Buenaventura. La elección de estos autores ha permitido seguir de cerca la articulación del problema, su contextualización y las soluciones novedosas, de gran riqueza antropológica teológicaThis study selects a period of great theological depth and particularty sensitive to the issue of reason and love. The modern subjectivity, which has had enormous relevance for Theology, started to germinate during the XII century; the times of the convergence of the Latin and Greek sources. This required much attention, as their reception by the medieval patristic is essential for a proper search of the truth through the science. The article focuses on seven authors who date from the XII century. Hildegard von Binger, Willian of St. Thierry, Richard of Saint Victor, who are preceded by Gregory the Greta, John Scotus Eriungena, Anselm of Canterbury and Bonaventure. The selecction of these authors allows a close articulation of the problem, its contextualisation and novel solutions of great theological and anthropological richness

  18. Favourite alcohol advertisements and binge drinking among adolescents: a cross-cultural cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Sargent, James D; Sweeting, Helen; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Mathis, Federica; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the association between having a favourite alcohol advertisement and binge drinking among European adolescents. Data were obtained from a longitudinal observational study on relationships between smoking and drinking and film tobacco and alcohol exposures. State-funded schools. Baseline survey of 12 464 German, Italian, Polish and Scottish adolescents (mean age 13.5 years), of whom 10 259 (82%) were followed-up 12 months later. Pupils were asked the brand of their favourite alcohol advertisement at baseline. Multi-level mixed-effects logistic regressions assessed relationships between having a favourite alcohol advertisement ('alcohol marketing receptivity') and (i) binge drinking at baseline; and (ii) initiating binge drinking during follow-up among a subsample of 7438 baseline never binge drinkers. Life-time binge drinking prevalence at baseline was 29.9% and 25.9% initiated binge drinking during follow-up. Almost one-third of the baseline sample (32.1%) and 22.6% of the follow-up sample of never-bingers named a branded favourite alcohol advertisement, with high between-country variation in brand named. After controlling for age, gender, family affluence, school performance, TV screen time, personality characteristics and drinking behaviour of peers, parents and siblings, alcohol marketing receptivity was related significantly to both binge drinking at baseline [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.92, 2.36] and binge drinking initiation in longitudinal analysis (AOR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.26, 1.66). There was no evidence for effect heterogeneity across countries. Among European adolescents naming a favourite alcohol advertisement was associated with increased likelihood of initiating binge drinking during 1-year follow-up, suggesting a relationship between alcohol marketing receptivity and adolescent binge drinking. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Effectiveness of lifestyle interventions to reduce binge eating symptoms in African American and Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mama, Scherezade K; Schembre, Susan M; O'Connor, Daniel P; Kaplan, Charles D; Bode, Sharon; Lee, Rebecca E

    2015-12-01

    Lifestyle interventions that promote physical activity and healthy dietary habits may reduce binge eating symptoms and be more feasible and sustainable among ethnic minority women, who are less likely to seek clinical treatment for eating disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate (1) whether participating in a lifestyle intervention is a feasible way to decrease binge eating symptoms (BES) and (2) whether changes in BES differed by intervention (physical activity vs. dietary habits) and binge eating status at baseline (binger eater vs. non-binge eater) in African American and Hispanic women. Health Is Power (HIP) was a longitudinal randomized controlled trial to promote physical activity and improve dietary habits. Women (N = 180) who completed anthropometric measures and questionnaires assessing fruit and vegetable and dietary fat intake, BES and demographics at baseline and post-intervention six months later were included in the current study. Over one-fourth (27.8%) of participants were categorized as binge-eaters. Repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated significant two- and three-way interactions. Decreases in BES over time were greater in binge eaters than in non-binge eaters (F(1,164) = 33.253, p binge eaters who participated in the physical activity intervention reported greater decreases in BES than non-binge eaters in the dietary habits intervention (F(1,157) = 5.170, p = .024). Findings suggest behavioral interventions to increase physical activity may lead to reductions in BES among ethnic minority women and ultimately reduce the prevalence of binge eating disorder and health disparities in this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. De l’image au voyage : l’Inde sur la route de soi From image to journey: India on the road to herself

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Goreau-Ponceaud

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available L’Inde, pour les marchands de voyage, existe seulement par l’imaginaire qu’elle suscite et qui la fait renaître à chaque instant. Cet imaginaire dans la construction du discours touristique se joue d’un ensemble de représentations qui s’articule sur trois registres : l’Inde intemporelle, l’Inde spirituelle et l’Inde pauvre. Ces registres déterminent des hauts lieux qui sont à la fois porteurs d’exotisme, d’affect, d’émotions et d’identité, dont la carte est révélatrice des différents discours utilisés et usés par les marchands de voyage. Ces suppositions stéréotypées et la rhétorique iconographique utilisées sont indicatives d’un discours selon lequel l’Inde mystique, traditionnelle et démunie, sert de contrepoint à l’Occident rationnel, moderne et développé. Ainsi nous verrons que ces suppositions procèdent comme toute instrumentalisation par métaphores et synecdoques : l’Inde c’est l’hindouisme, un pèlerinage aux sources de la sagesse où y abondent populations tribales, maharajas, fauves, charmeurs de serpents, bosquets luxuriants et temples. Ces images font de l’Inde un monde où le temps semble s’arrêter.In the eyes of the travel merchants, India exists only through the imaginary dimension she elicits and that constantly recreates her. This imaginary element in the construction of a tourist discourse plays on a set of representations which focus on three themes: a timeless India, a spiritual India and a poor India. These themes determine high places which are both carriers of exoticism, affection, emotion and identity, and whose map is indicative of the variety of discourses used by travel merchants. These stereotypical suppositions and the iconographic rhetoric used are indicative of a thought according to which this mystical, traditional and destitute India, acts as a counterpoint to a rational, modern and developed West. Thus, it will be shown that, instrumentally, these

  1. Els franciscans i la burgesia de Puigcerdà. La historia d'una aliança medieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webster, Jill R.

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article is an attempt to reconstruct the years between 1320 and 1570, using the large number of notarial manuals still extant in the Puigcerda archives. By showing the interaction between merchants and friars and the early prosperity of Puigcerda, it is evident that the Franciscans were dependent on commercial prosperity in the Pyrenees for their continued mission there. The close proximity of the Dominican house, the presence of the Poor Clares and the need to support three mendicant orders proved too much for a small market town of some 6500 inhabitants. It is significant that the convent of Saint Francis led a quasi-independent existence; its affiliation with the French Franciscan province of Provence and its geographical separation from most of Catalonia led to an anomalous situation.[fr] Cet article essaye de reconstruire la vie du couvent de Saint François de Puigcerda depuis sa fondaion en 1320 jusqu'à sa clôture en 1570, enprennant comme point de départ les très nombreux documents notariés des Archives de Puigcerda. Le couvent de Saint François dépendit étroitement de la générosité des marchands de la ville afín d'assurer son apostolat. Lorsque ceux-ci jouirent de la prospérité commerciale pendant les premières années du XIV siècle, les franciscains vécurent dans la magnificence; quand les marchands de Puigcerda souffrirent des crises que suivirent la Peste Noire, les frères partagèrent leur sort. La presque indépendance du couvent de Saint François de Puigcerda ne favorisait pas non plus sa situation; son affiliation avec la province franciscaine de Provence et sa séparation géographique d'avec la majeure partie de la Catalogne créaient une situation d'anomalie qui fut sûrement une des causes du déclin du couvent. Sans l'appui moral des autres couvents franciscains de Catalogne, celui de Puigcerda n'avait ni la puissance économique, ni la force spirituelle pour survivre face aux difficultés des

  2. Conquesta, repartiment i colonització de Mallorca durant el segle XIII: Un estat de la qüestió

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto i Company, Ricard

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Although there is some new (and at times interesting literature on Majorca in the 13th. century, I do not intend to make a list but an evaluation of it. It is my view that the literature on the kingdom of Majorca is still heavily influenced by the 19th. historian J.M. Quadrado, a brilliant representative of conservatism behind a liberal mask. He denies the existence of feudal relationships in Majorca, postulating a commercial identity almost "bourgeois". The mere reading of the latest international contributions (by David Abulafia, for instance is enough to corroborate the prominence of this view. The aim of this paper is to bring to mind the existence of "another" Medieval History of Majorca (especialy under the aegis of Miquel Barceló, which, starting from the previous Andalusi society, conceptualizes the conquest and colonisation of the new Kingdom as a process led by the feudal tax, although in combination with the royal and mercantile powers.[fr] Il ne s'agit pas de taire un simple inventaire bibliographique des nouveautés sur le XIIIᵉ siècle majorquin (auparavant rares, bien que quelquefois très importants mais plutôt une mise en valeur de celles-là. À mon avis, l'historiographie sur le royaume de Majorque se trouve, encore, lourdement influencée par l'historien du XIXᵉ siècle J.M. Quadrado, brillant défenseur du conservatisme sous un vernis liberal. Ça veut dire, d'abord, qu'on nie l'existence de relations féodales à Majorque, et l'on y affirme une identité marchande presque "bourgeoise". Il n'y a qu'à lire les plus récents apports internationaux (par exemple de David Abulafia pour trouver ce point de vue absolument débassé. Le but de ce travail est ce de rappeler qu'il y a "une autre" histoire médiévale de Majorque (inspirée, inicialement par Miquel Barceló, qui, en partant de l'étude de la société andalousi précédente, met en évidence que la conquête et la colonisation du nouveau royaume résultent d

  3. Commentary on "identification of 23 new prostate cancer susceptibility loci using the iCOGS custom genotyping array." Eeles RA, Olama AA, Benlloch S, Saunders EJ, Leongamornlert DA, Tymrakiewicz M, Ghoussaini M, Luccarini C, Dennis J, Jugurnauth-Little S, Dadaev T, Neal DE, Hamdy FC, Donovan JL, Muir K, Giles GG, Severi G, Wiklund F, Gronberg H, Haiman CA, Schumacher F, Henderson BE, Le Marchand L, Lindstrom S, Kraft P, Hunter DJ, Gapstur S, Chanock SJ, Berndt SI, Albanes D, Andriole G, Schleutker J, Weischer M, Canzian F, Riboli E, Key TJ, Travis RC, Campa D, Ingles SA, John EM, Hayes RB, Pharoah PD, Pashayan N, Khaw KT, Stanford JL, Ostrander EA, Signorello LB, Thibodeau SN, Schaid D, Maier C, Vogel W, Kibel AS, Cybulski C, Lubinski J, Cannon-Albright L, Brenner H, Park JY, Kaneva R, Batra J, Spurdle AB, Clements JA, Teixeira MR, Dicks E, Lee A, Dunning AM, Baynes C, Conroy D, Maranian MJ, Ahmed S, Govindasami K, Guy M, Wilkinson RA, Sawyer EJ, Morgan A, Dearnaley DP, Horwich A, Huddart RA, Khoo VS, Parker CC, Van As NJ, Woodhouse CJ, Thompson A, Dudderidge T, Ogden C, Cooper CS, Lophatananon A, Cox A, Southey MC, Hopper JL, English DR, Aly M, Adolfsson J, Xu J, Zheng SL, Yeager M, Kaaks R, Diver WR, Gaudet MM, Stern MC, Corral R, Joshi AD, Shahabi A, Wahlfors T, Tammela TL, Auvinen A, Virtamo J, Klarskov P, Nordestgaard BG, Røder MA, Nielsen SF, Bojesen SE, Siddiq A, Fitzgerald LM, Kolb S, Kwon EM, Karyadi DM, Blot WJ, Zheng W, Cai Q, McDonnell SK, Rinckleb AE, Drake B, Colditz G, Wokolorczyk D, Stephenson RA, Teerlink C, Muller H, Rothenbacher D, Sellers TA, Lin HY, Slavov C, Mitev V, Lose F, Srinivasan S, Maia S, Paulo P, Lange E, Cooney KA, Antoniou AC, Vincent D, Bacot F, Tessier DC; COGS-Cancer Research UK GWAS-ELLIPSE (part of GAME-ON) Initiative; Australian Prostate Cancer Bioresource; UK Genetic Prostate Cancer Study Collaborators/British Association of Urological Surgeons' Section of Oncology; UK ProtecT (Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olumi, Aria F

    2014-02-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in males in developed countries. To identify common prostate cancer susceptibility alleles, we genotyped 211,155 SNPs on a custom Illumina array (iCOGS) in blood DNA from 25,074 prostate cancer cases and 24,272 controls from the international PRACTICAL Consortium. Twenty-three new prostate cancer susceptibility loci were identified at genome-wide significance (P<5×10(-8)). More than 70 prostate cancer susceptibility loci, explaining ~30% of the familial risk for this disease, have now been identified. On the basis of combined risks conferred by the new and previously known risk loci, the top 1% of the risk distribution has a 4.7-fold higher risk than the average of the population being profiled. These results will facilitate population risk stratification for clinical studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Quality control of radioimmunoassays and validation of beta-2-microglobulin radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcin-Rambaud, M.-J.

    1980-04-01

    The aim of this work was to devise a quality check procedure for radioimmunological analyses, easily applicable in all laboratories. The parameters most commonly analysed during such a test are: non-specific activity; total binding capacity; reproducibility; sensitivity; accuracy; specificity; specific activity of the labelled substance; affinity constant of the antigen towards its specific antibody. In the method proposed the calibration curve of any series of measurements is established by Rodbard's method. For the reproducibility study the use of Ekins' method, modified by Grillet and Marchand, was preferred. From the results obtained it is possible to plot the error-response relationship (ERR) and to establish the accuracy profile which gives a good idea of the sensitivity of the analysis method. For the specificity study this method matches the usual operational conditions as closely as possible. The determination is made on the following mixture: a half-volume (with respect to the usual volume) of biological liquid studied and previously analysed for cold antigen Ag 0 ; a half-volume of one of the dilutions prepared with the substance X liable to interfere during the Ag 0 determination. Any interferences between the substance X and the antigen are then plotted on a graph representing: as abscisse, the concentration of substance X; as ordinates, the difference between the measured and theoretical Ag 0 concentrations. This very simple representation shows the interference threshold of each substance X; accounting for its physiopathological concentration [fr

  5. Financiarisation et lien social : une analyse de l’exclusion bancaire à partir de l’institutionnalisme de J.R. Commons Financialisation and social inclusion: an analysis of financial exclusion based on the institutionalism of J. R. Commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Gloukoviezoff

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La financiarisation de l’économie affecte les entreprises mais aussi largement les ménages. Les règles et normes d’accès et d’usage bancaires se traduisent notamment par des difficultés pouvant faire basculer les personnes vers l’exclusion sociale. La mobilisation des concepts empruntés à l’un des fondateurs de l’institutionnalisme américain, J.R. Commons (institution, futurité, going concern, capitalisme raisonnable permet d’envisager la mise en cohérence du rôle social des produits bancaires et de la prestation bancaire avec les contraintes de la régulation marchande des établissements bancaires.Financialisation impacts firms but also households. Banking norms and rules of access and use involve difficulties wich could lead people to poverty and social exclusion. A framework based on concepts elaborated by one of the pioneer of American Institutionalism, J.R. Commons (institution, futurity, going concern, reasonable capitalism help to think how to articulate the social role of financial products and services and financial firms with the constraint of the free market regulation of financial firms.

  6. Quelle résilience pour les espaces commerciaux? Le cas français

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René-Paul Desse

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La résilience peut être comprise comme la capacité d’un système à conserver ses structures principales en cas de fortes perturbations. Dans le cas du commerce, une forte concurrence et/ou une transformation de la demande par les consommateurs peuvent constituer ces changements auxquels sont confrontés les commerçants d’un espace donné : centre-ville, péricentral, périphéries. Les modifications du système marchand et du système urbain s’additionnent et complexifient l’analyse de la résilience commerciale, ce qui rend illusoire la tentative de modéliser la résilience d’un appareil commercial d’une ville dans sa globalité. Par contre, elle peut être utile à la compréhension des transformations d’un territoire urbain en particulier. La résilience comme outil stratégique est un champ de recherche à creuser dans le domaine des espaces commerciaux.

  7. What Will the New Generation Generate? Gendering Accumulation in Fatou Diome’s Celles qui attendent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Hogarth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I focus on the penultimate installment of the oeuvre of the much-celebrated Franco-Senegalese writer Fatou Diome, whose largely autobiographical work has garnered a wide following and a lucrative contract with the Flammarion publishing house. I propose that Diome’s 2010 novel Celles qui attendent strongly contributes to a discourse surrounding the roles of males and females in an African economy increasingly dominated by migration. Diome started as a writer who portrayed the empowered role of the female migrant, who is able to accumulate financial capital in Europe and send it back to Africa in order for males to slowly hoard goods and start businesses. Her more recent work, however, has been marked by a shift to reflect a portrait of Senegalese society and migration that is backed by sociological studies: men take on the role of migrants, tempted by “marchands d’illusions” 'merchants of illusions,' but are also determined to get away from social pressures in order to accumulate their own set of experiences in the world, at a distance from the expectations of a traditional African society. Women, on the other hand, are left in extreme proximity to the problems of everyday life on a cash-starved continent, as they have to go about the business of surviving and raising children, engaging in many forms of hoarding that have to do with accumulating finance, memories and myths.

