Importance theory for lumped-parameter systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cady, K.B.; Kenton, M.A.; Ward, J.C.; Piepho, M.G.
1981-01-01
A general sensitivity theory has been developed for nonlinear lumped parameter system simulations. The point of departure is general perturbation theory for nonlinear systems. Importance theory as developed here allows the calculation of the sensitivity of a response function to any physical or design parameter; importance of any equation or term or physical effect in the system model on the response function; variance of the response function caused by the variances and covariances of all physical parameters; and approximate effect on the response function of missing physical phenomena or incorrect parameters
Important Parameters and Applications for Nickel Electroforming
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tang, Peter Torben; Benzon, Michael Eis; Rasmussen, J.P.
1996-01-01
Electroforming is versatile process that is being used more and more, although the basic idea is almost a hundred years old. This paper will concentrate on the important mechanical properties and electrolyte parameters of nickel electroforming. Electrolyte parameters such as current density, p......H-value, temperature and the use of pulse plating and additives will be examined with respect to mechanical properties such as internal stress, material distribution and hardness. Pulse plating in a chloride and Watts nickel bath and DC plating in sulphamate bath will be discussed, as well as different methods...... for measuring internal stress and material distribution....
Phenomena and parameters important to burnup credit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parks, C.V.; Dehart, M.D.; Wagner, J.C.
2001-01-01
Since the mid-1980s, a significant number of studies have been directed at understanding the phenomena and parameters important to implementation of burnup credit in out-of-reactor applications involving pressurized-water- reactor (PWR) spent fuel. The efforts directed at burnup credit involving boiling-water-reactor (BWR) spent fuel have been more limited. This paper reviews the knowledge and experience gained from work performed in the United States and other countries in the study of burnup credit. Relevant physics and analysis phenomenon are identified, and an assessment of their importance to burnup credit implementation for transport and dry cask storage is given. (author)
The Importance of Vocal Parameters Correlation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valentin Ghisa
2016-06-01
Full Text Available To analyze communication we need to study the main parameters that describe the vocal sounds from the point of view of information content transfer efficiency. In this paper we analyze the physical quality of the “on air" information transfer, according to the audio streaming parameters and from the particular phonetic nature of the human factor. Applying this statistical analysis we aim to identify and record the correlation level of the acoustical parameters with the vocal ones and the impact which the presence of this cross-correlation can have on communication structures’ improvement.
Importance and sensitivity of parameters affecting the Zion Seismic Risk
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
George, L.L.; O' Connell, W.J.
1985-06-01
This report presents the results of a study on the importance and sensitivity of structures, systems, equipment, components and design parameters used in the Zion Seismic Risk Calculations. This study is part of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) supported by the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The objective of this study is to provide the NRC with results on the importance and sensitivity of parameters used to evaluate seismic risk. These results can assist the NRC in making decisions dealing with the allocation of research resources on seismic issues. This study uses marginal analysis in addition to importance and sensitivity analysis to identify subject areas (input parameter areas) for improvements that reduce risk, estimate how much the improvement dfforts reduce risk, and rank the subject areas for improvements. Importance analysis identifies the systems, components, and parameters that are important to risk. Sensitivity analysis estimates the change in risk per unit improvement. Marginal analysis indicates the reduction in risk or uncertainty for improvement effort made in each subject area. The results described in this study were generated using the SEISIM (Systematic Evaluation of Important Safety Improvement Measures) and CHAIN computer codes. Part 1 of the SEISIM computer code generated the failure probabilities and risk values. Part 2 of SEISIM, along with the CHAIN computer code, generated the importance and sensitivity measures.
Importance of Nonperturbative QCD Parameters for Bottom Mesons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Upadhyay
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The importance of nonperturbative quantum chromodynamics (QCD parameters is discussed in context to the predicting power for bottom meson masses and isospin splitting. In the framework of heavy quark effective theory, the work presented here focuses on the different allowed values of the two nonperturbative QCD parameters used in heavy quark effective theory formula, and using the best fitted parameter, masses of the excited bottom meson states in jp=1/2+ doublet in strange and nonstrange sectors are calculated here. The calculated masses are found to be matching well with experiments and other phenomenological models. The mass splitting and hyperfine splitting have also been analyzed for both strange and nonstrange heavy mesons with respect to spin and flavor symmetries.
Important population viability analysis parameters for giant pandas (Aliuropoda melanoleuca).
Gong, Minghao; Song, Yanling; Yang, Zhisong; Lin, Chen
2012-06-01
Population viability analysis (PVA) is a tool to evaluate the risk of extinction for endangered species and aid conservation decision-making. The quality of PVA output is dependent on parameters related to population dynamics and life-history; however, it has been difficult to collect this information for the giant panda (Aliuropoda melanoleuca), a rare and endangered mammal native to China, confined to some 30 fragmented habitat patches. Since giant pandas are long-lived, mature late, have lower reproductive rates, and show little sexual dimorphism, obtaining data to perform adequate PVA has been difficult. Here, we develop a parameter sensitivity index by modeling the dynamics of six giant panda populations in the Minshan Mountains, in order to determine the parameters most influential to giant panda populations. Our data shows that the giant panda populations are most sensitive to changes in four female parameters: initial breeding age, reproductive rate, mortality rate between age 0 and 1, and mortality rate of adults. The parameter sensitivity index strongly correlated with initial population size, as smaller populations were more sensitive to changes in these four variables. This model suggests that demographic parameters of females have more influence on the results of PVA, indicating that females may play a more important role in giant panda population dynamics than males. Consequently, reintroduction of female individuals to a small giant panda population should be a high priority for conservation efforts. Our findings form a technical basis for the coming program of giant panda reintroduction, and inform which parameters are crucial to successfully and feasibly monitoring wild giant panda populations.
Formulation of eb-curable epoxy resin : some important parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dahlan bin Haji Mohd; Hosoi, Fumio; Sasaki, Takashi
1989-01-01
The works on the electron-beam curing of surface coatings using epoxy acrylic-based resins were discussed. The works covered among other things the effect of molecular weights of the resins on the physical properties of coatings and their physical and chemical characterizations. The emphasis was given to formulating the resins applicable to surface coatings. Curings were done on a low-energy electron beam accelerator operating at 250 kV. A number of parameters deemed important to formulations, such as the molecular weights of the oligomers and monomers, monomer ratios, and HEA additions were explored. It was found that one could modify the physical properties of the coatings by changing or adjusting those parameters. (author)
Parameters of importance to determine during geoscientific site investigation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andersson, Johan [QuantiSci AB (Sweden); Almen, K.E. [KEA GEO-Konsult AB (Sweden); Ericsson, Lars O.; Karlsson, Fred; Stroem, A. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Fredriksson, Anders [ADG Grundteknik AB (Sweden); Stanfors, R. [Roy Stanfors Consulting AB (Sweden)
1998-06-01
This document identifies and describes geo-scientific parameters that are of importance in order to carry out performance and safety assessments of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel, based on the information that can be obtained from a site investigation. The document also discusses data needs for planning and design of the rock works and for description of other environmental aspects. Evaluation of the different parameters is discussed in the document as well. The document was produced by a working group consisting of the authors and various SKB staff and consultants, and comprises a step in the planning of a geo-scientific investigation programme at the sites where site investigations will be conducted. The goals of the work presented in this report can be derived directly from SKBs ongoing RD and D Programme. The programme stipulates that a geo-scientific site investigation programme must be available before a site investigation begins. This programme is supposed to specify the goals, measurement methods and evaluation methodology, as well as the acceptance criteria against which the site is evaluated. It is pointed out that site evaluation is a collective term for an interactive process consisting of different parts 65 refs, 15 figs, 12 tabs
Parameters of importance to determine in geoscientific site studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andersson, Johan; Almen, K.E.; Ericsson, L.O.; Karlsson, Fred; Stroem, A.; Fredriksson, Anders; Stanfors, R.
1996-12-01
This report identifies and describes parameters, that may be determined in a site characterization study, for performing functional and safety analyses of a deep rock repository for radioactive wastes. The report discusses data needs for rock engineering and for description of other environmental aspects. It is intended that the report be used as a basis for formulating the criteria of acceptance in evaluating a candidate site. The report describes how different parameters influence the safety function, and how they are evaluated in practice. The logical order of performing measurements, due to the need of in-data and influence on other measurements is also discussed. 65 refs
Assessing the importance of terrain parameters on glide avalanche release
Peitzsch, Erich H.; Hendrikx, Jordy; Fagre, Daniel B.
2014-01-01
Glide snow avalanches are dangerous and difficult to predict. Despite recent research there is still a lack of understanding regarding the controls of glide avalanche release. Glide avalanches often occur in similar terrain or the same locations annually and observations suggest that topography may be critical. Thus, to gain an understanding of the terrain component of these types of avalanches we examined terrain parameters associated with glide avalanche release as well as areas of consistent glide crack formation but no subsequent avalanches. Glide avalanche occurrences visible from the Going-to-the-Sun Road corridor in Glacier National Park, Montana from 2003-2013 were investigated using an avalanche database derived of daily observations each year from April 1 to June 15. This yielded 192 glide avalanches in 53 distinct avalanche paths. Each avalanche occurrence was digitized in a GIS using satellite, oblique, and aerial imagery as reference. Topographical parameters such as area, slope, aspect, elevation and elevation were then derived for the entire dataset utilizing GIS tools and a 10m DEM. Land surface substrate and surface geology were derived from National Park Service Inventory and Monitoring maps and U.S. Geological Survey surface geology maps, respectively. Surface roughness and glide factor were calculated using a four level classification index. . Then, each avalanche occurrence was aggregated to general avalanche release zones and the frequencies were compared. For this study, glide avalanches released in elevations ranging from 1300 to 2700 m with a mean aspect of 98 degrees (east) and a mean slope angle of 38 degrees. The mean profile curvature for all glide avalanches was 0.15 and a plan curvature of -0.01, suggesting a fairly linear surface (i.e. neither convex nor concave). The glide avalanches occurred in mostly bedrock made up of dolomite and limestone slabs and talus deposits with very few occurring in alpine meadows. However, not all glide
Identifying important parameters for a continuous bioscouring process
Lenting, H.B.M.; Lenting, H.B.M.; Zwier, E.; Nierstrasz, Vincent
2002-01-01
Compared to a bioscouring process in the batch mode, a continuously operating process requires relatively short processing steps. This study focusses on minimizing the required enzymatic incubation time. It is clear that the presence of a sufficient level of surfactant is of major importance in
Osmoregulation – an important parameter of bacterial growth
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marta Sochocka
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Environmental conditions such as temperature, pH, radiation and osmotic pressure are important factors limiting the growth and multiplication of bacteria. Regular structure and metabolism of bacterial cells are maintained through a stable arrangement of the water-electrolyte system, regulated by osmosis. The rapid changes caused by osmotic shock (dehydration, rehydration might lead to modifications of the phospholipid structure of the cell membrane and even cell death. Advances disturbing the osmosis, which are a natural part of living cells, may appear for example in colloid systems. The biological identification of the osmotic pressure is connected with an increase or decrease in the environmental osmotic strength of microorganisms’ habitat. Cells exposed to osmotic stress, such as an increase in osmotic pressure, initiate mechanisms of active coping with the adverse consequences of its effects. Osmoregulatory processes are designed to maintain cell turgor, hence ensuring proper conditions for bacterial growth. Osmoregulation, which consists of maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance of cells, raising concerns accumulation of specific compatible solutes (osmolytes. Osmolytes are small, soluble organic molecules with a positive influence on membrane stabilization and proteins, without disrupting cellular functions. Storage of compatible solutes takes place by synthesis or by downregulation from the medium by means of special transport systems, activated by mechanical stimuli. Knowledge of the impact of osmotic pressure on microbial cells and the regulation of its activity led to the appropriate use of bacteria in various branches of the biotechnology industry.
The importance of variables and parameters in radiolytic chemical kinetics modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piepho, M.G.; Turner, P.J.; Reimus, P.W.
1989-01-01
Many of the pertinent radiochemical reactions are not completely understood, and most of the associated rate constants are poorly characterized. To help identify the important radiochemical reactions, rate constants, species, and environmental conditions, an importance theory code, SWATS (Sensitivitiy With Adjoint Theory-Sparse version)-LOOPCHEM, has been developed for the radiolytic chemical kinetics model in the radiolysis code LOOPCHEM. The LOOPCHEM code calculates the concentrations of various species in a radiolytic field over time. The SWATS-LOOPCHEM code efficiently calculates: the importance (relative to a defined response of interest) of each species concentration over time, the sensitivity of each parameter of interest, and the importance of each equation in the radiolysis model. The calculated results will be used to guide future experimental and modeling work for determining the importance of radiolysis on waste package performance. A demonstration (the importance of selected concentrations and the sensitivities of selected parameters) of the SWATS-LOOPCHEM code is provided for illustrative purposes
Important parameters in the performance of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain (TSPA-1995)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atkins, J.E.; Sevougian, S.D.; Lee, J.H.; Andrews, R.W.; McNeish, J.A.
1996-01-01
A total system performance assessment (TSPA) was conducted to determine how a potential repository at Yucca Mountain would behave. Using the results of this TSPA, regression was done to determine which parameters had the most important effect on the repository performance. These results were consistent with the current conceptual understanding of the repository
Remondo Bueno, D.; Srinivasan, R.; Nicola, V.F.; van Etten, Wim; Tattje, H.E.P.
2000-01-01
We present new adaptive importance sampling techniques based on stochastic Newton recursions. Their applicability to the performance evaluation of communication systems is studied. Besides bit-error rate (BER) estimation, the techniques are used for system parameter optimization. Two system models
Behzadi, Hadi; Forghani, Ali
2017-03-01
The relation between electronic properties and corrosion inhibitive performance of three benzothiazole derivatives 1,3-benzothiazol-2-amine (BTA), 6-methyl-1,3-benzothiazol-2-amine (MBTA) and 2-amino-1,3-benzthiazole-6-thiol (TBTA) has been investigated by density functional theory. The electronic properties including EHOMO, ELUMO and related parameters were calculated at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. The chemical shielding CS tensors were introduced as important and neglected descriptors to evaluate inhibitive efficiency of corrosion inhibitors. Nuclear independent chemical shift (NICS) components, as an aromaticity criterion, were also investigated as local descriptor. Polarizability and CS descriptors, as second rank tensors, show the best correlations with inhibition efficiencies of studied inhibitors.
Determining Relative Importance and Effective Settings for Genetic Algorithm Control Parameters.
Mills, K L; Filliben, J J; Haines, A L
2015-01-01
Setting the control parameters of a genetic algorithm to obtain good results is a long-standing problem. We define an experiment design and analysis method to determine relative importance and effective settings for control parameters of any evolutionary algorithm, and we apply this method to a classic binary-encoded genetic algorithm (GA). Subsequently, as reported elsewhere, we applied the GA, with the control parameter settings determined here, to steer a population of cloud-computing simulators toward behaviors that reveal degraded performance and system collapse. GA-steered simulators could serve as a design tool, empowering system engineers to identify and mitigate low-probability, costly failure scenarios. In the existing GA literature, we uncovered conflicting opinions and evidence regarding key GA control parameters and effective settings to adopt. Consequently, we designed and executed an experiment to determine relative importance and effective settings for seven GA control parameters, when applied across a set of numerical optimization problems drawn from the literature. This paper describes our experiment design, analysis, and results. We found that crossover most significantly influenced GA success, followed by mutation rate and population size and then by rerandomization point and elite selection. Selection method and the precision used within the chromosome to represent numerical values had least influence. Our findings are robust over 60 numerical optimization problems.
Importance of resonance parameters of fertile nuclei and of 239Pu isotope for fast power reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barre, J.Y.; Khairallah, A.
1975-01-01
The importance of resonance parameters of fertile nuclei and of 239 Pu isotope for fast power reactors will be restricted, in this presentation, to mixed oxide-uranium-plutonium fuelled sodium-cooled and uranium-oxide-sodium reflected fast reactors. The power range lies between 200 and 2000 MWe. Among the topics of this specialist meeting, the isotopes to be considered are, primarly 239 Pu then 238 U and 240 Pu. Resonance parameters are mainly used in fast power reactor calculations through the well-known concept of self shielding factors. After a short description of the determination and the use of these self-shielding factors, their sensitivities to resonance parameters are characterized from some specific examples: those sensitivities are small. Then, the main design parameters sensitive to the amplitude of self-shielding factors are considered: critical enrichment, global breeding gain. The relative importance of isotope, reaction rate and energy range are mentionned. In a third part, the Doppler effect, sensitive to the temperature variation of self-shielding factors, is considered in the same way. Finally, it is concluded that the present knowledge of resonance parameters for 238 U, 239 Pu and 240 Pu is sufficient for fast power reactors from a designer point of view [fr
Comparative analysis of partial imaging performance parameters of home and imported X-ray machines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cao Yunxi; Wang Xianyun; Liu Huiqin; Guo Yongxin
2002-01-01
Objective: To compare and analyze the performance indexes and the imaging quality of the home and imported X-ray machines through testing their partial imaging performance parameters. Methods: By separate sampling from 10 home and 10 imported X-ray machines, the parameters including tube current, time of exposure, machine total exposure, and repeatability were tested, and the imaging performance was evaluated according to the national standard. Results: All the performance indexes met the standard of GB4505-84. The first sampling tests showed the maximum changing coefficient of imaging performance repeatability of the home X-ray machines was Δmax1 = 0.025, while that of the imported X-ray machine was Δmax1 = 0.016. In the second sampling tests, the maximum changing coefficients of the two were Δmax2 = 0.048 and Δmax2 = 0.022, respectively. Conclusion: The 2 years' follow-up tests indicate that there is no significant difference between the above-mentioned parameters of the elaborately adjusted home X-ray machines and imported ones, but the home X-ray machines are no better than the imported X-ray machines in stability and consistency
HIROSE,Hideo
1998-01-01
TYPES OF THE DISTRIBUTION:13;Normal distribution (2-parameter)13;Uniform distribution (2-parameter)13;Exponential distribution ( 2-parameter)13;Weibull distribution (2-parameter)13;Gumbel Distribution (2-parameter)13;Weibull/Frechet Distribution (3-parameter)13;Generalized extreme-value distribution (3-parameter)13;Gamma distribution (3-parameter)13;Extended Gamma distribution (3-parameter)13;Log-normal distribution (3-parameter)13;Extended Log-normal distribution (3-parameter)13;Generalized ...
The importance of variables and parameters in radiolytic chemical kinetics modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piepho, M.G.; Turner, P.J.; Reimus, P.W.
1988-07-01
Many pertinent radiochemical reactions are not completely understood, and most of the associated rate constants are poorly characterized. To help identify the important radiochemical reactions, rate constants, species, and environmental conditions, an importance theory code, SWATS (Sensitivity With Adjoint Theory-Sparse version)-LOOPCHEM, has been developed for the radiolytic chemical kinetics model in the radiolysis code LOOPCHEM. The LOOPCHEM code calculates the concentrations of various species in a radiolytic field over time. The SWATS-LOOPCHEM code efficiently calculates: (1) the importance (relative to a defined response of interest) of each species concentration over time, (2) the sensitivity of each parameter of interest, and (3) the importance of each equation in the radiolysis model. The calculated results will be used to guide future experimental and modeling work for determining the importance of radiolysis on waste package performance. A demonstration (the importance of selected concentrations and the sensitivities of selected parameters) of the SWATS-LOOPCHEM code is provided for illustrative purposes, and no attempt is made at this time to interpret the results for waste package performance assessment purposes. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab
Analysis of the importance for the doses of varying parameters in the BIOPATH-program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergstroem, U.
1981-01-01
The doses to individuals and populations from water-borne nuclides leaked from a repository have been calculated earlier using the computer program BIOPATH. The turnover of nuclides in the biosphere is thereby simulated by the application of compartment theory. For the dominant nuclides in the disposal an analysis of the importance of varying parameters has been done, to decide how strongly uncertainties in data will affect resulting doses. The essential part has been the transfer coefficients but also the uptake in the food-chains has been studied. The purpose of the study has also been to make proposals for forthcoming efforts to improve the basis for such calculations. The study shows the great importance of the surface water-soil-groundwater-drinking water system for the dose. Thereby the most important question is the solubility of the nuclides in the different water reservoirs. (Auth.)
The Importance of Hematological Parameters in Acute Respiratory Viral Infections in Children
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. A. Alekseeva
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Hematological studies are basic and mandatory in diagnostics and laboratory monitoring of infectious diseases, which led to their inclusion in the modern standards of laboratory examinations of children. Assessment of hematological parameters used for the provisional differential diagnosis of viral or bacterial nature of the disease. For research currently being used increasingly Hematology analyzers, which allows to facilitate and standardize the results. In this paper a comparison and differences hematological parameters practically healthy children and children with respiratory infections. Identified some changes in indicators of haemogram depending on the etiology and character of the clinical course of the disease. On the basis of the leukocyte formula defined leukocyte indices of intoxication and illustrates their importance in assessing the severity of the infection process.
An estimation of crude oil import demand in Turkey: Evidence from time-varying parameters approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ozturk, Ilhan; Arisoy, Ibrahim
2016-01-01
The aim of this study is to model crude oil import demand and estimate the price and income elasticities of imported crude oil in Turkey based on a time-varying parameters (TVP) approach with the aim of obtaining accurate and more robust estimates of price and income elasticities. This study employs annual time series data of domestic oil consumption, real GDP, and oil price for the period 1966–2012. The empirical results indicate that both the income and price elasticities are in line with the theoretical expectations. However, the income elasticity is statistically significant while the price elasticity is statistically insignificant. The relatively high value of income elasticity (1.182) from this study suggests that crude oil import in Turkey is more responsive to changes in income level. This result indicates that imported crude oil is a normal good and rising income levels will foster higher consumption of oil based equipments, vehicles and services by economic agents. The estimated income elasticity of 1.182 suggests that imported crude oil consumption grows at a higher rate than income. This in turn reduces oil intensity over time. Therefore, crude oil import during the estimation period is substantially driven by income. - Highlights: • We estimated the price and income elasticities of imported crude oil in Turkey. • Income elasticity is statistically significant and it is 1.182. • The price elasticity is statistically insignificant. • Crude oil import in Turkey is more responsive to changes in income level. • Crude oil import during the estimation period is substantially driven by income.
Moustapha, S M; Alain, G; Robert, E; Bernard, T; Mourtalla, Kâ M; Lamine, G; François, V
2012-01-01
Among Parkinsonian axial signs, dysarthria represents an important disabling symptom able to lead towards a significant reduction of oral communication. Several methods of dysarthria assessment have been used but aerodynamic evaluation is rare in the literature. To highlight the importance of aerodynamic parameters measurements in assessment of parkinsonian dysarthria. Using a dedicated system (EVA2), 24 parkinsonian patients were recorded after withdrawal of L-dopa for at least 12 h (condition called OFF DOPA) in order to evaluate intra-oral pressure (IOP), mean oral air flow (MOAF) and laryngeal resistance (LR) on six /p/ during realization of the sentence "Papa ne m'a pas parle' de beau-papa" ("Daddy did not speak to me about daddy-in-law") which corresponds to a breath group. 50 control subjects were recorded in parallel in order to define reference measurements. It appeared that there is in Parkinson's disease aerodynamic impairments which were evidenced by the fall in IOP and that of MOAF in patients compared with control subjects. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant. In addition a greater instability of LR in patients compared with control subjects was also noted. Our results show that measurements of aerodynamics parameters, by reflecting the dysfunction induced by disease, may well be relevant factors in parkinsonian dysarthria evaluation.
Importance of helical pitch parameter in LHD-type heliotron reactor designs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goto, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Yanagi, N.; Watanabe, K.Y.; Imagawa, S.; Sagara, A.
2010-11-01
In the design studies of the LHD-type heliotron reactors, one of the key issues is to secure sufficient blanket spaces. In this respect, helical pitch parameter γ is quite important because it significantly affects both the coil and plasma shapes. In order to understand the effect of helical pitch parameter on the design window quantitatively, a system design code for the LHD-type heliotron reactors has been developed and parametric scans were carried out with 3 cases of γ=1.15, 1.20 and 1.25. It becomes clear that the possible design window of heliotron reactors strongly depends on the engineering constraints: stored magnetic energy of coil system, blanket space, and neutron wall load. γ=1.20 is optimum from the viewpoint of moderating the physics requirements, but γ=1.15 has a robustness to the change in the physics and engineering conditions. Since the design windows are quite sensitive to the engineering constraints and physics conditions, the further detailed study on design feasibility of advanced engineering components and the effect of γ on the physics conditions is expected to optimize the value of γ. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chowdhury, Md Albarune; de Neergaard, Andreas; Jensen, Lars Stoumann
2014-01-01
Solid-liquid separation of animal slurry, with solid fractions used for composting, has gained interest recently. However, efficient composting of separated animal slurry solid fractions (SSFs) requires a better understanding of the process dynamics in terms of important physical parameters...... and their interacting physical relationships in the composting matrix. Here we monitored moisture content, bulk density, particle density and air-filled porosity (AFP) during composting of SSF collected from four commercially available solid-liquid separators. Composting was performed in laboratory-scale reactors...... composts showed different dynamics as described by the first-order kinetic equation. The estimated component particle density of 1441 kg m-3 for VS and 2625 kg m-3 for fixed solids can be used to improve estimates of AFP for SSF within the range tested. The linear relationship between wet bulk density...
Testing the new stochastic neutronic code ANET in simulating safety important parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xenofontos, T.; Delipei, G.-K.; Savva, P.; Varvayanni, M.; Maillard, J.; Silva, J.; Catsaros, N.
2017-01-01
Highlights: • ANET is a new neutronics stochastic code. • Criticality calculations in both subcritical and critical nuclear systems of conventional design were conducted. • Simulations of thermal, lower epithermal and fast neutron fluence rates were performed. • Axial fission rate distributions in standard and MOX fuel pins were computed. - Abstract: ANET (Advanced Neutronics with Evolution and Thermal hydraulic feedback) is an under development Monte Carlo code for simulating both GEN II/III reactors as well as innovative nuclear reactor designs, based on the high energy physics code GEANT3.21 of CERN. ANET is built through continuous GEANT3.21 applicability amplifications, comprising the simulation of particles’ transport and interaction in low energy along with the accessibility of user-provided libraries and tracking algorithms for energies below 20 MeV, as well as the simulation of elastic and inelastic collision, capture and fission. Successive testing applications performed throughout the ANET development have been utilized to verify the new code capabilities. In this context the ANET reliability in simulating certain reactor parameters important to safety is here examined. More specifically the reactor criticality as well as the neutron fluence and fission rates are benchmarked and validated. The Portuguese Research Reactor (RPI) after its conversion to low enrichment in U-235 and the OECD/NEA VENUS-2 MOX international benchmark were considered appropriate for the present study, the former providing criticality and neutron flux data and the latter reaction rates. Concerning criticality benchmarking, the subcritical, Training Nuclear Reactor of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (TNR-AUTh) was also analyzed. The obtained results are compared with experimental data from the critical infrastructures and with computations performed by two different, well established stochastic neutronics codes, i.e. TRIPOLI-4.8 and MCNP5. Satisfactory agreement
Allegrini, E; Butera, S; Kosson, D S; Van Zomeren, A; Van der Sloot, H A; Astrup, T F
2015-04-01
Residues from industrial processes and waste management systems (WMSs) have been increasingly reutilised, leading to landfilling rate reductions and the optimisation of mineral resource utilisation in society. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a holistic methodology allowing for the analysis of systems and products and can be applied to waste management systems to identify environmental benefits and critical aspects thereof. From an LCA perspective, residue utilisation provides benefits such as avoiding the production and depletion of primary materials, but it can lead to environmental burdens, due to the potential leaching of toxic substances. In waste LCA studies where residue utilisation is included, leaching has generally been neglected. In this study, municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWI BA) was used as a case study into three LCA scenarios having different system boundaries. The importance of data quality and parameter selection in the overall LCA results was evaluated, and an innovative method to assess metal transport into the environment was applied, in order to determine emissions to the soil and water compartments for use in an LCA. It was found that toxic impacts as a result of leaching were dominant in systems including only MSWI BA utilisation, while leaching appeared negligible in larger scenarios including the entire waste system. However, leaching could not be disregarded a priori, due to large uncertainties characterising other activities in the scenario (e.g. electricity production). Based on the analysis of relevant parameters relative to leaching, and on general results of the study, recommendations are provided regarding the use of leaching data in LCA studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dragan Lončar
2011-09-01
Full Text Available The implantation of the fertilized egg outside the uterine cavity leads to the development of ectopic pregnancy. The incidence of ectopic pregnancy is 1/100 births. The most common place of ectopic implantation of the fertilized ovum is the oviduct (98% with predilection for the ampullar part of the Fallopian tube. The aim of this study was to determine the predictive importance of beta-hCG and progesterone concentration compared to ultrasonographic finding in the ectopic pregnancy diagnosis.We examined 24 patients with ectopic pregnancies which we divided according to the days of amenorrhea into two groups: the first group with the total of 28 patients from 16–42 days and another group of 8 patients with amenorrhea longer than 42 days. The control group was comprised of 20 patients with vital intrauterine pregnancy, gestational age of 42-52 days. Blood samples for quantitative determination of hormones were collected on three occasions after 48 hours in the forenoon time in the examined and control group of pregnant women. Ultrasonographic examinations of all pregnant women were carried out immediately after blood sampling, with the trans-vaginal approach using "make loop" option, and measurements with an accuracy of 0.1 mm.Mean values for beta-hCG range from 698-1774 mlU/ml in the first group of pregnant women, and in the second group of 1896 mlU/ml to 4410 mlU/ml with a statistically significant difference compared to the values in the control group (p <0.001. The concentration of progesterone in the first group of women ranging from 41-70 nmol/l, and in the second group of 76-94 nmol/l which is also the statistically significant difference compared to the control group (p<0.002. We have shown that ultrasonographic finding with its parameters reliably predicts the values of biochemical parameters both in normal intrauterine pregnancy and in the case of ectopic pregnancy.Embryo viability and implantation place condition the values of
Importance of hydrological parameters in contaminant transport modeling in a terrestrial environment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsuduki, Katsunori; Matsunaga, Takeshi
2007-01-01
A grid type multi-layered distributed parameter model for calculating discharge in a watershed was described. Model verification with our field observation resulted in different sets of hydrological parameter values, all of which reproduced the observed discharge. The effect of those varied hydrological parameters on contaminant transport calculation was examined and discussed by simulation of event water transfer. (author)
Oz, Tugce; Guvenek, Aysegul; Yildiz, Sadik; Karaboga, Enes; Tamer, Yusuf Talha; Mumcuyan, Nirva; Ozan, Vedat Burak; Senturk, Gizem Hazal; Cokol, Murat; Yeh, Pamela; Toprak, Erdal
2014-01-01
Revealing the genetic changes responsible for antibiotic resistance can be critical for developing novel antibiotic therapies. However, systematic studies correlating genotype to phenotype in the context of antibiotic resistance have been missing. In order to fill in this gap, we evolved 88 isogenic Escherichia coli populations against 22 antibiotics for 3 weeks. For every drug, two populations were evolved under strong selection and two populations were evolved under mild selection. By quantifying evolved populations’ resistances against all 22 drugs, we constructed two separate cross-resistance networks for strongly and mildly selected populations. Subsequently, we sequenced representative colonies isolated from evolved populations for revealing the genetic basis for novel phenotypes. Bacterial populations that evolved resistance against antibiotics under strong selection acquired high levels of cross-resistance against several antibiotics, whereas other bacterial populations evolved under milder selection acquired relatively weaker cross-resistance. In addition, we found that strongly selected strains against aminoglycosides became more susceptible to five other drug classes compared with their wild-type ancestor as a result of a point mutation on TrkH, an ion transporter protein. Our findings suggest that selection strength is an important parameter contributing to the complexity of antibiotic resistance problem and use of high doses of antibiotics to clear infections has the potential to promote increase of cross-resistance in clinics. PMID:24962091
Pavelyev, A. G.; Liou, Y. A.; Wickert, J.; Schmidt, T.; Pavelev, A. A.; Gubenko, V. N.
2009-04-01
After forty years of radio occultation (RO) experiments it is clear now that the phase acceleration of radio waves has the same importance as the Doppler frequency. This was shown by use of analysis of high-stability GPS RO signals. Phase acceleration technique allows one to convert the phase and Doppler frequency changes to the refraction attenuation variations. From the derived refraction attenuation one can estimate the integral absorption of radio waves by use of the amplitude data. This is important for measurement of water vapor and minor atmospheric gas constituents in future RO missions because of excluding the difficulty with removing the refraction attenuation effect from the amplitude data. Phase acceleration/intensity technique can be applied to separate the influence of layered structures from contributions of irregularities and turbulence in the atmosphere and ionosphere. Phase acceleration/intensity technique can be applied also for location and determination of the height and inclination of the layered structures in the atmosphere and ionosphere. In many cases the layered structures in the atmosphere indicate quasi-periodical altitude dependence that reveals their wave origin. The altitude profile of the vertical gradient of refractivity of the layered structures can be used to find the main characteristics of the internal wave activity with a global coverage. In general case, when the type of internal waves are not known, the height dependence of the vertical gradient of refractivity can be applied for monitoring the seasonal and geographical distributions of wave activity at different levels in the atmosphere. In the case of the internal gravity waves (GW) one can measure important GW parameters by use of the vertical profile of the refractivity: the intrinsic phase speed, the horizontal wind perturbations and, under some assumptions, the intrinsic frequency as functions of height in the atmosphere. Advantages of the phase acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shiba, Chie; Chikamori, Taishiro; Hida, Satoshi
2009-01-01
We sought noninvasively to diagnose left main trunk (LMT) disease using myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). Five hundred and eight patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent both stress MPI and coronary angiography. The extent and severity of perfusion abnormalities were assessed using a 20-segment model. In addition, perfusion defects in both left anterior descending and left circumflex arterial territories were defined as a left main (LM) pattern defect, and those in 3-coronary arterial territories as a 3-vessel pattern defect. In 42 patients with LMT disease, a summed stress score (19.4±10.0 vs. 13.5±10.0; p<0.0001) and a summed rest score (12.1±9.7 vs. 7.0±7.8; p=0.002) were greater than in 466 patients without LMT disease, while a summed difference score was similar (7.3±7.7 vs. 6.5±6.1; p=NS). The prevalence of an LM-pattern defect was low in both groups (12% vs. 8%; p=NS). However, a 3-vessel pattern defect (33% vs. 7%; p<0.0001), lung uptake of radiotracers (38% vs. 11%; p<0.0001), and transient ischemic dilation (31% vs. 13%; p=0.003) were more frequently observed in patients with LMT disease than in those without. Logistic regression analysis showed that a 3-vessel pattern defect (odds ratio (OR)=3.5, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.4-8.8; p=0.007), lung uptake of radiotracers (OR=2.5, 95% CI=1.1-5.7; p=0.03), and previous myocardial infarction (MI) (OR=2.4, 95% CI=1.0-5.7; p=0.05) were the most important parameters to detect LMT disease. After excluding 163 patients with previous MI, a repeat analysis revealed that lung uptake of radiotracers (OR=8.2, 95% CI=2.3-29.2; p=0.001) and an LM-pattern defect (OR=6.3, 95% CI=1.4-27.2; p<0.02) were independent predictors for LMT disease. In the identification of LMT disease, lung uptake of radiotracers was a single best parameter, which was independent of the presence or absence of previous MI. (author)
Chowdhury, Md Albarune; de Neergaard, Andreas; Jensen, Lars Stoumann
2014-01-01
Solid-liquid separation of animal slurry, with solid fractions used for composting, has gained interest recently. However, efficient composting of separated animal slurry solid fractions (SSFs) requires a better understanding of the process dynamics in terms of important physical parameters and their interacting physical relationships in the composting matrix. Here we monitored moisture content, bulk density, particle density and air-filled porosity (AFP) during composting of SSF collected from four commercially available solid-liquid separators. Composting was performed in laboratory-scale reactors for 30 days (d) under forced aeration and measurements were conducted on the solid samples at the beginning of composting and at 10-d intervals during composting. The results suggest that differences in initial physical properties of SSF influence the development of compost maximum temperatures (40-70 degreeC). Depending on SSF, total wet mass and volume losses (expressed as % of initial value) were up to 37% and 34%, respectively. After 30 d of composting, relative losses of total solids varied from 17.9% to 21.7% and of volatile solids (VS) from 21.3% to 27.5%, depending on SSF. VS losses in all composts showed different dynamics as described by the first-order kinetic equation. The estimated component particle density of 1441 kg m-3 for VS and 2625 kg m-3 for fixed solids can be used to improve estimates of AFP for SSF within the range tested. The linear relationship between wet bulk density and AFP reported by previous researchers held true for SSF.
The importance of correct specification of tribological parameters in dynamical systems modelling
Alaci, S.; Ciornei, F. C.; Romanu, I. C.; Ciornei, M. C.
2018-01-01
When modelling the behaviour of dynamical systems, the friction phenomenon cannot be neglected. Dry and fluid friction may occur, but dry friction has more severe effects upon the behaviour of the systems, based on the fact that the introduced discontinuities are more important. In the modelling of dynamical systems, dry friction is the main cause of occurrence of the bifurcation phenomenon. These aspects become more complex if, in the case of dry friction, static and dynamic frictions are put forward. The behaviour of a simple dynamical system is studied, consisting in a prismatic body linked to the ground by a spring, placed on a conveyor belt. The theoretical model is described by a nonlinear differential equation which after numerical integration leads to the conclusion that the steady motion of the prism is an un-damped oscillatory motion. The system was qualitatively modelled using specialised software for dynamical analysis. It was impractical to obtain a steady uniform translational motion of a rigid, therefore the conveyor belt was replaced by a metallic disc in uniform rotation motion. The attempts to compare the CAD model to the theoretical model were unsuccessful because the efforts of selecting the tribological parameters directed to the conclusion that the motion of the prism is a damped oscillation. To decide which of the methods depicts reality, a test-rig was assembled and it indicated a sustained oscillation. The conclusion is that the model employed by the dynamical analysis software cannot describe the actual model and a more complex model is required in the description of the friction phenomenon.
Ye, M.; Chen, Z.; Shi, L.; Zhu, Y.; Yang, J.
2017-12-01
Nitrogen reactive transport modeling is subject to uncertainty in model parameters, structures, and scenarios. While global sensitivity analysis is a vital tool for identifying the parameters important to nitrogen reactive transport, conventional global sensitivity analysis only considers parametric uncertainty. This may result in inaccurate selection of important parameters, because parameter importance may vary under different models and modeling scenarios. By using a recently developed variance-based global sensitivity analysis method, this paper identifies important parameters with simultaneous consideration of parametric uncertainty, model uncertainty, and scenario uncertainty. In a numerical example of nitrogen reactive transport modeling, a combination of three scenarios of soil temperature and two scenarios of soil moisture leads to a total of six scenarios. Four alternative models are used to evaluate reduction functions used for calculating actual rates of nitrification and denitrification. The model uncertainty is tangled with scenario uncertainty, as the reduction functions depend on soil temperature and moisture content. The results of sensitivity analysis show that parameter importance varies substantially between different models and modeling scenarios, which may lead to inaccurate selection of important parameters if model and scenario uncertainties are not considered. This problem is avoided by using the new method of sensitivity analysis in the context of model averaging and scenario averaging. The new method of sensitivity analysis can be applied to other problems of contaminant transport modeling when model uncertainty and/or scenario uncertainty are present.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bagan, H.; Tarancon, A.; Rauret, G.; Garcia, J.F.
2008-01-01
The quenching parameters used to model detection efficiency variations in scintillation measurements have not evolved since the decade of 1970s. Meanwhile, computer capabilities have increased enormously and ionization quenching has appeared in practical measurements using plastic scintillation. This study compares the results obtained in activity quantification by plastic scintillation of 14 C samples that contain colour and ionization quenchers, using classical (SIS, SCR-limited, SCR-non-limited, SIS(ext), SQP(E)) and evolved (MWA-SCR and WDW) parameters and following three calibration approaches: single step, which does not take into account the quenching mechanism; two steps, which takes into account the quenching phenomena; and multivariate calibration. Two-step calibration (ionization followed by colour) yielded the lowest relative errors, which means that each quenching phenomenon must be specifically modelled. In addition, the sample activity was quantified more accurately when the evolved parameters were used. Multivariate calibration-PLS also yielded better results than those obtained using classical parameters, which confirms that the quenching phenomena must be taken into account. The detection limits for each calibration method and each parameter were close to those obtained theoretically using the Currie approach
Bagán, H.; Tarancón, A.; Rauret, G.; García, J. F.
2008-07-01
The quenching parameters used to model detection efficiency variations in scintillation measurements have not evolved since the decade of 1970s. Meanwhile, computer capabilities have increased enormously and ionization quenching has appeared in practical measurements using plastic scintillation. This study compares the results obtained in activity quantification by plastic scintillation of 14C samples that contain colour and ionization quenchers, using classical (SIS, SCR-limited, SCR-non-limited, SIS(ext), SQP(E)) and evolved (MWA-SCR and WDW) parameters and following three calibration approaches: single step, which does not take into account the quenching mechanism; two steps, which takes into account the quenching phenomena; and multivariate calibration. Two-step calibration (ionization followed by colour) yielded the lowest relative errors, which means that each quenching phenomenon must be specifically modelled. In addition, the sample activity was quantified more accurately when the evolved parameters were used. Multivariate calibration-PLS also yielded better results than those obtained using classical parameters, which confirms that the quenching phenomena must be taken into account. The detection limits for each calibration method and each parameter were close to those obtained theoretically using the Currie approach.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
KEVIN ROBERTS
2013-11-01
A key element tied to using a code like MAAP4 is an uncertainty analysis. The purpose of this paper is to present a MAAP4 based analysis to examine the sensitivity of a key parameter, in this case hydrogen production, to a set of model parameters that are related to a Level 2 PRA analysis. The Level 2 analysis examines those sequences that result in core melting and subsequent reactor pressure vessel failure and its impact on the containment. This paper identifies individual contributors and MAAP4 model parameters that statistically influence hydrogen production. Hydrogen generation was chosen because of its direct relationship to oxidation. With greater oxidation, more heat is added to the core region and relocation (core slump should occur faster. This, in theory, would lead to shorter failure times and subsequent “hotter” debris pool on the containment floor.
Barth, G.R.; Hill, M.C.
2005-01-01
This paper evaluates the importance of seven types of parameters to virus transport: hydraulic conductivity, porosity, dispersivity, sorption rate and distribution coefficient (representing physical-chemical filtration), and in-solution and adsorbed inactivation (representing virus inactivation). The first three parameters relate to subsurface transport in general while the last four, the sorption rate, distribution coefficient, and in-solution and adsorbed inactivation rates, represent the interaction of viruses with the porous medium and their ability to persist. The importance of four types of observations to estimate the virus-transport parameters are evaluated: hydraulic heads, flow, temporal moments of conservative-transport concentrations, and virus concentrations. The evaluations are conducted using one- and two-dimensional homogeneous simulations, designed from published field experiments, and recently developed sensitivity-analysis methods. Sensitivity to the transport-simulation time-step size is used to evaluate the importance of numerical solution difficulties. Results suggest that hydraulic conductivity, porosity, and sorption are most important to virus-transport predictions. Most observation types provide substantial information about hydraulic conductivity and porosity; only virus-concentration observations provide information about sorption and inactivation. The observations are not sufficient to estimate these important parameters uniquely. Even with all observation types, there is extreme parameter correlation between porosity and hydraulic conductivity and between the sorption rate and in-solution inactivation. Parameter estimation was accomplished by fixing values of porosity and in-solution inactivation.
The importance of spinopelvic parameters in patients with lumbar disc lesions
Rajnics, P.; Templier, A.; Skalli, W.; Lavaste, F.; Illes, T.
2002-01-01
Using a special software program we measured spinopelvic parameters on digitised radiographs of the entire spine and the pelvis of 50 patients with lumbar disc herniation and compared these with the same measurements on 30 healthy subjects. In the disc hernia group the patients had a relatively straight spine in the sagittal plane. The sacrum was more vertical, and the value of the lumbar lordosis was lower, as was the amplitude of the spinal curvatures, when compared with those of the health...
Lim, Kar Ho; Hu, Wuyang; Maynard, Leigh J.; Goddard, Ellen W.
2012-01-01
The controversy surrounding the Mandatory Country-of-Origin Labeling (COOL) has attracted research attentions. A number of studies have reported consumers are willing to pay more for beef labeled with U.S. origin versus beef from unknown or other origins. Despite that, relatively little is known about what motivates consumers’ preference for origin-labeled food products (Lusk et al 2006). Using Individual-Level Parameters following a mixed logit model, we found that U.S. consumers were willin...
Bachmann-Machnik, Anna; Meyer, Daniel; Waldhoff, Axel; Fuchs, Stephan; Dittmer, Ulrich
2018-04-01
Retention Soil Filters (RSFs), a form of vertical flow constructed wetlands specifically designed for combined sewer overflow (CSO) treatment, have proven to be an effective tool to mitigate negative impacts of CSOs on receiving water bodies. Long-term hydrologic simulations are used to predict the emissions from urban drainage systems during planning of stormwater management measures. So far no universally accepted model for RSF simulation exists. When simulating hydraulics and water quality in RSFs, an appropriate level of detail must be chosen for reasonable balancing between model complexity and model handling, considering the model input's level of uncertainty. The most crucial parameters determining the resultant uncertainties of the integrated sewer system and filter bed model were identified by evaluating a virtual drainage system with a Retention Soil Filter for CSO treatment. To determine reasonable parameter ranges for RSF simulations, data of 207 events from six full-scale RSF plants in Germany were analyzed. Data evaluation shows that even though different plants with varying loading and operation modes were examined, a simple model is sufficient to assess relevant suspended solids (SS), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH4 emissions from RSFs. Two conceptual RSF models with different degrees of complexity were assessed. These models were developed based on evaluation of data from full scale RSF plants and column experiments. Incorporated model processes are ammonium adsorption in the filter layer and degradation during subsequent dry weather period, filtration of SS and particulate COD (XCOD) to a constant background concentration and removal of solute COD (SCOD) by a constant removal rate during filter passage as well as sedimentation of SS and XCOD in the filter overflow. XCOD, SS and ammonium loads as well as ammonium concentration peaks are discharged primarily via RSF overflow not passing through the filter bed. Uncertainties of the integrated
Fuzzy Logic Water Quality Index and Importance of Water Quality Parameters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raman Bai. V
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Determination of status of water quality of a river or any other water sources is highly indeterminate. It is necessary to have a competent model to predict the status of water quality and to advice for type of water treatment for meeting different demands. One such model (UNIQ2007 is developed as an application software in water quality engineering. The unit operates in a fuzzy logic mode including a fuzzification engine receiving a plurality of input variables on its input and being adapted to compute membership function parameters. A processor engine connected downstream of the fuzzification unit will produce fuzzy set, based on fuzzy variable viz. DO, BOD, COD, AN, SS and pH. It has a defuzzification unit operative to translate the inference results into a discrete crisp value of WQI. The UNIQ2007 contains a first memory device connected to the fuzzification unit and containing the set of membership functions, a secondary memory device connected to the defuzzification unit and containing the set of crisp value which appear in the THEN part of the fuzzy rules and an additional memory device connected to the defuzzification unit. More advantageously, UINQ2007 is constructed with control elements having dynamic fuzzy logic properties wherein target non-linearity can be input to result in a perfect evaluation of water quality. The development of the fuzzy model with one river system is explained in this paper. Further the model has been evaluated with the data from few rivers in Malaysia, India and Thailand. This water quality assessor probe can provide better quality index or identify the status of river with 90% perfection. Presently, WQI in most of the countries is referring to physic-chemical parameters only due to great efforts needed to quantify the biological parameters. This study ensures a better method to include pathogens into WQI due to superior capabilities of fuzzy logic in dealing with non-linear, complex and uncertain systems.
Azevedo, Zina Maria Almeida; Moore, Daniella Campelo Batalha Cox; de Matos, Flavia Aparecida Alves; Fonseca, Vania Matos; Peixoto, Maria Virginia Marques; Gaspar-Elsas, Maria Ignez C; Santinoni, Erika; Dos Anjos, Luiz Antonio; Ramos, Eloane Gonçalves
2013-10-01
Currently, there are no clinical or laboratory parameters that can be used efficiently to predict the prognosis of critically ill patients, but in some situations, raw bioelectrical impedance parameters have been shown to be useful. The purpose of this study was to investigate the behavior of reactance and resistance in the severity of the critically ill pediatric patient. We prospectively analyzed bioelectrical impedance in a sample of 332 critically ill pediatric patients submitted to mechanical ventilation. The values taken on admission and discharge were correlated with major outcomes to the critically ill patient. We found an association of low values of Xc/H (Bioelectrical impedance is a useful tool for monitoring of critically ill pediatric patients. A possible role of R/H and Xc/H, especially the latter, as a predictive biomarker of evolution for septic shock and organ dysfunction still remains to be elucidated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Important Effect of Defect Parameters on the Characteristics of Thue-Morse Photonic Crystal Filters
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Hamed Alipour-Banaei
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Design and characterization of optical filters based on photonic crystal Thue-Morse structures are theoretically examined using transfer matrix method. It is shown that by introducing defect layer in the original structure of the proposed filter, main characteristics of it are changed. The main advantage of this defect in Thue-Morse structure is its capability for DWDM communication applications. In other words, achievement of DWDM filter through the Thue-Morse photonic crystal structure is much easier. The desired wavelengths can be achieved by changing the defect parameter. High efficiency of the proposed filter is one of its benefits. The transmission efficiency of this structure is about 96% and the quality factor is more than 77000.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avila Moreno, R.; Barrdahl, R.; Haegg, C.
1995-05-01
The main objective of the present study was to carry out a screening and a sensitivity analysis of the SSI TOOLBOX source term model SOSIM. This model is a part of the SSI TOOLBOX for radiological impact assessment of the Swedish disposal concept for high-level waste KBS-3. The outputs of interest for this purpose were: the total released fraction, the time of total release, the time and value of maximum release rate, the dose rates after direct releases of the biosphere. The source term equations were derived and simple equations and methods were proposed for calculation of these. A literature survey has been performed in order to determine a characteristic variation range and a nominal value for each model parameter. In order to reduce the model uncertainties the authors recommend a change in the initial boundary condition for solution of the diffusion equation for highly soluble nuclides. 13 refs
Thomas, P. J.
