Sample records for reservoir scale simulation

  1. Small Reservoir Impact on Simulated Watershed-Scale Nutrient Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane J. Prochnow


    Full Text Available The soil and water assessment tool (SWAT is used to assess the influence of small upland reservoirs (PL566 on watershed nutrient yield. SWAT simulates the impact of collectively increasing and decreasing PL566 magnitudes (size parameters on the watershed. Totally removing PL566 reservoirs results in a 100% increase in total phosphorus and an 82% increase in total nitrogen, while a total maximum daily load (TMDL calling for a 50% reduction in total phosphorus can be achieved with a 500% increase in the magnitude of PL566s in the watershed. PL566 reservoirs capture agriculture pollution in surface flow, providing long-term storage of these constituents when they settle to the reservoir beds. A potential strategy to reduce future downstream nutrient loading is to enhance or construct new PL566 reservoirs in the upper basin to better capture agricultural runoff.

  2. Simulation of water-energy fluxes through small-scale reservoir systems under limited data availability (United States)

    Papoulakos, Konstantinos; Pollakis, Giorgos; Moustakis, Yiannis; Markopoulos, Apostolis; Iliopoulou, Theano; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris; Efstratiadis, Andreas


    Small islands are regarded as promising areas for developing hybrid water-energy systems that combine multiple sources of renewable energy with pumped-storage facilities. Essential element of such systems is the water storage component (reservoir), which implements both flow and energy regulations. Apparently, the representation of the overall water-energy management problem requires the simulation of the operation of the reservoir system, which in turn requires a faithful estimation of water inflows and demands of water and energy. Yet, in small-scale reservoir systems, this task in far from straightforward, since both the availability and accuracy of associated information is generally very poor. For, in contrast to large-scale reservoir systems, for which it is quite easy to find systematic and reliable hydrological data, in the case of small systems such data may be minor or even totally missing. The stochastic approach is the unique means to account for input data uncertainties within the combined water-energy management problem. Using as example the Livadi reservoir, which is the pumped storage component of the small Aegean island of Astypalaia, Greece, we provide a simulation framework, comprising: (a) a stochastic model for generating synthetic rainfall and temperature time series; (b) a stochastic rainfall-runoff model, whose parameters cannot be inferred through calibration and, thus, they are represented as correlated random variables; (c) a stochastic model for estimating water supply and irrigation demands, based on simulated temperature and soil moisture, and (d) a daily operation model of the reservoir system, providing stochastic forecasts of water and energy outflows. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students

  3. Multi-scale approach in numerical reservoir simulation; Uma abordagem multiescala na simulacao numerica de reservatorios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedes, Solange da Silva


    Advances in petroleum reservoir descriptions have provided an amount of data that can not be handled directly during numerical simulations. This detailed geological information must be incorporated into a coarser model during multiphase fluid flow simulations by means of some upscaling technique. the most used approach is the pseudo relative permeabilities and the more widely used is the Kyte and Berry method (1975). In this work, it is proposed a multi-scale computational model for multiphase flow that implicitly treats the upscaling without using pseudo functions. By solving a sequence of local problems on subdomains of the refined scale it is possible to achieve results with a coarser grid without expensive computations of a fine grid model. The main advantage of this new procedure is to treat the upscaling step implicitly in the solution process, overcoming some practical difficulties related the use of traditional pseudo functions. results of bidimensional two phase flow simulations considering homogeneous porous media are presented. Some examples compare the results of this approach and the commercial upscaling program PSEUDO, a module of the reservoir simulation software ECLIPSE. (author)

  4. Parallel reservoir simulator computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemanth-Kumar, K.; Young, L.C.


    The adaptation of a reservoir simulator for parallel computations is described. The simulator was originally designed for vector processors. It performs approximately 99% of its calculations in vector/parallel mode and relative to scalar calculations it achieves speedups of 65 and 81 for black oil and EOS simulations, respectively on the CRAY C-90

  5. Simulation of commercial scale CO2 injection into a fracture reservoir (United States)

    Li, Y.; Li, S.; Zhang, Y.


    Geologic Carbon Sequestration is a proposed means to reduce atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2). At Teapot Dome, Wyoming, CO2 will be injected into the Tensleep Formation, a depleted oil reservoir characterized with significant heterogeneity including facies, faults, and fractures. We've collected geological and engineering characterization data of the entire Teapot Dome field, including core data, well logs, seismic data, and production records. All data were screened for accuracy, before subsets of the data are used to build a geologic reservoir model. A formation structural model is created first by interpreting faults and stratigraphy from 3D seismic data. Formation MicroImager logs are analyzed for fracture characteristics to generate in-situ fracture intensity at wells, which is subsequently interpolated throughout the model with kriging. Based on the intensity and a set of geometric fracture parameters (constrained by outcrop and core measurements), a 3D stochastic Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) is created. One realization of the DFN is upscaled to a dual-porosity simulation model using a variant of the Oda's method. This method upscales the fracture network to an effective grid-block fracture permeability. To account for fluid transfer from matrix to fracture, a sigma factor is computed using average fracture spacings within the grid block. Matrix porosity is populated in the model by kriging interpolation of well-log-derived values. With the dual-porosity model, CO2 is injected near the crest of the dome (the proposed location) at a rate of 2.6 Mt/year for 50 years, with an injection bottomhole pressure set at 160% hydrostatic pressure. Boundary of the model is open except along one bounding fault assumed sealed. Results of the simulation suggest that provided that fluid pressure buildup is not an issue (simulated pressure buildup near the fault is minor), the Tensleep Formation at Teapot Dome can sustain commercial-scale injection over time

  6. Data Compression of Hydrocarbon Reservoir Simulation Grids

    KAUST Repository

    Chavez, Gustavo Ivan


    A dense volumetric grid coming from an oil/gas reservoir simulation output is translated into a compact representation that supports desired features such as interactive visualization, geometric continuity, color mapping and quad representation. A set of four control curves per layer results from processing the grid data, and a complete set of these 3-dimensional surfaces represents the complete volume data and can map reservoir properties of interest to analysts. The processing results yield a representation of reservoir simulation results which has reduced data storage requirements and permits quick performance interaction between reservoir analysts and the simulation data. The degree of reservoir grid compression can be selected according to the quality required, by adjusting for different thresholds, such as approximation error and level of detail. The processions results are of potential benefit in applications such as interactive rendering, data compression, and in-situ visualization of large-scale oil/gas reservoir simulations.

  7. Nonlinear Multigrid for Reservoir Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Max la Cour; Eskildsen, Klaus Langgren; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter


    modeled after local linearization, leading to a nonlinear multigrid method in the form of the full-approximation scheme (FAS). It is demonstrated through numerical experiments that, without loss of robustness, the FAS method can outperform the conventional techniques in terms of algorithmic and numerical...... efficiency for a black-oil model. Furthermore, the use of the FAS method enables a significant reduction in memory usage compared with conventional techniques, which suggests new possibilities for improved large-scale reservoir simulation and numerical efficiency. Last, nonlinear multilevel preconditioning...

  8. An Efficient Upscaling Process Based on a Unified Fine-scale Multi-Physics Model for Flow Simulation in Naturally Fracture Carbonate Karst Reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Bi, Linfeng


    The main challenges in modeling fluid flow through naturally-fractured carbonate karst reservoirs are how to address various flow physics in complex geological architectures due to the presence of vugs and caves which are connected via fracture networks at multiple scales. In this paper, we present a unified multi-physics model that adapts to the complex flow regime through naturally-fractured carbonate karst reservoirs. This approach generalizes Stokes-Brinkman model (Popov et al. 2007). The fracture networks provide the essential connection between the caves in carbonate karst reservoirs. It is thus very important to resolve the flow in fracture network and the interaction between fractures and caves to better understand the complex flow behavior. The idea is to use Stokes-Brinkman model to represent flow through rock matrix, void caves as well as intermediate flows in very high permeability regions and to use an idea similar to discrete fracture network model to represent flow in fracture network. Consequently, various numerical solution strategies can be efficiently applied to greatly improve the computational efficiency in flow simulations. We have applied this unified multi-physics model as a fine-scale flow solver in scale-up computations. Both local and global scale-up are considered. It is found that global scale-up has much more accurate than local scale-up. Global scale-up requires the solution of global flow problems on fine grid, which generally is computationally expensive. The proposed model has the ability to deal with large number of fractures and caves, which facilitate the application of Stokes-Brinkman model in global scale-up computation. The proposed model flexibly adapts to the different flow physics in naturally-fractured carbonate karst reservoirs in a simple and effective way. It certainly extends modeling and predicting capability in efficient development of this important type of reservoir.

  9. Multilevel techniques for Reservoir Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Max la Cour

    for both variational upscaling and the construction of linear solvers. In particular, it is found to be beneficial (or even necessary) to apply an AMGe based multigrid solver to solve the upscaled problems. It is found that the AMGe upscaling changes the spectral properties of the matrix, which renders...... is extended to include a hybrid strategy, where FAS is combined with Newton’s method to construct a multilevel nonlinear preconditioner. This method demonstrates high efficiency and robustness. Second, an improved IMPES formulated reservoir simulator is implemented using a novel variational upscaling approach...... based on element-based Algebraic Multigrid (AMGe). In particular, an advanced AMGe technique with guaranteed approximation properties is used to construct a coarse multilevel hierarchy of Raviart-Thomas and L2 spaces for the Galerkin coarsening of a mixed formulation of the reservoir simulation...

  10. Fast parametric relationships for the large-scale reservoir simulation of mixed CH4-CO2 gas hydrate systems (United States)

    Reagan, Matthew T.; Moridis, George J.; Seim, Katie S.


    A recent Department of Energy field test on the Alaska North Slope has increased interest in the ability to simulate systems of mixed CO2-CH4 hydrates. However, the physically realistic simulation of mixed-hydrate simulation is not yet a fully solved problem. Limited quantitative laboratory data leads to the use of various ab initio, statistical mechanical, or other mathematic representations of mixed-hydrate phase behavior. Few of these methods are suitable for inclusion in reservoir simulations, particularly for systems with large number of grid elements, 3D systems, or systems with complex geometric configurations. In this work, we present a set of fast parametric relationships describing the thermodynamic properties and phase behavior of a mixed methane-carbon dioxide hydrate system. We use well-known, off-the-shelf hydrate physical properties packages to generate a sufficiently large dataset, select the most convenient and efficient mathematical forms, and fit the data to those forms to create a physical properties package suitable for inclusion in the TOUGH+ family of codes. The mapping of the phase and thermodynamic space reveals the complexity of the mixed-hydrate system and allows understanding of the thermodynamics at a level beyond what much of the existing laboratory data and literature currently offer.

  11. Large scale in-situ BOrehole and Geofluid Simulator (i.BOGS) for the development and testing of borehole technologies at reservoir conditions (United States)

    Duda, Mandy; Bracke, Rolf; Stöckhert, Ferdinand; Wittig, Volker


    A fundamental problem of technological applications related to the exploration and provision of geothermal energy is the inaccessibility of subsurface processes. As a result, actual reservoir properties can only be determined using (a) indirect measurement techniques such as seismic surveys, machine feedback and geophysical borehole logging, (b) laboratory experiments capable of simulating in-situ properties, but failing to preserve temporal and spatial scales, or vice versa, and (c) numerical simulations. Moreover, technological applications related to the drilling process, the completion and cementation of a wellbore or the stimulation and exploitation of the reservoir are exposed to high pressure and temperature conditions as well as corrosive environments resulting from both, rock formation and geofluid characteristics. To address fundamental and applied questions in the context of geothermal energy provision and subsurface exploration in general one of Europe's largest geoscientific laboratory infrastructures is introduced. The in-situ Borehole and Geofluid Simulator (i.BOGS) allows to simulate quasi scale-preserving processes at reservoir conditions up to depths of 5000 m and represents a large scale pressure vessel for iso-/hydrostatic and pore pressures up to 125 MPa and temperatures from -10°C to 180°C. The autoclave can either be filled with large rock core samples (25 cm in diameter, up to 3 m length) or with fluids and technical borehole devices (e.g. pumps, sensors). The pressure vessel is equipped with an ultrasound system for active transmission and passive recording of acoustic emissions, and can be complemented by additional sensors. The i.BOGS forms the basic module for the Match.BOGS finally consisting of three modules, i.e. (A) the i.BOGS, (B) the Drill.BOGS, a drilling module to be attached to the i.BOGS capable of applying realistic torques and contact forces to a drilling device that enters the i.BOGS, and (C) the Fluid.BOGS, a geofluid

  12. Linking pore-scale and basin-scale effects on diffusive methane transport in hydrate bearing environments through multi-scale reservoir simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nole, Michael; Daigle, Hugh; Cook, Ann; Malinverno, Alberto; Hillman, Jess


    We explore the gas hydrate-generating capacity of diffusive methane transport induced by solubility gradients due to pore size contrasts in lithologically heterogeneous marine sediments. Through the use of 1D, 2D, and 3D reactive transport simulations, we investigate scale-dependent processes in diffusion-dominated gas hydrate systems. These simulations all track a sand body, or series of sands, surrounded by clays as they are buried through the gas hydrate stability zone. Methane is sourced by microbial methanogenesis in the clays surrounding the sand layers. In 1D, simulations performed in a Lagrangian reference frame demonstrate that gas hydrate in thin sands (3.6 m thick) can occur in high saturations (upward of 70%) at the edges of sand bodies within the upper 400 meters below the seafloor. Diffusion of methane toward the center of the sand layer depends on the concentration gradient within the sand: broader sand pore size distributions with smaller median pore sizes enhance diffusive action toward the sand’s center. Incorporating downhole log- and laboratory-derived sand pore size distributions, gas hydrate saturations in the center of the sand can reach 20% of the hydrate saturations at the sand’s edges. Furthermore, we show that hydrate-free zones exist immediately above and below the sand and are approximately 5 m thick, depending on the sand-clay solubility contrast. A moving reference frame is also adopted in 2D, and the angle of gravity is rotated relative to the grid system to simulate a dipping sand layer. This is important to minimize diffusive edge effects or numerical diffusion that might be associated with a dipping sand in an Eulerian grid system oriented orthogonal to gravity. Two-dimensional simulations demonstrate the tendency for gas hydrate to accumulate downdip in a sand body because of greater methane transport at depth due to larger sand-clay solubility contrasts. In 3D, basin-scale simulations illuminate how convergent sand layers in

  13. Petroleum reservoir data for testing simulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, J.M.; Harrison, W.


    This report consists of reservoir pressure and production data for 25 petroleum reservoirs. Included are 5 data sets for single-phase (liquid) reservoirs, 1 data set for a single-phase (liquid) reservoir with pressure maintenance, 13 data sets for two-phase (liquid/gas) reservoirs and 6 for two-phase reservoirs with pressure maintenance. Also given are ancillary data for each reservoir that could be of value in the development and validation of simulation models. A bibliography is included that lists the publications from which the data were obtained.

  14. Reservoir Simulations of Low-Temperature Geothermal Reservoirs (United States)

    Bedre, Madhur Ganesh

    The eastern United States generally has lower temperature gradients than the western United States. However, West Virginia, in particular, has higher temperature gradients compared to other eastern states. A recent study at Southern Methodist University by Blackwell et al. has shown the presence of a hot spot in the eastern part of West Virginia with temperatures reaching 150°C at a depth of between 4.5 and 5 km. This thesis work examines similar reservoirs at a depth of around 5 km resembling the geology of West Virginia, USA. The temperature gradients used are in accordance with the SMU study. In order to assess the effects of geothermal reservoir conditions on the lifetime of a low-temperature geothermal system, a sensitivity analysis study was performed on following seven natural and human-controlled parameters within a geothermal reservoir: reservoir temperature, injection fluid temperature, injection flow rate, porosity, rock thermal conductivity, water loss (%) and well spacing. This sensitivity analysis is completed by using ‘One factor at a time method (OFAT)’ and ‘Plackett-Burman design’ methods. The data used for this study was obtained by carrying out the reservoir simulations using TOUGH2 simulator. The second part of this work is to create a database of thermal potential and time-dependant reservoir conditions for low-temperature geothermal reservoirs by studying a number of possible scenarios. Variations in the parameters identified in sensitivity analysis study are used to expand the scope of database. Main results include the thermal potential of reservoir, pressure and temperature profile of the reservoir over its operational life (30 years for this study), the plant capacity and required pumping power. The results of this database will help the supply curves calculations for low-temperature geothermal reservoirs in the United States, which is the long term goal of the work being done by the geothermal research group under Dr. Anderson at

  15. A reservoir simulation approach for modeling of naturally fractured reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mohammadi


    Full Text Available In this investigation, the Warren and Root model proposed for the simulation of naturally fractured reservoir was improved. A reservoir simulation approach was used to develop a 2D model of a synthetic oil reservoir. Main rock properties of each gridblock were defined for two different types of gridblocks called matrix and fracture gridblocks. These two gridblocks were different in porosity and permeability values which were higher for fracture gridblocks compared to the matrix gridblocks. This model was solved using the implicit finite difference method. Results showed an improvement in the Warren and Root model especially in region 2 of the semilog plot of pressure drop versus time, which indicated a linear transition zone with no inflection point as predicted by other investigators. Effects of fracture spacing, fracture permeability, fracture porosity, matrix permeability and matrix porosity on the behavior of a typical naturally fractured reservoir were also presented.

  16. Experimental and simulation studies of pore scale flow and reactive transport associated with supercritical CO2 injection into brine-filled reservoir rocks (Invited) (United States)

    DePaolo, D. J.; Steefel, C. I.; Bourg, I. C.


    This talk will review recent research relating to pore scale reactive transport effects done in the context of the Department of Energy-sponsored Energy Frontier Research Center led by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with several other laboratory and University partners. This Center, called the Center for Nanoscale Controls on Geologic CO2 (NCGC) has focused effort on the behavior of supercritical CO2 being injected into and/or residing as capillary trapped-bubbles in sandstone and shale, with particular emphasis on the description of nanoscale to pore scale processes that could provide the basis for advanced simulations. In general, simulation of reservoir-scale behavior of CO2 sequestration assumes a number of mostly qualitative relationships that are defensible as nominal first-order descriptions of single-fluid systems, but neglect the many complications that are associated with a two-phase or three-phase reactive system. The contrasts in properties, and the mixing behavior of scCO2 and brine provide unusual conditions for water-rock interaction, and the NCGC has investigated the underlying issues by a combination of approaches including theoretical and experimental studies of mineral nucleation and growth, experimental studies of brine films, mineral wetting properties, dissolution-precipitation rates and infiltration patterns, molecular dynamic simulations and neutron scattering experiments of fluid properties for fluid confined in nanopores, and various approaches to numerical simulation of reactive transport processes. The work to date has placed new constraints on the thickness of brine films, and also on the wetting properties of CO2 versus brine, a property that varies between minerals and with salinity, and may also change with time as a result of the reactivity of CO2-saturated brine. Mineral dissolution is dependent on reactive surface area, which can be shown to vary by a large factor for various minerals, especially when correlated with

  17. Modeling Reservoir-River Networks in Support of Optimizing Seasonal-Scale Reservoir Operations (United States)

    Villa, D. L.; Lowry, T. S.; Bier, A.; Barco, J.; Sun, A.


    HydroSCOPE (Hydropower Seasonal Concurrent Optimization of Power and the Environment) is a seasonal time-scale tool for scenario analysis and optimization of reservoir-river networks. Developed in MATLAB, HydroSCOPE is an object-oriented model that simulates basin-scale dynamics with an objective of optimizing reservoir operations to maximize revenue from power generation, reliability in the water supply, environmental performance, and flood control. HydroSCOPE is part of a larger toolset that is being developed through a Department of Energy multi-laboratory project. This project's goal is to provide conventional hydropower decision makers with better information to execute their day-ahead and seasonal operations and planning activities by integrating water balance and operational dynamics across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. This presentation details the modeling approach and functionality of HydroSCOPE. HydroSCOPE consists of a river-reservoir network model and an optimization routine. The river-reservoir network model simulates the heat and water balance of river-reservoir networks for time-scales up to one year. The optimization routine software, DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications -, is seamlessly linked to the network model and is used to optimize daily volumetric releases from the reservoirs to best meet a set of user-defined constraints, such as maximizing revenue while minimizing environmental violations. The network model uses 1-D approximations for both the reservoirs and river reaches and is able to account for surface and sediment heat exchange as well as ice dynamics for both models. The reservoir model also accounts for inflow, density, and withdrawal zone mixing, and diffusive heat exchange. Routing for the river reaches is accomplished using a modified Muskingum-Cunge approach that automatically calculates the internal timestep and sub-reach lengths to match the conditions of

  18. A chemical EOR benchmark study of different reservoir simulators (United States)

    Goudarzi, Ali; Delshad, Mojdeh; Sepehrnoori, Kamy


    Interest in chemical EOR processes has intensified in recent years due to the advancements in chemical formulations and injection techniques. Injecting Polymer (P), surfactant/polymer (SP), and alkaline/surfactant/polymer (ASP) are techniques for improving sweep and displacement efficiencies with the aim of improving oil production in both secondary and tertiary floods. There has been great interest in chemical flooding recently for different challenging situations. These include high temperature reservoirs, formations with extreme salinity and hardness, naturally fractured carbonates, and sandstone reservoirs with heavy and viscous crude oils. More oil reservoirs are reaching maturity where secondary polymer floods and tertiary surfactant methods have become increasingly important. This significance has added to the industry's interest in using reservoir simulators as tools for reservoir evaluation and management to minimize costs and increase the process efficiency. Reservoir simulators with special features are needed to represent coupled chemical and physical processes present in chemical EOR processes. The simulators need to be first validated against well controlled lab and pilot scale experiments to reliably predict the full field implementations. The available data from laboratory scale include 1) phase behavior and rheological data; and 2) results of secondary and tertiary coreflood experiments for P, SP, and ASP floods under reservoir conditions, i.e. chemical retentions, pressure drop, and oil recovery. Data collected from corefloods are used as benchmark tests comparing numerical reservoir simulators with chemical EOR modeling capabilities such as STARS of CMG, ECLIPSE-100 of Schlumberger, REVEAL of Petroleum Experts. The research UTCHEM simulator from The University of Texas at Austin is also included since it has been the benchmark for chemical flooding simulation for over 25 years. The results of this benchmark comparison will be utilized to improve

  19. Integrated Approach to Drilling Project in Unconventional Reservoir Using Reservoir Simulation (United States)

    Stopa, Jerzy; Wiśniowski, Rafał; Wojnarowski, Paweł; Janiga, Damian; Skrzypaszek, Krzysztof


    Accumulation and flow mechanisms in unconventional reservoir are different compared to conventional. This requires a special approach of field management with drilling and stimulation treatments as major factor for further production. Integrated approach of unconventional reservoir production optimization assumes coupling drilling project with full scale reservoir simulation for determine best well placement, well length, fracturing treatment design and mid-length distance between wells. Full scale reservoir simulation model emulate a part of polish shale - gas field. The aim of this paper is to establish influence of technical factor for gas production from shale gas field. Due to low reservoir permeability, stimulation treatment should be direct towards maximizing the hydraulic contact. On the basis of production scenarios, 15 stages hydraulic fracturing allows boost gas production over 1.5 times compared to 8 stages. Due to the possible interference of the wells, it is necessary to determine the distance between the horizontal parts of the wells trajectories. In order to determine the distance between the wells allowing to maximize recovery factor of resources in the stimulated zone, a numerical algorithm based on a dynamic model was developed and implemented. Numerical testing and comparative study show that the most favourable arrangement assumes a minimum allowable distance between the wells. This is related to the volume ratio of the drainage zone to the total volume of the stimulated zone.

  20. Mathematical simulation of oil reservoir properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, A. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (SEPI-ESQIE-UPALM-IPN), Unidad Profesional Zacatenco, Laboratorio de Analisis Met., Edif. ' Z' y Edif. 6 planta baja., Mexico City c.p. 07300 (Mexico)], E-mail:; Romero, A.; Chavez, F. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (SEPI-ESQIE-UPALM-IPN), Unidad Profesional Zacatenco, Laboratorio de Analisis Met., Edif. ' Z' y Edif. 6 planta baja., Mexico City c.p. 07300 (Mexico); Carrillo, F. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (CICATA-IPN, Altamira Tamaulipas) (Mexico); Lopez, S. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo - Molecular Engineering Researcher (Mexico)


    The study and computational representation of porous media properties are very important for many industries where problems of fluid flow, percolation phenomena and liquid movement and stagnation are involved, for example, in building constructions, ore processing, chemical industries, mining, corrosion sciences, etc. Nevertheless, these kinds of processes present a noneasy behavior to be predicted and mathematical models must include statistical analysis, fractal and/or stochastic procedures to do it. This work shows the characterization of sandstone berea core samples which can be found as a porous media (PM) in natural oil reservoirs, rock formations, etc. and the development of a mathematical algorithm for simulating the anisotropic characteristics of a PM based on a stochastic distribution of some of their most important properties like porosity, permeability, pressure and saturation. Finally a stochastic process is used again to simulated the topography of an oil reservoir.

  1. An adaptive nonlinear solution scheme for reservoir simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lett, G.S. [Scientific Software - Intercomp, Inc., Denver, CO (United States)


    Numerical reservoir simulation involves solving large, nonlinear systems of PDE with strongly discontinuous coefficients. Because of the large demands on computer memory and CPU, most users must perform simulations on very coarse grids. The average properties of the fluids and rocks must be estimated on these grids. These coarse grid {open_quotes}effective{close_quotes} properties are costly to determine, and risky to use, since their optimal values depend on the fluid flow being simulated. Thus, they must be found by trial-and-error techniques, and the more coarse the grid, the poorer the results. This paper describes a numerical reservoir simulator which accepts fine scale properties and automatically generates multiple levels of coarse grid rock and fluid properties. The fine grid properties and the coarse grid simulation results are used to estimate discretization errors with multilevel error expansions. These expansions are local, and identify areas requiring local grid refinement. These refinements are added adoptively by the simulator, and the resulting composite grid equations are solved by a nonlinear Fast Adaptive Composite (FAC) Grid method, with a damped Newton algorithm being used on each local grid. The nonsymmetric linear system of equations resulting from Newton`s method are in turn solved by a preconditioned Conjugate Gradients-like algorithm. The scheme is demonstrated by performing fine and coarse grid simulations of several multiphase reservoirs from around the world.

  2. A compositional reservoir simulator on distributed memory parallel computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rame, M.; Delshad, M.


    This paper presents the application of distributed memory parallel computes to field scale reservoir simulations using a parallel version of UTCHEM, The University of Texas Chemical Flooding Simulator. The model is a general purpose highly vectorized chemical compositional simulator that can simulate a wide range of displacement processes at both field and laboratory scales. The original simulator was modified to run on both distributed memory parallel machines (Intel iPSC/960 and Delta, Connection Machine 5, Kendall Square 1 and 2, and CRAY T3D) and a cluster of workstations. A domain decomposition approach has been taken towards parallelization of the code. A portion of the discrete reservoir model is assigned to each processor by a set-up routine that attempts a data layout as even as possible from the load-balance standpoint. Each of these subdomains is extended so that data can be shared between adjacent processors for stencil computation. The added routines that make parallel execution possible are written in a modular fashion that makes the porting to new parallel platforms straight forward. Results of the distributed memory computing performance of Parallel simulator are presented for field scale applications such as tracer flood and polymer flood. A comparison of the wall-clock times for same problems on a vector supercomputer is also presented

  3. Using microstructure observations to quantify fracture properties and improve reservoir simulations. Final report, September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laubach, S.E.; Marrett, R.; Rossen, W.; Olson, J.; Lake, L.; Ortega, O.; Gu, Y.; Reed, R.


    The research for this project provides new technology to understand and successfully characterize, predict, and simulate reservoir-scale fractures. Such fractures have worldwide importance because of their influence on successful extraction of resources. The scope of this project includes creation and testing of new methods to measure, interpret, and simulate reservoir fractures that overcome the challenge of inadequate sampling. The key to these methods is the use of microstructures as guides to the attributes of the large fractures that control reservoir behavior. One accomplishment of the project research is a demonstration that these microstructures can be reliably and inexpensively sampled. Specific goals of this project were to: create and test new methods of measuring attributes of reservoir-scale fractures, particularly as fluid conduits, and test the methods on samples from reservoirs; extrapolate structural attributes to the reservoir scale through rigorous mathematical techniques and help build accurate and useful 3-D models of the interwell region; and design new ways to incorporate geological and geophysical information into reservoir simulation and verify the accuracy by comparison with production data. New analytical methods developed in the project are leading to a more realistic characterization of fractured reservoir rocks. Testing diagnostic and predictive approaches was an integral part of the research, and several tests were successfully completed.

  4. Simulation of California's Major Reservoirs Outflow Using Data Mining Technique (United States)

    Yang, T.; Gao, X.; Sorooshian, S.


    The reservoir's outflow is controlled by reservoir operators, which is different from the upstream inflow. The outflow is more important than the reservoir's inflow for the downstream water users. In order to simulate the complicated reservoir operation and extract the outflow decision making patterns for California's 12 major reservoirs, we build a data-driven, computer-based ("artificial intelligent") reservoir decision making tool, using decision regression and classification tree approach. This is a well-developed statistical and graphical modeling methodology in the field of data mining. A shuffled cross validation approach is also employed to extract the outflow decision making patterns and rules based on the selected decision variables (inflow amount, precipitation, timing, water type year etc.). To show the accuracy of the model, a verification study is carried out comparing the model-generated outflow decisions ("artificial intelligent" decisions) with that made by reservoir operators (human decisions). The simulation results show that the machine-generated outflow decisions are very similar to the real reservoir operators' decisions. This conclusion is based on statistical evaluations using the Nash-Sutcliffe test. The proposed model is able to detect the most influential variables and their weights when the reservoir operators make an outflow decision. While the proposed approach was firstly applied and tested on California's 12 major reservoirs, the method is universally adaptable to other reservoir systems.

  5. Effect of wettability on scale-up of multiphase flow from core-scale to reservoir fine-grid-scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y.C.; Mani, V.; Mohanty, K.K. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States)


    Typical field simulation grid-blocks are internally heterogeneous. The objective of this work is to study how the wettability of the rock affects its scale-up of multiphase flow properties from core-scale to fine-grid reservoir simulation scale ({approximately} 10{prime} x 10{prime} x 5{prime}). Reservoir models need another level of upscaling to coarse-grid simulation scale, which is not addressed here. Heterogeneity is modeled here as a correlated random field parameterized in terms of its variance and two-point variogram. Variogram models of both finite (spherical) and infinite (fractal) correlation length are included as special cases. Local core-scale porosity, permeability, capillary pressure function, relative permeability functions, and initial water saturation are assumed to be correlated. Water injection is simulated and effective flow properties and flow equations are calculated. For strongly water-wet media, capillarity has a stabilizing/homogenizing effect on multiphase flow. For small variance in permeability, and for small correlation length, effective relative permeability can be described by capillary equilibrium models. At higher variance and moderate correlation length, the average flow can be described by a dynamic relative permeability. As the oil wettability increases, the capillary stabilizing effect decreases and the deviation from this average flow increases. For fractal fields with large variance in permeability, effective relative permeability is not adequate in describing the flow.

  6. Numerical simulation of hydraulic fracture propagation in heterogeneous unconventional reservoir (United States)

    Liu, Chunting; Li, Mingzhong; Hao, Lihua; Hu, Hang


    The distribution of the unconventional reservoir fracture network is influenced by many factors. For the natural fracture undeveloped reservoir, the reservoir heterogeneity, construction factors (fracturing fluid flow rate, fluid viscosity, perforation clusters spacing), horizontal stress difference and stress different coefficient are the main factors that affect the fracture propagation. In the study, first, calculate the reservoir physics mechanics parameters that affect the fracture propagation on the base of the logging date from one actual horizontal well. Set the formation parameters according to the calculation that used to simulate the reservoir heterogeneity. Then, using damage mechanics method, the 2D fracture propagation model with seepage-stress-damage coupling of multi-fracture tight sand reservoir was established. Study the influences of different fracturing ways (open whole fracturing and oriented perforation fracturing) and the position of the perforation clusters to the fracture propagation for heterogeneity reservoir. Analyze the effects of flow rate, fracturing fluid viscosity, perforation clusters spacing, horizontal stress difference and stress different coefficient to fracture morphology for the heterogeneity reservoir and contrast with the homogeneous reservoir. The simulation results show that: the fracture morphology is more complexity formed by oriented perforation crack than open whole crack; For natural fracture undeveloped reservoir, as the flow rate or the fracturing fluid viscosity increases within a certain range, the fracture network tends to be more complexity and the effect is more obvious to heterogeneous reservoir than homogeneous reservoir; As the perforation clusters spacing decreases, the interaction of each fracture will increase, it tends to form more complexity fracture network but with short major fracture; If the horizontal stress difference and stress different coefficient is large (The stress different coefficient >0

  7. Numerical Simulation of Two Dimensional Flows in Yazidang Reservoir (United States)

    Huang, Lingxiao; Liu, Libo; Sun, Xuehong; Zheng, Lanxiang; Jing, Hefang; Zhang, Xuande; Li, Chunguang


    This paper studied the problem of water flow in the Yazid Ang reservoir. It built 2-D RNG turbulent model, rated the boundary conditions, used the finite volume method to discrete equations and divided the grid by the advancing-front method. It simulated the two conditions of reservoir flow field, compared the average vertical velocity of the simulated value and the measured value nearby the water inlet and the water intake. The results showed that the mathematical model could be applied to the similar industrial water reservoir.

  8. Modelling of fractured reservoirs. Case of multi-scale media; Modelisation des reservoirs fractures. Cas des milieux multi-echelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henn, N.


    Some of the most productive oil and gas reservoirs are found in formations crossed by multi-scale fractures/faults. Among them, conductive faults may closely control reservoir performance. However, their modelling encounters numerical and physical difficulties linked with (a) the necessity to keep an explicit representation of faults through small-size grid blocks, (b) the modelling of multiphase flow exchanges between the fault and the neighbouring medium. In this thesis, we propose a physically-representative and numerically efficient modelling approach in order to incorporate sub-vertical conductive faults in single and dual-porosity simulators. To validate our approach and demonstrate its efficiency, simulation results of multiphase displacements in representative field sector models are presented. (author)

  9. Molecular Simulation towards Efficient and Representative Subsurface Reservoirs Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Kadoura, Ahmad


    This dissertation focuses on the application of Monte Carlo (MC) molecular simulation and Molecular Dynamics (MD) in modeling thermodynamics and flow of subsurface reservoir fluids. At first, MC molecular simulation is proposed as a promising method to replace correlations and equations of state in subsurface flow simulators. In order to accelerate MC simulations, a set of early rejection schemes (conservative, hybrid, and non-conservative) in addition to extrapolation methods through reweighting and reconstruction of pre-generated MC Markov chains were developed. Furthermore, an extensive study was conducted to investigate sorption and transport processes of methane, carbon dioxide, water, and their mixtures in the inorganic part of shale using both MC and MD simulations. These simulations covered a wide range of thermodynamic conditions, pore sizes, and fluid compositions shedding light on several interesting findings. For example, the possibility to have more carbon dioxide adsorbed with more preadsorbed water concentrations at relatively large basal spaces. The dissertation is divided into four chapters. The first chapter corresponds to the introductory part where a brief background about molecular simulation and motivations are given. The second chapter is devoted to discuss the theoretical aspects and methodology of the proposed MC speeding up techniques in addition to the corresponding results leading to the successful multi-scale simulation of the compressible single-phase flow scenario. In chapter 3, the results regarding our extensive study on shale gas at laboratory conditions are reported. At the fourth and last chapter, we end the dissertation with few concluding remarks highlighting the key findings and summarizing the future directions.

  10. Geological and Petrophysical Characterization of the Ferron Sandstone for 3-D Simulation of a Fluvial-Deltaic Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidsey, Jr, Thomas C.


    The objective of the Ferron Sandstone project was to develop a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, quantitative characterization f fluvial-deltaic reservoir to allow realistic interwell and reservoir-scale models to be developed for improved oil-field development in similar reservoirs world-wide. Quantitative geological and petrophysical information on the Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone in east-central Utah was collected. Both new and existing data was integrated into a three-dimensional model of spatial variations in porosity, storativity, and tensorial rock permeability at a scale appropriate for inter-well to regional-scale reservoir simulation. Simulation results could improve reservoir management through proper infill and extension drilling strategies, reduction of economic risks, increased recovery from existing oil fields, and more reliable reserve calculations.

  11. Groundwater Salinity Simulation of a Subsurface Reservoir in Taiwan (United States)

    Fang, H. T.


    The subsurface reservoir is located in Chi-Ken Basin, Pescadores (a group islands located at western part of Taiwan). There is no river in these remote islands and thus the freshwater supply is relied on the subsurface reservoir. The basin area of the subsurface reservoir is 2.14 km2 , discharge of groundwater is 1.27×106m3 , annual planning water supplies is 7.9×105m3 , which include for domestic agricultural usage. The annual average temperature is 23.3oC, average moisture is 80~85%, annual average rainfall is 913 mm, but ET rate is 1975mm. As there is no single river in the basin; the major recharge of groundwater is by infiltration. Chi-Ken reservoir is the first subsurface reservoir in Taiwan. Originally, the water quality of the reservoir is good. The reservoir has had the salinity problem since 1991 and it became more and more serious from 1992 until 1994. Possible reason of the salinity problem was the shortage of rainfall or the leakage of the subsurface barrier which caused the seawater intrusion. The present study aimed to determine the leakage position of subsurface barrier that caused the salinity problem. In order to perform the simulation for different possible leakage position of the subsurface reservoir, a Groundwater Modeling System (GMS) is used to define soils layer data, hydro-geological parameters, initial conditions, boundary conditions and the generation of three dimension meshes. A three dimension FEMWATER(Yeh , 1996) numerical model was adopted to find the possible leakage position of the subsurface barrier and location of seawater intrusion by comparing the simulation of different possible leakage with the observations. 1.By assuming the leakage position in the bottom of barrier, the simulated numerical result matched the observation better than the other assumed leakage positions. It showed that the most possible leakage position was at the bottom of the barrier. 2.The research applied three dimension FEMWATER and GMS as an interface

  12. Experiences with linear solvers for oil reservoir simulation problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joubert, W.; Janardhan, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Biswas, D.; Carey, G.


    This talk will focus on practical experiences with iterative linear solver algorithms used in conjunction with Amoco Production Company`s Falcon oil reservoir simulation code. The goal of this study is to determine the best linear solver algorithms for these types of problems. The results of numerical experiments will be presented.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. S. Araújo

    Full Text Available Abstract In the last decade, unstructured grids have been a very important step in the development of petroleum reservoir simulators. In fact, the so-called third generation simulators are based on Perpendicular Bisection (PEBI unstructured grids. Nevertheless, the use of PEBI grids is not very general when full anisotropic reservoirs are modeled. Another possibility is the use of the Element based Finite Volume Method (EbFVM. This approach has been tested for several reservoir types and in principle has no limitation in application. In this paper, we implement this approach in an in-house simulator called UTCOMP using four element types: hexahedron, tetrahedron, prism, and pyramid. UTCOMP is a compositional, multiphase/multi-component simulator based on an Implicit Pressure Explicit Composition (IMPEC approach designed to handle several hydrocarbon recovery processes. All properties, except permeability and porosity, are evaluated in each grid vertex. In this work, four case studies were selected to evaluate the implementation, two of them involving irregular geometries. Results are shown in terms of oil and gas rates and saturated gas field.

  14. Scale-up of miscible flood processes for heterogeneous reservoirs. 1993 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orr, F.M. Jr.


    Progress is reported for a comprehensive investigation of the scaling behavior of gas injection processes in heterogeneous reservoirs. The interplay of phase behavior, viscous fingering, gravity segregation, capillary imbibition and drainage, and reservoir heterogeneity is examined in a series of simulations and experiments. Compositional and first-contact miscable simulations of viscous fingering and gravity segregation are compared to show that the two techniques can give very different results. Also, analyzed are two-dimensional and three-dimensional flows in which gravity segregation and viscous fingering interact. The simulations show that 2D and 3D flows can differ significantly. A comparison of analytical solutions for three-component two-phase flow with experimental results for oil/water/alcohol systems is reported. While the experiments and theory show reasonable agreement, some differences remain to be explained. The scaling behavior of the interaction of gravity segregation and capillary forces is investigated through simulations and through scaling arguments based on analysis of the differential equations. The simulations show that standard approaches do not agree well with results of low IFT displacements. The scaling analyses, however, reveal flow regimes where capillary, gravity, or viscous forces dominate the flow.

  15. High-Performance Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration by Coupling Reservoir Simulation and Molecular Dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Kai


    The present work describes a parallel computational framework for carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration simulation by coupling reservoir simulation and molecular dynamics (MD) on massively parallel high-performance-computing (HPC) systems. In this framework, a parallel reservoir simulator, reservoir-simulation toolbox (RST), solves the flow and transport equations that describe the subsurface flow behavior, whereas the MD simulations are performed to provide the required physical parameters. Technologies from several different fields are used to make this novel coupled system work efficiently. One of the major applications of the framework is the modeling of large-scale CO2 sequestration for long-term storage in subsurface geological formations, such as depleted oil and gas reservoirs and deep saline aquifers, which has been proposed as one of the few attractive and practical solutions to reduce CO2 emissions and address the global-warming threat. Fine grids and accurate prediction of the properties of fluid mixtures under geological conditions are essential for accurate simulations. In this work, CO2 sequestration is presented as a first example for coupling reservoir simulation and MD, although the framework can be extended naturally to the full multiphase multicomponent compositional flow simulation to handle more complicated physical processes in the future. Accuracy and scalability analysis are performed on an IBM BlueGene/P and on an IBM BlueGene/Q, the latest IBM supercomputer. Results show good accuracy of our MD simulations compared with published data, and good scalability is observed with the massively parallel HPC systems. The performance and capacity of the proposed framework are well-demonstrated with several experiments with hundreds of millions to one billion cells. To the best of our knowledge, the present work represents the first attempt to couple reservoir simulation and molecular simulation for large-scale modeling. Because of the complexity of

  16. High-performance modeling of CO2 sequestration by coupling reservoir simulation and molecular dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Kai


    The present work describes a parallel computational framework for CO2 sequestration simulation by coupling reservoir simulation and molecular dynamics (MD) on massively parallel HPC systems. In this framework, a parallel reservoir simulator, Reservoir Simulation Toolbox (RST), solves the flow and transport equations that describe the subsurface flow behavior, while the molecular dynamics simulations are performed to provide the required physical parameters. Numerous technologies from different fields are employed to make this novel coupled system work efficiently. One of the major applications of the framework is the modeling of large scale CO2 sequestration for long-term storage in the subsurface geological formations, such as depleted reservoirs and deep saline aquifers, which has been proposed as one of the most attractive and practical solutions to reduce the CO2 emission problem to address the global-warming threat. To effectively solve such problems, fine grids and accurate prediction of the properties of fluid mixtures are essential for accuracy. In this work, the CO2 sequestration is presented as our first example to couple the reservoir simulation and molecular dynamics, while the framework can be extended naturally to the full multiphase multicomponent compositional flow simulation to handle more complicated physical process in the future. Accuracy and scalability analysis are performed on an IBM BlueGene/P and on an IBM BlueGene/Q, the latest IBM supercomputer. Results show good accuracy of our MD simulations compared with published data, and good scalability are observed with the massively parallel HPC systems. The performance and capacity of the proposed framework are well demonstrated with several experiments with hundreds of millions to a billion cells. To our best knowledge, the work represents the first attempt to couple the reservoir simulation and molecular simulation for large scale modeling. Due to the complexity of the subsurface systems

  17. Effects of reservoir heterogeneity on scaling of effective mass transfer coefficient for solute transport (United States)

    Leung, Juliana Y.; Srinivasan, Sanjay


    Modeling transport process at large scale requires proper scale-up of subsurface heterogeneity and an understanding of its interaction with the underlying transport mechanisms. A technique based on volume averaging is applied to quantitatively assess the scaling characteristics of effective mass transfer coefficient in heterogeneous reservoir models. The effective mass transfer coefficient represents the combined contribution from diffusion and dispersion to the transport of non-reactive solute particles within a fluid phase. Although treatment of transport problems with the volume averaging technique has been published in the past, application to geological systems exhibiting realistic spatial variability remains a challenge. Previously, the authors developed a new procedure where results from a fine-scale numerical flow simulation reflecting the full physics of the transport process albeit over a sub-volume of the reservoir are integrated with the volume averaging technique to provide effective description of transport properties. The procedure is extended such that spatial averaging is performed at the local-heterogeneity scale. In this paper, the transport of a passive (non-reactive) solute is simulated on multiple reservoir models exhibiting different patterns of heterogeneities, and the scaling behavior of effective mass transfer coefficient (Keff) is examined and compared. One such set of models exhibit power-law (fractal) characteristics, and the variability of dispersion and Keff with scale is in good agreement with analytical expressions described in the literature. This work offers an insight into the impacts of heterogeneity on the scaling of effective transport parameters. A key finding is that spatial heterogeneity models with similar univariate and bivariate statistics may exhibit different scaling characteristics because of the influence of higher order statistics. More mixing is observed in the channelized models with higher-order continuity. It

  18. Geothermal reservoir simulation of hot sedimentary aquifer system using FEFLOW® (United States)

    Nur Hidayat, Hardi; Gala Permana, Maximillian


    The study presents the simulation of hot sedimentary aquifer for geothermal utilization. Hot sedimentary aquifer (HSA) is a conduction-dominated hydrothermal play type utilizing deep aquifer, which is heated by near normal heat flow. One of the examples of HSA is Bavarian Molasse Basin in South Germany. This system typically uses doublet wells: an injection and production well. The simulation was run for 3650 days of simulation time. The technical feasibility and performance are analysed in regards to the extracted energy from this concept. Several parameters are compared to determine the model performance. Parameters such as reservoir characteristics, temperature information and well information are defined. Several assumptions are also defined to simplify the simulation process. The main results of the simulation are heat period budget or total extracted heat energy, and heat rate budget or heat production rate. Qualitative approaches for sensitivity analysis are conducted by using five parameters in which assigned lower and higher value scenarios.

