Sample records for reservoir storage capacity

  1. Beyond peak reservoir storage? A global estimate of declining water storage capacity in large reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisser, D.; Frolking, S.; Hagen, Stephen; Bierkens, M.F.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/125022794


    Water storage is an important way to cope with temporal variation in water supply anddemand. The storage capacity and the lifetime of water storage reservoirs can besignificantly reduced by the inflow of sediments. A global, spatially explicit assessment ofreservoir storage loss in conjunction with

  2. Storage Capacity and Sedimentation of Loch Lomond Reservoir, Santa Cruz, California, 1998 (United States)

    McPherson, Kelly R.; Harmon, Jerry G.


    In 1998, a bathymetric survey was done to determine the storage capacity and the loss of capacity owing to sedimentation of Loch Lomond Reservoir in Santa Cruz County, California. Results of the survey indicate that the maximum capacity of the reservoir is 8,991 acre-feet in November 1998. The results of previous investigations indicate that storage capacity of the reservoir is less than 8,991 acre-feet. The storage capacity determined from those investigations probably were underestimated because of limitations of the methods and the equipment used. The volume of sedimentation in a reservoir is considered equal to the decrease in storage capacity. To determine sedimentation in Loch Lomond Reservoir, change in storage capacity was estimated for an upstream reach of the reservoir. The change in storage capacity was determined by comparing a 1998 thalweg profile (valley floor) of the reservoir with thalweg profiles from previous investigations; results of the comparison indicate that sedimentation is occurring in the upstream reach. Cross sections for 1998 and 1982 were compared to determine the magnitude of sedimentation in the upstream reach of the reservoir. Results of the comparison, which were determined from changes in the cross-sectional areas, indicate that the capacity of the reservoir decreased by 55 acre-feet.

  3. Analysis of the influence of input data uncertainties on determining the reliability of reservoir storage capacity

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    Marton Daniel


    Full Text Available The paper contains a sensitivity analysis of the influence of uncertainties in input hydrological, morphological and operating data required for a proposal for active reservoir conservation storage capacity and its achieved values. By introducing uncertainties into the considered inputs of the water management analysis of a reservoir, the subsequent analysed reservoir storage capacity is also affected with uncertainties. The values of water outflows from the reservoir and the hydrological reliabilities are affected with uncertainties as well. A simulation model of reservoir behaviour has been compiled with this kind of calculation as stated below. The model allows evaluation of the solution results, taking uncertainties into consideration, in contributing to a reduction in the occurrence of failure or lack of water during reservoir operation in low-water and dry periods.

  4. The Baltic Basin: structure, properties of reservoir rocks, and capacity for geological storage of CO2

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    Vaher, Rein


    Full Text Available Baltic countries are located in the limits of the Baltic sedimentary basin, a 700 km long and 500 km wide synclinal structure. The axis of the syneclise plunges to the southwest. In Poland the Precambrian basement occurs at a depth of 5 km. The Baltic Basin includes the Neoproterozoic Ediacaran (Vendian at the base and all Phanerozoic systems. Two aquifers, the lower Devonian and Cambrian reservoirs, meet the basic requirements for CO2 storage. The porosity and permeability of sandstone decrease with depth. The average porosity of Cambrian sandstone at depths of 80–800, 800–1800, and 1800–2300 m is 18.6, 14.2, and 5.5%, respectively. The average permeability is, respectively, 311, 251, and 12 mD. Devonian sandstone has an average porosity of 26% and permeability in the range of 0.5–2 D. Prospective Cambrian structural traps occur only in Latvia. The 16 largest ones have CO2 storage capacity in the range of 2–74 Mt, with total capacity exceeding 400 Mt. The structural trapping is not an option for Lithuania as the uplifts there are too small. Another option is utilization of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR. The estimated total EOR net volume of CO2 (part of CO2 remaining in the formation in Lithuania is 5.6 Mt. Solubility and mineral trapping are a long-term option. The calculated total solubility trapping capacity of the Cambrian reservoir is as high as 11 Gt of CO2 within the area of the supercritical state of carbon dioxide.

  5. Bathymetry and Sediment-Storage Capacity Change in Three Reservoirs on the Lower Susquehanna River, 1996-2008 (United States)

    Langland, Michael J.


    The Susquehanna River transports a substantial amount of the sediment and nutrient load to the Chesapeake Bay. Upstream of the bay, three large dams and their associated reservoirs trap a large amount of the transported sediment and associated nutrients. During the fall of 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection completed bathymetric surveys of three reservoirs on the lower Susquehanna River to provide an estimate of the remaining sediment-storage capacity. Previous studies indicated the upper two reservoirs were in equilibrium with long-term sediment storage; only the most downstream reservoir retained capacity to trap sediments. A differential global positioning system (DGPS) instrument was used to provide the corresponding coordinate position. Bathymetry data were collected using a single beam 210 kHz (kilohertz) echo sounder at pre-defined transects that matched previous surveys. Final horizontal (X and Y) and vertical (Z) coordinates of the geographic positions and depth to bottom were used to create bathymetric maps of the reservoirs. Results indicated that from 1996 to 2008 about 14,700,000 tons of sediment were deposited in the three reservoirs with the majority (12,000,000 tons) being deposited in Conowingo Reservoir. Approximately 20,000 acre-feet or 30,000,000 tons of remaining storage capacity is available in Conowingo Reservoir. At current transport (3,000,000 tons per year) and deposition (2,000,000 tons per year) rates and with no occurrence of major scour events due to floods, the remaining capacity may be filled in 15 to 20 years. Once the remaining sediment-storage capacity in the reservoirs is filled, sediment and associated phosphorus loads entering the Chesapeake Bay are expected to increase.

  6. Reservoir operations under climate change: Storage capacity options to mitigate risk (United States)

    Ehsani, Nima; Vörösmarty, Charles J.; Fekete, Balázs M.; Stakhiv, Eugene Z.


    Observed changes in precipitation patterns, rising surface temperature, increases in frequency and intensity of floods and droughts, widespread melting of ice, and reduced snow cover are some of the documented hydrologic changes associated with global climate change. Climate change is therefore expected to affect the water supply-demand balance in the Northeast United States and challenge existing water management strategies. The hydrological implications of future climate will affect the design capacity and operating characteristics of dams. The vulnerability of water resources systems to floods and droughts will increase, and the trade-offs between reservoir releases to maintain flood control storage, drought resilience, ecological flow, human water demand, and energy production should be reconsidered. We used a Neural Networks based General Reservoir Operation Scheme to estimate the implications of climate change for dams on a regional scale. This dynamic daily reservoir module automatically adapts to changes in climate and re-adjusts the operation of dams based on water storage level, timing, and magnitude of incoming flows. Our findings suggest that the importance of dams in providing water security in the region will increase. We create an indicator of the Effective Degree of Regulation (EDR) by dams on water resources and show that it is expected to increase, particularly during drier months of year, simply as a consequence of projected climate change. The results also indicate that increasing the size and number of dams, in addition to modifying their operations, may become necessary to offset the vulnerabilities of water resources systems to future climate uncertainties. This is the case even without considering the likely increase in future water demand, especially in the most densely populated regions of the Northeast.

  7. The HYDROMED model and its application to semi-arid Mediterranean catchments with hill reservoirs 3: Reservoir storage capacity and probability of failure model

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    R. Ragab


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of "what reservoir storage capacity is required to maintain a yield with a given probability of failure?". It is an important issue in terms of construction and cost. HYDROMED offers a solution based on the modified Gould probability matrix method. This method has the advantage of sampling all years data without reference to the sequence and is therefore particularly suitable for catchments with patchy data. In the HYDROMED model, the probability of failure is calculated on a monthly basis. The model has been applied to the El-Gouazine catchment in Tunisia using a long rainfall record from Kairouan together with the estimated Hortonian runoff, class A pan evaporation data and estimated abstraction data. Generally, the probability of failure differed from winter to summer. Generally, the probability of failure approaches zero when the reservoir capacity is 500,000 m3. The 25% probability of failure (75% success is achieved with a reservoir capacity of 58,000 m3 in June and 95,000 m3 in January. The probability of failure for a 240,000 m3 capacity reservoir (closer to storage capacity of El-Gouazine 233,000 m3, is approximately 5% in November, December and January, 3% in March, and 1.1% in May and June. Consequently there is no high risk of El-Gouazine being unable to meet its requirements at a capacity of 233,000 m3. Subsequently the benefit, in terms of probability of failure, by increasing the reservoir volume of El-Gouazine to greater than the 250,000 m3 is not high. This is important for the design engineers and the funding organizations. However, the analysis is based on the existing water abstraction policy, absence of siltation rate data and on the assumption that the present climate will prevail during the lifetime of the reservoir. Should these conditions change, a new analysis should be carried out. Keywords: HYDROMED, reservoir, storage capacity, probability of failure, Mediterranean

  8. Maximizing Storage Rate and Capacity and Insuring the Environmental Integrity of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geological Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.A. Davis; A.L. Graham; H.W. Parker; J.R. Abbott; M.S. Ingber; A.A. Mammoli; L.A. Mondy; Quanxin Guo; Ahmed Abou-Sayed


    Maximizing Storage Rate and Capacity and Insuring the Environmental Integrity of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geological Formations The U.S. and other countries may enter into an agreement that will require a significant reduction in CO2 emissions in the medium to long term. In order to achieve such goals without drastic reductions in fossil fuel usage, CO2 must be removed from the atmosphere and be stored in acceptable reservoirs. The research outlined in this proposal deals with developing a methodology to determine the suitability of a particular geologic formation for the long-term storage of CO2 and technologies for the economical transfer and storage of CO2 in these formations. A novel well-logging technique using nuclear-magnetic resonance (NMR) will be developed to characterize the geologic formation including the integrity and quality of the reservoir seal (cap rock). Well-logging using NMR does not require coring, and hence, can be performed much more quickly and efficiently. The key element in the economical transfer and storage of the CO2 is hydraulic fracturing the formation to achieve greater lateral spreads and higher throughputs of CO2. Transport, compression, and drilling represent the main costs in CO2 sequestration. The combination of well-logging and hydraulic fracturing has the potential of minimizing these costs. It is possible through hydraulic fracturing to reduce the number of injection wells by an order of magnitude. Many issues will be addressed as part of the proposed research to maximize the storage rate and capacity and insure the environmental integrity of CO2 sequestration in geological formations. First, correlations between formation properties and NMR relaxation times will be firmly established. A detailed experimental program will be conducted to determine these correlations. Second, improved hydraulic fracturing models will be developed which are suitable for CO2 sequestration as opposed to enhanced oil recovery (EOR

  9. Estimation of small reservoir storage capacities in the São Francisco, Limpopo, Bandama and Volta river basins using remotely sensed surface areas (United States)

    Rodrigues, Lineu; Senzanje, Aidan; Cecchi, Philippe; Liebe, Jens


    People living in areas with highly variable rainfall, experience droughts and floods and often have insecure livelihoods. Small multi-purpose reservoirs (SR) are a widely used form of infrastructures to provide people in such areas with water during the dry season, e.g. in the basins of São Francisco, Brazil, Limpopo, Zimbabwe, Bandama, Ivory Coast and Volta, Ghana. In these areas, the available natural flow in the streams is sometimes less than the flow required for water supply or irrigation, however water can be stored in times of surplus, for example, from a wet season to a dry season. Efficient water management and sound reservoir planning are hindered by the lack of information about the functioning of these reservoirs. Reservoirs in these regions were constructed in a series of projects funded by different agencies, at different times, with little or no coordination among the implementing partners. Poor record keeping and the lack of appropriate institutional support result in deficiencies of information on the capacity, operation, and maintenance of these structures. Estimating the storage capacity of dams is essential to the responsible management of water diversion. Most of SR in these basins have never been evaluated, possibly because the tools currently used for such measurement are labor-intensive, costly and time-consuming. The objective of this research was to develop methodology to estimate small reservoir capacities as a function of their remotely sensed surface areas in the São Francisco, Limpopo, Bandama and Volta basins, as a way to contribute to improve the water resource management in those catchments. Remote sensing was used to identify, localize and characterize small reservoirs. The surface area of each was calculated from satellite images. A sub-set of reservoirs was selected. For each reservoir in the sub-set, the surface area was estimated from field surveys, and storage capacity was estimated using information on reservoir surface

  10. Performance Analysis of Depleted Oil Reservoirs for Underground Gas Storage

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    Dr. C.I.C. Anyadiegwu


    Full Text Available The performance of underground gas storage in depleted oil reservoir was analysed with reservoir Y-19, a depleted oil reservoir in Southern region of the Niger Delta. Information on the geologic and production history of the reservoir were obtained from the available field data of the reservoir. The verification of inventory was done to establish the storage capacity of the reservoir. The plot of the well flowing pressure (Pwf against the flow rate (Q, gives the deliverability of the reservoir at various pressures. Results of the estimated properties signified that reservoir Y-19 is a good candidate due to its storage capacity and its flow rate (Q of 287.61 MMscf/d at a flowing pressure of 3900 psig

  11. Deriving Area-storage Curves of Global Reservoirs (United States)

    Mu, M.; Tang, Q.


    Basic information including capacity, dam height, and largest water area on global reservoirs and dams is well documented in databases such as GRanD (Global Reservoirs and Dams), ICOLD (International Commission on Large Dams). However, though playing a critical role in estimating reservoir storage variations from remote sensing or hydrological models, area-storage (or elevation-storage) curves of reservoirs are not publicly shared. In this paper, we combine Landsat surface water extent, 1 arc-minute global relief model (ETOPO1) and GRanD database to derive area-storage curves of global reservoirs whose area is larger than 1 km2 (6,000 more reservoirs are included). First, the coverage polygon of each reservoir in GRanD is extended to where water was detected by Landsat during 1985-2015. Second, elevation of each pixel in the reservoir is extracted from resampled 30-meter ETOPO1, and then relative depth and frequency of each depth value is calculated. Third, cumulative storage is calculated with increasing water area by every one percent of reservoir coverage area and then the uncalibrated area-storage curve is obtained. Finally, the area-storage curve is linearly calibrated by the ratio of calculated capacity over reported capacity in GRanD. The derived curves are compared with in-situ reservoir data collected in Great Plains Region in US, and the results show that in-situ records are well captured by the derived curves even in relative small reservoirs (several square kilometers). The new derived area-storage curves have the potential to be employed in global monitoring or modelling of reservoirs storage and area variations.

  12. Bathymetry and capacity of Shawnee Reservoir, Oklahoma, 2016 (United States)

    Ashworth, Chad E.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Smith, Kevin A.


    capacity and between stage and reservoir surface area. The bathymetric map may serve as a baseline to which temporal changes in storage capacity, due to sedimentation and other factors, can be compared. The stage-storage relation may be used in the reporting of real-time Shawnee Reservoir storage capacity at USGS station 07241600 to support water-resource management decisions by the City of Shawnee.

  13. Reflection Phenomena in Underground Pumped Storage Reservoirs

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    Elena Pummer


    Full Text Available Energy storage through hydropower leads to free surface water waves in the connected reservoirs. The reason for this is the movement of water between reservoirs at different elevations, which is necessary for electrical energy storage. Currently, the expansion of renewable energies requires the development of fast and flexible energy storage systems, of which classical pumped storage plants are the only technically proven and cost-effective technology and are the most used. Instead of classical pumped storage plants, where reservoirs are located on the surface, underground pumped storage plants with subsurface reservoirs could be an alternative. They are independent of topography and have a low surface area requirement. This can be a great advantage for energy storage expansion in case of environmental issues, residents’ concerns and an unusable terrain surface. However, the reservoirs of underground pumped storage plants differ in design from classical ones for stability and space reasons. The hydraulic design is essential to ensure their satisfactory hydraulic performance. The paper presents a hybrid model study, which is defined here as a combination of physical and numerical modelling to use the advantages and to compensate for the disadvantages of the respective methods. It shows the analysis of waves in ventilated underground reservoir systems with a great length to height ratio, considering new operational aspects from energy supply systems with a great percentage of renewable energies. The multifaceted and narrow design of the reservoirs leads to complex free surface flows; for example, undular and breaking bores arise. The results show excessive wave heights through wave reflections, caused by the impermeable reservoir boundaries. Hence, their knowledge is essential for a successful operational and constructive design of the reservoirs.

  14. The dynamic capacity calculation method and the flood control ability of the Three Gorges Reservoir (United States)

    Zhang, Shanghong; Jing, Zhu; Yi, Yujun; Wu, Yu; Zhao, Yong


    To evaluate the flood control ability of a river-type reservoir, an accurate simulation method for the flood storage, discharge process, and dynamic capacity of the reservoir is important. As the world's largest reservoir, the storage capacity and flood control capacity of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) has attracted widespread interest and academic debate for nearly 20 years. In this study, a model for calculating the dynamic capacity of a river-type reservoir is established based on data from 394 river cross sections and 2.5-m resolution digital elevation model (DEM) data of the TGR area. The storage capacity and flood control capacity of the TGR were analysed based on the scheduling procedures of a normal impoundment period. The results show that the static capacity of the TGR is 43.43 billion m3, the dynamic flood control capacity is 22.45 billion m3, and the maximum floodwater flow regulated by the dynamic capacity at Zhicheng is no more than 67,700 m3/s. This study supply new simulation method and up-to-date high-precision data to discuss the 20 years debate, and the results reveal the TGR design is conservative for flood control according to the Preliminary Design Report of the Three Gorges Project. The dynamic capacity calculation method used here can provide a reference for flood regulation of large river-type reservoirs.

  15. A Tool for Assessing Future Capacity Loss Due to Sedimentation in the United States' Reservoirs (United States)

    Pinson, A. O.; Baker, B.; White, K. D.


    Federal reservoirs are critical components of the United States' water supply, flood risk management, hydropower and navigation infrastructure. These reservoirs included capacity for storage loss due to the deposition of sediment by inflowing streams in their original design. However, the actual rate of capacity loss experienced is controlled in part by climate, topography, soils, and land use/land cover, and may vary from the design. To assess the current and future vulnerability of its reservoirs to sedimentation. USACE has developed an online planning tool to identify USACE reservoirs where sedimentation is currently a problem (e.g., sedimentation rate exceeds design sedimentation rate, or zone losses disproportionately affect authorized purposes), and reservoirs where rates are expected to increase significantly in the future. The goal is to be able to prioritize operation and maintenance actions to minimize the effects of reservoir capacity loss on authorized purposes and help maximize reservoir use life.

  16. Carbon dioxide storage in unconventional reservoirs workshop: summary of recommendations (United States)

    Jones, Kevin B.; Blondes, Madalyn S.


    “Unconventional reservoirs” for carbon dioxide (CO2) storage—that is, geologic reservoirs in which changes to the rock trap CO2 and therefore contribute to CO2 storage—including coal, shale, basalt, and ultramafic rocks, were the focus of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) workshop held March 28 and 29, 2012, at the National Conservation Training Center in Shepherdstown, West Virginia. The goals of the workshop were to determine whether a detailed assessment of CO2 storage capacity in unconventional reservoirs is warranted, and if so, to build a set of recommendations that could be used to develop a methodology to assess this storage capacity. Such an assessment would address only the technically available resource, independent of economic or policy factors. At the end of the workshop, participants agreed that sufficient knowledge exists to allow an assessment of the potential CO2 storage resource in coals, organic-rich shales, and basalts. More work remains to be done before the storage resource in ultramafic rocks can be meaningfully assessed.

  17. Economic performance of water storage capacity expansion for food security (United States)

    Gohar, Abdelaziz A.; Ward, Frank A.; Amer, Saud A.


    SummaryContinued climate variability, population growth, and rising food prices present ongoing challenges for achieving food and water security in poor countries that lack adequate water infrastructure. Undeveloped storage infrastructure presents a special challenge in northern Afghanistan, where food security is undermined by highly variable water supplies, inefficient water allocation rules, and a damaged irrigation system due three decades of war and conflict. Little peer-reviewed research to date has analyzed the economic benefits of water storage capacity expansions as a mechanism to sustain food security over long periods of variable climate and growing food demands needed to feed growing populations. This paper develops and applies an integrated water resources management framework that analyzes impacts of storage capacity expansions for sustaining farm income and food security in the face of highly fluctuating water supplies. Findings illustrate that in Afghanistan's Balkh Basin, total farm income and food security from crop irrigation increase, but at a declining rate as water storage capacity increases from zero to an amount equal to six times the basin's long term water supply. Total farm income increases by 21%, 41%, and 42% for small, medium, and large reservoir capacity, respectively, compared to the existing irrigation system unassisted by reservoir storage capacity. Results provide a framework to target water infrastructure investments that improve food security for river basins in the world's dry regions with low existing storage capacity that face ongoing climate variability and increased demands for food security for growing populations.

  18. CO2 storage in depleted gas reservoirs: A study on the effect of residual gas saturation

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    Arshad Raza


    Full Text Available Depleted gas reservoirs are recognized as the most promising candidate for carbon dioxide storage. Primary gas production followed by injection of carbon dioxide after depletion is the strategy adopted for secondary gas recovery and storage practices. This strategy, however, depends on the injection strategy, reservoir characteristics and operational parameters. There have been many studies to-date discussing critical factors influencing the storage performance in depleted gas reservoirs while little attention was given to the effect of residual gas. In this paper, an attempt was made to highlight the importance of residual gas on the capacity, injectivity, reservoir pressurization, and trapping mechanisms of storage sites through the use of numerical simulation. The results obtained indicated that the storage performance is proportionally linked to the amount of residual gas in the medium and reservoirs with low residual fluids are a better choice for storage purposes. Therefore, it would be wise to perform the secondary recovery before storage in order to have the least amount of residual gas in the medium. Although the results of this study are useful to screen depleted gas reservoirs for the storage purpose, more studies are required to confirm the finding presented in this paper.

  19. Compressed air energy storage system reservoir size for a wind energy baseload power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallo, A.J.


    Wind generated electricity can be transformed from an intermittent to a baseload resource using an oversized wind farm in conjunction with a compressed air energy storage (CAES) system. The size of the storage reservoir for the CAES system (solution mined salt cavern or porous media) as a function of the wind speed autocorrelation time (C) has been examined using a Monte Carlo simulation for a wind class 4 (wind power density 450 W m{sup -2} at 50 m hub height) wind regime with a Weibull k factor of 2.5. For values of C typically found for winds over the US Great Plains, the storage reservoir must have a 60 to 80 hour capacity. Since underground reservoirs account for only a small fraction of total system cost, this larger storage reservoir has a negligible effect on the cost of energy from the wind energy baseload system. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Storage capacity of the Tilinglike Learning Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buhot, Arnaud; Gordon, Mirta B.


    The storage capacity of an incremental learning algorithm for the parity machine, the Tilinglike Learning Algorithm, is analytically determined in the limit of a large number of hidden perceptrons. Different learning rules for the simple perceptron are investigated. The usual Gardner-Derrida rule leads to a storage capacity close to the upper bound, which is independent of the learning algorithm considered

  1. Monitoring small reservoirs' storage with satellite remote sensing in inaccessible areas (United States)

    Avisse, Nicolas; Tilmant, Amaury; François Müller, Marc; Zhang, Hua


    In river basins with water storage facilities, the availability of regularly updated information on reservoir level and capacity is of paramount importance for the effective management of those systems. However, for the vast majority of reservoirs around the world, storage levels are either not measured or not readily available due to financial, political, or legal considerations. This paper proposes a novel approach using Landsat imagery and digital elevation models (DEMs) to retrieve information on storage variations in any inaccessible region. Unlike existing approaches, the method does not require any in situ measurement and is appropriate for monitoring small, and often undocumented, irrigation reservoirs. It consists of three recovery steps: (i) a 2-D dynamic classification of Landsat spectral band information to quantify the surface area of water, (ii) a statistical correction of DEM data to characterize the topography of each reservoir, and (iii) a 3-D reconstruction algorithm to correct for clouds and Landsat 7 Scan Line Corrector failure. The method is applied to quantify reservoir storage in the Yarmouk basin in southern Syria, where ground monitoring is impeded by the ongoing civil war. It is validated against available in situ measurements in neighbouring Jordanian reservoirs. Coefficients of determination range from 0.69 to 0.84, and the normalized root-mean-square error from 10 to 16 % for storage estimations on six Jordanian reservoirs with maximal water surface areas ranging from 0.59 to 3.79 km2.

  2. Reracking to increase spent fuel storage capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Many utilities have already increased their spent fuel pool storage capacity by replacing aluminum racks having storage densities as low as 0.2 MTU/ft 2 with stainless steel racks which can more than double storage densities. Use of boron-stainless steel racks or thin stainless steel cans containing reassembled fuel rods allows even higher fuel storage densities (up to approximately 1.25 MTU/ft 2 ). This report evaluates the economics of smaller storage gains that occur if pools, already converted to high density storage, are further reracked

  3. Horizontal drilling in a natural gas storage horizon of 4 m thickness using reservoir navigation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastert, Thomas [E.ON Gas Storage GmbH, Essen (Germany); Liewert, Mathias; Rohde, Uwe [Baker Hughes INTEQ GmbH, Celle (Germany); Haberland, Joachim


    With a working gas capacity of 1,44 billion m{sup 3} (Vn) the natural gas storage facility at Bierwang is one of the largest storage facilities of E.ON Gas Storage (in Germany) and also one of the largest porous rock storages in Germany. The natural gas is stored in the tertiary storage horizons of the Chattian Hauptsand and Nebensand. To increase the storage capacity a second development well was planned for the Chattian Nebensand II (approx. 1680 m below ground). Following a comprehensive technical investigation the BW 502 well was planned as a horizontal well intended to provide a 300 m exposed section length through the reservoir. In a first step a pilot well was drilled to examine the Nebensand II which had been explored only to a limited extent before; the pilot well was also to provide accurate data on depth, thickness and dip. The results obtained indicated that the Nebensand II was only 4 m thick instead of 6 m as originally assumed. An azimuthal LWD resistivity tool was therefore used for reservoir navigation to allow horizontal drilling despite the lower thickness found. The technology allowed drilling of the horizontal well over its entire length of 315 m within a max. 1.5 m corridor relative to the reservoir top. Drilling confirmed that the actual formation found corresponded to the reservoir formation plan. Drilling operations were completed successfully. The well has been commissioned in the spring of 2010. (orig.)

  4. Potential evaluation of CO2 storage and enhanced oil recovery of tight oil reservoir in the Ordos Basin, China. (United States)

    Tian, Xiaofeng; Cheng, Linsong; Cao, Renyi; Zhang, Miaoyi; Guo, Qiang; Wang, Yimin; Zhang, Jian; Cui, Yu


    Carbon -di-oxide (CO2) is regarded as the most important greenhouse gas to accelerate climate change and ocean acidification. The Chinese government is seeking methods to reduce anthropogenic CO2 gas emission. CO2 capture and geological storage is one of the main methods. In addition, injecting CO2 is also an effective method to replenish formation energy in developing tight oil reservoirs. However, exiting methods to estimate CO2 storage capacity are all based on the material balance theory. This was absolutely correct for normal reservoirs. However, as natural fractures widely exist in tight oil reservoirs and majority of them are vertical ones, tight oil reservoirs are not close. Therefore, material balance theory is not adaptive. In the present study, a new method to calculate CO2 storage capacity is presented. The CO2 effective storage capacity, in this new method, consisted of free CO2, CO2 dissolved in oil and CO2 dissolved in water. Case studies of tight oil reservoir from Ordos Basin was conducted and it was found that due to far lower viscosity of CO2 and larger solubility in oil, CO2 could flow in tight oil reservoirs more easily. As a result, injecting CO2 in tight oil reservoirs could obviously enhance sweep efficiency by 24.5% and oil recovery efficiency by 7.5%. CO2 effective storage capacity of Chang 7 tight oil reservoir in Longdong area was 1.88 x 10(7) t. The Chang 7 tight oil reservoir in Ordos Basin was estimated to be 6.38 x 10(11) t. As tight oil reservoirs were widely distributed in Songliao Basin, Sichuan Basin and so on, geological storage capacity of CO2 in China is potential.

  5. Reservoir storage and containment of greenhouse gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weir, G.J.; White, S.P.; Kissling, W.M. [Industrial Research Ltd., Lower Hutt (New Zealand)


    This paper considers the injection of CO{sub 2} into underground reservoirs. Computer models are used to investigate the disposal of CO{sub 2} generated by an 800 MW power station. A number of scenarios are considered, some of which result in containment of the CO{sub 2} over very long time scales and others result in the escape of the CO{sub 2} after a few hundred years.

  6. Storage capacity of ultrametric committee machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neirotti, J P


    The problem of computing the storage capacity of a feed-forward network, with L hidden layers, N inputs, and K units in the first hidden layer, is analyzed using techniques from statistical mechanics. We found that the storage capacity strongly depends on the network architecture α-hat c ∼(log K) 1−1/2 L and that the number of units K limits the number of possible hidden layers L through the relationship 2 L − 1 < 2log K. (paper)

  7. Capacity Expansion Modeling for Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, Elaine; Stoll, Brady; Mai, Trieu


    The Resource Planning Model (RPM) is a capacity expansion model designed for regional power systems and high levels of renewable generation. Recent extensions capture value-stacking for storage technologies, including batteries and concentrating solar power with storage. After estimating per-unit capacity value and curtailment reduction potential, RPM co-optimizes investment decisions and reduced-form dispatch, accounting for planning reserves; energy value, including arbitrage and curtailment reduction; and three types of operating reserves. Multiple technology cost scenarios are analyzed to determine level of deployment in the Western Interconnection under various conditions.

  8. Monitoring small reservoirs' storage with satellite remote sensing in inaccessible areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Avisse


    Full Text Available In river basins with water storage facilities, the availability of regularly updated information on reservoir level and capacity is of paramount importance for the effective management of those systems. However, for the vast majority of reservoirs around the world, storage levels are either not measured or not readily available due to financial, political, or legal considerations. This paper proposes a novel approach using Landsat imagery and digital elevation models (DEMs to retrieve information on storage variations in any inaccessible region. Unlike existing approaches, the method does not require any in situ measurement and is appropriate for monitoring small, and often undocumented, irrigation reservoirs. It consists of three recovery steps: (i a 2-D dynamic classification of Landsat spectral band information to quantify the surface area of water, (ii a statistical correction of DEM data to characterize the topography of each reservoir, and (iii a 3-D reconstruction algorithm to correct for clouds and Landsat 7 Scan Line Corrector failure. The method is applied to quantify reservoir storage in the Yarmouk basin in southern Syria, where ground monitoring is impeded by the ongoing civil war. It is validated against available in situ measurements in neighbouring Jordanian reservoirs. Coefficients of determination range from 0.69 to 0.84, and the normalized root-mean-square error from 10 to 16 % for storage estimations on six Jordanian reservoirs with maximal water surface areas ranging from 0.59 to 3.79 km2.

  9. Storage capacity of hydrogen in gas hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Takaaki; Ogata, Kyohei; Hashimoto, Shunsuke; Sugahara, Takeshi; Sato, Hiroshi; Ohgaki, Kazunari


    The storage capacity of H 2 in the THF, THT, and furan hydrates was studied by p-V-T measurements. We confirmed that the storage and release processes of H 2 in all hydrates could be performed reversibly by pressure swing without destroying of hydrate cages. H 2 absorption in both THT and furan hydrates is much faster than THF hydrate in spite of same unit-cell structure. On the other hand, the storage amounts of H 2 are coincident in the all additive hydrates and would reach at about 1.0 mass% asymptotically.

  10. Latitudinal and seasonal capacity of the surface oceans as a reservoir of polychlorinated biphenyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurado, Elena; Lohmann, Rainer; Meijer, Sandra; Jones, Kevin C.; Dachs, Jordi


    The oceans play an important role as a global reservoir and ultimate sink of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls congeners (PCBs). However, the physical and biogeochemical variables that affect the oceanic capacity to retain PCBs show an important spatial and temporal variability which have not been studied in detail, so far. The objective of this paper is to assess the seasonal and spatial variability of the ocean's maximum capacity to act as a reservoir of atmospherically transported and deposited PCBs. A level I fugacity model is used which incorporates the environmental variables of temperature, phytoplankton biomass, and mixed layer depth, as determined from remote sensing and from climatological datasets. It is shown that temperature, phytoplankton biomass and mixed layer depth influence the potential PCB reservoir of the oceans, being phytoplankton biomass specially important in the oceanic productive regions. The ocean's maximum capacities to hold PCBs are estimated. They are compared to a budget of PCBs in the surface oceans derived using a level III model that assumes steady state and which incorporates water column settling fluxes as a loss process. Results suggest that settling fluxes will keep the surface oceanic reservoir of PCBs well below its maximum capacity, especially for the more hydrophobic compounds. The strong seasonal and latitudinal variability of the surface ocean's storage capacity needs further research, because it plays an important role in the global biogeochemical cycles controlling the ultimate sink of PCBs. Because this modeling exercise incorporates variations in downward fluxes driven by phytoplankton and the extent of the water column mixing, it predicts more complex latitudinal variations in PCBs concentrations than those previously suggested. - Model calculations estimate the latitudinal and seasonal storage capacity of the surface oceans for PCBs

  11. Capacity retention in hydrogen storage alloys (United States)

    Anani, A.; Visintin, A.; Srinivasan, S.; Appleby, A. J.; Reilly, J. J.; Johnson, J. R.


    Results of our examination of the properties of several candidate materials for hydrogen storage electrodes and their relation to the decrease in H-storage capacity upon open-circuit storage over time are reported. In some of the alloy samples examined to date, only about 10 percent of the hydrogen capacity was lost upon storage for 20 days, while in others, this number was as high as 30 percent for the same period of time. This loss in capacity is attributed to two separate mechanisms: (1) hydrogen desorbed from the electrode due to pressure differences between the cell and the electrode sample; and (2) chemical and/or electrochemical degradation of the alloy electrode upon exposure to the cell environment. The former process is a direct consequence of the equilibrium dissociation pressure of the hydride alloy phase and the partial pressure of hydrogen in the hydride phase in equilibrium with that in the electrolyte environment, while the latter is related to the stability of the alloy phase in the cell environment. Comparison of the equilibrium gas-phase dissociation pressures of these alloys indicate that reversible loss of hydrogen capacity is higher in alloys with P(eqm) greater than 1 atm than in those with P(eqm) less than 1 atm.

  12. Microbial Life in an Underground Gas Storage Reservoir (United States)

    Bombach, Petra; van Almsick, Tobias; Richnow, Hans H.; Zenner, Matthias; Krüger, Martin


    While underground gas storage is technically well established for decades, the presence and activity of microorganisms in underground gas reservoirs have still hardly been explored today. Microbial life in underground gas reservoirs is controlled by moderate to high temperatures, elevated pressures, the availability of essential inorganic nutrients, and the availability of appropriate chemical energy sources. Microbial activity may affect the geochemical conditions and the gas composition in an underground reservoir by selective removal of anorganic and organic components from the stored gas and the formation water as well as by generation of metabolic products. From an economic point of view, microbial activities can lead to a loss of stored gas accompanied by a pressure decline in the reservoir, damage of technical equipment by biocorrosion, clogging processes through precipitates and biomass accumulation, and reservoir souring due to a deterioration of the gas quality. We present here results from molecular and cultivation-based methods to characterize microbial communities inhabiting a porous rock gas storage reservoir located in Southern Germany. Four reservoir water samples were obtained from three different geological horizons characterized by an ambient reservoir temperature of about 45 °C and an ambient reservoir pressure of about 92 bar at the time of sampling. A complementary water sample was taken at a water production well completed in a respective horizon but located outside the gas storage reservoir. Microbial community analysis by Illumina Sequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes indicated the presence of phylogenetically diverse microbial communities of high compositional heterogeneity. In three out of four samples originating from the reservoir, the majority of bacterial sequences affiliated with members of the genera Eubacterium, Acetobacterium and Sporobacterium within Clostridiales, known for their fermenting capabilities. In

  13. Avoiding The Inevitable? Capacity Loss From Reservoir Sedimentation (United States)

    Gray, John R.; Randle, Timothy J.; Collins, Kent L.


    The inexorable loss of capacity of the nation's reservoirs—sooner or later threatening water supplies for municipal, agricultural, and industrial uses—is but one of a number of deleterious effects wrought by sediment deposition. Trapped sediments can also damage or bury dam outlets, water intakes, and related infrastructure. Downstream effects of sediment capture and retention by reservoirs can include channel and habitat degradation and biotic alterations.

  14. Low robustness of increasing reservoir capacity for adaptation to climate change: A case study for an agricultural river basin (United States)

    Kim, Daeha; Eum, Hyung-Il


    With growing concerns of the uncertain climate change, investments in water infrastructures are considered as adaptation policies for water managers and stakeholders despite their negative impacts on the environment. Particularly in regions with limited water availability or conflicting demands, building reservoirs and/or augmenting their storage capacity were already adopted for alleviating influences of the climate change. This study provides a probabilistic assessment of climate change impacts on water scarcity in a river system regulated by an agricultural reservoir in South Korea, which already increased its storage capacity for water supply. For the assessment, we developed the climate response functions (CRFs) defined as relationships between bi-decadal system performance indicators (reservoir reliability and vulnerability) and corresponding climatic conditions, using hydrological models with 10,000-year long stochastic generation of daily precipitation and temperatures. The climate change impacts were assessed by plotting 52 downscaled climate projections of general circulation models (GCMs) on the CRFs. Results indicated that augmented reservoir capacity makes the reservoir system more sensitive to changes in long-term averages of precipitation and temperatures despite improved system performances. Increasing reservoir capacity is unlikely to be "no regret" adaptation policy for the river system. On the other hand, converting the planting strategy from transplanting to direct sowing (i.e., a demand control) could be a more robust to bi-decadal climatic changes based on CRFs and thus could be good to be a no-regret policy.

  15. Aging Reservoirs in a Changing Climate: Examining Storage Loss of Large Reservoirs and Variability of Sedimentation Rate in a Dominant Cropland Region (United States)

    Rahmani, V.; Kastens, J.; deNoyelles, F.; Huggins, D.; Martinko, E.


    Dam construction has multiple environmental and hydrological consequences including impacts on upstream and downstream ecosystems, water chemistry, and streamflow. Behind the dam the reservoir can trap sediment from the stream and fill over time. With increasing population and drinking and irrigation water demands, particularly in the areas that have highly variable weather and extended drought periods such as the United States Great Plains, reservoir sedimentation escalates water management concerns. Under nearly all projected climate change scenarios we expect that reservoir water storage and management will come under intense scrutiny because of the extensive use of interstate river compacts in the Great Plains. In the state of Kansas, located in the Great Plains, bathymetric surveys have been completed during the last decade for many major lakes by the Kansas Biological Survey, Kansas Water Office, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. In this paper, we studied the spatial and temporal changes of reservoir characteristics including sedimentation yield, depletion rate, and storage capacity loss for 24 federally-operated reservoirs in Kansas. These reservoirs have an average age of about 50 years and collectively have lost approximately 15% of their original capacity, with the highest annual observed single-reservoir depletion rate of 0.84% and sedimentation yield of 1,685 m3 km-2 yr-1.

  16. CO2 sequestration: Storage capacity guideline needed (United States)

    Frailey, S.M.; Finley, R.J.; Hickman, T.S.


    Petroleum reserves are classified for the assessment of available supplies by governmental agencies, management of business processes for achieving exploration and production efficiency, and documentation of the value of reserves and resources in financial statements. Up to the present however, the storage capacity determinations made by some organizations in the initial CO2 resource assessment are incorrect technically. New publications should thus cover differences in mineral adsorption of CO2 and dissolution of CO2 in various brine waters.

  17. Increasing hydrogen storage capacity using tetrahydrofuran. (United States)

    Sugahara, Takeshi; Haag, Joanna C; Prasad, Pinnelli S R; Warntjes, Ashleigh A; Sloan, E Dendy; Sum, Amadeu K; Koh, Carolyn A


    Hydrogen hydrates with tetrahydrofuran (THF) as a promoter molecule are investigated to probe critical unresolved observations regarding cage occupancy and storage capacity. We adopted a new preparation method, mixing solid powdered THF with ice and pressurizing with hydrogen at 70 MPa and 255 +/- 2 K (these formation conditions are insufficient to form pure hydrogen hydrates). All results from Raman microprobe spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and gas volumetric analysis show a strong dependence of hydrogen storage capacity on THF composition. Contrary to numerous recent reports that claim it is impossible to store H(2) in large cages with promoters, this work shows that, below a THF mole fraction of 0.01, H(2) molecules can occupy the large cages of the THF+H(2) structure II hydrate. As a result, by manipulating the promoter THF content, the hydrogen storage capacity was increased to approximately 3.4 wt % in the THF+H(2) hydrate system. This study shows the tuning effect may be used and developed for future science and practical applications.

  18. Determination of turnover and cushion gas volume of a prospected gas storage reservoir under uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubik, A. [RAG-AG Wien (Austria); Baffoe, J.; Schulze-Riegert, R. [SPT Group GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)


    Gas storages define a key contribution for building a reliable gas supply chain from production to consumers. In a competitive gas market with short reaction times to seasonal and other gas injection and extraction requirements, gas storages also receive a strong focus on availability and precise prediction estimates for future operation scenarios. Reservoir management workflows are increasingly built on reservoir simulation support for optimizing production schemes and estimating the impact of subsurface uncertainties on field development scenarios. Simulation models for gas storages are calibrated to geological data and accurate reproduction of historical production data are defined as a prerequisite for reliable production and performance forecasts. The underlying model validation process is called history matching, which potentially generates alternative simulation models due to prevailing geological uncertainties. In the past, a single basecase reference model was used to predict production capacities of a gas storage. The working gas volume was precisely defined over a contracted plateau delivery and the required cushion gas volume maintains the reservoir pressure during the operation. Cushion and working gas Volume are strongly dependent on reservoir parameters. In this work an existing depleted gas reservoir and the operation target as a gas storage is described. Key input data to the reservoir model description and simulation is reviewed including production history and geological uncertainties based on large well spacing, limited core and well data and a limited seismic resolution. Target delivery scenarios of the prospected gas storage are evaluated under uncertainty. As one key objective, optimal working gas and cushion gas volumes are described in a probabilistic context reflecting geological uncertainties. Several work steps are defined and included in an integrated workflow design. Equiprobable geological models are generated and evaluated based on

  19. Development and operation of Northern Natural's aquifer gas storage reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinson, E V


    There are no depleted (or nondepleted) oil and gas fields in Northern Natural Gas Co.'s market area. Consequently, when the search was started for a possible underground field, the company had to resort to the possibility of locating a water-filled, porous-rock formation (aquifer) in a geological structure which would form a suitable trap for gas storage. Geological research and exploratory drilling was carried on in S. Minnesota, E. Nebraska, and W.-central Iowa. An area located about 40 miles northwest of Des Moines, Iowa, near Redfield, appeared to have the most desirable characteristics for development of a gas-storage field. Drilling of deep developmental wells was started in late 1953 on a double- plunging anticline. The geological structure is similar to that of many oil and gas fields, but the porous formations contained only fresh water. To date, 2 major reservoirs and a minor reservoir have been developed in this structure. As much as 120 billion cu ft has been stored in the 3 reservoirs which supplied 43 billion cu ft gas withdrawals this past season from a total of 85 wells. A second aquifer gas-storage field is under development in N.-central Iowa about 15 miles northeast of Ft. Dodge.

  20. System-level modeling for economic evaluation of geological CO2 storage in gas reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.


    One way to reduce the effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on climate is to inject carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from industrial sources into deep geological formations such as brine aquifers or depleted oil or gas reservoirs. Research is being conducted to improve understanding of factors affecting particular aspects of geological CO 2 storage (such as storage performance, storage capacity, and health, safety and environmental (HSE) issues) as well as to lower the cost of CO 2 capture and related processes. However, there has been less emphasis to date on system-level analyses of geological CO 2 storage that consider geological, economic, and environmental issues by linking detailed process models to representations of engineering components and associated economic models. The objective of this study is to develop a system-level model for geological CO 2 storage, including CO 2 capture and separation, compression, pipeline transportation to the storage site, and CO 2 injection. Within our system model we are incorporating detailed reservoir simulations of CO 2 injection into a gas reservoir and related enhanced production of methane. Potential leakage and associated environmental impacts are also considered. The platform for the system-level model is GoldSim [GoldSim User's Guide. GoldSim Technology Group; 2006,]. The application of the system model focuses on evaluating the feasibility of carbon sequestration with enhanced gas recovery (CSEGR) in the Rio Vista region of California. The reservoir simulations are performed using a special module of the TOUGH2 simulator, EOS7C, for multicomponent gas mixtures of methane and CO 2 . Using a system-level modeling approach, the economic benefits of enhanced gas recovery can be directly weighed against the costs and benefits of CO 2 injection

  1. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. (United States)


    ... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Impoundment Design and Capacity § 193.2181 Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181...

  2. 46 CFR 112.55-15 - Capacity of storage batteries. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capacity of storage batteries. 112.55-15 Section 112.55... LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Storage Battery Installation § 112.55-15 Capacity of storage batteries. (a) A storage battery for an emergency lighting and power system must have the capacity— (1) To close all...

  3. Groundwater storage and water security: making better use of our largest reservoir. (United States)

    Tuinhof, A; Olsthoorn, T; Heederik, J P; de Vries, J


    Provision of sufficient storage capacity under growing water demands and increasing climate variability is one the main concerns for water managers in the coming decades. It is expected that 150-300 km3 of additional storage capacity will be needed by 2025 especially in semi-arid and arid regions where changes in climate variability will have most impact on rainfall and drought. Storage of substantial amounts of water can either be above ground, in reservoirs behind dams or underground in aquifers (sub-surface storage). Recharge enhancement through management of aquifer recharge (MAR) and sub-surface storage (SSS) is a known technology and already successfully applied in a number of countries for many years at different scales. MAR-SSS is a flexible and cost-effective means to increase storage capacity both at village level and in modern water management schemes. A dialogue and information exchange between climate experts and water managers can provide an effective contribution to the planning, design and operation of MAR-SSS schemes.

  4. High Capacity Hydrogen Storage on Nanoporous Biocarbon (United States)

    Burress, Jacob; Wood, Mikael; Gordon, Michael; Parilla, Phillip; Benham, Michael; Wexler, Carlos; Hawthorne, Fred; Pfeifer, Peter


    The Alliance for Collaborative Research in Alternative Fuel Technology ( has been optimizing nanoporous biocarbon for high capacity hydrogen storage. The hydrogen storage was measured gravimetrically and volumetrically (Sievert's apparatus). These measurements have been validated by NREL and Hiden Isochema. Sample S-33/k, our current best performer, stores 73-91 g H2/kg carbon at 77 K and 47 bar, and 1.0-1.6 g H2/kg carbon at 293 K and 47 bar. Hydrogen isotherms run by Hiden Isochema have given experimental binding energies of 8.8 kJ/mol compared to the binding energy of graphite of 5 kJ/mol. Results from a novel boron doping technique will also be presented. The benefits and validity of using boron-doping on carbon will also be discussed.

  5. Effect of reservoir zones and hedging factor dynamism on reservoir adaptive capacity for climate change impacts (United States)

    Adeloye, Adebayo J.; Soundharajan, Bankaru-Swamy


    When based on the zones of available water in storage, hedging has traditionally used a single hedged zone and a constant rationing ratio for constraining supply during droughts. Given the usual seasonality of reservoir inflows, it is also possible that hedging could feature multiple hedged zones and temporally varying rationing ratios but very few studies addressing this have been reported especially in relation to adaptation to projected climate change. This study developed and tested Genetic Algorithms (GA) optimised zone-based operating policies of various configurations using data for the Pong reservoir, Himachal Pradesh, India. The results show that hedging does lessen vulnerability, which dropped from ≥ 60 % without hedging to below 25 % with the single stage hedging. More complex hedging policies, e.g. two stage and/or temporally varying rationing ratios only produced marginal improvements in performance. All this shows that water hedging policies do not have to be overly complex to effectively offset reservoir vulnerability caused by water shortage resulting from e.g. projected climate change.

  6. Capacity expansion analysis of UGSs rebuilt from low-permeability fractured gas reservoirs with CO2 as cushion gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Tan


    Full Text Available The techniques of pressurized mining and hydraulic fracturing are often used to improve gas well productivity at the later development stage of low-permeability carbonate gas reservoirs, but reservoirs are watered out and a great number of micro fractures are produced. Therefore, one of the key factors for underground gas storages (UGS rebuilt from low-permeability fractured gas reservoirs with CO2 as the cushion gas is how to expand storage capacity effectively by injecting CO2 to displace water and to develop control strategies for the stable migration of gas–water interface. In this paper, a mathematical model was established to simulate the gas–water flow when CO2 was injected into dual porosity reservoirs to displace water. Then, the gas–water interface migration rules while CO2 was injected in the peripheral gas wells for water displacement were analyzed with one domestic UGS rebuilt from fractured gas reservoirs as the research object. And finally, discussion was made on how CO2 dissolution, bottom hole flowing pressure (BHFP, CO2 injection rate and micro fracture parameters affect the stability of gas–water interface in the process of storage capacity expansion. It is shown that the speed of capacity expansion reaches the maximum value at the fifth cycle and then decreases gradually when UGS capacity is expanded in the pattern of more injection and less withdrawal. Gas–water interface during UGS capacity expansion is made stable due to that the solubility of CO2 in water varies with the reservoir pressure. When the UGS capacity is expanded at constant BHFP and the flow rate, the expansion speed can be increased effectively by increasing the BHFP and the injection flow rate of gas wells in the central areas appropriately. In the reservoir areas with high permeability and fracture-matrix permeability ratio, the injection flow rate should be reduced properly to prevent gas–water interface fingering caused by a high-speed flow

  7. Thermal reservoir sizing for adiabatic compressed air energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kere, Amelie; Goetz, Vincent; Py, Xavier; Olives, Regis; Sadiki, Najim [Perpignan Univ. (France). PROMES CNRS UPR 8521; Mercier-Allart, Eric [EDF R et D, Chatou (France)


    Despite the operation of the two existing industrial facilities to McIntosh (Alabama), and for more than thirty years, Huntorf (Germany), electricity storage in the form of compressed air in underground cavern (CAES) has not seen the development that was expected in the 80s. The efficiency of this form of storage was with the first generation CAES, less than 50%. The evolving context technique can significantly alter this situation. The new generation so-called Adiabatic CAES (A-CAES) is to retrieve the heat produced by the compression via thermal storage, thus eliminating the necessity of gas to burn and would allow consideration efficiency overall energy of the order of 70%. To date, there is no existing installation of A-CAES. Many studies describe the principal and the general working mode of storage systems by adiabatic compression of air. So, efficiencies of different configurations of adiabatic compression process were analyzed. The aim of this paper is to simulate and analyze the performances of a thermal storage reservoir integrated in the system and adapted to the working conditions of a CAES.

  8. Development of high-capacity antimatter storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, Steven D.; Smith, Gerald A.


    Space is vast. Over the next few decades, humanity will strive to send probes farther and farther into space to establish long baselines for interferometry, to visit the Kuiper Belt, to identify the heliopause, or to map the Oort cloud. In order to solve many of the mysteries of the universe or to explore the solar system and beyond, one single technology must be developed--high performance propulsion. In essence, future missions to deep space will require specific impulses between 50,000 and 200,000 seconds and energy densities greater than 10 14 j/kg in order to accomplish the mission within the career lifetime of an individual, 40 years. Only two technologies available to mankind offer such performance--fusion and antimatter. Currently envisioned fusion systems are too massive. Alternatively, because of the high energy density, antimatter powered systems may be relatively compact. The single key technology that is required to enable the revolutionary concept of antimatter propulsion is safe, reliable, high-density storage. Under a grant from the NASA Institute of Advanced Concepts, we have identified two potential mechanisms that may enable high capacity antimatter storage systems to be built. We will describe planned experiments to verify the concepts. Development of a system capable of storing megajoules per gram will allow highly instrumented platforms to make fast missions to great distances. Such a development will open the universe to humanity

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of a compressed carbon dioxide energy storage system using two saline aquifers at different depths as storage reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hui; He, Qing; Borgia, Andrea; Pan, Lehua; Oldenburg, Curtis M.


    Highlights: • A compressed CO_2 energy storage system using two storage reservoirs is presented. • Compressed CO_2 energy storage density is higher than that of CAES. • The effects of storage reservoir pressure on the system performance are studied. - Abstract: Compressed air energy storage (CAES) is one of the leading large-scale energy storage technologies. However, low thermal efficiency and low energy storage density restrict its application. To improve the energy storage density, we propose a two-reservoir compressed CO_2 energy storage system. We present here thermodynamic and parametric analyses of the performance of an idealized two-reservoir CO_2 energy storage system under supercritical and transcritical conditions using a steady-state mathematical model. Results show that the transcritical compressed CO_2 energy storage system has higher round-trip efficiency and exergy efficiency, and larger energy storage density than the supercritical compressed CO_2 energy storage. However, the configuration of supercritical compressed CO_2 energy storage is simpler, and the energy storage densities of the two systems are both higher than that of CAES, which is advantageous in terms of storage volume for a given power rating.

  10. Assessing reservoir performance risk in CO2 storage projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, A.R.; Rigg, A.


    One of the main issues for researchers involved with geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) has been the development of a proper methodology to assess and compare alternative CO 2 injection projects on the basis of risk. Consideration needs to be given to technical aspects, such as the risk of leakage and the effectiveness of the intended reservoir, as well as less tangible aspects such as the value and safety of geological storage of CO 2 , and potential impacts on the community and environment. The Geological Disposal of Carbon Dioxide (GEODISC), was a research program of the Australian Petroleum Cooperative Research Centre which identified 56 potential environmentally sustainable sites for CO 2 injection (ESSCIs) within Australia. Several studies were carried out, involving detailed evaluation of the suitability of 4 selected sites, including Dongara, Petrel, Gippsland and Carnarvon. The GEODISC program included a risk assessment research module which required a complete and quantified risk assessment of CO 2 injection as a storage option. Primary goals were to assess the risk of leakage, to assess the effectiveness of the intended reservoir, and to assess negative consequences to facilitate comparison of alternative sites. This paper discussed the background and risk assessment model. Key performance indicators (KPIs) were also developed to address the purpose of risk assessment. It was concluded that the RISQUE method is an appropriate approach and that potential injection projects can be measured against six KPIs including containment; effectiveness; self-funding potential; wider community benefits; community safety and community amenity. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  11. Intelligent monitoring system for real-time geologic CO2 storage, optimization and reservoir managemen (United States)

    Dou, S.; Commer, M.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Freifeld, B. M.; Robertson, M.; Wood, T.; McDonald, S.


    Archer Daniels Midland Company's (ADM) world-scale agricultural processing and biofuels production complex located in Decatur, Illinois, is host to two industrial-scale carbon capture and storage projects. The first operation within the Illinois Basin-Decatur Project (IBDP) is a large-scale pilot that injected 1,000,000 metric tons of CO2 over a three year period (2011-2014) in order to validate the Illinois Basin's capacity to permanently store CO2. Injection for the second operation, the Illinois Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage Project (ICCS), started in April 2017, with the purpose of demonstrating the integration of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology at an ethanol plant. The capacity to store over 1,000,000 metric tons of CO2 per year is anticipated. The latter project is accompanied by the development of an intelligent monitoring system (IMS) that will, among other tasks, perform hydrogeophysical joint analysis of pressure, temperature and seismic reflection data. Using a preliminary radial model assumption, we carry out synthetic joint inversion studies of these data combinations. We validate the history-matching process to be applied to field data once CO2-breakthrough at observation wells occurs. This process will aid the estimation of permeability and porosity for a reservoir model that best matches monitoring observations. The reservoir model will further be used for forecasting studies in order to evaluate different leakage scenarios and develop appropriate early-warning mechanisms. Both the inversion and forecasting studies aim at building an IMS that will use the seismic and pressure-temperature data feeds for providing continuous model calibration and reservoir status updates.

  12. 18 CFR 1304.407 - Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs. (United States)


    ... flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs. 1304.407 Section 1304.407 Conservation of Power and Water... documentation related to flood control storage, provided the loss of flood control storage caused by the project... control storage. If this determination can be made, the applicant must then demonstrate how the loss of...

  13. Influence of Synaptic Depression on Memory Storage Capacity (United States)

    Otsubo, Yosuke; Nagata, Kenji; Oizumi, Masafumi; Okada, Masato


    Synaptic efficacy between neurons is known to change within a short time scale dynamically. Neurophysiological experiments show that high-frequency presynaptic inputs decrease synaptic efficacy between neurons. This phenomenon is called synaptic depression, a short term synaptic plasticity. Many researchers have investigated how the synaptic depression affects the memory storage capacity. However, the noise has not been taken into consideration in their analysis. By introducing ``temperature'', which controls the level of the noise, into an update rule of neurons, we investigate the effects of synaptic depression on the memory storage capacity in the presence of the noise. We analytically compute the storage capacity by using a statistical mechanics technique called Self Consistent Signal to Noise Analysis (SCSNA). We find that the synaptic depression decreases the storage capacity in the case of finite temperature in contrast to the case of the low temperature limit, where the storage capacity does not change.

  14. Methane storage capacity of the early martian cryosphere (United States)

    Lasue, Jeremie; Quesnel, Yoann; Langlais, Benoit; Chassefière, Eric


    Methane is a key molecule to understand the habitability of Mars due to its possible biological origin and short atmospheric lifetime. Recent methane detections on Mars present a large variability that is probably due to relatively localized sources and sink processes yet unknown. In this study, we determine how much methane could have been abiotically produced by early Mars serpentinization processes that could also explain the observed martian remanent magnetic field. Under the assumption of a cold early Mars environment, a cryosphere could trap such methane as clathrates in stable form at depth. The extent and spatial distribution of these methane reservoirs have been calculated with respect to the magnetization distribution and other factors. We calculate that the maximum storage capacity of such a clathrate cryosphere is about 2.1 × 1019-2.2 × 1020 moles of CH4, which can explain sporadic releases of methane that have been observed on the surface of the planet during the past decade (∼1.2 × 109 moles). This amount of trapped methane is sufficient for similar sized releases to have happened yearly during the history of the planet. While the stability of such reservoirs depends on many factors that are poorly constrained, it is possible that they have remained trapped at depth until the present day. Due to the possible implications of methane detection for life and its influence on the atmospheric and climate processes on the planet, confirming the sporadic release of methane on Mars and the global distribution of its sources is one of the major goals of the current and next space missions to Mars.

  15. Influence of Chemical, Mechanical, and Transport Processes on Wellbore Leakage from Geologic CO2 Storage Reservoirs. (United States)

    Carroll, Susan A; Iyer, Jaisree; Walsh, Stuart D C


    Wells are considered to be high-risk pathways for fluid leakage from geologic CO 2 storage reservoirs, because breaches in this engineered system have the potential to connect the reservoir to groundwater resources and the atmosphere. Given these concerns, a few studies have assessed leakage risk by evaluating regulatory records, often self-reported, documenting leakage in gas fields. Leakage is thought to be governed largely by initial well-construction quality and the method of well abandonment. The geologic carbon storage community has raised further concerns because acidic fluids in the CO 2 storage reservoir, alkaline cement meant to isolate the reservoir fluids from the overlying strata, and steel casings in wells are inherently reactive systems. This is of particular concern for storage of CO 2 in depleted oil and gas reservoirs with numerous legacy wells engineered to variable standards. Research suggests that leakage risks are not as great as initially perceived because chemical and mechanical alteration of cement has the capacity to seal damaged zones. Our work centers on defining the coupled chemical and mechanical processes governing flow in damaged zones in wells. We have developed process-based models, constrained by experiments, to better understand and forecast leakage risk. Leakage pathways can be sealed by precipitation of carbonate minerals in the fractures and deformation of the reacted cement. High reactivity of cement hydroxides releases excess calcium that can precipitate as carbonate solids in the fracture network under low brine flow rates. If the flow is fast, then the brine remains undersaturated with respect to the solubility of calcium carbonate minerals, and zones depleted in calcium hydroxides, enriched in calcium carbonate precipitates, and made of amorphous silicates leached of original cement minerals are formed. Under confining pressure, the reacted cement is compressed, which reduces permeability and lowers leakage risks. The

  16. Interception storage capacities of tropical rainforest canopy trees (United States)

    Herwitz, Stanley R.


    The rainwater interception storage capacities of mature canopy trees in a tropical rainforest site in northeast Queensland, Australia, were approximated using a combination of field and laboratory measurements. The above-ground vegetative surfaces of five selected species (three flaky-barked; two smooth-barked) were saturated under laboratory conditions in order to establish their maximum interception storage capacities. Average leaf surface interception storages ranged from 112 to 161 ml m -2. The interception storages of bark ranged from 0.51 to 0.97 ml cm -3. These standardized interception storages were applied to estimates of leaf surface area and bark volume for 51 mature canopy trees representing the selected species in the field site. The average whole tree interception storage capacities of the five species ranged from 110 to 5281 per tree and 2.2 to 8.3 mm per unit projected crown area. The highly significant interspecific differences in interception storage capacity suggest that both floristic and demographic data are needed in order to accurately calculate a forest-wide interception storage capacity for species-rich tropical rainforest vegetation. Species with large woody surface areas and small projected crown areas are capable of storing the greatest depth equivalents of rainwater under heavy rainfall conditions. In the case of both the flaky-barked and the smooth-barked species, bark accounted for > 50% of the total interception storage capacity under still-air conditions, and > 80% under turbulent air conditions. The emphasis in past interception studies on the role of leaf surfaces in determining the interception storage capacity of a vegetative cover must be modified for tropical rainforests to include the storage capacity provided by the bark tissue on canopy trees.

  17. Classification of CO2 Geologic Storage: Resource and Capacity (United States)

    Frailey, S.M.; Finley, R.J.


    The use of the term capacity to describe possible geologic storage implies a realistic or likely volume of CO2 to be sequestered. Poor data quantity and quality may lead to very high uncertainty in the storage estimate. Use of the term "storage resource" alleviates the implied certainty of the term "storage capacity". This is especially important to non- scientists (e.g. policy makers) because "capacity" is commonly used to describe the very specific and more certain quantities such as volume of a gas tank or a hotel's overnight guest limit. Resource is a term used in the classification of oil and gas accumulations to infer lesser certainty in the commercial production of oil and gas. Likewise for CO2 sequestration, a suspected porous and permeable zone can be classified as a resource, but capacity can only be estimated after a well is drilled into the formation and a relatively higher degree of economic and regulatory certainty is established. Storage capacity estimates are lower risk or higher certainty compared to storage resource estimates. In the oil and gas industry, prospective resource and contingent resource are used for estimates with less data and certainty. Oil and gas reserves are classified as Proved and Unproved, and by analogy, capacity can be classified similarly. The highest degree of certainty for an oil or gas accumulation is Proved, Developed Producing (PDP) Reserves. For CO2 sequestration this could be Proved Developed Injecting (PDI) Capacity. A geologic sequestration storage classification system is developed by analogy to that used by the oil and gas industry. When a CO2 sequestration industry emerges, storage resource and capacity estimates will be considered a company asset and consequently regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission. Additionally, storage accounting and auditing protocols will be required to confirm projected storage estimates and assignment of credits from actual injection. An example illustrates the use of

  18. A concept of an electricity storage system with 50 MWh storage capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Paska


    Full Text Available Electricity storage devices can be divided into indirect storage technology devices (involving electricity conversion into another form of energy, and direct storage (in an electric or magnetic fi eld. Electricity storage technologies include: pumped-storage power plants, BES Battery Energy Storage, CAES Compressed Air Energy Storage, Supercapacitors, FES Flywheel Energy Storage, SMES Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage, FC Fuel Cells reverse or operated in systems with electrolysers and hydrogen storage. These technologies have diff erent technical characteristics and economic parameters that determine their usability. This paper presents two concepts of an electricity storage tank with a storage capacity of at least 50 MWh, using the BES battery energy storage and CAES compressed air energy storage technologies.

  19. Effects of Formation Damage on Productivity of Underground Gas Storage Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.I.C. Anyadiegwu


    Full Text Available Analysis of the effects of formation damage on the productivity of gas storage reservoirs was performed with depleted oil reservoir (OB-02, located onshore, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Information on the reservoir and the fluids from OB-02 were collected and used to evaluate the deliverabilities of the gas storage reservoir over a 10-year period of operation. The results obtained were used to plot graphs of deliverability against permeability and skin respectively. The graphs revealed that as the permeability decreased, the skin increased, and hence a decrease in deliverability of gas from the reservoir during gas withdrawal. Over the ten years of operating the reservoir for gas storage, the deliverability and permeability which were initially 2.7 MMscf/d and 50 mD, with a skin of 0.2, changed to new values of 0.88 MMscf/d and 24 mD with the skin as 4.1 at the tenth year.

  20. The maximum reservoir capacity of soils for persistent organic pollutants: implications for global cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla Valle, M.; Jurado, E.; Dachs, J.; Sweetman, A.J.; Jones, K.C.


    The concept of maximum reservoir capacity (MRC), the ratio of the capacities of the surface soil and of the atmospheric mixed layer (AML) to hold chemical under equilibrium conditions, is applied to selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the surface 'skin' (1 mm) of soils. MRC is calculated as a function of soil organic matter (SOM) content and temperature-dependent K OA and mapped globally for selected PCB congeners (PCB-28; -153; -180) and HCB, to identify regions with a higher tendency to retain POPs. It is shown to vary over many orders of magnitude, between compounds, locations and time (seasonally/diurnally). The MRC approach emphasises the very large capacity of soils as a storage compartment for POPs. The theoretical MRC concept is compared to reality and its implications for the global cycling of POPs are discussed. Sharp gradients in soil MRC can exist in mountainous areas and between the land and ocean. Exchanges between oceans and land masses via the atmosphere is likely to be an important driver to the global cycling of these compounds, and net ocean-land transfers could occur in some areas. - Major global terrestrial sinks/stores for POPs are identified and the significance of gradients between them discussed

  1. High capacity hydrogen storage nanocomposite materials (United States)

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Wellons, Matthew S.


    A novel hydrogen absorption material is provided comprising a mixture of a lithium hydride with a fullerene. The subsequent reaction product provides for a hydrogen storage material which reversibly stores and releases hydrogen at temperatures of about C.