2013-09-01
A utility function with risk-aversion as its sole parameter is developed and used to examine the well-known psychological phenomenon, whereby risk averse people adopt behavioural strategies that are extreme and apparently highly risky. The pioneering work of the psychologist, John W. Atkinson, is revisited, and utility theory is used to extend his mathematical model. His explanation of the psychology involved is improved by regarding risk-aversion not as a discrete variable with three possible states: risk averse, risk neutral and risk confident, but as continuous and covering a large range. A probability distribution is derived, the "motivational density", to describe the process of selecting tasks of different degrees of difficulty. An assessment is then made of practicable methods for measuring risk-aversion.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomas, P J
2013-01-01
A utility function with risk-aversion as its sole parameter is developed and used to examine the well-known psychological phenomenon, whereby risk averse people adopt behavioural strategies that are extreme and apparently highly risky. The pioneering work of the psychologist, John W. Atkinson, is revisited, and utility theory is used to extend his mathematical model. His explanation of the psychology involved is improved by regarding risk-aversion not as a discrete variable with three possible states: risk averse, risk neutral and risk confident, but as continuous and covering a large range. A probability distribution is derived, the m otivational density , to describe the process of selecting tasks of different degrees of difficulty. An assessment is then made of practicable methods for measuring risk-aversion
Importance of viscosity parameters in electrospinning: Of monolithic and core–shell fibers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tiwari, Sandeep Kumar; Venkatraman, Subbu S.
2012-01-01
Electrospun polymeric fibers are attractive candidates in the development of scaffolds for the tissue engineering and for providing new systems for delivery of bioactive molecules. Co-axial fibers have emerged as an efficient tool to protect the core material from the adverse conditions of electrospinning process, to spin difficult-to-process fluids and to generate fibers with much more control of the delivery of encapsulated bioactive molecules. Currently, there is very little reported work on the optimization of the processing parameters of electrospinning, especially core–shell electrospinning. This study extends the understanding of the role of solution viscosity as a vital material parameter for electrospinning of fibers. The spinning solutions were characterized for viscosity and optical imaging of the compound Taylor cone for spinnability, and the fibers were imaged by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Our experimental results, using PLGA as the model polymer, confirm that the solution concentration be above the entanglement concentration (C e ) to obtain uniform beadless monolithic fibers; for core–shell fibers, the shell solution must fulfill the above criterion for spinnability and, further, the ratio of the viscosities of core and shell solutions (η core /η shell ) has to be greater than a threshold value to get a stable compound Taylor cone and therefore to obtain uniform beadless core–shell fibers. Addition of surfactant led to reduction of the threshold η core /η shell (from 0.55 to 0.18) for the PVA–PLGA system. - Graphical abstract: A workable range of η core /η shell values exists for co-electrospinning in addition to other viscosity requirements for electrospinning of core and shell solutions. Highlights: ► To produce uniform beadless fibers, the concentration of the polymer solution must be above entanglement concentration (C e ). ► For co-electrospinning, the η core /η shell must be above the threshold value for stable co
Parameter importance and uncertainty in predicting runoff pesticide reduction with filter strips.
Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Fox, Garey A; Sabbagh, George J
2010-01-01
Vegetative filter strips (VFS) are an environmental management tool used to reduce sediment and pesticide transport from surface runoff. Numerical models of VFS such as the Vegetative Filter Strip Modeling System (VFSMOD-W) are capable of predicting runoff, sediment, and pesticide reduction and can be useful tools to understand the effectiveness of VFS and environmental conditions under which they may be ineffective. However, as part of the modeling process, it is critical to identify input factor importance and quantify uncertainty in predicted runoff, sediment, and pesticide reductions. This research used state-of-the-art global sensitivity and uncertainty analysis tools, a screening method (Morris) and a variance-based method (extended Fourier Analysis Sensitivity Test), to evaluate VFSMOD-W under a range of field scenarios. The three VFS studies analyzed were conducted on silty clay loam and silt loam soils under uniform, sheet flow conditions and included atrazine, chlorpyrifos, cyanazine, metolachlor, pendimethalin, and terbuthylazine data. Saturated hydraulic conductivity was the most important input factor for predicting infiltration and runoff, explaining >75% of the total output variance for studies with smaller hydraulic loading rates ( approximately 100-150 mm equivalent depths) and approximately 50% for the higher loading rate ( approximately 280-mm equivalent depth). Important input factors for predicting sedimentation included hydraulic conductivity, average particle size, and the filter's Manning's roughness coefficient. Input factor importance for pesticide trapping was controlled by infiltration and, therefore, hydraulic conductivity. Global uncertainty analyses suggested a wide range of reductions for runoff (95% confidence intervals of 7-93%), sediment (84-100%), and pesticide (43-100%) . Pesticide trapping probability distributions fell between runoff and sediment reduction distributions as a function of the pesticides' sorption. Seemingly
The Importance of Haemogram Parameters in the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Septic Patients
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Orfanu Alina Elena
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Sepsis represents a severe pathology that requires both rapid and precise positive and differential diagnosis to identify patients who need immediate antimicrobial therapy. Monitoring septic patients′ outcome leads to prolonged hospitalisation and antibacterial therapy, often accompanied by substantial side effects, complications and a high mortality risk. Septic patients present with complex pathophysiological and immunological disorders and with a predominance of pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory mediators which are heterogeneous with respect to the infectious focus, the aetiology of sepsis or patients′ immune status or comorbidities. Previous studies performed have analysed inflammatory biomarkers, but a test or combinations of tests that can quickly and precisely establish a diagnosis or prognosis of septic patients has yet to be discovered. Recent research has focused on re-analysing older accessible parameters found in the complete blood count to determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for the diagnosis and prognosis of sepsis. The neutrophil/lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR, mean platelet volume (MPV and red blood cells distribution width (RDW are haemogram indicators which have been evaluated and which are of proven use in septic patients′ management.
Gooniah, Kevin; Jhurree, Hanshika; Shiwpursad, Dooshika; Rhyman, Lydia; Alswaidan, Ibrahim A.; Uahengo, Veikko; Somanah, Radhakhrishna; Ramasami, Ponnadurai
2017-09-01
This research investigates molecular parameters such as equilibrium structure, dipole moment, rotational constant, harmonic frequency, adiabatic electron affinity, atomisation energy, and ionisation potential of some identified diatomic molecules in interstellar/circumstellar medium. A theoretical understanding of the molecular properties of the investigated molecules is obtained using the popular B3LYP hybrid density functional with four basis sets: 6-311++G(2df,2pd), 6-311++G(3df,3pd), cc-pVTZ, and aug-cc-pVTZ. The computed data conform very well with available experimental and theoretical results. The accuracy of the B3LYP functional on the studied molecular systems are ±0.006 Å for the bond length, ±0.044 D for the dipole moment, ±0.854 GHz for the rotational constant, ±59 cm-1 for the harmonic frequency, ±2.03 kcal/mol for the electron affinity, ±4.74 kcal/mol for atomisation energy, and ±3.19 kcal/mol for ionisation potential.
Preliminary study of reasonableness of important parameters used in deriving OILs for PWR accidents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yongsheng, L.; Shongqi, S.
2004-01-01
Institute of nuclear energy technology, Tsinghua university, Beijing , China ,100084 Body of Abstract: This paper introduced the definition of operational intervention level (OIL) and the derived process of default OILs recommended by IAEA firstly. Then the paper focused on the reasonableness of two parameters, R1 and R2, which is assumed in derived process of default OIL1 and OIL2 in a reactor accident. The values of R1 and R2 were calculated by the calculating program of InterRas. The source item for computing includes the accidents PWR described in Wash-1400 and France severe accident source items, and furthermore the meteorological conditions for computing are classified to three classes, which are D stability class, A stability class, and F stability class with the mixing heights of 400 meters and 4 hour exposure to the plume. The wind speed is 3m/s, 2m/s and 1m/s correspond to the stability classes. The results show that the average values of R1 and R2 in the same accident series and different meteorological conditions derived by the calculating program of InterRas are close to the presumptive values. The results also indicated the rationalization of the default OIL1 and OIL2. On the other hand, the calculating results of different accidents have considerable disparity with the presumptive values in different distances and meteorological conditions, but the mutative trends are very well-regulated on distance and meteorological conditions. So the OILs recommended by IAEA are applicable to some specified conditions. At last the paper introduced the method of revising the default OILs in terms of measurement results. (Author)
Ochoo, Lawrence; Migwi, Charles; Okumu, John
2018-01-01
A number of experimental research findings for the metal nanoparticles (NPs)-mediated EMF photothermal therapy of cancer cells show an intriguing trend of the NPs' size-dependent efficacy. This is a phenomenon we find to trend with the light absorption bandwidth behavior (full width at half maximum) of the NPs and the accompanying electric field enhancement. We find that the nanoparticle sizes that have been reported to produce the optimized effect on cancer cells are of minimum absorption bandwidth and optimized electric field magnitude. While the death of cancer cells under the NPs-aided EMF effect has in the past attracted varied interpretations, either as a thermal or non-thermal effect, photothermal effect has gained a wide acceptance due to the exhibited hyperthermia. However, the exhibited trend of the NPs' size-dependent efficacy is beginning to feature as a possible manifestation of other overlooked underlying or synergistic phenomenal conditions. We present a theoretical model and analysis which reveal that the contribution and efficacy of the metal NPs in the destruction of cancer depend partly but significantly on the accompanying electric field intensity enhancement factor and partly on their absorption cross-section. This paper finds that, other than the expected hyperthermia, the metal NPs' sizes for the optimized therapy on cancer cells seem to fulfill other synergistic conditions which need to come to the fore. We find interplay between electric field and thermal effects as independent energy channels where balancing may be important for the optimized EMF effect, in the ratio of about 5:1. The required balancing depends on the absorption bandwidth and absorption cross-section of the NPs, the frequency of EMF used and the relative permittivity of the cancer cells. The NPs' size-dependent efficacy decreases away from the NPs' size of minimum absorption bandwidth, which is around 20 nm for Au NPs or other shapes of equivalent surface area
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. P. Lepping
2010-08-01
Full Text Available This study is motivated by the unusually low number of magnetic clouds (MCs that are strictly identified within interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs, as observed at 1 AU; this is usually estimated to be around 30% or lower. But a looser definition of MCs may significantly increase this percentage. Another motivation is the unexpected shape of the occurrence distribution of the observers' "closest approach distances" (measured from a MC's axis, and called CA which drops off somewhat rapidly as |CA| (in % of MC radius approaches 100%, based on earlier studies. We suggest, for various geometrical and physical reasons, that the |CA|-distribution should be somewhere between a uniform one and the one actually observed, and therefore the 30% estimate should be higher. So we ask, When there is a failure to identify a MC within an ICME, is it occasionally due to a large |CA| passage, making MC identification more difficult, i.e., is it due to an event selection effect? In attempting to answer this question we examine WIND data to obtain an accurate distribution of the number of MCs vs. |CA| distance, whether the event is ICME-related or not, where initially a large number of cases (N=98 are considered. This gives a frequence distribution that is far from uniform, confirming earlier studies. This along with the fact that there are many ICME identification-parameters that do not depend on |CA| suggest that, indeed an MC event selection effect may explain at least part of the low ratio of (No. MCs/(No. ICMEs. We also show that there is an acceptable geometrical and physical consistency in the relationships for both average "normalized" magnetic field intensity change and field direction change vs. |CA| within a MC, suggesting that our estimates of |CA|, BO (magnetic field intensity on the axis, and choice of a proper "cloud coordinate" system (all needed in the analysis are acceptably accurate. Therefore, the MC fitting model (Lepping et al., 1990
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, S.K.; Sengupta, S.N.; Darbhe, M.D.; Agarwal, S.K.
1998-01-01
The on-line use of Personal Computers in research reactors, with custom made applications for aiding the operators in analysing plant conditions under normal and abnormal situations, has become extremely popular. A system has been developed to monitor and evaluate important parameters for the research reactor DHRUVA, a 100 MW research reactor located at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay. The system was essentially designed for on-line computation of the following parameters: reactor thermal power, reactivity load due to Xenon, core reactivity balance and performance monitoring of shut-down devices. Apart from the on-line applications, the system has also been developed to cater some off-line applications with Local Area Network in the Dhruva complex. The microprocessor based system is designed to function as an independent unit, parallel dumping the acquired data to a PC for application programmes. The user interface on the personal computer is menu driven application software written in 'C' language. The main input parameters required for carrying out the options given in the above menu are: Reactor power, Moderator level, Coolant inlet temperature to the core, Secondary coolant flow rate, temperature rise of secondary coolant across the heat exchangers, heavy water level in the Dump tank and Drop time of individual shut off rods. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ewa Czerniawska-Piątkowska
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The general aim of the present work was to compare dairy performance and some reproductive parameters of Holstein-Friesian (HF cows imported from Sweden as an in-calf heifers, and their age mates in Poland. The animals were kept freely on the deep litter on the farm owned by Agro-company “Witkowo” and feeding was based on TMR (total mixed ration system during whole year. All ration’s ingredients (bulky feed, concentrate, miscellaneous additives were mixed and fed as all-mash. The feed ration depended from the physiological condition of a cow and it was composed of corn and grass ensilage, mash concentrate, crushed corn meal, brewer’s grains and beet pulp.Cows imported from Sweden as in-calf heifers obtained higher milk, fat and protein yield in both lactations comparing to home cows. Significant statistical differences were observed for kg of milk, kg of protein, for FCM (P<0.01 and for kg of fat (P<0.05 in 2nd lactation. Fat and protein content in milk was in average higher for home cows (P<0.01. Big differences (P<0.01 were observed in SBT (proportion of protein to fat content and RTB (difference between concentration of fat and protein at imported cows in 2nd lactation. As far as reproduction parameters (gestation interval, calving interval, insemination index are concerned was cows from Sweden better too. Heifers from Sweden calved earlier. The usage of high genetic potential of imported cows is possible only with providing them optimum living conditions suitable to their needs.
Yanidar, R.; Hartono, D. M.; Moersidik, S. S.
2018-03-01
Cipayung Landfill takes waste generation from Depok City approximately ± 750 tons/day of solid waste. The south and west boundaries of the landfill is Pesanggarahan River which 200m faraway. The objectives of this study are to indicate an important parameter which greatly affects the water quality of Pesanggrahan River and purpose the dynamic model for improving our understanding of the dynamic behavior that captures the interactions and feedbacks important parameter in river in order to identify and assess the effects of the treated leachate from final solid waste disposal activity as it responds to changes over time in the river. The high concentrations of BOD and COD are not the only cause significantly affect the quality of the pesanggrahan water, it also because the river has been contaminated in the upstream area. It need the water quality model to support the effectiveness calculation of activities for preventing a selected the pollutant sources the model should be developed for simulating and predicting the trend of water quality performance in Pesanggrahan River which can potentially be used by policy makers in strategic management to sustain river water quality as raw drinking water.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tiszbierek Agnieszka
2017-01-01
Full Text Available An elaborated digital computer programme supporting the time-consuming process of selecting the importance rank of construction and operation parameters by means of stating optimum sets is based on the Quine – McCluskey algorithm of minimizing individual partial multi-valued logic functions. The example with real time data, calculated by means of the programme, showed that among the obtained optimum sets there were such which had a different number of real branches after being presented on the multi-valued logic decision tree. That is why an idea of elaborating another functionality of the programme – a module calculating the number of branches of real, multi-valued logic decision trees presenting optimum sets chosen by the programme was pursued. This paper presents the idea and the method for developing a module calculating the number of branches, real for each of optimum sets indicated by the programme, as well as to the calculation process.
Cernuda, Carlos; Lughofer, Edwin; Klein, Helmut; Forster, Clemens; Pawliczek, Marcin; Brandstetter, Markus
2017-01-01
During the production process of beer, it is of utmost importance to guarantee a high consistency of the beer quality. For instance, the bitterness is an essential quality parameter which has to be controlled within the specifications at the beginning of the production process in the unfermented beer (wort) as well as in final products such as beer and beer mix beverages. Nowadays, analytical techniques for quality control in beer production are mainly based on manual supervision, i.e., samples are taken from the process and analyzed in the laboratory. This typically requires significant lab technicians efforts for only a small fraction of samples to be analyzed, which leads to significant costs for beer breweries and companies. Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR) spectroscopy was used in combination with nonlinear multivariate calibration techniques to overcome (i) the time consuming off-line analyses in beer production and (ii) already known limitations of standard linear chemometric methods, like partial least squares (PLS), for important quality parameters Speers et al. (J I Brewing. 2003;109(3):229-235), Zhang et al. (J I Brewing. 2012;118(4):361-367) such as bitterness, citric acid, total acids, free amino nitrogen, final attenuation, or foam stability. The calibration models are established with enhanced nonlinear techniques based (i) on a new piece-wise linear version of PLS by employing fuzzy rules for local partitioning the latent variable space and (ii) on extensions of support vector regression variants (-PLSSVR and ν-PLSSVR), for overcoming high computation times in high-dimensional problems and time-intensive and inappropriate settings of the kernel parameters. Furthermore, we introduce a new model selection scheme based on bagged ensembles in order to improve robustness and thus predictive quality of the final models. The approaches are tested on real-world calibration data sets for wort and beer mix beverages, and successfully compared to
Onicescu, Georgiana; Lawson, Andrew B.; McDermott, Suzanne; Aelion, C. Marjorie; Cai, Bo
2014-01-01
In this paper, we propose a novel spatial importance parameter hierarchical logistic regression modeling approach that includes measurement error from misalignment. We apply this model to study the relationship between the estimated concentration of soil metals at the residence of mothers and the development of intellectual disability (ID) in their children. The data consist of monthly computerized claims data about the prenatal experience of pregnant women living in nine areas within South Carolina and insured by Medicaid during January 1, 1996 and December 31, 2001 and the outcome of ID in their children during early childhood. We excluded mother-child pairs if the mother moved to an unknown location during pregnancy. We identified an association of the ID outcome with arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) concentration in soil during pregnancy, controlling for infant sex, maternal race, mother's age, and gestational weeks at delivery. There is some indication that Hg has a slightly higher importance in the third and fourth months of pregnancy, while As has a more uniform effect over all the months with a suggestion of a slight increase in risk in later months. PMID:24888618
Onicescu, Georgiana; Lawson, Andrew B; McDermott, Suzanne; Aelion, C Marjorie; Cai, Bo
2014-09-01
In this paper, we propose a novel spatial importance parameter hierarchical logistic regression modeling approach that includes measurement error from misalignment. We apply this model to study the relationship between the estimated concentration of soil metals at the residence of mothers and the development of intellectual disability (ID) in their children. The data consist of monthly computerized claims data about the prenatal experience of pregnant women living in nine areas within South Carolina and insured by Medicaid during January 1, 1996 and December 31, 2001 and the outcome of ID in their children during early childhood. We excluded mother-child pairs if the mother moved to an unknown location during pregnancy. We identified an association of the ID outcome with arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) concentration in soil during pregnancy, controlling for infant sex, maternal race, mother's age, and gestational weeks at delivery. There is some indication that Hg has a slightly higher importance in the third and fourth months of pregnancy, while As has a more uniform effect over all the months with a suggestion of a slight increase in risk in later months.
Tahmasebian, Shahram; Ghazisaeedi, Marjan; Langarizadeh, Mostafa; Mokhtaran, Mehrshad; Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mitra; Javadian, Parisa
2017-01-01
Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) includes a wide range of pathophysiological processes which will be observed along with abnormal function of kidneys and progressive decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). According to the definition decreasing GFR must have been present for at least three months. CKD will eventually result in end-stage kidney disease. In this process different factors play role and finding the relations between effective parameters in this regard can help to prevent or slow progression of this disease. There are always a lot of data being collected from the patients' medical records. This huge array of data can be considered a valuable source for analyzing, exploring and discovering information. Objectives: Using the data mining techniques, the present study tries to specify the effective parameters and also aims to determine their relations with each other in Iranian patients with CKD. Material and Methods: The study population includes 31996 patients with CKD. First, all of the data is registered in the database. Then data mining tools were used to find the hidden rules and relationships between parameters in collected data. Results: After data cleaning based on CRISP-DM (Cross Industry Standard Process for Data Mining) methodology and running mining algorithms on the data in the database the relationships between the effective parameters was specified. Conclusion: This study was done using the data mining method pertaining to the effective factors on patients with CKD.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ojo, J.O.; Oketayo, O.O.; Salawu, A.A.
2011-01-01
Lead is one of the common toxic materials widely occurring in the Nigerian environment. Even with the change to unleaded petrol, other significant sources still remain to be addressed. The deleterious impact of lead on human health, is well documented. The effects range from attention-grabbing mass mortality - as happened in Zamfara State recently, to no less serious but grossly neglected neurocognitive and neurodevelopmental effects, including lowered intelligence quotient scores. All these impacts are most serious in children, especially fetuses who receive their burden from their mothers. Ninety percent of lead in most adults resides in the bones with a half-life measured in decades. Therefore, fetuses and breast-fed children in this generation will remain seriously at risk of exposure to damaging lead levels no matter the efforts to rid our external environment of lead in the years to come. In this work, we have investigated the correlation between Blood Lead Levels (BLL) and up to 35 physiological and biochemical parameters of nutritional importance in 62 women of child-bearing age from lIe-lfe, Nigeria. BLL was determined in venous blood using Inductively- coupled plasma Mass Spectrometry. Our results show that BLL significantly correlates with Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Creatine Clearance, and the ratio of Low-density Lipids to High density Lipids in these women. When the subjects were stratified into different Nutritional Status group based on their Body Mass Index, significant correlation was found between BLL and Age but only in Obese subjects.
Fameli, K M; Assimakopoulos, V D
2015-02-01
Traffic is considered one of the major polluting sectors and as a consequence a significant cause for the measured exceedances of ambient air quality limit values mainly in urban areas. The Greater Athens Area (located in Attica), the most populated area in Greece, faces severe air pollution problems due to the combination of high road traffic emissions, complex topography and local meteorological conditions. Even though several efforts were made to construct traffic emission inventories for Greece and Attica, still there is not a spatially and temporally resolved one, based on data from relevant authorities and organisations. The present work aims to estimate road emissions in Greece and Attica based on the top down approach. The programme COPERT 4 was used to calculate the annual total emissions from the road transport sector for the period 2006-2010 and an emission inventory for Greece and Attica was developed with high spatial (6 × 6 km(2) for Greece and 2 × 2 km(2) for Attica) and temporal (1-hour) resolutions. The results revealed that about 40% of national CO₂, CO, VOC and NMVOC values and 30% of NOx and particles are emitted in Attica. The fuel consumption and the subsequent reduction of annual mileage driven in combination with the import of new engine anti-pollution technologies affected CO₂, CO, VOC and NMVOC emissions. The major part of CO (56.53%) and CO₂ (66.15%) emissions was due to passenger cars (2010), while heavy duty vehicles (HDVs) were connected with NOx, PM₂.₅ and PM₁₀ emissions with 51.27%, 43.97% and 38.13% respectively (2010). The fleet composition, the penetration of diesel fuelled cars, the increase of urban average speed and the fleet renewal are among the most effective parameters towards the emission reduction strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Deptuła, A.
2014-08-01
In the optimization process, changes in the construction parameters value influence the behaviour of functions depending on time. Weighting logical coefficients for the stabilisation time are taken into consideration here, i.e., a shorter (better) stabilisation time has a more important (bigger) value of the weighting coefficient. An example of applying weighting logical functions in the analysis of a degree of importance of construction parameters of a hydraulic valve is presented in the paper
Mockler, E. M.; Chun, K. P.; Sapriza-Azuri, G.; Bruen, M.; Wheater, H. S.
2016-11-01
Predictions of river flow dynamics provide vital information for many aspects of water management including water resource planning, climate adaptation, and flood and drought assessments. Many of the subjective choices that modellers make including model and criteria selection can have a significant impact on the magnitude and distribution of the output uncertainty. Hydrological modellers are tasked with understanding and minimising the uncertainty surrounding streamflow predictions before communicating the overall uncertainty to decision makers. Parameter uncertainty in conceptual rainfall-runoff models has been widely investigated, and model structural uncertainty and forcing data have been receiving increasing attention. This study aimed to assess uncertainties in streamflow predictions due to forcing data and the identification of behavioural parameter sets in 31 Irish catchments. By combining stochastic rainfall ensembles and multiple parameter sets for three conceptual rainfall-runoff models, an analysis of variance model was used to decompose the total uncertainty in streamflow simulations into contributions from (i) forcing data, (ii) identification of model parameters and (iii) interactions between the two. The analysis illustrates that, for our subjective choices, hydrological model selection had a greater contribution to overall uncertainty, while performance criteria selection influenced the relative intra-annual uncertainties in streamflow predictions. Uncertainties in streamflow predictions due to the method of determining parameters were relatively lower for wetter catchments, and more evenly distributed throughout the year when the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency of logarithmic values of flow (lnNSE) was the evaluation criterion.
Zatarain-Salazar, J.; Reed, P. M.; Herman, J. D.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.
2014-12-01
MOEA, are statistically superior for the six-objective Susquehanna instance of this important class of problems. Additionally, shifting from deterministic history-based DPS to stochastic DPS significantly increases the difficulty of the problem.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vang, Jakob Rabjerg; Zhou, Fan; Andreasen, Søren Juhl
2015-01-01
A high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell model capable of simulating both steady state and dynamic operation is presented. The purpose is to enable extraction of unknown parameters from sets of impedance spectra and polarisation curves. The model is fitted to two polarisation curves and four...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernreuter, D.L.
1979-05-01
Problems with using risk analysis methodologies to estimate the seismic hazard at a site are discussed in the context of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP). Various methodologies that may reasonably define seismic hazard are outlined. The major assumptions that can lead to significant variations in the predicted hazard are identified. Guidance is provided to appropriate choices of parameters, and possible corrections that can extend the meager earthquake data base for sites located in the eastern United States are presented. A method that incorporates various interpretations of the same data is recommended
Mendieta Fiter, C
1989-05-01
Recent studies have indicated that the destruction in chronic periodontal disease occurs in relatively short periods of time which are followed of prolonged periods of inactivity. These bursts of activity are characterized by an increase in the inflammatory reaction. It has been the purpose of this paper to study the correlation between the clinical measurements of periodontal disease and the histomorphometric quantification of areas of dense inflammatory infiltrate. The results of this study show that the clinical parameters that measure gingival inflammation or loss of periodontal attachment are useful to distinguish pathology from normal (p less than 0.003), but lack sensitivity to detect burst of periodontal disease activity (p greater than 0.05).
Thomases, Becca; Guy, Robert
2015-11-01
The question of how fluid elasticity affects the swimming performance of micro-organisms is complicated and has been the subject of many recent experimental and theoretical studies. The Deborah number, De = λω , is typically used to characterize the strength of the fluid elasticity in these studies, and for swimmers is expressed as the product of the elastic relaxation time and the frequency of the swimmer stroke. In simulations of undulatory flexible swimmers in an Oldroyd-B-type fluid, we find that varying the frequency of the stroke and varying the relaxation time separately results in a significantly different dependence of swimming speed for the same De . Thus the elastic effects on swimming cannot be characterized by a single dimensionless number. The Weissenberg number, defined as the product of elastic relaxation time and characteristic strain rate (Wi = λγ˙), is another dimensionless parameter useful for describing complex fluids. For a fixed swimmer frequency, varying the relaxation time will also vary the Weissenberg number. We conjecture that the different behavior is a consequence of a Weissenberg-number transition in the fluid, which additionally depends on the amplitude of the swimmer stroke.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dragica Dubravac
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Comparison of productive parameters of two analyzed groups (the first generation of imported gilts and the gilts born on the domestic farm was conducted on a nucleus farm that imported the gilt lines from the TOPIGS breeding program. For the purposes of the nucleus pig farm, TOPIGS gilts were imported from Netherlands. The nucleus farm where the analysis of the two groups’ productive parameters was conducted imported the ancestral and grandfather lines to produce the parenting generation TOPIGS 40 sows which are bred with a Pietrain line of boars. The TOPIGS 40 sow is an animal based on A-line and B-line characterized by high fertility rate, excellent maternal characteristics, good capacity for growth, and quality meaty body. The analysis of productive parameters of the two observed groups of gilts (the first generation of 105 imported gilts and 88 gilts born on the domestic farm resulted in significantly higher number of total born, born alive and weaned piglets after the first farrowing (P<0.001 as well as significantly higher number of total born and born alive piglets at third farrowing (P<0.05. The results of the observed qualities confirm the fact that, apart from the unquestionable genetic potential, other factors such as adaptation, accommodation conditions, microclimate, nutrition, and management have a significant effect on the increase of production results.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dogan Ciloglu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The trajectory and deposition efficiency of micron-sized (1–5 µm particles, inhaled into the pulmonary system, are accurately determined with the aid of a newly developed model and modified simulation techniques. This alveolar model, which has a simple but physiologically appropriate geometry, and the utilized fluid structure interaction (FSI methods permit the precise simulation of tissue wall deformation and particle fluid interactions. The relation between tissue movement and airflow in the alveolated duct is solved by a two-way fluid structure interaction simulation technique, using ANSYS Workbench (Release 16.0, ANSYS INC., Pittsburgh, PA, USA, 2015. The dynamic transport of particles and their deposition are investigated as a function of aerodynamic particle size, tissue visco-elasticity, tidal breathing period, gravity orientation and particle–fluid interactions. It is found that the fluid flows and streamlines differ between the present flexible model and rigid models, and the two-way coupling particle trajectories vary relative to one-way particle coupling. In addition, the results indicate that modelling the two-way coupling particle system is important because the two-way discrete phase method (DPM approach despite its complexity provides more extensive particle interactions and is more reliable than transport results from the one-way DPM approach. The substantial difference between the results of the two approaches is likely due to particle–fluid interactions, which re-suspend the sediment particles in the airway stream and hence pass from the current generation.
Pergal, Miodrag M; Relić, Dubravka; Tešić, Zivoslav Lj; Popović, Aleksandar R
2014-03-01
Nikola Tesla B power plant (TENT B), located at the Sava River, in Obrenovac, 50 km west from the Serbian's capital, Belgrade, is the second largest coal-fired power plant in the country, consisting of two blocks, each of 620 MW capacity. In order to investigate the threat polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from deposited coal ash, obtained by coal combustion in this power plant, can represent for the surrounding environment, samples of coal ash were submitted to extraction with river water used for transport of coal ash to the dump, as well as with water of different ionic strength and acidity. It was found that, out of 16 EPA priority PAHs, only naphthalene, acenaphthylene, fluorene, phenantrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene were found in measurable concentrations in the different extracts. Their combined concentration was around 0.1 μg/L, so they do not, in terms of leached concentrations, represent serious danger for the surrounding environment. In all cases of established (and leached) PAH compounds, changes of ionic strength, acidity, or the presence of organic compounds in river water may to some extent influence the leached concentrations. However, under the examined conditions, similar to those present in the environment, leached concentrations were not more than 50 % greater than the concentrations leached by distilled water. Therefore, water desorption is likely the most important mechanism responsible for leaching of PAH compounds from filter coal ash.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Heitzig, Martina; Cameron, Ian
2011-01-01
In this chapter the importance of parameter estimation in model development is illustrated through various applications related to reaction systems. In particular, rate constants in a reaction system are obtained through parameter estimation methods. These approaches often require the application...... of algebraic equations as the basis for parameter estimation.These approaches are illustrated using estimations of kinetic constants from reaction system models....
Hubbard, S.; Pierce, L.; Grote, K.; Rubin, Y.
2003-12-01
Due Due to the high cash crop nature of premium winegrapes, recent research has focused on developing a better understanding of the factors that influence winegrape spatial and temporal variability. Precision grapevine irrigation schemes require consideration of the factors that regulate vineyard water use such as (1) plant parameters, (2) climatic conditions, and (3) water availability in the soil as a function of soil texture. The inability to sample soil and plant parameters accurately, at a dense enough resolution, and over large enough areas has limited previous investigations focused on understanding the influences of soil water and vegetation on water balance at the local field scale. We have acquired several novel field data sets to describe the small scale (decimeters to a hundred meters) spatial variability of soil and plant parameters within a 4 acre field study site at the Robert Mondavi Winery in Napa County, California. At this site, we investigated the potential of ground penetrating radar data (GPR) for providing estimates of near surface water content. Calibration of grids of 900 MHz GPR groundwave data with conventional soil moisture measurements revealed that the GPR volumetric water content estimation approach was valid to within 1 percent accuracy, and that the data grids provided unparalleled density of soil water content over the field site as a function of season. High-resolution airborne multispectral remote sensing data was also collected at the study site, which was converted to normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and correlated to leaf area index (LAI) using plant-based measurements within a parallel study. Meteorological information was available from a weather station of the California Irrigation management Information System, located less than a mile from our study area. The measurements were used within a 2-D Vineyard Soil Irrigation Model (VSIM), which can incorporate the spatially variable, high-resolution soil and plant
2014-01-01
Background Although the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a major model organism in diverse biological areas and well studied under laboratory conditions, little is known about its ecology. Therefore, characterization of the species’ natural habitats should provide a new perspective on its otherwise well-studied biology. The currently best characterized populations are in France, demonstrating that C. elegans prefers nutrient- and microorganism-rich substrates such as rotting fruits and decomposing plant matter. In order to extend these findings, we sampled C. elegans continuously across 1.5 years from rotting apples and compost heaps in three North German locations. Results C. elegans was found throughout summer and autumn in both years. It shares its habitat with the related nematode species C. remanei, which could thus represent an important competitor for a similar ecological niche. The two species were isolated from the same site, but rarely the same substrate sample. In fact, C. elegans was mainly found on compost and C. remanei on rotten apples, possibly suggesting niche separation. The occurrence of C. elegans itself was related to environmental humidity and rain, although the correlation was significant for only one sampling site each. Additional associations between nematode prevalence and abiotic parameters could not be established. Conclusions Taken together, our findings vary from the previous results for French C. elegans populations in that the considered German populations always coexisted with the congeneric species C. remanei (rather than C. briggsae as in France) and that C. elegans prevalence can associate with humidity and rain (rather than temperature, as suggested for French populations). Consideration of additional locations and time points is thus essential for full appreciation of the nematode's natural ecology. PMID:24502455
Li, Jiazhong; Gramatica, Paola
2010-11-01
Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) methodology aims to explore the relationship between molecular structures and experimental endpoints, producing a model for the prediction of new data; the predictive performance of the model must be checked by external validation. Clearly, the qualities of chemical structure information and experimental endpoints, as well as the statistical parameters used to verify the external predictivity have a strong influence on QSAR model reliability. Here, we emphasize the importance of these three aspects by analyzing our models on estrogen receptor binders (Endocrine disruptor knowledge base (EDKB) database). Endocrine disrupting chemicals, which mimic or antagonize the endogenous hormones such as estrogens, are a hot topic in environmental and toxicological sciences. QSAR shows great values in predicting the estrogenic activity and exploring the interactions between the estrogen receptor and ligands. We have verified our previously published model for additional external validation on new EDKB chemicals. Having found some errors in the used 3D molecular conformations, we redevelop a new model using the same data set with corrected structures, the same method (ordinary least-square regression, OLS) and DRAGON descriptors. The new model, based on some different descriptors, is more predictive on external prediction sets. Three different formulas to calculate correlation coefficient for the external prediction set (Q2 EXT) were compared, and the results indicated that the new proposal of Consonni et al. had more reasonable results, consistent with the conclusions from regression line, Williams plot and root mean square error (RMSE) values. Finally, the importance of reliable endpoints values has been highlighted by comparing the classification assignments of EDKB with those of another estrogen receptor binders database (METI): we found that 16.1% assignments of the common compounds were opposite (20 among 124 common
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zio, E.; Cantarella, M.; Cammi, A.
2003-01-01
Passive systems play a crucial role in the development of future solutions for nuclear plant technology. A fundamental issue still to be resolved is the quantification of the reliability of such systems. In this paper, we firstly illustrate a systematic methodology to guide the definition of the failure criteria of a passive system and the evaluation of its probability of occurrence, through the identification of the relevant system parameters and the propagation of their associated uncertainties. Within this methodology, we propose the use of the analytic hierarchy process as a structured and reproducible tool for the decomposition of the problem and the identification of the dominant system parameters. An example of its application to a real passive system is illustrated in details
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z Abdolahzare
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Since the application of pneumatic planters for seeds with different physical properties is growing, it is essential to evaluation the performance of these machines to improve the operating parameters under different pressures and forward speeds. To evaluate the performance of precision vacuum seeders numerous procedures of laboratory and field have been developed and their feed mechanism evaluation is of great importance. The use of instrumentation is essential in laboratory procedures. Many systems have been designed, using instrumentation, to be able to monitor seed falling trajectory and as a result, in those systems the precise place of falling seed in the seed bed could be determined. In this study, the uniformity of seed spacing of a seed drill was determined using of high speed camera with a frame rate of 480 frames s-1. So that, the uniformity of planting was statistically significant under the influence of the speed of seed metering rollers (Karayel et al., 2006. Singh et al. (2005 studied the effects of disk rotation speed, vacuum pressure and shape of seed entrance hole on planting spacing uniformity using uniformity indices under laboratory and field conditions. They reported miss index values were reduced as the pressure was increased but they were increased with increasing of the speed. The multiple indices on the other hand were low at higher speed but they were increased as the pressure was increased. Ground speed was affected by changes in engine speed and gear selection, both of which effect on amount of fan rotation speed for different pressures. The aim of this study was to identify and determine the effects of forward speed and optimum vacuum pressure amount of the pneumatic seeder. Materials and Methods: The pneumatic planter (Unissem was mounted on a tractor (MF399 and passed over the soil bin. Thus, the acquired data would be more reliable and practical. To do so, the tractor was equipped with electronic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Edson Borges Junior
2003-05-01
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: analisar a relevância dos parâmetros seminais nos resultados dos ciclos de inseminação intra-uterina (IIU em pacientes com causa masculina de infertilidade e salientar o caráter prognóstico de cada parâmetro para o sucesso da técnica. MÉTODOS: duzentos e trinta e nove ciclos de IIU (155 casais foram analisados durante período de 15 meses. Todos as pacientes foram submetidas à indução da ovulação de acordo com protocolos do I Consenso Brasileiro de Indução de Ovulação. A análise seminal foi realizada de acordo com os critérios da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS para parâmetros como concentração e motilidade e critério estrito de Kruger para avaliação da morfologia. O preparo da amostra para IIU foi realizado por meio de gradientes descontínuos de densidade (ISolate®. Foram formados dois grupos de pacientes de acordo com o resultado de gestação: grupo G - gestação positiva e grupo NG - gestação negativa. RESULTADOS: não houve diferença significativa nos valores obtidos relacionados à concentração total de espermatozóides/mL de sêmen, motilidade total, motilidade de formas progressivas antes e depois do processamento seminal. Quando a morfologia estrita de Kruger foi comparada entre os dois grupos, diferenças significativas foram encontradas (grupo G=10,6% de formas normais; grupo NG=6,4% de formas normais; pPURPOSE: to analyze the influence of seminal parameters on intrauterine insemination (IUI outcomes in patients with male factor and to emphasize the predictive value of each parameter for the successful result. METHODS: two hundred and thirty-nine IUI cycles (155 couples were analyzed for 15 months. Female patients were submitted to ovary hyperstimulation according to the "I Consenso Brasileiro de Indução de Ovulação". Seminal analysis based on the World Health Organization (WHO for sperm concentration and motility was used and sperm morphology was evaluated according to Kruger
Farkhari, Nahid; Abbasian, Sara; Moshaii, Ahmad; Nikkhah, Maryam
2016-12-01
The mechanism of adsorption of single and double stranded DNAs on colloidal gold and silver nanoparticles has been studied by measuring the resistance of the nanoparticles, surrounded by various oligonucleotides, against salt induced aggregation. It is shown that both single and double stranded DNAs can be adsorbed on the metal nanoparticles and the adsorption strength is determined by the interaction between various bases of DNA and the nanoparticles. By changing the salt concentration, the difference between adsorption of various DNA strands on the nanoparticles can be specified. The results indicate that a key parameter in success of a sensing assay of DNA hybridization is the salt concentration which should be greater than a minimum threshold depending on the nanoparticles characteristics. We have also investigated the interaction mechanism between various DNA bases with the metal nanoparticles. For both gold and silver nanoparticles, adenine has the highest and thymine has the lowest attachment to the nanoparticles. From surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) data of various bases in the presence of gold nanoparticles, the probable interaction points in the bases with the nanoparticles have been determined, which are mainly the nitrogen sites of these oligonucleotides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cowen, Kenneth A.; Plastridge, Bob; Wood, Deron A.; Coe, James V.
1993-09-01
High impact parameter, i.e., glancing collisions, are of particular interest in ion beam experiments because ions experiencing such collisions remain available in the ion beam for further experiments. The collisional activation and dissociation processes for glancing collisions of protonated water clusters and argon have been studied with a new and simple, single-stage technique to detect fragment ions using a Wien velocity filter. The technique is specific with regard to the mass of a fragment ion and the mass of the parent from which it originates. A relation is derived and experimentally verified which governs the operation of the device. Absolute values of the attenuation cross section with argon of 11(6), 25(8), 36(11), 47(17), and 66(10) Å have been determined for H3O+, H5O2+, H7O3+, H9O4+, and H11O5+, respectively, at beam energies in the range of 300-1000 eV. Absolute values of the glancing collision induced dissociation cross section of 0.62(4), 4.3(1), and 9.1(6) Å2 have been determined for the detectable fragment ions of H5O2+, H7O3+, and H9O4+, respectively. Branching ratios upon activation by glancing collisions of 0.91:0.09:0 and 0.78:0.18:0.04:0 have been determined for successive loss of waters by H7O3+ and H9O4+, respectively. The one water loss channel predominates. A multiple collision analysis was performed which characterizes the fraction of parent ions which suffer a glancing collision without dissociating or being knocked out of the beam. Our results suggest that the ion beam which emerges from a collision cell can harbor a surprisingly large fraction of parent ions that have obtained a large amount of internal excitation, perhaps ˜0.7 eV per ion suffering a glancing collision.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Mir
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Phosphorus is important as an essential element in the production of agricultural products. On the other hand, its ability to induce essential micronutrient deficiency and its negative effects on the environment, have attracted more attention to this element. The knowledge of phosphorus availability conditions in the soil and consequently the accurate management of fertilizer consumption has a key role in the environmental protection. The degree of phosphorus absorption in the soil depends on the environmental factors, soil characteristics and compositions, and phosphorus fertilizer which have been used. The amount of available phosphorus in the soil has relationship with some of the physical and chemical properties of the soil. Since, the soil characteristics are important factors in the reaction of phosphorus in the soil, the present study aimed to investigate and determine the most important soil characteristics affecting the availability of phosphorus using regression and artificial neural network techniques, in the soils of Sistan plain. Materials and Methods: Soil sampling was done in 1.5×1.5 km intervals, from 0-30 cm depth, and 200 soil samples were taken. The amounts of available phosphorus and the soil properties including the percentages of clay , organic matter, calcium carbonate and the amount of pH were measured. Then, stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to determine linear relation between available phosphorus and the soil properties. In order to model and validate the regression model, respectively 80 and 20% of data were selected and entered into SPSS software. To train the neural network, multilayer perceptron (MLP network was used by MATLAB 7.6 package. In this type of network, 70% of data is selected for training, 15% for validation and 15% for testing the model. Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm and hyperbolic tangent (as a transfer function were used to train the network. The numbers of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sumiya, Luiz Carlos do Amaral
2006-01-01
The development of diagnosis equipment and therapy procedures in nuclear medicine depends on the availability of commercial radioisotopes. IPEN is the most important institution that provides radioisotopes for national market. In order to achieve this function, IPEN had invested in the acquisition of a 30 MeV Cyclone-30 cyclotron to produce mainly 18 F, 67 Ga, 201 Tl and 123 I. The 123 I production is the aim of the present work. With the 123 I routine production data obtained by proton irradiation of Xe targets with an enrichment greater than 99.8%, it was possible to identify the important parameters that have direct influence on the production yield of high purity degree 123 I. Even though the methodology for the commercial production of 123 I, there are an scarcity of operational parameters data for this task. In this work the evaluated parameters were: 124 Xe pressure, proton beam quality, irradiation time, operational temperature of the irradiation system under irradiation, waiting time to obtain 123 I, temperature of washing solution and the impact of the internal Ni coating in the target. With the obtained results it was possible to modify the operational conditions for routine production and increasing the efficiency in about 30%. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomez Cobo, A.
1997-01-01
The presentation discusses the following: general concepts of importance measures; example fault tree, used to illustrate importance measures; Birnbaum's structural importance; criticality importance; Fussel-Vesely importance; upgrading function; risk achievement worth; risk reduction worth
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Natera, E.S.
1998-01-01
The physiological characteristics of man depend on the intake, metabolism and excretion of stable elements from food, water, and air. The physiological behavior of natural radionuclides and radionuclides from nuclear weapons testing and from the utilization of nuclear energy is believed to follow the pattern of stable elements. Hence information on the normal physiological processes occurring in the human body plays an important role in the assessment of the radiation dose received by man. Two important physiological parameters needed for internal dose determination are the pulmonary function and the water balance. In the Coordinated Research Programme on the characterization of Asian population, five participants submitted data on these physiological characteristics - China, India, Japan, Philippines and Viet Nam. During the CRP, data on other pertinent characteristics such as physical and dietary were simultaneously being collected. Hence, the information on the physiological characteristics alone, coming from the five participants were not complete and are probably not sufficient to establish standard values for the Reference Asian Man. Nonetheless, the data collected is a valuable contribution to this research programme
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Frederico Teixeira Brandt
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Objective: To describe the relevance of transvulvar ultrasound in the assessment of anatomical differences induced by the lata fascia sling (LFS and tension-free vaginal tape (TVT procedures. Materials and Methods: Forty women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI, aged 30 to 60 years, have been treated with either LFS (20 patients or TVT (20 patients. The transvulvar ultrasound of the urethrovesical junction (UVJ and proximal urethra (PU has been used as the main investigational tool both pre- and post-operatively. The studied parameters were the vertical (VUVJD and horizontal (HUVJD UVJ distances, the pubourethral distance (PUD and the PU length. Results: The VUVJD did not vary significantly after the LFS surgery (P=0.10. The PUD became shorter (P=0.001 and the HUVJD became shorter only at rest (P=0.03 after the correction by LFS. The TVT procedure has led to shortening of the VUVJ displacement (P=0.0005 and of the PU length (P=0.02. Conclusions: The transvulvar ultrasound was of utmost importance in the demonstration that both the LFS and TVT surgical procedures elongate the PU, even though the LFS technique does it more efficiently. The LFS technique focus more on shortening the PUD and the TVT procedure focus more on the correction of the vertical UVJ displacement.
Sharma, Sanjay
2017-01-01
This book provides a detailed overview of various parameters/factors involved in inventory analysis. It especially focuses on the assessment and modeling of basic inventory parameters, namely demand, procurement cost, cycle time, ordering cost, inventory carrying cost, inventory stock, stock out level, and stock out cost. In the context of economic lot size, it provides equations related to the optimum values. It also discusses why the optimum lot size and optimum total relevant cost are considered to be key decision variables, and uses numerous examples to explain each of these inventory parameters separately. Lastly, it provides detailed information on parameter estimation for different sectors/products. Written in a simple and lucid style, it offers a valuable resource for a broad readership, especially Master of Business Administration (MBA) students.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sieurin, J.
1992-01-01
No import of biofuels to Sweden for energy production existed before 1991. That year, import of wood chips from Latvia and olive wastes (pits) from the Mediterranean region started, with volumes corresponding to 100 GWh each. This fuels were used in district heating plants, with converted coal boilers. The price was about 120 SEK/MWh (∼ 18 USD/MWh) at the plant. Small amounts of wood pellets were imported from Poland, Canada and Denmark, totalling less than 100 GWh. This fuel was used by small heating centrals and the import was caused by a shortage of swedish pellets. Potentially important export countries, if a large scale biofuel use starts in Sweden, are Russia, the Baltic states, USA, and Canada. Technical possibilities for converting coal-fired boilers to biofuel firing are discussed in a four page section of this paper. (2 refs., 2 tabs.)
HR Department
2009-01-01
Green plates, removals and importation of personal effects Please note that, as from 1 April 2009, formalities relating to K and CD special series French vehicle plates (green plates), removals and importation of personal effects into France and Switzerland will be dealt with by GS Department (Building 73/3-014, tel. 73683/74407). Importation and purchase of tax-free vehicles in Switzerland, as well as diplomatic privileges, will continue to be dealt with by the Installation Service of HR Department (Building 33/1-011, tel. 73962). HR and GS Departments
Rhodes, Laura A; Cooper, William; Oldroyd, Brian; Hind, Karen
2014-01-01
We aimed to determine if cross-calibration equations could be applied to convert GE Lunar Prodigy total and regional bone measurements to the GE iDXA model to support longitudinal monitoring of subjects. The cross-calibration group comprised 63 adults (age 45.1 [12.8] yr; body mass index: 25.6 [3.7] kg/m(2)) and the validation group comprised 25 adults (age 40.5 [11.5] yr; body mass index: 25.7 [3.5] kg/m(2)). The parameters reported were total and regional bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content, and bone area. There were significant differences between densitometers for all anatomical regions and reported bone parameters (p Prodigy apart from the ribs. Linear regression indicated good agreement for all measurements. Bland-Altman analyses indicated significant bias for all measurements and that cross-calibration equations were required. The derived cross-calibration equations were effective in reducing differences between predicted and measured results for each parameter and at each region apart from leg BMD, where the difference remained significant (0.013 g/cm(2); p Prodigy and iDXA. Copyright © 2014 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prindle, R.W.; Hopkins, P.L.
1990-10-01
The Hydrologic Code Intercomparison Project (HYDROCOIN) was formed to evaluate hydrogeologic models and computer codes and their use in performance assessment for high-level radioactive-waste repositories. This report describes the results of a study for HYDROCOIN of model sensitivity for isothermal, unsaturated flow through layered, fractured tuffs. We investigated both the types of flow behavior that dominate the performance measures and the conditions and model parameters that control flow behavior. We also examined the effect of different conceptual models and modeling approaches on our understanding of system behavior. The analyses included single- and multiple-parameter variations about base cases in one-dimensional steady and transient flow and in two-dimensional steady flow. The flow behavior is complex even for the highly simplified and constrained system modeled here. The response of the performance measures is both nonlinear and nonmonotonic. System behavior is dominated by abrupt transitions from matrix to fracture flow and by lateral diversion of flow. The observed behaviors are strongly influenced by the imposed boundary conditions and model constraints. Applied flux plays a critical role in determining the flow type but interacts strongly with the composite-conductivity curves of individual hydrologic units and with the stratigraphy. One-dimensional modeling yields conservative estimates of distributions of groundwater travel time only under very limited conditions. This study demonstrates that it is wrong to equate the shortest possible water-travel path with the fastest path from the repository to the water table. 20 refs., 234 figs., 10 tabs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kerr, George D.; Young, Rebert W.; Cullings, Harry M.; Christry, Robert F.