  19. Incorporating Scale-Dependent Fracture Stiffness for Improved Reservoir Performance Prediction (United States)

    Crawford, B. R.; Tsenn, M. C.; Homburg, J. M.; Stehle, R. C.; Freysteinson, J. A.; Reese, W. C.


    We present a novel technique for predicting dynamic fracture network response to production-driven changes in effective stress, with the potential for optimizing depletion planning and improving recovery prediction in stress-sensitive naturally fractured reservoirs. A key component of the method involves laboratory geomechanics testing of single fractures in order to develop a unique scaling relationship between fracture normal stiffness and initial mechanical aperture. Details of the workflow are as follows: tensile, opening mode fractures are created in a variety of low matrix permeability rocks with initial, unstressed apertures in the micrometer to millimeter range, as determined from image analyses of X-ray CT scans; subsequent hydrostatic compression of these fractured samples with synchronous radial strain and flow measurement indicates that both mechanical and hydraulic aperture reduction varies linearly with the natural logarithm of effective normal stress; these stress-sensitive single-fracture laboratory observations are then upscaled to networks with fracture populations displaying frequency-length and length-aperture scaling laws commonly exhibited by natural fracture arrays; functional relationships between reservoir pressure reduction and fracture network porosity, compressibility and directional permeabilities as generated by such discrete fracture network modeling are then exported to the reservoir simulator for improved naturally fractured reservoir performance prediction.

  20. Generation of hybrid meshes for the simulation of petroleum reservoirs; Generation de maillages hybrides pour la simulation de reservoirs petroliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balaven-Clermidy, S.


    Oil reservoir simulations study multiphase flows in porous media. These flows are described and evaluated through numerical schemes on a discretization of the reservoir domain. In this thesis, we were interested in this spatial discretization and a new kind of hybrid mesh has been proposed where the radial nature of flows in the vicinity of wells is directly taken into account in the geometry. Our modular approach described wells and their drainage area through radial circular meshes. These well meshes are inserted in a structured reservoir mesh (a Corner Point Geometry mesh) made up with hexahedral cells. Finally, in order to generate a global conforming mesh, proper connections are realized between the different kinds of meshes through unstructured transition ones. To compute these transition meshes that we want acceptable in terms of finite volume methods, an automatic method based on power diagrams has been developed. Our approach can deal with a homogeneous anisotropic medium and allows the user to insert vertical or horizontal wells as well as secondary faults in the reservoir mesh. Our work has been implemented, tested and validated in 2D and 2D1/2. It can also be extended in 3D when the geometrical constraints are simplicial ones: points, segments and triangles. (author)

  1. The study of permeabilities, measured at various scales, of a fluviatile sandstone reservoir. Development and application of a well test numerical simulator; Etude des permeabilites mesurees a differentes echelles d`un reservoir greseux fluviatile. Developpement et application d`un simulateur numerique de tests de puits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquin, T.


    The general problem of a single phase fluid flow through heterogenous porous media, is studied, focusing on well test data interpretation in the context of reservoir characterization; a 3D finite volume code, with capacity of local refinement, is developed to simulate well tests. After a review of traditional techniques used to interpret well test data, and their extension to heterogenous media using a weighting function that depends upon the flow geometry, an analysis is carried out for 2D correlated lognormal permeability distributions: it compares well to numerical well tests performed on low variance permeability distributions but needs further investigation for high variance. For 3D heterogenous permeability fields, well bore pressure cannot be estimated by analytical means; therefore a more empirical approach is used to study the permeability field of a reservoir used by Gaz de France as an underground gas storage. Simulated well tests are performed on a reservoir model based upon core measurements and log analysis. The numerical investigation reveals inconsistencies in the treatment of available data, which can be corrected so geology is better taken into account

  2. Sustainability of small reservoirs and large scale water availability under current conditions and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, Martinus S.; de Vries, Marjella J.; van Oel, P.R.; Carlos de Araújo, José


    Semi-arid river basins often rely on reservoirs for water supply. Small reservoirs may impact on large-scale water availability both by enhancing availability in a distributed sense and by subtracting water for large downstream user communities, e.g. served by large reservoirs. Both of these impacts

  3. [Coupling SWAT and CE-QUAL-W2 models to simulate water quantity and quality in Shanmei Reservoir watershed]. (United States)

    Liu, Mei-Bing; Chen, Dong-Ping; Chen, Xing-Wei; Chen, Ying


    A coupled watershed-reservoir modeling approach consisting of a watershed distributed model (SWAT) and a two-dimensional laterally averaged model (CE-QUAL-W2) was adopted for simulating the impact of non-point source pollution from upland watershed on water quality of Shanmei Reservoir. Using the daily serial output from Shanmei Reservoir watershed by SWAT as the input to Shanmei Reservoir by CE-QUAL-W2, the coupled modeling was calibrated for runoff and outputs of sediment and pollutant at watershed scale and for elevation, temperature, nitrate, ammonium and total nitrogen in Shanmei Reservoir. The results indicated that the simulated values agreed fairly well with the observed data, although the calculation precision of downstream model would be affected by the accumulative errors generated from the simulation of upland model. The SWAT and CE-QUAL-W2 coupled modeling could be used to assess the hydrodynamic and water quality process in complex watershed comprised of upland watershed and downstream reservoir, and might further provide scientific basis for positioning key pollution source area and controlling the reservoir eutrophication.

  4. Optimal Complexity in Reservoir Modeling of an Eolian Sandstone for Carbon Sequestration Simulation (United States)

    Li, S.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, X.


    Geologic Carbon Sequestration (GCS) is a proposed means to reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2). Given the type, abundance, and accessibility of geologic characterization data, different reservoir modeling techniques can be utilized to build a site model. However, petrophysical properties of a formation can be modeled with simplifying assumptions or with greater detail, the later requiring sophisticated modeling techniques supported by additional data. In GCS where cost of data collection needs to be minimized, will detailed (expensive) reservoir modeling efforts lead to much improved model predictive capability? Is there an optimal level of detail in the reservoir model sufficient for prediction purposes? In Wyoming, GCS into the Nugget Sandstone is proposed. This formation is a deep (>13,000 ft) saline aquifer deposited in eolian environments, exhibiting permeability heterogeneity at multiple scales. Based on a set of characterization data, this study utilizes multiple, increasingly complex reservoir modeling techniques to create a suite of reservoir models including a multiscale, non-stationary heterogeneous model conditioned to a soft depositional model (i.e., training image), a geostatistical (stationary) facies model without conditioning, a geostatistical (stationary) petrophysical model ignoring facies, and finally, a homogeneous model ignoring all aspects of sub-aquifer heterogeneity. All models are built at regional scale with a high-resolution grid (245,133,140 cells) from which a set of local simulation models (448,000 grid cells) are extracted. These are considered alternative conceptual models with which pilot-scale CO2 injection is simulated (50 year duration at 1/10 Mt per year). A computationally efficient sensitivity analysis (SA) is conducted for all models based on a Plackett-Burman Design of Experiment metric. The SA systematically varies key parameters of the models (e.g., variogram structure and principal axes of intrinsic

  5. Nonlinear Filtering Effects of Reservoirs on Flood Frequency Curves at the Regional Scale: RESERVOIRS FILTER FLOOD FREQUENCY CURVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Hong-Yi; Leung, Lai-Yung; Yigzaw, Wondmagegn Y.; Zhao, Jianshi; Lu, Hui; Deng, Zhiqun; Demissie, Yonas; Bloschl, Gunter


    Anthropogenic activities, e.g., reservoir operation, may alter the characteristics of Flood Frequency Curve (FFC) and challenge the basic assumption of stationarity used in flood frequency analysis. This paper presents a combined data-modeling analysis of the nonlinear filtering effects of reservoirs on the FFCs over the contiguous United States. A dimensionless Reservoir Impact Index (RII), defined as the total upstream reservoir storage capacity normalized by the annual streamflow volume, is used to quantify reservoir regulation effects. Analyses are performed for 388 river stations with an average record length of 50 years. The first two moments of the FFC, mean annual maximum flood (MAF) and coefficient of variations (CV), are calculated for the pre- and post-dam periods and compared to elucidate the reservoir regulation effects as a function of RII. It is found that MAF generally decreases with increasing RII but stabilizes when RII exceeds a threshold value, and CV increases with RII until a threshold value beyond which CV decreases with RII. The processes underlying the nonlinear threshold behavior of MAF and CV are investigated using three reservoir models with different levels of complexity. All models capture the non-linear relationships of MAF and CV with RII, suggesting that the basic flood control function of reservoirs is key to the non-linear relationships. The relative roles of reservoir storage capacity, operation objectives, available storage prior to a flood event, and reservoir inflow pattern are systematically investigated. Our findings may help improve flood-risk assessment and mitigation in regulated river systems at the regional scale.

  6. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian sandstone reservoirs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, M.


    This final report summarizes the progress during the three years of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description; (ii) scale-up procedures; (iii) outcrop investigation. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be described in three dimensions. The next step in reservoir description is to scale up reservoir properties for flow simulation. The second section addresses the issue of scale-up of reservoir properties once the spatial descriptions of properties are created. The last section describes the investigation of an outcrop.

  7. a Stochastic Approach to Multiobjective Optimization of Large-Scale Water Reservoir Networks (United States)

    Bottacin-Busolin, A.; Worman, A. L.


    A main challenge for the planning and management of water resources is the development of multiobjective strategies for operation of large-scale water reservoir networks. The optimal sequence of water releases from multiple reservoirs depends on the stochastic variability of correlated hydrologic inflows and on various processes that affect water demand and energy prices. Although several methods have been suggested, large-scale optimization problems arising in water resources management are still plagued by the high dimensional state space and by the stochastic nature of the hydrologic inflows. In this work, the optimization of reservoir operation is approached using approximate dynamic programming (ADP) with policy iteration and function approximators. The method is based on an off-line learning process in which operating policies are evaluated for a number of stochastic inflow scenarios, and the resulting value functions are used to design new, improved policies until convergence is attained. A case study is presented of a multi-reservoir system in the Dalälven River, Sweden, which includes 13 interconnected reservoirs and 36 power stations. Depending on the late spring and summer peak discharges, the lowlands adjacent to Dalälven can often be flooded during the summer period, and the presence of stagnating floodwater during the hottest months of the year is the cause of a large proliferation of mosquitos, which is a major problem for the people living in the surroundings. Chemical pesticides are currently being used as a preventive countermeasure, which do not provide an effective solution to the problem and have adverse environmental impacts. In this study, ADP was used to analyze the feasibility of alternative operating policies for reducing the flood risk at a reasonable economic cost for the hydropower companies. To this end, mid-term operating policies were derived by combining flood risk reduction with hydropower production objectives. The performance

  8. Quantification of a maximum injection volume of CO2 to avert geomechanical perturbations using a compositional fluid flow reservoir simulator (United States)

    Jung, Hojung; Singh, Gurpreet; Espinoza, D. Nicolas; Wheeler, Mary F.


    Subsurface CO2 injection and storage alters formation pressure. Changes of pore pressure may result in fault reactivation and hydraulic fracturing if the pressure exceeds the corresponding thresholds. Most simulation models predict such thresholds utilizing relatively homogeneous reservoir rock models and do not account for CO2 dissolution in the brine phase to calculate pore pressure evolution. This study presents an estimation of reservoir capacity in terms of allowable injection volume and rate utilizing the Frio CO2 injection site in the coast of the Gulf of Mexico as a case study. The work includes laboratory core testing, well-logging data analyses, and reservoir numerical simulation. We built a fine-scale reservoir model of the Frio pilot test in our in-house reservoir simulator IPARS (Integrated Parallel Accurate Reservoir Simulator). We first performed history matching of the pressure transient data of the Frio pilot test, and then used this history-matched reservoir model to investigate the effect of the CO2 dissolution into brine and predict the implications of larger CO2 injection volumes. Our simulation results -including CO2 dissolution- exhibited 33% lower pressure build-up relative to the simulation excluding dissolution. Capillary heterogeneity helps spread the CO2 plume and facilitate early breakthrough. Formation expansivity helps alleviate pore pressure build-up. Simulation results suggest that the injection schedule adopted during the actual pilot test very likely did not affect the mechanical integrity of the storage complex. Fault reactivation requires injection volumes of at least about sixty times larger than the actual injected volume at the same injection rate. Hydraulic fracturing necessitates much larger injection rates than the ones used in the Frio pilot test. Tested rock samples exhibit ductile deformation at in-situ effective stresses. Hence, we do not expect an increase of fault permeability in the Frio sand even in the presence of

  9. Scale-up of miscible flood processes for heterogeneous reservoirs. Second annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orr, F.M. Jr.


    Progress is reported for a comprehensive investigation of the scaling behavior of gas injection processes in heterogeneous reservoirs. The interplay of phase behavior, viscous fingering, gravity segregation, capillary imbibition and drainage, and reservoir heterogeneity is examined in a series of simulations and experiments. Use of streamtube to model multiphase flow is demonstrated to be a fast and accurate approach for displacements that are dominated by reservoir heterogeneity. The streamtube technique is particularly powerful for multiphase compositional displacements because it represents the effects of phase behavior with a one-dimensional flow and represents the effects of heterogeneity through the locations of streamtubes. A new approach for fast calculations of critical tie-lines directly from criticality conditions is reported. A global triangular structure solution for four-component flow systems, whose tie-lies meet at the edge of a quaternary phase diagram or lie in planes is presented. Also demonstrated is the extension of this solution to multicomponent systems under the same assumptions. The interplay of gravity, capillary and viscous forces on final residual oil saturation is examined experimentally and theoretically. The analysis of vertical equilibrium conditions for three-phase gravity drainage shows that almost all oil can be recovered from the top part of a reservoir. The prediction of spreading and stability of thin film is performed to investigate three-phase gravity drainage mechanisms. Finally, experimental results from gravity drainage of crude oil in the presence of CO{sub 2} suggest that gravity drainage could be an efficient oil recovery process for vertically fractured reservoirs.

  10. Parallel, Multigrid Finite Element Simulator for Fractured/Faulted and Other Complex Reservoirs based on Common Component Architecture (CCA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milind Deo; Chung-Kan Huang; Huabing Wang


    Black-oil, compositional and thermal simulators have been developed to address different physical processes in reservoir simulation. A number of different types of discretization methods have also been proposed to address issues related to representing the complex reservoir geometry. These methods are more significant for fractured reservoirs where the geometry can be particularly challenging. In this project, a general modular framework for reservoir simulation was developed, wherein the physical models were efficiently decoupled from the discretization methods. This made it possible to couple any discretization method with different physical models. Oil characterization methods are becoming increasingly sophisticated, and it is possible to construct geologically constrained models of faulted/fractured reservoirs. Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) simulation provides the option of performing multiphase calculations on spatially explicit, geologically feasible fracture sets. Multiphase DFN simulations of and sensitivity studies on a wide variety of fracture networks created using fracture creation/simulation programs was undertaken in the first part of this project. This involved creating interfaces to seamlessly convert the fracture characterization information into simulator input, grid the complex geometry, perform the simulations, and analyze and visualize results. Benchmarking and comparison with conventional simulators was also a component of this work. After demonstration of the fact that multiphase simulations can be carried out on complex fracture networks, quantitative effects of the heterogeneity of fracture properties were evaluated. Reservoirs are populated with fractures of several different scales and properties. A multiscale fracture modeling study was undertaken and the effects of heterogeneity and storage on water displacement dynamics in fractured basements were investigated. In gravity-dominated systems, more oil could be recovered at a given pore

  11. Global-scale analysis of river flow alterations due to water withdrawals and reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Döll


    Full Text Available Global-scale information on natural river flows and anthropogenic river flow alterations is required to identify areas where aqueous ecosystems are expected to be strongly degraded. Such information can support the identification of environmental flow guidelines and a sustainable water management that balances the water demands of humans and ecosystems. This study presents the first global assessment of the anthropogenic alteration of river flow regimes, in particular of flow variability, by water withdrawals and dams/reservoirs. Six ecologically relevant flow indicators were quantified using an improved version of the global water model WaterGAP. WaterGAP simulated, with a spatial resolution of 0.5 degree, river discharge as affected by human water withdrawals and dams around the year 2000, as well as naturalized discharge without this type of human interference. Compared to naturalized conditions, long-term average global discharge into oceans and internal sinks has decreased by 2.7% due to water withdrawals, and by 0.8% due to dams. Mainly due to irrigation, long-term average river discharge and statistical low flow Q90 (monthly river discharge that is exceeded in 9 out of 10 months have decreased by more than 10% on one sixth and one quarter of the global land area (excluding Antarctica and Greenland, respectively. Q90 has increased significantly on only 5% of the land area, downstream of reservoirs. Due to both water withdrawals and reservoirs, seasonal flow amplitude has decreased significantly on one sixth of the land area, while interannual variability has increased on one quarter of the land area mainly due to irrigation. It has decreased on only 8% of the land area, in areas downstream of reservoirs where consumptive water use is low. The impact of reservoirs is likely underestimated by our study as small reservoirs are not taken into account. Areas most affected by anthropogenic river flow

  12. The meshless Galerkin method for pressure distribution simulation of horizontal well reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyong Hu


    Full Text Available This paper provides a novel three-dimensional meshless Galerkin for horizontal well reservoir simulation. The pressure function is approached by moving least-square method which consists of weight function, basic function and coefficient. Based on Galerkin principle and use penalty function method, the paper deduces the meshless Galerkin numerical linear equations. Cut off the pressure distribution of the horizontal section from the simulation database of horizontal well reservoir. It demonstrates that meshless Galerkin is a feasible numerical method for the horizontal well reservoir simulation. It is useful to research complex reservoir.

  13. The Pore-scale modeling of multiphase flows in reservoir rocks using the lattice Boltzmann method (United States)

    Mu, Y.; Baldwin, C. H.; Toelke, J.; Grader, A.


    Digital rock physics (DRP) is a new technology to compute the physical and fluid flow properties of reservoir rocks. In this approach, pore scale images of the porous rock are obtained and processed to create highly accurate 3D digital rock sample, and then the rock properties are evaluated by advanced numerical methods at the pore scale. Ingrain's DRP technology is a breakthrough for oil and gas companies that need large volumes of accurate results faster than the current special core analysis (SCAL) laboratories can normally deliver. In this work, we compute the multiphase fluid flow properties of 3D digital rocks using D3Q19 immiscible LBM with two relaxation times (TRT). For efficient implementation on GPU, we improved and reformulated color-gradient model proposed by Gunstensen and Rothmann. Furthermore, we only use one-lattice with the sparse data structure: only allocate memory for pore nodes on GPU. We achieved more than 100 million fluid lattice updates per second (MFLUPS) for two-phase LBM on single Fermi-GPU and high parallel efficiency on Multi-GPUs. We present and discuss our simulation results of important two-phase fluid flow properties, such as capillary pressure and relative permeabilities. We also investigate the effects of resolution and wettability on multiphase flows. Comparison of direct measurement results with the LBM-based simulations shows practical ability of DRP to predict two-phase flow properties of reservoir rock.

  14. Multi-scale reservoir modeling as an integrated assessment tool for geo-sequestration in the San Juan Basin (United States)

    Young, G.; Haerer, D.; Bromhal, G.; Reeves, S.


    The Southwestern Regional Partnership on CO2 Sequestration conducted an Enhanced Coalbed Methane (ECBM)/Carbon Storage Pilot in the San Juan Basin as part of the ongoing DOE/NETL Carbon Capture and Storage Program. The primary goal of this pilot is to demonstrate the efficacy of using CO2 to enhance coalbed methane recovery particularly near reservoir abandonment pressure while also evaluating the suitability of coal seams for longer-term carbon storage. Basic geologic models of the coal seams were developed from well logs in the area. Production histories from several surrounding CBM wells were shown. To monitor the injection of up to 75,000 ton of CO2 beginning September 2007, seismic surveys and tiltmeter arrays were utilized. Larger-scale geo-hydrodynamic simulations were used to develop a regional model for the fluid dynamics of the northern San Juan Basin. Smaller-scale reservoir simulations, incorporating available laboratory and field data, were used to develop an improved understanding of reservoir dynamics within the specific 640-acre pilot area. Both modeling scales were critical to assessing the suitability of deploying commercial carbon storage programs throughout the basin. Reservoir characterization results on the optimization of total CO2 injection volume, injection rate over time, and how CO2 is expected to disperse after injection are presented. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 2007 AIChE Annual Meeting (Salt Lake City, UT 11/4-9/2007).

  15. Simulation of extreme reservoir level distribution with the SCHADEX method (EXTRAFLO project) (United States)

    Paquet, Emmanuel; Penot, David; Garavaglia, Federico


    The standard practice for the design of dam spillways structures and gates is to consider the maximum reservoir level reached for a given hydrologic scenario. This scenario has several components: peak discharge, flood volumes on different durations, discharge gradients etc. Within a probabilistic analysis framework, several scenarios can be associated with different return times, although a reference return level (e.g. 1000 years) is often prescribed by the local regulation rules or usual practice. Using continuous simulation method for extreme flood estimation is a convenient solution to provide a great variety of hydrological scenarios to feed a hydraulic model of dam operation: flood hydrographs are explicitly simulated by a rainfall-runoff model fed by a stochastic rainfall generator. The maximum reservoir level reached will be conditioned by the scale and the dynamics of the generated hydrograph, by the filling of the reservoir prior to the flood, and by the dam gates and spillway operation during the event. The simulation of a great number of floods will allow building a probabilistic distribution of maximum reservoir levels. A design value can be chosen at a definite return level. An alternative approach is proposed here, based on the SCHADEX method for extreme flood estimation, proposed by Paquet et al. (2006, 2013). SCHADEX is a so-called "semi-continuous" stochastic simulation method in that flood events are simulated on an event basis and are superimposed on a continuous simulation of the catchment saturation hazard using rainfall-runoff modelling. The SCHADEX process works at the study time-step (e.g. daily), and the peak flow distribution is deduced from the simulated daily flow distribution by a peak-to-volume ratio. A reference hydrograph relevant for extreme floods is proposed. In the standard version of the method, both the peak-to-volume and the reference hydrograph are constant. An enhancement of this method is presented, with variable peak

  16. Processing of reservoir data for diagenesis simulation; Traitement des donnees de reservoir en vue d`une simulation de la diagenese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelletier, I.


    Diagenetic minerals frequently damage reservoir permeability. A numerical model which couples chemical reactions and transport of dissolved elements can help to predict both location and magnitude of cementations. The present Ph.D. examines how can be applied such a modelling approach to a complex heterogeneous reservoir. Petrographical data from core samples are used as input data, or alternatively as controls for validating the modelling results. The measurements, acquired with dm-to-m spacing are too numerous to be integrated in a reactions-transport code. The usual up-scaling methods, called Homogenization, conserve only the fluid flow properties. A new method, called `Gathering` takes into account material transport balance. It is proposed in the first part of the dissertation. In the second part, an application of Gathering is done simulating illitization in the sub-arkosic sandstones of the Ness formation (Brent Group) in a North Sea field, Dunbar.. As a prerequisite, data accuracy is examined for a set of `routine measurements` (100 points counting on thin section, XR-diffractometry and gas porosity/permeability). (author) 60 refs.

  17. Fast Multiscale Reservoir Simulations using POD-DEIM Model Reduction

    KAUST Repository

    Ghasemi, Mohammadreza


    In this paper, we present a global-local model reduction for fast multiscale reservoir simulations in highly heterogeneous porous media with applications to optimization and history matching. Our proposed approach identifies a low dimensional structure of the solution space. We introduce an auxiliary variable (the velocity field) in our model reduction that allows achieving a high degree of model reduction. The latter is due to the fact that the velocity field is conservative for any low-order reduced model in our framework. Because a typical global model reduction based on POD is a Galerkin finite element method, and thus it can not guarantee local mass conservation. This can be observed in numerical simulations that use finite volume based approaches. Discrete Empirical Interpolation Method (DEIM) is used to approximate the nonlinear functions of fine-grid functions in Newton iterations. This approach allows achieving the computational cost that is independent of the fine grid dimension. POD snapshots are inexpensively computed using local model reduction techniques based on Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Method (GMsFEM) which provides (1) a hierarchical approximation of snapshot vectors (2) adaptive computations by using coarse grids (3) inexpensive global POD operations in a small dimensional spaces on a coarse grid. By balancing the errors of the global and local reduced-order models, our new methodology can provide an error bound in simulations. Our numerical results, utilizing a two-phase immiscible flow, show a substantial speed-up and we compare our results to the standard POD-DEIM in finite volume setup.

  18. Simulation of Reservoir Sediment Flushing of the Three Gorges Reservoir Using an Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueying Li


    Full Text Available Reservoir sedimentation and its effect on the environment are the most serious world-wide problems in water resources development and utilization today. As one of the largest water conservancy projects, the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR has been controversial since its demonstration period, and sedimentation is the major concern. Due to the complex physical mechanisms of water and sediment transport, this study adopts the Error Back Propagation Training Artificial Neural Network (BP-ANN to analyze the relationship between the sediment flushing efficiency of the TGR and its influencing factors. The factors are determined by the analysis on 1D unsteady flow and sediment mathematical model, mainly including reservoir inflow, incoming sediment concentration, reservoir water level, and reservoir release. Considering the distinguishing features of reservoir sediment delivery in different seasons, the monthly average data from 2003, when the TGR was put into operation, to 2011 are used to train, validate, and test the BP-ANN model. The results indicate that, although the sample space is quite limited, the whole sediment delivery process can be schematized by the established BP-ANN model, which can be used to help sediment flushing and thus decrease the reservoir sedimentation.

  19. Multigrid Methods for Fully Implicit Oil Reservoir Simulation (United States)

    Molenaar, J.


    In this paper we consider the simultaneous flow of oil and water in reservoir rock. This displacement process is modeled by two basic equations: the material balance or continuity equations and the equation of motion (Darcy's law). For the numerical solution of this system of nonlinear partial differential equations there are two approaches: the fully implicit or simultaneous solution method and the sequential solution method. In the sequential solution method the system of partial differential equations is manipulated to give an elliptic pressure equation and a hyperbolic (or parabolic) saturation equation. In the IMPES approach the pressure equation is first solved, using values for the saturation from the previous time level. Next the saturations are updated by some explicit time stepping method; this implies that the method is only conditionally stable. For the numerical solution of the linear, elliptic pressure equation multigrid methods have become an accepted technique. On the other hand, the fully implicit method is unconditionally stable, but it has the disadvantage that in every time step a large system of nonlinear algebraic equations has to be solved. The most time-consuming part of any fully implicit reservoir simulator is the solution of this large system of equations. Usually this is done by Newton's method. The resulting systems of linear equations are then either solved by a direct method or by some conjugate gradient type method. In this paper we consider the possibility of applying multigrid methods for the iterative solution of the systems of nonlinear equations. There are two ways of using multigrid for this job: either we use a nonlinear multigrid method or we use a linear multigrid method to deal with the linear systems that arise in Newton's method. So far only a few authors have reported on the use of multigrid methods for fully implicit simulations. Two-level FAS algorithm is presented for the black-oil equations, and linear multigrid for

  20. The big fat LARS - a LArge Reservoir Simulator for hydrate formation and gas production (United States)

    Beeskow-Strauch, Bettina; Spangenberg, Erik; Schicks, Judith M.; Giese, Ronny; Luzi-Helbing, Manja; Priegnitz, Mike; Klump, Jens; Thaler, Jan; Abendroth, Sven


    Simulating natural scenarios on lab scale is a common technique to gain insight into geological processes with moderate effort and expenses. Due to the remote occurrence of gas hydrates, their behavior in sedimentary deposits is largely investigated on experimental set ups in the laboratory. In the framework of the submarine gas hydrate research project (SUGAR) a large reservoir simulator (LARS) with an internal volume of 425 liter has been designed, built and tested. To our knowledge this is presently a word-wide unique set up. Because of its large volume it is suitable for pilot plant scale tests on hydrate behavior in sediments. That includes not only the option of systematic tests on gas hydrate formation in various sedimentary settings but also the possibility to mimic scenarios for the hydrate decomposition and subsequent natural gas extraction. Based on these experimental results various numerical simulations can be realized. Here, we present the design and the experimental set up of LARS. The prerequisites for the simulation of a natural gas hydrate reservoir are porous sediments, methane, water, low temperature and high pressure. The reservoir is supplied by methane-saturated and pre-cooled water. For its preparation an external gas-water mixing stage is available. The methane-loaded water is continuously flushed into LARS as finely dispersed fluid via bottom-and-top-located sparger. The LARS is equipped with a mantle cooling system and can be kept at a chosen set temperature. The temperature distribution is monitored at 14 reasonable locations throughout the reservoir by Pt100 sensors. Pressure needs are realized using syringe pump stands. A tomographic system, consisting of a 375-electrode-configuration is attached to the mantle for the monitoring of hydrate distribution throughout the entire reservoir volume. Two sets of tubular polydimethylsiloxan-membranes are applied to determine gas-water ratio within the reservoir using the effect of permeability

  1. Geological and petrophysical characterization of the Ferron Sandstone for 3-D simulation of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir. Technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, M.L.


    The objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, and quantitative characterization of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir which will allow realistic inter-well and reservoir-scale modeling to be developed for improved oil-field development in similar reservoirs world-wide. The geological and petrophysical properties of the Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone in east-central Utah will be quantitatively determined. Both new and existing data will be integrated into a three-dimensional representation of spatial variations in porosity, storativity, and tensorial rock permeability at a scale appropriate for inter-well to regional-scale reservoir simulation. Results could improve reservoir management through proper infill and extension drilling strategies, reduction of economic risks, increased recovery from existing oil fields, and more reliable reserve calculations. Transfer of the project results to the petroleum industry is an integral component of the project.

  2. Geothermal reservoir simulation to enhance confidence in predictions for nuclear waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Pruess, Karsten; O' Sullivan, Michael J.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.


    Numerical simulation of geothermal reservoirs is useful and necessary in understanding and evaluating reservoir structure and behavior, designing field development, and predicting performance. Models vary in complexity depending on processes considered, heterogeneity, data availability, and study objectives. They are evaluated using computer codes written and tested to study single and multiphase flow and transport under nonisothermal conditions. Many flow and heat transfer processes modeled in geothermal reservoirs are expected to occur in anthropogenic thermal (AT) systems created by geologic disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste. We examine and compare geothermal systems and the AT system expected at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and their modeling. Time frames and spatial scales are similar in both systems, but increased precision is necessary for modeling the AT system, because flow through specific repository locations will affect long-term ability radionuclide retention. Geothermal modeling experience has generated a methodology, used in the AT modeling for Yucca Mountain, yielding good predictive results if sufficient reliable data are available and an experienced modeler is involved. Codes used in geothermal and AT modeling have been tested extensively and successfully on a variety of analytical and laboratory problems.

  3. Geothermal reservoir simulation to enhance confidence in predictions for nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Pruess, Karsten; O'Sullivan, Michael J.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.


    Numerical simulation of geothermal reservoirs is useful and necessary in understanding and evaluating reservoir structure and behavior, designing field development, and predicting performance. Models vary in complexity depending on processes considered, heterogeneity, data availability, and study objectives. They are evaluated using computer codes written and tested to study single and multiphase flow and transport under nonisothermal conditions. Many flow and heat transfer processes modeled in geothermal reservoirs are expected to occur in anthropogenic thermal (AT) systems created by geologic disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste. We examine and compare geothermal systems and the AT system expected at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and their modeling. Time frames and spatial scales are similar in both systems, but increased precision is necessary for modeling the AT system, because flow through specific repository locations will affect long-term ability radionuclide retention. Geothermal modeling experience has generated a methodology, used in the AT modeling for Yucca Mountain, yielding good predictive results if sufficient reliable data are available and an experienced modeler is involved. Codes used in geothermal and AT modeling have been tested extensively and successfully on a variety of analytical and laboratory problems

  4. A parallel adaptive finite difference algorithm for petroleum reservoir simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, Hai Minh


    Adaptive finite differential for problems arising in simulation of flow in porous medium applications are considered. Such methods have been proven useful for overcoming limitations of computational resources and improving the resolution of the numerical solutions to a wide range of problems. By local refinement of the computational mesh where it is needed to improve the accuracy of solutions, yields better solution resolution representing more efficient use of computational resources than is possible with traditional fixed-grid approaches. In this thesis, we propose a parallel adaptive cell-centered finite difference (PAFD) method for black-oil reservoir simulation models. This is an extension of the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) methodology first developed by Berger and Oliger (1984) for the hyperbolic problem. Our algorithm is fully adaptive in time and space through the use of subcycling, in which finer grids are advanced at smaller time steps than the coarser ones. When coarse and fine grids reach the same advanced time level, they are synchronized to ensure that the global solution is conservative and satisfy the divergence constraint across all levels of refinement. The material in this thesis is subdivided in to three overall parts. First we explain the methodology and intricacies of AFD scheme. Then we extend a finite differential cell-centered approximation discretization to a multilevel hierarchy of refined grids, and finally we are employing the algorithm on parallel computer. The results in this work show that the approach presented is robust, and stable, thus demonstrating the increased solution accuracy due to local refinement and reduced computing resource consumption. (Author)

  5. Geology and petrophysical characterization of the Ferron Sandstone for 3-D simulation of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir. Annual report, October 1, 1996--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidsey, T.C. Jr.; Anderson, P.B.; Morris, T.H.; Dewey, J.A. Jr.; Mattson, A.; Foster, C.B.; Snelgrove, S.H.; Ryer, T.A.


    The objective of the Ferron Sandstone (Utah) project is to develop a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, quantitative characterization of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir to allow realistic interwell and reservoir-scale models to be developed for improved oil-field development in similar reservoirs world-wide. Both new and existing data is being integrated into a 3-D model of spatial variations in porosity, storativity, and tensorial rock permeability at a scale appropriate for inter-well to regional-scale reservoir simulation. Simulation results could improve reservoir management through proper infill and extension drilling strategies, reduction of economic risks, increased recovery from existing oil fields, and more reliable reserve calculations. The project is divided into four tasks: (1) regional stratigraphic analysis, (2) case studies, (3) reservoirs models, and (4) field-scale evaluation of exploration strategies. The primary objective of the regional stratigraphic analysis is to provide a more detailed interpretation of the stratigraphy and gross reservoir characteristics of the Ferron Sandstone as exposed in outcrop. The primary objective of the case-studies work is to develop a detailed geological and petrophysical characterization, at well-sweep scale or smaller, of the primary reservoir lithofacies typically found in a fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoir. Work on tasks 3 and 4 consisted of developing two- and three-dimensional reservoir models at various scales. The bulk of the work on these tasks is being completed primarily during the last year of the project, and is incorporating the data and results of the regional stratigraphic analysis and case-studies tasks.

  6. Reactive Transport Modeling and Geophysical Monitoring of Bioclogging at Reservoir Scale (United States)

    Surasani, V.; Commer, M.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Li, L.; Hubbard, S. S.


    In Microbial-Enhanced-Hydrocarbon-Recovery (MEHR), preferential bioclogging targets the growth of the biofilms (def. immobilized biopolymers with active cells embodied in it) in highly permeable thief zones to enhance sweep efficiency in oil reservoirs. During MEHR, understanding and controlling bioclogging is hindered by the lack of advanced modeling and monitoring tools; these deficiencies contribute to suboptimal performance. Our focus in this study was on developing a systematic approach to understand and monitor bioclogging at the reservoir scale using a combination of reactive transport modeling and geophysical imaging tools (EM & seismic). In this study, we created a realistic reservoir model from a heterogeneous gas reservoir in the Southern Sacramento basin, California; the model well (Citizen Green #1) was characterized using sonic, electrical, nuclear, and NMR logs for hydrologic and geophysical properties. From the simplified 2D log data model, a strip of size 150m x75m with several high permeability streaks is identified for bioclogging simulation experiments. From the NMR log data it is observed that a good linear correlation exist between logarithmic permeability (0.55- 3.34 log (mD)) versus porosity (0.041-0.28). L. mesenteroides was chosen as the model bacteria. In the presence of sucrose, it enzymatically catalyzes the production of dextran, a useful bioclogging agent. Using microbial kinetics from our laboratory experiment and reservoir heterogeneity, a reactive transport model (RTM) is established for two kinds of bioclogging treatments based on whether microbes are present in situ or are supplied externally. In both cases, sucrose media (1.5 M) is injected at the rate of 1 liter/s for 20 days into the center of high permeable strip to stimulate microbes. Simulations show that the high dextran production was deep into the formation from the injection well. This phenomenon can be explained precisely with bacterial kinetics and injection rate. In

  7. Advanced productivity forecast using petrophysical wireline data calibrated with MDT tests and numerical reservoir simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, Carlos de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Canas, Jesus A.; Low, Steven; Barreto, Wesley [Schlumberger, Houston, TX (United States)


    This paper describes an integrated and rigorous approach for viscous and middle oil reservoir productivity evaluation using petrophysical models calibrated with permeability derived from mini tests (Dual Packer) and Vertical Interference Tests (VIT) from open hole wire line testers (MDT SLB TM). It describes the process from Dual Packer Test and VIT pre-job design, evaluation via analytical and inverse simulation modeling, calibration and up scaling of petrophysical data into a numerical model, history matching of Dual Packer Tests and VIT with numerical simulation modeling. Finally, after developing a dynamic calibrated model, we perform productivity forecasts of different well configurations (vertical, horizontal and multilateral wells) for several deep offshore oil reservoirs in order to support well testing activities and future development strategies. The objective was to characterize formation static and dynamic properties early in the field development process to optimize well testing design, extended well test (EWT) and support the development strategies in deep offshore viscous oil reservoirs. This type of oil has limitations to flow naturally to surface and special lifting equipment is required for smooth optimum well testing/production. The integrated analysis gave a good overall picture of the formation, including permeability anisotropy and fluid dynamics. Subsequent analysis of different well configurations and lifting schemes allows maximizing formation productivity. The simulation and calibration results are compared to measured well test data. Results from this work shows that if the various petrophysical and fluid properties sources are integrated properly an accurate well productivity model can be achieved. If done early in the field development program, this time/knowledge gain could reduce the risk and maximize the development profitability of new blocks (value of the information). (author)

  8. Numerical study of sediment and137Cs discharge out of reservoirs during various scale rainfall events. (United States)

    Kurikami, Hiroshi; Funaki, Hironori; Malins, Alex; Kitamura, Akihiro; Onishi, Yasuo


    Contamination of reservoirs with radiocesium is one of the main concerns in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. We performed simulations using the three-dimensional finite volume code FLESCOT to understand sediment and radiocesium transport in generic models of reservoirs with parameters similar to those in Fukushima Prefecture. The simulations model turbulent water flows, transport of sediments with different grain sizes, and radiocesium migration both in dissolved and particulate forms. To demonstrate the validity of the modeling approach for the Fukushima environment, we performed a test simulation of the Ogaki Dam reservoir over Typhoon Man-yi in September 2013 and compared the results with field measurements. We simulated a set of generic model reservoirs systematically varying features such as flood intensity, reservoir volume and the radiocesium distribution coefficient. The results ascertain how these features affect the amount of sediment or 137 Cs discharge downstream from the reservoirs, and the forms in which 137 Cs is discharged. Silt carries the majority of the radiocesium in the larger flood events, while the clay-sorbed followed by dissolved forms are dominant in smaller events. The results can be used to derive indicative values of discharges from Fukushima reservoirs under arbitrary flood events. For example the generic model simulations indicate that about 30% of radiocesium that entered the Ogaki Dam reservoir over the flood in September 2015 caused by Typhoon Etau discharged downstream. Continued monitoring and numerical predictions are necessary to quantify future radiocesium migration in Fukushima Prefecture and evaluate possible countermeasures since reservoirs can be a sink of radiocesium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Marine and fluvial facies modelling at petroleum reservoir scale; Modelisation des heterogeneites lithologiques a l'echelle du reservoir petrolier en milieu marin et fluviatile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leflon, B.


    When modelling a petroleum reservoir, well data are very useful to model properties at a sub-seismic scale. Petrophysical properties like porosity or permeability are linked to the rock-type. Two methods based on well data have been developed to model facies. The first one is used to model marine carbonates deposits. The geometry of sedimentary layers is modelled through a special parameterization of the reservoir similar to Wheeler space. The time parameter is defined along the well paths thanks to correlations. The layer thickness is then extrapolated between wells. A given relationship between facies and bathymetry of sedimentation makes it possible to compute bathymetry along the well paths. Bathymetry is then extrapolated from wells and a reference map using the concept of accommodation. The model created this way is stratigraphically consistent. Facies simulation can then be constrained by the computed bathymetry. The second method describes a novel approach to fluvial reservoirs modelling. The core of the method lies in the association of a fairway with the channels to be simulated. Fairways are positioned so that all data are taken in account; they can be stochastic if unknown or explicitly entered if identified on seismic data. A potential field is defined within the fairway. Specifying a transfer function to map this potential field to thickness results in generating a channel inside the fairway. A residual component is stochastically simulated and added to the potential field creating realistic channel geometries. Conditioning to well data is obtained by applying the inverse transfer function at the data location to derive thickness values that will constrain the simulation of residuals. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Extraction of oil from some Iranian reservoirs due to high viscosity of their oil or reducing the formation permeability due to asphaltene precipitation or other problems is not satisfactory. Hydraulic fracturing method increases production in the viscous oil reservoirs that the production rate is low. So this is very important for some Iranian reservoirs that contain these characteristics. In this study, hydraulic fracturing method has been compositionally simulated in a heavy oil reservoir in southern Iran. In this study, the parameters of the fracture half length, the propagation direction of the cracks and the depth of fracturing have been considered in this oil reservoir. The aim of this study is to find the best scenario which has the highest recovery factor in this oil reservoir. For this purpose the parameters of the length, propagation direction and depth of fracturing have been optimized in this reservoir. Through this study the cumulative oil production has been evaluated with the compositional simulation for the next 10 years in this reservoir. Also at the end of this paper, increasing the final production of this oil reservoir caused by optimized hydraulic fracturing has been evaluated.

  11. Considering heterogeneities by transmissibilities averaging on adapted meshes in reservoir simulation; Prise en compte des heterogeneites par prise de moyenne des transmissivites sur maillages adaptes en simulation de reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urgelli, D.


    Reservoir heterogeneity can be described using geostatistical models. But these models generate the heterogeneity on millions of fine grid blocks, which leads to prohibitive computational costs for reservoir simulations. In order to reduce the number of grid blocks, averaging techniques are needed to up-scale the fine scale permeabilities to the larger scales appropriate for flow simulation and engineering calculations. Grid block permeability up-scaling for numerical reservoir simulations has been discussed for a long time in the literature. It is now recognized that a full permeability tensor is needed to get an accurate reservoir description. But, the equivalent permeability on coarse grid blocks cannot be used directly on the numerical scheme. Usually, the harmonic average of the coarse grid block permeability is used for the transmissibility calculation, but it might cause a loss of accuracy. The purpose of this thesis is to present a new procedure for computing the equivalent transmissibility in the discretized flow equations on Cartesian grids and Corner Point Geometry grids. An application of this technique to a finite volume type numerical scheme is detailed. The principle of this technique is to calculate a permeability term on a shifted block placed between the two adjacent blocks where the transmissibility must be determined. At the field scale, the flow region can be divided into two types : a linear flow pattern with a low pressure gradient far from the wells and a radial flow pattern with a high pressure gradient in the vicinity of the wells. The radial flow region is usually more important for the prediction of production forecast, because it is directly related to the well. This was demonstrated theoretically and numerically for 2-D problem. The transmissibility up-scaling in radial flow pattern consists to determine the transmissibilities in the vicinity of wells and the numerical Productivity Index simultaneously. This new method called `shifted

  12. Reservoir characterisation using process-response simulations : The Lower Cretaceous Rijn Field, West Netherlands Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberts, L.J.H.; Geel, C.R.; Klasen, J.J.


    Petroleum geologists always need to deal with large gaps in data resolution and coverage during reservoir characterisation. Seismic data shows only large geological structures, whereas small-scale structures and reservoir properties can be observed only at well locations. In the area between wells,

  13. Simulation and optimisation modelling approach for operation of the Hoa Binh Reservoir, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Long le; Madsen, Henrik; Rosbjerg, Dan


    . This paper proposes to optimise the control strategies for the Hoa Binh reservoir operation by applying a combination of simulation and optimisation models. The control strategies are set up in the MIKE 11 simulation model to guide the releases of the reservoir system according to the current storage level......, the hydro-meteorological conditions, and the time of the year. A heuristic global optimisation tool, the shuffled complex evolution (SCE) algorithm, is adopted for optimising the reservoir operation. The optimisation puts focus on the trade-off between flood control and hydropower generation for the Hoa...