  2. Estimating the Optimal Capacity for Reservoir Dam based on Reliability Level for Meeting Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Taghian


    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the practical and classic problems in the water resource studies is estimation of the optimal reservoir capacity to satisfy demands. However, full supplying demands for total periods need a very high dam to supply demands during severe drought conditions. That means a major part of reservoir capacity and costs is only usable for a short period of the reservoir lifetime, which would be unjustified in economic analysis. Thus, in the proposed method and model, the full meeting demand is only possible for a percent time of the statistical period that is according to reliability constraint. In the general methods, although this concept apparently seems simple, there is a necessity to add binary variables for meeting or not meeting demands in the linear programming model structures. Thus, with many binary variables, solving the problem will be time consuming and difficult. Another way to solve the problem is the application of the yield model. This model includes some simpler assumptions and that is so difficult to consider details of the water resource system. The applicationof evolutionary algorithms, for the problems have many constraints, is also very complicated. Therefore, this study pursues another solution. Materials and Methods: In this study, for development and improvement the usual methods, instead of mix integer linear programming (MILP and the above methods, a simulation model including flow network linear programming is used coupled with an interface manual code in Matlab to account the reliability based on output file of the simulation model. The acre reservoir simulation program (ARSP has been utilized as a simulation model. A major advantage of the ARSP is its inherent flexibility in defining the operating policies through a penalty structure specified by the user. The ARSP utilizes network flow optimization techniques to handle a subset of general linear programming (LP problems for individual time intervals

  3. Geophysical assessments of renewable gas energy compressed in geologic pore storage reservoirs. (United States)

    Al Hagrey, Said Attia; Köhn, Daniel; Rabbel, Wolfgang


    Renewable energy resources can indisputably minimize the threat of global warming and climate change. However, they are intermittent and need buffer storage to bridge the time-gap between production (off peak) and demand peaks. Based on geologic and geochemical reasons, the North German Basin has a very large capacity for compressed air/gas energy storage CAES in porous saltwater aquifers and salt cavities. Replacing pore reservoir brine with CAES causes changes in physical properties (elastic moduli, density and electrical properties) and justify applications of integrative geophysical methods for monitoring this energy storage. Here we apply techniques of the elastic full waveform inversion FWI, electric resistivity tomography ERT and gravity to map and quantify a gradually saturated gas plume injected in a thin deep saline aquifer within the North German Basin. For this subsurface model scenario we generated different synthetic data sets without and with adding random noise in order to robust the applied techniques for the real field applications. Datasets are inverted by posing different constraints on the initial model. Results reveal principally the capability of the applied integrative geophysical approach to resolve the CAES targets (plume, host reservoir, and cap rock). Constrained inversion models of elastic FWI and ERT are even able to recover well the gradual gas desaturation with depth. The spatial parameters accurately recovered from each technique are applied in the adequate petrophysical equations to yield precise quantifications of gas saturations. Resulting models of gas saturations independently determined from elastic FWI and ERT techniques are in accordance with each other and with the input (true) saturation model. Moreover, the gravity technique show high sensitivity to the mass deficit resulting from the gas storage and can resolve saturations and temporal saturation changes down to ±3% after reducing any shallow fluctuation such as that of

  4. Assessing European capacity for geological storage of carbon dioxide-the EU GeoCapacity project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vangkilde-Pedersen, T.; Anthonsen, K.L.; Smith, N.; Kirk, K.; Neele, F.; Meer, B. van der; Le Gallo, Y. le; Bossie-Codreanu, D.; Wojcicki, A.; Nindre, Y.-M. le; Hendriks, C.; Dalhoff, F.; Peter Christensen, N.


    The focus of the GeoCapacity project is GIS mapping of CO2 point sources, infrastructure and geological storage in Europe. The main objective is to assess the European capacity for geological storage of CO2 in deep saline aquifers, oil and gas structures and coal beds. Other priorities are further

  5. Water storage capacity, stemflow and water funneling in Mediterranean shrubs (United States)

    Garcia-Estringana, P.; Alonso-Blázquez, N.; Alegre, J.


    SummaryTo predict water losses and other hydrological and ecological features of a given vegetation, its water storage capacity and stemflow need to be accurately determined. Vast areas of the Mediterranean region are occupied by shrublands yet there is scarce data available on their rainwater interception capacity. In this study, simulated rainfall tests were conducted in controlled conditions on nine Mediterranean shrubs of varying anatomic and morphological features to determine water storage capacity, stemflow and the funneling ratio. After assessing correlations between these hydrological variables and the biometric characteristics of the shrubs, we compared two methods of determining storage capacity: rainfall simulation and immersion. Mean water storage capacity was 1.02 mm (0.35-3.24 mm), stemflow was 16% (3.8-26.4%) and the funneling ratio was 104 (30-260). Per unit biomass, mean storage capacity was 0.66 ml g -1 and ranged from 0.23 ml g -1 for Cistus ladanifer to 2.26 ml g -1 for Lavandula latifolia. Despite their small size, shrubs may generate high water losses to the atmosphere when they form dense communities and this can have a significant impact in regions where water is scarce. When considered the whole shrubs in absolute terms (ml per plant), water storage capacity and stemflow were correlated to biomass and the dendrometric characteristics of the shrubs, yet in relative terms (expressed per surface area unit or as %), anatomic features such as pubescence, branch rigidity or leaf insertion angle emerged as determining factors. The use of a simple procedure to assess storage capacity was inefficient. The immersion method underestimated storage capacity to a different extent for each species. Some shrubs returned high stemflow values typical of their adaptation to the semiarid climate. In contrast, other shrubs seem to have structures that promote stemflow yet have developed other drought-adaptation mechanisms. In this report, we discuss the

  6. Study on increasing spent fuel storage capacity at Juragua NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra Valdes, R.; Lopez Aldama, D.; Rodriguez Gual, M.; Garcia Yip, F.


    The delay in decision about the final disposal of the spent fuel, led to longer interim storage. The reracking og the storage pools was an economical and feasible option to increase the storage capacity on the site. Reracking of the storage facility led to the analysis of the new conditions for criticality, shielding, residual heat removal and mechanical loads over the structures. This paper includes a summary of the studies on criticality and dose rate changes in the vicinity of the storage pool of Juragua NPP

  7. A numerical investigation of combined heat storage and extraction in deep geothermal reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Major, Márton; Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Balling, Niels


    Heat storage capabilities of deep sedimentary geothermal reservoirs are evaluated through numerical model simulations. We combine storage with heat extraction in a doublet well system when storage phases are restricted to summer months. The effects of stored volume and annual repetition on energy...... recovery are investigated. Recovery factors are evaluated for several different model setups and we find that storing 90 °C water at 2500 m depth is capable of reproducing, on average 67% of the stored energy. In addition, ambient reservoir temperature of 75 °C is slightly elevated leading to increased...... efficiency. Additional simulations concerning pressure build-up in the reservoir are carried out to show that safety levels may not be reached. Reservoir characteristics are inspired by Danish geothermal conditions, but results are assumed to have more general validity. Thus, deep sedimentary reservoirs...

  8. The role of reservoir storage in large-scale surface water availability analysis for Europe (United States)

    Garrote, L. M.; Granados, A.; Martin-Carrasco, F.; Iglesias, A.


    A regional assessment of current and future water availability in Europe is presented in this study. The assessment was made using the Water Availability and Adaptation Policy Analysis (WAAPA) model. The model was built on the river network derived from the Hydro1K digital elevation maps, including all major river basins of Europe. Reservoir storage volume was taken from the World Register of Dams of ICOLD, including all dams with storage capacity over 5 hm3. Potential Water Availability is defined as the maximum amount of water that could be supplied at a certain point of the river network to satisfy a regular demand under pre-specified reliability requirements. Water availability is the combined result of hydrological processes, which determine streamflow in natural conditions, and human intervention, which determines the available hydraulic infrastructure to manage water and establishes water supply conditions through operating rules. The WAAPA algorithm estimates the maximum demand that can be supplied at every node of the river network accounting for the regulation capacity of reservoirs under different management scenarios. The model was run for a set of hydrologic scenarios taken from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP), where the PCRGLOBWB hydrological model was forced with results from five global climate models. Model results allow the estimation of potential water stress by comparing water availability to projections of water abstractions along the river network under different management alternatives. The set of sensitivity analyses performed showed the effect of policy alternatives on water availability and highlighted the large uncertainties linked to hydrological and anthropological processes.

  9. Modeling of Single and Dual Reservoir Porous Media Compressed Gas (Air and CO2) Storage Systems (United States)

    Oldenburg, C. M.; Liu, H.; Borgia, A.; Pan, L.


    Intermittent renewable energy sources are causing increasing demand for energy storage. The deep subsurface offers promising opportunities for energy storage because it can safely contain high-pressure gases. Porous media compressed air energy storage (PM-CAES) is one approach, although the only facilities in operation are in caverns (C-CAES) rather than porous media. Just like in C-CAES, PM-CAES operates generally by injecting working gas (air) through well(s) into the reservoir compressing the cushion gas (existing air in the reservoir). During energy recovery, high-pressure air from the reservoir is mixed with fuel in a combustion turbine to produce electricity, thereby reducing compression costs. Unlike in C-CAES, the storage of energy in PM-CAES occurs variably across pressure gradients in the formation, while the solid grains of the matrix can release/store heat. Because air is the working gas, PM-CAES has fairly low thermal efficiency and low energy storage density. To improve the energy storage density, we have conceived and modeled a closed-loop two-reservoir compressed CO2 energy storage system. One reservoir is the low-pressure reservoir, and the other is the high-pressure reservoir. CO2 is cycled back and forth between reservoirs depending on whether energy needs to be stored or recovered. We have carried out thermodynamic and parametric analyses of the performance of an idealized two-reservoir CO2 energy storage system under supercritical and transcritical conditions for CO2 using a steady-state model. Results show that the transcritical compressed CO2 energy storage system has higher round-trip efficiency and exergy efficiency, and larger energy storage density than the supercritical compressed CO2 energy storage. However, the configuration of supercritical compressed CO2 energy storage is simpler, and the energy storage densities of the two systems are both higher than that of PM-CAES, which is advantageous in terms of storage volume for a given

  10. The role of rainfall variability in reservoir storage management at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reservoir operation and management is usually patterned after the background of long standing water resources management experience. Reservoir management for optimum power production at any hydropower station requires constant assessment of the quantity of available water. The hydrographic responses of flow ...

  11. Underground storage at Saint-Illiers-la-Ville. Initial results of filling. Reservoir control problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernet, D


    The underground storage at Saint-Illiers-la-Ville (Yvelines in the Paris area) was discussed by Toche at the time when it was filled with gas in 1965. Now, 2-1/2 yr after the initial input, the volume of storage has reached 500 million cu m, and the first industrial withdrawals took place during the winter of 1967-1968. The results obtained in the operation of this underground storage are extremely satisfactory. In spite of differences in the composition of the sand layer, the gas bubble developed in a very regular way, horizontally and vertically, and the full penetration well equipment made a high output rate easy to obtain. Reservoir control was handled efficiently and the movements of the bubble contour were shown for every fluctuation of the injection and withdrawal volumes. Tests for production capacity showed the low extent to which the wells were affected by the phenomenon of water- coning and indicated measures to be taken to prevent the formation of hydrates. The measures effected and the conclusions which can be derived are discussed.

  12. Polyaniline-polypyrrole composites with enhanced hydrogen storage capacities. (United States)

    Attia, Nour F; Geckeler, Kurt E


    A facile method for the synthesis of polyaniline-polypyrrole composite materials with network morphology is developed based on polyaniline nanofibers covered by a thin layer of polypyrrole via vapor phase polymerization. The hydrogen storage capacity of the composites is evaluated at room temperature exhibits a twofold increase in hydrogen storage capacity. The HCl-doped polyaniline nanofibers exhibit a storage capacity of 0.46 wt%, whereas the polyaniline-polypyrrole composites could store 0.91 wt% of hydrogen gas. In addition, the effect of the dopant type, counteranion size, and the doping with palladium nanoparticles on the storage properties are also investigated. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Sediment transport and capacity change in three reservoirs, Lower Susquehanna River Basin, Pennsylvania and Maryland, 1900-2012 (United States)

    Langland, Michael J.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has conducted numerous sediment transport studies in the Susquehanna River and in particular in three reservoirs in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin to determine sediment transport rates over the past century and to document changes in storage capacity. The Susquehanna River is the largest tributary to Chesapeake Bay and transports about one-half of the total freshwater input and substantial amounts of sediment and nutrients to the bay. The transported loads are affected by deposition in reservoirs (Lake Clarke, Lake Aldred, and Conowingo Reservoir) behind three hydropower dams. The geometry and texture of the deposited sediments in each reservoir upstream from the three dams has been a subject of research in recent decades. Particle size deposition and sediment scouring processes are part of the reservoir dynamics. A Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment was established for Chesapeake Bay to attain water-quality standards. Six states and the District of Columbia agreed to reduce loads to the bay and to meet load allocation goals for the TMDL. The USGS has been estimating annual sediment loads at the Susquehanna River at Marietta, Pennsylvania (above Lake Clarke), and Susquehanna River at Conowingo, Maryland (below Conowingo Reservoir), since the mid-1980s to predict the mass balance of sediment transport through the reservoir system. Using streamflow and sediment data from the Susquehanna River at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania (upstream from the reservoirs), from 1900 to 1981, sediment loads were greatest in the early to mid-1900s when land disturbance activities from coal production and agriculture were at their peak. Sediment loads declined in the 1950s with the introduction of agricultural soil conservation practices. Loads were dominated by climatic factors in the 1960s (drought) and 1970s (very wet) and have been declining since the 1980s through 2012. The USGS developed a regression equation to

  14. Equivalent electricity storage capacity of domestic thermostatically controlled loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sossan, Fabrizio


    A method to quantify the equivalent storage capacity inherent the operation of thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) is developed. Equivalent storage capacity is defined as the amount of power and electricity consumption which can be deferred or anticipated in time with respect to the baseline consumption (i.e. when no demand side event occurs) without violating temperature limits. The analysis is carried out for 4 common domestic TCLs: an electric space heating system, freezer, fridge, and electric water heater. They are simulated by applying grey-box thermal models identified from measurements. They describe the heat transfer of the considered TCLs as a function of the electric power consumption and environment conditions. To represent typical TCLs operating conditions, Monte Carlo simulations are developed, where models inputs and parameters are sampled from relevant statistical distributions. The analysis provides a way to compare flexible demand against competitive storage technologies. It is intended as a tool for system planners to assess the TCLs potential to support electrical grid operation. In the paper, a comparison of the storage capacity per unit of capital investment cost is performed considering the selected TCLs and two grid-connected battery storage systems (a 720 kVA/500 kWh lithium-ion unit and 15 kVA/120 kWh Vanadium flow redox) is performed. - Highlights: • The equivalent storage capacity of domestic TCLs is quantified • A comparison with battery-based storage technologies is performed • We derive metrics for system planners to plan storage in power system networks • Rule-of-thumb cost indicators for flexible demand and battery-based storage

  15. Nanoscale Chemical Processes Affecting Storage Capacities and Seals during Geologic CO2 Sequestration. (United States)

    Jun, Young-Shin; Zhang, Lijie; Min, Yujia; Li, Qingyun


    Geologic CO 2 sequestration (GCS) is a promising strategy to mitigate anthropogenic CO 2 emission to the atmosphere. Suitable geologic storage sites should have a porous reservoir rock zone where injected CO 2 can displace brine and be stored in pores, and an impermeable zone on top of reservoir rocks to hinder upward movement of buoyant CO 2 . The injection wells (steel casings encased in concrete) pass through these geologic zones and lead CO 2 to the desired zones. In subsurface environments, CO 2 is reactive as both a supercritical (sc) phase and aqueous (aq) species. Its nanoscale chemical reactions with geomedia and wellbores are closely related to the safety and efficiency of CO 2 storage. For example, the injection pressure is determined by the wettability and permeability of geomedia, which can be sensitive to nanoscale mineral-fluid interactions; the sealing safety of the injection sites is affected by the opening and closing of fractures in caprocks and the alteration of wellbore integrity caused by nanoscale chemical reactions; and the time scale for CO 2 mineralization is also largely dependent on the chemical reactivities of the reservoir rocks. Therefore, nanoscale chemical processes can influence the hydrogeological and mechanical properties of geomedia, such as their wettability, permeability, mechanical strength, and fracturing. This Account reviews our group's work on nanoscale chemical reactions and their qualitative impacts on seal integrity and storage capacity at GCS sites from four points of view. First, studies on dissolution of feldspar, an important reservoir rock constituent, and subsequent secondary mineral precipitation are discussed, focusing on the effects of feldspar crystallography, cations, and sulfate anions. Second, interfacial reactions between caprock and brine are introduced using model clay minerals, with focuses on the effects of water chemistries (salinity and organic ligands) and water content on mineral dissolution and

  16. Simulation-optimization model of reservoir operation based on target storage curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-bin Fang


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new storage allocation rule based on target storage curves. Joint operating rules are also proposed to solve the operation problems of a multi-reservoir system with joint demands and water transfer-supply projects. The joint operating rules include a water diversion rule to determine the amount of diverted water in a period, a hedging rule based on an aggregated reservoir to determine the total release from the system, and a storage allocation rule to specify the release from each reservoir. A simulation-optimization model was established to optimize the key points of the water diversion curves, the hedging rule curves, and the target storage curves using the improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO algorithm. The multi-reservoir water supply system located in Liaoning Province, China, including a water transfer-supply project, was employed as a case study to verify the effectiveness of the proposed join operating rules and target storage curves. The results indicate that the proposed operating rules are suitable for the complex system. The storage allocation rule based on target storage curves shows an improved performance with regard to system storage distribution.

  17. Analysis of change of retention capacity of a small water reservoir (United States)

    Výleta, R.; Danáčová, M.; Valent, P.


    This study is focused on the analysis of the changes of retention capacity of a small water reservoir induced by intensive erosion and sedimentation processes. The water reservoir is situated near the village of Vrbovce in the Western part of Slovakia, and the analysis is carried out for a period 2008-2017. The data used to build a digital elevation model (DEM) of the reservoir’s bed came from a terrain measurement, utilizing an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) to measure the water depth in the reservoir. The DEM was used to quantify the soil loss from agricultural land situated within the basin of the reservoir. The ability of the water reservoir to transform a design flood with a return period of 100 years is evaluated for both design (2008) and current conditions (2017). The results show that the small water reservoir is a subject to siltation, with sediments comprised of fine soil particles transported from nearby agricultural land. The ability of the water reservoir to transform a 100-year flood has not changed significantly. The reduction of the reservoir’s retention capacity should be systematically and regularly monitored in order to adjust its operational manual and improve its efficiency.

  18. Have We Overestimated Saline Aquifer CO2 Storage Capacities?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibeau, S.; Mucha, V.


    During future, large scale CO 2 geological storage in saline aquifers, fluid pressure is expected to rise as a consequence of CO 2 injection, but the pressure build up will have to stay below specified values to ensure a safe and long term containment of the CO 2 in the storage site. The pressure build up is the result of two different effects. The first effect is a local overpressure around the injectors, which is due to the high CO 2 velocities around the injectors, and which can be mitigated by adding CO 2 injectors. The second effect is a regional scale pressure build up that will take place if the storage aquifer is closed or if the formation water that flows away from the pressurised area is not large enough to compensate volumetrically the CO 2 injection. This second effect cannot be mitigated by adding additional injectors. In the first section of this paper, we review some major global and regional assessments of CO 2 storage capacities in deep saline aquifers, in term of mass and storage efficiency. These storage capacities are primarily based on a volumetric approach: storage capacity is the volumetric sum of the CO 2 that can be stored through various trapping mechanisms. We then discuss in Section 2 storage efficiencies derived from a pressure build up approach, as stated in the CO2STORE final report (Chadwick A. et al. (eds) (2008) Best Practice for the Storage of CO 2 in Saline Aquifers, Observations and Guidelines from the SACS and CO2STORE Projects, Keyworth, Nottingham, BGS Occasional Publication No. 14) and detailed by Van der Meer and Egberts (van der Meer L.G.H., Egberts P.J.P. (2008) A General Method for Calculating Subsurface CO 2 Storage Capacity, OTC Paper 19309, presented at the OTC Conference held in Houston, Texas, USA, 5-8 May). A quantitative range of such storage efficiency is presented, based on a review of orders of magnitudes of pore and water compressibilities and allowable pressure increase. To illustrate the relevance of this

  19. How secure is subsurface CO2 storage? Controls on leakage in natural CO2 reservoirs (United States)

    Miocic, Johannes; Gilfillan, Stuart; McDermott, Christopher; Haszeldine, Stuart


    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is the only industrial scale technology available to directly reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuelled power plants and large industrial point sources to the atmosphere. The technology includes the capture of CO2 at the source and transport to subsurface storage sites, such as depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs or saline aquifers, where it is injected and stored for long periods of time. To have an impact on the greenhouse gas emissions it is crucial that there is no or only a very low amount of leakage of CO2 from the storage sites to shallow aquifers or the surface. CO2 occurs naturally in reservoirs in the subsurface and has often been stored for millions of years without any leakage incidents. However, in some cases CO2 migrates from the reservoir to the surface. Both leaking and non-leaking natural CO2 reservoirs offer insights into the long-term behaviour of CO2 in the subsurface and on the mechanisms that lead to either leakage or retention of CO2. Here we present the results of a study on leakage mechanisms of natural CO2 reservoirs worldwide. We compiled a global dataset of 49 well described natural CO2 reservoirs of which six are leaking CO2 to the surface, 40 retain CO2 in the subsurface and for three reservoirs the evidence is inconclusive. Likelihood of leakage of CO2 from a reservoir to the surface is governed by the state of CO2 (supercritical vs. gaseous) and the pressure in the reservoir and the direct overburden. Reservoirs with gaseous CO2 is more prone to leak CO2 than reservoirs with dense supercritical CO2. If the reservoir pressure is close to or higher than the least principal stress leakage is likely to occur while reservoirs with pressures close to hydrostatic pressure and below 1200 m depth do not leak. Additionally, a positive pressure gradient from the reservoir into the caprock averts leakage of CO2 into the caprock. Leakage of CO2 occurs in all cases along a fault zone, indicating that

  20. A thermal storage capacity market for non dispatchable renewable energies (United States)

    Bennouna, El Ghali; Mouaky, Ammar; Arrad, Mouad; Ghennioui, Abdellatif; Mimet, Abdelaziz


    Due to the increasingly high capacity of wind power and solar PV in Germany and some other European countries and the high share of variable renewable energy resources in comparison to fossil and nuclear capacity, a power reserve market structured by auction systems was created to facilitate the exchange of balance power capacities between systems and even grid operators. Morocco has a large potential for both wind and solar energy and is engaged in a program to deploy 2000MW of wind capacity by 2020 and 3000 MW of solar capacity by 2030. Although the competitiveness of wind energy is very strong, it appears clearly that the wind program could be even more ambitious than what it is, especially when compared to the large exploitable potential. On the other hand, heavy investments on concentrated solar power plants equipped with thermal energy storage have triggered a few years ago including the launching of the first part of the Nour Ouarzazate complex, the goal being to reach stable, dispatchable and affordable electricity especially during evening peak hours. This paper aims to demonstrate the potential of shared thermal storage capacity between dispatchable and non dispatchable renewable energies and particularly CSP and wind power. Thus highlighting the importance of a storage capacity market in parallel to the power reserve market and the and how it could enhance the development of both wind and CSP market penetration.

  1. On a Model of Associative Memory with Huge Storage Capacity (United States)

    Demircigil, Mete; Heusel, Judith; Löwe, Matthias; Upgang, Sven; Vermet, Franck


    In Krotov et al. (in: Lee (eds) Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, Curran Associates, Inc., Red Hook, 2016) Krotov and Hopfield suggest a generalized version of the well-known Hopfield model of associative memory. In their version they consider a polynomial interaction function and claim that this increases the storage capacity of the model. We prove this claim and take the "limit" as the degree of the polynomial becomes infinite, i.e. an exponential interaction function. With this interaction we prove that model has an exponential storage capacity in the number of neurons, yet the basins of attraction are almost as large as in the standard Hopfield model.

  2. Consensus based scheduling of storage capacities in a virtual microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brehm, Robert; Top, Søren; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan


    We present a distributed, decentralized method for coordinated scheduling of charge/discharge intervals of storage capacities in a utility grid integrated microgrid. The decentralized algorithm is based on a consensus scheme and solves an optimisation problem with the objective of minimising......, by use of storage capacities, the power flow over a transformer substation from/to the utility grid integrated microgrid. It is shown that when using this coordinated scheduling algorithm, load profile flattening (peak-shaving) for the utility grid is achieved. Additionally, mutual charge...

  3. Storage capacity of attractor neural networks with depressing synapses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Joaquin J.; Pantic, Lovorka; Kappen, Hilbert J.


    We compute the capacity of a binary neural network with dynamic depressing synapses to store and retrieve an infinite number of patterns. We use a biologically motivated model of synaptic depression and a standard mean-field approach. We find that at T=0 the critical storage capacity decreases with the degree of the depression. We confirm the validity of our main mean-field results with numerical simulations

  4. Distributed coordination of energy-storage capacities in virtual microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brehm, Robert; Ramezani, Hossein; Jouffroy, Jerome

    cooperation is incorported, storage capacities can be operated as a virtual microgrid. The cooperation between nodes is based on the formulation of a simple objective function for coordination. The cooperation objective is then combined with each node’s local objective, which is the increase of self...

  5. Hydrogen storage capacity of titanium met-cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akman, N; Durgun, E; Yildirim, T; Ciraci, S


    The adsorption of hydrogen molecules on the titanium metallocarbohedryne (met-car) cluster has been investigated by using the first-principles plane wave method. We have found that, while a single Ti atom at the corner can bind up to three hydrogen molecules, a single Ti atom on the surface of the cluster can bind only one hydrogen molecule. Accordingly, a Ti 8 C 12 met-car can bind up to 16 H 2 molecules and hence can be considered as a high-capacity hydrogen storage medium. Strong interaction between two met-car clusters leading to the dimer formation can affect H 2 storage capacity slightly. Increasing the storage capacity by directly inserting H 2 into the met-car or by functionalizing it with an Na atom have been explored. It is found that the insertion of neither an H 2 molecule nor an Na atom could further promote the H 2 storage capacity of a Ti 8 C 12 cluster. We have also tested the stability of the H 2 -adsorbed Ti 8 C 12 met-car with ab initio molecular dynamics calculations which have been carried out at room temperature

  6. Required storage capacity to increase the value of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nacht, T.


    The effort to achieve a more eco - friendly production of energy leads to larger shares of renewables in the electricity sector, resulting in more supply - dependency and volatility. This results in a time shift between production and consumption. In order to gain an upper hand, possibilities for transferring renewable energies from the time of production to the time when the demand occurs are researched. Energy storage systems will play a big role in this process, with pumped storage plants being the most developed and most common technology nowadays. As a first part of this thesis, the renewables in Germany are studied through the use of models on the basis of hourly measured values of the primary energy carriers for the corresponding technology. For these data series many years’ worth of measurements were considered, resulting in data for the hourly production values of the renewable energy sources. The results show a strong dependency between production and the seasons of the year. Furthermore a very small secured contribution of renewable production during times of peak load is registered, leading to the conclusion that energy storages are indeed necessary. Different strategies for the dispatch of the storage technologies pumped hydro storage, compressed air storage and hydrogen storage are developed for the region of Germany, which will be dispatched outside the energy - only market. The different strategies for the storage dispatch have the reduction of the resulting load in common, by preferably transferring renewable energy from times when it is not needed to those times with high loads. This resulting load needs to be covered by thermal power plants. The required capacities of the different storage technologies are evaluated and compared. By using pumped storage plants the increase in the value of renewables, as measured by the secure contribution during peak load hours, is determined. An analysis of different compositions of renewable production allows

  7. Potential hazards of compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Paul W.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Bauer, Stephen J.


    This report is a preliminary assessment of the ignition and explosion potential in a depleted hydrocarbon reservoir from air cycling associated with compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media. The study identifies issues associated with this phenomenon as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media has been proposed to help supplement renewable energy sources (e.g., wind and solar) by providing a means to store energy when excess energy is available, and to provide an energy source during non-productive or low productivity renewable energy time periods. Presently, salt caverns represent the only proven underground storage used for CAES. Depleted natural gas reservoirs represent another potential underground storage vessel for CAES because they have demonstrated their container function and may have the requisite porosity and permeability; however reservoirs have yet to be demonstrated as a functional/operational storage media for compressed air. Specifically, air introduced into a depleted natural gas reservoir presents a situation where an ignition and explosion potential may exist. This report presents the results of an initial study identifying issues associated with this phenomena as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered.

  8. Optimizing and Quantifying CO2 Storage Resource in Saline Formations and Hydrocarbon Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosshart, Nicholas W. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Ayash, Scott C. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Azzolina, Nicholas A. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Peck, Wesley D. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Gorecki, Charles D. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Ge, Jun [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Jiang, Tao [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Burton-Kelly, Matthew E. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Anderson, Parker W. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Dotzenrod, Neil W. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Gorz, Andrew J. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center


    In an effort to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from large stationary sources, carbon capture and storage (CCS) is being investigated as one approach. This work assesses CO2 storage resource estimation methods for deep saline formations (DSFs) and hydrocarbon reservoirs undergoing CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Project activities were conducted using geologic modeling and simulation to investigate CO2 storage efficiency. CO2 storage rates and efficiencies in DSFs classified by interpreted depositional environment were evaluated at the regional scale over a 100-year time frame. A focus was placed on developing results applicable to future widespread commercial-scale CO2 storage operations in which an array of injection wells may be used to optimize storage in saline formations. The results of this work suggest future investigations of prospective storage resource in closed or semiclosed formations need not have a detailed understanding of the depositional environment of the reservoir to generate meaningful estimates. However, the results of this work also illustrate the relative importance of depositional environment, formation depth, structural geometry, and boundary conditions on the rate of CO2 storage in these types of systems. CO2 EOR occupies an important place in the realm of geologic storage of CO2, as it is likely to be the primary means of geologic CO2 storage during the early stages of commercial implementation, given the lack of a national policy and the viability of the current business case. This work estimates CO2 storage efficiency factors using a unique industry database of CO2 EOR sites and 18 different reservoir simulation models capturing fluvial clastic and shallow shelf carbonate depositional environments for reservoir depths of 1219 and 2438 meters (4000 and 8000 feet) and 7.6-, 20-, and 64-meter (25-, 66

  9. Hybrid Multi-Objective Optimization of Folsom Reservoir Operation to Maximize Storage in Whole Watershed (United States)

    Goharian, E.; Gailey, R.; Maples, S.; Azizipour, M.; Sandoval Solis, S.; Fogg, G. E.


    The drought incidents and growing water scarcity in California have a profound effect on human, agricultural, and environmental water needs. California experienced multi-year droughts, which have caused groundwater overdraft and dropping groundwater levels, and dwindling of major reservoirs. These concerns call for a stringent evaluation of future water resources sustainability and security in the state. To answer to this call, Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA) was passed in 2014 to promise a sustainable groundwater management in California by 2042. SGMA refers to managed aquifer recharge (MAR) as a key management option, especially in areas with high variation in water availability intra- and inter-annually, to secure the refill of underground water storage and return of groundwater quality to a desirable condition. The hybrid optimization of an integrated water resources system provides an opportunity to adapt surface reservoir operations for enhancement in groundwater recharge. Here, to re-operate Folsom Reservoir, objectives are maximizing the storage in the whole American-Cosumnes watershed and maximizing hydropower generation from Folsom Reservoir. While a linear programing (LP) module tends to maximize the total groundwater recharge by distributing and spreading water over suitable lands in basin, a genetic based algorithm, Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II), layer above it controls releases from the reservoir to secure the hydropower generation, carry-over storage in reservoir, available water for replenishment, and downstream water requirements. The preliminary results show additional releases from the reservoir for groundwater recharge during high flow seasons. Moreover, tradeoffs between the objectives describe that new operation performs satisfactorily to increase the storage in the basin, with nonsignificant effects on other objectives.

  10. Methods for expanding the capacity of spent fuel storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    At the beginning of 1989 more than 55,000 metric tonnes of heavy metal (MTHM) of spent Light Water Reactor (LWR) and Heavy Water Reactor (HWR) fuel had been discharged worldwide from nuclear power plants. Only a small fraction of this fuel has been reprocessed. The majority of the spent fuel assemblies are currently held at-reactor (AR) or away-from-reactor (AFR) in storage awaiting either chemical processing or final disposal depending on the fuel concept chosen by individual countries. Studies made by NEA and IAEA have projected that annual spent fuel arising will reach about 10,000 t HM in the year 2000 and cumulative arising will be more than 200,000 t HM. Taking into account the large quantity of spent fuel discharged from NPP and that the first demonstrations of the direct disposal of spent fuel or HLW are expected only after the year 2020, long-term storage will be the primary option for management of spent fuel until well into the next century. There are several options to expand storage capacity: (1) to construct new away-from-reactor storage facilities, (2) to transport spent fuel from a full at-reactor pool to another site for storage in a pool that has sufficient space to accommodate it, (3) to expand the capacity of existing AR pools by using compact racks, double-tierce, rod consolidation and by increasing the dimensions of existing pools. The purpose of the meeting was: to exchange new information on the international level on the subject connected with the expansion of storage capacities for spent fuel; to elaborate the state-of-the-art of this problem; to define the most important areas for future activity; on the basis of the above information to give recommendations to potential users for selection and application of the most suitable methods for expanding spent fuel facilities taking into account the relevant country's conditions. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Cycloaddition in peptides for high-capacity optical storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Brian; Berg, Rolf Henrik; Hvilsted, Søren


    Photodimerization of chromophores attached to a short peptide chain is investigated for high-capacity optical digital storage with UV lasers. The length and rigidity of the peptide chain assure an optimal distance and orientation of the chromophores for effective photodimerization. Using a theory...... developed by Tomlinson, the absorption cross section for the dimerization process in a uracil-ornithine-based hexamer is determined to be 9 x 10(-20) cm(2). A large change in the transmission due to irradiation in the UV area may make it possible to realize multilevel storage in a thin film of the peptides....

  12. Reservoir capacity estimates in shale plays based on experimental adsorption data (United States)

    Ngo, Tan

    Fine-grained sedimentary rocks are characterized by a complex porous framework containing pores in the nanometer range that can store a significant amount of natural gas (or any other fluids) through adsorption processes. Although the adsorbed gas can take up to a major fraction of the total gas-in-place in these reservoirs, the ability to produce it is limited, and the current technology focuses primarily on the free gas in the fractures. A better understanding and quantification of adsorption/desorption mechanisms in these rocks is therefore required, in order to allow for a more efficient and sustainable use of these resources. Additionally, while water is still predominantly used to fracture the rock, other fluids, such as supercritical CO2 are being considered; here, the idea is to reproduce a similar strategy as for the enhanced recovery of methane in deep coal seams (ECBM). Also in this case, the feasibility of CO2 injection and storage in hydrocarbon shale reservoirs requires a thorough understanding of the rock behavior when exposed to CO2, thus including its adsorption characteristics. The main objectives of this Master's Thesis are as follows: (1) to identify the main controls on gas adsorption in mudrocks (TOC, thermal maturity, clay content, etc.); (2) to create a library of adsorption data measured on shale samples at relevant conditions and to use them for estimating GIP and gas storage in shale reservoirs; (3) to build an experimental apparatus to measure adsorption properties of supercritical fluids (such as CO2 or CH 4) in microporous materials; (4) to measure adsorption isotherms on microporous samples at various temperatures and pressures. The main outcomes of this Master's Thesis are summarized as follows. A review of the literature has been carried out to create a library of methane and CO2 adsorption isotherms on shale samples from various formations worldwide. Large discrepancies have been found between estimates of the adsorbed gas density

  13. Prediction of the thermohydraulic performance of porous-media reservoirs for compressed-air energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiles, L.E.; McCann, R.A.


    The numerical modeling capability that has been developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the prediction of the thermohydraulic performance of porous media reservoirs for compressed air energy storage (CAES) is described. The capability of the numerical models was demonstrated by application to a variety of parametric analyses and the support analyses for the CAES porous media field demonstration program. The demonstration site analyses include calculations for the displacement of aquifer water to develop the air storage zone, the potential for water coning, thermal development in the reservoir, and the dehydration of the near-wellbore region. Unique features of the demonstration site reservoir that affect the thermohydraulic performance are identified and contrasted against the predicted performance for conditions that would be considered more typical of a commercial CAES site.

  14. CO2 point sources and subsurface storage capacities for CO2 in aquifers in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boee, Reidulv; Magnus, Christian; Osmundsen, Per Terje; Rindstad, Bjoern Ivar


    The GESTCO project comprises a study of the distribution and coincidence of thermal CO 2 emission sources and location/quality of geological storage capacity in Europe. Four of the most promising types of geological storage are being studied. 1. Onshore/offshore saline aquifers with or without lateral seal. 2. Low entalpy geothermal reservoirs. 3. Deep methane-bearing coal beds and abandoned coal and salt mines. 4. Exhausted or near exhausted hydrocarbon structures. In this report we present an inventory of CO 2 point sources in Norway (1999) and the results of the work within Study Area C: Deep saline aquifers offshore/near shore Northern and Central Norway. Also offshore/near shore Southern Norway has been included while the Barents Sea is not described in any detail. The most detailed studies are on the Tilje and Aare Formations on the Troendelag Platform off Mid-Norway and on the Sognefjord, Fensfjord and Krossfjord Formations, southeast of the Troll Field off Western Norway. The Tilje Formation has been chosen as one of the cases to be studied in greater detail (numerical modelling) in the project. This report shows that offshore Norway, there are concentrations of large CO 2 point sources in the Haltenbanken, the Viking Graben/Tampen Spur area, the Southern Viking Graben and the central Trough, while onshore Norway there are concentrations of point sources in the Oslofjord/Porsgrund area, along the coast of western Norway and in the Troendelag. A number of aquifers with large theoretical CO 2 storage potential are pointed out in the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and in the Southern Barents Sea. The storage capacity in the depth interval 0.8 - 4 km below sea level is estimated to be ca. 13 Gt (13000000000 tonnes) CO 2 in geological traps (outside hydrocarbon fields), while the storage capacity in aquifers not confined to traps is estimated to be at least 280 Gt CO 2 . (Author)

  15. modelling for optimal number of line storage reservoirs in a water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    RESERVOIRS IN A WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. By. B.U. Anyata. Department ... water distribution systems, in order to balance the ... distribution line storage systems to meet peak demands at .... Evaluation Method. The criteria ... Pipe + Energy Cost (N). 191, 772 ... Economic Planning Model for Distributed information ...

  16. Characteristics of phytoplankton in Lake Karachay, a storage reservoir of medium-level radioactive waste. (United States)

    Atamanyuk, Natalia I; Osipov, Denis I; Tryapitsina, Galina A; Deryabina, Larisa V; Stukalov, Pavel M; Ivanov, Ivan A; Pryakhin, Evgeny A


    The status of the phytoplankton community in Lake Karachay, a storage reservoir of liquid medium-level radioactive waste from the Mayak Production Association, Chelyabinsk Region, Russia, is reviewed. In 2010, the concentration of Sr in water of this reservoir was found to be 6.5 × 10(6) Bq L, the concentration of 137Cs was 1.6 × 10(7) Bq L, and total alpha activity amounted to 3.0 × 10(3) Bq L. An increased level of nitrates was observed in the reservoir-4.4 g L. It has been demonstrated that in this reservoir under the conditions of the maximum contamination levels known for aquatic ecosystems in the entire biosphere, a phytoplankton community exists that has a pronounced decline in species diversity, almost to the extent of a monoculture of widely-spread thread eurytopic cyanobacteria Geitlerinema amphibium.

  17. Soil Phosphorus Storage Capacity for Environmental Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimala D. Nair


    Full Text Available Reliable techniques must be developed to predict phosphorus (P storage and release from soils of uplands, ditches, streams, and wetlands in order to better understand the natural, anthropogenic, and legacy sources of P and their impact on water quality at a field/plot as well as larger scales. A concept called the “safe” soil phosphorus storage capacity (SPSC that is based on a threshold phosphorus saturation ratio (PSR has been developed; the PSR is the molar ratio of P to Fe and Al, and SPSC is a PSR-based calculation of the remaining soil P storage capacity that captures risks arising from previous loading as well as inherently low P sorption capacity of a soil. Zero SPSC amounts to a threshold value below which P runoff or leaching risk increases precipitously. In addition to the use of the PSR/SPSC concept for P risk assessment and management, and its ability to predict isotherm parameters such as the Langmuir strength of bonding, KL, and the equilibrium P concentration, EPC0, this simple, cost-effective, and quantitative approach has the potential to be used as an agronomic tool for more precise application of P for plant uptake.

  18. Assessing materials handling and storage capacities in port terminals (United States)

    Dinu, O.; Roşca, E.; Popa, M.; Roşca, M. A.; Rusca, A.


    Terminals constitute the factual interface between different modes and, as a result, buffer stocks are unavoidable whenever transport flows with different discontinuities meet. This is the reason why assessing materials handling and storage capacities is an important issue in the course of attempting to increase operative planning of logistic processes in terminals. Proposed paper starts with a brief review of the compatibilities between different sorts of materials and corresponding transport modes and after, a literature overview of the studies related to ports terminals and their specialization is made. As a methodology, discrete event simulation stands as a feasible technique for assessing handling and storage capacities at the terminal, taking into consideration the multi-flows interaction and the non-uniform arrivals of vessels and inland vehicles. In this context, a simulation model, that integrates the activities of an inland water terminal and describes the essential interactions between the subsystems which influence the terminal capacity, is developed. Different scenarios are simulated for diverse sorts of materials, leading to bottlenecks identification, performance indicators such as average storage occupancy rate, average dwell or transit times estimations, and their evolution is analysed in order to improve the transfer operations in the logistic process

  19. Microflora of hydrobionts digestive tract in Kaunas water storage reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyvokiene, J.; Mickiene, L.; Mileriene, E.


    Microbiological and ichthiological investigations carried out in 1990 and 1992 showed the variability of bacterial cenoses in the digestive tract of hydrobionts before and after setting in motion Kruonis hydro pumped storage. The studies also showed that microorganisms of the digestive tract of the hydrobionts investigated were involved in the degradation of nutritional substrates and could serve as indicators of an anthropogenic effect. Before setting in motion the hydro pumped storage hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (HDB) were detected in the digestive tract of the freshwater shrimps, opossum shrimps, sticklebacks, zebra mussels and roaches. The greatest number of HDB was found in the digestive tract of the roach while in perches they were not detected. However after setting in motion the hydro pumped storage , high numbers of HDB were determined in the digestive tracts of all the hydrobionts investigated. It has been shown that the function of bacterial digestion is conditioned not only by the nutrition specificity of the macroorganism, but on its environment as well. With the aid of enzymes secreted by microorganisms organic compounds difficult to assimilate are transformed into valuable nutrients. Besides, the functional activity of microorganisms of the digestive tract of the hydrobionts indicate the intensity of the digestive process and physiological state of their organism. Therefore, when investigating fish stocks in hydrosystems one must evaluate inner resources of their organism, i.e. functional activities and the activity of digestive tract microorganisms, their quantitative and qualitative composition, relationship with the macroorganism, its growth rate and environment. (author). 15 refs., 5 tabs

  20. Water coning in porous media reservoirs for compressed air energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiles, L.E.; McCann, R.A.


    The general purpose of this work is to define the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic response of a CAES porous media reservoir subjected to simulated air mass cycling. This research will assist in providing design guidelines for the efficient and stable operation of the air storage reservoir. This report presents the analysis and results for the two-phase (air-water), two-dimensional, numerical modeling of CAES porous media reservoirs. The effects of capillary pressure and relative permeability were included. The fluids were considered to be immisicible; there was no phase change; and the system was isothermal. The specific purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the reservoir parameters that were believed to be important to water coning. This phenomenon may occur in reservoirs in which water underlies the air storage zone. It involves the possible intrusion of water into the wellbore or near-wellbore region. The water movement is in response to pressure gradients created during a reservoir discharge cycle. Potential adverse effects due to this water movement are associated with the pressure response of the reservoir and the geochemical stability of the near-wellbore region. The results obtained for the simulated operation of a CAES reservoir suggest that water coning should not be a severe problem, due to the slow response of the water to the pressure gradients and the relatively short duration in which those gradients exist. However, water coning will depend on site-specific conditions, particularly the fluid distributions following bubble development, and, therefore, a water coning analysis should be included as part of site evaluation.

  1. Spatially pooled depth-dependent reservoir storage, elevation, and water-quality data for selected reservoirs in Texas, January 1965-January 2010 (United States)

    Burley, Thomas E.; Asquith, William H.; Brooks, Donald L.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Texas Tech University, constructed a dataset of selected reservoir storage (daily and instantaneous values), reservoir elevation (daily and instantaneous values), and water-quality data from 59 reservoirs throughout Texas. The period of record for the data is as large as January 1965-January 2010. Data were acquired from existing databases, spreadsheets, delimited text files, and hard-copy reports. The goal was to obtain as much data as possible; therefore, no data acquisition restrictions specifying a particular time window were used. Primary data sources include the USGS National Water Information System, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality Surface Water-Quality Management Information System, and the Texas Water Development Board monthly Texas Water Condition Reports. Additional water-quality data for six reservoirs were obtained from USGS Texas Annual Water Data Reports. Data were combined from the multiple sources to create as complete a set of properties and constituents as the disparate databases allowed. By devising a unique per-reservoir short name to represent all sites on a reservoir regardless of their source, all sampling sites at a reservoir were spatially pooled by reservoir and temporally combined by date. Reservoir selection was based on various criteria including the availability of water-quality properties and constituents that might affect the trophic status of the reservoir and could also be important for understanding possible effects of climate change in the future. Other considerations in the selection of reservoirs included the general reservoir-specific period of record, the availability of concurrent reservoir storage or elevation data to match with water-quality data, and the availability of sample depth measurements. Additional separate selection criteria included historic information pertaining to blooms of golden algae. Physical properties and constituents were water

  2. Assessment of Factors Influencing Effective CO2 Storage Capacity and Injectivity in Eastern Gas Shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godec, Michael [Advanced Resources International, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)


    Building upon advances in technology, production of natural gas from organic-rich shales is rapidly developing as a major hydrocarbon supply option in North America and around the world. The same technology advances that have facilitated this revolution - dense well spacing, horizontal drilling, and hydraulic fracturing - may help to facilitate enhanced gas recovery (EGR) and carbon dioxide (CO2) storage in these formations. The potential storage of CO2 in shales is attracting increasing interest, especially in Appalachian Basin states that have extensive shale deposits, but limited CO2 storage capacity in conventional reservoirs. The goal of this cooperative research project was to build upon previous and on-going work to assess key factors that could influence effective EGR, CO2 storage capacity, and injectivity in selected Eastern gas shales, including the Devonian Marcellus Shale, the Devonian Ohio Shale, the Ordovician Utica and Point Pleasant shale and equivalent formations, and the late Devonian-age Antrim Shale. The project had the following objectives: (1) Analyze and synthesize geologic information and reservoir data through collaboration with selected State geological surveys, universities, and oil and gas operators; (2) improve reservoir models to perform reservoir simulations to better understand the shale characteristics that impact EGR, storage capacity and CO2 injectivity in the targeted shales; (3) Analyze results of a targeted, highly monitored, small-scale CO2 injection test and incorporate into ongoing characterization and simulation work; (4) Test and model a smart particle early warning concept that can potentially be used to inject water with uniquely labeled particles before the start of CO2 injection; (5) Identify and evaluate potential constraints to economic CO2 storage in gas shales, and propose development approaches that overcome these constraints

  3. A comparative study of gas-gas miscibility processes in underground gas storage reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiee, M.M.; Schmitz, S. [DBI - Gastechnologisches Institut gGmbH, Freiberg (Germany)


    Intermixture of gases in underground gas reservoirs have had great weight for natural gas storage in UGS projects with substitution of cushion gas by inert gases or changing the stored gas quality or origin, as for the replacement of town gas by natural gas. It was also investigated during the last years for Enhanced Gas Recovery (EGR) and Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) projects. The actual importance of its mechanisms is discussed for the H{sub 2} storage in Power to Gas to Power projects (PGP). In these approaches miscibility of the injected gas with the gas in place in the reservoir plays an important role in the displacement process. The conditions and parameters for the gas-gas displacement and mixing have been investigated in previous projects, as e.g. the miscibility of CO{sub 2} with natural gas (CLEAN). Furthermore the miscibility process of town gas with natural gas and sauer gas with sweet gas were also previously measured and compared in laboratory. The objective of this work is to investigate the miscibility of H{sub 2} injection into natural gas reservoirs using a compositional and a black oil reservoir simulator. Three processes of convection, dispersion and diffusion are considered precisely. The effect of gas miscibility is studied for both simulators and the results are compared to find optimum miscibility parameters. The findings of this work could be helpful for further pilot and field case studies to predict and monitor the changes in gas composition and quality. In future this monitoring might become more important when PGP together with H{sub 2}-UGS, as storage technology, will help to successfully implement the change to an energy supply from more renewable sources. Similarly the method confirms the use of the black oil simulator as an alternative for gas-gas displacement and sequestration reservoir simulation in comparison to the compositional simulator. (orig.)

  4. Two-phase flow visualization under reservoir conditions for highly heterogeneous conglomerate rock: A core-scale study for geologic carbon storage. (United States)

    Kim, Kue-Young; Oh, Junho; Han, Weon Shik; Park, Kwon Gyu; Shinn, Young Jae; Park, Eungyu


    Geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is considered a viable strategy for significantly reducing anthropogenic CO 2 emissions into the atmosphere; however, understanding the flow mechanisms in various geological formations is essential for safe storage using this technique. This study presents, for the first time, a two-phase (CO 2 and brine) flow visualization under reservoir conditions (10 MPa, 50 °C) for a highly heterogeneous conglomerate core obtained from a real CO 2 storage site. Rock heterogeneity and the porosity variation characteristics were evaluated using X-ray computed tomography (CT). Multiphase flow tests with an in-situ imaging technology revealed three distinct CO 2 saturation distributions (from homogeneous to non-uniform) dependent on compositional complexity. Dense discontinuity networks within clasts provided well-connected pathways for CO 2 flow, potentially helping to reduce overpressure. Two flow tests, one under capillary-dominated conditions and the other in a transition regime between the capillary and viscous limits, indicated that greater injection rates (potential causes of reservoir overpressure) could be significantly reduced without substantially altering the total stored CO 2 mass. Finally, the capillary storage capacity of the reservoir was calculated. Capacity ranged between 0.5 and 4.5%, depending on the initial CO 2 saturation.

  5. Response of littoral macrophytes to water level fluctuations in a storage reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krolová M.


    Full Text Available Lakes and reservoirs that are used for water supply and/or flow regulations have usually poorly developed littoral macrophyte communities, which impairs ecological potential in terms of the EU Water Framework Directive. The aim of our study was to reveal controlling factors for the growth of littoral macrophytes in a storage reservoir with fluctuating water level (Lipno Reservoir, Czech Republic. Macrophytes occurred in this reservoir only in the eulittoral zone i.e., the shoreline region between the highest and the lowest seasonal water levels. Three eulittoral sub-zones could be distinguished: the upper eulittoral with a stable community of perennial species with high cover, the middle eulittoral with relatively high richness of emergent and amphibious species present at low cover values, and the lower eulittoral devoid of permanent vegetation. Cover and species composition in particular sub-zones were primarily influenced by the duration and timing of flooding, followed by nutrient limitation and strongly reducing conditions in the flooded organic sediment. Our results stress the ecological importance of eulittoral zone in reservoirs with fluctuating water levels where macrophyte growth can be supported by targeted management of water level, thus helping reservoir managers in improving the ecological potential of this type of water bodies.

  6. A Study of Sedimentation at the River Estuary on the Change of Reservoir Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Estuary of the river that leads to the reservoir has characteristics include: relatively flat, there is a change in the increase of wet cross-sectional area and backwater. The backwater will cause the flow velocity to be reduced, so that the grains of sediment with a certain diameter carried by the flow will settle in the estuary of the river. The purpose of this research is to know the distribution and sedimentation pattern at the river estuary that leads to the reservoir with the change of water level in the reservoir storage, so the solution can be found to remove / reduce sediment before entering the reservoir. The method used is the experimental, by making the physical model of the river estuary leading to the reservoir. This study expects a solution to reduce sedimentation, so that sedimentation can be removed / minimized before entering the reservoir. This research tries to apply bypass channel to reduce the sedimentation at the river estuary. Bypass channels can be applied to overcome sedimentation at the river estuary, but in order for the sediment to be removed optimally, it is necessary to modify the mouth of bypass channel and channel angle.

  7. Strategies to diagnose and control microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, E.A.; Derr, R.M.; Pope, D.H.


    Hydrogen sulfide production (souring) in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems is a safety and environmental problem that can lead to operational shutdown when local hydrogen sulfide standards are exceeded. Systems affected by microbial souring have historically been treated using biocides that target the general microbial community. However, requirements for more environmentally friendly solutions have led to treatment strategies in which sulfide production can be controlled with minimal impact to the system and environment. Some of these strategies are based on microbial and/or nutritional augmentation of the sour environment. Through research sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) in Chicago, Illinois, methods have been developed for early detection of microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs, and a variety of mitigation strategies have been evaluated. The effectiveness of traditional biocide treatment in gas storage reservoirs was shown to depend heavily on the methods by which the chemical is applied. An innovative strategy using nitrate was tested and proved ideal for produced water and wastewater systems. Another strategy using elemental iodine was effective for sulfide control in evaporation ponds and is currently being tested in microbially sour natural gas storage wells.

  8. Feasibility of CO2 storage in geothermal reservoirs example of the Paris Basin - France. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, J.; Robelin, C.; Kervevan, C.; Thiery, D.; Menjoz, A.; Matray, J.M.; Cotiche, C.; Herbrich, B.


    This study is realized in the framework of GESCO project, which aims to provide the first documentation that, for emission sources within selected key areas, sufficient geological storage capacity is available. Then the BRGM/ANTEA/CFG took care to provide: an inventory of the CO 2 emitters in France, an inventory of the main deep aquifers present in the Paris basin, an evaluation of the storage capacities of CO 2 in one of the four principal case-study, technical solutions for CO 2 injection in geothermal aquifers and an evaluation of the cost of CO 2 storage in such an aquifer. (A.L.B.)

  9. Frictional and transport properties of simulated faults in CO2 storage reservoirs and clay-rich caprocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Elisenda


    In order to mitigate and meet CO2 emission regulations, long-term CO2 storage in hydrocarbon reservoirs is one of the most attractive large-scale options. To ensure save anthropogenic storage, it is important to maintain the sealing integrity of potential storage complexes. It is therefore

  10. Capacity of the inflow river channels of the Krpelany and Hricov reservoirs with respect to flood control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capekova, Z.


    In this presentation author deals with the capacity of the inflow river channels of the Krpelany and Hricov reservoirs with respect to flood control (Vah River, Orava River, Kysuce River and Rajcianka River, Slovakia)

  11. Potential petrophysical and chemical property alterations in a compressed air energy storage porous rock reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stottlemyre, J.A.; Erikson, R.L.; Smith, R.P.


    Successful commercialization of Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) systems depends on long-term stability of the underground reservoirs subjected to somewhat unique operating conditions. Specifically, these conditions include elevated and time varying temperatures, effective stresses, and air humidities. To minimize the requirements for premium fuels, it may be desirable to retain the thermal energy of compression. Porous media, e.g., sandstone, may hold promise as elevated temperature reservoirs. In this study, a reservoir composed of clean quartz sandstone and injection air temperatures of 300 to 575/sup 0/K are assumed. Numerical modeling is used to estimate temperature, stress, and humidity conditions within this reference porous media reservoir. A discussion on relative importance to CAES of several potential porous media damage mechanisms is presented. In this context, damage is defined as a reduction in intrinsic permeability (measure of air transport capability), a decrease in effective porosity (measure of storage capability), or an increase in elastic and/or inelastic deformation of the porous material. The potential damage mechanisms presented include: (1) disaggregation, (2) particulate plugging, (3) boundary layer viscosity anomalies, (4) inelastic microstructural consolidation, (5) clay swelling and dispersion, (6) hydrothermal mineral alteration, (7) oxidation reactions, and (8) well casing corrosion. These mechanisms are placed in perspective with respect to anticipated CAES conditions and mechanisms suggested are: (1) of academic interest only, (2) readily identified and controlled via engineering, or (3) potential problem areas requiring additional investigation.

  12. Expansion of storage capacity of interim spent fuel storage (MSVP) Bohunice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilat, P.; Fridrich, V.


    This article describes modifications of Interim spent fuel storage, performed with aim of storage capacity expansion, seismic stability enhancement, and overall increase of service life as well as assuring of MSVP safe operation. Uniqueness of adopted technical solutions is based upon the fact that mentioned innovations and modifications were performed without any changes, neither in ground plan nor architecture of MSVP structure. It also important to mention that all modifications were performed during continual operation of MSVP without any breaks of limits or operational regulations. Reconstruction and innovation of existing construction and technological systems of MSVP has assured required quality standard comparable with actual trends. (authors)

  13. Remote Sensing Insights into Storage Capacities among Plains Village Horticulturalists (United States)

    Wiewel, Adam S.

    Maize was a fundamental component of the diet and economy of Middle Missouri Plains Village groups, sedentary farmers with settlements along the Missouri River during the last millennia. More than a century of study has contributed to our understanding of agricultural production among these peoples, but little effort has been made to consider temporal variation in production. Such an understanding is crucial to examining changes that occurred before and after the arrival of colonists and their trade goods in the seventeenth century. Plains archaeologists have suggested that the storage capacity of Middle Missouri villages increased during the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries. In fact, the number and size of subterranean storage pits, ubiquitous features within most settlements, are thought to have grown during these centuries, which reflects greater agricultural production. To further examine changes in production and storage capacity during this centuries-long period, I combine information from historical documents, excavations, and geophysical investigations. At Huff Village, a fifteenth-century community, excavations and magnetic gradiometry surveys reveal the size and distribution of storage pits. Their number and average volume suggest the villagers grew immense amounts of food and contributed to widespread intertribal trade. Furthermore, storage pit excavation data from 20 regional sites, dating from the thirteenth to the nineteenth century, indicate pit volumes increased through the seventeenth century. A sharp decrease subsequently occurred during the eighteenth century due to epidemic disease. However, mean pit volumes were significantly larger during the nineteenth century, evidence of the resilience of Mandans, Hidatsas, and Arikaras and the continued significance of maize. In fact, historical documents and remote sensing data suggest the Mandans and Arikaras, successive occupants of an earthlodge village near the American Fur Company's Fort

  14. Quantification of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) storage in lakes and reservoirs of mainland China. (United States)

    Song, Kaishan; Wen, Zhidan; Shang, Yingxing; Yang, Hong; Lyu, Lili; Liu, Ge; Fang, Chong; Du, Jia; Zhao, Ying


    As a major fraction of carbon in inland waters, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) plays a crucial role in carbon cycling on a global scale. However, the quantity of DOC stored in lakes and reservoirs was not clear to date. In an attempt to examine the factors that determine the DOC storage in lakes and reservoirs across China, we assembled a large database (measured 367 lakes, and meta-analyzed 102 lakes from five limnetic regions; measured 144 reservoirs, and meta-analyzed 272 reservoirs from 31 provincial units) of DOC concentrations and water storages for lakes and reservoirs that are used to determine DOC storage in static inland waters. We found that DOC concentrations in saline waters (Mean/median ± S.D: 50.5/30.0 ± 55.97 mg/L) are much higher than those in fresh waters (8.1/5.9 ± 6.8 mg/L), while lake DOC concentrations (25.9/11.5 ± 42.04 mg/L) are much higher than those in reservoirs (5.0/3.8 ± 4.5 mg/L). In terms of lake water volume and DOC storage, the Tibet-Qinghai lake region has the largest water volume (552.8 km 3 ), 92% of which is saline waters, thus the largest DOC (13.39 Tg) is stored in these alpine lake region; followed by the Mengxin lake region, having a water volume of 99.4 km 3 in which 1.75 Tg DOC was stored. Compared to Mengxin lake region, almost the same amount of water was stored in East China lake region (91.9 km 3 ), however, much less DOC was stored in this region (0.43 Tg) due to the lower DOC concentration (Ave: 3.45 ± 2.68 mg/L). According to our investigation, Yungui and Northeast lake regions had water storages of 32.14 km 3 and 19.44 km 3 respectively, but relatively less DOC was stored in Yungui (0.13 Tg) than in Northeast lake region (0.19 Tg). Due to low DOC concentration in reservoirs, especially these large reservoirs having lower DOC concentration (V > 1.0 km 3 : 2.31 ± 1.48 mg/L), only 1.54 Tg was stored in a 485.1 km 3 volume of water contained

  15. Demonstrating storage of CO2 in geological reservoirs: the Sleipner and SACS projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torp, T.A.; Gale, J.


    At the Sleipner gas field in the North Sea, CO 2 has been stripped from the produced natural gas and injected into a sand layer called the Utsira formation. Injection started in October 1996, to date nearly 8 million tonnes of CO 2 have been injected without any significant operational problems observed in the capture plant or in the injection well. The Sleipner project is the first commercial application of CO 2 storage in deep saline aquifers in the world. To monitor the injected CO 2 , a separate project called the saline aquifer CO 0 2 storage (SACS) project was established in 1998. As part of the SACS project, 3D seismic surveying has been used to successfully monitor the CO 2 in the Utsira formation, an industry first. Repeat seismic surveys have successfully imaged movement of the injected CO 2 within the reservoir. Reservoir simulation tools have been successfully adapted to describe the migration of the CO 2 in the reservoir. The simulation packages have been calibrated against the repeat seismic surveys and shown themselves to be capable of replicating the position of the CO 2 in the reservoir. The possible reactions between minerals within the reservoir sand and the injected CO 2 have been studied by laboratory experiments and simulations. The cumulative experiences of the Sleipner and SACS projects will be embodied in a Best Practice Manual to assist other organisations planning CO 2 injection projects to take advantage of the learning processes undertaken and to assist in facilitating new projects of this type. (author)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael J. Mudd; Howard Johnson; Charles Christopher; T.S. Ramakrishnan, Ph.D.


    ,100 ft above the basal sandstone and is 100-200 ft thick. The storage capacity estimates for a 20-mile radius from the injection well ranged from 39-78 million tons (Mt) for each formation. Several other oil and gas plays have hydraulic properties conducive for injection, but the formations are generally only 5-50 ft thick in the study area. Overlying the injection reservoirs are thick sequences of dense, impermeable dolomite, limestone, and shale. These layers provide containment above the potential injection reservoirs. In general, it appears that the containment layers are much thicker and extensive than the injection intervals. Other physical parameters for the study area appear to be typical for the region. Anticipated pressures at maximum depths are approximately 4,100 psi based on a 0.45 psi/ft pressure gradient. Temperatures are likely to be 150 F. Groundwater flow is slow and complex in deep formations. Regional flow directions appear to be toward the west-northwest at less than 1 ft per year within the basal sandstone. Vertical gradients are downward in the study area. A review of brine geochemistry indicates that formation fluids have high salinity and dissolved solids. Total dissolved solids ranges from 200,000-325,000 mg/L in the deep reservoirs. Brine chemistry is similar throughout the different formations, suggesting extensive mixing in a mature basin. Unconsolidated sediments in the Ohio River Valley are the primary source of drinking water in the study area.

  17. Preliminary formation analysis for compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, William Payton


    The purpose of this study is to develop an engineering and operational understanding of CAES performance for a depleted natural gas reservoir by evaluation of relative permeability effects of air, water and natural gas in depleted natural gas reservoirs as a reservoir is initially depleted, an air bubble is created, and as air is initially cycled. The composition of produced gases will be evaluated as the three phase flow of methane, nitrogen and brine are modeled. The effects of a methane gas phase on the relative permeability of air in a formation are investigated and the composition of the produced fluid, which consists primarily of the amount of natural gas in the produced air are determined. Simulations of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in depleted natural gas reservoirs were carried out to assess the effect of formation permeability on the design of a simple CAES system. The injection of N2 (as a proxy to air), and the extraction of the resulting gas mixture in a depleted natural gas reservoir were modeled using the TOUGH2 reservoir simulator with the EOS7c equation of state. The optimal borehole spacing was determined as a function of the formation scale intrinsic permeability. Natural gas reservoir results are similar to those for an aquifer. Borehole spacing is dependent upon the intrinsic permeability of the formation. Higher permeability allows increased injection and extraction rates which is equivalent to more power per borehole for a given screen length. The number of boreholes per 100 MW for a given intrinsic permeability in a depleted natural gas reservoir is essentially identical to that determined for a simple aquifer of identical properties. During bubble formation methane is displaced and a sharp N2methane boundary is formed with an almost pure N2 gas phase in the bubble near the borehole. During cycling mixing of methane and air occurs along the boundary as the air bubble boundary moves. The extracted gas mixture changes as a

  18. The storage capacity of Potts models for semantic memory retrieval (United States)

    Kropff, Emilio; Treves, Alessandro


    We introduce and analyse a minimal network model of semantic memory in the human brain. The model is a global associative memory structured as a collection of N local modules, each coding a feature, which can take S possible values, with a global sparseness a (the average fraction of features describing a concept). We show that, under optimal conditions, the number cM of modules connected on average to a module can range widely between very sparse connectivity (high dilution, c_{M}/N\\to 0 ) and full connectivity (c_{M}\\to N ), maintaining a global network storage capacity (the maximum number pc of stored and retrievable concepts) that scales like pc~cMS2/a, with logarithmic corrections consistent with the constraint that each synapse may store up to a fraction of a bit.