2005-01-01
The reconstruction of neutron and gamma-ray doses at Hiroshima and Nagasaki begins with a determination of the parameters describing the explosion. The calculations of the air transported radiation fields and survivor doses from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs require knowledge of a variety of parameters related to the explosions. These various parameters include the heading of the bomber when the bomb was released, the epicenters of the explosions, the bomb yields, and the tilt of the bombs at time of explosion. The epicenter of a bomb is the explosion point in air that is specified in terms of a burst height and a hypocenter (or the point on the ground directly below the epicenter of the explosion). The current reassessment refines the energy yield and burst height for the Hiroshima bomb, as well as the locations of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki hypocenters on the modern city maps used in the analysis of the activation data for neutrons and TLD data for gamma rays. (J.P.N.)
Udayashankar, Paniveni
2016-07-01
I study the complexity of supergranular cells using intensity patterns from Kodaikanal solar observatory. The chaotic and turbulent aspect of the solar supergranulation can be studied by examining the interrelationships amongst the parameters characterizing supergranular cells namely size, horizontal flow field, lifetime and physical dimensions of the cells and the fractal dimension deduced from the size data. The findings are supportive of Kolmogorov's theory of turbulence. The Data consists of visually identified supergranular cells, from which a fractal dimension 'D' for supergranulation is obtained according to the relation P α AD/2 where 'A' is the area and 'P' is the perimeter of the supergranular cells. I find a fractal dimension close to about 1.3 which is consistent with that for isobars and suggests a possible turbulent origin. The cell circularity shows a dependence on the perimeter with a peak around (1.1-1.2) x 105 m. The findings are supportive of Kolmogorov's theory of turbulence.
Radiation portal evaluation parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
York, R.L.
1998-01-01
The detection of the unauthorized movement of radioactive materials is one of the most effective nonproliferation measures. Automatic special nuclear material (SNM) portal monitors are designed to detect this unauthorized movement and are an important part of the safeguard systems at US nuclear facilities. SNM portals differ from contamination monitors because they are designed to have high sensitivity for the low energy gamma-rays associated with highly enriched uranium (HEU) and plutonium. These instruments are now being installed at international borders to prevent the spread of radioactive contamination an SNM. In this paper the parameters important to evaluating radiation portal monitors are discussed. (author)
Drysdale, Alan; Sager, John; Wheeler, Ray; Fortson, Russ; Chetirkin, Peter
1993-01-01
The most important Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) engineering parameters are, in order of decreasing importance, manpower, mass, and energy. The plant component is a significant contributor to the total system equivalent mass. In this report, a generic plant component is described and the relative equivalent mass and productivity are derived for a number of instances taken from the KSC CELSS Breadboard Project data and literature. Typical specific productivities (edible biomass produced over 10 years divided by system equivalent mass) for closed systems are of the order of 0.2.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sumiya, Luiz Carlos do Amaral
2006-07-01
The development of diagnosis equipment and therapy procedures in nuclear medicine depends on the availability of commercial radioisotopes. IPEN is the most important institution that provides radioisotopes for national market. In order to achieve this function, IPEN had invested in the acquisition of a 30 MeV Cyclone-30 cyclotron to produce mainly {sup 18}F, {sup 67}Ga, {sup 201}Tl and {sup 123}I. The {sup 123}I production is the aim of the present work. With the {sup 123}I routine production data obtained by proton irradiation of Xe targets with an enrichment greater than 99.8%, it was possible to identify the important parameters that have direct influence on the production yield of high purity degree {sup 123}I. Even though the methodology for the commercial production of {sup 123}I, there are an scarcity of operational parameters data for this task. In this work the evaluated parameters were: {sup 124}Xe pressure, proton beam quality, irradiation time, operational temperature of the irradiation system under irradiation, waiting time to obtain {sup 123}I, temperature of washing solution and the impact of the internal Ni coating in the target. With the obtained results it was possible to modify the operational conditions for routine production and increasing the efficiency in about 30%. (author)
Importance Weighted Import Vector Machine for Unsupervised Domain Adaptation.
Khalighi, Sirvan; Ribeiro, Bernardete; Nunes, Urbano J
2017-10-01
In real-world applications, the assumption of independent and identical distribution is no longer consistent. To alleviate the significant mismatch between source and target domains, importance weighting import vector machine, which is an adaptive classifier, is proposed. This adaptive probabilistic classification method, which is sparse and computationally efficient, can be used for unsupervised domain adaptation (DA). The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated via a toy problem, and a real-world cross-domain object recognition task. Even though the sparseness, the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art in both unsupervised and semisupervised DA scenarios. We also introduce a reliable importance weighted cross validation (RIWCV), which is an improvement of importance weighted cross validation, for parameter and model selection. The RIWCV avoid falling down in local minimum, by selecting a more reliable combination of the parameters instead of the best parameters.
Calculation of shielding parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montoya Z, J.
1994-01-01
With the propose of reduce the hazard to radiation, exist three basic factors: a) time, the time to exposition to working person inside to area, from exist determined speed the doses, is proportional of the time permanence; b) distance, the reduce to doses is inverse square of the distance to exposition point; c) building, consist to interpose between source and exposition point to material. The main aspect development to the analysis of parameters distance and building. The analysis consist to development of the mathematical implicit, in the model of source radioactive, beginning with the geometry to source, distance to exposition source, and configuration building. In the final part was realize one comparative studied to calculus of parameters to blinding, employs two codes CPBGAM and MICROSHIELD, the first made as part to work thesis. The point source its a good approximation to any one real source, but in the majority of the time to propose analysis the spatial distribution of the source must realized in explicit way. The buildings calculus in volumetry's source can be approximate begin's of plan as source adaptations. It's important to have present that not only the building exist the exposition to the radiation, and the parameters time and distance plays an important paper too. (Author)
Parameter estimation in food science.
Dolan, Kirk D; Mishra, Dharmendra K
2013-01-01
Modeling includes two distinct parts, the forward problem and the inverse problem. The forward problem-computing y(t) given known parameters-has received much attention, especially with the explosion of commercial simulation software. What is rarely made clear is that the forward results can be no better than the accuracy of the parameters. Therefore, the inverse problem-estimation of parameters given measured y(t)-is at least as important as the forward problem. However, in the food science literature there has been little attention paid to the accuracy of parameters. The purpose of this article is to summarize the state of the art of parameter estimation in food science, to review some of the common food science models used for parameter estimation (for microbial inactivation and growth, thermal properties, and kinetics), and to suggest a generic method to standardize parameter estimation, thereby making research results more useful. Scaled sensitivity coefficients are introduced and shown to be important in parameter identifiability. Sequential estimation and optimal experimental design are also reviewed as powerful parameter estimation methods that are beginning to be used in the food science literature.
GPS User Devices Parameter Control Methods
Klūga, A; Kuļikovs, M; Beļinska, V; Zeļenkovs, A
2007-01-01
In our day’s wide assortment of GPS user devices is manufacture. How to verify that parameters of the real device corresponds to parameters that manufacture shows. How to verify that parameters have not been changed during the operation time. The last one is very important for aviation GPS systems, which must be verified before the flight, but the values of parameter in time of repair works. This work analyses GPS user devices parameters control methods.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parsa, Z.
1986-10-01
The AGS Booster is designed to be an intermediate synchrotron injector for the AGS, capable of accelerating protons from 200 MeV to 1.5 GeV. The parameters listed include beam and operational parameters and lattice parameters, as well as parameters pertaining to the accelerator's magnets, vacuum system, radio frequency acceleration system, and the tunnel. 60 refs., 41 figs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, M.
2006-12-15
A lumped-parameter model represents the frequency dependent soil-structure interaction of a massless foundation placed on or embedded into an unbounded soil domain. In this technical report the steps of establishing a lumped-parameter model are presented. Following sections are included in this report: Static and dynamic formulation, Simple lumped-parameter models and Advanced lumped-parameter models. (au)
Infrared Drying Parameter Optimization
Jackson, Matthew R.
In recent years, much research has been done to explore direct printing methods, such as screen and inkjet printing, as alternatives to the traditional lithographic process. The primary motivation is reduction of the material costs associated with producing common electronic devices. Much of this research has focused on developing inkjet or screen paste formulations that can be printed on a variety of substrates, and which have similar conductivity performance to the materials currently used in the manufacturing of circuit boards and other electronic devices. Very little research has been done to develop a process that would use direct printing methods to manufacture electronic devices in high volumes. This study focuses on developing and optimizing a drying process for conductive copper ink in a high volume manufacturing setting. Using an infrared (IR) dryer, it was determined that conductive copper prints could be dried in seconds or minutes as opposed to tens of minutes or hours that it would take with other drying devices, such as a vacuum oven. In addition, this study also identifies significant parameters that can affect the conductivity of IR dried prints. Using designed experiments and statistical analysis; the dryer parameters were optimized to produce the best conductivity performance for a specific ink formulation and substrate combination. It was determined that for an ethylene glycol, butanol, 1-methoxy 2- propanol ink formulation printed on Kapton, the optimal drying parameters consisted of a dryer height of 4 inches, a temperature setting between 190 - 200°C, and a dry time of 50-65 seconds depending on the printed film thickness as determined by the number of print passes. It is important to note that these parameters are optimized specifically for the ink formulation and substrate used in this study. There is still much research that needs to be done into optimizing the IR dryer for different ink substrate combinations, as well as developing a
Redefining solubility parameters: the partial solvation parameters.
Panayiotou, Costas
2012-03-21
The present work reconsiders a classical and universally accepted concept of physical chemistry, the solubility parameter. Based on the insight derived from modern quantum chemical calculations, a new definition of solubility parameter is proposed, which overcomes some of the inherent restrictions of the original definition and expands its range of applications. The original single solubility parameter is replaced by four partial solvation parameters reflecting the dispersion, the polar, the acidic and the basic character of the chemical compounds as expressed either in their pure state or in mixtures. Simple rules are adopted for the definition and calculation of these four parameters and their values are tabulated for a variety of common substances. In contrast, however, to the well known Hansen solubility parameters, their design and evaluation does not rely exclusively on the basic rule of "similarity matching" for solubility but it makes also use of the other basic rule of compatibility, namely, the rule of "complementarity matching". This complementarity matching becomes particularly operational with the sound definition of the acidic and basic components of the solvation parameter based on the third σ-moments of the screening charge distributions of the quantum mechanics-based COSMO-RS theory. The new definitions are made in a simple and straightforward manner, thus, preserving the strength and appeal of solubility parameter stemming from its simplicity. The new predictive method has been applied to a variety of solubility data for systems of pharmaceuticals and polymers. The results from quantum mechanics calculations are critically compared with the results from Abraham's acid/base descriptors.
Hecke algebras with unequal parameters
Lusztig, G
2003-01-01
Hecke algebras arise in representation theory as endomorphism algebras of induced representations. One of the most important classes of Hecke algebras is related to representations of reductive algebraic groups over p-adic or finite fields. In 1979, in the simplest (equal parameter) case of such Hecke algebras, Kazhdan and Lusztig discovered a particular basis (the KL-basis) in a Hecke algebra, which is very important in studying relations between representation theory and geometry of the corresponding flag varieties. It turned out that the elements of the KL-basis also possess very interesting combinatorial properties. In the present book, the author extends the theory of the KL-basis to a more general class of Hecke algebras, the so-called algebras with unequal parameters. In particular, he formulates conjectures describing the properties of Hecke algebras with unequal parameters and presents examples verifying these conjectures in particular cases. Written in the author's precise style, the book gives rese...
Voltage stability, bifurcation parameters and continuation methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alvarado, F.L. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States)
1994-12-31
This paper considers the importance of the choice of bifurcation parameter in the determination of the voltage stability limit and the maximum power load ability of a system. When the bifurcation parameter is power demand, the two limits are equivalent. However, when other types of load models and bifurcation parameters are considered, the two concepts differ. The continuation method is considered as a method for determination of voltage stability margins. Three variants of the continuation method are described: the continuation parameter is the bifurcation parameter the continuation parameter is initially the bifurcation parameter, but is free to change, and the continuation parameter is a new `arc length` parameter. Implementations of voltage stability software using continuation methods are described. (author) 23 refs., 9 figs.
Measuring the chargino parameters
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Enlarging the spectrum of physical states together with the necessity of including the. SUSY breaking terms gives rise to a large number of parameters. Even in the minimal supersymmetric model (MSSM) more than 100 new parameters are introduced! This number of parameters, reflecting our ignorance of SUSY breaking ...
Sediment problems in reservoirs. Control of sediment deposits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jacobsen, Tom
1997-12-31
When a reservoir is formed on a river, sediment will deposit in the reservoir. Such processes are unfortunate, for instance, for the implementation of hydroelectric energy. This thesis studies the problem of reservoir sedimentation and discusses methods of removing the sediments. Various aspects of reservoir sedimentation are discussed. Anthropogenic impacts seem to greatly affect the erosion processes. Temporal distribution is uneven, mainly because of the very large flood events. A world map showing the Reservoir Capacity: Annual Sediment Inflow ratio for reservoirs with volume equal to 10% of annual inflow has been prepared. The map shows that sedimentation is severe in the western parts of North and South America, eastern, southern and northern Africa, parts of Australia and most of Asia. The development of medium-sized reservoirs is difficult, as they are too large for conventional flushing technique and too small to store the sediment that accumulates during their economic lifetime. A computer model, SSIIM, was used with good results in a case study of two flood drawdown trials in Lake Roxburg, New Zealand. Two techniques have been developed that permits controlled suction of sediment and water into a pipe: the Slotted Pipe Sediment Sluicer (SPSS) and the Saxophone Sediment Sluicer (SSS). The techniques exploit the inflow pattern in through a slot in a pipe. An equation describing this inflow pattern was derived and verified experimentally. The SPSS is fixed near the reservoir bed, and sediment that deposits on top of it is removed in the sluicing process. The SSS sluices sediment from the surface of the sediment deposits. Some technical and economic conditions affecting the economics of sediment removal from reservoirs have been identified and studied. 79 refs., 112 figs., 14 tabs.
Catalogue of HI PArameters (CHIPA)
Saponara, J.; Benaglia, P.; Koribalski, B.; Andruchow, I.
2015-08-01
The catalogue of HI parameters of galaxies HI (CHIPA) is the natural continuation of the compilation by M.C. Martin in 1998. CHIPA provides the most important parameters of nearby galaxies derived from observations of the neutral Hydrogen line. The catalogue contains information of 1400 galaxies across the sky and different morphological types. Parameters like the optical diameter of the galaxy, the blue magnitude, the distance, morphological type, HI extension are listed among others. Maps of the HI distribution, velocity and velocity dispersion can also be display for some cases. The main objective of this catalogue is to facilitate the bibliographic queries, through searching in a database accessible from the internet that will be available in 2015 (the website is under construction). The database was built using the open source `` mysql (SQL, Structured Query Language, management system relational database) '', while the website was built with ''HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)'' and ''PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor)''.
Primack, Joel R.
2000-01-01
The cosmological parameters that I emphasize are the age of the universe $t_0$, the Hubble parameter $H_0 \\equiv 100 h$ km s$^{-1}$ Mpc$^{-1}$, the average matter density $\\Omega_m$, the baryonic matter density $\\Omega_b$, the neutrino density $\\Omega_\
New ridge parameters for ridge regression
Dorugade, A.V.
2014-01-01
Hoerl and Kennard (1970a) introduced the ridge regression estimator as an alternative to the ordinary least squares (OLS) estimator in the presence of multicollinearity. In ridge regression, ridge parameter plays an important role in parameter estimation. In this article, a new method for estimating ridge parameters in both situations of ordinary ridge regression (ORR) and generalized ridge regression (GRR) is proposed. The simulation study evaluates the performance of the proposed estimator ...
Cosmological parameter estimation using Particle Swarm Optimization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prasad, J; Souradeep, T
2014-01-01
Constraining parameters of a theoretical model from observational data is an important exercise in cosmology. There are many theoretically motivated models, which demand greater number of cosmological parameters than the standard model of cosmology uses, and make the problem of parameter estimation challenging. It is a common practice to employ Bayesian formalism for parameter estimation for which, in general, likelihood surface is probed. For the standard cosmological model with six parameters, likelihood surface is quite smooth and does not have local maxima, and sampling based methods like Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method are quite successful. However, when there are a large number of parameters or the likelihood surface is not smooth, other methods may be more effective. In this paper, we have demonstrated application of another method inspired from artificial intelligence, called Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for estimating cosmological parameters from Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data taken from the WMAP satellite
Cosmological parameter estimation using Particle Swarm Optimization
Prasad, J.; Souradeep, T.
2014-03-01
Constraining parameters of a theoretical model from observational data is an important exercise in cosmology. There are many theoretically motivated models, which demand greater number of cosmological parameters than the standard model of cosmology uses, and make the problem of parameter estimation challenging. It is a common practice to employ Bayesian formalism for parameter estimation for which, in general, likelihood surface is probed. For the standard cosmological model with six parameters, likelihood surface is quite smooth and does not have local maxima, and sampling based methods like Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method are quite successful. However, when there are a large number of parameters or the likelihood surface is not smooth, other methods may be more effective. In this paper, we have demonstrated application of another method inspired from artificial intelligence, called Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for estimating cosmological parameters from Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data taken from the WMAP satellite.
QUALITY PARAMETERS IN NANOTECHNOLOGIC APPLICATIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ayşegül Akdoğan Eker
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Nanotechnology concept which has added a new dimension to our lives in recent years, is finding a place in every sector day by day. The combined effect of nanotechnology is almost equal to the industrial revolution of last 200 years and have is able to fill all developments in a few years. However this development should be taken under control. Otherwise unstoppable new structures will not ease life but will be a problem for humanity. For this purpose, the main parameters (from the start up stage of nano-technologic applications to the obtained product should be checked. These parameters are actually not different than the adaptation of the classical quality indicators for nanotechnology applications. Especially it plays an important role in obtaining a uniform distribution and regarding the features of the end product in nano-technological ceramic and etc. applications. The most important problem faced in particles of that size is the accumulation they create. Another problem is the increasing friction force as size gets smaller. The friction force of asubstance increases proportionally with the cube of its surface area. Another problem is surface tension. The increasing surface tension due to increasing surface area will cause the particles to attract and stick to each other. The structures aimed to be obtained are mostly complex and especially in upwards approach, it is thermodynamically very hard for the atoms to get into that order. Therefore in this announcement, we stated the quality parameters that will be taken into consideration in nano-technological applications and the methods for obtaining those parameters. The aim is to explain these parameters with all dimensions so that they will lead the way to the future nano-technological applications.
Forest Biophysical Parameters (SNF)
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Biophysical parameters (DBH, NPP, biomass, bark area index, LAI, subcanopy LAI) by study site for Aspen and Spruce in the Superior National Forest, MN (SNF)
SATELLITE CONSTELLATION DESIGN PARAMETER
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. SATELLITE CONSTELLATION DESIGN PARAMETER. 1. ORBIT CHARACTERISTICS. ORBITAL HEIGHT >= 20,000 KM. LONGER VISIBILITY; ORBITAL PERIOD. PERTURBATIONS(MINIMUM). SOLAR RADIATION PRESSURE (IMPACTS ECCENTRICITY); LUNI ...
Reassessment of safeguards parameters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hakkila, E.A.; Richter, J.L.; Mullen, M.F.
1994-07-01
The International Atomic Energy Agency is reassessing the timeliness and goal quantity parameters that are used in defining safeguards approaches. This study reviews technology developments since the parameters were established in the 1970s and concludes that there is no reason to relax goal quantity or conversion time for reactor-grade plutonium relative to weapons-grade plutonium. For low-enriched uranium, especially in countries with advanced enrichment capability there may be an incentive to shorten the detection time.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
1999-02-18
Feb 18, 1999 ... cal control of pests which is itself a very important aspect of applied bioiogy. When natural enemies are being sought or transferred from one region to another, in order to bring about biological control of a pest, the correct identification of both the pest and natural enemy species is of utmost importance. Tax-.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sannino, Francesco
2010-01-01
the magnetic S-parameter, i.e. the one determined via the dual magnetic gauge theory, assumes a simple expression in terms of the elementary magnetic degrees of freedom. The results further support our recent conjecture of the existence of a universal lower bound on the S parameter and indicates...... that it is an ideal operator for counting the active physical degrees of freedom within the conformal window. Our results can be directly used to unveil possible four dimensional gauge duals and constitute the first explicit computation of a nonperturbative quantity, in the electric variables, via nonsupersymmetric...
PARAMETER DESIGN PROPELLER KAPAL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Ridwan
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Designer propeller kapal harus mempertimbangkan berbagai parameter untuk menghasilkan bentuk, type dan ukuran propeller yang memiliki nilai efektifitas dan effisiensi propulsi tinggi. Propulsi kapal merupakan faktor yang mendominasi operasional kapal, karena pemakaian bahan bakar untuk operasional propulsi kapal merupakan 42% dari total cost operasional kapal dan merupakan added value yang akan diperoleh oleh perusahaan pelayaran. Pertimbangan parameter desain propeller argonomis dapat mendukung tujuan di atas sehingga dapat menurunkan pemakaian bahan bakar hingga 20 % saat kapal dioperaionalkan.
Band parameters of phosphorene
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lew Yan Voon, L. C.; Wang, J.; Zhang, Y.
2015-01-01
Phosphorene is a two-dimensional nanomaterial with a direct band-gap at the Brillouin zone center. In this paper, we present a recently derived effective-mass theory of the band structure in the presence of strain and electric field, based upon group theory. Band parameters for this theory...... are computed using a first-principles theory based upon the generalized-gradient approximation to the density-functional theory. These parameters and Hamiltonian will be useful for modeling physical properties of phosphorene....
Measuring the chargino parameters
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
After the supersymmetric particles have been discovered, the priority will be to determine independently the fundamental parameters to reveal the structure of the underlying supersymmetric theory. In my talk I discuss how the chargino sector can be reconstructed completely by measuring the cross-sections with polarized ...
Measuring the chargino parameters
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Instytut Fizyki Teoretycznej UW, Hoza 69, 00681 Warszawa, Poland. Abstract. After the supersymmetric particles have been discovered, the priority will be to deter- mine independently the fundamental parameters to reveal the structure of the underlying super- symmetric theory. In my talk I discuss how the chargino sector ...
1981-05-01
on an aircraft fuselage or a slender body, as is demonstrated by the results obtained by Ruben 1 for his strut design (Fig. 13). Perkins showed the...are unique and demonstrate a very successful symbiosis of the powerful and flexible tool of parameter identification together with highly qualified
Response model parameter linking
Barrett, M.L.D.
2015-01-01
With a few exceptions, the problem of linking item response model parameters from different item calibrations has been conceptualized as an instance of the problem of equating observed scores on different test forms. This thesis argues, however, that the use of item response models does not require
PESTO: Parameter EStimation TOolbox.
Stapor, Paul; Weindl, Daniel; Ballnus, Benjamin; Hug, Sabine; Loos, Carolin; Fiedler, Anna; Krause, Sabrina; Hroß, Sabrina; Fröhlich, Fabian; Hasenauer, Jan; Wren, Jonathan
2018-02-15
PESTO is a widely applicable and highly customizable toolbox for parameter estimation in MathWorks MATLAB. It offers scalable algorithms for optimization, uncertainty and identifiability analysis, which work in a very generic manner, treating the objective function as a black box. Hence, PESTO can be used for any parameter estimation problem, for which the user can provide a deterministic objective function in MATLAB. PESTO is a MATLAB toolbox, freely available under the BSD license. The source code, along with extensive documentation and example code, can be downloaded from https://github.com/ICB-DCM/PESTO/. jan.hasenauer@helmholtz-muenchen.de. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bentzen, J G; Forman, Julie Lyng; Pinborg, Anja
2012-01-01
2-5 of the menstrual cycle or during withdrawal bleeding, blood sampling and transvaginal sonography was performed. After adjusting for age, ovarian reserve parameters were lower among users than among non-users of hormonal contraception: serum AMH concentration by 29.8% (95% CI 19.9 to 38...... was observed between duration of hormonal-contraception use and ovarian reserve parameters. No dose-response relation was found between the dose of ethinyloestradiol and AMH or AFC. This study indicates that ovarian reserve markers are lower in women using sex steroids for contraception. Thus, AMH...... concentration and AFC may not retain their accuracy as predictors of ovarian reserve in women using hormonal contraception. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentration is an indirect marker of the number of small follicles in the ovary and thereby the ovarian reserve. The AMH concentration is now widely...
1978-05-01
then there is positive work done by the incident wind tending to overdrive the motion. In this situation the container is dynamically unstable. (c...Employing a Real-Time Digital System. NASA TN D-6735, 1972. 32. Ross , A. Jean; and Foster, G. W.: FORTRAN Programs for the Determination of... Ross , A. Jean: Determination of Aerodynamic Derivatives From Transient Responses in Manoeuvring Flight. Methods for Aircraft State and Parameter
Integral data analysis for resonance parameters determination
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Larson, N.M.; Leal, L.C.; Derrien, H.
1997-09-01
Neutron time-of-flight experiments have long been used to determine resonance parameters. Those resonance parameters have then been used in calculations of integral quantities such as Maxwellian averages or resonance integrals, and results of those calculations in turn have been used as a criterion for acceptability of the resonance analysis. However, the calculations were inadequate because covariances on the parameter values were not included in the calculations. In this report an effort to correct for that deficiency is documented: (1) the R-matrix analysis code SAMMY has been modified to include integral quantities of importance, (2) directly within the resonance parameter analysis, and (3) to determine the best fit to both differential (microscopic) and integral (macroscopic) data simultaneously. This modification was implemented because it is expected to have an impact on the intermediate-energy range that is important for criticality safety applications
Why phosphorites are important ?
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Why phosphorites are important ? Phosphorus is the. 10th abundant element in the earth crust. Essential element of nutritive value. Used for fertilisers, phosphoric acid. Host for U, V, F and REEs. Palaeoceanography.
Imported coal remains flexible
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bernstein, F.
1982-01-01
The new law on coal tariff quotas is one year old. During this period hard coal imports increased by 1 million tons, in spite of the slowed down economic activities and the wait-and-see attitude of consumers. The author gives a first survey.
... or it could be to learn a new skill such as walking step-over-step up stairs, walking on uneven terrain, or even running. It is important that the prosthetist and therapist remain in close communication when gait train- ing is occurring since any ...
... is essential, it is equally important for parents to set aside some time just for themselves, too. Additional Information from HealthyChildren.org: Turning Family Time into Active Time Bedtime Routines for School-Aged Children The Benefits & Tricks to Having a Family Dinner Article Body Last Updated ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Importance of ECM recognition. Leishmaniasis transmitted by parasite injection into blood during blood meal of insect vector. Parasites home in macrophages of liver and spleen - adhere, penetrate, transform and replicate. Macrophage lysis - attack of neighbouring ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adler, R.J.
1994-01-01
The purpose of this study is to make an independent assessment on the parameters chosen for the ATLAS capacitor bank at LANL. The contractor will perform a study of the basic pulsed power parameters of the ATLAS device with baseline functional parameters of >25 MA implosion current and <2.5 microsecond current risetime. Nominal circuit parameters held fixed will be the 14 nH from the vacuum interface to the load, and the nominal load impedances of 1 milliohm for slow loads and 10 milliohms for fast loads. Single Ended designs, as opposed to bipolar designs, will be studied in detail. The ATLAS pulsed power design problem is about inductance. The reason that a 36 MJ bank is required is that such a bank has enough individual capacitors so that the parallel inductance is acceptably low. Since about half the inductance is in the bank, and the inductance and time constant of the submodules is fixed, the variation of output with a given parameter will generally be a weak one. In general, the dl/dt calculation demonstrates that for the real system inductances, 700 kV is the optimum voltage for the bank to drive X-ray loads. The optimum is broad, and there is little reduction in performance at voltages as low as 450 kV. The direct drive velocity analysis also shows that the optimum velocity is between 480 and 800 kV for a variety of assumptions, and that there is less than a 10% variation in velocity over this range. Voltages in the 120 kV--600 kV range are desirable for driving heavy liners. A compromise optimum operating point might be 480 kV, at which all X-ray operation scenarios are within 10% of their velocity optimum, and heavy liners can be configured to be near optimum if small enough. Based on very preliminary studies the author believes that the choice of a single operating voltage point (say, 480 kV) is unnecessary, and that a bank engineered for dual operation at 480 and 240 kV will be the best solution to the ATLAS problem
Bayesian estimation of Weibull distribution parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bacha, M.; Celeux, G.; Idee, E.; Lannoy, A.; Vasseur, D.
1994-11-01
In this paper, we expose SEM (Stochastic Expectation Maximization) and WLB-SIR (Weighted Likelihood Bootstrap - Sampling Importance Re-sampling) methods which are used to estimate Weibull distribution parameters when data are very censored. The second method is based on Bayesian inference and allow to take into account available prior informations on parameters. An application of this method, with real data provided by nuclear power plants operation feedback analysis has been realized. (authors). 8 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs
Calculation of mixed core safety parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ravnik, M.; Zagar, T.
2002-01-01
The purpose of this presentation is the reactor physics explanation of the most important nuclear safety parameters in mixed TRIGA cores as well as their calculation methods and appropriate computer codes. Nuclear core parameters, such as power density peaking factors and temperature reactivity coefficients are considered. The computer codes adapted, tested and widely available for TRIGA nuclear calculations are presented. Thermal-hydraulics aspects of safety analysis are not treated
Matrix parameters and storage conditions of manure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weinfurtner, Karlheinz [Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology (IME), Schmallenberg (Germany)
2011-01-15
The literature study presents an overview of storage conditions for manure and information about important matrix parameters of manure such as dry matter content, pH value, total organic carbon, total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen. The presented results show that for matrix parameters a dissimilarity of cattle and pig manure can be observed but no difference within the species for different production types occurred with exception of calves. A scenario for western and central European countries is derived. (orig.)
[Myiases of economic importance].
Touré, S M
1994-12-01
A simplified list of the principal Diptera capable of causing myiasis is followed by a brief presentation of the biology, lesions inflicted, and methods of treatment and control of the myiases of economic importance. Cochliomyiasis caused by Cochliomyia hominivorax is of greatest interest, in view of the damage and losses caused by this disease. A brief account of the outbreak of infestation in Libya illustrates the danger of this parasite. Other important traumatic myiases are described: that due to Chrysomya bezziana, which causes an African myiasis similar to cochliomyiasis, and those due to Lucilia cuprina and related species. Hypodermyiasis (warble fly infestation) and oestrosis (nasal bot fly infestation in sheep) still cause major economic losses in domestic animals, justifying their inclusion in control campaigns. The same applies to stomach bot flies of the family Gasterophilidae. The account of each myiasis includes notes on parasiticides which have been found to be effective. Given the rapidity with which a parasite can now be transported from one continent to another, it is important for Veterinary Services to be well-informed and vigilant.
Timetable Attractiveness Parameters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schittenhelm, Bernd
2008-01-01
Timetable attractiveness is influenced by a set of key parameters that are described in this article. Regarding the superior structure of the timetable, the trend in Europe goes towards periodic regular interval timetables. Regular departures and focus on optimal transfer possibilities make...... these timetables attractive. The travel time in the timetable depends on the characteristics of the infrastructure and rolling stock, the heterogeneity of the planned train traffic and the necessary number of transfers on the passenger’s journey. Planned interdependencies between trains, such as transfers...
Ranking Music Data by Relevance and Importance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ruxanda, Maria Magdalena; Nanopoulos, Alexandros; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard
2008-01-01
the music based on its relevance and importance. The fusion is controlled by a single parameter, which can be intuitively tuned by the user. The notion of authoritative music among relevant music is introduced, and social media mined from the Web is used in an innovative manner to determine both...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fosse, Henrik Barslund; Maitra, Madhura
Offshoring firms are found to pay higher average wages than purely domestic firms. We provide a unifying empirical approach by capturing the different channels through which offshoring may explain this wage difference: (i) due to change in the composition of workers (skill composition effect) (ii...... of skill composition and rent sharing available in typical firm level datasets - like ratio of educated to uneducated workers and sales per employee.......) because all existing workers get higher pay (rent sharing effect). Using Danish worker-firm data we explain how much each channel contributes to higher wages. To estimate the causal effect of offshoring on wages we use China’s accession to the WTO in December 2001 - and the soon after boom in Chinese...... exports - as positive exogenous shocks to the incentive to offshore to China. Both skill composition and rent sharing effects are found to be important in explaining the resultant gain in wages. We also show that the firm’s timing in the offshoring process determines the relative importance of a channel...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cunha, Raquel Dalledone Siqueira da; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de
2013-01-01
Risk Communication has shown its importance in the elaboration of emergency plans in the Chemical industry. In the 90's, the UNEP developed the APELL (Awareness and Preparedness for Emergency at Local Level) plan, a risk management methodology used by dangerous chemical facilities. The methodology comprises the commitment of both Government and the community located in the risk area in the development of the emergency plan. In the nuclear sector, there is no similar methodology developed so far. However, establishing a communication channel between the nuclear segment and the community is essential. In Brazil, the construction of Angra 3 and the RMB (Multi Purpose Reactor) project stand as nuclear initiatives that improve the importance of a good communication to the public. Security issues of these projects are natural sources of concernment to the public, which is aggravated by events such as the Fukushima disaster. Without an effective communication about what means the presence of nuclear plants and reactors in a specific area, the interested public will only have an alarmist vision of the subject, given by those against these facilities. (author)
Data Handling and Parameter Estimation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist
2016-01-01
literature that are mostly based on the ActivatedSludge Model (ASM) framework and their appropriate extensions (Henze et al., 2000).The chapter presents an overview of the most commonly used methods in the estimation of parameters from experimental batch data, namely: (i) data handling and validation, (ii...... and spatial scales. At full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs),mechanistic modelling using the ASM framework and concept (e.g. Henze et al., 2000) has become an important part of the engineering toolbox for process engineers. It supports plant design, operation, optimization and control applications......). Models have also been used as an integral part of the comprehensive analysis and interpretation of data obtained from a range of experimental methods from the laboratory, as well as pilot-scale studies to characterise and study wastewater treatment plants. In this regard, models help to properly explain...
Display Parameters and Requirements
Bahadur, Birendra
The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * HUMAN FACTORS * Anthropometry * Sensory * Cognitive * Discussions * THE HUMAN VISUAL SYSTEM - CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS * Cornea * Pupil and Iris * Lens * Vitreous Humor * Retina * RODS - NIGHT VISION * CONES - DAY VISION * RODS AND CONES - TWILIGHT VISION * VISUAL PIGMENTS * MACULA * BLOOD * CHOROID COAT * Visual Signal Processing * Pathways to the Brain * Spatial Vision * Temporal Vision * Colour Vision * Colour Blindness * DICHROMATISM * Protanopia * Deuteranopia * Tritanopia * ANOMALOUS TRICHROMATISM * Protanomaly * Deuteranomaly * Tritanomaly * CONE MONOCHROMATISM * ROD MONOCHROMATISM * Using Colour Effectively * COLOUR MIXTURES AND THE CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * Colour Matching Functions and Chromaticity Co-ordinates * CIE 1931 Colour Space * CIE PRIMARIES * CIE COLOUR MATCHING FUNCTIONS AND CHROMATICITY CO-ORDINATES * METHODS FOR DETERMINING TRISTIMULUS VALUES AND COLOUR CO-ORDINATES * Spectral Power Distribution Method * Filter Method * CIE 1931 CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * ADDITIVE COLOUR MIXTURE * CIE 1976 Chromaticity Diagram * CIE Uniform Colour Spaces and Colour Difference Formulae * CIELUV OR L*u*v* * CIELAB OR L*a*b* * CIE COLOUR DIFFERENCE FORMULAE * Colour Temperature and CIE Standard Illuminants and source * RADIOMETRIC AND PHOTOMETRIC QUANTITIES * Photopic (Vλ and Scotopic (Vλ') Luminous Efficiency Function * Photometric and Radiometric Flux * Luminous and Radiant Intensities * Incidence: Illuminance and Irradiance * Exitance or Emittance (M) * Luminance and Radiance * ERGONOMIC REQUIREMENTS OF DISPLAYS * ELECTRO-OPTICAL PARAMETERS AND REQUIREMENTS * Contrast and Contrast Ratio * Luminance and Brightness * Colour Contrast and Chromaticity * Glare * Other Aspects of Legibility * SHAPE AND SIZE OF CHARACTERS * DEFECTS AND BLEMISHES * FLICKER AND DISTORTION * ANGLE OF VIEW * Switching Speed * Threshold and Threshold Characteristic * Measurement Techniques For Electro-optical Parameters * RADIOMETRIC
Most important human aluminoses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Avtsyn, A.P.
1986-01-01
Aluminoses are widespread forms of trace element deficiency of various severity. The organism is protected against a possible pathogenic influence of aluminum by a number of physiological mechanisms the most important among which is a regular urine excretion. A complex of pathological symptoms develops if serious homeostasis disturbances take place e. g. when renal deficiency or direct penetration of the trace element occur. The following forms of aluminosis should be distinguished: 1) simple accumulation in central nervous system which occurs in persons over 65 years; 2) aluminum accumulation in Alzheimer disease, in severe form of presenile and senile dementia; 3) dialysis aluminum encephalopathy; 4) non-dialysis infantile encephalopathy; 5) aluminum encephalopathy in total parenteral nutrition; 6) iatrogenic dialysis aluminum osteodystrophy; 7) jatrogenic peritoneal aluminosis; 8) aluminum pneumoconiosis of an occupational origin; 9) bronchospastic syndrome in aluminum smelter workers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Estrada, J.
2002-01-01
This presentation provides an overview of Mexico's energy sector. Proven oil reserves place Mexico in ninth position in the world and fourth largest in natural gas reserves. Energy is one of the most important economic activities of the country, representing 3 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Oil exports represent 8.4 per cent of total exports. Approximately 40 per cent of total public investment is earmarked for energy projects. The author discusses energy resources and energy sector limitations. The energy sector plan for the period 2001-2006 is discussed. Its goals are to ensure energy supply, to develop the energy sector, to stimulate participation of Mexican enterprises, to promote renewable energy sources, and to strengthen international energy cooperation. The regulatory framework is being adapted to increase private investment. Some graphs are presented, displaying the primary energy production and primary energy consumption. Energy sector reforms are reviewed, as are electricity and natural gas reforms. The energy sector demand for 2000-2010 and investment requirements are reviewed, as well as fuel consumption for power generation. The author discusses the National Pipeline System (SNG) and the bottlenecks caused by pressure efficiency in the northeast, flow restriction on several pipeline segments, variability of the Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) own use, and pressure drop on central regions. The entire prospect for natural gas in the country is reviewed, along with the Strategic Gas Program (PEG) consisting of 20 projects, including 4 non-associated natural gas, 9 exploration and 7 optimization. A section dealing with multiple service contracts is included in the presentation. The authors conclude by stating that the priority is a national energy policy to address Mexico's energy security requirements, to increase natural gas production while promoting the diversification of imports, and a regulatory framework to be updated in light of current
Optimisation of machining parameters on milling of GFRP ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
cutting parameters. Optimization of machining parameters is an important step in machining. This paper presents a new approach for optimizing the machining parameters on milling glass-fibre ..... Moving the XY stage glass by turning the micrometer head with a Digital Counter to the final point with the same cross-hair has.
varying elastic parameters distributions
Moussawi, Ali
2014-12-01
The experimental identication of mechanical properties is crucial in mechanics for understanding material behavior and for the development of numerical models. Classical identi cation procedures employ standard shaped specimens, assume that the mechanical elds in the object are homogeneous, and recover global properties. Thus, multiple tests are required for full characterization of a heterogeneous object, leading to a time consuming and costly process. The development of non-contact, full- eld measurement techniques from which complex kinematic elds can be recorded has opened the door to a new way of thinking. From the identi cation point of view, suitable methods can be used to process these complex kinematic elds in order to recover multiple spatially varying parameters through one test or a few tests. The requirement is the development of identi cation techniques that can process these complex experimental data. This thesis introduces a novel identi cation technique called the constitutive compatibility method. The key idea is to de ne stresses as compatible with the observed kinematic eld through the chosen class of constitutive equation, making possible the uncoupling of the identi cation of stress from the identi cation of the material parameters. This uncoupling leads to parametrized solutions in cases where 5 the solution is non-unique (due to unknown traction boundary conditions) as demonstrated on 2D numerical examples. First the theory is outlined and the method is demonstrated in 2D applications. Second, the method is implemented within a domain decomposition framework in order to reduce the cost for processing very large problems. Finally, it is extended to 3D numerical examples. Promising results are shown for 2D and 3D problems.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
With the evolution of high performance modern aircraft and spiraling developmental and experimental costs, the importance of flight validated databases for flight control design applications and for flight simulators has increased significantly in the recent past. Ground-based and in-flight simulators are increasingly used not ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schweizer, G.; Grünenfelder, F.; Sydler, T.; Rademacher, N.; Braun, U.; Deplazes, P.
2006-01-01
Thirteen sheep from a milk producing farm in the Canton of Grisons that presented chronic coenurosis were examined and subjected to treatment trials at the veterinary hospital in Zurich. Symptoms were first observed around two months after the import of two dogs from Italy (Abruzza) of which one was infected with Taenia multiceps and Echinococcus granulosus. The most frequently observed clinical symptoms of the sheep were reduced general condition, circling, reduced menace reflex, apathy, unsteady gait and head tilt. Analyses of cerebrospinal fluid revealed an increased leucocyte count in 3 sheep and eosinophilia in 4 sheep. In 4 animals that underwent computertomography, one or more hypodense, definable lesions were found in the brain. In 2 sheep surgical treatment and in 10 animals medical treatment with either Praziquantel (n=8) or Oxfendazol (n=2) was attempted. Only one animal treated with Praziquantel needed not to be euthanized. At necropsy, one or two coenurus cysts could be found either in a side ventricle (n=2), in the cerebellum (n=3) or in the cerebrum (n=7). The locations corresponded with the clinical findings. Despite Praziquantel or Oxfendazol treatment, living protoscoleces could be found in the parasite cysts [de
Optimization of surface roughness parameters in dry turning
R.A. Mahdavinejad; H. Sharifi Bidgoli
2009-01-01
Purpose: The precision of machine tools on one hand and the input setup parameters on the other hand, are strongly influenced in main output machining parameters such as stock removal, toll wear ratio and surface roughnes.Design/methodology/approach: There are a lot of input parameters which are effective in the variations of these output parameters. In CNC machines, the optimization of machining process in order to predict surface roughness is very important.Findings: From this point of view...
Parameters for natural resistance in bovine milk
Ploegaert, T.C.W.
2010-01-01
Parameters for natural resistance in bovine milk
Mastitis or udder inflammation is one of the most important health problems of dairy cattle. Resistance against mastitis and many other diseases is partly based on the naturally present disease resistance capacity: innate immunity. This research
Scheduling parameters in flexible manufacturing cells
Slomp, J.; Gaalman, G.J.C.; Ahmad, M.M.; Sullivan, W.G.; Migliore, H.; Randhawa, S.
1998-01-01
The existence of a well-designed scheduling procedure is a major condition for an effective integration of a flexible manufacturing cell (FMC) in the material flow of a firm. This paper shows the presence and relative importance of three parameter types in the scheduling of operations on a flexible
THE COMPUTATION OF LVL CORRECTION PARAMETERS IN ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The parameters so computed are important to the exploration seismologist especially in determining the time delays needed for static corrections during seismic reflection data processing. Also, depth to which energy sources can be buried is known and the bearing capacity of the foundation rock for civil engineering works ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stela Adami Vayego
2008-07-01
Full Text Available Estimativas dos parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos de algumas características produtivas em linhagem paterna de matrizes de frango de corte foram obtidas utilizando-se a metodologia de modelos mistos. Utilizaram-se dados de aproximadamente 46.000 aves, originados de 12 gerações no período de 1992 a 2003, fornecidos pela EMBRAPA Suínos e aves. Nos machos foram avaliadas as características peso corporal aos 42 dias de idade (P42, comprimento de peito (CPeito, largura maior do peito (Larg1 e largura menor do peito (Larg2 aos 42 dias de idade. Os componentes de variância e co-variância foram estimados utilizando-se o programa DFREML. As estimativas de herdabilidade obtidas foram moderadas e variaram de 0,29 a 0,53. As correlações genéticas foram: 0,68 entre P42 e CPeito; 0,65 entre P42 e Larg1; 0,48 entre P42 e Larg2. O estudo da tendência genética das características indicou que progresso genético está sendo obtido.Estimates of genetic and phenotypic parameters for performance traits in paternal broiler lineages selected during 12 generations were obtained through mixed models methodology. Data consisting of body weight (P42, breast length (CPeito, largest (Larg1 and smallest (Larg2 breast widths recorded at 42 days of age in approximately 46,000 birds between 1992 and 2003 provided by CNPSA/EMBRAPA were used to estimate (covariances by REML. The heritability estimates were moderate, ranging from 0.29 to 0.53. Genetic correlations estimates between P42 and CPeito, Larg1 and Larg2 were 0.68, 0.65 and 0.48 respectively. Genetic trend estimates indicate that progress has been obtained by selection on the performance traits.
Uncertainties of Molecular Structural Parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Császár, Attila G.
2014-01-01
performed. Simply, there are significant disagreements between the same bond lengths measured by different techniques. These disagreements are, however, systematic and can be computed via techniques of quantum chemistry which deal not only with the motions of the electrons (electronic structure theory) but also with the often large amplitude motions of the nuclei. As to the relevant quantum chemical computations, since about 1970 electronic structure theory has become able to make quantitative predictions and thus challenge (or even overrule) many experiments. Nevertheless, quantitative agreement of quantum chemical results with experiment can only be expected when the motions of the atoms are also considered. In the fourth age of quantum chemistry we are living in an era where one can bridge quantitatively the gap between ‘effective’, experimental and ‘equilibrium’, computed structures at even elevated temperatures of interest thus minimizing any real uncertainties of structural parameters. The connections mentioned are extremely important as they help to understand the true uncertainty of measured structural parameters. Traditionally it is microwave (MW) and millimeterwave (MMW) spectroscopy, as well as gas-phase electron diffraction (GED), which yielded the most accurate structural parameters of molecules. The accuracy of the MW and GED experiments approached about 0.001Å and 0.1º under ideal circumstances, worse, sometimes considerably worse, in less than ideal and much more often encountered situations. Quantum chemistry can define both highly accurate equilibrium (so-called Born-Oppenheimer, r e BO , and semiexperimental, r e SE ) structures and, via detailed investigation of molecular motions, accurate temperature-dependent rovibrationally averaged structures. Determining structures is still a rich field for research, understanding the measured or computed uncertainties of structures and structural parameters is still a challenge but there are firm and well
Rakovec, Oldrich; Mizukami, Naoki; Newman, Andrew; Thober, Stephan; Kumar, Rohini; Wood, Andrew; Clark, Martyn P.; Samaniego, Luis
2017-04-01
Assessing model complexity and performing "seamless" continental-domain model simulations (e.g., model parameters yielding good performance across entire domain) is a challenging topic in contemporary hydrology. This study presents a large-sample hydrologic modeling effort to examine the effects of parameter regionalization schemes. Two hydrological models (mHM, VIC) are set up for 500 small to medium-sized unimpaired basins over the contiguous United States for two spatial scales: lumped and 12km grid. For parameter regionalization, we use the well-established Multiscale Parameter Regionalization (MPR) technique for both models, with the specific goal of assessing the transferability of model parameters across different spatial scales (lumped basin scale to distributed), time periods (from calibration to validation period), and locations. In terms of the scale transferability, evaluation of global model parameters at finer scale based on calibration at coarse scale improves the KGE performance (mainly due to the variance related term). Loss in model performance in temporal transferability is independent from model complexity (i.e., lumped vs. distributed). Finally, we show that although the parameter regionalization is crucial for parameter transferability to un-gauged locations, there still remains room for improvement especially for the mean and variability in streamflow. We present possible strategies to resolve this issue, including (1) assessing the importance of more detailed information on the soil data (STATSGO vs. SoilGrids), and (2) applying more advanced selection criteria for training MPR global parameters.
Parameters of care for craniosynostosis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
McCarthy, Joseph G; Warren, Stephen M; Bernstein, Joseph
2012-01-01
A multidisciplinary meeting was held from March 4 to 6, 2010, in Atlanta, Georgia, entitled "Craniosynostosis: Developing Parameters for Diagnosis, Treatment, and Management." The goal of this meeting was to create parameters of care for individuals with craniosynostosis.......A multidisciplinary meeting was held from March 4 to 6, 2010, in Atlanta, Georgia, entitled "Craniosynostosis: Developing Parameters for Diagnosis, Treatment, and Management." The goal of this meeting was to create parameters of care for individuals with craniosynostosis....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Frederico Teixeira Brandt
2007-12-01
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a importância da ultra-sonografia transvulvar na avaliação das diferenças anatômicas induzidas pelas cirurgias de sling de fáscia lata e tension-free vaginal tape. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Quarenta mulheres com incontinência urinária de esforço, com idades entre 30 e 60 anos, foram tratadas por sling de fáscia lata (20 pacientes ou tension-free vaginal tape (20 pacientes. A ultra-sonografia transvulvar da junção uretrovesical e da uretra proximal foi a principal ferramenta de investigação pré- e pós-operatória. Os parâmetros estudados foram: distância vertical e distância horizontal da junção uretrovesical, distância pubouretral e comprimento da uretra proximal. RESULTADOS: A distância vertical da junção uretrovesical não variou significativamente após a sling de fáscia lata (p > 0,10. A distância pubouretral e a uretra proximal tornaram-se menores (p OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the role of transvulvar ultrasonography in the assessment of anatomical changes following fascia lata sling or tension-free vaginal tape procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty women in the age range between 30 and 60 years had fascia lata sling (20 patients or tension-free vaginal tape (20 patients placement for treating stress urinary incontinence. Transvulvar ultrasonography was utilized, both pre- and post-operatively, as the main investigational tool in these cases for evaluating the urethrovesical junction vertical and horizontal distances, pubo-urethral distance and proximal urethra length. RESULTS: The urethrovesical junction vertical distance did not vary significantly after the fascia lata sling surgery (p > 0.10. Both the pubo-urethral distance and the proximal urethra length became shorter (p < 0.003, and the urethrovesical junction horizontal distance was reduced only at rest (p = 0.03. The tension-free vaginal tape procedure resulted in a reduction of the urethrovesical junction vertical
Application of spreadsheet to estimate infiltration parameters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Zakwan
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Infiltration is the process of flow of water into the ground through the soil surface. Soil water although contributes a negligible fraction of total water present on earth surface, but is of utmost importance for plant life. Estimation of infiltration rates is of paramount importance for estimation of effective rainfall, groundwater recharge, and designing of irrigation systems. Numerous infiltration models are in use for estimation of infiltration rates. The conventional graphical approach for estimation of infiltration parameters often fails to estimate the infiltration parameters precisely. The generalised reduced gradient (GRG solver is reported to be a powerful tool for estimating parameters of nonlinear equations and it has, therefore, been implemented to estimate the infiltration parameters in the present paper. Field data of infiltration rate available in literature for sandy loam soils of Umuahia, Nigeria were used to evaluate the performance of GRG solver. A comparative study of graphical method and GRG solver shows that the performance of GRG solver is better than that of conventional graphical method for estimation of infiltration rates. Further, the performance of Kostiakov model has been found to be better than the Horton and Philip's model in most of the cases based on both the approaches of parameter estimation.
Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rigby, D.; Mrugala, M.; Shideler, G.; Davidsavor, T.; Leem, J.; Buesch, D.; Sun, Y.; Potyondy, D.; Christianson, M.
2003-01-01
The Yucca Mountain Project is entering a the license application (LA) stage in its mission to develop the nation's first underground nuclear waste repository. After a number of years of gathering data related to site characterization, including activities ranging from laboratory and site investigations, to numerical modeling of processes associated with conditions to be encountered in the future repository, the Project is realigning its activities towards the License Application preparation. At the current stage, the major efforts are directed at translating the results of scientific investigations into sets of data needed to support the design, and to fulfill the licensing requirements and the repository design activities. This document addresses the program need to address specific technical questions so that an assessment can be made about the suitability and adequacy of data to license and construct a repository at the Yucca Mountain Site. In July 2002, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published an Integrated Issue Resolution Status Report (NRC 2002). Included in this report were the Repository Design and Thermal-Mechanical Effects (RDTME) Key Technical Issues (KTI). Geotechnical agreements were formulated to resolve a number of KTI subissues, in particular, RDTME KTIs 3.04, 3.05, 3.07, and 3.19 relate to the physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the host rock (NRC 2002, pp. 2.1.1-28, 2.1.7-10 to 2.1.7-21, A-17, A-18, and A-20). The purpose of the Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report is to present an accounting of current geotechnical information that will help resolve KTI subissues and some other project needs. The report analyzes and summarizes available qualified geotechnical data. It evaluates the sufficiency and quality of existing data to support engineering design and performance assessment. In addition, the corroborative data obtained from tests performed by a number of research organizations is presented to reinforce
Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D. Rigby; M. Mrugala; G. Shideler; T. Davidsavor; J. Leem; D. Buesch; Y. Sun; D. Potyondy; M. Christianson
2003-12-17
The Yucca Mountain Project is entering a the license application (LA) stage in its mission to develop the nation's first underground nuclear waste repository. After a number of years of gathering data related to site characterization, including activities ranging from laboratory and site investigations, to numerical modeling of processes associated with conditions to be encountered in the future repository, the Project is realigning its activities towards the License Application preparation. At the current stage, the major efforts are directed at translating the results of scientific investigations into sets of data needed to support the design, and to fulfill the licensing requirements and the repository design activities. This document addresses the program need to address specific technical questions so that an assessment can be made about the suitability and adequacy of data to license and construct a repository at the Yucca Mountain Site. In July 2002, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published an Integrated Issue Resolution Status Report (NRC 2002). Included in this report were the Repository Design and Thermal-Mechanical Effects (RDTME) Key Technical Issues (KTI). Geotechnical agreements were formulated to resolve a number of KTI subissues, in particular, RDTME KTIs 3.04, 3.05, 3.07, and 3.19 relate to the physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the host rock (NRC 2002, pp. 2.1.1-28, 2.1.7-10 to 2.1.7-21, A-17, A-18, and A-20). The purpose of the Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report is to present an accounting of current geotechnical information that will help resolve KTI subissues and some other project needs. The report analyzes and summarizes available qualified geotechnical data. It evaluates the sufficiency and quality of existing data to support engineering design and performance assessment. In addition, the corroborative data obtained from tests performed by a number of research organizations is presented to reinforce
A new importance measure for risk-informed decision making
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borgonovo, E.; Apostolakis, G.E.
2000-01-01
Recently, several authors pointed out that the traditional importance measures had limitations. In this study, the problem through an analysis at the parameter level was investigated and a new measure was introduced. The measure was based on small parameter variations and is capable of accounting for the importance of a group of components/parameters. The definition, computational steps, and an application of a new importance measure for risk-informed decision making were presented here. Unlike traditional importance measures, differential importance measure (DIM) deals with changes in the various parameters that determine the unavailability/unreliability of a component, e.g., failure rates, common-cause failure rates, individual human errors. The importance of the component unavailability/unreliability can be calculated from the importance of the parameters. DIM can be calculated for the frequency of initiating events, while risk achievement worth (RAW) is limited to binary events, e.g., component unavailability. The changes in parameters are 'small'. This is more realistic than the drastic assumption in RAW that the component is always down. DIM is additive. This allows the evaluation of the impact of changes, such as the relaxation of quality assurance requirements, which affect groups of parameters, e.g., the failure rates of a group of pumps. (M.N.)
WIPP Compliance Certification Application calculations parameters. Part 1: Parameter development
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Howarth, S.M.
1997-01-01
The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeast New Mexico has been studied as a transuranic waste repository for the past 23 years. During this time, an extensive site characterization, design, construction, and experimental program was completed, which provided in-depth understanding of the dominant processes that are most likely to influence the containment of radionuclides for 10,000 years. Nearly 1,500 parameters were developed using information gathered from this program; the parameters were input to numerical models for WIPP Compliance Certification Application (CCA) Performance Assessment (PA) calculations. The CCA probabilistic codes frequently require input values that define a statistical distribution for each parameter. Developing parameter distributions begins with the assignment of an appropriate distribution type, which is dependent on the type, magnitude, and volume of data or information available. The development of the parameter distribution values may require interpretation or statistical analysis of raw data, combining raw data with literature values, scaling of lab or field data to fit code grid mesh sizes, or other transformation. Parameter development and documentation of the development process were very complicated, especially for those parameters based on empirical data; they required the integration of information from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) code sponsors, parameter task leaders (PTLs), performance assessment analysts (PAAs), and experimental principal investigators (PIs). This paper, Part 1 of two parts, contains a discussion of the parameter development process, roles and responsibilities, and lessons learned. Part 2 will discuss parameter documentation, traceability and retrievability, and lessons learned from related audits and reviews
Estimating RASATI scores using acoustical parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agüero, P D; Tulli, J C; Moscardi, G; Gonzalez, E L; Uriz, A J
2011-01-01
Acoustical analysis of speech using computers has reached an important development in the latest years. The subjective evaluation of a clinician is complemented with an objective measure of relevant parameters of voice. Praat, MDVP (Multi Dimensional Voice Program) and SAV (Software for Voice Analysis) are some examples of software for speech analysis. This paper describes an approach to estimate the subjective characteristics of RASATI scale given objective acoustical parameters. Two approaches were used: linear regression with non-negativity constraints, and neural networks. The experiments show that such approach gives correct evaluations with ±1 error in 80% of the cases.
Gogate, Vibhav; Dechter, Rina
2012-01-01
The paper introduces AND/OR importance sampling for probabilistic graphical models. In contrast to importance sampling, AND/OR importance sampling caches samples in the AND/OR space and then extracts a new sample mean from the stored samples. We prove that AND/OR importance sampling may have lower variance than importance sampling; thereby providing a theoretical justification for preferring it over importance sampling. Our empirical evaluation demonstrates that AND/OR importance sampling is ...
Setting parameters in the cold chain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Victoria Rodríguez
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Breaks in the cold chain are important economic losses in food and pharmaceutical companies. Many of the failures in the cold chain are due to improper adjustment of equipment parameters such as setting the parameters for theoretical conditions, without a corresponding check in normal operation. The companies that transport refrigeratedproducts must be able to adjust the parameters of the equipment in an easy and quick to adapt their functioning to changing environmental conditions. This article presents the results of a study carried out with a food distribution company. The main objective of the study is to verify the effectiveness of Six Sigma as a methodological toolto adjust the equipment in the cold chain. The second objective is more speciÞ c and is to study the impact of: reducing the volume of storage in the truck, the initial temperature of the storage areain the truck and the frequency of defrost in the transport of refrigerated products.
Making maps of cosmological parameters
Mukherjee, Suvodip; Wandelt, Benjamin D.
2018-01-01
We provide a fast algorithm to diagnose any directional dependence in the cosmological parameters by calculating maps of local cosmological parameter estimates and their joint errors. The technique implements a fast quadratic estimator technique based on Wiener filtering and convolution of the sky with a patch shape. It uses only three map-resolution spherical harmonic transforms per parameter and applies to any data set with full sky or a partial sky coverage. We apply this method to Planck SMICA-2015 and obtain fluctuation map for six cosmological parameters. Our estimate shows that the Planck data is consistent with a single global value of the cosmological parameters and is not influenced by any severe local contaminations. This method is applicable also to other angular or 3D data sets of future missions to scrutinize any local variation in the cosmological parameters.
WIPP Compliance Certification Application calculations parameters. Part 2: Parameter documentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Howarth, S.M.
1997-01-01
The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeast New Mexico has been studied as a transuranic waste repository for the past 23 years. During this time, an extensive site characterization, design, construction, and experimental program was completed, which provided in depth understanding of the dominant processes that are most likely to influence the containment of radionuclides for 10,000 years. Nearly 1,500 parameters were developed using information gathered from this program and were input to numerical models for WIPP Compliance Certification Application (CCA) Performance Assessment (PA) calculations. The CCA probability models require input parameters that are defined by a statistical distribution. Developing parameters begins with the assignment of an appropriate distribution type, which is dependent on the type, magnitude, and volume of data or information available. Parameter development may require interpretation or statistical analysis of raw data, combining raw data with literature values, scaling laboratory or field data to fit code grid mesh sizes, or other transformations. Documentation of parameter development is designed to answer two questions: What source information was used to develop this parameter? and Why was this particular data set/information used? Therefore, complete documentation requires integrating information from code sponsors, parameter task leaders, performance assessment analysts, and experimental principal investigators. This paper, Part 2 of 2 parts, contains a discussion of the WIPP CCA PA Parameter Tracking System, document traceability and retrievability, and lessons learned from related audits and reviews
Systematic of delayed neutron parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isaev, S.G.; Piksaikin, V.M.
2000-01-01
The experimental studies of the energy dependence of the delayed neutron (DN) parameters for various fission systems has shown that the behaviour of a some combination of delayed neutron parameters has a similar features. On the basis of this findings the systematics of delayed neutron experimental data for thorium, uranium, plutonium and americium isotopes have been investigated with the purpose to find a correlation of DN parameters with characteristics of fissioning system as well as a correlation between the delayed neutron parameters themselves. It was presented the preliminary results which were obtained during study the physics interpretation of the results [ru
Cosmological parameter estimation using particle swarm optimization
Prasad, Jayanti; Souradeep, Tarun
2012-06-01
Constraining theoretical models, which are represented by a set of parameters, using observational data is an important exercise in cosmology. In Bayesian framework this is done by finding the probability distribution of parameters which best fits to the observational data using sampling based methods like Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). It has been argued that MCMC may not be the best option in certain problems in which the target function (likelihood) poses local maxima or have very high dimensionality. Apart from this, there may be examples in which we are mainly interested to find the point in the parameter space at which the probability distribution has the largest value. In this situation the problem of parameter estimation becomes an optimization problem. In the present work we show that particle swarm optimization (PSO), which is an artificial intelligence inspired population based search procedure, can also be used for cosmological parameter estimation. Using PSO we were able to recover the best-fit Λ cold dark matter (LCDM) model parameters from the WMAP seven year data without using any prior guess value or any other property of the probability distribution of parameters like standard deviation, as is common in MCMC. We also report the results of an exercise in which we consider a binned primordial power spectrum (to increase the dimensionality of problem) and find that a power spectrum with features gives lower chi square than the standard power law. Since PSO does not sample the likelihood surface in a fair way, we follow a fitting procedure to find the spread of likelihood function around the best-fit point.
Statistics of Parameter Estimates: A Concrete Example
Aguilar, Oscar
2015-01-01
© 2015 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. Most mathematical models include parameters that need to be determined from measurements. The estimated values of these parameters and their uncertainties depend on assumptions made about noise levels, models, or prior knowledge. But what can we say about the validity of such estimates, and the influence of these assumptions? This paper is concerned with methods to address these questions, and for didactic purposes it is written in the context of a concrete nonlinear parameter estimation problem. We will use the results of a physical experiment conducted by Allmaras et al. at Texas A&M University [M. Allmaras et al., SIAM Rev., 55 (2013), pp. 149-167] to illustrate the importance of validation procedures for statistical parameter estimation. We describe statistical methods and data analysis tools to check the choices of likelihood and prior distributions, and provide examples of how to compare Bayesian results with those obtained by non-Bayesian methods based on different types of assumptions. We explain how different statistical methods can be used in complementary ways to improve the understanding of parameter estimates and their uncertainties.
Analysis of sagittal spinopelvic parameters in achondroplasia.
Hong, Jae-Young; Suh, Seung-Woo; Modi, Hitesh N; Park, Jong-Woong; Park, Jung-Ho
2011-08-15
Prospective radiological analysis of patients with achondroplasia. To analyze sagittal spinal alignment and pelvic orientation in achondroplasia patients. Knowledge of sagittal spinopelvic parameters is important for the treatment of achondroplasia, because they differ from those of the normal population and can induce pain. The study and control groups were composed of 32 achondroplasia patients and 24 healthy volunteers, respectively. All underwent lateral radiography of the whole spine including hip joints. The radiographic parameters examined were sacral slope (SS), pelvic tilt, pelvic incidence (PI), S1 overhang, thoracic kyphosis, T10-L2 kyphosis, lumbar lordosis (LL1, LL2), and sagittal balance. Statistical analysis was performed to identify significant differences between the two groups. In addition, correlations between parameters and symptoms were sought. Sagittal spinopelvic parameters, namely, pelvic tilt, pelvic incidence, S1 overhang, thoracic kyphosis, T10-L2 kyphosis, lumbar lordosis 1 and sagittal balance were found to be significantly different in the patient and control groups (P achondroplasia patients and normal healthy controls. The present study shows that sagittal spinal and pelvic parameters can assist the treatment of spinal disorders in achondroplasia patients.
HLB value, an important parameter for the development of essential oil phytopharmaceuticals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Caio P. Fernandes
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Essential oils are used primarily as natural preservatives, flavourants and fragrances in cosmetic products. Several pharmacopeias possess monographs of plants which are good sources of essential oils, such as Brazilian Pharmacopeia, including Illicium verum Hook. f., Schisandraceae and Rosmarinus offi cinalis. Since determination of Hydrophile-Lipophile Balance (HLB value of essential oils appears as a critical step for development of emulsions and other semi-solid formulations, evaluation of required HLB values for I. verum and R. offi cinalis essential oils is the aim of this study. They were obtained by hydrodistillation and several emulsions were prepared by changing emulsifiers. The couple sorbitan oleate/polysorbate 20 provided best emulsions and was used at different ratios, at a total blend concentration of 5% w/w. The lowest mean droplet diameters for R. offi cinalis and I. verum emulsions were obtained at HLB 16.5 (97.12 nm and 16.7 (246.6 nm, respectively. Moreover, emulsions with R. offi cinalis were finer and presented some bluish reflection, characteristic of nanoemulsions. The lowest turbidity value for R. offi cinalis emulsion was also obtained at HLB 16.5 (0.33. Thus, the present study describes for the first time HLB values for R. offi cinalis (16.5 and I. verum (16.7 essential oils, contributing to their physicochemical characterization and technology development of phytopharmaceuticals.
HLB value, an important parameter for the development of essential oil phytopharmaceuticals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Caio P. Fernandes
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Essential oils are used primarily as natural preservatives, flavourants and fragrances in cosmetic products. Several pharmacopeias possess monographs of plants which are good sources of essential oils, such as Brazilian Pharmacopeia, including Illicium verum Hook. f., Schisandraceae and Rosmarinus offi cinalis. Since determination of Hydrophile-Lipophile Balance (HLB value of essential oils appears as a critical step for development of emulsions and other semi-solid formulations, evaluation of required HLB values for I. verum and R. offi cinalis essential oils is the aim of this study. They were obtained by hydrodistillation and several emulsions were prepared by changing emulsifiers. The couple sorbitan oleate/polysorbate 20 provided best emulsions and was used at different ratios, at a total blend concentration of 5% w/w. The lowest mean droplet diameters for R. offi cinalis and I. verum emulsions were obtained at HLB 16.5 (97.12 nm and 16.7 (246.6 nm, respectively. Moreover, emulsions with R. offi cinalis were finer and presented some bluish reflection, characteristic of nanoemulsions. The lowest turbidity value for R. offi cinalis emulsion was also obtained at HLB 16.5 (0.33. Thus, the present study describes for the first time HLB values for R. offi cinalis (16.5 and I. verum (16.7 essential oils, contributing to their physicochemical characterization and technology development of phytopharmaceuticals.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Udit Narula
2016-07-01
Full Text Available A systematic method to identify key factors that control the synthesis of Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD-based graphene on copper is necessary for engineering graphene growth. The statistical design-of-experiments method is employed and demonstrated in this work in order to fulfill the necessity. Full-factorial design-of-experiments are performed to examine the significance of the main effects and the extent of the interactions of the controlling factors, which are responsible for the number of layers and the quality of the grown graphene. We found that a thinner amorphous carbon layer and a higher annealing temperature are suitable for the growth of mono-layer/few-layer graphene with low defects, while the effect of annealing time has a trade-off and needs to be optimized further. On the other hand, the same treatment, but with larger annealing times will result in multi-layer graphene and low defects. The results obtained from the analysis of the design-of-experiments are verified experimentally with Raman characterization.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nelson, T.A.
1983-12-01
The development of state-of-the-art techniques for analyzing the effects of soil-structure interaction (SSI) on structures during earthquakes is outlined. Emphasis is placed on methods to account for energy dissipation as a result of both wave propagation away from the structure's foundation and hysteretic soil response. Solution techniques are grouped into two major types: substructure methods, which break the problem into a series of steps; and direct methods, which analyze the soil-structure model in one step. In addition to theoretical and historical development of SSI methodology, case studies are presented illustrating the application of these solution techniques. 94 references
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Allegrini, Elisa; Butera, Stefania; Kosson, D.S.
2015-01-01
, due to the potential leaching of toxic substances. In waste LCA studies where residue utilisation is included, leaching has generally been neglected. In this study, municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWI BA) was used as a case study into three LCA scenarios having different system...... of systems and products and can be applied to waste management systems to identify environmental benefits and critical aspects thereof. From an LCA perspective, residue utilisation provides benefits such as avoiding the production and depletion of primary materials, but it can lead to environmental burdens...... impacts as a result of leaching were dominant in systems including only MSWI BA utilisation, while leaching appeared negligible in larger scenarios including the entire waste system. However, leaching could not be disregarded a priori, due to large uncertainties characterising other activities...
Sensitivity studies of some important parameters in the criticality of nuclear fuel pool
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pina, C.
1981-01-01
The criticality study of spent fuels storage aiming to verify this security. A small description of the optimal moderation phenomena as well as the effect of stainless steel plates as neutron absorbed material, arre presented [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Narayana, Y.; Rajashekara, K.M.
2010-01-01
External gamma radiation levels were measured in the catchment areas of the Sharavathi River and the dose rates in air were found to be in the range 26.0-61.0 nGy h -1 . Soil and sediment samples of the riverine environment were analysed for natural radionuclides such as 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K using a NaI(Tl) gamma spectrometer. The activity concentration of 210 Pb and 210 Po in soil and sediment samples was determined by radiochemical separation techniques. Evaluation of the activity concentration of radionuclides with grain size revealed an increase in the activity of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K towards fine grain size. The activity concentrations for all isotopes in all samples were not significantly correlated with pH. However, the activity of 210 Po and 210 Pb in sediment showed a moderate positive correlation with organic matter content and a good correlation with clay content of sediment.
Observatory data as a proxy of space weather parameters: The importance of historical archives
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hejda, Pavel
2016-01-01
Roč. 20, Č. 2 (2016), s. 47-53 ISSN 0257-7968 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : geomagnetic observatory * geomagnetic indices * sunspot members * space weather Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Physical geography
On the importance of electrode parameters for shaping electric field patterns generated by tDCS
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
B. Saturnino, Guilherme; Antunes, André; Thielscher, Axel
2015-01-01
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) uses electrode pads placed on the head to deliver weak direct current to the brain and modulate neuronal excitability. The effects depend on the intensity and spatial distribution of the electric field. This in turn depends on the geometry and electric...... electrode modeling influences the calculated electric field in the brain. We take into account electrode shape, size, connector position and conductivities of different electrode materials (including saline solutions and electrode gels). These factors are systematically characterized to demonstrate...... their impact on the field distribution in the brain. The goals are to assess the effect of simplified electrode models; and to develop practical rules-of-thumb to achieve a stronger stimulation of the targeted brain regions underneath the electrode pads. We show that for standard rectangular electrode pads...
Microbiological parameters as indicators of compost maturity.
Tiquia, S M
2005-01-01
The objectives of this study were to determine the changes of microbial properties of pig manure collected from pens with different management strategies and composted using different turning and moisture regimes; relate their association with humification parameters and compost temperature; and identify the most suitable microbial indicators of compost maturity. Six different microbial parameters, including total bacterial count, oxygen consumption rate, ATP content, dehydrogenase activity, and microbial biomass C and N, along with humification parameters [humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA) and HA : FA ratio] and compost temperature were monitored during composting. Significant positive correlations were found between temperature and microbial properties, including O2 consumption rate, ATP content, dehydrogenase activity, and microbial biomass N. The humification parameters also showed significant correlations with microbial properties of the manure compost. For instance, HA contents of pig manures was positively correlated with total aerobic heterotrophs, and microbial biomass N and C; and negatively correlated with O2 consumption rate, ATP content, and dehydrogenase activity. Among the six microbial parameters examined, dehydrogenase activity was the most important factor affecting compost temperature and humification parameters. Composting strategies employed in this study affected the speed of composting and time of maturation. If the moisture content is maintained weekly at 60% with a 4-day turning frequency, the pig manure will reach maturity in 56 days. The composting process went through predictable changes in temperature, microbial properties and chemical components despite differences in the initial pig manure and composting strategies used. Among the six microbial parameters used, dehydrogenase activity is the most suitable indicator of compost maturity. Compared with respiration rate, ATP content and microbial biomass procedures, dehydrogenase activity
Measured radioecological parameters after the Chernobyl accident
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonka, H.
1989-01-01
After the Chernobyl accident the radioactivity in the environment in Aachen was measured in detail. The change of the different radionuclies in the eco-system made it possible to obtain radioecological parameters especially for iodine and caesium. The most important data obtained like deposition velocity, washout coefficient, retention factor, removal rate constant, and transfer factor food-milk, food-beef, and soil-grass are reported. (orig.)
Plasma diagnostics discharge parameters and chemistry
Auciello, Orlando
1989-01-01
Plasma Diagnostics, Volume 1: Discharge Parameters and Chemistry covers seven chapters on the important diagnostic techniques for plasmas and details their use in particular applications. The book discusses optical diagnostic techniques for low pressure plasmas and plasma processing; plasma diagnostics for electrical discharge light sources; as well as Langmuir probes. The text also describes the mass spectroscopy of plasmas, microwave diagnostics, paramagnetic resonance diagnostics, and diagnostics in thermal plasma processing. Electrical engineers, nuclear engineers, microwave engineers, che
Parameter Curation for Benchmark Queries
Gubichev, Andrey; Boncz, Peter
2014-01-01
In this paper we consider the problem of generating parameters for benchmark queries so these have stable behavior despite being executed on datasets (real-world or synthetic) with skewed data distributions and value correlations. We show that uniform random sampling of the substitution parameters
Free flight in parameter space
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dahlstedt, Palle; Nilsson, Per Anders
2008-01-01
The well-known difficulty of controlling many synthesis parameters in performance, for exploration and expression, is addressed. Inspired by interactive evolution, random vectors in parameter space are assigned to an array of pressure sensitive pads. Vectors are scaled with pressure and added...
ACTIVATION PARAMETERS AND EXCESS THERMODYANAMIC ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Applying these data, viscosity-B-coefficients, activation parameters (Δμ10≠) and (Δμ20≠) and excess thermodynamic functions, viz., excess molar volume (VE), excess viscosity, ηE and excess molar free energy of activation of flow, (GE) were calculated. The value of interaction parameter, d, of Grunberg and Nissan ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Euis Soliha
2011-03-01
Full Text Available This study focused on phenomenon behavior of compulsive buying. The study examined how Self-Acceptance Importance, Affiliation Importance, and Community Feeling Importance influenced on Compulsive Buying. Population in this research was students in Kota Semarang, and 104 students become samples. To answer problem that is accurate, researcher applies econometrics Logit model. Result of research indicates that there were negativity influence Self-Acceptance Importance, Affiliation Importance and Community Feeling to Compulsive Buying. Result of this supports all hypothesis and consistent with theory.Keywords: compulsive buying, self-acceptance Importance, affiliation Importance, community feeling Importance, Logit Model
Electrochemical Behavior of Biologically Important Indole Derivatives
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cigdem Karaaslan
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Voltammetric techniques are most suitable to investigate the redox properties of a new drug. Use of electrochemistry is an important approach in drug discovery and research as well as quality control, drug stability, and determination of physiological activity. The indole nucleus is an essential element of a number of natural and synthetic products with significant biological activity. Indole derivatives are the well-known electroactive compounds that are readily oxidized at carbon-based electrodes, and thus analytical procedures, such as electrochemical detection and voltammetry, have been developed for the determination of biologically important indoles. This paper explains some of the relevant and recent achievements in the electrochemistry processes and parameters mainly related to biologically important indole derivatives in view of drug discovery and analysis.
How important is importance for prospective memory? A review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefan eWalter
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Forgetting to carry out an intention as planned can have serious consequences in everyday life. People sometimes even forget intentions that they consider as very important. Here, we review the literature on the impact of importance on prospective memory performance. We highlight different methods used to manipulate the importance of a prospective memory task such as providing rewards, importance relative to other ongoing activities, absolute importance, and providing social motives. Moreover, we address the relationship between importance and other factors known to affect prospective memory and ongoing task performance such as type of prospective memory task (time-, event- or activity-based, cognitive loads, and cue focality. Finally, we provide a connection to motivation, we summarize the effects of task importance and we identify important venues for future research.
Generating three-parameter sensor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Filinyuk M. A.
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Generating sensors provide the possibility of getting remote information and its easy conversion into digital form. Typically, these are one-parameter sensors formed by combination of a primary transmitter (PT and a sine wave generator. Two-parameter sensors are not widely used as their implementation causes a problem with ambiguity output when measuring the PT. Nevertheless, the problem of creating miniature, thrifty multi-parameter RF sensors for different branches of science and industry remains relevant. Considering ways of designing RF sensors, we study the possibility of constructing a three-parameter microwave radio frequency range sensor, which is based on a two-stage three-parameter generalized immitance convertor (GIC. Resistive, inductive and capacitive PT are used as sensing elements. A mathematical model of the sensor, which describes the relation of the sensor parameters to the parameters of GIC and PT was developed. The basic parameters of the sensor, its transfer function and sensitivity were studied. It is shown that the maximum value of the power generated signal will be observed at a frequency of 175 MHz, and the frequency ranges depending on the parameters of the PT will be different. Research results and adequacy of the mathematical model were verified by the experiment. Error of the calculated dependences of the lasing frequency on PT parameters change, compared with the experimental data does not exceed 2 %. The relative sensitivity of the sensor based on two-stage GIC showed that for the resistive channel it is about 1.88, for the capacitive channel –1,54 and for the inductive channel –11,5. Thus, it becomes possible to increase the sensor sensitivity compared with the sensitivity of the PT almost 1,2—2 times, and by using the two stage GIC a multifunctional sensor is provided.
Study on Parameters Modeling of Wind Turbines Using SCADA Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yonglong YAN
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Taking the advantage of the current massive monitoring data from Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA system of wind farm, it is of important significance for anomaly detection, early warning and fault diagnosis to build the data model of state parameters of wind turbines (WTs. The operational conditions and the relationships between the state parameters of wind turbines are complex. It is difficult to establish the model of state parameter accurately, and the modeling method of state parameters of wind turbines considering parameter selection is proposed. Firstly, by analyzing the characteristic of SCADA data, a reasonable range of data and monitoring parameters are chosen. Secondly, neural network algorithm is adapted, and the selection method of input parameters in the model is presented. Generator bearing temperature and cooling air temperature are regarded as target parameters, and the two models are built and input parameters of the models are selected, respectively. Finally, the parameter selection method in this paper and the method using genetic algorithm-partial least square (GA-PLS are analyzed comparatively, and the results show that the proposed methods are correct and effective. Furthermore, the modeling of two parameters illustrate that the method in this paper can applied to other state parameters of wind turbines.
Calculation of electromagnetic parameter based on interpolation algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Wenqiang; Yuan, Liming; Zhang, Deyuan
2015-01-01
Wave-absorbing material is an important functional material of electromagnetic protection. The wave-absorbing characteristics depend on the electromagnetic parameter of mixed media. In order to accurately predict the electromagnetic parameter of mixed media and facilitate the design of wave-absorbing material, based on the electromagnetic parameters of spherical and flaky carbonyl iron mixture of paraffin base, this paper studied two different interpolation methods: Lagrange interpolation and Hermite interpolation of electromagnetic parameters. The results showed that Hermite interpolation is more accurate than the Lagrange interpolation, and the reflectance calculated with the electromagnetic parameter obtained by interpolation is consistent with that obtained through experiment on the whole. - Highlights: • We use interpolation algorithm on calculation of EM-parameter with limited samples. • Interpolation method can predict EM-parameter well with different particles added. • Hermite interpolation is more accurate than Lagrange interpolation. • Calculating RL based on interpolation is consistent with calculating RL from experiment
Importance biasing quality criterion based on contribution response theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borisov, N.M.; Panin, M.P.
2001-01-01
The report proposes a visual criterion of importance biasing both of forward and adjoint simulation. The similarity of contribution Monte Carlo and importance biasing random collision event distribution is proved. The conservation of total number of random trajectory crossings of surfaces, which separate the source and the detector is proposed as importance biasing quality criterion. The use of this criterion is demonstrated on the example of forward vs. adjoint importance biasing in gamma ray deep penetration problem. The larger amount of published data on forward field characteristics than on adjoint leads to the more accurate approximation of adjoint importance function in comparison to forward, for it adjoint importance simulation is more effective than forward. The proposed criterion indicates it visually, showing the most uniform distribution of random trajectory crossing events for the most effective importance biasing parameters and pointing to the direction of tuning importance biasing parameters. (orig.)
Parameter Uncertainty for Repository Thermal Analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Greenberg, Harris [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dupont, Mark [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)
2015-10-01
This report is one follow-on to a study of reference geologic disposal design concepts (Hardin et al. 2011a). Based on an analysis of maximum temperatures, that study concluded that certain disposal concepts would require extended decay storage prior to emplacement, or the use of small waste packages, or both. The study used nominal values for thermal properties of host geologic media and engineered materials, demonstrating the need for uncertainty analysis to support the conclusions. This report is a first step that identifies the input parameters of the maximum temperature calculation, surveys published data on measured values, uses an analytical approach to determine which parameters are most important, and performs an example sensitivity analysis. Using results from this first step, temperature calculations planned for FY12 can focus on only the important parameters, and can use the uncertainty ranges reported here. The survey of published information on thermal properties of geologic media and engineered materials, is intended to be sufficient for use in generic calculations to evaluate the feasibility of reference disposal concepts. A full compendium of literature data is beyond the scope of this report. The term “uncertainty” is used here to represent both measurement uncertainty and spatial variability, or variability across host geologic units. For the most important parameters (e.g., buffer thermal conductivity) the extent of literature data surveyed samples these different forms of uncertainty and variability. Finally, this report is intended to be one chapter or section of a larger FY12 deliverable summarizing all the work on design concepts and thermal load management for geologic disposal (M3FT-12SN0804032, due 15Aug2012).
A sensitivity analysis approach to optical parameters of scintillation detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghal-Eh, N.; Koohi-Fayegh, R.
2008-01-01
In this study, an extended version of the Monte Carlo light transport code, PHOTRACK, has been used for a sensitivity analysis to estimate the importance of different wavelength-dependent parameters in the modelling of light collection process in scintillators
Optimizing the processing parameters for modular production of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
. For a PCB processing system, the most important processing parameters that could impart on the quality and cost of the board are temperature of processing solutions and time duration of each processing stage. An evaluation of the ...
Noise-resistant spectral features for retrieving foliar chemical parameters
Foliar chemical constituents are important indicators for understanding vegetation growing status and ecosystem functionality. Provided the noncontact and nondestructive traits, the hyperspectral analysis is a superior and efficient method for deriving these parameters. In practical implementation o...
Soliha, Euis
2011-01-01
This study focused on phenomenon behavior of compulsive buying. The study examined how Self-Acceptance Importance, Affiliation Importance, and Community Feeling Importance influenced on Compulsive Buying. Population in this research was students in Kota Semarang, and 104 students become samples. To answer problem that is accurate, researcher applies econometrics Logit model. Result of research indicates that there were negativity influence Self-Acceptance Importance, Affiliation Importance an...
Soliha, Euis
2010-01-01
This study focused on phenomenon behavior of compulsive buying. The study examined how Self-Acceptance Importance, Affiliation Importance, and Community Feeling Importance influenced on Compulsive Buying. Population in this research was students in Kota Semarang, and 104 students become samples. To answer problem that is accurate, researcher applies econometrics Logit model. Result of research indicates that there were negativity influence Self-Acceptance Importance, Affiliation Importance an...
Telemetry System of Biological Parameters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jan Spisak
2005-01-01
Full Text Available The mobile telemetry system of biological parameters serves for reading and wireless data transfer of measured values of selected biological parameters to an outlying computer. It concerns basically long time monitoring of vital function of car pilot.The goal of this projects is to propose mobile telemetry system for reading, wireless transfer and processing of biological parameters of car pilot during physical and psychical stress. It has to be made with respect to minimal consumption, weight and maximal device mobility. This system has to eliminate signal noise, which is created by biological artifacts and disturbances during the data transfer.
Importance measures and resource allocation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guey, C.N.; Morgan, T.; Hughes, E.A.
1987-01-01
This paper discusses various importance measures and their practical relevance to allocating resources. The characteristics of importance measures are illustrated through simple examples. Important factors associated with effectively allocating resources to improve plant system performance or to prevent system degradation are discussed. It is concluded that importance measures are only indicative of and not equal to the risk significance of a component, system, or event. A decision framework is suggested to provide a comprehensive basis for resource allocation
Asad, Muhammad
2014-01-01
Import export businesses, also known as international trading, are one of the hottest commercial trends of this decade. Since the owner of an import export enterprise, can work as a distributor by focusing on exporting and importing goods and services that cannot be obtained on national soil. With a rapidly growing population of about 150 million, Pakistan is a major country, recognized by the international community, and is one of the most important actors in the Islamic world. Based on its ...
Sequential parameter estimation for stochastic systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. A. Kivman
2003-01-01
Full Text Available The quality of the prediction of dynamical system evolution is determined by the accuracy to which initial conditions and forcing are known. Availability of future observations permits reducing the effects of errors in assessment the external model parameters by means of a filtering algorithm. Usually, uncertainties in specifying internal model parameters describing the inner system dynamics are neglected. Since they are characterized by strongly non-Gaussian distributions (parameters are positive, as a rule, traditional Kalman filtering schemes are badly suited to reducing the contribution of this type of uncertainties to the forecast errors. An extension of the Sequential Importance Resampling filter (SIR is proposed to this aim. The filter is verified against the Ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF in application to the stochastic Lorenz system. It is shown that the SIR is capable of estimating the system parameters and to predict the evolution of the system with a remarkably better accuracy than the EnKF. This highlights a severe drawback of any Kalman filtering scheme: due to utilizing only first two statistical moments in the analysis step it is unable to deal with probability density functions badly approximated by the normal distribution.
THE HAEMORHEOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF HYPERTENSIVE ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
admin
) and. Whole Blood Relative Viscosity (WBRV) were determined by capillary viscometry as described by Reid and Ugwu (1987) and recently modified by Korubo-Owiye et al. (1997). All haemorheological parameters were analyzed within 2 ...
Real-Time Parameter Identification
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers have implemented in the control room a technique for estimating in real time the aerodynamic parameters that describe the stability and control...
THERMODYNAMIC PARAMETERS OF SOLUTIONS OF ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2014-06-30
Jun 30, 2014 ... THERMODYNAMIC PARAMETERS OF SOLUTIONS OF SILDENAFIL CITRATE. IN SOME ORGANIC SOLVENTS AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES. S. Baluja* and K. Bhesaniya. Physical Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry,. Saurashtra University, Rajkot-360005 (Gujarat), India. Received: 24 ...
Parameters of care for craniosynostosis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vargervik, Karin; Rubin, Marcie S; Grayson, Barry H
2012-01-01
A multidisciplinary conference was convened in March 2010 with the charge to develop parameters of care for patients with craniosynostosis. The 52 participants represented 16 medical specialties and 16 professional societies. Herein, we present the dental, orthodontic, and surgical care...
Impact Effects Calculator. Orbital Parameters.
Glazachev, D.; Naroenkov, S.; Kartashova, A.; Turuntaev, I.; Svetsov, V.; Shuvalov, V.; Popova, O.; Podobnaya, E.
2017-09-01
Next-generation Impact Calculator for quick assessment of impact consequences is preparing. The estimates of impact effects are revised. The possibility to manipulate with the orbital parameters and to determine impact point is included.
Linking Item Response Model Parameters.
van der Linden, Wim J; Barrett, Michelle D
2016-09-01
With a few exceptions, the problem of linking item response model parameters from different item calibrations has been conceptualized as an instance of the problem of test equating scores on different test forms. This paper argues, however, that the use of item response models does not require any test score equating. Instead, it involves the necessity of parameter linking due to a fundamental problem inherent in the formal nature of these models-their general lack of identifiability. More specifically, item response model parameters need to be linked to adjust for the different effects of the identifiability restrictions used in separate item calibrations. Our main theorems characterize the formal nature of these linking functions for monotone, continuous response models, derive their specific shapes for different parameterizations of the 3PL model, and show how to identify them from the parameter values of the common items or persons in different linking designs.
Digital Power Network Parameters Measurement
Hribik, J.; Fuchs, P.; Hruskovic, M.; Michalek, R.; Lojko, B.
2005-01-01
Exact measurement of the parameters of a power network is now possible by digital methods. The description of the proposed and realized instrument based on the digital sampling method is given. It can measure basic parameters of the three-phase power network such as rms values of voltages and currents, powers, energies, power factors and the network frequency. Questions concerning the accuracy of measurement, error sources, and error correction are also given. A method of calibration based on...
Parameters of atmospheric radioactivity in Bulgaria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yaneva, B.; Todorov, P.; Georgieva, D.
2006-01-01
Bulgaria is a country which is located on the Balkan Peninsula, at the Eastern part of Europe. There are a lot of polluting sources, which can affect the environmental parameters and human health. One of these parameters is a radioactivity. It can be as a result from natural and anthropological sources. One of the most important sources of radiological influence to the environment and its components is from atmosphere. Anthropological sources of atmospheric pollution are Nuclear power plants, different kinds of industrial plants, and so on. The systematic control on these parameters is made by the Ministry of environment and water in Bulgaria. The atmospheric radioactivity research is based on collecting of many samples and its examine. The collecting of these aerosol samples on different kind of filters is automatic and it is put into practice by fixed stations located in some of the main towns in Bulgaria - Sofia, Varna, Burgas, Vratza and Montana. The required amount of air for each sample is 1000m 3 . These samples are analyzed by gamma-spectrometry analysis for determination of specifies activity of natural and anthropological radionuclides in them. Monitoring data for the atmospheric radioactivity can be characterized by concentrations of Cs-137, Be-7. The results show that concentrations of Cs-137 are 3 and the concentrations for Be-7 vary from 0.7 to 15.7 mBq/m 3 . Other important radionuclides are Sr-90, Uranium and Ra-226
Adaptive Importance Sampling with a Rapidly Varying Importance Function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Booth, Thomas E.
2000-01-01
It is known well that zero-variance Monte Carlo solutions are possible if an exact importance function is available to bias the random walks. Monte Carlo can be used to estimate the importance function. This estimated importance function then can be used to bias a subsequent Monte Carlo calculation that estimates an even better importance function; this iterative process is called adaptive importance sampling.To obtain the importance function, one can expand the importance function in a basis such as the Legendre polynomials and make Monte Carlo estimates of the expansion coefficients. For simple problems, Legendre expansions of order 10 to 15 are able to represent the importance function well enough to reduce the error geometrically by ten orders of magnitude or more. The more complicated problems are addressed in which the importance function cannot be represented well by Legendre expansions of order 10 to 15. In particular, a problem with a cross-section notch and a problem with a discontinuous cross section are considered
Inflation and cosmological parameter estimation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hamann, J.
2007-05-15
In this work, we focus on two aspects of cosmological data analysis: inference of parameter values and the search for new effects in the inflationary sector. Constraints on cosmological parameters are commonly derived under the assumption of a minimal model. We point out that this procedure systematically underestimates errors and possibly biases estimates, due to overly restrictive assumptions. In a more conservative approach, we analyse cosmological data using a more general eleven-parameter model. We find that regions of the parameter space that were previously thought ruled out are still compatible with the data; the bounds on individual parameters are relaxed by up to a factor of two, compared to the results for the minimal six-parameter model. Moreover, we analyse a class of inflation models, in which the slow roll conditions are briefly violated, due to a step in the potential. We show that the presence of a step generically leads to an oscillating spectrum and perform a fit to CMB and galaxy clustering data. We do not find conclusive evidence for a step in the potential and derive strong bounds on quantities that parameterise the step. (orig.)
Identifying the important factors in simulation models with many factors
Bettonvil, B.; Kleijnen, J.P.C.
1994-01-01
Simulation models may have many parameters and input variables (together called factors), while only a few factors are really important (parsimony principle). For such models this paper presents an effective and efficient screening technique to identify and estimate those important factors. The
Importance of quantification of local site effects based on wave ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
This paper presents the three most important aspects of seismic microzonation namely prediction of fundamental frequency (F0) of soil deposit, aggravation factor (aggravation factor is ... We recommend the use of analytical or numerical methods to predict such an important parameter based on wave propagation effects.
Importing Vector Graphics: The grImport Package for R
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paul Murrell
2009-04-01
Full Text Available This article describes an approach to importing vector-based graphical images intostatistical software as implemented in a package called grImport for the R statistical com-puting environment. This approach assumes that an original image can be transformedinto a PostScript format (i.e., the opriginal image is in a standard vector graphics formatsuch as PostScript, PDF, or SVG. The grImport package consists of three components: afunction for converting PostScript les to an R-specic XML format; a function for read-ing the XML format into special Picture objects in R; and functions for manipulatingand drawing Picture objects. Several examples and applications are presented, includingannotating a statistical plot with an imported logo and using imported images as plottingsymbols.
Importance analysis for reconfigurable systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Si, Shubin; Levitin, Gregory; Dui, Hongyan; Sun, Shudong
2014-01-01
Importance measures are used in reliability engineering to rank the system components according to their contributions to proper functioning of the entire system and to find the most effective ways of reliability enhancement. Traditionally, the importance measures do not consider the possible change of system structure with the improvement of specific component reliability. However, if a component's reliability changes, the optimal system structure/configuration may also change and the importance of the corresponding component will depend on the chosen structure. When the most promising component reliability improvement is determined, the component importance should be taken into account with respect to the possible structure changes. This paper studies the component reliability importance indices with respect to the changes of the optimal component sequencing. This importance measure indicates the critical components in providing the system reliability enhancement by both enhancing the component's reliability and reconfiguring the system. Examples of linear consecutive-k-out-of-n: F and G systems are considered to demonstrate the change of the component Birnbaum importance with the optimal system reconfiguration. The results show that the change of the importance index corresponds to the change of the system optimal configuration and the importance index can change not monotonically with the variation of the component reliability
Parameter Estimation Using VLA Data
Venter, Willem C.
The main objective of this dissertation is to extract parameters from multiple wavelength images, on a pixel-to-pixel basis, when the images are corrupted with noise and a point spread function. The data used are from the field of radio astronomy. The very large array (VLA) at Socorro in New Mexico was used to observe planetary nebula NGC 7027 at three different wavelengths, 2 cm, 6 cm and 20 cm. A temperature model, describing the temperature variation in the nebula as a function of optical depth, is postulated. Mathematical expressions for the brightness distribution (flux density) of the nebula, at the three observed wavelengths, are obtained. Using these three equations and the three data values available, one from the observed flux density map at each wavelength, it is possible to solve for two temperature parameters and one optical depth parameter at each pixel location. Due to the fact that the number of unknowns equal the number of equations available, estimation theory cannot be used to smooth any noise present in the data values. It was found that a direct solution of the three highly nonlinear flux density equations is very sensitive to noise in the data. Results obtained from solving for the three unknown parameters directly, as discussed above, were not physical realizable. This was partly due to the effect of incomplete sampling at the time when the data were gathered and to noise in the system. The application of rigorous digital parameter estimation techniques result in estimated parameters that are also not physically realizable. The estimated values for the temperature parameters are for example either too high or negative, which is not physically possible. Simulation studies have shown that a "double smoothing" technique improves the results by a large margin. This technique consists of two parts: in the first part the original observed data are smoothed using a running window and in the second part a similar smoothing of the estimated parameters
A novel physical parameter extraction approach for Schottky diodes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Hao; Chen Xing; Xu Guang-Hui; Huang Ka-Ma
2015-01-01
Parameter extraction is an important step for circuit simulation methods that are based on physical models of semiconductor devices. A novel physical parameter extraction approach for Schottky diodes is proposed in this paper. By employing a set of analytical formulas, this approach extracts all of the necessary physical parameters of the diode chip in a unique way. It then extracts the package parasitic parameters with a curve-fitting method. To validate the proposed approach, a model HSMS-282c commercial Schottky diode is taken as an example. Its physical parameters are extracted and used to simulate the diode’s electrical characteristics. The simulated results based on the extracted parameters are compared with the measurements and a good agreement is obtained, which verifies the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed approach. (paper)
A novel physical parameter extraction approach for Schottky diodes
Wang, Hao; Chen, Xing; Xu, Guang-Hui; Huang, Ka-Ma
2015-07-01
Parameter extraction is an important step for circuit simulation methods that are based on physical models of semiconductor devices. A novel physical parameter extraction approach for Schottky diodes is proposed in this paper. By employing a set of analytical formulas, this approach extracts all of the necessary physical parameters of the diode chip in a unique way. It then extracts the package parasitic parameters with a curve-fitting method. To validate the proposed approach, a model HSMS-282c commercial Schottky diode is taken as an example. Its physical parameters are extracted and used to simulate the diode’s electrical characteristics. The simulated results based on the extracted parameters are compared with the measurements and a good agreement is obtained, which verifies the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed approach. Project supported by the Joint Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China and the China Academy of Engineering Physics (Grant No. U1230112).
The evaluation of set of criticality parameters using scale system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abe, Alfredo; Sanchez, Andrea; Yamaguchi, Mistuo
2009-01-01
In evaluating the criticality safety of the nuclear fuel facility, it is important to apply a consistent methodology, which consider every aspects concerning various types of criticality parameters. Usually, the critical parameters are compiled and arranged into handbooks, and these handbooks are based on experience with nuclear facilities, experimental data from criticality safety research facilities, and theoretical studies performed using numerical simulations. Most of criticality safety evaluation can be addressed using the criticality parameters data directly from handbook, but some critical parameters for a specific chemical mixtures and/or enrichment are not be available. Consequently, not available parameters has to be evaluated. This work present the methodology to evaluate a set of critical parameters using SCALE system for various types of mixtures present at nuclear fuel cycle facilities for two different level of enrichment, the results are verified in the independent calculation using MCNP Monte Carlo Code. (author)
Measurement and analysis of atmospheric optics parameters In northwest ward
Sun, Gang; Weng, Ning-quan; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Cai-yun; Cheng, Ming
2014-02-01
When light-wave propagates in the turbulent atmosphere, it will be affected by atmospheric turbulence and brought various effect , such as flicker, phase fluctuation. So the investigation of atmosphere optics parameters always must be important. Because of the differences in geographical conditions and climate, atmospheric optical parameters in different regions have different spatial and time distribution. In this paper, various atmosphere optics parameters are measured by atmosphere optics parameters measure system in the Delingha area of Qinghai province and Xinjiang Korla area, through statistical analysis of atmospheric optical parameters corresponding area, we know clearly different geographical climate character of the northwest area of atmospheric optical parameters of structure characteristics, the results provide a valuable reference for further practical engineering application of optical remote sensing location and atmospheric optical transmission and atmospheric properties.
Parameter estimation and inverse problems
Aster, Richard C; Thurber, Clifford H
2005-01-01
Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems primarily serves as a textbook for advanced undergraduate and introductory graduate courses. Class notes have been developed and reside on the World Wide Web for faciliting use and feedback by teaching colleagues. The authors'' treatment promotes an understanding of fundamental and practical issus associated with parameter fitting and inverse problems including basic theory of inverse problems, statistical issues, computational issues, and an understanding of how to analyze the success and limitations of solutions to these probles. The text is also a practical resource for general students and professional researchers, where techniques and concepts can be readily picked up on a chapter-by-chapter basis.Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems is structured around a course at New Mexico Tech and is designed to be accessible to typical graduate students in the physical sciences who may not have an extensive mathematical background. It is accompanied by a Web site that...
SUSY Parameter Measurements with Fittino
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bechtle, P.; /SLAC; Desch, K.; Wienemann, P.; /Freiburg U.
2005-12-14
This article presents the results of a realistic global fit of the Lagrangian parameters of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with no assumptions on the SUSY breaking mechanism using the fit program Fittino. The fit is performed using the precision of future mass measurements of superpartners at the LHC and mass and polarized topological cross-section measurements at the ILC. Higher order radiative corrections are accounted for wherever possible to date. Results are obtained for a modified SPS1a MSSM benchmark scenario (general MSSM without assumptions on the breaking mechanism) and for a specific mSUGRA scenario. Exploiting a simulated annealing algorithm, a stable result is obtained without any a priori assumptions on the fit parameters. Most of the Lagrangian parameters can be extracted at the percent level or better if theoretical uncertainties are neglected. Neither LHC nor ILC measurements alone will be sufficient to obtain a stable result.