  14. Analysis of formation pressure test results in the Mount Elbert methane hydrate reservoir through numerical simulation (United States)

    Kurihara, M.; Sato, A.; Funatsu, K.; Ouchi, H.; Masuda, Y.; Narita, H.; Collett, T.S.


    Targeting the methane hydrate (MH) bearing units C and D at the Mount Elbert prospect on the Alaska North Slope, four MDT (Modular Dynamic Formation Tester) tests were conducted in February 2007. The C2 MDT test was selected for history matching simulation in the MH Simulator Code Comparison Study. Through history matching simulation, the physical and chemical properties of the unit C were adjusted, which suggested the most likely reservoir properties of this unit. Based on these properties thus tuned, the numerical models replicating "Mount Elbert C2 zone like reservoir" "PBU L-Pad like reservoir" and "PBU L-Pad down dip like reservoir" were constructed. The long term production performances of wells in these reservoirs were then forecasted assuming the MH dissociation and production by the methods of depressurization, combination of depressurization and wellbore heating, and hot water huff and puff. The predicted cumulative gas production ranges from 2.16??106m3/well to 8.22??108m3/well depending mainly on the initial temperature of the reservoir and on the production method.This paper describes the details of modeling and history matching simulation. This paper also presents the results of the examinations on the effects of reservoir properties on MH dissociation and production performances under the application of the depressurization and thermal methods. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Reservoir simulation with the cubic plus (cross-) association equation of state for water, CO2, hydrocarbons, and tracers (United States)

    Moortgat, Joachim


    This work presents an efficient reservoir simulation framework for multicomponent, multiphase, compressible flow, based on the cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state (EOS). CPA is an accurate EOS for mixtures that contain non-polar hydrocarbons, self-associating polar water, and cross-associating molecules like methane, ethane, unsaturated hydrocarbons, CO2, and H2S. While CPA is accurate, its mathematical formulation is highly non-linear, resulting in excessive computational costs that have made the EOS unfeasible for large scale reservoir simulations. This work presents algorithms that overcome these bottlenecks and achieve an efficiency comparable to the much simpler cubic EOS approach. The main applications that require such accurate phase behavior modeling are 1) the study of methane leakage from high-pressure production wells and its potential impact on groundwater resources, 2) modeling of geological CO2 sequestration in brine aquifers when one is interested in more than the CO2 and H2O components, e.g. methane, other light hydrocarbons, and various tracers, and 3) enhanced oil recovery by CO2 injection in reservoirs that have previously been waterflooded or contain connate water. We present numerical examples of all those scenarios, extensive validation of the CPA EOS with experimental data, and analyses of the efficiency of our proposed numerical schemes. The accuracy, efficiency, and robustness of the presented phase split computations pave the way to more widespread adoption of CPA in reservoir simulators.

  16. Assessment of disturbance at three spatial scales in two large tropical reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia de Morais


    Full Text Available Large reservoirs are an increasingly common feature across tropical landscapes because of their importance for water supply, flood control and hydropower, but their ecological conditions are infrequently evaluated. Our objective was to assess the range of disturbances for two large tropical reservoirs and their influences on benthic macroinvertebrates. We tested three hypotheses: i a wide variation in the level of environmental disturbance can be observed among sites in the reservoirs; ii the two reservoirs would exhibit a different degree of disturbance level; and iii the magnitude of disturbance would influence the structure and composition of benthic assemblages. For each reservoir, we assessed land use (macroscale, physical habitat structure (mesoscale, and water quality (microscale. We sampled 40 sites in the littoral zones of both Três Marias and São Simão Reservoirs (Minas Gerais, Brazil. At the macroscale, we measured cover percentages of land use categories in buffer areas at each site, where each buffer was a circular arc of 250 m. At the mesoscale, we assessed the presence of human disturbances in the riparian and drawdown zones at the local (site scale. At the microscale, we assessed water quality at each macroinvertebrate sampling station using the Micro Disturbance Index (MDI. To evaluate anthropogenic disturbance of each site, we calculated an integrated disturbance index (IDI from a buffer disturbance index (BDI and a local disturbance index (LDI. For each site, we calculated richness and abundance of benthic macroinvertebrates, Chironomidae genera richness, abundance and percent Chironomidae individuals, abundance and percent EPT individuals, richness and percent EPT taxa, abundance and percent resistant individuals, and abundance and percent non-native individuals. We also evaluated the influence of disturbance on benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages at the entire-reservoir scale. The BDI, LDI and IDI had significantly

  17. SWE-SPHysics Simulation of Dam Break Flows at South-Gate Gorges Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenglong Gu


    Full Text Available This paper applied a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH approach to solve Shallow Water Equations (SWEs to study practical dam-break flows. The computational program is based on the open source code SWE-SPHysics, where a Monotone Upstream-centered Scheme for Conservation Laws (MUSCL reconstruction method is used to improve the Riemann solution with Lax-Friedrichs flux. A virtual boundary particle method is applied to treat the solid boundary. The model is first tested on two benchmark collapses of water columns with the existence of downstream obstacle. Subsequently the model is applied to forecast a prototype dam-break flood, which might occur in South-Gate Gorges Reservoir area of Qinghai Province, China. It shows that the SWE-SPH modeling approach could provide a promising simulation tool for practical dam-break flows in engineering scale.

  18. Pore-scale mechanisms of gas flow in tight sand reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silin, D.; Kneafsey, T.J.; Ajo-Franklin, J.B.; Nico, P.


    Tight gas sands are unconventional hydrocarbon energy resource storing large volume of natural gas. Microscopy and 3D imaging of reservoir samples at different scales and resolutions provide insights into the coaredo not significantly smaller in size than conventional sandstones, the extremely dense grain packing makes the pore space tortuous, and the porosity is small. In some cases the inter-granular void space is presented by micron-scale slits, whose geometry requires imaging at submicron resolutions. Maximal Inscribed Spheres computations simulate different scenarios of capillary-equilibrium two-phase fluid displacement. For tight sands, the simulations predict an unusually low wetting fluid saturation threshold, at which the non-wetting phase becomes disconnected. Flow simulations in combination with Maximal Inscribed Spheres computations evaluate relative permeability curves. The computations show that at the threshold saturation, when the nonwetting fluid becomes disconnected, the flow of both fluids is practically blocked. The nonwetting phase is immobile due to the disconnectedness, while the permeability to the wetting phase remains essentially equal to zero due to the pore space geometry. This observation explains the Permeability Jail, which was defined earlier by others. The gas is trapped by capillarity, and the brine is immobile due to the dynamic effects. At the same time, in drainage, simulations predict that the mobility of at least one of the fluids is greater than zero at all saturations. A pore-scale model of gas condensate dropout predicts the rate to be proportional to the scalar product of the fluid velocity and pressure gradient. The narrowest constriction in the flow path is subject to the highest rate of condensation. The pore-scale model naturally upscales to the Panfilov's Darcy-scale model, which implies that the condensate dropout rate is proportional to the pressure gradient squared. Pressure gradient is the greatest near the

  19. Development of Reservoir Characterization Techniques and Production Models for Exploiting Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, M.L.; Evans, R.D.; Brown, R.L.; Gupta, A.


    This report focuses on integrating geoscience and engineering data to develop a consistent characterization of the naturally fractured reservoirs. During this reporting period, effort was focused on relating seismic data to reservoir properties of naturally fractured reservoirs, scaling well log data to generate interwell descriptors of these reservoirs, enhancing and debugging a naturally fractured reservoir simulator, and developing a horizontal wellbore model for use in the simulator.

  20. Experiments and Simulations of Fluid Flow in Heterogeneous Reservoir Models - Emphasis on Impacts from Crossbeds and Fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerresen, Knut Arne


    Hydrocarbon recovery from subsurface reservoirs has become increasingly dependent on advanced recovery techniques that require improved understanding of the physics of fluid flow within and across geological units including small-scale heterogeneities and fractures. In this thesis, impacts from heterogeneities on local fluid flow are studied experimentally by means of imaging techniques to visualize fluid flow in two dimensions during flooding of larger reservoir models. Part 1 reflects the multi-disciplinary collaboration, by briefly introducing the relevant geology, the literature on experiments on fluid flow in bedded structures, and outlining the applied numerical simulator and imaging techniques applied to visualize fluid flow. The second part contains a synopsis of displacement experiments in naturally laminated sandstones and in crossbed laboratory models, and of the impact from incipient shear fractures on oil recovery. The detailed results obtained from the experiments and simulations are described in six papers, all included. 215 refs., 108 figs., 16 tabs.

  1. Simulation and resistivity modeling of a geothermal reservoir with waters of different salinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, K.; Wilt, M.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Goldstein, N.E.


    Apparent resistivities measured by means of repetitive dipole-dipole surveys show significant changes within the Cerro Prieto reservoir. The changes are attributed to production and natural recharge. To better understand the observed geophysical phenomena a simple reservoir simulation study combined with the appropriate DC resistivity calculations to determine the expected magnitude of apparent resistivity change. We consider production from a liquid-dominated reservoir with dimensions and parameters of the Cerro Prieto A reservoir and assume lateral and vertical recharge of colder and less saline waters. Based on rather schematic one- and two-dimensional reservoir simulations, we calculate changes in formation resistivity which we then transform into changes in apparent resistivity that would be observed at the surface. Simulated changes in apparent resistivities over the production zone show increases of 10 to 20% over a 3 year period at the current rate of fluid extraction. Changes of this magnitude are not only within our ability to discern using proper field techniques, but are consistent in magnitude with some of the observed effects. However, the patterns of apparent resistivity changes in the simulated dipole-dipole pseudosection only partially resemble the observed field data. This is explained by the fact that the actual fluid recharge into the A reservoir is more complicated than assumed in our simple, schematic recharge models.

  2. Comparisons of Simulated Hydrodynamics and Water Quality for Projected Demands in 2046, Pueblo Reservoir, Southeastern Colorado (United States)

    Ortiz, Roderick F.; Galloway, Joel M.; Miller, Lisa D.; Mau, David P.


    Pueblo Reservoir is one of southeastern Colorado's most valuable water resources. The reservoir provides irrigation, municipal, and industrial water to various entities throughout the region. The reservoir also provides flood control, recreational activities, sport fishing, and wildlife enhancement to the region. The Bureau of Reclamation is working to meet its goal to issue a Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on the Southern Delivery System project (SDS). SDS is a regional water-delivery project that has been proposed to provide a safe, reliable, and sustainable water supply through the foreseeable future (2046) for Colorado Springs, Fountain, Security, and Pueblo West. Discussions with the Bureau of Reclamation and the U.S. Geological Survey led to a cooperative agreement to simulate the hydrodynamics and water quality of Pueblo Reservoir. This work has been completed and described in a previously published report, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2008-5056. Additionally, there was a need to make comparisons of simulated hydrodynamics and water quality for projected demands associated with the various EIS alternatives and plans by Pueblo West to discharge treated water into the reservoir. Plans by Pueblo West are fully independent of the SDS project. This report compares simulated hydrodynamics and water quality for projected demands in Pueblo Reservoir resulting from changes in inflow and water quality entering the reservoir, and from changes to withdrawals from the reservoir as projected for the year 2046. Four of the seven EIS alternatives were selected for scenario simulations. The four U.S. Geological Survey simulation scenarios were the No Action scenario (EIS Alternative 1), the Downstream Diversion scenario (EIS Alternative 2), the Upstream Return-Flow scenario (EIS Alternative 4), and the Upstream Diversion scenario (EIS Alternative 7). Additionally, the results of an Existing Conditions scenario (water years 2000 through

  3. Optimized polymer flooding projects via combination of experimental design and reservoir simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bengar


    Full Text Available The conventional approach for an EOR process is to compare the reservoir properties with those of successful worldwide projects. However, some proper cases may be neglected due to the lack of reliable data. A combination of experimental design and reservoir simulation is an alternative approach. In this work, the fractional factorial design suggests some numerical experiments which their results are analyzed by statistical inference. After determination of the main effects and interactions, the most important parameters of polymer flooding are studied by ANOVA method and Pareto and Tornado charts. Analysis of main effects shows that the oil viscosity, connate water saturation and the horizontal permeability are the 3 deciding factors in oil production. The proposed methodology can help to select the good candidate reservoirs for polymer flooding. Keywords: Polymer flooding, Fractional factorial design, Reservoir simulation, P-value, ANOVA


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Jaskuła


    Full Text Available The purpose of the presented research is the analysis of bed elevation changes caused by sediment accumulation in the Jezioro Kowalskie reservoir. The Jezioro Kowalskie reservoir is a two stage reservoir constructed in such a way that the upper preliminary zone is separated from the main part of the reservoir. The split of the reservoir parts is done with a small pre-dam, located in Jerzykowo town. The analysis of such a construction impact on changes of bed elevations in the reservoir in different flow conditions is presented. The HEC-RAS 5.0 Beta model is used for simulations. The sediment transport intensity is calculated from England-Hansen and Meyer-Peter and Muller formulae. The results showed the processes of sediment accumulation and slight erosion occuring in the preliminary zone of the reservoir. The choice of the flow intensity does not have a huge importance. Similar results are obtained for low as well as high flows. The results confirm, that two stage construction with separated preliminary zone is effective method preventing from the sedimentation of the reservoir.

  5. Numerical Simulation of Natural Gas Flow in Anisotropic Shale Reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Negara, Ardiansyah


    Shale gas resources have received great attention in the last decade due to the decline of the conventional gas resources. Unlike conventional gas reservoirs, the gas flow in shale formations involves complex processes with many mechanisms such as Knudsen diffusion, slip flow (Klinkenberg effect), gas adsorption and desorption, strong rock-fluid interaction, etc. Shale formations are characterized by the tiny porosity and extremely low-permeability such that the Darcy equation may no longer be valid. Therefore, the Darcy equation needs to be revised through the permeability factor by introducing the apparent permeability. With respect to the rock formations, several studies have shown the existence of anisotropy in shale reservoirs, which is an essential feature that has been established as a consequence of the different geological processes over long period of time. Anisotropy of hydraulic properties of subsurface rock formations plays a significant role in dictating the direction of fluid flow. The direction of fluid flow is not only dependent on the direction of pressure gradient, but it also depends on the principal directions of anisotropy. Therefore, it is very important to take into consideration anisotropy when modeling gas flow in shale reservoirs. In this work, the gas flow mechanisms as mentioned earlier together with anisotropy are incorporated into the dual-porosity dual-permeability model through the full-tensor apparent permeability. We employ the multipoint flux approximation (MPFA) method to handle the full-tensor apparent permeability. We combine MPFA method with the experimenting pressure field approach, i.e., a newly developed technique that enables us to solve the global problem by breaking it into a multitude of local problems. This approach generates a set of predefined pressure fields in the solution domain in such a way that the undetermined coefficients are calculated from these pressure fields. In other words, the matrix of coefficients

  6. Development of a compositional model fully coupled with geomechanics and its application to tight oil reservoir simulation (United States)

    Xiong, Yi

    Tight oil reservoirs have received great attention in recent years as unconventional and promising petroleum resources; they are reshaping the U.S. crude oil market due to their substantial production. However, fluid flow behaviors in tight oil reservoirs are not well studied or understood due to the complexities in the physics involved. Specific characteristics of tight oil reservoirs, such as nano-pore scale and strong stress-dependency result in complex porous medium fluid flow behaviors. Recent field observations and laboratory experiments indicate that large effects of pore confinement and rock compaction have non-negligible impacts on the production performance of tight oil reservoirs. On the other hand, there are approximations or limitations for modeling tight oil reservoirs under the effects of pore confinement and rock compaction with current reservoir simulation techniques. Thus this dissertation aims to develop a compositional model coupled with geomechanics with capabilities to model and understand the complex fluid flow behaviors of multiphase, multi-component fluids in tight oil reservoirs. MSFLOW_COM (Multiphase Subsurface FLOW COMpositional model) has been developed with the capability to model the effects of pore confinement and rock compaction for multiphase fluid flow in tight oil reservoirs. The pore confinement effect is represented by the effect of capillary pressure on vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE), and modeled with the VLE calculation method in MSFLOW_COM. The fully coupled geomechanical model is developed from the linear elastic theory for a poro-elastic system and formulated in terms of the mean stress. Rock compaction is then described using stress-dependent rock properties, especially stress-dependent permeability. Thus MSFLOW_COM has the capabilities to model the complex fluid flow behaviors of tight oil reservoirs, fully coupled with geomechanics. In addition, MSFLOW_COM is validated against laboratory experimental data, analytical

  7. Simulation of geothermal water extraction in heterogeneous reservoirs using dynamic unstructured mesh optimisation (United States)

    Salinas, P.; Pavlidis, D.; Jacquemyn, C.; Lei, Q.; Xie, Z.; Pain, C.; Jackson, M.


    It is well known that the pressure gradient into a production well increases with decreasing distance to the well. To properly capture the local pressure drawdown into the well a high grid or mesh resolution is required; moreover, the location of the well must be captured accurately. In conventional simulation models, the user must interact with the model to modify grid resolution around wells of interest, and the well location is approximated on a grid defined early in the modelling process.We report a new approach for improved simulation of near wellbore flow in reservoir scale models through the use of dynamic mesh optimisation and the recently presented double control volume finite element method. Time is discretized using an adaptive, implicit approach. Heterogeneous geologic features are represented as volumes bounded by surfaces. Within these volumes, termed geologic domains, the material properties are constant. Up-, cross- or down-scaling of material properties during dynamic mesh optimization is not required, as the properties are uniform within each geologic domain. A given model typically contains numerous such geologic domains. Wells are implicitly coupled with the domain, and the fluid flows is modelled inside the wells. The method is novel for two reasons. First, a fully unstructured tetrahedral mesh is used to discretize space, and the spatial location of the well is specified via a line vector, ensuring its location even if the mesh is modified during the simulation. The well location is therefore accurately captured, the approach allows complex well trajectories and wells with many laterals to be modelled. Second, computational efficiency is increased by use of dynamic mesh optimization, in which an unstructured mesh adapts in space and time to key solution fields (preserving the geometry of the geologic domains), such as pressure, velocity or temperature, this also increases the quality of the solutions by placing higher resolution where required

  8. On-line Optimization-Based Simulators for Fractured and Non-fractured Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milind D. Deo


    Oil field development is a multi-million dollar business. Reservoir simulation is often used to guide the field management and development process. Reservoir characterization and geologic modeling tools have become increasingly sophisticated. As a result the geologic models produced are complex. Most reservoirs are fractured to a certain extent. The new geologic characterization methods are making it possible to map features such as faults and fractures, field-wide. Significant progress has been made in being able to predict properties of the faults and of the fractured zones. Traditionally, finite difference methods have been employed in discretizing the domains created by geologic means. For complex geometries, finite-element methods of discretization may be more suitable. Since reservoir simulation is a mature science, some of the advances in numerical methods (linear, nonlinear solvers and parallel computing) have not been fully realized in the implementation of most of the simulators. The purpose of this project was to address some of these issues. {sm_bullet} One of the goals of this project was to develop a series of finite-element simulators to handle problems of complex geometry, including systems containing faults and fractures. {sm_bullet} The idea was to incorporate the most modern computing tools; use of modular object-oriented computer languages, the most sophisticated linear and nonlinear solvers, parallel computing methods and good visualization tools. {sm_bullet} One of the tasks of the project was also to demonstrate the construction of fractures and faults in a reservoir using the available data and to assign properties to these features. {sm_bullet} Once the reservoir model is in place, it is desirable to find the operating conditions, which would provide the best reservoir performance. This can be accomplished by utilization optimization tools and coupling them with reservoir simulation. Optimization-based reservoir simulation was one of the

  9. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin). Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.; Asquith, G.B.; Barton, M.D.; Cole, A.G.; Gogas, J.; Malik, M.A.; Clift, S.J.; Guzman, J.I.


    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. This project involves reservoir characterization of two Late Permian slope and basin clastic reservoirs in the Delaware Basin, West Texas, followed by a field demonstration in one of the fields. The fields being investigated are Geraldine Ford and Ford West fields in Reeves and Culberson Counties, Texas. Project objectives are divided into two major phases, reservoir characterization and implementation. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project were to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of the two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford West field. Reservoir characterization utilized 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. Once reservoir characterized was completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} at the northern end of the Ford Geraldine unit was chosen for reservoir simulation. This report summarizes the results of the second year of reservoir characterization.

  10. Explicit Singly Diagonally Implicit Runge-Kutta Methods and Adaptive Stepsize Control for Reservoir Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völcker, Carsten; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Thomsen, Per Grove


    The implicit Euler method, normally refered to as the fully implicit (FIM) method, and the implicit pressure explicit saturation (IMPES) method are the traditional choices for temporal discretization in reservoir simulation. The FIM method offers unconditionally stability in the sense of discrete....... Current reservoir simulators apply timestepping algorithms that are based on safeguarded heuristics, and can neither guarantee convergence in the underlying equation solver, nor provide estimates of the relations between convergence, integration error and stepsizes. We establish predictive stepsize...... control applied to high order methods for temporal discretization in reservoir simulation. The family of Runge-Kutta methods is presented and in particular the explicit singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta (ESDIRK) method with an embedded error estimate is described. A predictive stepsize adjustment...

  11. Multi-scale simulation for plasma science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiguro, S; Usami, S; Horiuchi, R; Ohtani, H; Maluckov, A; Skoric, M M, E-mail:


    In order to perform a computer simulation of a large time and spatial scale system, such as a fusion plasma device and solar-terrestrial plasma, macro simulation model, where micro physics is modeled analytically or empirically, is usually used. However, kinetic effects such as wave-particle interaction play important roles in most of nonlinear plasma phenomena and result in anomalous behavior. This limits the applicability of macro simulation models. In a past few years several attempts have been performed to overcome this difficulty. Two types of multi-scale simulation method for nonlinear plasma science are presented. First one is the Micro-Macro Interconnected Simulation Method (MMIS), where micro model and macro model are connected dynamically through an interface and macro time and space simulation is performed. Second one is the Equation Free Projective Integration Method (EFPI), where macro space and time scale simulation is performed by using only a micro simulator and a sophisticated numerical algorithm.

  12. Influence of oil/gas reservoir driving conditions on reserves estimation using computer simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Rychlicki


    Full Text Available One of the methods of assessing reserves is a calibration of a numerical model of a field with assumed driving conditions of the field. The influence of various energy systems assumed for the calculation on the calibration results are presented in the paper. A light oil field was selected for verification of resources on the basis of an analysis of driving conditions. At the first stage of calculations, a „Black Oil” type numerical model was used. The results of a classical „Black – Oil” model made the authors search for an alternative description of energy conditions in the reservoir. Therefore, a modified „Black-Oil” model with „vaporized oil” option, assuming that initially, after evaporation, the condensate in the reservoir was in a gaseous phase was used. The obtained simulation results for the analyzed reservoir prove the accuracy of energy conditions in the reservoir.

  13. Use of black oil simulator for coal bed methane reservoir model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwa, R.; Enachescu, C.; Rohs, S. [Golder Associates GmbH, Celle (Germany)


    This paper starts from the work done by Seidle et al. (1990) and other authors on the topic of coal degasification and develops a more accurate representative naturally fractured CBM-reservoir by using a Discrete Fracture Network modeling approach. For this issue we firstly calibrate the reservoir simulator tNAVIGATOR by showing his ability to reproduce the work done by Seidle et al. and secondly generate a DFN model using FracMan in accordance with the distribution and orientation of the cleats. tNavigator was then used to simulate multiphase flow through the DFN- Model. (orig.)

  14. A Modeling & Simulation Implementation Framework for Large-Scale Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Xiao


    Full Text Available Classical High Level Architecture (HLA systems are facing development problems for lack of supporting fine-grained component integration and interoperation in large-scale complex simulation applications. To provide efficient methods of this issue, an extensible, reusable and composable simulation framework is proposed. To promote the reusability from coarse-grained federate to fine-grained components, this paper proposes a modelling & simulation framework which consists of component-based architecture, modelling methods, and simulation services to support and simplify the process of complex simulation application construction. Moreover, a standard process and simulation tools are developed to ensure the rapid and effective development of simulation application.

  15. Parallel Reservoir Simulations with Sparse Grid Techniques and Applications to Wormhole Propagation

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Yuanqing


    In this work, two topics of reservoir simulations are discussed. The first topic is the two-phase compositional flow simulation in hydrocarbon reservoir. The major obstacle that impedes the applicability of the simulation code is the long run time of the simulation procedure, and thus speeding up the simulation code is necessary. Two means are demonstrated to address the problem: parallelism in physical space and the application of sparse grids in parameter space. The parallel code can gain satisfactory scalability, and the sparse grids can remove the bottleneck of flash calculations. Instead of carrying out the flash calculation in each time step of the simulation, a sparse grid approximation of all possible results of the flash calculation is generated before the simulation. Then the constructed surrogate model is evaluated to approximate the flash calculation results during the simulation. The second topic is the wormhole propagation simulation in carbonate reservoir. In this work, different from the traditional simulation technique relying on the Darcy framework, we propose a new framework called Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer framework to simulate wormhole propagation. Furthermore, to process the large quantity of cells in the simulation grid and shorten the long simulation time of the traditional serial code, standard domain-based parallelism is employed, using the Hypre multigrid library. In addition to that, a new technique called “experimenting field approach” to set coefficients in the model equations is introduced. In the 2D dissolution experiments, different configurations of wormholes and a series of properties simulated by both frameworks are compared. We conclude that the numerical results of the DBF framework are more like wormholes and more stable than the Darcy framework, which is a demonstration of the advantages of the DBF framework. The scalability of the parallel code is also evaluated, and good scalability can be achieved. Finally, a mixed

  16. Derivation of Optimal Operating Rules for Large-scale Reservoir Systems Considering Multiple Trade-off (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Lei, X.; Liu, P.; Wang, H.; Li, Z.


    Flood control operation of multi-reservoir systems such as parallel reservoirs and hybrid reservoirs often suffer from complex interactions and trade-off among tributaries and the mainstream. The optimization of such systems is computationally intensive due to nonlinear storage curves, numerous constraints and complex hydraulic connections. This paper aims to derive the optimal flood control operating rules based on the trade-off among tributaries and the mainstream using a new algorithm known as weighted non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (WNSGA II). WNSGA II could locate the Pareto frontier in non-dominated region efficiently due to the directed searching by weighted crowding distance, and the results are compared with those of conventional operating rules (COR) and single objective genetic algorithm (GA). Xijiang river basin in China is selected as a case study, with eight reservoirs and five flood control sections within four tributaries and the mainstream. Furthermore, the effects of inflow uncertainty have been assessed. Results indicate that: (1) WNSGA II could locate the non-dominated solutions faster and provide better Pareto frontier than the traditional non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA II) due to the weighted crowding distance; (2) WNSGA II outperforms COR and GA on flood control in the whole basin; (3) The multi-objective operating rules from WNSGA II deal with the inflow uncertainties better than COR. Therefore, the WNSGA II can be used to derive stable operating rules for large-scale reservoir systems effectively and efficiently.

  17. Simulation studies to evaluate the effect of fracture closure on the performance of fractured reservoirs; Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howrie, I.; Dauben, D.


    A three-year research program to evaluate the effect of fracture closure on the recovery of oil and gas from naturally fractured reservoirs has been completed. The overall objectives of the study were to: (1) evaluate the reservoir conditions for which fracture closure is significant, and (2) evaluate innovative fluid injection techniques capable of maintaining pressure within the reservoir. The evaluations of reservoir performance were made by a modern dual porosity simulator, TETRAD. This simulator treats both porosity and permeability as functions of pore pressure. The Austin Chalk in the Pearsall Field in of South Texas was selected as the prototype fractured reservoir for this work. During the first year, simulations of vertical and horizontal well performance were made assuming that fracture permeability was insensitive to pressure change. Sensitivity runs indicated that the simulator was predicting the effects of critical reservoir parameters in a logical and consistent manner. The results confirmed that horizontal wells could increase both rate of oil recovery and total oil recovery from naturally fractured reservoirs. In the second year, the performance of the same vertical and horizontal wells was reevaluated with fracture permeability treated as a function of reservoir pressure. To investigate sensitivity to in situ stress, differing loading conditions were assumed. Simulated natural depletions confirm that pressure sensitive fractures degrade well performance. The severity of degradation worsens when the initial reservoir pressure approaches the average stress condition of the reservoir, such as occurs in over pressured reservoirs. Simulations with water injection indicate that degradation of permeability can be counteracted when reservoir pressure is maintained and oil recovery can be increased when reservoir properties are favorable.

  18. Effect of Permeability Anisotropy on the Production of Multi-Scale Shale Gas Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Huang


    Full Text Available Shales or mudstones are fine grained and layered reservoirs, which leads to strong shale permeability anisotropy. Shale has a wide pore-size distribution, and pores with different diameters contribute differently to the apparent permeability of shales. Therefore, understanding the anisotropy of multiscale shale gas reservoirs is an important aspect to model and evaluate gas production from shales. In this paper, a novel model of permeability anisotropy for shale gas reservoirs is presented to calculate the permeability in an arbitrary direction in three dimensional space. A numerical model which is valid for the entire Knudsen’s range (continuum flow, slip flow, transition flow and free molecular flow in shale gas reservoirs was developed, and the effect of gas-water flow and the simulation of hydraulic fracturing cracks were taken into consideration as well. The simulation result of the developed model was validated with field data. Effects of critical factors such as permeability anisotropy, relative permeability curves with different nanopore radii and initial water saturation in formation on the gas production rate of multi-stage fractured horizontal well were discussed. Besides, flow regimes of gas flow in shales were classified by Knudsen number, and the effect of various flow regimes on both apparent permeability of shales and then the gas production has been analyzed thoroughly.

  19. Explicit Singly Diagonally Implicit Runge-Kutta Methods and Adaptive Stepsize Control for Reservoir Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völcker, Carsten; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Thomsen, Per Grove


    The implicit Euler method, normally refered to as the fully implicit (FIM) method, and the implicit pressure explicit saturation (IMPES) method are the traditional choices for temporal discretization in reservoir simulation. The FIM method offers unconditionally stability in the sense of discrete...

  20. A combination of streamtube and geostatical simulation methodologies for the study of large oil reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakravarty, A.; Emanuel, A.S.; Bernath, J.A. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Company, LaHabra, CA (United States)


    The application of streamtube models for reservoir simulation has an extensive history in the oil industry. Although these models are strictly applicable only to fields under voidage balance, they have proved to be useful in a large number of fields provided that there is no solution gas evolution and production. These models combine the benefit of very fast computational time with the practical ability to model a large reservoir over the course of its history. These models do not, however, directly incorporate the detailed geological information that recent experience has taught is important. This paper presents a technique for mapping the saturation information contained in a history matched streamtube model onto a detailed geostatistically derived finite difference grid. With this technique, the saturation information in a streamtube model, data that is actually statistical in nature, can be identified with actual physical locations in a field and a picture of the remaining oil saturation can be determined. Alternatively, the streamtube model can be used to simulate the early development history of a field and the saturation data then used to initialize detailed late time finite difference models. The proposed method is presented through an example application to the Ninian reservoir. This reservoir, located in the North Sea (UK), is a heterogeneous sandstone characterized by a line drive waterflood, with about 160 wells, and a 16 year history. The reservoir was satisfactorily history matched and mapped for remaining oil saturation. A comparison to 3-D seismic survey and recently drilled wells have provided preliminary verification.

  1. Simulating migrated and inverted seismic data for enhanced reservoir characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toxopeus, G.


    An optimal use of shared-earth modeling is hampered by the fact that simulating a migrated image that can be compared directly to the real migrated image is time-consuming. The key to enable iterative testing of different geological scenarios is to filter a shared-earth model by a spatial resolution

  2. Lithofacies and associated reservoir properties co-simulations constraint by seismic data; Cosimulations de lithofacies et de proprietes reservoirs associees contraintes par les donnees sismiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichtl, P.


    Integration of data different sources and nature leads to more accurate reservoir models, useful for controlling fluid and assessing final uncertainties. In this frame, this thesis presents a new technique for co-simulating in 3D two high resolution properties - one categorical, one continuous - conditionally to well information and under the constraint of seismic data. This technique could be applied to simulate lithofacies and related reservoir properties like acoustic impedances or porosities. The proposed algorithm combines a non-parametric approach for the categorical variable and a parametric approach for the continuous variable through a sequential co-simulation. The co-simulation process is divided in two steps: in the first step, the lithofacies is co-simulated with the seismic information by a sequential indicator co-simulation with co-kriging and, in the second step, the reservoir property of interest is simulated from the previously co-simulated lithofacies using sequential Gaussian (co- )simulation or P-field simulation. A validation study on a synthetic but realistic model shows that this technique provides alternative models of lithofacies and associated high resolution acoustic impedances consistent with the seismic data. The seismic information constraining the co-simulations contributes to reduce the uncertainties for the lithofacies distribution at the reservoir level. In some case, a Markov co-regionalization model can be used for simplifying the inference and modelling of the cross-covariances; finally, the co-simulation algorithm was applied to a 3D real case study with objective the joint numerical modelling of lithofacies and porosity in a fluvial channel reservoir. (author) 88 refs.

  3. Fine-Scale Spatial Heterogeneity in the Distribution of Waterborne Protozoa in a Drinking Water Reservoir. (United States)

    Burnet, Jean-Baptiste; Ogorzaly, Leslie; Penny, Christian; Cauchie, Henry-Michel


    The occurrence of faecal pathogens in drinking water resources constitutes a threat to the supply of safe drinking water, even in industrialized nations. To efficiently assess and monitor the risk posed by these pathogens, sampling deserves careful design, based on preliminary knowledge on their distribution dynamics in water. For the protozoan pathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia, only little is known about their spatial distribution within drinking water supplies, especially at fine scale. Two-dimensional distribution maps were generated by sampling cross-sections at meter resolution in two different zones of a drinking water reservoir. Samples were analysed for protozoan pathogens as well as for E. coli, turbidity and physico-chemical parameters. Parasites displayed heterogeneous distribution patterns, as reflected by significant (oo)cyst density gradients along reservoir depth. Spatial correlations between parasites and E. coli were observed near the reservoir inlet but were absent in the downstream lacustrine zone. Measurements of surface and subsurface flow velocities suggest a role of local hydrodynamics on these spatial patterns. This fine-scale spatial study emphasizes the importance of sampling design (site, depth and position on the reservoir) for the acquisition of representative parasite data and for optimization of microbial risk assessment and monitoring. Such spatial information should prove useful to the modelling of pathogen transport dynamics in drinking water supplies.

  4. Numerical simulation of pore size dependent anhydrite precipitation in geothermal reservoirs (United States)

    Mürmann, Mario; Kühn, Michael; Pape, Hansgeorg; Clauser, Christoph


    cementation in a 2D hypothetical core flooding experiment. With this new approach cementation patterns observed in the Allermöhe core samples can be explained now. The obtained results show that the variation of fluid supersaturation within a pore governs spatially heterogeneous anhydrite cementation. This variation and the fluid velocity determine the precipitation. Our numerical simulation results clearly emphasize the necessity to consider the spatial variation of supersaturation on the pore scale. References Baermann A., Kroeger J., Taugs R., Wuestenhagen K., Zarth M. (2000) Anhydrite cementation in Rhaetian Sandstone in Hamburg - Morphology and Structures, Zeitschrift für Angewandte Geologie, 46(3), 138-143 (in German). Clauser C. (2003) Numerical Simulation of Reactive Flow in Hot Aquifers. SHEMAT and processing SHEMAT, Springer Publishers, Heidelberg. Emmanuel S., Berkowitz B. (2007) Effects of pore size controlled solubility on reactive transport in heterogeneous rock, Geophysical Research Letters, 34, L06404. Putnis A., Mauthe G. (2001) The effect of pore size on cementation in porous rocks, Geofluids, 1, 37-41. Wagner R., Kühn M., Meyn V., Pape H., Vath U., Clauser C. (2005) Numerical simulation of pore space clogging in geothermal reservoirs by precipitation of anhydrite. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 42, 1070-1081, doi: 10.1016/ j.ijrmms.2005.05.008.

  5. Application of Reservoir Flow Simulation Integrated with Geomechanics in Unconventional Tight Play (United States)

    Lin, Menglu; Chen, Shengnan; Mbia, Ernest; Chen, Zhangxing


    Multistage hydraulic fracturing techniques, combined with horizontal drilling, have enabled commercial production from the vast reserves of unconventional tight formations. During hydraulic fracturing, fracturing fluid and proppants are pumped into the reservoir matrix to create the hydraulic fractures. Understanding the propagation mechanism of hydraulic fractures is essential to estimate their properties, such as half-length. In addition, natural fractures are often present in tight formations, which might be activated during the fracturing process and contribute to the post-stimulation well production rates. In this study, reservoir simulation is integrated with rock geomechanics to predict the well post-stimulation productivities. Firstly, a reservoir geological model is built based on the field data collected from the Montney formation in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. The hydraulic fracturing process is then simulated through an integrated approach of fracturing fluid injection, rock geomechanics, and tensile failure criteria. In such a process, the reservoir pore pressure increases with a continuous injection of the fracturing fluid and proppants, decreasing the effective stress exerted on the rock matrix accordingly as the overburden pressure remains constant. Once the effective stress drops to a threshold value, tensile failure of the reservoir rock occurs, creating hydraulic fractures in the formation. The early production history of the stimulated well is history-matched to validate the predicted fracture geometries (e.g., half-length) generated from the fracturing simulation process. The effects of the natural fracture properties and well bottom-hole pressures on well productivity are also studied. It has been found that nearly 40% of hydraulic fractures propagate in the beginning stage (the pad step) of the fracturing schedule. In addition, well post-stimulation productivity will increase significantly if the natural fractures are propped or

  6. Simulation of petroleum recovery in naturally fractured reservoirs: physical process representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Hernani P.; Miranda Filho, Daniel N. de [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Schiozer, Denis J. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)


    The naturally fractured reservoir recovery normally involves risk especially in intermediate to oil wet systems because of the simulations poor efficiency results under waterflood displacement. Double-porosity models are generally used in fractured reservoir simulation and have been implemented in the major commercial reservoir simulators. The physical processes acting in petroleum recovery are represented in double-porosity models by matrix-fracture transfer functions, therefore commercial simulators have their own implementations, and as a result different kinetics and final recoveries are attained. In this work, a double porosity simulator was built with Kazemi et al. (1976), Sabathier et al. (1998) and Lu et al. (2008) transfer function implementations and their recovery results have been compared using waterflood displacement in oil-wet or intermediate-wet systems. The results of transfer function comparisons have showed recovery improvements in oil-wet or intermediate-wet systems under different physical processes combination, particularly in fully discontinuous porous medium when concurrent imbibition takes place, coherent with Firoozabadi (2000) experimental results. Furthermore, the implemented transfer functions, related to a double-porosity model, have been compared to double-porosity commercial simulator model, as well a discrete fracture model with refined grid, showing differences between them. Waterflood can be an effective recovery method even in fully discontinuous media for oil-wet or intermediate-wet systems where concurrent imbibition takes place with high enough pressure gradients across the matrix blocks. (author)

  7. Simulation of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. State of the Art Simulation des réservoirs naturellement fracturés. État de l’art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemonnier P.


    Full Text Available Naturally fractured reservoirs contain a significant amount of the world oil reserves. The production of this type of reservoirs constitutes a challenge for reservoir engineers. Use of reservoir simulators can help reservoir engineers in the understanding of the main physical mechanisms and in the choice of the best recovery process and its optimization. Significant progress has been made since the first publications on the dual-porosity concept in the sixties. This paper and the preceding one (Part 1 present the current techniques of modeling used in industrial simulators. The optimal way to predict matrix-fracture transfers at the simulator cell scale has no definite answer and various methods are implemented in industrial simulators. This paper focuses on the modeling of physical mechanisms driving flows and interactions/ exchanges within and between fracture and matrix media for a better understanding of proposed flow formula and simulation methods. Typical features of fractured reservoir numerical simulations are also described with an overview of the implementation of geomechanics effects, an application of uncertainty assessment methodology to a fractured gas reservoir and finally a presentation of a history matching methodology for fractured reservoirs. Les réservoirs naturellement fracturés contiennent une partie significative des réserves en huile mondiales. La production de ce type de réservoirs constitue un défi pour les ingénieurs de réservoir. L’utilisation des simulateurs de réservoir peut aider l’ingénieur de réservoir à mieux comprendre les principaux mécanismes physiques, à choisir le procédé de récupération le mieux adapté et à l’optimiser. Des progrès sensibles ont été réalisés depuis les premières publications sur le concept double-milieu dans les années soixante. Cet article et le précédent (Partie 1 présentent les techniques actuelles de modélisation utilisées dans les simulateurs

  8. The element-based finite volume method applied to petroleum reservoir simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordazzo, Jonas; Maliska, Clovis R.; Silva, Antonio F.C. da; Hurtado, Fernando S.V. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica


    In this work a numerical model for simulating petroleum reservoirs using the Element-based Finite Volume Method (EbFVM) is presented. The method employs unstructured grids using triangular and/or quadrilateral elements, such that complex reservoir geometries can be easily represented. Due to the control-volume approach, local mass conservation is enforced, permitting a direct physical interpretation of the resulting discrete equations. It is demonstrated that this method can deal with the permeability maps without averaging procedures, since this scheme assumes uniform properties inside elements, instead inside of control volumes, avoiding the need of weighting the permeability values at the control volumes interfaces. Moreover, it is easy to include the full permeability tensor in this method, which is an important issue in simulating heterogeneous and anisotropic reservoirs. Finally, a comparison among the results obtained using the scheme proposed in this work in the EbFVM framework with those obtained employing the scheme commonly used in petroleum reservoir simulation is presented. It is also shown that the scheme proposed is less susceptible to the grid orientation effect with the increasing of the mobility ratio. (author)

  9. Learning from large scale neural simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serban, Maria


    Large-scale neural simulations have the marks of a distinct methodology which can be fruitfully deployed to advance scientific understanding of the human brain. Computer simulation studies can be used to produce surrogate observational data for better conceptual models and new how...

  10. Two-dimensional simulation of the Raft River geothermal reservoir and wells. [SINDA-3G program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettenacker, W.C.


    Computer models describing both the transient reservoir pressure behavior and the time dependent temperature response of the wells at the Raft River, Idaho, Geothermal Resource were developed. A horizontal, two-dimensional, finite-difference model for calculating pressure effects was constructed to simulate reservoir performance. Vertical, two-dimensional, finite-difference, axisymmetric models for each of the three existing wells at Raft River were also constructed to describe the transient temperature and hydraulic behavior in the vicinity of the wells. All modeling was done with the use of the thermal hydraulics computer program SINDA-3G. The models are solved simultaneously with one input deck so that reservoir-well interaction may occur. The model predicted results agree favorably with the test data.

  11. Speeding up compositional reservoir simulation through an efficient implementation of phase equilibrium calculation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belkadi, Abdelkrim; Yan, Wei; Moggia, Elsa


    Compositional reservoir simulations are widely used to simulate reservoir processes with strong compositional effects, such as gas injection. The equations of state (EoS) based phase equilibrium calculation is a time consuming part in this type of simulations. The phase equilibrium problem can...... be either decoupled from or coupled with the transport problem. In the former case, flash calculation is required, which consists of stability analysis and subsequent phase split calculation; in the latter case, no explicit phase split calculation is required but efficient stability analysis and optimized...... architecture makes the implementation and evaluation of new ideas and concepts easy. Tests on several 2-D and 3-D gas injection examples indicate that with an efficient implementation of the thermodynamic package and the conventional stability analysis algorithm, the speed can be increased by several folds...

  12. Boundary element simulation of petroleum reservoirs with hydraulically fractured wells (United States)

    Pecher, Radek

    The boundary element method is applied to solve the linear pressure-diffusion equation of fluid-flow in porous media. The governing parabolic partial differential equation is transformed into the Laplace space to obtain the elliptic modified-Helmholtz equation including the homogeneous initial condition. The free- space Green's functions, satisfying this equation for anisotropic media in two and three dimensions, are combined with the generalized form of the Green's second identity. The resulting boundary integral equation is solved by following the collocation technique and applying the given time-dependent boundary conditions of the Dirichlet or Neumann type. The boundary integrals are approximated by the Gaussian quadrature along each element of the discretized domain boundary. Heterogeneous regions are represented by the sectionally-homogeneous zones of different rock and fluid properties. The final values of the interior pressure and velocity fields and of their time-derivatives are found by numerically inverting the solutions from the Laplace space by using the Stehfest's algorithm. The main extension of the mostly standard BEM-procedure is achieved in the modelling of the production and injection wells represented by internal sources and sinks. They are treated as part of the boundary by means of special single-node and both-sided elements, corresponding to the line and plane sources respectively. The wellbore skin and storage effects are considered for the line and cylindrical sources. Hydraulically fractured wells of infinite conductivity are handled directly according to the specified constraint type, out of the four alternatives. Fractures of finite conductivity are simulated by coupling the finite element model of their 1D-interior with the boundary element model of their 2D- exterior. Variable fracture width, fractures crossing zone boundaries, ``networking'' of fractures, fracture-tip singularity handling, or the 3D-description are additional advanced

  13. Efficient Data-Worth Analysis Using a Multilevel Monte Carlo Method Applied in Oil Reservoir Simulations (United States)

    Lu, D.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Evans, K. J.