  8. « Faire avec » les goûts des autres Composing with “otherness” : African restaurants, a novelty in French towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Garnier

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available L’objet de ce texte est d’analyser la fabrique d’une « cuisine de l’ailleurs » à partir de l’étude des services de restauration initiés par les migrants africains vivant en France. Dans ce cadre, nous présenterons tout d’abord l’histoire et le rôle des dynamiques commerciales étrangères en milieu urbain, avant de nous centrer dans une deuxième partie sur les mises en scène de l’altérité alimentaire, les contraintes qui pèsent sur elles et les transformations culinaires que ces échanges suscitent dans la sphère publique et marchande.The object of this text is to analyse the fabrication of an “authentic cuisine” based on the study of dishes created by migrant Africans living in France. Within this framework, we will firstly present the history and the role of foreign commercial dynamics in an urban milieu. We will subsequently focus, in the second part, on the settings where a notion of culinary “otherness” may be experienced, the constraints implicit within them, and the evolution, in culinary terms, that such interaction brings about, in both the public and business spheres.

  9. Ultrastructure of spermiogenesis and mature spermatozoon of Triaenorhina rectangula (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea: Paruterinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneva, Aneta; Georgieva, Katia; Nikolov, Pavel N; Mizinska, Yana; Georgiev, Boyko B; Stoitsova, Stoyanka R

    2009-12-01

    Ultrastructural characters of spermiogenesis and mature spermatozoon of Triaenorhina rectangula (Fuhrmann, 1908) are examined by transmission electron microscopy. Spermiogenesis follows the Bâ and Marchand's Type III spermiogenesis of cestodes. The process begins with the formation of a differentiation zone containing two centrioles and a cytoplasmic protrusion. The centrioles are associated with vestigial striated roots. One of the centrioles develops a free flagellum externally to the cytoplasmic protrusion. After a slight rotation, the free flagellum fuses with the cytoplasmic protrusion. In the final stage of spermiogenesis, a single crested body appears in the anterior part of the differentiating spermatozoon. The anterior extremity of the mature spermatozoon is characterised by an apical cone and a single crested body. The axoneme is of the 9+"1" trepaxonematan type. A periaxonemal sheath and electron-dense rods are described in some parts of the mature spermatozoon. The nucleus is electron-dense and spirally coiled around the axoneme. The cortical microtubules are spirally arranged at an angle of about 40 degrees to the spermatozoon axis. The present results show that the ultrastructural characters of spermiogenesis and mature spermatozoon of T. rectangula resemble most closely those in taeniids and metadilepidids. The comparison of these results with the only previous spermiological description of a paruterinid species reveals differences relative to the occurrence of filamentous rods of electron-dense material versus intracytoplasmic walls in the mature spermatozoon that may reflect the polyphyletic character of the Paruterinidae.

  10. Preliminary data on growth and enzymatic abilities of soil fungus Humicolopsis cephalosporioides at different incubation temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elíades, Lorena Alejandra; Cabello, Marta N; Pancotto, Verónica; Moretto, Alicia; Rago, María Melisa; Saparrat, Mario C N

    2015-01-01

    Nothofagus pumilio (Poepp & Endl.) Krasser, known as "lenga" is the most important timber wood species in southernmost Patagonia (Argentina). Humicolopsis cephalosporioides Cabral & Marchand is a soil fungus associated with Nothofagus pumilio forests, which has outstanding cellulolytic activity. However, there is no information about the ability of this fungus to use organic substrates other than cellulose, and its ability to produce different enzyme systems, as well as its response to temperature. The aim of this study was to examine the role of H. cephalosporioides in degradation processes in N. pumilio forests in detail by evaluating the in vitro ability of four isolates of this fungus to grow and produce different lytic enzyme systems, and their response to incubation temperature. The ability of the fungi to grow and produce enzyme systems was estimated by inoculating them on agar media with specific substrates, and the cultures were incubated at three temperatures. A differential behavior of each strain in levels of growth and enzyme activity was found according to the medium type and/or incubation temperature. A intra-specific variability was found in H. cephalosporioides. Likewise a possible link between the saprotrophic role of this fungus in N. pumilio forests and the degradation of organic matter under stress conditions, such as those from frosty environments, was also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Et l'Homme dans tout ça ? plaidoyer pour un humanisme moderne

    CERN Document Server

    Kahn, Axel

    2000-01-01

    "D'abord ne pas nuire" : les hommes de science auraient-ils oublié cette sentence d'Hippocrate? Si les dernières découvertes scientifiques inspirent les plus grandes espérances, elles réveillent aussi d'anciennes peurs. La thérapie génique, la carte du génome, les xénogreffes représentent des avancées indéniables pour le bien-être de l'individu. Mais qu'en est-il des effets de ces pratiques sur les relations humaines ? L'" enfant à la carte", le brevetage des gènes, l'idéologie de "l'amélioration" dessinent l'autre visage de ce progrès trop souvent gangrené par la logique marchande. Face à ces menaces, Axel Kahn rappelle le chercheur, l'homme politique et le citoyen à leurs devoirs de conscience. Il donne à chacun les moyens d'intervenir dans le débat et de peser sur des décisions qui nous concernent tous.

  12. VARIAÇÕES ESTRUTURAIS ENTRE GRUPOS FLORÍSTICOS DE UM REMANESCENTE DE FLORESTA OMBRÓFILA MISTA MONTANA EM NOVA PRATA - RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Marian Callegaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study aimed to diagnosis structural variations between floristic groups in a remnant of MontaneMixed Ombrophylous Forest in Nova Prata, RS state. To do so, 71 plots with dimensions of 10 x 100 mwere inventoried, distributed by the process of systematic sampling in Two Stages. All individuals withcircumference at breast height equal to or above 30.0 cm were measured. The cluster analysis based on theabundance of species in each plot was conducted by using Ward connection method and it allowed classifyingthe plots in four distinct floristic groups. Intermediate Stage, Border Forest, Advanced Stage and DegradedForest Groups presentedMatayba elaeagnoidesRadlk,Lithrea brasiliensisMarchand,CampomanesiaxanthocarpaO.Berg andMyrciaria floribundafloribunda(West ex Willd. O. Berg, respectively, as the mostcharacteristic species. Greater variation in the proportion of understory species and pioneers was found. Thehighest number of species with the aggregated spatial distribution pattern was observed. The diameter andhypsometric structures indicated the groups have a good renewal capacity and a denser bottom canopy, respectively, although they have some different characteristics. In summary, the groups presented structuralvariations that evidenced the need to consider the clusters in the event of intervention in the forest.

  13. La communication des sciences sur Internet stratégies et pratiques

    CERN Document Server

    Pignard-Cheynel, Nathalie; Miège, Bernard; Pailliart, Isabelle; Picchioli, Ingrid; Salaün, Jean Michel

    2004-01-01

    Parmi les outils dont disposent les scientifiques pour communiquer et échanger leurs connaissances, la revue apparaît comme le média de référence, le support officiel et légitime des publications formelles. La revue scientifique cristallise, dans ses modes de conception, de production, de diffusion et de vente, des logiques opposées (logiques scientifique, symbolique et marchande). L’émergence d’Internet conduit à une redéfinition des rôles et des logiques qui prévalaient jusqu’alors. Nous avons envisagé cette évolution selon une double perspective : 1) l’offre et les stratégies des acteurs de l’édition scientifique, 2) les usages, et plus largement les pratiques des scientifiques, mis en évidence par l’analyse d’une communauté particulière, celle de la physique des particules. Les mouvements qui orientent le développement de la communication des sciences sur Internet se traduisent par une réorganisation du paysage de l’édition scientifique (à travers la consolidation de...

  14. Use of event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to assess eyewitness accuracy and deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, C D; Marchand, Y; Smith, S M; Connolly, J F

    2009-09-01

    This study investigated eyewitness identification using ERPs. Twenty participants completed two eyewitness lineup tasks (standard and deception conditions). For the standard condition, participants tried to accurately identify the culprit, whereas in the deception condition, they were asked to deceptively conceal their recognition of the culprit. Identification rates based on P300 patterns were calculated using two different individual analysis procedures (A and B) that varied in stringency. Correct identification rates for the standard condition were 100% for both procedures A and B. For the deception condition, correct identification rates of the concealed culprit were 90%, and 70% respectively for procedures A and B. Data from a prior study [the culprit-absent condition from Lefebvre, C.D., Marchand, Y., Smith, S.M. & Connolly, J.F., 2007. Determining eyewitness identification accuracy using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Psychophysiology, 44, 894-904.] was reanalysed to investigate differences in false identification rates based on procedures A and B. False identifications were substantially higher when using procedure A (29%) versus procedure B (0%). Overall, superiority was found for procedure B compared to procedure A based on Grier's A'.

  15. Les golems du numérique droit d'auteur et Lex Electronica

    CERN Document Server

    Dulong de Rosnay, Mélanie

    2016-01-01

    Le droit d’auteur, élaboré sur les fondements analogiques de la rareté du support, est remis en question par le numérique, qui s’appuie sur la copie, la réappropriation et le partage. Il a été adapté au rythme des innovations techniques de reproduction et de diffusion et peut conduire aussi bien au contrôle de l’accès qu’à la constitution de biens communs. Les processus d’élaboration des normes et standards techniques et d’extension des droits ont été pensés de manière indépendante, entraînant des tensions entre les industries culturelles et les droits du public. L’ouvrage propose un modèle techno-juridique de la régulation du partage de la culture. Fondé sur la lex informatica, il intègre code juridique et code informatique pour exprimer les informations sur les droits et élargir les catégories actuelles du droit d’auteur pour faciliter l’utilisation, la création et le partage non marchand. Ce livre est basé sur plus de dix ans de participation à la régulat...

  16. Développement économique et legs coloniaux en Afrique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Austin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cet article étudie les effets du gouvernement colonial et de l’action des Africains pendant la période coloniale sur le contexte institutionnel et la situation en matière de ressources qui ont posé le cadre du futur développement économique au sud du Sahara. Cette question est placée dans la perspective de la dynamique du développement dans une région qui était, en 1900, extrêmement riche en terres et caractérisée par un manque de main-d’œuvre et de capital, par des activités marchandes indigènes dont l’ampleur peut étonner et par des degrés variables mais souvent peu élevés de centralisation politique. L’article explore la différence entre les effets des gouvernements français et britannique, mais il affirme que la différence visible dans l’évolution de la pauvreté, du bien-être et du changement structurel a davantage été déterminée par l’opposition entre économies « de peuplement » et « d’exploitation ».

  17. Malignant pleural mesothelioma: history, controversy and future of a manmade epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluf Dimitri Røe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Asbestos is the term for a family of naturally occurring minerals that have been used on a small scale since ancient times. Industrialisation demanded increased mining and refining in the 20th century, and in 1960, Wagner, Sleggs and Marchand from South Africa linked asbestos to mesothelioma, paving the way to the current knowledge of the aetiology, epidemiology and biology of malignant pleural mesothelioma. Pleural mesothelioma is one of the most lethal cancers, with increasing incidence worldwide. This review will give some snapshots of the history of pleural mesothelioma discovery, and the body of epidemiological and biological research, including some of the controversies and unresolved questions. Translational research is currently unravelling novel circulating biomarkers for earlier diagnosis and novel treatment targets. Current breakthrough discoveries of clinically promising noninvasive biomarkers, such as the 13-protein signature, microRNAs and the BAP1 mesothelioma/cancer syndrome, are highlighted. The asbestos history is a lesson to not be repeated, but here we also review recent in vivo and in vitro studies showing that manmade carbon nanofibres could pose a similar danger to human health. This should be taken seriously by regulatory bodies to ensure thorough testing of novel materials before release in the society.

  18. Recurrent overeating: an empirical comparison of binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichter, M M; Quadflieg, N; Brandl, B

    1993-07-01

    (AN). Arguments pro and contra the introduction of a new BED category in psychiatric diagnostic criteria are discussed. Although there is generally a need for developing or revising the diagnostic criteria for recurrent bingers, our data do not support inclusion of BED (as presently defined) as a separate diagnostic category in DSM-IV.

  19. Florística e estrutura do componente arbustivo-arbóreo de uma floresta higrófila da bacia do rio Jacaré-Pepira, SP, Brasil Floristics and structure of the shrub and the tree-layer of a swamp forest in Jacaré-Pepira river, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia C. M. Marques

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available As florestas higrófilas são formações ribeirinhas caracterizadas por ocorrerem em solo permanentemente encharcado e restritas a pequenos fragmentos junto a outros tipos vegetacionais. Neste trabalho caracterizaram-se a florística e a estrutura do componente arbustivo-arbóreo (plantas com DAP>5cm de uma área de 0,36ha de floresta higrófila localizada em Brotas (48º06'W 22º16'S, 470m.s.m., Estado de São Paulo, usando-se método de parcelas (total de 24 parcelas. No total foram amostrados 735 indivíduos, distribuídos em 32 famílias e 51 espécies. As espécies que se destacaram na comunidade devido aos elevados valores de importância foram Calophyllum brasiliense Camb., Protium almecega L. Marchand, Podocarpus sellowii Klotzch., Tapirira guianensis Aubl. e Dendropanax cuneatum DC. Decne. & Planch. O índice de diversidade de Shannon foi igual a 2,81, valor pouco superior aos descritos para florestas semelhantes. Na comunidade, as espécies generalistas com relação ao encharcamento do solo e as de solo drenado contribuíram na riqueza total (juntas 62% do total de espécies amostradas, enquanto as espécies de solo encharcado tiveram maior contribuição na composição da dominância (66% da dominância total e densidade (67% da densidade total relativas. A diversidade de situações topográficas e a entrada de espécies da vegetação do cerrado adjacente permitiram que espécies com diferentes exigências hídricas se estabelecessem na área relativamente pequena da floresta e influenciaram fortemente a florística e estrutura da comunidade.Swamp forests occur in permanently flooded small forest fragments in southeastern Brazil. We studied the floristic composition and community structure (plants with DBH>5cm of a swamp forest in Brotas municipality (48º06'W 22º16'S, 470m high, São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 735 individuals, 32 families, and 51 woody species were recorded in the area. The most important species were

  20. The Actors of the Maghribian Diplomacy with the Christian World (12th-15th centuries

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    Valérian, Dominique

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the originalities of the diplomatic practice of the Maghrebian sovereigns with northern Christian States resides in the use of very different types of ambassadors. Whereas the embassies sent to other sovereigns of the world of Islam are all Moslem, eventually Jewish, one finds many Christians as ambassadors sent for missions to Iberian or Italian States. As mercenaries or merchants mostly, they have certainly a good knowledge of the international relations of the time. But they have also a very ambiguous statute within the framework of the Islamo-Christian relations in the Mediterranean. The Maghrebian sovereigns actually use, according to needs for the mission, Christian or Moslem agents, still keeping an effective control on important political decisions.

    Une des originalités de la pratique diplomatique des souverains maghrébins en direction des Etats chrétiens du nord réside dans l’envoi d’ambassadeurs de profils très variés. Alors que les ambassades envoyées à d’autres souverains du monde de l’Islam sont tous musulmans, éventuellement juifs, on trouve de nombreux chrétiens comme ambassadeurs chargés de missions auprès des puissances ibériques ou italiennes. Mercenaires ou marchands le plus souvent, ils ont certes une bonne connaissance des relations internationales de l’époque. Mais ils n’en ont pas moins un statut ambigu dans le cadre des relations islamo-chrétiennes en Méditerranée. Les souverains maghrébins utilisent en réalité, selon les besoins de la mission, des agents chrétiens et musulmans, mais tout en gardant un contrôle efficace sur les décisions prises.