  19. Assessment of CO2 Storage Potential in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs With Dual-Porosity Models (United States)

    March, Rafael; Doster, Florian; Geiger, Sebastian


    Naturally Fractured Reservoirs (NFR's) have received little attention as potential CO2 storage sites. Two main facts deter from storage projects in fractured reservoirs: (1) CO2 tends to be nonwetting in target formations and capillary forces will keep CO2 in the fractures, which typically have low pore volume; and (2) the high conductivity of the fractures may lead to increased spatial spreading of the CO2 plume. Numerical simulations are a powerful tool to understand the physics behind brine-CO2 flow in NFR's. Dual-porosity models are typically used to simulate multiphase flow in fractured formations. However, existing dual-porosity models are based on crude approximations of the matrix-fracture fluid transfer processes and often fail to capture the dynamics of fluid exchange accurately. Therefore, more accurate transfer functions are needed in order to evaluate the CO2 transfer to the matrix. This work presents an assessment of CO2 storage potential in NFR's using dual-porosity models. We investigate the impact of a system of fractures on storage in a saline aquifer, by analyzing the time scales of brine drainage by CO2 in the matrix blocks and the maximum CO2 that can be stored in the rock matrix. A new model to estimate drainage time scales is developed and used in a transfer function for dual-porosity simulations. We then analyze how injection rates should be limited in order to avoid early spill of CO2 (lost control of the plume) on a conceptual anticline model. Numerical simulations on the anticline show that naturally fractured reservoirs may be used to store CO2.

  20. Mines as lower reservoir of an UPSH (Underground Pumping Storage Hydroelectricity): groundwater impacts and feasibility (United States)

    Bodeux, Sarah; Pujades, Estanislao; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain


    The energy framework is currently characterized by an expanding use of renewable sources. However, their intermittence could not afford a stable production according to the energy demand. Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (PSH) is an efficient possibility to store and release electricity according to the demand needs. Because of the topographic and environmental constraints of classical PSH, new potential suitable sites are rare in countries whose topography is weak or with a high population density. Nevertheless, an innovative alternative is to construct Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants by using old underground mine works as lower reservoir. In that configuration, large amount of pumped or injected water in the underground cavities would impact the groundwater system. A representative UPSH facility is used to numerically determine the interactions with surrounding aquifers Different scenarios with varying parameters (hydrogeological and lower reservoir characteristics, boundaries conditions and pumping/injection time-sequence) are computed. Analysis of the computed piezometric heads around the reservoir allows assessing the magnitude of aquifer response and the required time to achieve a mean pseudo-steady state under cyclic solicitations. The efficiency of the plant is also evaluated taking the leakage into the cavity into account. Combining these two outcomes, some criterions are identified to assess the feasibility of this type of projects within potential old mine sites from a hydrogeological point of view.

  1. Freshwater Algal Bloom Prediction by Support Vector Machine in Macau Storage Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengchao Xie


    Full Text Available Understanding and predicting dynamic change of algae population in freshwater reservoirs is particularly important, as algae-releasing cyanotoxins are carcinogens that would affect the health of public. However, the high complex nonlinearity of water variables and their interactions makes it difficult to model the growth of algae species. Recently, support vector machine (SVM was reported to have advantages of only requiring a small amount of samples, high degree of prediction accuracy, and long prediction period to solve the nonlinear problems. In this study, the SVM-based prediction and forecast models for phytoplankton abundance in Macau Storage Reservoir (MSR are proposed, in which the water parameters of pH, SiO2, alkalinity, bicarbonate (HCO3 -, dissolved oxygen (DO, total nitrogen (TN, UV254, turbidity, conductivity, nitrate, total nitrogen (TN, orthophosphate (PO4 3−, total phosphorus (TP, suspended solid (SS and total organic carbon (TOC selected from the correlation analysis of the 23 monthly water variables were included, with 8-year (2001–2008 data for training and the most recent 3 years (2009–2011 for testing. The modeling results showed that the prediction and forecast powers were estimated as approximately 0.76 and 0.86, respectively, showing that the SVM is an effective new way that can be used for monitoring algal bloom in drinking water storage reservoir.

  2. State of the art of reservoir sedimentation management in Spain


    Avendaño Salas, Cándido; Sanz Montero, Esther; Cobo Rayán, Rafael


    Part of the total reservoir storage capacity in Spain (56 km3) is lost due to sedimentation processes taking place. Surveys carried out in 121 reservoirs indicate that 6% of them have undergone a capacity reduction of over 50%. However, most of them (81%) are characterised by a reservoir capacity loss below 20%. The most frequent methods used to control reservoir sedimentation in Spain fall into one of the following groups: reduction of sediment yield through basin management and removal of t...

  3. Traceable components of terrestrial carbon storage capacity in biogeochemical models. (United States)

    Xia, Jianyang; Luo, Yiqi; Wang, Ying-Ping; Hararuk, Oleksandra


    Biogeochemical models have been developed to account for more and more processes, making their complex structures difficult to be understood and evaluated. Here, we introduce a framework to decompose a complex land model into traceable components based on mutually independent properties of modeled biogeochemical processes. The framework traces modeled ecosystem carbon storage capacity (Xss ) to (i) a product of net primary productivity (NPP) and ecosystem residence time (τE ). The latter τE can be further traced to (ii) baseline carbon residence times (τ'E ), which are usually preset in a model according to vegetation characteristics and soil types, (iii) environmental scalars (ξ), including temperature and water scalars, and (iv) environmental forcings. We applied the framework to the Australian Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) model to help understand differences in modeled carbon processes among biomes and as influenced by nitrogen processes. With the climate forcings of 1990, modeled evergreen broadleaf forest had the highest NPP among the nine biomes and moderate residence times, leading to a relatively high carbon storage capacity (31.5 kg cm(-2) ). Deciduous needle leaf forest had the longest residence time (163.3 years) and low NPP, leading to moderate carbon storage (18.3 kg cm(-2) ). The longest τE in deciduous needle leaf forest was ascribed to its longest τ'E (43.6 years) and small ξ (0.14 on litter/soil carbon decay rates). Incorporation of nitrogen processes into the CABLE model decreased Xss in all biomes via reduced NPP (e.g., -12.1% in shrub land) or decreased τE or both. The decreases in τE resulted from nitrogen-induced changes in τ'E (e.g., -26.7% in C3 grassland) through carbon allocation among plant pools and transfers from plant to litter and soil pools. Our framework can be used to facilitate data model comparisons and model intercomparisons via tracking a few traceable components for all terrestrial carbon

  4. Characterization of biocenoses in the storage reservoirs of liquid radioactive wastes of Mayak PA. Initial descriptive report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryakhin, E.A.; Mokrov, Yu.G.; Tryapitsina, G.A.; Ivanov, I.A.; Osipov, D.I.; Atamanyuk, N.I.; Deryabina, L.V.; Shaposhnikova, I.A.; Shishkina, E.A.; Obvintseva, N.A.; Egoreichenkov, E.A.; Styazhkina, E.V.; Osipova, O.F.; Mogilnikova, N.I.; Andreev, S.S.; Tarasov, O.V.; Geras'kin, S.A.; Trapeznikov, A.V.; Akleyev, A.V.


    As a result of operation of the Mayak Production Association (Mayak PA), Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, an enterprise for production and separation of weapon-grade plutonium in the Soviet Union, ecosystems of a number of water bodies have been radioactively contaminated. The article presents information about the current state of ecosystems of 6 special industrial storage reservoirs of liquid radioactive waste from Mayak PA: reservoirs R-3, R-4, R-9, R-10, R-11 and R-17. At present the excess of the radionuclide content in the water of the studied reservoirs and comparison reservoirs (Shershnyovskoye and Beloyarskoye reservoirs) is 9 orders of magnitude for 90 Sr and 137 Cs, and 6 orders of magnitude for alpha-emitting radionuclides. According to the level of radioactive contamination, the reservoirs of the Mayak PA could be arranged in the ascending order as follows: R-11, R-10, R-4, R-3, R-17 and R-9. In 2007–2012 research of the status of the biocenoses of these reservoirs in terms of phytoplankton, zooplankton, bacterioplankton, zoobenthos, aquatic plants, ichthyofauna, avifauna parameters was performed. The conducted studies revealed decrease in species diversity in reservoirs with the highest levels of radioactive and chemical contamination. This article is an initial descriptive report on the status of the biocenoses of radioactively contaminated reservoirs of the Mayak PA, and is the first article in a series of publications devoted to the studies of the reaction of biocenoses of the fresh-water reservoirs of the Mayak PA to a combination of natural and man-made factors, including chronic radiation exposure. - Highlights: • The current state of storage reservoirs of liquid radioactive waste of the Mayak Production Association is presented. • Radionuclides contents in water and sediments of the reservoirs of Mayak PA are presented. • The status of the major ecological groups of hydrobionts of the given reservoirs is described.

  5. Sustainable Irrigation Allocation Model for Dry and Wet Periods using Reservoir Storage and Inflow (United States)

    Surianarayanan, S.; Suribabu, C. R.; Ramakrishnan, K.


    The dry period agriculture is inevitable both for the farmers for their earning, and for the soil for its fertility by crop-rotation. In tropical countries like INDIA, dry period agriculture becomes difficult because of less (or) no rain fall. Hence a simple water balancing model for irrigation scheduling, using the measure “Volumetric Reliability” is prepared in this paper, with the storage and inflow of a reservoir both for the dry and wet periods. The case-study is done for a reservoir in INDIA with thirty one years of hydrological data(from 1982 to 2012). The objective of this paper is to prepare a simple water balance model taking 10 days periods of demand and supply for ID crop(Irrigated Dry crop, ground nut) with usage of volumetric reliability concept for the periods of deficiency and adoption of less water requirement crops to reduce the water-stress during critical periods of crop growth, and finally arrive at a feasible allocation schedule for the success of agriculture and the yield throughout the year both for wet and dry crops with the available storage on the start of irrigation for a particular year. The reservoir is divided for storages such as full, deficient and critical storages. The starting storage for the dry period from January is used after adequate allocation for wet crops, the quantity for riparian rights and for drinking water, for the sustainability. By the water-balancing, the time-series for thirty one years, it is found that for twenty two years the demand for the ID crops is satisfied with the storage in the reservoir, and in the remaining years of deficient inflows, for three years (1986,1996,2004)the demand is managed by using the safe reliability factor for demand which can nullify the deficit in demand for the whole supply period. But it is genuine to assure that the reduction in the amount of water for each 10 days periods should not exceed the survival limit of the crop. Necessary soil-moisture must be ensured in the crop

  6. The Potential for Energy Storage to Provide Peaking Capacity in California under Increased Penetration of Solar Photovoltaics: Report Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Opportunities to provide peaking capacity with low-cost energy storage are emerging. But adding storage changes the ability of subsequent storage additions to meet peak demand. Increasing photovoltaic (PV) deployment also affects storage's ability to provide peak capacity. This study examines storage's potential to replace conventional peak capacity in California.

  7. Modeling CO2 Storage in Fractured Reservoirs: Fracture-Matrix Interactions of Free-Phase and Dissolved CO2 (United States)

    Oldenburg, C. M.; Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J. T.


    The injection of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) in fractured reservoirs has been conducted at several storage sites. However, no site-specific dual-continuum modeling for fractured reservoirs has been reported and modeling studies have generally underestimated the fracture-matrix interactions. We developed a conceptual model for enhanced CO2 storage to take into account global scCO2 migration in the fracture continuum, local storage of scCO2 and dissolved CO2 (dsCO2) in the matrix continuum, and driving forces for scCO2 invasion and dsCO2 diffusion from fractures. High-resolution discrete fracture-matrix models were developed for a column of idealized matrix blocks bounded by vertical and horizontal fractures and for a km-scale fractured reservoir. The column-scale simulation results show that equilibrium storage efficiency strongly depends on matrix entry capillary pressure and matrix-matrix connectivity while the time scale to reach equilibrium is sensitive to fracture spacing and matrix flow properties. The reservoir-scale modeling results shows that the preferential migration of scCO2 through fractures is coupled with bulk storage in the rock matrix that in turn retards the fracture scCO2 plume. We also developed unified-form diffusive flux equations to account for dsCO2 storage in brine-filled matrix blocks and found solubility trapping is significant in fractured reservoirs with low-permeability matrix.

  8. Estimation of energy storage capacity in power system in japan under future demand and supply factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Ikuo; Tanaka, Toshikatsu


    The desirable capacity of future energy storage facility in power system in Japan is discussed in this paper, putting emphasis on future new electric demand/supply factors such as CO 2 emission problems and social structure change. The two fundamental demand scenarios are considered; one is base case scenario which extrapolates the trend until now and the other is social structure change scenario. The desirable capacity of the energy storage facility is obtained from the result of optimum generation mix which minimizes the yearly expenses of the target year (2030 and 2050). The result shows that the optimum capacity of energy storage facility is about 10 to 15%. The social structure change and demand side energy storage have great influences on the optimum capacity of supply side storage. The former increases storage capacity. The latter reduces it and also contributes to the reduction of generation cost. Suppression of CO 2 emission basically affects to reduce the storage capacity. The load following operation of nuclear plant also reduces the optimum storage capacity in the case it produces surplus energy at night. Though there exist many factors which increase or decrease the capacity of energy storage facility, as a whole, it is concluded that the development of new energy storage technology is necessary for future. (author)

  9. Reservoir Engineering Optimization Strategies for Subsurface CO{sub 2} Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mclntire, Blayde; McPherson, Brian


    The purpose of this report is to outline a methodology for calculating the optimum number of injection wells for geologic CCS. The methodology is intended primarily for reservoir pressure management, and factors in cost as well. Efficiency may come in many forms depending on project goals; therefore, various results are presented simultaneously. The developed methodology is illustrated via application in a case study of the Rocky Mountain Carbon Capture and Storage (RMCCS) project, including a CCS candidate site near Craig, Colorado, USA. The forecasting method provided reasonable estimates of cost and injection volume when compared to simulated results.

  10. Quantifying the uncertainties of climate change effects on the storage-yield and performance characteristics of the Pong multi-purpose reservoir, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Soundharajan


    Full Text Available Climate change is predicted to affect water resources infrastructure due to its effect on rainfall, temperature and evapotranspiration. However, there are huge uncertainties on both the magnitude and direction of these effects. The Pong reservoir on the Beas River in northern India serves irrigation and hydropower needs. The hydrology of the catchment is highly influenced by Himalayan seasonal snow and glaciers, and Monsoon rainfall; the changing pattern of the latter and the predicted disappearance of the former will have profound effects on the performance of the reservoir. This study employed a Monte-Carlo simulation approach to characterise the uncertainties in the future storage requirements and performance of the reservoir. Using a calibrated rainfall-runoff (R-R model, the baseline runoff scenario was first simulated. The R-R inputs (rainfall and temperature were then perturbed using plausible delta-changes to produce simulated climate change runoff scenarios. Stochastic models of the runoff were developed and used to generate ensembles of both the current and climate-change perturbed future scenarios. The resulting runoff ensembles were used to simulate the behaviour of the reservoir and determine "populations" of reservoir storage capacity and performance characteristics. Comparing these parameters between the current and the perturbed provided the population of climate change effects which was then analysed to determine the uncertainties. The results show that contrary to the usual practice of using single records, there is wide variability in the assessed impacts. This variability or uncertainty will, no doubt, complicate the development of climate change adaptation measures; however, knowledge of its sheer magnitude as demonstrated in this study will help in the formulation of appropriate policy and technical interventions for sustaining and possibly enhancing water security for irrigation and other uses served by Pong reservoir.

  11. Geological rock property and production problems of the underground gas storage reservoir of Ketzin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, W


    The purpose of the program of operation for an industrial injection of gas is briefly reviewed. It is emphasized that the works constitute the final stage of exploration. The decisive economic and extractive aspects are given. Final remarks deal with the methods of floor consolidation and tightness control. In the interest of the perspective exploration of the reservoir it is concluded and must be realized as an operating principle that the main problem, after determining the probable reservoir structure, consists in determining step-by-step (by combined theoretical, technical and economic parameters) the surface equipment needed from the geological and rock property factors, which were determined by suitable methods (hydro-exploration, gas injection). The technique and time-table of the geological exploration, and the design and construction of the installations will depend on the solution of the main problem. At the beginning, partial capacities will be sufficient for the surface installation. (12 refs.)

  12. Use of ground-water reservoirs for storage of surface water in the San Joaquin Valley, California (United States)

    Davis, G.H.; Lofgren, B.E.; Mack, Seymour


    The San Joaquin Valley includes roughly the southern two-thirds of the Central Valley of California, extending 250 miles from Stockton on the north to Grapevine at the foot of the Tehachapi Mountains. The valley floor ranges in width from 25 miles near Bakersfield to about 55 miles near Visalia; it has a surface area of about 10,000 square miles. More than one-quarter of all the ground water pumped for irrigation in the United States is used in this highly productive valley. Withdrawal of ground water from storage by heavy pumping not only provides a needed irrigation water supply, but it also lowers the ground-water level and makes storage space available in which to conserve excess water during periods of heavy runoff. A storage capacity estimated to be 93 million acre-feet to a depth of 200 feet is available in this ground-water reservoir. This is about nine times the combined capacity of the existing and proposed surface-water reservoirs in the San Joaquin Valley under the California Water Plan. The landforms of the San Joaquin Valley include dissected uplands, low plains and fans, river flood plains and channels, and overflow lands and lake bottoms. Below the land surface, unconsolidated sediments derived from the surrounding mountain highlands extend downward for hundreds of feet. These unconsolidated deposits, consisting chiefly of alluvial deposits, but including some widespread lacustrine sediments, are the principal source of ground water in the valley. Ground water occurs under confined and unconfined conditions in the San Joaquin Valley. In much of the western, central, and southeastern parts of the valley, three distinct ground-water reservoirs are present. In downward succession these are 1) a body of unconfined and semiconfined fresh water in alluvial deposits of Recent, Pleistocene, and possibly later Pliocene age, overlying the Corcoran clay member of the Tulare formation; 2) a body of fresh water confined beneath the Corcoran clay member, which

  13. The storage capacity of cocoa seeds (Theobroma cacao L.) through giving Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) in the various of storage container (United States)

    Lahay, R. R.; Misrun, S.; Sipayung, R.


    Cocoa is plant which it’s seed character is recalcitrant. Giving PEG and using various of storage containers was hoped to increase storage capacity of cocoa seeds as long as period of saving. The reseach was aimed to identify the storage capacity of cocoa seeds through giving PEG in the various of storage containers. Research took place in Hataram Jawa II, Kabupaten Simalungun, Propinsi Sumatera Utara, Indonesia. The method of this research is spit-split plot design with 3 replication. Storage period was put on main plot which was consisted of 4 level, PEG concentration was put on sub plot, consisted of 4 level and storage container was put on the sub sub plot consisted of 3 types. The results showed that until 4 days at storage with 45 % PEG concentration at all storage container, percentage of seed germination at storage can be decreased to be 2.90 %, and can be defensed until 16 days with 45 % PEG concentration at perforated plastic storage container. Percentage of molded seeds and seed moisture content were increased with added period of storage but seed moisture content was increased until 12 days at storage and was decreased at 16 days in storage.

  14. Doomed reservoirs in Kansas, USA? Climate change and groundwater mining on the Great Plains lead to unsustainable surface water storage (United States)

    Brikowski, T. H.


    SummaryStreamflow declines on the Great Plains of the US are causing many Federal reservoirs to become profoundly inefficient, and will eventually drive them into unsustainability as negative annual reservoir water budgets become more common. The streamflow declines are historically related to groundwater mining, but since the mid-1980s correlate increasingly with climate. This study highlights that progression toward unsustainability, and shows that future climate change will continue streamflow declines at historical rates, with severe consequences for surface water supply. An object lesson is Optima Lake in the Oklahoma Panhandle, where streamflows have declined 99% since the 1960s and the reservoir has never been more than 5% full. Water balances for the four westernmost Federal reservoirs in Kansas (Cedar Bluff, Keith Sebelius, Webster and Kirwin) show similar tendencies. For these four, reservoir inflow has declined by 92%, 73%, 81% and 64% respectively since the 1950s. Since 1990 total evaporated volumes relative to total inflows amounted to 68%, 83%, 24% and 44% respectively. Predictions of streamflow and reservoir performance based on climate change models indicate 70% chance of steady decline after 2007, with a ˜50% chance of failure (releases by gravity flow impossible) of Cedar Bluff Reservoir between 2007 and 2050. Paradoxically, a 30% chance of storage increase prior 2020 is indicated, followed by steady declines through 2100. Within 95% confidence the models predict >50% decline in surface water resources between 2007 and 2050. Ultimately, surface storage of water resources may prove unsustainable in this region, forcing conversion to subsurface storage.

  15. Rapid cooling and cold storage in a silicic magma reservoir recorded in individual crystals. (United States)

    Rubin, Allison E; Cooper, Kari M; Till, Christy B; Kent, Adam J R; Costa, Fidel; Bose, Maitrayee; Gravley, Darren; Deering, Chad; Cole, Jim


    Silicic volcanic eruptions pose considerable hazards, yet the processes leading to these eruptions remain poorly known. A missing link is knowledge of the thermal history of magma feeding such eruptions, which largely controls crystallinity and therefore eruptability. We have determined the thermal history of individual zircon crystals from an eruption of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Results show that although zircons resided in the magmatic system for 10 3 to 10 5 years, they experienced temperatures >650° to 750°C for only years to centuries. This implies near-solidus long-term crystal storage, punctuated by rapid heating and cooling. Reconciling these data with existing models of magma storage requires considering multiple small intrusions and multiple spatial scales, and our approach can help to quantify heat input to and output from magma reservoirs. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Hydrogen storage capacity of lithium-doped KOH activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minoda, Ai; Oshima, Shinji; Iki, Hideshi; Akiba, Etsuo


    Highlights: • The hydrogen adsorption of lithium-doped KOH activated carbons has been studied. • Lithium doping improves their hydrogen adsorption affinity. • Lithium doping is more effective for materials with micropores of 0.8 nm or smaller. • Lithium reagent can alter the pore structure, depending on the raw material. • Optimizing the pore size and functional group is needed for better hydrogen uptake. - Abstract: The authors have studied the hydrogen adsorption performance of several types of lithium-doped KOH activated carbons. In the case of activated cokes, lithium doping improves their hydrogen adsorption affinity from 5.02 kg/m 3 to 5.86 kg/m 3 at 303 K. Hydrogen adsorption density increases by around 17% after lithium doping, likely due to the fact that lithium doping is more effective for materials with micropores of 0.8 nm or smaller. The effects of lithium on hydrogen storage capacity vary depending on the raw material, because the lithium reagent can react with the material and alter the pore structure, indicating that lithium doping has the effect of plugging or filling the micropores and changing the structures of functional groups, resulting in the formation of mesopores. Despite an observed decrease in hydrogen uptake, lithium doping was found to improve hydrogen adsorption affinity. Lithium doping increases hydrogen uptake by optimizing the pore size and functional group composition

  17. On-farm irrigation reservoirs for surface water storage in eastern Arkansas: Trends in construction in response to aquifer depletion (United States)

    Yaeger, M. A.; Reba, M. L.; Massey, J. H.; Adviento-Borbe, A.


    On-farm surface water storage reservoirs have been constructed to address declines in the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial aquifer, the primary source of irrigation for most of the row crops grown in eastern Arkansas. These reservoirs and their associated infrastructure represent significant investments in financial and natural resources, and may cause producers to incur costs associated with foregone crop production and long-term maintenance. Thus, an analysis of reservoir construction trends in the Grand Prairie Critical Groundwater Area (GPCGA) and Cache River Critical Groundwater Area (CRCGA) was conducted to assist future water management decisions. Between 1996 and 2015, on average, 16 and 4 reservoirs were constructed per year, corresponding to cumulative new reservoir surface areas of 161 and 60 ha yr-1, for the GPCGA and the CRCGA, respectively. In terms of reservoir locations relative to aquifer status, after 1996, 84.5% of 309 total reservoirs constructed in the GPCGA and 91.0% of 78 in the CRCGA were located in areas with remaining saturated aquifer thicknesses of 50% or less. The majority of new reservoirs (74% in the GPCGA and 63% in the CRCGA) were constructed on previously productive cropland. The next most common land use, representing 11% and 15% of new reservoirs constructed in the GPCGA and CRCGA, respectively, was the combination of a field edge and a ditch, stream, or other low-lying area. Less than 10% of post-1996 reservoirs were constructed on predominately low-lying land, and the use of such lands decreased in both critical groundwater areas during the past 20 years. These disparities in reservoir construction rates, locations, and prior land uses is likely due to groundwater declines being first observed in the GPCGA as well as the existence of two large-scale river diversion projects under construction in the GPCGA that feature on-farm storage as a means to offset groundwater use.

  18. Energy optimization through probabilistic annual forecast water release technique for major storage hydroelectric reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Bahari Othman; Mohd Zamri Yusoff


    One of the important decisions to be made by the management of hydroelectric power plant associated with major storage reservoir is to determine the best turbine water release decision for the next financial year. The water release decision enables firm energy generated estimation for the coming financial year to be done. This task is usually a simple and straightforward task provided that the amount of turbine water release is known. The more challenging task is to determine the best water release decision that is able to resolve the two conflicting operational objectives which are minimizing the drop of turbine gross head and maximizing upper reserve margin of the reservoir. Most techniques from literature emphasize on utilizing the statistical simulations approach. Markovians models, for example, are a class of statistical model that utilizes the past and the present system states as a basis for predicting the future [1]. This paper illustrates that rigorous solution criterion can be mathematically proven to resolve those two conflicting operational objectives. Thus, best water release decision that maximizes potential energy for the prevailing natural inflow is met. It is shown that the annual water release decision shall be made in such a manner that annual return inflow that has return frequency smaller than critical return frequency (f c ) should not be considered. This criterion enables target turbine gross head to be set to the well-defined elevation. In the other words, upper storage margin of the reservoir shall be made available to capture magnitude of future inflow that has return frequency greater than or equal to f c. A case study is shown to demonstrate practical application of the derived mathematical formulas

  19. Feasibility study of an aeration treatment system in a raw water storage reservoir used as a potable water source


    Fronk, Robert Charles


    The systems engineering process has been utilized to determine the feasibility of an aeration treatment system for a raw water storage reservoir used as a potable water source. This system will be used to ensure a consistently high quality of raw water by the addition of dissolved oxygen into the reservoir. A needs analysis establishes the importance and requirements for a consistently high quality of raw water used as a source for a potable water treatment facility. This s...

  20. Estimation of Bank Erosion Due To Reservoir Operation in Cascade (Case Study: Citarum Cascade Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Legowo


    Full Text Available Sedimentation is such a crucial issue to be noted once the accumulated sediment begins to fill the reservoir dead storage, this will then influence the long-term reservoir operation. The sediment accumulated requires a serious attention for it may influence the storage capacity and other reservoir management of activities. The continuous inflow of sediment to the reservoir will decrease the capacity of reservoir storage, the reservoir value in use, and the useful age of reservoir. Because of that, the rate of the sediment needs to be delayed as possible. In this research, the delay of the sediment rate is considered based on the rate of flow of landslide of the reservoir slope. The rate of flow of the sliding slope can be minimized by way of each reservoir autonomous efforts. This effort can be performed through; the regulation of fluctuating rate of reservoir surface current that does not cause suddenly drawdown and upraising as well. The research model is compiled using the searching technique of Non Linear Programming (NLP.The rate of bank erosion for the reservoir variates from 0.0009 to 0.0048 MCM/year, which is no sigrificant value to threaten the life time of reservoir.Mean while the rate of watershed sediment has a significant value, i.e: 3,02 MCM/year for Saguling that causes to fullfill the storage capacity in 40 next years (from years 2008.

  1. Assessing reservoir performance risk in CO{sub 2} storage projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowden, A.R. [URS Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States); Rigg, A. [CRC for Greenhouse Gas Technologies, Canberra (Australia)


    One of the main issues for researchers involved with geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) has been the development of a proper methodology to assess and compare alternative CO{sub 2} injection projects on the basis of risk. Consideration needs to be given to technical aspects, such as the risk of leakage and the effectiveness of the intended reservoir, as well as less tangible aspects such as the value and safety of geological storage of CO{sub 2}, and potential impacts on the community and environment. The Geological Disposal of Carbon Dioxide (GEODISC), was a research program of the Australian Petroleum Cooperative Research Centre which identified 56 potential environmentally sustainable sites for CO{sub 2} injection (ESSCIs) within Australia. Several studies were carried out, involving detailed evaluation of the suitability of 4 selected sites, including Dongara, Petrel, Gippsland and Carnarvon. The GEODISC program included a risk assessment research module which required a complete and quantified risk assessment of CO{sub 2} injection as a storage option. Primary goals were to assess the risk of leakage, to assess the effectiveness of the intended reservoir, and to assess negative consequences to facilitate comparison of alternative sites. This paper discussed the background and risk assessment model. Key performance indicators (KPIs) were also developed to address the purpose of risk assessment. It was concluded that the RISQUE method is an appropriate approach and that potential injection projects can be measured against six KPIs including containment; effectiveness; self-funding potential; wider community benefits; community safety and community amenity. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  2. Studies on the Optimal behavior of Energy Storage in Reservoirs of a Hydroelectric system; Estudios sobre el comportamiento optimo del almacenamiento de energia en embalses de sistema hidroelectrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo Faria, Breno; Franco Barbosa, Paulo Sergio [Universidad Estatal de Campinas (Brazil)


    This work aims at studying the results of an optimisation model applied to the Paranaiba river basin, Brazil. This system is made by the junction of three river branches located in a region with a well-defined seasonal hydrological behavior. The ratio between the total energy storage in the system and the active storage for every reservoir is evaluated from the optimal operational results. This relationship allows recognizing systematic patterns on the relative use for every reservoir, when compared to the entire system. The main parameters that define reservoir behavior are identified, with highlights on the position of the power station in the cascade, the relationship between the river flow and the active storage, and the installed capacity of the power station. In addition, the parameter hydrological scenario is also another factor that defines the relative use of the reservoirs. [Spanish] El modelo del presente trabajo tiene como objetivo estudiar los resultados de una optimizacion para el sistema hidroelectrico de la cuenca del rio Paranaiba, Brasil, la cual esta formada por la confluencia de tres rios en una region de distribucion de lluvias bien definidas en terminos hidrologicos. Se analiza la relacion entre la energia total almacenada en el sistema y el volumen util de cada embalse a partir de los resultados operativos optimos. Esta relacion permite identificar resultados sistematicos en lo que se refiere a la utilizacion de cada embalse, en comparacion con el uso del sistema como un todo. Se identifican los principales parametros responsables por el comportamiento de los embalses, destacando la influencia de la posicion de la central hidroelectrica en la cascada, de la relacion caudal/volumen util y de la potencia de central. Ademas, el parametro escenario hidrologico tambien es otro factor determinante en el uso relativo de los embalses.

  3. Complex Hydride Compounds with Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosher, Daniel A.; Opalka, Susanne M.; Tang, Xia; Laube, Bruce L.; Brown, Ronald J.; Vanderspurt, Thomas H.; Arsenault, Sarah; Wu, Robert; Strickler, Jamie; Anton, Donald L.; Zidan, Ragaiy; Berseth, Polly


    The United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), in collaboration with major partners Albemarle Corporation (Albemarle) and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), conducted research to discover new hydride materials for the storage of hydrogen having on-board reversibility and a target gravimetric capacity of ≥ 7.5 weight percent (wt %). When integrated into a system with a reasonable efficiency of 60% (mass of hydride / total mass), this target material would produce a system gravimetric capacity of ≥ 4.5 wt %, consistent with the DOE 2007 target. The approach established for the project combined first principles modeling (FPM - UTRC) with multiple synthesis methods: Solid State Processing (SSP - UTRC), Solution Based Processing (SBP - Albemarle) and Molten State Processing (MSP - SRNL). In the search for novel compounds, each of these methods has advantages and disadvantages; by combining them, the potential for success was increased. During the project, UTRC refined its FPM framework which includes ground state (0 Kelvin) structural determinations, elevated temperature thermodynamic predictions and thermodynamic / phase diagram calculations. This modeling was used both to precede synthesis in a virtual search for new compounds and after initial synthesis to examine reaction details and options for modifications including co-reactant additions. The SSP synthesis method involved high energy ball milling which was simple, efficient for small batches and has proven effective for other storage material compositions. The SBP method produced very homogeneous chemical reactions, some of which cannot be performed via solid state routes, and would be the preferred approach for large scale production. The MSP technique is similar to the SSP method, but involves higher temperature and hydrogen pressure conditions to achieve greater species mobility. During the initial phases of the project, the focus was on higher order alanate complexes in the phase space

  4. Optimal nonlinear information processing capacity in delay-based reservoir computers (United States)

    Grigoryeva, Lyudmila; Henriques, Julie; Larger, Laurent; Ortega, Juan-Pablo


    Reservoir computing is a recently introduced brain-inspired machine learning paradigm capable of excellent performances in the processing of empirical data. We focus in a particular kind of time-delay based reservoir computers that have been physically implemented using optical and electronic systems and have shown unprecedented data processing rates. Reservoir computing is well-known for the ease of the associated training scheme but also for the problematic sensitivity of its performance to architecture parameters. This article addresses the reservoir design problem, which remains the biggest challenge in the applicability of this information processing scheme. More specifically, we use the information available regarding the optimal reservoir working regimes to construct a functional link between the reservoir parameters and its performance. This function is used to explore various properties of the device and to choose the optimal reservoir architecture, thus replacing the tedious and time consuming parameter scannings used so far in the literature.

  5. Structural analysis of porous rock reservoirs subjected to conditions of compressed air energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friley, J.R.


    Investigations are described which were performed to assess the structural behavior of porous rock compressed air energy storage (CAES) reservoirs subjected to loading conditions of temperature and pressure felt to be typical of such an operation. Analyses performed addressed not only the nominal or mean reservoir response but also the cyclic response due to charge/discharge operation. The analyses were carried out by assuming various geometrical and material related parameters of a generic site. The objective of this study was to determine the gross response of a generic porous reservoir. The site geometry for this study assumed a cylindrical model 122 m in dia and 57 m high including thicknesses for the cap, porous, and base rock formations. The central portion of the porous zone was assumed to be at a depth of 518 m and at an initial temperature of 20/sup 0/C. Cyclic loading conditions of compressed air consisted of pressure values in the range of 4.5 to 5.2 MPa and temperature values between 143 and 204/sup 0/C.Various modes of structural behavior were studied. These response modes were analyzed using loading conditions of temperature and pressure (in the porous zone) corresponding to various operational states during the first year of simulated site operation. The results of the structural analyses performed indicate that the most severely stressed region will likely be in the wellbore vicinity and hence highly dependent on the length of and placement technique utilized in the well production length. Analyses to address this specific areas are currently being pursued.

  6. Geomechanical behavior of the reservoir and caprock system at the In Salah CO2 storage project. (United States)

    White, Joshua A; Chiaramonte, Laura; Ezzedine, Souheil; Foxall, William; Hao, Yue; Ramirez, Abelardo; McNab, Walt


    Almost 4 million metric tons of CO2 were injected at the In Salah CO2 storage site between 2004 and 2011. Storage integrity at the site is provided by a 950-m-thick caprock that sits above the injection interval. This caprock consists of a number of low-permeability units that work together to limit vertical fluid migration. These are grouped into main caprock units, providing the primary seal, and lower caprock units, providing an additional buffer and some secondary storage capacity. Monitoring observations at the site indirectly suggest that pressure, and probably CO2, have migrated upward into the lower portion of the caprock. Although there are no indications that the overall storage integrity has been compromised, these observations raise interesting questions about the geomechanical behavior of the system. Several hypotheses have been put forward to explain the measured pressure, seismic, and surface deformation behavior. These include fault leakage, flow through preexisting fractures, and the possibility that injection pressures induced hydraulic fractures. This work evaluates these hypotheses in light of the available data. We suggest that the simplest and most likely explanation for the observations is that a portion of the lower caprock was hydrofractured, although interaction with preexisting fractures may have played a significant role. There are no indications, however, that the overall storage complex has been compromised, and several independent data sets demonstrate that CO2 is contained in the confinement zone.

  7. Influence of Distributed Residential Energy Storage on Voltage in Rural Distribution Network and Capacity Configuration (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Tong, Yibin; Zhao, Zhigang; Zhang, Xuefen


    Large-scale access of distributed residential photovoltaic (PV) in rural areas has solved the voltage problem to a certain extent. However, due to the intermittency of PV and the particularity of rural residents’ power load, the problem of low voltage in the evening peak remains to be resolved. This paper proposes to solve the problem by accessing residential energy storage. Firstly, the influence of access location and capacity of energy storage on voltage distribution in rural distribution network is analyzed. Secondly, the relation between the storage capacity and load capacity is deduced for four typical load and energy storage cases when the voltage deviation meets the demand. Finally, the optimal storage position and capacity are obtained by using PSO and power flow simulation.

  8. Gas-water-rock interactions induced by reservoir exploitation, CO2 sequestration, and other geological storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecourtier, J.


    Here is given a summary of the opening address of the IFP International Workshop: 'gas-water-rock interactions induced by reservoir exploitation, CO 2 sequestration, and other geological storage' (18-20 November 2003). 'This broad topic is of major interest to the exploitation of geological sites since gas-water-mineral interactions determine the physicochemical characteristics of these sites, the strategies to adopt to protect the environment, and finally, the operational costs. Modelling the phenomena is a prerequisite for the engineering of a geological storage, either for disposal efficiency or for risk assessment and environmental protection. During the various sessions, several papers focus on the great achievements that have been made in the last ten years in understanding and modelling the coupled reaction and transport processes occurring in geological systems, from borehole to reservoir scale. Remaining challenges such as the coupling of mechanical processes of deformation with chemical reactions, or the influence of microbiological environments on mineral reactions will also be discussed. A large part of the conference programme will address the problem of mitigating CO 2 emissions, one of the most important issues that our society must solve in the coming years. From both a technical and an economic point of view, CO 2 geological sequestration is the most realistic solution proposed by the experts today. The results of ongoing pilot operations conducted in Europe and in the United States are strongly encouraging, but geological storage will be developed on a large scale in the future only if it becomes possible to predict the long term behaviour of stored CO 2 underground. In order to reach this objective, numerous issues must be solved: - thermodynamics of CO 2 in brines; - mechanisms of CO 2 trapping inside the host rock; - geochemical modelling of CO 2 behaviour in various types of geological formations; - compatibility of CO 2 with oil-well cements

  9. Quantification of oil recovery efficiency, CO 2 storage potential, and fluid-rock interactions by CWI in heterogeneous sandstone oil reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyyedi, Mojtaba; Sohrabi, Mehran; Sisson, Adam


    Significant interest exists in improving recovery from oil reservoirs while addressing concerns about increasing CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. The combination of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and safe geologic storage of CO2 in oil reservoirs is appealing and can be achieved by carbonated (CO...... for oil recovery and CO2 storage potential on heterogeneous cores. Since not all the oil reservoirs are homogenous, understanding the potential of CWI as an integrated EOR and CO2 storage scenario in heterogeneous oil reservoirs is essential....

  10. Melton Valley Storage Tanks Capacity Increase Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and maintain additional storage capacity at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW). New capacity would be provided by a facility partitioned into six individual tank vaults containing one 100,000 gallon LLLW storage tank each. The storage tanks would be located within the existing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility. This action would require the extension of a potable water line approximately one mile from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) area to the proposed site to provide the necessary potable water for the facility including fire protection. Alternatives considered include no-action, cease generation, storage at other ORR storage facilities, source treatment, pretreatment, and storage at other DOE facilities

  11. Rocky Mountain Regional CO{sub 2} Storage Capacity and Significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laes, Denise; Eisinger, Chris; Esser, Richard; Morgan, Craig; Rauzi, Steve; Scholle, Dana; Matthews, Vince; McPherson, Brian


    The purpose of this study includes extensive characterization of the most promising geologic CO{sub 2} storage formations on the Colorado Plateau, including estimates of maximum possible storage capacity. The primary targets of characterization and capacity analysis include the Cretaceous Dakota Formation, the Jurassic Entrada Formation and the Permian Weber Formation and their equivalents in the Colorado Plateau region. The total CO{sub 2} capacity estimates for the deep saline formations of the Colorado Plateau region range between 9.8 metric GT and 143 metric GT, depending on assumed storage efficiency, formations included, and other factors.

  12. Geological storage of carbon dioxide in the coal seams: from material to the reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikoosokhan, S.


    CO 2 emissions into the atmosphere are recognized to have a significant effect on global warming. Geological storage of CO 2 is widely regarded as an essential approach to reduce the impact of such emissions on the environment. Moreover, injecting carbon dioxide in coal bed methane reservoirs facilitates the recovery of the methane naturally present, a process known as enhanced coal bed methane recovery (ECBM). But the swelling of the coal matrix induced by the preferential adsorption by coal of carbon dioxide over the methane in place leads to a closure of the cleat system (a set of small natural fractures) of the reservoir and therefore to a loss of injectivity. This PhD thesis is dedicated to a study of how this injectivity evolves in presence of fluids. We derive two poro-mechanical dual-porosity models for a coal bed reservoir saturated by a pure fluid. The resulting constitutive equations enable to better understand and model the link between the injectivity of a coal seam and the adsorption-induced swelling of coal. For both models, the pore space of the reservoir is considered to be divided into the macroporous cleats and the pores of the coal matrix. The two models differ by how adsorption of fluid is taken into account: the first model is restricted to surface adsorption, while the second model can be applied for adsorption in a medium with a generic pore size distribution and thus in a microporous medium such as coal, in which adsorption mostly occurs by micropore filling. The latter model is calibrated on two coals with different sorption and swelling properties. We then perform simulations at various scales (Representative Elementary Volume, coal sample, coal seam). In particular, we validate our model on experimental data of adsorption-induced variations of permeability of coal. We also perform simulations of seams from which methane would be produced (CBM) or of methane-free seams into which CO 2 would be injected. We study the effect of various

  13. Hybrid Stochastic Forecasting Model for Management of Large Open Water Reservoir with Storage Function (United States)

    Kozel, Tomas; Stary, Milos


    all numbers from interval. Resulted course of management was compared with course, which was obtained from using GE + real flow series. Comparing results showed that fuzzy model with forecasted values has been able to manage main malfunction and artificially disorders made by model were founded essential, after values of water volume during management were evaluated. Forecasting model in combination with fuzzy model provide very good results in management of water reservoir with storage function and can be recommended for this purpose.

  14. Evaluation of sediment management strategies on reservoir storage depletion rate: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, M.; Sterk, G.


    Sedimentation aspects have a major role during the design of new reservoir projects because life of the reservoir mainly depends upon sediment handling during reservoir operation. Therefore, proper sediment management strategies should be adopted to enhance the life span of reservoirs. Basha

  15. Evaluating Potential for Large Releases from CO2 Storage Reservoirs: Analogs, Scenarios, and Modeling Needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholzer, Jens; Pruess, Karsten; Lewicki, Jennifer; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Karimjee, Anhar


    While the purpose of geologic storage of CO 2 in deep saline formations is to trap greenhouse gases underground, the potential exists for CO 2 to escape from the target reservoir, migrate upward along permeable pathways, and discharge at the land surface. Such discharge is not necessarily a serious concern, as CO 2 is a naturally abundant and relatively benign gas in low concentrations. However, there is a potential risk to health, safety and environment (HSE) in the event that large localized fluxes of CO 2 were to occur at the land surface, especially where CO 2 could accumulate. In this paper, we develop possible scenarios for large CO 2 fluxes based on the analysis of natural analogues, where large releases of gas have been observed. We are particularly interested in scenarios which could generate sudden, possibly self-enhancing, or even eruptive release events. The probability for such events may be low, but the circumstances under which they might occur and potential consequences need to be evaluated in order to design appropriate site selection and risk management strategies. Numerical modeling of hypothetical test cases is needed to determine critical conditions for such events, to evaluate whether such conditions may be possible at designated storage sites, and, if applicable, to evaluate the potential HSE impacts of such events and design appropriate mitigation strategies

  16. Re-evaluating the relationships among filtering activity, unnecessary storage, and visual working memory capacity. (United States)

    Emrich, Stephen M; Busseri, Michael A


    The amount of task-irrelevant information encoded in visual working memory (VWM), referred to as unnecessary storage, has been proposed as a potential mechanism underlying individual differences in VWM capacity. In addition, a number of studies have provided evidence for additional activity that initiates the filtering process originating in the frontal cortex and basal ganglia, and is therefore a crucial step in the link between unnecessary storage and VWM capacity. Here, we re-examine data from two prominent studies that identified unnecessary storage activity as a predictor of VWM capacity by directly testing the implied path model linking filtering-related activity, unnecessary storage, and VWM capacity. Across both studies, we found that unnecessary storage was not a significant predictor of individual differences in VWM capacity once activity associated with filtering was accounted for; instead, activity associated with filtering better explained variation in VWM capacity. These findings suggest that unnecessary storage is not a limiting factor in VWM performance, whereas neural activity associated with filtering may play a more central role in determining VWM performance that goes beyond preventing unnecessary storage.

  17. Trophic State Evolution and Nutrient Trapping Capacity in a Transboundary Subtropical Reservoir: A 25-Year Study. (United States)

    Cunha, Davi Gasparini Fernandes; Benassi, Simone Frederigi; de Falco, Patrícia Bortoletto; Calijuri, Maria do Carmo


    Artificial reservoirs have been used for drinking water supply, other human activities, flood control and pollution abatement worldwide, providing overall benefits to downstream water quality. Most reservoirs in Brazil were built during the 1970s, but their long-term patterns of trophic status, water chemistry, and nutrient removal are still not very well characterized. We aimed to evaluate water quality time series (1985-2010) data from the riverine and lacustrine zones of the transboundary Itaipu Reservoir (Brazil/Paraguay). We examined total phosphorus and nitrogen, chlorophyll a concentrations, water transparency, and phytoplankton density to look for spatial and temporal trends and correlations with trophic state evolution and nutrient retention. There was significant temporal and spatial water quality variation (P water quality and structure of the reservoir were mainly affected by one internal force (hydrodynamics) and one external force (upstream cascading reservoirs). Nutrient and chlorophyll a concentrations tended to be lower in the lacustrine zone and decreased over the 25-year timeframe. Reservoir operational features seemed to be limiting primary production and phytoplankton development, which exhibited a maximum density of 6050  org/mL. The relatively small nutrient concentrations in the riverine zone were probably related to the effect of the cascade reservoirs upstream of Itaipu and led to relatively low removal percentages. Our study suggested that water quality problems may be more pronounced immediately after the filling phase of the artificial reservoirs, associated with the initial decomposition of drowned vegetation at the very beginning of reservoir operation.

  18. Sediment management for reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.


    All natural lakes and reservoirs whether on rivers, tributaries or off channel storages are doomed to be sited up. Pakistan has two major reservoirs of Tarbela and Managla and shallow lake created by Chashma Barrage. Tarbela and Mangla Lakes are losing their capacities ever since first impounding, Tarbela since 1974 and Mangla since 1967. Tarbela Reservoir receives average annual flow of about 62 MAF and sediment deposits of 0.11 MAF whereas Mangla gets about 23 MAF of average annual flows and is losing its storage at the rate of average 34,000 MAF annually. The loss of storage is a great concern and studies for Tarbela were carried out by TAMS and Wallingford to sustain its capacity whereas no study has been done for Mangla as yet except as part of study for Raised Mangla, which is only desk work. Delta of Tarbala reservoir has advanced to about 6.59 miles (Pivot Point) from power intakes. In case of liquefaction of delta by tremor as low as 0.12g peak ground acceleration the power tunnels I, 2 and 3 will be blocked. Minimum Pool of reservoir is being raised so as to check the advance of delta. Mangla delta will follow the trend of Tarbela. Tarbela has vast amount of data as reservoir is surveyed every year, whereas Mangla Reservoir survey was done at five-year interval, which has now been proposed .to be reduced to three-year interval. In addition suspended sediment sampling of inflow streams is being done by Surface Water Hydrology Project of WAPDA as also some bed load sampling. The problem of Chasma Reservoir has also been highlighted, as it is being indiscriminately being filled up and drawdown several times a year without regard to its reaction to this treatment. The Sediment Management of these reservoirs is essential and the paper discusses pros and cons of various alternatives. (author)

  19. Highly efficient distributed generation and high-capacity energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmes, Kas; Guerrero, Josep M.; Zhelev, Toshko


    With the growing amount of decentralized power production the design and operation of the grid has to be reconsidered. New problems include the two-way flow of electricity and maintaining the power balance given the increased amount of uncertain and fluctuating renewable energy sources like wind...... and solar that deliver electricity to the grid. Solution directions are the development of smart grids, demand side management, virtual power plants and storage of electricity. These are directions that, rightly so, are already attracting a lot of attention and R&D funding. In this paper critical issues...... and fuel that can also fulfill a storage function....

  20. Environmental effects of storage preservation practices: controlled flushing of fine sediment from a small hydropower reservoir. (United States)

    Espa, Paolo; Castelli, Elena; Crosa, Giuseppe; Gentili, Gaetano


    Sediment flushing may be effective in mitigating loss of reservoir storage due to siltation, but flushing must be controlled to limit the impact on the downstream environment. A reliable prediction of the environmental effects of sediment flushing is hindered by the limited scientific information currently available. Consequently, there may be some controversy as regards to management decisions, planning the work, and monitoring strategies. This paper summarizes the main results of a monitoring campaign on the stream below a small alpine hydropower reservoir subjected to annual flushing between 2006 and 2009. The removed sediment was essentially silt, and the suspended solid concentration (SSC) of the discharged water was controlled to alleviate downstream impact. Control was achieved through hydraulic regulation and mechanical digging, alternating daytime sediment evacuation, and nocturnal clear water release. The four operations lasted about two weeks each and had an average SSC of about 4 g L(-1). Maximum values of SSC were generally kept below 10 g L(-1). Downstream impact was quantified through sampling of fish fauna (brown trout) and macroinvertebrate in the final reach of the effluent stream. The benthic community was severely impaired by the flushing operations, but recovered to pre-flushing values in a few months. As expected, the impact on brown trout was heavier on juveniles. While data biasing due to fish removal and re-stocking cannot be ruled out, the fish community seems to have reached a state of equilibrium characterized by a lower density than was measured before the flushing operations.

  1. Achieving increased spent fuel storage capacity at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.H.; Chang, S.J.; Dabs, R.D.; Freels, J.D.; Morgan, K.A.; Rothrock, R.B.; Griess, J.C.


    The HFIR facility was originally designed to store approximately 25 spent cores, sufficient to allow for operational contingencies and for cooling prior to off-site shipment for reprocessing. The original capacity has now been increased to 60 positions, of which 53 are currently filled (September 1994). Additional spent cores are produced at a rate of about 10 or 11 per year. Continued HFIR operation, therefore, depends on a significant near-term expansion of the pool storage capacity, as well as on a future capability of reprocessing or other storage alternatives once the practical capacity of the pool is reached. To store the much larger inventory of spent fuel that may remain on-site under various future scenarios, the pool capacity is being increased in a phased manner through installation of a new multi-tier spent fuel rack design for higher density storage. A total of 143 positions was used for this paper as the maximum practical pool capacity without impacting operations; however, greater ultimate capacities were addressed in the supporting analyses and approval documents. This paper addresses issues related to the pool storage expansion including (1) seismic effects on the three-tier storage arrays, (2) thermal performance of the new arrays, (3) spent fuel cladding corrosion concerns related to the longer period of pool storage, and (4) impacts of increased spent fuel inventory on the pool water quality, water treatment systems, and LLLW volume

  2. Surface water storage capacity of twenty tree species in Davis, California (United States)

    Qingfu Xiao; E. Gregory. McPherson


    Urban forestry is an important green infrastructure strategy because healthy trees can intercept rainfall, reducing stormwater runoff and pollutant loading. Surface saturation storage capacity, defined as the thin film of water that must wet tree surfaces before flow begins, is the most important variable influencing rainfall interception processes. Surface storage...

  3. A Central Capacity Limit to the Simultaneous Storage of Visual and Auditory Arrays in Working Memory (United States)

    Saults, J. Scott; Cowan, Nelson


    If working memory is limited by central capacity (e.g., the focus of attention; N. Cowan, 2001), then storage limits for information in a single modality should apply also to the simultaneous storage of information from different modalities. The authors investigated this by combining a visual-array comparison task with a novel auditory-array…

  4. Some open issues in the analysis of the storage and migration properties of fractured carbonate reservoirs (United States)

    Agosta, Fabrizio


    Underground CO2 storage in depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs may become a common practice in the future to lower the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Results from the first experiments conducted in carbonate rocks, for instance the Lacq integrated CCS Pilot site, SW France, are quite exciting. All monitored parameters, such as the CO2 concentration at well sites, well pressures, cap rock integrity and environmental indicators show the long-term integrity of this type of geological reservoirs. Other positive news arise from the OXY-CFB-300 Compostilla Project, NW Spain, where most of the injected CO2 dissolved into the formation brines, suggesting the long-term security of this method. However, in both cases, the CO2- rich fluids partially dissolved the carbonate minerals during their migration through the fractured reservoir, modifying the overall pore volume and pressure regimes. These results support the growing need for a better understanding of the mechanical behavior of carbonate rocks over geological time of scales. In fact, it is well known that carbonates exhibit a variety of deformation mechanisms depending upon many intrinsic factors such as composition, texture, connected pore volume, and nature of the primary heterogeneities. Commonly, tight carbonates are prone to opening-mode and/or pressure solution deformation. The interplay between these two mechanisms likely affects the petrophysical properties of the fault damage zones, which form potential sites for CO2 storage due to their high values of both connected porosity and permeability. On the contrary, cataclastic deformation produces fault rocks that often form localized fluid barriers for cross-fault fluid flow. Nowadays, questions on the conditions of sealing/leakage of carbonate fault rocks are still open. In particular, the relative role played by bulk crushing, chipping, cementation, and pressure solution on connected porosity of carbonate fault rocks during structural

  5. Optimization of time and location dependent spent nuclear fuel storage capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macek, V.


    A linear spent fuel storage model is developed to identify cost-effective spent nuclear fuel storage strategies. The purpose of this model is to provide guidelines for the implementation of the optimal time-dependent spent fuel storage capacity expansion in view of the current economic and regulatory environment which has resulted in phase-out of the closed nuclear fuel cycle. Management alternatives of the spent fuel storage backlog, which is created by mismatch between spent fuel generation rate and spent fuel disposition capability, are represented by aggregate decision variables which describe the time dependent on-reactor-site and off-site spent fuel storage capacity additions, and the amount of spent fuel transferred to off-site storage facilities. Principal constraints of the model assure determination of cost optimal spent fuel storage expansion strategies, while spent fuel storage requirements are met at all times. A detailed physical and economic analysis of the essential components of the spent fuel storage problem, which precedes the model development, assures its realism. The effects of technological limitations on the on-site spent fuel storage expansion and timing of reinitiation of the spent fuel reprocessing on optimal spent fuel storage capacity expansion are investigated. The principal results of the study indicate that (a) expansion of storage capacity beyond that of currently planned facilities is necessary, and (b) economics of the post-reactor fuel cycle is extremely sensitive to the timing of reinitiation of spent fuel reprocessing. Postponement of reprocessing beyond mid-1982 may result in net negative economic liability of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle

  6. The role of storage capacity in coping with intra-annual runoff variability on a global scale (United States)

    Gaupp, Franziska; Hall, Jim; Dadson, Simon


    Intra-annual variability poses a risk to water security in many basins as runoff is unevenly distributed over the year. Areas such as Northern Africa, Australia and the South-Western USA are characterized by a high coefficient of variability of monthly runoff. Analyzing the global risk of water scarcity, this study examines 680 basin-country units (BCUs) (403 river basins divided by country borders). By calculating the water balance for each BCU, the interplay of runoff on the one hand and domestic, industrial and environmental water needs on the other hand is shown. In contrast to other studies on average water scarcity, this work focuses on variability of water supply as metrics based on annual average water availability and demand can underestimate the risk of scarcity. The model is based on the assumption that each country-basin with sub-basins and tributaries can be treated as one single reservoir with storage capacity aggregated over that BCU. It includes surface runoff and the possibility to withdraw groundwater as water supply. The storage capacity of each BCU represents the ability to transfer water from wet months to dry months in order to buffer and cope with intra-annual water supply variability and to meet total water demand. Average monthly surface runoff per country-basin for the period 1979 to 2012 is derived from outcomes of the hydrological model Mac-PDM. Mac-PDM is forced with monthly ERAI-Interim reanalysis climate data on a one degree resolution. Groundwater withdrawal capacity, total water demand and storage capacity are taken from the IMPACT model provided by the International Food Research Institute (IFPRI). Storage refers to any kind of surface reservoir whose water can be managed and used for human activities in the industrial, domestic and agricultural sectors. Groundwater withdrawal capacity refers to the technological capacity to pump water rather than the amount of groundwater available. Total water demand includes consumptive water

  7. Depth limit of littoral vegetation in a storage reservoir: A case study of Lipno Reservoir (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krolová, M.; Čížková, Hana; Hejzlar, Josef


    Roč. 42, č. 2 (2012), s. 165-174 ISSN 0075-9511 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/09/1764 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 244121 - REFRESH Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517; CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : macrophyte * littoral * reservoir * shore erosion * ecological potential * European Water Framework Directive Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 1.565, year: 2012

  8. Geology of the Roswell artesian basin, New Mexico, and its relation to the Hondo Reservoir and Effect on artesian aquifer storage of flood water in Hondo Reservoir (United States)

    Bean, Robert T.; Theis, Charles V.


    In the Roswell Basin in southeastern New Mexico artesian water is produced from cavernous zones in the carbonate rocks of the San Andres formation and the lower part of the Chalk Bluff formation, both of Permian age. The Hondo Reservoir, 9 miles west-southwest of Roswell, was completed by the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation in 1907, to store waters of the Rio Hondo for irrigation. The project was not successful, as the impounded water escaped rapidly through holes in the gypsum and limestone of the San Andres formation constituting its floor. Of 27,000 acre~feet that entered the reservoir between 1908 and 1913, only 1,100 acre-feet was drawn Ollt for use, the remainder escaping through the floor of the reservoir. Since 1939, plans have been drawn up by the State Engineer and by Federal agencies to utilize the reservoir to protect Roswell from floods. It has also been suggested that water from the Pecos River might be diverted into underground storage through the reservoir. Sinkholes in the Roswell Basin are largely clustered in areas where gypsum occurs in the bedrock. Collapse of strata is due to solution of underlying rock commonly containing gypsum. Domes occur in gypsiferous strata near Salt Creek. The Bottomless Lakes, sinkhole lakes in the escarpment on the east side of the Pecos, are believed to have developed in north-south hinge-line fractures opened when the westernmost beds in the escarpment collapsed. Collapse was due to solution and removal of gypsiferous rock by artesian water which now fills the lakes.

  9. Characterization of biocenosis in the storage-reservoirs of liquid radioactive wastes of 'Mayak' PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryakhin, E.; Tryapitsina, G.; Andreyev, S.; Akleyev, A. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine - URCRM (Russian Federation); Mokrov, Y.; Ivanov, I. [Mayak PA (Russian Federation)


    A number of storage-reservoirs of liquid radioactive wastes of 'Mayak' Production Association ('Mayak' PA) with different levels of radioactive contamination: reservoir R-17 ('Staroye Boloto'), reservoir R-9 (Lake Karachay), reservoirs of the Techa Cascade R-3 (Koksharov pond), R-4 (Metlinsky pond), R-10 and R-11 is located in Chelyabinsk Oblast (Russia). The operation of these reservoirs began in 1949-1964. Full-scale hydro-biological studies of these reservoirs were started in 2007. The research into the status of biocenosis of these storage reservoirs of liquid radioactive wastes of 'Mayak' PA was performed in 2007 - 2011. The status of biocenosis was evaluated in accordance with the status of following communities: bacterio-plankton, phytoplankton, zooplankton, zoo-benthos, macrophytes and ichthyofauna. The status of ecosystems was determined by radioactive and chemical contamination of water bodies. The results of hydro-biological investigations showed that no changes in the status of biota in reservoir R-11 were revealed as compared to the biological parameters of the water bodies of this geographical zone. In terms of biological parameters the status of the ecosystem of the reservoir R-11 is characterized by a sufficient biological diversity, and can be considered acceptable. The ecosystem of the reservoir R-10 maintains its functional integrity, although there were registered negative effects in the zoo-benthos community associated with the decrease in the parameters of the development of pelophylic mollusks that live at the bottom of the water body throughout the entire life cycle. In reservoir R-4 the parameters of the development of phytoplankton did not differ from those in Reservoirs R-11 and R-10; however, a significant reduction in the quantity of Cladocera and Copepoda was registered in the zooplankton community, while in the zoo-benthos there were no small mollusks that live aground throughout the entire life

  10. Geochemical Impacts of Leaking CO2 from Subsurface Storage Reservoirs to Unconfined and Confined Aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Brown, Christopher F.; Wang, Guohui; Sullivan, E. C.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Harvey, Omar R.; Bowden, Mark


    Experimental research work has been conducted and is undergoing at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to address a variety of scientific issues related with the potential leaks of the carbon dioxide (CO2) gas from deep storage reservoirs. The main objectives of this work are as follows: • Develop a systematic understanding of how CO2 leakage is likely to influence pertinent geochemical processes (e.g., dissolution/precipitation, sorption/desorption and redox reactions) in the aquifer sediments. • Identify prevailing environmental conditions that would dictate one geochemical outcome over another. • Gather useful information to support site selection, risk assessment, policy-making, and public education efforts associated with geological carbon sequestration. In this report, we present results from experiments conducted at PNNL to address research issues related to the main objectives of this effort. A series of batch and column experiments and solid phase characterization studies (quantitative x-ray diffraction and wet chemical extractions with a concentrated acid) were conducted with representative rocks and sediments from an unconfined, oxidizing carbonate aquifer, i.e., Edwards aquifer in Texas, and a confined aquifer, i.e., the High Plains aquifer in Kansas. These materials were exposed to a CO2 gas stream simulating CO2 gas leaking scenarios, and changes in aqueous phase pH and chemical composition were measured in liquid and effluent samples collected at pre-determined experimental times. Additional research to be conducted during the current fiscal year will further validate these results and will address other important remaining issues. Results from these experimental efforts will provide valuable insights for the development of site-specific, generation III reduced order models. In addition, results will initially serve as input parameters during model calibration runs and, ultimately, will be used to test model predictive capability and

  11. Simulation of CO2 Sequestration at Rock Spring Uplift, Wyoming: Heterogeneity and Uncertainties in Storage Capacity, Injectivity and Leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Hailin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dai, Zhenxue [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jiao, Zunsheng [Wyoming State Geological Survey; Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Surdam, Ronald C. [Wyoming State Geological Survey


    Many geological, geochemical, geomechanical and hydrogeological factors control CO{sub 2} storage in subsurface. Among them heterogeneity in saline aquifer can seriously influence design of injection wells, CO{sub 2} injection rate, CO{sub 2} plume migration, storage capacity, and potential leakage and risk assessment. This study applies indicator geostatistics, transition probability and Markov chain model at the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming generating facies-based heterogeneous fields for porosity and permeability in target saline aquifer (Pennsylvanian Weber sandstone) and surrounding rocks (Phosphoria, Madison and cap-rock Chugwater). A multiphase flow simulator FEHM is then used to model injection of CO{sub 2} into the target saline aquifer involving field-scale heterogeneity. The results reveal that (1) CO{sub 2} injection rates in different injection wells significantly change with local permeability distributions; (2) brine production rates in different pumping wells are also significantly impacted by the spatial heterogeneity in permeability; (3) liquid pressure evolution during and after CO{sub 2} injection in saline aquifer varies greatly for different realizations of random permeability fields, and this has potential important effects on hydraulic fracturing of the reservoir rock, reactivation of pre-existing faults and the integrity of the cap-rock; (4) CO{sub 2} storage capacity estimate for Rock Springs Uplift is 6614 {+-} 256 Mt at 95% confidence interval, which is about 36% of previous estimate based on homogeneous and isotropic storage formation; (5) density profiles show that the density of injected CO{sub 2} below 3 km is close to that of the ambient brine with given geothermal gradient and brine concentration, which indicates CO{sub 2} plume can sink to the deep before reaching thermal equilibrium with brine. Finally, we present uncertainty analysis of CO{sub 2} leakage into overlying formations due to heterogeneity in both the target saline

  12. Photodimerization in dipeptides for high capacity optical digital storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.; Berg, R.H.


    We have developed peptide materials with chromophores that undergo cycloaddition, suitable for terabit optical digital storage in a 5.25 in. disc. The rationale behind this design is that the length and rigidity of the backbone can be adjusted to facilitate the formation of a photodimer without...... large physical movements of the chromophores on exposure to UV light. Initially strongly absorbing films transmit up to 50% of light on irradiation at dimerizing wavelengths. This property can be utilized to record grey levels. An intensity-dependent transmission behavior has been observed that may...

  13. High-Capacity Hydrogen-Based Green-Energy Storage Solutions For The Grid Balancing (United States)

    D'Errico, F.; Screnci, A.

    One of the current main challenges in green-power storage and smart grids is the lack of effective solutions for accommodating the unbalance between renewable energy sources, that offer intermittent electricity supply, and a variable electricity demand. Energy management systems have to be foreseen for the near future, while they still represent a major challenge. Integrating intermittent renewable energy sources, by safe and cost-effective energy storage systems based on solid state hydrogen is today achievable thanks to recently some technology breakthroughs. Optimized solid storage method made of magnesium-based hydrides guarantees a very rapid absorption and desorption kinetics. Coupled with electrolyzer technology, high-capacity storage of green-hydrogen is therefore practicable. Besides these aspects, magnesium has been emerging as environmentally friend energy storage method to sustain integration, monitoring and control of large quantity of GWh from high capacity renewable generation in the EU.