    Data-worth analysis plays an essential role in improving the understanding of the subsurface system, in developing and refining subsurface models, and in supporting rational water resources management. However, data-worth analysis is computationally expensive as it requires quantifying parameter uncertainty, prediction uncertainty, and both current and potential data uncertainties. Assessment of these uncertainties in large-scale stochastic subsurface simulations using standard Monte Carlo (MC) sampling or advanced surrogate modeling is extremely computationally intensive, sometimes even infeasible. In this work, we propose efficient Bayesian analysis of data-worth using a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method. Compared to the standard MC that requires a significantly large number of high-fidelity model executions to achieve a prescribed accuracy in estimating expectations, the MLMC can substantially reduce the computational cost with the use of multifidelity approximations. As the data-worth analysis involves a great deal of expectation estimations, the cost savings from MLMC in the assessment can be very outstanding. While the proposed MLMC-based data-worth analysis is broadly applicable, we use it to a highly heterogeneous oil reservoir simulation to select an optimal candidate data set that gives the largest uncertainty reduction in predicting mass flow rates at four production wells. The choices made by the MLMC estimation are validated by the actual measurements of the potential data, and consistent with the estimation obtained from the standard MC. But compared to the standard MC, the MLMC greatly reduces the computational costs in the uncertainty reduction estimation, with up to 600 days cost savings when one processor is used.

  14. Reservoir Simulation on the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field: A Continuing Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda, M.; Marquez, R.; Arellano, V.; Esquer, C.A.


    The Cerro Prieto geothermal field is a liquid-dominated geothermal reservoir of complex geological and hydrological structure. It is located at the southern end of the Salton-Mexicali trough which includes other geothermal anomalies as Heber and East Mesa. Although in 1973, the initial power plant installed capacity was 75 MW of electrical power, this amount increased to 180 MW in 1981 as field development continued. It is expected to have a generating capacity of 620 MW by the end of 1985, when two new plants will be completely in operation. Questions about field deliverability, reservoir life and ultimate recovery related to planned installations are being presently asked. Numerical modeling studies can give very valuable answers to these questions, even at the early stages in the development of a field. An effort to simulate the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir has been undergoing for almost two years. A joint project among Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and Intercomp of Houstin, Texas, was created to perform reservoir engineering and simulation studies on this field. The final project objective is tosimulate the behavior of the old field region when production from additional wells located in the undeveloped field zones will be used for feeding the new power plants.

  15. On Application of Non-cubic EoS to Compositional Reservoir Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Compositional reservoir simulation uses almost exclusively cubic equations of state (EoS) such as the SRK EoS and the PR EoS. This is in contrast with process simulation in the downstream industry where more recent and advanced thermodynamic models are quickly adopted. Many of these models are non-cubic...... EoS, such as the PC-SAFT EoS. A major reason for the use of the conventional cubic EoS in reservoir simulation is the concern over computation time. Flash computation is the most time consuming part in compositional reservoir simulation, and the extra complexity of the non-cubic EoS may significantly...... increase the time consumption. In addition to this, the non-cubic EoS also needs a C7+ characterization. The main advantage of the non-cubic EoS is that it provides for a more accurate descrition of fluid properties, and it is therefore of interest to investigate the computational aspects of using...

  16. Physical simulation of gas reservoir formation in the Liwan 3-1 deep-water gas field in the Baiyun sag, Pearl River Mouth Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Gao


    Full Text Available To figure out the process and controlling factors of gas reservoir formation in deep-waters, based on an analysis of geological features, source of natural gas and process of reservoir formation in the Liwan 3-1 gas field, physical simulation experiment of the gas reservoir formation process has been performed, consequently, pattern and features of gas reservoir formation in the Baiyun sag has been found out. The results of the experiment show that: ① the formation of the Liwan 3-1 faulted anticline gas field is closely related to the longstanding active large faults, where natural gas is composed of a high proportion of hydrocarbons, a small amount of non-hydrocarbons, and the wet gas generated during highly mature stage shows obvious vertical migration signs; ② liquid hydrocarbons associated with natural gas there are derived from source rock of the Enping & Zhuhai Formation, whereas natural gas comes mainly from source rock of the Enping Formation, and source rock of the Wenchang Formation made a little contribution during the early Eocene period as well; ③ although there was gas migration and accumulation, yet most of the natural gas mainly scattered and dispersed due to the stronger activity of faults in the early period; later as fault activity gradually weakened, gas started to accumulate into reservoirs in the Baiyun sag; ④ there is stronger vertical migration of oil and gas than lateral migration, and the places where fault links effective source rocks with reservoirs are most likely for gas accumulation; ⑤ effective temporal-spatial coupling of source-fault-reservoir in late stage is the key to gas reservoir formation in the Baiyun sag; ⑥ the nearer the distance from a trap to a large-scale fault and hydrocarbon source kitchen, the more likely gas may accumulate in the trap in late stage, therefore gas accumulation efficiency is much lower for the traps which are far away from large-scale faults and hydrocarbon source

  17. Simulation study of huff-n-puff air injection for enhanced oil recovery in shale oil reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Jia


    Full Text Available This paper is the first attempt to evaluate huff-n-puff air injection in a shale oil reservoir using a simulation approach. Recovery mechanisms and physical processes of huff-n-puff air injection in a shale oil reservoir are investigated through investigating production performance, thermal behavior, reservoir pressure and fluid saturation features. Air flooding is used as the basic case for a comparative study. The simulation study suggests that thermal drive is the main recovery mechanism for huff-n-puff air injection in the shale oil reservoir, but not for simple air flooding. The synergic recovery mechanism of air flooding in conventional light oil reservoirs can be replicated in shale oil reservoirs by using air huff-n-puff injection strategy. Reducing huff-n-puff time is better for performing the synergic recovery mechanism of air injection. O2 diffusion plays an important role in huff-n-puff air injection in shale oil reservoirs. Pressure transmissibility as well as reservoir pressure maintenance ability in huff-n-puff air injection is more pronounced than the simple air flooding after primary depletion stage. No obvious gas override is exhibited in both air flooding and air huff-n-puff injection scenarios in shale reservoirs. Huff-n-puff air injection has great potential to develop shale oil reservoirs. The results from this work may stimulate further investigations.

  18. Large Scale Landslide Database System Established for the Reservoirs in Southern Taiwan (United States)

    Tsai, Tsai-Tsung; Tsai, Kuang-Jung; Shieh, Chjeng-Lun


    Typhoon Morakot seriously attack southern Taiwan awaken the public awareness of large scale landslide disasters. Large scale landslide disasters produce large quantity of sediment due to negative effects on the operating functions of reservoirs. In order to reduce the risk of these disasters within the study area, the establishment of a database for hazard mitigation / disaster prevention is necessary. Real time data and numerous archives of engineering data, environment information, photo, and video, will not only help people make appropriate decisions, but also bring the biggest concern for people to process and value added. The study tried to define some basic data formats / standards from collected various types of data about these reservoirs and then provide a management platform based on these formats / standards. Meanwhile, in order to satisfy the practicality and convenience, the large scale landslide disasters database system is built both provide and receive information abilities, which user can use this large scale landslide disasters database system on different type of devices. IT technology progressed extreme quick, the most modern system might be out of date anytime. In order to provide long term service, the system reserved the possibility of user define data format /standard and user define system structure. The system established by this study was based on HTML5 standard language, and use the responsive web design technology. This will make user can easily handle and develop this large scale landslide disasters database system.

  19. Optimizing multiple reliable forward contracts for reservoir allocation using multitime scale streamflow forecasts (United States)

    Lu, Mengqian; Lall, Upmanu; Robertson, Andrew W.; Cook, Edward


    Streamflow forecasts at multiple time scales provide a new opportunity for reservoir management to address competing objectives. Market instruments such as forward contracts with specified reliability are considered as a tool that may help address the perceived risk associated with the use of such forecasts in lieu of traditional operation and allocation strategies. A water allocation process that enables multiple contracts for water supply and hydropower production with different durations, while maintaining a prescribed level of flood risk reduction, is presented. The allocation process is supported by an optimization model that considers multitime scale ensemble forecasts of monthly streamflow and flood volume over the upcoming season and year, the desired reliability and pricing of proposed contracts for hydropower and water supply. It solves for the size of contracts at each reliability level that can be allocated for each future period, while meeting target end of period reservoir storage with a prescribed reliability. The contracts may be insurable, given that their reliability is verified through retrospective modeling. The process can allow reservoir operators to overcome their concerns as to the appropriate skill of probabilistic forecasts, while providing water users with short-term and long-term guarantees as to how much water or energy they may be allocated. An application of the optimization model to the Bhakra Dam, India, provides an illustration of the process. The issues of forecast skill and contract performance are examined. A field engagement of the idea is useful to develop a real-world perspective and needs a suitable institutional environment.

  20. Study of sustainable production in two-phase liquid dominated with steam cap underlying brine reservoir by numerical simulation (United States)

    Pratama, Heru Berian; Miryani Saptadji, Nenny


    The main issue in the management of the two-phase liquid-dominated geothermal field is rapid decline pressure in the reservoir so that the supply of steam to the power plant cannot be fulfilled. To understanding that, modelling and numerical simulation used reservoir simulators. The model is developed on liquid-dominated geothermal fields are assessed in various scenarios of production strategies (focusing only steam cap, brine reservoir and a combination) and injection strategies (deep and shallow injection, centered and dispersed injection), with the calculation using separated steam cycle method. The simulation results of the model for sustainable production are production 25% from steam cap + 75% from brine reservoir, dispersed and deep reinjection with make-up wells from steam cap results 9 make-up well number. The implementation of production-injection strategy needs to be planned right from the beginning of exploitation so that the strategy can adapt to changes in reservoir characteristics.

  1. EOS simulation and GRNN modeling of the constant volume depletion behavior of gas condensate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsharkawy, A.M.; Foda, S.G. [Kuwait University, Safat (Kuwait). Petroleum Engineering Dept.


    Currently, two approaches are being used to predict the changes in retrograde gas condensate composition and estimate the pressure depletion behavior of gas condensate reservoirs. The first approach uses the equation of states whereas the second uses empirical correlations. Equations of states (EOS) are poor predictive tools for complex hydrocarbon systems. The EOS needs adjustment against phase behavior data of reservoir fluid of known composition. The empirical correlation does not involve numerous numerical computations but their accuracy is limited. This study presents two general regression neural network (GRNN) models. The first model, GRNNM1, is developed to predict dew point pressure and gas compressibility at dew point using initial composition of numerous samples while the second model, GRNNM2, is developed to predict the changes in well stream effluent composition at any stages of pressure depletion. GRNNM2 can also be used to determine the initial reservoir fluid composition using dew point pressure, gas compressibility at dew point, and reservoir temperature. These models are based on analysis of 142 sample of laboratory studies of constant volume depletion (CVD) for gas condensate systems forming a total of 1082 depletion stages. The database represents a wide range of gas condensate systems obtained worldwide. The performance of the GRNN models has been compared to simulation results of the equation of state. The study shows that the proposed general regression neural network models are accurate, valid, and reliable. These models can be used to forecast CVD data needed for many reservoir engineering calculations in case laboratory data is unavailable. The GRNN models save computer time involved in EOS calculations. The study also show that once these models are properly trained they can be used to cut expenses of frequent sampling and laborious experimental CVD tests required for gas condensate reservoirs. 55 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Reservoir Characterization and Flow Simulation for CO 2-EOR in the Tensleep Formation Using Discrete Fracture Networks, Teapot Dome, Wyoming (United States)

    Kavousi Ghahfarokhi, Payam

    The Tensleep oil reservoir at Teapot Dome, Wyoming, USA, is a naturally fractured tight sandstone reservoir that has been considered for carbon-dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) and sequestration. CO2-EOR analysis requires a thorough understanding of the Tensleep fracture network. Wireline image logs from the field suggest that the reservoir fracture network is dominated by early formed structural hinge oblique fractures with interconnectivity enhanced by hinge parallel and hinge perpendicular fracture sets. Available post stack 3D seismic data are used to generate a seismic fracture intensity attribute for the reservoir fracture network. The resulting seismic fracture intensity is qualitatively correlated to the field production history. Wells located on hinge-oblique discontinuities are more productive than other wells in the field. We use Oda's method to upscale the fracture permeabilities in the discrete fracture network for use in a dual porosity fluid flow simulator. We analytically show that Oda's method is sensitive to the grid orientation relative to fracture set strike. Results show that the calculated permeability tensors have maximum geometric mean for the non-zero permeability components (kxx,kyy,kzz,kxy) when the dominant fracture set cuts diagonally through the grid cell at 45° relative to the grid cell principal directions (i,j). The geometric mean of the permeability tensor components falls to a minimum when the dominant fracture set is parallel to either grid wall (i or j principal directions). The latter case has off-diagonal permeability terms close to zero. We oriented the Tensleep reservoir grid to N72°W to minimize the off-diagonal permeability terms. The seismic fracture intensity attribute is then used to generate a realization of the reservoir fracture network. Subsequently, fracture properties are upscaled to the reservoir grid scale for a fully compositional flow simulation. We implemented a PVT analysis using CO2 swelling test

  3. Simulation of the hydrodynamic behaviour of a Mediterranean reservoir under different climate change and management scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Prats


    Full Text Available One of the most important current issues in the management of lakes and reservoirs is the prediction of global climate change effects to determine appropriate mitigation and adaptation actions. In this paper we analyse whether management actions can limit the effects of climate change on water temperatures in a reservoir. For this, we used the model EOLE to simulate the hydrodynamic and thermal behaviour of the reservoir of Bimont (Provence region, France in the medium term (2036-2065 and in the long term (2066-2095 using regionalised projections by the model CNRM-CERFACS-CNRM-CM5 under the emission scenarios RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5. Water temperature projections were compared to simulations for the reference period 1993-2013, the longest period for which we had year-long data for both hydrology and meteorology. We calibrated the model using profile measurements for the period 2010-2011 and we carried an extensive validation and assessment of model performance. In fact, we validated the model using profile measurements for 2012-2014, obtaining a root mean square error of 1.08°C and mean bias of -0.11°C, and we assured the consistency of model simulations in the long term by comparing simulated surface temperature to satellite measurements for 1999-2013. We assessed the effect using synthetic input data instead of measured input data by comparing simulations made using both kinds of data for the reference period. Using synthetic data resulted in slightly lower (-0.3°C average and maximum epilimnion temperatures, a somewhat deeper thermocline, and slightly higher evaporation (+7%. To investigate the effect of different management strategies, we considered three management scenarios: i bottom outlet and present water level; ii bottom outlet and elevated water level; and iii surface outlet and elevated water level. According to the simulations, the reservoir of Bimont will have a low rate of warming of the epilimnion of 0.009-0.024 °C·yr-1, but a

  4. Study on Zipingpu reservoir induced multi-scale porous flows related to 2008 Wenchuan Ms 8.0 earthquake by parallel CPU and GPU computation (United States)

    Shi, Y.; Zhu, B.


    between extended pore strain and stress on Zipingpu reservoir and Longmenshan coseismic fault slip on Scale II under 20000ts is simulated. In these scale, we can obtained that in the penetration process, if we defined the fault slip as a fluid-saturated elastic porous media, then the vadose energy (caused by pore pressure and can flow to the fault slip tip) is variable with the undrained or drained zone, more energy is released under drained zone than undrained zone; If the fault slip is a stable creep rupturing process, the criteria energy (strain energy function factors) must increase with the speed of faults spreading. When penetrate reach a stable stage, the fluid flow pore-network crack function became domain, with the time scale increasing, the micro solid-fluid interface will became weak and blur, the macro phenomenon is the porosity become larger, the strain energy can be released to the faults process decreased with the drained spreading increasing. The reservoir loading and earthquake trigger relationship is depending on fault slip geometry and character, porosity variability of surrounding geological structure and time and size scale. To Zipingpu reservoir and 2008 Wenchuan earthquake case, porosity and time scale are the key factors.

  5. Coalbed Methane Production System Simulation and Deliverability Forecasting: Coupled Surface Network/Wellbore/Reservoir Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhou


    Full Text Available As an unconventional energy, coalbed methane (CBM mainly exists in coal bed with adsorption, whose productivity is different from conventional gas reservoir. This paper explains the wellbore pressure drop, surface pipeline network simulation, and reservoir calculation model of CBM. A coupled surface/wellbore/reservoir calculation architecture was presented, to coordinate the gas production in each calculation period until the balance of surface/wellbore/reservoir. This coupled calculation method was applied to a CBM field for predicting production. The daily gas production increased year by year at the first time and then decreased gradually after several years, while the daily water production was reduced all the time with the successive decline of the formation pressure. The production of gas and water in each well is almost the same when the structure is a star. When system structure is a dendritic surface system, the daily gas production ranked highest at the well which is the nearest to the surface system collection point and lowest at the well which is the farthest to the surface system collection point. This coupled calculation method could be used to predict the water production, gas production, and formation pressure of a CBM field during a period of time.

  6. Innovation-driven efficient development of the Longwangmiao Fm large-scale sulfur gas reservoir in Moxi block, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Ma


    Full Text Available The Lower Cambrian Longwangmiao Fm gas reservoir in Moxi block of the Anyue Gas field, Sichuan Basin, is the largest single-sandbody integrated carbonate gas reservoir proved so far in China. Notwithstanding this reservoir's advantages like large-scale reserves and high single-well productivity, there are multiple complicated factors restricting its efficient development, such as a median content of hydrogen sulfide, low porosity and strong heterogeneity of fracture–cave formation, various modes of gas–water occurrences, and close relation between overpressure and stress sensitivity. Up till now, since only a few Cambrian large-scale carbonate gas reservoirs have ever been developed in the world, there still exists some blind spots especially about its exploration and production rules. Besides, as for large-scale sulfur gas reservoirs, the exploration and construction is costly, and production test in the early evaluation stage is severely limited, all of which will bring about great challenges in productivity construction and high potential risks. In this regard, combining with Chinese strategic demand of strengthening clean energy supply security, the PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gas Field Company has carried out researches and field tests for the purpose of providing high-production wells, optimizing development design, rapidly constructing high-quality productivity and upgrading HSE security in the Longwangmiao Fm gas reservoir in Moxi block. Through the innovations of technology and management mode within 3 years, this gas reservoir has been built into a modern large-scale gas field with high quality, high efficiency and high benefit, and its annual capacity is now up to over 100 × 108 m3, with a desirable production capacity and development indexes gained as originally anticipated. It has become a new model of large-scale gas reservoirs with efficient development, providing a reference for other types of gas reservoirs in China.

  7. The pressure equation arising in reservoir simulation. Mathematical properties, numerical methods and upscaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Bjoern Fredrik


    The main purpose of this thesis has been to analyse self-adjoint second order elliptic partial differential equations arising in reservoir simulation. It studies several mathematical and numerical problems for the pressure equation arising in models of fluid flow in porous media. The theoretical results obtained have been illustrated by a series of numerical experiments. The influence of large variations in the mobility tensor upon the solution of the pressure equation is analysed. The performance of numerical methods applied to such problems have been studied. A new upscaling technique for one-phase flow in heterogeneous reservoirs is developed. The stability of the solution of the pressure equation with respect to small perturbations of the mobility tensor is studied. The results are used to develop a new numerical method for a model of fully nonlinear water waves. 158 refs, 39 figs., 12 tabs.

  8. Impact of real-time measurements for data assimilation in reservoir simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze-Riegert, R.; Krosche, M. [Scandpower Petroleum Technology GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Pajonk, O. [TU Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Wissenschaftliches Rechnen; Myrland, T. [Morges Teknisk-Naturvitenskapelige Univ. (NTNU), Trondheim (Germany)


    This paper gives an overview on the conceptual background of data assimilation techniques. The framework of sequential data assimilation as described for the ensemble Kalman filter implementation allows a continuous integration of new measurement data. The initial diversity of ensemble members will be critical for the assimilation process and the ability to successfully assimilate measurement data. At the same time the initial ensemble will impact the propagation of uncertainties with crucial consequences for production forecasts. Data assimilation techniques have complimentary features compared to other optimization techniques built on selection or regression schemes. Specifically, EnKF is applicable to real field cases and defines an important perspective for facilitating continuous reservoir simulation model updates in a reservoir life cycle. (orig.)

  9. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, Shirley P.


    The objective of this Class 3 project was demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two main phases. The original objectives of the reservoir-characterization phase of the project were (1) to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two representative fields of the Delaware Mountain Group, Geraldine Ford and Ford West, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, (2) to chose a demonstration area in one of the fields, and (3) to simulate a CO 2 flood in the demonstration area

  10. Cosmological neutrino simulations at extreme scale (United States)

    Emberson, J. D.; Yu, Hao-Ran; Inman, Derek; Zhang, Tong-Jie; Pen, Ue-Li; Harnois-Déraps, Joachim; Yuan, Shuo; Teng, Huan-Yu; Zhu, Hong-Ming; Chen, Xuelei; Xing, Zhi-Zhong


    Constraining neutrino mass remains an elusive challenge in modern physics. Precision measurements are expected from several upcoming cosmological probes of large-scale structure. Achieving this goal relies on an equal level of precision from theoretical predictions of neutrino clustering. Numerical simulations of the non-linear evolution of cold dark matter and neutrinos play a pivotal role in this process. We incorporate neutrinos into the cosmological N-body code CUBEP3M and discuss the challenges associated with pushing to the extreme scales demanded by the neutrino problem. We highlight code optimizations made to exploit modern high performance computing architectures and present a novel method of data compression that reduces the phase-space particle footprint from 24 bytes in single precision to roughly 9 bytes. We scale the neutrino problem to the Tianhe-2 supercomputer and provide details of our production run, named TianNu, which uses 86% of the machine (13 824 compute nodes). With a total of 2.97 trillion particles, TianNu is currently the world’s largest cosmological N-body simulation and improves upon previous neutrino simulations by two orders of magnitude in scale. We finish with a discussion of the unanticipated computational challenges that were encountered during the TianNu runtime.

  11. Multi-Scale Coupling Between Monte Carlo Molecular Simulation and Darcy-Scale Flow in Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Saad, Ahmed Mohamed


    In this work, an efficient coupling between Monte Carlo (MC) molecular simulation and Darcy-scale flow in porous media is presented. The cell centered finite difference method with non-uniform rectangular mesh were used to discretize the simulation domain and solve the governing equations. To speed up the MC simulations, we implemented a recently developed scheme that quickly generates MC Markov chains out of pre-computed ones, based on the reweighting and reconstruction algorithm. This method astonishingly reduces the required computational times by MC simulations from hours to seconds. To demonstrate the strength of the proposed coupling in terms of computational time efficiency and numerical accuracy in fluid properties, various numerical experiments covering different compressible single-phase flow scenarios were conducted. The novelty in the introduced scheme is in allowing an efficient coupling of the molecular scale and the Darcy\\'s one in reservoir simulators. This leads to an accurate description of thermodynamic behavior of the simulated reservoir fluids; consequently enhancing the confidence in the flow predictions in porous media.

  12. Simulating oil recovery during CO{sub 2} sequestration into a mature oil reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamukcu, Y.Z. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States); Gumrah, F. [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey)


    The advantages of sequestering carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into depleted oil reservoirs were discussed with particular reference to the Kartaltepe Field in southeast Turkey. Geologic sequestration is gaining interest as an option to dispose large amount of CO{sub 2} safely and economically for long-term periods. This emerging technology to reduce large amounts of CO{sub 2} released into the atmosphere involves the capture of CO{sub 2} from hydrocarbon emissions, transportation of compressed CO{sub 2} from the source to the field, and injection and storage of CO{sub 2} into the subsurface. While CO{sub 2} injection into oil reservoirs has been in practice for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) purposes for more than 35 years, this paper focused on how to maximize oil recovery with the minimum quantity of CO{sub 2} and sequestering the maximum amount of CO{sub 2}. The Kartaltepe Field which has been in production since 1982, consists of alternating layers of sands and shales deposited in deltaic and marine carbonates to form a faulted anticline structure extending over an area of 2.70 km by 0.75 km. The light crude is produced from a carbonate formation at an average depth of 1930 m to 1950 m. The primary drive mechanism is water drive. The reservoir is a heterogeneous reef composed of two distinct carbonate formations. The upper formation is limestone with an average porosity of 5 per cent and average permeability of 0.06 md. The lower formation is dolomite with an average porosity of 25 per cent, and average permeability of 60 md. The reservoir shape is anticline, and it is bounded by faults and underlain by an aquifer. Reservoir rock and fluid data were evaluated and merged into CMG/STARS simulator. History matching was done with production data to verify the results of the simulator with field data. Once a good match was obtained, different scenarios were simulated. The results showed that CO{sub 2} injection can increase oil recovery. However, it was determined that

  13. Static and dynamic load-balancing strategies for parallel reservoir simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anguille, L.; Killough, J.E.; Li, T.M.C.; Toepfer, J.L.


    Accurate simulation of the complex phenomena that occur in flow in porous media can tax even the most powerful serial computers. Emergence of new parallel computer architectures as a future efficient tool in reservoir simulation may overcome this difficulty. Unfortunately, major problems remain to be solved before using parallel computers commercially: production serial programs must be rewritten to be efficient in parallel environments and load balancing methods must be explored to evenly distribute the workload on each processor during the simulation. This study implements both a static load-balancing algorithm and a receiver-initiated dynamic load-sharing algorithm to achieve high parallel efficiencies on both the IBM SP2 and Intel IPSC/860 parallel computers. Significant speedup improvement was recorded for both methods. Further optimization of these algorithms yielded a technique with efficiencies as high as 90% and 70% on 8 and 32 nodes, respectively. The increased performance was the result of the minimization of message-passing overhead

  14. Regional-scale comparison of the effects of lakes and reservoirs versus streams on water quality (United States)

    Schmadel, N. M.; Harvey, J. W.; Alexander, R. B.; Schwarz, G. E.; Moore, R. B.; Gomez-Velez, J. D.; Scott, D.; Boyer, E. W.


    Recent physically-based modeling at regional scales has revealed that the potential for biogeochemical transformations of nitrogen—such as denitrification—along a fluvial network may be dominated by hyporheic exchange. However, fluvial networks are comprised of a mosaic of water body types from headwaters to coasts, each potentially playing a different role in water quality. For example, depending on conditions, streams or ponded waters (lakes, reservoirs) may disproportionately act as biogeochemical hotspots. Because downstream water quality reflects an accumulation or blending of processes, it is not clear how ponded waters that vary in number and location across a network influence downstream water quality. Here, we quantified the effects of ponded waters along fluvial networks on the fate of nitrogen in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. We used a spatially referenced model calibrated to land use and water quality data and considered both the number and location of ponded waters across the regions. We experimentally modeled the replacement of nearly 30,000 ponded waters with streams using corresponding estimates of hydraulic geometry and nitrogen removal, thereby providing a direct comparison of the role of ponded waters versus the role of streams with regard to nitrogen removal. We found that pond size, density (total pond area to drainage area), and position within a network were all important factors. These findings complement field measurements and reach-scale modeling by upscaling to reveal cumulative effects. This regional-scale modeling of ponded waters is useful toward developing better strategies for prioritizing creation of new reservoirs or removal of dams, or informing stream restoration at ecologically-relevant scales. This research is a product of the John Wesley Powell Center River Corridor Working Group.

  15. Simulations of atomic-scale sliding friction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Reinholdt; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Stoltze, Per


    Simulation studies of atomic-scale sliding friction have been performed for a number of tip-surface and surface-surface contacts consisting of copper atoms. Both geometrically very simple tip-surface structures and more realistic interface necks formed by simulated annealing have been studied....... Kinetic friction is observed to be caused by atomic-scale Stick and slip which occurs by nucleation and subsequent motion of dislocations preferably between close-packed {111} planes. Stick and slip seems ro occur in different situations. For single crystalline contacts without grain boundaries...... at the interface the stick and slip process is clearly observed for a large number of contact areas, normal loads, and sliding velocities. If the tip and substrate crystal orientations are different so that a mismatch exists in the interface, the stick and slip process is more fragile. It is then caused by local...

  16. Physical Simulation of Colayer Water Flooding in Low Permeability Carbonate Reservoir in Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingwang Shi


    Full Text Available To study the flow mechanism under different displacement modes of low permeability carbonate reservoir in the Middle East and to improve the utilization of various types of reservoirs, the physical simulation experiments of water flooding by different displacement methods were carried out. Selecting two types of rock samples with different permeability levels, two-layer coinjection and separated production experiments by samples I and III and conventional water flooding experiments by samples II and IV were carried out. In addition, by using low magnetic field nuclear magnetic resonance, the development effect of microscopic pore structure under the different injection-production models was analyzed. Results show that, compared with the coinjection, the recovery rate of sample I was higher than II, 19.30%; sample III was lower than IV, 23.22%; and the comprehensive recovery degree reduced by 3.92%. NMR data also show that the crude oil is mainly distributed in the large pore throat; after water flooding, the displacement is also within the large pore throat, whereas the small pore throat is mainly obtained by the effect of infiltration absorption. The above studies provide a laboratory basis and foundation for the further development of low permeability carbonate reservoir in different Middle East strata.

  17. Numerical simulation of gas hydrate exploitation from subsea reservoirs in the Black Sea (United States)

    Janicki, Georg; Schlüter, Stefan; Hennig, Torsten; Deerberg, Görge


    Natural gas (methane) is the most environmental friendly source of fossil energy. When coal is replace by natural gas in power production the emission of carbon dioxide is reduced by 50 %. The vast amount of methane assumed in gas hydrate deposits can help to overcome a shortage of fossil energy resources in the future. To increase their potential for energy applications new technological approaches are being discussed and developed worldwide. Besides technical challenges that have to be overcome climate and safety issues have to be considered before a commercial exploitation of such unconventional reservoirs. The potential of producing natural gas from subsea gas hydrate deposits by various means (e. g. depressurization and/or carbon dioxide injection) is numerically studied in the frame of the German research project »SUGAR - Submarine Gas Hydrate Reservoirs«. In order to simulate the exploitation of hydrate-bearing sediments in the subsea, an in-house simulation model HyReS which is implemented in the general-purpose software COMSOL Multiphysics is used. This tool turned out to be especially suited for the flexible implementation of non-standard correlations concerning heat transfer, fluid flow, hydrate kinetics, and other relevant model data. Partially based on the simulation results, the development of a technical concept and its evaluation are the subject of ongoing investigations, whereby geological and ecological criteria are to be considered. The results illustrate the processes and effects occurring during the gas production from a subsea gas hydrate deposit by depressurization. The simulation results from a case study for a deposit located in the Black Sea reveal that the production of natural gas by simple depressurization is possible but with quite low rates. It can be shown that the hydrate decomposition and thus the gas production strongly depend on the geophysical properties of the reservoir, the mass and heat transport within the reservoir, and

  18. Revised Comparisons of Simulated Hydrodynamics and Water Quality for Projected Demands in 2046, Pueblo Reservoir, Southeastern Colorado (United States)

    Ortiz, Roderick F.; Miller, Lisa D.


    Pueblo Reservoir is one of southeastern Colorado's most valuable water resources. The reservoir provides irrigation, municipal, and industrial water to various entities throughout the region. The reservoir also provides flood control, recreational activities, sport fishing, and wildlife enhancement to the region. The Southern Delivery System (SDS) project is a regional water-delivery project that has been proposed to provide a safe, reliable, and sustainable water supply through the foreseeable future (2046) for Colorado Springs, Fountain, Security, and Pueblo West. Discussions with the Bureau of Reclamation and the U.S. Geological Survey led to a cooperative agreement to simulate the hydrodynamics and water quality of Pueblo Reservoir. This work has been completed and described in a previously published report, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2008-5056. Additionally, there was a need to make comparisons of simulated hydrodynamics and water quality for projected demands associated with the various Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) alternatives and plans by Pueblo West to discharge treated wastewater into the reservoir. Wastewater plans by Pueblo West are fully independent of the SDS project. This report compares simulated hydrodynamics and water quality for projected demands in Pueblo Reservoir resulting from changes in inflow and water quality entering the reservoir, and from changes to withdrawals from the reservoir as projected for the year 2046. Four of the seven EIS alternatives were selected for scenario simulations. The four U.S. Geological Survey simulation scenarios were the No Action scenario (EIS Alternative 1), the Downstream Diversion scenario (EIS Alternative 2), the Upstream Return-Flow scenario (EIS Alternative 4), and the Upstream Diversion scenario (EIS Alternative 7). Additionally, the results of an Existing Conditions scenario (year 2006 demand conditions) were compared to the No Action scenario (projected demands in

  19. Computer simulations for the nano-scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stich, I.


    A review of methods for computations for the nano-scale is presented. The paper should provide a convenient starting point into computations for the nano-scale as well as a more in depth presentation for those already working in the field of atomic/molecular-scale modeling. The argument is divided in chapters covering the methods for description of the (i) electrons, (ii) ions, and (iii) techniques for efficient solving of the underlying equations. A fairly broad view is taken covering the Hartree-Fock approximation, density functional techniques and quantum Monte-Carlo techniques for electrons. The customary quantum chemistry methods, such as post Hartree-Fock techniques, are only briefly mentioned. Description of both classical and quantum ions is presented. The techniques cover Ehrenfest, Born-Oppenheimer, and Car-Parrinello dynamics. The strong and weak points of both principal and technical nature are analyzed. In the second part we introduce a number of applications to demonstrate the different approximations and techniques introduced in the first part. They cover a wide range of applications such as non-simple liquids, surfaces, molecule-surface interactions, applications in nano technology, etc. These more in depth presentations, while certainly not exhaustive, should provide information on technical aspects of the simulations, typical parameters used, and ways of analysis of the huge amounts of data generated in these large-scale supercomputer simulations. (author)

  20. The compressed state Kalman filter for nonlinear state estimation: Application to large-scale reservoir monitoring (United States)

    Li, Judith Yue; Kokkinaki, Amalia; Ghorbanidehno, Hojat; Darve, Eric F.; Kitanidis, Peter K.


    Reservoir monitoring aims to provide snapshots of reservoir conditions and their uncertainties to assist operation management and risk analysis. These snapshots may contain millions of state variables, e.g., pressures and saturations, which can be estimated by assimilating data in real time using the Kalman filter (KF). However, the KF has a computational cost that scales quadratically with the number of unknowns, m, due to the cost of computing and storing the covariance and Jacobian matrices, along with their products. The compressed state Kalman filter (CSKF) adapts the KF for solving large-scale monitoring problems. The CSKF uses N preselected orthogonal bases to compute an accurate rank-N approximation of the covariance that is close to the optimal spectral approximation given by SVD. The CSKF has a computational cost that scales linearly in m and uses an efficient matrix-free approach that propagates uncertainties using N + 1 forward model evaluations, where N≪m. Here we present a generalized CSKF algorithm for nonlinear state estimation problems such as CO2 monitoring. For simultaneous estimation of multiple types of state variables, the algorithm allows selecting bases that represent the variability of each state type. Through synthetic numerical experiments of CO2 monitoring, we show that the CSKF can reproduce the Kalman gain accurately even for large compression ratios (m/N). For a given computational cost, the CSKF uses a robust and flexible compression scheme that gives more reliable uncertainty estimates than the ensemble Kalman filter, which may display loss of ensemble variability leading to suboptimal uncertainty estimates.

  1. Numerical simulation of groundwater movement and managed aquifer recharge from Sand Hollow Reservoir, Hurricane Bench area, Washington County, Utah (United States)

    Marston, Thomas M.; Heilweil, Victor M.


    The Hurricane Bench area of Washington County, Utah, is a 70 square-mile area extending south from the Virgin River and encompassing Sand Hollow basin. Sand Hollow Reservoir, located on Hurricane Bench, was completed in March 2002 and is operated primarily as a managed aquifer recharge project by the Washington County Water Conservancy District. The reservoir is situated on a thick sequence of the Navajo Sandstone and Kayenta Formation. Total recharge to the underlying Navajo aquifer from the reservoir was about 86,000 acre-feet from 2002 to 2009. Natural recharge as infiltration of precipitation was approximately 2,100 acre-feet per year for the same period. Discharge occurs as seepage to the Virgin River, municipal and irrigation well withdrawals, and seepage to drains at the base of reservoir dams. Within the Hurricane Bench area, unconfined groundwater-flow conditions generally exist throughout the Navajo Sandstone. Navajo Sandstone hydraulic-conductivity values from regional aquifer testing range from 0.8 to 32 feet per day. The large variability in hydraulic conductivity is attributed to bedrock fractures that trend north-northeast across the study area.A numerical groundwater-flow model was developed to simulate groundwater movement in the Hurricane Bench area and to simulate the movement of managed aquifer recharge from Sand Hollow Reservoir through the groundwater system. The model was calibrated to combined steady- and transient-state conditions. The steady-state portion of the simulation was developed and calibrated by using hydrologic data that represented average conditions for 1975. The transient-state portion of the simulation was developed and calibrated by using hydrologic data collected from 1976 to 2009. Areally, the model grid was 98 rows by 76 columns with a variable cell size ranging from about 1.5 to 25 acres. Smaller cells were used to represent the reservoir to accurately simulate the reservoir bathymetry and nearby monitoring wells; larger

  2. Numerical simulations of highly buoyant flows in the Castel Giorgio - Torre Alfina deep geothermal reservoir (United States)

    Volpi, Giorgio; Crosta, Giovanni B.; Colucci, Francesca; Fischer, Thomas; Magri, Fabien


    Geothermal heat is a viable source of energy and its environmental impact in terms of CO2 emissions is significantly lower than conventional fossil fuels. However, nowadays its utilization is inconsistent with the enormous amount of energy available underneath the surface of the earth. This is mainly due to the uncertainties associated with it, as for example the lack of appropriate computational tools, necessary to perform effective analyses. The aim of the present study is to build an accurate 3D numerical model, to simulate the exploitation process of the deep geothermal reservoir of Castel Giorgio - Torre Alfina (central Italy), and to compare results and performances of parallel simulations performed with TOUGH2 (Pruess et al. 1999), FEFLOW (Diersch 2014) and the open source software OpenGeoSys (Kolditz et al. 2012). Detailed geological, structural and hydrogeological data, available for the selected area since early 70s, show that Castel Giorgio - Torre Alfina is a potential geothermal reservoir with high thermal characteristics (120 ° C - 150 ° C) and fluids such as pressurized water and gas, mainly CO2, hosted in a carbonate formation. Our two steps simulations firstly recreate the undisturbed natural state of the considered system and then perform the predictive analysis of the industrial exploitation process. The three adopted software showed a strong numerical simulations accuracy, which has been verified by comparing the simulated and measured temperature and pressure values of the geothermal wells in the area. The results of our simulations have demonstrated the sustainability of the investigated geothermal field for the development of a 5 MW pilot plant with total fluids reinjection in the same original formation. From the thermal point of view, a very efficient buoyant circulation inside the geothermal system has been observed, thus allowing the reservoir to support the hypothesis of a 50 years production time with a flow rate of 1050 t

  3. Three-dimensional numerical reservoir simulation of the EGS Demonstration Project at The Geysers geothermal field (United States)

    Borgia, Andrea; Rutqvist, Jonny; Oldenburg, Curt M.; Hutchings, Lawrence; Garcia, Julio; Walters, Mark; Hartline, Craig; Jeanne, Pierre; Dobson, Patrick; Boyle, Katie


    -isothermal porous media numerical flow simulator in order to model the evolution and injection-related operational dynamics of The Geysers geothermal field. At the bottom of the domain in the felsite, we impose a constant temperature, constant saturation, low-permeability boundary. Laterally we set no-flow boundaries (no mass or heat flow), while at the top we use a fully aqueous-phase-saturated constant atmospheric pressure boundary condition. We compute initial conditions for two different conceptual models. The first conceptual model has two phases (gas and aqueous) with decreasing proportions of gas from the steam zone downward; the second model has dry steam all the way from the steam zone to the bottom. The first may be more similar to a pre-exploitation condition, before production reduced pressure and dried out the system, while the second is calibrated to the pressure and temperature actually measured in the reservoir today. Our preliminary results are in reasonable agreement with the pressure monitoring at Prati State 31. These results will be used in hydrogeomechanical modeling to plan, design, and validate the effects of injection in the system.

  4. Fully implicit two-phase reservoir simulation with the additive schwarz preconditioned inexact newton method

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Lulu


    The fully implicit approach is attractive in reservoir simulation for reasons of numerical stability and the avoidance of splitting errors when solving multiphase flow problems, but a large nonlinear system must be solved at each time step, so efficient and robust numerical methods are required to treat the nonlinearity. The Additive Schwarz Preconditioned Inexact Newton (ASPIN) framework, as an option for the outermost solver, successfully handles strong nonlinearities in computational fluid dynamics, but is barely explored for the highly nonlinear models of complex multiphase flow with capillarity, heterogeneity, and complex geometry. In this paper, the fully implicit ASPIN method is demonstrated for a finite volume discretization based on incompressible two-phase reservoir simulators in the presence of capillary forces and gravity. Numerical experiments show that the number of global nonlinear iterations is not only scalable with respect to the number of processors, but also significantly reduced compared with the standard inexact Newton method with a backtracking technique. Moreover, the ASPIN method, in contrast with the IMPES method, saves overall execution time because of the savings in timestep size.

  5. 3-D CFD simulations of hydrodynamics in the Sulejow dam reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziemińska-Stolarska Aleksandra


    Full Text Available This paper reports the processes by which a single-phase 3-D CFD model of hydrodynamics in a 17-km-long dam reservoir was developed, verified and tested. A simplified VOF model of flow was elaborated to determine the effect of wind on hydrodynamics in the lake. A hexahedral mesh with over 17 million elements and a k-ω SST turbulence model were defined for single-phase simulations in steady-state conditions. The model was verified on the basis of the extensive flow measurements (StreamPro ADCP, USA. Excellent agreement (average error of less than 10% between computed and measured velocity profiles was found. The simulation results proved a strong effect of wind on hydrodynamics in the lake, especially on the development of the water circulation pattern in the lacustrine zone.

  6. Application of SWAT-HS, a lumped hillslope model to simulate hydrology in the Cannonsville Reservoir watershed, New York (United States)

    Hoang, Linh; Schneiderman, Elliot; Mukundan, Rajith; Moore, Karen; Owens, Emmet; Steenhuis, Tammo


    Surface runoff is the primary mechanism transporting substances such as sediments, agricultural chemicals, and pathogens to receiving waters. In order to predict runoff and pollutant fluxes, and to evaluate management practices, it is essential to accurately predict the areas generating surface runoff, which depend on the type of runoff: infiltration-excess runoff and saturation-excess runoff. The watershed of Cannonsville reservoir is part of the New York City water supply system that provides high quality drinking water to nine million people in New York City (NYC) and nearby communities. Previous research identified saturation-excess runoff as the dominant runoff mechanism in this region. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a promising tool to simulate the NYC watershed given its broad application and good performance in many watersheds with different scales worldwide, for its ability to model water quality responses, and to evaluate the effect of management practices on water quality at the watershed scale. However, SWAT predicts runoff based mainly on soil and land use characteristics, and implicitly considers only infiltration-excess runoff. Therefore, we developed a modified version of SWAT, referred to as SWAT-Hillslope (SWAT-HS), which explicitly simulates saturation-excess runoff by redefining Hydrological Response Units (HRUs) based on wetness classes with varying soil water storage capacities, and by introducing a surface aquifer with the ability to route interflow from "drier" to "wetter" wetness classes. SWAT-HS was first tested at Town Brook, a 37 km2 headwater watershed draining to the Cannonsville reservoir using a single sub-basin for the whole watershed. SWAT-HS performed well, and predicted streamflow yielded Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiencies of 0.68 and 0.87 at the daily and monthly time steps, respectively. More importantly, it predicted the spatial distribution of saturated areas accurately. Based on the good performance in the Town Brook

  7. Well test simulation through Discrete Fracture Network modelling in a fractured carbonate reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casciano, C.; Ruvo, L.; Volpi, B.; Masserano, F.


    A Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) model was used to simulate the results of a production test carried out in a well drilled in a tight, fractured carbonate reservoir. Several static DFN models, depicting different geological scenarios, were built based on data from well logs, core analyses, PLT surveys and structural geology studies. Each of these models underwent a validation procedure, consisting of the simulation of the production test. The comparison between the simulated results and the actual data identified the scenarios whose results most closely matched the actual well behaviour. In order to compensate for the lack of geological data, an iterative loop was performed between the static model and the dynamic simulation. Constraints-added flow simulations provided new information for use in modifying the DFN model, resulting in a step-by-step updating of the static model itself. Finally, a geologically sound model accurately matching the results of the production test was obtained. The final DFN model was used to calculate the equivalent petrophysical parameters that were transferred to the corresponding region of the full field dual-porosity fluid flow model. (author)

  8. Accounting for geochemical alterations of caprock fracture permeability in basin-scale models of leakage from geologic CO2 reservoirs (United States)

    Guo, B.; Fitts, J. P.; Dobossy, M.; Bielicki, J. M.; Peters, C. A.