  1. Estudo da regeneração natural de espécies arbóreas em fragmento de Floresta Ombrófila Densa, Mata das Galinhas, no município de Catende, zona da mata sul de Pernambuco

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    Wegliane Campelo da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was developed in the fragment situated in the Catende is – PE city (Mata das Galinhas – 8º69’06”S e 35º69’08” W, in mesoregion of the pernambucana forest, more necessarily in the humid forest is microregion, at 142 km of the capital. The area is vegetacion is Humid Forest. The relief varies wavy to very wavy, with 199 m altitude. The soil is classified as red latisols dystrophic and red nitosols associated to latisols. The present work aims to study and evaluated the total natural regeneration of arboreal species in the forest fragment and to verify the diversity and structure of the species in the same one. For estimate the natural regeneration, were made systematically 16 subunits (samples with 5 x 5 m. These subunits were inserted in the middle samples (10 x 25 m before used to evaluate the community arboreal phytossociology, with 50 meters between the ones. The regeneration study (CAP 3 m. Besides, the samply sufficient and diversity were calculated. In fragment was observed 31 botanical families and 60 arboreal species inside 194 individuals. 42 had been identified in level of species, 4 in sort level, 2 in family level and 2 are not identify. Ten species obtained bigest values for total natural regeneration of the samples population (RNT and contribute with 53,78% of the total percentage, how is descript following way: Brosimum discolor Schott (9,98%, Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl. Marchand (9,19%, Eschweilera ovata (Cambess. Miers (8,01%, Thyrsodium spruceanum Benth. (7,0%, Dialium guianense (Aubl. Sandwith (5,44%, Erythroxylum squamatum Sw. (3,32%, Cupania revoluta Rolfe (3,16%, Sorocea hilarii Gaudich.

  2. The control of the radioactive pollution of milk (1962); Comment concevoir une surveillance des pollutions radioactives du lait (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michon, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    Milk, an essential foodstuff, is the object of a supervision and vigilant controls governed by numerous laws which protect its commercial and sanitary qualities. The development of the use of nuclear energy poses and will pose new problems of hygiene and the milk should benefit from controls concerning its possible contamination. Grass-eating animals are particularly subjected to radioactive contaminations and the milk which they produce does not escape contamination because of of its saline composition and of the particular metabolism of the mammary gland. As a result, milk is a contamination integrator and its analysis makes it possible to detect radioelements which can only be detected with great difficulty in an average size plant sample. (author) [French] Le lait, aliment essentiel, fait l'objet d'une surveillance et de controles vigilants regis par de nombreux textes legislatifs qui protegent ses qualites marchandes et sanitaires. Le developpement de l'utilisation de l'energie nucleaire pose et posera de nouveaux problemes d'hygiene et le lait doit beneficier de controles portant sur sa pollution radioactive eventuelle. Les, animaux herbivores sont particulierement exposes aux contaminations radioactives et les laits qu'ils produisent, du fait de leurs compositions salines et du metabolisme particulier de la glande mammaire, n'echappent point aux pollutions. De ce fait, le lait est un integrateur de contamination et son analyse permet de retrouver des radioelements que l'on ne decele qu'avec beaucoup de difficultes sur un echantillon vegetal de taille moyenne. (auteur)

  3. Peut-on être riche et bon citoyen ? L’Aristote humaniste au secours de l’esprit du capitalisme florentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie GAILLE-NIKODIMOV

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La relation qu’entretient Leonardo Bruni à sa ville d’adoption, Florence, tant comme lettré humaniste que comme personnalité politique, est complexe. Elle constitue une « entrée » pertinente pour s’interroger sur le statut moral de la richesse privée à Florence au début du xve siècle. Peut-on être riche et bon citoyen ? En s’interrogeant sur les motivations qu’avait Leonardo Bruni en offrant une nouvelle traduction du traité pseudo-aristotélicien l’Économique à Cosimo de Médicis, on comprend que ce geste s’inscrit dans un débat vivace, marqué par des prises de position théologiques et séculières initialement favorables à la pauvreté, mais aussi par une évolution de la relation entre l’Église et les marchands à Florence. En rupture avec toute idéalisation morale de la vie à la campagne, Bruni avance que la recherche privée de la richesse n’est pas nécessairement un vice. Il entend en proposer la démonstration à travers la peinture d’un homme qui réalise ses vertus dans la cité, en prônant par l’exemple une vie dans l’aisance et en contribuant à la prospérité et à la puissance de la cité.

  4. Quelle place pour le citoyen dans les processus de qualification environnementale des entreprises ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Semal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Le développement durable invite à intégrer aux modèles de raisonnement et d’action économiques la négociation entre parties intéressées et compétentes. Cette approche trouve sa traduction dans le champ économique sous la forme de la « théorie des parties prenantes », cristallisé notamment dans des outils comme la norme ISO 14001. Mais les modalités pratiques de sa mise en oeuvre ne permettent pas une intégration équilibrée des différents points de vue en présence. Le dialogue des parties prenantes qui vise à construire la « qualité environnementale » des entreprises se négocie essentiellement au sein de l’espace marchand. Le potentiel d’intégration du droit de négociation des parties prenantes paraît faible en l’absence d’un dispositif de veille citoyenne de cette qualité environnementale.Sustainable development aims to integrate stakeholder negotiation into economical reasoning and acting models. The stakeholder theory translates this approach in the economics field. Some tools like ISO 14001 standard crystallise this theory. But the practical ways of its implementation do not allow a balanced integration of the hole range of stakeholders views. Stakeholder dialog, which aims to build a consensus about enterprises “environmental quality”, is mostly negotiated inside the economic space. ISO 14001 standardisation system is not likely to allow stakeholder negotiation rights integration while citizens do not organise an environmental quality watching over network.

  5. An Overview Of Risk Factors For Coronary Heart Disease And Prevention Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Siddiqui

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available In developed countries, coronary heart disease (CHD accounts for 40-50% of all deaths, while 1 5-35% of all cardiac admissions in hospitals in our country are due to coronary heart disease1. The prevalence of CHD in our country varies from 1.7% to 6.5%2 and is rising, affecting young and middle aged persons in prime of their life and career 3a and it is said that CHD will replace infectious diseases as the major killer in India by year 2015 A.D.3b. Indian immigrants settled abroad have higher incidence and higher mortality as compared to native population. 4jb. The famous cardiologist Paul Dudley White has said "Heart disease before the age 80 is not God's will but due to our own faults" and it is the same message as given by Charaka about 30 centuries back, in 1000 B.C., who emphasized the role of overeating, heavy and fatty meals , worries and sedentary habits in causation of heart disease5. The human and economic costs of such a situation are very heavy.Atherosclerosis, the term introduced by Marchand in 1904, is the lipid rich lesion in the innermost layer of the arteries which is responsible for the majority of cases of myocardial and cerebral infarction. The endothelial lining of the artery is in direct and continuous contact with blood and interaction of blood cells & other constituents with the endothelium gives rise to atherosclerosis. This lesion presents as either fatty streak which is made up of foam cells, lipids & T lymphocytes and occurs early, commonly in children or fibrous plaque consisting of dense connective tissue, lipid droplets, smooth muscle cells, macrophages & T lymphocytes. Platelets adhere and aggregate to ulcerated or fissured plaques.

  6. Le détroit de Gibraltar dans la mondialisation des transports maritimes

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    Nora Mareï

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Le détroit de Gibraltar est une voie de passage intercontinentale et interocéanique majeure. Tout autour du détroit trois Etats ont pris place : l’Espagne, le Maroc, le Royaume-Uni. Ils sont imbriquées les uns aux autres par un jeu d’enclaves territoriales et dépendent les uns des autres pour la circulation des biens et des personnes à travers le détroit. Cette circulation, intégrée dans les grands flux marchands et humains qui dominent la planète, fait toute l’attractivité des lieux et entraîne une organisation maritime et terrestre singulière autour de ce seuil océanique. En particulier, les terminaux portuaires se sont développés de manière spectaculaire et accueillent aujourd’hui les principaux transporteurs mondiaux. Cette faveur donnée au développement économique a de nombreux effets pervers, qui s’ils ne sont pas pris en compte rapidement, mèneront à une fragilisation des territoires frontaliers du détroit.The Strait of Gibraltar is a major intercontinental and interoceanic route for maritime traffic. Three states surrend the Strait: Spain, Morocco, and the United Kingdom. Being territorial enclaves, they overlap and depend of each others for regulating the circulation of goods and people through the strait. This intercirculation, integrated in major merchant and human flows which dominate the world, makes all the interest of the place and creates a singular maritime and spatial organization around this oceanic chokepoint. In particular, port terminals have grown rapidly and hosting major global carriers. But, the preminence given to the economic development has many perverse effects on the territories bordering the strait.

  7. Estrutura florestal em projeto de assentamento, comunidade São Mateus, município de Placas, Pará, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Bezerra da Silva Ribeiro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o potencial e a estrutura florestal de uma Floresta Ombrófila Densa de terra firme, da Comunidade São Mateus, município de Placas, Pará. A avaliação foi realizada em dois tipos de ambiente, sendo, um, em Floresta Manejada (FM e, outro, em Floresta Não Manejada (FNM. Foram alocadas 20 unidades amostrais, sendo nove em FM e 11 em FNM. Em cada unidade amostral, os indivíduos foram inventariados em três classes de tamanho (CT: CT1 - 10 cm 50 cm (50 m x 200 m. As formas de utilização de todas as espécies arbóreas registradas foram verificadas por meio de entrevistas com assentados, no comércio, nas feiras livres e no mercado municipal de Santarém. Foram amostrados 472,6 árvores/ha na FM, distribuídas em 134 espécies e, na FNM, 508,0 árvores/ha, distribuídas em 146 espécies. As espécies de maior valor de importância nos dois tipos florestais foram: Licania kunthianamm Hook. f. (Chrysobalanaceae e Mezilaurus itauba Taubert ex Mez (Lauraceae. As espécies que mais se destacaram com diferentes possibilidades de uso foram: Protium cf. heptaphyllum (Aubl. Marchand (Burseraceae, Hymenaea courbaril L. (Fabaceae e Caryocar villosum (Aubl. Pers (Caryocaraceae. Após quatro anos de colheitas, não ocorreu diferenciação estrutural entre FM e FNM.

  8. Análisis de veintidós casos de tumores del cuerpo carotídeo: revisión de literatura, presentación de un nuevo caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Gómez Rivas

    1964-10-01

    Full Text Available El primer caso de tumor del cuerpo carotídeo operado por Marchand en 1880, sufrió lesión de la carótida, v. yugular, vago, hipogloso y simpático, muriendo el paciente al tercer día de postoperatorio. El segundo caso, operado por Maydl en 1886, presentó hemiplejía y parálisis facial transitorias. El tercer caso fue operado por Gersuny en 1886, el cual presentó como secuela definitiva parálisis de la cuerda vocal izquierda. El primer caso sin lesión de carótidas fue operado por Albert en 1889, con éxito aparente, ya que el tumor reapareció un año después. El primer caso operado en Norte América fue operado por Scudder  en 1903; tumor de 9 años de evolución; le ligó las carótidas. Gratiot anota una incidencia de 82% de ligadura de las carótidas de 1880 a 1920. De 1928 a 1937, la incidencia fue del 50%. Rush calcula que en la última década sólo el 25% necesita ligadura de las carótidas (en nuestra serie se encontró un porcentaje de 36,3%. Hemos observado una gran diferencia al consultar la literatura referente a los primeros casos; en relación con las publicaciones recientes acerca del tratamiento quirúrgico, Harrigton, Clagett y Dockerty en 1940, en una serie de 20 casos, hallan una malignidad del 50% Y dicen que no hay otra alternativa en el tratamiento que la extirpación. Y presentan una mortalidad del 30% y una morbilidad de! 80%.

  9. Some practical aspects of reservoir management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, M.L.; Young, M.A.; Cole, E.L.; Madden, M.P. [BDM-Oklahoma, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The practical essence of reservoir management is the optimal application of available resources-people, equipment, technology, and money to maximize profitability and recovery. Success must include knowledge and consideration of (1) the reservoir system, (2) the technologies available, and (3) the reservoir management business environment. Two Reservoir Management Demonstration projects (one in a small, newly-discovered field and one in a large, mature water-flood) implemented by the Department of Energy through BDM-Oklahoma illustrate the diversity of situations suited for reservoir management efforts. Project teams made up of experienced engineers, geoscientists, and other professionals arrived at an overall reservoir management strategy for each field. in 1993, Belden & Blake Corporation discovered a regionally significant oil reservoir (East Randolph Field) in the Cambrian Rose Run formation in Portage County, Ohio. Project objectives are to improve field operational economics and optimize oil recovery. The team focused on characterizing the reservoir geology and analyzing primary production and reservoir data to develop simulation models. Historical performance was simulated and predictions were made to assess infill drilling, water flooding, and gas repressurization. The Citronelle Field, discovered in 1955 in Mobile County, Alabama, has produced 160 million barrels from fluvial sandstones of the Cretaceous Rodessa formation. Project objectives are to address improving recovery through waterflood optimization and problems related to drilling, recompletions, production operations, and regulatory and environmental issues. Initial efforts focused on defining specific problems and on defining a geographic area within the field where solutions might best be pursued. Geologic and reservoir models were used to evaluate past performance and to investigate improved recovery operations.

  10. Session 10: The Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, Mexico: The Experiences Gained from Its Exploration and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippman, M.J.; Goldstein, N.E.; Halfman, S.E.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1983-12-01

    The Cerro Prieto case study demonstrated the value of a multidisciplinary effort for exploring and developing a geothermal field. There was no problem in recognizing the geothermal potential of the Cerro Prieto area because of the many obvious surface manifestations. However, the delineation of the geothermal reservoir at depth was not so straightforward. Wells drilled near the abundant surface manifestations only produced fluids of relatively low enthalpy. Later it was determined that these zones of high heat loss corresponded to discharge areas where faults and fractures allowed thermal fluids to leak to the surface, and not to the main geothermal reservoir. The early gravity and seismic refraction surveys provided important information on the general structure of the area. Unaware of the existence of a higher density zone of hydrothermally altered sediments capping the geothermal reservoir, CFE interpreted a basement horst in the western part of the field and hypothesized that the bounding faults were controlling the upward flow of thermal fluids. Attempting to penetrate the sedimentary column to reach the ''basement horst'', CFE discovered the {alpha} geothermal reservoir (in well M-5). The continuation of the geothermal aquifer (actually the {beta} reservoir) east of the original well field was later confirmed by a deep exploration well (M-53). The experience of Cerro Prieto showed the importance of chemical ratios, and geothermometers in general, in establishing the subsurface temperatures and fluid flow patterns. Fluid chemical and isotopic compositions have also been helpful to determine the origin of the fluids, fluid-production mechanisms and production induced effects on the reservoir.

  11. Effects induced after the use of maxillary protraction appliances: a literature review Efeitos induzidos após uso de aparelhos para tração reversa da maxila: uma revisão de literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adanai de Brito Freire

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present literature review, examined the effects of maxillary protraction in patients treated with different types of facial masks. METHODS: The review searched for relevant articles, including randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials and uncontrolled trials. Comparisons were made between eight different types of facial masks: Delaire; Grummons; Petit; Turley; Batista; "Sky Hook"; Nanda and Türbinger. Following aspects were evaluated: a the type of anchorage; the origin, direction and magnitude of forces and b the relevant results of following skeletal and dental measurements: angular (SNA and SNB, linear (AFAI; vertical angles (SN.GoGn, FMA; dental (IMPA and linear (1-NA, 1-NB. CONCLUSION: The results showed that there was no uniformity in the choice of anchorage type and form of application of forces between the facial masks examined, but there were similarities in skeletal and dental aspects: Anterior displacement of the maxillary complex (increase in SNA ; anterior displacement of the upper anterior teeth (increase of 1-NA, the lingual inclination of mandibular incisors (decrease of 1-NB, down and back rotation of the mandible (increase AFAI, SN.GoGn, FMA, decrease in SNB.OBJETIVO: o presente trabalho de revisão de literatura consistiu em realizar um estudo comparativo entre diversos modelos de máscaras faciais em relação às suas influências dentárias e esqueléticas e suas implicações sobre a altura facial inferior. MÉTODOS: optou-se pela busca de artigos relevantes, abrangendo estudos randomizados controlados, ensaios clínicos controlados e não-controlados, incluídos de acordo com critérios de elegibilidade. Foi realizada a comparação entre oito diferentes modelos de máscaras faciais: Delaire, Grummons, Petit, Turley, Batista, Sky Hook, Nanda e Tübinger. Foram coletados: a o tipo de ancoragem, a origem, direção e magnitude das forças entre as máscaras faciais; e b os resultados

  12. Life course socioeconomic position, alcohol drinking patterns in midlife, and cardiovascular mortality: Analysis of Norwegian population-based health surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirik Degerud

    2018-01-01

    ,284 deaths (15 years from CVDs occurred. In comparison to consumers who did not binge during the past year, HRs among frequent bingers (≥1 time per week were 1.58 (95% CI 1.31, 1.91 overall, and 1.22 (95% CI 0.84, 1.76, 1.71 (95% CI 1.31, 2.23, and 1.85 (95% CI 1.16, 2.94 in the strata, respectively. HRs for effect modification were 1.36 (95% CI 0.87, 2.13, p = 0.18; middle versus high, 1.63 (95% CI 0.92, 2.91, p = 0.10; low versus high, and 1.32 (95% CI 0.79, 2.20, p = 0.29; low versus middle. A limitation of this study was the use of a single measurement to reflect lifetime alcohol consumption.Moderately frequent consumers had a lower risk of CVD mortality compared with infrequent consumers, and we observed that this association was more pronounced among participants with higher SEP throughout their life course. Frequent binge drinking was associated with a higher risk of CVD mortality, but it was more uncertain whether the risk differed by life course SEP. It is unclear if these findings reflect differential confounding of alcohol consumption with health-protective or damaging exposures, or differing effects of alcohol on health across socioeconomic groups.