Supersymmetry Parameter Analysis with Fittino
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bechtle, Philip; /SLAC; Desch, Klaus; Wienemann, Peter; /Freiburg U.
2005-06-24
We present the results of a realistic global fit of the Lagrangian parameters of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model to simulated data from ILC and LHC with realistic estimates of the observable uncertainties. Higher order radiative corrections are accounted for where ever possible to date. Results are obtained for a modified SPS1a MSSM benchmark scenario but they were checked not to depend critically on this assumption. Exploiting a simulated annealing algorithm, a stable result is obtained without any a priori assumptions on the fit parameters. Most of the Lagrangian parameters can be extracted at the percent level or better if theoretical uncertainties are neglected. Neither LHC nor ILC measurements alone will be sufficient to obtain a stable result. The effects of theoretical uncertainties arising from unknown higher-order corrections and parametric uncertainties are examined qualitatively. They appear to be relevant and the result motivates further precision calculations.
Use of importance measures in risk-informed regulatory applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheok, Michael C.; Parry, Gareth W.; Sherry, Richard R.
1998-01-01
The use of importance measures to analyze PRA results is discussed. Commonly used importance measures are defined. Some issues that have been identified as potentially limiting their usefulness are addressed, namely: there is no simple relationship between importance measures evaluated at the single component level and those evaluated at the level of a group of components, and, as a result, some of the commonly used importance measures are not realistic measures of the sensitivity of the overall risk to parameter value changes; and, importance measures do not typically take into account parameter uncertainties which raises the question of the robustness of conclusions drawn from importance analyses. The issues are explored in the context of both ranking and categorization of structures, systems, and components (SSCs) with respect to risk-significance and safety-significance for use in risk-informed regulatory analyses
A Novel Nonlinear Parameter Estimation Method of Soft Tissues
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qianqian Tong
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The elastic parameters of soft tissues are important for medical diagnosis and virtual surgery simulation. In this study, we propose a novel nonlinear parameter estimation method for soft tissues. Firstly, an in-house data acquisition platform was used to obtain external forces and their corresponding deformation values. To provide highly precise data for estimating nonlinear parameters, the measured forces were corrected using the constructed weighted combination forecasting model based on a support vector machine (WCFM_SVM. Secondly, a tetrahedral finite element parameter estimation model was established to describe the physical characteristics of soft tissues, using the substitution parameters of Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio to avoid solving complicated nonlinear problems. To improve the robustness of our model and avoid poor local minima, the initial parameters solved by a linear finite element model were introduced into the parameter estimation model. Finally, a self-adapting Levenberg–Marquardt (LM algorithm was presented, which is capable of adaptively adjusting iterative parameters to solve the established parameter estimation model. The maximum absolute error of our WCFM_SVM model was less than 0.03 Newton, resulting in more accurate forces in comparison with other correction models tested. The maximum absolute error between the calculated and measured nodal displacements was less than 1.5 mm, demonstrating that our nonlinear parameters are precise.
Enhancing importance-performance analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Kristensen, Kai
2006-01-01
Purpose: The interpretation of the importance/performance map is based on an assumption of independence between importance and performance but many studies question the validity of this assumption. The aim of this research is to develop a new typology for job satisfaction attributes as well...... as a new importance/performance map that can be an aid for organizations when they prioritize their improvement actions based on a job satisfaction study. Design/methodology/approach: A typology for possible relationships between importance and performance in job satisfaction studies is developed based...... on theoretical considerations. This typology is then applied and validated on approximately 10,000 responses from the European Employee Index 2002. Ultimately a new importance/performance map for priority setting in job satisfaction studies is developed based on the new typology for possible relationships...
Measuring the Michel parameter ξ''
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knowles, P.; Deutsch, J.; Egger, J.; Fetscher, W.; Foroughi, F.; Govaerts, J.; Hadri, M.; Kirch, K.; Kistryn, S.; Lang, J.; Morelle, X.; Naviliat, O.; Ninane, A.; Prieels, R.; Severijns, N.; Simons, L.; Sromicki, J.; Vandormael, S.; Hove, P. van
1999-01-01
Unlike the majority of Michel parameters which are consistent with the Standard Model V-A interaction, the experimental value of ξ''(=0.65±0.36) [1] is poorly known. Our experiment will measure the longitudinal polarization, P L , of positrons emitted from the decay of polarized muons. The value of P L , equal to unity in the Standard Model, will decrease for high energy positrons emitted antiparallel to the muon spin if the combination of Michel parameters ξ''/ξξ' - 1 deviates from the Standard Model value of zero
Parameter identification for a robotic manipulator arm
Brewer, D. W.; Gibson, J. S.
1985-01-01
The development is described of a nonlinear dynamic model for large oscillations of a robotic manipulator arm about a single joint. Optimization routines are formulated and implemented for the identification of electrical and physical parameters from dynamic data taken from an industrial robot arm. Special attention is given to the role of sensitivity in the formulation of robust models of this motion. The importance of actuator effects in the reduction of sensitivity is established and used to develop an electromechanical model of the manipulator system.
RF engineering basic concepts: S-parameters
Caspers, F
2011-01-01
The concept of describing RF circuits in terms of waves is discussed and the S-matrix and related matrices are defined. The signal flow graph (SFG) is introduced as a graphical means to visualize how waves propagate in an RF network. The properties of the most relevant passive RF devices (hybrids, couplers, non-reciprocal elements, etc.) are delineated and the corresponding S-parameters are given. For microwave integrated circuits (MICs) planar transmission lines such as the microstrip line have become very important.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Broadman, H.G.
1986-06-01
A conceptual framework of the oil import premium - the difference between social and private marginal cost of imported oil - is developed, and an evaluation of quantitative estimates of the premium is presented. The estimates span a wide range, from near zero to well over $100 per barrel. It is concluded that an oil import fee is likely to be the best policy instrument to capture the first component of the premium, and a strategic petroleum reserve, the best policy instrument to capture the second component.
Some physico-chemical parameters and phytoplankton biodiversity ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The Ithikkara River, Kerala, India is used for drinking, bathing and fisheries purposes. It is important to have information on the water quality of this river considering its importance to the inhabitants of Kerala. The study therefore determined some physico-chemical parameters and phytoplankton population of Ithikara River.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frigaard, Peter; Helm-Petersen, J; Klopman, G.
1997-01-01
A Working Group on multidirectional waves formed by the International Association for Hydraulic Research has proposed an update of the IAHR List of Sea State Parameters from 1986 in the part concerning directional. Especially wave structure interaction with reflection of the waves have been treated....
Harnessing Aquatic Physicochemical Parameters Influencing ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The management-oriented background for harnessing aquatic physicochemical parameters influencing macro invertebrate fauna of Anambra River basin for sustainable fish productivity was studied. The intra seasonal variability in the water quality of the river revealed mean transparency of 1.79 cm, Conductivity of 28.81 ...
Material parameters for thermoelectric performance
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The thermoelectric performance of a thermoelement is ideally defined in terms of the so-called figure-of-merit = 2 / , where , and refer respectively to the Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity of the thermoelement material. However, there are other parameters which are fairly good ...
SYVAC3 parameter distribution package
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andres, T.; Skeet, A.
1995-01-01
SYVAC3 (Systems Variability Analysis Code, generation 3) is a computer program that implements a method called systems variability analysis to analyze the behaviour of a system in the presence of uncertainty. This method is based on simulating the system many times to determine the variation in behaviour it can exhibit. SYVAC3 specializes in systems representing the transport of contaminants, and has several features to simplify the modelling of such systems. It provides a general tool for estimating environmental impacts from the dispersal of contaminants. This report describes a software object type (a generalization of a data type) called Parameter Distribution. This object type is used in SYVAC3, and can also be used independently. Parameter Distribution has the following subtypes: beta distribution; binomial distribution; constant distribution; lognormal distribution; loguniform distribution; normal distribution; piecewise uniform distribution; Triangular distribution; and uniform distribution. Some of these distributions can be altered by correlating two parameter distribution objects. This report provides complete specifications for parameter distributions, and also explains how to use them. It should meet the needs of casual users, reviewers, and programmers who wish to add their own subtypes. (author). 30 refs., 75 tabs., 56 figs
Tower controller surveillance system parameters.
1972-03-01
A brief study of airport ground traffic control surveillance parameters has been conducted. The study addressed the following questions by means of a set of simple experiments: (1) Can vehicle ID be displayed in a suitable format; (2) What size displ...
Identifying parameter regions for multistationarity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Conradi, Carsten; Feliu, Elisenda; Mincheva, Maya
2017-01-01
is the avoidance of numerical analysis and parameter sampling. The procedure consists of a number of steps. Each of these steps might be addressed algorithmically using various computer programs and available software, or manually. We demonstrate our procedure on several models of gene transcription and cell...
Material parameters for thermoelectric performance
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. The thermoelectric performance of a thermoelement is ideally defined in terms of the so-called figure-of-merit Z = α2σ/λ, where α, σ and λ refer respectively to the Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity of the ther- moelement material. However, there are other parameters which are fairly ...
Parameter setting and input reduction
Evers, A.; van Kampen, N.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126439737
2008-01-01
The language acquisition procedure identifies certain properties of the target grammar before others. The evidence from the input is processed in a stepwise order. Section 1 equates that order and its typical effects with an order of parameter setting. The question is how the acquisition procedure
Hutten, M. M. R.; Hermens, H. J.
1998-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate which demographic parameters are most important in relation to lumbar dynamometry performance in patients with chronic low back pain (LBP). Forty-five chronic LBP patients participated in this study. Gender, age, weight and height were determined and a lumbar dynamometry measurement was carried out, using the Isostation B200. Student’s t-test, ANOVA techniques and correlation coefficients were used to investigate the relationships between each demo...
Robert P. Karrfalt
2013-01-01
The importance of seed to human culture and conservation of the natural world is briefly discussed. The effect of seed on seedling quality and cost is described through several examples and illustrations.
Remarkable analytic relations among greybody parameters
Elia, Davide; Pezzuto, S.
2016-09-01
In this paper we derive and discuss several implications of the analytic form of a modified blackbody, also called greybody, which is widely used in Astrophysics, and in particular in the study of star formation in the far-infrared/submillimetre domain. The research in this area has been greatly improved thanks to recent observations taken with the Herschel satellite, so that it became important to clarify the sense of the greybody approximation, to suggest possible further uses, and to delimit its intervals of validity. First, we discuss the position of the greybody peak, making difference between the optically thin and thick regimes. Second, we analyse the behaviour of bolometric quantities as a function of the different greybody parameters. The ratio between the bolometric luminosity and the mass of a source, the ratio between the so-called `submillimetre luminosity' and the bolometric one, and the bolometric temperature are observables used to characterize the evolutionary stage of a source, and it is of primary importance to have analytic equations describing the dependence of such quantities on the greybody parameters. Here we discuss all these aspects, providing analytic relations, illustrating particular cases, and providing graphical examples. Some equations reported here are well known in Astrophysics, but are often spread over different publications. Some of them, instead, are brand new and represent a novelty in Astrophysics literature. Finally, we indicate an alternative way to obtain, under some conditions, the greybody temperature and dust emissivity index directly from an observing spectral energy distribution, avoiding a best-fitting procedure.
Methodology for Evaluating Safety System Operability using Virtual Parameter Network
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Sukyoung; Heo, Gyunyoung; Kim, Jung Taek; Kim, Tae Wan
2014-01-01
KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) and UTK (University of Tennessee Knoxville) are working on the I-NERI project to suggest complement of this problem. This research propose the methodology which provide the alternative signal in case of unable guaranteed reliability of some instrumentation with KAERI. Proposed methodology is assumed that several instrumentations are working normally under the power supply condition because we do not consider the instrumentation survivability itself. Thus, concept of the Virtual Parameter Network (VPN) is used to identify the associations between plant parameters. This paper is extended version of the paper which was submitted last KNS meeting by changing the methodology and adding the result of the case study. In previous research, we used Artificial Neural Network (ANN) inferential technique for estimation model but every time this model showed different estimate value due to random bias each time. Therefore Auto-Associative Kernel Regression (AAKR) model which have same number of inputs and outputs is used to estimate. Also the importance measures in the previous method depend on estimation model but importance measure of improved method independent on estimation model. Also importance index of previous method depended on estimation model but importance index of improved method is independent on estimation model. In this study, we proposed the methodology to identify the internal state of power plant when severe accident happens also it has been validated through case study. SBLOCA which has large contribution to severe accident is considered as initiating event and relationship amongst parameter has been identified. VPN has ability to identify that which parameter has to be observed and which parameter can be alternative to the missing parameter when some instruments are failed in severe accident. In this study we have identified through results that commonly number 2, 3, 4 parameter has high connectivity while
Dynamically consistent oil import tariffs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karp, L.; Newbery, D.M.
1992-01-01
The standard theory of optimal tariffs considers tariffs on perishable goods produced abroad under static conditions, in which tariffs affect prices only in that period. Oil and other exhaustable resources do not fit this model, for current tariffs affect the amount of oil imported, which will affect the remaining stock and hence its future price. The problem of choosing a dynamically consistent oil import tariff when suppliers are competitive but importers have market power is considered. The open-loop Nash tariff is solved for the standard competitive case in which the oil price is arbitraged, and it was found that the resulting tariff rises at the rate of interest. This tariff was found to have an equilibrium that in general is dynamically inconsistent. Nevertheless, it is shown that necessary and sufficient conditions exist under which the tariff satisfies the weaker condition of time consistency. A dynamically consistent tariff is obtained by assuming that all agents condition their current decisions on the remaining stock of the resource, in contrast to open-loop strategies. For the natural case in which all agents choose their actions simultaneously in each period, the dynamically consistent tariff was characterized, and found to differ markedly from the time-inconsistent open-loop tariff. It was shown that if importers do not have overwhelming market power, then the time path of the world price is insensitive to the ability to commit, as is the level of wealth achieved by the importer. 26 refs., 4 figs
Uses of risk importance measures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mankamo, T.; Poern, K.; Holmberg, J.
1991-05-01
Risk importance measures provide an understandable and practical way of presenting probabilistic safety analysis results which too often tend to remain abstract numbers without real insight into the content. The report clarifies the definitions, relationships and interpretations of the three most basic measures: Risk increase factor, risk decrease factor, and fractional contribution. The above three measures already cover the main types of risk importance measures. Many other importance measures presented in literature are close variants to some of these three measures. They are related in many cases so that, for a technical system considered, the two other measures can be derived from the one calculated first. However, the practical interpretations are different, and hence each three measures have their own uses and rights to existence. The fundamental aspect of importance measures is, that they express some specific influence of a basic event on the total risk. The basic failure or error events are the elements from which the reliability and risk models are constituted. The importance measures are relative, which is an advantage compared to absolute risk numbers, due to insensitivity with respect to quantification uncertainties. Therefore they are particularly adapted to give first hand guidance where to focus main interest from the system's risk and reliability point of view and wherefrom to continue the analysis with more sophisticated methods requiring more effort
Fast determination of plasma parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wijnands, T.J.; Parlange, F.; Joffrin, E.
1995-01-01
Fast analysis of diagnostic signals of a tokamak discharge is demonstrated by using 4 fundamentally different techniques. A comparison between Function Parametrization (FP), Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) and a particular Neural Network (NN) configuration known as the Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) is carried out, thereby taking a unique linear model based on a Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) as a reference. The various techniques provide all functional representations of characteristic plasma parameters in terms of the values of the measurements and are based on an analysis of a large, experimentally achieved database. A brief mathematical description of the various techniques is given, followed by two particular applications to Tore Supra diagnostic data. The first problem is concerned with the identification of the plasma boundary parameters using the poloidal field and differential poloidal flux measurements. A second application involves the interpretation of line integrated data from the multichannel interfero-polarimeter to obtain the central value of the safety factor. (author) 4 refs.; 3 figs
Cogeneration: Key feasibility analysis parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coslovi, S.; Zulian, A.
1992-01-01
This paper first reviews the essential requirements, in terms of scope, objectives and methods, of technical/economic feasibility analyses applied to cogeneration systems proposed for industrial plants in Italy. Attention is given to the influence on overall feasibility of the following factors: electric power and fuel costs, equipment coefficients of performance, operating schedules, maintenance costs, Italian Government taxes and financial and legal incentives. Through an examination of several feasibility studies that were done on cogeneration proposals relative to different industrial sectors, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the effects of varying the weights of different cost benefit analysis parameters. With the use of statistical analyses, standard deviations are then determined for key analysis parameters, and guidelines are suggested for analysis simplifications
Getting parameters from learning data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guy L. Lacroix
2006-09-01
Full Text Available Response time data in learning experiments show a typical trend. They start out slow, quickly improve, before finally tending toward optimal performance. This trend provides critical information that can be used to test various theories of learning. One convenient way to characterize the data is the use of a learning curve; an idealized curve that passes through the observed data points as a function of training. This idealized curve has free parameters that must be estimated using optimization techniques. In this tutorial, we show how to estimate learning curve parameters using three softwares (Excel, SPSS, and Mathematica assuming that the idealized curve is a power function. The techniques can easily be adapted to other functions. Finally, details are provided on related topics (maximizing block sizes, testing curvatures, etc..
Fadly, Romi; Dewi, Citra
2014-01-01
This research aims to compare the 14 transformation parameters between ITRF from computation result using the Helmert 14-parameter models with IERS standard parameters. The transforma- tion parameters are calculated from the coordinates and velocities of ITRF05 to ITRF00 epoch 2000.00, and from ITRF08 to ITRF05 epoch 2005.00 for respectively transformation models. The transformation parameters are compared to the IERS standard parameters, then tested the signifi- cance of the d...
Failure probability under parameter uncertainty.
Gerrard, R; Tsanakas, A
2011-05-01
In many problems of risk analysis, failure is equivalent to the event of a random risk factor exceeding a given threshold. Failure probabilities can be controlled if a decisionmaker is able to set the threshold at an appropriate level. This abstract situation applies, for example, to environmental risks with infrastructure controls; to supply chain risks with inventory controls; and to insurance solvency risks with capital controls. However, uncertainty around the distribution of the risk factor implies that parameter error will be present and the measures taken to control failure probabilities may not be effective. We show that parameter uncertainty increases the probability (understood as expected frequency) of failures. For a large class of loss distributions, arising from increasing transformations of location-scale families (including the log-normal, Weibull, and Pareto distributions), the article shows that failure probabilities can be exactly calculated, as they are independent of the true (but unknown) parameters. Hence it is possible to obtain an explicit measure of the effect of parameter uncertainty on failure probability. Failure probability can be controlled in two different ways: (1) by reducing the nominal required failure probability, depending on the size of the available data set, and (2) by modifying of the distribution itself that is used to calculate the risk control. Approach (1) corresponds to a frequentist/regulatory view of probability, while approach (2) is consistent with a Bayesian/personalistic view. We furthermore show that the two approaches are consistent in achieving the required failure probability. Finally, we briefly discuss the effects of data pooling and its systemic risk implications. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.
Reactivity parameters for safety analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diamond, D.J.
1985-01-01
The reactor core model in the most commonly used computer programs for safety analysis is a point kinetics model. The core average fission rate is calculated knowing the reactivity, neutron generation time and delayed-neutron parameters. The reactivity is a time dependent function taking account of the effect of changes in water density and temperature, fuel temperature, control rod position and soluble boron concentration. In this presentation some of the alternative ways of representing this reactivity function are reviewed
Parameter estimation in plasmonic QED
Jahromi, H. Rangani
2018-03-01
We address the problem of parameter estimation in the presence of plasmonic modes manipulating emitted light via the localized surface plasmons in a plasmonic waveguide at the nanoscale. The emitter that we discuss is the nitrogen vacancy centre (NVC) in diamond modelled as a qubit. Our goal is to estimate the β factor measuring the fraction of emitted energy captured by waveguide surface plasmons. The best strategy to obtain the most accurate estimation of the parameter, in terms of the initial state of the probes and different control parameters, is investigated. In particular, for two-qubit estimation, it is found although we may achieve the best estimation at initial instants by using the maximally entangled initial states, at long times, the optimal estimation occurs when the initial state of the probes is a product one. We also find that decreasing the interqubit distance or increasing the propagation length of the plasmons improve the precision of the estimation. Moreover, decrease of spontaneous emission rate of the NVCs retards the quantum Fisher information (QFI) reduction and therefore the vanishing of the QFI, measuring the precision of the estimation, is delayed. In addition, if the phase parameter of the initial state of the two NVCs is equal to πrad, the best estimation with the two-qubit system is achieved when initially the NVCs are maximally entangled. Besides, the one-qubit estimation has been also analysed in detail. Especially, we show that, using a two-qubit probe, at any arbitrary time, enhances considerably the precision of estimation in comparison with one-qubit estimation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Debus, Michael S.; Grabarczyk, Pawel
2017-01-01
This paper argues for the necessity of adding a hierarchy to Aarseth and Calleja’s Cybermedia model (2015). The cybermedia model describes games as the player’s perspective on a cybermedia object, which consists of materiality, a sign system and a mechanical system. The author’s description......, as well as visual representation, of the model suggests an equal importance of these three dimensions. We claim that such symmetry is unattainable. Through the exploration of the three dimensions relationships to one another, we will show that the mechanical system has a higher importance to games than...
Marketing importance of body image
Francová, Nikola
2010-01-01
Body image is undoubtedly important in everyone's life. The main objective of this thesis is to find its importance for marketing. To achieve this goal, it was necessary to find out the society's opinions on the issue of beauty and body image, how do media picture human body and if there exists a difference between these two things. The first part of this theses consists of the historical development of the beauty ideal. It is followed by segmentation of Czech population, based on the data fr...
Key parameters controlling radiology departments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Busch, Hans-Peter
2011-01-01
For radiology departments and outstanding practises control and optimization of processes demand an efficient management based on key data. Systems of key data deliver indicators for control of medical quality, service quality and economics. For practices effectiveness (productivity), for hospitals effectiveness and efficiency are in the focus of economical optimization strategies. Task of daily key data is continuous monitoring of activities and workflow, task of weekly/monthly key data is control of data quality, process quality and achievement of objectives, task of yearly key data is determination of long term strategies (marketing) and comparison with competitors (benchmarking). Key parameters have to be defined clearly and have to be available directly. For generation, evaluation and control of key parameters suitable forms of organization and processes are necessary. Strategies for the future will be directed more to the total processes of treatment. To think in total processes and to steer and optimize with suitable parameters is the challenge for participants in the healthcare market of the future. (orig.)
IMPULSIVITY PARAMETER FOR SOLAR FLARES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fajardo-Mendieta, W. G.; Alvarado-Gómez, J. D.; Calvo-Mozo, B. [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá (Colombia); Martinez-Oliveros, J. C., E-mail: wgfajardom@unal.edu.co, E-mail: bcalvom@unal.edu.co, E-mail: oliveros@ssl.berkeley.edu, E-mail: jalvarad@eso.org [Space Sciences Laboratory, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
2016-02-10
Three phases are typically observed during solar flares: the preflare, impulsive, and decay phases. During the impulsive phase, it is believed that the electrons and other particles are accelerated after the stored energy in the magnetic field is released by reconnection. The impulsivity of a solar flare is a quantifiable property that shows how quickly this initial energy release occurs. It is measured via the impulsivity parameter, which we define as the inverse of the overall duration of the impulsive phase. We take the latter as the raw width of the most prominent nonthermal emission of the flare. We computed this observable over a work sample of 48 M-class events that occurred during the current Solar Cycle 24 by using three different methods. The first method takes into account all of the nonthermal flare emission and gives very accurate results, while the other two just cover fixed energy intervals (30–40 keV and 25–50 keV) and are useful for fast calculations. We propose an alternative way to classify solar flares according to their impulsivity parameter values, defining three different types of impulsivity, namely, high, medium, and low. This system of classification is independent of the manner used to calculated the impulsivity parameter. Lastly, we show the relevance of this tool as a discriminator of different HXR generation processes.
Buying Local or Imported Goods?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ayob, Abu H.; Hussain, Wan Mohd Hirwani Wan
2016-01-01
This study attempts to profile non-income consumers by examining their decisions to buy local or imported products. Hypotheses were drawn from discussions on the comparative advantages of advanced and developing countries, as well as the effects of a product’s country-of-origin on customers...
Importance of process oriented organizations
Bedic, S.
2013-09-01
This paper analyzes different types of start-up aerospace organizations, common mistakes and the importance of process oriented management systems. It is made using experience in starting up 5 airlines, one microlight aircraft production, two GLXP teams and 4 space technology companies' startup.
Hydrogen peroxide: importance and determination
Mattos, Ivanildo Luiz de; Shiraishi, Karina Antonelli; Braz, Alexandre Delphini; Fernandes, João Roberto
2003-01-01
A brief discussion about the hydrogen peroxide importance and its determination is presented. It was emphasized some consideration of the H2O2 as reagent (separated or combined), uses and methods of analysis (techniques, detection limits, linear response intervals, sensor specifications). Moreover, it was presented several applications, such as in environmental, pharmaceutical, medicine and food samples.
Important projects of the Division
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2008-01-01
In this chapter important projects of the Division for Radiation Safety, NPP Decommissioning and Radwaste Management of the VUJE, a. s. are presented. Division for Radiation Safety, NPP Decommissioning and Radwaste Management has successfully carried out variety of significant projects. The most significant projects that were realised, are implemented and possible future projects are introduced in the following part of presentation.
The Importance of Effective Guidance
Cullen, Bud
1977-01-01
In an address to the Canadian Guidance and Counselling Association, the Canadian Manpower and Immigration Minister emphasized the importance of vocational guidance for high school students. He cited the need for communication between the worlds of education and work, promotion of better cooperative programs, and subsidized job training for youth.…
The Importance of Prior Knowledge.
Cleary, Linda Miller
1989-01-01
Recounts a college English teacher's experience of reading and rereading Noam Chomsky, building up a greater store of prior knowledge. Argues that Frank Smith provides a theory for the importance of prior knowledge and Chomsky's work provided a personal example with which to interpret and integrate that theory. (RS)
The importance of board independence
Zijl, N.J.M.
2012-01-01
Although the attributed importance of board independence is high, a clear definition of independence does not exist. Furthermore, the aim and consequences of independence are the subject of discussion and empirical evidence about the impact of independence is weak and disputable. Despite this lack
The Signal Importance of Noise
Macy, Michael; Tsvetkova, Milena
2015-01-01
Noise is widely regarded as a residual category--the unexplained variance in a linear model or the random disturbance of a predictable pattern. Accordingly, formal models often impose the simplifying assumption that the world is noise-free and social dynamics are deterministic. Where noise is assigned causal importance, it is often assumed to be a…
Writing: Importance, Development, and Instruction
Graham, Steve; Gillespie, Amy; McKeown, Debra
2013-01-01
In this article, we examine why writing is important, how it develops, and effective writing practices. We situate the 5 articles in this special issue of "Reading and Writing" in this literature, providing a context for the contribution of each paper.
Parameter estimation for chaotic systems using improved bird swarm algorithm
Xu, Chuangbiao; Yang, Renhuan
2017-12-01
Parameter estimation of chaotic systems is an important problem in nonlinear science and has aroused increasing interest of many research fields, which can be basically reduced to a multidimensional optimization problem. In this paper, an improved boundary bird swarm algorithm is used to estimate the parameters of chaotic systems. This algorithm can combine the good global convergence and robustness of the bird swarm algorithm and the exploitation capability of improved boundary learning strategy. Experiments are conducted on the Lorenz system and the coupling motor system. Numerical simulation results reveal the effectiveness and with desirable performance of IBBSA for parameter estimation of chaotic systems.
Multiobjective insensitive design of airplane control systems with uncertain parameters
Schy, A. A.; Giesy, D. P.
1981-01-01
A multiobjective computer-aided design algorithm has been developed which minimizes the sensitivity of the design objectives to uncertainties in system parameters. The more important uncertain parameters are described by a gaussian random vector with known covariance matrix, and a vector sensitivity objective function is defined as the probabilities that the design objectives will violate specified requirements constraints. Control system parameters are found which minimize the sensitivity vector in a Pareto-optimal sense, using constrained minimization algorithms. Example results are shown for lateral stability augmentation system (SAS) design for three Shuttle flight conditions.
Fundamental safety-parameter set for boiling water reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, C.B.; Mollerus, F.S.; Carmichael, L.A.
1980-12-01
A minimum set of parameters is proposed which will indicate the overall safety status of a commercial Boiling Water Reactor. Parameters were selected by identifying those sufficient to determine if functions of fundamental importance to safety are being accomplished. The selected set was subjected to verification by comparison with a broad spectrum of postulated events. Appropriate control room display of the parameter set should assist the operators in determining the safety status of the plant quickly and accurately, even if a plant event is not immediately understood
Impulsive control of permanent magnet synchronous motors with parameters uncertainties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Dong; Zhang Xiaohong; Wang Shilong; Yan Dan; Wang Hui
2008-01-01
The permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) may have chaotic behaviours for the uncertain values of parameters or under certain working conditions, which threatens the secure and stable operation of motor-driven. It is important to study methods of controlling or suppressing chaos in PMSMs. In this paper, robust stabilities of PMSM with parameter uncertainties are investigated. After the uncertain matrices which represent the variable system parameters are formulated through matrix analysis, a novel asymptotical stability criterion is established. Some illustrated examples are also given to show the effectiveness of the obtained results
Correlations among Stress Parameters, Meat and Carcass Quality Parameters in Pigs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marija Dokmanovic
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Relationships among different stress parameters (lairage time and blood level of lactate and cortisol, meat quality parameters (initial and ultimate pH value, temperature, drip loss, sensory and instrumental colour, marbling and carcass quality parameters (degree of rigor mortis and skin damages, hot carcass weight, carcass fat thickness, meatiness were determined in pigs (n = 100 using Pearson correlations. After longer lairage, blood lactate (p<0.05 and degree of injuries (p<0.001 increased, meat became darker (p<0.001, while drip loss decreased (p<0.05. Higher lactate was associated with lower initial pH value (p<0.01, higher temperature (p<0.001 and skin blemishes score (p<0.05 and more developed rigor mortis (p<0.05, suggesting that lactate could be a predictor of both meat quality and the level of preslaughter stress. Cortisol affected carcass quality, so higher levels of cortisol were associated with increased hot carcass weight, carcass fat thickness on the back and at the sacrum and marbling, but also with decreased meatiness. The most important meat quality parameters (pH and temperature after 60 minutes deteriorated when blood lactate concentration was above 12 mmol/L.
Are All Pixels Equally Important?
CERN. Geneva
2015-01-01
When we look at our environment, we primarily pay attention to visually distinctive objects. We refer to these objects as visually important or salient. For efficient visual processing, the human visual system identifies salients objects and dedicates most of its processing resources to them. An analogous resource allocation can be performed by salient-object detection algorithms, which identify objects of interest in an image. Consequently, thanks to salient-object detection, complex visual computing operations can focus on the important parts of the visual data and can save time and resources. About the speaker Dr. Gokhan Yildirim is a research assistant in the School of Computer and Communication Sciences (IC) at the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL). His research interests include image understanding, multimedia, pattern recognition, machine learning, salient-object detection on images & videos and its applications on image proces...
Importance Profiles for Water Vapor
Mapes, Brian; Chandra, Arunchandra S.; Kuang, Zhiming; Zuidema, Paquita
2017-11-01
Motivated by the scientific desire to align observations with quantities of physical interest, we survey how scalar importance functions depend on vertically resolved water vapor. Definitions of importance begin from familiar examples of water mass I m and TOA clear-sky outgoing longwave flux I OLR, in order to establish notation and illustrate graphically how the sensitivity profile or "kernel" depends on whether specific humidity S, relative humidity R, or ln( R) are used as measures of vapor. Then, new results on the sensitivity of convective activity I con to vapor (with implied knock-on effects such as weather prediction skill) are presented. In radiative-convective equilibrium, organized (line-like) convection is much more sensitive to moisture than scattered isotropic convection, but it exists in a drier mean state. The lesson for natural convection may be that organized convection is less susceptible to dryness and can survive and propagate into regions unfavorable for disorganized convection. This counterintuitive interpretive conclusion, with respect to the narrow numerical result behind it, highlights the importance of clarity about what is held constant at what values in sensitivity or susceptibility kernels. Finally, the sensitivities of observable radiance signals I sig for passive remote sensing are considered. While the accuracy of R in the lower free troposphere is crucial for the physical importance scalars, this layer is unfortunately the most difficult to isolate with passive remote sensing: In high emissivity channels, water vapor signals come from too high in the atmosphere (for satellites) or too low (for surface radiometers), while low emissivity channels have poor altitude discrimination and (in the case of satellites) are contaminated by surface emissions. For these reasons, active ranging (LiDAR) is the preferred observing strategy.
The Importance of Being Earnest
Barbas, Helena Maria D. Freitas Mesquita
2016-01-01
UID/SOC/04647/2013 Video games are driving technological and societal advancements that serve gamers and non-gamers alike from entertainment to edutainment. Video game software is one of the fastest growing industries in the worldwide economy. 75% of the most frequent gamers believe that playing video games provides mental stimulation or education. Recent cognitive theories confirm that gameplay affects the brain. So, inspired by Oscar Wilde’s “boutade” on his comedy The Importance of bein...
ECOPHARMACOVIGILANCE: ITS IMPORTANCE AND CHALLENGES
Dr. Bhavana Srivastava
2014-01-01
Active pharmaceutical ingredients represent a group of emerging environmental contamination. Even in trace amounts, they are of great concern due to then continuous introduction into the environment, their impact an ecosystem and human and vetenery health is of great importance. This has given birth to the science of Ecopharmacovigilance (EPV). It aims to ensure that significant environmental issues associated with pharmaceuticals in the environment are identified and managed appropriately. ...
Important plasma problems in astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulsrud, R.M.
1995-01-01
In astrophysics, plasmas occur under very extreme conditions. For example there are ultra strong magnetic fields in neutron stars) relativistic plasmas around black holes and in jets, extremely energetic particles such as cosmic rays in the interstellar medium, extremely dense plasmas in accretion disks, and extremely large magnetic Reynold's numbers in the interstellar medium. These extreme limits for astrophysical plasmas make plasma phenomena much simpler to analyze in astrophysics than in the laboratory. An understanding of such phenomena often results in an interesting way, by simply taking the extreme limiting case of a known plasma theory. I will describe one of the more exciting examples. I will attempt to convey the excitement I felt when I was first exposed to it. However, not all plasma astrophysical phenomena are so simple. There are certain important plasma phenomena in astrophysics, which have not been so easily resolved. In fact a resolution of them is blocking significant progress in astrophysical research. They have not yet yielded to attacks by theoretical astrophysicists nor to extensive numerical simulation. I will attempt to describe one of the more important of these plasma-astrophysical problems, and discuss why its resolution is so important to astrophysics. This significant example is fast, magnetic reconnection. Another significant example is the large-magnetic-Reynold's-number MHD dynamos
Important plasma problems in astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulsrud, R.M.
1995-01-01
In astrophysics, plasmas occur under very extreme conditions. For example, there are ultrastrong magnetic fields in neutron stars, relativistic plasmas around black holes and in jets, extremely energetic particles such as cosmic rays in the interstellar medium, extremely dense plasmas in accretion disks, and extremely large magnetic Reynolds numbers in the interstellar medium. These extreme limits for astrophysical plasmas make plasma phenomena much simpler to analyze in astrophysics than in the laboratory. An understanding of such phenomena often results in an interesting way, by simply taking the extreme limiting case of a known plasma theory. The author will describe one of the more exciting examples and will attempt to convey the excitement he felt when he was first exposed to it. However, not all plasma astrophysical phenomena are so simple. There are certain important plasma phenomena in astrophysics that have not been so easily resolved. In fact, a resolution of them is blocking significant progress in astrophysical research. They have not yet yielded to attacks by theoretical astrophysicists nor to extensive numerical simulation. The author will attempt to describe one of the more important of these plasma--astrophysical problems, and discuss why its resolution is so important to astrophysics. This significant example is fast, magnetic reconnection. Another significant example is the large-magnetic-Reynolds number magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) dynamos
Navigating the Updated Anaphylaxis Parameters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kemp Stephen F
2007-06-01
Full Text Available Anaphylaxis, an acute and potentially lethal multi-system clinical syndrome resulting from the sudden, systemic degranulation of mast cells and basophils, occurs in a variety of clinical scenarios and is almost unavoidable inmedical practice. Healthcare professionalsmust be able to recognize its features, treat an episode promptly and appropriately, and be able to provide recommendations to prevent future episodes. Epinephrine, administered immediately, is the drug of choice for acute anaphylaxis. The discussion provides an overview of one set of evidence-based and consensus parameters for the diagnosis and management of anaphylaxis.
DP: Parameter Display Page Program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, M.
1994-01-01
The Parameter Display Page program (DP) is a Motif/X11-based program to allow easily configured, dynamic device and process variable monitoring and manipulation in the EPICS environment. DP provides a tabular data format for interactive viewing and manipulation of device and process variable statistics, as well as formatted PostScript output to files and printers. DP understands and operates in two (unfortunately disjoint at this time) namespaces in the EPICS environment ''devices'' and ''process variables''. The higher level namespace of devices includes Composite and Atomic Devices registered via the Device Access server; the lower level (flat) namespace is that of normal Process Variables accessible via Channel Access
Transfer parameters for routine release of HTO - consideration of OBT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galeriu, D.
1994-06-01
Knowledge of the transfer parameters for tritium is a key requirement to assess the public dose or to establish Derived Release Limits (DRL) appropriate for a heavy-water reactor. This report revises the transfer parameters used to assess tritium doses via the ingestion pathway. First, the procedure used in Canadian standard CSA-N288.1 to assess the DRL for tritium is revised, clearing up some misunderstandings about the derivation of transfer parameters for air to forage and animal products. Second, we rederive the transfer parameters, applying conditions of full equilibrium to dynamic equations that describe the transfer of tritiated water in food. The new transfer parameters for tritiated water in food are more plant- and site-specific than the generic transfer parameters. The most important improvement is the introduction of organically bound tritium (OBT) production in plants or animal products. Bulk transfer parameters are introduced, which include OBT as well as HTO. Based on a standard Canadian diet, the dose increase considering OBT is almost 50%. Recent experimental data obtained under equilibrium conditions are discussed, and the appropriateness of the revised transfer parameters for assessment purposes is demonstrated. (author). 26 refs., 7 tabs
Transfer parameters for routine release of HTO. Consideration of OBT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galeriu, D.; Paunescu, N.; Cotarlea
1997-01-01
Knowledge of the transfer parameters for tritium is a key requirement to assess the public dose or to establish Derived Release Limit (DRL) proper for a heavy water reactor. This report revised the transfer parameters used to assess tritium doses via the ingestion pathway. First, the procedure used in Canadian standard CSA-N288.1 to assess the DRL for tritium is revisited, clearing up some misunderstandings about the derivation of transfer parameters from air to forage and animal products. Secondly, we derive the transfer parameters applying conditions of full equilibrium to dynamic equations that describe the transfer of tritiated water in food. The new transfer parameters for tritiated water in food are more plant- and site-specific then the generic transfer parameters. The most important improvement is the introduction of organically bound tritium (OBT) production in plants or animal products. Bulk transfer parameters are introduced, which include OBT as well as HTO. Based on a standard Canadian diet, the dose increase considering OBT is almost 50 %. Recent experimental data obtained under equilibrium condition are discussed, and the revised transfer parameters for assessment purposes is demonstrated. (authors)
GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS OF EGGS IN BIRD SYSTEMATICS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. S. Mityay
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Our ideas are based on the following assumptions. Egg as a standalone system is formed within another system, which is the body of the female. Both systems are implemented on the basis of a common genetic code. In this regard, for example, the dendrogram constructed by morphological criteria eggs should be approximately equal to those constructed by other molecular or morphological criteria adult birds. It should be noted that the dendrogram show only the degree of genetic similarity of taxa, therefore, the identity of materials depends on the number of analyzed criteria and their quality, ie, they should be the backbone. The greater the number of system-features will be included in the analysis and in one other case, the like are dendrogram. In other cases, we will have a fragmentary similarity, which is also very important when dealing with controversial issues. The main message of our research was to figure out the eligibility of usage the morphological characteristics of eggs as additional information in taxonomy and phylogeny of birds. Our studies show that the shape parameters of bird eggs show a stable attachment to certain types of birds and complex traits are species-specific. Dendrogram and diagrams built by the quantitative value of these signs, exhibit significant similarity with the dendrogram constructed by morphological, comparative anatomy, paleontology and molecular criteria for adult birds. This suggests the possibility of using morphological parameters eggs as additional information in dealing with taxonomy and phylogeny of birds. Keywords: oology, geometrical parameters of eggs, bird systematics
Parameters of measuring of european political consciousness
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. M. Pikula
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In the article the author analyzes the parameters of European political consciousness, i.e. European research field of political consciousness in qualitative and quantitative terms, which may be based on different indicators. The issue of emergence and development of European political consciousness becomes topical because firstly, its formation as the subjective dimension of European integration policy is not a spontaneous process and, secondly, European integration is carried out not only from the top but from the bottom, requiring deliberate interference of the public with the process; the public possesses the formed European political consciousness. Since the latter is a specific mental construct, the author offers to apply the triad «criteria parameters – indicators». The characteristic that makes it possible to evaluate certain processes or phenomena in the system of Europeanness / Europeanism and specifies the quality system of views and opinions, which are realized in European behavior, is considered to be the criterion of European political consciousness. The European political consciousness parameters are seen to include the relevant historical memory, trends of public opinion and awareness regarding the European Union and position of its members in the European integration process, including the assessment of the existence and development of the EU; knowledge and views on the main EU institutions, assessing the importance of the main institutions of the EU and trust in them; a positive vision for the future of the European Union etc. The author considers the performance and objective characteristics and dimensions, including positive correlation of national and European levels of identity (European identity and European behavior to be the indicatiors of European political awareness. On the basis of these indicators the control of the condition and trends of European political consciousness development will be carried out.
Parameter optimization for surface flux transport models
Whitbread, T.; Yeates, A. R.; Muñoz-Jaramillo, A.; Petrie, G. J. D.
2017-11-01
Accurate prediction of solar activity calls for precise calibration of solar cycle models. Consequently we aim to find optimal parameters for models which describe the physical processes on the solar surface, which in turn act as proxies for what occurs in the interior and provide source terms for coronal models. We use a genetic algorithm to optimize surface flux transport models using National Solar Observatory (NSO) magnetogram data for Solar Cycle 23. This is applied to both a 1D model that inserts new magnetic flux in the form of idealized bipolar magnetic regions, and also to a 2D model that assimilates specific shapes of real active regions. The genetic algorithm searches for parameter sets (meridional flow speed and profile, supergranular diffusivity, initial magnetic field, and radial decay time) that produce the best fit between observed and simulated butterfly diagrams, weighted by a latitude-dependent error structure which reflects uncertainty in observations. Due to the easily adaptable nature of the 2D model, the optimization process is repeated for Cycles 21, 22, and 24 in order to analyse cycle-to-cycle variation of the optimal solution. We find that the ranges and optimal solutions for the various regimes are in reasonable agreement with results from the literature, both theoretical and observational. The optimal meridional flow profiles for each regime are almost entirely within observational bounds determined by magnetic feature tracking, with the 2D model being able to accommodate the mean observed profile more successfully. Differences between models appear to be important in deciding values for the diffusive and decay terms. In like fashion, differences in the behaviours of different solar cycles lead to contrasts in parameters defining the meridional flow and initial field strength.
Exercise: A vitally important prescription.
Hechanova, Rachel L; Wegler, Jennifer L; Forest, Christopher P
2017-04-01
Sedentary lifestyles and low physical activity have led to rising health concerns and increasing mortality risks. With the growing concern of the inactivity of adult Americans, it is important that physical activity be promoted to prevent disease and reduce health risks. This article reviews the benefits of physical activity and the steps that primary care providers should take to evaluate physical activity as the fifth vital sign in every patient encounter. The 5A's (assess, advise, agree, assist, and arrange) should be applied in order to implement an exercise prescription into the practice of medicine.
PFGE: importance in food quality.
Vernile, Anna; Giammanco, Giovanni; Massa, Salvatore
2009-11-01
In late 19 century, great interest has arisen for food quality. This is referred as absence of pathogens in food (safety for consumers) and as nutritional quality of food (organoleptic characteristics). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is, among the molecular techniques developed in the last years, one of the most reliable, discriminative and reproducible technique. It can be used in clinical field for the identification of pathogens and the origin of outbreaks, and in food microbiology for the identification of pathogens (food borne disease surveillance) or of microorganisms responsible for the organoleptic characteristics of food. The present article shows some useful patents related to PFGE and importance in food quality.
The Importance of International Demographic Research for the United States
1999-08-01
lending schemes and other microenterprise initiatives in developing countries can thus have an important payoff for U.S. domestic policy...Indirect information on this relationship is available from studies that have been conducted in several developing countries. The most complete...techniques for estimating population parameters from incomplete data, originally developed because of poor vital registration systems in less developed
GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS OF EGGS IN BIRD SYSTEMATICS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mityay I.S.
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Our ideas are based on the following assumptions. Egg as a standalone system is formed within another system, which is the body of the female. Both systems are implemented on the basis of a common genetic code. In this regard, for example, the dendrogram constructed by morphological criteria eggs should be approximately equal to those constructed by other molecular or morphological criteria adult birds. It should be noted that the dendrogram show only the degree of genetic similarity of taxa, therefore, the identity of materials depends on the number of analyzed criteria and their quality, ie, they should be the backbone. The greater the number of system-features will be included in the analysis and in one other case, the like are dendrogram. In other cases, we will have a fragmentary similarity, which is also very important when dealing with controversial issues. The main message of our research was to figure out the eligibility of usage the morphological characteristics of eggs as additional information in taxonomy and phylogeny of birds. Our studies show that the shape parameters of bird eggs show a stable attachment to certain types of birds and complex traits are species-specific. Dendrogram and diagrams built by the quantitative value of these signs, exhibit significant similarity with the dendrogram constructed by morphological, comparative anatomy, paleontology and molecular criteria for adult birds. This suggests the possibility of using morphological parameters eggs as additional information in dealing with taxonomy and phylogeny of birds.
Modelling tourists arrival using time varying parameter
Suciptawati, P.; Sukarsa, K. G.; Kencana, Eka N.
2017-06-01
The importance of tourism and its related sectors to support economic development and poverty reduction in many countries increase researchers’ attentions to study and model tourists’ arrival. This work is aimed to demonstrate time varying parameter (TVP) technique to model the arrival of Korean’s tourists to Bali. The number of Korean tourists whom visiting Bali for period January 2010 to December 2015 were used to model the number of Korean’s tourists to Bali (KOR) as dependent variable. The predictors are the exchange rate of Won to IDR (WON), the inflation rate in Korea (INFKR), and the inflation rate in Indonesia (INFID). Observing tourists visit to Bali tend to fluctuate by their nationality, then the model was built by applying TVP and its parameters were approximated using Kalman Filter algorithm. The results showed all of predictor variables (WON, INFKR, INFID) significantly affect KOR. For in-sample and out-of-sample forecast with ARIMA’s forecasted values for the predictors, TVP model gave mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) as much as 11.24 percent and 12.86 percent, respectively.
Language Planning, Linguistic Culture and its Parameters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Negar Davari Ardakani
2009-07-01
Full Text Available “Linguistic culture” is a term used in sociology of language and the anthropology of language. This study attempts to examine the term, its parameters, and the relation it has with language planning. A detail analysis of the status of the linguistic culture, at micro and macro levels, is necessary for language planning. Accordingly, the parameters of the linguistic culture were studies among Persian speakers of Tehran. The results show that linguistic culture contains attitudes, beliefs, norms, and linguistic capital. Linguistic attitude itself involves three dimensions: body of language, dignity of language, and language-learning. Studying these three dimensions shows that feeling in general and empathy with the dignity of the Persian language in particular, have the main share in linguistic attitude, and thus in the structure of linguistic culture among Persian speakers in Tehran. Therefore, it could be said that the emotional factors, as parts of linguistic culture, are very important in sociology of the Persian language and the promotion of language planning.
Radioactive contamination in imported foods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kan, Kimiko; Maki, Toshio; Nagayama, Toshihiro; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kawai, Yuka; Kobayashi, Maki; Shioda, Hiroko; Nishima, Taichiro
1990-01-01
On April 26, 1986, explosion occurred in Chernobyl nuclear power station in USSR, and radioactivity contamination was brought about in almost all countries in the world. In European countries, crops were contaminated directly with radioactive fallout to high concentration. Also in Japan, after one week the radioactivity higher than usual was detected in environment, and also in vegetables, milk, tea leaves and others. Thereafter, in order to cope with the import of contaminated foods, inspection and watch system was strengthened by deciding the interim limit of radioactive concentration. However the cases of exceeding the interim limit were often reported. In order to remove the harmful foods due to radioactive contamination and to meet the fear of consumers, the authors measured the radioactive concentration in foods distributed in Tokyo and investigated the actual state of contamination. The samples were 920 imported foods. The experimental method, the preparation of samples, the method of analysis and the results are reported. The samples in which the radioactive concentration exceeding 50 Bq/kg was detected were 25 cases. The food having the high frequency of detection was flavors. (K.I.)
When is protein binding important?
Heuberger, Jules; Schmidt, Stephan; Derendorf, Hartmut
2013-09-01
The present paper is an ode to a classic citation by Benet and Hoener (2002. Clin Pharm Ther 71(3):115-121). The now classic paper had a huge impact on drug development and the way the issue of protein binding is perceived and interpreted. Although the authors very clearly pointed out the limitations and underlying assumptions for their delineations, these are too often overlooked and the classic paper's message is misinterpreted by broadening to cases that were not intended. Some members of the scientific community concluded from the paper that protein binding is not important. This was clearly not intended by the authors, as they finished their paper with a paragraph entitled: "When is protein binding important?" Misinterpretation of the underlying assumptions in the classic work can result in major pitfalls in drug development. Therefore, we revisit the topic of protein binding with the intention of clarifying when clinically relevant changes should be considered during drug development. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Industrial parameters of doce de leite production
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ana Carolina Paiva de Oliveira
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate industrial parameters of doce de leite production. During 37 industrial productions were determined yield, soluble solids and moisture of the product, steam consumption and extent of evaporation. Mathematical correlations were stablished among variables. The equation ST = 1.02 SL + 1.15, where ST = dry matter of the product, SL = soluble solids of the product, describes the relation between ST and SL and leads to an important tool to standardize industrial production and product composition. The highest correlation establish among variables was between extent of production (minutes and steam consumption (kg/h-1. The mass balance indicates an average of losses of 11.8%. Improvements in milk, sugar and product transfers are indicated as the main solution to reduce the losses in those doce de leite productions.