    Climate mitigation, public acceptance and energy, markets demand that the potential CO2 leakage rates from geologic storage reservoirs are predicted to be low and are known to a high level of certainty. Current approaches to predict CO2 leakage rates assume constant permeability of leakage pathways (e.g., wellbores, faults, fractures). A reactive transport model was developed to account for geochemical alterations that result in permeability evolution of leakage pathways. The one-dimensional reactive transport model was coupled with the basin-scale Estimating Leakage Semi-Analytical (ELSA) model to simulate CO2 and brine leakage through vertical caprock pathways for different CO2 storage reservoir sites and injection scenarios within the Mt. Simon and St. Peter sandstone formations of the Michigan basin. Mineral dissolution in the numerical reactive transport model expands leakage pathways and increases permeability as a result of calcite dissolution by reactions driven by CO2-acidified brine. A geochemical model compared kinetic and equilibrium treatments of calcite dissolution within each grid block for each time step. For a single fracture, we investigated the effect of the reactions on leakage by performing sensitivity analyses of fracture geometry, CO2 concentration, calcite abundance, initial permeability, and pressure gradient. Assuming that calcite dissolution reaches equilibrium at each time step produces unrealistic scenarios of buffering and permeability evolution within fractures. Therefore, the reactive transport model with a kinetic treatment of calcite dissolution was coupled to the ELSA model and used to compare brine and CO2 leakage rates at a variety of potential geologic storage sites within the Michigan basin. The results are used to construct maps based on the susceptibility to geochemically driven increases in leakage rates. These maps should provide useful and easily communicated inputs into decision-making processes for siting geologic CO2

  9. Predicting the natural state of fractured carbonate reservoirs: An Andector Field, West Texas test of a 3-D RTM simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuncay, K.; Romer, S.; Ortoleva, P. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Hoak, T. [Kestrel Geoscience, Littleton, CO (United States); Sundberg, K. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States)


    The power of the reaction, transport, mechanical (RTM) modeling approach is that it directly uses the laws of geochemistry and geophysics to extrapolate fracture and other characteristics from the borehole or surface to the reservoir interior. The objectives of this facet of the project were to refine and test the viability of the basin/reservoir forward modeling approach to address fractured reservoir in E and P problems. The study attempts to resolve the following issues: role of fracturing and timing on present day location and characteristics; clarifying the roles and interplay of flexure dynamics, changing rock rheological properties, fluid pressuring and tectonic/thermal histories on present day reservoir location and characteristics; and test the integrated RTM modeling/geological data approach on a carbonate reservoir. Sedimentary, thermal and tectonic data from Andector Field, West Texas, were used as input to the RTM basin/reservoir simulator to predict its preproduction state. The results were compared with data from producing reservoirs to test the RTM modeling approach. The effects of production on the state of the field are discussed in a companion report. The authors draw the following conclusions: RTM modeling is an important new tool in fractured reservoir E and P analysis; the strong coupling of RTM processes and the geometric and tensorial complexity of fluid flow and stresses require the type of fully coupled, 3-D RTM model for fracture analysis as pioneered in this project; flexure analysis cannot predict key aspects of fractured reservoir location and characteristics; fracture history over the lifetime of a basin is required to understand the timing of petroleum expulsion and migration and the retention properties of putative reservoirs.

  10. Solar-generated steam for oil recovery: Reservoir simulation, economic analysis, and life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandler, Joel; Fowler, Garrett; Cheng, Kris; Kovscek, Anthony R.


    Highlights: • Integrated assessment of solar thermal enhanced oil recovery (TEOR). • Analyses of reservoir performance, economics, and life cycle factors. • High solar fraction scenarios show economic viability for TEOR. • Continuous variable-rate steam injection meets the benchmarks set by conventional steam flood. - Abstract: The viability of solar thermal steam generation for thermal enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) in heavy-oil sands was evaluated using San Joaquin Valley, CA data. The effectiveness of solar TEOR was quantified through reservoir simulation, economic analysis, and life-cycle assessment. Reservoir simulations with continuous but variable rate steam injection were compared with a base-case Tulare Sand steamflood project. For equivalent average injection rates, comparable breakthrough times and recovery factors of 65% of the original oil in place were predicted, in agreement with simulations in the literature. Daily cyclic fluctuations in steam injection rate do not greatly impact recovery. Oil production rates do, however, show seasonal variation. Economic viability was established using historical prices and injection/production volumes from the Kern River oil field. For comparison, this model assumes that present day steam generation technologies were implemented at TEOR startup in 1980. All natural gas cogeneration and 100% solar fraction scenarios had the largest and nearly equal net present values (NPV) of $12.54 B and $12.55 B, respectively. Solar fraction refers to the steam provided by solar steam generation. Given its large capital cost, the 100% solar case shows the greatest sensitivity to discount rate and no sensitivity to natural gas price. Because there are very little emissions associated with day-to-day operations from the solar thermal system, life-cycle emissions are significantly lower than conventional systems even when the embodied energy of the structure is considered. We estimate that less than 1 g of CO 2 /MJ of refined

  11. Non-equilibrium simulation of CH4 production through the depressurization method from gas hydrate reservoirs (United States)

    Qorbani, Khadijeh; Kvamme, Bjørn


    Natural gas hydrates (NGHs) in nature are formed from various hydrate formers (i.e. aqueous, gas, and adsorbed phases). As a result, due to Gibbs phase rule and the combined first and second laws of thermodynamics CH4-hydrate cannot reach thermodynamic equilibrium in real reservoir conditions. CH4 is the dominant component in NGH reservoirs. It is formed as a result of biogenic degradation of biological material in the upper few hundred meters of subsurface. It has been estimated that the amount of fuel-gas reserve in NGHs exceed the total amount of fossil fuel explored until today. Thus, these reservoirs have the potential to satisfy the energy requirements of the future. However, released CH4 from dissociated NGHs could find its way to the atmosphere and it is a far more aggressive greenhouse gas than CO2, even though its life-time is shorter. Lack of reliable field data makes it difficult to predict the production potential, as well as safety of CH4 production from NGHs. Computer simulations can be used as a tool to investigate CH4 production through different scenarios. Most hydrate simulators within academia and industry treat hydrate phase transitions as an equilibrium process and those which employ the kinetic approach utilize simple laboratory data in their models. Furthermore, it is typical to utilize a limited thermodynamic description where only temperature and pressure projections are considered. Another widely used simplification is to assume only a single route for the hydrate phase transitions. The non-equilibrium nature of hydrate indicates a need for proper kinetic models to describe hydrate dissociation and reformation in the reservoir with respect to thermodynamics variables, CH4 mole-fraction, pressure and temperature. The RetrasoCodeBright (RCB) hydrate simulator has previously been extended to model CH4-hydrate dissociation towards CH4 gas and water. CH4-hydrate is added to the RCB data-base as a pseudo mineral. Phase transitions are treated

  12. An Elevated Reservoir of Air Pollutants over the Mid-Atlantic States During the 2011 DISCOVER-AQ Campaign: Airborne Measurements and Numerical Simulations (United States)

    He, Hao; Loughner, Christopher P.; Stehr, Jeffrey W.; Arkinson, Heather L.; Brent, Lacey C.; Follette-Cook, Melanie B.; Tzortziou, Maria A.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Thompson, Anne M.; Martins, Douglas K.; hide


    During a classic heat wave with record high temperatures and poor air quality from July 18 to 23, 2011, an elevated reservoir of air pollutants was observed over and downwind of Baltimore, MD, with relatively clean conditions near the surface. Aircraft and ozonesonde measurements detected approximately 120 parts per billion by volume ozone at 800 meters altitude, but approximately 80 parts per billion by volume ozone near the surface. High concentrations of other pollutants were also observed around the ozone peak: approximately 300 parts per billion by volume CO at 1200 meters, approximately 2 parts per billion by volume NO2 at 800 meters, approximately 5 parts per billion by volume SO2 at 600 meters, and strong aerosol optical scattering (2 x 10 (sup 4) per meter) at 600 meters. These results suggest that the elevated reservoir is a mixture of automobile exhaust (high concentrations of O3, CO, and NO2) and power plant emissions (high SO2 and aerosols). Back trajectory calculations show a local stagnation event before the formation of this elevated reservoir. Forward trajectories suggest an influence on downwind air quality, supported by surface ozone observations on the next day over the downwind PA, NJ and NY area. Meteorological observations from aircraft and ozonesondes show a dramatic veering of wind direction from south to north within the lowest 5000 meters, implying that the development of the elevated reservoir was caused in part by the Chesapeake Bay breeze. Based on in situ observations, Community Air Quality Multi-scale Model (CMAQ) forecast simulations with 12 kilometers resolution overestimated surface ozone concentrations and failed to predict this elevated reservoir; however, CMAQ research simulations with 4 kilometers and 1.33 kilometers resolution more successfully reproduced this event. These results show that high resolution is essential for resolving coastal effects and predicting air quality for cities near major bodies of water such as

  13. Impacts of boreal hydroelectric reservoirs on seasonal climate and precipitation recycling as simulated by the CRCM5: a case study of the La Grande River watershed, Canada (United States)

    Irambona, C.; Music, B.; Nadeau, D. F.; Mahdi, T. F.; Strachan, I. B.


    Located in northern Quebec, Canada, eight hydroelectric reservoirs of a 9782-km2 maximal area cover 6.4% of the La Grande watershed. This study investigates the changes brought by the impoundment of these reservoirs on seasonal climate and precipitation recycling. Two 30-year climate simulations, corresponding to pre- and post-impoundment conditions, were used. They were generated with the fifth-generation Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5), fully coupled to a 1D lake model (FLake). Seasonal temperatures and annual energy budget were generally well reproduced by the model, except in spring when a cold bias, probably related to the overestimation of snow cover, was seen. The difference in 2-m temperature shows that reservoirs induce localized warming in winter (+0.7 ± 0.02 °C) and cooling in the summer (-0.3 ± 0.02 °C). The available energy at the surface increases throughout the year, mostly due to a decrease in surface albedo. Fall latent and sensible heat fluxes are enhanced due to additional energy storage and availability in summer and spring. The changes in precipitation and runoff are within the model internal variability. At the watershed scale, reservoirs induce an additional evaporation of only 5.9 mm year-1 (2%). We use Brubaker's precipitation recycling model to estimate how much of the precipitation is recycled within the watershed. In both simulations, the maximal precipitation recycling occurs in July (less than 6%), indicating weak land-atmosphere coupling. Reservoirs do not seem to affect this coupling, as precipitation recycling only decreased by 0.6% in July.

  14. Simulation of the mulltizones clastic reservoir: A case study of Upper Qishn Clastic Member, Masila Basin-Yemen (United States)

    Khamis, Mohamed; Marta, Ebrahim Bin; Al Natifi, Ali; Fattah, Khaled Abdel; Lashin, Aref


    The Upper Qishn Clastic Member is one of the main oil-bearing reservoirs that are located at Masila Basin-Yemen. It produces oil from many zones with different reservoir properties. The aim of this study is to simulate and model the Qishn sandstone reservoir to provide more understanding of its properties. The available, core plugs, petrophysical, PVT, pressure and production datasets, as well as the seismic structural and geologic information, are all integrated and used in the simulation process. Eclipse simulator was used as a powerful tool for reservoir modeling. A simplified approach based on a pseudo steady-state productivity index and a material balance relationship between the aquifer pressure and the cumulative influx, is applied. The petrophysical properties of the Qishn sandstone reservoir are mainly investigated based on the well logging and core plug analyses. Three reservoir zones of good hydrocarbon potentiality are indicated and named from above to below as S1A, S1C and S2. Among of these zones, the S1A zone attains the best petrophysical and reservoir quality properties. It has an average hydrocarbon saturation of more than 65%, high effective porosity up to 20% and good permeability record (66 mD). The reservoir structure is represented by faulted anticline at the middle of the study with a down going decrease in geometry from S1A zone to S2 zone. It is limited by NE-SW and E-W bounding faults, with a weak aquifer connection from the east. The analysis of pressure and PVT data has revealed that the reservoir fluid type is dead oil with very low gas liquid ratio (GLR). The simulation results indicate heterogeneous reservoir associated with weak aquifer, supported by high initial water saturation and high water cut. Initial oil in place is estimated to be around 628 MM BBL, however, the oil recovery during the period of production is very low (<10%) because of the high water cut due to the fractures associated with many faults. Hence, secondary and

  15. Mineral Reactions in Shale Gas Reservoirs: Barite Scale Formation from Reusing Produced Water As Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid. (United States)

    Paukert Vankeuren, Amelia N; Hakala, J Alexandra; Jarvis, Karl; Moore, Johnathan E


    Hydraulic fracturing for gas production is now ubiquitous in shale plays, but relatively little is known about shale-hydraulic fracturing fluid (HFF) reactions within the reservoir. To investigate reactions during the shut-in period of hydraulic fracturing, experiments were conducted flowing different HFFs through fractured Marcellus shale cores at reservoir temperature and pressure (66 °C, 20 MPa) for one week. Results indicate HFFs with hydrochloric acid cause substantial dissolution of carbonate minerals, as expected, increasing effective fracture volume (fracture volume + near-fracture matrix porosity) by 56-65%. HFFs with reused produced water composition cause precipitation of secondary minerals, particularly barite, decreasing effective fracture volume by 1-3%. Barite precipitation occurs despite the presence of antiscalants in experiments with and without shale contact and is driven in part by addition of dissolved sulfate from the decomposition of persulfate breakers in HFF at reservoir conditions. The overall effect of mineral changes on the reservoir has yet to be quantified, but the significant amount of barite scale formed by HFFs with reused produced water composition could reduce effective fracture volume. Further study is required to extrapolate experimental results to reservoir-scale and to explore the effect that mineral changes from HFF interaction with shale might have on gas production.

  16. A Pore Scale Flow Simulation of Reconstructed Model Based on the Micro Seepage Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Liu


    Full Text Available Researches on microscopic seepage mechanism and fine description of reservoir pore structure play an important role in effective development of low and ultralow permeability reservoir. The typical micro pore structure model was established by two ways of the conventional model reconstruction method and the built-in graphics function method of Comsol® in this paper. A pore scale flow simulation was conducted on the reconstructed model established by two different ways using creeping flow interface and Brinkman equation interface, respectively. The results showed that the simulation of the two models agreed well in the distribution of velocity, pressure, Reynolds number, and so on. And it verified the feasibility of the direct reconstruction method from graphic file to geometric model, which provided a new way for diversifying the numerical study of micro seepage mechanism.

  17. Coupling Chemical Kinetics and Flashes in Reactive, Thermal and Compositional Reservoir Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Rode; Gerritsen, Margot G.; Thomsen, Per Grove


    of convergence and error test failures by more than 50% compared to direct integration without the new algorithm. To facilitate the algorithmic development we construct a virtual kinetic cell model. We use implicit one-step ESDIRK (Explicit Singly Diagonal Implicit Runge-Kutta) methods for integration...... of the kinetics. The kinetic cell model serves both as a tool for the development and testing of tailored solvers as well as a testbed for studying the interactions between chemical kinetics and phase behavior. A comparison between a Kvalue correlation based approach and a more rigorous equation of state based......Phase changes are known to cause convergence problems for integration of stiff kinetics in thermal and compositional reservoir simulations. We propose an algorithm for detection and location of phase changes based on discrete event system theory. The algorithm provides a robust way for handling...

  18. Reservoir Modeling by Data Integration via Intermediate Spaces and Artificial Intelligence Tools in MPS Simulation Frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, Rouhollah; Khamehchi, Ehsan


    Conditioning stochastic simulations are very important in many geostatistical applications that call for the introduction of nonlinear and multiple-point data in reservoir modeling. Here, a new methodology is proposed for the incorporation of different data types into multiple-point statistics (MPS) simulation frameworks. Unlike the previous techniques that call for an approximate forward model (filter) for integration of secondary data into geologically constructed models, the proposed approach develops an intermediate space where all the primary and secondary data are easily mapped onto. Definition of the intermediate space, as may be achieved via application of artificial intelligence tools like neural networks and fuzzy inference systems, eliminates the need for using filters as in previous techniques. The applicability of the proposed approach in conditioning MPS simulations to static and geologic data is verified by modeling a real example of discrete fracture networks using conventional well-log data. The training patterns are well reproduced in the realizations, while the model is also consistent with the map of secondary data

  19. Reservoir Modeling by Data Integration via Intermediate Spaces and Artificial Intelligence Tools in MPS Simulation Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadi, Rouhollah, E-mail: [Amirkabir University of Technology, PhD Student at Reservoir Engineering, Department of Petroleum Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khamehchi, Ehsan [Amirkabir University of Technology, Faculty of Petroleum Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Conditioning stochastic simulations are very important in many geostatistical applications that call for the introduction of nonlinear and multiple-point data in reservoir modeling. Here, a new methodology is proposed for the incorporation of different data types into multiple-point statistics (MPS) simulation frameworks. Unlike the previous techniques that call for an approximate forward model (filter) for integration of secondary data into geologically constructed models, the proposed approach develops an intermediate space where all the primary and secondary data are easily mapped onto. Definition of the intermediate space, as may be achieved via application of artificial intelligence tools like neural networks and fuzzy inference systems, eliminates the need for using filters as in previous techniques. The applicability of the proposed approach in conditioning MPS simulations to static and geologic data is verified by modeling a real example of discrete fracture networks using conventional well-log data. The training patterns are well reproduced in the realizations, while the model is also consistent with the map of secondary data.

  20. Large-scale Intelligent Transporation Systems simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, T.; Canfield, T.; Hannebutte, U.; Levine, D.; Tentner, A.


    A prototype computer system has been developed which defines a high-level architecture for a large-scale, comprehensive, scalable simulation of an Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) capable of running on massively parallel computers and distributed (networked) computer systems. The prototype includes the modelling of instrumented ``smart`` vehicles with in-vehicle navigation units capable of optimal route planning and Traffic Management Centers (TMC). The TMC has probe vehicle tracking capabilities (display position and attributes of instrumented vehicles), and can provide 2-way interaction with traffic to provide advisories and link times. Both the in-vehicle navigation module and the TMC feature detailed graphical user interfaces to support human-factors studies. The prototype has been developed on a distributed system of networked UNIX computers but is designed to run on ANL`s IBM SP-X parallel computer system for large scale problems. A novel feature of our design is that vehicles will be represented by autonomus computer processes, each with a behavior model which performs independent route selection and reacts to external traffic events much like real vehicles. With this approach, one will be able to take advantage of emerging massively parallel processor (MPP) systems.

  1. Model-Based Control and Optimization of Large Scale Physical Systems - Challenges in Reservoir Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Hof, P.M.J.; Jansen, J.D.; Van Essen, G.M.; Bosgra, O.H.


    Due to urgent needs to increase efficiency in oil recovery from subsurface reservoirs new technology is developed that allows more detailed sensing and actuation of multiphase flow properties in oil reservoirs. One of the examples is the controlled injection of water through injection wells with the

  2. Scaling properties reveal regulation of river flows in the Amazon through a forest reservoir (United States)

    Salazar, Juan Fernando; Villegas, Juan Camilo; María Rendón, Angela; Rodríguez, Estiven; Hoyos, Isabel; Mercado-Bettín, Daniel; Poveda, Germán


    Many natural and social phenomena depend on river flow regimes that are being altered by global change. Understanding the mechanisms behind such alterations is crucial for predicting river flow regimes in a changing environment. Here we introduce a novel physical interpretation of the scaling properties of river flows and show that it leads to a parsimonious characterization of the flow regime of any river basin. This allows river basins to be classified as regulated or unregulated, and to identify a critical threshold between these states. We applied this framework to the Amazon river basin and found both states among its main tributaries. Then we introduce the forest reservoir hypothesis to describe the natural capacity of river basins to regulate river flows through land-atmosphere interactions (mainly precipitation recycling) that depend strongly on the presence of forests. A critical implication is that forest loss can force the Amazonian river basins from regulated to unregulated states. Our results provide theoretical and applied foundations for predicting hydrological impacts of global change, including the detection of early-warning signals for critical transitions in river basins.

  3. Characteristic of Soil Nutrients Loss in Beiyunhe Reservoir Under the Simulated Rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Cao


    Full Text Available Field nutrient loss from soil became the major factor of the water pollution control in countryside in China. Beiyunhe reservoir is located in semiarid zone, where field nutrient loss distributed in summer. To assess the flied nutrient loss in Beiyunhe reservoir, we conducted experiments to study the characteristic of soil nutrients loss by analysis of the content of runoff water, soil nutrients and runoff water sediment under simulated rainfall. The results showed that the runoff happened in the rainstorm. In runoff water, the content of TN was 4.7~11.3 mg·L-1, ammonia nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen accounted for 44.51% of TN; the content of P was 0.66~1.35 mg·L-1, water soluble phosphorus accounted for 54.08% of TP. And the main loss of nutrients was in the surface soil, the loss of TN, NH4+-N, NO3--N, TP and DP were 29.79%, 52.09%, 10.21%, 16.48% and 5.27%, respectively. However, the most of field nutrient loss were in runoff sediment, the content of TN and TP were 0.66~1.27 mg·g-1 and 14.73~20 mg·g-1 in sediment, and TN and TP account for 82.28% and 99.89% of total loss of nutrient. After the rainstorm, the macro-aggregates were reduced 8.8%, and the micro-aggregates increased 9.5%.

  4. Multi-scale Modeling of Compressible Single-phase Flow in Porous Media using Molecular Simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Saad, Ahmed Mohamed


    In this study, an efficient coupling between Monte Carlo (MC) molecular simulation and Darcy-scale flow in porous media is presented. The cell-centered finite difference method with a non-uniform rectangular mesh were used to discretize the simulation domain and solve the governing equations. To speed up the MC simulations, we implemented a recently developed scheme that quickly generates MC Markov chains out of pre-computed ones, based on the reweighting and reconstruction algorithm. This method astonishingly reduces the required computational time by MC simulations from hours to seconds. In addition, the reweighting and reconstruction scheme, which was originally designed to work with the LJ potential model, is extended to work with a potential model that accounts for the molecular quadrupole moment of fluids with non-spherical molecules such as CO2. The potential model was used to simulate the thermodynamic equilibrium properties for single-phase and two-phase systems using the canonical ensemble and the Gibbs ensemble, respectively. Comparing the simulation results with the experimental data showed that the implemented model has an excellent fit outperforming the standard LJ model. To demonstrate the strength of the proposed coupling in terms of computational time efficiency and numerical accuracy in fluid properties, various numerical experiments covering different compressible single-phase flow scenarios were conducted. The novelty in the introduced scheme is in allowing an efficient coupling of the molecular scale and Darcy scale in reservoir simulators. This leads to an accurate description of the thermodynamic behavior of the simulated reservoir fluids; consequently enhancing the confidence in the flow predictions in porous media.

  5. A scalable fully implicit framework for reservoir simulation on parallel computers

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Haijian


    The modeling of multiphase fluid flow in porous medium is of interest in the field of reservoir simulation. The promising numerical methods in the literature are mostly based on the explicit or semi-implicit approach, which both have certain stability restrictions on the time step size. In this work, we introduce and study a scalable fully implicit solver for the simulation of two-phase flow in a porous medium with capillarity, gravity and compressibility, which is free from the limitations of the conventional methods. In the fully implicit framework, a mixed finite element method is applied to discretize the model equations for the spatial terms, and the implicit Backward Euler scheme with adaptive time stepping is used for the temporal integration. The resultant nonlinear system arising at each time step is solved in a monolithic way by using a Newton–Krylov type method. The corresponding linear system from the Newton iteration is large sparse, nonsymmetric and ill-conditioned, consequently posing a significant challenge to the fully implicit solver. To address this issue, the family of additive Schwarz preconditioners is taken into account to accelerate the convergence of the linear system, and thereby improves the robustness of the outer Newton method. Several test cases in one, two and three dimensions are used to validate the correctness of the scheme and examine the performance of the newly developed algorithm on parallel computers.

  6. Global mass conservation method for dual-continuum gas reservoir simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yi


    In this paper, we find that the numerical simulation of gas flow in dual-continuum porous media may generate unphysical or non-robust results using regular finite difference method. The reason is the unphysical mass loss caused by the gas compressibility and the non-diagonal dominance of the discretized equations caused by the non-linear well term. The well term contains the product of density and pressure. For oil flow, density is independent of pressure so that the well term is linear. For gas flow, density is related to pressure by the gas law so that the well term is non-linear. To avoid these two problems, numerical methods are proposed using the mass balance relation and the local linearization of the non-linear source term to ensure the global mass conservation and the diagonal dominance of discretized equations in the computation. The proposed numerical methods are successfully applied to dual-continuum gas reservoir simulation. Mass conservation is satisfied while the computation becomes robust. Numerical results show that the location of the production well relative to the large-permeability region is very sensitive to the production efficiency. It decreases apparently when the production well is moved from the large-permeability region to the small-permeability region, even though the well is very close to the interface of the two regions. The production well is suggested to be placed inside the large-permeability region regardless of the specific position.

  7. Frictional and transport properties of simulated faults in CO2 storage reservoirs and clay-rich caprocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Elisenda


    In order to mitigate and meet CO2 emission regulations, long-term CO2 storage in hydrocarbon reservoirs is one of the most attractive large-scale options. To ensure save anthropogenic storage, it is important to maintain the sealing integrity of potential storage complexes. It is therefore

  8. NWChem: Quantum Chemistry Simulations at Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apra, Edoardo; Kowalski, Karol; Hammond, Jeff R.; Klemm, Michael


    Methods based on quantum mechanics equations have been developed since the 1930's with the purpose of accurately studying the electronic structure of molecules. However, it is only during the last two decades that intense development of new computational algorithms has opened the possibility of performing accurate simulations of challenging molecular processes with high-order many-body methods. A wealth of evidence indicates that the proper inclusion of instantaneous interactions between electrons (or the so-called electron correlation effects) is indispensable for the accurate characterization of chemical reactivity, molecular properties, and interactions of light with matter. The availability of reliable methods for benchmarking of medium-size molecular systems provides also a unique chance to propagate high-level accuracy across spatial scales through the multiscale methodologies. Some of these methods have potential to utilize computational resources in an effi*cient way since they are characterized by high numerical complexity and appropriate level of data granularity, which can be effi*ciently distributed over multi-processor architectures. The broad spectrum of coupled cluster (CC) methods falls into this class of methodologies. Several recent CC implementations clearly demonstrated the scalability of CC formalisms on architectures composed of hundreds thousand computational cores. In this context NWChem provides a collection of Tensor Contraction Engine (TCE) generated parallel implementations of various coupled cluster methods capable of taking advantage of many thousand of cores on leadership class parallel architectures.

  9. Large scale molecular simulations of nanotoxicity. (United States)

    Jimenez-Cruz, Camilo A; Kang, Seung-gu; Zhou, Ruhong


    The widespread use of nanomaterials in biomedical applications has been accompanied by an increasing interest in understanding their interactions with tissues, cells, and biomolecules, and in particular, on how they might affect the integrity of cell membranes and proteins. In this mini-review, we present a summary of some of the recent studies on this important subject, especially from the point of view of large scale molecular simulations. The carbon-based nanomaterials and noble metal nanoparticles are the main focus, with additional discussions on quantum dots and other nanoparticles as well. The driving forces for adsorption of fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene nanosheets onto proteins or cell membranes are found to be mainly hydrophobic interactions and the so-called π-π stacking (between aromatic rings), while for the noble metal nanoparticles the long-range electrostatic interactions play a bigger role. More interestingly, there are also growing evidences showing that nanotoxicity can have implications in de novo design of nanomedicine. For example, the endohedral metallofullerenol Gd@C₈₂(OH)₂₂ is shown to inhibit tumor growth and metastasis by inhibiting enzyme MMP-9, and graphene is illustrated to disrupt bacteria cell membranes by insertion/cutting as well as destructive extraction of lipid molecules. These recent findings have provided a better understanding of nanotoxicity at the molecular level and also suggested therapeutic potential by using the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles against cancer or bacteria cells. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Simulation of complex fracture networks influenced by natural fractures in shale gas reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jinzhou


    Full Text Available When hydraulic fractures intersect with natural fractures, the geometry and complexity of a fracture network are determined by the initiation and propagation pattern which is affected by a number of factors. Based on the fracture mechanics, the criterion for initiation and propagation of a fracture was introduced to analyze the tendency of a propagating angle and factors affecting propagating pressure. On this basis, a mathematic model with a complex fracture network was established to investigate how the fracture network form changes with different parameters, including rock mechanics, in-situ stress distribution, fracture properties, and frac treatment parameters. The solving process of this model was accelerated by classifying the calculation nodes on the extending direction of the fracture by equal pressure gradients, and solving the geometrical parameters prior to the iteration fitting flow distribution. With the initiation and propagation criterion as the bases for the propagation of branch fractures, this method decreased the iteration times through eliminating the fitting of the fracture length in conventional 3D fracture simulation. The simulation results indicated that the formation with abundant natural fractures and smaller in-situ stress difference is sufficient conditions for fracture network development. If the pressure in the hydraulic fractures can be kept at a high level by temporary sealing or diversion, the branch fractures will propagate further with minor curvature radius, thus enlarging the reservoir stimulation area. The simulated shape of fracture network can be well matched with the field microseismic mapping in data point range and distribution density, validating the accuracy of this model.

  11. Millennial-scale variability in the local radiocarbon reservoir age of south Florida during the Holocene (United States)

    Toth, Lauren T.; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Ashe, Erica; Richey, Julie N.


    A growing body of research suggests that the marine environments of south Florida provide a critical link between the tropical and high-latitude Atlantic. Changes in the characteristics of water masses off south Florida may therefore have important implications for our understanding of climatic and oceanographic variability over a broad spatial scale; however, the sources of variability within this oceanic corridor remain poorly understood. Measurements of ΔR, the local offset of the radiocarbon reservoir age, from shallow-water marine environments can serve as a powerful tracer of water-mass sources that can be used to reconstruct variability in local-to regional-scale oceanography and hydrology. We combined radiocarbon and U-series measurements of Holocene-aged corals from the shallow-water environments of the Florida Keys reef tract (FKRT) with robust statistical modeling to quantify the millennial-scale variability in ΔR at locations with (“nearshore”) and without (“open ocean”) substantial terrestrial influence. Our reconstructions demonstrate that there was significant spatial and temporal variability in ΔR on the FKRT during the Holocene. Whereas ΔR was similar throughout the region after ∼4000 years ago, nearshore ΔR was significantly higher than in the open ocean during the middle Holocene. We suggest that the elevated nearshore ΔR from ∼8000 to 5000 years ago was most likely the result of greater groundwater influence associated with lower sea level at this time. In the open ocean, which would have been isolated from the influence of groundwater, ΔR was lowest ∼7000 years ago, and was highest ∼3000 years ago. We evaluated our open-ocean model of ΔR variability against records of local-to regional-scale oceanography and conclude that local upwelling was not a significant driver of open-ocean radiocarbon variability in this region. Instead, the millennial-scale trends in open-ocean ΔR were more likely a result of broader-scale

  12. Evaporation suppression from water reservoirs using floating covers: Lab scale observations and model predictions (United States)

    Or, D.; Lehmann, P.; Aminzadeh, M.; Sommer, M.; Wey, H.; Wunderli, H.; Breitenstein, D.


    The competition over dwindling fresh water resources is expected to intensify with projected increase in human population in arid regions, expansion of irrigated land and changes in climate and drought patterns. The volume of water stored in reservoirs would also increase to mitigate seasonal shortages due to rainfall variability and to meet irrigation water needs. By some estimates up to half of the stored water is lost to evaporation thereby exacerbating the water scarcity problem. Recently, there is an upsurge in the use of self-assembling floating covers to suppress evaporation, yet the design, and implementation remain largely empirical. Studies have shown that evaporation suppression is highly nonlinear, as also known from a century of research on gas exchange from plant leaves (that often evaporate as free water surfaces through stomata that are only 1% of leaf area). We report a systematic evaluation of different cover types and external drivers (radiation, wind, wind+radiation) on evaporation suppression and energy balance of a 1.4 m2 basin placed in a wind-tunnel. Surprisingly, evaporation suppression by black and white floating covers (balls and plates) were similar despite significantly different energy balance regimes over the cover surfaces. Moreover, the evaporation suppression efficiency was a simple function of the uncovered area (square root of the uncovered fraction) with linear relations with the covered area in some cases. The thermally decoupled floating covers offer an efficient solution to the evaporation suppression with limited influence of the surface energy balance (water temperature for black and white covers was similar and remained nearly constant). The results will be linked with a predictive evaporation-energy balance model and issues of spatial scales and long exposure times will be studied.

  13. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin). Quarterly report, October 1 - December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.


    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two major phases. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project are to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford West field, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, of the Delaware Mountain Group and to compare Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon reservoirs. Reservoir characterization will utilize 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. Once the reservoir-characterization study of both fields is completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} in one of the fields will be chosen for reservoir simulation. The objectives of the implementation phase of the project are to (1) apply the knowledge gained from reservoir characterization and simulation studies to increase recovery from the pilot area, (2) demonstrate that economically significant unrecovered oil remains in geologically resolvable untapped compartments, and (3) test the accuracy of reservoir characterization and flow simulation as predictive tools in resource preservation of mature fields. A geologically designed, enhanced-recovery program (CO{sub 2} flood, waterflood, or polymer flood) and well-completion program will be developed, and one to three infill wells will be drilled and cored. Technical progress is summarized for: geophysical characterization; reservoir characterization; outcrop characterization; and recovery technology identification and analysis.

  14. A PC/workstation cluster computing environment for reservoir engineering simulation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermes, C.E.; Koo, J.


    Like the rest of the petroleum industry, Texaco has been transferring its applications and databases from mainframes to PC's and workstations. This transition has been very positive because it provides an environment for integrating applications, increases end-user productivity, and in general reduces overall computing costs. On the down side, the transition typically results in a dramatic increase in workstation purchases and raises concerns regarding the cost and effective management of computing resources in this new environment. The workstation transition also places the user in a Unix computing environment which, to say the least, can be quite frustrating to learn and to use. This paper describes the approach, philosophy, architecture, and current status of the new reservoir engineering/simulation computing environment developed at Texaco's E and P Technology Dept. (EPTD) in Houston. The environment is representative of those under development at several other large oil companies and is based on a cluster of IBM and Silicon Graphics Intl. (SGI) workstations connected by a fiber-optics communications network and engineering PC's connected to local area networks, or Ethernets. Because computing resources and software licenses are shared among a group of users, the new environment enables the company to get more out of its investments in workstation hardware and software

  15. Gas coning control for smart wells using a dynamic coupled well-reservoir simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemhuis, A.P.; Nennie, E.D.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Alberts, G.J.N.; Peters, E.; Joosten, G.J.P.


    A strong increase in gas inflow due to gas coning and the resulting bean-back because of Gas to Oil Ratio (GOR) constraints can severely limit oil production and reservoir drive energy. In this paper we will use a coupled reservoir-well model to demonstrate that oil production can be increased by

  16. Distribution and decontamination of radioactive cesium in small-scale agricultural reservoirs of Fukushima Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Inagaki, Masayo; Yamanishi, Hirokuni; Itoh, Tetsuo


    The authors studied optimal methods against the Cs contamination of agricultural reservoirs outside the evacuation zones, which had been contaminated by the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. As a result of measurements at three points of a small reservoir, the highest radioactivity value was 16.8 Bq/g, with a higher value at bank part and bottom mud. The possibility is considered that the bank part held an organic layer with accumulated Cs, and the bottom mud had litters and clay soil that adsorbed Ce. The distribution of Cs was fluctuated depending on the environment of reservoirs, with the effects of the influx of sediment, influx of litters, and landform of catchment areas. In the 'Technical manual on measures against radioactive materials at reservoirs,' published by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, three decontamination methods for reservoirs have been taken up: (1) removal of mud, (2) fixation of bottom mud, and (3) improvement of water intake method. The method (1) and (2) alone cannot cope with re-contamination from water catchment areas. As a countermeasure for recontamination after decontamination, it is good to install a headrace channel, slope, retaining part, etc. at the pond bottom, to increase the efficiency of the recollection and immobilization of Ce. The felling of neighboring trees, litter collection in peripheral areas, and covering measures for the surface layer in the vicinity are essential. (A.O.)

  17. Fast large-scale reionization simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, Rajat M.; Zaroubi, Saleem; Ciardi, Benedetta; Pawlik, Andreas H.; Labropoulos, Panagiotis; Jelic, Vibor; Bernardi, Gianni; Brentjens, Michiel A.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Harker, Geraint J. A.; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Pandey, V. N.; Schaye, Joop; Yatawatta, Sarod; Mellema, G.


    We present an efficient method to generate large simulations of the epoch of reionization without the need for a full three-dimensional radiative transfer code. Large dark-matter-only simulations are post-processed to produce maps of the redshifted 21-cm emission from neutral hydrogen. Dark matter

  18. Perfluorinated substance assessment in sediments of a large-scale reservoir in Danjiangkou, China. (United States)

    He, Xiaomin; Li, Aimin; Wang, Shengyao; Chen, Hao; Yang, Zixin


    The occurrence of eight perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the surface sediments from 10 sampling sites spread across the Danjiangkou Reservoir was investigated by isotope dilution ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) after solid-phase extraction (SPE). All the sediments from the 10 sites contained detectable levels of PFCs. The total concentration of the target PFCs in each sediment sample (C ∑PFCs ) ranged from 0.270 to 0.395 ng g -1 of dry weight, and the mean value of C ∑PFCs was 0.324 ± 0.045 ng g -1 of dry weight for the whole reservoir. For each perfluorinated compound in one sediment, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) or perfluoro-n-butanoic acid (PFBA) consistently had a higher concentration than the other six PFCs, while perfluoro-n-octanoic acid (PFOA) was always undetectable. In terms of spatial distribution, the total and individual concentrations of PFCs in sediment from downstream sites of the Danjiangkou Reservoir were higher than those from upstream sites. Factor analysis revealed that PFCs in the sediment samples originated from electroplating and anti-fog agents in industry, food/pharmaceutical packaging and the water/oil repellent paper coating, and the deposition process. The quotient method was utilized to assess the ecological risk of PFCs in the sediments of the Danjiangkou Reservoir, which showed that the concentrations of PFCs were not considered a risk. In this study, detailed information on the concentration level and distribution of PFCs in the sediments of the Danjiangkou Reservoir, which is the source of water for the Middle Route Project of the South-to-North Water Transfer Scheme in China, was reported and analyzed for the first time. These results can provide valuable information for water resource management and pollution control in the Danjiangkou Reservoir.

  19. Scale-up of miscible flood processes for heterogeneous reservoirs. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orr, F.M. Jr.


    The current project is a systematic research effort aimed at quantifying relationships between process mechanisms that can lead to improved recovery from gas injection processes performed in heterogeneous Class 1 and Class 2 reservoirs. It will provide a rational basis for the design of displacement processes that take advantage of crossflow due to capillary, gravity and viscous forces to offset partially the adverse effects of heterogeneity. In effect, the high permeability zones are used to deliver fluid by crossflow to zones that would otherwise be flooded only very slowly. Thus, the research effort is divided into five areas: Development of miscibility in multicomponent systems; Design estimates for nearly miscible displacements; Design of miscible floods for fractured reservoirs; Compositional flow visualization experiments; Simulation of near-miscible flow in heterogeneous systems The status of the research effort in each area is reviewed briefly in the following section.

  20. Structural characterization and numerical simulations of flow properties of standard and reservoir carbonate rocks using micro-tomography (United States)

    Islam, Amina; Chevalier, Sylvie; Sassi, Mohamed


    With advances in imaging techniques and computational power, Digital Rock Physics (DRP) is becoming an increasingly popular tool to characterize reservoir samples and determine their internal structure and flow properties. In this work, we present the details for imaging, segmentation, as well as numerical simulation of single-phase flow through a standard homogenous Silurian dolomite core plug sample as well as a heterogeneous sample from a carbonate reservoir. We develop a procedure that integrates experimental results into the segmentation step to calibrate the porosity. We also look into using two different numerical tools for the simulation; namely Avizo Fire Xlab Hydro that solves the Stokes' equations via the finite volume method and Palabos that solves the same equations using the Lattice Boltzmann Method. Representative Elementary Volume (REV) and isotropy studies are conducted on the two samples and we show how DRP can be a useful tool to characterize rock properties that are time consuming and costly to obtain experimentally.

  1. Rock music : a living legend of simulation modelling solves a reservoir problem by playing a different tune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, G.


    Tight sand gas plays are low permeability reservoirs that have contributed an output of 5.7 trillion cubic feet of natural gas per year in the United States alone. Anadarko Petroleum Corporation has significant production from thousands of wells in Texas, Colorado, Wyoming and Utah. Hydraulic fracturing is the key to successful tight sand production. Production engineers use modelling software to calculate a well stimulation program in which large volumes of water are forced under high pressure in the reservoir, fracturing the rock and creating high permeability conduits for the natural gas to escape. Reservoir engineering researchers at the University of Calgary, led by world expert Tony Settari, have improved traditional software modelling of petroleum reservoirs by combining fracture analysis with geomechanical processes. This expertise has been a valuable asset to Anadarko, as the dynamic aspect can have a significant effect on the reservoir as it is being drilled. The challenges facing reservoir simulation is the high computing time needed for analyzing fluid production based on permeability, porosity, gas and fluid properties along with geomechanical analysis. Another challenge has been acquiring high quality field data. Using Anadarko's field data, the University of Calgary researchers found that water fracturing creates vertical primary fractures, and in some cases secondary fractures which enhance permeability. However, secondary fracturing is not permanent in all wells. The newly coupled geomechanical model makes it possible to model fracture growth more accurately. The Society of Petroleum Engineers recently awarded Settari with an award for distinguished achievement in improving the technique and practice of finding and producing petroleum. 1 fig.

  2. Numerical simulation of the environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing of tight/shale gas reservoirs on near-surface groundwater: Background, base cases, shallow reservoirs, short-term gas, and water transport. (United States)

    Reagan, Matthew T; Moridis, George J; Keen, Noel D; Johnson, Jeffrey N


    Hydrocarbon production from unconventional resources and the use of reservoir stimulation techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing, has grown explosively over the last decade. However, concerns have arisen that reservoir stimulation creates significant environmental threats through the creation of permeable pathways connecting the stimulated reservoir with shallower freshwater aquifers, thus resulting in the contamination of potable groundwater by escaping hydrocarbons or other reservoir fluids. This study investigates, by numerical simulation, gas and water transport between a shallow tight-gas reservoir and a shallower overlying freshwater aquifer following hydraulic fracturing operations, if such a connecting pathway has been created. We focus on two general failure scenarios: (1) communication between the reservoir and aquifer via a connecting fracture or fault and (2) communication via a deteriorated, preexisting nearby well. We conclude that the key factors driving short-term transport of gas include high permeability for the connecting pathway and the overall volume of the connecting feature. Production from the reservoir is likely to mitigate release through reduction of available free gas and lowering of reservoir pressure, and not producing may increase the potential for release. We also find that hydrostatic tight-gas reservoirs are unlikely to act as a continuing source of migrating gas, as gas contained within the newly formed hydraulic fracture is the primary source for potential contamination. Such incidents of gas escape are likely to be limited in duration and scope for hydrostatic reservoirs. Reliable field and laboratory data must be acquired to constrain the factors and determine the likelihood of these outcomes. Short-term leakage fractured reservoirs requires high-permeability pathways Production strategy affects the likelihood and magnitude of gas release Gas release is likely short-term, without additional driving forces.