  13. Composição da flora arbórea e arborescente no Jardim Botânico de Bento Gonçalves, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Bruna Treviso Cenci

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo o levantamento florístico e fitossociológico de uma área de 178.000 m², situada nas coordenadas 29º10'38"S e 51º27'16"W, na localidade de Linha Palmeiro, Distrito de São Pedro, no Município de Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brasil, onde se encontra o Jardim Botânico de Bento Gonçalves, o qual se situa numa zona de transição de três formações vegetais distintas: Floresta Ombrófila Mista, Floresta Estacional Decidual e resquícios de Mata Atlântica. O local é uma área de conservação in situ no Jardim Botânico de Bento Gonçalves. O método de amostragem utilizado foi o de parcelas distribuídas ao acaso. Avaliaram-se 10 parcelas medindo 50 x 50 m cada. Dentro de cada parcela, foram amostrados indivíduos com circunferência à altura do peito (CAP superior ou igual a 30 cm. Foram amostrados 1.947 indivíduos vivos dentro de 35 famílias botânicas, além de 109 indivíduos mortos ainda em pé. As famílias mais expressivas em número de indivíduos e em espécies foram Sapindaceae, Anacardiaceae, Myrtaceae, Oleaceae e Lauraceae. As espécies com maiores valores de importância foram Matayba elaeagnoides Radlk., Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze, Lithraea brasiliensis Marchand, Ligustrum licidum W. T. Aiton e Sebastiania serrata (Klotzsch Müll. Arg. O índice de diversidade de Shannon foi de 3,18 nats/indivíduos, enquanto a equabilidade de Pielou (J', 0,71, valores esses considerados altos se comparados a de outros levantamentos. O número de espécies identificadas evidenciou nível alto de diversidade florística, que se caracterizou pela associação de diferentes contingentes florestais, com predomínio daquelas de ampla distribuição na área.

  14. Characteristics and response to treatment among Indigenous people receiving injectable diacetylmorphine or hydromorphone in a randomised controlled trial for the treatment of long-term opioid dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo-Joekes, Eugenia; Palis, Heather; Guh, Daphne; Marchand, Kirsten; Brissette, Suzanne; Lock, Kurt; MacDonald, Scott; Harrison, Scott; Anis, Aslam H; Krausz, Michael; Marsh, David C; Schechter, Martin T

    2018-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of injectable hydromorphone and dicaetylmorphine for Indigenous participants in the Study to Assess Longer-term Opioid Medication Effectiveness (SALOME) clinical trial. The study additionally aims to explore the prevalence and frequency of crack cocaine use among subgroups of participants (by gender and ethnicity). This secondary analysis is particularly relevant given the current need for expanded medication assisted treatments for opioid dependence across North America. Participants self-identifying as First Nations, Métis or Inuit were included in the analysis of Indigenous participants. Six-month treatment outcomes are reported as the difference between diacetylmorphine and hydromorphone treatment arms among Indigenous participants and change from baseline to 6 months in each treatment arm. Differences in outcomes are tested between Indigenous and non-Indigenous participants. Crack cocaine use was explored to determine differences between and within subgroups. Approximately one-third of SALOME participants self-identified as Indigenous. Indigenous participants presented to treatment with more structural vulnerabilities (e.g. lower education, higher rates of foster care and separation from biological parents) compared to non-Indigenous participants. After 6 months, Indigenous participants in both treatment arms had a significant reduction in days of street heroin use, opioid use, crack cocaine use and illegal activity. Treatment retention did not differ by treatment arm. Indigenous people that are not engaged by first-line treatments for opioid dependence are in need of effective alternative treatments. Given the political and logistical barriers facing diacetylmorphine, hydromorphone could serve as a more accessible medication to reach and treat this population. [Oviedo-Joekes E, Palis H, Guh D, Marchand K, Brissette S, Lock K, MacDonald S, Harrison S, Anis AH, Krausz M, March DC, Schechter MT. Characteristics and response to

  15. Les usages du sucre dans le manuel de pharmacie de Cohen al-‘Aṭṭār médecin juif du Caire au XIIIe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouerfelli, Mohamed

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of a pharmaceutical guide for the usage of apothecaries and merchants of drugs and drinks, which took into account the evolution of pharmacy and the development of pharmaceutical products, Cohen al-‘Aṭṭar wrote a new manual in which he reminded us not only of the writings of his predecessors, but also the point of view of his contemporaries, notably his proper experiences he carried out in his shop in Cairo to make pharmaceutical products and the means to preserve them. This pharmaceutical manual, the richest in medicine formulas, also stands out on account of the extensive use of sugar in the making of recipes. Given the fact that this product was available in large quantities in Egypt and Syria during the second half of the 13th century, it gradually substituted honey to become the principal ingredient in the making of drugs and drinks. Thus, sugar broke through the food world to become the privilege of the royal class, who turned it into one of the essential elements for their festivities.[fr] Face à l’absence d’un guide pharmaceutique à l’usage des apothicaires et des marchands de drogues et de boissons, qui tient compte de l’évolution de la pharmacie et du développement de la matière médicale, Cohen al-‘Aṭṭār propose un nouveau manuel dans lequel il rappelle non seulement les écrits de ses prédécesseurs, mais il livre également les points de vue de ses contemporains, et surtout ses propres expériences, qu’il mène dans sa boutique du Caire, pour la confection des médicaments et les moyens de les conserver. Ce manuel pharmaceutique, le plus riche en formules médicamenteuses, se distingue également par l’usage massif du sucre dans l’élaboration des recettes. Ce produit, disponible en grandes quantités en Égypte et en Syrie pendant la seconde moitié du XIIIe siècle, se substitue progressivement au miel et devient l’ingrédient principal dans l’élaboration des médicaments et des

  16. ARM Cloud Radar Simulator Package for Global Climate Models Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuying [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Xie, Shaocheng [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    It has been challenging to directly compare U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility ground-based cloud radar measurements with climate model output because of limitations or features of the observing processes and the spatial gap between model and the single-point measurements. To facilitate the use of ARM radar data in numerical models, an ARM cloud radar simulator was developed to converts model data into pseudo-ARM cloud radar observations that mimic the instrument view of a narrow atmospheric column (as compared to a large global climate model [GCM] grid-cell), thus allowing meaningful comparison between model output and ARM cloud observations. The ARM cloud radar simulator value-added product (VAP) was developed based on the CloudSat simulator contained in the community satellite simulator package, the Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project (CFMIP) Observation Simulator Package (COSP) (Bodas-Salcedo et al., 2011), which has been widely used in climate model evaluation with satellite data (Klein et al., 2013, Zhang et al., 2010). The essential part of the CloudSat simulator is the QuickBeam radar simulator that is used to produce CloudSat-like radar reflectivity, but is capable of simulating reflectivity for other radars (Marchand et al., 2009; Haynes et al., 2007). Adapting QuickBeam to the ARM cloud radar simulator within COSP required two primary changes: one was to set the frequency to 35 GHz for the ARM Ka-band cloud radar, as opposed to 94 GHz used for the CloudSat W-band radar, and the second was to invert the view from the ground to space so as to attenuate the beam correctly. In addition, the ARM cloud radar simulator uses a finer vertical resolution (100 m compared to 500 m for CloudSat) to resolve the more detailed structure of clouds captured by the ARM radars. The ARM simulator has been developed following the COSP workflow (Figure 1) and using the capabilities available in COSP

  17. Spermiogenesis and spermatozoon ultrastructure of the paruterinid cestode Notopentorchis sp. (Cyclophyllidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneva, Aneta; Levron, Céline; Nikolov, Pavel N; Mizinska, Yana; Mariaux, Jean; Georgiev, Boyko B

    2012-07-01

    Ultrastructural characters of the spermiogenesis and mature spermatozoon of Notopentorchis sp. (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea, Paruterinidae), a parasite from Apus affinis (Aves, Apodiformes, Apodidae) from Gabon, are described by means of transmission electron microscopy. Cytochemical analysis for detection of glycogen was applied. Vestigial striated roots associated with the two centrioles are present in the zone of differentiation. The spermiogenesis is characterized by an external growth of free flagellum followed by a proximodistal fusion of the latter with cytoplasmic protrusion, thus, corresponding to the cestode spermiogenesis of the type III pattern described by Bâ and Marchand (Mem. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 166:87-95, 1995). In the final stage of spermiogenesis, a single crested body appears at the base of the forming spermatozoon. The mature spermatozoon of Notopentorchis sp. is filiform and tapering at both extremities. It consists of five regions differing in their ultrastructural characteristics. The anterior extremity of the mature spermatozoon is characterized by the presence of an apical cone and a single crested body. The cytoplasm contains one axoneme of 9 + "1" type of the trepaxonematan Platyhelminthes, a periaxonemal sheath, a layer of twisted cortical microtubules, transverse intracytoplasmic walls, and granules of glycogen. The nucleus is coiled in spiral around the axoneme. The posterior extremity of the spermatozoon is characterized by the presence of electron-dense material. This structural organization corresponds to the morphology of cestode spermatozoon of type VII as defined by Levron et al. (Biol Rev 85: 523-543, 2010). The comparison of the results with those of the two previous studies on paruterinids suggests that several characters of the spermiogenesis and the mature spermatozoon are invariable, i.e. the type III spermiogenesis and the presence of vestigial striated roots, a single crested body, a periaxonemal sheath, and

  18. Parametrized-4.5PN TaylorF2 approximants and tail effects to quartic nonlinear order from the effective one body formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Francesco; Nagar, Alessandro

    2017-06-01

    By post-Newtonian (PN) expanding the well-known, factorized and resummed, effective-one-body energy flux for circularized binaries, we show that (i) because of the presence of the resummed tail factor, the 4.5PN-accurate tails-of-tails-of-tails contribution to the energy flux recently computed by Marchand et al. [Classical Quantum Gravity 33, 244003 (2016), 10.1088/0264-9381/33/24/244003] is actually contained in the resummed expression; this is also the case of the next-to-leading-order tail-induced spin-orbit term of Marsat et al. [Classical Quantum Gravity 31, 025023 (2014), 10.1088/0264-9381/31/2/025023]; (ii) in performing this expansion, we also obtain, for the first time, the explicit 3.5PN leading-order tail-induced spin-spin flux term; and (iii) pushing the PN expansion of the (nonspinning) EOB flux up to 5.5PN order, we compute 4PN, 5PN, and 5.5PN contributions to the energy flux, though in a form that explicitly depends on, currently unknown, 4PN and 5PN non-test-mass corrections to the factorized waveform amplitudes. Within this (parametrized) 4.5PN accuracy, we calculate the Taylor F2 approximant. Focusing for simplicity on the nonspinning case and using the numerical-relativity calibrated IMRPhenomD waveform model as a benchmark, we demonstrate that it is possible to reproduce the derivative of the IMRPhenomD phase (say up to the frequency of the Schwarzschild last-stable-orbit) by flexing only a 4PN "effective" waveform amplitude parameter. A preliminary analysis also illustrates that similar results can be obtained for the spin-aligned case provided only the leading-order spin-orbit and spin-spin terms are kept. Our findings suggest that these types of EOB-derived, parametrized, higher-order, PN approximants may serve as promising tools to construct inspiral-merger-ringdown phenomenological models or even to replace the standardly used 3.5PN-accurate TaylorF2 approximant in searches of small-mass binaries.

  19. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göran Aijmer

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available - Peter Boomgaard, Denys Lombard, Marchands et hommes d’affaires asiatiques dans l’Ocean Indien et la Mer de Chine 13e - 20e siècles, Paris: Éditions de l’École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales. 1988. 375 pp., Jean Aubin (eds. - Gary Brana-Shute, David I. Kertzer, Ritual, politics and power, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988. xi, 235 pp. - G.W.J. Drewes, Chantal Vuldy, Pekalongan; Batik et Islam dans une ville du Nord de Java. Paris: École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, 1987, Études insulindiennes/Archipel 8. 311 pp. - Ch.F. van Fraassen, Hubert Jacobs, The Jesuit Makasar documents (1615-1682, edited and annotated by Hubert Jacobs SJ, Monumenta Historica Societatis Iesu volume 134, Rome: Jesuit Historical Institute, 1988, xxiv + 36* + 285 pp. - M. Hekker, Penelope Graham, Iban shamanism: An analysis of the ethnographic literature, Canberra: Occasional paper of the department of Anthropology, The Australian National University, 1987. x + 174 pp. - Huub de Jonge, Jennifer Alexander, Trade, traders, and trading in rural Java, Asian studies association of Australia, Southeast Asia publications series, No. 15. Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1987, 223 and xvi pp., plates, tables, figs and maps. - Peter J. M. Nas, Ben F. van Leerdam, Henri Maclaine Pont: Architect tussen twee werelden; Over de perikelen rond het ontstaan van de gebouwen van een hogeschool, het ‘Instituut Teknologi Bandung’, Delft: Delftse Universitaire Pers, 1988, 90 pp. - P.J.M. Nas, B. Hauser-Schäublin, Bauen und Wohnen, 1987. Basel: Birkhauser Verlag. Mensch, Kultur, Umwelt 2.84 pages, - Peter Pels, Göran Aijmer, Symbolic textures; Studies in cultural meaning, Göteborg: Gothenburg studies in social Anthropology 10, 1987. - Robert Ross, Ido H. Enklaar, Life and work of Dr. J.Th. van der Kemp, 1747-1811: Missionary pioneer and protagonist of racial equality in South Africa, Cape Town/Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema, 1988, xi + 234 pp. - A. Teeuw

  20. Le statut socio-économique de la pratique musicale aux Émirats arabes unis : la tradition du leiwah à Dubai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maho M. Sebiane

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Le leiwah est une tradition musicale afro-arabe, qui s’est diffusée dans le Golfe Persique à partir de l’Afrique de l’Est par l’intermédiaire des marchands omanais. A Dubai, le leiwah est interprété principalement lors des mariages des différentes communautés de la ville (bédouins, baloutches, ‘ajam, ainsi que lors des commémorations, les fêtes nationales et les festivités commerciales. Il est pratiqué par les membres de ces communautés, de manière semi-professionnelle, plus particulièrement par certains « baloutches », au sein de structures associatives, les « Associations d’arts populaires ». Anciennement non rémunérée, cette pratique est aujourd’hui au centre d’une activité économique hautement concurrentielle entre les ensembles musicaux et les associations qui les abritent. Ce phénomène récent dans le contexte urbain, culturel et social de Dubai permet d'éclairer le statut des musiciens dans la société et dans l'économie émiratie, en pleine mutation par rapport au modèle traditionnel qui était encore en vigueur il y a quarante ans.Socio-Economic Status of Practicing Music in the United Arab Emirates: the Tradition of Leiwah in DubaiLeiwah is an Afro-Arabic musical tradition wide spread in the Persian Golf which came into this region from East Africa by way of Omani merchants. In Dubai, leiwah is performed principally at marriages within the different communities of the city (Bedouins, Balouches, ‘ajam, as well as at anniversaries, National Day celebrations and commercial festivals. It is practiced by amateurs among the members of these communities, especially by some of the « Balouchis » within such associations as ‘the Associations of Popular Arts’. Though this kind of activity was not remunerated in the past, it is presently at the center of a high economic competition between various music bands and the associations which harbor them. This recent phenomenon in Dubai

  1. The ARM Cloud Radar Simulator for Global Climate Models: Bridging Field Data and Climate Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuying [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Xie, Shaocheng [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Klein, Stephen A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Marchand, Roger [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Kollias, Pavlos [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York; Clothiaux, Eugene E. [The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania; Lin, Wuyin [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York; Johnson, Karen [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York; Swales, Dustin [CIRES and NOAA/Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado; Bodas-Salcedo, Alejandro [Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, United Kingdom; Tang, Shuaiqi [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Haynes, John M. [Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere/Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado; Collis, Scott [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; Jensen, Michael [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York; Bharadwaj, Nitin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Hardin, Joseph [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Isom, Bradley [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington

    2018-01-01

    difficult for the CloudSat radar to detect due to surface contamination (Mace et al. 2007; Marchand et al. 2008). Therefore, the ARM ground-based cloud observations can provide important observations of clouds that complement measurements from space.