  14. Parametric Study on the Dynamic Heat Storage Capacity of Building Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Nikolai; Manz, H.; Heiselberg, Per


    as their interrelation. The potential of increasing thermal mass by using phase change materials (PCM) was estimated assuming increased thermal capacity. The results show a significant impact of the heat transfer coefficient on heat storage capacity, especially for thick, thermally heavy elements. The storage capacity...... of onedimensional heat conduction in a slab with convective boundary condition was applied to quantify the dynamic heat storage capacity of a particular building element. The impact of different parameters, such as slab thickness, material properties and the heat transfer coefficient was investigated, as well......In modern, extensively glazed office buildings, due to high solar and internal loads and increased comfort expectations, air conditioning systems are often used even in moderate and cold climates. Particularly in this case, passive cooling by night-time ventilation seems to offer considerable...

  15. Canopy storage capacity and wettability of leaves and needles: The effect of water temperature changes (United States)

    Klamerus-Iwan, Anna; Błońska, Ewa


    The canopy storage capacity (S) is a major component of the surface water balance. We analysed the relationship between the tree canopy water storage capacity and leaf wettability under changing simulated rainfall temperature. We estimated the effect of the rain temperature change on the canopy storage capacity and contact angle of leave and needle surfaces based on two scenarios. Six dominant forest trees were analysed: English oak (Quercus roburL.), common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill), silver fir (Abies alba), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.),and Norway spruce (Picea abies L.). Twigs of these species were collected from Krynica Zdrój, that is, the Experimental Forestry unit of the University of Agriculture in Cracow (southern Poland). Experimental analyses (simulations of precipitation) were performed in a laboratory under controlled conditions. The canopy storage capacity and leaf wettability classification were determined at 12 water temperatures and a practical calculator to compute changes of S and contact angles of droplets was developed. Among all species, an increase of the rainfall temperature by 0.7 °C decreases the contact angle between leave and needle surfaces by 2.41° and increases the canopy storage capacity by 0.74 g g-1; an increase of the rain temperature by 2.7 °C decreases the contact angle by 9.29° and increases the canopy storage capacity by 2.85 g g-1. A decreased contact angle between a water droplet and leaf surface indicates increased wettability. Thus, our results show that an increased temperature increases the leaf wettability in all examined species. The comparison of different species implies that the water temperature has the strongest effect on spruce and the weakest effect on oak. These data indicate that the rainfall temperature influences the canopy storage capacity.

  16. Peak Discharge, Flood Profile, Flood Inundation, and Debris Movement Accompanying the Failure of the Upper Reservoir at the Taum Sauk Pump Storage Facility near Lesterville, Missouri (United States)

    Rydlund, Jr., Paul H.


    The Taum Sauk pump-storage hydroelectric power plant located in Reynolds County, Missouri, uses turbines that operate as pumps and hydraulic head generated by discharging water from an upper to a lower reservoir to produce electricity. A 55-acre upper reservoir with a 1.5- billion gallon capacity was built on top of Proffit Mountain, approximately 760 feet above the floodplain of the East Fork Black River. At approximately 5:16 am on December 14, 2005, a 680-foot wide section of the upper reservoir embankment failed suddenly, sending water rushing down the western side of Proffit Mountain and emptying into the floodplain of East Fork Black River. Flood waters from the upper reservoir flowed downstream through Johnson's Shut-Ins State Park and into the lower reservoir of the East Fork Black River. Floods such as this present unique challenges and opportunities to analyze and document peak-flow characteristics, flood profiles, inundation extents, and debris movement. On December 16, 2005, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data were collected and used to support hydraulic analyses, forensic failure analyses, damage extent, and mitigation of future disasters. To evaluate the impact of sedimentation in the lower reservoir, a bathymetric survey conducted on December 22 and 23, 2005, was compared to a previous bathymetric survey conducted in April, 2005. Survey results indicated the maximum reservoir capacity difference of 147 acre-feet existed at a pool elevation of 730 feet. Peak discharge estimates of 289,000 cubic feet per second along Proffit Mountain and 95,000 cubic feet per second along the East Fork Black River were determined through indirect measurement techniques. The magnitude of the embankment failure flood along the East Fork Black River was approximately 4 times greater than the 100-year flood frequency estimate of 21,900 cubic feet per second, and approximately 3 times greater than the 500-year flood frequency estimate of 30,500 cubic feet per second

  17. Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Capacity over Electro-synthesized HKUST-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witri Wahyu Lestari


    Full Text Available HKUST-1 [Cu3(1,3,5-BTC2] (BTC = benzene-tri-carboxylate was synthesized using an electrochemical method and tested for hydrogen storage. The obtained material showed a remarkably higher hydrogen uptake over reported HKUST-1 and reached until 4.75 wt% at room temperature and low pressure up to 1.2 bar. This yield was compared to HKUST-1 obtained from the solvothermal method, which showed a hydrogen uptake of only 1.19 wt%. Enhancement of hydrogen sorption of the electro-synthesized product was due to the more appropriate surface area and pore size, effected by the preferable physical interaction between the hydrogen gasses and the copper ions as unsaturated metal centers in the frameworks of HKUST-1.

  18. Assessing the adequacy of water storage infrastructure capacity under hydroclimatic variability and water demands in the United States (United States)

    Ho, M. W.; Devineni, N.; Cook, E. R.; Lall, U.


    As populations and associated economic activity in the US evolve, regional demands for water likewise change. For regions dependent on surface water, dams and reservoirs are critical to storing and managing releases of water and regulating the temporal and spatial availability of water in order to meet these demands. Storage capacities typically range from seasonal storage in the east to multi-annual and decadal-scale storage in the drier west. However, most dams in the US were designed with limited knowledge regarding the range, frequency, and persistence of hydroclimatic extremes. Demands for water supplied by these dams have likewise changed. Furthermore, many dams in the US are now reaching or have already exceeded their economic design life. The converging issues of aging dams, improved knowledge of hydroclimatic variability, and evolving demands for dam services result in a pressing need to evaluate existing reservoir capacities with respect to contemporary water demands, long term hydroclimatic variability, and service reliability into the future. Such an effort is possible given the recent development of two datasets that respectively address hydroclimatic variability in the conterminous United States over the past 555 years and human water demand related water stress over the same region. The first data set is a paleoclimate reconstruction of streamflow variability across the CONUS region based on a tree-ring informed reconstruction of the Palmer Drought Severity Index. This streamflow reconstruction suggested that wet spells with shorter drier spells were a key feature of 20th century streamflow compared with the preceding 450 years. The second data set in an annual cumulative drought index that is a measure of water balance based on water supplied through precipitation and water demands based on evaporative demands, agricultural, urban, and industrial demands. This index identified urban and regional hotspots that were particularly dependent on water

  19. CO2 Saline Storage Demonstration in Colorado Sedimentary Basins. Applied Studies in Reservoir Assessment and Dynamic Processes Affecting Industrial Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nummedal, Dag [Trustees Of The Colorado School Of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Doran, Kevin [Trustees Of The Colorado School Of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Sitchler, Alexis [Trustees Of The Colorado School Of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); McCray, John [Trustees Of The Colorado School Of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Mouzakis, Katherine [Trustees Of The Colorado School Of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Glossner, Andy [Trustees Of The Colorado School Of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Mandernack, Kevin [Trustees Of The Colorado School Of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Gutierrez, Marte [Trustees Of The Colorado School Of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Pranter, Matthew [Trustees Of The Colorado School Of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Rybowiak, Chris [Trustees Of The Colorado School Of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)


    This multitask research project was conducted in anticipation of a possible future increase in industrial efforts at CO2 storage in Colorado sedimentary basins. Colorado is already the home to the oldest Rocky Mountain CO2 storage site, the Rangely Oil Field, where CO2-EOR has been underway since the 1980s. The Colorado Geological Survey has evaluated storage options statewide, and as part of the SW Carbon Sequestration Partnership the Survey, is deeply engaged in and committed to suitable underground CO2 storage. As a more sustainable energy industry is becoming a global priority, it is imperative to explore the range of technical options available to reduce emissions from fossil fuels. One such option is to store at least some emitted CO2 underground. In this NETL-sponsored CO2 sequestration project, the Colorado School of Mines and our partners at the University of Colorado have focused on a set of the major fundamental science and engineering issues surrounding geomechanics, mineralogy, geochemistry and reservoir architecture of possible CO2 storage sites (not limited to Colorado). Those are the central themes of this final report and reported below in Tasks 2, 3, 4, and 6. Closely related to these reservoir geoscience issues are also legal, environmental and public acceptance concerns about pore space accessibility—as a precondition for CO2 storage. These are addressed in Tasks 1, 5 and 7. Some debates about the future course of the energy industry can become acrimonius. It is true that the physics of combustion of hydrocarbons makes it impossible for fossil energy to attain a carbon footprint anywhere nearly as low as that of renewables. However, there are many offsetting benefits, not the least that fossil energy is still plentiful, it has a global and highly advanced distribution system in place, and the footprint that the fossil energy infrastructure occupies is

  20. Reservoir characterization and final pre-test analysis in support of the compressed-air-energy-storage Pittsfield aquifer field test in Pike County, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiles, L.E.; McCann, R.A.


    The work reported is part of a field experimental program to demonstrate and evaluate compressed air energy storage in a porous media aquifer reservoir near Pittsfield, Illinois. The reservoir is described. Numerical modeling of the reservoir was performed concurrently with site development. The numerical models were applied to predict the thermohydraulic performance of the porous media reservoir. This reservoir characterization and pre-test analysis made use of evaluation of bubble development, water coning, thermal development, and near-wellbore desaturation. The work was undertaken to define the time required to develop an air storage bubble of adequate size, to assess the specification of instrumentation and above-ground equipment, and to develop and evaluate operational strategies for air cycling. A parametric analysis was performed for the field test reservoir. (LEW)

  1. Sediment transport-storage relations for degrading, gravel bed channels (United States)

    Thomas E. Lisle; Michael Church


    In a drainage network,sediment is transferred through a series of channel/valley segments (natural sediment storage reservoirs) that are distinguished from their neighbors by their particular capacity to store and transport sediment. We propose that the sediment transport capacity of each reservoir is a unique positive function of storage volume, which influences...

  2. Simulation of Porous Medium Hydrogen Storage - Estimation of Storage Capacity and Deliverability for a North German anticlinal Structure (United States)

    Wang, B.; Bauer, S.; Pfeiffer, W. T.


    Large scale energy storage will be required to mitigate offsets between electric energy demand and the fluctuating electric energy production from renewable sources like wind farms, if renewables dominate energy supply. Porous formations in the subsurface could provide the large storage capacities required if chemical energy carriers such as hydrogen gas produced during phases of energy surplus are stored. This work assesses the behavior of a porous media hydrogen storage operation through numerical scenario simulation of a synthetic, heterogeneous sandstone formation formed by an anticlinal structure. The structural model is parameterized using data available for the North German Basin as well as data given for formations with similar characteristics. Based on the geological setting at the storage site a total of 15 facies distributions is generated and the hydrological parameters are assigned accordingly. Hydraulic parameters are spatially distributed according to the facies present and include permeability, porosity relative permeability and capillary pressure. The storage is designed to supply energy in times of deficiency on the order of seven days, which represents the typical time span of weather conditions with no wind. It is found that using five injection/extraction wells 21.3 mio sm³ of hydrogen gas can be stored and retrieved to supply 62,688 MWh of energy within 7 days. This requires a ratio of working to cushion gas of 0.59. The retrievable energy within this time represents the demand of about 450000 people. Furthermore it is found that for longer storage times, larger gas volumes have to be used, for higher delivery rates additionally the number of wells has to be increased. The formation investigated here thus seems to offer sufficient capacity and deliverability to be used for a large scale hydrogen gas storage operation.

  3. The magical number 4 in short-term memory: a reconsideration of mental storage capacity. (United States)

    Cowan, N


    Miller (1956) summarized evidence that people can remember about seven chunks in short-term memory (STM) tasks. However, that number was meant more as a rough estimate and a rhetorical device than as a real capacity limit. Others have since suggested that there is a more precise capacity limit, but that it is only three to five chunks. The present target article brings together a wide variety of data on capacity limits suggesting that the smaller capacity limit is real. Capacity limits will be useful in analyses of information processing only if the boundary conditions for observing them can be carefully described. Four basic conditions in which chunks can be identified and capacity limits can accordingly be observed are: (1) when information overload limits chunks to individual stimulus items, (2) when other steps are taken specifically to block the recording of stimulus items into larger chunks, (3) in performance discontinuities caused by the capacity limit, and (4) in various indirect effects of the capacity limit. Under these conditions, rehearsal and long-term memory cannot be used to combine stimulus items into chunks of an unknown size; nor can storage mechanisms that are not capacity-limited, such as sensory memory, allow the capacity-limited storage mechanism to be refilled during recall. A single, central capacity limit averaging about four chunks is implicated along with other, noncapacity-limited sources. The pure STM capacity limit expressed in chunks is distinguished from compound STM limits obtained when the number of separately held chunks is unclear. Reasons why pure capacity estimates fall within a narrow range are discussed and a capacity limit for the focus of attention is proposed.

  4. Storage capacity and retrieval time of small-world neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Hiraku; Odagaki, Takashi


    To understand the influence of structure on the function of neural networks, we study the storage capacity and the retrieval time of Hopfield-type neural networks for four network structures: regular, small world, random networks generated by the Watts-Strogatz (WS) model, and the same network as the neural network of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Using computer simulations, we find that (1) as the randomness of network is increased, its storage capacity is enhanced; (2) the retrieval time of WS networks does not depend on the network structure, but the retrieval time of C. elegans's neural network is longer than that of WS networks; (3) the storage capacity of the C. elegans network is smaller than that of networks generated by the WS model, though the neural network of C. elegans is considered to be a small-world network

  5. Spent fuel storage capacities. An update of DOE/RL-84-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Spent fuel storage capacities at some commercial light water reactors (LWRs) are inadequate to handle projected spent fuel discharges. This report presents estimates of potential near-term requirements for additional LWR spent fuel storage capacity, based on information supplied by utilities operating commercial nuclear power plants. These estimates provide information needed for planning the Department of Energy's (DOE) activities to be carried out under the DOE's Commercial Spent Fuel Management (CSFM) Program, in conjunction with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The estimates in this report cover the period from the present through the year 2000. Although the DOE objective is to begin accepting spent fuel for final disposal in 1998, types of fuel and the receipt rates to be shipped are not yet known. Hence, this report makes no assumption regarding such fuel shipments. The resport also assesses the possible impacts of increased fuel exposure and spent fuel transhipment on the requirements for additional storage capacity

  6. Assessing Reservoir Depositional Environments to Develop and Quantify Improvements in CO2 Storage Efficiency. A Reservoir Simulation Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okwen, Roland [University of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Frailey, Scott [University of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Leetaru, Hannes [University of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Moulton, Sandy [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)


    The storage potential and fluid movement within formations are dependent on the unique hydraulic characteristics of their respective depositional environments. Storage efficiency (E) quantifies the potential for storage in a geologic depositional environment and is used to assess basinal or regional CO2 storage resources. Current estimates of storage resources are calculated using common E ranges by lithology and not by depositional environment. The objectives of this project are to quantify E ranges and identify E enhancement strategies for different depositional environments via reservoir simulation studies. The depositional environments considered include deltaic, shelf clastic, shelf carbonate, fluvial deltaic, strandplain, reef, fluvial and alluvial, and turbidite. Strategies considered for enhancing E include CO2 injection via vertical, horizontal, and deviated wells, selective completions, water production, and multi-well injection. Conceptual geologic and geocellular models of the depositional environments were developed based on data from Illinois Basin oil fields and gas storage sites. The geologic and geocellular models were generalized for use in other US sedimentary basins. An important aspect of this work is the development of conceptual geologic and geocellular models that reflect the uniqueness of each depositional environment. Different injection well completions methods were simulated to investigate methods of enhancing E in the presence of geologic heterogeneity specific to a depositional environment. Modeling scenarios included horizontal wells (length, orientation, and inclination), selective and dynamic completions, water production, and multiwell injection. A Geologic Storage Efficiency Calculator (GSECalc) was developed to calculate E from reservoir simulation output. Estimated E values were normalized to diminish their dependency on fluid relative permeability. Classifying depositional environments according to

  7. Study of nuclear waste storage capacity at Yucca mountain repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Wei; Apted, M.; Kessler, J.H.


    The Yucca Mountain repository is applying license for storing 70000 MTHM nuclear waste including commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) and defense high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The 70000 MTHM is a legal not the technical limit. To study the technical limit, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) carried out a systematic study to explore the potential impact if the repository will accept more waste. This paper describes the model and results for evaluating the spent-fuel disposal capacity for a repository at Yucca Mountain from the thermal and hydrological point of view. Two proposed alternative repository designs are analyzed, both of which would fit into the currently well-characterized site and, therefore, not necessitating any additional site characterization at Yucca Mountain. The two- and three-dimensional models for coupled thermo-hydrological analysis extends from the surface to the water table, covering all the major and subgroup rock layers of the planned repository, as well as formations above and below the repository horizon. A dual-porosity and dual-permeability approach is used to model coupled heat and mass transfer through fracture formations. The waste package heating and ventilation are all assumed to follow those of the current design. The results show that the repository is able to accommodate three times the amount of spent fuel compared to the current design, without extra spatial expansion or exceeding current thermal and hydrological constraints. (authors)

  8. A first-principles study of hydrogen storage capacity based on Li-Na-decorated silicene. (United States)

    Sheng, Zhe; Wu, Shujing; Dai, Xianying; Zhao, Tianlong; Hao, Yue


    Surface decoration with alkali metal adatoms has been predicted to be promising for silicene to obtain high hydrogen storage capacity. Herein, we performed a detailed study of the hydrogen storage properties of Li and Na co-decorated silicene (Li-Na-decorated silicene) based on first-principles calculations using van der Waals correction. The hydrogen adsorption behaviors, including the adsorption order, the maximum capacity, and the corresponding mechanism were analyzed in detail. Our calculations show that up to three hydrogen molecules can firmly bind to each Li atom and six for each Na atom, respectively. The hydrogen storage capacity is estimated to be as high as 6.65 wt% with a desirable average adsorption energy of 0.29 eV/H2. It is confirmed that both the charge-induced electrostatic interaction and the orbital hybridizations play a great role in hydrogen storage. Our results may enhance our fundamental understanding of the hydrogen storage mechanism, which is of great importance for the practical application of Li-Na-decorated silicene in hydrogen storage.

  9. Large capacity storage of integrated objects before change blindness. (United States)

    Landman, Rogier; Spekreijse, Henk; Lamme, Victor A F


    Normal people have a strikingly low ability to detect changes in a visual scene. This has been taken as evidence that the brain represents only a few objects at a time, namely those currently in the focus of attention. In the present study, subjects were asked to detect changes in the orientation of rectangular figures in a textured display across a 1600 ms gray interval. In the first experiment, change detection improved when the location of a possible change was cued during the interval. The cue remained effective during the entire interval, but after the interval, it was ineffective, suggesting that an initially large representation was overwritten by the post-change display. To control for an effect of light intensity during the interval on the decay of the representation, we compared performance with a gray or a white interval screen in a second experiment. We found no difference between these conditions. In the third experiment, attention was occasionally misdirected during the interval by first cueing the wrong figure, before cueing the correct figure. This did not compromise performance compared to a single cue, indicating that when an item is attentionally selected, the representation of yet unchosen items remains available. In the fourth experiment, the cue was shown to be effective when changes in figure size and orientation were randomly mixed. At the time the cue appeared, subjects could not know whether size or orientation would change, therefore these results suggest that the representation contains features in their 'bound' state. Together, these findings indicate that change blindness involves overwriting of a large capacity representation by the post-change display.

  10. Evolution of antioxidant capacity during storage of selected fruits and vegetables. (United States)

    Kevers, Claire; Falkowski, Michael; Tabart, Jessica; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Dommes, Jacques; Pincemail, Joël


    Interest in the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables is, to a large extent, due to its content of bioactive nutrients and their importance as dietary antioxidants. Among all of the selected fruits and vegetables, strawberries and black grapes have relatively high antioxidant capacities associated with high contents of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, and flavonols. More interesting, the results of this study indicated that in most fruits and vegetables storage did not affect negatively the antioxidant capacity. Better, in some cases, an increase of the antioxidant capacity was observed in the days following their purchase, accompanied by an increase in phenolic compounds. In general, fruits and vegetables visually spoil before any significant antioxidant capacity loss occurs except in banana and broccoli. When ascorbic acid or flavonoids (aglycons of flavonols and anthocyanins) were concerned, the conclusions were similar. Their content was generally stable during storage.

  11. Experimental and Numerical Study of Effect of Thermal Management on Storage Capacity of the Adsorbed Natural Gas Vessel

    KAUST Repository

    Ybyraiymkul, Doskhan; Ng, Kim Choon; Кaltayev, Aidarkhan


    One of the main challenges in the adsorbed natural gas (ANG) storage system is the thermal effect of adsorption, which significantly lowers storage capacity. These challenges can be solved by efficient thermal management system. In this paper

  12. Engineering program in order to increase the irradiated fuel storage capacity in pool facilities of Juragua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez R, J.


    In 1993, a technical program in the spent fuel storage area of Nuclear Plant Juragua was launched. Such a program tries to carry out an engineering assessment of the possibility of increasing the spent fuel storage capacity in pool storage facilities by using high density racks (re-racking) instead of the original (non-compact) ones. The purpose of the above-mentioned program is to evaluate possible solutions that can be applied to the construction works prior to plant operation. The first stage of the program for the 1994-95 period is an ongoing Engineering-Economic Feasibility Study (EEFS), which endeavors to examine the capabilities of the reloading pool in Unit-1 Reactor building and long-term storage pool in auxiliary building in high density storage conditions. Technical details of the EEFS and reached results and difficulties are described. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs

  13. Effects of Thinning Intensities on Soil Infiltration and Water Storage Capacity in a Chinese Pine-Oak Mixed Forest


    Chen, Lili; Yuan, Zhiyou; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Dexiang; Mu, Xingmin


    Thinning is a crucial practice in the forest ecosystem management. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity of pine-oak mixed forest under three different thinning intensity treatments (15%, 30%, and 60%) were studied in Qinling Mountains of China. The thinning operations had a significant influence on soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity in different thinning treatments followed the order of control (nonthinning):


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: reservoir model, siltation, sediment, catchment, sediment transport. 1. Introduction. Sediment ... rendered water storage structures useless in less than 25 years. ... reservoir, thus reducing the space available for water storage and ...

  15. Energy efficiency and capacity retention of Ni–MH batteries for storage applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Wenhua H.; Zhu, Ying; Davis, Zenda; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.


    Highlights: ► Ni–MH battery energy efficiency was evaluated at full and partial state-of-charge. ► State-of-charge and state-of-recharge were studied by voltage changes and capacity measurement. ► Capacity retention of the NiMH-B2 battery was 70% after fully charge and 1519 h of storage. ► The inefficient charge process started at ca. 90% of rated capacity when charged at ⩽0.2 C rate. ► Battery durability and low self-discharge strategies are analyzed and discussed for energy storage needs. - Abstract: The Ni–MH batteries were tested for battery energy storage characteristics, including the effects of battery charge or discharge at different rates. The battery energy efficiency and capacity retention were evaluated through measuring the charge/discharge capacities and energies during full and partial state-of-charge (SoC) operations. Energy efficiency results were obtained at various charge input levels and different charge and discharge rates. The inefficient charging process started to take place at ca. 90% state-of-recharge (SoR) when charged at no more than 0.2 C rate. For the NiMH-B2 battery after an approximately full charge (∼100% SoC at 120% SoR and a 0.2 C charge/discharge rate), the capacity retention was obtained as 83% after 360 h of storage, and 70% after 1519 h of storage. The energy efficiency was decreased from 74.0% to 50% after 1519 h of storage time. The Coulomb efficiency was initially 83.34%, and was reduced to 57.95% after 1519 h of storage. The battery has relatively higher energy efficiency at approximately 50% SoC. The energy efficiency was calculated to be more than 92% when the NiMH-C3 battery was charged to 30–70% SoC then discharged to 0% SoC at a 0.2 C charge/discharge rate. In consideration of energy efficiency, charge acceptance, capacity retention rate, and power output needs, as well as Nelson’s analysis on HEV power requirements, the Ni–MH battery is appropriate to work at ca. 50 ± 10% SoC with an

  16. Numerical simulations of enhanced gas recovery at the Zalezcze gas field in Poland confirm high CO2 storage capacity and mechanical integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimkowski, Lukasz; Nagy, Stanislaw; Papiernik, Bartosz; Orlic, Bogdan; Kempka, Thomas


    Natural gas from the Zalecze gas field located in the Fore-Sudetic Monocline of the Southern Permian Basin has been produced since November 1973, and continuous gas production led to a decrease in the initial reservoir pressure from 151 bar to about 22 bar until 2010. We investigated a prospective enhanced gas recovery operation at the Zalecze gas field by coupled numerical hydro-mechanical simulations to account for the CO 2 storage capacity, trapping efficiency and mechanical integrity of the reservoir, cap-rock and regional faults. Dynamic flow simulations carried out indicate a CO 2 storage capacity of 106.6 Mt with a trapping efficiency of about 43% (45.8 Mt CO 2 ) established after 500 years of simulation. Two independent strategies on the assessment of mechanical integrity were followed by two different modeling groups resulting in the implementation of field- to regional-scale hydro-mechanical simulation models. The simulation results based on application of different constitutive laws for the lithological units show deviations of 31% to 93% for the calculated maximum vertical displacements at the reservoir top. Nevertheless, results of both simulation strategies indicate that fault reactivation generating potential leakage pathways from the reservoir to shallower units is very unlikely due to the low fault slip tendency (close to zero) in the Zechstein cap-rocks. Consequently, our simulation results also emphasise that the supra- and sub-saliferous fault systems at the Zalecze gas field are independent and very likely not hydraulically connected. Based on our simulation results derived from two independent modeling strategies with similar simulation results on fault and cap-rock integrity, we conclude that the investigated enhanced gas recovery scheme is feasible, with a negligibly low risk of relevant fault reactivation or formation fluid leakage through the Zechstein cap-rocks. (authors)

  17. Energy density and storage capacity cost comparison of conceptual solid and liquid sorption seasonal heat storage systems for low-temperature space heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scapino, L.; Zondag, H.A.; Van Bael, J.; Diriken, J.; Rindt, C.C.M.

    Sorption heat storage can potentially store thermal energy for long time periods with a higher energy density compared to conventional storage technologies. A performance comparison in terms of energy density and storage capacity costs of different sorption system concepts used for seasonal heat

  18. Charge Modulation in Graphitic Carbon Nitride as a Switchable Approach to High-Capacity Hydrogen Storage. (United States)

    Tan, Xin; Kou, Liangzhi; Tahini, Hassan A; Smith, Sean C


    Electrical charging of graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets (g-C4 N3 and g-C3 N4 ) is proposed as a strategy for high-capacity and electrocatalytically switchable hydrogen storage. Using first-principle calculations, we found that the adsorption energy of H2 molecules on graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets is dramatically enhanced by injecting extra electrons into the adsorbent. At full hydrogen coverage, the negatively charged graphitic carbon nitride achieves storage capacities up to 6-7 wt %. In contrast to other hydrogen storage approaches, the storage/release occurs spontaneously once extra electrons are introduced or removed, and these processes can be simply controlled by switching on/off the charging voltage. Therefore, this approach promises both facile reversibility and tunable kinetics without the need of specific catalysts. Importantly, g-C4 N3 has good electrical conductivity and high electron mobility, which can be a very good candidate for electron injection/release. These predictions may prove to be instrumental in searching for a new class of high-capacity hydrogen storage materials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. The effect of oxygen storage capacity on the dynamic characteristics of an automotive catalytic converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamim, Tariq


    Automotive catalytic converters, which are employed to reduce engine exhaust emissions, are subjected to highly transient conditions during a typical driving cycle. These transient conditions arise from changes in driving mode, the hysteresis and flow lags of the feedback control system, and result in fluctuations of air-fuel ratio, exhaust gas flow rates and temperatures. The catalyst performance is also strongly influenced by the oxygen storage capacity. This paper presents a computational investigation of the effect of oxygen storage capacity on the dynamic behavior of an automotive catalytic converter subjected to modulations in exhaust gases. The modulations are generated by forcing the temporal variations in exhaust gases air-fuel ratio, gas flow rates and temperatures. The study employs a single-channel based, one-dimensional, non-adiabatic model. The results show that the imposed modulations cause a significant departure in the catalyst behavior from its steady behavior, and the oxygen storage capacity plays an important role in determining the catalyst's response to the imposed modulations. Modulations and oxygen storage capacity are found to have relatively greater influence on the catalyst's performance near stoichiometric conditions

  20. The effect of oxygen storage capacity on the dynamic characteristics of an automotive catalytic converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamim, Tariq [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Michigan-Dearborn, Dearborn, MI 48128-2406 (United States)


    Automotive catalytic converters, which are employed to reduce engine exhaust emissions, are subjected to highly transient conditions during a typical driving cycle. These transient conditions arise from changes in driving mode, the hysteresis and flow lags of the feedback control system, and result in fluctuations of air-fuel ratio, exhaust gas flow rates and temperatures. The catalyst performance is also strongly influenced by the oxygen storage capacity. This paper presents a computational investigation of the effect of oxygen storage capacity on the dynamic behavior of an automotive catalytic converter subjected to modulations in exhaust gases. The modulations are generated by forcing the temporal variations in exhaust gases air-fuel ratio, gas flow rates and temperatures. The study employs a single-channel based, one-dimensional, non-adiabatic model. The results show that the imposed modulations cause a significant departure in the catalyst behavior from its steady behavior, and the oxygen storage capacity plays an important role in determining the catalyst's response to the imposed modulations. Modulations and oxygen storage capacity are found to have relatively greater influence on the catalyst's performance near stoichiometric conditions. (author)

  1. Increased Hydrologic Connectivity: Consequences of Reduced Water Storage Capacity in the Delmarva Peninsula (U.S.) (United States)

    Mclaughlin, D. L.; Jones, C. N.; Evenson, G. R.; Golden, H. E.; Lane, C.; Alexander, L. C.; Lang, M.


    Combined geospatial and modeling approaches are required to fully enumerate wetland hydrologic connectivity and downstream effects. Here, we utilized both geospatial analysis and hydrologic modeling to explore drivers and consequences of modified surface water connectivity in the Delmarva Peninsula, with particular focus on increased connectivity via pervasive wetland ditching. Our geospatial analysis quantified both historical and contemporary wetland storage capacity across the region, and suggests that over 70% of historical storage capacity has been lost due to this ditching. Building upon this analysis, we applied a catchment-scale model to simulate implications of reduced storage capacity on catchment-scale hydrology. In short, increased connectivity (and concomitantly reduced wetland water storage capacity) decreases catchment inundation extent and spatial heterogeneity, shortens cumulative residence times, and increases downstream flow variation with evident effects on peak and baseflow dynamics. As such, alterations in connectivity have implications for hydrologically mediated functions in catchments (e.g., nutrient removal) and downstream systems (e.g., maintenance of flow for aquatic habitat). Our work elucidates such consequences in Delmarva Peninsula while also providing new tools for broad application to target wetland restoration and conservation. Views expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect policies of the US EPA or US FWS.

  2. A central capacity limit to the simultaneous storage of visual and auditory arrays in working memory. (United States)

    Saults, J Scott; Cowan, Nelson


    If working memory is limited by central capacity (e.g., the focus of attention; N. Cowan, 2001), then storage limits for information in a single modality should apply also to the simultaneous storage of information from different modalities. The authors investigated this by combining a visual-array comparison task with a novel auditory-array comparison task in 5 experiments. Participants were to remember only the visual, only the auditory (unimodal memory conditions), or both arrays (bimodal memory conditions). Experiments 1 and 2 showed significant dual-task tradeoffs for visual but not for auditory capacity. In Experiments 3-5, the authors eliminated modality-specific memory by using postperceptual masks. Dual-task costs occurred for both modalities, and the number of auditory and visual items remembered together was no more than the higher of the unimodal capacities (visual: 3-4 items). The findings suggest a central capacity supplemented by modality- or code-specific storage and point to avenues for further research on the role of processing in central storage. 2007 APA

  3. Climate controls how ecosystems size the root zone storage capacity at catchment scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, H.; Hrachowitz, M.; Schymanski, S.J.; Fenicia, F.F.; Sriwongsitanon, N.; Savenije, H.H.G.


    The root zone moisture storage capacity (SR) of terrestrial ecosystems is a buffer providing vegetation continuous access to water and a critical factor controlling land-atmospheric moisture exchange, hydrological response, and biogeochemical processes. However, it is impossible to observe directly

  4. Integrated Reservoir Modeling of CO2-EOR Performance and Storage Potential in the Farnsworth Field Unit, Texas. (United States)

    Ampomah, W.; Balch, R. S.; Cather, M.; Dai, Z.


    We present a performance assessment methodology and storage potential for CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in partially depleted reservoirs. A three dimensional heterogeneous reservoir model was developed based on geological, geophysics and engineering data from Farnsworth field Unit (FWU). The model aided in improved characterization of prominent rock properties within the Pennsylvanian aged Morrow sandstone reservoir. Seismic attributes illuminated previously unknown faults and structural elements within the field. A laboratory fluid analysis was tuned to an equation of state and subsequently used to predict the thermodynamic minimum miscible pressure (MMP). Datasets including net-to-gross ratio, volume of shale, permeability, and burial history were used to model initial fault transmissibility based on Sperivick model. An improved history match of primary and secondary recovery was performed to set the basis for a CO2 flood study. The performance of the current CO2 miscible flood patterns was subsequently calibrated to historical production and injection data. Several prediction models were constructed to study the effect of recycling, addition of wells and /or new patterns, water alternating gas (WAG) cycles and optimum amount of CO2 purchase on incremental oil production and CO2 storage in the FWU. The history matching study successfully validated the presence of the previously undetected faults within FWU that were seen in the seismic survey. The analysis of the various prediction scenarios showed that recycling a high percentage of produced gas, addition of new wells and a gradual reduction in CO2 purchase after several years of operation would be the best approach to ensure a high percentage of recoverable incremental oil and sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 within the Morrow reservoir. Larger percentage of stored CO2 were dissolved in residual oil and less amount existed as supercritical free CO2. The geomechanical analysis on the caprock proved to an

  5. Working memory is not fixed-capacity: More active storage capacity for real-world objects than for simple stimuli. (United States)

    Brady, Timothy F; Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A


    Visual working memory is the cognitive system that holds visual information active to make it resistant to interference from new perceptual input. Information about simple stimuli-colors and orientations-is encoded into working memory rapidly: In under 100 ms, working memory ‟fills up," revealing a stark capacity limit. However, for real-world objects, the same behavioral limits do not hold: With increasing encoding time, people store more real-world objects and do so with more detail. This boost in performance for real-world objects is generally assumed to reflect the use of a separate episodic long-term memory system, rather than working memory. Here we show that this behavioral increase in capacity with real-world objects is not solely due to the use of separate episodic long-term memory systems. In particular, we show that this increase is a result of active storage in working memory, as shown by directly measuring neural activity during the delay period of a working memory task using EEG. These data challenge fixed-capacity working memory models and demonstrate that working memory and its capacity limitations are dependent upon our existing knowledge.

  6. Moisture buffer capacity of cement-lime plasters with enhanced thermal storage capacity (United States)

    Fořt, Jan; Pavlíková, Milena; Pavlík, Zbyšek


    Indoor air temperature and relative humidity represent important parameters for health and working efficiency of buildings occupants. Beside the moderation of temperature, investigation of hygric properties of building materials with connection to indoor relative humidity variation became recognized as a relevant factor for energy efficient building maintenance. The moisture buffer value introduced in the Nordtest protocol can be used for estimation of moisture buffer capacity of building materials or their multi-layered systems. In this paper, both the ideal and real moisture buffer values are examined on the basis of simulation of diurnal relative humidity fluctuations in plasters with incorporated PCM admixture. Retrieved data points to a complex effect of the tested plasters on possible moderation of buildings interior climate.

  7. Numerical modeling of self-limiting and self-enhancing caprock alteration induced by CO2 storage in a depleted gas reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tianfu; Gherardi, Fabrizio; Xu, Tianfu; Pruess, Karsten


    This paper presents numerical simulations of reactive transport which may be induced in the caprock of an on-shore depleted gas reservoir by the geological sequestration of carbon dioxide. The objective is to verify that CO{sub 2} geological disposal activities currently being planned for the study area are safe and do not induce any undesired environmental impact. In our model, fluid flow and mineral alteration are induced in the caprock by penetration of high CO{sub 2} concentrations from the underlying reservoir, where it was assumed that large amounts of CO{sub 2} have already been injected at depth. The main focus is on the potential effect of precipitation and dissolution processes on the sealing efficiency of caprock formations. Concerns that some leakage may occur in the investigated system arise because the seal is made up of potentially highly-reactive rocks, consisting of carbonate-rich shales (calcite+dolomite averaging up to more than 30% of solid volume fraction). Batch simulations and multi-dimensional 1D and 2D modeling have been used to investigate multicomponent geochemical processes. Numerical simulations account for fracture-matrix interactions, gas phase participation in multiphase fluid flow and geochemical reactions, and kinetics of fluid-rock interactions. The geochemical processes and parameters to which the occurrence of high CO{sub 2} concentrations are most sensitive are investigated by conceptualizing different mass transport mechanisms (i.e. diffusion and mixed advection+diffusion). The most relevant mineralogical transformations occurring in the caprock are described, and the feedback of these geochemical processes on physical properties such as porosity is examined to evaluate how the sealing capacity of the caprock could evolve in time. The simulations demonstrate that the occurrence of some gas leakage from the reservoir may have a strong influence on the geochemical evolution of the caprock. In fact, when a free CO{sub 2

  8. Review of private sector treatment, storage, and disposal capacity for radioactive waste. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.; Harris, J.G.; Moore-Mayne, S.; Mayes, R.; Naretto, C.


    This report is an update of a report that summarized the current and near-term commercial and disposal of radioactive and mixed waste. This report was capacity for the treatment, storage, dating and written for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) with the objective of updating and expanding the report entitled ''Review of Private Sector Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Capacity for Radioactive Waste'', (INEL-95/0020, January 1995). The capacity to process radioactively-contaminated protective clothing and/or respirators was added to the list of private sector capabilities to be assessed. Of the 20 companies surveyed in the previous report, 14 responded to the request for additional information, five did not respond, and one asked to be deleted from the survey. One additional company was identified as being capable of performing LLMW treatability studies and six were identified as providers of laundering services for radioactively-contaminated protective clothing and/or respirators

  9. Efficient Control of Energy Storage for Increasing the PV Hosting Capacity of LV Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Østergaard, Jacob


    grid is usually limited by overvoltage, and the efficient control of distributed electrical energy storage systems (EESSs) can considerably increase this capacity. In this paper, a new control approach based on the voltage sensitivity analysis is proposed to prevent overvoltage and increase the PV......Photovoltaic (PV) systems are among the renewable sources that electrical energy systems are adopting with increasing frequency. The majority of already-installed PV systems are decentralized units that are usually connected to lowvoltage (LV) distribution grids. The PV hosting capacity of an LV...... hosting capacity of LV grids by determining dynamic set points for EESS management. The method has the effectiveness of central control methods and can effectively decrease the energy storage required for overvoltage prevention, yet it eliminates the need for a broadband and fast communication. The net...

  10. Review of private sector treatment, storage, and disposal capacity for radioactive waste. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.; Harris, J.G.; Moore-Mayne, S.; Mayes, R.; Naretto, C.


    This report is an update of a report that summarized the current and near-term commercial and disposal of radioactive and mixed waste. This report was capacity for the treatment, storage, dating and written for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) with the objective of updating and expanding the report entitled ``Review of Private Sector Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Capacity for Radioactive Waste``, (INEL-95/0020, January 1995). The capacity to process radioactively-contaminated protective clothing and/or respirators was added to the list of private sector capabilities to be assessed. Of the 20 companies surveyed in the previous report, 14 responded to the request for additional information, five did not respond, and one asked to be deleted from the survey. One additional company was identified as being capable of performing LLMW treatability studies and six were identified as providers of laundering services for radioactively-contaminated protective clothing and/or respirators.

  11. Economic feasibility of pipe storage and underground reservoir storage options for power-to-gas load balancing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budny, Christoph; Madlener, Reinhard; Hilgers, Christoph


    Highlights: • Study of cost effectiveness of power-to-gas and storage of H 2 and renewable methane. • NPV analysis and Monte Carlo simulation to address fuel and electricity price risks. • Gas sale is compared with power and gas market arbitrage and balancing market gains. • Power-to-gas for linking the balancing markets for power and gas is not profitable. • Pipe storage is the preferred option for temporal arbitrage and balancing energy. - Abstract: This paper investigates the economic feasibility of power-to-gas (P2G) systems and gas storage options for both hydrogen and renewable methane. The study is based on a techno-economic model in which the net present value (NPV) method and Monte Carlo simulation of risks and price forward curves for the electricity and the gas market are used. We study three investment cases: a Base Case where the gas is directly sold in the market, a Storage & Arbitrage Case where temporal arbitrage opportunities between the electricity and the gas market are exploited, and a Storage & Balancing Case where the balancing markets (secondary reserve market for electricity, external balancing market for natural gas) are addressed. The optimal type and size of different centralized and decentralized storage facilities are determined and compared with each other. In a detailed sensitivity and cost analysis, we identify the key factors which could potentially improve the economic viability of the technological concepts assessed. We find that the P2G system used for bridging the balancing markets for power and gas cannot be operated profitably. For both, temporal arbitrage and balancing energy, pipe storage is preferred. Relatively high feed-in tariffs (100 € MW −1 for hydrogen, 130 € MW −1 for methane) are required to render pipe storage for P2G economically viable

  12. The estimation of CO2 storage potential of gas-bearing shale complex at the early stage of reservoir characterization: the case of Baltic Basin (Poland). (United States)

    Wójcicki, Adam; Jarosiński, Marek


    For the stage of shale gas production, like in the USA, prediction of the CO2 storage potential in shale reservoir can be performed by dynamic modeling. We have made an attempt to estimate this potential at an early stage of shale gas exploration in the Lower Paleozoic Baltic Basin, based on data from 3,800 m deep vertical well (without hydraulic fracking stimulation), supplemented with additional information from neighboring boreholes. Such an attempt makes a sense as a first guess forecast for company that explores a new basin. In our approach, the storage capacity is build by: (1) sorption potential of organic matter, (2) open pore space and (3) potential fracture space. the sequence. our estimation is done for 120 m long shale sequence including three shale intervals enriched with organic mater. Such an interval is possible to be fracked from a single horizontal borehole as known from hydraulic fracture treatment in the other boreholes in this region. The potential for adsorbed CO2 is determined from Langmuir isotherm parameters taken from laboratory measurements in case of both CH4 and CO2 adsorption, as well as shale density and volume. CO2 has approximately three times higher sorption capacity than methane to the organic matter contained in the Baltic Basin shales. Finally, due to low permeability of shale we adopt the common assumption for the USA shale basins that the CO2 will be able to reach effectively only 10% of theoretical total sorption volume. The pore space capacity was estimated by utilizing results of laboratory measurements of dynamic capacity for pores bigger than 10 nm. It is assumed for smaller pores adsorption prevails over free gas. Similarly to solution for sorption, we have assumed that only 10 % of the tight pore space will be reached by CO2. For fracture space we have considered separately natural (tectonic-origin) and technological (potentially produced by hydraulic fracturing treatment) fractures. From fracture density profile and

  13. Synthesis of NiPS3 and CoPS and its hydrogen storage capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, N.; Madian, M.; El-Meligi, A.A.


    Highlights: • Preparation of NiPS 3 and CoPS using solid state reaction. • Characterization of compounds using XRD, TEM, SEM and IR. • Measuring the compounds thermal stability. • Estimation of the hydrogen storage capacity. -- Abstract: Prepared CoPS and NiPS 3 are studied as new materials for hydrogen energy storage. Single phase of CoPS and NiPS 3 were grown separately in evacuated silicatube via solid state reaction at 650 °C with controlled heating rate 1 °C/min. X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the formation of the desired compounds. Both CoPS and NiPS 3 exhibited high thermal stability up to 700 °C and 630 °C, respectively. The morphology of the prepared samples was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and folded sheets appeared in the transmission electron microscopy. The samples were exposed to 20 bar applied hydrogen pressure at 80 K. Both compounds appear to have feasible hydrogen storage capacity. CoPS was capable to adsorb 1.7 wt% while NiPS 3 storage capacity reached 1.2 wt%

  14. Effects of thinning intensities on soil infiltration and water storage capacity in a Chinese pine-oak mixed forest. (United States)

    Chen, Lili; Yuan, Zhiyou; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Dexiang; Mu, Xingmin


    Thinning is a crucial practice in the forest ecosystem management. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity of pine-oak mixed forest under three different thinning intensity treatments (15%, 30%, and 60%) were studied in Qinling Mountains of China. The thinning operations had a significant influence on soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity in different thinning treatments followed the order of control (nonthinning): soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity of pine-oak mixed forest in Qinling Mountains. The soil initial infiltration rate, stable infiltration rate, and average infiltration rate in thinning 30% treatment were significantly increased by 21.1%, 104.6%, and 60.9%, compared with the control. The soil maximal water storage capacity and noncapillary water storage capacity in thinning 30% treatment were significantly improved by 20.1% and 34.3% in contrast to the control. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity were significantly higher in the surface layer (0~20 cm) than in the deep layers (20~40 cm and 40~60 cm). We found that the soil property was closely related to soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity.

  15. Water chemistry, seepage investigation, streamflow, reservoir storage, and annual availability of water for the San Juan-Chama Project, northern New Mexico, 1942-2010 (United States)

    McKean, Sarah E.; Anderholm, Scott K.


    at Azotea Tunnel Outlet occurred from May through June, with a median duration of slightly longer than a month. Years with higher maximum daily streamflow generally are associated with higher annual streamflow than years with lower maximum daily streamflow. The amount of water that can be diverted for the SJCP is controlled by the availability of streamflow and is limited by several factors including legal limits for diversion, limits from the SJCP infrastructure including the size of the diversion dams and tunnels, the capacity of Heron Reservoir, and operational constraints that limit when water can be diverted. The average annual streamflow at Azotea Tunnel Outlet was 94,710 acre-feet, and the annual streamflow at Azotea Tunnel Outlet was approximately 75 percent of the annual streamflow available for the SJCP. The average annual percentage of available streamflow not diverted for the SJCP was 14 percent because of structural limitations of the capacity of infrastructure, 1 percent because of limitations of the reservoir storage capacity, and 29 percent because of the limitations from operations. For most years, the annual available streamflow not diverted for unknown reasons exceeded the sum of the water not diverted because of structural, capacity, and operational limitations.

  16. Performance of phase change materials on storage capacity of trombe wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Karaghouli, A.A.; Mujally, L.


    Two types of phase change materials were used as storage media in a Trombe Wall; namely paraffin wax (N-Eicoseue C 20 H 42 ) and Glaubers Salt (Na 2 SO 4 10H 2 O). To investigate the performance of these materials, a theoretical model and a simulation programme were developed. The wall temperature, the amount of heat stored, and the optimum wall thickness were calculated for both types. The study found that using two sheets of glass on the outside wall increased the surface wall temperature by around 50 degree C. It also found that Glauber salt was a much better storage material than paraffin wax. For a selected winter day at a location of 32 o N latitude, the storage capacity of the salt was more than twice that of the paraffin wax. The salt storage capacity was 32816 kJ/m 3 at an optimum wall thickness of 16 cm. this value for paraffin was 14464 kJ/m 3 at 13 cm optimum thickness. The study also concluded that according to this high heating value the wall uses, Glauber salt as a storage medium could supply its heat to the surrounding for a much longer period at night

  17. The Role of Energy Reservoirs in Distributed Computing: Manufacturing, Implementing, and Optimizing Energy Storage in Energy-Autonomous Sensor Nodes (United States)

    Cowell, Martin Andrew

    The world already hosts more internet connected devices than people, and that ratio is only increasing. These devices seamlessly integrate with peoples lives to collect rich data and give immediate feedback about complex systems from business, health care, transportation, and security. As every aspect of global economies integrate distributed computing into their industrial systems and these systems benefit from rich datasets. Managing the power demands of these distributed computers will be paramount to ensure the continued operation of these networks, and is elegantly addressed by including local energy harvesting and storage on a per-node basis. By replacing non-rechargeable batteries with energy harvesting, wireless sensor nodes will increase their lifetimes by an order of magnitude. This work investigates the coupling of high power energy storage with energy harvesting technologies to power wireless sensor nodes; with sections covering device manufacturing, system integration, and mathematical modeling. First we consider the energy storage mechanism of supercapacitors and batteries, and identify favorable characteristics in both reservoir types. We then discuss experimental methods used to manufacture high power supercapacitors in our labs. We go on to detail the integration of our fabricated devices with collaborating labs to create functional sensor node demonstrations. With the practical knowledge gained through in-lab manufacturing and system integration, we build mathematical models to aid in device and system design. First, we model the mechanism of energy storage in porous graphene supercapacitors to aid in component architecture optimization. We then model the operation of entire sensor nodes for the purpose of optimally sizing the energy harvesting and energy reservoir components. In consideration of deploying these sensor nodes in real-world environments, we model the operation of our energy harvesting and power management systems subject to

  18. A Study of Sedimentation at the River Estuary on the Change of Reservoir Storage


    Iskahar; Suripin; Isdiyana


    Estuary of the river that leads to the reservoir has characteristics include: relatively flat, there is a change in the increase of wet cross-sectional area and backwater. The backwater will cause the flow velocity to be reduced, so that the grains of sediment with a certain diameter carried by the flow will settle in the estuary of the river. The purpose of this research is to know the distribution and sedimentation pattern at the river estuary that leads to the reservoir with the change of ...

  19. Capacity Optimization of Renewable Energy Sources and Battery Storage in an Autonomous Telecommunication Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Pandžić, Hrvoje; Škrlec, Davor


    This paper describes a robust optimization approach to minimize the total cost of supplying a remote telecommunication station exclusively by renewable energy sources (RES). Due to the intermittent nature of RES, such as photovoltaic (PV) panels and small wind turbines, they are normally supported...... by a central energy storage system (ESS), consisting of a battery and a fuel cell. The optimization is carried out as a robust mixed-integer linear program (RMILP), and results in different optimal solutions, depending on budgets of uncertainty, each of which yields different RES and storage capacities...

  20. The Potential for Energy Storage to Provide Peaking Capacity in California Under Increased Penetration of Solar Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    In this report, we examine the potential for replacing conventional peaking capacity in California with energy storage, including analysis of the changing technical potential with increased storage deployment and the effect of PV deployment. We examine nine years of historic load data, a range of storage durations (2-8 hours), and a range of PV penetration levels (0%-30%). We demonstrate how PV increases the ability of storage to reduce peak net demand. In the scenarios analyzed, the expected penetration of PV in California in 2020 could more than double the potential for 4-hour energy storage to provide capacity services.

  1. Determination of installation capacity in reservoir hydro-power plants considering technical, economical and reliability indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseini, S.M.H.; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Fotouh-Firuzabad, Mahmood


    One of the most important issues in planning the ‘‘reservoir” type of hydro-power plants (HPP) is to determine the installation capacity of the HPPs and estimate its annual energy value. In this paper, a method is presented. A computer program has been developed to analyze energy calculation...

  2. Modelling of sedimentation processes inside Roseires Reservoir (Sudan) (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Y.S.A.; Omer, A.Y.A.; Crosato, A.


    Roseires Reservoir is located on the Blue Nile River, in Sudan (figure 1). It is the first trap to the sediments coming from the upper catchment in Ethiopia, which suffers from high erosion and desertification problems. The reservoir lost already more than one third of its storage capacity due to

  3. Drought propagation in the Paraná Basin, Brazil: from rainfall deficits to impacts on reservoir storage (United States)

    Melo, D. D.; Wendland, E.


    The sensibility and resilience of hydrologic systems to climate changes are crucial for estimating potential impacts of droughts, responsible for major economic and human losses globally. Understanding how droughts propagate is a key element to develop a predictive understanding for future management and mitigation strategies. In this context, this study investigated the drought propagation in the Paraná Basin (PB), Southeast Brazil, a major hydroelectricity producing region with 32 % (60 million people) of the country's population. Reservoir storage (RESS), river discharge (Q) and rainfall (P) data were used to assess the linkages between meteorological and hydrological droughts, characterized by the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) and Streamflow Drought Index (SDI), respectively. The data are from 37 sub-basins within the PB, consisting of contributing areas of 37 reservoirs (250 km3 of stored water) within the PB for the period between 1995 and 2015. The response time (RT) of the hydrologic system to droughts, given as the time lag between P, Q and RESS, was quantified using a non-parametric statistical method that combines cumulative sums and Bootstrap resampling technique. Based on our results, the RTs of the hydrologic system of the PB varies from 0 to 6 months, depending on a number of aspects: lithology, topography, dam operation, etc. Linkages between SPI and SDI indicated that the anthropogenic control (dam operation) plays an important role in buffering drought impacts to downstream sub-basins: SDI decreased from upstream to downstream despite similar SPI values over the whole area. Comparisons between sub-basins, with variable drainage sizes (5,000 - 50,000 km2), confirmed the benefice of upstream reservoirs in reducing hydrological droughts. For example, the RT for a 4,800 km2 basin was 6 months between P and Q and 9 months between Q and RESS, under anthropogenic control. Conversely, the RT to precipitation for a reservoir subjected to natural

  4. A risk management approach to double-shell tank waste volume versus storage capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, G.A.; Thurkow, T.J.; Fritz, R.L.; Nuhlestein, L.O.; Allen, M.R.; Stuart, R.J.


    A risk-based assessment of the overall waste volume versus double-shell tank storage capacity was conducted to develop fallback positions for projections where the waste volume was at a high risk of exceeding capacity. This study was initiated to provide that assessment. A working simulation model was the primary deliverable of this study. The model validates the approach and demonstrates that simulation analysis can provide a method of tracking uncertainties in available data, assessing probabilities, and serves as a tool to be used by management to determine the consequences of various off-normal occurrences

  5. A risk management approach to double-shell tank waste volume versus storage capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, G.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Thurkow, T.J.; Fritz, R.L.; Nuhlestein, L.O.; Allen, M.R.; Stuart, R.J. [ARES Corp. (United States)


    A risk-based assessment of the overall waste volume versus double-shell tank storage capacity was conducted to develop fallback positions for projections where the waste volume was at a high risk of exceeding capacity. This study was initiated to provide that assessment. A working simulation model was the primary deliverable of this study. The model validates the approach and demonstrates that simulation analysis can provide a method of tracking uncertainties in available data, assessing probabilities, and serves as a tool to be used by management to determine the consequences of various off-normal occurrences.

  6. Information retrieval system: impacts of water-level changes on uses of federal storage reservoirs of the Columbia River.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fickeisen, D.H.; Cowley, P.J.; Neitzel, D.A.; Simmons, M.A.


    A project undertaken to provide the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) with information needed to conduct environmental assessments and meet requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Regional Act) is described. Access to information on environmental effects would help BPA fulfill its responsibilities to coordinate power generation on the Columbia River system, protect uses of the river system (e.g., irrigation, recreation, navigation), and enhance fish and wildlife production. Staff members at BPA identified the need to compile and index information resources that would help answer environmental impact questions. A computer retrieval system that would provide ready access to the information was envisioned. This project was supported by BPA to provide an initial step toward a compilation of environmental impact information. Scientists at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) identified, gathered, and evaluated information related to environmental effects of water level on uses of five study reservoirs and developed and implemented and environmental data retrieval system, which provides for automated storage and retrieval of annotated citations to published and unpublished information. The data retrieval system is operating on BPA's computer facility and includes the reservoir water-level environmental data. This project was divided into several tasks, some of which were conducted simultaneously to meet project deadlines. The tasks were to identify uses of the five study reservoirs, compile and evaluate reservoir information, develop a data entry and retrieval system, identify and analyze research needs, and document the data retrieval system and train users. Additional details of the project are described in several appendixes.

  7. Estimation of Potential Carbon Dioxide Storage Capacities of Onshore Sedimentary Basins in Republic of Korea (United States)

    Park, S.; Kim, J.; Lee, Y.


    The potential carbon dioxide storage capacities of the five main onshore sedimentary basins (Chungnam, Gyeongsang, Honam, Mungyeong, and Taebaeksan Basins) in Republic of Korea are estimated based on the methods suggested by the United States National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The target geologic formations considered for geologic storage of carbon dioxide in the sedimentary basins are sandstone and coal beds. The density of carbon dioxide is set equal to 446.4 kg/m3. The adsorption capacity and density of coal (anthracite) are set equal to 2.71 × 10-2 kg/kg and 1.82 × 103 kg/m3, respectively. The average storage efficiency factors for sandstone and coal are set equal to 2.5% and 34.0%, respectively. The Chungnam Basin has the sandstone volume of 72 km3 and the coal volume of 1.24 km3. The average porosity of sandstone in the Chungnam Basin is 3.8%. As a result, the potential carbon dioxide storage capacities of sandstone and coal in the Chungnam Basin are estimated to be 31 Mton and 21 Mton, respectively. The Gyeongsang Basin has the sandstone volume of 1,960 km3. The average porosity of sandstone in the Gyeongsang Basin is 4.6%. As a result, the potential carbon dioxide storage capacity of sandstone in the Gyeongsang Basin is estimated to be 1,011 Mton. The Honam Basin has the sandstone volume of 8 km3 and the coal volume of 0.27 km3. The average porosity of sandstone in the Honam Basin is 1.9%. As a result, the potential carbon dioxide storage capacities of sandstone and coal in the Honam Basin are estimated to be 2 Mton and 5 Mton, respectively. The Mungyeong Basin has the sandstone volume of 60 km3 and the coal volume of 0.66 km3. The average porosity of sandstone in the Mungyeong Basin is 2.0%. As a result, the potential carbon dioxide storage capacities of sandstone and coal in the Mungyeong Basin are estimated to be 13 Mton and 11 Mton, respectively. The Taebaeksan Basin has the sandstone volume of 71 km3 and the coal volume of 0.73 km3. The

  8. Procedural Documentation and Accuracy Assessment of Bathymetric Maps and Area/Capacity Tables for Small Reservoirs (United States)

    Wilson, Gary L.; Richards, Joseph M.


    Because of the increasing use and importance of lakes for water supply to communities, a repeatable and reliable procedure to determine lake bathymetry and capacity is needed. A method to determine the accuracy of the procedure will help ensure proper collection and use of the data and resulting products. It is important to clearly define the intended products and desired accuracy before conducting the bathymetric survey to ensure proper data collection. A survey-grade echo sounder and differential global positioning system receivers were used to collect water-depth and position data in December 2003 at Sugar Creek Lake near Moberly, Missouri. Data were collected along planned transects, with an additional set of quality-assurance data collected for use in accuracy computations. All collected data were imported into a geographic information system database. A bathymetric surface model, contour map, and area/capacity tables were created from the geographic information system database. An accuracy assessment was completed on the collected data, bathymetric surface model, area/capacity table, and contour map products. Using established vertical accuracy standards, the accuracy of the collected data, bathymetric surface model, and contour map product was 0.67 foot, 0.91 foot, and 1.51 feet at the 95 percent confidence level. By comparing results from different transect intervals with the quality-assurance transect data, it was determined that a transect interval of 1 percent of the longitudinal length of Sugar Creek Lake produced nearly as good results as 0.5 percent transect interval for the bathymetric surface model, area/capacity table, and contour map products.

  9. Anthocyanins, phenolics and antioxidant capacity after fresh storage of blueberry treated with edible coatings. (United States)

    Chiabrando, Valentina; Giacalone, Giovanna


    The influence of different edible coatings on total phenolic content, total anthocyanin and antioxidant capacity in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv Berkeley and O'Neal) was investigated, mainly for industrial applications. Also titratable acidity, soluble solids content, firmness and weight loss of berries were determined at harvest and at 15-day intervals during 45 storage days at 0 °C, in order to optimize coating composition. Application of chitosan coating delayed the decrease in anthocyanin content, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Coating samples showed no significant reduction in the weight loss during storage period. In cv Berkeley, the use of alginate coating showed a positive effect on firmness, titratable acidity and maintained surface lightness of treated berries. In cv O'Neal, no significant differences in total soluble solids content were found, and the chitosan-coated berries showed the minimum firmness losses. In both cultivars, the addition of chitosan to coatings decreases the microbial growth rate.

  10. Storage capacity of multi-layered neural networks with binary weights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarkowski, W.; Hemmen, J.L. van


    Using statistical physics methods we investigate two-layered perceptrons which consist of N binary input neurons, K hidden units and a single output node. Four basic types of such networks are considered: the so-called Committee, Parity, and AND Machines which makes a decision based on a majority, parity, and the logical AND rules, respectively (for these cases the weights that connect hidden units and output node are taken to be equal to one), and the General Machine where one allows all the synaptic couplings to vary. For these kinds of network we examine two types of architecture: fully connected and three-connected ones (with overlapping and non-overlapping receptive fields, respectively). All the above mentioned machines heave binary weights. Our basic interest is focused on the storage capabilities of such networks which realize p= αN random, unbiased dichotomies (α denotes the so-called storage ratio). The analysis is done using the annealed approximation and is valid for all values of K. The critical (maximal) storage capacity of the fully connected Committee Machine reads α c =K, while in the case of the three-structure one gets α c =1, independent of K. The results obtained for the Parity Machine are exactly the same as those for the Committee network. The optimal storage of the AND Machine depends on distribution of the outputs for the patterns. These associations are studied in detail. We have found also that the capacity of the General Machines remains the same as compared to systems with fixed weights between intermediate layer and the output node. Some of the findings (especially those concerning the storage capacity of the Parity Machine) are in a good agreement with known numerical results. (author)

  11. Subgrid Parameterization of the Soil Moisture Storage Capacity for a Distributed Rainfall-Runoff Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijian Guo


    Full Text Available Spatial variability plays an important role in nonlinear hydrologic processes. Due to the limitation of computational efficiency and data resolution, subgrid variability is usually assumed to be uniform for most grid-based rainfall-runoff models, which leads to the scale-dependence of model performances. In this paper, the scale effect on the Grid-Xinanjiang model was examined. The bias of the estimation of precipitation, runoff, evapotranspiration and soil moisture at the different grid scales, along with the scale-dependence of the effective parameters, highlights the importance of well representing the subgrid variability. This paper presents a subgrid parameterization method to incorporate the subgrid variability of the soil storage capacity, which is a key variable that controls runoff generation and partitioning in the Grid-Xinanjiang model. In light of the similar spatial pattern and physical basis, the soil storage capacity is correlated with the topographic index, whose spatial distribution can more readily be measured. A beta distribution is introduced to represent the spatial distribution of the soil storage capacity within the grid. The results derived from the Yanduhe Basin show that the proposed subgrid parameterization method can effectively correct the watershed soil storage capacity curve. Compared to the original Grid-Xinanjiang model, the model performances are quite consistent at the different grid scales when the subgrid variability is incorporated. This subgrid parameterization method reduces the recalibration necessity when the Digital Elevation Model (DEM resolution is changed. Moreover, it improves the potential for the application of the distributed model in the ungauged basin.

  12. Analysis of the Storage Capacity in an Aggregated Heat Pump Portfolio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom Søndergård


    Energy storages connected to the power grid will be of great importance in the near future. A pilot project has investigated more than 100 single family houses with heat pumps all connected to the internet. The houses have large heat capacities and it is possible to move energy consumption to sui...... (scheduling) algorithm. The properties of this scheduling are investigated in the paper especially the flexibility and ability to trade on the intra-day regulating market is in focus....

  13. Identification and capacity quantification of CO{sub 2} storage sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachu, Stefan [Energy Resources Conservation Board (Canada)


    In this presentation the subject of scales of evaluation of the sites of CO{sub 2} storage is commented. Also the criteria to identify river basins and sites appropriated for the CO{sub 2} storage are analyzed and finally the matter of the estimation of the capacities of CO{sub 2} storage is analyzed. [Spanish] En esta presentacion se comenta sobre las escalas de evaluacion de los sitios de almacenamiento de CO{sub 2}. Tambien se analizan los criterios para identificar cuencas y lugares adecuados para el almacenamiento de CO{sub 2} y por ultimo se habla sobre la estimacion de las capacidades de almacenamiento de CO{sub 2}.

  14. Social exclusion weakens storage capacity and attentional filtering ability in visual working memory. (United States)

    Xu, Mengsi; Qiao, Lei; Qi, Senqing; Li, Zhiai; Diao, Liuting; Fan, Lingxia; Zhang, Lijie; Yang, Dong


    Social exclusion has been found to impair visual working memory (WM), while the underlying neural processes are currently unclear. Using two experiments, we tested whether the poor WM performance caused by exclusion was due to reduced storage capacity, impaired attentional filtering ability or both. The Cyberball game was used to manipulate social exclusion. Seventy-four female participants performed WM tasks while event-related potentials were recorded. In Experiment 1, participants were made to remember the orientations of red rectangles while ignoring salient green rectangles. Results showed that exclusion impaired the ability to filter out irrelevant items from WM, as reflected by the similar contralateral delay activity (CDA) amplitudes for one-target-one-distractor condition and two-targets condition, as well as the similar CDA amplitudes for two-targets-two-distractors condition and four-targets condition in excluded individuals. In Experiment 2, participants were asked to remember 1-5 colored squares. Results showed that exclusion reduced storage capacity, as the CDA amplitudes reached asymptote at loads of two items for exclusion group and at loads of three items for inclusion group. Together, these two experiments provided complementary evidence that WM deficits caused by social exclusion were due to reduced storage capacity and impaired attentional filtering ability. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  15. Sc-Decorated Porous Graphene for High-Capacity Hydrogen Storage: First-Principles Calculations. (United States)

    Chen, Yuhong; Wang, Jing; Yuan, Lihua; Zhang, Meiling; Zhang, Cairong


    The generalized gradient approximation (GGA) function based on density functional theory is adopted to investigate the optimized geometrical structure, electron structure and hydrogen storage performance of Sc modified porous graphene (PG). It is found that the carbon ring center is the most stable adsorbed position for a single Sc atom on PG, and the maximum number of adsorbed H₂ molecules is four with the average adsorption energy of -0.429 eV/H₂. By adding a second Sc atom on the other side of the system, the hydrogen storage capacity of the system can be improved effectively. Two Sc atoms located on opposite sides of the PG carbon ring center hole is the most suitable hydrogen storage structure, and the hydrogen storage capacity reach a maximum 9.09 wt % at the average adsorption energy of -0.296 eV/H₂. The adsorption of H₂ molecules in the PG system is mainly attributed to orbital hybridization among H, Sc, and C atoms, and Coulomb attraction between negatively charged H₂ molecules and positively charged Sc atoms.