  3. PENDEKATAN MULTI DIMENSIONAL SCALING UNTUK EVALUASI KEBERLANJUTAN WADUK CIRATA - PROPINSI JAWA BARAT (Multidimensional Scaling Approach to Evaluate Sustainability of Cirata Reservoir – West Java Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholil Kholil


    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Waduk Cirata merupakan salah satu waduk di Indonesia yang memiliki peran sangat besar bagi pembangunan ekonomi, sebagai Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Air (PLTA. Pertumbuhan Keramba Jaring Apung (KJA dan perkembangan permukiman di sekitar waduk, serta perubahan tataruang di DAS Citarum untuk kegiatan permukiman, industri, pertanian, dan peternakan menyebabkan peningkatan sedimentasi dan penurunan kualitas air waduk, sehingga berpengaruh terhadap kinerja dan keberlajutan waduk. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat keberlanjutan waduk dengan menggunakan metode Multidimesional Scaling berdasarkan 5 dimensi yaitu ekologi dan tata ruang, ekonomi, sosial dan budaya, peraturan dan kelembagaan, dan infrastruktur dan teknologi. Hasil analisis MDS menunjukkan bahwa dimensi ekologi dan tataruang, dan peraturan dan kelembagaan kurang berlanjut dengan nilai indeks keberlanjutan masing-masing 45,76 dan 42,24. Sementara untuk dimensi ekonomi, sosial dan budaya, dan infrastruktur dan teknologi memiliki nilai indeks keberlanjutan masing-masing 63,12; 64,42 dan 68,64 yang berarti hanya masuk kategori cukup berlanjut. Atribut yang paling sensitif yang mempengaruhi indeks keberlanjutan ekologi dan tataruang adalah laju sedimentasi, jumlah KJA dan kualitas air waduk. Pada dimensi peraturan dan kelembagaan adalah lemahnya koordinasi, perijinan dan penegakan hukum. Untuk menjamin keberlanjutan kinerja Waduk Cirata perlu dilakukan pengendalian penggunaan lahan di DAS Citarum dan permukiman di sekitar waduk, pengetatan perijinan, dan penegakan hukum. ABSTRACT Cirata reservoir is one of the reservoirs in Indonesia, that plays an important role for economic development as a Hydroelectric Power Plant. The development of settlement around the dam, and land use change of Citarum’s watershed for industrial activities, agriculture, and animal husbandry have increased the erosion, sedimentation and degradation water quality of reservoir. This paper will discuss

  4. An Embedded 3D Fracture Modeling Approach for Simulating Fracture-Dominated Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Geothermal Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, Henry [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wang, Cong [Colorado School of Mines; Winterfeld, Philip [Colorado School of Mines; Wu, Yu-Shu [Colorado School of Mines


    An efficient modeling approach is described for incorporating arbitrary 3D, discrete fractures, such as hydraulic fractures or faults, into modeling fracture-dominated fluid flow and heat transfer in fractured geothermal reservoirs. This technique allows 3D discrete fractures to be discretized independently from surrounding rock volume and inserted explicitly into a primary fracture/matrix grid, generated without including 3D discrete fractures in prior. An effective computational algorithm is developed to discretize these 3D discrete fractures and construct local connections between 3D fractures and fracture/matrix grid blocks of representing the surrounding rock volume. The constructed gridding information on 3D fractures is then added to the primary grid. This embedded fracture modeling approach can be directly implemented into a developed geothermal reservoir simulator via the integral finite difference (IFD) method or with TOUGH2 technology This embedded fracture modeling approach is very promising and computationally efficient to handle realistic 3D discrete fractures with complicated geometries, connections, and spatial distributions. Compared with other fracture modeling approaches, it avoids cumbersome 3D unstructured, local refining procedures, and increases computational efficiency by simplifying Jacobian matrix size and sparsity, while keeps sufficient accuracy. Several numeral simulations are present to demonstrate the utility and robustness of the proposed technique. Our numerical experiments show that this approach captures all the key patterns about fluid flow and heat transfer dominated by fractures in these cases. Thus, this approach is readily available to simulation of fractured geothermal reservoirs with both artificial and natural fractures.

  5. Proceedings of the meeting on large scale computer simulation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The meeting to summarize the collaboration activities for FY2003 on the Large Scale Computer Simulation Research was held January 15-16, 2004 at Theory and Computer Simulation Research Center, National Institute for Fusion Science. Recent simulation results, methodologies and other related topics were presented. (author)

  6. Silica scaling in simulated geothermal brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohlmann, E.G.; Shor, A.J.; Berlinski, P.; Mesmer, R.E.


    A 6.3 1/sec (100 GPM) titanium corrosion test loop was modified to provide a dynamic facility for studying the formation of silica deposits, their properties and fates, as a function of brine composition, temperature, and flow conditions. Scale formation was studied in a segmented heat exchanger operating under realistic conditions; the segmented design permitted examination of scale formations in five temperature regimes. The program was terminated after minimal exploratory operation because of reduced sponsor perceptions of the need for concern with scaling problems. The runs which were completed dealt cursorily with brine concentration and pH effects. Results are presented.

  7. Reservoir-Scale Biological Community Response to Trace Element Additions in a Northern Montana Oil Field (United States)

    Connors, D. E.; Bradfish, J.; DeBruyn, R. P.; Zemetra, J.; Mitchell, H.


    In subsurface oil bearing formations, microbial growth and metabolism is restricted due to a lack of elements other than carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen required for cell structure and as cofactors. A chemical treatment that adds these elements back into the formation was deployed into an oil reservoir in Northern Montana, with the intent of increasing biogenic methane generation. Samples of water from producing wells in the reservoir were collected anaerobically, and analyzed for geochemical content, and cells from the water were collected and analyzed via 16S rRNA gene DNA sequencing to determine the makeup of the microbial community over the course of twelve months of treatment, and for two years after. Prior to chemical treatment, this reservoir was depleted in elements required for enzyme co-factors in the methanogenesis metabolic pathway (Co, Mo, Ni, W, Zn) as well as nitrogen and phosphorus. Most the microbial community was composed of chemoheterotrophic bacteria associated with the biodegradation of large carbon molecules, with a small community of acetoclastic methanogens. During and after additions of the depleted elements, the metabolism of the community in the reservoir shifted towards chemoautotrophs and hydrogenotrophic methanogens, and the cell density increased. After treatment was ended, cell counts stabilized at a new equilibrium concentration, and the autotrophic metabolism was maintained. The pre-treatment community was dependent on energy input from solubilized oil molecules, whereas the post-treatment community more effectively utilized dissolved organics and carbon dioxide as carbon sources for fixation and respiration. This study demonstrates the capability of microbial communities to rapidly reorganize in the environment when provided with an influx of the elements required for growth and metabolism.

  8. Nano-scale experimental investigation of in-situ wettability and spontaneous imbibition in ultra-tight reservoir rocks (United States)

    Akbarabadi, Morteza; Saraji, Soheil; Piri, Mohammad; Georgi, Dan; Delshad, Mohammad


    We investigated spontaneous imbibition behavior, three-dimensional fluid occupancy maps, and in-situ wettability at the nano scale in five ultra-tight and shale reservoir rock samples. For this purpose, we developed a novel technique by integrating a custom-built in-situ miniature fluid-injection module with a non-destructive high-resolution X-ray imaging system. Small cylindrical core samples (15-60 μm in diameter) were prepared from reservoir rocks using Focused-Ion Beam (FIB) milling technique. The pore network inside the samples were first characterized using ultra-high resolution three-dimensional images obtained at initial state by X-ray nano-tomography (Nano-CT) and FIB-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FIB-SEM) techniques at the nano scale. The petrophysical parameters, including porosity, permeability, pore-size distribution, and organic content were computed for each sample using image analysis. We then performed series of imbibition experiments using brine, oil, and surfactant solutions on each core sample. We observed that both oil and brine phases spontaneously imbibe into the pore network of the rock samples at various quantities. We also, for the first time, examined fluid distribution in individual pores and found a complex wettability behavior at the pore scale in the reservoir rock samples. Three pore types were identified with water-wet, oil-wet, and fractionally-wet behaviors. This work opens a new path to developing an improved understanding of the pore-level physics involved in multi-phase flow and transport not only in tight rock samples but also in other nanoporous material used in different science and engineering applications.

  9. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, M.


    This annual report describes the progress during the second year of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description and scale-up procedures; (ii) outcrop investigation; (iii) in-fill drilling potential. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be characterized, can be described in three dimensions, and can be scaled up with respect to its properties, appropriate for simulation purposes. The second section describes the progress on investigation of an outcrop. The outcrop is an analog of Bartlesville Sandstone. We have drilled ten wells behind the outcrop and collected extensive log and core data. The cores have been slabbed, photographed and the several plugs have been taken. In addition, minipermeameter is used to measure permeabilities on the core surface at six inch intervals. The plugs have been analyzed for the permeability and porosity values. The variations in property values will be tied to the geological descriptions as well as the subsurface data collected from the Glen Pool field. The third section discusses the application of geostatistical techniques to infer in-fill well locations. The geostatistical technique used is the simulated annealing technique because of its flexibility. One of the important reservoir data is the production data. Use of production data will allow us to define the reservoir continuities, which may in turn, determine the in-fill well locations. The proposed technique allows us to incorporate some of the production data as constraints in the reservoir descriptions. The technique has been validated by comparing the results with numerical simulations.

  10. Laboratory and simulation approach to the polymer EOR evaluation in German reservoir characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, S.; Hincapie-Reina, R.; Ganzer, L. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). ITE


    Nowadays, polymer flooding is widely used as it enhances oil recovery. As polymer has relatively higher viscosity than water, which leads to better mobility ratio compared to it, and thus better sweep efficiency. However, this technique is limited by some factors. As normal polymers are not tolerant to high temperature or salinity or hardness, which lead to lose of most their viscosity, and thus lost their function in enhanced oil recovery. Therefore, new polymers which are resistant to high temperature, high salinity or other factors which may happen in the reservoir should be employed. In that direction, the present work focus in characterize two different polymers, Flopaam AN 125 and ZLPAM 22051, how they would be influenced by polymer concentration, salinity, shear rate and temperature, and to predict how they would work in the reservoir. A synthetic brine from a German reservoir (Valendis, Suderbruch Field) is used to analyze the polymer. In many different previous experiments is observed the divalent and monovalent effect of salt in polymers was carried out. Rheology characterization was done under the reservoir conditions to get the best approximation related to concentration, shear rate and temperature effect; filtration ratio and filterability plot are used as a quality check for the solutions. Finally, all the data is used into the Polymer Flood Predictive Model (PFPM), to figure out how polymer acted in German typical reservoir conditions, and the specific incremental in oil recovery and effect due the possible polymer application, which might provide information for future polymer flooding application decisions. (orig.)

  11. The latest full-scale PWR simulator in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimuru, Y.; Tagi, H.; Nakabayashi, T.


    The latest MHI Full-scale Simulator has an excellent system configuration, in both flexibility and extendability, and has highly sophisticated performance in PWR simulation by the adoption of CANAC-II and PRETTY codes. It also has an instructive character to display the plant's internal status, such as RCS condition, through animation. Further, the simulation has been verified to meet a functional examination at model plant, and with a scale model test result in a two-phase flow event, after evaluation for its accuracy. Thus, the Simulator can be devoted to a sophisticated and broad training course on PWR operation. (author)

  12. Large Scale Simulation Platform for NODES Validation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotorrio, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Qin, Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Min, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    This report summarizes the Large Scale (LS) simulation platform created for the Eaton NODES project. The simulation environment consists of both wholesale market simulator and distribution simulator and includes the CAISO wholesale market model and a PG&E footprint of 25-75 feeders to validate the scalability under a scenario of 33% RPS in California with additional 17% of DERS coming from distribution and customers. The simulator can generate hourly unit commitment, 5-minute economic dispatch, and 4-second AGC regulation signals. The simulator is also capable of simulating greater than 10k individual controllable devices. Simulated DERs include water heaters, EVs, residential and light commercial HVAC/buildings, and residential-level battery storage. Feeder-level voltage regulators and capacitor banks are also simulated for feeder-level real and reactive power management and Vol/Var control.

  13. Multi-scale simulation on solid benzene (United States)

    Liu, Hua; Heinz, Hendrik


    Solid Benzene is used in organic semiconductors for photovoltaics, which often include pi-conjugated systems. We use MD simulations method to explore the relationship between the structure and interaction energy of two kinds of solid benzene, with the Pbca and P21c crystallgraphic structures respectively. Simple relevant force fields (PCFF and CVFF) are examined with regard to their performance on the structure and energetics of benzene dimers and benzene crystals which serve as well characterized model systems. However, MD simulations cannot get the transport properties. So the combination of reliable classical atomistic simulations and quantum-mechanical methods is needed to understand the dynamics of charge transport and self-assembly processes involving pi-conjugated oligomers and polymers. As alternative and accurate models, we explore atomistic models with additional sites which represent the location of the pi electrons and are characterized by suitable charges and van-der-Waals parameters. With these parameters, it will be possible to reproduce the dimer geometries and energies, the crystal structure of solid benzene, as well as pi-stacking forces and free energies for similar systems.

  14. Dislocation dynamics simulations of plasticity at small scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Caizhi [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    As metallic structures and devices are being created on a dimension comparable to the length scales of the underlying dislocation microstructures, the mechanical properties of them change drastically. Since such small structures are increasingly common in modern technologies, there is an emergent need to understand the critical roles of elasticity, plasticity, and fracture in small structures. Dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations, in which the dislocations are the simulated entities, offer a way to extend length scales beyond those of atomistic simulations and the results from DD simulations can be directly compared with the micromechanical tests. The primary objective of this research is to use 3-D DD simulations to study the plastic deformation of nano- and micro-scale materials and understand the correlation between dislocation motion, interactions and the mechanical response. Specifically, to identify what critical events (i.e., dislocation multiplication, cross-slip, storage, nucleation, junction and dipole formation, pinning etc.) determine the deformation response and how these change from bulk behavior as the system decreases in size and correlate and improve our current knowledge of bulk plasticity with the knowledge gained from the direct observations of small-scale plasticity. Our simulation results on single crystal micropillars and polycrystalline thin films can march the experiment results well and capture the essential features in small-scale plasticity. Furthermore, several simple and accurate models have been developed following our simulation results and can reasonably predict the plastic behavior of small scale materials.

  15. Improving the Performance of the Extreme-scale Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, Christian [ORNL; Naughton III, Thomas J [ORNL


    Investigating the performance of parallel applications at scale on future high-performance computing (HPC) architectures and the performance impact of different architecture choices is an important component of HPC hardware/software co-design. The Extreme-scale Simulator (xSim) is a simulation-based toolkit for investigating the performance of parallel applications at scale. xSim scales to millions of simulated Message Passing Interface (MPI) processes. The overhead introduced by a simulation tool is an important performance and productivity aspect. This paper documents two improvements to xSim: (1) a new deadlock resolution protocol to reduce the parallel discrete event simulation management overhead and (2) a new simulated MPI message matching algorithm to reduce the oversubscription management overhead. The results clearly show a significant performance improvement, such as by reducing the simulation overhead for running the NAS Parallel Benchmark suite inside the simulator from 1,020\\% to 238% for the conjugate gradient (CG) benchmark and from 102% to 0% for the embarrassingly parallel (EP) and benchmark, as well as, from 37,511% to 13,808% for CG and from 3,332% to 204% for EP with accurate process failure simulation.

  16. A coupled FE and scaled boundary FE-approach for the earthquake response analysis of arch dam-reservoir-foundation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yi; Lin Gao; Hu Zhiqiang


    For efficient and accurate modelling of arch dam-reservoir-foundation system a coupled Finite Element method (FEM) and Scaled Boundary Finite Element method (SBFEM) is developed. Both the dam-foundation interaction and the dam-reservoir interaction including the effect of reservoir boundary absorption are taken into account. The arch dam is modelled by FEM, while the reservoir domain and the unbounded foundation are modelled by SBFEM. In order to make comparison with the results available in the literature, the Morrow Point arch dam is selected for numerical analysis. The analyses are carried out in the frequency domain, and then the time-domain response of the dam-reservoir-foundation system is obtained by Inverse Fourier Transform.

  17. Numerical simulation of three-dimensional fields of Chernobyl's radionuclides in the Kiev water reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheleznyak, M.I.; Margvelashvili, N.Yu.


    On the base of the three-dimensional numerical model of water circulation and radionuclide transport, the high flood water influence on the radionuclide dispersion in the Kiev water reservoir is studied. The model was verified on the base of data of the measurements of moderate flood phenomena in April-May 1987. Redistribution of the bottom sediment contamination is demonstrated. It is shown that even an extremely high flood water discharge does not change drastically the 137 Cs concentration in the water body of the Kiev water reservoir

  18. Facing the scaling problem: A multi-methodical approach to simulate soil erosion at hillslope and catchment scale (United States)

    Schmengler, A. C.; Vlek, P. L. G.


    Modelling soil erosion requires a holistic understanding of the sediment dynamics in a complex environment. As most erosion models are scale-dependent and their parameterization is spatially limited, their application often requires special care, particularly in data-scarce environments. This study presents a hierarchical approach to overcome the limitations of a single model by using various quantitative methods and soil erosion models to cope with the issues of scale. At hillslope scale, the physically-based Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP)-model is used to simulate soil loss and deposition processes. Model simulations of soil loss vary between 5 to 50 t ha-1 yr-1 dependent on the spatial location on the hillslope and have only limited correspondence with the results of the 137Cs technique. These differences in absolute soil loss values could be either due to internal shortcomings of each approach or to external scale-related uncertainties. Pedo-geomorphological soil investigations along a catena confirm that estimations by the 137Cs technique are more appropriate in reflecting both the spatial extent and magnitude of soil erosion at hillslope scale. In order to account for sediment dynamics at a larger scale, the spatially-distributed WaTEM/SEDEM model is used to simulate soil erosion at catchment scale and to predict sediment delivery rates into a small water reservoir. Predicted sediment yield rates are compared with results gained from a bathymetric survey and sediment core analysis. Results show that specific sediment rates of 0.6 t ha-1 yr-1 by the model are in close agreement with observed sediment yield calculated from stratigraphical changes and downcore variations in 137Cs concentrations. Sediment erosion rates averaged over the entire catchment of 1 to 2 t ha-1 yr-1 are significantly lower than results obtained at hillslope scale confirming an inverse correlation between the magnitude of erosion rates and the spatial scale of the model. The

  19. Multi-Scale Simulation of High Energy Density Ionic Liquids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Voth, Gregory A


    The focus of this AFOSR project was the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of ionic liquid structure, dynamics, and interfacial properties, as well as multi-scale descriptions of these novel liquids (e.g...

  20. Application of ultrasonic as a novel technology for removal of inorganic scales (KCl) in hydrocarbon reservoirs: An experimental approach. (United States)

    Taheri-Shakib, Jaber; Naderi, Hassan; Salimidelshad, Yaser; Kazemzadeh, Ezzatollah; Shekarifard, Ali


    Inorganic scales are one of the most important causes of formation damage, which causes pressure drops near wellbores; these in turn impair permeability and severely reduce production in oil and gas reservoirs. This paper examines the effectiveness of ultrasonic waves in removing potassium chloride (KCl) scales. Twenty core samples with different permeabilities were exposed to KCl precipitation. After measuring the permeabilities of the saturated core samples, the samples were first subjected to water injection, and then to water injection with ultrasonic wave radiation. At each stage, sample permeabilities were measured and recorded. The results showed that water injection with two pore volumes did not significantly improve permeability, especially in low-permeability core samples. Ultrasonic wave radiation with water could efficiently improve permeability; this result is more obvious for samples with lower permeabilities. SEM images taken from thin sections of the core samples under water injection and water with ultrasonic waves showed that ultrasonic waves distorted the crystal lattice of the KCl scales, causing cracking and delamination. Creation of wormholes in KCl deposits within fractures also resulted from the application of ultrasonic waves. Analysis of chlorine in the output water from core samples in the core-flooding process showed that ultrasonic waves increased the solubility of scales in water, improving the recovery of permeability in the samples. Results of this study show that using ultrasonic waves can be considered a novel and practical method in the removal of inorganic scales in the near-wellbore region of oil and gas reservoirs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Fractured Reservoir Simulation: a Challenging and Rewarding Issue Simulation des réservoirs fracturés : un défi et un enjeu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourbiaux B.


    Full Text Available The recent years have seen a growing awareness of the role played by fractures in petroleum reservoirs production and recovery. Hence, much effort was devoted to the diagnosis of fracture presence and impact on production. However, turning that diagnosis into field development decisions goes through reservoir simulation. This paper addresses some of the specificities of fractured reservoirs that make that their simulation is both challenging and rewarding. Indeed, the integration of fractures into a flow simulation model is not straightforward because of the existing gap between the geological fault/fracture network and the fingerprint of that network on often-complex recovery mechanisms. Considering that fractures may impede or enhance production, fractured reservoir simulation may be seen as a technical challenge with potentially-high reward. This paper underlines that specific framework as an introduction to two technical articles dedicated to dual-porosity reservoir simulation. Although it constitutes another major aspect of any fractured reservoir study, the geological characterization of fractures is not discussed herein, but only evoked because of more and more integration of static and dynamic aspects. Au cours des années récentes, la prise de conscience du rôle des fractures sur la production et la récupération des champs est devenue de plus en plus forte au sein de la communauté pétrolière. Aussi beaucoup d’efforts ont-ils été consacrés à la détection des fractures et à l’analyse de leur impact sur la production. Toutefois, la prise en considération de ces observations dans les choix de développement des champs passe par la simulation de réservoir. Cet article traite des spécificités propres aux réservoirs fracturés et qui font de leur simulation à la fois un défi et un enjeu. En effet, l’intégration des fractures dans un modèle de simulation des écoulements n’est pas immédiate en raison du difficile

  2. Experiments with Interaction between the National Water Model and the Reservoir System Simulation Model: A Case Study of Russian River Basin (United States)

    Kim, J.; Johnson, L.; Cifelli, R.; Chandra, C. V.; Gochis, D.; McCreight, J. L.; Yates, D. N.; Read, L.; Flowers, T.; Cosgrove, B.


    NOAA National Water Center (NWC) in partnership with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and other academic partners have produced operational hydrologic predictions for the nation using a new National Water Model (NWM) that is based on the community WRF-Hydro modeling system since the summer of 2016 (Gochis et al., 2015). The NWM produces a variety of hydrologic analysis and prediction products, including gridded fields of soil moisture, snowpack, shallow groundwater levels, inundated area depths, evapotranspiration as well as estimates of river flow and velocity for approximately 2.7 million river reaches. Also included in the NWM are representations for more than 1,200 reservoirs which are linked into the national channel network defined by the USGS NHDPlusv2.0 hydrography dataset. Despite the unprecedented spatial and temporal coverage of the NWM, many known deficiencies exist, including the representation of lakes and reservoirs. This study addresses the implementation of a reservoir assimilation scheme through coupling of a reservoir simulation model to represent the influence of managed flows. We examine the use of the reservoir operations to dynamically update lake/reservoir storage volume states, characterize flow characteristics of river reaches flowing into and out of lakes and reservoirs, and incorporate enhanced reservoir operating rules for the reservoir model options within the NWM. Model experiments focus on a pilot reservoir domain-Lake Mendocino, CA, and its contributing watershed, the East Fork Russian River. This reservoir is modeled using United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) HEC-ResSim developed for application to examine forecast informed reservoir operations (FIRO) in the Russian River basin.

  3. Assessing Reservoir Depositional Environments to Develop and Quantify Improvements in CO2 Storage Efficiency. A Reservoir Simulation Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okwen, Roland [University of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Frailey, Scott [University of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Leetaru, Hannes [University of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Moulton, Sandy [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)


    The storage potential and fluid movement within formations are dependent on the unique hydraulic characteristics of their respective depositional environments. Storage efficiency (E) quantifies the potential for storage in a geologic depositional environment and is used to assess basinal or regional CO2 storage resources. Current estimates of storage resources are calculated using common E ranges by lithology and not by depositional environment. The objectives of this project are to quantify E ranges and identify E enhancement strategies for different depositional environments via reservoir simulation studies. The depositional environments considered include deltaic, shelf clastic, shelf carbonate, fluvial deltaic, strandplain, reef, fluvial and alluvial, and turbidite. Strategies considered for enhancing E include CO2 injection via vertical, horizontal, and deviated wells, selective completions, water production, and multi-well injection. Conceptual geologic and geocellular models of the depositional environments were developed based on data from Illinois Basin oil fields and gas storage sites. The geologic and geocellular models were generalized for use in other US sedimentary basins. An important aspect of this work is the development of conceptual geologic and geocellular models that reflect the uniqueness of each depositional environment. Different injection well completions methods were simulated to investigate methods of enhancing E in the presence of geologic heterogeneity specific to a depositional environment. Modeling scenarios included horizontal wells (length, orientation, and inclination), selective and dynamic completions, water production, and multiwell injection. A Geologic Storage Efficiency Calculator (GSECalc) was developed to calculate E from reservoir simulation output. Estimated E values were normalized to diminish their dependency on fluid relative permeability. Classifying depositional environments according to

  4. Characterization of nanometer-scale porosity in reservoir carbonate rock by focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy. (United States)

    Bera, Bijoyendra; Gunda, Naga Siva Kumar; Mitra, Sushanta K; Vick, Douglas


    Sedimentary carbonate rocks are one of the principal porous structures in natural reservoirs of hydrocarbons such as crude oil and natural gas. Efficient hydrocarbon recovery requires an understanding of the carbonate pore structure, but the nature of sedimentary carbonate rock formation and the toughness of the material make proper analysis difficult. In this study, a novel preparation method was used on a dolomitic carbonate sample, and selected regions were then serially sectioned and imaged by focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy. The resulting series of images were used to construct detailed three-dimensional representations of the microscopic pore spaces and analyze them quantitatively. We show for the first time the presence of nanometer-scale pores (50-300 nm) inside the solid dolomite matrix. We also show the degree of connectivity of these pores with micron-scale pores (2-5 μm) that were observed to further link with bulk pores outside the matrix.

  5. Preliminary Three-Dimensional Simulation of Sediment and Cesium Transport in the Ogi Dam Reservoir using FLESCOT – Task 6, Subtask 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Yasuo; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Yokuda, Satoru T.


    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in March 2011, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory initiated a collaborative project on environmental restoration. In October 2013, the collaborative team started a task of three-dimensional modeling of sediment and cesium transport in the Fukushima environment using the FLESCOT (Flow, Energy, Salinity, Sediment Contaminant Transport) code. As the first trial, we applied it to the Ogi Dam Reservoir that is one of the reservoirs in the Japan Atomic Energy Agency’s (JAEA’s) investigation project. Three simulation cases under the following different temperature conditions were studied: • incoming rivers and the Ogi Dam Reservoir have the same water temperature • incoming rivers have lower water temperature than that of the reservoir • incoming rivers have higher water temperature than that of the reservoir. The preliminary simulations suggest that seasonal temperature changes influence the sediment and cesium transport. The preliminary results showed the following: • Suspended sand, and cesium adsorbed by sand, coming into the reservoirs from upstream rivers is deposited near the reservoir entrance. • Suspended silt, and cesium adsorbed by silt, is deposited farther in the reservoir. • Suspended clay, and cesium adsorbed by clay, travels the farthest into the reservoir. With sufficient time, the dissolved cesium reaches the downstream end of the reservoir. This preliminary modeling also suggests the possibility of a suitable dam operation to control the cesium migration farther downstream from the dam. JAEA has been sampling in the Ogi Dam Reservoir, but these data were not yet available for the current model calibration and validation for this reservoir. Nonetheless these preliminary FLESCOT modeling results were qualitatively valid and confirmed the applicability of the FLESCOT code to the Ogi Dam Reservoir, and in general to other reservoirs in

  6. CO2 geosequestration at the laboratory scale: Combined geophysical and hydromechanical assessment of weakly-cemented shallow Sleipner-like reservoirs (United States)

    Falcon-Suarez, I.; North, L. J.; Best, A. I.


    To date, the most promising mitigation strategy for reducing global carbon emissions is Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). The storage technology (i.e., CO2 geosequestration, CGS) consists of injecting CO2 into deep geological formations, specifically selected for such massive-scale storage. To guarantee the mechanical stability of the reservoir during and after injection, it is crucial to improve existing monitoring techniques for controlling CGS activities. We developed a comprehensive experimental program to investigate the integrity of the Sleipner CO2 storage site in the North Sea - the first commercial CCS project in history where 1 Mtn/y of CO2 has been injected since 1996. We assessed hydro-mechanical effects and the related geophysical signatures of three synthetic sandstones and samples from the Utsira Sand formation (main reservoir at Sleipner), at realistic pressure-temperature (PT) conditions and fluid compositions. Our experimental approach consists of brine-CO2 flow-through tests simulating variable inflation/depletion scenarios, performed in the CGS-rig (Fig. 1; Falcon-Suarez et al., 2017) at the National Oceanography Centre (NOC) in Southampton. The rig is designed for simultaneous monitoring of ultrasonic P- and S-wave velocities and attenuations, electrical resistivity, axial and radial strains, pore pressure and flow, during the co-injection of up to two fluids under controlled PT conditions. Our results show velocity-resistivity and seismic-geomechanical relations of practical importance for the distinction between pore pressure and pore fluid distribution during CGS activities. By combining geophysical and thermo-hydro-mechano-chemical coupled information, we can provide laboratory datasets that complement in situ seismic, geomechanical and electrical survey information, useful for the CO2 plume monitoring in Sleipner site and other shallow weakly-cemented sand CCS reservoirs. Falcon-Suarez, I., Marín-Moreno, H., Browning, F., Lichtschlag, A

  7. Generalized transmissibilities for corner point rids in reservoir simulation; Transmissibilidades generalizadas em malhas corner point na simulacao de reservatorios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tada, Mauricio P.; Silva, Antonio Fabio C. da; Maliska, Clovis R. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Lab. de Simulacao Numerica em Mecanica dos Fluidos e Transferencia de Calor (SINMEC)


    It is common to use five points schemes in reservoir simulation, since it simplifies the computational implementation and takes the linear resultant system simplest to be solved, giving more process velocity and robust to simulator. However, the use of these schemes may introduce significant errors solutions as function of volume's non orthogonality and medium anisotropy. These errors do not disappear with grid refinement since they are not truncate errors, it is a flux calculus approximation in the control volume faces. In order to get a correct solution and with no errors of these kind, it must be used a nine point scheme based on the correct flux calculus. The objective of this work is to present a new methodology to calculate the transmissibility on simulation reservoir that use a five and nine points scheme with corner-points grids. This mode considers full tensor anisotropy and the heterogeneity. The transmissibility presented are derivative of the discrete flux expression through control volume faces, where a generalized curvilinear coordinate system, located inner to the control volume, it is adopted. The transmissibility is then written on vector form and may to be used for any coordinate system. (author)

  8. Probabilistic simulation of multi-scale composite behavior (United States)

    Liaw, D. G.; Shiao, M. C.; Singhal, S. N.; Chamis, Christos C.


    A methodology is developed to computationally assess the probabilistic composite material properties at all composite scale levels due to the uncertainties in the constituent (fiber and matrix) properties and in the fabrication process variables. The methodology is computationally efficient for simulating the probability distributions of material properties. The sensitivity of the probabilistic composite material property to each random variable is determined. This information can be used to reduce undesirable uncertainties in material properties at the macro scale of the composite by reducing the uncertainties in the most influential random variables at the micro scale. This methodology was implemented into the computer code PICAN (Probabilistic Integrated Composite ANalyzer). The accuracy and efficiency of this methodology are demonstrated by simulating the uncertainties in the material properties of a typical laminate and comparing the results with the Monte Carlo simulation method. The experimental data of composite material properties at all scales fall within the scatters predicted by PICAN.

  9. Carbon dioxide emissions from Tucuruí reservoir (Amazon biome): New findings based on three-dimensional ecological model simulations. (United States)

    Curtarelli, Marcelo Pedroso; Ogashawara, Igor; de Araújo, Carlos Alberto Sampaio; Lorenzzetti, João Antônio; Leão, Joaquim Antônio Dionísio; Alcântara, Enner; Stech, José Luiz


    We used a three-dimensional model to assess the dynamics of diffusive carbon dioxide flux (F(CO2)) from a hydroelectric reservoir located at Amazon rainforest. Our results showed that for the studied periods (2013 summer/wet and winter/dry seasons) the surface averaged F(CO2) presented similar behaviors, with regular emissions peaks. The mean daily surface averaged F(CO2) showed no significant difference between the seasons (p>0.01), with values around -1338mg Cm-2day-1 (summer/wet) and -1395mg Cm-2day-1 (winter/dry). At diel scale, the F(CO2) was large during the night and morning and low during the afternoon in both seasons. Regarding its spatial distribution, the F(CO2) showed to be more heterogeneous during the summer/wet than during the winter/dry season. The highest F(CO2) were observed at transition zone (-300mg Cm-2h-1) during summer and at littoral zone (-55mg Cm-2h-1) during the winter. The total CO2 emitted by the reservoir along 2013 year was estimated to be 1.1Tg C year-1. By extrapolating our results we found that the total carbon emitted by all Amazonian reservoirs can be around 7Tg C year-1, which is 22% lower than the previous published estimate. This significant difference should not be neglected in the carbon inventories since the carbon emission is a key factor when comparing the environmental impacts of different sources of electricity generation and can influences decision makers in the selection of the more appropriate source of electricity and, in case of hydroelectricity, the geographical position of the reservoirs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The role of reservoir storage in large-scale surface water availability analysis for Europe (United States)

    Garrote, L. M.; Granados, A.; Martin-Carrasco, F.; Iglesias, A.


    A regional assessment of current and future water availability in Europe is presented in this study. The assessment was made using the Water Availability and Adaptation Policy Analysis (WAAPA) model. The model was built on the river network derived from the Hydro1K digital elevation maps, including all major river basins of Europe. Reservoir storage volume was taken from the World Register of Dams of ICOLD, including all dams with storage capacity over 5 hm3. Potential Water Availability is defined as the maximum amount of water that could be supplied at a certain point of the river network to satisfy a regular demand under pre-specified reliability requirements. Water availability is the combined result of hydrological processes, which determine streamflow in natural conditions, and human intervention, which determines the available hydraulic infrastructure to manage water and establishes water supply conditions through operating rules. The WAAPA algorithm estimates the maximum demand that can be supplied at every node of the river network accounting for the regulation capacity of reservoirs under different management scenarios. The model was run for a set of hydrologic scenarios taken from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP), where the PCRGLOBWB hydrological model was forced with results from five global climate models. Model results allow the estimation of potential water stress by comparing water availability to projections of water abstractions along the river network under different management alternatives. The set of sensitivity analyses performed showed the effect of policy alternatives on water availability and highlighted the large uncertainties linked to hydrological and anthropological processes.

  11. Physical Experiment and Numerical Simulation of the Artificial Recharge Effect on Groundwater Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xu


    Full Text Available To improve the efficiency of utilizing water resources in arid areas, the mechanism of artificial recharge effecting on groundwater reservoir was analyzed in this research. Based on a generalized groundwater reservoir in a two-dimensional sand tank model, different scenarios of the infiltration basin location and recharge intensity are designed to study how to improve the efficiency of groundwater reservoir artificial recharge. The effective storage capacity and the effective storage rate are taken as the main parameters to analyze the relation between recharge water volume and storage capacity. By combining with groundwater flow system theory, FEFLOW (Finite Element subsurface FLOW system is adopted to set up the groundwater numerical model. It is used to verify the experiment results and to make deep analysis on the rule of water table fluctuations and groundwater movement in the aquifer. Based on the model, different scenarios are designed to examine the combined effect of recharge intensity and intermittent periods. The research results show that: the distance between infiltration basin and pumping well should be shortened appropriately, but not too close; increasing recharge intensity helps to enlarge the effective storage capacity, but it can also reduce the effective storage rate, which goes against the purpose of effective utilization of water resources; and, the recharge intensity and recharge duration should be given full consideration by the actual requirements when we take the approach of intermittent recharge to make a reasonable choice.

  12. Assessment of Water Quality Improvements Using the Hydrodynamic Simulation Approach in Regulated Cascade Reservoirs: A Case Study of Drinking Water Sources of Shenzhen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixiang Hua


    Full Text Available Water quality safety is of critical importance in environmental improvement, particularly with respect to drinking water resources worldwide. As the main drinking water sources in Shenzhen, China, the cascade reservoirs comprising the Shiyan, Tiegang, and Xili Reservoirs are highly regulated and have experienced water quality deterioration in recent years. In this study, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model was established using the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC for the cascade reservoirs. The relationships between water quality and improvement measures were quantified and the main pollution sources for individual reservoirs were identified. Results showed that the hydrodynamic and water quality model well captured the spatial and temporal variations of water level, the permanganate concentration index (CODMn, and total nitrogen (TN, with high resolution in the cascade reservoirs. The correlation coefficients between simulations and observations were close to 1.00 for water levels, and over 0.50 for CODMn and TN concentrations. The most effective methods for water quality improvement were the reduction of the runoff load for TN and transferred water load for CODMn in the Shiyan Reservoir, reduction of the transferred water load in the Tiegang Reservoir, and an increase in transfer water volume, especially in the flood season, in the Xili Reservoir. Internal pollution sources also played an important role in water pollution, and thus sedimentation should be cleaned up regularly. This study is expected to provide scientific support for drinking water source protection and promote the application of hydrodynamic model in water quality management.

  13. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.


    The objective of this Class III project was demonstrate that reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by CO2 flood can increase production from slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, focused on Geraldine Ford and East Ford fields, which are Delaware Mountain Group fields that produce from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The demonstration phase of the project was a CO2 flood conducted in East Ford field, which is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit.

  14. OGS#PETSc approach for robust and efficient simulations of strongly coupled hydrothermal processes in EGS reservoirs (United States)

    Watanabe, Norihiro; Blucher, Guido; Cacace, Mauro; Kolditz, Olaf


    A robust and computationally efficient solution is important for 3D modelling of EGS reservoirs. This is particularly the case when the reservoir model includes hydraulic conduits such as induced or natural fractures, fault zones, and wellbore open-hole sections. The existence of such hydraulic conduits results in heterogeneous flow fields and in a strengthened coupling between fluid flow and heat transport processes via temperature dependent fluid properties (e.g. density and viscosity). A commonly employed partitioned solution (or operator-splitting solution) may not robustly work for such strongly coupled problems its applicability being limited by small time step sizes (e.g. 5-10 days) whereas the processes have to be simulated for 10-100 years. To overcome this limitation, an alternative approach is desired which can guarantee a robust solution of the coupled problem with minor constraints on time step sizes. In this work, we present a Newton-Raphson based monolithic coupling approach implemented in the OpenGeoSys simulator (OGS) combined with the Portable, Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation (PETSc) library. The PETSc library is used for both linear and nonlinear solvers as well as MPI-based parallel computations. The suggested method has been tested by application to the 3D reservoir site of Groß Schönebeck, in northern Germany. Results show that the exact Newton-Raphson approach can also be limited to small time step sizes (e.g. one day) due to slight oscillations in the temperature field. The usage of a line search technique and modification of the Jacobian matrix were necessary to achieve robust convergence of the nonlinear solution. For the studied example, the proposed monolithic approach worked even with a very large time step size of 3.5 years.

  15. Multi-scale simulation for homogenization of cement media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abballe, T.


    To solve diffusion problems on cement media, two scales must be taken into account: a fine scale, which describes the micrometers wide microstructures present in the media, and a work scale, which is usually a few meters long. Direct numerical simulations are almost impossible because of the huge computational resources (memory, CPU time) required to assess both scales at the same time. To overcome this problem, we present in this thesis multi-scale resolution methods using both Finite Volumes and Finite Elements, along with their efficient implementations. More precisely, we developed a multi-scale simulation tool which uses the SALOME platform to mesh domains and post-process data, and the parallel calculation code MPCube to solve problems. This SALOME/MPCube tool can solve automatically and efficiently multi-scale simulations. Parallel structure of computer clusters can be use to dispatch the more time-consuming tasks. We optimized most functions to account for cement media specificities. We presents numerical experiments on various cement media samples, e.g. mortar and cement paste. From these results, we manage to compute a numerical effective diffusivity of our cement media and to reconstruct a fine scale solution. (author) [fr

  16. How in-situ combustion process works in a fractured system : two-dimensional, core and block scale simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadaei, H.; Renard, G. [Inst. Francais du Petrole, Lyon (France); Quintard, M.; Debenest, G. [L' Inst. de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Kamp, A.M. [Centre Huile Lourde Ouvert et Experimental CHLOE, Pau (France)


    Core and matrix block scale simulations of in situ combustion (ISC) processes in a fractured reservoir were conducted. ISC propagation conditions and oil recovery mechanisms were studied at core scale, while the 2-D behaviour of ISC was also studied at block-scale in order to determine dominant processes for combustion propagation and the characteristics of different steam fronts. The study examined 2-phase combustion in a porous medium containing a solid fuel as well as 2-D conventional dry combustion methods. The aim of the study was to predict ISC extinction and propagation conditions as well as to understand the mechanisms of oil recovery using ISC processes. The simulations were also used to develop up-scaling guidelines for fractured systems. Computations were performed using different oxygen diffusion and matrix permeability values. The effect of each production mechanism was studied separately. The multi-phase simulations showed that ISC in fractured reservoirs is feasible. The study showed that ISC propagation is dependent on the oxygen diffusion coefficient, while matrix permeability plays an important role in oil production. Oil production was governed by gravity drainage and thermal effects. Heat transfer due to the movement of combustion front velocity in the study was minor when compared to heat transfer by conduction and convection. It was concluded that upscaling methods must also consider the different zones distinguished for oil saturation and temperatures. 15 refs., 2 tabs., 15 figs.

  17. Direct simulation of groundwater transit-time distributions using the reservoir theory (United States)

    Etcheverry, David; Perrochet, Pierre

    Groundwater transit times are of interest for the management of water resources, assessment of pollution from non-point sources, and quantitative dating of groundwaters by the use of environmental isotopes. The age of water is the time water has spent in an aquifer since it has entered the system, whereas the transit time is the age of water as it exits the system. Water at the outlet of an aquifer is a mixture of water elements with different transit times, as a consequence of the different flow-line lengths. In this paper, transit-time distributions are calculated by coupling two existing methods, the reservoir theory and a recent age-simulation method. Based on the derivation of the cumulative age distribution over the whole domain, the approach accounts for the whole hydrogeological framework. The method is tested using an analytical example and its applicability illustrated for a regional layered aquifer. Results show the asymmetry and multimodality of the transit-time distribution even in advection-only conditions, due to the aquifer geometry and to the velocity-field heterogeneity. Résumé Les temps de transit des eaux souterraines sont intéressants à connaître pour gérer l'évaluation des ressources en eau dans le cas de pollution à partir de sources non ponctuelles, et aussi pour dater quantitativement les eaux souterraines au moyen des isotopes du milieu. L'âge de l'eau est le temps qu'elle a passé dans un aquifère depuis qu'elle est entrée dans le système, alors que le temps de transit est l'âge de l'eau au moment où elle quitte le système. L'eau à la sortie d'un aquifère est un mélange d'eaux possédant différents temps de transit, du fait des longueurs différentes des lignes de courant suivies. Dans ce papier, les distributions des temps de transit sont calculées en couplant deux méthodes, la théorie du réservoir et une méthode récente de simulation des âges. Basée sur la dérivation de la distribution cumulées des âges sur

  18. Lattice Boltzmann Simulations of Fluid Flow in Continental Carbonate Reservoir Rocks and in Upscaled Rock Models Generated with Multiple-Point Geostatistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Soete


    Full Text Available Microcomputed tomography (μCT and Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM simulations were applied to continental carbonates to quantify fluid flow. Fluid flow characteristics in these complex carbonates with multiscale pore networks are unique and the applied method allows studying their heterogeneity and anisotropy. 3D pore network models were introduced to single-phase flow simulations in Palabos, a software tool for particle-based modelling of classic computational fluid dynamics. In addition, permeability simulations were also performed on rock models generated with multiple-point geostatistics (MPS. This allowed assessing the applicability of MPS in upscaling high-resolution porosity patterns into large rock models that exceed the volume limitations of the μCT. Porosity and tortuosity control fluid flow in these porous media. Micro- and mesopores influence flow properties at larger scales in continental carbonates. Upscaling with MPS is therefore necessary to overcome volume-resolution problems of CT scanning equipment. The presented LBM-MPS workflow is applicable to other lithologies, comprising different pore types, shapes, and pore networks altogether. The lack of straightforward porosity-permeability relationships in complex carbonates highlights the necessity for a 3D approach. 3D fluid flow studies provide the best understanding of flow through porous media, which is of crucial importance in reservoir modelling.

  19. Modelling earthquake location errors at a reservoir scale: a case study in the Upper Rhine Graben (United States)

    Kinnaert, X.; Gaucher, E.; Achauer, U.; Kohl, T.