  2. Le modèle québécois : Un horizon théorique pour la recherche, une porte d’entrée pour un projet de société ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Lévesque

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Il existe un modèle québécois de développement en émergence de type partenarial. Ce modèle est différent aussi bien du modèle keynésien et fordiste de la révolution tranquille que du néolibéralisme. Par contre, ce modèle ne possède pas encore de bases solides, car insuffisamment institutionnalisées. Les traits possibles de cette nouvelle configuration ont été identifiés par les travaux du CRISES à propos des innovations sociales des deux dernières décennies initiées. Ces innovations proviennent des acteurs sociaux organisés que soit au sein des entreprises manufacturières, de certains services marchands et de l’économie sociale De plus, contrairement à ce que certains pensent, il y a une autre façon de penser le renouvellement du modèle de développement. Un mode basé sur la solidarité qui donne plus de place au partenariat et à la société civile serait le fondement de ce renouvellement.There is a Quebecois model of development in emergence of partenarial type. This model is different as well from the keynesian model and fordist of the « Révolution Tranquille » as the neoliberalism. On the other hand, this model does not still possess solid bases, because insufficiently institutionalized. The possible features of this new configuration were identified by the works of CRISES about the social innovations of both last introduced decades. These innovations result from organized social actors within the industrial companies, within the certain trade services and within the social economy Furthermore, contrary to the fact that some people think, there is another way of thinking of the renewal of the model of development. A mode based on the solidarity which gives more place to the partnership and to the civil society would be the foundation of this renewal.

  3. O cálcio no líqüido céfalo-raqueano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isnard dos Reis Filho

    1957-03-01

    Full Text Available Os autores estudaram o cálcio no líquido céfalo-raqueano de 217 pacientes portadores de diversas condições neurológicas e psiquiátricas, tendo sido examinadas 244 amostras. Procuraram demonstrar a importância de se considerar as duas frações, a difusível e a não difusível, na interpretação das alterações do cálcio total no líquido céfalo-raqueano. Como somente as modificações da fração difusível têm maior significado em patologia, estudaram todo o seu material visando o cálculo desta fração em cada amostra do líquor. Tendo encontrado uma relação logarítmica entre a taxa das proteínas totais e a taxa do cálcio, propuzeram uma fórmula para o cálculo da taxa de cálcio não difusível [(0,91 χ log. taxa de proteínas totais em mg% - 1,3]. Baseados nesta fórmula elaboraram uma tabela que permite a dedução da fração não difusível do cálcio total. Os autores verificaram aumento da taxa do cálcio total em numerosas amostras de líquor em que havia aumento da taxa das proteínas, tais como nos casos de meningites, tumores encefálicos e raqueanos, hidrocefalias, neurolues, hemorragias intracranianas. Porém, nestes casos, após o desconto da fração não difusível, constataram valores dentro dos limites de normalidade. Deduzida a fração não difusível o material foi analizado do ponto de vista do cálcio difusível, sendo encontrado um aumento significativo desta fração na maioria dos casos de encefalite psicótica aguda azotêmica (Marchand, fato êste não assinalado na literatura compulsada pelos autores.

  4. Composição da flora arbórea e arborescente no Jardim Botânico de Bento Gonçalves, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Composition of the tree flora in the Botanical Garden of Bento Gonçalves, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Treviso Cenci

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo o levantamento florístico e fitossociológico de uma área de 178.000 m², situada nas coordenadas 29º10'38"S e 51º27'16"W, na localidade de Linha Palmeiro, Distrito de São Pedro, no Município de Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brasil, onde se encontra o Jardim Botânico de Bento Gonçalves, o qual se situa numa zona de transição de três formações vegetais distintas: Floresta Ombrófila Mista, Floresta Estacional Decidual e resquícios de Mata Atlântica. O local é uma área de conservação in situ no Jardim Botânico de Bento Gonçalves. O método de amostragem utilizado foi o de parcelas distribuídas ao acaso. Avaliaram-se 10 parcelas medindo 50 x 50 m cada. Dentro de cada parcela, foram amostrados indivíduos com circunferência à altura do peito (CAP superior ou igual a 30 cm. Foram amostrados 1.947 indivíduos vivos dentro de 35 famílias botânicas, além de 109 indivíduos mortos ainda em pé. As famílias mais expressivas em número de indivíduos e em espécies foram Sapindaceae, Anacardiaceae, Myrtaceae, Oleaceae e Lauraceae. As espécies com maiores valores de importância foram Matayba elaeagnoides Radlk., Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze, Lithraea brasiliensis Marchand, Ligustrum licidum W. T. Aiton e Sebastiania serrata (Klotzsch Müll. Arg. O índice de diversidade de Shannon foi de 3,18 nats/indivíduos, enquanto a equabilidade de Pielou (J', 0,71, valores esses considerados altos se comparados a de outros levantamentos. O número de espécies identificadas evidenciou nível alto de diversidade florística, que se caracterizou pela associação de diferentes contingentes florestais, com predomínio daquelas de ampla distribuição na área.The objective of this study was to survey the flora in an area of 178,000 square meters at 29&º10'38''S and 51&º27'16''W, in Linha Palmeiro, in São Pedro, a district of Bento Gonçalves, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil where the Botanical Garden of Bento

  5. Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) and their oxidation products at two Mediterranean background sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debevec, Cecile; Sauvage, Stephane; Gros, Valerie; Sciare, Jean; Pikridas, Michael; Dusanter, Sebastien; Leonardis, Thierry; Gaudion, Vincent; Depelchin, Laurence; Fronval, Isabelle; Sarda-Esteve, Roland; Baisnee, Dominique; Vasiliadou, Emily; Savvides, Chrysanthos; Kalogridis, Cerise; Michoud, Vincent; Locoge, Nadine

    2017-04-01

    nighttime. This nocturnal variability could be driven by nighttime emissions, chemical decay or dynamical processes; all these assumptions will be discussed here. From PMF factors identified, measured oxygenated VOCs were apportioned among their potential different origins (either biogenic or anthropogenic and either primary or secondary). Finally, a parallel between organic aerosol and gas phase composition was conducted to better highlight the relationship between the two phases. The diurnal variability of secondary organic aerosol appeared to be influenced by biogenic contributions. References. Debevec, C., Sauvage, S., Gros, V., Sciare, J., Pikridas, M., Stavroulas, I., Salameh, T., Leonardis, T., Gaudion, V., Depelchin, L., Fronval, I., Sarda-Esteve, R., Baisnee, D., Bonsang, B., Savvides, C., Vrejoussis, M. and Locoge, N.: Origin and variability of volatile organic compounds observed at an Eastern Mediterranean background site (Cyprus), submitted to ACPD. Michoud, V., Sciare, J., Sauvage, S., Dusanter, S., Leonardis, T., Gros, V., Kalogridis, A.-C., Zannoni, N., Féron, A., Petit, J.-E., Creen, V., Baisnée, D., Sarda-Estève, R., Bonnaire, N., Marchand, N., DeWitt, H. L., Pey, J., Colomb, A., Gheussi, F., Szidat, S., Stavroulas, I., Borbon, A. and Locoge, N.: Organic carbon at a remote site of the western Mediterranean Basin: composition, sources and chemistry during the ChArMEx SOP2 field experiment, submitted to ACPD.

  6. Lithium insertion in nanostructured TiO(2)(B) architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dylla, Anthony G; Henkelman, Graeme; Stevenson, Keith J

    2013-05-21

    Electric vehicles and grid storage devices have potentialto become feasible alternatives to current technology, but only if scientists can develop energy storage materials that offer high capacity and high rate capabilities. Chemists have studied anatase, rutile, brookite and TiO2(B) (bronze) in both bulk and nanostructured forms as potential Li-ion battery anodes. In most cases, the specific capacity and rate of lithiation and delithiation increases as the materials are nanostructured. Scientists have explained these enhancements in terms of higher surface areas, shorter Li(+) diffusion paths and different surface energies for nanostructured materials allowing for more facile lithiation and delithiation. Of the most studied polymorphs, nanostructured TiO2(B) has the highest capacity with promising high rate capabilities. TiO2(B) is able to accommodate 1 Li(+) per Ti, giving a capacity of 335 mAh/g for nanotubular and nanoparticulate TiO2(B). The TiO2(B) polymorph, discovered in 1980 by Marchand and co-workers, has been the focus of many recent studies regarding high power and high capacity anode materials with potential applications for electric vehicles and grid storage. This is due to the material's stability over multiple cycles, safer lithiation potential relative to graphite, reasonable capacity, high rate capability, nontoxicity, and low cost (Bruce, P. G.; Scrosati, B.; Tarascon, J.-M. Nanomaterials for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed.2008, 47, 2930-2946). One of the most interesting properties of TiO2(B) is that both bulk and nanostructured forms lithiate and delithiate through a surface redox or pseudocapacitive charging mechanism, giving rise to stable high rate charge/discharge capabilities in the case of nanostructured TiO2(B). When other polymorphs of TiO2 are nanostructured, they still mainly intercalate lithium through a bulk diffusion-controlled mechanism. TiO2(B) has a unique open crystal structure and low energy Li

  7. Estudo da regeneração natural de espécies arbóreas em fragmento de Floresta Ombrófila Densa, Mata das Galinhas, no município de Catende, zona da mata sul de Pernambuco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wegliane Campelo da Silva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi desenvolvido no fragmento denominado Mata das Galinhas, situado no município de Catende - PE, na mesorregião da mata pernambucana, mais precisamente na microrregião da mata úmida, a 142 Km da capital, nas coordenadas 8º69'06"S e 35º69'08" W, com altitude média de 199m. O relevo varia, predominantemente, de ondulado a forte ondulado. Os solos predominantes são classificados como latossolo vermelho distrófico e nitossolo vermelho associado ao latossolo. A vegetação é de Floresta Ombrófila Densa. Neste estudo, objetivou-se avaliar a regeneração natural de espécies arbóreas no fragmento florestal e verificar a diversidade e a estrutura das espécies no mesmo. Para a estimativa da regeneração natural das espécies arbóreas, foram locadas, de forma sistemática, 16 subparcelas de 25 m² (5 x 5 m, no centro de 16 unidades amostrais permanentes de 250 m2 (10,0 x 25,0 m, para o estudo da fitossociologia da comunidade arbórea adulta, com um distanciamento de 50 m entre si. O nível de inclusão foi de CAP < 15 cm, e a medição de altura (h foi dividida em classes, em que a classe 1 contemplou indivíduos com 1,0 < h < 2,0 m, a classe 2 com indivíduos 2,0 < h < 3,0 m e a classe, 3 indivíduos com h > 3,0 m. Foram realizados os cálculos da suficiência amostral e da diversidade. No fragmento, foram amostrados 194 indivíduos, pertencentes a 31 famílias botânicas e a 60 espécies arbóreas. Destas, 42 foram identificadas em nível de espécie; 4,em nível de gênero; 2, em nível de família; e 2, indeterminadas. As dez espécies com maiores valores para regeneração natural Total da População Amostrada (RNT representaram 53,78%, estando assim distribuídas: Brosimum discolor Schott (9,98%, Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl. Marchand (9,19%, Eschweilera ovata (Cambess. Miers (8,01%, Thyrsodium spruceanum Benth. (7,0%, Dialium guianense (Aubl. Sandwith (5,44%, Erythroxylum squamatum Sw. (3,32%, Cupania revoluta Rolfe (3

  8. Le commerce chinois à Dakar. Expressions spatiales de la mondialisation Chinese trade in Dakar. Spatial expressions of globalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadou Diop

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available L’irruption de la Chine dans le peloton des grandes puissances mondiales peut être considérée comme un des faits majeurs de ces 20 dernières années. Cette expansion chinoise a soulevé des enjeux spatiaux majeurs dans un contexte favorable de la mondialisation. Dans certains pays africains, la présence chinoise a débuté après les indépendances à travers de grands projets de développement. Actuellement, il s’agit d’une relance fondée sur de nouvelles bases avec des déplacements massifs de population via des canaux officiels ou non et des destinations diverses.La destination du Sénégal a constitué pour les Chinois un cadre de sécurité, de facilité dans les importations des produits, mais surtout de profits commerciaux très bénéfiques. A Dakar, dans un espace aussi stratégique que le Boulevard Général De Gaulle communément appelé “Allées du Centenaire”, les installations chinoises ont profondément modifié l’espace urbain. Il s’est d’abord produit un important processus de “cantinisation” puis une recomposition sociale et spatiale très profonde. Acteurs principaux de ce dynamisme, les Chinois sont en collaboration avec les marchands ambulants, mais aussi avec la volonté des propriétaires des maisons qui profitent des transactions immobilières particulièrement lucratives.The emergence of China among the top world powers can be considered as one major fact in the last 20 years. China’s expansion has raised crucial spatial stakes in the favourable context of globalisation. In some African countries, China’s presence started after the independence with large-scale development projects. We currently witness a revival founded on news bases with massive population moves – official or not – towards various destinations. For the Chinese, Senegal represents a haven of security, easier imports of products, but most of all very high commercial profits. In Dakar, in the strategic Boulevard G

  9. La Catalogne de Ponz, de Young et de Zamora : l’utopie agropastorale et du travail, dans le dernier tiers du XVIIIe siècle

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    Pablo F. Luna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nous avons voulu comparer trois approches de voyageurs de la fin de la période moderne. Ils observent l’espace, le territoire, l’articulation économique, la configuration sociétale et le peuplement de la Catalunya espagnole. Dans leur écriture et dans la synthèse de leurs réflexions, Ponz, Young et Zamora produisent une image et une « notion » de l’ensemble catalan. Leur récit nous fournit les matériaux d’écriture des espaces et d’écriture de l’histoire, dans un moment singulier de l’évolution espagnole.Le résultat de l’exercice nous place vraisemblablement aux origines de l’image positive du fait catalan contemporain : une puissance économique « régionale » qui fait ses preuves et qui s’appuie sur des atouts anciens. Une population grandissante, appliquée au travail et d’un dynamisme visible. Une vitalité marchande d’un réseau étendu, y compris du point de vue sociologique. Une campagne bien dotée en ressources, qui accueille une agriculture et une société rurale équilibrées, comparées à d’autres campagnes espagnoles. Un espace différent, spécifique — avec une langue et une originalité culturelle — et qui pourtant, sans grande difficulté, s’insère dans la réalité espagnole. La résonnance actuelle d’une telle image n’est pas sans nous donner à réfléchir.Hemos deseado comparar tres enfoques de viajeros de fines del periodo moderno, que observan el espacio, el territorio, la articulación económica, la configuración societal y el poblamiento de la Catalunya española. Con su escritura y la síntesis de sus reflexiones, Ponz, Young y Zamora producen una imagen y una « noción » del conjunto catalán. Su relato nos proporciona materiales de escritura de los espacios y la historia, en un momento singular de la evolución española.El resultado del ejercicio nos sitúa seguramente en el origen de la imagen positiva del hecho catalán contemporáneo : una pujanza

  10. « Aide » (giúp đỡ et réciprocité dans une société villageoise du Nord du Vietnam : entre solidarité et dépendance « Help » (« giúp đỡ » and Reciprocity in Village Society of Northern Vietnam: between Solidarity and Independence

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    Olivier Tessier

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article propose l’analyse d’un système d’aide, dénommé « giúp đỡ », activé lorsque les groupes domestiques sont confrontés à l’un des trois événements qui correspondent aux trois étapes majeures de changement d’état de l’individu et de transformation du foyer : les festivités de mariage, la construction d’une habitation, les funérailles. Il se base sur les résultats d’une étude anthropologique de longue haleine menée à la fin des années 1990 dans un village de la province de Phú Thọ. Au-delà de sa fonctionnalité économique, ce dispositif d’échange non-marchand se présente comme un instrument au service du jeu social qu’il participe à entretenir. Il met à la disposition des groupes domestiques une partie des moyens nécessaires à leur évolution et à leur reproduction et, par extension, au développement et à la reproduction de la société locale dans son ensemble. Pour autant, il serait illusoire de n’y déceler que l’expression d’une solidarité familiale et villageoise. Instrument de régulation sociale et économique dans la mesure où il facilite et encourage les dépenses ostentatoires à la hauteur de ce que la société locale estime qu’elles doivent être, tout en maintenant les groupes domestiques dans des réseaux locaux d’interdépendance, il est dans certains cas un véritable outil d’exclusion.This article explores « giúp đỡ », a system of mutual aid that comes into play when family groups are faced with one of the three transformative events for an individual and a household: marriage celebrations, building a home, and funerals. This article is based on the results of a long-term anthropological study carried out at the end of the 1990s in a village in the province of Phú Thọ. Beyond its economic functions, this exchange strategy seems to create a social game that it also helps to maintain. It offers family groups a portion of the means