  16. Sc-Decorated Porous Graphene for High-Capacity Hydrogen Storage: First-Principles Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhong Chen


    Full Text Available The generalized gradient approximation (GGA function based on density functional theory is adopted to investigate the optimized geometrical structure, electron structure and hydrogen storage performance of Sc modified porous graphene (PG. It is found that the carbon ring center is the most stable adsorbed position for a single Sc atom on PG, and the maximum number of adsorbed H2 molecules is four with the average adsorption energy of −0.429 eV/H2. By adding a second Sc atom on the other side of the system, the hydrogen storage capacity of the system can be improved effectively. Two Sc atoms located on opposite sides of the PG carbon ring center hole is the most suitable hydrogen storage structure, and the hydrogen storage capacity reach a maximum 9.09 wt % at the average adsorption energy of −0.296 eV/H2. The adsorption of H2 molecules in the PG system is mainly attributed to orbital hybridization among H, Sc, and C atoms, and Coulomb attraction between negatively charged H2 molecules and positively charged Sc atoms.

  17. Geologic storage of carbon dioxide and enhanced oil recovery. I. Uncertainty quantification employing a streamline based proxy for reservoir flow simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovscek, A.R.; Wang, Y.


    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is already injected into a limited class of reservoirs for oil recovery purposes; however, the engineering design question for simultaneous oil recovery and storage of anthropogenic CO 2 is significantly different from that of oil recovery alone. Currently, the volumes of CO 2 injected solely for oil recovery are minimized due to the purchase cost of CO 2 . If and when CO 2 emissions to the atmosphere are managed, it will be necessary to maximize simultaneously both economic oil recovery and the volumes of CO 2 emplaced in oil reservoirs. This process is coined 'cooptimization'. This paper proposes a work flow for cooptimization of oil recovery and geologic CO 2 storage. An important component of the work flow is the assessment of uncertainty in predictions of performance. Typical methods for quantifying uncertainty employ exhaustive flow simulation of multiple stochastic realizations of the geologic architecture of a reservoir. Such approaches are computationally intensive and thereby time consuming. An analytic streamline based proxy for full reservoir simulation is proposed and tested. Streamline trajectories represent the three-dimensional velocity field during multiphase flow in porous media and so are useful for quantifying the similarity and differences among various reservoir models. The proxy allows rational selection of a representative subset of equi-probable reservoir models that encompass uncertainty with respect to true reservoir geology. The streamline approach is demonstrated to be thorough and rapid

  18. Factors affecting storage of compressed air in porous-rock reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.; Erikson, R.L.; Wiles, L.E.


    This report documents a review and evaluation of the geotechnical aspects of porous medium (aquifer) storage. These aspects include geologic, petrologic, geophysical, hydrologic, and geochemical characteristics of porous rock masses and their interactions with compressed air energy storage (CAES) operations. The primary objective is to present criteria categories for the design and stability of CAES in porous media (aquifers). The document will also describe analytical, laboratory, and field-scale investigations that have been conducted.

  19. Boar sperm storage capacity of BTS and Androhep Plus: viability, motility, capacitation, and tyrosine phosphorylation. (United States)

    Dubé, Charlotte; Beaulieu, Martin; Reyes-Moreno, Carlos; Guillemette, Christine; Bailey, Janice L


    Androhep Plus, a long-term extender (up to 7 days) and Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS), a short-term extender (up to 3 days), are commonly used for liquid storage of porcine semen. To test the hypothesis that modifications in sperm viability, motility, chlortetracycline (CTC) fluorescence patterns, and protein tyrosine phosphorylation occur during semen storage in extenders, we compared these end points at different periods of storage in either Androhep Plus or BTS. Sperm from five boars were assessed daily over 12 days of storage (n = 5 ejaculates from different boars). Viability was not different (P extenders, except on Day 2, when Androhep Plus maintained better viability. Differences in the percentage of motile (total) sperm due to extender were evident on Days 2, 4, 5, and 6, when Androhep Plus was superior to BTS (P extender as early as Day 2; storage in Androhep Plus induced higher levels of pattern B sperm (P extenders; these may affect the fertilizing capacity of the semen.

  20. On the use of flow-storage repartitions derived from artificial tracer tests for geothermal reservoir characterization in the Malm-Molasse basin: a theoretical study (United States)

    Dewi, Dina Silvia; Osaigbovo Enomayo, Augustine; Mohsin, Rizwan; Karmakar, Shyamal; Ghergut, Julia; Sauter, Martin


    needed to calculate FSR. Looking at the Sauerlach example, we find that premature interruption of tracer sampling systematically leads to overestimating the reservoir's storage capacity and underestimating its flow capacity, with misestimation generally increasing as the bedded/reef interfacial area per volume is increased. It is interesting to correlate these findings with the tracer-based approach to facies identification for the shallower Malm aquifers of the Southern Franconian Alb, proposed by Seiler et al. (1989, 1995) and with expectations from the direct (i. e., distributed-parameter) modeling of matrix-diffusive effects (Maloszewski and Zuber 1985) on measured tracer signals. References: Maloszewski P, Zuber A (1985) On the theory of tracer experiments in fissured rocks with a porous matrix, Journal of Hydrology, 79, 333-358 Seiler K-P, Behrens H, Wolf M (1995) Use of artificial and environmental tracers to study storage and drainage of groundwater in the Franconian Alb, Germany, and the consequences for groundwater protection, Proc Isotopes in Water Resources Management, 2, 135-146 (IAEA, Vienna) Seiler K-P, Maloszewski P, Behrens H (1989) Hydrodynamic dispersion in karstified limestones and dolomites in the Upper Jurassic of the Franconian Alb, FRG, Journal of Hydrology, 108, 235-247 Shook G M (2003) A Simple, Fast Method of Estimating Fractured Reservoir Geometry from Tracer Tests, Geothermal Resources Council Transactions, 27, 407-411 Financial support from the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy is gratefully acknowledged. - Gefördert durch BMWi aufgrund eines Beschlusses des Deutschen Bundestages (FKZ 0325515 "TRENDS").

  1. Effects of reduction in porosity and permeability with depth on storage capacity and injectivity in deep saline aquifers: A case study from the Mount Simon Sandstone aquifer (United States)

    Medina, C.R.; Rupp, J.A.; Barnes, D.A.


    The Upper Cambrian Mount Simon Sandstone is recognized as a deep saline reservoir that has significant potential for geological sequestration in the Midwestern region of the United States. Porosity and permeability values collected from core analyses in rocks from this formation and its lateral equivalents in Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, and Ohio indicate a predictable relationship with depth owing to a reduction in the pore structure due to the effects of compaction and/or cementation, primarily as quartz overgrowths. The regional trend of decreasing porosity with depth is described by the equation: ??(d)=16.36??e-0.00039*d, where ?? is the porosity and d is the depth in m. The decrease of porosity with depth generally holds true on a basinwide scale. Bearing in mind local variations in lithologic and petrophysical character within the Mount Simon Sandstone, the source data that were used to predict porosity were utilized to estimate the pore volume available within the reservoir that could potentially serve as storage space for injected CO2. The potential storage capacity estimated for the Mount Simon Sandstone in the study area, using efficiency factors of 1%, 5%, 10%, and 15%, is 23,680, 118,418, 236,832, and 355,242 million metric tons of CO2, respectively. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. [Response of Algae to Nitrogen and Phosphorus Concentration and Quantity of Pumping Water in Pumped Storage Reservoir]. (United States)

    Wan, You-peng; Yin, Kui-hao; Peng, Sheng-hua


    Taking a pumped storage reservoir located in southern China as the research object, the paper established a three-dimensional hydrodynamic and eutrophication model of the reservoir employing EFDC (environmental fluid dynamics code) model, calibrated and verified the model using long-term hydraulic and water quality data. Based on the model results, the effects of nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations on the algae growth were analyzed, and the response of algae to nitrogen and phosphorus concentration and quantity of pumping water was also calculated. The results showed that the nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations had little limit on algae growth rate in the reservoir. In the nutrients reduction scenarios, reducing phosphorus would gain greater algae biomass reduction than reducing nitrogen. When reducing 60 percent of nitrogen, the algae biomass did not decrease, while 12.4 percent of algae biomass reduction could be gained with the same reduction ratio of phosphorus. When the reduction ratio went to 90 percent, the algae biomass decreased by 17.9 percent and 35.1 percent for nitrogen and phosphorus reduction, respectively. In the pumping water quantity regulation scenarios, the algae biomass decreased with the increasing pumping water quantity when the pumping water quantity was greater than 20 percent of the current value; when it was less than 20 percent, the algae biomass increased with the increasing pumping water quantity. The algae biomass decreased by 25.7 percent when the pumping water quantity was doubled, and increased by 38.8 percent when it decreased to 20 percent. The study could play an important role in supporting eutrophication controlling in water source area.

  3. Modeling intermediate product selection under production and storage capacity limitations in food processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilic, Onur Alper; Akkerman, Renzo; Grunow, Martin


    In the food industry products are usually characterized by their recipes, which are specified by various quality attributes. For end products, this is given by customer requirements, but for intermediate products, the recipes can be chosen in such a way that raw material procurement costs and pro...... with production and inventory planning, thereby considering the production and storage capacity limitations. The resulting model can be used to solve an important practical problem typical for many food processing industries.......In the food industry products are usually characterized by their recipes, which are specified by various quality attributes. For end products, this is given by customer requirements, but for intermediate products, the recipes can be chosen in such a way that raw material procurement costs...... and processing costs are minimized. However, this product selection process is bound by production and storage capacity limitations, such as the number and size of storage tanks or silos. In this paper, we present a mathematical programming approach that combines decision making on product selection...

  4. Hydrogen Storage Capacity of Tetrahydrofuran and Tetra-N-Butylammonium Bromide Hydrates Under Favorable Thermodynamic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua T. Weissman


    Full Text Available An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of employing binary hydrates as a medium for H2 storage. Two reagents, tetrahydrofuran (THF and tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (TBAB, which had been reported previously to have potential to form binary hydrates with H2 under favorable conditions (i.e., low pressures and high temperatures, were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and Raman spectroscopy. A scale-up facility was employed to quantify the hydrogen storage capacity of THF binary hydrate. Gas chromatography (GC and pressure drop analyses indicated that the weight percentages of H2 in hydrate were less than 0.1%. The major conclusions of this investigation were: (1 H2 can be stored in binary hydrates at relatively modest pressures and temperatures which are probably feasible for transportation applications; and (2 the storage capacity of H2 in binary hydrate formed from aqueous solutions of THF over a concentration range extending from 2.78 to 8.34 mol % and at temperatures above 263 K and pressures below 11 MPa was <0.1 wt %.

  5. Research on Improved VSG Control Algorithm Based on Capacity-Limited Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfeng Ma


    Full Text Available A large scale of renewable energy employing grid connected electronic inverters fail to contribute inertia or damping to power systems, and, therefore, may bring negative effects to the stability of power system. As a solution, an advanced Virtual Synchronous Generator (VSG control technology based on Hamilton approach is introduced in this paper firstly to support the frequency and enhance the suitability and robustness of the system. The charge and discharge process of power storage devices forms the virtual inertia and damping of VSG, and, therefore, limits on storage capacity may change the coefficients of VSG. To provide a method in keeping system output in an acceptable level with the capacity restriction in a transient period, an energy control algorithm is designed for VSG adaptive control. Finally, simulations are conducted in DIgSILENT to demonstrate the correctness of the algorithm. The demonstration shows: (1 the proposed control model aims at better system robustness and stability; and (2 the model performs in the environment closer to practical engineering by fitting the operation state of storage system.

  6. Geomechanical Framework for Secure CO2 Storage in Fractured Reservoirs and Caprocks for Sedimentary Basins in theMidwest United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sminchak, Joel [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)


    and basal sandstone-Precambrian contacts at the Arches and East-Central Appalachian Basin sites. Geophysical logs were utilized to develop local-scale geologic models by determining geomechanical and petrophysical parameters within the geologic formations. These data were ported to coupled fluid-flow and reservoir geomechanics multi-phase CO2 injection simulations. The models were developed to emphasize the geomechanical layers within the CO2 storage zones and caprocks. A series of simulations were completed for each site to evaluate whether commercial-scale CO2 could be safely injected into each site, given site-specific geologic and geomechanical controls. This involved analyzing the simulation results for the integrity of the caprock, intermediate, and reservoir zones, as well quantifying the areal uplift at the surface. Simulation results were also examined to ensure that the stress-stress perturbations were isolated within the subsurface, and that there was only limited upward migration of the CO2. Simulations showed capacity to inject more than 10 million metric tons of CO2 in a single well at the Arches and East Central Appalachian Basin sites without excessive geomechanical risks. Low-permeability rock layers at the Northern Appalachian Basin study area well resulted in very low CO2 injection capacity. Fracture models developed for the sites suggests that the sites have sparse fracture network in the deeper Cambrian rocks. However, there were indicators in image logs of a moderate fracture matrix in the Rose Run Sandstone at the Northern Appalachian Basin site. Dual permeability fracture matrix simulations suggest the much higher injection rates may be feasible in the fractured interval. Guidance was developed for geomechanical site characterization in the areas of geophysical logging, rock core testing, well testing, and site monitoring. The guidance demonstrates that there is a suitable array

  7. Technology Assessment of High Capacity Data Storage Systems: Can We Avoid a Data Survivability Crisis? (United States)

    Halem, M.; Shaffer, F.; Palm, N.; Salmon, E.; Raghavan, S.; Kempster, L.


    This technology assessment of long-term high capacity data storage systems identifies an emerging crisis of severe proportions related to preserving important historical data in science, healthcare, manufacturing, finance and other fields. For the last 50 years, the information revolution, which has engulfed all major institutions of modem society, centered itself on data-their collection, storage, retrieval, transmission, analysis and presentation. The transformation of long term historical data records into information concepts, according to Drucker, is the next stage in this revolution towards building the new information based scientific and business foundations. For this to occur, data survivability, reliability and evolvability of long term storage media and systems pose formidable technological challenges. Unlike the Y2K problem, where the clock is ticking and a crisis is set to go off at a specific time, large capacity data storage repositories face a crisis similar to the social security system in that the seriousness of the problem emerges after a decade or two. The essence of the storage crisis is as follows: since it could take a decade to migrate a peta-byte of data to a new media for preservation, and the life expectancy of the storage media itself is only a decade, then it may not be possible to complete the transfer before an irrecoverable data loss occurs. Over the last two decades, a number of anecdotal crises have occurred where vital scientific and business data were lost or would have been lost if not for major expenditures of resources and funds to save this data, much like what is happening today to solve the Y2K problem. A pr-ime example was the joint NASA/NSF/NOAA effort to rescue eight years worth of TOVS/AVHRR data from an obsolete system, which otherwise would have not resulted in the valuable 20-year long satellite record of global warming. Current storage systems solutions to long-term data survivability rest on scalable architectures

  8. Distributed generation, storage, demand response and energy efficiency as alternatives to grid capacity enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poudineh, Rahmatallah; Jamasb, Tooraj


    The need for investment in capital intensive electricity networks is on the rise in many countries. A major advantage of distributed resources is their potential for deferring investments in distribution network capacity. However, utilizing the full benefits of these resources requires addressing several technical, economic and regulatory challenges. A significant barrier pertains to the lack of an efficient market mechanism that enables this concept and also is consistent with business model of distribution companies under an unbundled power sector paradigm. This paper proposes a market-oriented approach termed as “contract for deferral scheme” (CDS). The scheme outlines how an economically efficient portfolio of distributed generation, storage, demand response and energy efficiency can be integrated as network resources to reduce the need for grid capacity and defer demand driven network investments. - Highlights: • The paper explores a practical framework for smart electricity distribution grids. • The aim is to defer large capital investments in the network by utilizing and incentivising distributed generation, demand response, energy efficiency and storage as network resources. • The paper discusses a possible new market model that enables integration of distributed resources as alternative to grid capacity enhancement

  9. Core--strategy leading to high reversible hydrogen storage capacity for NaBH4. (United States)

    Christian, Meganne L; Aguey-Zinsou, Kondo-François


    Owing to its high storage capacity (10.8 mass %), sodium borohydride (NaBH(4)) is a promising hydrogen storage material. However, the temperature for hydrogen release is high (>500 °C), and reversibility of the release is unachievable under reasonable conditions. Herein, we demonstrate the potential of a novel strategy leading to high and stable hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling for NaBH(4) under mild pressure conditions (4 MPa). By an antisolvent precipitation method, the size of NaBH(4) particles was restricted to a few nanometers (hydrogen at 400 °C. Further encapsulation of these nanoparticles upon reaction of nickel chloride at their surface allowed the synthesis of a core--shell nanostructure, NaBH(4)@Ni, and this provided a route for (a) the effective nanoconfinement of the melted NaBH(4) core and its dehydrogenation products, and (b) reversibility and fast kinetics owing to short diffusion lengths, the unstable nature of nickel borohydride, and possible modification of reaction paths. Hence at 350 °C, a reversible and steady hydrogen capacity of 5 mass % was achieved for NaBH(4)@Ni; 80% of the hydrogen could be desorbed or absorbed in less than 60 min, and full capacity was reached within 5 h. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that such performances have been achieved with NaBH(4). This demonstrates the potential of the strategy in leading to major advancements in the design of effective hydrogen storage materials from pristine borohydrides.

  10. Titanium-decorated graphene for high-capacity hydrogen storage studied by density functional simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yali; Ren Ling; He Yao; Cheng Haiping


    We present results of density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the adsorption of hydrogen molecules on Ti-decorated graphene. Our results indicate that the binding energies of molecular hydrogen on Ti-decorated graphene can be dramatically enhanced to 0.23-0.60 eV. The hybridization of the Ti 3d orbitals with the H 2 σ and σ* orbitals plays a central role in the enhanced binding. There is also a contribution from the attractive interaction between the surface dipole and the dipole of polarized H 2 . It can be expected that Ti-decorated graphene could be considered as a potential high-capacity hydrogen storage medium.

  11. What Limits Working Memory Capacity? Evidence for Modality-Specific Sources to the Simultaneous Storage of Visual and Auditory Arrays (United States)

    Fougnie, Daryl; Marois, Rene


    There is considerable debate on whether working memory (WM) storage is mediated by distinct subsystems for auditory and visual stimuli (Baddeley, 1986) or whether it is constrained by a single, central capacity-limited system (Cowan, 2006). Recent studies have addressed this issue by measuring the dual-task cost during the concurrent storage of…

  12. Dynamic Heat Storage and Cooling Capacity of a Concrete Deck with PCM and Thermally Activated Building System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund


    This paper presents a heat storage and cooling concept that utilizes a phase change material (PCM) and a thermally activated building system (TABS) implemented in a hollow core concrete deck. Numerical calculations of the dynamic heat storage capacity of the hollow core concrete deck element...... in the article highlight the potential of using TABS and PCM in a prefabricated concrete deck element....

  13. Flower-like SnO2/graphene composite for high-capacity lithium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hongdong; Huang Jiamu; Li Xinlu; Liu Jia; Zhang Yuxin; Du Kun


    Flower-like SnO 2 /graphene composite is synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method for high-capacity lithium storage. The as-prepared products are characterized by XRD, FTIR, FESEM, TGA and Nitrogen adsorption/desorption. The electrochemical performance of the flower-like SnO 2 /graphene composite is measured by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling. The results show that the flower-like SnO 2 nanorod clusters are 800 nm in size and homogeneously adhere on graphene sheets. The flower-like SnO 2 /graphene composite displays superior Li-battery performance with large reversible capacity, excellent cyclic performance and good rate capability.

  14. Influence of capacity- and time-constrained intermediate storage in two-stage food production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter; Gaalman, Gerard


    In food processing, two-stage production systems with a batch processor in the first stage and packaging lines in the second stage are common and mostly separated by capacity- and time-constrained intermediate storage. This combination of constraints is common in practice, but the literature hardly...... of systems like this. Contrary to the common sense in operations management, the LPT rule is able to maximize the total production volume per day. Furthermore, we show that adding one tank has considerable effects. Finally, we conclude that the optimal setup frequency for batches in the first stage...... pays any attention to this. In this paper, we show how various capacity and time constraints influence the performance of a specific two-stage system. We study the effects of several basic scheduling and sequencing rules in the presence of these constraints in order to learn the characteristics...

  15. Well Integrity for Natural Gas Storage in Depleted Reservoirs and Aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freifeld, Barry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Oldenburg, Curtis [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jordan, Preston [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pan, Lehua [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Perfect, Scott [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Morris, Joseph [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); White, Joshua [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bauer, Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Blankenship, Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Barry [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bromhal, Grant [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Glosser, Deborah [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Wyatt, Douglas [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Rose, Kelly [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)


    The 2015-2016 Aliso Canyon/Porter Ranch natural gas well blowout emitted approximately 100,000 tonnes of natural gas (mostly methane, CH4) over four months. The blowout impacted thousands of nearby residents, who were displaced from their homes. The high visibility of the event has led to increased scrutiny of the safety of natural gas storage at the Aliso Canyon facility, as well as broader concern for natural gas storage integrity throughout the country. This report presents the findings of the DOE National Laboratories Well Integrity Work Group efforts in the four tasks. In addition to documenting the work of the Work Group, this report presents high priority recommendations to improve well integrity and reduce the likelihood and consequences of subsurface natural gas leaks.

  16. Comment on "Rapid cooling and cold storage in a silicic magma reservoir recorded in individual crystals". (United States)

    Wilson, Colin J N; Morgan, Daniel J; Charlier, Bruce L A; Barker, Simon J


    Rubin et al (Reports, 16 June 2017, p. 1154) proposed that gradients in lithium abundance in zircons from a rhyolitic eruption in New Zealand reflected short-lived residence at magmatic temperatures interleaved with long-term "cold" (<650°C) storage. Important issues arise with the interpretation of these lithium gradients and consequent crystal thermal histories that raise concerns about the validity of this conclusion. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Higher-capacity lithium ion battery chemistries for improved residential energy storage with micro-cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darcovich, K.; Henquin, E.R.; Kenney, B.; Davidson, I.J.; Saldanha, N.; Beausoleil-Morrison, I.


    Highlights: • Characterized two novel high capacity electrode materials for Li-ion batteries. • A numerical discharge model was run to characterize Li-ion cell behavior. • Engineering model of Li-ion battery pack developed from cell fundamentals. • ESP-r model integrated micro-cogeneration and high capacity Li-ion storage. • Higher capacity batteries shown to improve micro-cogeneration systems. - Abstract: Combined heat and power on a residential scale, also known as micro-cogeneration, is currently gaining traction as an energy savings practice. The configuration of micro-cogeneration systems is highly variable, as local climate, energy supply, energy market and the feasibility of including renewable type components such as wind turbines or photovoltaic panels are all factors. Large-scale lithium ion batteries for electrical storage in this context can provide cost savings, operational flexibility, and reduced stress on the distribution grid as well as a degree of contingency for installations relying upon unsteady renewables. Concurrently, significant advances in component materials used to make lithium ion cells offer performance improvements in terms of power output, energy capacity, robustness and longevity, thereby enhancing their prospective utility in residential micro-cogeneration installations. The present study evaluates annual residential energy use for a typical Canadian home connected to the electrical grid, equipped with a micro-cogeneration system consisting of a Stirling engine for supplying heat and power, coupled with a nominal 2 kW/6 kW h lithium ion battery. Two novel battery cathode chemistries, one a new Li–NCA material, the other a high voltage Ni-doped lithium manganate, are compared in the residential micro-cogeneration context with a system equipped with the presently conventional LiMn 2 O 4 spinel-type battery

  18. Aluminum and silicon based phase change materials for high capacity thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhengyun; Wang, Hui; Li, Xiaobo; Wang, Dezhi; Zhang, Qinyong; Chen, Gang; Ren, Zhifeng


    Six compositions of aluminum (Al) and silicon (Si) based materials: 87.8Al-12.2Si, 80Al–20Si, 70Al–30Si, 60Al–40Si, 45Al–40Si–15Fe, and 17Al–53Si–30Ni (atomic ratio), were investigated for potentially high thermal energy storage (TES) application from medium to high temperatures (550–1200 °C) through solid–liquid phase change. Thermal properties such as melting point, latent heat, specific heat, thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and laser flash apparatus. The results reveal that the thermal storage capacity of the Al–Si materials increases with increasing Si concentration. The melting point and latent heat of 45Al–40Si–15Fe and 17Al–53Si–30Ni are ∼869 °C and ∼562 J g −1 , and ∼1079 °C and ∼960 J g −1 , respectively. The measured thermal conductivity of Al–Si binary materials depend on Si concentration and is higher than 80 W m −1  K −1 from room temperature to 500 °C, which is almost two orders of magnitude higher than those of salts that are commonly used phase change material for thermal energy storage. - Highlights: • Six kinds of materials were investigated for thermal energy storage (550–1200 °C). • Partial melting of Al–Si materials show progressively changing temperatures. • Studied materials can be used in three different working temperature ranges. • Materials are potentially good candidates for thermal energy storage applications.

  19. Enhanced hydrogen storage capacity of Ni/Sn-coated MWCNT nanocomposites (United States)

    Varshoy, Shokufeh; Khoshnevisan, Bahram; Behpour, Mohsen


    The hydrogen storage capacity of Ni-Sn, Ni-Sn/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and Ni/Sn-coated MWCNT electrodes was investigated by using a chronopotentiometry method. The Sn layer was electrochemically deposited inside pores of nanoscale Ni foam. The MWCNTs were put on the Ni-Sn foam with nanoscale porosities using an electrophoretic deposition method and coated with Sn nanoparticles by an electroplating process. X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy results indicated that the Sn layer and MWCNTs are successfully deposited on the surface of Ni substrate. On the other hand, a field-emission scanning electron microscopy technique revealed the morphology of resulting Ni foam, Ni-Sn and Ni-Sn/MWCNT electrodes. In order to measure the hydrogen adsorption performed in a three electrode cell, the Ni-Sn, Ni-Sn/MWCNT and Ni/Sn-coated MWCNT electrodes were used as working electrodes whereas Pt and Ag/AgCl electrodes were employed as counter and reference electrodes, respectively. Our results on the discharge capacity in different electrodes represent that the Ni/Sn-coated MWCNT has a maximum discharge capacity of ˜30 000 mAh g-1 for 20 cycles compared to that of Ni-Sn/MWCNT electrodes for 15 cycles (˜9500 mAh g-1). By increasing the number of cycles in a constant current, the corresponding capacity increases, thereby reaching a constant amount for 20 cycles.

  20. Well Integrity for Natural Gas Storage in Depleted Reservoirs and Aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freifeld, Barry M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Oldenburg, Curtis M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jordan, Preston [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pan, Lehua [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Perfect, Scott [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Morris, Joseph [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); White, Joshua [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bauer, Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Blankenship, Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Barry [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bromhal, Grant [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Glosser, Deborah [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Wyatt, Douglas [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Rose, Kelly [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)


    Introduction Motivation The 2015-2016 Aliso Canyon/Porter Ranch natural gas well blowout emitted approximately 100,000 tonnes of natural gas (mostly methane, CH4) over four months. The blowout impacted thousands of nearby residents, who were displaced from their homes. The high visibility of the event has led to increased scrutiny of the safety of natural gas storage at the Aliso Canyon facility, as well as broader concern for natural gas storage integrity throughout the country. Federal Review of Well Integrity In April of 2016, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) through the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), announced the formation of a new Interagency Task Force on Natural Gas Storage Safety. The Task Force enlisted a group of scientists and engineers at the DOE National Laboratories to review the state of well integrity in natural gas storage in the U.S. The overarching objective of the review is to gather, analyze, catalogue, and disseminate information and findings that can lead to improved natural gas storage safety and security and thus reduce the risk of future events. The “Protecting our Infrastructure of Pipelines and Enhancing Safety Act of 2016’’ or the ‘‘PIPES Act of 2016,’’which was signed into law on June 22, 2016, created an Aliso Canyon Natural Gas Leak Task Force led by the Secretary of Energy and consisting of representatives from the DOT, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department of Health and Human Services, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Department of Commerce and the Department of Interior. The Task Force was asked to perform an analysis of the Aliso Canyon event and make recommendations on preventing similar incidents in the future. The PIPES Act also required that DOT/PHMSA promulgate minimum safety standards for underground storage that would take effect within two years. Background on the DOE

  1. Theoretical storage capacity for solar air pretreatment liquid collector/regenerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Donggen; Zhang, Xiaosong; Yin, Yonggao [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)


    A new liquid regeneration equipment - solar air pretreatment collector/regenerator for liquid desiccant cooling system is put forward in this paper, which is preferable to solution regeneration in hot and moist climate in South China. The equipment can achieve liquid regeneration in lower temperature. When the solution and the air are in ''match'' state in collector/regenerator, a match air to salt mass ratio ASMR* is found by theoretical study in which there is the largest theoretical storage capacity SC{sub max}. At T{sub r} = 60{sup o}C and X{sub in} 2.33 kg/kg, theoretical calculation discovers when Y{sub in} drops from 29 to 14 g/kg, the SC{sub max} increase 50% compared with ASMR{sup *} being around 26-27. After two new concepts of the effective solution proportion (EPS) and the effective storage capacity (ESC) are defined, it is found by theoretical calculation that when ESP drops from 100% to 67%, ESC raises lowly, not drops and liquid outlet concentration C{sub str.sol} increases from 40% to 49% in which its increment totals to 90%. All these data explain fully that air pretreatment liquid regeneration equipment enables to improve the performance of liquid desiccant cooling system. (author)

  2. Storage at -80°C preserves the antioxidant capacity of preterm human milk. (United States)

    Akdag, Arzu; Sari, Fatma Nur; Dizdar, Evrim Alyamac; Uras, Nurdan; Isikoglu, Semra; Erel, Ozcan; Dilmen, Ugur


    It is essential to establish optimum parameters for maintaining the quality of stored milk until the moment of consumption with minimal deterioration of its properties. The aim of the study was to evaluate total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidation status (TOS) of fresh and freeze-stored samples (at -80°C) of preterm human milk (HM). Samples of colostrum were collected from 98 healthy women within the first 4 days after delivery. The total milk volume collected (6 ml) was divided in two aliquot parts: 3 ml for the fresh analysis which was done immediately after the extraction and 3 ml for storage under freezing conditions at -80°C for three months. The antioxidant status and oxidative stress of the fresh and stored breast milk were assessed via determination of TAC and TOS levels. The mean gestational age and the birth weight of the infants were 31.26 ± 2.93 weeks and 1620 ± 581.91 g; respectively. There were no significant correlations between maternal age, route of delivery and milk oxidative stress. There was no significant difference between the levels of TAC, TOS and the oxidative stress index in fresh and freeze-stored samples of colostrum in preterm HM (p > 0.05). Freeze storage of preterm HM at -80°C for three months preserves the antioxidant capacity without changing oxidative status of HM, which could be noteworthy for the preterm infant nutrition. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Reducing a cortical network to a Potts model yields storage capacity estimates (United States)

    Naim, Michelangelo; Boboeva, Vezha; Kang, Chol Jun; Treves, Alessandro


    An autoassociative network of Potts units, coupled via tensor connections, has been proposed and analysed as an effective model of an extensive cortical network with distinct short- and long-range synaptic connections, but it has not been clarified in what sense it can be regarded as an effective model. We draw here the correspondence between the two, which indicates the need to introduce a local feedback term in the reduced model, i.e. in the Potts network. An effective model allows the study of phase transitions. As an example, we study the storage capacity of the Potts network with this additional term, the local feedback w, which contributes to drive the activity of the network towards one of the stored patterns. The storage capacity calculation, performed using replica tools, is limited to fully connected networks, for which a Hamiltonian can be defined. To extend the results to the case of intermediate partial connectivity, we also derive the self-consistent signal-to-noise analysis for the Potts network; and finally we discuss the implications for semantic memory in humans.

  4. Visual long-term memory has a massive storage capacity for object details. (United States)

    Brady, Timothy F; Konkle, Talia; Alvarez, George A; Oliva, Aude


    One of the major lessons of memory research has been that human memory is fallible, imprecise, and subject to interference. Thus, although observers can remember thousands of images, it is widely assumed that these memories lack detail. Contrary to this assumption, here we show that long-term memory is capable of storing a massive number of objects with details from the image. Participants viewed pictures of 2,500 objects over the course of 5.5 h. Afterward, they were shown pairs of images and indicated which of the two they had seen. The previously viewed item could be paired with either an object from a novel category, an object of the same basic-level category, or the same object in a different state or pose. Performance in each of these conditions was remarkably high (92%, 88%, and 87%, respectively), suggesting that participants successfully maintained detailed representations of thousands of images. These results have implications for cognitive models, in which capacity limitations impose a primary computational constraint (e.g., models of object recognition), and pose a challenge to neural models of memory storage and retrieval, which must be able to account for such a large and detailed storage capacity.

  5. Capacity enhancement of aqueous borohydride fuels for hydrogen storage in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, David; Neiner, Doinita [U.S. Borax Inc., Rio Tinto, Greenwood Village, CO (United States); Bowden, Mark [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Whittemore, Sean; Holladay, Jamie [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Zhenguo [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Autrey, Tom [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)


    Highlights: • Adjusting ratio of Q = Na/B will maximize H{sub 2} storage capacity of liquid carrier. • Mixtures of hydrolysis products are desirable to maximize solubility. • 6.5 wt.% hydrogen and remains liquid from beginning to end. - Abstract: In this work we demonstrate enhanced hydrogen storage capacities through increased solubility of sodium borate product species in aqueous media achieved by adjusting the sodium (NaOH) to boron (B(OH){sub 3}) ratio, i.e., M/B, to obtain a distribution of polyborate anions. For a 1:1 mol ratio of NaOH to B(OH){sub 3}, M/B = 1, the ratio of the hydrolysis product formed from NaBH{sub 4} hydrolysis, the sole borate species formed and observed by {sup 11}B NMR is sodium metaborate, NaB(OH){sub 4}. When the ratio is 1:3 NaOH to B(OH){sub 3}, M/B = 0.33, a mixture of borate anions is formed and observed as a broad peak in the {sup 11}B NMR spectrum. The complex polyborate mixture yields a metastable solution that is difficult to crystallize. Given the enhanced solubility of the polyborate mixture formed when M/B = 0.33 it should follow that the hydrolysis of sodium octahydrotriborate, NaB{sub 3}H{sub 8}, can provide a greater storage capacity of hydrogen for fuel cell applications compared to sodium borohydride while maintaining a single phase. Accordingly, the hydrolysis of a 23 wt.% NaB{sub 3}H{sub 8} solution in water yields a solution having the same complex polyborate mixture as formed by mixing a 1:3 M ratio of NaOH and B(OH){sub 3} and releases >8 eq of H{sub 2}. By optimizing the M/B ratio a complex mixture of soluble products, including B{sub 3}O{sub 3}(OH){sub 5}{sup 2−}, B{sub 4}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}{sup 2−}, B{sub 3}O{sub 3}(OH){sub 4}{sup −}, B{sub 5}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 4}{sup −} and B(OH){sub 3}, can be maintained as a single liquid phase throughout the hydrogen release process. Consequently, hydrolysis of NaB{sub 3}H{sub 8} can provide a 40% increase in H{sub 2} storage density compared to the hydrolysis

  6. Capacity enhancement of aqueous borohydride fuels for hydrogen storage in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, David; Neiner, Doinita; Bowden, Mark; Whittemore, Sean; Holladay, Jamie; Huang, Zhenguo; Autrey, Tom


    Highlights: • Adjusting ratio of Q = Na/B will maximize H 2 storage capacity of liquid carrier. • Mixtures of hydrolysis products are desirable to maximize solubility. • 6.5 wt.% hydrogen and remains liquid from beginning to end. - Abstract: In this work we demonstrate enhanced hydrogen storage capacities through increased solubility of sodium borate product species in aqueous media achieved by adjusting the sodium (NaOH) to boron (B(OH) 3 ) ratio, i.e., M/B, to obtain a distribution of polyborate anions. For a 1:1 mol ratio of NaOH to B(OH) 3 , M/B = 1, the ratio of the hydrolysis product formed from NaBH 4 hydrolysis, the sole borate species formed and observed by 11 B NMR is sodium metaborate, NaB(OH) 4 . When the ratio is 1:3 NaOH to B(OH) 3 , M/B = 0.33, a mixture of borate anions is formed and observed as a broad peak in the 11 B NMR spectrum. The complex polyborate mixture yields a metastable solution that is difficult to crystallize. Given the enhanced solubility of the polyborate mixture formed when M/B = 0.33 it should follow that the hydrolysis of sodium octahydrotriborate, NaB 3 H 8 , can provide a greater storage capacity of hydrogen for fuel cell applications compared to sodium borohydride while maintaining a single phase. Accordingly, the hydrolysis of a 23 wt.% NaB 3 H 8 solution in water yields a solution having the same complex polyborate mixture as formed by mixing a 1:3 M ratio of NaOH and B(OH) 3 and releases >8 eq of H 2 . By optimizing the M/B ratio a complex mixture of soluble products, including B 3 O 3 (OH) 5 2− , B 4 O 5 (OH) 4 2− , B 3 O 3 (OH) 4 − , B 5 O 6 (OH) 4 − and B(OH) 3 , can be maintained as a single liquid phase throughout the hydrogen release process. Consequently, hydrolysis of NaB 3 H 8 can provide a 40% increase in H 2 storage density compared to the hydrolysis of NaBH 4 given the decreased solubility of sodium metaborate

  7. Kinetics of carbonate mineral dissolution in CO2-acidified brines at storage reservoir conditions. (United States)

    Peng, Cheng; Anabaraonye, Benaiah U; Crawshaw, John P; Maitland, Geoffrey C; Trusler, J P Martin


    We report experimental measurements of the dissolution rate of several carbonate minerals in CO 2 -saturated water or brine at temperatures between 323 K and 373 K and at pressures up to 15 MPa. The dissolution kinetics of pure calcite were studied in CO 2 -saturated NaCl brines with molalities of up to 5 mol kg -1 . The results of these experiments were found to depend only weakly on the brine molality and to conform reasonably well with a kinetic model involving two parallel first-order reactions: one involving reactions with protons and the other involving reaction with carbonic acid. The dissolution rates of dolomite and magnesite were studied in both aqueous HCl solution and in CO 2 -saturated water. For these minerals, the dissolution rates could be explained by a simpler kinetic model involving only direct reaction between protons and the mineral surface. Finally, the rates of dissolution of two carbonate-reservoir analogue minerals (Ketton limestone and North-Sea chalk) in CO 2 -saturated water were found to follow the same kinetics as found for pure calcite. Vertical scanning interferometry was used to study the surface morphology of unreacted and reacted samples. The results of the present study may find application in reactive-flow simulations of CO 2 -injection into carbonate-mineral saline aquifers.

  8. Enriching the hydrogen storage capacity of carbon nanotube doped with polylithiated molecules (United States)

    Panigrahi, P.; Naqvi, S. R.; Hankel, M.; Ahuja, R.; Hussain, T.


    In a quest to find optimum materials for efficient storage of clean energy, we have performed first principles calculations to study the structural and energy storage properties of one-dimensional carbon nanotubes (CNTs) functionalized with polylithiated molecules (PLMs). Van der Waals corrected calculations disclosed that various PLMs like CLi, CLi2, CLi3, OLi, OLi2, OLi3, bind strongly to CNTs even at high doping concentrations ensuring a uniform distribution of dopants without forming clusters. Bader charge analysis reveals that each Li in all the PLMs attains a partial positive charge and transform into Li+ cations. This situation allows multiple H2 molecules adsorbed with each Li+ through the polarization of incident H2 molecules via electrostatic and van der Waals type of interaction. With a maximum doping concentration, that is 3CLi2/3CLi3 and 3OLi2/3OLi3 a maximum of 36 H2 molecules could be adsorbed that corresponds to a reasonably high H2 storage capacity with the adsorption energies in the range of -0.33 to -0.15 eV/H2. This suits the ambient condition applications.

  9. Effects of storage and cooking on the antioxidant capacity of laying hen eggs. (United States)

    Nimalaratne, Chamila; Schieber, Andreas; Wu, Jianping


    The aromatic amino acids and carotenoids are the major contributors to the antioxidant properties of egg yolk. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of simulated retail storage and domestic cooking on the antioxidant activity as well as on the aromatic amino acid and carotenoid contents in ordinary table eggs, omega 3/lutein (n-3/lutein) enriched eggs, and eggs from heritage chicken breeds. The oxygen radical scavenging capacity (ORAC) was the highest in n-3/lutein enriched eggs (161.4μmolTE/gsample), while eggs from heritage white leghorns (HW) showed the lowest levels (127.6μmolTE/gsample). Six weeks of storage at refrigerated temperature did not change the ORAC values, as well as the contents of free amino acid, carotenoid, and malondialdehyde (MDA) in egg yolk. Boiling and frying however, significantly reduced the ORAC value, and the contents of free amino acid, lutein and zeaxanthin, and increased the MDA content in eggs. Our results showed that the antioxidant activity is stable during six weeks of simulated retail storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Modelling of Reservoir Operations using Fuzzy Logic and ANNs (United States)

    Van De Giesen, N.; Coerver, B.; Rutten, M.


    Today, almost 40.000 large reservoirs, containing approximately 6.000 km3 of water and inundating an area of almost 400.000 km2, can be found on earth. Since these reservoirs have a storage capacity of almost one-sixth of the global annual river discharge they have a large impact on the timing, volume and peaks of river discharges. Global Hydrological Models (GHM) are thus significantly influenced by these anthropogenic changes in river flows. We developed a parametrically parsimonious method to extract operational rules based on historical reservoir storage and inflow time-series. Managing a reservoir is an imprecise and vague undertaking. Operators always face uncertainties about inflows, evaporation, seepage losses and various water demands to be met. They often base their decisions on experience and on available information, like reservoir storage and the previous periods inflow. We modeled this decision-making process through a combination of fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks in an Adaptive-Network-based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). In a sensitivity analysis, we compared results for reservoirs in Vietnam, Central Asia and the USA. ANFIS can indeed capture reservoirs operations adequately when fed with a historical monthly time-series of inflows and storage. It was shown that using ANFIS, operational rules of existing reservoirs can be derived without much prior knowledge about the reservoirs. Their validity was tested by comparing actual and simulated releases with each other. For the eleven reservoirs modelled, the normalised outflow, , was predicted with a MSE of 0.002 to 0.044. The rules can be incorporated into GHMs. After a network for a specific reservoir has been trained, the inflow calculated by the hydrological model can be combined with the release and initial storage to calculate the storage for the next time-step using a mass balance. Subsequently, the release can be predicted one time-step ahead using the inflow and storage.

  11. Using combinations of methods for evaluating capacity of fissured reservoirs of the upper Cretaceous Malgobek- Voznesensk oil deposit in Ch. I. ASSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilev, V.M.


    Ch.I.ASSR stands for the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (North Caucasus). The deposit is associated with practically impervious limestones (less than 1 md) with intergranular porosity; oil is found along fractures of various length and degree of openness. Amount of fluids contained in this type of reservoirs was evaluated by the following methods: (1) core analyses; (2) geophysical surveying of wells; (3) hydrodynamic techniques of well investigations; and (4) according to parts of the deposits where oil was already recovered. Statistical interpretation of combined data indicated that reservoir properties gradually become poorer with increasing depth and in the direction from the crest of the fold towards its flanks and periclinal ends. Application of some formulas used in this work is explained. It is concluded that by using combinations of methods it is possible to evaluate the absolute and effective values of secondary reservoir capacity and to establish approximately geological and retrievable oil reserves.

  12. Short-term storage evaluation of quality and antioxidant capacity in chestnut-wheat bread. (United States)

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Paciulli, Maria; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Cirlini, Martina; Chiavaro, Emma


    Bread traditionally made from wheat is now often supplemented with alternative functional ingredients as chestnut flours; no data have been previously published about the staling of chestnut-containing bread. Thus short-term storage (3 days) for chestnut flour-supplemented soft wheat bread is evaluated by means of selected physicochemical properties (i.e. water dynamics, texture, colour, crumb grain characteristic, total antioxidant capacity). Bread prepared with a 20:80 ratio of chestnut:soft wheat flours maintained its moisture content in both crust and crumb. Crumb hardness, after baking, was found to be significantly higher than that of the soft wheat bread; it did not change during storage, whereas it significantly increased in the control bread until the end of the shelf life. The supplemented bread presented a heterogeneous crumb structure, with a significant decrease in the largest pores during shelf life, relative to the shrinkage of crumb grain. The control exhibited a significant redistribution of crumb holes, with a decrease in the smallest grain classes and an increase in the intermediate ones, most likely caused by cell wall thickening. The colour of the crumb remained unaltered in both breads. The crust of the control presented a significant decrease of a* (redness) and that of the supplemented bread exhibited a decrease of b* (yellowness). The antioxidant capacity was detected after day 1 of storage in the chestnut flour bread only. Chestnut flour supplementation could represent a feasible way of producing bread with improved characteristics, not only just after baking but also during shelf life. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. First-principles investigation of hydrogen storage capacity of Y-decorated porous graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Lihua, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and Recycling of Non-Ferrous Metals, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); School of Sciences, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Chen, Yuhong, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and Recycling of Non-Ferrous Metals, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); School of Sciences, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Kang, Long [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and Recycling of Non-Ferrous Metals, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Zhang, Cairong [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and Recycling of Non-Ferrous Metals, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); School of Sciences, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Wang, Daobin; Wang, Chunni [School of Sciences, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Zhang, Meiling [School of Sciences, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou university, 73000 (China); Wu, Xiaojuan [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and Recycling of Non-Ferrous Metals, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China)


    Highlights: • The bridge of C–C bond is favorable site for a Y atom on the single side of PG and six H{sub 2} can be absorbed around it. • Two Y atoms can be stably adsorbed on the same side of one unit cell of PG, but there isn’t sufficient space for H{sub 2} absorbing around each Y atom. • The maximum number of absorbed Y atoms is two for double side of PG unit cell. • Fourteen H{sub 2} can be absorbed on the both sides of PG, and the hydrogen storage capacity is 7.87 wt.%. - Abstract: Based on first-principles method, the electron structure of porous graphene (PG) and adsorption ability of H{sub 2} molecular on Y-decorated porous graphene are investigated using CASTEP code. It is found that the bridge of C–C bond which connects two C hexagons is favorable site for a Y atom adsorbed on the single side of PG, and six H{sub 2} molecules can be absorbed around a Y atom with average adsorption energy of −0.297 eV/H{sub 2} computed by GGA-PBE functional. Though two Y atoms can be stably adsorbed on the same side of one unit cell of PG, there isn’t sufficient space for H{sub 2} absorbing around each Y atom. To improve capability of hydrogen storage, the unit cell of PG with single side should only contain one Y atom. For the case of double side of porous graphene, two Y atoms are preferably located above the center of the different C hexagon. Fourteen H{sub 2} molecules can be absorbed on both sides of PG, and the gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity is 7.87 wt.% with the average adsorption energy of −0.23 eV/H{sub 2}.

  14. Element mobilization and immobilization from carbonate rocks between CO 2 storage reservoirs and the overlying aquifers during a potential CO 2 leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawter, Amanda R.; Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Asmussen, R. Matthew; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Qafoku, Odeta; Bacon, Diana H.; Brown, Christopher F.


    Despite the numerous studies on changes within the reservoir following CO2 injection and the effects of CO2 release into overlying aquifers, little or no literature is available on the effect of CO2 release on rock between the storage reservoirs and subsurface. To address this knowledge gap, relevant rock materials, temperatures and pressures were used to study mineralogical and elemental changes in this intermediate zone. After rocks reacted with CO2, liquid analysis showed an increase of major elements (e.g., Ca, and Mg) and variable concentrations of potential contaminants (e.g., Sr and Ba); lower concentrations were observed in N2 controls. In experiments with As/Cd and/or organic spikes, representing potential contaminants in the CO2 plume originating in the storage reservoir, most or all of these contaminants were removed from the aqueous phase. SEM and Mössbauer spectroscopy results showed the formation of new minerals and Fe oxides in some CO2-reacted samples, indicating potential for contaminant removal through mineral incorporation or adsorption onto Fe oxides. These experiments show the interactions between the CO2-laden plume and the rock between storage reservoirs and overlying aquifers have the potential to affect the level of risk to overlying groundwater, and should be considered during site selection and risk evaluation.

  15. Predicting Formation Damage in Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Systems Utilizing a Coupled Hydraulic-Thermal-Chemical Reservoir Model (United States)

    Müller, Daniel; Regenspurg, Simona; Milsch, Harald; Blöcher, Guido; Kranz, Stefan; Saadat, Ali


    In aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) systems, large amounts of energy can be stored by injecting hot water into deep or intermediate aquifers. In a seasonal production-injection cycle, water is circulated through a system comprising the porous aquifer, a production well, a heat exchanger and an injection well. This process involves large temperature and pressure differences, which shift chemical equilibria and introduce or amplify mechanical processes. Rock-fluid interaction such as dissolution and precipitation or migration and deposition of fine particles will affect the hydraulic properties of the porous medium and may lead to irreversible formation damage. In consequence, these processes determine the long-term performance of the ATES system and need to be predicted to ensure the reliability of the system. However, high temperature and pressure gradients and dynamic feedback cycles pose challenges on predicting the influence of the relevant processes. Within this study, a reservoir model comprising a coupled hydraulic-thermal-chemical simulation was developed based on an ATES demonstration project located in the city of Berlin, Germany. The structural model was created with Petrel, based on data available from seismic cross-sections and wellbores. The reservoir simulation was realized by combining the capabilities of multiple simulation tools. For the reactive transport model, COMSOL Multiphysics (hydraulic-thermal) and PHREEQC (chemical) were combined using the novel interface COMSOL_PHREEQC, developed by Wissmeier & Barry (2011). It provides a MATLAB-based coupling interface between both programs. Compared to using COMSOL's built-in reactive transport simulator, PHREEQC additionally calculates adsorption and reaction kinetics and allows the selection of different activity coefficient models in the database. The presented simulation tool will be able to predict the most important aspects of hydraulic, thermal and chemical transport processes relevant to

  16. Depth of cinder deposits and water-storage capacity at Cinder Lake, Coconino County, Arizona (United States)

    Macy, Jamie P.; Amoroso, Lee; Kennedy, Jeff; Unema, Joel


    The 2010 Schultz fire northeast of Flagstaff, Arizona, burned more than 15,000 acres on the east side of San Francisco Mountain from June 20 to July 3. As a result, several drainages in the burn area are now more susceptible to increased frequency and volume of runoff, and downstream areas are more susceptible to flooding. Resultant flooding in areas downgradient of the burn has resulted in extensive damage to private lands and residences, municipal water lines, and roads. Coconino County, which encompasses Flagstaff, has responded by deepening and expanding a system of roadside ditches to move flood water away from communities and into an area of open U.S. Forest Service lands, known as Cinder Lake, where rapid infiltration can occur. Water that has been recently channeled into the Cinder Lake area has infiltrated into the volcanic cinders and could eventually migrate to the deep regional groundwater-flow system that underlies the area. How much water can potentially be diverted into Cinder Lake is unknown, and Coconino County is interested in determining how much storage is available. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted geophysical surveys and drilled four boreholes to determine the depth of the cinder beds and their potential for water storage capacity. Results from the geophysical surveys and boreholes indicate that interbedded cinders and alluvial deposits are underlain by basalt at about 30 feet below land surface. An average total porosity for the upper 30 feet of deposits was calculated at 43 percent for an area of 300 acres surrounding the boreholes, which yields a total potential subsurface storage for Cinder Lake of about 4,000 acre-feet. Ongoing monitoring of storage change in the Cinder Lake area was initiated using a network of gravity stations.

  17. Rejuvenation capacity of red blood cells in additive solutions over long-term storage. (United States)

    Meyer, Erin K; Dumont, Deborah F; Baker, Sharry; Dumont, Larry J


    Red blood cells (RBCs) are Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved for 42-day storage with the use of additive solutions (ASs). However, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) levels in the RBCs decline over this time. These constituents may be restored by treatment with rejuvenation (REJ) solutions. This study was done to assess the response capability of RBCs from 30 to 120 days of storage in three FDA-licensed RBC storage solutions after incubation with a rejuvenating solution of pyruvate, inosine, phosphate, and adenine. Three units each of RBCs in approved AS (AS-1 [Adsol, Fenwal, Inc.], AS-3 [Nutricel, Medsep Corp.], and AS-5 [Optisol, Terumo Corp.]) were stored under standard conditions at 1 to 6°C for up to 120 days. Aliquots (4 mL) on Days 30, 42, 60, 80, 100, and 120 (± 2 days) were REJ by incubating with Rejuvesol (Encyte Corp.). Control untreated and REJ aliquots were extracted using perchloric acid and stored at -80°C until assayed for 2,3-DPG and ATP. RBCs responded to REJ by increasing DPG and ATP contents. The response declined linearly at 0.070 ± 0.008 µmol DPG/g hemoglobin (Hb)/day and 0.035 ± 0.004 µmol ATP/g Hb/day with no differences between ASs. We conclude that Rejuvesol is able to restore ATP and 2,3-DPG levels in RBCs stored up to 120 days in AS. The response diminishes as storage time increases. This rejuvenation (REJ) capability does not seem useful for routine assessment of RBC anabolic capacity in research programs, but may be useful to the investigator when studying unique and novel treatment methods. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  18. Estimates of Storage Capacity of Multilayer Perceptron with Threshold Logic Hidden Units. (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Adam


    We estimate the storage capacity of multilayer perceptron with n inputs, h(1) threshold logic units in the first hidden layer and 1 output. We show that if the network can memorize 50% of all dichotomies of a randomly selected N-tuple of points of R(n) with probability 1, then Nmemory capacity (in the sense of Cover) between nh(1)+1 and 2(nh(1)+1) input patterns and for the most efficient networks in this class between 1 and 2 input patterns per connection. Comparing these results with the recent estimates of VC-dimension we find that in contrast to a single neuron case, the VC-dimension exceeds the capacity for a sufficiently large n and h(1). The results are based on the derivation of an explicit expression for the number of dichotomies which can be implemented by such a network for a special class of N-tuples of input patterns which has a positive probability of being randomly chosen.

  19. Climate Change Adaptation in a Mediterranean Semi-Arid Catchment: Testing Managed Aquifer Recharge and Increased Surface Reservoir Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Guyennon


    Full Text Available Among different uses of freshwater, irrigation is the most impacting groundwater resource, leading to water table depletion and possible seawater intrusion. The unbalance between the availability of water resources and demand is currently exacerbated and could become worse in the near future in accordance with climate change observations and scenarios provided by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC. In this context, Increasing Maximum Capacity of the surface reservoir (IMC and Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR are adaptation measures that have the potential to enhance water supply systems resiliency. In this paper, a multiple-users and multiple-resources-Water Supply System (WSS model is implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of these two adaptation strategies in a context of overexploited groundwater under the RCP 4.5 and the RCP 8.5 IPCC scenarios. The presented a case study that is located in the Puglia, a semi-arid region of South Italy characterized by a conspicuous water demand for irrigation. We observed that, although no significant long-term trend affects the proposed precipitation scenarios, the expected temperature increase highly impacts the WSS resources due to the associated increase of water demand for irrigation purposes. Under the RCP 4.5 the MAR scenario results are more effective than the IMC during long term wet periods (typically 5 years and successfully compensates the impact on the groundwater resources. Differently, under RCP 8.5, due to more persistent dry periods, both adaptation scenarios fail and groundwater resource become exposed to massive sea water intrusion during the second half of the century. We conclude that the MAR scenario is a suitable adaptation strategy to face the expected future changes in climate, although mitigation actions to reduce green-house gases are strongly required.

  20. Production of inert gas for substitution of a part of the cushion gas trapped in an aquifer underground storage reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, L.; Arnoult, J.P.


    In a natural gas storage reservoir operating over the different seasons, a varying fraction of the injected gas, the cushion gas, remains permanently trapped. This cushion gas may represent more than half the total gas volume, and more than 50% of the initial investment costs for the storage facility. Studies conducted by Gaz de France, backed up by experience acquired over the years, have shown that at least 20% of the cushion gas could be replaced by a less expensive inert gas. Nitrogen, carbon dioxide, or a mixture of the two, satisfy the specifications required for this inert gas. Two main production methods exist: recovery of natural gas combustion products (mixture of 88% N 2 and 12% Co 2 ) and physical separation of air components (more or less pure N 2 , depending on industrial conditions). For the specific needs of Gaz de France, the means of production must be suited to its programme of partial cushion gas substitution. The equipment must satisfy requirements of autonomy, operating flexibility and mobility. Gaz de France has tested two units for recovery of natural gas combustion products. In the first unit, the inert gas is produced in a combustion chamber, treated in a catalytic reactor to reduce nitrogen oxide content and then compressed by gas engine driven compressors. In the second unit, the exhaust gases of the compressor gas engines are collected, treated to eliminate nitrogen oxides and then compressed. The energy balance is improved. A PSA method nitrogen production unit by selective absorption of nitrogen in the air, will be put into service in 1989. The specific features of these two methods and the reasons for choosing them will be reviewed. (author). 1 fig

  1. Carbon hybridized halloysite nanotubes for high-performance hydrogen storage capacities (United States)

    Jin, Jiao; Fu, Liangjie; Yang, Huaming; Ouyang, Jing


    Hybrid nanotubes of carbon and halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) with different carbon:HNTs ratio were hydrothermally synthesized from natural halloysite and sucrose. The samples display uniformly cylindrical hollow tubular structure with different morphologies. These hybrid nanotubes were concluded to be promising medium for physisorption-based hydrogen storage. The hydrogen adsorption capacity of pristine HNTs was 0.35% at 2.65 MPa and 298 K, while that of carbon coated HNTs with the pre-set carbon:HNTs ratio of 3:1 (3C-HNTs) was 0.48% under the same condition. This carbon coated method could offer a new pattern for increasing the hydrogen adsorption capacity. It was also possible to enhance the hydrogen adsorption capacity through the spillover mechanism by incorporating palladium (Pd) in the samples of HNTs (Pd-HNTs) and 3C-HNTs (Pd-3C-HNTs and 3C-Pd-HNTs are the samples with different location of Pd nanoparticles). The hydrogen adsorption capacity of the Pd-HNTs was 0.50% at 2.65 MPa and 298 K, while those of Pd-3C-HNTs and 3C-Pd-HNTs were 0.58% and 0.63%, respectively. In particular, for this spillover mechanism of Pd-carbon-HNTs ternary system, the bidirectional transmission of atomic and molecular hydrogen (3C-Pd-HNTs) was concluded to be more effective than the unidirectional transmission (Pd-3C-HNTs) in this work for the first time. PMID:26201827

  2. Optimizing accuracy of determinations of CO₂ storage capacity and permanence, and designing more efficient storage operations: An example from the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentley, Ramsey [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Dahl, Shanna [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Deiss, Allory [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Duguid, Andrew [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Ganshin, Yuri [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Jiao, Zunsheng [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Quillinan, Scott [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry


    At a potential injection site on the Rock Springs Uplift in southwest Wyoming, an investigation of confining layers was undertaken to develop and test methodology, identify key data requirements, assess previous injection scenarios relative to detailed confining layer properties, and integrate all findings in order to reduce the uncertainty of CO₂ storage permanence. The assurance of safe and permanent storage of CO₂ at a storage site involves a detailed evaluation of the confining layers. Four suites of field data were recognized as crucial for determining storage permanence relative to the confining layers; seismic, core and petrophysical data from a wellbore, formation fluid samples, and in-situ formation tests. Core and petrophysical data were used to create a vertical heterogenic property model that defined porosity, permeability, displacement pressure, geomechanical strengths, and diagenetic history. These analyses identified four primary confining layers and multiple redundant confining layers. In-situ formation tests were used to evaluate fracture gradients, regional stress fields, baseline microseismic data, step-rate injection tests, and formation perforation responses. Seismic attributes, correlated with the vertical heterogenic property models, were calculated and used to create a 3-D volume model over the entire site. The seismic data provided the vehicle to transform the vertical heterogenic property model into a horizontal heterogenic property model, which allowed for the evaluation of confining layers across the entire study site without risking additional wellbore perforations. Lastly, formation fluids were collected and analyzed for geochemical and isotopic compositions from stacked reservoir systems. These data further tested primary confining layers, by evaluating the evidence of mixing between target reservoirs (mixing would imply an existing breach of primary confining layers). All data were propagated into a dynamic, heterogenic geologic

  3. Assessment of the impact of the Kruonis hydro pumped storage on the ichtyocenosis of the Kaunas water reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valushiene, V.; Gerulaitis, A.; Repechka, R.


    During the exploitation period (1992-1993) of one hydroagregate unit of the Kruonis Hydro Pumped Storage (HPS) the lower basin of the Kaunas Water Reservoir (Kauno Marios) fish species, their dimensions and age were found to change insignificantly as compared with the background data of the previous years (1989-1991). These changes can be associated with the peculiarities of natural conditions. At the current velocity 9-10 cm/s the penetration of young fish and their larvae into the hydroagregates of HPS was observed. At the end of summer, the abundance of fish larvae in the reverse canal before the unit started operating made up 41.3, during the pumping period - 51.3, at discharge time - 30.5 spec./100 m 3 . The greater part of the 'pumped in' fish accumulated in the upper basin. The rest ones, having passed through aggregates, penetrated into the reverse canal and came back into the lower basin. When operating one unit at the regime of 'pump', the injuries of young fish do not exceed 3-5%. The larger the fish the more often the injuries. The main injuries were mechanical or associated with fluctuations of pressure. 12 refs., 4 figs

  4. Lithium decoration of three dimensional boron-doped graphene frameworks for high-capacity hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yunhui; Meng, Zhaoshun; Liu, Yuzhen; You, Dongsen; Wu, Kai; Lv, Jinchao; Wang, Xuezheng; Deng, Kaiming; Lu, Ruifeng; Rao, Dewei


    Based on density functional theory and the first principles molecular dynamics simulations, a three-dimensional B-doped graphene-interconnected framework has been constructed that shows good thermal stability even after metal loading. The average binding energy of adsorbed Li atoms on the proposed material (2.64 eV) is considerably larger than the cohesive energy per atom of bulk Li metal (1.60 eV). This value is ideal for atomically dispersed Li doping in experiments. From grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations, high hydrogen storage capacities of 5.9 wt% and 52.6 g/L in the Li-decorated material are attained at 298 K and 100 bars

  5. Increasing Sucrose Uptake Capacity of Wheat Grains Stimulates Storage Protein Synthesis1[W (United States)

    Weichert, Nicola; Saalbach, Isolde; Weichert, Heiko; Kohl, Stefan; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Hause, Bettina; Varshney, Alok; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Strickert, Marc; Kumlehn, Jochen; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans


    Increasing grain sink strength by improving assimilate uptake capacity could be a promising approach toward getting higher yield. The barley (Hordeum vulgare) sucrose transporter HvSUT1 (SUT) was expressed under control of the endosperm-specific Hordein B1 promoter (HO). Compared with the wild type, transgenic HOSUT grains take up more sucrose (Suc) in vitro, showing that the transgene is functional. Grain Suc levels are not altered, indicating that Suc fluxes are influenced rather than steady-state levels. HOSUT grains have increased percentages of total nitrogen and prolamins, which is reflected in increased levels of phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, isoleucine, and leucine at late grain development. Transcript profiling indicates specific stimulation of prolamin gene expression at the onset of storage phase. Changes in gene expression and metabolite levels related to carbon metabolism and amino acid biosynthesis suggest deregulated carbon-nitrogen balance, which together indicate carbon sufficiency and relative depletion of nitrogen. Genes, deregulated together with prolamin genes, might represent candidates, which respond positively to assimilate supply and are related to sugar-starch metabolism, cytokinin and brassinosteroid functions, cell proliferation, and sugar/abscisic acid signaling. Genes showing inverse expression patterns represent potential negative regulators. It is concluded that HvSUT1 overexpression increases grain protein content but also deregulates the metabolic status of wheat (Triticum aestivum) grains, accompanied by up-regulated gene expression of positive and negative regulators related to sugar signaling and assimilate supply. In HOSUT grains, alternating stimulation of positive and negative regulators causes oscillatory patterns of gene expression and highlights the capacity and great flexibility to adjust wheat grain storage metabolism in response to metabolic alterations. PMID:20018590

  6. Carbon storage capacity of semi-arid grassland soils and sequestration potentials in northern China. (United States)

    Wiesmeier, Martin; Munro, Sam; Barthold, Frauke; Steffens, Markus; Schad, Peter; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid


    Organic carbon (OC) sequestration in degraded semi-arid environments by improved soil management is assumed to contribute substantially to climate change mitigation. However, information about the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential in steppe soils and their current saturation status remains unknown. In this study, we estimated the OC storage capacity of semi-arid grassland soils on the basis of remote, natural steppe fragments in northern China. Based on the maximum OC saturation of silt and clay particles soils (grazing land, arable land, eroded areas) were estimated. The analysis of natural grassland soils revealed a strong linear regression between the proportion of the fine fraction and its OC content, confirming the importance of silt and clay particles for OC stabilization in steppe soils. This relationship was similar to derived regressions in temperate and tropical soils but on a lower level, probably due to a lower C input and different clay mineralogy. In relation to the estimated OC storage capacity, degraded steppe soils showed a high OC saturation of 78-85% despite massive SOC losses due to unsustainable land use. As a result, the potential of degraded grassland soils to sequester additional OC was generally low. This can be related to a relatively high contribution of labile SOC, which is preferentially lost in the course of soil degradation. Moreover, wind erosion leads to substantial loss of silt and clay particles and consequently results in a direct loss of the ability to stabilize additional OC. Our findings indicate that the SOC loss in semi-arid environments induced by intensive land use is largely irreversible. Observed SOC increases after improved land management mainly result in an accumulation of labile SOC prone to land use/climate changes and therefore cannot be regarded as contribution to long-term OC sequestration. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Numerical analysis of temperature and flow effects in a dry, two-dimensional, porous-media reservoir used for compressed air energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiles, L.E.