    Earthquake absolute location errors which can be encountered in an underground reservoir are investigated. In such an exploitation context, earthquake hypocentre errors can have an impact on the field development and economic consequences. The approach using the state-of-the-art techniques covers both the location uncertainty and the location inaccuracy—or bias—problematics. It consists, first, in creating a 3-D synthetic seismic cloud of events in the reservoir and calculating the seismic traveltimes to a monitoring network assuming certain propagation conditions. In a second phase, the earthquakes are relocated with assumptions different from the initial conditions. Finally, the initial and relocated hypocentres are compared. As a result, location errors driven by the seismic onset time picking uncertainties and inaccuracies are quantified in 3-D. Effects induced by erroneous assumptions associated with the velocity model are also modelled. In particular, 1-D velocity model uncertainties, a local 3-D perturbation of the velocity and a 3-D geostructural model are considered. The present approach is applied to the site of Rittershoffen (Alsace, France), which is one of the deep geothermal fields existing in the Upper Rhine Graben. This example allows setting realistic scenarios based on the knowledge of the site. In that case, the zone of interest, monitored by an existing seismic network, ranges between 1 and 5 km depth in a radius of 2 km around a geothermal well. Well log data provided a reference 1-D velocity model used for the synthetic earthquake relocation. The 3-D analysis highlights the role played by the seismic network coverage and the velocity model in the amplitude and orientation of the location uncertainties and inaccuracies at subsurface levels. The location errors are neither isotropic nor aleatoric in the zone of interest. This suggests that although location inaccuracies may be smaller than location uncertainties, both quantities can have a

  20. Development of porous structure simulator for multi-scale simulation of irregular porous catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Michihisa; Suzuki, Ai; Sahnoun, Riadh; Tsuboi, Hideyuki; Hatakeyama, Nozomu; Endou, Akira; Takaba, Hiromitsu; Kubo, Momoji; Del Carpio, Carlos A.; Miyamoto, Akira


    Efficient development of highly functional porous materials, used as catalysts in the automobile industry, demands a meticulous knowledge of the nano-scale interface at the electronic and atomistic scale. However, it is often difficult to correlate the microscopic interfacial interactions with macroscopic characteristics of the materials; for instance, the interaction between a precious metal and its support oxide with long-term sintering properties of the catalyst. Multi-scale computational chemistry approaches can contribute to bridge the gap between micro- and macroscopic characteristics of these materials; however this type of multi-scale simulations has been difficult to apply especially to porous materials. To overcome this problem, we have developed a novel mesoscopic approach based on a porous structure simulator. This simulator can construct automatically irregular porous structures on a computer, enabling simulations with complex meso-scale structures. Moreover, in this work we have developed a new method to simulate long-term sintering properties of metal particles on porous catalysts. Finally, we have applied the method to the simulation of sintering properties of Pt on alumina support. This newly developed method has enabled us to propose a multi-scale simulation approach for porous catalysts

  1. Domain nesting for multi-scale large eddy simulation (United States)

    Fuka, Vladimir; Xie, Zheng-Tong


    The need to simulate city scale areas (O(10 km)) with high resolution within street canyons in certain areas of interests necessitates different grid resolutions in different part of the simulated area. General purpose computational fluid dynamics codes typically employ unstructured refined grids while mesoscale meteorological models more often employ nesting of computational domains. ELMM is a large eddy simulation model for the atmospheric boundary layer. It employs orthogonal uniform grids and for this reason domain nesting was chosen as the approach for simulations in multiple scales. Domains are implemented as sets of MPI processes which communicate with each other as in a normal non-nested run, but also with processes from another (outer/inner) domain. It should stressed that the duration of solution of time-steps in the outer and in the inner domain must be synchronized, so that the processes do not have to wait for the completion of their boundary conditions. This can achieved by assigning an appropriate number of CPUs to each domain, and to gain high efficiency. When nesting is applied for large eddy simulation, the inner domain receives inflow boundary conditions which lack turbulent motions not represented by the outer grid. ELMM remedies this by optional adding of turbulent fluctuations to the inflow using the efficient method of Xie and Castro (2008). The spatial scale of these fluctuations is in the subgrid-scale of the outer grid and their intensity will be estimated from the subgrid turbulent kinetic energy in the outer grid.

  2. Mathematical and field analysis of longitudinal reservoir infill (United States)

    Ke, W. T.; Capart, H.


    In reservoirs, severe problems are caused by infilled sediment deposits. In long term, the sediment accumulation reduces the capacity of reservoir storage and flood control benefits. In the short term, the sediment deposits influence the intakes of water-supply and hydroelectricity generation. For the management of reservoir, it is important to understand the deposition process and then to predict the sedimentation in reservoir. To investigate the behaviors of sediment deposits, we propose a one-dimensional simplified theory derived by the Exner equation to predict the longitudinal sedimentation distribution in idealized reservoirs. The theory models the reservoir infill geomorphic actions for three scenarios: delta progradation, near-dam bottom deposition, and final infill. These yield three kinds of self-similar analytical solutions for the reservoir bed profiles, under different boundary conditions. Three analytical solutions are composed by error function, complementary error function, and imaginary error function, respectively. The theory is also computed by finite volume method to test the analytical solutions. The theoretical and numerical predictions are in good agreement with one-dimensional small-scale laboratory experiment. As the theory is simple to apply with analytical solutions and numerical computation, we propose some applications to simulate the long-profile evolution of field reservoirs and focus on the infill sediment deposit volume resulting the uplift of near-dam bottom elevation. These field reservoirs introduced here are Wushe Reservoir, Tsengwen Reservoir, Mudan Reservoir in Taiwan, Lago Dos Bocas in Puerto Rico, and Sakuma Dam in Japan.

  3. Probabilistic Simulation of Multi-Scale Composite Behavior (United States)

    Chamis, Christos C.


    A methodology is developed to computationally assess the non-deterministic composite response at all composite scales (from micro to structural) due to the uncertainties in the constituent (fiber and matrix) properties, in the fabrication process and in structural variables (primitive variables). The methodology is computationally efficient for simulating the probability distributions of composite behavior, such as material properties, laminate and structural responses. Bi-products of the methodology are probabilistic sensitivities of the composite primitive variables. The methodology has been implemented into the computer codes PICAN (Probabilistic Integrated Composite ANalyzer) and IPACS (Integrated Probabilistic Assessment of Composite Structures). The accuracy and efficiency of this methodology are demonstrated by simulating the uncertainties in composite typical laminates and comparing the results with the Monte Carlo simulation method. Available experimental data of composite laminate behavior at all scales fall within the scatters predicted by PICAN. Multi-scaling is extended to simulate probabilistic thermo-mechanical fatigue and to simulate the probabilistic design of a composite redome in order to illustrate its versatility. Results show that probabilistic fatigue can be simulated for different temperature amplitudes and for different cyclic stress magnitudes. Results also show that laminate configurations can be selected to increase the redome reliability by several orders of magnitude without increasing the laminate thickness--a unique feature of structural composites. The old reference denotes that nothing fundamental has been done since that time.

  4. High Fidelity Simulations of Large-Scale Wireless Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onunkwo, Uzoma [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Benz, Zachary [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The worldwide proliferation of wireless connected devices continues to accelerate. There are 10s of billions of wireless links across the planet with an additional explosion of new wireless usage anticipated as the Internet of Things develops. Wireless technologies do not only provide convenience for mobile applications, but are also extremely cost-effective to deploy. Thus, this trend towards wireless connectivity will only continue and Sandia must develop the necessary simulation technology to proactively analyze the associated emerging vulnerabilities. Wireless networks are marked by mobility and proximity-based connectivity. The de facto standard for exploratory studies of wireless networks is discrete event simulations (DES). However, the simulation of large-scale wireless networks is extremely difficult due to prohibitively large turnaround time. A path forward is to expedite simulations with parallel discrete event simulation (PDES) techniques. The mobility and distance-based connectivity associated with wireless simulations, however, typically doom PDES and fail to scale (e.g., OPNET and ns-3 simulators). We propose a PDES-based tool aimed at reducing the communication overhead between processors. The proposed solution will use light-weight processes to dynamically distribute computation workload while mitigating communication overhead associated with synchronizations. This work is vital to the analytics and validation capabilities of simulation and emulation at Sandia. We have years of experience in Sandia’s simulation and emulation projects (e.g., MINIMEGA and FIREWHEEL). Sandia’s current highly-regarded capabilities in large-scale emulations have focused on wired networks, where two assumptions prevent scalable wireless studies: (a) the connections between objects are mostly static and (b) the nodes have fixed locations.

  5. Grain scale simulation of multiphase flow through porous media; Simulacao em escala granular do escoamento multifasico em meio poroso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingos, Ricardo Golghetto; Cheng, Liang-Yee [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica


    Since the grain scale modeling of multi-phase flow in porous media is of great interest for the oil industry, the aim of the present research is to show an implementation of Moving Particle Semi-Implicit (MPS) method for the grain scale simulation of multi-phase flow in porous media. Geometry data obtained by a high-resolution CT scan of a sandstone sample has been used as input for the simulations. The results of the simulations performed considering different resolutions are given, the head loss and permeability obtained numerically, as well as the influence of the wettability of the fluids inside the sample of the reservoir's sandstone. (author)

  6. Modelling fully-coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) processes in fractured reservoirs using GOLEM: a massively parallel open-source simulator (United States)

    Jacquey, Antoine; Cacace, Mauro


    Utilization of the underground for energy-related purposes have received increasing attention in the last decades as a source for carbon-free energy and for safe storage solutions. Understanding the key processes controlling fluid and heat flow around geological discontinuities such as faults and fractures as well as their mechanical behaviours is therefore of interest in order to design safe and sustainable reservoir operations. These processes occur in a naturally complex geological setting, comprising natural or engineered discrete heterogeneities as faults and fractures, span a relatively large spectrum of temporal and spatial scales and they interact in a highly non-linear fashion. In this regard, numerical simulators have become necessary in geological studies to model coupled processes and complex geological geometries. In this study, we present a new simulator GOLEM, using multiphysics coupling to characterize geological reservoirs. In particular, special attention is given to discrete geological features such as faults and fractures. GOLEM is based on the Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE). The MOOSE framework provides a powerful and flexible platform to solve multiphysics problems implicitly and in a tightly coupled manner on unstructured meshes which is of interest for the considered non-linear context. Governing equations in 3D for fluid flow, heat transfer (conductive and advective), saline transport as well as deformation (elastic and plastic) have been implemented into the GOLEM application. Coupling between rock deformation and fluid and heat flow is considered using theories of poroelasticity and thermoelasticity. Furthermore, considering material properties such as density and viscosity and transport properties such as porosity as dependent on the state variables (based on the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam models) increase the coupling complexity of the problem. The GOLEM application aims

  7. Unstructured grids and an element based conservative approach for a black-oil reservoir simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Regis Lopes; Fernandes, Bruno Ramon Batista [Federal University of Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Araujo, Andre Luiz de Souza [Federal Institution of Education, Science and Technology of Ceara - IFCE, Fortaleza (Brazil). Industry Department], e-mail:; Marcondes, Francisco [Federal University of Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering and Material Science], e-mail:


    Unstructured meshes presented one upgrade in modeling the main important features of the reservoir such as discrete fractures, faults, and irregular boundaries. From several methodologies available, the Element based Finite Volume Method (EbFVM), in conjunction with unstructured meshes, is one methodology that deserves large attention. In this approach, the reservoir, for 2D domains, is discretized using a mixed two-dimensional mesh using quadrilateral and triangle elements. After the initial step of discretization, each element is divided into sub-elements and the mass balance for each component is developed for each sub-element. The equations for each control-volume using a cell vertex construction are formulated through the contribution of different neighboured elements. This paper presents an investigation of an element-based approach using the black-oil model based on pressure and global mass fractions. In this approach, even when all gas phase is dissolved in oil phase the global mass fraction of gas will be different from zero. Therefore, no additional numerical procedure is necessary in order to treat the gas phase appear/disappearance. In this paper the above mentioned approach is applied to multiphase flows involving oil, gas, and water. The mass balance equations in terms of global mass fraction of oil, gas and water are discretized through the EbFVM and linearized by the Newton's method. The results are presented in terms of volumetric rates of oil, gas, and water and phase saturations. (author)

  8. Large-scale computing techniques for complex system simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Dubitzky, Werner; Schott, Bernard


    Complex systems modeling and simulation approaches are being adopted in a growing number of sectors, including finance, economics, biology, astronomy, and many more. Technologies ranging from distributed computing to specialized hardware are explored and developed to address the computational requirements arising in complex systems simulations. The aim of this book is to present a representative overview of contemporary large-scale computing technologies in the context of complex systems simulations applications. The intention is to identify new research directions in this field and

  9. The Influence of CO2 Solubility in Brine on Simulation of CO2 Injection into Water Flooded Reservoir and CO2 WAG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan


    Injection of CO2 into depleted oil reservoirs is not only a traditional way to enhance oil recovery but also a relatively cheaper way to sequester CO2 underground since the increased oil production can offset some sequestration cost. CO2 injection process is often applied to water flooded...... reservoirs and in many situations alternating injection of water and CO2 is required to stabilize the injection front. Both scenarios involve a large amount of water, making CO2 solubility in brine, which is around ten times higher than methane solubility, a non-negligible factor in the relevant reservoir...... simulations. In our previous study, a 1-D slimtube simulator, which rigorously accounts for both CO2 solubility in brine and water content in hydrocarbon phases using the Peng-Robinson EoS modified by Soreide and Whitson, has been used to investigate the influence of CO2 solubility on the simulation...

  10. Believability in simplifications of large scale physically based simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Donghui


    We verify two hypotheses which are assumed to be true only intuitively in many rigid body simulations. I: In large scale rigid body simulation, viewers may not be able to perceive distortion incurred by an approximated simulation method. II: Fixing objects under a pile of objects does not affect the visual plausibility. Visual plausibility of scenarios simulated with these hypotheses assumed true are measured using subjective rating from viewers. As expected, analysis of results supports the truthfulness of the hypotheses under certain simulation environments. However, our analysis discovered four factors which may affect the authenticity of these hypotheses: number of collisions simulated simultaneously, homogeneity of colliding object pairs, distance from scene under simulation to camera position, and simulation method used. We also try to find an objective metric of visual plausibility from eye-tracking data collected from viewers. Analysis of these results indicates that eye-tracking does not present a suitable proxy for measuring plausibility or distinguishing between types of simulations. © 2013 ACM.

  11. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.; Flanders, W.A.; Guzman, J.I.; Zirczy, H.


    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through geologically based field development. This year the project focused on reservoir characterization of the East Ford unit, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey Sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit; it contained an estimated 19.8 million barrels (MMbbl) of original oil in place. Petrophysical characterization of the East Ford unit was accomplished by integrating core and log data and quantifying petrophysical properties from wireline logs. Most methods of petrophysical analysis that had been developed during an earlier study of the Ford Geraldine unit were successfully transferred to the East Ford unit. The approach that was used to interpret water saturation from resistivity logs, however, had to be modified because in some East Ford wells the log-calculated water saturation was too high and inconsistent with observations made during the actual production. Log-porosity to core-porosity transforms and core-porosity to core-permeability transforms were derived from the East Ford reservoir. The petrophysical data were used to map porosity, permeability, net pay, water saturation, mobil-oil saturation, and other reservoir properties.

  12. Atomic scale simulations for improved CRUD and fuel performance modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Anders David Ragnar [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cooper, Michael William Donald [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    A more mechanistic description of fuel performance codes can be achieved by deriving models and parameters from atomistic scale simulations rather than fitting models empirically to experimental data. The same argument applies to modeling deposition of corrosion products on fuel rods (CRUD). Here are some results from publications in 2016 carried out using the CASL allocation at LANL.

  13. Computer simulation of quantum phenomena in nano-scale devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raedt, Hans De


    This paper reviews the general concepts for building algorithms to solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation and to discuss ways of turning these concepts into unconditionally stable, accurate and efficient simulation algorithms. Applications to focussed electron emission from nano-scale

  14. Simulating Small-Scale Object Stacking Using Stack Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg Thomsen, Kasper; Kraus, Martin


    This paper presents an extension system to a closed-source, real-time physics engine for improving structured stacking behavior with small-scale objects such as wooden toy bricks. The proposed system was implemented and evaluated. The tests showed that the system is able to simulate several common...

  15. Advanced Dynamically Adaptive Algorithms for Stochastic Simulations on Extreme Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiu, Dongbin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)


    The focus of the project is the development of mathematical methods and high-performance computational tools for stochastic simulations, with a particular emphasis on computations on extreme scales. The core of the project revolves around the design of highly efficient and scalable numerical algorithms that can adaptively and accurately, in high dimensional spaces, resolve stochastic problems with limited smoothness, even containing discontinuities.

  16. Scale Adaptive Simulation Model for the Darrieus Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowski, K.; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Maroński, R.


    the scale adaptive simulation (SAS) approach for performance analysis of a one-bladed Darrieus wind turbine working at a tip speed ratio of 5 and at a blade Reynolds number of 40 000. The three-dimensional incompressible unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are used. Numerical results of aerodynamic loads...

  17. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Zirczy, Helena H.


    The objective of this Class 3 project was to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, was completed this year, and Phase 2 began. The project is focused on East Ford field, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit. A CO{sub 2} flood is being conducted in the unit, and this flood is the Phase 2 demonstration for the project.

  18. Responses of spatial-temporal dynamics of bacterioplankton community to large-scale reservoir operation: a case study in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China


    Li, Zhe; Lu, Lunhui; Guo, Jinsong; Yang, Jixiang; Zhang, Jiachao; He, Bin; Xu, Linlin


    Large rivers are commonly regulated by damming, yet the effects of such disruption on bacterioplankton community structures have not been adequately studied. The aim of this study was to explore the biogeographical patterns present under dam regulation and to uncover the major drivers structuring bacterioplankton communities. Bacterioplankton assemblages in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) were analyzed using Illumina Miseq sequencing by comparing seven sites located within the TGR before and...

  19. A Network Contention Model for the Extreme-scale Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, Christian [ORNL; Naughton III, Thomas J [ORNL


    The Extreme-scale Simulator (xSim) is a performance investigation toolkit for high-performance computing (HPC) hardware/software co-design. It permits running a HPC application with millions of concurrent execution threads, while observing its performance in a simulated extreme-scale system. This paper details a newly developed network modeling feature for xSim, eliminating the shortcomings of the existing network modeling capabilities. The approach takes a different path for implementing network contention and bandwidth capacity modeling using a less synchronous and accurate enough model design. With the new network modeling feature, xSim is able to simulate on-chip and on-node networks with reasonable accuracy and overheads.

  20. Small-scale galaxy clustering in the eagle simulation (United States)

    Artale, M. Celeste; Pedrosa, Susana E.; Trayford, James W.; Theuns, Tom; Farrow, Daniel J.; Norberg, Peder; Zehavi, Idit; Bower, Richard G.; Schaller, Matthieu


    We study present-day galaxy clustering in the eagle cosmological hydrodynamical simulation. eagle's galaxy formation parameters were calibrated to reproduce the redshift z = 0.1 galaxy stellar mass function, and the simulation also reproduces galaxy colours well. The simulation volume is too small to correctly sample large-scale fluctuations and we therefore concentrate on scales smaller than a few mega parsecs. We find very good agreement with observed clustering measurements from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey, when galaxies are binned by stellar mass, colour or luminosity. However, low-mass red galaxies are clustered too strongly, which is at least partly due to limited numerical resolution. Apart from this limitation, we conclude that eagle galaxies inhabit similar dark matter haloes as observed GAMA galaxies, and that the radial distribution of satellite galaxies, as a function of stellar mass and colour, is similar to that observed as well.

  1. Large reservoirs: Chapter 17 (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Bettoli, Phillip William


    expressed effects, such as turbidity and water quality, zooplankton density and size composition, or fish growth rates and assemblage composition, are the upshot of large-scale factors operating outside reservoirs and not under the direct control of reservoir managers. Realistically, abiotic and biotic conditions in reservoirs are shaped by factors working inside and outside reservoirs, with the relative importance of external factors differing among reservoirs. With this perspective, large reservoirs are viewed from a habitat standpoint within the framework of a conceptual model in which individual reservoir characteristics are influenced by both local- and landscape-scale factors (Figure 17.1). In the sections that follow, how each element of this hierarchical model influences habitat and fish assemblages in reservoirs is considered. Important in-reservoir habitat issues and reservoirs as part of larger systems, where reservoir management requires looking for real solutions outside individual reservoirs are described.

  2. Population heterogeneity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli lab scale cultivations simulating industrial scale bioprocesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heins, Anna-Lena

    by averaged values. Population distributions always exist, but are significantly pronounced due to a combination of metabolic and stress responses of single cells travelling throughout the reactor experiencing gradients of substrate, pH and oxygen caused by non-ideal mixing in industrial scale bioprocesses....... This thesis aimed at reaching a deeper understanding of how microbial physiology and cell dynamics are affected by the spatial heterogeneity in a bioreactor. Therefore large scale fermentation was simulated in laboratory scale using two of the most industrially relevant organisms E. coli and S. cerevisiae...... heterogeneity in the different setups simulating large scale fermentation that can potentially be used in development and optimisation of industrial scale processes. Differences in growth and membrane robustness due to varying growth conditions and between slow and fast growing cells, different metabolic...

  3. Informing the operations of water reservoirs over multiple temporal scales by direct use of hydro-meteorological data (United States)

    Denaro, Simona; Anghileri, Daniela; Giuliani, Matteo; Castelletti, Andrea


    Water reservoir systems may become more adaptive and reliable to external changes by enlarging the information sets used in their operations. Models and forecasts of future hydro-climatic and socio-economic conditions are traditionally used for this purpose. Nevertheless, the identification of skillful forecasts and models might be highly critical when the system comprises several processes with inconsistent dynamics (fast and slow) and disparate levels of predictability. In these contexts, the direct use of observational data, describing the current conditions of the water system, may represent a practicable and zero-cost alternative. This paper contrasts the relative contribution of state observations and perfect forecasts of future water availability in improving multipurpose water reservoirs operation over short- and long-term temporal scales. The approach is demonstrated on the snow-dominated Lake Como system, operated for flood control and water supply. The Information Selection Assessment (ISA) framework is adopted to retrieve the most relevant information to be used for conditioning the operations. By explicitly distinguishing between observational dataset and future forecasts, we quantify the relative contribution of current water system state estimates and perfect streamflow forecasts in improving the lake regulation with respect to both flood control and water supply. Results show that using the available observational data capturing slow dynamic processes, particularly the snow melting process, produces a 10% improvement in the system performance. This latter represents the lower bound of the potential improvement, which may increase to the upper limit of 40% in case skillful (perfect) long-term streamflow forecasts are used.

  4. The seismo-hydromechanical behavior during deep geothermal reservoir stimulations: open questions tackled in a decameter-scale in situ stimulation experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Amann


    Full Text Available In this contribution, we present a review of scientific research results that address seismo-hydromechanically coupled processes relevant for the development of a sustainable heat exchanger in low-permeability crystalline rock and introduce the design of the In situ Stimulation and Circulation (ISC experiment at the Grimsel Test Site dedicated to studying such processes under controlled conditions. The review shows that research on reservoir stimulation for deep geothermal energy exploitation has been largely based on laboratory observations, large-scale projects and numerical models. Observations of full-scale reservoir stimulations have yielded important results. However, the limited access to the reservoir and limitations in the control on the experimental conditions during deep reservoir stimulations is insufficient to resolve the details of the hydromechanical processes that would enhance process understanding in a way that aids future stimulation design. Small-scale laboratory experiments provide fundamental insights into various processes relevant for enhanced geothermal energy, but suffer from (1 difficulties and uncertainties in upscaling the results to the field scale and (2 relatively homogeneous material and stress conditions that lead to an oversimplistic fracture flow and/or hydraulic fracture propagation behavior that is not representative of a heterogeneous reservoir. Thus, there is a need for intermediate-scale hydraulic stimulation experiments with high experimental control that bridge the various scales and for which access to the target rock mass with a comprehensive monitoring system is possible. The ISC experiment is designed to address open research questions in a naturally fractured and faulted crystalline rock mass at the Grimsel Test Site (Switzerland. Two hydraulic injection phases were executed to enhance the permeability of the rock mass. During the injection phases the rock mass deformation across fractures and

  5. The seismo-hydromechanical behavior during deep geothermal reservoir stimulations: open questions tackled in a decameter-scale in situ stimulation experiment (United States)

    Amann, Florian; Gischig, Valentin; Evans, Keith; Doetsch, Joseph; Jalali, Reza; Valley, Benoît; Krietsch, Hannes; Dutler, Nathan; Villiger, Linus; Brixel, Bernard; Klepikova, Maria; Kittilä, Anniina; Madonna, Claudio; Wiemer, Stefan; Saar, Martin O.; Loew, Simon; Driesner, Thomas; Maurer, Hansruedi; Giardini, Domenico


    In this contribution, we present a review of scientific research results that address seismo-hydromechanically coupled processes relevant for the development of a sustainable heat exchanger in low-permeability crystalline rock and introduce the design of the In situ Stimulation and Circulation (ISC) experiment at the Grimsel Test Site dedicated to studying such processes under controlled conditions. The review shows that research on reservoir stimulation for deep geothermal energy exploitation has been largely based on laboratory observations, large-scale projects and numerical models. Observations of full-scale reservoir stimulations have yielded important results. However, the limited access to the reservoir and limitations in the control on the experimental conditions during deep reservoir stimulations is insufficient to resolve the details of the hydromechanical processes that would enhance process understanding in a way that aids future stimulation design. Small-scale laboratory experiments provide fundamental insights into various processes relevant for enhanced geothermal energy, but suffer from (1) difficulties and uncertainties in upscaling the results to the field scale and (2) relatively homogeneous material and stress conditions that lead to an oversimplistic fracture flow and/or hydraulic fracture propagation behavior that is not representative of a heterogeneous reservoir. Thus, there is a need for intermediate-scale hydraulic stimulation experiments with high experimental control that bridge the various scales and for which access to the target rock mass with a comprehensive monitoring system is possible. The ISC experiment is designed to address open research questions in a naturally fractured and faulted crystalline rock mass at the Grimsel Test Site (Switzerland). Two hydraulic injection phases were executed to enhance the permeability of the rock mass. During the injection phases the rock mass deformation across fractures and within intact rock

  6. Geomechanical characterization and reservoir simulation of a carbon dioxide sequestration project in a mature oil field, Teapot Dome, WY (United States)

    Chiaramonte, Laura

    In this dissertation, I present my contribution towards the understanding and prediction of the risk of CO2 leakage through natural pathways (i.e. faults and fractures). The main portion of this dissertation deals with geomechanical aspects of CO2 Sequestration in Teapot Dome, WY, a mature oil field. The last study investigates the use of induce microseismicity to enhance permeability and injectivity in tight reservoirs and to monitor carbon sequestration projects. In the first three projects, the Tensleep Formation, a Pennsylvanian age eolian fractured sandstone, is evaluated as the target horizon for a pilot CO2 EOR-carbon storage experiment, in a three-way closure trap against a bounding fault, termed the S1 fault. In the first study, a geomechanical model of the Tensleep Fm. has been developed to evaluate the potential for CO2 injection inducing slip on the S1 fault and thus threatening seal integrity. The geomechanical analysis demonstrated that CO2 sequestration will not induce slip on the reservoir-bounding fault, nor is cracking the cap rock a concern. In the second study, a 3D reservoir model and fluid flow simulation of the Tensleep Fm., under these geomechanical constraints, was developed to model the migration of the injected CO2 as well as to obtain limits on the rates and volumes of CO2 that can be injected without compromising seal integrity. The results of the numerical simulations corroborate the analytical results of the geomechanical analysis that seal integrity will not be compromised by the pilot injection. In the third study, we test an Amplitude Versus Angle and Azimuth (AVAZ) analysis to identify the presence of fractures using wide-azimuth 3D seismic data. The objective of the project was to obtain a 3D characterization of the fracture network on both the reservoir and the caprock that will allow for a more accurate assessment of the impact of these features in reservoir permeability and in the risk of CO2 leakage. The AVAZ results were

  7. Markov random fields simulation: an introduction to the stochastic modelling of petroleum reservoirs; Simulacao de campos aleatorios markovianos: uma introducao voltada a modelagem estocastica de reservatorios de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldanha Filho, Paulo Carlos


    Stochastic simulation has been employed in petroleum reservoir characterization as a modeling tool able to reconcile information from several different sources. It has the ability to preserve the variability of the modeled phenomena and permits transference of geological knowledge to numerical models of flux, whose predictions on reservoir constitute the main basis for reservoir management decisions. Several stochastic models have been used and/or suggested, depending on the nature of the phenomena to be described. Markov Random Fields (MRFs) appear as an alternative for the modeling of discrete variables, mainly reservoirs with mosaic architecture of facies. In this dissertation, the reader is introduced to the stochastic modeling by MRFs in a generic sense. The main aspects of the technique are reviewed. MRF Conceptual Background is described: its characterization through the Markovian property and the equivalence to Gibbs distributions. The framework for generic modeling of MRFs is described. The classical models of Ising and Potts-Strauss are specific in this context and are related to models of Ising and Potts-Strauss are specific in this context and are related to models used in petroleum reservoir characterization. The problem of parameter estimation is discussed. The maximum pseudolikelihood estimators for some models are presented. Estimators for two models useful for reservoir characterization are developed, and represent a new contribution to the subject. Five algorithms for the Conditional Simulation of MRFs are described: the Metropolis algorithm, the algorithm of German and German (Gibbs sampler), the algorithm of Swendsen-Wang, the algorithm of Wolff, and the algorithm of Flinn. Finally, examples of simulation for some of the models discussed are presented, along with their implications on the modelling of petroleum reservoirs. (author)

  8. Numerical Simulation Study on Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage Performance in a Heavy Oil Reservoir with a Bottom Water Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ni


    Full Text Available In the Pikes Peak oil field near Lloydminster, Canada, a significant amount of heavy oil reserves is located in reservoirs with a bottom water zone. The properties of the bottom water zone and the operation parameters significantly affect oil production performance via the steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD process. Thus, in order to develop this type of heavy oil resource, a full understanding of the effects of these properties is necessary. In this study, the numerical simulation approach was applied to study the effects of properties in the bottom water zone in the SAGD process, such as the initial gas oil ratio, the thickness of the reservoir, and oil saturation of the bottom water zone. In addition, some operation parameters were studied including the injection pressure, the SAGD well pair location, and five different well patterns: (1 two corner wells, (2 triple wells, (3 downhole water sink well, (4 vertical injectors with a horizontal producer, and (5 fishbone well. The numerical simulation results suggest that the properties of the bottom water zone affect production performance extremely. First, both positive and negative effects were observed when solution gas exists in the heavy oil. Second, a logarithmical relationship was investigated between the bottom water production ratio and the thickness of the bottom water zone. Third, a non-linear relation was obtained between the oil recovery factor and oil saturation in the bottom water zone, and a peak oil recovery was achieved at the oil saturation rate of 30% in the bottom water zone. Furthermore, the operation parameters affected the heavy oil production performance. Comparison of the well patterns showed that the two corner wells and the triple wells patterns obtained the highest oil recovery factors of 74.71% and 77.19%, respectively, which are almost twice the oil recovery factors gained in the conventional SAGD process (47.84%. This indicates that the optimized SAGD process

  9. A systematic assessment of watershed-scale nonpoint source pollution during rainfall-runoff events in the Miyun Reservoir watershed. (United States)

    Qiu, Jiali; Shen, Zhenyao; Wei, Guoyuan; Wang, Guobo; Xie, Hui; Lv, Guanping


    The assessment of peak flow rate, total runoff volume, and pollutant loads during rainfall process are very important for the watershed management and the ecological restoration of aquatic environment. Real-time measurements of rainfall-runoff and pollutant loads are always the most reliable approach but are difficult to carry out at all desired location in the watersheds considering the large consumption of material and financial resources. An integrated environmental modeling approach for the estimation of flash streamflow that combines the various hydrological and quality processes during rainstorms within the agricultural watersheds is essential to develop targeted management strategies for the endangered drinking water. This study applied the Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) to simulate the spatial and temporal variation in hydrological processes and pollutant transport processes during rainstorm events in the Miyun Reservoir watershed, a drinking water resource area in Beijing. The model performance indicators ensured the acceptable applicability of the HSPF model to simulate flow and pollutant loads in the studied watershed and to establish a relationship between land use and the parameter values. The proportion of soil and land use was then identified as the influencing factors of the pollution intensities. The results indicated that the flush concentrations were much higher than those observed during normal flow periods and considerably exceeded the limits of Class III Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water (GB3838-2002) for the secondary protection zones of the drinking water resource in China. Agricultural land and leached cinnamon soils were identified as the key sources of sediment, nutrients, and fecal coliforms. Precipitation volume was identified as a driving factor that determined the amount of runoff and pollutant loads during rainfall processes. These results are useful to improve the streamflow predictions, provide

  10. A new scaling approach for the mesoscale simulation of magnetic domain structures using Monte Carlo simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, B., E-mail:; Eisenbach, M.; Burress, T.A.


    Highlights: • Developed new scaling technique for dipole–dipole interaction energy. • Developed new scaling technique for exchange interaction energy. • Used scaling laws to extend atomistic simulations to micrometer length scale. • Demonstrated transition from mono-domain to vortex magnetic structure. • Simulated domain wall width and transition length scale agree with experiments. - Abstract: A new scaling approach has been proposed for the spin exchange and the dipole–dipole interaction energy as a function of the system size. The computed scaling laws are used in atomistic Monte Carlo simulations of magnetic moment evolution to predict the transition from single domain to a vortex structure as the system size increases. The width of a 180° – domain wall extracted from the simulated structures is in close agreement with experimentally values for an F–Si alloy. The transition size from a single domain to a vortex structure is also in close agreement with theoretically predicted and experimentally measured values for Fe.

  11. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew G. Cole; George B. Asquith; Jose I. Guzman; Mark D. Barton; Mohammad A. Malik; Shirley P. Dutton; Sigrid J. Clift


    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of clastic reservoirs in basinal sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover more of the original oil in place by strategic infill-well placement and geologically based enhanced oil recovery. The study focused on the Ford Geraldine unit, which produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). Reservoirs in this and other Delaware Mountain Group fields have low producibility (average recovery <14 percent of the original oil in place) because of a high degree of vertical and lateral heterogeneity caused by depositional processes and post-depositional diagenetic modification. Outcrop analogs were studied to better interpret the depositional processes that formed the reservoirs at the Ford Geraldine unit and to determine the dimensions of reservoir sandstone bodies. Facies relationships and bedding architecture within a single genetic unit exposed in outcrop in Culberson County, Texas, suggest that the sandstones were deposited in a system of channels and levees with attached lobes that initially prograded basinward, aggraded, and then turned around and stepped back toward the shelf. Channel sandstones are 10 to 60 ft thick and 300 to 3,000 ft wide. The flanking levees have a wedge-shaped geometry and are composed of interbedded sandstone and siltstone; thickness varies from 3 to 20 ft and length from several hundred to several thousands of feet. The lobe sandstones are broad lens-shaped bodies; thicknesses range up to 30 ft with aspect ratios (width/thickness) of 100 to 10,000. Lobe sandstones may be interstratified with laminated siltstones.

  12. Temporal Asynchrony of Trophic Status Between Mainstream and Tributary Bay Within a Giant Dendritic Reservoir: The Role of Local-Scale Regulators. (United States)

    Xu, Yaoyang; Shao, Meiling; Han, Xinqin; Cai, Qinghua


    Limnologists have regarded temporal coherence (synchrony) as a powerful tool for identifying the relative importance of local-scale regulators and regional climatic drivers on lake ecosystems. Limnological studies on Asian reservoirs have emphasized that climate and hydrology under the influences of monsoon are dominant factors regulating seasonal patterns of lake trophic status; yet, little is known of synchrony or asynchrony of trophic status in the single reservoir ecosystem. Based on monthly monitoring data of chlorophyll a, transparency, nutrients, and nonvolatile suspended solids (NVSS) during 1-year period, the present study evaluated temporal coherence to test whether local-scale regulators disturb the seasonal dynamics of trophic state indices (TSI) in a giant dendritic reservoir, China (Three Gorges Reservoir, TGR). Reservoir-wide coherences for TSI(CHL), TSI(SD), and TSI(TP) showed dramatic variations over spatial scale, indicating temporal asynchrony of trophic status. Following the concept of TSI differences, algal productivity in the mainstream of TGR and Xiangxi Bay except the upstream of the bay were always limited by nonalgal turbidity (TSI(CHL)-TSI(SD) TSI(CHL)-TSI(TN) TSI(CHL)-TSI(TP) TSI differences showed that local processes of Xiangxi Bay were the main responsible for local asynchrony of nonalgal turbidity limitation levels. Regression analysis further proved that local temporal asynchrony for TSI(SD) and nonalgal turbidity limitation levels were regulated by local dynamics of NVSS, rather than geographical distance. The implications of the present study are to emphasize that the results of trophic status obtained from a single environment (reservoir mainstream) cannot be extrapolated to other environments (tributary bay) in a way that would allow its use as a sentinel site.

  13. Simulation study to determine the feasibility of injecting hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas injection to improve gas and oil recovery oil-rim reservoir (United States)

    Eid, Mohamed El Gohary

    This study is combining two important and complicated processes; Enhanced Oil Recovery, EOR, from the oil rim and Enhanced Gas Recovery, EGR from the gas cap using nonhydrocarbon injection gases. EOR is proven technology that is continuously evolving to meet increased demand and oil production and desire to augment oil reserves. On the other hand, the rapid growth of the industrial and urban development has generated an unprecedented power demand, particularly during summer months. The required gas supplies to meet this demand are being stretched. To free up gas supply, alternative injectants to hydrocarbon gas are being reviewed to support reservoir pressure and maximize oil and gas recovery in oil rim reservoirs. In this study, a multi layered heterogeneous gas reservoir with an oil rim was selected to identify the most optimized development plan for maximum oil and gas recovery. The integrated reservoir characterization model and the pertinent transformed reservoir simulation history matched model were quality assured and quality checked. The development scheme is identified, in which the pattern and completion of the wells are optimized to best adapt to the heterogeneity of the reservoir. Lateral and maximum block contact holes will be investigated. The non-hydrocarbon gases considered for this study are hydrogen sulphide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen, utilized to investigate miscible and immiscible EOR processes. In November 2010, re-vaporization study, was completed successfully, the first in the UAE, with an ultimate objective is to examine the gas and condensate production in gas reservoir using non hydrocarbon gases. Field development options and proces schemes as well as reservoir management and long term business plans including phases of implementation will be identified and assured. The development option that maximizes the ultimate recovery factor will be evaluated and selected. The study achieved satisfactory results in integrating gas and oil

  14. Discrete-element method simulations: from micro to macro scales. (United States)

    Heyes, D M; Baxter, J; Tüzün, U; Qin, R S


    Many liquid systems encountered in environmental science are often complex mixtures of many components which place severe demands on traditional computational modelling techniques. A meso scale description is required to account adequately for their flow behaviour on the meso and macro scales. Traditional techniques of computational fluid dynamics and molecular simulation are not well suited to tackling these systems, and researchers are increasingly turning to a range of relatively new computational techniques that offer the prospect of addressing the factors relevant to multicomponent multiphase liquids on length- and time-scales between the molecular level and the macro scale. In this category, we discuss the off-lattice techniques of 'smooth particle hydrodynamics' (SPH) and 'dissipative particle dynamics' (DPD), and the grid-based techniques of 'lattice gas' and 'lattice Boltzmann' (LB). We highlight the main conceptual and technical features underpinning these methods, their strengths and weaknesses, and provide a few examples of the applications of these techniques that illustrate their utility.

  15. Numerical simulations of depressurization-induced gas production from gas hydrate reservoirs at the Walker Ridge 312 site, northern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myshakin, Evgeniy M.; Gaddipati, Manohar; Rose, Kelly; Anderson, Brian J.


    In 2009, the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Gas Hydrates Joint-Industry-Project (JIP) Leg II drilling program confirmed that gas hydrate occurs at high saturations within reservoir-quality sands in the GOM. A comprehensive logging-while-drilling dataset was collected from seven wells at three sites, including two wells at the Walker Ridge 313 site. By constraining the saturations and thicknesses of hydrate-bearing sands using logging-while-drilling data, two-dimensional (2D), cylindrical, r-z and three-dimensional (3D) reservoir models were simulated. The gas hydrate occurrences inferred from seismic analysis are used to delineate the areal extent of the 3D reservoir models. Numerical simulations of gas production from the Walker Ridge reservoirs were conducted using the depressurization method at a constant bottomhole pressure. Results of these simulations indicate that these hydrate deposits are readily produced, owing to high intrinsic reservoir-quality and their proximity to the base of hydrate stability. The elevated in situ reservoir temperatures contribute to high (5–40 MMscf/day) predicted production rates. The production rates obtained from the 2D and 3D models are in close agreement. To evaluate the effect of spatial dimensions, the 2D reservoir domains were simulated at two outer radii. The results showed increased potential for formation of secondary hydrate and appearance of lag time for production rates as reservoir size increases. Similar phenomena were observed in the 3D reservoir models. The results also suggest that interbedded gas hydrate accumulations might be preferable targets for gas production in comparison with massive deposits. Hydrate in such accumulations can be readily dissociated due to heat supply from surrounding hydrate-free zones. Special cases were considered to evaluate the effect of overburden and underburden permeability on production. The obtained data show that production can be significantly degraded in comparison with a case using

  16. Remote collaboration system based on large scale simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Yasuaki; Sugahara, Akihiro; Li, J.Q.


    Large scale simulation using super-computer, which generally requires long CPU time and produces large amount of data, has been extensively studied as a third pillar in various advanced science fields in parallel to theory and experiment. Such a simulation is expected to lead new scientific discoveries through elucidation of various complex phenomena, which are hardly identified only by conventional theoretical and experimental approaches. In order to assist such large simulation studies for which many collaborators working at geographically different places participate and contribute, we have developed a unique remote collaboration system, referred to as SIMON (simulation monitoring system), which is based on client-server system control introducing an idea of up-date processing, contrary to that of widely used post-processing. As a key ingredient, we have developed a trigger method, which transmits various requests for the up-date processing from the simulation (client) running on a super-computer to a workstation (server). Namely, the simulation running on a super-computer actively controls the timing of up-date processing. The server that has received the requests from the ongoing simulation such as data transfer, data analyses, and visualizations, etc. starts operations according to the requests during the simulation. The server makes the latest results available to web browsers, so that the collaborators can monitor the results at any place and time in the world. By applying the system to a specific simulation project of laser-matter interaction, we have confirmed that the system works well and plays an important role as a collaboration platform on which many collaborators work with one another

  17. Petrophysical Characterization and Reservoir Simulator for Methane Gas Production from Gulf of Mexico Hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishore Mohanty; Bill Cook; Mustafa Hakimuddin; Ramanan Pitchumani; Damiola Ogunlana; Jon Burger; John Shillinglaw


    Gas hydrates are crystalline, ice-like compounds of gas and water molecules that are formed under certain thermodynamic conditions. Hydrate deposits occur naturally within ocean sediments just below the sea floor at temperatures and pressures existing below about 500 meters water depth. Gas hydrate is also stable in conjunction with the permafrost in the Arctic. Most marine gas hydrate is formed of microbially generated gas. It binds huge amounts of methane into the sediments. Estimates of the amounts of methane sequestered in gas hydrates worldwide are speculative and range from about 100,000 to 270,000,000 trillion cubic feet (modified from Kvenvolden, 1993). Gas hydrate is one of the fossil fuel resources that is yet untapped, but may play a major role in meeting the energy challenge of this century. In this project novel techniques were developed to form and dissociate methane hydrates in porous media, to measure acoustic properties and CT properties during hydrate dissociation in the presence of a porous medium. Hydrate depressurization experiments in cores were simulated with the use of TOUGHFx/HYDRATE simulator. Input/output software was developed to simulate variable pressure boundary condition and improve the ease of use of the simulator. A series of simulations needed to be run to mimic the variable pressure condition at the production well. The experiments can be matched qualitatively by the hydrate simulator. The temperature of the core falls during hydrate dissociation; the temperature drop is higher if the fluid withdrawal rate is higher. The pressure and temperature gradients are small within the core. The sodium iodide concentration affects the dissociation pressure and rate. This procedure and data will be useful in designing future hydrate studies.

  18. Application of multi-agent simulation to evaluate the influence of reservoir operation strategies on the distribution of water availability in the semi-arid Jaguaribe basin, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oel, P.R.; Krol, Martinus S.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert


    Studying the processes responsible for the distribution of water resources in a river basin over space and time is of great importance for spatial planning. In this study a multi-agent simulation approach is applied for exploring the influence of alternative reservoir operation strategies on water

  19. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Mendez, Daniel L.


    The objective of this Class 3 project was demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstone's of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover oil more economically through geologically based field development. This project was focused on East Ford field, a Delaware Mountain Group field that produced from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The field, discovered in 9160, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit. A CO2 flood was being conducted in the unit, and this flood is the Phase 2 demonstration for the project.

  20. Experimental simulation of microinteractions in large scale explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, X.; Luo, R.; Yuen, W.W.; Theofanous, T.G. [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Center for Risk Studies and Safety


    This paper presents data and analysis of recent experiments conducted in the SIGMA-2000 facility to simulate microinteractions in large scale explosions. Specifically, the fragmentation behavior of a high temperature molten steel drop under high pressure (beyond critical) conditions are investigated. The current data demonstrate, for the first time, the effect of high pressure in suppressing the thermal effect of fragmentation under supercritical conditions. The results support the microinteractions idea, and the ESPROSE.m prediction of fragmentation rate. (author)

  1. A real scale simulator for high frequency LEMP (United States)

    Gauthier, D.; Serafin, D.


    The real scale simulator is described which was designed by the Centre d'Etudes de Gramat (CEG) to study the coupling of fast rise time Lightning Electromagnetic pulse in a fighter aircraft. The system capability of generating the right electromagnetic environment was studied using a Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) computer program. First, data of inside stresses are shown. Then, a time domain and a frequency domain approach is exposed and compared.