  11. Enjeux de la propriété littéraire dans les espaces publics et privés

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    André Derval

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Troisième atelier organisé par le réseau international Diasporic Literary Archives financé par le Leverhulme Trust, le workshop sur les questions de propriété littéraire a été préparé en étroite collaboration  avec l’Imec. Après les séances inaugurales à l’Université de Reading (Questions of Location, Ownership and Interpretation et celles de Pavie consacrées à la dissémination des archives (Examining Split Collections, l’attention a été portée aux régimes juridiques encadrant l’accès aux collections, qu’il s’agisse de documents confiés à des organismes publics ou privés. Divers acteurs du commerce et de l’archive littéraire ont été conviés à apporter leur éclairage respectif sur l’évolution du domaine : des éditeurs (Ronald Blunden  / Hachette-Livre, Ariane Fasquelle / Grasset, des responsables de centres d’archives (Marcel Lepper / Deutsches Liretatur Archiv, David McClay / Scotland National Library, David Sutton / Reading, Kevin Repp / Beinecke Library, André Derval / Imec un agent littéraire (Georges Hoffman, des chercheurs (Mathilde Lévêque Afreloce, Marie-Pierre Litaudon Cellam, Andrew Nash et Sophie Heywood / R un marchand d’autographes (Frédéric Castaing sont successivement intervenus sur l‘histoire de l’édition et l’accès aux archives, le marché numérique et le droit privé. Les résultats d’une enquête en cours sur les bulletins de sociétés savantes ont ensuite été livrés lors d’un entretien avec Guillaume Louet (Ent’revues.La deuxième partie du workshop a été centrée sur les spécificités des archives de littérature francophone, animée par Suzanne Diop et Romuald Fonkoua (Présence africaine / Université Paris 4, Claire Riffard et Anne Begenat-Neuschaefer (Item / Université d’Aix la Chapelle, Dominique Taffin (Archives de la Martinique Ruth Bush (University of Westminster et Albert Dichy (Imec. Enfin, avant que Helena Leonce ne livre le

  12. Pour paraître à la cour : les habits de Marie-Fortunée d’Este, princesse de Conti (1731-1803 

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    Aurélie Chatenet-Calyste

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Par son mariage en 1759 avec Louis-François-Joseph de Bourbon-Conti, Marie-Fortunée d’Este (1731-1803, fille du duc italien François III d’Este de Modène, devient princesse du sang en France. L’heureuse conservation de ses comptes permet d’étudier sa garde-robe et de réfléchir aux modalités du paraître vestimentaire à la cour de la fin du XVIIIe siècle. Tenir son rang à Versailles passe pour la princesse par des dépenses élevées, le port d’étoffes luxueuses et le choix de marchands réputés. Cette étude de cas invite au-delà à envisager la spécificité de l’apparence à la cour d’une princesse devenue en 1776 une épouse séparée au budget limité. Elle interroge également les contraintes physiques de l’habit de cour à la lumière des nouvelles valeurs de confort et de liberté, tout particulièrement pour une femme d’âge mûr et maladive qui ne paraît plus guère dans le monde aulique.To be received at court: the clothes of Mary Fortunate d'Este, Princess of Conti (1731-1803 - Aurélie Chatenet-Calyste is a French researcher and also teaches at the University of Champagne-Ardenne. After passing the French high-level competitive examination for recruitment of teachers in history (In French Agrégation, she has defended her thesis “A feminine and aristocratic consumption at the end of the 18th century : Marie-Fortunée d’Este, princesse de Conti” on November the 27 th at the University of Limoges. Her researches concern gender, consumption and court history. Her recent papers are « La femme, maîtresse de maison ? », Histoire, économie et société, 2009/4, p. 21-34 ; « Une princesse et son livret de comptes : Marie-Fortunée d’Este, princesse de Conti (1731-1803 », dans Entre mémoire et histoire : écriture ordinaire et émergence de l'individu, éd. par Nicole Lemaitre et Sylvie Mouysset (édition électronique, 134e Congrès national des sociétés historiques et scientifiques

  13. Finite element analysis of thermoviscoplastic deformations of an impact-loaded prenotched plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Naim A.

    Four different thermoviscoplastic relations, namely, the Litonski-Batra, the Johnson-Cook, the Bodner-Partom and the power law are used to model the thermoviscoplastic response of a material. Each one of these relations accounts for strain hardening, strain-rate hardening and thermal softening of the material. The material parameters in these relations are found by solving an initial-boundary-value problem corresponding to simple shearing deformations so that the computed effective stress vs. the effective plastic strain curves match closely with the experimental data of Marchand and Duffy who tested thin-walled HY-100 steel tubes in torsion. These four viscoplastic relations are used to analyze dynamic thermomechanical deformations of a prenotched plate impacted on the notched side by a cylindrical projectile made of the same material as the plate. The impact loading on the contact surface is simulated by prescribing the time history of the normal component of velocity and null tangential tractions. A plane strain state of deformation is assumed to prevail in the plate and its deformations are studied for different values of the impact speed. The in-house developed finite element code employs constant strain triangular elements, one point integration rule, and a lumped mass matrix. The Lagrangian description of motion is used to describe deformations of the plate. The coupled nonlinear partial differential equations are first reduced to coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODES) by using the Galerkin approximation. The ODEs are integrated by using the stiff solver, LSODE, which adaptively adjusts the time step size and computes the solution within the prescribed accuracy. Results computed with the four constitutive relations are found to be qualitatively similar to each other and the general tends agree with the experimental observations in the sense that at low speed of impact, a brittle failure ensues at a point on the upper surface of the notch

  14. A Belgian survey on the diagnosis of asthma–COPD overlap syndrome

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    Cataldo D

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Didier Cataldo,1 Jean-Louis Corhay,1 Eric Derom,2 Renaud Louis,1 Eric Marchand,3,4 Alain Michils,5 Vincent Ninane,6 Rudi Peché,7 Charles Pilette,8 Walter Vincken,9 Wim Janssens10 1Department of Respiratory Diseases, CHU Liège, University of Liège, Liège, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, 3Department of Respiratory Medicine, CHU – UCL – Namur, Université catholique de Louvain, Yvoir, 4Molecular Physiology Research Unit (URPhyM-NARILIS, Laboratory of General Physiology, University of Namur, Namur, 5Chest Department, Erasme University Hospital, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, 6Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital Saint-Pierre, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, 7Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital Vésale, Montigny-le-Tilleul, 8Department of Respiratory Medicine, Cliniques universitaires St Luc, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, 9Respiratory Division, University Hospital Brussels (UZ Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, 10Department of Respiratory Diseases, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium Introduction: Patients with chronic airway disease may present features of both asthma and COPD, commonly referred to as asthma–COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS. Recommendations on their diagnosis are diffuse and inconsistent. This survey aimed to identify consensus on criteria for diagnosing ACOS.Methods: A Belgian expert panel developed a survey on ACOS diagnosis, which was completed by 87 pulmonologists. Answers chosen by ≥70% of survey respondents were considered as useful criteria for ACOS diagnosis. The two most frequently selected answers were considered as major criteria, others as minor criteria. The expert panel proposed a minimal requirement of two major criteria and one minor criterion for ACOS diagnosis. Respondents were also asked which criteria are important for considering inhaled corticosteroids prescription in a

  15. Quelques considérations sur l’histoire du bâtiment théâtral dans les villes danubiennes

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    Daniela Gheorghe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vers la fin du XVIe siècle et au début du XVIIe, commence en Europe la construction des bâtiments spécifiquement dédiés au théâtre. En Angleterre et en Espagne, les premiers édifices préservent la structure simple du lieu où on jouait avant : la cour d’auberge et le patio – modèles pour le théâtre élisabéthain et pour les corrales de comedias. En Italie, l’architecture théâtrale connut une autre évolution ; à la recherche du Beau idéal, on élève des élégants bâtiments clos, où la salle est richement ornée, où les décors créent l’illusion de perspective et où l’on utilise des machineries scéniques sophistiquées. Le modèle du théâtre « à l’italienne » allait être adopté, avec des variations, partout en Europe. Mais les coûts d’un tel édifice sont bien chers ; ils exigent un certain niveau de prospérité et de développement urbain. La tradition et le goût des habitants pour l’art du spectacle jouent, eux aussi, un rôle pas négligeable. Ce papier examine l’histoire du bâtiment théâtral dans les villes portuaires danubiennes, dans la perspective de l'influence qu'exerça le développement du commerce et des activités connexes sur la vie urbaine. Artère fluviale majeure de l’Europe, le Danube fut utilisé au long du temps par plusieurs réseaux marchands ; celles-ci ont contribué à l’essor des bourgs riverains et à l’ascension des couches moyennes. Ainsi se forme une bourgeoisie qui peut financer, d’une manière ou d’une autre, des théâtres municipaux et qui fournit un nombreux public payant. Il est vrai que cette évolution ne fut pas simultanée dans tout le bassin danubien ; des circonstances historiques diverses ont généré un décalage significatif, surtout entre la région occidentale et celle orientale du fleuve. Néanmoins, des similitudes existent, et le but de cet article est de les mettre en lumière.

  16. Iterg - Un nouvel outil de raffinage

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    Rossignol-Castera Anne

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Le raffinage constitue une étape clef de la technologie de production des huiles et corps gras naturels d’origine végétale ou animale, permettant d’obtenir une qualité conforme aux exigences des différents secteurs utilisateurs : alimentation humaine, alimentation animale, cosmétique, pharmacie, lipochimie. Le raffinage permet en effet d’obtenir conjointement une standardisation de la qualité marchande et organoleptique avec l’obtention d’huiles neutres, non peroxydées, peu colorées et désodorisées, et une garantie d’innocuité avec l’élimination efficace des éventuels contaminants chimiques (solvants organiques, métaux lourds, hydrocarbures polycycliques, résidus phytosanitaires, dioxines, toxines... et microbiologiques pouvant être présents dans les corps gras bruts. Sous réserve d’être conduit dans des conditions opératoires maîtrisées et adaptées aux caractéristiques de chaque corps gras traité, le raffinage apparaît comme un moyen efficace pour proposer aux consommateurs ou aux industriels, des matières premières naturelles répondant aux obligations de conformité et de sécurité telles que définies dans le Code de la Consommation. Soumis à un encadrement réglementaire précisant les opérations et les produits autorisés (notamment le Décret n° 73-139 et les arrêtés du 12 février 1973, le raffinage reste cependant une technologie dépendant bien sûr du savoir faire et de bonnes pratiques de conduite mais aussi, d’une connaissance suffisante des propriétés physico-chimiques spécifiques et de la stabilité des corps gras glycéridiques. Cette double maîtrise est indispensable pour adapter à chaque corps gras brut les paramètres opératoires qui permettront d’éliminer efficacement les composés indésirables sans dégrader ou perdre les constituants natifs intéressants tels que les acides gras poly-insaturés, les stérols ou la vitamine E. L’ITERG, en tant que Centre

  17. Deux restaurants à New York: l'un franco-maghrébin, l'autre africain. Two restaurants in New York : one is Franco-Maghrebian, the other is African -Recent creations of "well-tempered" exoticisms

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    Jean-Pierre Hassoun

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available L’article repose sur une enquête ethnographique conduite en 2008-2009 à Manhattan auprès de huit entrepreneurs devenus Chef et/ou managers de restaurant après avoir immigré à New York. Aucun d’entre eux n’a été formé dans une institution culinaire et tous proposent des cuisines de régions du monde (Afrique, Afrique du Nord encore absentes, ou peu présentes à New York. A partir de deux études de cas plus détaillées, l’auteur s’interroge sur les stratégies marchandes autour de cette altérité et les limites du cosmopolitisme propre au « globalisme ». La trajectoire du restaurateur se transforme en héritage par le biais d’un ego-récit qui s’utilise comme une ressource commerciale. Les restaurateurs intériorisent les désirs des clients. Plus que la recherche de goûts inconnus ou d’une altérité radicale imaginée comme authentique, ceux-ci veulent avant tout identifier les ingrédients ingérés, avoir une idée de leur provenance, et respecter un ensemble (instable de normes nutritionnelles subsumé aujourd’hui à Manhattan par la catégorie indigène healthy. Les restaurateurs anticipent ces désirs en opérant sur les plats un travail de retrait, de séparation et de substitution des ingrédients. L’exotisme s’est mis au régime.This paper is based on ethnographic fieldwork (november 2008-january 2009 in Manhattan with eight entrepreneurs who became Chef and/or restaurant manager after they immigrated in New York. Not any one has an academic culinary background and they all propose food from regions (Africa, and North Africa which are not yet offered (or not much offered in the city. The author stresses on two cases studies to question informal market strategies, cosmopolitanism and globalism limits. Restaurant owner’s trajectory – a narrative which becomes a heritage - is used as a market resource. Restaurants internalize and anticipate customers’ desires; In fact town people doesn

  18. Bentyia (Kukyia: a Songhay–Mande meeting point, and a “missing link” in the archaeology of the West African diasporas of traders, warriors, praise-singers, and clerics Bentyia (Kukyia, un point de rencontre songhaï–mandé et un “chaînon manquant” dans l’archéologie des diasporas de commerçants, guerriers, griots et clercs en Afrique de l’Ouest

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    Paulo Fernando de Moraes Farias

    2013-05-01

    zones du Sahara, de la savane et de la forêt. Il exerçait un attrait sur les diasporas de griots soninkés et de guerriers et commerçants mandingues. Les pêcheurs, comme d’autres « gens du fleuve », les gardiens de la tradition orale, comme les artisans, les prêtres et prêtresses des cultes africains, comme les clercs islamiques, ainsi que les marchands qui pratiquaient le commerce à longue distance se déplaçaient sur cet axe, sans oublier les armées et les gens réduits en esclavage. Si les sites archéologiques à Bentyia/Kukyia occupent une position stratégique sur cet axe historique, ils n’ont cependant pas fait l'objet de fouilles, d’où une grave lacune dans notre connaissance de l’histoire de la partie orientale de la vallée du Niger et de l’ensemble de l’Afrique de l’Ouest.

  19. Terrorisme maritime et piraterie d’aujourd’hui

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    Hugues Eudeline

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Hors temps de conflits armés, les actes de violence dans le domaine maritime sont essentiellement de deux sortes : la piraterie, pratiquée à des fins privées, et le terrorisme qui poursuit des objectifs politiques. Répondant à des logiques différentes, ces deux formes de violence constituent, indépendamment, des menaces pour les 50 000 navires marchands qui transportent plus de 90% du commerce mondial. Leur éventuelle collusion, si elle était de grande ampleur, pourrait avoir un effet multiplicateur entraînant des conséquences très importantes sur une économie mondiale fragilisée.L’environnement physique qu’elles partagent est propice aux activités illégales. La mer couvre 71% de la surface du globe et constitue un espace pour l’essentiel libre de toute emprise étatique et impossible à contrôler. Les nombreuses actions des pirates autour de l’Afrique malgré les réactions internationales le montrent à l’envi. En parallèle, la mouvance terrorisme islamiste développe une stratégie d’attaque de l’économie mondiale dont les flux maritimes constituent un des principaux piliers.Les liens des deux activités avec la criminalité les rapprochent également. Le terrorisme les entretient pour des raisons logistiques et financières, alors que la piraterie, avec les différents trafics, en est une composante maritime majeure.Cette proximité et une complémentarité des compétences nécessaires à leur pratique pourraient les rapprocher plus encore. Cette entente contre-nature permettrait d’associer les connaissances nautiques des pirates, marins expérimentés aux capacités de planification des terroristes.Apart from times of high intensity conflict, the two main forms of violence at sea are piracy, and maritime terrorism. If the former is perpetrated at private ends, the latter is politically motivated. Although addressing different ends, both activities are important threats for the 50,000 merchant vessels

  20. Politiques d’équipements sportifs et évolution post-industrielle en région stéphanoise

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    Stéphane Merle

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En parallèle de la construction socio-politique d’un modèle sportif français reposant sur un effort global en faveur des pratiques sportives (depuis la masse jusqu’à l’élite, le développement sportif des années 1960-1970 est fortement marqué par l’empreinte keynésienne et fonctionnaliste. L’Etat construit en masse des équipements de base (stade, gymnase, piscine et ce maillage rationalisé concerne la région stéphanoise comme l’ensemble du territoire national. Depuis les années 1980, les grandes logiques de production d’équipements sportifs sont secouées par deux processus : l’un politique et global, la décentralisation, l’autre socioéconomique et local, la désindustrialisation (avec effacement du soutien des grandes entreprises industrielles au développement des sports.Ce double déficit de financement provoque un net ralentissement dans la construction d’équipements sportifs, sans véritable keynésianisme des collectivités locales, d’autant plus que l’aménagement sportif peine à prendre en considération les évolutions sociologiques de la pratique sportive (pratique libre de pleine nature ou en ville : jogging, VTT, roller …. Pour autant, dans cette transition post-industrielle et post-keynésienne, les équipements sportifs ne sont pas négligés : ils sont d’un type nouveau, plus spécialisés et relevant d’un côté bien souvent de logiques politiques d’instrumentalisation, d’un autre côté de logiques marchandes (pour le sport de haut niveau. Dans ce dernier cas, l’action publique en faveur des sports est questionnée, voire remise en cause, par de puissants acteurs privés, ce que montre bien l’évolution des aménagements dans et autour du stade Geoffroy Guichard.In parallel of socio-politic construction of french sports model wich rest on an effort in favour of sports (from mass to elite, the sports development in sixites and seventies is greatly marked by the keynesian