    The purpose of the work is to define the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic response of a CAES dry porous media reservoir subjected to simulated air mass cycling. The knowledge gained will provide, or will assist in providing, design guidelines for the efficient and stable operation of the air storage reservoir. The analysis and results obtained by two-dimensional modeling of dry reservoirs are presented. While the fluid/thermal response of the underground system is dependent on many parameters, the two-dimensional model was applied only to those parameters that entered the analysis by virtue of inclusion of the vertical dimension. In particular, the parameters or responses that were quantified or characterized include wellbore heat transfer, heat losses to the vertical boundaries of the porous zone, gravitationally induced flows, producing length of the wellbore, and the effects of nonuniform permeability. The analysis of the wellbore heat transfer included consideration of insulation, preheating (bubble development with heated air), and air mass flow rate.

  8. Infection capacity of the pathogens Penicillium italicum and P. Expansum in orange during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljović Sonja P.


    Full Text Available Penicillium italicum and P. expansum are important pathogens causing decay in most fruits and vegetables. In this study, orange fruits were inoculated with these two species of fungus and stored 14 days with or without bagging, in a cold room for 11 days and 3 days at room temperature to determine the effect of bagging and infection capacities of both molds on oranges during storage. The results indicated that P. expansum can grow on orange peel with smaller colony diameter than P. italicum in bagged and unbagged fruits. Total soluble solids (TSS and firmness were not affected by bag. Gas composition of the bags showed low oxygen and high carbon dioxide concentration after fourteen days of storage. Bagged fruits decreased decay caused by P. italicum and weight loss, and delayed changes in firmness, TSS and acidity compared with control fruits. The study suggests that bagging may be a promising option for controlling decay, maintaining fruit quality and extending shelf-life of oranges.

  9. Solvothermal and electrochemical synthetic method of HKUST-1 and its methane storage capacity (United States)

    Wahyu Lestari, Witri; Adreane, Marisa; Purnawan, Candra; Fansuri, Hamzah; Widiastuti, Nurul; Budi Rahardjo, Sentot


    A comparison synthetic strategy of Metal-Organic Frameworks, namely, Hongkong University of Techhnology-1 {HKUST-1[Cu3(BTC)]2} (BTC = 1,3,5-benzene-tri-carboxylate) through solvothermal and electrochemical method in ethanol:water (1:1) has been conducted. The obtained material was analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Surface Area Analysis (SAA). While the voltage in the electrochemical method are varied, ranging from 12 to 15 Volt. The results show that at 15 V the texture of the material has the best degree of crystallinity and comparable with solvothermal product. This indicated from XRD data and supported by the SEM image to view the morphology. The thermal stability of the synthesized compounds is up to 320 °C. The shape of the nitrogen sorption isotherm of the compound corresponds to type I of the IUPAC adsorption isotherm classification for microporous materials with BET surface area of 629.2 and 324.3 m2/g (for solvothermal and electrochemical product respectively) and promising for gas storage application. Herein, the methane storage capacities of these compounds are also tested.

  10. Quality and fertilizing capacity of boar spermatozoa during liquid storage in extender supplemented with different antibiotics. (United States)

    Bryła, Magdalena; Trzcińska, Monika


    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of antibiotics on quality parameters and fertilizing capacity of boar sperm during liquid preservation. In the first experiment, semen was diluted in an extender containing 200 μg/mL of gentamicin as a control and diluted in a modified extenders: Ext I (contained 200 μg/mL florfenicol), Ext II (contained 200 μg/mL polymyxin B), Ext III (contained 100 μg/mL gentamicin and 100 μg/mL florfenicol) and Ext IV (contained 100 μg/mL gentamicin and 100 μg/mL polymyxin B). The semen was stored for ten days. Sperm quality was evaluated based on the motility (CASA; TM: total motility; PM: progressive motility), membrane integrity (YO-PRO-1/PI assay), mitochondrial activity (JC-1) and DNA integrity (TUNEL). The highest PM% (62.5 ± 9.6) was observed in Ext III at Day 6 of storage. The highest sperm viability and mitochondrial transmembrane potential was noticed at the end of the storage period in Ext III. Long-term storage did not induce DNA fragmentation in the extenders analyzed. In the second experiment, semen diluted in the control extender and in the extender providing the highest quality spermatozoa on Day 10 (Ext III) was used for artificial insemination (AI) of synchronized gilts. Our studies showed that the highest reproductive performance of inseminated gilts (pregnant gilts: 97.0%, litter size: 11.4 ± 1.2) occurred with Ext III semen dilution. The combination of 100 μg/mL gentamicin and 100 μg/mL florfenicol in the extender maintained sperm motility, membrane integrity and mitochondrial activity and enhanced the higher reproduction success. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. High-capacity hydrogen storage in Li-adsorbed g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Jianfeng; Huang, Chengxi; Wu, Haiping, E-mail:; Kan, Erjun, E-mail:


    Since hydrogen is a kind of potential source of efficient and pollution-free energy, it has attracted great research interests in recent years. However, the lack of safe and efficient hydrogen storage materials has blocked the rapid development of hydrogen energy. Here, we explored the possibility of Li-decorated g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} as a kind of potential hydrogen storage materials based on first-principles calculations. Our results demonstrated that the adsorption energy of Li atoms on g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} is much larger than the cohesive energy of bulk Li. Importantly, we find that the binding energy of each H{sub 2} molecule is about 0.29 eV, which is quite suitable for hydrogen storage. Furthermore, the estimated hydrogen storage capacity is around 9.2 wt %, which beyonds the goal of DOE. Thus, we predicted that Li-decorated g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} may act as the potential hydrogen storage materials. - Highlights: • We explored the possibility of Li-decorated g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} as a kind of potential hydrogen storage material. • We demonstrated the binding energy of each H{sub 2} molecule is 0.29 eV, which is quite suitable for hydrogen storage materials. • The hydrogen storage capacity is estimated around 9.2 wt %.

  12. Effects of reducing temperatures on the hydrogen storage capacity of double-walled carbon nanotubes with Pd loading. (United States)

    Sheng, Qu; Wu, Huimin; Wexler, David; Liu, Huakun


    The effects of different temperatures on the hydrogen sorption characteristics of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) with palladium loading have been investigated. When we use different temperatures, the particle sizes and specific surface areas of the samples are different, which affects the hydrogen storage capacity of the DWCNTs. In this work, the amount of hydrogen storage capacity was determined (by AMC Gas Reactor Controller) to be 1.70, 1.85, 2.00, and 1.93 wt% for pristine DWCNTS and for 2%Pd/DWCNTs-300 degrees C, 2%Pd/DWCNTs-400 degrees C, and 2%Pd/DWCNTs-500 degrees C, respectively. We found that the hydrogen storage capacity can be enhanced by loading with 2% Pd nanoparticles and selecting a suitable temperature. Furthermore, the sorption can be attributed to the chemical reaction between atomic hydrogen and the dangling bonds of the DWCNTs.

  13. SECARB Commercial Scale CO2 Injection and Optimization of Storage Capacity in the Southeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koperna, George J. [Advanced Resources International, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Pashin, Jack [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Walsh, Peter [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States)


    The Commercial Scale Project is a US DOE/NETL funded initiative aimed at enhancing the knowledge-base and industry’s ability to geologically store vast quantities of anthropogenic carbon. In support of this goal, a large-scale, stacked reservoir geologic model was developed for Gulf Coast sediments centered on the Citronelle Dome in southwest Alabama, the site of the SECARB Phase III Anthropogenic Test. Characterization of regional geology to construct the model consists of an assessment of the entire stratigraphic continuum at Citronelle Dome, from surface to the depth of the Donovan oil-bearing formation. This project utilizes all available geologic data available, which includes: modern geophysical well logs from three new wells drilled for SECARB’s Anthropogenic Test; vintage logs from the Citronelle oilfield wells; porosity and permeability data from whole core and sidewall cores obtained from the injection and observation wells drilled for the Anthropogenic Test; core data obtained from the SECARB Phase II saline aquifer injection test; regional core data for relevant formations from the Geological Survey of Alabama archives. Cross sections, isopach maps, and structure maps were developed to validate the geometry and architecture of the Citronelle Dome for building the model, and assuring that no major structural defects exist in the area. A synthetic neural network approach was used to predict porosity using the available SP and resistivity log data for the storage reservoir formations. These data are validated and applied to extrapolate porosity data over the study area wells, and to interpolate permeability amongst these data points. Geostatistical assessments were conducted over the study area. In addition to geologic characterization of the region, a suite of core analyses was conducted to construct a depositional model and constrain caprock integrity. Petrographic assessment of core was conducted by OSU and analyzed to build a depositional framework


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yun; Wang, Zhe; Yuan, Hao; Li, Tianqi


    Air cathodes, where oxygen reacts with Li ions and electrons with discharge oxide stored in their pore structure, are often considered as the most challenging component in nonaqueous Lithium-air batteries. In non-aqueous electrolytes, discharge oxides are usually insoluble and hence precipitate at local reaction site, raising the oxygen transport resistance in the pore network. Due to their low electric conductivity, their presence causes electrode passivation. This study aims to investigate the air cathode’s performance through analytically obtaining oxygen profiles, modeling electrode passivation, evaluating the transport polarization raised by discharge oxide precipitate, and developing analytical formulas for insoluble Li oxides storage capacity. The variations of cathode quantities, including oxygen content and temperature, are evaluated and related to a single dimensionless parameter — the Damköhler Number (Da). An approximate model is developed to predict discharge voltage loss, along with validation against two sets of experimental data. Air cathode properties, including tortuosity, surface coverage factor and the Da number, and their effects on the cathode’s capacity of storing Li oxides are formulated and discussed.

  15. Capacity enhancement of aqueous borohydride fuels for hydrogen storage in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, David [U.S. Borax Inc., Rio Tinto, CO (United States); Neiner, Doinita [U.S. Borax Inc., Rio Tinto, CO (United States); Bowden, Mark [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Whittemore, Sean [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Holladay, Jamie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Zhenguo [Univ. of Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Autrey, Tom [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    In this work we demonstrate enhanced hydrogen storage capacities through increased solubility of sodium borate product species in aqueous media achieved by adjusting the sodium (NaOH) to boron (B(OH)3) ratio, i.e., M/B, to obtain a distribution of polyborate anions. For a 1:1 mole ratio of NaOH to B(OH)3, M/B = 1, the ratio of the hydrolysis product formed from NaBH4 hydrolysis, the sole borate species formed and observed by 11B NMR is sodium metaborate, NaB(OH)4. When the ratio is 1:3 NaOH to B(OH)3, M/B = 0.33, a mixture of borate anions is formed and observed as a broad peak in the 11B NMR spectrum. The complex polyborate mixture yields a metastable solution that is difficult to crystallize. Given the enhanced solubility of the polyborate mixture formed when M/B = 0.33 it should follow that the hydrolysis of sodium octahydrotriborate, NaB3H8, can provide a greater storage capacity of hydrogen for fuel cell applications compared to sodium borohydride while maintaining a single phase. Accordingly, the hydrolysis of a 23 wt% NaB3H8 solution in water yields a solution having the same complex polyborate mixture as formed by mixing a 1:3 molar ratio of NaOH and B(OH)3 and releases >8 eq of H2. By optimizing the M/B ratio a complex mixture of soluble products, including B3O3(OH)52-, B4O5(OH)42-, B3O3(OH)4-, B5O6(OH)4- and B(OH)3, can be maintained as a single liquid phase throughout the hydrogen release process. Consequently, hydrolysis of NaB3H8 can provide a 40% increase in H2 storage density compared to the hydrolysis of NaBH4 given the decreased solubility of sodium metaborate. The authors would like to thank Jim Sisco and Paul Osenar of

  16. Hydrological properties of bark of selected forest tree species. Part 2: Interspecific variability of bark water storage capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilek Anna


    Full Text Available The subject of the present research is the water storage capacity of bark of seven forest tree species: Pinus sylvestris L., Larix decidua Mill., Abies alba Mill., Pinus sylvestris L., Quercus robur L., Betula pendula Ehrh. and Fagus sylvatica L. The aim of the research is to demonstrate differences in the formation of bark water storage capacity between species and to identify factors influencing the hydrological properties of bark. The maximum water storage capacity of bark was determined under laboratory conditions by performing a series of experiments simulating rainfall and by immersing bark samples in containers filled with water. After each single experiment, the bark samples were subjected to gravity filtration in a desiccator partially filled with water. The experiments lasted from 1084 to 1389 hours, depending on the bark sample. In all the studied species, bark sampled from the thinnest trees is characterized by the highest water storage capacity expressed in mm H2O · cm-3, while bark sampled from the thickest trees - by the lowest capacity. On the other hand, bark sampled from the thickest trees is characterized by the highest water storage capacity expressed in H2O · cm-2 whereas bark from the thinnest trees - by the lowest capacity. In most species tested, as the tree thickness and thus the bark thickness and the coefficient of development of the interception surface of bark increase, the sorption properties of the bark decrease with bark depth, and the main role in water retention is played by the outer bark surface. The bark of European beech is an exception because of the smallest degree of surface development and because the dominant process is the absorption of water. When examining the hydrological properties of bark and calculating its parameters, one needs to take into account the actual surface of the bark of trees. Disregarding the actual bark surface may lead to significant errors in the interpretation of research

  17. Oxygen storage capacity and structural properties of Ni-doped LaMnO3 perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran, Rui; Wu, Xiaodong; Weng, Duan; Fan, Jun


    Graphical abstract: Dynamic OSC of (a) fresh and (b) aged LaMn 1−x Ni x O 3 perovskites (0.1 Hz). Aged condition: 1050 °C, 5 h, 7% steam in air. The LaMn 1−x Ni x O 3 perovskites exhibit considerable dynamic OSC in comparison to CeO 2 –ZrO 2 (CZ), even after 1050 °C hydrothermal ageing for 5 h. Highlights: •Ni-doped LaMnO 3 perovskites exhibit very large dynamic OSC and high oxygen storage rate. •Mn 4+ is favourable to the releasable oxygen. •Doping of Ni ions increase the Mn 4+ content and the oxygen vacancies. •Doping of Ni ions reduce the BO 6 distortion in the LaMnO 3 perovskites. -- Abstract: A series of Ni doped LaMnO 3 perovskites were prepared by a sol–gel method as oxygen storage materials. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray adsorption fine structure (XAFS), oxygen storage capacity (OSC) and H 2 -temperature program reduction (TPR) measurements were performed to investigate the OSC of the perovskites as well as the effects of Ni on the structural properties. The results showed that the Ni-doped LaMnO 3 perovskite exhibited very large dynamic OSC and high oxygen release rate, which provided a possibility to serve as an oxygen storage material candidate in three-way catalysts. The available oxygen species below 500 °C primarily originated from the redox reaction between Mn 4+ and Mn 3+ , and the more Mn 4+ were favourable to the releasable oxygen. The doping of appropriate Ni ions promoted the OSC of the LaMnO 3 perovskites by increasing the Mn 4+ content and adjusting the structural defects. On the other hand, the doped Ni ions could make the BO 6 distortion disappearing in the LaMnO 3 perovskites to reduce the lattice oxygen activity

  18. Antioxidant capacity of fresh and stored breast milk: is -80°C optimal temperature for freeze storage? (United States)

    Sari, Fatma Nur; Akdag, Arzu; Dizdar, Evrim Alyamac; Uras, Nurdan; Erdeve, Omer; Erel, Ozcan; Dilmen, Ugur


    To determine total antioxidant capacity and total oxidation status in fresh and freeze stored (at -80°C) breast milk during the stages of lactation. Samples of colostrum, transitional and mature milk were collected from 44 healthy women at 3, 8 and 30 days after birth. The total milk volume collected (6 ml) was divided in two aliquot parts: 3 ml for the fresh analysis which was done immediately after the extraction and 3 ml for storage under freezing conditions at -80°C for two months. The antioxidant status and oxidative stress of the fresh and stored breast milk were assessed via determination of total antioxidant capacity and total oxidation status. Antioxidant capacity of transitional and mature milk decreased (p = 0.0001, p = 0.028, respectively); however, antioxidant capacity of colostrum did not change by storage at -80°C (p > 0.05). Total antioxidant capacity of fresh and stored breast milk significantly decreased during the stages of lactation (p Total oxidation status showed no significant difference in fresh and stored breast milk during the stages of lactation (p > 0.05). Freeze storage of breast milk at -80°C for two months seems not to be the optimal condition to preserve the antioxidant capacity of breast milk.

  19. Mathematical and field analysis of longitudinal reservoir infill (United States)

    Ke, W. T.; Capart, H.


    In reservoirs, severe problems are caused by infilled sediment deposits. In long term, the sediment accumulation reduces the capacity of reservoir storage and flood control benefits. In the short term, the sediment deposits influence the intakes of water-supply and hydroelectricity generation. For the management of reservoir, it is important to understand the deposition process and then to predict the sedimentation in reservoir. To investigate the behaviors of sediment deposits, we propose a one-dimensional simplified theory derived by the Exner equation to predict the longitudinal sedimentation distribution in idealized reservoirs. The theory models the reservoir infill geomorphic actions for three scenarios: delta progradation, near-dam bottom deposition, and final infill. These yield three kinds of self-similar analytical solutions for the reservoir bed profiles, under different boundary conditions. Three analytical solutions are composed by error function, complementary error function, and imaginary error function, respectively. The theory is also computed by finite volume method to test the analytical solutions. The theoretical and numerical predictions are in good agreement with one-dimensional small-scale laboratory experiment. As the theory is simple to apply with analytical solutions and numerical computation, we propose some applications to simulate the long-profile evolution of field reservoirs and focus on the infill sediment deposit volume resulting the uplift of near-dam bottom elevation. These field reservoirs introduced here are Wushe Reservoir, Tsengwen Reservoir, Mudan Reservoir in Taiwan, Lago Dos Bocas in Puerto Rico, and Sakuma Dam in Japan.

  20. Will building new reservoirs always help increase the water supply reliability? - insight from a modeling-based global study (United States)

    Zhuang, Y.; Tian, F.; Yigzaw, W.; Hejazi, M. I.; Li, H. Y.; Turner, S. W. D.; Vernon, C. R.


    More and more reservoirs are being build or planned in order to help meet the increasing water demand all over the world. However, is building new reservoirs always helpful to water supply? To address this question, the river routing module of Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) has been extended with a simple yet physical-based reservoir scheme accounting for irrigation, flood control and hydropower operations at each individual reservoir. The new GCAM river routing model has been applied over the global domain with the runoff inputs from the Variable Infiltration Capacity Model. The simulated streamflow is validated at 150 global river basins where the observed streamflow data are available. The model performance has been significantly improved at 77 basins and worsened at 35 basins. To facilitate the analysis of additional reservoir storage impacts at the basin level, a lumped version of GCAM reservoir model has been developed, representing a single lumped reservoir at each river basin which has the regulation capacity of all reservoir combined. A Sequent Peak Analysis is used to estimate how much additional reservoir storage is required to satisfy the current water demand. For basins with water deficit, the water supply reliability can be improved with additional storage. However, there is a threshold storage value at each basin beyond which the reliability stops increasing, suggesting that building new reservoirs will not help better relieve the water stress. Findings in the research can be helpful to the future planning and management of new reservoirs.

  1. Climate variability and sedimentation of a hydropower reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, M.


    As part of the relicensing of a large Hydroelectric Project in the central Appalachians, large scale watershed and reservoir sedimentation models were developed to forecast potential sedimentation scenarios. The GIS based watershed model was spatially explicit and calibrated to long term observed data. Potential socio/economic development scenarios were used to construct future watershed land cover scenarios. Climatic variability and potential change analysis were used to identify future climate regimes and shifts in precipitation and temperature patterns. Permutations of these development and climate changes were forecasted over 50 years and used to develop sediment yield regimes to the project reservoir. Extensive field work and reservoir survey, including current and wave instrumentation, were used to characterize the project watershed, rivers and reservoir hydrodynamics. A fully 3 dimensional hydrodynamic reservoir sedimentation model was developed for the project and calibrated to observed data. Hydrologic and sedimentation results from watershed forecasting provided boundary conditions for reservoir inputs. The calibrated reservoir model was then used to forecast changes in reservoir sedimentation and storage capacity under different future climate scenarios. Results indicated unique zones of advancing sediment deltas and temporary storage areas. Forecasted changes in reservoir bathymetry and sedimentation patterns were also developed for the various climate change scenarios. The warmer and wetter scenario produced sedimentation impacts similar to extensive development under no climate change. The results of these analyses are being used to develop collaborative watershed and soil conservation partnerships to reduce future soil losses and reservoir sedimentation from projected development. (author)

  2. Dietary Probiotic Bacillus subtilis Strain fmbj Increases Antioxidant Capacity and Oxidative Stability of Chicken Breast Meat during Storage (United States)

    Bai, Wen Kai; Zhang, Fei Jing; He, Tian Jin; Su, Peng Wei; Ying, Xiong Zhi; Zhang, Li Li; Wang, Tian


    This study was aimed to measure the dietary effects of probiotic Bacillus subtilis strain fmbj (BS fmbj) on antioxidant capacity and oxidative stability of chicken breast meat during storage. Treatment groups were fed the basal diet with BS fmbj at 0 g/kg (CON), 0.2 g/kg (BS-1), 0.3 g/kg (BS-2), or 0.4 g/kg (BS-3) doses without antibiotics. During 8 days of storage at 4°C, BS-2 group showed a significant improvement (P Cooking loss, Shear force, color L*, a*, b*), free radical scavenging activity (DPPH, ABTS+, H2O2), tissues antioxidant enzyme capacity (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GSH, T-SH), mitochondria antioxidant enzyme capacity (MnSOD, GPx, GSH), mRNA expression of antioxidant genes (Nrf2, HO-1, SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) and mitochondrial function genes (avUCP, NRF1, NRF2, TFAM, PGC-1α), oxidative damage index (MDA, ROS, PC, 8-OHdG), and MMP level in chicken breast meat as compared to the CON group. These results indicate that dietary BS fmbj in broiler diets can protect breast meat against the storage-induced oxidative stress by improving their free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant activity during 8 days of storage at 4°C. PMID:27907152

  3. Increased charge storage capacity of titanium nitride electrodes by deposition of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijs, Suzan; McDonald, Matthew; Sørensen, Søren


    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of depositing a thin layer of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B-NCD) on titanium nitride (TiN) coated electrodes and the effect this has on charge injection properties. The charge storage capacity increased by applying the B-NCD film...

  4. Improved Characterization and Modeling of Tight Oil Formations for CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Potential and Storage Capacity Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, James [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); Smith, Steven [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); Kurz, Bethany [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); Hawthorne, Steven [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); Jin, Lu [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); Bosshart, Nicholas [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); Torres, Jose [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); Nyberg, Carolyn [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); Heebink, Loreal [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); Hurley, John [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)


    Tight oil formations such as those in the Bakken petroleum system are known to hold hundreds of billions of barrels of oil in place; however, the primary recovery factor for these plays is typically less than 10%. Tight oil formations, including the Bakken Formation, therefore, may be attractive candidates for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) using CO2. Multiphase fluid behavior and flow in fluid-rich shales can vary substantially depending on the size of pore throats, and properties such as fluid viscosity and density are much different in nanoscale pores than in macroscale pores. Thus it is critical to understand the nature and distribution of nano-, micro-, and macroscale pores and fracture networks. To address these issues, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has been conducting a research program entitled “Improved Characterization and Modeling of Tight Oil Formations for CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Potential and Storage Capacity Estimation.” The objectives of the project are 1) the use of advanced characterization methods to better understand and quantify the petrophysical and geomechanical factors that control CO2 and oil mobility within tight oil formation samples, 2) the determination of CO2 permeation and oil extraction rates in tight reservoir rocks and organic-rich shales of the Bakken, and 3) the integration of the laboratory-based CO2 permeation and oil extraction data and the characterization data into geologic models and dynamic simulations to develop predictions of CO2 storage resource and EOR in the Bakken tight oil formation. A combination of standard and advanced petrophysical characterization techniques were applied to characterize samples of Bakken Formation tight reservoir rock and shales from multiple wells. Techniques included advanced computer tomography (CT) imaging, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques, whole-core and micro x-ray CT imaging, field

  5. Antioxidant capacity, phenolic and vitamin C contents of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. as affected by sprouting and storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura N. Laus


    Full Text Available Antioxidant capacity (AC of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. cv. Real seeds and sprouts obtained after 4 days of seed germination at 20°C and 70% humidity was evaluated using trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assays, able to highlight reducing activity and peroxyl radical scavenging capacity, respectively; phenolic content (PC was also measured. Both TEAC and ORAC assays revealed a significantly higher (about 2- and 2.8-fold, respectively AC of 4-day-old sprouts compared to seeds; consistently, also PC values of sprouts resulted about 2.6 times higher than seeds. In order to investigate the influence of storage on AC and PC, as well as on vitamin C content (VCC, 4-day-old sprouts were subjected for 7 days at 5°C to three different conditions of controlled atmosphere storage (CAS compared with air. Interestingly, whatever the CAS conditions, storage of quinoa sprouts up to 7 days induced an increase of AC evaluated in terms of reducing activity by TEAC assay. Consistently, an increase of PC and VCC was measured during storage, positively correlated to TEAC values. Moreover, a decrease of peroxyl radical scavenging activity, measured by ORAC, was observed after 7 days of storage, in accordance with a shift of AC towards the reducing activity component. Overall, these findings indicate that sprouting approach using quinoa may provide highly antioxidant-enriched seedlings that may improve nutritional quality of diet or of functional foods. Interestingly, antioxidant properties of quinoa sprouts may be deeply influenced by storage, able to increase reducing activity by increasing phenols and vitamin C.

  6. The effect of oxygen storage capacity on the dynamic characteristics of an automotive catalytic converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamim, T. [Michigan-Dearborn Univ., Dearborn, MI (United states). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    Automotive catalytic converters that reduce engine exhaust emissions are subject to transient conditions during a typical driving cycle. These conditions arise from changes in driving mode, the hysteresis and flow lags of the feedback control system, and result in fluctuations of air-fuel, exhaust gas flow rates and temperatures. The catalyst performance is also highly influenced by the oxygen storage capacity (OSC). This paper examined the influence of OSC on the catalyst dynamic behavior. The transient conditions were simulated by considering the catalyst subjected to temporal modulation in air-fuel ratio, exhaust gas composition and temperature. The paper presented the mathematical formulation including the development of governing equations. The governing equations were developed by considering the conservation of mass, energy and chemical species. It also presented the results and discussed the effect of sinusoidal modulation in the air-fuel ratio as well as the effect of sinusoidal modulation in exhaust composition. It was concluded that the presence of the OSC sensitivity influenced its response to the imposed modulation. The specific effect was dependent on the operating conditions and the type of the imposed modulations. 10 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  7. Storage capacity and oxygen mobility in mixed oxides from transition metals promoted by cerium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdomo, Camilo [Estado Sólido y Catálisis Ambiental (ESCA), Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Carrera 30 45-03, Bogotá (Colombia); Pérez, Alejandro [Grupo de Investigación Fitoquímica (GIFUJ), Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Carrera 7 No. 43-82, Bogotá D.C (Colombia); Molina, Rafael [Estado Sólido y Catálisis Ambiental (ESCA), Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Carrera 30 45-03, Bogotá (Colombia); Moreno, Sonia, E-mail: [Estado Sólido y Catálisis Ambiental (ESCA), Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Carrera 30 45-03, Bogotá (Colombia)


    Highlights: • Ce addition to the catalysts improves the availability of oxygen in the materials. • Mixed oxide with Co and Cu exhibits the best oxygen transport properties. • Co presence improves O{sub 2} mobility in the catalysts. • The presence of Cu in the solids improves redox properties. - Abstract: The oxygen mobility and storage capacity of Ce-Co/Cu-MgAl or Ce–MgAl mixed oxides, obtained by hydrotalcite precursors, were evaluated using Toluene-temperature-programmed-reaction, {sup 18}O{sub 2} isotopic exchange and O{sub 2}-H{sub 2} titration. The presence of oxygen vacancies-related species was evaluated by means of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance. A correlation was found between the studied properties and the catalytic activity of the oxides in total oxidation processes. It was evidenced that catalytic activity depends on two related processes: the facility with which the solid can be reduced and its ability to regenerate itself in the presence of molecular oxygen in the gas phase. These processes are enhanced by Cu-Co cooperative effect in the mixed oxides. Additionally, the incorporation of Ce in the Co-Cu catalysts improved their oxygen transport properties.

  8. Storage capacity and oxygen mobility in mixed oxides from transition metals promoted by cerium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdomo, Camilo; Pérez, Alejandro; Molina, Rafael; Moreno, Sonia


    Highlights: • Ce addition to the catalysts improves the availability of oxygen in the materials. • Mixed oxide with Co and Cu exhibits the best oxygen transport properties. • Co presence improves O 2 mobility in the catalysts. • The presence of Cu in the solids improves redox properties. - Abstract: The oxygen mobility and storage capacity of Ce-Co/Cu-MgAl or Ce–MgAl mixed oxides, obtained by hydrotalcite precursors, were evaluated using Toluene-temperature-programmed-reaction, 18 O 2 isotopic exchange and O 2 -H 2 titration. The presence of oxygen vacancies-related species was evaluated by means of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance. A correlation was found between the studied properties and the catalytic activity of the oxides in total oxidation processes. It was evidenced that catalytic activity depends on two related processes: the facility with which the solid can be reduced and its ability to regenerate itself in the presence of molecular oxygen in the gas phase. These processes are enhanced by Cu-Co cooperative effect in the mixed oxides. Additionally, the incorporation of Ce in the Co-Cu catalysts improved their oxygen transport properties.

  9. What limits working memory capacity? Evidence for modality-specific sources to the simultaneous storage of visual and auditory arrays. (United States)

    Fougnie, Daryl; Marois, René


    There is considerable debate on whether working memory (WM) storage is mediated by distinct subsystems for auditory and visual stimuli (Baddeley, 1986) or whether it is constrained by a single, central capacity-limited system (Cowan, 2006). Recent studies have addressed this issue by measuring the dual-task cost during the concurrent storage of auditory and visual arrays (e.g., Cocchini, Logie, Della Sala, MacPherson, & Baddeley, 2002; Fougnie & Marois, 2006; Saults & Cowan, 2007). However, studies have yielded widely different dual-task costs, which have been taken to support both modality-specific and central capacity-limit accounts of WM storage. Here, we demonstrate that the controversies regarding such costs mostly stem from how these costs are measured. Measures that compare combined dual-task capacity with the higher single-task capacity support a single, central WM store when there is a large disparity between the single-task capacities (Experiment 1) but not when the single-task capacities are well equated (Experiment 2). In contrast, measures of the dual-task cost that normalize for differences in single-task capacity reveal evidence for modality-specific stores, regardless of single-task performance. Moreover, these normalized measures indicate that dual-task cost is much smaller if the tasks do not involve maintaining bound feature representations in WM (Experiment 3). Taken together, these experiments not only resolve a discrepancy in the field and clarify how to assess the dual-task cost but also indicate that WM capacity can be constrained both by modality-specific and modality-independent sources of information processing.

  10. Advancing the capabilities of reservoir remote sensing by leveraging multi-source satellite data (United States)

    Gao, H.; Zhang, S.; Zhao, G.; Li, Y.


    With a total global capacity of more than 6000 km3, reservoirs play a key role in the hydrological cycle and in water resources management. However, essential reservoir data (e.g., elevation, storage, and evaporation loss) are usually not shared at a large scale. While satellite remote sensing offers a unique opportunity for monitoring large reservoirs from space, the commonly used radar altimeters can only detect storage variations of about 15% of global lakes at a repeat period of 10 days or longer. To advance the capabilities of reservoir sensing, we developed a series of algorithms geared towards generating long term reservoir records at improved spatial coverage, and at improved temporal resolution. To this goal, observations are leveraged from multiple satellite sensors, which include radar/laser altimeters, imagers, and passive microwave radiometers. In South Asia, we demonstrate that reservoir storage can be estimated under all-weather conditions at a 4 day time step, with the total capacity of monitored reservoirs increased to 45%. Within the Continuous United States, a first Landsat based evaporation loss dataset was developed (containing 204 reservoirs) from 1984 to 2011. The evaporation trends of these reservoirs are identified and the causes are analyzed. All of these algorithms and products were validated with gauge observations. Future satellite missions, which will make significant contributions to monitoring global reservoirs, are also discussed.

  11. Hydrogen storage in carbon nanofibres for defence applications : the influence of growth parameters on graphitic quality and storage capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turpin, M.; Mellor, I. [Morgan Materials Technology Ltd., Worcestershire (United Kingdom); Shatwell, R.A.; Prentice, C. [QinetiQ Farnborough, Hampshire (United Kingdom); Browning, D.J. [QinetiQ Haslar, Gosport, Hampshire (United Kingdom); Lakeman, J.B. [Dstl Portsdown, Cosham, Hampshire (United Kingdom); Gerrard, M.L.; Mortimer, R.J. [Loughborough Univ. of Technology, Loughborough, Leicestershire (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry


    The results of a study on hydrogen storage in carbon or graphite nanofibres (GNFs) were presented. Graphite nanofibres used in hydrogen storage treatment were synthesized at 600 degrees C by passing ethylene over a series of Fe:Ni:Cu catalysts. It was shown that while hydrogen storage can occur for up to 6.5 wt per cent, this number can vary depending on the method of preparation and heat treatment. Hydrogen storage requires an effective method, such as Raman spectroscopy, for characterising the product. Transmission Electron Microscopy also helped in the optimisation of the process to produce highly graphitic nanofibres. The main role of heat treatment is to remove carbon from the surface of the GNFs, allowing access to the graphene planes. Hydrogen storage experiments were conducted at 120 bar, using a bespoke apparatus with differential pressure. A detailed error analysis was performed on the uptake measurement system. The rate of penetration by hydrogen into a layer of carbon capping graphene planes is found to be negligible. It is concluded that hydrogen adsorption will not be observed unless the layer is removed. A maximum uptake of 4.2 wt per cent was achieved, increasing to more than 6.5 wt per cent following heat treatment at 1000 degrees C. 32 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  12. Comparison of static and dynamic resilience for a multipurpose reservoir operation (United States)

    Simonovic, Slobodan P.; Arunkumar, R.


    Reliability, resilience, and vulnerability are the traditional risk measures used to assess the performance of a reservoir system. Among these measures, resilience is used to assess the ability of a reservoir system to recover from a failure event. However, the time-independent static resilience does not consider the system characteristics, interaction of various individual components and does not provide much insight into reservoir performance from the beginning of the failure event until the full performance recovery. Knowledge of dynamic reservoir behavior under the disturbance offers opportunities for proactive and/or reactive adaptive response that can be selected to maximize reservoir resilience. A novel measure is required to provide insight into the dynamics of reservoir performance based on the reservoir system characteristics and its adaptive capacity. The reservoir system characteristics include, among others, reservoir storage curve, reservoir inflow, reservoir outflow capacity, and reservoir operating rules. The reservoir adaptive capacity can be expressed using various impacts of reservoir performance under the disturbance (like reservoir release for meeting a particular demand, socioeconomic consequences of reservoir performance, or resulting environmental state of the river upstream and downstream from the reservoir). Another way of expressing reservoir adaptive capacity to a disturbing event may include aggregated measures like reservoir robustness, redundancy, resourcefulness, and rapidity. A novel measure that combines reservoir performance and its adaptive capacity is proposed in this paper and named "dynamic resilience." The paper also proposes a generic simulation methodology for quantifying reservoir resilience as a function of time. The proposed resilience measure is applied to a single multipurpose reservoir operation and tested for a set of failure scenarios. The dynamic behavior of reservoir resilience is captured using the system

  13. Energy Saving High-Capacity Moderate Pressure Carbon Dioxide Storage System, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our approach to high-pressure carbon dioxide storage will directly address the challenges associated with storage of compressed carbon dioxide - the need to reduce...

  14. Impact of sea-level rise on Everglades carbon storage capacity in the Holocene (United States)

    Jones, M.; Bernhardt, C. E.; Wingard, G. L. L.; Keller, K.; Stackhouse, B.; Landacre, B.


    storage capacity of the Florida Everglades could decrease significantly if the freshwater Everglades accretion rate cannot outpace SLR. Further, the expansion and persistence of high-accumulating Rhizophora peat is limited by elevated SLR, impacting coastline stability and wildlife habitat.

  15. Experimental and Numerical Study of Effect of Thermal Management on Storage Capacity of the Adsorbed Natural Gas Vessel

    KAUST Repository

    Ybyraiymkul, Doskhan


    One of the main challenges in the adsorbed natural gas (ANG) storage system is the thermal effect of adsorption, which significantly lowers storage capacity. These challenges can be solved by efficient thermal management system. In this paper, influence of thermal management on storage capacity of the ANG vessel was studied experimentally and numerically. 3D numerical model was considered in order to understand heat transfer phenomena and analyze influence of thermal control comprehensively. In addition, a detailed 2D axisymmetric unit cell model of adsorbent layer with heat exchanger was developed, followed by optimization of heat exchanging device design to minimize volume occupied by fins and tubes. Heat transfer, mass transfer and adsorption kinetics, which occur in ANG vessel during charging process, are accounted for in models. Nelder-Mead method is implemented to obtain the geometrical parameters, which lead to the optimal characteristics of heat exchange. A new optimized configuration of ANG vessel was developed with compact heat exchanger. Results show that storage capacity of the ANG vessel increased significantly due to lowering of heat exchanger volume for 3 times from 13.5% to 4.3% and effective temperature control.

  16. The use of contained nuclear explosions to create underground reservoirs, and experience of operating these for gas condensate storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedrovskij, O.L.; Myasnikov, K.V.; Leonov, E.A.; Romadin, N.M.; Dorodnov, V.F.; Nikiforov, G.A.


    Investigations on the creation of underground reservoirs by means of nuclear explosions have been going on in the Soviet Union for many years. In this paper the authors consider three main kinds of sites or formations that can be used for constructing reservoirs by this method, namely, low-permeable rocks, worked-out mines and rock salt formations. Formulae are given for predicting the mechanical effect of an explosion in rocks, taking their strength characteristics into account. Engineering procedures are described for sealing and restoring the emplacement holes, so that they can be used for operating the underground reservoir. Experience with the contruction and operation of a 50 000 m 3 gas-condensate reservoir in a rock salt formation is described. In the appendix to the paper a method is presented for calculating the stability of spherical cavities created by nuclear explosions in rock salt, allowing for the development of elasto-plastic deformations and creep


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thair Mahmood Al-Taiee


    Full Text Available The Feasibility of sediment flushing  from Mosul reservoir located northern iraq was conducted. Many up to date world criteria and indices for checking the efficiency of sediment flushing from reservoir which have been got through analyzing large amount of  data from many flushed reservoirs  in the world which were depended tested and applied in the present case study (Mosul Reservoir. These criteria and indices depend mainly on the hydrological , hydraulic and  topographical properties of the reservoirs in-addition to the operation plan of the reservoirs. They gave a good indication for checking the efficiency of the sediment flushing  process in the reservoirs. It was concluded that approximately the main criteria for the successful flushing sediment was  verified  in  Mosul  reservoir  such as  Sediment Balance Ratio   (SBR and the Long Term Capacity Ratio (LTCR,the shape factor  of reservoir (W/L and the hydraulic condition such as the percentage of (Qf/Qin and (Vf/Vin. This gave an indication that the processes of flushing sediment in Mosul reservoir is probably feasible and may be applied  in the future to maintain the water storage in the reservoir.

  18. Conductive Boron-Doped Graphene as an Ideal Material for Electrocatalytically Switchable and High-Capacity Hydrogen Storage. (United States)

    Tan, Xin; Tahini, Hassan A; Smith, Sean C


    Electrocatalytic, switchable hydrogen storage promises both tunable kinetics and facile reversibility without the need for specific catalysts. The feasibility of this approach relies on having materials that are easy to synthesize, possessing good electrical conductivities. Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C 4 N 3 ) has been predicted to display charge-responsive binding with molecular hydrogen-the only such conductive sorbent material that has been discovered to date. As yet, however, this conductive variant of graphitic carbon nitride is not readily synthesized by scalable methods. Here, we examine the possibility of conductive and easily synthesized boron-doped graphene nanosheets (B-doped graphene) as sorbent materials for practical applications of electrocatalytically switchable hydrogen storage. Using first-principle calculations, we find that the adsorption energy of H 2 molecules on B-doped graphene can be dramatically enhanced by removing electrons from and thereby positively charging the adsorbent. Thus, by controlling charge injected or depleted from the adsorbent, one can effectively tune the storage/release processes which occur spontaneously without any energy barriers. At full hydrogen coverage, the positively charged BC 5 achieves high storage capacities up to 5.3 wt %. Importantly, B-doped graphene, such as BC 49 , BC 7 , and BC 5 , have good electrical conductivity and can be easily synthesized by scalable methods, which positions this class of material as a very good candidate for charge injection/release. These predictions pave the route for practical implementation of electrocatalytic systems with switchable storage/release capacities that offer high capacity for hydrogen storage.

  19. [Algal community structure and water quality assessment on drawdown area of Kaixian waters in Three Gorges Reservoir during winter storage period]. (United States)

    Guo, Jing-Song; Xie, Dan; Li, Zhe; Chen, Yuan; Sun, Zhi-Yu; Chen, Yong-Bo; Long, Man


    The old town area of Kaixian county was flooded and showed reservoir characteristics after the water level of Three Gorges Reservoir got 172. 8 m in December 2008. The aquatic ecology and nutritional status of Kaixian drawdown area after water storage are still rarely reported. To understand the current water environment and changes in algal community structure of Kaixian drawdown area after 172.8 m water level, the algal composition, abundance, biomass distribution and changes of its sampling spots including Hanfeng Lake were observed twice during winter storage period in January and December 2009. The trends in phytoplankton community structure were analyzed and the water quality assessment of nutritional status was carried out. The results indicated that 6 phylums, 37 genera, 69 species of phytoplankton in total were identified in the two sampling, and the dominant species were Dinophyta and Cryptophyta. The cell density and biomass in December 2009 were lower than those in January 2009. The evaluation results of algal population structure and pollution indicators showed that the nutrition level of Kaixian drawdown area during the winter storage period was mesotrophic to eutrophic type, while diversity analysis result indicated moderate pollution.

  20. A new probability density function for spatial distribution of soil water storage capacity leads to SCS curve number method


    Wang, Dingbao


    Following the Budyko framework, soil wetting ratio (the ratio between soil wetting and precipitation) as a function of soil storage index (the ratio between soil wetting capacity and precipitation) is derived from the SCS-CN method and the VIC type of model. For the SCS-CN method, soil wetting ratio approaches one when soil storage index approaches infinity, due to the limitation of the SCS-CN method in which the initial soil moisture condition is not explicitly represented. However, for the ...

  1. Evolution of the Petrophysical and Mineralogical Properties of Two Reservoir Rocks Under Thermodynamic Conditions Relevant for CO2 Geological Storage at 3 km Depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimmel, G.; Barlet-Gouedard, V.; Renard, F.


    Injection of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) underground, for long-term geological storage purposes, is considered as an economically viable option to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere. The chemical interactions between supercritical CO 2 and the potential reservoir rock need to be thoroughly investigated under thermodynamic conditions relevant for geological storage. In the present study, 40 samples of Lavoux limestone and Adamswiller sandstone, both collected from reservoir rocks in the Paris basin, were experimentally exposed to CO 2 in laboratory autoclaves specially built to simulate CO 2 -storage-reservoir conditions. The two types of rock were exposed to wet supercritical CO 2 and CO 2 -saturated water for one month, at 28 MPa and 90 C, corresponding to conditions for a burial depth approximating 3 km. The changes in mineralogy and micro-texture of the samples were measured using X-ray diffraction analyses, Raman spectroscopy, scanning-electron microscopy, and energy-dispersion spectroscopy microanalysis. The petrophysical properties were monitored by measuring the weight, density, mechanical properties, permeability, global porosity, and local porosity gradients through the samples. Both rocks maintained their mechanical and mineralogical properties after CO 2 exposure despite an increase of porosity and permeability. Microscopic zones of calcite dissolution observed in the limestone are more likely to be responsible for such increase. In the sandstone, an alteration of the petro-fabric is assumed to have occurred due to clay minerals reacting with CO 2 . All samples of Lavoux limestone and Adamswiller sandstone showed a measurable alteration when immersed either in wet supercritical CO 2 or in CO 2 -saturated water. These batch experiments were performed using distilled water and thus simulate more severe conditions than using formation water (brine). (authors)

  2. Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) detection of water storage changes in the Three Gorges Reservoir of China and comparison with in situ measurements (United States)

    Wang, Xianwei; de Linage, Caroline; Famiglietti, James; Zender, Charles S.


    Water impoundment in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) of China caused a large mass redistribution from the oceans to a concentrated land area in a short time period. We show that this mass shift is captured by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) unconstrained global solutions at a 400 km spatial resolution after removing correlated errors. The WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM) is selected to isolate the TGR contribution from regional water storage changes. For the first time, this study compares the GRACE (minus WGHM) estimated TGR volume changes with in situ measurements from April 2002 to May 2010 at a monthly time scale. During the 8 year study period, GRACE-WGHM estimated TGR volume changes show an increasing trend consistent with the TGR in situ measurements and lead to similar estimates of impounded water volume. GRACE-WGHM estimated total volume increase agrees to within 14% (3.2 km3) of the in situ measurements. This indicates that GRACE can retrieve the true amplitudes of large surface water storage changes in a concentrated area that is much smaller than the spatial resolution of its global harmonic solutions. The GRACE-WGHM estimated TGR monthly volume changes explain 76% (r2 = 0.76) of in situ measurement monthly variability and have an uncertainty of 4.62 km3. Our results also indicate reservoir leakage and groundwater recharge due to TGR filling and contamination from neighboring lakes are nonnegligible in the GRACE total water storage changes. Moreover, GRACE observations could provide a relatively accurate estimate of global water volume withheld by newly constructed large reservoirs and their impacts on global sea level rise since 2002.

  3. Area of Interest 1, CO2 at the Interface. Nature and Dynamics of the Reservoir/Caprock Contact and Implications for Carbon Storage Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozley, Peter [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Evans, James [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Dewers, Thomas [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)


    Formation reservoir/caprock interface in order to extend our work to a reservoir/caprock pair this is currently being assessed for long-term carbon storage. These analyses indicate that interface features similar to those observed at the Utah sites 3 were not observed. Although not directly related to our main study topic, one byproduct of our investigation is documentation of exceptionally high degrees of heterogeneity in the pore-size distribution of the Mount Simon Sandstone. This suggests that the unit has a greater-than-normal potential for residual trapping of supercritical CO2.

  4. Nonlinear Filtering Effects of Reservoirs on Flood Frequency Curves at the Regional Scale: RESERVOIRS FILTER FLOOD FREQUENCY CURVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Hong-Yi; Leung, Lai-Yung; Yigzaw, Wondmagegn Y.; Zhao, Jianshi; Lu, Hui; Deng, Zhiqun; Demissie, Yonas; Bloschl, Gunter


    Anthropogenic activities, e.g., reservoir operation, may alter the characteristics of Flood Frequency Curve (FFC) and challenge the basic assumption of stationarity used in flood frequency analysis. This paper presents a combined data-modeling analysis of the nonlinear filtering effects of reservoirs on the FFCs over the contiguous United States. A dimensionless Reservoir Impact Index (RII), defined as the total upstream reservoir storage capacity normalized by the annual streamflow volume, is used to quantify reservoir regulation effects. Analyses are performed for 388 river stations with an average record length of 50 years. The first two moments of the FFC, mean annual maximum flood (MAF) and coefficient of variations (CV), are calculated for the pre- and post-dam periods and compared to elucidate the reservoir regulation effects as a function of RII. It is found that MAF generally decreases with increasing RII but stabilizes when RII exceeds a threshold value, and CV increases with RII until a threshold value beyond which CV decreases with RII. The processes underlying the nonlinear threshold behavior of MAF and CV are investigated using three reservoir models with different levels of complexity. All models capture the non-linear relationships of MAF and CV with RII, suggesting that the basic flood control function of reservoirs is key to the non-linear relationships. The relative roles of reservoir storage capacity, operation objectives, available storage prior to a flood event, and reservoir inflow pattern are systematically investigated. Our findings may help improve flood-risk assessment and mitigation in regulated river systems at the regional scale.

  5. Development and evaluation of a low-cost and high-capacity DICOM image data storage system for research. (United States)

    Yakami, Masahiro; Ishizu, Koichi; Kubo, Takeshi; Okada, Tomohisa; Togashi, Kaori


    Thin-slice CT data, useful for clinical diagnosis and research, is now widely available but is typically discarded in many institutions, after a short period of time due to data storage capacity limitations. We designed and built a low-cost high-capacity Digital Imaging and COmmunication in Medicine (DICOM) storage system able to store thin-slice image data for years, using off-the-shelf consumer hardware components, such as a Macintosh computer, a Windows PC, and network-attached storage units. "Ordinary" hierarchical file systems, instead of a centralized data management system such as relational database, were adopted to manage patient DICOM files by arranging them in directories enabling quick and easy access to the DICOM files of each study by following the directory trees with Windows Explorer via study date and patient ID. Software used for this system was open-source OsiriX and additional programs we developed ourselves, both of which were freely available via the Internet. The initial cost of this system was about $3,600 with an incremental storage cost of about $900 per 1 terabyte (TB). This system has been running since 7th Feb 2008 with the data stored increasing at the rate of about 1.3 TB per month. Total data stored was 21.3 TB on 23rd June 2009. The maintenance workload was found to be about 30 to 60 min once every 2 weeks. In conclusion, this newly developed DICOM storage system is useful for research due to its cost-effectiveness, enormous capacity, high scalability, sufficient reliability, and easy data access.

  6. Rigorous Screening Technology for Identifying Suitable CO2 Storage Sites II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George J. Koperna Jr.; Vello A. Kuuskraa; David E. Riestenberg; Aiysha Sultana; Tyler Van Leeuwen


    This report serves as the final technical report and users manual for the 'Rigorous Screening Technology for Identifying Suitable CO2 Storage Sites II SBIR project. Advanced Resources International has developed a screening tool by which users can technically screen, assess the storage capacity and quantify the costs of CO2 storage in four types of CO2 storage reservoirs. These include CO2-enhanced oil recovery reservoirs, depleted oil and gas fields (non-enhanced oil recovery candidates), deep coal seems that are amenable to CO2-enhanced methane recovery, and saline reservoirs. The screening function assessed whether the reservoir could likely serve as a safe, long-term CO2 storage reservoir. The storage capacity assessment uses rigorous reservoir simulation models to determine the timing, ultimate storage capacity, and potential for enhanced hydrocarbon recovery. Finally, the economic assessment function determines both the field-level and pipeline (transportation) costs for CO2 sequestration in a given reservoir. The screening tool has been peer reviewed at an Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI) technical meeting in March 2009. A number of useful observations and recommendations emerged from the Workshop on the costs of CO2 transport and storage that could be readily incorporated into a commercial version of the Screening Tool in a Phase III SBIR.

  7. South Louisiana Enhanced Oil Recovery/Sequestration R&D Project Small Scale Field Tests of Geologic Reservoir Classes for Geologic Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hite, Roger [Blackhorse Energy LLC, Houston, TX (United States)


    The project site is located in Livingston Parish, Louisiana, approximately 26 miles due east of Baton Rouge. This project proposed to evaluate an early Eocene-aged Wilcox oil reservoir for permanent storage of CO2. Blackhorse Energy, LLC planned to conduct a parallel CO2 oil recovery project in the First Wilcox Sand. The primary focus of this project was to examine and prove the suitability of South Louisiana geologic formations for large-scale geologic sequestration of CO2 in association with enhanced oil recovery applications. This was to be accomplished through the focused demonstration of small-scale, permanent storage of CO2 in the First Wilcox Sand. The project was terminated at the request of Blackhorse Energy LLC on October 22, 2014.

  8. Large temporal scale and capacity subsurface bulk energy storage with CO2 (United States)

    Saar, M. O.; Fleming, M. R.; Adams, B. M.; Ogland-Hand, J.; Nelson, E. S.; Randolph, J.; Sioshansi, R.; Kuehn, T. H.; Buscheck, T. A.; Bielicki, J. M.


    Decarbonizing energy systems by increasing the penetration of variable renewable energy (VRE) technologies requires efficient and short- to long-term energy storage. Very large amounts of energy can be stored in the subsurface as heat and/or pressure energy in order to provide both short- and long-term (seasonal) storage, depending on the implementation. This energy storage approach can be quite efficient, especially where geothermal energy is naturally added to the system. Here, we present subsurface heat and/or pressure energy storage with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) and discuss the system's efficiency, deployment options, as well as its advantages and disadvantages, compared to several other energy storage options. CO2-based subsurface bulk energy storage has the potential to be particularly efficient and large-scale, both temporally (i.e., seasonal) and spatially. The latter refers to the amount of energy that can be stored underground, using CO2, at a geologically conducive location, potentially enabling storing excess power from a substantial portion of the power grid. The implication is that it would be possible to employ centralized energy storage for (a substantial part of) the power grid, where the geology enables CO2-based bulk subsurface energy storage, whereas the VRE technologies (solar, wind) are located on that same power grid, where (solar, wind) conditions are ideal. However, this may require reinforcing the power grid's transmission lines in certain parts of the grid to enable high-load power transmission from/to a few locations.

  9. Analysis of Large- Capacity Water Heaters in Electric Thermal Storage Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Alan L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, David M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Winiarski, David W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carmichael, Robert T. [Cadeo Group, Washington D. C. (United States); Mayhorn, Ebony T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fisher, Andrew R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    This report documents a national impact analysis of large tank heat pump water heaters (HPWH) in electric thermal storage (ETS) programs and conveys the findings related to concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large-tank heat pump water heaters to provide electric thermal storage services.

  10. Estimating reservoir permeability from gravity current modeling of CO2 flow at Sleipner storage project, North Sea (United States)

    Cowton, L. R.; Neufeld, J. A.; Bickle, M.; White, N.; White, J.; Chadwick, A.


    Vertically-integrated gravity current models enable computationally efficient simulations of CO2 flow in sub-surface reservoirs. These simulations can be used to investigate the properties of reservoirs by minimizing differences between observed and modeled CO2 distributions. At the Sleipner project, about 1 Mt yr-1 of supercritical CO2 is injected at a depth of 1 km into a pristine saline aquifer with a thick shale caprock. Analysis of time-lapse seismic reflection surveys shows that CO2 is distributed within 9 discrete layers. The trapping mechanism comprises a stacked series of 1 m thick, impermeable shale horizons that are spaced at 30 m intervals through the reservoir. Within the stratigraphically highest reservoir layer, Layer 9, a submarine channel deposit has been mapped on the pre-injection seismic survey. Detailed measurements of the three-dimensional CO2 distribution within Layer 9 have been made using seven time-lapse surveys, providing a useful benchmark against which numerical flow simulations can be tested. Previous simulations have, in general, been largely unsuccessful in matching the migration rate of CO2 in this layer. Here, CO2 flow within Layer 9 is modeled as a vertically-integrated gravity current that spreads beneath a structurally complex caprock using a two-dimensional grid, considerably increasing computational efficiency compared to conventional three-dimensional simulators. This flow model is inverted to find the optimal reservoir permeability in Layer 9 by minimizing the difference between observed and predicted distributions of CO2 as a function of space and time. A three parameter inverse model, comprising reservoir permeability, channel permeability and channel width, is investigated by grid search. The best-fitting reservoir permeability is 3 Darcys, which is consistent with measurements made on core material from the reservoir. Best-fitting channel permeability is 26 Darcys. Finally, the ability of this simplified numerical model

  11. Modelling rainfall interception by forests: a new method for estimating the canopy storage capacity (United States)

    Pereira, Fernando; Valente, Fernanda; Nóbrega, Cristina


    Evaporation of rainfall intercepted by forests is usually an important part of a catchment water balance. Recognizing the importance of interception loss, several models of the process have been developed. A key parameter of these models is the canopy storage capacity (S), commonly estimated by the so-called Leyton method. However, this method is somewhat subjective in the selection of the storms used to derive S, which is particularly critical when throughfall is highly variable in space. To overcome these problems, a new method for estimating S was proposed in 2009 by Pereira et al. (Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 149: 680-688), which uses information from a larger number of storms, is less sensitive to throughfall spatial variability and is consistent with the formulation of the two most widely used rainfall interception models, Gash analytical model and Rutter model. However, this method has a drawback: it does not account for stemflow (Sf). To allow a wider use of this methodology, we propose now a revised version which makes the estimation of S independent of the importance of stemflow. For the application of this new version we only need to establish a linear regression of throughfall vs. gross rainfall using data from all storms large enough to saturate the canopy. Two of the parameters used by the Gash and the Rutter models, pd (the drainage partitioning coefficient) and S, are then derived from the regression coefficients: pd is firstly estimated allowing then the derivation of S but, if Sf is not considered, S can be estimated making pd= 0. This new method was tested using data from a eucalyptus plantation, a maritime pine forest and a traditional olive grove, all located in Central Portugal. For both the eucalyptus and the pine forests pd and S estimated by this new approach were comparable to the values derived in previous studies using the standard procedures. In the case of the traditional olive grove, the estimates obtained by this methodology

  12. Well-based stable carbon isotope leakage monitoring of an aquifer overlying the CO2 storage reservoir at the Ketzin pilot site, Germany (United States)

    Nowak, Martin; Myrttinen, Anssi; Zimmer, Martin; van Geldern, Robert; Barth, Johannes A. C.


    At the pilot site for CO2 storage in Ketzin, a new well-based leakage-monitoring concept was established, comprising geochemical and hydraulic observations of the aquifer directly above the CO2 reservoir (Wiese et al., 2013, Nowak et al. 2013). Its purpose was to allow early detection of un-trapped CO2. Within this monitoring concept, we established a stable carbon isotope monitoring of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). If baseline isotope values of aquifer DIC (δ13CDIC) and reservoir CO2 (δ13CCO2) are known and distinct from each other, the δ13CDIC has the potential to serve as an an early indicator for an impact of leaked CO2 on the aquifer brine. The observation well of the overlying aquifer was equipped with an U-tube sampling system that allowed sampling of unaltered brine. The high alkaline drilling mud that was used during well drilling masked δ13CDIC values at the beginning of the monitoring campaign. However, subsequent monitoring allowed observing on-going re-equilibration of the brine, indicated by changing δ13CDIC and other geochemical values, until values ranging around -23 ‰ were reached. The latter were close to baseline values before drilling. Baselineδ13CDIC and δ13CCO2 values were used to derive a geochemical and isotope model that predicts evolution of δ13CDIC, if CO2 from the reservoir would leak into the aquifer. The model shows that equilibrium isotope fractionation would have to be considered if CO2 dissolves in the brine. The model suggests that stable carbon isotope monitoring is a suitable tool to assess the impact of injected CO2 in overlying groundwater aquifers. However, more data are required to close gaps of knowledge about fractionation behaviour within the CO2(g) - DIC system under elevated pressures and temperatures. Nowak, M., Myrttinen, A., Zimmer, M., Wiese, B., van Geldern, R., Barth, J.A.C., 2013. Well-based, Geochemical Leakage Monitoring of an Aquifer Immediately Above a CO2 Storage Reservoir by Stable Carbon

  13. Methods to Assess Geological CO2 Storage Capacity: Status and Best Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    To understand the emission reduction potential of carbon capture and storage (CCS), decision makers need to understand the amount of CO2 that can be safely stored in the subsurface and the geographical distribution of storage resources. Estimates of storage resources need to be made using reliable and consistent methods. Previous estimates of CO2 storage potential for a range of countries and regions have been based on a variety of methodologies resulting in a correspondingly wide range of estimates. Consequently, there has been uncertainty about which of the methodologies were most appropriate in given settings, and whether the estimates produced by these methods were useful to policy makers trying to determine the appropriate role of CCS. In 2011, the IEA convened two workshops which brought together experts for six national surveys organisations to review CO2 storage assessment methodologies and make recommendations on how to harmonise CO2 storage estimates worldwide. This report presents the findings of these workshops and an internationally shared guideline for quantifying CO2 storage resources.

  14. Mineralogical controls on porosity and water chemistry during O_2-SO_2-CO_2 reaction of CO_2 storage reservoir and cap-rock core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, Julie K.; Golab, Alexandra; Dawson, Grant K.W.; Knuefing, Lydia; Goodwin, Carley; Golding, Suzanne D.


    Reservoir and cap-rock core samples with variable lithology's representative of siliciclastic reservoirs used for CO_2 storage have been characterized and reacted at reservoir conditions with an impure CO_2 stream and low salinity brine. Cores from a target CO_2 storage site in Queensland, Australia were tested. Mineralogical controls on the resulting changes to porosity and water chemistry have been identified. The tested siliciclastic reservoir core samples can be grouped generally into three responses to impure CO_2-brine reaction, dependent on mineralogy. The mineralogically clean quartzose reservoir cores had high porosities, with negligible change after reaction, in resolvable porosity or mineralogy, calculated using X-ray micro computed tomography and QEMSCAN. However, strong brine acidification and a high concentration of dissolved sulphate were generated in experiments owing to minimal mineral buffering. Also, the movement of kaolin has the potential to block pore throats and reduce permeability. The reaction of the impure CO_2-brine with calcite-cemented cap-rock core samples caused the largest porosity changes after reaction through calcite dissolution; to the extent that one sample developed a connection of open pores that extended into the core sub-plug. This has the potential to both favor injectivity but also affect CO_2 migration. The dissolution of calcite caused the buffering of acidity resulting in no significant observable silicate dissolution. Clay-rich cap-rock core samples with minor amounts of carbonate minerals had only small changes after reaction. Created porosity appeared mainly disconnected. Changes were instead associated with decreases in density from Fe-leaching of chlorite or dissolution of minor amounts of carbonates and plagioclase. The interbedded sandstone and shale core also developed increased porosity parallel to bedding through dissolution of carbonates and reactive silicates in the sandy layers. Tight interbedded cap

  15. A consistent approach to CO{sub 2} storage capacity estimation for deep saline formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dose, T. [DEA Mineraloel AG, Hamburg (Germany)


    Whereas the methodology of assessing pore volume is well established, a consistent methodology for calculating the pore volume efficiency (PVE) needs to be applied, e.g., as proposed in this paper. (1) Numerical simulations show, that CO{sub 2} storage sites are not restricted to geologic traps like anticlines. Also synclines and flat structures provide feasible storage structures, as long as no shortcut to the surface like leaking faults or wells exist. (2) Among active forces induced by CO{sub 2} injection, differential injection pressure and static pressure increase may turn out to be critical. This can lead to overlap with capillary displacement pressure, fracturing pressure, and exceeding the fault friction limit. (3) If differential injection pressure turns out to be critical, this can be balanced technically. Fault slippage can be avoided by selecting appropriate sites. (4) For the CO{sub 2} storage system to stay in balance, it is required that the static pressure increase stays below the capillary displacement pressure. (5) With this limiting conditions, scenarios show PVEs of 0.1-0.65% for a hydraulic system, mostly dependant on caprock quality and total compressibility. (6) Likely several possible storage sites exist for a hydraulic system. It is almost sure that the sum of the local storage potential will exceed the storage potential of the hydraulic system. (7) Regional pressure effects of CO{sub 2} storage can be significant. Different storage sites injecting at high rates into the same hydraulic system will need large distances between them. (9) Due to likely interference of storage sites and other fluid operations within a hydraulic system, close cooperations between operators may become necessary. (orig.)

  16. Dynamical Origin of the Effective Storage Capacity in the Brain's Working Memory (United States)

    Bick, Christian; Rabinovich, Mikhail I.


    The capacity of working memory (WM), a short-term buffer for information in the brain, is limited. We suggest a model for sequential WM that is based upon winnerless competition amongst representations of available informational items. Analytical results for the underlying mathematical model relate WM capacity and relative lateral inhibition in the corresponding neural network. This implies an upper bound for WM capacity, which is, under reasonable neurobiological assumptions, close to the “magical number seven.”

  17. Short-term storage capacity for visual objects depends on expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Kyllingsbæk, Søren


    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) has traditionally been thought to have a very limited capacity of around 3–4 objects. However, recently several researchers have argued that VSTM may be limited in the amount of information retained rather than by a specific number of objects. Here we present a study...... of the effect of long-term practice on VSTM capacity. We investigated four age groups ranging from pre-school children to adults and measured the change in VSTM capacity for letters and pictures. We found a clear increase in VSTM capacity for letters with age but not for pictures. Our results indicate that VSTM...

  18. Biphase Cobalt-Manganese Oxide with High Capacity and Rate Performance for Aqueous Sodium-Ion Electrochemical Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, Xiaoqiang [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Charles, Daniel S. [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Xu, Wenqian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS). X-ray Science Division; Feygenson, Mikhail [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical and Engineering Materials Division and Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) outstation Juelich Centre for Neutron Science (JCNS), Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH; Su, Dong [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN); Teng, Xiaowei [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering


    Manganese-based metal oxide electrode materials are of great importance in electrochemical energy storage for their favorable redox behavior, low cost and environmental-friendliness. However, their storage capacity and cycle life in aqueous Na-ion electrolytes is not satisfactory. In this paper, we report the development of a bi-phase cobalt-manganese oxide (Co-Mn-O) nanostructured electrode material, comprised of a layered MnO2.H2O birnessite phase and a (Co0.83Mn0.13Va0.04)tetra(Co0.38Mn1.62)octaO3.72 (Va: vacancy; tetra: tetrahedral sites; octa: octahedral sites) spinel phase, verified by neutron total scattering and pair distribution function analyses. The bi-phase Co-Mn-O material demonstrates an excellent storage capacity towards Na-ions in an aqueous electrolyte (121 mA h g-1 at a scan rate of 1 mV s-1 in the half-cell and 81 mA h g-1 at a current density of 2 A g-1 after 5000 cycles in full-cells), as well as high rate performance (57 mA h g-1 a rate of 360 C). Electro-kinetic analysis and in situ X-ray diffraction measurements further confirm that the synergistic interaction between the spinel and layered phases, as well as the vacancy of the tetrahedral sites of spinel phase, contribute to the improved capacity and rate performance of the Co-Mn-O material by facilitating both diffusion-limited redox and capacitive charge storage processes.