Parameters of Economic Growth in Kosovo
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shkumbin Misini
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper analysis the macroeconomic components that influenced macroeconomic growth in a country, more concretely, the focus will be on the measurement of components that affected economic growth under nominal GDP, in Kosovo. We intend to found out which component of nominal GDP has the biggest and the lowest influence on economic growth. Thus, in order to measure it, GDP components must be analysed: consumption measurement, investments measurement, government expenditures measurement and export measurement. These parameters will be measured by analysing their importance in relation to one another, and the major influence on the growth of nominal GDP. The paper includes a graphic analysis of nominal GDP in relation to consumption, investments, governmental expenses and export.
Virtual Laboratories in Physics with Autogenerated Parameters
Maksimov, M. A.; Monakhov, V. V.; Kozhedub, A. V.
2015-09-01
The paper is devoted to a virtual laboratory system, which in particular can be used to test knowledge through research. The participant can prefer which tools to operate and what actions should be taken. For the most of the tasks, there are copious ways to obtain the correct solution. One of the most important features of the system that distinguish this one among other simulation packages and educational systems is the pseudo-random physical parameter generation technique. The technique supports constraints and relationships between variables. As a result, it provides correctness and equal complexity of the generated task. The system can be very complex and is highly customizable by internal script system executed on server-side. The system is used as a part of distolymp Learning Management System with about 40 thousand participants per year.
Comparing Generic Parameter Controllers for EAs
Karafotias, G.; Hoogendoorn, M.
2014-01-01
Parameter controllers for Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs) deal with adjusting parameter values during an evolutionary run. Many ad hoc approaches have been presented for parameter control, but few generic parameter controllers exist and, additionally, no comparisons or in depth analyses of these
Measuring neutrino oscillation parameters using $\
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Backhouse, Christopher James [Oriel College, Oxford (United Kingdom)
2011-01-01
MINOS is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. It consists of two large steel-scintillator tracking calorimeters. The near detector is situated at Fermilab, close to the production point of the NuMI muon-neutrino beam. The far detector is 735 km away, 716m underground in the Soudan mine, Northern Minnesota. The primary purpose of the MINOS experiment is to make precise measurements of the 'atmospheric' neutrino oscillation parameters (Δm_{atm}^{2} and sin^{2} 2θ_{atm}). The oscillation signal consists of an energy-dependent deficit of v_{μ} interactions in the far detector. The near detector is used to characterize the properties of the beam before oscillations develop. The two-detector design allows many potential sources of systematic error in the far detector to be mitigated by the near detector observations. This thesis describes the details of the v_{μ}-disappearance analysis, and presents a new technique to estimate the hadronic energy of neutrino interactions. This estimator achieves a significant improvement in the energy resolution of the neutrino spectrum, and in the sensitivity of the neutrino oscillation fit. The systematic uncertainty on the hadronic energy scale was re-evaluated and found to be comparable to that of the energy estimator previously in use. The best-fit oscillation parameters of the v_{μ}-disappearance analysis, incorporating this new estimator were: Δm^{2} = 2.32_{-0.08}^{+0.12} x 10^{-3} eV^{2}, sin ^{2} 2θ > 0.90 (90% C.L.). A similar analysis, using data from a period of running where the NuMI beam was operated in a configuration producing a predominantly $\\bar{v}$_{μ} beam, yielded somewhat different best-fit parameters Δ$\\bar{m}${sup 2} = (3.36_{-0.40}^{+0.46}(stat.) ± 0.06(syst.)) x 10^{-3}eV^{2}, sin^{2} 2$\\bar{θ}$ = 0.86_{-0.12}^{_0}
Building ceramics with improved thermal insulation parameters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rzepa Karol
2016-01-01
Full Text Available One of the most important performance characteristics of masonry units is their high thermal insulation. There are many different ways to improve this parameter, however the most popular methods in case of ceramic masonry units are: addition of pore-creating raw materials and application of proper hole pattern. This study was an attempt to improve thermal insulation of ceramics by applying thermal insulation additives. Perlite dust created as a subgrain from expansion of perlite rock was used. Perlite subgrain is not very popular among consumers, that’s why it’s subjected to granulation to obtain coarse grain. The authors presented concept of direct application of perlite dust for the production of building ceramics with improved thermal insulation. Fineness of this additive is asset for molding of ceramic materials from plastic masses. Based on the results it was found that about 70% perlite by volume can be added to obtain material with a coefficient of heat conductivity of 0,37 W/mK. Higher content of this additive in ceramic mass causes deterioration of its rheological properties. Mass loses its plasticity, it tears up and formed green bodies are susceptible to deformation. During sintering perlite takes an active part in compaction process. Higher sintering dynamics is caused by: high content of alkali oxides in perlite and glass nature of perlite. Alkali oxides generate creation of liquid phase which intensifies mass compaction processes. Active role of perlite in sintering process causes good connection of its grains with clay groundwork which is important factor for mechanical parameters of ceramic materials. It was also noted that addition of perlite above 40% by volume of mass effectively neutralized negative effect of efflorescence in ceramic materials.
Eyring parameters of dehydration processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olszak-Humienik, Magdalena; Mozejko, Janina
2003-01-01
Thermogravimetry was used in the study of the kinetics of dehydration of MnSO 4 ·5H 2 O, CuSO 4 ·5H 2 O and 3CdSO 4 ·8H 2 O under static air atmosphere. The values of the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for each stage of thermal dehydration were calculated from α(T) data by using the integral method, applying the Coats-Redfern approximation. The best model for all stages of dehydration is random nucleation model F1. The dependencies of enthalpy on entropy of activated complexes for different kinetic models were described. The linear relation was calculated between the Gibbs energy of activated complexes and the maximum dehydration rate temperature for analysed dehydration processes
Applied parameter estimation for chemical engineers
Englezos, Peter
2000-01-01
Formulation of the parameter estimation problem; computation of parameters in linear models-linear regression; Gauss-Newton method for algebraic models; other nonlinear regression methods for algebraic models; Gauss-Newton method for ordinary differential equation (ODE) models; shortcut estimation methods for ODE models; practical guidelines for algorithm implementation; constrained parameter estimation; Gauss-Newton method for partial differential equation (PDE) models; statistical inferences; design of experiments; recursive parameter estimation; parameter estimation in nonlinear thermodynam
The importance of contact quality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
van Bakel, Marian; Gerritsen, Marinel; van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter
Establishing contact between expatriates and a local host has been found to reap benefits with regard to Interaction Adjustment, Host National Social Support, Open-mindedness, and Social Initiative. This longitudinal study examines the role of the quality of contact for these four aspects. Expatr......, the more benefit the expatriate experienced. Moreover, expatriates with low-quality contact did not experience a detrimental effect.......Establishing contact between expatriates and a local host has been found to reap benefits with regard to Interaction Adjustment, Host National Social Support, Open-mindedness, and Social Initiative. This longitudinal study examines the role of the quality of contact for these four aspects....... Expatriates in the Netherlands were randomly divided into an experimental group (n = 33) of which 21 developed high-quality contact with their host, and a control group (n = 32) without host. The results show that contact quality plays an important role and suggest that the higher the quality of the contact...
Loneliness: Clinical Import and Interventions
Cacioppo, Stephanie; Grippo, Angela J.; London, Sarah; Goossens, Luc; Cacioppo, John T.
2014-01-01
In 1978, when the Task Panel report to the US President’s Commission on Mental Health emphasized the importance of improving health care and easing the pain of those suffering from emotional distress syndromes including loneliness, few anticipated that this issue would still need to be addressed 40 years later. A meta-analysis (Masi et al., 2011) on the efficacy of treatments to reduce loneliness identified a need for well-controlled randomized clinical trials focusing on the rehabilitation of maladaptive social cognition. We review assessments of loneliness and build on this meta-analysis to discuss the efficacy of various treatments for loneliness. With the advances made over the past 5 years in the identification of the psychobiological and pharmaceutical mechanisms associated with loneliness and maladaptive social cognition, there is increasing evidence for the potential efficacy of integrated interventions that combine (social) cognitive behavioral therapy with short-term adjunctive pharmacological treatments. PMID:25866548
The Importance of Experiential Learning
Stanford, Jennifer
2017-04-01
As student numbers increase year on year, the ability to provide experiential learning opportunities and individual formative feedback is decreasing. As an important mechanism for cementing understanding of key concept thresholds in physical Earth sciences, practical based learning is paramount, especially for students with diverse learning abilities. According to Steinaker & Bell's taxonomy, experiential learning and dissemination of information to peers is key for students to make the transition to being much deeper learners. Furthermore, practical based learning also provides opportunity for varied methods of assessment, which are otherwise more challenging to devise. I here present results from practical, experiential based learning within the context of Foundation Year teaching, which shows that predominantly, students found experiential learning to be both a positive and rewarding part of their curriculum. Key aspects of these findings are now being translated to the design of new curricula.
The Most Important Maglev Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hamid Yaghoubi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The name maglev is derived from magnetic levitation. Magnetic levitation is a highly advanced technology. It has various uses. The common point in all applications is the lack of contact and thus no wear and friction. This increases efficiency, reduces maintenance costs, and increases the useful life of the system. The magnetic levitation technology can be used as an efficient technology in the various industries. There are already many countries that are attracted to maglev systems. Many systems have been proposed in different parts of the worlds. This paper tries to study the most important uses of magnetic levitation technology. The results clearly reflect that the maglev can be conveniently considered as a solution for the future engineering needs of the world.
Conflict management: importance and implications.
McKibben, Laurie
2017-01-26
Conflict is a consistent and unavoidable issue within healthcare teams. Despite training of nurse leaders and managers around areas of conflict resolution, the problem of staff relations, stress, sickness and retention remain. Conflict arises from issues with interpersonal relationships, change and poor leadership. New members of staff entering an already established healthcare team should be supported and integrated, to encourage mutual role respect between all team members and establish positive working relationships, in order to maximise patient care. This paper explores the concept of conflict, the importance of addressing causes of conflict, effective management, and the relevance of positive approaches to conflict resolution. Good leadership, nurturing positive team dynamics and communication, encourages shared problem solving and acceptance of change. Furthermore mutual respect fosters a more positive working environment for those in healthcare teams. As conflict has direct implications for patients, positive resolution is essential, to promote safe and effective delivery of care, whilst encouraging therapeutic relationships between colleagues and managers.
Imported chikungunya fever in Madrid.
Richi Alberti, Patricia; Steiner, Martina; Illera Martín, Óscar; Alcocer Amores, Patricia; Cobo Ibáñez, Tatiana; Muñoz Fernández, Santiago
2016-01-01
Chikungunya Fever is a mosquito-transmitted viral disease that causes fever, rash and musculoskeletal complaints. The latest may persist for several months, or even years or developed a relapsing course, that deserve an adequate treatment. Due to the large outbreak declared in the Caribbean in 2013, imported cases of Chikungunya as well as the risk of autochthonous transmission in case of available vectors have increased in non-endemic countries, like Spain. We described four cases of Chikungunya treated in our clinic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.
Biological importance of marine algae.
El Gamal, Ali A
2010-01-01
Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. Algae can be classified into two main groups; first one is the microalgae, which includes blue green algae, dinoflagellates, bacillariophyta (diatoms)… etc., and second one is macroalgae (seaweeds) which includes green, brown and red algae. The microalgae phyla have been recognized to provide chemical and pharmacological novelty and diversity. Moreover, microalgae are considered as the actual producers of some highly bioactive compounds found in marine resources. Red algae are considered as the most important source of many biologically active metabolites in comparison to other algal classes. Seaweeds are used for great number of application by man. The principal use of seaweeds as a source of human food and as a source of gums (phycocollides). Phycocolloides like agar agar, alginic acid and carrageenan are primarily constituents of brown and red algal cell walls and are widely used in industry.
Clinical importance of electromagnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruppe, I.
1993-01-01
The clinical importance of most of the electromagnetic fields is not highly. Mostly they only have thermal effects, produced by energy-absorption. About 1 C increase of whole-body-temperature is valid for tolerable limit. For measuring is used the SAR-Value (Specific Absorption Rate) in W/kg body mass. SAR = 0,8W/kg for the whole body is valid to be safety. For the evaluation of possible other effects of electromagnetic fields the scientific knowledges are till now not sufficient to allow a final statement. That could be impacts of electromagnetic fields to conduction or switch processes in the nerves or brains, in the framwork of cellular regulations, in the genetic reactions are occurig is little, but if is necessary to find it out in scinentific investigations. (orig.) [de
Khorashadi Zadeh, Farkhondeh; Nossent, Jiri; van Griensven, Ann; Bauwens, Willy
2017-04-01
Parameter estimation is a major concern in hydrological modeling, which may limit the use of complex simulators with a large number of parameters. To support the selection of parameters to include in or exclude from the calibration process, Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) is widely applied in modeling practices. Based on the results of GSA, the influential and the non-influential parameters are identified (i.e. parameters screening). Nevertheless, the choice of the screening threshold below which parameters are considered non-influential is a critical issue, which has recently received more attention in GSA literature. In theory, the sensitivity index of a non-influential parameter has a value of zero. However, since numerical approximations, rather than analytical solutions, are utilized in GSA methods to calculate the sensitivity indices, small but non-zero indices may be obtained for the indices of non-influential parameters. In order to assess the threshold that identifies non-influential parameters in GSA methods, we propose to calculate the sensitivity index of a "dummy parameter". This dummy parameter has no influence on the model output, but will have a non-zero sensitivity index, representing the error due to the numerical approximation. Hence, the parameters whose indices are above the sensitivity index of the dummy parameter can be classified as influential, whereas the parameters whose indices are below this index are within the range of the numerical error and should be considered as non-influential. To demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed "dummy parameter approach", 26 parameters of a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model are selected to be analyzed and screened, using the variance-based Sobol' and moment-independent PAWN methods. The sensitivity index of the dummy parameter is calculated from sampled data, without changing the model equations. Moreover, the calculation does not even require additional model evaluations for the Sobol
The importance of being informed
Draganova, Tamara
2013-04-01
"Science needs a lot of inspiration and that is why it is very important to draw the students` inspiration because it is the inspiration that is the future of science." For 10 years on students, teachers, parents and citizens harmonize knowledge and skills, competencies and energy, renewable ideas and shared experience on the topic "Climate change" at our High School of Humanitarian "St. st. Cyril and Methodius". During the last 3 years we have been doing our utmost to encourage the students from our school to participate actively in different eco projects such as: 8 workshops and 2 conferences, 63 multimedia lessons in ecology, geography, world and personality; 15 interactive art lessons through the Forum-theatre, 7 photo exhibitions and 29 exhibitions on the topic "The Archives of the Planet Speak", 5 roundtable workshops, 19 eco-races, 7 scenarios of decision taking, 12 open lessons, 26 discussions, 5 scientific lectures given by professors from V. Tarnovo University, Department Geography, 9 questionnaires, 17 practical lessons and experiments held in the classroom, 13 training and 11 ecological campaigns named - "It depends on You", "Striped Rug - Colourful Beans", "Let`s Plant Life", "Saving Energy between Nations", "Save Today to Have Tomorrow", "Grey Is Not Fashionable" etc. Numerous meetings were held with representatives of NGOs, the Regional Inspectorate of Education, the Regional Inspectorate of Environment and Water Safety, V. Tarnovo University, Department Geography, V. Tarnovo Municipality and other communities. Students and university students were organized around the core activity of renewable energy sources, presenting scientific and creative activities such as models, presentations, poems, essays, drawing posters and more. Students under the guidance of a teacher in geography studied history, current treatment processes and phenomena, the signs of expression, the similarities and differences between different parts of the country and other parts
Stochastic hyperelastic modeling considering dependency of material parameters
Caylak, Ismail; Penner, Eduard; Dridger, Alex; Mahnken, Rolf
2018-03-01
This paper investigates the uncertainty of a hyperelastic model by treating random material parameters as stochastic variables. For its stochastic discretization a polynomial chaos expansion (PCE) is used. An important aspect in our work is the consideration of stochastic dependencies in the stochastic modeling of Ogden's material model. To this end, artificial experiments are generated using the auto-regressive moving average process based on real experiments. The parameter identification for all data provides statistics of Ogden's material parameters, which are subsequently used for stochastic modeling. Stochastic dependencies are incorporated into the PCE using a Nataf transformation from dependent distributed random variables to independent standard normal distributed ones. The representative numerical example shows that our proposed method adequately takes into account the stochastic dependencies of Ogden's material parameters.
Discovering Hidden Controlling Parameters using Data Analytics and Dimensional Analysis
Del Rosario, Zachary; Lee, Minyong; Iaccarino, Gianluca
2017-11-01
Dimensional Analysis is a powerful tool, one which takes a priori information and produces important simplifications. However, if this a priori information - the list of relevant parameters - is missing a relevant quantity, then the conclusions from Dimensional Analysis will be incorrect. In this work, we present novel conclusions in Dimensional Analysis, which provide a means to detect this failure mode of missing or hidden parameters. These results are based on a restated form of the Buckingham Pi theorem that reveals a ridge function structure underlying all dimensionless physical laws. We leverage this structure by constructing a hypothesis test based on sufficient dimension reduction, allowing for an experimental data-driven detection of hidden parameters. Both theory and examples will be presented, using classical turbulent pipe flow as the working example. Keywords: experimental techniques, dimensional analysis, lurking variables, hidden parameters, buckingham pi, data analysis. First author supported by the NSF GRFP under Grant Number DGE-114747.
Biosphere dose conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
M. Wasiolek
2004-10-15
This report presents importance and sensitivity analysis for the environmental radiation model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN). ERMYN is a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis concerns the output of the model, biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater, and the volcanic ash exposure scenarios. It identifies important processes and parameters that influence the BDCF values and distributions, enhances understanding of the relative importance of the physical and environmental processes on the outcome of the biosphere model, includes a detailed pathway analysis for key radionuclides, and evaluates the appropriateness of selected parameter values that are not site-specific or have large uncertainty.
Biosphere dose conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
M. Wasiolek
2004-01-01
This report presents importance and sensitivity analysis for the environmental radiation model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN). ERMYN is a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis concerns the output of the model, biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater, and the volcanic ash exposure scenarios. It identifies important processes and parameters that influence the BDCF values and distributions, enhances understanding of the relative importance of the physical and environmental processes on the outcome of the biosphere model, includes a detailed pathway analysis for key radionuclides, and evaluates the appropriateness of selected parameter values that are not site-specific or have large uncertainty
The Vulnerability of Some Networks including Cycles via Domination Parameters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tufan Turaci
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Let G=(V(G,E(G be an undirected simple connected graph. A network is usually represented by an undirected simple graph where vertices represent processors and edges represent links between processors. Finding the vulnerability values of communication networks modeled by graphs is important for network designers. The vulnerability value of a communication network shows the resistance of the network after the disruption of some centers or connection lines until a communication breakdown. The domination number and its variations are the most important vulnerability parameters for network vulnerability. Some variations of domination numbers are the 2-domination number, the bondage number, the reinforcement number, the average lower domination number, the average lower 2-domination number, and so forth. In this paper, we study the vulnerability of cycles and related graphs, namely, fans, k-pyramids, and n-gon books, via domination parameters. Then, exact solutions of the domination parameters are obtained for the above-mentioned graphs.
Estimation of Parameters in Mean-Reverting Stochastic Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tianhai Tian
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Stochastic differential equation (SDE is a very important mathematical tool to describe complex systems in which noise plays an important role. SDE models have been widely used to study the dynamic properties of various nonlinear systems in biology, engineering, finance, and economics, as well as physical sciences. Since a SDE can generate unlimited numbers of trajectories, it is difficult to estimate model parameters based on experimental observations which may represent only one trajectory of the stochastic model. Although substantial research efforts have been made to develop effective methods, it is still a challenge to infer unknown parameters in SDE models from observations that may have large variations. Using an interest rate model as a test problem, in this work we use the Bayesian inference and Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to estimate unknown parameters in SDE models.
Toxoplasmosis: An Important Protozoan Zoonosis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sonar S. S. and Brahmbhatt M.N.
Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is an important infection caused by single celled parasite Toxoplasma gondii which is one of the world's most common parasites. Toxoplasmosis is considered to be the third leading cause of death attributed to food-borne illness in the United States. Most people affected never develop signs and symptoms. But for infants born to infected mothers and for people with compromised immune systems, toxoplasmosis can cause extremely serious complications. Toxoplasmosis was first described in 1908 from a small rodent. The parasite infects almost all worm blooded animals and serological evidence indicates that it is one of the most common of humans’ infections throughout the world. The disease is transmitted mainly by ingestion of infective stage of the parasite, organ transplant as well as blood transfusion in addition to the transplacental transmission which is very common. Toxoplasmosis can be presented in various forms of clinical manifestations depending on the immune status of the patient causing life threatening disease in AIDS patient. Pregnant women, cat owners, veterinarians, abattoir workers, children, cooks, butchers are considered as high risk group. Timely treatment of man and animals with proper antibiotic, hygienic measures, proper disinfection, mass education and vaccination are the measures to curtail the disease. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(9.000: 436-439
Reactivity and kinetic parameters determination in a multiplicative non-stationary system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minguez, E.
1982-01-01
A revision of several methods used for solving kinetic equations of a neutronic system is considered. Firstly, kinetic equations in general form are analized, before to revise more important aproximations: point-kinetic method; adiabatic; cuasistatic; eigenvalue equations; nodal, modal and systhesis methods; and variational principles for obtaining kinetic equations. Perturbation theory is used to obtain these parameters, with differents eigenvalue equations representatives of the parameter to be calculated. Also, experimental methods have been included in this work, because of importance the parameters can be measured, and related with those obtained by calculations. Finally, adjoint kinetic equations are resolved to obtain the importance function used in weighted reactivity and kinetic parameters determinations. (author)
Sensitivity Analysis and Identification of Parameters to the Van Genuchten Equation
Chen, Guangzhou; Jiao, Lifeng; Li, Xinhai
2016-01-01
Van Genuchten equation is the soil water characteristic curve equation used commonly, and identifying (estimating) accurately its parameters plays an important role in the study on the movement of soil water. Selecting the desorption and absorption experimental data of silt loam from a northwest region in China as an instance, Monte-Carlo method was firstly applied to analyze sensitivity of the parameters and uncertainty of model so as to get the key parameters and posteriori parameter distri...
Biochemical Parameters of Orienteers Competing in a Long Distance Race.
Mikan, Vladimir; And Others
1992-01-01
Measured important biochemical parameters in a group of orienteers two hours before beginning and immediately after an orienteering marathon. Found levels of dehydration. Suggests a drinking regimen which is designed for orienteering races. Concludes that no runner having kidney or liver abnormalities or changes in the urine should be allowed to…
Constraining the evolution of the Hubble Parameter using cosmic chronometers
Dickinson, Hugh
2017-08-01
Substantial investment is being made in space- and ground-based missions with the goal of revealing the nature of the observed cosmic acceleration. This is one of the most important unsolved problems in cosmology today.We propose here to constrain the evolution of the Hubble parameter [H(z)] between 1.3 fundamental nature of dark energy.
Iterative solution of field problems with a varying physical parameter
Tijhuis, A.G.; Beurden, M.C. van; Zwamborn, A.P.M.
2002-01-01
In this paper, linear field problems with a varying physical parameter are solved with the conjugate-gradient FFT method and a dedicated extrapolation procedure for generating the initial estimate. The scheme is formulated and illustrated for two simple example problems. The importance of the choice
First Measurements of Higher Order Optics Parameters in the LHC
Vanbavinckhove, G; Bartolini, R; Calaga, R; Giovannozzi, M; Maclean, E H; Miyamoto, R; Schmidt, F; Tomas, R
2011-01-01
Higher order effects can play an important role in the performance of the LHC. Lack of knowledge of these pa- rameters can increase the tune footprint and compromise the beam lifetime. First measurements of these parameters at injection and flattop have been conducted. Detailed sim- ulations are compared to the measurements together with discussions on the measurement limitations.
The Total Number of Parameters in the Finite Element ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Rectangular finite elements are important in Finite Element Method. This paper establishes a general formula for obtaining the total number of parameters associated with any finite element rectangulation of a domain. This number is also the dimension of the trail space as well as the size of the associated linear system.
Semen Parameters in Infertile Nigerian Males: A critical Study ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Introduction: Approximately one couple in ten are infertile during their reproductive lives. Male factors alone are responsible for infertility in 24% of couples and contributed to the cause in another 24%. The most important male factor is the semen parameter. Seminal fluid analysis is therefore the cornerstone of male infertility ...
Inference of soil hydrologic parameters from electronic soil moisture records
Soil moisture is an important control on hydrologic function, as it governs vertical fluxes from and to the atmosphere, groundwater recharge, and lateral fluxes through the soil. Historically, the traditional model parameters of saturation, field capacity, and permanent wilting point have been deter...
Effect of atrazine ( Herbicide ) on blood parameters of common carp ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Effect of atrazine (Herbicide) on blood parameters of common carp Cyprinus carpio (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes). M Ramesh, R Srinivasan, M Saravanan. Abstract. In the present study an attempt was made to investigate the acute toxicity of atrazine (ATR) a herbicide on an economically important fish, Cyprinus carpio.
Effect of atrazine (Herbicide) on blood parameters of common carp ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
EJIRO
The alterations of the above parameters could be used as an important tool for the assessment of pathological conditions of fish. Key words: Atrazine, acute toxicity, hematology, biochemical, Cyprinus carpio. INTRODUCTION. Due to rapid industrialization, application of synthetic fertilizers and use of various insecticides and ...
Determining the Effect of Cutting Parameters on Surface Roughness ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The aim of present research focuses on the prediction of machining parameters that improve the quality of surface finish. The surface roughness is one of the important properties of work piece quality in the CNC (Computer Numerical Control) turning process. An effective approach of optimization techniques genetic ...
LIKELIHOOD ESTIMATION OF PARAMETERS USING SIMULTANEOUSLY MONITORED PROCESSES
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Friis-Hansen, Peter; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager
2004-01-01
The topic is maximum likelihood inference from several simultaneously monitored response processes of a structure to obtain knowledge about the parameters of other not monitored but important response processes when the structure is subject to some Gaussian load field in space and time. The consi....... The considered example is a ship sailing with a given speed through a Gaussian wave field....
A novel parameter estimation method for metal oxide surge arrester ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Accurate modelling and exact determination of Metal Oxide (MO) surge arrester parameters are very important for arrester allocation, insulation coordination studies and systems reliability calculations. In this paper, a new technique, which is the combination of Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization (APSO) and Ant Colony ...
Correlations between Optical Variability and Physical Parameters of ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Optical variability is an important feature of quasars. Taking advantage of a larger sample of 7658 quasars from SDSS Stripe 82 and relatively more photometric data points for each quasar, we estimate their variability amplitudes and divide the sample into small bins of various parameters. An anticorrelation ...
Spermatological Parameters of Extended Rabbit Semen in 5 ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The in vitro evaluation of spermatological parameters is of great importance in the validation of semen samples to be used in artificial insemination. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of 5% egg yolk plasma from 5 Nigerian domesticated avian species as a component of semen extender in the preservation of ...
Determination of cosmological parameters: An introduction for non ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Hubble expansion; cosmological constant; supernova. PACS Nos 3.50 Kk; 04.20 Cv; 04.40 Dy. 1. Introduction. In this conference on neutrino physics, I have been asked to talk about the determination of cosmological parameters. The reason for this, obviously, is the potential importance of neutrinos for cosmology. They can ...
Estimates of lactation curve parameters for Bonsmara and Nguni ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Despite the importance of milk production in beef cattle, little research has been done to evaluate the milk production potential of South African indigenous beef cattle. The objective of this study was to estimate average lactation curve parameters for the South African Bonsmara and Nguni cattle. Milk yield was estimated ...
Optical spectra and spin-Hamiltonian parameters of trivalent ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Keywords. Crystal-field theory; optical spectrum; spin-Hamiltonian parameters; Yb. 3+. ; PbWO4. PACS Nos 71.70.Ch; 75.10.Dg; 76.30.-v; 76.30.Kg. 1. Introduction. PbWO4, as a scintillator, has been intensively investigated due to its important applica- tions in scintillator detectors, high-energy electromagnetic calorimeters, ...
Reservoir controls on the occurrence and production of gas hydrates in nature
Collett, Timothy Scott
2014-01-01
Gas hydrates in both arctic permafrost regions and deep marine settings can occur at high concentrations in sand-dominated reservoirs, which have been the focus of gas hydrate exploration and production studies in
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Codas, Andrés; Hanssen, Kristian G.; Foss, Bjarne
2017-01-01
. In this work, we propose a new formulation for robust optimization of reservoir well controls. It is inspired by the multiple shooting (MS) method which permits a broad range of parallelization opportunities and output constraint handling. This formulation exploits coherent risk measures, a concept...... traditionally used in finance, to bound the risk on constraint violation. We propose a reduced sequential quadratic programming (rSQP) algorithm to solve the underlying optimization problem. This algorithm exploits the structure of the coherent risk measures, thus a large set of constraints are solved within...... sub-problems. Moreover, a variable elimination procedure allows solving the optimization problem in a reduced space and an iterative active-set method helps to handle a large set of inequality constraints. Finally, we demonstrate the application of constraints to bound the risk of water production...
1987 Annual Report of the Reservoir Control Center, Southwestern Division, Army Corps of Engineers
1988-01-01
accordance with SYD regulation 1130-2-9 and applicable State laws. (d) Potable Nate U gtorig. Potable water supplies of the District are tested for...for Arkansas and Missouri. Results of potable water, bathing beaches, NPDES, and other monitoring are kept in computer storage, log books, or files as...CENTER MEETING 3-4 November 1987 ATTENDANCE LIST EAU ORGANIZATION Frank Jaramillo CESWA-ED-PH Dick Kreiner CESWA-ED-PH Roberta Ball CESWA-ED-PH (Part
1983-01-01
rederal basin intereits groups. DD 1~~ 78 snwPigvS~OMY Unclassified SCcumTV CLASSIICATfOR OP TIHIS PA&E ( WAO u, et ntee) 1982 ANNUAL REPORT...Little Rock, AR 6. Oscar E. Hembree, Jr. Southwestern Power Administration, Tulsa, OK 7. Tom Riley, Jr. Arkansas Association of Conservation District
Zatarain Salazar, Jazmin; Reed, Patrick M.; Herman, Jonathan D.; Giuliani, Matteo; Castelletti, Andrea
2016-06-01
Globally, the pressures of expanding populations, climate change, and increased energy demands are motivating significant investments in re-operationalizing existing reservoirs or designing operating policies for new ones. These challenges require an understanding of the tradeoffs that emerge across the complex suite of multi-sector demands in river basin systems. This study benchmarks our current capabilities to use Evolutionary Multi-Objective Direct Policy Search (EMODPS), a decision analytic framework in which reservoirs' candidate operating policies are represented using parameterized global approximators (e.g., radial basis functions) then those parameterized functions are optimized using multi-objective evolutionary algorithms to discover the Pareto approximate operating policies. We contribute a comprehensive diagnostic assessment of modern MOEAs' abilities to support EMODPS using the Conowingo reservoir in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin, Pennsylvania, USA. Our diagnostic results highlight that EMODPS can be very challenging for some modern MOEAs and that epsilon dominance, time-continuation, and auto-adaptive search are helpful for attaining high levels of performance. The ɛ-MOEA, the auto-adaptive Borg MOEA, and ɛ-NSGAII all yielded superior results for the six-objective Lower Susquehanna benchmarking test case. The top algorithms show low sensitivity to different MOEA parameterization choices and high algorithmic reliability in attaining consistent results for different random MOEA trials. Overall, EMODPS poses a promising method for discovering key reservoir management tradeoffs; however algorithmic choice remains a key concern for problems of increasing complexity.
Virtual Acoustics: Evaluation of Psychoacoustic Parameters
Begault, Durand R.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)
1997-01-01
Current virtual acoustic displays for teleconferencing and virtual reality are usually limited to very simple or non-existent renderings of reverberation, a fundamental part of the acoustic environmental context that is encountered in day-to-day hearing. Several research efforts have produced results that suggest that environmental cues dramatically improve perceptual performance within virtual acoustic displays, and that is possible to manipulate signal processing parameters to effectively reproduce important aspects of virtual acoustic perception in real-time. However, the computational resources for rendering reverberation remain formidable. Our efforts at NASA Ames have been focused using a several perceptual threshold metrics, to determine how various "trade-offs" might be made in real-time acoustic rendering. This includes both original work and confirmation of existing data that was obtained in real rather than virtual environments. The talk will consider the importance of using individualized versus generalized pinnae cues (the "Head-Related Transfer Function"); the use of head movement cues; threshold data for early reflections and late reverberation; and consideration of the necessary accuracy for measuring and rendering octave-band absorption characteristics of various wall surfaces. In addition, a consideration of the analysis-synthesis of the reverberation within "everyday spaces" (offices, conference rooms) will be contrasted to the commonly used paradigm of concert hall spaces.
Morfofunctional parameters in judo's fight
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ítalo Sérgio Lopes Campos
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Considering the complexity of judo and the ample energy and neuromuscular demands, a whole process of competitive preparation must be directed to different physical capacities allowing the athlete to perform his combat actions with the best suitability possible. Mapping the behaviour of a judo athlete from observations of behaviour units in a real fighting situation would be a way of trying to identify the best topography or the best "aptitude" to achieve victory. The present investigation analysed the judo from the interactions of a real competition situation, aiming to verify, between winners and losers, possible differences or correlations between anthropometric parameters, motor performance and functional behaviours in a competitive situation. The results showed that: a the experience is decisive between winning or losing; b leg techniques are the most used between winners and losers, and losers use them more frequently; c there are different strategies between fights; d The energy cost in judo depends on the configuration of the fights. It is believed that such results can help coaches and athletes in guiding and rationalizing the training process in relation to performance determinants in judo.
Rainfall-Runoff Parameters Uncertainity
Heidari, A.; Saghafian, B.; Maknoon, R.
2003-04-01
Karkheh river basin, located in southwest of Iran, drains an area of over 40000 km2 and is considered a flood active basin. A flood forecasting system is under development for the basin, which consists of a rainfall-runoff model, a river routing model, a reservior simulation model, and a real time data gathering and processing module. SCS, Clark synthetic unit hydrograph, and Modclark methods are the main subbasin rainfall-runoff transformation options included in the rainfall-runoff model. Infiltration schemes, such as exponentioal and SCS-CN methods, account for infiltration losses. Simulation of snow melt is based on degree day approach. River flood routing is performed by FLDWAV model based on one-dimensional full dynamic equation. Calibration and validation of the rainfall-runoff model on Karkheh subbasins are ongoing while the river routing model awaits cross section surveys.Real time hydrometeological data are collected by a telemetry network. The telemetry network is equipped with automatic sensors and INMARSAT-C comunication system. A geographic information system (GIS) stores and manages the spatial data while a database holds the hydroclimatological historical and updated time series. Rainfall runoff parameters uncertainty is analyzed by Monte Carlo and GLUE approaches.
IMPORTANT PROTOZOAN PARASITES IN INDONESIA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Srisasi Gandahusada
2012-09-01
Full Text Available The most important protozoan parasites in Indonesia are the malaria parasites, Toxoplasma gondii and Entamoeba histolytica. After the second world war the residual insecticides and effective antimalarial drugs were used in the control of malaria. After development of resistance among mosquitoes to insecticides, the Malaria Control Programme was switched over to the Malaria Eradication Programme. Malaria incidence dropped heavily. However, due to the quick development of vector resistance and financial limitations, malaria came back and so did the Malaria Control Programme. P. falciparum and P.vivax are the most common species in Indonesia. Important vectors are An. sundaicus, An. aconitus, An. maculatus, An. hyrcanus group, An. balabacensis, An. farauti etc. An. sundaicus and An. aconitus have developed resistance to DDT and Dieldrin in Java. In 1959 the Malaria Eradication Programme was started in Java, Bali and Lampung. In 1965 the API dropped to 0,15 per thousand. From 1966 onwards malaria transmission was on the increase, because spraying activities were slowed down, but dropped again from 1974 onwards by occasional residual house spraying with DDT or Fenitrothion, malaria surveillance and treatment of malaria cases, resulting in an API of 0.18 per thousand in 1987. At present malaria is not transmitted in Jakarta and in capitals of the provinces and kabupatens, except in Irian Jaya, Nusa Tenggara Timur and one or two other provinces, but it still exists in rural areas. The distribution of chloroquine resistant P.falciparum is patchy. Resistance is at the RI, RII and RUT levels. The main problems of malaria control are : the increasing development of resistance of the vector to insecticides, the change of An.aconitus from zoophili to anthropophili and from indoor to outdoor biting, the increasing resistance of P.falciparum to chloroquine, the shortage of skilled manpower and limitation of budget. In Indonesia many newborns with congenital
Zirconium - an imported mineral commodity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1983-10-01
This report examines Canada's position in regard to the principal zirconium materials: zircon; fusion-cast zirconium-bearing refractory products; zirconium-bearing chemicals; and zirconium metal, master alloys, and alloys. None of these is produced in Canada except fused alumina-zirconia and certain magnesium-zirconium alloys and zirconium-bearing steels. Most of the 3 000-4 000 tonnes of the various forms of zircon believed to be consumed in Canada each year is for foundry applications. Other minerals, notably chromite, olivine and silica sand are also used for these purposes and, if necessary, could be substituted for zircon. Zirconium's key role in Canada is in CANDU nuclear power reactors, where zirconium alloys are essential in the cladding for fuel bundles and in capital equipment such as pressure tubes, calandria tubes and reactivity control mechanisms. If zirconium alloys were to become unavailable, the Canadian nuclear power industry would collapse. As a contingency measure, Ontario Hydro maintains at least nine months' stocks of nuclear fuel bundles. Canada's vulnerability to short-term disruptions to supplies of nuclear fuel is diminished further by the availability of more expensive electricity from non-nuclear sources and, given time, from mothballed thermal plants. Zirconium minerals are present in many countries, notably Australia, the Republic of South Africa and the United States. Australia is Canada's principal source of zircon imports; South Africa is its sole source of baddeleyite. At this time, there are no shortages of either material. Canada has untapped zirconium resources in the Athabasca Oil Sands (zircon) and at Strange Lake along the ill-defined border between Quebec and Newfoundland (gittinsite). Adequate metal and alloy production facilities exist in France, Japan and the United States. No action by the federal government in regard to zirconium supplies is called for at this time
Cohen, Judith A.; Bukstein, Oscar; Walter, Heather; Benson, R. Scott; Chrisman, Allan; Farchione, Tiffany R.; Hamilton, John; Keable, Helene; Kinlan, Joan; Schoettle, Ulrich; Siegel, Matthew; Stock, Saundra; Medicus, Jennifer
2010-01-01
This Practice Parameter reviews the evidence from research and clinical experience and highlights significant advances in the assessment and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder since the previous Parameter was published in 1998. It highlights the importance of early identification of posttraumatic stress disorder, the importance of…
Particle and radiation leakage importance: definition, analysis, and interpretation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cacuci, D.G.; Wagschal, J.J.; Yaari, A.
1982-01-01
The concept of leakage importance function has been introduced and analyzed for physical systems governed by the Boltzmann transport equation. This leakage importance function represents a measure of the relative importance of source particles located at every point in phase space in contributing to the leakage and provides insight regarding the specific physical process that leads to leakage. The equation satisfied by the leakage importance function has been derived by using adjoint operators. It has been shown that procedures that are customarily used to derive an equation obeyed by an importance function suitable for an integral parameter such as a detector response or an eigenvalue lead to difficulties when directly applied to derive an equation obeyed by the leakage importance function. This is because, although leakage is also an integral parameter (i.e., a functional of the forward flux density), leakage is expressed in terms of a surface integral rather than in terms of volume integrals such as those appearing in expressions of detector responses or eigenvalues. Therefore, a procedure that departs from the customary course has been devised to derive the equation satisfied by the leakage importance function
[Breastfeeding: the importance of intervening].
Aguiar, Hélder; Silva, Ana Isabel
2011-12-01
Breast milk is considered by the WHO the ideal food for the first months of life. Although health professionals are aware of recommendations, high rates of drop-outs have been identified in Portugal. A false notion of hypogalactia is the major factor for early termination, which is allied to the technical difficulties of the feeding. Health professionals, often lacking training in the area, may have difficulty in reassuring mothers in these situations. In Portugal, at the 3rd month, most mothers stop breastfeeding by indication of their medical assistant. Gather evidence about the advantages of breast-feeding compared to artificial milk, and establish useful strategies in clinical practice to avoid early withdrawal. A survey was conducted for articles from the last six years in the major sites of evidence-based medicine and reference sites (Pubmed, Cochrane, National Guideline Clearinghouse, Tripdatabase, WHO). Breast-feeding is clearly associated with benefits to the infant, including significant protective effects for gastrointestinal infections (64%), middle ear (23- 50%), severe respiratory infections (73%) and for acute lymphocytic leukemia (19%) and sudden death syndrome in infants (36%). We also found long-term benefits, such as for obesity (7-24%) and other cardiovascular risk factors in adulthood. The mother also benefits from its protective effect for cancers of the breast and ovary, and diabetes mellitus type 2 as also, proportionate to the duration of breastfeeding. Health professionals have an important role in the initiation and continuation of breastfeeding. The notion of its advantages, the communication prior to delivery, accessibility support and training in technical aspects of correct picks are the proven strategies for evidence explored in the article. Breast milk contains several unique and exclusive elements, orchestrators of its health benefits. Postnatal period is critical to the development of neuro--hypothalamic circuits involved in
[Important issues of biological safety].
Onishchenko, G G
2007-01-01
The problem of biological security raises alarm due to the real growth of biological threats. Biological security includes a wide scope of problems, the solution of which becomes a part of national security as a necessary condition for the constant development of the country. A number of pathogens, such as human immunodeficiency virus, exotic Ebola and Lassa viruses causing hemorrhagic fever,rotaviruses causing acute intestinal diseases, etc. were first discovered in the last century. Terrorist actions committed in the USA in 2001 using the anthrax pathogen made the problem of biological danger even more important. In Russian Federation, biological threats are counteracted through the united state policy being a part of general state security policy. The biological Security legislation of Russian Federation is chiefly based on the 1992 Federal Law on Security. On the basis of cumulated experience, the President of Russia ratified Basics of Russian Federation's State Policy for Chemical and Biological Security for the Period through 2010 and Beyond on 4 December, 2003. The document determines the main directions and stages of the state development in the area of chemical and biological security. The Federal target program Russian Federation's National Program for Chemical and Biological Security is being developed, and its development is to be completed soon in order to perfect the national system for biological security and fulfill Basics of Russian Federation's State Policy for Chemical and Biological Security for the Period through 2010 and Beyond, ratified by the President. The new global strategy for control over infectious diseases, presented in the materials of Saint Petersburg summit of the Group of Eight, as well as the substantive part of its elements in Sanitary International Standards, are to a large degree an acknowledgement of the Russian Federation's experience and the algorithm for fighting extremely dangerous infections. This Russia's experience has
[Mycoviruses and importance in mycology].
Keçeli, Sema Aşkın
2017-10-01
extracellular way, and then the binding of mycovirus to target fungus by genetic modifications is aimed. The second scenario is about the use of mycovirus as a vector for genetic transformation. In fact, this method is applied by using toxins in fungal diseases of plants. In addition, the production of lethal antibodies or peptides derived from antibodies obtained from toxin-coding cytoplasmic dsRNA mycovirus toxins may be a new therapeutic approach. It has been claimed that these derivatives may be used as parentheral therapeutic agents against human pathogenic fungi including Candida albicans. In this review article, the importance of mycoviruses in mycology has been discussed.
Animal models: an important tool in mycology.
Capilla, Javier; Clemons, Karl V; Stevens, David A
2007-12-01
Animal models of fungal infections are, and will remain, a key tool in the advancement of the medical mycology. Many different types of animal models of fungal infection have been developed, with murine models the most frequently used, for studies of pathogenesis, virulence, immunology, diagnosis, and therapy. The ability to control numerous variables in performing the model allows us to mimic human disease states and quantitatively monitor the course of the disease. However, no single model can answer all questions and different animal species or different routes of infection can show somewhat different results. Thus, the choice of which animal model to use must be made carefully, addressing issues of the type of human disease to mimic, the parameters to follow and collection of the appropriate data to answer those questions being asked. This review addresses a variety of uses for animal models in medical mycology. It focuses on the most clinically important diseases affecting humans and cites various examples of the different types of studies that have been performed. Overall, animal models of fungal infection will continue to be valuable tools in addressing questions concerning fungal infections and contribute to our deeper understanding of how these infections occur, progress and can be controlled and eliminated.
A Parameter Study of Localization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sandor Stephen Mester
1996-01-01
Full Text Available Extensive work has been done on the vibration characteristics of perfectly periodic structures. Disorder in the periodic pattern has been found to lead to localization in one-dimensional periodic structures. It is important to understand localization because it causes energy to be concentrated near the disorder and may cause an overestimation of structural damping. A numerical study is conducted to obtain a better understanding of localization. It is found that any mode, even the first, can localize due to the presence of small imperfections.
EPISCLERITIS AND SCLERITIS - CLINIC PARAMETERS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gordana Zlatanović
2002-09-01
Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis is the most frequent system disease joined with scleritis and episcleritis. Scleritises coupled with system diseases have a considerably more unfavorable course. Recidivism is frequent and can last for years but an early diagnosis and a prompt treatment of the first attack can both reduce the frequency of recidivism. The aim of the paper was to determine whether there are differences in the clinic image of the patients with episcleritis and scleritis of unknown etiology (1 group and the patients with episcleritis and scleritis, namely, those who also had additional system disease (2 group. The average number of relapses in the 1 group was 4,44 while in the 2 group was 6,36. Unilateral recidvism was present in the 1 group in 33,3% of the patients while 66,6% had recidivates in both the eyes. In the 2nd group the alternating recidivism was present in 81,8% but the difference is not statistically important (p>0,05. A higher frequency of the diffuse type of episcleritis and scleritis in the patients of unknown etiology was recorded. The average time of recovery in the 1 group was 4,93 while in the 2 group it was 7,17; here there is a statistically important difference between the examined groups in favor of the 2" group (p<0,05.
Physiological Parameters Database for Older Adults
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Physiological Parameters Database for Older Adults is available for download and contains physiological parameters values for healthy older human adults (age 60...
Effects of process parameters on hydrothermal carbonization
Uddin, Md. Helal
In recent years there has been increased research activity in renewable energy, especially upgrading widely available lignicellulosic biomass, in a bid to counter the increasing environmental concerns related with the use of fossil fuels. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC), also known as wet torrefaction or hot water pretreatment, is a process for pretreatment of diverse lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks, where biomass is treated under subcritical water conditions in short contact time to produce high-value products. The products of this process are: a solid mass characterized as biochar/biocoal/biocarbon, which is homogeneous, energy dense, and hydrophobic; a liquid stream composed of five and six carbon sugars, various organic acids, and 5-HMF; and a gaseous stream, mainly CO2. A number of process parameters are considered important for the extensive application of the HTC process. Primarily, reaction temperature determines the characteristics of the products. In the solid product, the oxygen carbon ratio decreases with increasing reaction temperature and as a result, HTC biochar has the similar characteristics to low rank coal. However, liquid and gaseous stream compositions are largely correlated with the residence time. Biomass particle size can also limit the reaction kinetics due to the mass transfer effect. Recycling of process water can help to minimize the utility consumption and reduce the waste treatment cost as a result of less environmental impact. Loblolly pine was treated in hot compressed water at 200 °C, 230 °C, and 260 °C with 5:1 water:biomass mass ratio to investigate the effects of process parameters on HTC. The solid product were characterized by their mass yields, higher heating values (HHV), and equilibrium moisture content (EMC), while the liquid were characterized by their total organic carbon content and pH value.
Mining Important Nodes in Directed Weighted Complex Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yunyun Yang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In complex networks, mining important nodes has been a matter of concern by scholars. In recent years, scholars have focused on mining important nodes in undirected unweighted complex networks. But most of the methods are not applicable to directed weighted complex networks. Therefore, this paper proposes a Two-Way-PageRank method based on PageRank for further discussion of mining important nodes in directed weighted complex networks. We have mainly considered the frequency of contact between nodes and the length of time of contact between nodes. We have considered the source of the nodes (in-degree and the whereabouts of the nodes (out-degree simultaneously. We have given node important performance indicators. Through numerical examples, we analyze the impact of variation of some parameters on node important performance indicators. Finally, the paper has verified the accuracy and validity of the method through empirical network data.
Behavioural Pattern of Causality Parameter of Autoregressive ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper, a causal form of Autoregressive Moving Average process, ARMA (p, q) of various orders and behaviour of the causality parameter of ARMA model is investigated. It is deduced that the behaviour of causality parameter ψi depends on positive and negative values of autoregressive parameter φ and moving ...
Parameters Evaluation of PLC Dependability and Safety
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juraj Zdansky
2006-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is focused on evaluation of dependability and safety parameters of PLC (Programmable Logic Controller. Achievement of requested level of these parameters is an application assumption for using PLC in control of safety critical processes. Evaluation of these parameters can be made on the base of suitable model and it can be influenced by system architecture when necessary.
Some haematological, biochemical and zootechnical parameters of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
biochemical and zootechnical parameters of a colony of fruit eating bats (Eidolon helvum) in Morogoro region, Tanzania. A total of 50 bats were captured using hand held hooks and quickly transported to the laboratory where the various parameters were measured. Zootechnical parameters (body length, wing span and ...