  1. Participer à l’évolution du modèle québécois

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    Manuel Dussault

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Ce court texte vise à expliquer la position de l’Association des manufacturiers et exportateurs du Québec (AMEQ sur la question du modèle québécois. Pour l’association, il existe un modèle québécois, comme il existe un modèle français, américain, japonais ou autres. Ce modèle, ni tout a fait original, ni tout à fait pareil aux autres, est à la fois libéral et social démocratique. Il se caractérise par le nationalisme, l’équité et la concertation. L’histoire économique moderne est devenue, en partie celle du rôle de l’État par les leviers économiques qu’il a mis en place depuis la révolution tranquille. Le modèle québécois a permis le rattrapage sur l’Ontario mais, en même temps, n’a pas réussi à abaisser son taux de chômage au niveau de la moyenne canadienne. Et après mûres réflexion, l’AMEQ est d’avis que la solution ne se trouve pas dans l’adoption d’éléments issus du modèle américain. Mais, le renouveau du modèle passe par la contribution de la société civile et non seulement par des solutions étatiques, marchandes ou encore de la concertation institutionnaliséeThis short text aims at explaining the position of the Association of the manufacturers and exporters of Quebec (AMEQ on the question of the Quebecois model. For the association, there is a Quebecois model, as there is a French, American, Japanese model or other. This model, neither everything made original, nor the completely similar to the others, is liberal and social at the same moment democratic. It is characterized by the nationalism, the equity and the dialogue. The modern economic story, partially that of the role of the state by the economic control levers which it set up since the “Révolution tranquille”. The Quebecois model allowed the picking up on Ontario but, at the same time, did not manage to lower its unemployment rate at the level of the Canadian avarage. And after reflection, the AMEQ is of

  2. De la Bourgogne à l’international : construction et promotion des normes d’appellation d’origine ou l’influence des syndicats professionnels locaux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Jacquet

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Pendant l’entre-deux-guerres, pour améliorer la difficile situation nationale et internationale du commerce des vins (fraudes, mévente, surproduction endémique, fermetures de marchés, politiques protectionnistes, le gouvernement français profite des débats internationaux pour imposer les normes hexagonales de vente et de production à l’étranger. En dépit de nombreuses réussites au sein de l’OIV ou lors de congrès, et malgré une propagande organisée, l’Etat français ne parvient pas à restaurer la confiance. La régionalisation des enjeux et les luttes pour ou contre l’instauration des appellations déclasse en partie les initiatives centralisées de l’Etat. Aussi, les syndicats vignerons tentent-ils d’organiser eux-mêmes leur propagande. Les démarches bourguignonnes vers les Etats-Unis évoquent ce processus d’exportation de la notion d’appellation d’origine. Dans un même temps, ces actions deviennent un moyen efficace pour légitimer nationalement ces nouvelles normes marchandes. L’apposition de normes légitimes semble, dans ce cas, un préalable nécessaire à tout bon fonctionnement du marché. De 1919 à 1939, la mise en place d’une légitimité internationale des AOC et la victoire nationale de cette norme procède au final d’une identification très locale des territoires de production en concurrence.Between the two World Wars, in order to improve the problematic situation of wine trading on a national and international scale – due to irregularities, slumping sales, endemic overproduction, markets closing down or protectionist policies – the French government took advantage of the worldwide debates taking place so as to have its own French standards of sales and production implemented abroad. Despite many successful manoeuvres within the OIV or at general meetings, and in spite of an organised propaganda, the French authorities were unable to recreate a state of confidence. The state

  3. A evolução do setor soja no Mato Grosso L’évolution du secteur du soja au Mato Grosso The evolution of the soybean industry in Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Moine

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa trata sobre a expansão da soja na região amazônica por meio dos grandes produtores de soja. Teve como objetivo descrever a organização do espaço geográfico regional por meio da identificação dos elementos básicos da geopolítica da soja propostos por Becker (2007 : abertura de fronteiras, como a disponibilidade de terra barata e mercados, favorecendo a instalação de atividades produtivas com rapidez, em grande escala e a baixos custos ; a logística caracterizada pelas redes técnicas que viabilizam a integração produtiva-mercantil-financeira ; a integração política que corresponde a alianças estratégicas estabelecidas pelos produtores ; as relações de trabalho do grande produtor com seus funcionários ; e a ciência e tecnologia, responsável pela movimentação de toda a base produtiva. O estudo permitiu entender a evolução dos territórios da soja definida em quatro fases a partir da década de 1980. Estas fases baseiam-se acerca de uma idéia comum de melhoria da situação econômica da soja ; de uma ruptura na maneira de pensar o desenvolvimento da agricultura no estado do Mato Grosso e questionamentos sobre o impacto desta ruptura.Cette recherche traite de l'expansion du soja en Amazonie par les grands producteurs de soja. L'objectif est de décrire l’organisation de l'espace géographique régional par l'identification des éléments de base de la géopolitique du soja proposés par Becker (2007 : l’ouverture de frontières, comme la disponibilité de terres bon marché et de marchés favorisant l'installation rapide d'activités productives, à grande échelle et à bas coût ; la logistique caractérisée par les réseaux techniques qui rendent viable l'intégration productive-marchande-financière ; l'intégration politique qui correspond aux alliances stratégiques établies par les producteurs ; les relations de travail entre les grands producteurs et leurs salariés ; et les

  4. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Trevor Wilson (ed.; Myanmar’s long road to national reconciliation (Jean A. Berley Jennifer Lindsay (ed.; Between tongues; Translation and/of/in performance in Asia (Michael Bodden Volker Grabowsky; Bevölkerung und Staat in Lan Na; Ein Beitrag zur Bevölkerungsgeschichte Südostasiens Peter Boomgaard Odille Gannier, Cécile Picquoin (eds; Journal de bord d’Etienne Marchand; Le voyage du Solide autour du monde (1790-1792 (H.J.M. Claessen Arjan van Helmond, Stani Michiels (eds; Jakarta megalopolis; Horizontal and vertical observations (Ben Derudder Bert Scova Righini; Een leven in twee vaderlanden; Een biografie van Beb Vuijk (Liesbeth Dolk Gerrit R. Knaap, J.R. van Diessen, W. Leijnse, M.P.B. Ziellemans; Grote Atlas van de Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie/ Comprehensive Atlas of the Dutch United East India Company; Volume II: Java en Madoera/Java and Madura (Amrit Gomperts Nordin Hussin; Trade and society in the Straits of Melaka; Dutch Melaka and English Penang, 1780-1830 (Hans Hägerdal Wilco van den Heuvel; Biak; Description of an Austronesian language of Papua (Volker Heeschen Ann L. Appleton; Acts of integration, expressions of faith; Madness, death and ritual in Melanau ontology (Menno Hekker Amity A. Doolittle; Property and politics in Sabah, Malaysia; Native struggles over land rights (Monica Janowski Rajeswary Ampalavanar Brown; The rise of the corporate economy in Southeast Asia (J. Thomas Lindblad Dwi Noverini Djenar; Semantic, pragmatic and discourse perspectives of preposition use; A study of Indonesian locatives (Don van Minde Sherri Brainard, Dietlinde Behrens, A grammar of Yakan (Chandra Nuraini Dietlinde Behrens; Yakan-English dictionary (Chandra Nuraini Pierre Lemonnier; Le sabbat des lucioles; Sorcellerie, chamanisme et imaginaire cannibale en Nouvelle-Guinée (Anton Ploeg Edgar Aleo and others; A voice from many rivers; Central Subanen oral and written literature

  5. Já nas bancas. Mediação e economia política da distribuição dos meios impressos

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    Viktor Chagas

    2014-04-01

    . In Brazil, the expression “available at newsstands” has become synonymous with speed and flexibility. The phrase is taken as currency in advertising and press merchandising campaigns, spreading through various social strata the image of the newspaper vendor as an extension of the press system. The image underscores the treatment usually reserved for the distribution networks in the cultural circuit – i.e., smothered in favour of the production process and end-product consumption. In this article, we adopt a historiographical perspective of social theories of the press related to the circulation and distribution of printed media. Our hypothesis states that sellers and distributors of newspapers and magazines are agents of fundamental cultural and political importance in the journalistic instrument of large cities, despite the fact that their role in the production line of print journals has been undervalued within studies that focus on technical aspects, journalistic discourse, or the reception and appropriation of popular culture. There has been very little research done on this institution that has occupied our imagination silently all these years: the newsstand. We seek, therefore, to understand the role of press retailers and distributors as mediators within another mediation process, inherent in journalism proper. Our critical reflection, therefore, will be brought to bear on this issue from three different perspectives: the academic, the juridico-institutional, and the economic. In all cases, the newsstand acts as an outlet for the journalistic output of the written press, blending discourse with the consumer experience and occasionally suffering political pressures similar to those inflicted on journalists themselves. Still, the role of the vendor remains largely invisible to the untrained eye. Au Brésil, l’expression « Chez votre marchand de journaux » renvoie à l’idée de rapidité et d’agilité. C’est une devise sans cesse rappelée lors de

  6. Evolution of nuclear chemical industry in France; Evolution de l'industrie chimique nucleaire en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fould, M.H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    'impulsion du CEA, mais aussi de maitres d'oeuvres tels qu'Electricite de France et la Marine Marchande, l'effort nucleaire fran is atteint pour les annees 1957-1961, environ 600 milliards de francs: plus de la moitie de cette somme sera depensee par l'industrie chimique en recherches, installations pilotes, constructions d'usines et livraisons. Faire bien, vite et rentable sont les buts recherches. Ces objectifs sont atteints grace a une collaboration intime des grands services de l'etat et de l'industrie privee. Ce gros effort s'exerce principalement dans les voies suivantes: - Un traitement chimique pousse de tonnages croissants des minerais de l'Union fran ise, visant a produire un uranium pur, abondant et bon marche. - Une preparation soigneuse de combustibles nucleaires economiques et parfaitement adaptes aux divers types de reacteurs en fonctionnement ou en construction. - Un retraitement des combustibles irradies pour en extraire le plutonium de facon complete ainsi que l'uranium et certains produits de fission. - Une fabrication industrielle des materiaux nucleairement purs ou resistants a la corrosion exiges par la technologie des reacteurs producteurs d'energie et de recherches. - La fourniture aux multiples utilisateurs etrangers et fran is d'isotopes et de traceurs radioactifs reclames par la medecine, l'industrie et l'agriculture en nombre toujours croissant. - Un traitement chimique meticuleux des effluents gazeux ou liquides dans des stations au controle rigoureux afin de rendre les reacteurs et leurs annexes parfaitement surs d'emploi. Cet expose aura montre l'ampleur de l'effort deploye par une industrie chimique nucleaire jeune, dynamique et en plein essor. Ayant assure ses techniques, realise de nombreuses installations, elle est largement en etat de faire face au programme atomique fran is. En outre, elle est capable et desireuse d'etre associee aux developpements de l

  7. 3. forum of radiation protection sciences - Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    - Remote dosimetry by optical fiber - OSL system (Sylvain Magne, CEA Saclay, Gerard Paut, CEA Valrho); 20 - Remote-intervention means and nuclear measurements (Christophe Le Goaller, CEA Valrho); 21 - Concrete examples of the contribution of new nuclear measurement technologies prior to and during operations (Dominique Pierre, Cogema Marcoule); 22 - Evaluation of the resuspension coefficient during the use of cutting techniques for dismantling (Guy Pilot, IRSN/DPEA Saclay); 23 - Decommissioning of the CERN-LEP (Marco Silari, CERN Switzerland); 24 - Method of buildings decommissioning at nuclear sites (Benoit Marc, Techman Industrie); Poster session: P01 - Impact of tele-operated solutions on radiation protection issues (Yves Chardard, Cybernetix); P02 - Nuclear facilities dismantling - Banco system, the solution for wastes and deconstruction materials control (Jean Francois Moreau, H. Blein, SAPHYMO); P03 - Vitrification process for special wastes (Dominique Declercq, F. Lhopital, Spie Thermatome); P04 - Preliminary verification of cleansing sites homogeneity and sampling representativeness (Stephane Dogny, Serge Amoravain, Cogema Marcoule); P05 - Destruction process and system for organic materials in supercritical environment (Alain Guyard, Rodolphe Chomel, Serge Amoravain, Cogema Marcoule); P06 - Shutdown and dismantling of the INB 52 ATUE enriched uranium processing plant at CEA-Cadarache (Laurent Ladurelle, P. Lisbonne, B. Bartoli, CEN Cadarache); P07 - Radiation protection at cleansing sites: dismantling of effluents storage tanks (Jean-Jacques Laurier, A. Houard, J. Laine, C. Marchand, CEA CEN FAR); P08 - INB 52 Atue shutdown: criticality management (P. Lisbonne, L. Ladurelle, B. Bartoli CEA Cadarache); P09 - Air flow remobilization of a surface particulate contamination (L. Alloul-Marmor, IRSN and Paris 12 univ., O. Witschger, IRSN, A. Renoux, Paris 12 univ., J. Monatte, Cogema); P10 - Methodology of radiological consequences evaluation of activation in a nuclear

  8. Fish and Female Agency in a Madurese Fishing Village in Indonesia Poissardes et poissons à Madura. Femmes en action dans un village de pêcheurs d’Indonésie

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    Anke Niehof

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Le rôle crucial des femmes dans l’économie halieutique locale et leur haut degré d’autonomie sociale constituaient deux traits remarquables de l’organisation socio-économique du village de pêcheurs de Patondu (Madura en 1978. Un nouveau travail de terrain en 2004 montre que se sont produits au cours de ces 26 ans dans la pêcherie des changements technologiques et économiques de grande portée. De plus, avec la mise en place d’équipements publics, Patondu est désormais mieux relié au monde extérieur. En 2004, pourtant, les femmes y ont, autant sinon plus qu’avant, une place éminente. Les cas de six femmes actives dans le commerce et le traitement du poisson et le financement de la pêche sont examinés. Les pangamba’, considérées dans la littérature comme formant « un groupe phénoménal » , méritent une attention particulière : ces femmes – marchandes, entrepreneures et banquières, tout à la fois – sont les pivots de l’économie halieutique, comme « matrones » dans les relations de « matronage » qui structurent les réseaux socio-économiques. La solide position des femmes repose sur une division sexuelle du travail, écologiquement et culturellement fondée dans la société de Patondu, qui leur ouvre un vaste champ d’opportunités d’action dans les sphères économique et sociale. La vie quotidienne de Patondu s’apprécie en ichtyo-valeur et les femmes déterminent cette valeur. Elles contrôlent donc, dans une large mesure, l’économie halieutique locale. De plus, la limite fluide entre les sphères domestique et économique évite aux femmes le confinement au foyer et leur permet de jouer ce rôle de matrones dans la sphère économique. Des recherches sur les commerçantes des marchés à Java ont produit des résultats similaires. La société de Patondu n’est pas égalitaire et, même si le genre, comme facteur de stratification, recoupe d’autres facteurs et si le hiatus

  9. Propriété intellectuelle et sélection dans les pays du Sud

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    Feyt Henri

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Avec les progrès de la science et des technologies, nombre de produits marchands qui étaient considérés jusqu’ici comme peu élaborés, incorporent aujourd’hui dans leur valeur une part sans cesse croissante due à l’ingéniosité humaine et aux inventions : c’est en particulier le cas des variétés végétales. Par ailleurs, le formidable développement des échanges d’idées et de marchandises ainsi que de la circulation des personnes, que nous connaissons sous le terme de mondialisation, a posé le problème de la protection de la propriété intellectuelle au niveau mondial. De ce constat est né l’accord ADPIC1, préparé durant le cycle 1986-1994 de négociation de l’OMC, connu sous le nom de « Uruguay round », signé à Marrakech en 1994 et entré en vigueur le 1er janvier 1995. Cet accord fait obligation à tous ses membres signataires de mettre en place un système global de protection de la propriété intellectuelle. Dans le cas particulier des variétés végétales, il prévoit : Article 27.3. « […] Les Membres pourront aussi exclure de la brevetabilité : […] b Les végétaux et les animaux autres que les micro-organismes, et les procédés essentiellement biologiques d’obtention de végétaux ou d’animaux, autres que les procédés non biologiques et microbiologiques. Toutefois, les membres prévoiront la protection des variétés végétales par brevets, par un système sui generis efficace, ou par une combinaison de ces deux moyens. Les dispositions du présent alinéa seront réexaminées quatre ans après la date d’entrée en vigueur de l’Accord sur l’OMC. » Applicable un an après son entrée en vigueur, l’accord prévoyait pour les pays en développement une période supplémentaire de quatre ans (soit jusqu’au 1er janvier 2000, voire dix ans pour les pays les moins avancés, pour la mise en place d’un système de protection, ainsi qu’un réexamen de ces dispositions à l

  10. Estimating flood discharge using witness movies in post-flood hydrological surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Coz, Jérôme; Hauet, Alexandre; Le Boursicaud, Raphaël; Pénard, Lionel; Bonnifait, Laurent; Dramais, Guillaume; Thollet, Fabien; Braud, Isabelle

    2015-04-01

    .fr/donnees-en/videos-amateurs-de-rivieres-en-crue/ Fujita, I., Muste, M., and Kruger, A. (1998). Large-scale particle image velocimetry for flow analysis in hydraulic engineering applications. Journal of Hydraulic Research, 36(3):397-414. Le Coz, J., Jodeau, M., Hauet, A., Marchand, B., Le Boursicaud, R. (2014). Image-based velocity and discharge measurements in field and laboratory river engineering studies using the free FUDAA-LSPIV software, Proceedings of the International Conference on Fluvial Hydraulics, RIVER FLOW 2014, 1961-1967.