  19. Determinants of the energy storage capacity of electric vehicles; Determinanten des Energiespeicherpotentials von Elektrofahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlegel, S.; Westermann, D. [Technische Univ. Ilmenau (Germany). FG EEV; Agsten, M. [Fraunhofer IOSB, Ilmenau (Germany). Institutsteil Angewandte Systemtechnik (AST)


    Future power systems have to meet the challenge of uncontrollable, decentralized generation through increasing renewable. Utilize energy storage to harmonize the load with fluctuating generation is an option. On the other hand in today's markets large scale energy storage systems are hard to find. The reason is assumed in the high costs. Electric vehicle utilization with smart charging could be an alternative solution, due to the secondary use of the electric vehicles battery when not used for driving. This paper will describe the electric vehicle storage capability which determinants influence the storage potential Therefore a model based approach will be provided, which is based on the experiences of a field test (''MINI-E-Berlin powered by Vattenfall''). (orig.)

  20. Technology Assessment of High Capacity Data Storage Systems: Can We Avoid a Data Survivability Crisis (United States)

    Halem, M.; Shaffer, F.; Palm, N.; Salmon, E.; Raghavan, S.; Kempster, L.


    The density of digital storage media in our information-intensive society increases by a factor of four every three years, while the rate at which this data can be migrated to viable long-term storage has been increasing by a factor of only four every nine years. Meanwhile, older data stored on increasingly obsolete media, are at considerable risk. When the systems for which the media were designed are no longer serviced by their manufacturers (many of whom are out of business), the data will no longer be accessible. In some cases, older media suffer from a physical breakdown of components - tapes simply lose their magnetic properties after a long time in storage. The scale of the crisis is compatible to that facing the Social Security System. Greater financial and intellectual resources to the development and refinement of new storage media and migration technologies in order to preserve as much data as possible.

  1. Effect of harvest date on the nutritional quality and antioxidant capacity in 'Hass' avocado during storage. (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Zheng, Yusheng; Khuong, Toan; Lovatt, Carol J


    The effect of harvest date on nutritional compounds and antioxidant activity (AOC) in avocado (Persea americana Mill. cv Hass) fruit during storage was determined. The fruits were harvested at seven different dates and ripened at 25 °C following 21 or 35 days of cold storage. The results indicated that the phenolic and glutathione contents were increased and the ascorbic acid content was not significantly different in early harvested fruit (January to March), and the phenolic, ascorbic acid and glutathione contents were increased slightly and then decreased on late harvested fruit (April to June). Similar trends were observed in the changes of AOC. Furthermore, AOC in early harvested fruit after storage for 35 days was much higher than that in late harvested fruit after storage for 21 days. Therefore, avocado can be harvested earlier for economic benefits according to the market and can keep high nutritional value for human health benefits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Storage capacity assessment of liquid fuels production by solar gasification in a packed bed reactor using a dynamic process model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaniyal, Ashok A.; Eyk, Philip J. van; Nathan, Graham J.


    of syngas throughput that could be maintained over a full year by 74%, to 5.9 kmol/day. Importantly, a larger heliostat field collection area was calculated to reduce the required storage capacity to approximately halve 35 days, which in absolute terms corresponds to 3.0 tons of syngas. Nevertheless, a requirement for this capacity of storage suggests that the use of the packed bed solar gasification reactor for FT liquids production is unlikely to be viable without substantial changes to the design and operation of the reactor and/or downstream processing plant.

  3. Hydrogen storage by adsorption on activated carbon: investigation of the thermal effects during the charging process; Stockage de l'hydrogene par adsorption sur charbon actif: etude des effets thermiques lors de la charge dynamique d'un reservoir a lit fixe adsorbant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermosilla-Lara, G


    This work presents an experimental and numerical investigation of the thermal effects occurring during the charge of adsorbent fixed bed tank. The influence of these thermal effects, which result from the exothermal character of the adsorption process and the pressure forces work, on the storage capacity is specially analysed. An experimental setup allowing the dynamic measurements of the temperature and pressure profiles has been used. Then the numerical protocol with the Fluent software, has been validated by comparison of the simulated pressure, flow rate and temperature fields in the tank with the results obtained from an experimental investigation carried out the dynamic storage. Several predictive simulations have been carried out in order to study the effect of the boundary conditions, as the wall temperature or effective thermal conductivity of the porous bed, on the storage capacity of the reservoir. We searched the optimal geometry of an interbed thermal dissipator for a given industrial tank. To do this we made vary the H/L ratio, which represents the ratio of the height of an elementary stage and the total length of the tank. We could determine an optimal geometry which corresponds to the value 1/3 of the ratio H/L. From this optimum we studied the effect of five additional cooling tubes on the tank storage capacity. The stored mass is 15 % higher than that obtained without these tubes. (author)

  4. DNA MemoChip: Long-Term and High Capacity Information Storage and Select Retrieval. (United States)

    Stefano, George B; Wang, Fuzhou; Kream, Richard M


    Over the course of history, human beings have never stopped seeking effective methods for information storage. From rocks to paper, and through the past several decades of using computer disks, USB sticks, and on to the thin silicon "chips" and "cloud" storage of today, it would seem that we have reached an era of efficiency for managing innumerable and ever-expanding data. Astonishingly, when tracing this technological path, one realizes that our ancient methods of informational storage far outlast paper (10,000 vs. 1,000 years, respectively), let alone the computer-based memory devices that only last, on average, 5 to 25 years. During this time of fast-paced information generation, it becomes increasingly difficult for current storage methods to retain such massive amounts of data, and to maintain appropriate speeds with which to retrieve it, especially when in demand by a large number of users. Others have proposed that DNA-based information storage provides a way forward for information retention as a result of its temporal stability. It is now evident that DNA represents a potentially economical and sustainable mechanism for storing information, as demonstrated by its decoding from a 700,000 year-old horse genome. The fact that the human genome is present in a cell, containing also the varied mitochondrial genome, indicates DNA's great potential for large data storage in a 'smaller' space.

  5. A method for examining the geospatial distribution of CO2 storage resources applied to the Pre-Punta Gorda Composite and Dollar Bay reservoirs of the South Florida Basin, U.S.A (United States)

    Roberts-Ashby, Tina; Brandon N. Ashby,


    This paper demonstrates geospatial modification of the USGS methodology for assessing geologic CO2 storage resources, and was applied to the Pre-Punta Gorda Composite and Dollar Bay reservoirs of the South Florida Basin. The study provides detailed evaluation of porous intervals within these reservoirs and utilizes GIS to evaluate the potential spatial distribution of reservoir parameters and volume of CO2 that can be stored. This study also shows that incorporating spatial variation of parameters using detailed and robust datasets may improve estimates of storage resources when compared to applying uniform values across the study area derived from small datasets, like many assessment methodologies. Geospatially derived estimates of storage resources presented here (Pre-Punta Gorda Composite = 105,570 MtCO2; Dollar Bay = 24,760 MtCO2) were greater than previous assessments, which was largely attributed to the fact that detailed evaluation of these reservoirs resulted in higher estimates of porosity and net-porous thickness, and areas of high porosity and thick net-porous intervals were incorporated into the model, likely increasing the calculated volume of storage space available for CO2 sequestration. The geospatial method for evaluating CO2 storage resources also provides the ability to identify areas that potentially contain higher volumes of storage resources, as well as areas that might be less favorable.

  6. The Effect of Model Grid Resolution on the Distributed Hydrologic Simulations for Forecasting Stream Flows and Reservoir Storage (United States)

    Turnbull, S. J.


    Within the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), reservoirs are typically operated according to a rule curve that specifies target water levels based on the time of year. The rule curve is intended to maximize flood protection by specifying releases of water before the dominant rainfall period for a region. While some operating allowances are permissible, generally the rule curve elevations must be maintained. While this operational approach provides for the required flood control purpose, it may not result in optimal reservoir operations for multi-use impoundments. In the Russian River Valley of California a multi-agency research effort called Forecast-Informed Reservoir Operations (FIRO) is assessing the application of forecast weather and streamflow predictions to potentially enhance the operation of reservoirs in the watershed. The focus of the study has been on Lake Mendocino, a USACE project important for flood control, water supply, power generation and ecological flows. As part of this effort the Engineer Research and Development Center is assessing the ability of utilizing the physics based, distributed watershed model Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) model to simulate stream flows, reservoir stages, and discharges while being driven by weather forecast products. A key question in this application is the effect of watershed model resolution on forecasted stream flows. To help resolve this question, GSSHA models of multiple grid resolutions, 30, 50, and 270m, were developed for the upper Russian River, which includes Lake Mendocino. The models were derived from common inputs: DEM, soils, land use, stream network, reservoir characteristics, and specified inflows and discharges. All the models were calibrated in both event and continuous simulation mode using measured precipitation gages and then driven with the West-WRF atmospheric model in prediction mode to assess the ability of the model to function in short term, less than one week

  7. Effects of Scandinavian hydro power on storage needs in a fully renewable European power system for various transmission capacity scenarios (United States)

    Kies, Alexander; Nag, Kabitri; von Bremen, Lueder; Lorenz, Elke; Heinemann, Detlev


    The penetration of renewable energies in the European power system has increased in the last decades (23.5% share of renewables in the gross electricity consumption of the EU-28 in 2012) and is expected to increase further up to very high shares close to 100%. Planning and organizing this European energy transition towards sustainable power sources will be one of the major challenges of the 21st century. It is very likely that in a fully renewable European power system wind and photovoltaics (pv) will contribute the largest shares to the generation mix followed by hydro power. However, feed-in from wind and pv is due to the weather dependant nature of their resources fluctuating and non-controllable. To match generation and consumption several solutions and their combinations were proposed like very high backup-capacities of conventional power generation (e.g. fossile or nuclear), storages or the extension of the transmission grid. Apart from those options hydro power can be used to counterbalance fluctuating wind and pv generation to some extent. In this work we investigate the effects of hydro power from Norway and Sweden on residual storage needs in Europe depending on the overlaying grid scenario. High temporally and spatially resolved weather data with a spatial resolution of 7 x 7 km and a temporal resolution of 1 hour was used to model the feed-in from wind and pv for 34 investigated European countries for the years 2003-2012. Inflow into hydro storages and generation by run-of-river power plants were computed from ERA-Interim reanalysis runoff data at a spatial resolution of 0.75° x 0.75° and a daily temporal resolution. Power flows in a simplified transmission grid connecting the 34 European countries were modelled minimizing dissipation using a DC-flow approximation. Previous work has shown that hydro power, namely in Norway and Sweden, can reduce storage needs in a renewable European power system by a large extent. A 15% share of hydro power in Europe

  8. The H_6_0Si_6C_5_4 heterofullerene as high-capacity hydrogen storage medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, Yongliang; Zhou, Qingxiao; Li, Xiaohong; Lv, Shijie


    With the great success in Si atoms doped C_6_0 fullerene and the well-established methods for synthesis of hydrogenated carbon fullerenes, this leads naturally to wonder whether Si-doped fullerenes are possible for special applications such as hydrogen storage. Here by using first-principles calculations, we design a novel high-capacity hydrogen storage material, H_6_0Si_6C_5_4 heterofullerene, and confirm its geometric stability. It is found that the H_6_0Si_6C_5_4 heterofullerene has a large HOMO-LUMO gap and a high symmetry, indicating it is high chemically stable. Further, our finite temperature simulations indicate that the H_6_0Si_6C_5_4 heterofullerene is thermally stable at 300 K. H_2 molecules would enter into the cage from the Si-hexagon ring because of lower energy barrier. Through our calculation, a maximum of 21 H_2 molecules can be stored inside the H_6_0Si_6C_5_4 cage in molecular form, leading to a gravimetric density of 11.11 wt% for 21H_2@H_6_0Si_6C_5_4 system, which suggests that the hydrogenated Si_6C_5_4 heterofullerene could be suitable as a high-capacity hydrogen storage material.

  9. Optimal Capacity Estimation Method of the Energy Storage Mounted on a Wireless Railway Train for Energy-Sustainable Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewon Kim


    Full Text Available Although electric railway systems have gone through many technological innovations in their electrical, mechanical and structural engineering since the energy paradigm conversion to electrical energy, the conventional feeding system based on the catenary contact is still being applied. In order to solve the problems of the contact-based feeding system that arise and to build up the energy-sustainable electric railway system simultaneously, this paper considers the wireless railway train (WRT, which is fed by storages mounted on the board without catenary contact during driving and charged at a platform during a stop. In order to maximize the energy improvement of WRTs’ operation, the optimal power and storage capacity estimation method considering the increased weight of the additional storage devices is proposed. Through case studies of the electrical and topographical conditions of the actual operating railway route, compared with the electrical performance of the existing railway trains, it is verified that the application of WRTs leads to facility capacity margin enlargement through the peak power reduction, and cost-effectiveness improvement through the reduction of catenary loss and driving energy.

  10. A Model To Estimate Carbon Dioxide Injectivity and Storage Capacity for Geological Sequestration in Shale Gas Wells. (United States)

    Edwards, Ryan W J; Celia, Michael A; Bandilla, Karl W; Doster, Florian; Kanno, Cynthia M


    Recent studies suggest the possibility of CO2 sequestration in depleted shale gas formations, motivated by large storage capacity estimates in these formations. Questions remain regarding the dynamic response and practicality of injection of large amounts of CO2 into shale gas wells. A two-component (CO2 and CH4) model of gas flow in a shale gas formation including adsorption effects provides the basis to investigate the dynamics of CO2 injection. History-matching of gas production data allows for formation parameter estimation. Application to three shale gas-producing regions shows that CO2 can only be injected at low rates into individual wells and that individual well capacity is relatively small, despite significant capacity variation between shale plays. The estimated total capacity of an average Marcellus Shale well in Pennsylvania is 0.5 million metric tonnes (Mt) of CO2, compared with 0.15 Mt in an average Barnett Shale well. Applying the individual well estimates to the total number of existing and permitted planned wells (as of March, 2015) in each play yields a current estimated capacity of 7200-9600 Mt in the Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania and 2100-3100 Mt in the Barnett Shale.

  11. A CO2-storage supply curve for North America and its implications for the deployment of carbon dioxide capture and storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, J.J.; Bachu, S.; Gupta, N.; Gale, J.


    This paper presented a highly disaggregated estimate of carbon dioxide (CO 2 )-storage capacity of more than 330 onshore geological reservoirs across the United States and Canada. The demand placed upon these reservoirs by thousands of existing large anthropogenic CO 2 point sources was also reviewed based on a newly developed methodology for estimating the effective storage capacities of deep saline formations, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, and deep unmineable coal seams. This analysis was based on matching the identified point sources with candidate storage reservoirs. By incorporating the updated source and reservoir data into the Battelle CO 2 -GIS, a series of pairwise costs for transporting CO 2 from sites of anthropogenic CO 2 sources was calculated along with the net cost of storing it in each of the candidate reservoirs within a specified distance of the point source. Results indicate a large and variably distributed North American storage capacity of at least 3,800 gigatonnes of CO 2 , with deep saline formations accounting for most of this capacity. A geospatial and techno-economic database of 2,082 anthropogenic CO 2 point sources in North America, each with annual emissions greater than 100,000 tonnes of CO 2 , was also refined. Sensitivities examined for the CO 2 -storage cost curve focused on high/low oil and gas prices; the maximum allowed distance between source and reservoir; and, the infrastructure costs associated with CO 2 -driven hydrocarbon recovery. 20 refs., 5 figs

  12. Correction: Conceptual design of tetraazaporphyrin- and subtetraazaporphyrin-based functional nanocarbon materials: electronic structures, topologies, optical properties, and methane storage capacities. (United States)

    Belosludov, Rodion V; Rhoda, Hannah M; Zhdanov, Ravil K; Belosludov, Vladimir R; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Nemykin, Victor N


    Correction for 'Conceptual design of tetraazaporphyrin- and subtetraazaporphyrin-based functional nanocarbon materials: electronic structures, topologies, optical properties, and methane storage capacities' by Rodion V. Belosludov et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2016, 18, 13503-13518.

  13. A Novel Method for Fast Configuration of Energy Storage Capacity in Stand-Alone and Grid-Connected Wind Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixiang Zang


    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel method is proposed and applied to quickly calculate the capacity of energy storage for stand-alone and grid-connected wind energy systems, according to the discrete Fourier transform theory. Based on practical wind resource data and power data, which are derived from the American Wind Energy Technology Center and HOMER software separately, the energy storage capacity of a stand-alone wind energy system is investigated and calculated. Moreover, by applying the practical wind power data from a wind farm in Fujian Province, the energy storage capacity for a grid-connected wind system is discussed in this paper. This method can also be applied to determine the storage capacity of a stand-alone solar energy system with practical photovoltaic power data.

  14. Flow characteristic of Hijiori HDR reservoir from circulation test in 1991; Koon tantai Hijiori jikkenjo ni okeru senbu choryuso shiken (1991 nendo) kekka to ryudo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiga, T; Hyodo, M; Shinohara, N; Takasugi, S [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper reports one example of flow analyses on a circulation test carried out in fiscal 1991 at the Hijiori hot dry rock experimental field (Yamagata Prefecture). A fluid circulation model was proposed to simulate an HDR circulation system for a shallow reservoir (at a depth of about 1800 m) demonstrated in the circulation test by using an electric circuit network (which expresses continuity impedance in resistance and fluid storage in capacitance). Storage capacity of the reservoir was estimated by deriving time constant of the system from data of time-based change in reservoir pressure associated with transition phenomena during the circulation test. The storage capacity was estimated separately by dividing change of storage in the reservoir by change in the reservoir pressure. To derive the storage in the reservoir, a method to calculate non-recovered flows in the circulation test was utilized. The results of evaluating the reservoir capacity in the shallow reservoir using the above two independent methods were found substantially consistent. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Wastewater minimisation using inherent storage capacity in multipurpose batch plants: an unexplored dimension

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gouws, JF


    Full Text Available that are idle at some point during a given time horizon. In essence, any processing vessel standing idle can be used as a storage vessel. Under correct conditions, the idle processing vessels can be used as storage for wastewater. This would mean... P = {p | p = time point} J = {j | j = unit} Sin = {sin | sin = input state into any unit} Sout = {sout | sout = output state from any unit} Sin,j = {sin,j | sin,j = input state into unit j} inS⊆ Sout,j = {sout,j | sout,j = output state from...

  16. Process for the generation of high capacity pulses from an inductive energy storage device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, F.; Maier, S.


    An inductive storage circuit for generating high voltage pulses includes a quenching circuit and a discharge circuit each connected in parallel with a storage inductor. One branch of the quenching circuit includes a quenching capacitor and one branch of the discharge circuit includes a resistor and a diode in series. These two branches have a common junction, to which is connected a quenching thyristor that forms the second branch of each of the quenching and discharge circuits. Thus, the quenching thyristor is in series with each of the quenching capacitor and the discharge resistor

  17. Functional morphology of the female reproductive system of a crab with highly extensible seminal receptacles and extreme sperm storage capacity. (United States)

    Farias, Nahuel E; Spivak, Eduardo D; Luppi, Tomas A


    We studied the functional morphology of the female reproductive system of the purple stone crab Danielethus crenulatus. The most remarkable feature is the relative storage capacity and extensibility of the seminal receptacles. These receptacles are a pair of simple sacs that lack internal structures dividing the internal lumen. Differences in seminal receptacle size and contents are accompanied by conspicuous changes in receptacle lining at a tissue level. Full seminal receptacles contain discrete sperm masses formed by hardened fluid and densely packed spermatophores. Different sperm masses are likely from different mates and their stratified disposition within the seminal receptacles is compatible with rival sperm displacement and last sperm precedence. Additionally, the anatomical structure of the vulva and vagina suggest active female control over copula. We discuss our results in the general context of sperm storage in brachyurans and the implications for the mating system of this species. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. From Fundamental Understanding To Predicting New Nanomaterials For High Capacity Hydrogen/Methane Storage and Carbon Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildirim, Taner [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)


    On-board hydrogen/methane storage in fuel cell-powered vehicles is a major component of the national need to achieve energy independence and protect the environment. The main obstacles in hydrogen storage are slow kinetics, poor reversibility and high dehydrogenation temperatures for the chemical hydrides; and very low desorption temperatures/energies for the physisorption materials (MOF’s, porous carbons). Similarly, the current methane storage technologies are mainly based on physisorption in porous materials but the gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities are below the target values. Finally, carbon capture, a critical component of the mitigation of CO2 emissions from industrial plants, also suffers from similar problems. The solid-absorbers such as MOFs are either not stable against real flue-gas conditions and/or do not have large enough CO2 capture capacity to be practical and cost effective. In this project, we addressed these challenges using a unique combination of computational, synthetic and experimental methods. The main scope of our research was to achieve fundamental understanding of the chemical and structural interactions governing the storage and release of hydrogen/methane and carbon capture in a wide spectrum of candidate materials. We studied the effect of scaffolding and doping of the candidate materials on their storage and dynamics properties. We reviewed current progress, challenges and prospect in closely related fields of hydrogen/methane storage and carbon capture.[1-5] For example, for physisorption based storage materials, we show that tap-densities or simply pressing MOFs into pellet forms reduce the uptake capacities by half and therefore packing MOFs is one of the most important challenges going forward. For room temperature hydrogen storage application of MOFs, we argue that MOFs are the most promising scaffold materials for Ammonia-Borane (AB) because of their unique interior active metal-centers for AB binding and well

  19. Design and Synthesis of Novel Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) Toward High Hydrogen Storage Capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Eddaoudi [USF; Zaworotko, Michael [USF; Space, Brian [USF; Eckert, Juergen [USF


    Statement of Objectives: 1. Synthesize viable porous MOFs for high H2 storage at ambient conditions to be assessed by measuring H2 uptake. 2. Develop a better understanding of the operative interactions of the sorbed H2 with the organic and inorganic constituents of the sorbent MOF by means of inelastic neutron scattering (INS, to characterize the H2-MOF interactions) and computational studies (to interpret the data and predict novel materials suitable for high H2 uptake at moderate temperatures and relatively low pressures). 3. Synergistically combine the outcomes of objectives 1 and 2 to construct a made-to-order inexpensive MOF that is suitable for super H2 storage and meets the DOE targets - 6% H2 per weight (2kWh/kg) by 2010 and 9% H2 per weight (3kWh/kg) by 2015. The ongoing research is a collaborative experimental and computational effort focused on assessing H2 storage and interactions with pre-selected metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and zeolite-like MOFs (ZMOFs), with the eventual goal of synthesizing made-to-order high H2 storage materials to achieve the DOE targets for mobile applications. We proposed in this funded research to increase the amount of H2 uptake, as well as tune the interactions (i.e. isosteric heats of adsorption), by targeting readily tunable MOFs:

  20. Particle behaviour consideration to maximize the settling capacity of rainwater storage tanks. (United States)

    Han, M Y; Mun, J S


    Design of a rainwater storage tank is mostly based on the mass balance of rainwater with respect to the tank, considering aspects such as rainfall runoff, water usage and overflow. So far, however, little information is available on the quality aspects of the stored rainwater, such as the behavior of particles, the effect of retention time of the water in the tank and possible influences of system configuration on water quality in the storage tank. In this study, we showed that the performance of rainwater storage tanks could be maximized by recognizing the importance of water quality improvement by sedimentation and the importance of the system configuration within the tank, as well as the efficient collection of runoff. The efficiency of removal of the particles was increased by there being a considerable distance between the inlet and the outlet in the rainwater storage tank. Furthermore, it is recommended that the effective water depth in a rainwater tank be designed to be more than 3 m and that the rainwater be drawn from as close to the water surface as possible by using a floating suction device. An operation method that increases the retention time by stopping rainwater supply when the turbidity of rainwater runoff is high will ensure low turbidity in the rainwater collected from the tank.

  1. Reservoir Sedimentation: Impact, Extent, and Mitigation (United States)

    Hadley, Richard F.

    Storage reservoirs play an important role in water resources development throughout the world. The one problem with reservoirs that is universal is the continual reduction in usable capacity caused by siltation. This book reviews the world picture of erosion and sediment yield, the large variations that exist, and the physical phenomena related to reservoir siltation. The book is in the Technical Paper series of The World Bank (Technical Paper 71) and is not a formal publication. Rather, it is intended to be circulated to encourage discussion and comment and to communicate results quickly. The book is reproduced from typescript, but this does not detract from the value of the contents as a useful text for hydrologrsts, engineers, and soil conservationists in developing countries.

  2. The optimal retailer's ordering policies with trade credit financing and limited storage capacity in the supply chain system (United States)

    Yen, Ghi-Feng; Chung, Kun-Jen; Chen, Tzung-Ching


    The traditional economic order quantity model assumes that the retailer's storage capacity is unlimited. However, as we all know, the capacity of any warehouse is limited. In practice, there usually exist various factors that induce the decision-maker of the inventory system to order more items than can be held in his/her own warehouse. Therefore, for the decision-maker, it is very practical to determine whether or not to rent other warehouses. In this article, we try to incorporate two levels of trade credit and two separate warehouses (own warehouse and rented warehouse) to establish a new inventory model to help the decision-maker to make the decision. Four theorems are provided to determine the optimal cycle time to generalise some existing articles. Finally, the sensitivity analysis is executed to investigate the effects of the various parameters on ordering policies and annual costs of the inventory system.

  3. Physical Model-Based Investigation of Reservoir Sedimentation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chia Huang


    Full Text Available Sedimentation is a serious problem in the operations of reservoirs. In Taiwan, the situation became worse after the Chi-Chi Earthquake recorded on 21 September 1999. The sediment trap efficiency in several regional reservoirs has been sharply increased, adversely affecting the operations on water supplies. According to the field record, the average annual sediment deposition observed in several regional reservoirs in Taiwan has been increased. For instance, the typhoon event recorded in 2008 at the Wushe Reservoir, Taiwan, produced a 3 m sediment deposit upstream of the dam. The remaining storage capacity in the Wushe Reservoir was reduced to 35.9% or a volume of 53.79 million m3 for flood water detention in 2010. It is urgent that research should be conducted to understand the sediment movement in the Wushe Reservoir. In this study, a scale physical model was built to reproduce the flood flow through the reservoir, investigate the long-term depositional pattern, and evaluate sediment trap efficiency. This allows us to estimate the residual life of the reservoir by proposing a modification of Brune’s method. It can be presented to predict the lifespan of Taiwan reservoirs due to higher applicability in both the physical model and the observed data.

  4. Ultrasound treatment on phenolic metabolism and antioxidant capacity of fresh-cut pineapple during cold storage. (United States)

    Yeoh, Wei Keat; Ali, Asgar


    Ultrasound treatment at different power output (0, 25 and 29W) and exposure time (10 and 15min) was used to investigate its effect on the phenolic metabolism enzymes, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of fresh-cut pineapple. Following ultrasound treatment at 25 and 29W, the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) was increased significantly (Ppineapple was significantly (Ppineapple. Results suggest that hormetic dosage of ultrasound treatment can enhance the activity of PAL and total phenolic content and hence the total antioxidant capacity to encounter with oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Development of REBCO HTS Magnet of Magnetic Bearing for Large Capacity Flywheel Energy Storage System (United States)

    Mukoyama, Shinichi; Matsuoka, Taro; Furukawa, Makoto; Nakao, Kengo; Nagashima, Ken; Ogata, Masafumi; Yamashita, Tomohisa; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Yoshizawa, Kazuhiro; Arai, Yuuki; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Horiuchi, Shinichi; Maeda, Tadakazu; Shimizu, Hideki

    A flywheel energy storage system (FESS) is a promising electrical storage system that moderates fluctuation of electrical power from renewable energy sources. The FESS can charge and discharge the surplus electrical power repetitively with the rotating energy. Particularly, the FESS that utilizes a high temperature superconducting magnetic bearing (HTS bearing) is lower loss than conventional FESS that has mechanical bearing, and has property of longer life operation than secondary batteries. The HTS bearing consists of a HTS bulk and double-pancake coils used 2nd generation REBCO wires. In the development, the HTS double-pancake coils were fabricated and were provided for a levitation test to verify the possibility of the HTS bearing. We successfully confirmed the magnetic field was achieved to design value, and levitation force in the configuration of one YBCO bulk and five double pan-cake coils was obtained to a satisfactory force of 39.2 kN (4 tons).

  6. Study of storage capacity in various carbon/graphene-based solid-state supercapacitors (United States)

    Subramaniam, C. K.; Boopalan, G.


    Solid-state electrochemical double-layer capacitor (SEDLC) forms excellent energy storage device for high-power applications. They are highly reliable, with no electrolyte leaks, and can be packaged to suit various applications. The electrode material can be activated carbon to graphene. These can have a range of particle size, surface area, pore size and pore distribution for charge storage. The emphasis will be to optimize the graphene to carbon blend in the electrodes which would provide appreciable storage density of the SEDLC. We can use perfluorosulfonic acid polymer as the solid electrolyte in the SEDLC assembly. They have high ionic conductivity, good thermal stability, and mechanical strength. They also have excellent long-term chemical stability. Carbon is widely used for many practical applications, especially for the adsorption of ions and molecules, as it is possible to synthesize one-, two- or three-dimensional (1-, 2-, or 3-D) carbons. Some of the problems in activated carbon like varying micro or mesopores, poor ion mobility due to varying pore distribution, low electrical conductivity, can be overcome using graphene and blends of graphene with carbon of the right pore dimension and distribution. Graphene in various structural nomenclatures have been used by various groups for charge storage. Graphene nanoplates (GNP), with narrow mesopore distributions have been effectively used for SEDLCs. SEDLCs assembled with GNP and blends of GNP with Vulcan XC and solid polymer electrolyte like Nafion show exceptional performance. The cyclic voltammetric studies show that they support high scan rates with substantial smaller capacitance drop as we increase scan rates. Optimization of the electrode structure in terms of blend percentage, binder content and interface character in the frequency and time domain provides excellent insight into the double-layer interface.

  7. High storage capacity in the Hopfield model with auto-interactions—stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocchi, Jacopo; Saad, David; Tantari, Daniele


    Recent studies point to the potential storage of a large number of patterns in the celebrated Hopfield associative memory model, well beyond the limits obtained previously. We investigate the properties of new fixed points to discover that they exhibit instabilities for small perturbations and are therefore of limited value as associative memories. Moreover, a large deviations approach also shows that errors introduced to the original patterns induce additional errors and increased corruption with respect to the stored patterns. (paper)

  8. High storage capacity in the Hopfield model with auto-interactions—stability analysis (United States)

    Rocchi, Jacopo; Saad, David; Tantari, Daniele


    Recent studies point to the potential storage of a large number of patterns in the celebrated Hopfield associative memory model, well beyond the limits obtained previously. We investigate the properties of new fixed points to discover that they exhibit instabilities for small perturbations and are therefore of limited value as associative memories. Moreover, a large deviations approach also shows that errors introduced to the original patterns induce additional errors and increased corruption with respect to the stored patterns.

  9. Electricity storage using a thermal storage scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Alexander, E-mail: [Hopkinson Laboratory, Cambridge University Engineering Department, Trumpington Street, Cambridge. CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)


    The increasing use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation, many of which have an unpredictably intermittent nature, will inevitably lead to a greater demand for large-scale electricity storage schemes. For example, the expanding fraction of electricity produced by wind turbines will require either backup or storage capacity to cover extended periods of wind lull. This paper describes a recently proposed storage scheme, referred to here as Pumped Thermal Storage (PTS), and which is based on “sensible heat” storage in large thermal reservoirs. During the charging phase, the system effectively operates as a high temperature-ratio heat pump, extracting heat from a cold reservoir and delivering heat to a hot one. In the discharge phase the processes are reversed and it operates as a heat engine. The round-trip efficiency is limited only by process irreversibilities (as opposed to Second Law limitations on the coefficient of performance and the thermal efficiency of the heat pump and heat engine respectively). PTS is currently being developed in both France and England. In both cases, the schemes operate on the Joule-Brayton (gas turbine) cycle, using argon as the working fluid. However, the French scheme proposes the use of turbomachinery for compression and expansion, whereas for that being developed in England reciprocating devices are proposed. The current paper focuses on the impact of the various process irreversibilities on the thermodynamic round-trip efficiency of the scheme. Consideration is given to compression and expansion losses and pressure losses (in pipe-work, valves and thermal reservoirs); heat transfer related irreversibility in the thermal reservoirs is discussed but not included in the analysis. Results are presented demonstrating how the various loss parameters and operating conditions influence the overall performance.

  10. Templated assembly of photoswitches significantly increases the energy-storage capacity of solar thermal fuels. (United States)

    Kucharski, Timothy J; Ferralis, Nicola; Kolpak, Alexie M; Zheng, Jennie O; Nocera, Daniel G; Grossman, Jeffrey C


    Large-scale utilization of solar-energy resources will require considerable advances in energy-storage technologies to meet ever-increasing global energy demands. Other than liquid fuels, existing energy-storage materials do not provide the requisite combination of high energy density, high stability, easy handling, transportability and low cost. New hybrid solar thermal fuels, composed of photoswitchable molecules on rigid, low-mass nanostructures, transcend the physical limitations of molecular solar thermal fuels by introducing local sterically constrained environments in which interactions between chromophores can be tuned. We demonstrate this principle of a hybrid solar thermal fuel using azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes. We show that, on composite bundling, the amount of energy stored per azobenzene more than doubles from 58 to 120 kJ mol(-1), and the material also maintains robust cyclability and stability. Our results demonstrate that solar thermal fuels composed of molecule-nanostructure hybrids can exhibit significantly enhanced energy-storage capabilities through the generation of template-enforced steric strain.

  11. Impaired Semantic Knowledge Underlies the Reduced Verbal Short-Term Storage Capacity in Alzheimer's Disease (United States)

    Peters, Frederic; Majerus, Steve; De Baerdemaeker, Julie; Salmon, Eric; Collette, Fabienne


    A decrease in verbal short-term memory (STM) capacity is consistently observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although this impairment has been mainly attributed to attentional deficits during encoding and maintenance, the progressive deterioration of semantic knowledge in early stages of AD may also be an important determinant of poor…

  12. Massive Memory Revisited: Limitations on Storage Capacity for Object Details in Visual Long-Term Memory (United States)

    Cunningham, Corbin A.; Yassa, Michael A.; Egeth, Howard E.


    Previous work suggests that visual long-term memory (VLTM) is highly detailed and has a massive capacity. However, memory performance is subject to the effects of the type of testing procedure used. The current study examines detail memory performance by probing the same memories within the same subjects, but using divergent probing methods. The…

  13. Content of Total Phenolics, Flavan-3-Ols and Proanthocyanidins, Oxidative Stability and Antioxidant Capacity of Chocolate During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draženka Komes


    Full Text Available Antioxidant (AO capacity of chocolates with 27, 44 and 75 % cocoa was assessed after production and during twelve months of storage by direct current (DC polarographic assay, based on the decrease of anodic current caused by the formation of hydroxo-perhydroxyl mercury(II complex (HPMC in alkaline solutions of hydrogen peroxide at potentials of mercury oxidation, and two spectrophotometric assays. Relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI was calculated by taking the average value of the AO assay (the sample mass in all assays was identical. Oxidative stability of chocolate fat was determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Measured parameters and RACI were correlated mutually and with the content of total phenols (Folin-Ciocalteu assay, flavan-3-ols (vanillin and p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde assay and proanthocyanidins (modified Bate-Smith assay. During storage, the studied functional and health-related characteristics remained unchanged. Amongst applied AO assays, the DC polarographic one, whose validity was confirmed by two-way ANOVA and F-test, correlated most significantly with oxidative stability (oxidation onset temperature and induction time. In addition, principal component analysis was applied to characterise chocolate types.

  14. Content of Total Phenolics, Flavan-3-Ols and Proanthocyanidins, Oxidative Stability and Antioxidant Capacity of Chocolate During Storage (United States)

    Komes, Draženka; Gorjanović, Stanislava; Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Pezo, Lato; Pastor, Ferenc; Ostojić, Sanja; Popov-Raljić, Jovanka; Sužnjević, Desanka


    Summary Antioxidant (AO) capacity of chocolates with 27, 44 and 75% cocoa was assessed after production and during twelve months of storage by direct current (DC) polarographic assay, based on the decrease of anodic current caused by the formation of hydroxo-perhydroxyl mercury(II) complex (HPMC) in alkaline solutions of hydrogen peroxide at potentials of mercury oxidation, and two spectrophotometric assays. Relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI) was calculated by taking the average value of the AO assay (the sample mass in all assays was identical). Oxidative stability of chocolate fat was determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Measured parameters and RACI were correlated mutually and with the content of total phenols (Folin-Ciocalteu assay), flavan-3-ols (vanillin and p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde assay) and proanthocyanidins (modified Bate-Smith assay). During storage, the studied functional and health-related characteristics remained unchanged. Amongst applied AO assays, the DC polarographic one, whose validity was confirmed by two-way ANOVA and F-test, correlated most significantly with oxidative stability (oxidation onset temperature and induction time). In addition, principal component analysis was applied to characterise chocolate types. PMID:27904388

  15. Concrete Materials with Ultra-High Damage Resistance and Self- Sensing Capacity for Extended Nuclear Fuel Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Mo [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Nakshatrala, Kalyana [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); William, Kasper [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Xi, Yungping [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)


    The objective of this project is to develop a new class of multifunctional concrete materials (MSCs) for extended spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage systems, which combine ultra-high damage resistance through strain-hardening behavior with distributed multi-dimensional damage self-sensing capacity. The beauty of multifunctional concrete materials is two-fold: First, it serves as a major material component for the SNF pool, dry cask shielding and foundation pad with greatly improved resistance to cracking, reinforcement corrosion, and other common deterioration mechanisms under service conditions, and prevention from fracture failure under extreme events (e.g. impact, earthquake). This will be achieved by designing multiple levels of protection mechanisms into the material (i.e., ultrahigh ductility that provides thousands of times greater fracture energy than concrete and normal fiber reinforced concrete; intrinsic cracking control, electrochemical properties modification, reduced chemical and radionuclide transport properties, and crack-healing properties). Second, it offers capacity for distributed and direct sensing of cracking, strain, and corrosion wherever the material is located. This will be achieved by establishing the changes in electrical properties due to mechanical and electrochemical stimulus. The project will combine nano-, micro- and composite technologies, computational mechanics, durability characterization, and structural health monitoring methods, to realize new MSCs for very long-term (greater than 120 years) SNF storage systems.

  16. Can ionophobic nanopores enhance the energy storage capacity of electric-double-layer capacitors containing nonaqueous electrolytes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian, Cheng; University of California, Riverside, CA; Liu, Honglai; Henderson, Douglas; Wu, Jianzhong


    The ionophobicity effect of nanoporous electrodes on the capacitance and the energy storage capacity of nonaqueous-electrolyte supercapacitors is studied by means of the classical density functional theory (DFT). It has been hypothesized that ionophobic nanopores may create obstacles in charging, but they store energy much more efficiently than ionophilic pores. In this paper, we find that, for both ionic liquids and organic electrolytes, an ionophobic pore exhibits a charging behavior different from that of an ionophilic pore, and that the capacitance–voltage curve changes from a bell shape to a two-hump camel shape when the pore ionophobicity increases. For electric-double-layer capacitors containing organic electrolytes, an increase in the ionophobicity of the nanopores leads to a higher capacity for energy storage. Without taking into account the effects of background screening, the DFT predicts that an ionophobic pore containing an ionic liquid does not enhance the supercapacitor performance within the practical voltage ranges. However, by using an effective dielectric constant to account for ion polarizability, the DFT predicts that, like an organic electrolyte, an ionophobic pore with an ionic liquid is also able to increase the energy stored when the electrode voltage is beyond a certain value. We find that the critical voltage for an enhanced capacitance in an ionic liquid is larger than that in an organic electrolyte. Finally, our theoretical predictions provide further understanding of how chemical modification of porous electrodes affects the performance of supercapacitors.

  17. Optimizing Capacities of Distributed Generation and Energy Storage in a Small Autonomous Power System Considering Uncertainty in Renewables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yi Hong


    Full Text Available This paper explores real power generation planning, considering distributed generation resources and energy storage in a small standalone power system. On account of the Kyoto Protocol and Copenhagen Accord, wind and photovoltaic (PV powers are considered as clean and renewable energies. In this study, a genetic algorithm (GA was used to determine the optimal capacities of wind-turbine-generators, PV, diesel generators and energy storage in a small standalone power system. The investment costs (installation, unit and maintenance costs of the distributed generation resources and energy storage and the cost of fuel for the diesel generators were minimized while the reliability requirement and CO2 emission limit were fulfilled. The renewable sources and loads were modeled by random variables because of their uncertainties. The equality and inequality constraints in the genetic algorithms were treated by cumulant effects and cumulative probability of random variables, respectively. The IEEE reliability data for an 8760 h load profile with a 150 kW peak load were used to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method.

  18. The role of residence time in diagnostic models of global carbon storage capacity: model decomposition based on a traceable scheme. (United States)

    Yizhao, Chen; Jianyang, Xia; Zhengguo, Sun; Jianlong, Li; Yiqi, Luo; Chengcheng, Gang; Zhaoqi, Wang


    As a key factor that determines carbon storage capacity, residence time (τE) is not well constrained in terrestrial biosphere models. This factor is recognized as an important source of model uncertainty. In this study, to understand how τE influences terrestrial carbon storage prediction in diagnostic models, we introduced a model decomposition scheme in the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) and then compared it with a prognostic model. The result showed that τE ranged from 32.7 to 158.2 years. The baseline residence time (τ'E) was stable for each biome, ranging from 12 to 53.7 years for forest biomes and 4.2 to 5.3 years for non-forest biomes. The spatiotemporal variations in τE were mainly determined by the environmental scalar (ξ). By comparing models, we found that the BEPS uses a more detailed pool construction but rougher parameterization for carbon allocation and decomposition. With respect to ξ comparison, the global difference in the temperature scalar (ξt) averaged 0.045, whereas the moisture scalar (ξw) had a much larger variation, with an average of 0.312. We propose that further evaluations and improvements in τ'E and ξw predictions are essential to reduce the uncertainties in predicting carbon storage by the BEPS and similar diagnostic models.

  19. External electric field: An effective way to prevent aggregation of Mg atoms on γ-graphyne for high hydrogen storage capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ping-Ping; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Xin-Lu; Tang, Yong-Jian


    Highlights: • Due to large pores in the sheet of γ-graphyne, it should be a potential materials for energy storage applications. Our calculations might motivate active experimental efforts in designing high-efficiency hydrogen storage media. • For the first time, we use an applied external electric field to prevent Mg atoms from clustering using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. • The results demonstrate that, for Mg-G after electric field (F = 0.05 V/nm) treatment, ten H_2 molecules per Mg atom can be adsorbed and the hydrogen storage capacities reach to 10.64 wt%, with the average binding energies of 0.28 eV/H_2. - Abstract: In this article, we investigate the hydrogen storage capacity of Mg-decorated γ-graphyne (Mg-G) based on DFT calculations. Our results indicate that an external electric field can effectively prevent Mg atoms aggregating on γ-graphyne sheet. The Mg-G, after electric field (F = 0.05 V/nm) treatment, can store up to ten H_2 molecules and the hydrogen storage capacity is 10.64 wt%, with the average adsorption energy of 0.28 eV/H_2. Our calculations demonstrate that Mg-G is a potential material for hydrogen storage with high capacity and might motivate active experimental efforts in designing hydrogen storage media.

  20. A dimension reduction method for flood compensation operation of multi-reservoir system (United States)

    Jia, B.; Wu, S.; Fan, Z.


    Multiple reservoirs cooperation compensation operations coping with uncontrolled flood play vital role in real-time flood mitigation. This paper come up with a reservoir flood compensation operation index (ResFCOI), which formed by elements of flood control storage, flood inflow volume, flood transmission time and cooperation operations period, then establish a flood cooperation compensation operations model of multi-reservoir system, according to the ResFCOI to determine a computational order of each reservoir, and lastly the differential evolution algorithm is implemented for computing single reservoir flood compensation optimization in turn, so that a dimension reduction method is formed to reduce computational complexity. Shiguan River Basin with two large reservoirs and an extensive uncontrolled flood area, is used as a case study, results show that (a) reservoirs' flood discharges and the uncontrolled flood are superimposed at Jiangjiaji Station, while the formed flood peak flow is as small as possible; (b) cooperation compensation operations slightly increase in usage of flood storage capacity in reservoirs, when comparing to rule-based operations; (c) it takes 50 seconds in average when computing a cooperation compensation operations scheme. The dimension reduction method to guide flood compensation operations of multi-reservoir system, can make each reservoir adjust its flood discharge strategy dynamically according to the uncontrolled flood magnitude and pattern, so as to mitigate the downstream flood disaster.

  1. Reservoir Characterization and CO2 Plume Migration Modeling Based on Bottom-hole Pressure Data: An Example from the AEP Mountaineer Geological Storage Project (United States)

    Mishra, Srikanta; Kelley, Mark; Oruganti, YagnaDeepika; Bhattacharya, Indra; Spitznogle, Gary


    We present an integrated approach for formation permeability estimation, front tracking, reservoir model calibration, and plume migration modeling based on injection rate and down-hole pressure data from CO2 geologic sequestration projects. The data are taken from the 20 MW CO2 capture and storage project at American Electric Power's Mountaineer Plant in West Virginia, USA. The Mountaineer CO2 injection system consists of two injection wells - one in the Copper Ridge Dolomite formation and one in the Rose Run sandstone formation, and three deep observation wells that were operational between October 2009 and May 2011. Approximately 27000 MT and 10000 MT were injected into the Copper Ridge dolomite formation and Rose Run sandstone formation, respectively. A wealth of pressure and rate data from injection and observation wells is available covering a series of injection and pressure falloff events. The methodology developed and applied for interpreting and integrating the data during reservoir analysis and modeling from the Rose Run formation is the subject of this paper. For the analysis of transient pressure data at the injection and observation wells, the CO2 storage reservoir is conceptualized as a radial composite system, where the inner (invaded) zone consists of both supercritical CO2 and brine, and the outer (uninvaded) zone consists of undisturbed brine. Using established analytical solutions for analyzing fluid injection problems in the petroleum reservoir engineering literature, we show how the late-time pressure derivative response from both injection and observation wells will be identical - reflecting the permeability-thickness product of the undisturbed brine-filled formation. We also show how the expanding CO2 plume affects the "effective" compressibility that can be estimated by history matching injection-falloff data and how this can be used to develop a relationship between the plume radius and "effective" compressibility. This provides a novel non

  2. Field demonstration of an active reservoir pressure management through fluid injection and displaced fluid extractions at the Rock Springs Uplift, a priority geologic CO2 storage site for Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Zunsheng [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)


    This report provides the results from the project entitled Field Demonstration of Reservoir Pressure Management through Fluid Injection and Displaced Fluid Extraction at the Rock Springs Uplift, a Priority Geologic CO2 Storage Site for Wyoming (DE-FE0026159 for both original performance period (September 1, 2015 to August 31, 2016) and no-cost extension (September 1, 2016 to January 6, 2017)).

  3. Facile ultrasonic synthesis of CoO quantum dot/graphene nanosheet composites with high lithium storage capacity. (United States)

    Peng, Chengxin; Chen, Bingdi; Qin, Yao; Yang, Shihe; Li, Chunzhong; Zuo, Yuanhui; Liu, Siyang; Yang, Jinhu


    In this paper, we report a facile ultrasonic method to synthesize well-dispersed CoO quantum dots (3-8 nm) on graphene nanosheets at room temperature by employing Co(4)(CO)(12) as cobalt precursor. The prepared CoO/graphene composites displayed high performance as an anode material for lithium-ion battery, such as high reversible lithium storage capacity (1592 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles), high Coulombic efficiency (over 95%), excellent cycling stability, and high rate capability (1008 mAh g(-1) with a total retention of 77.6% after 50 cycles at a current density of 1000 mA g(-1), dramatically increased from the initial 50 mA g(-1)). The extraordinary performance arises from the structure advantages of the composites: the nanosized CoO quantum dots with high dispersity on conductive graphene substrates supply not only large quantity of accessible active sites for lithium-ion insertion but also good conductivity and short diffusion length for lithium ions, which are beneficial for high capacity and rate capability. Meanwhile, the isolated CoO quantum dots anchored tightly on the graphene nanosheets can effectively circumvent the volume expansion/contraction associated with lithium insertion/extraction during discharge/charge processes, which is good for high capacity as well as cycling stability. Moreover, regarding the anomalous behavior of capacity increase with cycles (activation effect) observed, we proposed a tentative hypothesis stressing the competition between the conductivity increase and the amorphorization of the composite electrodes during cycling in determining the trends of the capacity, in the hope to gain a fuller understanding of the inner working of the novel nanostructured electrode-based lithium-ion batteries.

  4. Solid solution barium–strontium chlorides with tunable ammonia desorption properties and superior storage capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bialy, Agata; Jensen, Peter Bjerre; Blanchard, Didier


    with spray drying and in situ thermogravimetric and structural characterization, we synthesize a range of new, stable barium-strontium chloride solid solutions with superior ammonia storage densities. By tuning the barium/strontium ratio, different crystallographic phases and compositions can be obtained...... with different ammonia ab- and desorption properties. In particular it is shown, that in the molar range of 35–50% barium and 65–50% strontium, stable materials can be produced with a practically usable ammonia density (both volumetric and gravimetric) that is higher than any of the pure metal halides...

  5. Mobility and Congestion in Dynamical Multilayer Networks with Finite Storage Capacity (United States)

    Manfredi, S.; Di Tucci, E.; Latora, V.


    Multilayer networks describe well many real interconnected communication and transportation systems, ranging from computer networks to multimodal mobility infrastructures. Here, we introduce a model in which the nodes have a limited capacity of storing and processing the agents moving over a multilayer network, and their congestions trigger temporary faults which, in turn, dynamically affect the routing of agents seeking for uncongested paths. The study of the network performance under different layer velocities and node maximum capacities reveals the existence of delicate trade-offs between the number of served agents and their time to travel to destination. We provide analytical estimates of the optimal buffer size at which the travel time is minimum and of its dependence on the velocity and number of links at the different layers. Phenomena reminiscent of the slower is faster effect and of the Braess' paradox are observed in our dynamical multilayer setup.

  6. Concepts for a low emittance-high capacity storage ring for the Diamond Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolini, Riccardo; Evans, Gwyndaf; Sawhney, Kawal; Zegenhagen, Joerg


    The Diamond Light Source is investigating several paths for a possible machine upgrade to Diamond II. The exercise is driven by a joint assessment of the science capabilities opened by a very low emittance ring and the machine design that will underpin them. The consultation is made on a beamline-by-beamline basis and has highlighted a significant preference for lattices that combine both a low emittance and large capacity for IDs.

  7. Title:Distributed Generation Storage, Demand Response, and Energy Efficiency as Alternatives to Grid Capacity Enhancement


    Poudineh, R.; Zhang, Y.


    The need for investment in capital intensive electricity networks is on the rise in many countries. A major advantage of distributed resources is their potential for deferring investments in distribution network capacity. However, utilizing the full benefits of these resources requires addressing several technical, economics and regulatory challenges. A significant barrier pertains to the lack of an efficient market mechanism that enables this concept and also is consistent with business mode...

  8. Massive memory revisited: Limitations on storage capacity for object details in visual long-term memory


    Cunningham, Corbin A.; Yassa, Michael A.; Egeth, Howard E.


    Previous work suggests that visual long-term memory (VLTM) is highly detailed and has a massive capacity. However, memory performance is subject to the effects of the type of testing procedure used. The current study examines detail memory performance by probing the same memories within the same subjects, but using divergent probing methods. The results reveal that while VLTM representations are typically sufficient to support performance when the procedure probes gist-based information, they...

  9. Antigen storage compartments in mature dendritic cells facilitate prolonged cytotoxic T lymphocyte cross-priming capacity. (United States)

    van Montfoort, Nadine; Camps, Marcel G; Khan, Selina; Filippov, Dmitri V; Weterings, Jimmy J; Griffith, Janice M; Geuze, Hans J; van Hall, Thorbald; Verbeek, J Sjef; Melief, Cornelis J; Ossendorp, Ferry


    Dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial for priming of naive CD8(+) T lymphocytes to exogenous antigens, so-called "cross-priming." We report that exogenous protein antigen can be conserved for several days in mature DCs, coinciding with strong cytotoxic T lymphocyte cross-priming potency in vivo. After MHC class I peptide elution, protein antigen-derived peptide presentation is efficiently restored, indicating the presence of an intracellular antigen depot. We characterized this depot as a lysosome-like organelle, distinct from MHC class II compartments and recently described early endosomal compartments that allow acute antigen presentation in MHC class I. The storage compartments we report here facilitate continuous supply of MHC class I ligands. This mechanism ensures sustained cross-presentation by DCs, despite the short-lived expression of MHC class I-peptide complexes at the cell surface.

  10. Technology Assessment of High Capacity Data Storage Systems: Can We Avoid a Data Survivability Crisis? (United States)

    Halem, Milton


    In a recent address at the California Science Center in Los Angeles, Vice President Al Gore articulated a Digital Earth Vision. That vision spoke to developing a multi-resolution, three-dimensional visual representation of the planet into which we can roam and zoom into vast quantities of embedded geo-referenced data. The vision was not limited to moving through space, but also allowing travel over a time-line, which can be set for days, years, centuries, or even geological epochs. A working group of Federal Agencies, developing a coordinated program to implement the Vice President's vision, developed the definition of the Digital Earth as a visual representation of our planet that enables a person to explore and interact with the vast amounts of natural and cultural geo-referenced information gathered about the Earth. One of the challenges identified by the agencies was whether the technology existed that would be available to permanently store and deliver all the digital data that enterprises might want to save for decades and centuries. Satellite digital data is growing by Moore's Law as is the growth of computer generated data. Similarly, the density of digital storage media in our information-intensive society is also increasing by a factor of four every three years. The technological bottleneck is that the bandwidth for transferring data is only growing at a factor of four every nine years. This implies that the migration of data to viable long-term storage is growing more slowly. The implication is that older data stored on increasingly obsolete media are at considerable risk if they cannot be continuously migrated to media with longer life times. Another problem occurs when the software and hardware systems for which the media were designed are no longer serviced by their manufacturers. Many instances exist where support for these systems are phased out after mergers or even in going out of business. In addition, survivability of older media can suffer from

  11. Solid solution barium–strontium chlorides with tunable ammonia desorption properties and superior storage capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bialy, Agata [Amminex Emissions Technology A/S, Gladsaxevej 363, 2860 Soeborg (Denmark); Jensen, Peter B. [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Center for Atomic-scale Materials Design, Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Fysikvej 311, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Blanchard, Didier [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Vegge, Tejs, E-mail: [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Quaade, Ulrich J., E-mail: [Amminex Emissions Technology A/S, Gladsaxevej 363, 2860 Soeborg (Denmark)


    Metal halide ammines are very attractive materials for ammonia absorption and storage—applications where the practically accessible or usable gravimetric and volumetric storage densities are of critical importance. Here we present, that by combining advanced computational materials prediction with spray drying and in situ thermogravimetric and structural characterization, we synthesize a range of new, stable barium-strontium chloride solid solutions with superior ammonia storage densities. By tuning the barium/strontium ratio, different crystallographic phases and compositions can be obtained with different ammonia ab- and desorption properties. In particular it is shown, that in the molar range of 35–50% barium and 65–50% strontium, stable materials can be produced with a practically usable ammonia density (both volumetric and gravimetric) that is higher than any of the pure metal halides, and with a practically accessible volumetric ammonia densities in excess of 99% of liquid ammonia. - Graphical abstract: Thermal desorption curves of ammonia from Ba{sub x}Sr{sub (1−x)}Cl{sub 2} mixtures with x equal to 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 and atomic structure of Sr(NH{sub 3}){sub 8}Cl{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Solid solutions of strontium and barium chloride were synthesized by spray drying. • Adjusting molar ratios led to different crystallographic phases and compositions. • Different molar ratios led to different ammonia ab-/desorption properties. • 35–50 mol% BaCl{sub 2} in SrCl{sub 2} yields higher ammonia density than any other metal halide. • DFT calculations can be used to predict properties of the mixtures.

  12. Response to Comment on "Rapid cooling and cold storage in a silicic magma reservoir recorded in individual crystals". (United States)

    Cooper, Kari M; Till, Christy B; Kent, Adam J R; Costa, Fidel; Rubin, Allison E; Gravley, Darren; Deering, Chad; Cole, Jim; Bose, Maitrayee


    In a recent paper, we used Li concentration profiles and U-Th ages to constrain the thermal conditions of magma storage. Wilson and co-authors argue that the data instead reflect control of Li behavior by charge balance during partitioning and not by experimentally determined diffusion rates. Their arguments are based on (i) a coupled diffusion mechanism for Li, which has been postulated but has not been documented to occur, and (ii) poorly constrained zircon growth rates combined with the assumption of continuous zircon crystallization. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Carbon Nanofiber/3D Nanoporous Silicon Hybrids as High Capacity Lithium Storage Materials. (United States)

    Park, Hyeong-Il; Sohn, Myungbeom; Kim, Dae Sik; Park, Cheolho; Choi, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Hansu


    Carbon nanofiber (CNF)/3D nanoporous (3DNP) Si hybrid materials were prepared by chemical etching of melt-spun Si/Al-Cu-Fe alloy nanocomposites, followed by carbonization using a pitch. CNFs were successfully grown on the surface of 3DNP Si particles using residual Fe impurities after acidic etching, which acted as a catalyst for the growth of CNFs. The resulting CNF/3DNP Si hybrid materials showed an enhanced cycle performance up to 100 cycles compared to that of the pristine Si/Al-Cu-Fe alloy nanocomposite as well as that of bare 3DNP Si particles. These results indicate that CNFs and the carbon coating layer have a beneficial effect on the capacity retention characteristics of 3DNP Si particles by providing continuous electron-conduction pathways in the electrode during cycling. The approach presented here provides another way to improve the electrochemical performances of porous Si-based high capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. The EPQ model under conditions of two levels of trade credit and limited storage capacity in supply chain management (United States)

    Chung, Kun-Jen


    An inventory problem involves a lot of factors influencing inventory decisions. To understand it, the traditional economic production quantity (EPQ) model plays rather important role for inventory analysis. Although the traditional EPQ models are still widely used in industry, practitioners frequently question validities of assumptions of these models such that their use encounters challenges and difficulties. So, this article tries to present a new inventory model by considering two levels of trade credit, finite replenishment rate and limited storage capacity together to relax the basic assumptions of the traditional EPQ model to improve the environment of the use of it. Keeping in mind cost-minimisation strategy, four easy-to-use theorems are developed to characterise the optimal solution. Finally, the sensitivity analyses are executed to investigate the effects of the various parameters on ordering policies and the annual total relevant costs of the inventory system.

  15. Working through the pain: working memory capacity and differences in processing and storage under pain. (United States)

    Sanchez, Christopher A


    It has been suggested that pain perception and attention are closely linked at both a neural and a behavioural level. If pain and attention are so linked, it is reasonable to speculate that those who vary in working memory capacity (WMC) should be affected by pain differently. This study compares the performance of individuals who differ in WMC as they perform processing and memory span tasks while under mild pain and not. While processing performance under mild pain does not interact with WMC, the ability to store information for later recall does. This suggests that pain operates much like an additional processing burden, and that the ability to overcome this physical sensation is related to differences in WMC. © 2011 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

  16. Can ionophobic nanopores enhance the energy storage capacity of electric-double-layer capacitors containing nonaqueous electrolytes? (United States)

    Lian, Cheng; Liu, Honglai; Henderson, Douglas; Wu, Jianzhong


    The ionophobicity effect of nanoporous electrodes on the capacitance and the energy storage capacity of nonaqueous-electrolyte supercapacitors is studied by means of the classical density functional theory (DFT). It has been hypothesized that ionophobic nanopores may create obstacles in charging, but they store energy much more efficiently than ionophilic pores. In this study, we find that, for both ionic liquids and organic electrolytes, an ionophobic pore exhibits a charging behavior different from that of an ionophilic pore, and that the capacitance-voltage curve changes from a bell shape to a two-hump camel shape when the pore ionophobicity increases. For electric-double-layer capacitors containing organic electrolytes, an increase in the ionophobicity of the nanopores leads to a higher capacity for energy storage. Without taking into account the effects of background screening, the DFT predicts that an ionophobic pore containing an ionic liquid does not enhance the supercapacitor performance within the practical voltage ranges. However, by using an effective dielectric constant to account for ion polarizability, the DFT predicts that, like an organic electrolyte, an ionophobic pore with an ionic liquid is also able to increase the energy stored when the electrode voltage is beyond a certain value. We find that the critical voltage for an enhanced capacitance in an ionic liquid is larger than that in an organic electrolyte. Our theoretical predictions provide further understanding of how chemical modification of porous electrodes affects the performance of supercapacitors. The authors are saddened by the passing of George Stell but are pleased to contribute this article in his memory. Some years ago, DH gave a talk at a Gordon Conference that contained an approximation that George had demonstrated previously to be in error in one of his publications. Rather than making this point loudly in the discussion, George politely, quietly, and privately pointed this out

  17. Thermodynamic modeling of hydrogen storage capacity in Mg-Na alloys. (United States)

    Abdessameud, S; Mezbahul-Islam, M; Medraj, M


    Thermodynamic modeling of the H-Mg-Na system is performed for the first time in this work in order to understand the phase relationships in this system. A new thermodynamic description of the stable NaMgH3 hydride is performed and the thermodynamic models for the H-Mg, Mg-Na, and H-Na systems are reassessed using the modified quasichemical model for the liquid phase. The thermodynamic properties of the ternary system are estimated from the models of the binary systems and the ternary compound using CALPHAD technique. The constructed database is successfully used to reproduce the pressure-composition isotherms for MgH2 + 10 wt.% NaH mixtures. Also, the pressure-temperature equilibrium diagram and reaction paths for the same composition are predicted at different temperatures and pressures. Even though it is proved that H-Mg-Na does not meet the DOE hydrogen storage requirements for onboard applications, the best working temperatures and pressures to benefit from its full catalytic role are given. Also, the present database can be used for thermodynamic assessments of higher order systems.

  18. Thermodynamic Modeling of Hydrogen Storage Capacity in Mg-Na Alloys (United States)

    Abdessameud, S.; Mezbahul-Islam, M.; Medraj, M.