Bayesian estimation of parameters in a regional hydrological model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Engeland
2002-01-01
Full Text Available This study evaluates the applicability of the distributed, process-oriented Ecomag model for prediction of daily streamflow in ungauged basins. The Ecomag model is applied as a regional model to nine catchments in the NOPEX area, using Bayesian statistics to estimate the posterior distribution of the model parameters conditioned on the observed streamflow. The distribution is calculated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC analysis. The Bayesian method requires formulation of a likelihood function for the parameters and three alternative formulations are used. The first is a subjectively chosen objective function that describes the goodness of fit between the simulated and observed streamflow, as defined in the GLUE framework. The second and third formulations are more statistically correct likelihood models that describe the simulation errors. The full statistical likelihood model describes the simulation errors as an AR(1 process, whereas the simple model excludes the auto-regressive part. The statistical parameters depend on the catchments and the hydrological processes and the statistical and the hydrological parameters are estimated simultaneously. The results show that the simple likelihood model gives the most robust parameter estimates. The simulation error may be explained to a large extent by the catchment characteristics and climatic conditions, so it is possible to transfer knowledge about them to ungauged catchments. The statistical models for the simulation errors indicate that structural errors in the model are more important than parameter uncertainties. Keywords: regional hydrological model, model uncertainty, Bayesian analysis, Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis
A study of photon interaction parameters in lung tissue substitutes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H C Manjunatha
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The study of photon interaction with different composite materials has become a topic of prime importance for radiation physicists. Some parameters of dosimetric interest are the mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number, and electron density; these help in the basic understanding of photon interactions with composite materials. The photon interaction parameters such as mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ρ, effective atomic number (Z eff , and effective electron density (N el must be identical for the phantom material and their tissue. In the present study, we have evaluated the photon interaction parameters such as (μ/ρ, Z eff and N el of 13 lung tissue substitutes. The variations of these parameters of lung tissue substitutes with photon energy are graphically represented. The photon interaction parameters of lung tissue substitutes are compared with that of lung tissue. The variation of photon interaction parameters of the studied lung tissue substitutes is similar that of the lung. Logically, it can be shown that Alderson lung is good substitute for lung than the other substitutes.
A study of photon interaction parameters in lung tissue substitutes.
Manjunatha, H C
2014-04-01
The study of photon interaction with different composite materials has become a topic of prime importance for radiation physicists. Some parameters of dosimetric interest are the mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number, and electron density; these help in the basic understanding of photon interactions with composite materials. The photon interaction parameters such as mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ρ), effective atomic number (Zeff), and effective electron density (N el) must be identical for the phantom material and their tissue. In the present study, we have evaluated the photon interaction parameters such as (μ/ρ), Z eff and N el of 13 lung tissue substitutes. The variations of these parameters of lung tissue substitutes with photon energy are graphically represented. The photon interaction parameters of lung tissue substitutes are compared with that of lung tissue. The variation of photon interaction parameters of the studied lung tissue substitutes is similar that of the lung. Logically, it can be shown that Alderson lung is good substitute for lung than the other substitutes.
Effect of economic parameters on power generation expansion planning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sevilgen, Sueleyman Hakan; Hueseyin Erdem, Hasan; Cetin, Burhanettin; Volkan Akkaya, Ali; Dagdas, Ahmet
2005-01-01
The increasing consumption of electricity within time forces countries to build additional power plants. Because of technical and economic differences of the additional power plants, economic methodologies are used to determine the best technology for the additional capacity. The annual levelized cost method is used for this purpose, and the technology giving the minimum value for the additional load range is chosen. However, the economic parameters such as interest rate, construction escalation, fuel escalation, maintenance escalation and discount factor can affect the annual levelized cost considerably and change the economic range of the plants. Determining the values of the economical parameters in the future is very difficult, especially in developing countries. For this reason, the analysis of the changing rates of the mentioned values is of great importance for the planners of the additional capacity. In this study, the changing rates of the economic parameters that influence the annual levelized cost of the alternative power plant types are discussed. The alternative power plants considered for the electricity generation sector of Turkey and the economic parameters dominating each plant type are determined. It is clearly seen that the annual levelized cost for additional power plants varies with the economic parameters. The results show that the economic parameters variation has to be taken into consideration in electricity generation planning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jian-cheng WANG
2007-06-01
Full Text Available Eleven evaluating parameters for rice core collection were assessed based on genotypic values and molecular marker information. Monte Carlo simulation combined with mixed linear model was used to eliminate the interference from environment in order to draw more reliable results. The coincidence rate of range (CR was the optimal parameter. Mean Simpson index (MD, mean Shannon-Weaver index of genetic diversity (MI and mean polymorphism information content (MPIC were important evaluating parameters. The variable rate of coefficient of variation (VR could act as an important reference parameter for evaluating the variation degree of core collection. Percentage of polymorphic loci (p could be used as a determination parameter for the size of core collection. Mean difference percentage (MD was a determination parameter for the reliability judgment of core collection. The effective evaluating parameters for core collection selected in the research could be used as criteria for sampling percentage in different plant germplasm populations.
Incremental Closed-loop Identification of Linear Parameter Varying Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Trangbæk, Klaus
2011-01-01
, closed-loop system identification is more difficult than open-loop identification. In this paper we prove that the so-called Hansen Scheme, a technique known from linear time-invariant systems theory for transforming closed-loop system identification problems into open-loop-like problems, can be extended......This paper deals with system identification for control of linear parameter varying systems. In practical applications, it is often important to be able to identify small plant changes in an incremental manner without shutting down the system and/or disconnecting the controller; unfortunately...... to accommodate linear parameter varying systems as well....
DC Motor Parameter Identification Using Speed Step Responses
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Wu
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Based on the DC motor speed response measurement under a step voltage input, important motor parameters such as the electrical time constant, the mechanical time constant, and the friction can be estimated. A power series expansion of the motor speed response is presented, whose coefficients are related to the motor parameters. These coefficients can be easily computed using existing curve fitting methods. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the application of this approach. In these experiments, the approach was readily implemented and gave more accurate estimates than conventional methods.
Nanosecond air breakdown parameters for electron and microwave beam propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ali, A.W.
1988-01-01
Air breakdown by avalanche ionization plays an important role in the electron beam and microwave propagations. For high electric fields and short pulse applications one needs avalanche ionization parameters for modeling and scaling of experimental devices. However, the breakdown parameters, i.e., the ionization frequency vs E/p (volt. cm -1 . Torr -1 ) in air is uncertain for very high values of E/P. A review is given of the experimental data for the electron drift velocity, the Townsend ionization coefficient in N 2 and O 2 and the ionization frequency and the collision frequency for momentum transfer in air are developed. (author)
Effects of Fabric Parameters on Bursting Strength of Home Textiles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ayşe Ebru TAYYAR
2010-02-01
Full Text Available Performances of any textile structure mostly depend on its behaviour against subjected forces in different directions. Strength tests are the most employed method in order to evaluate the performances of textile materials during usage and processing. Cloth production parameters are the most important factors that affect the fabric usage and operating performances. In this research, effects of different production parameters on bursting strength of some woven fabrics used as upholstery, drapery, and sheeting known as home textiles are investigated. It is found that fabric bursting strength is affected by fineness and density values of warp and weft yarns.
MicroCT parameters for multimaterial elements assessment
de Araújo, Olga M. O.; Silva Bastos, Jaqueline; Machado, Alessandra S.; dos Santos, Thaís M. P.; Ferreira, Cintia G.; Rosifini Alves Claro, Ana Paula; Lopes, Ricardo T.
2018-03-01
Microtomography is a non-destructive testing technique for quantitative and qualitative analysis. The investigation of multimaterial elements with great difference of density can result in artifacts that degrade image quality depending on combination of additional filter. The aim of this study is the selection of parameters most appropriate for analysis of bone tissue with metallic implant. The results show the simulation with MCNPX code for the distribution of energy without additional filter, with use of aluminum, copper and brass filters and their respective reconstructed images showing the importance of the choice of these parameters in image acquisition process on computed microtomography.
Global parameter estimation methods for stochastic biochemical systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Poovathingal Suresh
2010-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of stochasticity in cellular processes having low number of molecules has resulted in the development of stochastic models such as chemical master equation. As in other modelling frameworks, the accompanying rate constants are important for the end-applications like analyzing system properties (e.g. robustness or predicting the effects of genetic perturbations. Prior knowledge of kinetic constants is usually limited and the model identification routine typically includes parameter estimation from experimental data. Although the subject of parameter estimation is well-established for deterministic models, it is not yet routine for the chemical master equation. In addition, recent advances in measurement technology have made the quantification of genetic substrates possible to single molecular levels. Thus, the purpose of this work is to develop practical and effective methods for estimating kinetic model parameters in the chemical master equation and other stochastic models from single cell and cell population experimental data. Results Three parameter estimation methods are proposed based on the maximum likelihood and density function distance, including probability and cumulative density functions. Since stochastic models such as chemical master equations are typically solved using a Monte Carlo approach in which only a finite number of Monte Carlo realizations are computationally practical, specific considerations are given to account for the effect of finite sampling in the histogram binning of the state density functions. Applications to three practical case studies showed that while maximum likelihood method can effectively handle low replicate measurements, the density function distance methods, particularly the cumulative density function distance estimation, are more robust in estimating the parameters with consistently higher accuracy, even for systems showing multimodality. Conclusions The parameter
Model parameters estimation and sensitivity by genetic algorithms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marseguerra, Marzio; Zio, Enrico; Podofillini, Luca
2003-01-01
In this paper we illustrate the possibility of extracting qualitative information on the importance of the parameters of a model in the course of a Genetic Algorithms (GAs) optimization procedure for the estimation of such parameters. The Genetic Algorithms' search of the optimal solution is performed according to procedures that resemble those of natural selection and genetics: an initial population of alternative solutions evolves within the search space through the four fundamental operations of parent selection, crossover, replacement, and mutation. During the search, the algorithm examines a large amount of solution points which possibly carries relevant information on the underlying model characteristics. A possible utilization of this information amounts to create and update an archive with the set of best solutions found at each generation and then to analyze the evolution of the statistics of the archive along the successive generations. From this analysis one can retrieve information regarding the speed of convergence and stabilization of the different control (decision) variables of the optimization problem. In this work we analyze the evolution strategy followed by a GA in its search for the optimal solution with the aim of extracting information on the importance of the control (decision) variables of the optimization with respect to the sensitivity of the objective function. The study refers to a GA search for optimal estimates of the effective parameters in a lumped nuclear reactor model of literature. The supporting observation is that, as most optimization procedures do, the GA search evolves towards convergence in such a way to stabilize first the most important parameters of the model and later those which influence little the model outputs. In this sense, besides estimating efficiently the parameters values, the optimization approach also allows us to provide a qualitative ranking of their importance in contributing to the model output. The
Evaluation of Injection Molding Process Parameters for Manufacturing Polyethylene Terephthalate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marwah O.M.F.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Quality control is an important aspect in manufacturing process. The quality of product in injection moulding is influenced by injection moulding process parameter. In this study, the effect of injection moulding parameter on defects quantity of PET preform was investigated. Optimizing the parameter of injection moulding process is critical to enhance productivity where parameters must operate at an optimum level for an acceptable performance. Design of Experiment (DOE by factorial design approach was used to find an optimum parameter setting and reduce the defects. In this case study, Minitab 17 software was used to analyses the data. The selected input parameters were mould hot runner temperature, water cooling chiller temperature 1 and water cooling chiller temperature 2. Meanwhile, the output for the process was defects quantity of the preform. The relationship between input and output of the process was analyzed using regression method and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. In order to interpolate the experiment data, mathematical modeling was used which consists of different types of regression equation. Next, from the model, 95% confidence level (p-value was considered and the significant parameter was figured out. This study involved a collaboration with a preform injection moulding company which was Nilai Legasi Plastik Sdn Bhd. The collaboration enabled the researchers to collect the data and also help the company to improve the quality of its production. The results of the study showed that the optimum parameter setting that could reduce the defect quantity of preform was MHR= 88°C, CT1= 24°C and CT2= 27°C. The comparison defect quantity analysis between current companies setting with the optimum setting showed improvement by 21% reduction of defect quantity at the optimum setting. Finally, from the optimization plot, the validation error between the prediction value and experiment was 1.72%. The result proved that quality of products
Elastic orthorhombic anisotropic parameter inversion: An analysis of parameterization
Oh, Juwon
2016-09-15
The resolution of a multiparameter full-waveform inversion (FWI) is highly influenced by the parameterization used in the inversion algorithm, as well as the data quality and the sensitivity of the data to the elastic parameters because the scattering patterns of the partial derivative wavefields (PDWs) vary with parameterization. For this reason, it is important to identify an optimal parameterization for elastic orthorhombic FWI by analyzing the radiation patterns of the PDWs for many reasonable model parameterizations. We have promoted a parameterization that allows for the separation of the anisotropic properties in the radiation patterns. The central parameter of this parameterization is the horizontal P-wave velocity, with an isotropic scattering potential, influencing the data at all scales and directions. This parameterization decouples the influence of the scattering potential given by the P-wave velocity perturbation fromthe polar changes described by two dimensionless parameter perturbations and from the azimuthal variation given by three additional dimensionless parameters perturbations. In addition, the scattering potentials of the P-wave velocity perturbation are also decoupled from the elastic influences given by one S-wave velocity and two additional dimensionless parameter perturbations. The vertical S-wave velocity is chosen with the best resolution obtained from S-wave reflections and converted waves, little influence on P-waves in conventional surface seismic acquisition. The influence of the density on observed data can be absorbed by one anisotropic parameter that has a similar radiation pattern. The additional seven dimensionless parameters describe the polar and azimuth variations in the P- and S-waves that we may acquire, with some of the parameters having distinct influences on the recorded data on the earth\\'s surface. These characteristics of the new parameterization offer the potential for a multistage inversion from high symmetry
Importance of simulation tools for the planning of optical network
Martins, Indayara B.; Martins, Yara; Rudge, Felipe; Moschimı, Edson
2015-10-01
The main proposal of this work is to show the importance of using simulation tools to project optical networks. The simulation method supports the investigation of several system and network parameters, such as bit error rate, blocking probability as well as physical layer issues, such as attenuation, dispersion, and nonlinearities, as these are all important to evaluate and validate the operability of optical networks. The work was divided into two parts: firstly, physical layer preplanning was proposed for the distribution of amplifiers and compensating for the attenuation and dispersion effects in span transmission; in this part, we also analyzed the quality of the transmitted signal. In the second part, an analysis of the transport layer was completed, proposing wavelength distribution planning, according to the total utilization of each link. The main network parameters used to evaluate the transport and physical layer design were delay (latency), blocking probability, and bit error rate (BER). This work was carried out with commercially available simulation tools.
Robust estimation of hydrological model parameters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Bárdossy
2008-11-01
Full Text Available The estimation of hydrological model parameters is a challenging task. With increasing capacity of computational power several complex optimization algorithms have emerged, but none of the algorithms gives a unique and very best parameter vector. The parameters of fitted hydrological models depend upon the input data. The quality of input data cannot be assured as there may be measurement errors for both input and state variables. In this study a methodology has been developed to find a set of robust parameter vectors for a hydrological model. To see the effect of observational error on parameters, stochastically generated synthetic measurement errors were applied to observed discharge and temperature data. With this modified data, the model was calibrated and the effect of measurement errors on parameters was analysed. It was found that the measurement errors have a significant effect on the best performing parameter vector. The erroneous data led to very different optimal parameter vectors. To overcome this problem and to find a set of robust parameter vectors, a geometrical approach based on Tukey's half space depth was used. The depth of the set of N randomly generated parameters was calculated with respect to the set with the best model performance (Nash-Sutclife efficiency was used for this study for each parameter vector. Based on the depth of parameter vectors, one can find a set of robust parameter vectors. The results show that the parameters chosen according to the above criteria have low sensitivity and perform well when transfered to a different time period. The method is demonstrated on the upper Neckar catchment in Germany. The conceptual HBV model was used for this study.
IMPORTANCE OF KINETIC MEASURES IN TRAJECTORY PREDICTION WITH OPTIMAL CONTROL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ömer GÜNDOĞDU
2001-02-01
Full Text Available A two-dimensional sagittally symmetric human-body model was established to simulate an optimal trajectory for manual material handling tasks. Nonlinear control techniques and genetic algorithms were utilized in the optimizations to explore optimal lifting patterns. The simulation results were then compared with the experimental data. Since the kinetic measures such as joint reactions and moments are vital parameters in injury determination, the importance of comparing kinetic measures rather than kinematical ones was emphasized.
Importance for Municipalities of Infrastructure Information Systems in Turkey
Kamil KARATAS; Cemal BIYIK
2017-01-01
Technical infrastructures are the important development-level parameters of countries, difficult to maintain and require high-investment cost. It is required to take the advantage of information system for the better administration of technical infrastructure facilities, planning and taking effective decisions. Hence, infrastructure information systems must be built oriented to technical infrastructure (TI). In this study, Kunduracilar Street in Trabzon was selected as pilot area oriented to ...
Revisiting Hansen Solubility Parameters by Including Thermodynamics.
Louwerse, Manuel J; Maldonado, Ana; Rousseau, Simon; Moreau-Masselon, Chloe; Roux, Bernard; Rothenberg, Gadi
2017-11-03
The Hansen solubility parameter approach is revisited by implementing the thermodynamics of dissolution and mixing. Hansen's pragmatic approach has earned its spurs in predicting solvents for polymer solutions, but for molecular solutes improvements are needed. By going into the details of entropy and enthalpy, several corrections are suggested that make the methodology thermodynamically sound without losing its ease of use. The most important corrections include accounting for the solvent molecules' size, the destruction of the solid's crystal structure, and the specificity of hydrogen-bonding interactions, as well as opportunities to predict the solubility at extrapolated temperatures. Testing the original and the improved methods on a large industrial dataset including solvent blends, fit qualities improved from 0.89 to 0.97 and the percentage of correct predictions rose from 54 % to 78 %. Full Matlab scripts are included in the Supporting Information, allowing readers to implement these improvements on their own datasets. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Pion production cross sections and associated parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bradbury, J.N.
1985-01-01
Negative pions have been used for radiotherapy at the meson factories LAMPF (USA), SIN (Switzerland), and TRIUMF (Canada) and have been planned for use at new meson facilities under construction (USSR) and at proposed dedicated medical facilities. Providing therapeutically useful dose rates of pions requires a knowledge of the pion production cross sections as a function of primary proton energy (500 to 1000 MeV), pion energy (less than or equal to100 MeV), production angle, and target material. The current status of the data base in this area is presented including theoretical guidelines for extrapolation purposes. The target material and geometry, as well as the proton and pion beam parameters, will affect the electron (and muon) contamination in the beam which may have an important effect on both the LET characteristics of the dose and the dose distribution. In addition to cross-section data, channel characteristics such as length of pion trajectory, solid-angle acceptance, and momentum analysis will affect dose rate, distribution, and quality. Such considerations are briefly addressed in terms of existing facilities and proposed systems. 16 refs., 6 figs
R-matrix parameters in reactor applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hwang, R.N.
1992-01-01
The key role of the resonance phenomena in reactor applications manifests through the self-shielding effect. The basic issue involves the application of the microscopic cross sections in the macroscopic reactor lattices consisting of many nuclides that exhibit resonance behavior. To preserve the fidelity of such a effect requires the accurate calculations of the cross sections and the neutron flux in great detail. This clearly not possible without viable resonance data. Recently released ENDF/B VI resonance data in the resolved range especially reflect the dramatic improvement in two important areas; namely, the significant extension of the resolved resonance ranges accompanied by the availability of the R-matrix parameters of the Reich-Moore type. Aside from the obvious increase in computing time required for the significantly greater number of resonances, the main concern is the compatibility of the Riech-Moore representation to the existing reactor processing codes which, until now, are based on the traditional cross section formalisms. This purpose of this paper is to summarize our recent efforts to facilitate implementation of the proposed methods into the production codes at ANL
Evaluating intensity parameters for debris flow vulnerability
Keiler, Margreth
2014-05-01
In mountain regions natural hazard processes such as debris flows or hyper-concentrated flows repeatedly lead to high damages. After an event, detailed documentation of the meteorological, hydrological and geomorphological indicators are standardized, and additional data on debris covering run out areas, indicators for processes velocity and transported volumes are gathered. Information on deposition height of debris is an important parameter to estimate the intensity of the process impacting the buildings and infrastructure and hence to establish vulnerability curves. However, the deposition height of mobilized material in settlements and on infrastructure is mostly not directly evaluated because recovery work starts immediately or even during the event leading to a removal of accumulated material. Different approaches exist to reconstruct deposition heights after torrent events, such as mind mapping, comparison of LIDAR-based DEM before and after the event as well as the reconstruction by using photo documentation and the estimation of deposition heights according to standardised elements at buildings and infrastructure. In our study, these different approaches to estimate deposition height and the spatial distribution of the accumulated material are applied and compared against each other by using the case study of the debris flow event in Brienz (Switzerland) which occurred during the serve flood events of August 2005 in the Alps. Within the analysis, different factors including overall costs and time consumption (manpower, equipment), accuracy and preciseness are compared and evaluated to establish optimal maps of the extent and deposition depth after torrent events and to integrate this information in the vulnerability analysis.
Critical parameters controlling irradiation swelling in beryllium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dubinko, V.I.
1995-01-01
Radiation effects in beryllium can hardly be explained within a framework of the conventional theory based on the bias concept due to elastic interaction difference (EID) between vacancies and self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) since beryllium belongs to hexagonal close-packed metals where diffusion has been shown to be anisotropic. Diffusional anisotropy difference (DAD) between point defects changes the cavity bias for their absorption and leads to dependence of the dislocation bias on the distribution of dislocations over crystallographic directions. On the other hand, the elastic interaction between point defects and cavities gives rise to the size and gas pressure dependencies of the cavity bias, resulting in new critical quantities for bubble-void transition effects at low temperature irradiation. In the present paper, we develop the concept of the critical parameters controlling irradiation swelling with account of both DAD and EID, and take care of thermal effects as well since they are of major importance for beryllium which has an anomalously low self-diffusion activation energy. Experimental data on beryllium swelling are analyzed on the basis of the present theory. (orig.)
Accounting for components interactions in the differential importance measure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zio, Enrico; Podofillini, Luca
2006-01-01
A limitation of the importance measures (IMs) currently used in reliability and risk analyses is that they rank only individual components or basic events whereas they are not directly applicable to combinations or groups of components or basic events. To partially overcome this limitation, recently, the differential importance measure (DIM), has been introduced for use in risk-informed decision making. The DIM is a first-order sensitivity measure that ranks the parameters of the risk model according to the fraction of total change in the risk that is due to a small change in the parameters' values, taken one at a time. However, it does not account for the effects of interactions among components. In this paper, a second-order extension of the DIM, named DIM II , is proposed for accounting of the interactions of pairs of components when evaluating the change in system performance due to changes of the reliability parameters of the components. A numerical application is presented in which the informative contents of DIM and DIM II are compared. The results confirm that in certain cases when second-order interactions among components are accounted for, the importance ranking of the components may differ from that produced by a first-order sensitivity measure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Berry, A.; El-Berry, A.; Al-Bossly, A.
2010-01-01
In machining operation, the quality of surface finish is an important requirement for many work pieces. Thus, that is very important to optimize cutting parameters for controlling the required manufacturing quality. Surface roughness parameter (Ra) in mechanical parts depends on turning parameters during the turning process. In the development of predictive models, cutting parameters of feed, cutting speed, depth of cut, are considered as model variables. For this purpose, this study focuses on comparing various machining experiments which using CNC vertical machining center, work pieces was aluminum 6061. Multiple regression models are used to predict the surface roughness at different experiments.
Measurement of neutron importance by a dynamic method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dmitriev, V.M.; Matusevich, E.S.; Regushevskij, V.I.; Sazonov, S.P.; Usikov, D.A.
1977-01-01
A procedure is proposed for measuring neutron importance spatial distribution in a critical reactor by determining the parameters of its run-up with a constant neutron source. 252 Cf quasiisotropic point source was used. The measurements were performed at a critical assembly with a highly enriched uranium core and beryllium reflector. Importance distributions in critical and subsritical assemblies were compared for various degrees of subcriticality. Absolute normalization for the importance was obtained, and some new integral reactor characteristics were determined experimentally on its basis. An experimental data acquisition and processing system was developed on the basis of the ELECTRONIKA-100 computer. An algorithm was also developed for statistical treatment of the data. The importance distributions in critical and subcritical assemblies proved to coincide up to a rather deep subcriticality
Estimation of Physical Parameters in Linear and Nonlinear Dynamic Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudsen, Morten
for certain input in the time or frequency domain, are emphasised. Consequently, some special techniques are required, in particular for input signal design and model validation. The model structure containing physical parameters is constructed from basic physical laws (mathematical modelling). It is possible......Estimation of physical parameters is an important subclass of system identification. The specific objective is to obtain accurate estimates of the model parameters, while the objective of other aspects of system identification might be to determine a model where other properties, such as responses...... and essential to utilise this physical insight in the input design and validation procedures. This project has two objectives: 1. To develop and apply theories and techniques that are compatible with physical insight and robust to violation of assumptions and approximations, for system identification in general...
Order parameter analysis of seismicity of the Mexican Pacific coast
Ramírez-Rojas, A.; Flores-Márquez, E. L.
2013-05-01
The natural time domain has shown to be an important tool to obtain relevant information hidden in time series of complex systems not easily obtainable by means of standard analysis methods. By assuming that tectonism is a complex system and that earthquakes are similar to a phase transition, it is possible to define an order parameter for seismicity in the context of the natural time domain. In this work we analyze the statistical features of the order parameter (OP) computed for the seismic Mexican catalog spanning from 1974 to 2012. We found that in four out of the six regions the pdf of the order parameter fluctuations is similar with that earlier reported by other authors, but in two of these regions noticeable differences are identified. Also, except for Michoacán, the scaled pdfs analysis of all regions collapse on a universal curve with non-Gaussian tails.
Physicochemical and functional parameters of Cochlospermum vitifolium (bototo gum exudate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maritza Coromoto Martínez
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The physicochemical parameters of Cochlospermum vitifolium they were evaluated and were linked to certain functional properties of industrial interest. The physicochemical parameters were determined by the classic methodology used for carbohydrates and the functional properties, as reported in the literature. The results obtained showed that the gum object of this study is low soluble in water, which corresponds with relatively high values of swelling indexes and water absorption capacity. Also, the intrinsic viscosity of the C. vitifolium exudate was related to a high molar mass, in the order of 106. Its emulsifying capacity is high, which is attributed to hydrophobic groups present in its structure. The gum gels at a minimum concentration, similar to that of the gum karaya (4.5%, but the gel that forms agglomerates, it is not uniform. The C. vitifolium gum exhibits important physicochemical and functional parameters which could serve as a criterion for testing its use in various industries.
Real-Time Determination of Solar Cell Parameters
Hassan Ali, Mohamed; Rabhi, Abdelhamid; Haddad, Sofiane; El Hajjaji, Ahmed
2017-11-01
The extraction of solar cell parameters is a difficult task but is an important step in the assessment procedure of solar cells and panels. This work presents numerical methods for determining these parameters and compares their performances under different solar irradiances when they are implemented in an equivalent electrical circuit model with one or two diodes. To obtain a fast convergence rate in real-time applications, the fractional-order Darwinian particle swarm optimization (FODPSO) method is used through experimental data collected from a platform of photovoltaic (PV) energy installed near the modeling, information and systems laboratory at Amiens, France. The results showed that the one-diode model is less representative than the two-diode model. Furthermore, it is envisaged that the proposed FODPSO-based extraction method is more effective in modeling with two diodes. This will allow real-time determination of solar cells parameters and consequently will help to select the most suitable PV model.
Joint Dynamics Modeling and Parameter Identification for Space Robot Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adenilson R. da Silva
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Long-term mission identification and model validation for in-flight manipulator control system in almost zero gravity with hostile space environment are extremely important for robotic applications. In this paper, a robot joint mathematical model is developed where several nonlinearities have been taken into account. In order to identify all the required system parameters, an integrated identification strategy is derived. This strategy makes use of a robust version of least-squares procedure (LS for getting the initial conditions and a general nonlinear optimization method (MCS—multilevel coordinate search—algorithm to estimate the nonlinear parameters. The approach is applied to the intelligent robot joint (IRJ experiment that was developed at DLR for utilization opportunity on the International Space Station (ISS. The results using real and simulated measurements have shown that the developed algorithm and strategy have remarkable features in identifying all the parameters with good accuracy.
Sensitivity of lumbar spine loading to anatomical parameters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Putzer, Michael; Ehrlich, Ingo; Rasmussen, John
2016-01-01
Musculoskeletal simulations of lumbar spine loading rely on a geometrical representation of the anatomy. However, this data has an inherent inaccuracy. This study evaluates the in uence of dened geometrical parameters on lumbar spine loading utilizing ve parametrized musculoskeletal lumbar spine...... models for four different postures. The in uence of the dimensions of vertebral body, disc, posterior parts of the vertebrae as well as the curvature of the lumbar spine were studied. Additionally, simulations with combinations of selected parameters were conducted. Changes in L4/L5 resultant joint force...... were used as outcome variable. Variations of the vertebral body height, disc height, transverse process width and the curvature of the lumbar spine were the most in uential. The results indicated that measuring these parameters from X-rays would be most important to morph an existing musculoskeletal...
MODALITIES OF TRAINING PARAMETER ALTERNATION IN NOWADAYS STRENGTH TRAINING PRACTICE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
RANISAVLJEV IGOR
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Large number of variables could be alternated during the process of planning and programming in sports training. Superior training results in majority of sports are achieved by optimally manipulating training parameters in appropriate sequences and combinations. Additionally, in some sports they might be the result of appropriate periodization pattern. Today's tendency in strength training practice is training movements instead of training muscles. Exercise classification according to the dominant movement types, allows creating new modalities in training alternation. Additional variations in volume, intensity, rest brakes, repetition velocity andinter-repetition rest can be the important part of functional strength training program. Alternation and combination of different training parameters makes appropriate training stimulus for strength increase in the most of nowadays sports. Optimal alternation of basic training parameters should be the first part in the processof planning and programming. As a result, majority of athletes might not need advanced periodization patterns for optimal improvement in muscle strength and power
Level-density parameter of nuclei at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gregoire, C.; Kuo, T.T.S.; Stout, D.B.
1991-01-01
The contribution of particle-particle (hole-hole) and of particle-hole ring diagrams to the nuclear level-density parameter at finite temperature is calculated. We first derive the correlated grand potential with the above ring diagrams included to all orders by way of a finite temperature RPA equation. An expression for the correlated level-density parameter is then obtained by differentiating the grand potential. Results obtained for the 40 Ca nucleus with realistic matrix elements derived from the Paris potential are presented. The contribution of the RPA correlations is found to be important, being significantly larger than typical Hartree-Fock results. The temperature dependence of the level-density parameter derived in the present work is generally similar to that obtained in a schematic model. Comparison with available experimental data is discussed. (orig.)
The Parameters Selection of PSO Algorithm influencing On performance of Fault Diagnosis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
He Yan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The particle swarm optimization (PSO is an optimization algorithm based on intelligent optimization. Parameters selection of PSO will play an important role in performance and efficiency of the algorithm. In this paper, the performance of PSO is analyzed when the control parameters vary, including particle number, accelerate constant, inertia weight and maximum limited velocity. And then PSO with dynamic parameters has been applied on the neural network training for gearbox fault diagnosis, the results with different parameters of PSO are compared and analyzed. At last some suggestions for parameters selection are proposed to improve the performance of PSO.
How to Select the most Relevant Roughness Parameters of a Surface: Methodology Research Strategy
Bobrovskij, I. N.
2018-01-01
In this paper, the foundations for new methodology creation which provides solving problem of surfaces structure new standards parameters huge amount conflicted with necessary actual floors quantity of surfaces structure parameters which is related to measurement complexity decreasing are considered. At the moment, there is no single assessment of the importance of a parameters. The approval of presented methodology for aerospace cluster components surfaces allows to create necessary foundation, to develop scientific estimation of surfaces texture parameters, to obtain material for investigators of chosen technological procedure. The methods necessary for further work, the creation of a fundamental reserve and development as a scientific direction for assessing the significance of microgeometry parameters are selected.
On the consistency of bootstrap testing for a parameter on the boundary of the parameter space
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cavaliere, Giuseppe; Nielsen, Heino Bohn; Rahbek, Anders
2017-01-01
It is well known that with a parameter on the boundary of the parameter space, such as in the classic cases of testing for a zero location parameter or no autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (ARCH) effects, the classic nonparametric bootstrap – based on unrestricted parameter estimates...... the standard and bootstrap Lagrange multiplier tests as well as the asymptotic quasi-likelihood ratio test....
Sun, T T; Liu, W H; Zhang, Y Q; Li, L H; Wang, R; Ye, Y Y
2017-08-01
quantitative parameter values (K(trans,) k(ep)) and the relative quantitative parameter values (rK(trans,) rk(ep)) in diagnosis of breast lesions, which were important parameters in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant breast lesions.
Canard cycles with two breaking parameters
DUMORTIER, Freddy; Roussarie, Robert
2007-01-01
We consider two-dimensional slow-fast systems with a layer equation exhibiting canard cycles. The canard cycles under consideration contain both a turning point and a fast orbit connecting two jump points. At both the turning point and the connecting fast orbit we suppose the presence of a parameter permitting generic breaking. Such canard cycles depend on two parameters, that we call phase parameters. We study the relaxation oscillations near the canard cycles by means of a map from the plan...
Study of electroweak parameters at LEP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blum, W.
1991-10-01
The measurement of the line shape and asymmetry parameters of the Z 0 in its leptonic and hadronic decays are reviewed. Progress is reported about a considerable increase in measurement accuracy. Several tests of the Standard Model confirm it to better than one per cent. New values for the effective mixing parameter are derived from the line shape parameters averaged over the four LEP experiments. The corresponding limits on the top mass are presented. (orig.)
Probabilistic parameter estimation of activated sludge processes using Markov Chain Monte Carlo.
Sharifi, Soroosh; Murthy, Sudhir; Takács, Imre; Massoudieh, Arash
2014-03-01
One of the most important challenges in making activated sludge models (ASMs) applicable to design problems is identifying the values of its many stoichiometric and kinetic parameters. When wastewater characteristics data from full-scale biological treatment systems are used for parameter estimation, several sources of uncertainty, including uncertainty in measured data, external forcing (e.g. influent characteristics), and model structural errors influence the value of the estimated parameters. This paper presents a Bayesian hierarchical modeling framework for the probabilistic estimation of activated sludge process parameters. The method provides the joint probability density functions (JPDFs) of stoichiometric and kinetic parameters by updating prior information regarding the parameters obtained from expert knowledge and literature. The method also provides the posterior correlations between the parameters, as well as a measure of sensitivity of the different constituents with respect to the parameters. This information can be used to design experiments to provide higher information content regarding certain parameters. The method is illustrated using the ASM1 model to describe synthetically generated data from a hypothetical biological treatment system. The results indicate that data from full-scale systems can narrow down the ranges of some parameters substantially whereas the amount of information they provide regarding other parameters is small, due to either large correlations between some of the parameters or a lack of sensitivity with respect to the parameters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Correlation of operating parameters on turbine shaft vibrations
Dixit, Harsh Kumar; Rajora, Rajeev
2016-05-01
The new generation of condition monitoring and diagnostics system plays an important role in efficient functioning of power plants. In most of the rotating machine, defects can be detected by such a system much before dangerous situation occurs. It allows the efficient use of stationary on-line continuous monitoring system for condition monitoring and diagnostics as well. Condition monitoring of turbine shaft can not only reduce expenses of maintenance of turbo generator of power plants but also prevents likely shutdown of plant, thereby increases plant load factor. Turbo visionary parameters are essential part of health diagnosis system of turbo generator. Particularly steam pressure, steam temperature and lube oil temperature are important parameters to monitor because they are having much influence on turbine shaft vibration and also governing systems are available for change values of those parameters. This paper includes influence of turbo visionary parameters i.e., steam temperature, steam pressure, lube oil temperature, turbine speed and load on turbine shaft vibration at turbo generator at 195 MW unit-6,Kota Super Thermal Power Station by measuring vibration amplitude and analyze them in MATLAB.
Determination of Destress Blasting Effectiveness Using Seismic Source Parameters
Wojtecki, Łukasz; Mendecki, Maciej J.; Zuberek, Wacaław M.
2017-12-01
Underground mining of coal seams in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin is currently performed under difficult geological and mining conditions. The mining depth, dislocations (faults and folds) and mining remnants are responsible for rockburst hazard in the highest degree. This hazard can be minimized by using active rockburst prevention, where destress blastings play an important role. Destress blastings in coal seams aim to destress the local stress concentrations. These blastings are usually performed from the longwall face to decrease the stress level ahead of the longwall. An accurate estimation of active rockburst prevention effectiveness is important during mining under disadvantageous geological and mining conditions, which affect the risk of rockburst. Seismic source parameters characterize the focus of tremor, which may be useful in estimating the destress blasting effects. Investigated destress blastings were performed in coal seam no. 507 during its longwall mining in one of the coal mines in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin under difficult geological and mining conditions. The seismic source parameters of the provoked tremors were calculated. The presented preliminary investigations enable a rapid estimation of the destress blasting effectiveness using seismic source parameters, but further analysis in other geological and mining conditions with other blasting parameters is required.
Parameter Estimation in Continuous Time Domain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabriela M. ATANASIU
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This paper will aim to presents the applications of a continuous-time parameter estimation method for estimating structural parameters of a real bridge structure. For the purpose of illustrating this method two case studies of a bridge pile located in a highly seismic risk area are considered, for which the structural parameters for the mass, damping and stiffness are estimated. The estimation process is followed by the validation of the analytical results and comparison with them to the measurement data. Further benefits and applications for the continuous-time parameter estimation method in civil engineering are presented in the final part of this paper.
Including Organizational Cultural Parameters in Work Processes
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Handley, Holly A; Heacox, Nancy J
2004-01-01
.... In order to represent the organizational impact on the work process, five organizational cultural parameters were identified and included in an algorithm for modeling and simulation of cultural...
Parameter identification in the logistic STAR model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ekner, Line Elvstrøm; Nejstgaard, Emil
We propose a new and simple parametrization of the so-called speed of transition parameter of the logistic smooth transition autoregressive (LSTAR) model. The new parametrization highlights that a consequence of the well-known identification problem of the speed of transition parameter is that th......We propose a new and simple parametrization of the so-called speed of transition parameter of the logistic smooth transition autoregressive (LSTAR) model. The new parametrization highlights that a consequence of the well-known identification problem of the speed of transition parameter...
Optimisation of milling parameters using neural network
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lipski Jerzy
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to design and test an intelligent computer software developed with the purpose of increasing average productivity of milling not compromising the design features of the final product. The developed system generates optimal milling parameters based on the extent of tool wear. The introduced optimisation algorithm employs a multilayer model of a milling process developed in the artificial neural network. The input parameters for model training are the following: cutting speed vc, feed per tooth fz and the degree of tool wear measured by means of localised flank wear (VB3. The output parameter is the surface roughness of a machined surface Ra. Since the model in the neural network exhibits good approximation of functional relationships, it was applied to determine optimal milling parameters in changeable tool wear conditions (VB3 and stabilisation of surface roughness parameter Ra. Our solution enables constant control over surface roughness parameters and productivity of milling process after each assessment of tool condition. The recommended parameters, i.e. those which applied in milling ensure desired surface roughness and maximal productivity, are selected from all the parameters generated by the model. The developed software may constitute an expert system supporting a milling machine operator. In addition, the application may be installed on a mobile device (smartphone, connected to a tool wear diagnostics instrument and the machine tool controller in order to supply updated optimal parameters of milling. The presented solution facilitates tool life optimisation and decreasing tool change costs, particularly during prolonged operation.
New fundamental parameters for attitude representation
Patera, Russell P.
2017-08-01
A new attitude parameter set is developed to clarify the geometry of combining finite rotations in a rotational sequence and in combining infinitesimal angular increments generated by angular rate. The resulting parameter set of six Pivot Parameters represents a rotation as a great circle arc on a unit sphere that can be located at any clocking location in the rotation plane. Two rotations are combined by linking their arcs at either of the two intersection points of the respective rotation planes. In a similar fashion, linking rotational increments produced by angular rate is used to derive the associated kinematical equations, which are linear and have no singularities. Included in this paper is the derivation of twelve Pivot Parameter elements that represent all twelve Euler Angle sequences, which enables efficient conversions between Pivot Parameters and any Euler Angle sequence. Applications of this new parameter set include the derivation of quaternions and the quaternion composition rule, as well as, the derivation of the analytical solution to time dependent coning motion. The relationships between Pivot Parameters and traditional parameter sets are included in this work. Pivot Parameters are well suited for a variety of aerospace applications due to their effective composition rule, singularity free kinematic equations, efficient conversion to and from Euler Angle sequences and clarity of their geometrical foundation.
Parameter uncertainty analysis of a biokinetic model of caesium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, W.B.; Oeh, U.; Klein, W.; Blanchardon, E.; Puncher, M.; Leggett, R.W.; Breustedt, B.; Nosske, D.; Lopez, M.A.
2015-01-01
Parameter uncertainties for the biokinetic model of caesium (Cs) developed by Leggett et al. were inventoried and evaluated. The methods of parameter uncertainty analysis were used to assess the uncertainties of model predictions with the assumptions of model parameter uncertainties and distributions. Furthermore, the importance of individual model parameters was assessed by means of sensitivity analysis. The calculated uncertainties of model predictions were compared with human data of Cs measured in blood and in the whole body. It was found that propagating the derived uncertainties in model parameter values reproduced the range of bioassay data observed in human subjects at different times after intake. The maximum ranges, expressed as uncertainty factors (UFs) (defined as a square root of ratio between 97.5. and 2.5. percentiles) of blood clearance, whole-body retention and urinary excretion of Cs predicted at earlier time after intake were, respectively: 1.5, 1.0 and 2.5 at the first day; 1.8, 1.1 and 2.4 at Day 10 and 1.8, 2.0 and 1.8 at Day 100; for the late times (1000 d) after intake, the UFs were increased to 43, 24 and 31, respectively. The model parameters of transfer rates between kidneys and blood, muscle and blood and the rate of transfer from kidneys to urinary bladder content are most influential to the blood clearance and to the whole-body retention of Cs. For the urinary excretion, the parameters of transfer rates from urinary bladder content to urine and from kidneys to urinary bladder content impact mostly. The implication and effect on the estimated equivalent and effective doses of the larger uncertainty of 43 in whole-body retention in the later time, say, after Day 500 will be explored in a successive work in the framework of EURADOS. (authors)
Scanning anisotropy parameters in horizontal transversely isotropic media
Masmoudi, Nabil
2016-10-12
The horizontal transversely isotropic model, with arbitrary symmetry axis orientation, is the simplest effective representative that explains the azimuthal behaviour of seismic data. Estimating the anisotropy parameters of this model is important in reservoir characterisation, specifically in terms of fracture delineation. We propose a travel-time-based approach to estimate the anellipticity parameter η and the symmetry axis azimuth ϕ of a horizontal transversely isotropic medium, given an inhomogeneous elliptic background model (which might be obtained from velocity analysis and well velocities). This is accomplished through a Taylor\\'s series expansion of the travel-time solution (of the eikonal equation) as a function of parameter η and azimuth angle ϕ. The accuracy of the travel time expansion is enhanced by the use of Shanks transform. This results in an accurate approximation of the solution of the non-linear eikonal equation and provides a mechanism to scan simultaneously for the best fitting effective parameters η and ϕ, without the need for repetitive modelling of travel times. The analysis of the travel time sensitivity to parameters η and ϕ reveals that travel times are more sensitive to η than to the symmetry axis azimuth ϕ. Thus, η is better constrained from travel times than the azimuth. Moreover, the two-parameter scan in the homogeneous case shows that errors in the background model affect the estimation of η and ϕ differently. While a gradual increase in errors in the background model leads to increasing errors in η, inaccuracies in ϕ, on the other hand, depend on the background model errors. We also propose a layer-stripping method valid for a stack of arbitrary oriented symmetry axis horizontal transversely isotropic layers to convert the effective parameters to the interval layer values.
Induction Motor Parameter Identification Using a Gravitational Search Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Omar Avalos
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The efficient use of electrical energy is a topic that has attracted attention for its environmental consequences. On the other hand, induction motors represent the main component in most industries. They consume the highest energy percentages in industrial facilities. This energy consumption depends on the operation conditions of the induction motor imposed by its internal parameters. Since the internal parameters of an induction motor are not directly measurable, an identification process must be conducted to obtain them. In the identification process, the parameter estimation is transformed into a multidimensional optimization problem where the internal parameters of the induction motor are considered as decision variables. Under this approach, the complexity of the optimization problem tends to produce multimodal error surfaces for which their cost functions are significantly difficult to minimize. Several algorithms based on evolutionary computation principles have been successfully applied to identify the optimal parameters of induction motors. However, most of them maintain an important limitation: They frequently obtain sub-optimal solutions as a result of an improper equilibrium between exploitation and exploration in their search strategies. This paper presents an algorithm for the optimal parameter identification of induction motors. To determine the parameters, the proposed method uses a recent evolutionary method called the gravitational search algorithm (GSA. Different from most of the existent evolutionary algorithms, the GSA presents a better performance in multimodal problems, avoiding critical flaws such as the premature convergence to sub-optimal solutions. Numerical simulations have been conducted on several models to show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Simulated Galactic methanol maser distribution to constrain Milky Way parameters
Quiroga-Nuñez, L. H.; van Langevelde, H. J.; Reid, M. J.; Green, J. A.
2017-08-01
Context. Using trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions of masers associated with massive young stars, the Bar and Spiral Structure Legacy (BeSSeL) survey has reported the most accurate values of the Galactic parameters so far. The determination of these parameters with high accuracy has a widespread impact on Galactic and extragalactic measurements. Aims: This research is aimed at establishing the confidence with which such parameters can be determined. This is relevant for the data published in the context of the BeSSeL survey collaboration, but also for future observations, in particular from the southern hemisphere. In addition, some astrophysical properties of the masers can be constrained, notably the luminosity function. Methods: We have simulated the population of maser-bearing young stars associated with Galactic spiral structure, generating several samples and comparing them with the observed samples used in the BeSSeL survey. Consequently, we checked the determination of Galactic parameters for observational biases introduced by the sample selection. Results: Galactic parameters obtained by the BeSSeL survey do not seem to be biased by the sample selection used. In fact, the published error estimates appear to be conservative for most of the parameters. We show that future BeSSeL data and future observations with southern arrays will improve the Galactic parameters estimates and smoothly reduce their mutual correlation. Moreover, by modeling future parallax data with larger distance values and, thus, greater relative uncertainties for a larger numbers of sources, we found that parallax-distance biasing is an important issue. Hence, using fractional parallax uncertainty in the weighting of the motion data is imperative. Finally, the luminosity function for 6.7 GHz methanol masers was determined, allowing us to estimate the number of Galactic methanol masers.
Empirical estimation of school siting parameter towards improving children's safety
Aziz, I. S.; Yusoff, Z. M.; Rasam, A. R. A.; Rahman, A. N. N. A.; Omar, D.
2014-02-01
Distance from school to home is a key determination in ensuring the safety of hildren. School siting parameters are made to make sure that a particular school is located in a safe environment. School siting parameters are made by Department of Town and Country Planning Malaysia (DTCP) and latest review was on June 2012. These school siting parameters are crucially important as they can affect the safety, school reputation, and not to mention the perception of the pupil and parents of the school. There have been many studies to review school siting parameters since these change in conjunction with this ever-changing world. In this study, the focus is the impact of school siting parameter on people with low income that live in the urban area, specifically in Johor Bahru, Malaysia. In achieving that, this study will use two methods which are on site and off site. The on site method is to give questionnaires to people and off site is to use Geographic Information System (GIS) and Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS), to analyse the results obtained from the questionnaire. The output is a maps of suitable safe distance from school to house. The results of this study will be useful to people with low income as their children tend to walk to school rather than use transportation.
Similarity of Ferrosilicon Submerged Arc Furnaces With Different Geometrical Parameters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Machulec B.
2017-12-01
Full Text Available In order to determine reasons of unsatisfactory production output regarding one of the 12 MVA furnaces, a comparative analysis with a furnace of higher power that showed a markedly better production output was performed. For comparison of ferrosilicon furnaces with different geometrical parameters and transformer powers, the theory of physical similarity was applied. Geometrical, electrical and thermal parameters of the reaction zones are included in the comparative analysis. For furnaces with different geometrical parameters, it is important to ensure the same temperature conditions of the reaction zones. Due to diverse mechanisms of heat generation, different criteria for determination of thermal and electrical similarity for the upper and lower reaction zones were assumed contrary to other publications. The parameter c3 (Westly was assumed the similarity criterion for the upper furnace zones where heat is generated as a result of resistive heating while the parameter J1 (Jaccard was assumed the similarity criterion for the lower furnace zones where heat is generated due to arc radiation.
Basic Thermal Parameters of Selected Foods and Food Raw Materials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Monika Božiková
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In general, processing and manipulation with foods and food raw materials have significant influence on their physical properties. The article is focused on thermophysical parameters measurement of selected foods and food raw materials. There were examined thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of selected materials. For detection of thermal parameters was used instrument Isomet 2104, which principle of measurement is based on transient methods. In text are presented summary results of thermal parameters measurement for various foods and food raw materials as: granular materials – corn flour and wheat flour; fruits, vegetables and fruit products – grated apple, dried apple and apple juice; liquid materials – milk, beer etc. Measurements were performed in two temperature ranges according to the character of examined material. From graphical relations of thermophysical parameter is evident, that thermal conductivity and diffusivity increases with temperature and moisture content linearly, only for granular materials were obtained non‑linear dependencies. Results shows, that foods and food raw materials have different thermal properties, which are influenced by their type, structure, chemical and physical properties. From presented results is evident, that basic thermal parameters are important for material quality detection in food industry.
Estimation of parameter sensitivities for stochastic reaction networks
Gupta, Ankit
2016-01-07
Quantification of the effects of parameter uncertainty is an important and challenging problem in Systems Biology. We consider this problem in the context of stochastic models of biochemical reaction networks where the dynamics is described as a continuous-time Markov chain whose states represent the molecular counts of various species. For such models, effects of parameter uncertainty are often quantified by estimating the infinitesimal sensitivities of some observables with respect to model parameters. The aim of this talk is to present a holistic approach towards this problem of estimating parameter sensitivities for stochastic reaction networks. Our approach is based on a generic formula which allows us to construct efficient estimators for parameter sensitivity using simulations of the underlying model. We will discuss how novel simulation techniques, such as tau-leaping approximations, multi-level methods etc. can be easily integrated with our approach and how one can deal with stiff reaction networks where reactions span multiple time-scales. We will demonstrate the efficiency and applicability of our approach using many examples from the biological literature.