  11. Evaluation du potentiel energetique de la biomasse forestiere au Nouveau-Brunswick pour la production de chaleur et d'electricite en cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Stephane

    émontrent que 63 % de la biomasse forestière proviendrait du bois marchandable, 27 % proviendrait de la biomasse résiduelle et 10 % proviendrait de l'écorce. En termes d'énergie électrique, les résultats indiquent que la biomasse forestière de la province pourrait soutenir des centrales de cogénération d'une puissance totale de 1 248 MWe, soit la puissance nécessaire pour générer une quantité d'énergie représentant environ la demande électrique de base de la province. Pour sa part, en plus de la puissance électrique, l'énergie thermique qui pourrait être générée annuellement à partir de cette biomasse forestière correspond à une puissance estimée à 2 995 MWth. En termes de chauffage résidentiel, la quantité de chaleur générée de cette puissance thermique est nettement supérieure à la demande provinciale se chiffrant à environ 573 MWth. Finalement, en ce qui concerne la distribution spatiale de la biomasse forestière sur l'ensemble des aires d'approvisionnement, les résultats démontrent qu'en moyenne, 21.7 % de la biomasse forestière proviendrait d'une distance de 25 km et moins des centrales de cogénération, 72.3 % de 50 km et moins, 95.4 % de 75 km et moins, 99.5 % de 100 km et moins, et 100 % de 125 km et moins. Mots clés Bioénergie, biomasse, biomasse forestière, évaluation de la ressource, cogénération.

  12. Tropospheric Halogen Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Glasow, R.; Crutzen, P. J.

    2003-12-01

    Halogens are very reactive chemicals that are known to play an important role in anthropogenic stratospheric ozone depletion chemistry, first recognized by Molina and Rowland (1974). However, they also affect the chemistry of the troposphere. They are of special interest because they are involved in many reaction cycles that can affect the oxidation power of the atmosphere indirectly by influencing the main oxidants O3 and its photolysis product OH and directly, e.g., by reactions of the Cl radical with hydrocarbons (e.g., CH4).Already by the middle of the nineteenth century, Marchand (1852) reported the presence of bromine and iodine in rain and other natural waters. He also mentions the benefits of iodine in drinking water through the prevention of goitres and cretinism. In a prophetic monograph "Air and Rain: The Beginnings of a Chemical Climatology," Smith (1872) describes measurements of chloride in rain water, which he states to originate partly from the oceans by a process that he compares with the bursting of "soap bubbles" which produces "small vehicles" that transfer small spray droplets of seawater to the air. From deviations of the sulfate-to-chloride ratio in coastal rain compared to seawater, Smith concluded that chemical processes occur once the particles are airborne.For almost a century thereafter, however, atmospheric halogens received little attention. One exception was the work by Cauer (1939), who reported that iodine pollution has been significant in Western and Central Europe due to the inefficient burning of seaweed, causing mean gas phase atmospheric concentrations as high as or greater than 0.5 μg m-3. In his classical textbook Air Chemistry and Radioactivity, Junge (1963) devoted less than three pages to halogen gas phase chemistry, discussing chlorine and iodine. As reviewed by Eriksson (1959a, b), the main atmospheric source of halogens is sea salt, derived from the bursting of bubbles of air which are produced by ocean waves and other

  13. ROLUL NEGUSTORILOR ALOGENI ÎN PROCESUL DE CONSTITUIRE A BURGHEZIEI COMERCIALE DIN PRINCIPATUL MOLDOVA (sfârşitul sec. al XVIII-lea – începutul sec. al XIX-lea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina CEREŞ

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available În articol este a investigat rolul comercianţilor străini în crearea burgheziei comerciale în Principatul Moldova (de la sfârşitul secolului al XVIII – începutul secolului al XIX-lea. La sfârşitul secolul al XVIII-lea – începutul secolului al XIX-lea burghezia comercială a Principatului Moldova a fost o categorie ce se afla într-o stare de formare. Astfel, se poate considera că negustorii străini au fost un element im-portant în formarea lentă a burgheziei din zona carpatică. Negustorii străini stabiliţi în Moldova s-au dovedit a fi un factor de progres în ceea ce priveşte evoluţia economiei locale, au contribuit la diversificarea activităţilor economice, la dezvoltarea comerţului interior şi exterior, precum şi la consolidarea rolului burgheziei în formarea categoriilor profesionale productive şi dinamice – de meşteşugari şi meseriaşi.LE RÔLE DES MARCHANDS ALLOGÉNIQUES DANS LE PROCESSUS DE FORMATION DE LA BOURGEOISIE COMMERCIALE DE LA PRINCIPAUTÉ DE MOLDAVIE (À LA FIN DU XVIIIÈME SIÈCLE – DÉBUT DU XIX ÈME SIÈCLE  La Bourgeoisie commerciale de la Principauté de Moldavie existante à la fin du XVIIIème siècle – début du XIXème siècle constitue une catégorie sociale en phase embryonnaire. Ses représentants sont généralement des éléments allogènes, avec peu d’autochtones. On sait qu’en effet toute bourgeoisie a commencé son développement à l’aide des étrangers. La séparation de ceux-ci s’est produite uniquement après une certaine période de temps, après avoir fait leur éducation économique dans le pays d’origine. On rencontre le même processus au cas des Principautés Roumains. Les commerçants étrangers ont constitué l’un des éléments les plus importants dans le processus lent de cristallisation de la bourgeoisie autochtone. Par leurs activités commerciales et par leurs propres intérêts ils on contribué à faire évoluer les activités de commerce de

  14. Observing a Severe Dust Storm Event over China using Multiple Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Xue, Yong; Guang, Jie; Mei, Linlu

    2013-04-01

    make use of all useful satellite data to observe one severe dust procedure, multi-sensor and multi-algorithm AOD data were combined. In this paper, the satellite instruments considered are MISR, MODIS, POLDER and CALIPSO. In addition, air pollution index (API) data were used to validate the satellite AOD data. We chose the study region with a longitude range from 76°N to 136°N and a latitude range from 15°E to 60°E. Index Terms—aerosol optical depth, dust, satellite REFERENCES Adhikary, B., Kulkarni, S., Dallura A., Tang, Y., Chai, T., Leung, L. R., Qian, Y., Chung, C. E., Ramanathan,V. and Carmichael, G. R., 2008, A regional scale chemical transport modeling of Asian aerosols with data assimilation of AOD observations using optimal interpolation technique, Atmospheric Environment, 42(37), 8600-8615. Carboni, E., Thomas, G. E., Sayer, A. M., Siddans, R., Poulsen, C. A., Grainger, R. G., Ahn, C., Antoine, D., Bevan, S., Braak, R., Brindley, H., DeSouza-Machado, S., Deuz'e, J. L., Diner, D., Ducos, F., Grey, W., Hsu, C., Kalashnikova, O. V., Kahn, R., North, P. R. J., Salustro, C., Smith, A., Tanr'e, D., Torres, O., and Veihelmann, B., 2012, Intercomparison of desert dust optical depth from satellite measurements, Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 5, 1973-2002. Deuze', J. L., Bre'on, F. M., Devaux, C., Goloub, Herman, M., Lafrance, B., Maignan, F., Marchand, A.,Nadal, F., Perry, G., and Tanre', D., 2001, Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements, Journal of Geophysical Research, 106(D5), 4913-4926. Ehlers, M., 1991, Multisensor image fusion techniques in remote sensing, ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 46, 19-30. Han, X., Ge. C., Tao, J. H., Zhang, M. G., Zhang, R. J., 2012, Air Quality Modeling for a Strong Dust Event in East Asia in March 2010, Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 12: 615-628. Hsu, N. C., Tsay, S. C., King, M. D. and Herman, J. R., 2004, Aerosol Properties over Bright

  15. San Juan Uchucuanicu: évolution historique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available La communauté de San Juan est reconnue depuis 1939. Une première partie concerne l’organisation de la reducción de San Juan vers le milieu du XVIe siècle. Le poids fiscal s’exerce durement sur le village et la crise est générale dans toute la vallée du Chancay au XVIIe. siècle. La christianisation des habitants est définitive au milieu de ce même siècle. C’est vers la fin du XVIIe siècle et durant tout le XVIIIe que se multiplient les conflits entre San Juan et les villages voisins liés aux terrains de pâture et à la possession de l’eau. La deuxième partie du travail concerne les rapports de la communauté de San Juan avec le Pérou contemporain : contrainte fiscale toujours très lourde durant la fin de l’époque coloniale, exactions des militaires juste avant l’indépendance. La période républicaine voit toujours les conflits avec les villages voisins mais aussi la naissance de familles qui cherchent à retirer le maximum de la communauté. Les terres sont divisées et attribuées : la détérioration de l’organisation communale traditionnelle est manifeste. L4es conflits se multiplient entre petits propriétaires, mais aussi avec les haciendas voisines : c’est l’apparition d’une véritable lutte de classes. La situation actuelle est incertaine, le poids de l’économie marchande se développe avec l’exode des jeunes. Que sera la communauté San Juan à la fin de ce siècle? La comunidad de San Juan está reconocida desde 1939. La primera parte concierne a la organización de la 'reducción' de San Juan hacia mediados del siglo XVI. El peso fiscal se ejerce duramente sobre el pueblo y en el siglo XVII la crisis es general en todo el valle de Chancay. Hacia mediados del mismo siglo la cristianización de los habitantes es definitiva. Es hacia fines del siglo XVII y durante todo el siglo XVIII que se multiplican los conflictos entre San Juan y los pueblos vecinos, los que están relacionados con los terrenos de

  16. Coastal vulnerability: climate change and natural hazards perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romieu, E.; Vinchon, C.

    2009-04-01

    : synthesis report. A contribution of working groups I, II and III to the Third Assesment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Klinke, A. and Renn, O., 2002. A new approach to risk evaluation and management : risk based, precaution based and discourse based strategies. Risk Analysis. 22, 1071-1094. McFadden, L., Nicholls, R.J., Penning-Rowsell, E. (Eds.), 2006. Managing coastal vulnerability. Elsevier Science. Nicholls, R. J., Hoozemans, F. M. J., Marchand, M., 1999. Increasing flood risk and wetland losses due to global sea-level rise: regional and global analyses. Global Environmental Change, Part A: Human and Policy Dimensions. 9, S69-S87. Nicholls, R. J., Leatherman, S. P., Volonte, C. R., 1995. Impacts and responses to sea-level rise; qualitative and quantitative assessments; Potential impacts of accelerated sea-level rise on developing countries. Journal of Coastal Research. Special issue 14, 26-43. Sarewitz, D., Pielke, R., Keykhah, M., 2003. Vulnerability and Risk: Some Thoughts from a Political and Policy Perspective. Risk Analysis. 23, 805-810. Turner, B. L.,II, Kasperson, R. E., Matson, P. A., McCarthy, J. J., Corell, R. W., Christensen, L., Eckley, N., Kasperson, J. X., Luers, A., Martello, M. L., Polsky, C., Pulsipher, A., Schiller, A., 2003. A framework for vulnerability analysis in sustainability science. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA. 100, 8074-8079. UNFCCC, 2008. Compendium on methods and tools to evaluate impacts of vulnerability and adaptation to climate change. Vafeidis, A., Nicholls, R., McFadden, L., 2004. Developing a database for global vulnerability analysis of coastal zones: The DINAS-COAST project and the DIVA tool.

  17. Les manuscrits arabes et ajami au Cameroun: état des lieux et approche codicologique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamadou Adama

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available

    L'histoire des manuscrits arabes et ajami au Cameroun remonte au milieu du 18e siècle. Elle est la résultante d'une action combinée entreprise par le prosélytisme musulman et l'activité marchande des populations venues, pour essentiel, de l'Afrique occidentale. Les commerçants ouest-africains et les voyageurs, tan européens qu'arabo-berbères, y ont contribué à vulgariser le papier italien  tre lune, pendant que les marabouts itinérants y ont participé à l'éclosion et à la démocratisation de savoir islamique. La combinaison des ces facteurs a donné lieu à l'instauration des chancelleries royales et à l'élaboration des thématiques qui relèvent la chronique, de la diplomatique et de panégyrique. Le style qualifie de sudani y est proche des formes calligraphique rependues dans le soudan occidental. L'encre et la plume sont conçues à partir des matériaux locaux. Les recherches dans ce domaine sont embryonnaires et très peu de manuscrits sons aujourd'hui inventoriés. Bien que le déficit de compétences constitue l'obstacle  majeur, la redécouverte des ces sources inédites de l'histoire du Cameroun par les jeunes chercheurs demeure encourageante.                    

    ملخص:

    يعود تاريخ المخطوطات العربية والعجمية في الكاميرون إلى منتصف القرن الثامن عشر، وذلك نتيجة تضافر الجهود الجماعية من قبل المسلمين الفاتحين، وأنشطة الجماعات القادمة أساسا من الأفريقية الغربية، حيث كان التجار الغرب الإفريقيون، والرحالون، الأوربيين والعرب البربر  قدا ساهموا جميعا  في نشر  الورقيات الإيطالية النظيفة، في الوقت الذي قام المعلمون  المتنقلون بجعل المعرفة الإسلامية أكثر

  18. Um Rio para estudante ver: engenhosidades na produção de cadernos escolares - A Rio de Janeiro to be seen by students: ingenuity in producing school notebooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Chrystina Venancio Mignot, Roberta Lopes da Veiga

    2011-03-01

    ículos escolares, revista y catálogos de diversas industrias del ramo, son las principales fuentes de pesquisa, visto que permiten comprender tanto las concepciones que tienen de los estudiantes, como las preocupaciones que informan y conforman la producción de cuadernos escolares, que dejan de ser vistos comosimple soporte de la escrita escolar, para ser transformados en objeto de deseo del consumidor.Las elecciones de las imágenes de las tapas de los cuadernos hacen parte de las estratégias para conquistar este consumidor privilegiado: artistas de novelas, cantores famosos, dibujos animados, personajes de películas y jugadores de fútbol, que agraden a la mayoria. Con la Colección Río,la Casa Cruz se destaca al uir de la temática predominante en la producción cuadernera. Al colocar en destaque algunos paisajes de la Ciudad Maravillosa, también revela algunas concepciones y expectativas que tiene del consumidor. En las tapas firmadas por artistas plásticos cariocas, que estampan puntos turísticos y monumentos, la papeleria veicula la imagen que le gustaría perpetuar: una ciudad sin violencia, miedo, exclusión, una ciudad para estudiante ver, amar, preservar. Palabras-clave: cuadernos escolares, producción, comercialización.   UN "RIO" POUR QUE LÊS ÉTUDIANTS VOIENT: DÊS INGÉNIOSITÉS DANS LA PRODUCTION DÊS CAHIERS SCOLAIRES Résumé Analyser les intentions qui ont guidé la production et la commercialisation de la Collection Rio, editée par la Casa Cruz pour commémorer les 110 ans d'existence de la papeterie, en association avec la Tilibra, la plus grande fabricante de cahiers scolaires du pays, suppose discutir l'expansion et le développement de l'industrie de cahiers qui resulte de la modernisation du parc graphique. Pour cela, ainsi que des affiches et dês matières publiées dans l apresse sur lê concours de peinture qui a déterminé la collection, quelques imprimés adressés aux marchands d'articles scolaires – des revues et des catalogues de