    Thermodynamic modeling of the H-Mg-Na system is performed for the first time in this work in order to understand the phase relationships in this system. A new thermodynamic description of the stable NaMgH3 hydride is performed and the thermodynamic models for the H-Mg, Mg-Na, and H-Na systems are reassessed using the modified quasichemical model for the liquid phase. The thermodynamic properties of the ternary system are estimated from the models of the binary systems and the ternary compound using CALPHAD technique. The constructed database is successfully used to reproduce the pressure-composition isotherms for MgH2 + 10 wt.% NaH mixtures. Also, the pressure-temperature equilibrium diagram and reaction paths for the same composition are predicted at different temperatures and pressures. Even though it is proved that H-Mg-Na does not meet the DOE hydrogen storage requirements for onboard applications, the best working temperatures and pressures to benefit from its full catalytic role are given. Also, the present database can be used for thermodynamic assessments of higher order systems. PMID:25383361

  19. Relational database hybrid model, of high performance and storage capacity for nuclear engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes Neto, Jose


    The objective of this work is to present the relational database, named FALCAO. It was created and implemented to support the storage of the monitored variables in the IEA-R1 research reactor, located in the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN/CNEN-SP. The data logical model and its direct influence in the integrity of the provided information are carefully considered. The concepts and steps of normalization and de normalization including the entities and relations involved in the logical model are presented. It is also presented the effects of the model rules in the acquisition, loading and availability of the final information, under the performance concept since the acquisition process loads and provides lots of information in small intervals of time. The SACD application, through its functionalities, presents the information stored in the FALCAO database in a practical and optimized form. The implementation of the FALCAO database occurred successfully and its existence leads to a considerably favorable situation. It is now essential to the routine of the researchers involved, not only due to the substantial improvement of the process but also to the reliability associated to it. (author)

  20. Addition of titanium as a potential catalyst for a high-capacity hydrogen storage medium (abstract only)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuliani, F; Baerends, E J


    In recent years there has been increased interest in the characterization of titanium as a catalyst for high-capacity hydrogen storage materials. A first-principles study (Yildirim and Ciraci 2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 175501) demonstrated that a single Ti atom coated on a single-walled nanotube (SWNT) binds up to four hydrogen molecules. The bonding was claimed to be an 'unusual combination of chemisorption and physisorption'. We report an ab initio study by means of the ADF program, which provides a complete insight into the donation/back-donation mechanism characterizing the bond between the Ti atom and the four H 2 molecules, and a full understanding of the catalytic role played by the Ti atom. In addition, we found that the same amount of adsorbed hydrogen can be stored using benzene support for Ti in place of the SWNT, due to the dominant local contribution of the hexagonal carbon ring surrounding the Ti atom. The benzene-Ti-H 2 bonding is discussed on the basis of molecular orbital interaction schemes as provided by ADF. This result advances our insight into the role of titanium as a catalyst and suggests new routes to better storage through different combinations of supports and catalysts


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stef Iulian Ioan


    Full Text Available In the upper basin of the Sebes Valley, the oldest storage lakes have been temporary artificial lakes, called haituri in Romanian. They were created within the forest exploitation areas. Inside the dams of those retention lakes, which dams are made of a wooden skeleton, filled with soil and stones, there have been weirs for the quick discharge of the water, having the purpose of creating some flood trends, capable of carrying over the logs, downstream the lake. At present, some of those temporary artificial lakes are used as trout farms, while others are damaged, or operate as basins for the sedimentation of the alluvial deposits. The difference of level between the springs of the Sebes and the Mures Rivers generates a convertible hydroelectric potential, having an average power exceeding 60,000 kW" />

  2. Large sensitivity in land carbon storage due to geographical and temporal variation in the thermal response of photosynthetic capacity. (United States)

    Mercado, Lina M; Medlyn, Belinda E; Huntingford, Chris; Oliver, Rebecca J; Clark, Douglas B; Sitch, Stephen; Zelazowski, Przemyslaw; Kattge, Jens; Harper, Anna B; Cox, Peter M


    Plant temperature responses vary geographically, reflecting thermally contrasting habitats and long-term species adaptations to their climate of origin. Plants also can acclimate to fast temporal changes in temperature regime to mitigate stress. Although plant photosynthetic responses are known to acclimate to temperature, many global models used to predict future vegetation and climate-carbon interactions do not include this process. We quantify the global and regional impacts of biogeographical variability and thermal acclimation of temperature response of photosynthetic capacity on the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle between 1860 and 2100 within a coupled climate-carbon cycle model, that emulates 22 global climate models. Results indicate that inclusion of biogeographical variation in photosynthetic temperature response is most important for present-day and future C uptake, with increasing importance of thermal acclimation under future warming. Accounting for both effects narrows the range of predictions of the simulated global land C storage in 2100 across climate projections (29% and 43% globally and in the tropics, respectively). Contrary to earlier studies, our results suggest that thermal acclimation of photosynthetic capacity makes tropical and temperate C less vulnerable to warming, but reduces the warming-induced C uptake in the boreal region under elevated CO 2 . © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Detection of charge storage on molecular thin films of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) by Kelvin force microscopy: a candidate system for high storage capacity memory cells. (United States)

    Paydavosi, Sarah; Aidala, Katherine E; Brown, Patrick R; Hashemi, Pouya; Supran, Geoffrey J; Osedach, Timothy P; Hoyt, Judy L; Bulović, Vladimir


    Retention and diffusion of charge in tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq(3)) molecular thin films are investigated by injecting electrons and holes via a biased conductive atomic force microscopy tip into the Alq(3) films. After the charge injection, Kelvin force microscopy measurements reveal minimal changes with time in the spatial extent of the trapped charge domains within Alq(3) films, even for high hole and electron densities of >10(12) cm(-2). We show that this finding is consistent with the very low mobility of charge carriers in Alq(3) thin films (<10(-7) cm(2)/(Vs)) and that it can benefit from the use of Alq(3) films as nanosegmented floating gates in flash memory cells. Memory capacitors using Alq(3) molecules as the floating gate are fabricated and measured, showing durability over more than 10(4) program/erase cycles and the hysteresis window of up to 7.8 V, corresponding to stored charge densities as high as 5.4 × 10(13) cm(-2). These results demonstrate the potential for use of molecular films in high storage capacity nonvolatile memory cells. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  4. Analysis of Sedimentation in Wonogiri Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Joko Inti Budi Santosa


    Full Text Available The Wonogiri reservoir which has 730 million cubic meters of total storage, 90 square kilometers of water area, and 1260 square kilometers of catchment area, is located in the Wonogiri Regency, Central Java Province. It was first established in 1981 and began its operation in 1982 with the expectation that it would last for about 100 years. Today (2002 the reservoir has got a serious problem of sedimentation. The sedimentation is so large that it would decrease the capacity storage of the reservoir and would shorten the length of operation. Therefore, it is necessary to predict the sediment that comes into the reservoir. This research would be based on the total sediment calculation of the sedimentation, through some methods, such as echo sounding measured data, land erosion (USLE, the calculation of the sediment in rivers. This research calculates the sediment capacities based on the water flow data and the sediment rating curves in rivers of Keduang, Tirtomoyo, Temon, upstream reach of Bengawan Solo, Alang, and Wuryantoro. The suspended load was calculated based on the sediment rating curves, whereas the bed load was computed as the percentage of the suspended load. The sum of both calculation results would be the total sediment. The calculation result showed that the total sediment which has come into the reservoir is 6.68 million cubic meters per year. As a comparison, the writer noted that the former researcher using echo sounding method done by the Faculty of Geography of the Universitas Gadjah Mada in 1985, it found that the total sediment capacity which came into the reservoir was 6.60 million cubic meters per year or 5.40 mm per year of sheet erosion. The other research using echo sounding method done by JICA in 2000 found that the total sediment which had come into the reservoir was 4.50 million cubic meters per year or 3.50 mm per year of sheet erosion. By knowing the results of calculation of the total sediment, we can learn that

  5. A practical approach for calculating the settlement and storage capacity of landfills based on the space and time discretization of the landfilling process. (United States)

    Gao, Wu; Xu, Wenjie; Bian, Xuecheng; Chen, Yunmin


    The settlement of any position of the municipal solid waste (MSW) body during the landfilling process and after its closure has effects on the integrity of the internal structure and storage capacity of the landfill. This paper proposes a practical approach for calculating the settlement and storage capacity of landfills based on the space and time discretization of the landfilling process. The MSW body in the landfill was divided into independent column units, and the filling process of each column unit was determined by a simplified complete landfilling process. The settlement of a position in the landfill was calculated with the compression of each MSW layer in every column unit. Then, the simultaneous settlement of all the column units was integrated to obtain the settlement of the landfill and storage capacity of all the column units; this allowed to obtain the storage capacity of the landfill based on the layer-wise summation method. When the compression of each MSW layer was calculated, the effects of the fluctuation of the main leachate level and variation in the unit weight of the MSW on the overburdened effective stress were taken into consideration by introducing the main leachate level's proportion and the unit weight and buried depth curve. This approach is especially significant for MSW with a high kitchen waste content and landfills in developing countries. The stress-biodegradation compression model was used to calculate the compression of each MSW layer. A software program, Settlement and Storage Capacity Calculation System for Landfills, was developed by integrating the space and time discretization of the landfilling process and the settlement and storage capacity algorithms. The landfilling process of the phase IV of Shanghai Laogang Landfill was simulated using this software. The maximum geometric volume of the landfill error between the calculated and measured values is only 2.02%, and the accumulated filling weight error between the

  6. Copper sulfide microspheres wrapped with reduced graphene oxide for high-capacity lithium-ion storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yiyong; Li, Kun; Wang, Yunhui; Zeng, Jing; Ji, Panying; Zhao, Jinbao, E-mail:


    Highlights: • We prepare the nanocomposites of Cu{sub x}S microspheres wrapped with rGO. • As-prepared Cu{sub x}S/rGO can effectively accommodate large volume changes. • As-prepared Cu{sub x}S/rGO supply a 2D conductive network. • As-prepared Cu{sub x}S/rGO trap the polysulfides generated during the discharge–charge. • The Cu{sub x}S/rGO has high capacity, cycle stability and excellent rate capability. - Abstract: In this study, a facile two-step approach was developed to prepare the nanocomposites (Cu{sub x}S/rGO) of copper sulfide (Cu{sub x}S) microspheres wrapped with reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The morphology and structure of Cu{sub x}S/rGO materials were researched by using SEM, XRD and laser Raman spectroscopy. As-prepared Cu{sub x}S/rGO nanocomposites, as an active anode material in LIBs, showed distinctly improved electrochemical characteristics, superior cycling stability and high rate capability. Due to the synergistic effect between the Cu{sub x}S microspheres and the rGO nanosheets, as-prepared Cu{sub x}S/rGO nanocomposites could effectively alleviate large volume changes, provide a 2D conductive network and trap the diffusion of polysulfides during the discharge–charge processes, therefore, the Cu{sub x}S/rGO nanocomposites showed excellent electrochemical characteristics.

  7. Impact of CO2 leakage from sub-seabed carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) reservoirs on benthic virus-prokaryote interactions and functions. (United States)

    Rastelli, Eugenio; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Amaro, Teresa; Queirós, Ana M; Widdicombe, Stephen; Danovaro, Roberto


    Atmospheric CO2 emissions are a global concern due to their predicted impact on biodiversity, ecosystems functioning, and human life. Among the proposed mitigation strategies, CO2 capture and storage, primarily the injection of CO2 into marine deep geological formations has been suggested as a technically practical option for reducing emissions. However, concerns have been raised that possible leakage from such storage sites, and the associated elevated levels of pCO2 could locally impact the biodiversity and biogeochemical processes in the sediments above these reservoirs. Whilst a number of impact assessment studies have been conducted, no information is available on the specific responses of viruses and virus-host interactions. In the present study, we tested the impact of a simulated CO2 leakage on the benthic microbial assemblages, with specific focus on microbial activity and virus-induced prokaryotic mortality (VIPM). We found that exposure to levels of CO2 in the overlying seawater from 1,000 to 20,000 ppm for a period up to 140 days, resulted in a marked decrease in heterotrophic carbon production and organic matter degradation rates in the sediments, associated with lower rates of VIPM, and a progressive accumulation of sedimentary organic matter with increasing CO2 concentrations. These results suggest that the increase in seawater pCO2 levels that may result from CO2 leakage, can severely reduce the rates of microbial-mediated recycling of the sedimentary organic matter and viral infections, with major consequences on C cycling and nutrient regeneration, and hence on the functioning of benthic ecosystems.

  8. Centralized versus distributed reservoirs: an investigation of their implications on environmental flows and sustainable water resources management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Eriyagama


    Full Text Available Storage of surface water is widely regarded as a form of insurance against rainfall variability. However, creation of surface storage often endanger the functions of natural ecosystems, and, in turn, ecosystem services that benefit humans. The issues of optimal size, placement and the number of reservoirs in a river basin – which maximizes sustainable benefits from storage – remain subjects for debate. This study examines the above issues through the analysis of a range of reservoir configurations in the Malwatu Oya river basin in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. The study produced multiple surface storage development pathways for the basin under different scenarios of environmental flow (EF releases and reservoir network configurations. The EF scenarios ranged from zero to very healthy releases. It is shown that if the middle ground between the two extreme EF scenarios is considered, the theoretical maximum safe yield from surface storage is about 65–70 % of the mean annual runoff (MAR of the basin. It is also identified that although distribution of reservoirs in the river network reduces the cumulative yield from the basin, this cumulative yield is maximized if the ratio among the storage capacities placed in each sub drainage basin is equivalent to the ratio among their MAR. The study suggests a framework to identify drainage regions having higher surface storage potential, to plan for the right distribution of storage capacity within a river basin, as well as to plan for EF allocations.

  9. Centralized versus distributed reservoirs: an investigation of their implications on environmental flows and sustainable water resources management (United States)

    Eriyagama, Nishadi; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Udamulla, Lakshika


    Storage of surface water is widely regarded as a form of insurance against rainfall variability. However, creation of surface storage often endanger the functions of natural ecosystems, and, in turn, ecosystem services that benefit humans. The issues of optimal size, placement and the number of reservoirs in a river basin - which maximizes sustainable benefits from storage - remain subjects for debate. This study examines the above issues through the analysis of a range of reservoir configurations in the Malwatu Oya river basin in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. The study produced multiple surface storage development pathways for the basin under different scenarios of environmental flow (EF) releases and reservoir network configurations. The EF scenarios ranged from zero to very healthy releases. It is shown that if the middle ground between the two extreme EF scenarios is considered, the theoretical maximum safe yield from surface storage is about 65-70 % of the mean annual runoff (MAR) of the basin. It is also identified that although distribution of reservoirs in the river network reduces the cumulative yield from the basin, this cumulative yield is maximized if the ratio among the storage capacities placed in each sub drainage basin is equivalent to the ratio among their MAR. The study suggests a framework to identify drainage regions having higher surface storage potential, to plan for the right distribution of storage capacity within a river basin, as well as to plan for EF allocations.

  10. The recycling of domestic waste water. A study of the factors influencing the storage capacity and the simulation of the usage patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fewkes, A; Ferris, S A


    The flushing of toilets with recycled domestic waste water makes a significant saving in the use of potable water. The size of the storage tank is a critical factor in the design of such a system; the inputs to the storage, which are random, are influenced by the size of family and individual washing and bathing habits. The demand from the storage tank is random in time but the volume is constant at each occurrence. A method of generating these waste water time series, with their inherent stochastic nature, is described. These simulated event patterns are then used to investigate the operation of a single-tank waste water storage system. The computer model determines the percentage of water conserved for several combinations of storage capacity and family size: the effect of changes in design parameters and operating conditions on the system performance is also assessed.

  11. Use of imitation mathematical model of phosphorus system for analysis of rates of production-destruction processes in reservoir of the Zagorsk pumped-storage plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonov, A.V.; Margolina, G.L.; Sokolov, A.G.


    The rates of production-destruction processes in water media are traditionally measured for investigation of the conditions of operation of water-ecology systems and to study the role of microorganisms in the transformation of substances of different origins. One possibility for investigation of the production-destruction process is the use of numerical analytic methods and, in particular, of imitation mathematical modeling. The task of this investigation consisted of evaluation, from observations carried out in 1989, of the rates of production-destruction processes in the water of the reservoir of the Zagorsk pumped-storage plant by means of an imitation mathematical model of a phosphorus system. The model was based on a study of the characteristics of transformation of phosphorus in the water media, as well as by comparison of evaluations of the rates of the above-mentioned processes by two methods -- an experimental one (a modification of the oxygen flask method) and an analytical one (an imitation model of a phosphorus system). 7 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Final Project Report for DOE/EERE High-Capacity and Low-Cost Hydrogen-Storage Sorbents for Automotive Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Hong-Cai [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Liu, Di-Jia [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)


    This report provides a review of the objectives, progress, and milestones of the research conducted during this project on the topic of developing innovative metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and porous organic polymers (POPs) for high-capacity and low-cost hydrogen-storage sorbents in automotive applications.1 The objectives of the proposed research were to develop new materials as next-generation hydrogen storage sorbents that meet or exceed DOE’s 2017 performance targets of gravimetric capacity of 0.055 kg H2/kgsystem and volumetric capacity of 0.040 kg H2/Lsystem at a cost of $400/kg H2 stored. Texas A&M University (TAMU) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) collaborated in developing low-cost and high-capacity hydrogen-storage sorbents with appropriate stability, sorption kinetics, and thermal conductivity. The research scope and methods developed to achieve the project’s goals include the following: Advanced ligand design and synthesis to construct MOF sorbents with optimal hydrogen storage capacities, low cost and high stability; Substantially improve the hydrogen uptake capacity and chemical stability of MOF-based sorbents by incorporating high valent metal ions during synthesis or through the post-synthetic metal metathesis oxidation approach; Enhance sorbent storage capacity through material engineering and characterization; Generate a better understanding of the H2-sorbent interaction through advanced characterization and simulation. Over the course of the project 5 different MOFs were developed and studied: PCN-250, PCN-12, PCN-12’, PCN-608 and PCN-609.2-3 Two different samples were submitted to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in order to validate their hydrogen adsorption capacity, PCN-250 and PCN-12. Neither of these samples reached the project’s Go/No-Go requirements but the data obtained did further prove the hypothesis that the presence of open metal

  13. Distinct populations of hepatic stellate cells in the mouse liver have different capacities for retinoid and lipid storage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana N D'Ambrosio

    Full Text Available Hepatic stellate cell (HSC lipid droplets are specialized organelles for the storage of retinoid, accounting for 50-60% of all retinoid present in the body. When HSCs activate, retinyl ester levels progressively decrease and the lipid droplets are lost. The objective of this study was to determine if the HSC population in a healthy, uninjured liver demonstrates heterogeneity in its capacity for retinoid and lipid storage in lipid droplets. To this end, we utilized two methods of HSC isolation, which leverage distinct properties of these cells, including their vitamin A content and collagen expression. HSCs were isolated either from wild type (WT mice in the C57BL/6 genetic background by flotation in a Nycodenz density gradient, followed by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS based on vitamin A autofluorescence, or from collagen-green fluorescent protein (GFP mice by FACS based on GFP expression from a GFP transgene driven by the collagen I promoter. We show that GFP-HSCs have: (i increased expression of typical markers of HSC activation; (ii decreased retinyl ester levels, accompanied by reduced expression of the enzyme needed for hepatic retinyl ester synthesis (LRAT; (iii decreased triglyceride levels; (iv increased expression of genes associated with lipid catabolism; and (v an increase in expression of the retinoid-catabolizing cytochrome, CYP2S1.Our observations suggest that the HSC population in a healthy, uninjured liver is heterogeneous. One subset of the total HSC population, which expresses early markers of HSC activation, may be "primed" and ready for rapid response to acute liver injury.

  14. Design assessment for the Melton Valley Storage Tanks capacity increase at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the Federal Facility Agreement, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This project was initiated to find ways to increase storage capacity for the liquid low-level waste (LLLW) system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and satisfy the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) requirement for the transfer of LLW from existing tank systems not in full FFA compliance

  15. Self-consistent signal-to-noise analysis of the statistical behavior of analog neural networks and enhancement of the storage capacity (United States)

    Shiino, Masatoshi; Fukai, Tomoki


    Based on the self-consistent signal-to-noise analysis (SCSNA) capable of dealing with analog neural networks with a wide class of transfer functions, enhancement of the storage capacity of associative memory and the related statistical properties of neural networks are studied for random memory patterns. Two types of transfer functions with the threshold parameter θ are considered, which are derived from the sigmoidal one to represent the output of three-state neurons. Neural networks having a monotonically increasing transfer function FM, FM(u)=sgnu (||u||>θ), FM(u)=0 (||u||memory patterns), implying the reduction of the number of spurious states. The behavior of the storage capacity with changing θ is qualitatively the same as that of the Ising spin neural networks with varying temperature. On the other hand, the nonmonotonic transfer function FNM, FNM(u)=sgnu (||u||=θ) gives rise to remarkable features in several respects. First, it yields a large enhancement of the storage capacity compared with the Amit-Gutfreund-Sompolinsky (AGS) value: with decreasing θ from θ=∞, the storage capacity αc of such a network is increased from the AGS value (~=0.14) to attain its maximum value of ~=0.42 at θ~=0.7 and afterwards is decreased to vanish at θ=0. Whereas for θ>~1 the storage capacity αc coincides with the value αc~ determined by the SCSNA as the upper bound of α ensuring the existence of retrieval solutions, for θr≠0 (i.e., finite width of the local field distribution), which is implied by the order-parameter equations of the SCSNA, disappears at a certain critical loading rate α0, and for αr=0+). As a consequence, memory retrieval without errors becomes possible even in the saturation limit α≠0. Results of the computer simulations on the statistical properties of the novel phase with αstorage capacity is also analyzed for the two types of networks. It is conspicuous for the networks with FNM, where the self-couplings increase the stability of

  16. Bathymetric maps and water-quality profiles of Table Rock and North Saluda Reservoirs, Greenville County, South Carolina (United States)

    Clark, Jimmy M.; Journey, Celeste A.; Nagle, Doug D.; Lanier, Timothy H.


    Lakes and reservoirs are the water-supply source for many communities. As such, water-resource managers that oversee these water supplies require monitoring of the quantity and quality of the resource. Monitoring information can be used to assess the basic conditions within the reservoir and to establish a reliable estimate of storage capacity. In April and May 2013, a global navigation satellite system receiver and fathometer were used to collect bathymetric data, and an autonomous underwater vehicle was used to collect water-quality and bathymetric data at Table Rock Reservoir and North Saluda Reservoir in Greenville County, South Carolina. These bathymetric data were used to create a bathymetric contour map and stage-area and stage-volume relation tables for each reservoir. Additionally, statistical summaries of the water-quality data were used to provide a general description of water-quality conditions in the reservoirs.

  17. An Effective Reservoir Parameter for Seismic Characterization of Organic Shale Reservoir (United States)

    Zhao, Luanxiao; Qin, Xuan; Zhang, Jinqiang; Liu, Xiwu; Han, De-hua; Geng, Jianhua; Xiong, Yineng


    Sweet spots identification for unconventional shale reservoirs involves detection of organic-rich zones with abundant porosity. However, commonly used elastic attributes, such as P- and S-impedances, often show poor correlations with porosity and organic matter content separately and thus make the seismic characterization of sweet spots challenging. Based on an extensive analysis of worldwide laboratory database of core measurements, we find that P- and S-impedances exhibit much improved linear correlations with the sum of volume fraction of organic matter and porosity than the single parameter of organic matter volume fraction or porosity. Importantly, from the geological perspective, porosity in conjunction with organic matter content is also directly indicative of the total hydrocarbon content of shale resources plays. Consequently, we propose an effective reservoir parameter (ERP), the sum of volume fraction of organic matter and porosity, to bridge the gap between hydrocarbon accumulation and seismic measurements in organic shale reservoirs. ERP acts as the first-order factor in controlling the elastic properties as well as characterizing the hydrocarbon storage capacity of organic shale reservoirs. We also use rock physics modeling to demonstrate why there exists an improved linear correlation between elastic impedances and ERP. A case study in a shale gas reservoir illustrates that seismic-derived ERP can be effectively used to characterize the total gas content in place, which is also confirmed by the production well.

  18. Bathymetry of Ashokan, Cannonsville, Neversink, Pepacton, Rondout, and Schoharie Reservoirs, New York, 2013–15 (United States)

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.


    Drinking water for New York City is supplied from several large reservoirs, including a system of reservoirs west of the Hudson River. To provide updated reservoir capacity tables and bathymetry maps of the City’s six West of Hudson reservoirs, bathymetric surveys were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey from 2013 to 2015. Depths were surveyed with a single-beam echo sounder and real-time kinematic global positioning system along planned transects at predetermined intervals for each reservoir. A separate quality assurance dataset of echo sounder points was collected along transects at oblique angles to the main transects for accuracy assessment. Field-survey data were combined with water surface elevations in a geographic information system to create three-dimensional surfaces in the form of triangulated irregular networks (TINs) representing the elevations of the reservoir geomorphology. The TINs were linearly enforced to better represent geomorphic features within the reservoirs. The linearly enforced TINs were then used to create raster surfaces and 2-foot-interval contour maps of the reservoirs. Elevation-area-capacity tables were calculated at 0.01-foot intervals. The results of the surveys show that the total capacity of the West of Hudson reservoirs has decreased by 11.5 billion gallons (Ggal), or 2.3 percent, since construction, and the useable capacity (the volume above the minimum operating level required to deliver full flow for drinking water supply) has decreased by 7.9 Ggal (1.7 percent). The available capacity (the volume between the spillway elevation and the lowest intake or sill elevation used for drinking water supply) decreased by 9.6 Ggal (2.0 percent), and dead storage (the volume below the lowest intake or sill elevation) decreased by 1.9 Ggal (11.6 percent).

  19. A global water supply reservoir yield model with uncertainty analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuria, Faith W; Vogel, Richard M


    Understanding the reliability and uncertainty associated with water supply yields derived from surface water reservoirs is central for planning purposes. Using a global dataset of monthly river discharge, we introduce a generalized model for estimating the mean and variance of water supply yield, Y, expected from a reservoir for a prespecified reliability, R, and storage capacity, S assuming a flow record of length n. The generalized storage–reliability–yield (SRY) relationships reported here have numerous water resource applications ranging from preliminary water supply investigations, to economic and climate change impact assessments. An example indicates how our generalized SRY relationship can be combined with a hydroclimatic model to determine the impact of climate change on surface reservoir water supply yields. We also document that the variability of estimates of water supply yield are invariant to characteristics of the reservoir system, including its storage capacity and reliability. Standardized metrics of the variability of water supply yields are shown to depend only on the sample size of the inflows and the statistical characteristics of the inflow series. (paper)

  20. Experimental simulation of the geological storage of CO2: particular study of the interfaces between well cement, cap-rock and reservoir rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobard, Emmanuel


    The geological storage of the CO 2 is envisaged to mitigate the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in the short term. CO 2 is trapped from big emitters and is directly injected into a reservoir rock (mainly in deep salty aquifers, depleted hydrocarbon oil fields or unexploited charcoal lodes) located at more than 800 m deep. In the framework of the CO 2 storage, it is crucial to ensure the integrity of the solicited materials in order to guarantee the permanent confinement of the sequestrated fluids. Using experimental simulation the purpose of this work is to study the mechanisms which could be responsible for the system destabilization and could lead CO 2 leakage from the injection well. The experimental simulations are performed under pressure and temperature conditions of the geological storage (100 bar and from 80 to 100 deg. C). The first experimental model, called COTAGES (for 'Colonne Thermoregulee A Grains pour Gaz a Effet de Serre') allows studying the effects of the thermal destabilisation caused by the injection of a fluid at 25 deg. C in a hotter reservoir (submitted to the geothermal gradient). This device composed of an aqueous saline solution (4 g.L -1 of NaCl), crushed rock (Lavoux limestone or Callovo-Oxfordian argillite) and gas (N 2 or CO 2 ) allows demonstrating an important matter transfer from the cold area (30 deg. C) toward the hot area (100 deg. C). The observed dissolution/precipitation phenomena leading to changes of the petro-physical rocks properties occur in presence of N 2 or CO 2 but are significantly amplified by the presence of CO 2 . Concerning the experiments carried out with Lavoux limestone, the dissolution in the cold zone causes a raise of porosity of about 2% (initial porosity of 8%) due to the formation of about 500 pores/mm 2 with a size ranging between 10 and 100 μm 2 . The precipitation in the hot zone forms a micro-calcite fringe on the external part of the grains and fills the intergrain porosity

  1. European transition to a low carbon electricity system using a mix of variable renewable energies: carbon saving trajectories as functions of production and storage capacity. (United States)

    Francois, Baptiste; Creutin, Jean-Dominique


    Today, most of the produced energy is generated from fossil energy sources (i.e. coal, petroleum). As a result, the energy sector is still the main source of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. For limiting greenhouse gas emission, a transition from fossil to renewable energy is required, increasing gradually the fraction energy coming from variable renewable energy (i.e. solar power, wind power and run-of-the river hydropower, hereafter denoted as VRE). VRE penetration, i.e. the percentage of demand satisfied by variable renewables assuming no storage capacity, is hampered by their variable and un-controllable features. Many studies show that combining different VRE over space smoothes their variability and increases their global penetration by a better match of demand fluctuations. When the demand is not fully supplied by the VRE generation, backup generation is required from stored energy (mostly from dams) or fossil sources, the latter being associated with high greenhouse gas emission. Thus the VRE penetration is a direct indicator of carbon savings and basically depends on the VRE installed capacity, its mix features, and on the installed storage capacity. In this study we analyze the European transition to a low carbon electricity system. Over a selection of representative regions we analyze carbon saving trajectories as functions of VRE production and storage capacities for different scenarios mixing one to three VRE with non-renewables. We show substantial differences between trajectories when the mix of sources is far from the local optimums, when the storage capacity evolves. We bring new elements of reflection about the effect of transport grid features from local independent systems to a European "copper plate". This work is part of the FP7 project COMPLEX (Knowledge based climate mitigation systems for a low carbon economy; Project FP7-ENV-2012 number: 308601;

  2. Physical Experiment and Numerical Simulation of the Artificial Recharge Effect on Groundwater Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xu


    Full Text Available To improve the efficiency of utilizing water resources in arid areas, the mechanism of artificial recharge effecting on groundwater reservoir was analyzed in this research. Based on a generalized groundwater reservoir in a two-dimensional sand tank model, different scenarios of the infiltration basin location and recharge intensity are designed to study how to improve the efficiency of groundwater reservoir artificial recharge. The effective storage capacity and the effective storage rate are taken as the main parameters to analyze the relation between recharge water volume and storage capacity. By combining with groundwater flow system theory, FEFLOW (Finite Element subsurface FLOW system is adopted to set up the groundwater numerical model. It is used to verify the experiment results and to make deep analysis on the rule of water table fluctuations and groundwater movement in the aquifer. Based on the model, different scenarios are designed to examine the combined effect of recharge intensity and intermittent periods. The research results show that: the distance between infiltration basin and pumping well should be shortened appropriately, but not too close; increasing recharge intensity helps to enlarge the effective storage capacity, but it can also reduce the effective storage rate, which goes against the purpose of effective utilization of water resources; and, the recharge intensity and recharge duration should be given full consideration by the actual requirements when we take the approach of intermittent recharge to make a reasonable choice.

  3. Modeling of Turbidity Variation in Two Reservoirs Connected by a Water Transfer Tunnel in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Chung Park


    Full Text Available The Andong and Imha reservoirs in South Korea are connected by a water transfer tunnel. The turbidity of the Imha reservoir is much higher than that of the Andong reservoir. Thus, it is necessary to examine the movement of turbidity between the two reservoirs via the water transfer tunnel. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the water transfer tunnel on the turbidity behavior of the two connecting reservoirs and to further understand the effect of reservoir turbidity distribution as a function of the selective withdrawal depth. This study applied the CE-QUAL-W2, a water quality and 2-dimensional hydrodynamic model, for simulating the hydrodynamic processes of the two reservoirs. Results indicate that, in the Andong reservoir, the turbidity of the released water with the water transfer tunnel was similar to that without the tunnel. However, in the Imha reservoir, the turbidity of the released water with the water transfer tunnel was lower than that without the tunnel. This can be attributed to the higher capacity of the Andong reservoir, which has double the storage of the Imha reservoir. Withdrawal turbidity in the Imha reservoir was investigated using the water transfer tunnel. This study applied three withdrawal selections as elevation (EL. 141.0 m, 146.5 m, and 152.0 m. The highest withdrawal turbidity resulted in EL. 141.0 m, which indicates that the high turbidity current is located at a vertical depth of about 20–30 m because of the density difference. These results will be helpful for understanding the release and selective withdrawal turbidity behaviors for a water transfer tunnel between two reservoirs.

  4. Petrophysical examination of CO₂-brine-rock interactions-results of the first stage of long-term experiments in the potential Zaosie Anticline reservoir (central Poland) for CO₂ storage. (United States)

    Tarkowski, Radosław; Wdowin, Magdalena; Manecki, Maciej


    The objective of the study was determination of experiment-induced alterations and changes in the properties of reservoir rocks and sealing rocks sampled from potential reservoir for CO₂. In the experiment, rocks submerged in brine in specially constructed reactors were subjected to CO₂ pressure of 6 MPa for 20 months at room temperature. Samples of Lower Jurassic reservoir rocks and sealing rocks (sandstones, claystones, and mudstones) from the Zaosie Anticline (central Poland) were analysed for their petrophysical properties (specific surface area, porosity, pore size and distribution) before and after the experiment. Comparison of the ionic composition the brines before and after the experiment demonstrated an increase in total dissolved solids as well as the concentration of sulphates and calcium ions. This indicates partial dissolution of the rock matrix and the cements. As a result of the reaction, the properties of reservoir rocks did not changed significantly and should not affect the process of CO₂ storage. In the case of the sealing rocks, however, the porosity, the framework density, as well as the average capillary and threshold diameter increased. Also, the pore distribution in the pore space changed in favour of larger pores. The reasons for these changes could not be explained by petrographic characteristics and should be thoroughly investigated.

  5. Energy storage: a review of recent literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatone, O.S.


    Recent literature on the technological and economic status of reversible energy storage has been reviewed. A broad range of research and development activities have been pursued between 1975 and the present. Most of this work has concentrated on improving technical and economic performance of previously known storage technologies. Hydraulic pumped storage with both reservoirs above ground and compressed air storage (1 plant) are the only methods that have been adopted by electric utilities. The need for electrical energy storage in Canada has not been acute because of the large proportion of hydraulic generation which incorporates some storge and, in most cases, can readily be used for load-following. Residential heat storage in ceramic room heaters has been used in Europe for several years. For Canadian climatic and market conditions larger, central heating units would be required. Residential heat storage depends upon utilities offering time-of-use rates and none in Canada do so at present. Most seasonal storage concepts depend upon storage of low-grade heat for district heating. The cost of energy storage is highly dependent upon annual energy throughput and hence favours smaller capacity systems operating on frequent charge/discharge cycles over long-term storage. Capital costs of energy storage methods from the literature, expressed in constant dollars, are compared graphically and tentative investment costs are presented for several storage methods

  6. Reservoir management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satter, A.; Varnon, J.E.; Hoang, M.T.


    A reservoir's life begins with exploration leading to discovery followed by delineation of the reservoir, development of the field, production by primary, secondary and tertiary means, and finally to abandonment. Sound reservoir management is the key to maximizing economic operation of the reservoir throughout its entire life. Technological advances and rapidly increasing computer power are providing tools to better manage reservoirs and are increasing the gap between good and neural reservoir management. The modern reservoir management process involves goal setting, planning, implementing, monitoring, evaluating, and revising plans. Setting a reservoir management strategy requires knowledge of the reservoir, availability of technology, and knowledge of the business, political, and environmental climate. Formulating a comprehensive management plan involves depletion and development strategies, data acquisition and analyses, geological and numerical model studies, production and reserves forecasts, facilities requirements, economic optimization, and management approval. This paper provides management, engineers, geologists, geophysicists, and field operations staff with a better understanding of the practical approach to reservoir management using a multidisciplinary, integrated team approach

  7. Reservoir management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satter, A.; Varnon, J.E.; Hoang, M.T.


    A reservoir's life begins with exploration leading to discovery followed by delineation of the reservoir, development of the field, production by primary, secondary and tertiary means, and finally to abandonment. Sound reservoir management is the key to maximizing economic operation of the reservoir throughout its entire life. Technological advances and rapidly increasing computer power are providing tools to better manage reservoirs and are increasing the gap between good and neutral reservoir management. The modern reservoir management process involves goal setting, planning, implementing, monitoring, evaluating, and revising plans. Setting a reservoir management strategy requires knowledge of the reservoir, availability of technology, and knowledge of the business, political, and environmental climate. Formulating a comprehensive management plan involves depletion and development strategies, data acquisition and analyses, geological and numerical model studies, production and reserves forecasts, facilities requirements, economic optimization, and management approval. This paper provides management, engineers geologists, geophysicists, and field operations staff with a better understanding of the practical approach to reservoir management using a multidisciplinary, integrated team approach

  8. A simulation method for the rapid screening of potential depleted oil reservoirs for CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossie-Codreanu, D.; Le Gallo, Y.


    The reduction of greenhouse gases emission is a growing concern of many industries. The oil and gas industry has a long commercial practice of gas injection, enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and gas storage. Using a depleted oil or gas reservoir for CO 2 storage has several interesting advantages. The long-term risk analysis of the CO 2 behavior and its impact on the environment is a major concern. That is why the selection of an appropriate reservoir is crucial to the success of a sequestration operation. Our modeling study, based on a synthetic reservoir, quantifies uncertainties due to reservoir parameters in order to establish a set of guidelines to select the most appropriate depleted reservoirs. Several production and sequestration scenarios are investigated in order to quantify key parameter for CO 2 storage. The influence of parameters such as API gravity, heterogeneity (Dykstra-Parson coefficient), pressure support (water injection) and cap rock integrity are analyzed. Estimation of sequestration capacity is proposed through a sequestration factor (SF) estimated for different reservoir production drives. Multiple regression relationships were developed, allowing SF estimation. CO 2 sequestration optimization highlights the best clean oil recovery strategy (CO 2 injection and/or oil production)

  9. Oxygen Storage Capacity and Oxygen Mobility of Co-Mn-Mg-Al Mixed Oxides and Their Relation in the VOC Oxidation Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Haidy Castaño


    Full Text Available Co-Mn-Mg-Al oxides were synthesized using auto-combustion and co-precipitation techniques. Constant ratios were maintained with (Co + Mn + Mg/Al equal to 3.0, (Co + Mn/Mg equal to 1.0 and Co/Mn equal to 0.5. The chemical and structural composition, redox properties, oxygen storage capacity and oxygen mobility were analyzed using X-ray fluorescence (XRF, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, temperature-programmed reduction of hydrogen (H2-TPR, oxygen storage capacity (OSC, oxygen storage complete capacity (OSCC and isotopic exchange, respectively. The catalytic behavior of the oxides was evaluated in the total oxidation of a mixture of 250 ppm toluene and 250 ppm 2-propanol. The synthesis methodology affected the crystallite size, redox properties, OSC and oxide oxygen mobility, which determined the catalytic behavior. The co-precipitation method got the most active oxide in the oxidation of the volatile organic compound (VOC mixture because of the improved mobility of oxygen and ability to favor redox processes in the material structure.

  10. Surface analytical investigations of the interaction between the getter material ZrCo and hydrogen and the influence of different contamination gases on the hydrogen storage capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasbrenner, H.


    In this work the results of surface analytical investigations of the alloy ZrCo used for hydrogen storage as well as of the interaction of the alloy with hydrogen and various contamination gases present in a nuclear fusion reactor will be presented and discussed with respect to the application of ZrCo as getter material for tritium. The characterization of the ZrCo alloy showed that on the surface a stable ZrO 2 -layer is formed, which is, however, inhomogeneous. On the phase boundary solid / gas of samples exposed to hydrogen up to the stoichiometrical composition ZrCoH 2.8 a Co enrichment was observed. If the alloy ZrCo is activated before hydrogen take-up in the same way as other getter materials by heating under vacuum, the hydrogenation occurs faster and nearly complete. Zirconium is the alloy component responsible for the hydrogen storage. If a gas reacts nearly exclusively with the alloy component Co, a smaller decrease in the hydrogen storage capacity will be noticed. By exposition to CO and CO 2 mainly compounds with cobalt are formed. However, if the gas produces compounds with Zr like carbide, nitride, or oxide, the result is a strong decrease of the hydrogen storage capacity of the getter. (orig./MM) [de

  11. The effect of melanin-free extract from Sepia esculenta ink on lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and water-holding capacity of tilapia fillet during cold storage. (United States)

    Duan, Zhen-Hua; Liu, Hua-Zhong; Luo, Ping; Gu, Yi-Peng; Li, Yan-Qun


    Preservative effect of melanin-free extract of Sepia esculenta ink (MFESI) on Sparus latus fillet has been verified in our previous work. This study aims to further approach the mechanism of MFESI for extending the shelf-life of fish fillet during cold storage. Tilapia fillets were treated with different dosage of MFESI (0, 15, 25 and 35 mg/ml) and packed with preservative film for succedent cold-storage at 4 °C for scheduled time. Contents of total volatile basic nitrogen and sulfydryl and carbanyl groups were measured for evaluating protein oxidation. Malondialdehyde contents were measured for estimating lipid peroxidation and loss of water was used to determine water-holding capacity of fillet. The data indicated that MFESI not only possessed certain degree of antioxidant capacity in vitro, also lengthened shelf-life of tilapia fillet in cold-storage condition. Apart from 15 mg/ml, both 25 and 35 mg/ml of MFESI obviously prevented lipid and protein from oxidation and reduced loss of water from tilapia fillets, and the latter was more effective than the former. MFESI can repress lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation and reduce water loss, maintain the tilapia fillets quality and, thus, it could be an effective and natural preservative for extending the shelf-life of tilapia fillets during cold storage.

  12. Experimental and modeling results on geochemical impacts of leaking CO2 from subsurface storage reservoirs to an unconfined oxidizing carbonate aquifer (United States)

    Qafoku, N. P.; Bacon, D. H.; Shao, H.; Lawter, A.; Wang, G.; Brown, C. F.


    Deep subsurface storage and sequestration of CO2 has been identified as a potential mitigation technique for rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Sequestered CO2 represents a potential risk to overlying aquifers if the CO2 leaks from the deep storage reservoir. Experimental and modeling work is required to evaluate risks to groundwater quality and develop a systematic understanding on how CO2 leakage may cause important changes in aquifer chemistry and mineralogy by promoting dissolution/precipitation, adsorption/desorption, and redox reactions. Solid materials (rocks and slightly weathered rocks) from an unconfined aquifer, i.e., the Edwards Aquifer in Texas, were used in this investigation. The experimental part consisted of: 1) wet chemical acid extractions (8M HNO3 solution at 90 0C); 2) batch experiments conducted at low solid to solution ratios to study time-dependent releases of major, minor and trace elements during periodic or continuous exposure to CO2 gas; 3) hydraulically saturated column experiments conducted under continuous and stop-flow conditions using a CO2 gas saturated synthetic groundwater; 4) pre- and post-treatment solid phase characterization studies. Major variables tested included reaction time (0-336 hours), CO2 flow rate (50 to 350 ml/min), brine concentration (0.1 and 1 M NaCl), rock type and particle size fraction. We are currently investigating the solution composition effects (i.e., presence of contaminants in the initial solution) on the fate and behavior of potential contaminants (As, Pb and Cd) in these systems. Results from the solid phase characterization studies showed that the mineralogy of the Edwards aquifer materials was dominated by calcite. Quartz and montmorillonite were also present in some samples. Acid extractions confirmed that the solid phase had appreciable amounts of potential contaminants (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn). However, the results from the batch and column experiments demonstrated that these contaminants

  13. Stable large-scale CO2 storage in defiance of an energy system based on renewable energy - Modelling the impact of varying CO2 injection rates on reservoir behavior (United States)

    Bannach, Andreas; Hauer, Rene; Martin, Streibel; Stienstra, Gerard; Kühn, Michael


    The IPCC Report 2014 strengthens the need for CO2 storage as part of CCS or BECCS to reach ambitious climate goals despite growing energy demand in the future. The further expansion of renewable energy sources is a second major pillar. As it is today in Germany the weather becomes the controlling factor for electricity production by fossil fuelled power plants which lead to significant fluctuations of CO2-emissions which can be traced in injection rates if the CO2 were captured and stored. To analyse the impact of such changing injection rates on a CO2 storage reservoir. two reservoir simulation models are applied: a. An (smaller) reservoir model approved by gas storage activities for decades, to investigate the dynamic effects in the early stage of storage filling (initial aquifer displacement). b. An anticline structure big enough to accommodate a total amount of ≥ 100 Mega tons CO2 to investigate the dynamic effects for the entire operational life time of the storage under particular consideration of very high filling levels (highest aquifer compression). Therefore a reservoir model was generated. The defined yearly injection rate schedule is based on a study performed on behalf of IZ Klima (DNV GL, 2014). According to this study the exclusive consideration of a pool of coal-fired power plants causes the most intensive dynamically changing CO2 emissions and hence accounts for variations of a system which includes industry driven CO2 production. Besides short-term changes (daily & weekly cycles) seasonal influences are also taken into account. Simulation runs cover a variation of injection points (well locations at the top vs. locations at the flank of the structure) and some other largely unknown reservoir parameters as aquifer size and aquifer mobility. Simulation of a 20 year storage operation is followed by a post-operational shut-in phase which covers approximately 500 years to assess possible effects of changing injection rates on the long-term reservoir

  14. The Application of a Multi-Beam Echo-Sounder in the Analysis of the Sedimentation Situation of a Large Reservoir after an Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Luan Yan


    Full Text Available The Wenchuan Earthquake took place in the upper reach catchment of the Min River. It resulted in large amounts of loose materials gathering in the river channel, leading to changes in the sediment transport system in this area. The Zipingpu Reservoir is the last and the largest reservoir located in the upper reach of the Min River. It is near the epicenter and receives sediment from upstream. This paper puts forward a study on the reservoir sedimentation and storage capacity of the Zipingpu Reservoir, employing a multi-beam echo-sounder system in December 2012. Then, the data were merged with digital line graphics and shuttle radar topography mission data in ArcGIS to build a digital elevation model and triangulate the irregular network of Zipingpu Reservoir. Via the analysis of the bathymetric data, the results show the following: (1 The main channels of the reservoir gradually aggrade to a flat bottom from the deep-cutting valley. Sedimentation forms a reach with a W-shaped longitudinal thalweg profile and an almost zero slope reach in the upstream section of the reservoir due to the natural barrier induced by a landslide; (2 The loss ratios of the wetted cross-section surface are higher than 10% in the upstream section of the reservoir and higher than 40% in the natural barrier area; (3 Comparing the surveyed area storage capacity of December 2012 with March 2008, the Zipingpu Reservoir has lost 15.28% of its capacity at the dead storage water level and 10.49% of its capacity at the flood limit water level.

  15. Storage of phase-coded patterns via STDP in fully-connected and sparse network: a study of the network capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Scarpetta


    Full Text Available We study the storage and retrieval of phase-coded patterns as stable dynamical attractors in recurrent neural networks, for both an analog and a integrate-and-fire spiking model. The synaptic strength is determined by a learning rule based on spike-time-dependent plasticity, with an asymmetric time window depending on the relative timing between pre- and post-synaptic activity. We store multiple patterns and study the network capacity. For the analog model, we find that the network capacity scales linearly with the network size, and that both capacity and the oscillation frequency of the retrieval state depend on the asymmetry of the learning time window. In addition to fully-connected networks, we study sparse networks, where each neuron is connected only to a small number $zll N$ of other neurons. Connections can be short range, between neighboring neurons placed on a regular lattice, or long range, between randomly chosen pairs of neurons. We find that a small fraction of long range connections is able to amplify the capacity of the network. This imply that a small-world-network topology is optimal, as a compromise between the cost of long range connections and the capacity increase. Also in the spiking integrate and fire model the crucial result of storing and retrieval of multiple phase-coded patterns is observed. The capacity of the fully-connected spiking network is investigated, together with the relation between oscillation frequency of retrieval state and window asymmetry.

  16. A remote sensing method for estimating regional reservoir area and evaporative loss (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Gorelick, Steven M.; Zimba, Paul V.; Zhang, Xiaodong


    Evaporation from the water surface of a reservoir can significantly affect its function of ensuring the availability and temporal stability of water supply. Current estimations of reservoir evaporative loss are dependent on water area derived from a reservoir storage-area curve. Such curves are unavailable if the reservoir is located in a data-sparse region or questionable if long-term sedimentation has changed the original elevation-area relationship. We propose a remote sensing framework to estimate reservoir evaporative loss at the regional scale. This framework uses a multispectral water index to extract reservoir area from Landsat imagery and estimate monthly evaporation volume based on pan-derived evaporative rates. The optimal index threshold is determined based on local observations and extended to unobserved locations and periods. Built on the cloud computing capacity of the Google Earth Engine, this framework can efficiently analyze satellite images at large spatiotemporal scales, where such analysis is infeasible with a single computer. Our study involves 200 major reservoirs in Texas, captured in 17,811 Landsat images over a 32-year period. The results show that these reservoirs contribute to an annual evaporative loss of 8.0 billion cubic meters, equivalent to 20% of their total active storage or 53% of total annual water use in Texas. At five coastal basins, reservoir evaporative losses exceed the minimum freshwater inflows required to sustain ecosystem health and fishery productivity of the receiving estuaries. Reservoir evaporative loss can be significant enough to counterbalance the positive effects of impounding water and to offset the contribution of water conservation and reuse practices. Our results also reveal the spatially variable performance of the multispectral water index and indicate the limitation of using scene-level cloud cover to screen satellite images. This study demonstrates the advantage of combining satellite remote sensing and

  17. Effect of Storage Temperature on Vitamin C, Total Phenolics, UPLC Phenolic Acid Profile and Antioxidant Capacity of Eleven Potato (Solanum tuberosum Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Hubert Yamdeu Galani


    Full Text Available Storage of potato tubers at low temperature affects their metabolism and may alter their phytochemical properties. There is a need to elucidate the changes in antioxidant compounds, activity and enzymes during storage of tubers. Eleven Indian potato varieties were evaluated for antioxidant parameters, after 0, 30, 60 and 90 days of storage at room temperature, 15 °C and 4 °C. Total phenolics (0.0786–0.1546 mg gallic acid equivalents⋅g−1 FW and vitamin C content (0.0828–0.2416 mg⋅g−1 FW varied among the varieties and were different with storage temperature; their levels fluctuated during storage but remained above the initial level until the last day of observation. Phenolic acid profiling by UPLC identified 12 compounds among which the most abundant was chlorogenic acid followed by gallic acid, sinapic acid and ellagic acid. Except para-coumaric acid which decreased at 4 °C, all the phenolic acids increased with storage. Caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid and gallic acid mostly correlated with total phenolic content (r = 0.456, 0.482, 0.588 and 0.620, respectively. Antioxidant activity against both DPPH and ABTS radicals increased during the initial days of storage and then dropped to a level comparable or lower than the original value, irrespective of the storage temperature. Correlation study revealed that chlorogenic acid, gallic acid and ferulic acid mostly contributed to antioxidant activity. Activity of both antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase, increased initially but then decreased to values lower than the initial level and were not influenced by storage temperature. Correlation with antioxidant activity indicated that the enhancement of reactive oxygen scavenging species in cold stored tubers could result mainly from ascorbate peroxidase activity. Our results demonstrate that storage temperature adversely influences the metabolism and the content of

  18. The Controls of Pore-Throat Structure on Fluid Performance in Tight Clastic Rock Reservoir: A Case from the Upper Triassic of Chang 7 Member, Ordos Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Zhang


    Full Text Available The characteristics of porosity and permeability in tight clastic rock reservoir have significant difference from those in conventional reservoir. The increased exploitation of tight gas and oil requests further understanding of fluid performance in the nanoscale pore-throat network of the tight reservoir. Typical tight sandstone and siltstone samples from Ordos Basin were investigated, and rate-controlled mercury injection capillary pressure (RMICP and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR were employed in this paper, combined with helium porosity and air permeability data, to analyze the impact of pore-throat structure on the storage and seepage capacity of these tight oil reservoirs, revealing the control factors of economic petroleum production. The researches indicate that, in the tight clastic rock reservoir, largest throat is the key control on the permeability and potentially dominates the movable water saturation in the reservoir. The storage capacity of the reservoir consists of effective throat and pore space. Although it has a relatively steady and significant proportion that resulted from the throats, its variation is still dominated by the effective pores. A combination parameter (ε that was established to be as an integrated characteristic of pore-throat structure shows effectively prediction of physical capability for hydrocarbon resource of the tight clastic rock reservoir.

  19. 基于韦伯模型的风场储能容量计算%Storage Capacity Calculation of Wind Power Based on Weibull Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Wind speed model and wind generator output model are analyzed by applying Weibull function to set up wind speed distribution model and the concept of probability theory to calculate the power capacity of energy storage system . The ratio of wind energy and storage capacity is reasonable and meets requirement of energy system by means of stimula -tion experiment .Under the condition of satisfying China ’ s wind power grid standard , the energy storage scale should be minimized and be verified by actual wind farm data .%分析了风电场风速的模型、风力发电机输出模型,运用韦伯函数建立风速分布模型,采用概率论期望的思想,计算储能系统功率容量。通过模拟仿真实验,得出满足电力系统要求的合理风储比。在满足我国风电并网标准的条件下,尽可能地减小储能系统规模,并利用实际风电场数据加以分析验证。

  20. The H{sub 60}Si{sub 6}C{sub 54} heterofullerene as high-capacity hydrogen storage medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yong, Yongliang, E-mail: [College of Physics and Engineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003 (China); Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhou, Qingxiao; Li, Xiaohong; Lv, Shijie [College of Physics and Engineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003 (China)


    With the great success in Si atoms doped C{sub 60} fullerene and the well-established methods for synthesis of hydrogenated carbon fullerenes, this leads naturally to wonder whether Si-doped fullerenes are possible for special applications such as hydrogen storage. Here by using first-principles calculations, we design a novel high-capacity hydrogen storage material, H{sub 60}Si{sub 6}C{sub 54} heterofullerene, and confirm its geometric stability. It is found that the H{sub 60}Si{sub 6}C{sub 54} heterofullerene has a large HOMO-LUMO gap and a high symmetry, indicating it is high chemically stable. Further, our finite temperature simulations indicate that the H{sub 60}Si{sub 6}C{sub 54} heterofullerene is thermally stable at 300 K. H{sub 2} molecules would enter into the cage from the Si-hexagon ring because of lower energy barrier. Through our calculation, a maximum of 21 H{sub 2} molecules can be stored inside the H{sub 60}Si{sub 6}C{sub 54} cage in molecular form, leading to a gravimetric density of 11.11 wt% for 21H{sub 2}@H{sub 60}Si{sub 6}C{sub 54} system, which suggests that the hydrogenated Si{sub 6}C{sub 54} heterofullerene could be suitable as a high-capacity hydrogen storage material.

  1. Winter electricity supply and seasonal storage deficit in the Swiss Alps (United States)

    Manso, Pedro; Monay, Blaise; Dujardin, Jérôme; Schaefli, Bettina; Schleiss, Anton


    Switzerland electricity production depends at 60% on hydropower, most of the remainder coming from nuclear power plants. The ongoing energy transition foresees an increase in renewable electricity production of solar photovoltaic, wind and geothermal origin to replace part of nuclear production; hydropower, in its several forms, will continue to provide the backbone and the guarantee of the instantaneous and permanent stability of the electric system. One of the key elements of any future portfolio of electricity mix with higher shares of intermittent energy sources like wind and solar are fast energy storage and energy deployment solutions. Hydropower schemes with pumping capabilities are eligible for storage at different time scales, whereas high-head storage hydropower schemes have already a cornerstone role in today's grid operation. These hydropower storage schemes have also been doing what can be labelled as "seasonal energy storage" in different extents, storing abundant flows in the wet season (summer) to produce electricity in the dry (winter) alpine season. Some of the existing reservoirs are however under sized with regards to the available water inflows and either spill over or operate as "run-of-the-river" which is economically suboptimal. Their role in seasonal energy transfer could increase through storage capacity increase (by dam heightening, by new storage dams in the same catchment). Inversely, other reservoirs that already store most of the wet season inflow might not fill up in the future in case inflows decrease due to climate changes; these reservoirs might then have extra storage capacity available to store energy from sources like solar and wind, if water pumping capacity is added or increased. The present work presents a comprehensive methodology for the identification of the seasonal storage deficit per catchment considering todays and future hydrological conditions with climate change, applied to several landmark case studies in

  2. Screening reservoir systems by considering the efficient trade-offs—informing infrastructure investment decisions on the Blue Nile (United States)

    Geressu, Robel T.; Harou, Julien J.


    Multi-reservoir system planners should consider how new dams impact downstream reservoirs and the potential contribution of each component to coordinated management. We propose an optimized multi-criteria screening approach to identify best performing designs, i.e., the selection, size and operating rules of new reservoirs within multi-reservoir systems. Reservoir release operating rules and storage sizes are optimized concurrently for each separate infrastructure design under consideration. Outputs reveal system trade-offs using multi-dimensional scatter plots where each point represents an approximately Pareto-optimal design. The method is applied to proposed Blue Nile River reservoirs in Ethiopia, where trade-offs between total and firm energy output, aggregate storage and downstream irrigation and energy provision for the best performing designs are evaluated. This proof-of concept study shows that recommended Blue Nile system designs would depend on whether monthly firm energy or annual energy is prioritized. 39 TWh/yr of energy potential is available from the proposed Blue Nile reservoirs. The results show that depending on the amount of energy deemed sufficient, the current maximum capacities of the planned reservoirs could be larger than they need to be. The method can also be used to inform which of the proposed reservoir type and their storage sizes would allow for the highest downstream benefits to Sudan in different objectives of upstream operating objectives (i.e., operated to maximize either average annual energy or firm energy). The proposed approach identifies the most promising system designs, reveals how they imply different trade-offs between metrics of system performance, and helps system planners asses the sensitivity of overall performance to the design parameters of component reservoirs.

  3. Carbon nanotubes for energy storage using their hydrogen adsorption capacity: state of the art and perspectives; Nanotubos de carbono para estocagem de energia por adsorcao de hidrogenio: estado da arte e perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maestro, Luis Fernando; Luengo, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Grupo de Combustiveis Alternativos], e-mail:


    It is presented an updated scope of the research in carbon nanotubes synthesis, their purification and a discussion of recent results in energy storage using their hydrogen adsorption capacity. The GCA activities in this area are also discussed. (author)

  4. A Method for Increasing the Operating Limit Capacity of Wind Farms Using Battery Energy Storage Systems with Rate of Change of Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Hee Son


    Full Text Available In this paper, the appropriate rated power of battery energy storage system (BESS and the operating limit capacity of wind farms are determined considering power system stability, and novel output control methods of BESS and wind turbines are proposed. The rated power of BESS is determined by correlation with the kinetic energy that can be released from wind turbines and synchronous generators when a disturbance occurs in the power system. After the appropriate rated power of BESS is determined, a novel control scheme for quickly responding to disturbances should be applied to BESS. It is important to compensate the insufficient power difference between demand and supply more quickly after a disturbance, and for this purpose, BESS output is controlled using the rate of change of frequency (ROCOF. Generally, BESS output is controlled by the frequency droop control (FDC, however if ROCOF falls below the threshold, BESS output increases sharply. Under this control for BESS, the power system’s stability can be improved and the operating limit capacity of wind farms can be increased. The operating limit capacity is determined as the smaller of technical limit and dynamic limit capacity. The technical limit capacity is calculated by the difference between the maximum power of the generators connected to the power system and the magnitude of loads, and the dynamic limit capacity is determined by considering dynamic stability of a power system frequency when the wind turbines drop out from a power system. Output of the dynamic model developed for wind turbine is based on the operating limit capacity and is controlled by blade pitch angle. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed control method, different case studies are conducted, with simulations for BESS and wind turbine using Power System Simulation for Engineering (PSS/E.

  5. Negative plates for dry-charged lead storage batteries. [higher charging capacity when impregnated with tannin solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, V; Malikova, V; Weber, H


    Impregnation of negative plates with acid solutions of sulfomethylated tannins was found to improve the charging properties at low temperatures. Methods for synthesizing tannins are described. Charging capacity at 0/sup 0/ was 7.3A. (RWR)

  6. Prototyping and Testing a New Volumetric Curvature Tool for Modeling Reservoir Compartments and Leakage Pathways in the Arbuckle Saline Aquifer: Reducing Uncertainty in CO2 Storage and Permanence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rush, Jason [Univ. of Kansas and Kansas Geological Survey, Lawrence, KS (United States); Holubnyak, Yevhen [Univ. of Kansas and Kansas Geological Survey, Lawrence, KS (United States); Watney, Willard [Univ. of Kansas and Kansas Geological Survey, Lawrence, KS (United States)


    This DOE-funded project evaluates the utility of seismic volumetric curvature (VC) for predicting stratal and structural architecture diagnostic of paleokarst reservoirs. Of special interest are applications geared toward carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS). VC has been championed for identifying faults (offset <¼ λ) that cannot be imaged by conventional 3-D seismic attributes such as coherence. The objective of this research was to evaluate VC-techniques for reducing uncertainties in reservoir compartmentalization studies and seal risk assessments especially for saline aquifers. A 2000-ft horizontal lateral was purposefully drilled across VC-imaged lineaments—interpreted to record a fractured and a fault-bounded doline—to physically confirm their presence. The 15-mi² study area is located in southeastern Bemis-Shutts Field, which is situated along the crest of the Central Kansas Uplift (CKU) in Ellis County, Kansas. The uppermost Arbuckle (200+ ft) has extensive paleokarst including collapsed paleocaverns and dolines related to exceedingly prolonged pre-Simpson (Sauk–Tippecanoe) and/or pre-Pennsylvanian subaerial exposure. A lateral borehole was successfully drilled across the full extent (~1100 ft) of a VC-inferred paleokarst doline. Triple combo (GR-neutron/density-resistivity), full-wave sonic, and borehole micro-imager logs were successfully run to TD on drill-pipe. Results from the formation evaluation reveal breccias (e.g., crackle, mosaic, chaotic), fractures, faults, vugs (1-6"), and unaffected host strata consistent with the pre-spud interpretation. Well-rounded pebbles were also observed on the image log. VC-inferred lineaments coincide with 20–80-ft wide intervals of high GR values (100+ API), matrix-rich breccias, and faults. To further demonstrate their utility, VC attributes are integrated into a geocellular modeling workflow: 1) to constrain the structural model; 2) to generate facies probability grids, and; 3) to collocate

  7. Electricity Storage. Technology Brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbolotti, G. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development ENEA, Rome (Italy); Kempener, R. [International Renewable Energy Agency IRENA, Bonn (Germany)


    Electricity storage is a key technology for electricity systems with a high share of renewables as it allows electricity to be generated when renewable sources (i.e. wind, sunlight) are available and to be consumed on demand. It is expected that the increasing price of fossil fuels and peak-load electricity and the growing share of renewables will result in electricity storage to grow rapidly and become more cost effective. However, electricity storage is technically challenging because electricity can only be stored after conversion into other forms of energy, and this involves expensive equipment and energy losses. At present, the only commercial storage option is pumped hydro power where surplus electricity (e.g. electricity produced overnight by base-load coal or nuclear power) is used to pump water from a lower to an upper reservoir. The stored energy is then used to produce hydropower during daily high-demand periods. Pumped hydro plants are large-scale storage systems with a typical efficiency between 70% and 80%, which means that a quarter of the energy is lost in the process. Other storage technologies with different characteristics (i.e. storage process and capacity, conversion back to electricity and response to power demand, energy losses and costs) are currently in demonstration or pre-commercial stages and discussed in this brief report: Compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems, Flywheels; Electrical batteries; Supercapacitors; Superconducting magnetic storage; and Thermal energy storage. No single electricity storage technology scores high in all dimensions. The technology of choice often depends on the size of the system, the specific service, the electricity sources and the marginal cost of peak electricity. Pumped hydro currently accounts for 95% of the global storage capacity and still offers a considerable expansion potential but does not suit residential or small-size applications. CAES expansion is limited due to the lack of suitable

  8. Integrated assessment of variable density-viscosity groundwater flow for a high temperature mono-well aquifer thermal energy storage (HT-ATES) system in a geothermal reservoir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeghici, Răzvan Mihai; Oude Essink, Gualbert H.P.; Hartog, Niels; Sommer, Wijb


    The use of groundwater systems for heat storage increasingly gains interest among water managers, policy makers and researchers as a way to increase the efficiency of energy production and to allow the re-use of waste heat. Typically, mono-well storage systems are thought to require the use of

  9. Cost Implications of Uncertainty in CO{sub 2} Storage Resource Estimates: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Steven T., E-mail: [National Center, U.S. Geological Survey (United States)


    Carbon capture from stationary sources and geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is an important option to include in strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. However, the potential costs of commercial-scale CO{sub 2} storage are not well constrained, stemming from the inherent uncertainty in storage resource estimates coupled with a lack of detailed estimates of the infrastructure needed to access those resources. Storage resource estimates are highly dependent on storage efficiency values or storage coefficients, which are calculated based on ranges of uncertain geological and physical reservoir parameters. If dynamic factors (such as variability in storage efficiencies, pressure interference, and acceptable injection rates over time), reservoir pressure limitations, boundaries on migration of CO{sub 2}, consideration of closed or semi-closed saline reservoir systems, and other possible constraints on the technically accessible CO{sub 2} storage resource (TASR) are accounted for, it is likely that only a fraction of the TASR could be available without incurring significant additional costs. Although storage resource estimates typically assume that any issues with pressure buildup due to CO{sub 2} injection will be mitigated by reservoir pressure management, estimates of the costs of CO{sub 2} storage generally do not include the costs of active pressure management. Production of saline waters (brines) could be essential to increasing the dynamic storage capacity of most reservoirs, but including the costs of this critical method of reservoir pressure management could increase current estimates of the costs of CO{sub 2} storage by two times, or more. Even without considering the implications for reservoir pressure management, geologic uncertainty can significantly impact CO{sub 2} storage capacities and costs, and contribute to uncertainty in carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems. Given the current state of available information and the

  10. Low-crystallinity molybdenum sulfide nanosheets assembled on carbon nanotubes for long-life lithium storage: Unusual electrochemical behaviors and ascending capacities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaodan, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China ElectricPower University, Beijing, 102206 (China); Wu, Gaoxiang, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China ElectricPower University, Beijing, 102206 (China); Chen, Jiewei, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China ElectricPower University, Beijing, 102206 (China); Li, Meicheng, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China ElectricPower University, Beijing, 102206 (China); Chongqing Materials Research Institute, Chongqing 400707 (China); Li, Wei, E-mail: [International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory (INL), Braga 4715-330 (Portugal); Wang, Tianyue, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China ElectricPower University, Beijing, 102206 (China); Jiang, Bing, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China ElectricPower University, Beijing, 102206 (China); He, Yue, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China ElectricPower University, Beijing, 102206 (China); Mai, Liqiang, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)


    Highlights: • Low-crystallinity molybdenum sulfide coated on carbon nanotubes were synthesized. • This anode material has unusual electrochemical behaviors compared to typical MoS{sub 2}. • It exhibits noticable ascending trends in capacity and superior rate performance. • The ascending performance can effectively extend the circulation life of batteries. - Abstract: Low-crystallinity molybdenum sulfide (LCMS, Mo:S = 1:2.75) nanosheets synthesized by a facile and low temperature solvothermal method is now reported. The as-prepared LCMS anode material is composited of MoS{sub 2} layers mixed with amorphous MoS{sub 3}, which leads to an unusual electrochemical process for lithium storage compared to typical MoS{sub 2} anode. The existence of MoS{sub 3} and Mo (VI) provide strong adsorption and binding sites for polar polysulphides, which compels abundant sulfur to turn into new-formed MoS{sub 3} rather than diffuse into electrolyte. To fully utilize this novel electrochemical process, LCMS is decorated on carbon nanotubes, obtaining well-dispersed CNTs@LCMS. As electrode material for lithium storage, CNTs@LCMS exhibits a noticable ascending trend in capacity from 820 mA h g{sup −1} to 1350 mA h g{sup −1} at 100 mA g{sup −1} during 130 cycles. The persistent ascending capacity is ascribed to the increasing lithium storage caused by new-formed MoS{sub 3}, combined with the reduced volume change benifiting from well-dispersed CNTs@LCMS. Furthermore, the ascending performance is proved to be able to effectively extend the circulation life (up to 200%) for lithium-ion batteries by mathematical modeling and calculation. Accordingly, the CNTs@LCMS composite is a promising anode material for long-life lithium-ion batteries.

  11. Pair Distribution Function Analysis of Structural Disorder by Nb5+ Inclusion in Ceria: Evidence for Enhanced Oxygen Storage Capacity from Under-Coordinated Oxide. (United States)