Investigation of land use effects on Nash model parameters
Niazi, Faegheh; Fakheri Fard, Ahmad; Nourani, Vahid; Goodrich, David; Gupta, Hoshin
2015-04-01
Flood forecasting is of great importance in hydrologic planning, hydraulic structure design, water resources management and sustainable designs like flood control and management. Nash's instantaneous unit hydrograph is frequently used for simulating hydrological response in natural watersheds. Urban hydrology is gaining more attention due to population increases and associated construction escalation. Rapid development of urban areas affects the hydrologic processes of watersheds by decreasing soil permeability, flood base flow, lag time and increase in flood volume, peak runoff rates and flood frequency. In this study the influence of urbanization on the significant parameters of the Nash model have been investigated. These parameters were calculated using three popular methods (i.e. moment, root mean square error and random sampling data generation), in a small watershed consisting of one natural sub-watershed which drains into a residentially developed sub-watershed in the city of Sierra Vista, Arizona. The results indicated that for all three methods, the lag time, which is product of Nash parameters "K" and "n", in the natural sub-watershed is greater than the developed one. This logically implies more storage and/or attenuation in the natural sub-watershed. The median K and n parameters derived from the three methods using calibration events were tested via a set of verification events. The results indicated that all the three method have acceptable accuracy in hydrograph simulation. The CDF curves and histograms of the parameters clearly show the difference of the Nash parameter values between the natural and developed sub-watersheds. Some specific upper and lower percentile values of the median of the generated parameters (i.e. 10, 20 and 30 %) were analyzed to future investigates the derived parameters. The model was sensitive to variations in the value of the uncertain K and n parameter. Changes in n are smaller than K in both sub-watersheds indicating
Advanced Method to Estimate Fuel Slosh Simulation Parameters
Schlee, Keith; Gangadharan, Sathya; Ristow, James; Sudermann, James; Walker, Charles; Hubert, Carl
2005-01-01
The nutation (wobble) of a spinning spacecraft in the presence of energy dissipation is a well-known problem in dynamics and is of particular concern for space missions. The nutation of a spacecraft spinning about its minor axis typically grows exponentially and the rate of growth is characterized by the Nutation Time Constant (NTC). For launch vehicles using spin-stabilized upper stages, fuel slosh in the spacecraft propellant tanks is usually the primary source of energy dissipation. For analytical prediction of the NTC this fuel slosh is commonly modeled using simple mechanical analogies such as pendulums or rigid rotors coupled to the spacecraft. Identifying model parameter values which adequately represent the sloshing dynamics is the most important step in obtaining an accurate NTC estimate. Analytic determination of the slosh model parameters has met with mixed success and is made even more difficult by the introduction of propellant management devices and elastomeric diaphragms. By subjecting full-sized fuel tanks with actual flight fuel loads to motion similar to that experienced in flight and measuring the forces experienced by the tanks these parameters can be determined experimentally. Currently, the identification of the model parameters is a laborious trial-and-error process in which the equations of motion for the mechanical analog are hand-derived, evaluated, and their results are compared with the experimental results. The proposed research is an effort to automate the process of identifying the parameters of the slosh model using a MATLAB/SimMechanics-based computer simulation of the experimental setup. Different parameter estimation and optimization approaches are evaluated and compared in order to arrive at a reliable and effective parameter identification process. To evaluate each parameter identification approach, a simple one-degree-of-freedom pendulum experiment is constructed and motion is induced using an electric motor. By applying the
Heidari, Mehdi Haji; Mozaffarzadeh, Moein; Manwar, Rayyan; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza
2018-01-01
In recent years, the minimum variance (MV) beamforming has been widely studied due to its high resolution and contrast in B-mode Ultrasound imaging (USI). However, the performance of the MV beamformer is degraded at the presence of noise, as a result of the inaccurate covariance matrix estimation which leads to a low quality image. Second harmonic imaging (SHI) provides many advantages over the conventional pulse-echo USI, such as enhanced axial and lateral resolutions. However, the low signa...
Gommans, D.H.F.; Bakker, J.; Cramer, G.E.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Brouwer, M.A.; Kofflard, M.J.M.
2016-01-01
PURPOSE: The use of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) analysis has increased in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Quantification of left ventricular (LV) measures will be affected by the inclusion or exclusion of the papillary muscles as part of the LV mass, but the magnitude of effect
Data interpolation using rational cubic Ball spline with three parameters
Karim, Samsul Ariffin Abdul
2016-11-01
Data interpolation is an important task for scientific visualization. This research introduces new rational cubic Ball spline scheme with three parameters. The rational cubic Ball will be used for data interpolation with or without true derivative values. Error estimation show that the proposed scheme works well and is a very good interpolant to approximate the function. All graphical examples are presented by using Mathematica software.
Machining parameter optimization in turning process for sustainable manufacturing
S. G. Dambhare; S. J. Deshmukh; A. B. Borade
2015-01-01
There is an increase in awareness about sustainable manufacturing process. Manufacturing industries are backbone of a country’s economy. Although it is important but there is a great concern about consumption of resources and waste creation. The primary aim of this study was to explore sustainability concern in turning process in an Indian machining industry. The effect of cutting parameters, Speed/Feed/Depth of Cut, the machining environment, Dry/MQL/Wet, and the type of cutting tool on sust...
Nucleon Edm from Atomic Systems and Constraints on Supersymmetry Parameters
Oshima, Sachiko; Nihei, Takeshi; Fujita, Takehisa
2005-01-01
The nucleon EDM is shown to be directly related to the EDM of atomic systems. From the observed EDM values of the atomic Hg system, the neutron EDM can be extracted, which gives a very stringent constraint on the supersymmetry parameters. It is also shown that the measurement of Nitrogen and Thallium atomic systems should provide important information on the flavor dependence of the quark EDM. We perform numerical analyses on the EDM of neutron, proton and electron in the minimal supersymmetr...
Influence of Environmental Parameters on Trichoderma Strains with Biocontrol Potential
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zsuzsanna Antal
2003-01-01
Full Text Available Several mycoparasitic strains belonging to the filamentous fungal genus Trichoderma are promising candidates for the biological control of plant pathogenic fungi. When planning the application of antagonistic Trichoderma strains for the purposes of biological control, it is very important to consider the environmental parameters affecting the biocontrol agents in the soil. A series of abiotic and biotic environmental parameters has an influence on the biocontrol efficacy of Trichoderma. Some important parameters to be considered are the effects of temperature, water potential and pH, and the presence of pesticides, metal ions and antagonistic bacteria in the soil. Most of the Trichoderma strains are mesophilic. Low temperatures in winter may cause a problem during biological control by influencing the activity of the biocontrol agents. Another problem emerging during the application of Trichoderma strains as biocontrol agents is that they cannot tolerate dry conditions, however, we may need biocontrol agents against plant pathogenic fungi which are able to grow and cause disease even in dry soils. The pH characteristics of the soil also belong to the most important environmental parameters affecting the activities of mycoparasitic Trichoderma strains. Within the frames of a complex integrated plant protection strategy, we may have to combine Trichoderma strains with chemical pesticides or metal compounds, therefore it is important to collect information about the effects of pesticides and metal ions on the biocontrol strains. Antagonistic soil bacteria may also have negative effects on the biocontrol abilities of Trichoderma strains, therefore it may be advantageous if a biocontrol strain possesses bacterium- degrading abilities as well. This review will discuss the literature about the influence of temperature, water potential, pH, pesticides, metal ions and antagonistic bacteria on mycoparasitic Trichoderma strains including the results of our
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qianhui Gao
2016-08-01
Full Text Available The principal objective of this study is to analyze welfare effects of Japan’s rice import quota focusing on the simultaneous buy and sell (SBS of the rice importation minimum access (MA policy. Based on the utility function specified in this study, the constructed model is adopted to measure consumption patterns through estimating elasticity of substitution between imported rice and Japan’s domestic rice, and consumers’ preference parameters for different kinds of rice. The results showed that Japanese households prefer domestic rice to the imported rice. Besides, three scenarios of adjusting rice quota volumes were carried out to examine the changes in consumer prices of imported rice and Japanese consumers’ welfares. The results revealed that tariff equivalents of the SBS import quota almost doubled the scale of the mark-up, and the intervention by the Ministry of Agriculture of Japan did cause non-tariff barriers to trade (NTBs. Finally, if the SBS rice quota quantity was fixed at or larger than 180 thousand tons every fiscal year, the consumer prices of imported rice in Japan’s market would decrease to be less than the prices of Japan’s domestic rice, and therefore the imported rice would have more price advantages in this scenario.
Sensitivity of risk parameters to human errors for a PWR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samanta, P.; Hall, R.E.; Kerr, W.
1980-01-01
Sensitivities of the risk parameters, emergency safety system unavailabilities, accident sequence probabilities, release category probabilities and core melt probability were investigated for changes in the human error rates within the general methodological framework of the Reactor Safety Study for a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). Impact of individual human errors were assessed both in terms of their structural importance to core melt and reliability importance on core melt probability. The Human Error Sensitivity Assessment of a PWR (HESAP) computer code was written for the purpose of this study
[Integral parameters of electrocardiogram: perfection of assessment].
Volobuev, A N; Kondurtsev, V A; Romanchuk, P I; Bazarova, V N
2001-01-01
The role of such parameter as electric quality of the heart (EQH) is assessed by a biophysical analysis of a new model of dipolic equivalent electric generator of the heart taking account of myocardial inductivity in the course of excitation. How to estimate EQH by standard ECG parameters using calculated nomogram is shown. Results of EQH estimation in the course of treatment are provided.
Acquisition system of tandem injector parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Decourt, M.
1986-01-01
The system centralizes all the parameters belonging to the accelerator injector. The acquisition center system reinforces an original device made of cameras and video receivers. Besides giving access to all the parameters of the ion source, the new system allows, in the ''OSCILLO'' mode, to visualize in real time any channel on the oscilloscope [fr
Applicability of four parameter formalisms in interpreting ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
terms of applicability of the three well known four-parameter formalisms for the representation of the thermody- namic properties of binary systems. The study indicates that the derived values of the infinite dilution parameters based on the formalisms compare favourably with the computed data available in the literature.
Parameter estimation applied to physiological systems
Rideout, V.C.; Beneken, J.E.W.
Parameter estimation techniques are of ever-increasing interest in the fields of medicine and biology, as greater efforts are currently being made to describe physiological systems in explicit quantitative form. Although some of the techniques of parameter estimation as developed for use in other
Liquid metals. Coexistence line, critical parameters, compressibility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Filippov, L.P.
1986-01-01
Formulae to calculate four characteristic parameters of liquid metals (density, compressibility, critical temperature and individual parameter) according to four initial data are obtained: two values of vapor density and two values of vapor pressure. Comparison between experimental and calculation results are presented for liquid Cs, Na, Li, K, Rb
Reference Physiological Ranges for Serum Biochemical Parameters ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
clinical trials and scaling up of ARV drugs among AIDS patients. ... parametric and non parametric statistics for analyses with 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles considered ..... Physiological Ranges for Plasma Biochemical Parameters among Adult Healthy Cameroonians. Urban. Rural. Males. Females. Males. Females. Parameter.
Estimation of physical parameters in induction motors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Børsting, H.; Knudsen, Morten; Rasmussen, Henrik
1994-01-01
Parameter estimation in induction motors is a field of great interest, because accurate models are needed for robust dynamic control of induction motors......Parameter estimation in induction motors is a field of great interest, because accurate models are needed for robust dynamic control of induction motors...
Psychometric Consequences of Subpopulation Item Parameter Drift
Huggins-Manley, Anne Corinne
2017-01-01
This study defines subpopulation item parameter drift (SIPD) as a change in item parameters over time that is dependent on subpopulations of examinees, and hypothesizes that the presence of SIPD in anchor items is associated with bias and/or lack of invariance in three psychometric outcomes. Results show that SIPD in anchor items is associated…
Parameters control in GAs for dynamic optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khalid Jebari
2013-02-01
Full Text Available The Control of Genetic Algorithms parameters allows to optimize the search process and improves the performance of the algorithm. Moreover it releases the user to dive into a game process of trial and failure to find the optimal parameters.
Changes in haematological parameters of Tilapia guineensis ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Changes in haematological parameters of Tilapia guineensis exposed to different concentrations of detergent under laboratory conditions. ... The experiment evaluated sub-lethal effect of the exposure on some haematological parameters including haemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), white ...
Multi-Parameter Estimation for Orthorhombic Media
Masmoudi, Nabil
2015-08-19
Building reliable anisotropy models is crucial in seismic modeling, imaging and full waveform inversion. However, estimating anisotropy parameters is often hampered by the trade off between inhomogeneity and anisotropy. For instance, one way to estimate the anisotropy parameters is to relate them analytically to traveltimes, which is challenging in inhomogeneous media. Using perturbation theory, we develop travel-time approximations for orthorhombic media as explicit functions of the anellipticity parameters η1, η2 and a parameter Δγ in inhomogeneous background media. Specifically, our expansion assumes inhomogeneous ellipsoidal anisotropic background model, which can be obtained from well information and stacking velocity analysis. This approach has two main advantages: in one hand, it provides a computationally efficient tool to solve the orthorhombic eikonal equation, on the other hand, it provides a mechanism to scan for the best fitting anisotropy parameters without the need for repetitive modeling of traveltimes, because the coefficients of the traveltime expansion are independent of the perturbed parameters. Furthermore, the coefficients of the traveltime expansion provide insights on the sensitivity of the traveltime with respect to the perturbed parameters. We show the accuracy of the traveltime approximations as well as an approach for multi-parameter scanning in orthorhombic media.
Reference Physiological Ranges for Serum Biochemical Parameters ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Background: A valid scientific evaluation of the efficacy of HIV vaccines or antiretroviral drugs includes measurement of changes in physiological parameters of subjects from known established baseline reference ranges. This study was designed to establish reference ranges for biochemical parameters among healthy ...
Updated Abraham solvation parameters for polychlorinated biphenyls
van Noort, P.C.M.; Haftka, J.J.H.; Parsons, J.R.
2010-01-01
This study shows that the recently published polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Abraham solvation parameters predict PCB air−n-hexadecane and n-octanol−water partition coefficients very poorly, especially for highly ortho-chlorinated congeners. Therefore, an updated set of PCB solvation parameters was
Some hematological and biochemical parameters in smokeless ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The effect of Jharda powder (smokeless tobacco) on some hematological and biochemical parameters in consumers was investigated. Hematological parameters including hemoglobin content and white blood cell and leukocyte counts were higher in jharda powder consumers, while monocytes and basophiles counts were ...
Some hematological and biochemical parameters in smokeless ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
AJB SERVER
2007-01-04
Jan 4, 2007 ... The effect of Jharda powder (smokeless tobacco) on some hematological and biochemical parameters in consumers was investigated. Hematological parameters including hemoglobin content and white blood cell and leukocyte counts were higher in jharda powder consumers, while monocytes and.
Methods for measurement of durability parameters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place
1996-01-01
Present selected methods for measurement of durabilty parameters relating to chlorides, corrosion, moisture and freeze-thaw, primarly on concrete. Advantages and drawbacks of the different methods are included.......Present selected methods for measurement of durabilty parameters relating to chlorides, corrosion, moisture and freeze-thaw, primarly on concrete. Advantages and drawbacks of the different methods are included....
Useful surface parameters for biomaterial discrimination.
Etxeberria, Marina; Escuin, Tomas; Vinas, Miquel; Ascaso, Carlos
2015-01-01
Topographical features of biomaterials' surfaces are determinant when addressing their application site. Unfortunately up to date there has not been an agreement regarding which surface parameters are more representative in discriminating between materials. Discs (n = 16) of different currently used materials for implant prostheses fabrication, such as cast cobalt-chrome, direct laser metal soldered (DLMS) cobalt-chrome, titanium grade V, zirconia (Y-TZP), E-glass fiber-reinforced composite and polyetheretherketone (PEEK) were manufactured. Nanoscale topographical surface roughness parameters generated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), microscale surface roughness parameters obtained by white light interferometry (WLI) and water angle values obtained by the sessile-water-drop method were analyzed in order to assess which parameter provides the best optimum surface characterization method. Correlations between nanoroughness, microroughness, and hydrophobicity data were performed to achieve the best parameters giving the highest discriminatory power. A subset of six parameters for surface characterization were proposed. AFM and WLI techniques gave complementary information. Wettability did not correlate with any of the nanoroughness parameters while it however showed a weak correlation with microroughness parameters. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Selected plasma biochemical parameters in improved indigenous ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This study was to assess the biochemical parameters of apparently healthy NIGERHYB pigs and comparison of age and sex related differences in these parameters. One hundred and thirty five NIGERHYB pigs (35 boar, 35 sow, 30 weaned boar piglets and 35 weaned gilt piglets) obtained from intensively managed pig ...
Population Parameters of Brackish River Prawn ( Macrobrachium ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The population parameters of Macrobrachium macrobrachion in the Lower Taylor Creek, Niger Delta, Nigeria were estimated using a – 24 month length – frequency data (June 2008 – May 2010). The FAO-ICLARM Stock Assessment Tool (FiSAT II) software was used to estimate the population parameters. The estimated ...
ASSESSMENT OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
B. S. Chandravanshi
analyzed for various physico-chemical parameters. The study indicated that the mean value of studied parameters, except electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, turbidity, total alkalinity, calcium ion, sulphate ion, and total phosphorus of the river water samples were within the permissible limit of WHO for drinking water ...
Investigations on nucleation thermodynamical parameters of ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Investigations on nucleation thermodynamical parameters are very essential for the successful growth of good quality single crystals from high temperature solution. A theoretical estimation of the nucleation thermodynamical parameters like interfacial energy between the solid Nd123 and its flux BaO–CuO, metastable ...
Applicability of four parameter formalisms in interpreting ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The four parameter functions are generally considered to be adequate for representation of the thermodynamic properties for the strongly interacting binary systems. The present study involves a critical comparison in terms of applicability of the three well known four-parameter formalisms for the representation of the ...
Relationship between anthropometric parameters and the location ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Background: Childhood growth is characterized by changes in anthropometric parameters. The location of the apex beat may be similarly influenced by growth. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine any relationship between the location of the apex beat and anthropometric parameters. Subjects and ...
CHAMP: Changepoint Detection Using Approximate Model Parameters
2014-06-01
form (with independent emissions or otherwise), in which parameter estimates are available via means such as maximum likelihood fit, MCMC , or sample ...counterparts, including the ability to generate a full posterior distribution over changepoint locations and offering a natural way to incorporate prior... sample consensus method. Our modifications also remove a significant restriction on model definition when detecting parameter changes within a single
Experimental determination of mechanical parameters in sensorless ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The speed controller design in such a drive is highly sensitive to the mechanical parameters of the induction motor. These mechanical parameters change with the load coupled. This paper proposes a method to experimentally determine the moment of inertia and mechanical time constant of the induction motor drive along ...
Updated Abraham solvation parameters for polychlorinated biphenyls
Noort, van P.C.M.; Haftka, J.J.H.; Parsons, J.R.
2010-01-01
This study shows that the recently published polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Abraham solvation parameters predict PCB air-n-hexadecane and n-octanol-water partition coefficients very poorly, especially for highly ortho-chlorinated congeners. Therefore, an updated set of PCB solvation parameters was
Neutron Resonance Parameters for Cf-252 (Californium)
Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.
This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Volume 24 `Neutron Resonance Parameters' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides the neutron resonance parameters for the isotope Cf-252 (Californium).
On parameter estimation in deformable models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fisker, Rune; Carstensen, Jens Michael
1998-01-01
Deformable templates have been intensively studied in image analysis through the last decade, but despite its significance the estimation of model parameters has received little attention. We present a method for supervised and unsupervised model parameter estimation using a general Bayesian form...
neutron spectrum parameters in two irradiation channels
African Journals Online (AJOL)
DR. AMINU
2010-06-01
Jun 1, 2010 ... spectrum parameters in one inner and one outer irradiation channels were determined using the ... the determination of neutron flux parameters required .... Qo,i = Io/σo the ratio of resonance integral to thermal neutron capture cross section at neutron velocity of 2200 m/s for the ith monitor. Experimental.
Hematological parameters after acute radiation injury
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirashima, Kunitake
1989-01-01
According to clinical experiences of radiation accidents during the past two decades, utilization of measured hematologic changes as a direcrt indicator of the severity of radiation injury provides important information for diagnosis and prognostic evaluation in individual cases. Hematologic changes can be described in terms of prognostic categories based on the possible outcome of the acute radiation syndrome. The five categories suggested by Wald according to the grade of severity. By the actual application of this category to our experience of the 1971 Chiba accident of exposure to irridium 192, it was proved that the estimated dose was well correlated to the value by cytogenetic analysis and physical estimation used of thermo-luminescence phenomena. In hematological parameters, a decrease of lymphocytes occurs whithin 24 hours after the exposure. The level of this early lymphopenia is regarded as one of the best indicators of severity of radiation injury. For the decision of therapeutic procedures, however, the total granulocyte count and platelet count are more valuable to exclude severe infection and bleeding symptoms occurred one month after the exposure. The limitation of the approach by hematologic data must exist in the case exposed in a non-uniform fashion. To overwhelm this difficulty, the application of rapid marrow scanning by short-lived RI such as 52 Fe is expected and the bone marrow imaging by magnetic resonance studies is more exciting. For more sensitive and technically easy-drived methods detecting hematologic injury, our new method of detecting micro-nucleus in polychromatic erythroblasts from cultured erythroid colonies from peripheral blood is now developing. Preliminary data have shown the sensitivity of this method is comparable to the cytogenetic study of pheripheral lymphocytes. (author)
50 CFR 20.61 - Importation limits.
2010-10-01
... Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Importations § 20.61 Importation limits. No person shall import... wildlife authorities on the first day he hunts in Mexico, he may import the applicable Mexican possession...
9 CFR 93.912 - Import permits.
2010-01-01
... § 93.912 Import permits. (a) Live VHS-regulated fish imported from VHS-regulated regions through a... application for an import permit must be submitted for each shipment of live VHS-regulated fish to the Animal... intending to import live VHS-regulated fish into the United States; (4) The species and number of live VHS...
Coordinate transformation by minimizing correlations between parameters
Kumar, M.
1972-01-01
This investigation was to determine the transformation parameters (three rotations, three translations and a scale factor) between two Cartesian coordinate systems from sets of coordinates given in both systems. The objective was the determination of well separated transformation parameters with reduced correlations between each other, a problem especially relevant when the sets of coordinates are not well distributed. The above objective is achieved by preliminarily determining the three rotational parameters and the scale factor from the respective direction cosines and chord distances (these being independent of the translation parameters) between the common points, and then computing all the seven parameters from a solution in which the rotations and the scale factor are entered as weighted constraints according to their variances and covariances obtained in the preliminary solutions. Numerical tests involving two geodetic reference systems were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of this approach.
Background-cross-section-dependent subgroup parameters
Yamamoto, T
2003-01-01
A new set of subgroup parameters was derived that can reproduce the self-shielded cross section against a wide range of background cross sections. The subgroup parameters are expressed with a rational equation which numerator and denominator are expressed as the expansion series of background cross section, so that the background cross section dependence is exactly taken into account in the parameters. The advantage of the new subgroup parameters is that they can reproduce the self-shielded effect not only by group basis but also by subgroup basis. Then an adaptive method is also proposed which uses fitting procedure to evaluate the background-cross-section-dependence of the parameters. One of the simple fitting formula was able to reproduce the self-shielded subgroup cross section by less than 1% error from the precise evaluation. (author)
Supersymmetry Parameter Analysis : SPA Convention and Project
Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Allanach, Benjamin C; Arnowitt, R; Baer, H A; Bagger, J A; Balázs, C; Barger, V; Barnett, M; Bartl, Alfred; Battaglia, M; Bechtle, P; Belyaev, A; Berger, E L; Blair, G; Boos, E; Bélanger, G; Carena, M S; Choi, S Y; Deppisch, F; Desch, Klaus; Djouadi, A; Dutta, B; Dutta, S; Díaz, M A; Eberl, H; Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Erler, Jens; Fraas, H; Freitas, A; Fritzsche, T; Godbole, Rohini M; Gounaris, George J; Guasch, J; Gunion, J F; Haba, N; Haber, Howard E; Hagiwara, K; Han, L; Han, T; He, H J; Heinemeyer, S; Hesselbach, S; Hidaka, K; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hirsch, M; Hohenwarter-Sodek, K; Hollik, W; Hou, W S; Hurth, Tobias; Jack, I; Jiang, Y; Jones, D R T; Kalinowski, Jan; Kamon, T; Kane, G; Kang, S K; Kernreiter, T; Kilian, W; Kim, C S; King, S F; Kittel, O; Klasen, M; Kneur, J L; Kovarik, K; Kraml, Sabine; Krämer, M; Lafaye, R; Langacker, P; Logan, H E; Ma, W G; Majerotto, Walter; Martyn, H U; Matchev, K; Miller, D J; Mondragon, M; Moortgat-Pick, G; Moretti, S; Mori, T; Moultaka, G; Muanza, S; Mukhopadhyaya, B; Mühlleitner, M M; Nauenberg, U; Nojiri, M M; Nomura, D; Nowak, H; Okada, N; Olive, Keith A; Oller, W; Peskin, M; Plehn, T; Polesello, G; Porod, Werner; Quevedo, Fernando; Rainwater, D L; Reuter, J; Richardson, P; Rolbiecki, K; de Roeck, A; Weber, Ch.
2006-01-01
High-precision analyses of supersymmetry parameters aim at reconstructing the fundamental supersymmetric theory and its breaking mechanism. A well defined theoretical framework is needed when higher-order corrections are included. We propose such a scheme, Supersymmetry Parameter Analysis SPA, based on a consistent set of conventions and input parameters. A repository for computer programs is provided which connect parameters in different schemes and relate the Lagrangian parameters to physical observables at LHC and high energy e+e- linear collider experiments, i.e., masses, mixings, decay widths and production cross sections for supersymmetric particles. In addition, programs for calculating high-precision low energy observables, the density of cold dark matter (CDM) in the universe as well as the cross sections for CDM search experiments are included. The SPA scheme still requires extended efforts on both the theoretical and experimental side before data can be evaluated in the future at the level of the d...
Minimum variance Monte Carlo importance sampling with parametric dependence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ragheb, M.M.H.; Halton, J.; Maynard, C.W.
1981-01-01
An approach for Monte Carlo Importance Sampling with parametric dependence is proposed. It depends upon obtaining by proper weighting over a single stage the overall functional dependence of the variance on the importance function parameter over a broad range of its values. Results corresponding to minimum variance are adapted and other results rejected. Numerical calculation for the estimation of intergrals are compared to Crude Monte Carlo. Results explain the occurrences of the effective biases (even though the theoretical bias is zero) and infinite variances which arise in calculations involving severe biasing and a moderate number of historis. Extension to particle transport applications is briefly discussed. The approach constitutes an extension of a theory on the application of Monte Carlo for the calculation of functional dependences introduced by Frolov and Chentsov to biasing, or importance sample calculations; and is a generalization which avoids nonconvergence to the optimal values in some cases of a multistage method for variance reduction introduced by Spanier. (orig.) [de
Parameter analysis calculation on characteristics of portable FAST reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Otsubo, Akira; Kowata, Yasuki
1998-06-01
In this report, we performed a parameter survey analysis by using the analysis program code STEDFAST (Space, TErrestrial and Deep sea FAST reactor-gas turbine system). Concerning the deep sea fast reactor-gas turbine system, calculations with many variable parameters were performed on the base case of a NaK cooled reactor of 40 kWe. We aimed at total equipment weight and surface area necessary to remove heat from the system as important values of the characteristics of the system. Electric generation power and the material of a pressure hull were specially influential for the weight. The electric generation power, reactor outlet/inlet temperatures, a natural convection heat transfer coefficient of sea water were specially influential for the area. Concerning the space reactor-gas turbine system, the calculations with the variable parameters of compressor inlet temperature, reactor outlet/inlet temperatures and turbine inlet pressure were performed on the base case of a Na cooled reactor of 40 kWe. The first and the second variable parameters were influential for the total equipment weight of the important characteristic of the system. Concerning the terrestrial fast reactor-gas turbine system, the calculations with the variable parameters of heat transferred pipe number in a heat exchanger to produce hot water of 100degC for cogeneration, compressor stage number and the kind of primary coolant material were performed on the base case of a Pb cooled reactor of 100 MWt. In the comparison of calculational results for Pb and Na of primary coolant material, the primary coolant weight flow rate was naturally large for the former case compared with for the latter case because density is very different between them. (J.P.N.)
Repeatability and Meaningful Change of CPET Parameters in Healthy Subjects.
Decato, Thomas W; Bradley, Sean M; Wilson, Emily L; Hegewald, Matthew J
2018-03-01
Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) plays an important role in clinical medicine and research. Repeatability of CPET parameters has not been well characterized, but is important to assess variability and determine if there have been meaningful changes in a given CPET parameter. We recruited 45 healthy subjects and performed two symptom-limited CPET within 30 d using a cycle ergometer. Differences in relevant CPET parameters between CPET-1 and CPET-2 were assessed using a paired t-test. Coefficient of variation (CoV) and Bland-Altman plots are reported. Factors that may be associated with variability were analyzed (sex, age, time of day, fitness level). The coefficient of repeatability was calculated for peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2) and V˙O2 at lactate threshold (LT) to establish a 95% threshold for meaningful change. There were no significant differences between tests in the parameters reported. Specifically, we found overall low CoV in peak V˙O2 (4.9%), V˙O2@LT (10.4%), peak O2 pulse (4.6%), peak minute ventilation (V˙E; 7.4%), V˙E/V˙CO2@LT (4.0%), and V˙E/V˙O2@LT (4.8%). The CoV for peak respiratory exchange ratio@LT was significantly affected by diurnal factors; age, sex, and fitness level did not affect variability. The 95% threshold for meaningful change was 0.540 L·min in peak V˙O2 and 0.520 L·min in V˙O2@LT. Repeatability of CPET parameters is generally higher than previously reported. There were no significant differences in variability related to sex, age, and fitness level; diurnal factors had a limited effect. The threshold for meaningful change in peak V˙O2 and for V˙O2@LT should be considered when gauging a response to therapies or training.
Effect of hydraulic parameters on sediment transport capacity in overland flow over erodible beds
Ali, M.; Sterk, G.; Seeger, K.M.; Boersema, M.P.; Peters, P.D.
2012-01-01
Sediment transport is an important component of the soil erosion process, which depends on several hydraulic parameters like unit discharge, mean flow velocity, and slope gradient. In most of the previous studies, the impact of these hydraulic parameters on transport capacity was studied for
Animal based parameters are no panacea for on-farm monitoring of animal welfare
Bracke, M.B.M.
2007-01-01
On-farm monitoring of animal welfare is an important, present-day objective in animal welfare science. Scientists tend to focus exclusively on animal-based parameters, possibly because using environment-based parameters could be begging the question why welfare has been affected and because
Ultrasonic motion analysis system - measurement of temporal and spatial gait parameters
Huitema, RB; Hof, AL; Postema, K
The duration of stance and swing phase and step and stride length are important parameters in human gait. In this technical note a low-cost ultrasonic motion analysis system is described that is capable of measuring these temporal and spatial parameters while subjects walk on the floor. By using the
Review of the different methods to derive average spacing from resolved resonance parameters sets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fort, E.; Derrien, H.; Lafond, D.
1979-12-01
The average spacing of resonances is an important parameter for statistical model calculations, especially concerning non fissile nuclei. The different methods to derive this average value from resonance parameters sets have been reviewed and analyzed in order to tentatively detect their respective weaknesses and propose recommendations. Possible improvements are suggested
MFV reductions of MSSM parameter space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
AbdusSalam, S.S. [INFN - Sezione di Roma,P.le A. Moro 2, I-00185 Roma (Italy); The Abdus Salam ICTP,Trieste (Italy); Burgess, C.P. [Department of Physics & Astronomy, McMaster University,Hamilton ON (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, ON (Canada); Division PH -TH, CERN,CH-1211, Genève 23 (Switzerland); Quevedo, F. [The Abdus Salam ICTP,Trieste (Italy); DAMTP, Cambridge University,Cambridge (United Kingdom)
2015-02-11
The 100+ free parameters of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) make it computationally difficult to compare systematically with data, motivating the study of specific parameter reductions such as the cMSSM and pMSSM. Here we instead study the reductions of parameter space implied by using minimal flavour violation (MFV) to organise the R-parity conserving MSSM, with a view towards systematically building in constraints on flavour-violating physics. Within this framework the space of parameters is reduced by expanding soft supersymmetry-breaking terms in powers of the Cabibbo angle, leading to a 24-, 30- or 42-parameter framework (which we call MSSM-24, MSSM-30, and MSSM-42 respectively), depending on the order kept in the expansion. We provide a Bayesian global fit to data of the MSSM-30 parameter set to show that this is manageable with current tools. We compare the MFV reductions to the 19-parameter pMSSM choice and show that the pMSSM is not contained as a subset. The MSSM-30 analysis favours a relatively lighter TeV-scale pseudoscalar Higgs boson and tan β∼10 with multi-TeV sparticles.
MFV reductions of MSSM parameter space
AbdusSalam, S. S.; Burgess, C. P.; Quevedo, F.
2015-02-01
The 100+ free parameters of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) make it computationally difficult to compare systematically with data, motivating the study of specific parameter reductions such as the cMSSM and pMSSM. Here we instead study the reductions of parameter space implied by using minimal flavour violation (MFV) to organise the R-parity conserving MSSM, with a view towards systematically building in constraints on flavour-violating physics. Within this framework the space of parameters is reduced by expanding soft supersymmetry-breaking terms in powers of the Cabibbo angle, leading to a 24-, 30- or 42-parameter framework (which we call MSSM-24, MSSM-30, and MSSM-42 respectively), depending on the order kept in the expansion. We provide a Bayesian global fit to data of the MSSM-30 parameter set to show that this is manageable with current tools. We compare the MFV reductions to the 19-parameter pMSSM choice and show that the pMSSM is not contained as a subset. The MSSM-30 analysis favours a relatively lighter TeV-scale pseudoscalar Higgs boson and tan β ˜ 10 with multi-TeV sparticles.
Exploiting intrinsic fluctuations to identify model parameters.
Zimmer, Christoph; Sahle, Sven; Pahle, Jürgen
2015-04-01
Parameterisation of kinetic models plays a central role in computational systems biology. Besides the lack of experimental data of high enough quality, some of the biggest challenges here are identification issues. Model parameters can be structurally non-identifiable because of functional relationships. Noise in measured data is usually considered to be a nuisance for parameter estimation. However, it turns out that intrinsic fluctuations in particle numbers can make parameters identifiable that were previously non-identifiable. The authors present a method to identify model parameters that are structurally non-identifiable in a deterministic framework. The method takes time course recordings of biochemical systems in steady state or transient state as input. Often a functional relationship between parameters presents itself by a one-dimensional manifold in parameter space containing parameter sets of optimal goodness. Although the system's behaviour cannot be distinguished on this manifold in a deterministic framework it might be distinguishable in a stochastic modelling framework. Their method exploits this by using an objective function that includes a measure for fluctuations in particle numbers. They show on three example models, immigration-death, gene expression and Epo-EpoReceptor interaction, that this resolves the non-identifiability even in the case of measurement noise with known amplitude. The method is applied to partially observed recordings of biochemical systems with measurement noise. It is simple to implement and it is usually very fast to compute. This optimisation can be realised in a classical or Bayesian fashion.
Optimization of Camera Parameters in Volume Intersection
Sakamoto, Sayaka; Shoji, Kenji; Toyama, Fubito; Miyamichi, Juichi
Volume intersection is one of the simplest techniques for reconstructing 3-D shape from 2-D silhouettes. 3D shapes can be reconstructed from multiple view images by back-projecting them from the corresponding viewpoints and intersecting the resulting solid cones. The camera position and orientation (extrinsic camera parameters) of each viewpoint with respect to the object are needed to accomplish reconstruction. However, even a little variation in the camera parameters makes the reconstructed 3-D shape smaller than that with the exact parameters. The problem of optimizing camera parameters deals with determining exact ones based on multiple silhouette images and approximate ones. This paper examines attempts to optimize camera parameters by reconstructing a 3-D shape via the concept of volume intersection and then maximizing the volume of the 3-D shape. We have tested the proposed method to optimize the camera parameters using a VRML model. In experiments we apply the downhill simplex method to optimize them. The results of experiments show that the maximized volume of the reconstructed 3-D shape is one of the criteria to optimize camera parameters in camera arrangement like this experiment.
A parametric reconstruction of the deceleration parameter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Al Mamon, Abdulla [Manipal University, Manipal Centre for Natural Sciences, Manipal (India); Visva-Bharati, Department of Physics, Santiniketan (India); Das, Sudipta [Visva-Bharati, Department of Physics, Santiniketan (India)
2017-07-15
The present work is based on a parametric reconstruction of the deceleration parameter q(z) in a model for the spatially flat FRW universe filled with dark energy and non-relativistic matter. In cosmology, the parametric reconstruction technique deals with an attempt to build up a model by choosing some specific evolution scenario for a cosmological parameter and then estimate the values of the parameters with the help of different observational datasets. In this paper, we have proposed a logarithmic parametrization of q(z) to probe the evolution history of the universe. Using the type Ia supernova, baryon acoustic oscillation and the cosmic microwave background datasets, the constraints on the arbitrary model parameters q{sub 0} and q{sub 1} are obtained (within 1σ and 2σ confidence limits) by χ{sup 2}-minimization technique. We have then reconstructed the deceleration parameter, the total EoS parameter ω{sub tot}, the jerk parameter and have compared the reconstructed results of q(z) with other well-known parametrizations of q(z). We have also shown that two model selection criteria (namely, the Akaike information criterion and Bayesian information criterion) provide a clear indication that our reconstructed model is well consistent with other popular models. (orig.)
MFV Reductions of MSSM Parameter Space
AbdusSalam, S.S.; Quevedo, F.
2015-01-01
The 100+ free parameters of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) make it computationally difficult to compare systematically with data, motivating the study of specific parameter reductions such as the cMSSM and pMSSM. Here we instead study the reductions of parameter space implied by using minimal flavour violation (MFV) to organise the R-parity conserving MSSM, with a view towards systematically building in constraints on flavour-violating physics. Within this framework the space of parameters is reduced by expanding soft supersymmetry-breaking terms in powers of the Cabibbo angle, leading to a 24-, 30- or 42-parameter framework (which we call MSSM-24, MSSM-30, and MSSM-42 respectively), depending on the order kept in the expansion. We provide a Bayesian global fit to data of the MSSM-30 parameter set to show that this is manageable with current tools. We compare the MFV reductions to the 19-parameter pMSSM choice and show that the pMSSM is not contained as a subset. The MSSM-30 analysis favours...
PRELIMINARY STUDY OF HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN HERZEGOVINIAN DONKEY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dunja Rukavina
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Herzegovinian donkey is a very important animal resource of Bosnia and Herzegovina. There have been no works attempted at determining the normal values of hematological parameters of Herzegovinian donkey. For this reason, the objective of the present study was to investigate some hematological parameters in Herzegovinian donkey. The research was performed on 30 apparently healthy donkeys (18 female and 12 male of ages from 1 to 20 years. Blood samples (3 ml were obtained by jugular vein puncture (vena jugularis externa in vacuum tubes with EDTA. The mean value of hematocrit was 29.19 %, hemoglobin concentration 10.6 g/dl, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 36.33 g/dl, white blood cells 9.33 x109/L, granulocytes (109/L 5.45 x109/L, granulocytes (% 59.47%, lymphocyte/monocyte (109/L 3.89 x109/L, lymphocyte/monocyte (% 40.53% and platelet cells 148.97 x109/L. Parameters were determined using an automated analyzer IDEXX QBC VET AutoRead. Data were analyzed by SPSS V 15. All hematological parameters (except platelet cells were consistent with the recommended reference ranges for donkeys, and the values found in literature so far. Platelet cells values were much lower than in the literature for the other donkey breeds and the recommended reference ranges for donkeys. The slight differences found between our results and those reported in the previous works confirm the need for further studies to investigate the reference values of hematological parameters of Herzegovinian donkey. This work is a contribution to the study of hematological parameters of Herzegovinian donkey, and we expect these data to be applied to the further studies.
Parameter Estimation of Partial Differential Equation Models
Xun, Xiaolei
2013-09-01
Partial differential equation (PDE) models are commonly used to model complex dynamic systems in applied sciences such as biology and finance. The forms of these PDE models are usually proposed by experts based on their prior knowledge and understanding of the dynamic system. Parameters in PDE models often have interesting scientific interpretations, but their values are often unknown and need to be estimated from the measurements of the dynamic system in the presence of measurement errors. Most PDEs used in practice have no analytic solutions, and can only be solved with numerical methods. Currently, methods for estimating PDE parameters require repeatedly solving PDEs numerically under thousands of candidate parameter values, and thus the computational load is high. In this article, we propose two methods to estimate parameters in PDE models: a parameter cascading method and a Bayesian approach. In both methods, the underlying dynamic process modeled with the PDE model is represented via basis function expansion. For the parameter cascading method, we develop two nested levels of optimization to estimate the PDE parameters. For the Bayesian method, we develop a joint model for data and the PDE and develop a novel hierarchical model allowing us to employ Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques to make posterior inference. Simulation studies show that the Bayesian method and parameter cascading method are comparable, and both outperform other available methods in terms of estimation accuracy. The two methods are demonstrated by estimating parameters in a PDE model from long-range infrared light detection and ranging data. Supplementary materials for this article are available online. © 2013 American Statistical Association.
Douwes, Johannes M.; Roofthooft, Marcus T. R.; Bartelds, Beatrijs; Talsma, Melle D.; Hillege, Hans L.; Berger, Rolf M. F.
2013-01-01
Background: There is a need for reliable prognostic parameters in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), especially in children. Pulsatile components of the right ventricular afterload, represented by pulmonary arterial compliance (PACi) and pulmonary stroke volume (PSVi), may provide important
Parameters Describing Earth Observing Remote Sensing Systems
Zanoni, Vicki; Ryan, Robert E.; Pagnutti, Mary; Davis, Bruce; Markham, Brian; Storey, Jim
2003-01-01
The Earth science community needs to generate consistent and standard definitions for spatial, spectral, radiometric, and geometric properties describing passive electro-optical Earth observing sensors and their products. The parameters used to describe sensors and to describe their products are often confused. In some cases, parameters for a sensor and for its products are identical; in other cases, these parameters vary widely. Sensor parameters are bound by the fundamental performance of a system, while product parameters describe what is available to the end user. Products are often resampled, edge sharpened, pan-sharpened, or compressed, and can differ drastically from the intrinsic data acquired by the sensor. Because detailed sensor performance information may not be readily available to an international science community, standardization of product parameters is of primary performance. Spatial product parameters described include Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), point spread function, line spread function, edge response, stray light, edge sharpening, aliasing, ringing, and compression effects. Spectral product parameters discussed include full width half maximum, ripple, slope edge, and out-of-band rejection. Radiometric product properties discussed include relative and absolute radiometry, noise equivalent spectral radiance, noise equivalent temperature diffenence, and signal-to-noise ratio. Geometric product properties discussed include geopositional accuracy expressed as CE90, LE90, and root mean square error. Correlated properties discussed include such parameters as band-to-band registration, which is both a spectral and a spatial property. In addition, the proliferation of staring and pushbroom sensor architectures requires new parameters to describe artifacts that are different from traditional cross-track system artifacts. A better understanding of how various system parameters affect product performance is also needed to better ascertain the
Parameter identification of civil engineering structures
Juang, J. N.; Sun, C. T.
1980-01-01
This paper concerns the development of an identification method required in determining structural parameter variations for systems subjected to an extended exposure to the environment. The concept of structural identifiability of a large scale structural system in the absence of damping is presented. Three criteria are established indicating that a large number of system parameters (the coefficient parameters of the differential equations) can be identified by a few actuators and sensors. An eight-bay-fifteen-story frame structure is used as example. A simple model is employed for analyzing the dynamic response of the frame structure.
Hubble Parameter Corrected Interactions in Cosmology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Sadeghi
2014-01-01
character opening a room for different kinds of manipulations. In this paper we will consider a modification of an interaction Q, where we accept that interaction parameter b1 (order of unity in Q=3Hb1ρ is time dependent and presented as a linear function of Hubble parameter H of the form b0+btH, where b and b0 are constants. We consider two different models including modified Chaplygin gas and polytropic gas which have bulk viscosity. Then, we investigate problem numerically and analyze behavior of different cosmological parameters concerning fluids and behavior of the universe.
Deductive multiscale simulation using order parameters
Ortoleva, Peter J.
2017-05-16
Illustrative embodiments of systems and methods for the deductive multiscale simulation of macromolecules are disclosed. In one illustrative embodiment, a deductive multiscale simulation method may include (i) constructing a set of order parameters that model one or more structural characteristics of a macromolecule, (ii) simulating an ensemble of atomistic configurations for the macromolecule using instantaneous values of the set of order parameters, (iii) simulating thermal-average forces and diffusivities for the ensemble of atomistic configurations, and (iv) evolving the set of order parameters via Langevin dynamics using the thermal-average forces and diffusivities.
Compilation of 239Pu resonance parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshida, Tadashi
1975-02-01
As a part of the evaluation work by a working group of the Japanese Nuclear Data Committee, 239 Pu neutron cross sections are being evaluated at present. This is an interim report of the work, and collected data of the Breit-Wigner single-level parameters for 239 Pu resonances are compiled in tables with a summary of the relevant experimental informations. The multilevel parameters are also given in the Appendix. Subsequent evaluation for the 239 Pu resonance parameters will be made on the basis of this compilation. (auth.)
Extended Chain of Domination Parameters in Graphs
Hamid, I. Sahul; Balamurugan, S.
2013-01-01
A subset S of the vertex set V(G) of a graph G is called an isolate set if the subgraph induced by S has an isolated vertex. The subset S is called an isolate dominating set if it is both isolate and dominating. Also, S is called an isolate irredundant set if it is both isolate and irredundant. In this paper, we establish a chain connecting various isolate parameters with the existing domination parameters and discuss equality among the parameters in the extended chain.
Systematics of nuclear level density parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bucurescu, Dorel; Egidy, Till von
2005-01-01
The level density parameters for the back-shifted Fermi gas (both without and with energy-dependent level density parameter) and the constant temperature models have been determined for 310 nuclei between 18 F and 251 Cf by fitting the complete level schemes at low excitation energies and the s-wave neutron resonance spacings at the neutron binding energies. Simple formulae are proposed for the description of the two parameters of each of these models, which involve only quantities available from the mass tables. These formulae may constitute a reliable tool for extrapolating to nuclei far from stability, where nuclear level densities cannot be measured
The measurement of mechanical parameters in machines
Rayevskii, N P
1965-01-01
The Measurement of Mechanical Parameters in Machines is a translation from the Russian version and presents methods used in the U.S.S.R. for measuring mechanical properties. This book discusses different indicators and accepted methods of measuring separate parameters. This text also explains the metrological characteristics of mechanical parameters that can be determined by applying the equations of motion, usually represented as equations of kinetic energy or as a Lagrangian equation. The electrical methods of measuring machines and recording results are noted, and the kinds of methods pref
EXAFS Energy Shift and Structural Parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kelly, Shelly D.; Ravel, Bruce
2007-01-01
In EXAFS analysis, the energy shift parameter is used to align the theoretical calculated spectrum to the energy grid of the measured spectrum. Unrealistically large energy shift values, sometimes in excess of 20 eV, are at times published in research articles. We therefore see the need for a concise discussion of the EXAFS energy shift parameter. This paper is intended as a learning tool for the proper alignment of theory to measured EXAFS spectra and proper interpretation of the energy shift parameter
Important atomic physics issues for ion beam fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bangerter, Roger.
1986-01-01
The nearly endless variety of interesting and challenging problems makes physics research enjoyable. Most of us would choose to be physicists even if physics had no practical applications. However, physics does have practical applications. This workshop deals with one of those applications, namely ion beam fusion. Not all interesting and challenging atomic physics questions are important for ion beam fusion. This paper suggests some questions that may be important for ion beam fusion. It also suggests some criteria for determining if a question is only interesting, or both interesting and important. Importance is time dependent and, because of some restrictions on the flow of information, also country dependent. In the early days of ion beam fusion, it was important to determine if ion beam fusion made sense. Approximate answers and bounds on various parameters were required. Accurate, detailed answers were not needed. Because of the efforts of many people attending this workshop, we now know that ion beam fusion does make some sense. We must still determine if ion beam fusion truly makes good sense. If it does make good sense, we must determine how to make it work. Accurate detailed answers are becoming increasingly important. (author)
Environmental Transport Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wasiolek, M. A.
2003-01-01
developed in this report, and the related FEPs, are listed in Table 1-1. The relationship between the parameters and FEPs was based on a comparison of the parameter definition and the FEP descriptions as presented in BSC (2003 [160699], Section 6.2). The parameter values developed in this report support the biosphere model and are reflected in the TSPA through the biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs). Biosphere modeling focuses on radionuclides screened for the TSPA-LA (BSC 2002 [160059]). The same list of radionuclides is used in this analysis (Section 6.1.4). The analysis considers two human exposure scenarios (groundwater and volcanic ash) and climate change (Section 6.1.5). This analysis combines and revises two previous reports, ''Transfer Coefficient Analysis'' (CRWMS MandO 2000 [152435]) and ''Environmental Transport Parameter Analysis'' (CRWMS MandO 2001 [152434]), because the new ERMYN biosphere model requires a redefined set of input parameters. The scope of this analysis includes providing a technical basis for the selection of radionuclide- and element-specific biosphere parameters (except for Kd) that are important for calculating BDCFs based on the available radionuclide inventory abstraction data. The environmental transport parameter values were developed specifically for use in the biosphere model and may not be appropriate for other applications
Environmental Transport Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
M. A. Wasiolek
2003-06-27
], Section 6.2). Parameter values developed in this report, and the related FEPs, are listed in Table 1-1. The relationship between the parameters and FEPs was based on a comparison of the parameter definition and the FEP descriptions as presented in BSC (2003 [160699], Section 6.2). The parameter values developed in this report support the biosphere model and are reflected in the TSPA through the biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs). Biosphere modeling focuses on radionuclides screened for the TSPA-LA (BSC 2002 [160059]). The same list of radionuclides is used in this analysis (Section 6.1.4). The analysis considers two human exposure scenarios (groundwater and volcanic ash) and climate change (Section 6.1.5). This analysis combines and revises two previous reports, ''Transfer Coefficient Analysis'' (CRWMS M&O 2000 [152435]) and ''Environmental Transport Parameter Analysis'' (CRWMS M&O 2001 [152434]), because the new ERMYN biosphere model requires a redefined set of input parameters. The scope of this analysis includes providing a technical basis for the selection of radionuclide- and element-specific biosphere parameters (except for Kd) that are important for calculating BDCFs based on the available radionuclide inventory abstraction data. The environmental transport parameter values were developed specifically for use in the biosphere model and may not be appropriate for other applications.
Sample Size and Item Parameter Estimation Precision When Utilizing the One-Parameter "Rasch" Model
Custer, Michael
2015-01-01
This study examines the relationship between sample size and item parameter estimation precision when utilizing the one-parameter model. Item parameter estimates are examined relative to "true" values by evaluating the decline in root mean squared deviation (RMSD) and the number of outliers as sample size increases. This occurs across…