  2. Exploratory Simulation Studies of Caprock Alteration Induced byStorage of CO2 in Depleted Gas Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gherardi, Fabrizio; Xu, Tianfu; Pruess, Karsten


    This report presents numerical simulations of isothermalreactive flows which might be induced in the caprock of an Italiandepleted gas reservoir by the geological sequestration of carbon dioxide.Our objective is to verify that CO2 geological disposal activitiesalready planned for the study area are safe and do not induce anyundesired environmental impact.Gas-water-rock interactions have beenmodelled under two different intial conditions, i.e., assuming that i)caprock is perfectly sealed, or ii) partially fractured. Field conditionsare better approximated in terms of the "sealed caprock model". Thefractured caprock model has been implemented because it permits toexplore the geochemical beahvior of the system under particularly severeconditions which are not currently encountered in the field, and then todelineate a sort of hypothetical maximum risk scenario.Major evidencessupporting the assumption of a sealed caprock stem from the fact that nogas leakages have been detected during the exploitation phase, subsequentreservoir repressurization due to the ingression of a lateral aquifer,and during several cycles of gas storage in the latest life of reservoirmanagement.An extensive program of multidisciplinary laboratory tests onrock properties, geochemical and microseismic monitoring, and reservoirsimulation studies is underway to better characterize the reservoir andcap-rock behavior before the performance of a planned CO2 sequestrationpilot test.In our models, fluid flow and mineral alteration are inducedin the caprock by penetration of high CO2 concentrations from theunderlying reservoir, i.e., it was assumed that large amounts of CO2 havebeen already injected at depth. The main focus is on the potential effectof these geochemical transformations on the sealing efficiency of caprockformations. Batch and multi-dimensional 1D and 2D modeling has been usedto investigate multicomponent geochemical processes. Our simulationsaccount for fracture-matrix interactions, gas

  3. Simulating Biomass Fast Pyrolysis at the Single Particle Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciesielski, Peter [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Wiggins, Gavin [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Jakes, Joseph E. [U.S. Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin, USA


    Simulating fast pyrolysis at the scale of single particles allows for the investigation of the impacts of feedstock-specific parameters such as particle size, shape, and species of origin. For this reason particle-scale modeling has emerged as an important tool for understanding how variations in feedstock properties affect the outcomes of pyrolysis processes. The origins of feedstock properties are largely dictated by the composition and hierarchical structure of biomass, from the microstructural porosity to the external morphology of milled particles. These properties may be accounted for in simulations of fast pyrolysis by several different computational approaches depending on the level of structural and chemical complexity included in the model. The predictive utility of particle-scale simulations of fast pyrolysis can still be enhanced substantially by advancements in several areas. Most notably, considerable progress would be facilitated by the development of pyrolysis kinetic schemes that are decoupled from transport phenomena, predict product evolution from whole-biomass with increased chemical speciation, and are still tractable with present-day computational resources.

  4. Lightweight computational steering of very large scale molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beazley, D.M.


    We present a computational steering approach for controlling, analyzing, and visualizing very large scale molecular dynamics simulations involving tens to hundreds of millions of atoms. Our approach relies on extensible scripting languages and an easy to use tool for building extensions and modules. The system is extremely easy to modify, works with existing C code, is memory efficient, and can be used from inexpensive workstations and networks. We demonstrate how we have used this system to manipulate data from production MD simulations involving as many as 104 million atoms running on the CM-5 and Cray T3D. We also show how this approach can be used to build systems that integrate common scripting languages (including Tcl/Tk, Perl, and Python), simulation code, user extensions, and commercial data analysis packages

  5. Evaporation suppression from reservoirs using floating covers: Lab scale wind-tunnel observations and mechanistic model predictions (United States)

    Or, Dani; Lehmann, Peter; Aminzadeh, Milad; Sommer, Martina; Wey, Hannah; Krentscher, Christiane; Wunderli, Hans; Breitenstein, Daniel


    The competition over dwindling fresh water resources is expected to intensify with projected increase in human population in arid regions, expansion of irrigated land and changes in climate and drought patterns. The volume of water stored in reservoirs would also increase to mitigate seasonal shortages due to rainfall variability and to meet irrigation water needs. By some estimates up to half of the stored water is lost to evaporation, thereby exacerbating the water scarcity problem. Recently, there is an upsurge in the use of self-assembling floating covers to suppress evaporation, yet the design and implementation remain largely empirical. We report a systematic experimental evaluation of different cover types and external drivers (radiation, wind, wind plus radiation) on evaporation suppression and energy balance of a 1.4 m2 basin placed in a wind-tunnel. Surprisingly, evaporation suppression by black and white floating covers (balls and plates) were similar despite significantly different energy balance regimes over the cover surfaces. Moreover, the evaporation suppression efficiency was a simple function of the uncovered area (square root of the uncovered fraction) with linear relations with the covered area in some cases. The thermally decoupled floating covers offer an efficient solution to the evaporation suppression with limited influence of the surface energy balance (water temperature for black and white covers was similar and remained nearly constant). The results will be linked with a predictive evaporation-energy balance model and issues of spatial scales and long exposure times will be studied.

  6. Study of carbon-based superconductor using large scale simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Satoshi; Tejima, Syogo; Iizuka, Mikio; Nakamura, Hisashi


    Tachiki et al. theoretically proposed the vibronic mechanism of high-Tc superconductivity, which was based on the attractive electron-electron interaction originated from strong charge fluctuation by lattice vibration. This theory successfully explained the experimental results by neutron diffraction and angular resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. On the basis of the theory by Tachiki et. al., a theoretical study from a microscopic point view and large scale simulation was performed for B-doped diamond superconductivity. Three computer codes were developed for the simulation; 1. PVCRTMD (Parallel Vector Carbon Recursion Technique Molecular Dynamics) for the simulation of molecular dynamics calculation for strong coupling. 2. LSDRF (Large Scale Dielectric Response Function) for the analysis of effective interaction between electrons. 3. DEES (Dyson-Eliashberg Equation Solver) for the analysis of transition temperatures of superconductivity. The results of the simulation proved that the superconductivity of the B-doped diamond was caused by attractive interaction between electrons originated from strong electron-lattice interaction. (Y.K.)

  7. Multi-scale Modeling and Simulation of Compressible Multimaterial Flows (United States)


    Asghari, Estimation of the reservoir permeability by petrophysical information using intelligent systems. Petroleum Science and Technology, 2008. 26...fractured reservoirs. Computers & Geosciences , 2000. 26(8): p. 877-905. 14. Unger, J.F. and C. Konke, Neural networks as material models within a

  8. Meeting the memory challenges of brain-scale network simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne eKunkel


    Full Text Available The development of high-performance simulation software is crucial for studying the brain connectome. Using connectome data to generate neurocomputational models requires software capable of coping with models on a variety of scales: from the microscale, investigating plasticity and dynamics of circuits in local networks, to the macroscale, investigating the interactions between distinct brain regions. Prior to any serious dynamical investigation, the first task of network simulations is to check the consistency of data integrated in the connectome and constrain ranges for yet unknown parameters. Thanks to distributed computing techniques, it is possible today to routinely simulate local cortical networks of around 10^5 neurons with up to 10^9 synapses on clusters and multi-processor shared-memory machines. However, brain-scale networks are one or two orders of magnitude larger than such local networks, in terms of numbers of neurons and synapses as well as in terms of computational load. Such networks have been studied in individual studies, but the underlying simulation technologies have neither been described in sufficient detail to be reproducible nor made publicly available. Here, we discover that as the network model sizes approach the regime of meso- and macroscale simulations, memory consumption on individual compute nodes becomes a critical bottleneck. This is especially relevant on modern supercomputers such as the Bluegene/P architecture where the available working memory per CPU core is rather limited. We develop a simple linear model to analyze the memory consumption of the constituent components of a neuronal simulator as a function of network size and the number of cores used. This approach has multiple benefits. The model enables identification of key contributing components to memory saturation and prediction of the effects of potential improvements to code before any implementation takes place.

  9. A new scaling approach for the mesoscale simulation of magnetic domain structures using Monte Carlo simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eisenbach, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burress, Timothy A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    A new scaling approach has been proposed for the spin exchange and the dipole–dipole interaction energy as a function of the system size. The computed scaling laws are used in atomistic Monte Carlo simulations of magnetic moment evolution to predict the transition from single domain to a vortex structure as the system size increases. The width of a 180° – domain wall extracted from the simulated structures is in close agreement with experimentally values for an F–Si alloy. In conclusion, the transition size from a single domain to a vortex structure is also in close agreement with theoretically predicted and experimentally measured values for Fe.

  10. Pore-scale observation and 3D simulation of wettability effects on supercritical CO2 - brine immiscible displacement in drainage (United States)

    Hu, R.; Wan, J.; Chen, Y.


    Wettability is a factor controlling the fluid-fluid displacement pattern in porous media and significantly affects the flow and transport of supercritical (sc) CO2 in geologic carbon sequestration. Using a high-pressure micromodel-microscopy system, we performed drainage experiments of scCO2 invasion into brine-saturated water-wet and intermediate-wet micromodels; we visualized the scCO2 invasion morphology at pore-scale under reservoir conditions. We also performed pore-scale numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations to obtain 3D details of fluid-fluid displacement processes. Simulation results are qualitatively consistent with the experiments, showing wider scCO2 fingering, higher percentage of scCO2 and more compact displacement pattern in intermediate-wet micromodel. Through quantitative analysis based on pore-scale simulation, we found that the reduced wettability reduces the displacement front velocity, promotes the pore-filling events in the longitudinal direction, delays the breakthrough time of invading fluid, and then increases the displacement efficiency. Simulated results also show that the fluid-fluid interface area follows a unified power-law relation with scCO2 saturation, and show smaller interface area in intermediate-wet case which suppresses the mass transfer between the phases. These pore-scale results provide insights for the wettability effects on CO2 - brine immiscible displacement in geologic carbon sequestration.

  11. Understanding bulk behavior of particulate materials from particle scale simulations (United States)

    Deng, Xiaoliang

    Particulate materials play an increasingly significant role in various industries, such as pharmaceutical manufacturing, food, mining, and civil engineering. The objective of this research is to better understand bulk behaviors of particulate materials from particle scale simulations. Packing properties of assembly of particles are investigated first, focusing on the effects of particle size, surface energy, and aspect ratio on the coordination number, porosity, and packing structures. The simulation results show that particle sizes, surface energy, and aspect ratio all influence the porosity of packing to various degrees. The heterogeneous force networks within particle assembly under external compressive loading are investigated as well. The results show that coarse-coarse contacts dominate the strong network and coarse-fine contacts dominate the total network. Next, DEM models are developed to simulate the particle dynamics inside a conical screen mill (comil) and magnetically assisted impaction mixer (MAIM), both are important particle processing devices. For comil, the mean residence time (MRT), spatial distribution of particles, along with the collision dynamics between particles as well as particle and vessel geometries are examined as a function of the various operating parameters such as impeller speed, screen hole size, open area, and feed rate. The simulation results can help better understand dry coating experimental results using comil. For MAIM system, the magnetic force is incorporated into the contact model, allowing to describe the interactions between magnets. The simulation results reveal the connections between homogeneity of mixture and particle scale variables such as size of magnets and surface energy of non-magnets. In particular, at the fixed mass ratio of magnets to non-magnets and surface energy the smaller magnets lead to better homogeneity of mixing, which is in good agreement with previously published experimental results. Last but not

  12. Numerical simulation of a small-scale biomass boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collazo, J.; Porteiro, J.; Míguez, J.L.; Granada, E.; Gómez, M.A.


    Highlights: ► Simplified model for biomass combustion was developed. ► Porous zone conditions are used in the bed. ► Model is fully integrated in a commercial CFD code to simulate a small scale pellet boiler. ► Pollutant emissions are well predicted. ► Simulation provides extensive information about the behaviour of the boiler. - Abstract: This paper presents a computational fluid dynamic simulation of a domestic pellet boiler. Combustion of the solid fuel in the burner is an important issue when discussing the simulation of this type of system. A simplified method based on a thermal balance was developed in this work to introduce the effects provoked by pellet combustion in the boiler simulation. The model predictions were compared with the experimental measurements, and a good agreement was found. The results of the boiler analysis show that the position of the water tubes, the distribution of the air inlets and the air infiltrations are the key factors leading to the high emission levels present in this type of system.

  13. Large-scale simulation of the human arterial tree. (United States)

    Grinberg, L; Anor, T; Madsen, J R; Yakhot, A; Karniadakis, G E


    1. Full-scale simulations of the virtual physiological human (VPH) will require significant advances in modelling, multiscale mathematics, scientific computing and further advances in medical imaging. Herein, we review some of the main issues that need to be resolved in order to make three-dimensional (3D) simulations of blood flow in the human arterial tree feasible in the near future. 2. A straightforward approach is computationally prohibitive even on the emerging petaflop supercomputers, so a three-level hierarchical approach based on vessel size is required, consisting of: (i) a macrovascular network (MaN); (ii) a mesovascular network (MeN); and (iii) a microvascular network (MiN). We present recent simulations of MaN obtained by solving the 3D Navier-Stokes equations on arterial networks with tens of arteries and bifurcations and accounting for the neglected dynamics through proper boundary conditions. 3. A multiscale simulation coupling MaN-MeN-MiN and running on hundreds of thousands of processors on petaflop computers will require no more than a few CPU hours per cardiac cycle within the next 5 years. The rapidly growing capacity of supercomputing centres opens up the possibility of simulation studies of cardiovascular diseases, drug delivery, perfusion in the brain and other pathologies.

  14. Extracting Energy from Petroleum Reservoirs at Large Scale without CO2 Emissions -Is it possible? Is The Attempt Desirable? (United States)

    Larter, Steve; Strous, Marc; Bryant, Steven


    technological change is needed, yet few alternatives have been proposed. To resolve this crisis, a focused, multi-sector collaborative approach is needed that both provides a transitional technical fix and a basis for a transition to stable diverse renewables powered economies. The experience of other successful focused mega projects, often called "moonshots" in homage to the Apollo program, suggests several ingredients are essential. • Leadership: A long term ambition and vision with sustained political and institutional leadership, focused at a single achievable goal with an aggressive timeline of achievement. • Partnership: A coherent, organised and sustained interaction between industry, academic and government R&D communities. • Science and technology: A strong foundation in key areas of science, engineering and social science from which the necessary development can be built. • Funding: Sustained investment in research and development over extended periods of time (5-10 years) with funding at an appropriate scale to succeed within the given timeline We examine Zero Emission Energy Recovery And Use(ZEERAU), from oil reservoirs, for technical and societal viability in the context of such a moonshot project.

  15. The water footprint of human-made reservoirs for hydropower, irrigation, water supply, flood prevention, fishing and recreation on a global scale (United States)

    Hogeboom, Rick; Knook, Luuk; Hoekstra, Arjen


    Increasing the availability of freshwater to meet growing and competing demands is on many policy agendas. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) prescribe sustainable management of water for human consumption. For centuries humans have resorted to building dams to store water in periods of excess for use in times of shortage. Although dams and their reservoirs have made important contributions to human development, it is increasingly acknowledged that reservoirs can be substantial water consumers as well. We estimated the water footprint of human-made reservoirs on a global scale and attributed it to the various reservoir purposes (hydropower generation, residential and industrial water supply, irrigation water supply, flood protection, fishing and recreation) based on their economic value. We found that economic benefits from derived products and services from 2235 reservoirs globally, amount to 311 billion US dollar annually, with residential and industrial water supply and hydropower generation as major contributors. The water footprint associated with these benefits is the sum of the water footprint of dam construction (footprint of reservoirs globally adds up to ˜104 km3yr-1. Attribution per purpose shows that, with a global average water footprint of 21,5 m3GJ,-1 hydropower on average is a water intensive form of energy. We contextualized the water footprint of reservoirs and their purposes with regard to the water scarcity level of the river basin in which they occur. We found the lion's share (55%) of the water footprint is located in non-water scarce basins and only 1% in year-round scarce basins. The purpose for which the reservoir is primarily used changes with increasing water scarcity, from mainly hydropower generation in non-scarce basins, to the (more essential) purposes residential and industrial water supply, irrigation and flood control in scarcer areas. The quantitative explication of how the burden of water consumption from reservoirs is

  16. Pulse fracture simulation in shale rock reservoirs: DEM and FEM-DEM approaches (United States)

    González, José Manuel; Zárate, Francisco; Oñate, Eugenio


    In this paper we analyze the capabilities of two numerical techniques based on DEM and FEM-DEM approaches for the simulation of fracture in shale rock caused by a pulse of pressure. We have studied the evolution of fracture in several fracture scenarios related to the initial stress state in the soil or the pressure pulse peak. Fracture length and type of failure have been taken as reference for validating the models. The results obtained show a good approximation to FEM results from the literature.

  17. Economic analysis using Monte Carlo simulation on Xs reservoir Badak field east Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuraeni, S.; Sugiatmo, Prasetyawan O.J.


    Badak field, located in the delta of mahakam river, in east kalimantan, is a gas producer. the field was found in 1972 by VICO. Badak field is the main gas supplier to bontang LNG and gas is exported to japan, south korea and taiwan, as well as utilized for the main feed to the east kalimantan fertilizer plant. To provide the gas demand, field development as well as exploration wells are continued. on these exploration wells, gas in place determination, gas production rate as well as economic evaluation play on important role. the effect of altering gas production rate to net present value and also the effect of altering discounted factor to the rate of return curve using monte carlo simulation is presented on this paper. based on the simulation results it is obtained that the upper limit of the initial gas in place is 1.82 BSCF, the lower limit is 0.27 BSCF and the most likely million US $ with a rate of return ranges from - 30 to 33.5 percent

  18. An experimental unification of reservoir computing methods. (United States)

    Verstraeten, D; Schrauwen, B; D'Haene, M; Stroobandt, D


    Three different uses of a recurrent neural network (RNN) as a reservoir that is not trained but instead read out by a simple external classification layer have been described in the literature: Liquid State Machines (LSMs), Echo State Networks (ESNs) and the Backpropagation Decorrelation (BPDC) learning rule. Individual descriptions of these techniques exist, but a overview is still lacking. Here, we present a series of experimental results that compares all three implementations, and draw conclusions about the relation between a broad range of reservoir parameters and network dynamics, memory, node complexity and performance on a variety of benchmark tests with different characteristics. Next, we introduce a new measure for the reservoir dynamics based on Lyapunov exponents. Unlike previous measures in the literature, this measure is dependent on the dynamics of the reservoir in response to the inputs, and in the cases we tried, it indicates an optimal value for the global scaling of the weight matrix, irrespective of the standard measures. We also describe the Reservoir Computing Toolbox that was used for these experiments, which implements all the types of Reservoir Computing and allows the easy simulation of a wide range of reservoir topologies for a number of benchmarks.

  19. Atomistic simulations of graphite etching at realistic time scales. (United States)

    Aussems, D U B; Bal, K M; Morgan, T W; van de Sanden, M C M; Neyts, E C


    Hydrogen-graphite interactions are relevant to a wide variety of applications, ranging from astrophysics to fusion devices and nano-electronics. In order to shed light on these interactions, atomistic simulation using Molecular Dynamics (MD) has been shown to be an invaluable tool. It suffers, however, from severe time-scale limitations. In this work we apply the recently developed Collective Variable-Driven Hyperdynamics (CVHD) method to hydrogen etching of graphite for varying inter-impact times up to a realistic value of 1 ms, which corresponds to a flux of ∼10 20 m -2 s -1 . The results show that the erosion yield, hydrogen surface coverage and species distribution are significantly affected by the time between impacts. This can be explained by the higher probability of C-C bond breaking due to the prolonged exposure to thermal stress and the subsequent transition from ion- to thermal-induced etching. This latter regime of thermal-induced etching - chemical erosion - is here accessed for the first time using atomistic simulations. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that accounting for long time-scales significantly affects ion bombardment simulations and should not be neglected in a wide range of conditions, in contrast to what is typically assumed.

  20. Validation of Simulation Model for Full Scale Wave Simulator and Discrete Fuild Power PTO System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Hansen, Rico Hjerm


    In controller development for large scale machinery a good simulation model may serve as a time and money saving factor as well as a safety precaution. Having good models enables the developer to design and test control strategies in a safe and possibly less time consuming environment...

  1. Validation of Simulation Model for Full Scale Wave Simulator and Discrete Fuild Power PTO System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Hansen, Rico Hjerm


    In controller development for large scale machinery a good simulation model may serve as a time and money saving factor as well as a safety precaution. Having good models enables the developer to design and test control strategies in a safe and possibly less time consuming environment. For applic...

  2. Multi-scale simulation of asphaltene aggregation and deposition in capillary flow. (United States)

    Boek, Edo S; Headen, Thomas F; Padding, Johan T


    Asphaltenes are known as the 'cholesterol' of crude oil. They form nano-aggregates, precipitate, adhere to surfaces, block rock pores and may alter the wetting characteristics of mineral surfaces within the reservoir, hindering oil recovery efficiency. Despite a significant research effort, the structure, aggregation and deposition of asphaltenes under flowing conditions remain poorly understood. For this reason, we have investigated asphaltenes, their aggregation and their deposition in capillary flow using multi-scale simulations and experiments. At the colloid scale, we use a hybrid simulation approach: for the solvent, we used the stochastic rotation dynamics (also known as multi particle collision dynamics) simulation method, which provides both hydrodynamics and Brownian motion. This is coupled to a coarse-grained MD approach for the asphaltene colloids. The colloids interact through a screened Coulomb potential with varying well depth epsilon. We tune the flow rate to obtain Pe(flow) > 1 (hydrodynamic interactions dominate) and Re force (PMF) between pairs of asphaltene molecules in an explicit solvent. We obtain a reasonable fit using a -1/r2 attraction for the attractive tail of the PMF at intermediate distances. We speculate that this is due to the two-dimensional nature of the asphaltene molecules. Finally, we discuss how we can relate this interaction to the mesoscopic colloid aggregate interaction. We assume that the colloidal aggregates consist of nano-aggregates. Taking into account observed solvent entrainment effects, we deduct the presence of lubrication layers between the nano-aggregates, which leads to a significant screening of the direct asphaltene-asphaltene interactions.

  3. Accelerating large-scale phase-field simulations with GPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Shi


    Full Text Available A new package for accelerating large-scale phase-field simulations was developed by using GPU based on the semi-implicit Fourier method. The package can solve a variety of equilibrium equations with different inhomogeneity including long-range elastic, magnetostatic, and electrostatic interactions. Through using specific algorithm in Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA, Fourier spectral iterative perturbation method was integrated in GPU package. The Allen-Cahn equation, Cahn-Hilliard equation, and phase-field model with long-range interaction were solved based on the algorithm running on GPU respectively to test the performance of the package. From the comparison of the calculation results between the solver executed in single CPU and the one on GPU, it was found that the speed on GPU is enormously elevated to 50 times faster. The present study therefore contributes to the acceleration of large-scale phase-field simulations and provides guidance for experiments to design large-scale functional devices.

  4. Simulation of Sediment and Cesium Transport in the Ukedo River and the Ogi Dam Reservoir during a Rainfall Event using the TODAM Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Yasuo; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Kurikami, Hiroshi


    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in March 2011 caused widespread environmental contamination. Although decontamination activities have been performed in residential areas of the Fukushima area, decontamination of forests, rivers, and reservoirs is still controversial because of the economical, ecological, and technical difficulties. Thus, an evaluation of contaminant transport in such an environment is important for safety assessment and for implementation of possible countermeasures to reduce radiation exposure to the public. The investigation revealed that heavy rainfall events play a significant role in transporting radioactive cesium deposited on the land surface, via soil erosion and sediment transport in rivers. Therefore, we simulated the sediment and cesium transport in the Ukedo River and its tributaries in Fukushima Prefecture, including the Ogaki Dam Reservoir, and the Ogi Dam Reservoir of the Oginosawa River in Fukushima Prefecture during and after a heavy rainfall event by using the TODAM (Time-dependent, One-dimensional Degradation And Migration) code. The main outcomes are the following: • Suspended sand is mostly deposited on the river bottom. Suspended silt and clay, on the other hand, are hardly deposited in the Ukedo River and its tributaries except in the Ogaki Dam Reservoir in the Ukedo River even in low river discharge conditions. • Cesium migrates mainly during high river discharge periods during heavy rainfall events. Silt and clay play more important roles in cesium transport to the sea than sand does. • The simulation results explain variations in the field data on cesium distributions in the river. Additional field data currently being collected and further modeling with these data may shed more light on the cesium distribution variations. • Effects of 40-hour heavy rainfall events on clay and cesium transport continue for more than a month. This is because these reservoirs slow down the storm-induced high

  5. A multi-scale experimental and simulation approach for fractured subsurface systems (United States)

    Viswanathan, H. S.; Carey, J. W.; Frash, L.; Karra, S.; Hyman, J.; Kang, Q.; Rougier, E.; Srinivasan, G.


    Fractured systems play an important role in numerous subsurface applications including hydraulic fracturing, carbon sequestration, geothermal energy and underground nuclear test detection. Fractures that range in scale from microns to meters and their structure control the behavior of these systems which provide over 85% of our energy and 50% of US drinking water. Determining the key mechanisms in subsurface fractured systems has been impeded due to the lack of sophisticated experimental methods to measure fracture aperture and connectivity, multiphase permeability, and chemical exchange capacities at the high temperature, pressure, and stresses present in the subsurface. In this study, we developed and use microfluidic and triaxial core flood experiments required to reveal the fundamental dynamics of fracture-fluid interactions. In addition we have developed high fidelity fracture propagation and discrete fracture network flow models to simulate these fractured systems. We also have developed reduced order models of these fracture simulators in order to conduct uncertainty quantification for these systems. We demonstrate an integrated experimental/modeling approach that allows for a comprehensive characterization of fractured systems and develop models that can be used to optimize the reservoir operating conditions over a range of subsurface conditions.

  6. Large-Scale Modeling of Epileptic Seizures: Scaling Properties of Two Parallel Neuronal Network Simulation Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo L. Pesce


    Full Text Available Our limited understanding of the relationship between the behavior of individual neurons and large neuronal networks is an important limitation in current epilepsy research and may be one of the main causes of our inadequate ability to treat it. Addressing this problem directly via experiments is impossibly complex; thus, we have been developing and studying medium-large-scale simulations of detailed neuronal networks to guide us. Flexibility in the connection schemas and a complete description of the cortical tissue seem necessary for this purpose. In this paper we examine some of the basic issues encountered in these multiscale simulations. We have determined the detailed behavior of two such simulators on parallel computer systems. The observed memory and computation-time scaling behavior for a distributed memory implementation were very good over the range studied, both in terms of network sizes (2,000 to 400,000 neurons and processor pool sizes (1 to 256 processors. Our simulations required between a few megabytes and about 150 gigabytes of RAM and lasted between a few minutes and about a week, well within the capability of most multinode clusters. Therefore, simulations of epileptic seizures on networks with millions of cells should be feasible on current supercomputers.

  7. Large-scale modeling of epileptic seizures: scaling properties of two parallel neuronal network simulation algorithms. (United States)

    Pesce, Lorenzo L; Lee, Hyong C; Hereld, Mark; Visser, Sid; Stevens, Rick L; Wildeman, Albert; van Drongelen, Wim


    Our limited understanding of the relationship between the behavior of individual neurons and large neuronal networks is an important limitation in current epilepsy research and may be one of the main causes of our inadequate ability to treat it. Addressing this problem directly via experiments is impossibly complex; thus, we have been developing and studying medium-large-scale simulations of detailed neuronal networks to guide us. Flexibility in the connection schemas and a complete description of the cortical tissue seem necessary for this purpose. In this paper we examine some of the basic issues encountered in these multiscale simulations. We have determined the detailed behavior of two such simulators on parallel computer systems. The observed memory and computation-time scaling behavior for a distributed memory implementation were very good over the range studied, both in terms of network sizes (2,000 to 400,000 neurons) and processor pool sizes (1 to 256 processors). Our simulations required between a few megabytes and about 150 gigabytes of RAM and lasted between a few minutes and about a week, well within the capability of most multinode clusters. Therefore, simulations of epileptic seizures on networks with millions of cells should be feasible on current supercomputers.

  8. Qualitative simulation of bathymetric changes due to reservoir sedimentation: A Japanese case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Bilal

    Full Text Available Sediment-dynamics modeling is a useful tool for estimating a dam's lifespan and its cost-benefit analysis. Collecting real data for sediment-dynamics analysis from conventional field survey methods is both tedious and expensive. Therefore, for most rivers, the historical record of data is either missing or not very detailed. Available data and existing tools have much potential and may be used for qualitative prediction of future bathymetric change trend. This study shows that proxy approaches may be used to increase the spatiotemporal resolution of flow data, and hypothesize the river cross-sections and sediment data. Sediment-dynamics analysis of the reach of the Tenryu River upstream of Sakuma Dam in Japan was performed to predict its future bathymetric changes using a 1D numerical model (HEC-RAS. In this case study, only annually-averaged flow data and the river's longitudinal bed profile at 5-year intervals were available. Therefore, the other required data, including river cross-section and geometry and sediment inflow grain sizes, had to be hypothesized or assimilated indirectly. The model yielded a good qualitative agreement, with an R2 (coefficient of determination of 0.8 for the observed and simulated bed profiles. A predictive simulation demonstrated that the useful life of the dam would end after the year 2035 (±5 years, which is in conformity with initial detailed estimates. The study indicates that a sediment-dynamic analysis can be performed even with a limited amount of data. However, such studies may only assess the qualitative trends of sediment dynamics.

  9. The hydrodynamics of astrophysical jets: scaled experiments and numerical simulations (United States)

    Belan, M.; Massaglia, S.; Tordella, D.; Mirzaei, M.; de Ponte, S.


    Context. In this paper we study the propagation of hypersonic hydrodynamic jets (Mach number >5) in a laboratory vessel and make comparisons with numerical simulations of axially symmetric flows with the same initial and boundary conditions. The astrophysical context is that of the jets originating around young stellar objects (YSOs). Aims: In order to gain a deeper insight into the phenomenology of YSO jets, we performed a set of experiments and numerical simulations of hypersonic jets in the range of Mach numbers from 10 to 20 and for jet-to-ambient density ratios from 0.85 to 5.4, using different gas species and observing jet lengths of the order of 150 initial radii or more. Exploiting the scalability of the hydrodynamic equations, we intend to reproduce the YSO jet behaviour with respect to jet velocity and elapsed times. In addition, we can make comparisons between the simulated, the experimental, and the observed morphologies. Methods: In the experiments the gas pressure and temperature are increased by a fast, quasi-isentropic compression by means of a piston system operating on a time scale of tens of milliseconds, while the gas density is visualized and measured by means of an electron beam system. We used the PLUTO software for the numerical solution of mixed hyperbolic/parabolic conservation laws targeting high Mach number flows in astrophysical fluid dynamics. We considered axisymmetric initial conditions and carried out numerical simulations in cylindrical geometry. The code has a modular flexible structure whereby different numerical algorithms can be separately combined to solve systems of conservation laws using the finite volume or finite difference approach based on Godunov-type schemes. Results: The agreement between experiments and numerical simulations is fairly good in most of the comparisons. The resulting scaled flow velocities and elapsed times are close to the ones shown by observations. The morphologies of the density distributions agree

  10. Upscaling of permeability heterogeneities in reservoir rocks; an integrated approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikes, D.


    This thesis presents a hierarchical and geologically constrained deterministic approach to incorporate small-scale heterogeneities into reservoir flow simulators. We use a hierarchical structure to encompass all scales from laminae to an entire depositional system. For the geological models under

  11. Scale-Up, Production, and Procurement of PEP Simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, Randall D.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.


    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility. The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.” The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. This report provides the lessons learned regarding the manufacture and delivery of simulated feeds for PEP testing.

  12. OHMMS: a framework for multi-scale materials simulations (United States)

    Hazzard, Kaden R. A.; Kim, Jeongnim


    To maintain the rapid growth of computational materials science requires both the development of algorithms implementing theoretical developments and their rapid deployment on evolving high-performance computers. OHMMS provides Object-oriented High-performance solutions for Multi-scale Materials Simulations to meet such challenges. OHMMS achieves i) high flexibility and re-usability by applying object-oriented programming practice, such as design patterns, and ii) performance by utilizing advanced abstractions, such as expression templates for low-level components. Examples include: (a) easy inclusion of both new potential types/parameters and new local minimization methods and (b) sophisticated data compression and infrequent event detection (starting with Fortran code and progressing easily to bit arithmetic C++ coding). OHMMS designs for classical and quantum atomistic simulations are overviewed together with performance of core routines for OHMMS applications on several architectures.

  13. Responses of spatial-temporal dynamics of bacterioplankton community to large-scale reservoir operation: a case study in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China. (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Lu, Lunhui; Guo, Jinsong; Yang, Jixiang; Zhang, Jiachao; He, Bin; Xu, Linlin


    Large rivers are commonly regulated by damming, yet the effects of such disruption on bacterioplankton community structures have not been adequately studied. The aim of this study was to explore the biogeographical patterns present under dam regulation and to uncover the major drivers structuring bacterioplankton communities. Bacterioplankton assemblages in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) were analyzed using Illumina Miseq sequencing by comparing seven sites located within the TGR before and after impoundment. This approach revealed ecological and spatial-temporal variations in bacterioplankton community composition along the longitudinal axis. The community was dynamic and dominated by Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria phyla, encompassing 39.26% and 37.14% of all sequences, respectively, followed by Bacteroidetes (8.67%) and Cyanobacteria (3.90%). The Shannon-Wiener index of the bacterioplankton community in the flood season (August) was generally higher than that in the impoundment season (November). Principal Component Analysis of the bacterioplankton community compositions showed separation between different seasons and sampling sites. Results of the relationship between bacterioplankton community compositions and environmental variables highlighted that ecological processes of element cycling and large dam disturbances are of prime importance in driving the assemblages of riverine bacterioplankton communities.

  14. Multilevel techniques lead to accurate numerical upscaling and scalable robust solvers for reservoir simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Max la Cour; Villa, Umberto; Vassilevski, Panayot


    approach is well suited for the solution of large problems coming from finite element discretizations of systems of partial differential equations. The AMGe technique from 10,9 allows for the construction of operator-dependent coarse (upscaled) models and guarantees approximation properties of the coarse......This paper demonstrates an application of element-based Algebraic Multigrid (AMGe) technique developed at LLNL (19) to the numerical upscaling and preconditioning of subsurface porous media flow problems. The upscaling results presented here are further extension of our recent work in 3. The AMGe...... be used both as an upscaling tool and as a robust and scalable solver. The methods employed in the present paper have provable O(N) scaling and are particularly well suited for modern multicore architectures, because the construction of the coarse spaces by solving many small local problems offers a high...

  15. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling. Quarterly progress report, June 13, 1995--September 12, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pande, P.K.


    At this stage of the reservoir characterization research, the main emphasis is on the geostatistics and reservoir simulation. Progress is reported on geological analysis, reservoir simulation, and reservoir management.

  16. Fire spread simulation of a full scale cable tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huhtanen, R.


    A fire simulation of a full scale tunnel was performed by using the commercial code EFFLUENT as the simulation platform. Estimation was made for fire spread on the stacked cable trays, possibility of fire spread to the cable trays on the opposite wall of the tunnel, detection time of smoke detectors in the smouldering phase and response of sprinkler heads in the flaming phase. According to the simulation, the rise of temperature in the smouldering phase is minimal, only of the order 1 deg C. The estimates of optical density of smoke show that normal smoke detectors should give an alarm within 2-4 minutes from the beginning of the smouldering phase, depending on the distance to the detector (in this case it was assumed that the thermal source connected to the smoke source was 50 W). The flow conditions at smoke detectors may be challenging, because the velocity magnitude is rather low at this phase. At 4 minutes the maximum velocity at the detectors is 0.12 m/s. During the flaming phase (beginning from 11 minutes) fire spreads on the stacked cable trays in an expected way, although the ignition criterion seems to perform poorly when ignition of new objects is considered. The Upper cable trays are forced to ignite by boundary condition definitions according to the experience found from ti full scale experiment and an earlier simulation. After 30 minutes the hot layer in the room becomes so hot that it speeds up the fire spread and the rate of heat release of burning objects. Further, the hot layer ignites the cable trays on the opposite wall of the tunnel after 45 minutes. It is estimated that the sprinkler heads would be activated at 20-22 minutes near the fire source and at 24-28 minutes little further from the fire source when fast sprinkler heads are used. The slow heads are activated between 26-32 minutes. (orig.)

  17. pH in atomic scale simulations of electrochemical interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Chan, Karen; Ahmed, Rizwan


    Electrochemical reaction rates can strongly depend on pH, and there is increasing interest in electrocatalysis in alkaline solution. To date, no method has been devised to address pH in atomic scale simulations. We present a simple method to determine the atomic structure of the metal......|solution interface at a given pH and electrode potential. Using Pt(111)|water as an example, we show the effect of pH on the interfacial structure, and discuss its impact on reaction energies and barriers. This method paves the way for ab initio studies of pH effects on the structure and electrocatalytic activity...

  18. Large Scale Simulations of the Euler Equations on GPU Clusters

    KAUST Repository

    Liebmann, Manfred


    The paper investigates the scalability of a parallel Euler solver, using the Vijayasundaram method, on a GPU cluster with 32 Nvidia Geforce GTX 295 boards. The aim of this research is to enable large scale fluid dynamics simulations with up to one billion elements. We investigate communication protocols for the GPU cluster to compensate for the slow Gigabit Ethernet network between the GPU compute nodes and to maintain overall efficiency. A diesel engine intake-port and a nozzle, meshed in different resolutions, give good real world examples for the scalability tests on the GPU cluster. © 2010 IEEE.

  19. Numerical Simulations of Thermo-Mechanical Processes during Thermal Spallation Drilling for Geothermal Reservoirs (United States)

    Vogler, D.; Walsh, S. D. C.; Rudolf von Rohr, P.; Saar, M. O.


    Drilling expenses constitute a significant share of the upfront capital costs and thereby the associated risks of geothermal energy production. This is especially true for deep boreholes, as drilling costs per meter increase significantly with depth. Thermal spallation drilling is a relatively new drilling technique, particularly suited to the hard crystalline (e.g., basement) rocks in which many deep geothermal resources are located. The method uses a hot jet-flame to rapidly heat the rock surface, which leads to large temperature gradients in the rock. These temperature gradients cause localized thermal stresses that, in combination with the in situ stress field, lead to the formation and ejection of spalls. These spalls are then transported out of the borehole with the drilling mud. Thermal spallation not only in principle enables much faster rates of penetration than traditional rotary drilling, but is also contact-less, which significantly reduces the long tripping times associated with conventional rotary head drilling. We present numerical simulations investigating the influence of rock heterogeneities on the thermal spallation process. Special emphasis is put on different mineral compositions, stress regimes, and heat sources.

  20. Geomechanical Characterization and Reservoir Simulation of a CO2-EOR and Sequestration Project in a Mature Oil Field, Teapot Dome, WY (United States)

    Chiaramonte, L.; Zoback, M. D.; Friedmann, J.; Stamp, V.


    Mature oil and gas reservoirs are attractive targets for geological sequestration of CO2 because of their potential storage capacities and the possible cost offsets from enhanced oil recovery (EOR). In this work we develop a 3D reservoir model and fluid flow simulation of the Tensleep Formation using geomechanical constraints in advance of a proposed CO2-EOR injection experiment at Teapot Dome Oil Field, WY. The objective of this work is to model the migration of the injected CO2 as well as to obtain limits on the rates and volumes of CO2 that can be injected without compromising seal integrity. In the present work we combine our previous geomechanical analysis, geostatistical reservoir modeling and fluid flow simulations to investigate critical questions regarding the feasibility of a CO2-EOR project in the Tensleep Fm. The analysis takes in consideration the initial trapping and sealing mechanisms of the reservoir, the consequences of past and present oil production on these mechanisms, and the potential effect of the CO2 injection on the reservoir and the seal. Finally we also want to assess the long-term recovery of the injection site and what will happen in the system once the oil production stops. The CO2-EOR injection pilot will consist of the injection of 1 MMcfd of supercritical CO2 for six weeks. The preliminary simulation results indicate that the injected CO2 will rapidly rise to the top layers, above the main producing interval, and will accumulate in the fractures (almost none will get into the matrix). Design optimization will be needed to ensure adequate spatial distribution of the CO2 and sufficient time for CO2 miscibility.

  1. Simulation of flow in dual-scale porous media (United States)

    Tan, Hua

    Liquid composite molding (LCM) is one of the most effective processes for manufacturing near net-shaped parts from fiber-reinforced polymer composites. The quality of LCM products and the efficiency of the process depend strongly on the wetting of fiber preforms during the mold-filling stage of LCM. Mold-filling simulation is a very effective approach to optimize the LCM process and mold design. Recent studies have shown that the flow modeling for the single-scale fiber preforms (made from random mats) has difficulties in accurately predicting the wetting in the dual-scale fiber preforms (made from woven and stitched fabrics); the latter are characterized by the presence of unsaturated flow created due to two distinct length-scales of pores (i.e., large pores outside the tows and small pores inside the tows) in the same media. In this study, we first develop a method to evaluate the accuracy of the permeability-measuring devices for LCM, and conduct a series of 1-D mold-filling experiments for different dual-scale fabrics. The volume averaging method is then applied to derive the averaged governing equations for modeling the macroscopic flow through the dual-scale fabrics. The two sets of governing equations are coupled with each other through the sink terms representing the absorptions of mass, energy, and species (degree of resin cure) from the global flow by the local fiber tows. The finite element method (FEM) coupled with the control volume method, also known as the finite element/control volume (FE/CV) method, is employed to solve the governing equations and track the moving boundary signifying the moving liquid-front. The numerical computations are conducted with the help of an in-house developed computer program called PORE-FLOW(c). We develop the flux-corrected transport (FCT) based FEM to stabilize the convection-dominated energy and species equations. A fast methodology is proposed to simulate the dual-scale flow under isothermal conditions, where flow

  2. Simulation of Left Atrial Function Using a Multi-Scale Model of the Cardiovascular System (United States)

    Pironet, Antoine; Dauby, Pierre C.; Paeme, Sabine; Kosta, Sarah; Chase, J. Geoffrey; Desaive, Thomas


    During a full cardiac cycle, the left atrium successively behaves as a reservoir, a conduit and a pump. This complex behavior makes it unrealistic to apply the time-varying elastance theory to characterize the left atrium, first, because this theory has known limitations, and second, because it is still uncertain whether the load independence hypothesis holds. In this study, we aim to bypass this uncertainty by relying on another kind of mathematical model of the cardiac chambers. In the present work, we describe both the left atrium and the left ventricle with a multi-scale model. The multi-scale property of this model comes from the fact that pressure inside a cardiac chamber is derived from a model of the sarcomere behavior. Macroscopic model parameters are identified from reference dog hemodynamic data. The multi-scale model of the cardiovascular system including the left atrium is then simulated to show that the physiological roles of the left atrium are correctly reproduced. This include a biphasic pressure wave and an eight-shaped pressure-volume loop. We also test the validity of our model in non basal conditions by reproducing a preload reduction experiment by inferior vena cava occlusion with the model. We compute the variation of eight indices before and after this experiment and obtain the same variation as experimentally observed for seven out of the eight indices. In summary, the multi-scale mathematical model presented in this work is able to correctly account for the three roles of the left atrium and also exhibits a realistic left atrial pressure-volume loop. Furthermore, the model has been previously presented and validated for the left ventricle. This makes it a proper alternative to the time-varying elastance theory if the focus is set on precisely representing the left atrial and left ventricular behaviors. PMID:23755183

  3. Simulation of left atrial function using a multi-scale model of the cardiovascular system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Pironet

    Full Text Available During a full cardiac cycle, the left atrium successively behaves as a reservoir, a conduit and a pump. This complex behavior makes it unrealistic to apply the time-varying elastance theory to characterize the left atrium, first, because this theory has known limitations, and second, because it is still uncertain whether the load independence hypothesis holds. In this study, we aim to bypass this uncertainty by relying on another kind of mathematical model of the cardiac chambers. In the present work, we describe both the left atrium and the left ventricle with a multi-scale model. The multi-scale property of this model comes from the fact that pressure inside a cardiac chamber is derived from a model of the sarcomere behavior. Macroscopic model parameters are identified from reference dog hemodynamic data. The multi-scale model of the cardiovascular system including the left atrium is then simulated to show that the physiological roles of the left atrium are correctly reproduced. This include a biphasic pressure wave and an eight-shaped pressure-volume loop. We also test the validity of our model in non basal conditions by reproducing a preload reduction experiment by inferior vena cava occlusion with the model. We compute the variation of eight indices before and after this experiment and obtain the same variation as experimentally observed for seven out of the eight indices. In summary, the multi-scale mathematical model presented in this work is able to correctly account for the three roles of the left atrium and also exhibits a realistic left atrial pressure-volume loop. Furthermore, the model has been previously presented and validated for the left ventricle. This makes it a proper alternative to the time-varying elastance theory if the focus is set on precisely representing the left atrial and left ventricular behaviors.

  4. Large scale molecular dynamics simulations of nuclear pasta (United States)

    Horowitz, C. J.; Berry, D.; Briggs, C.; Chapman, M.; Clark, E.; Schneider, A.


    We report large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of nuclear pasta using from 50,000 to more than 3,000,000 nucleons. We use a simple phenomenological two-nucleon potential that reproduces nuclear saturation. We find a complex ``nuclear waffle'' phase in addition to more conventional rod, plate, and sphere phases. We also find long-lived topological defects involving screw like dislocations that may reduce the electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity of lasagna phases. From MD trajectories we calculate a variety of quantities including static structure factor, dynamical response function, shear modulus and breaking strain. We report large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of nuclear pasta using from 50,000 to more than 3,000,000 nucleons. We use a simple phenomenological two-nucleon potential that reproduces nuclear saturation. We find a complex ``nuclear waffle'' phase in addition to more conventional rod, plate, and sphere phases. We also find long-lived topological defects involving screw like dislocations that may reduce the electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity of lasagna phases. From MD trajectories we calculate a variety of quantities including static structure factor, dynamical response function, shear modulus and breaking strain. Supported in parts by DOE Grants No. DE-FG02-87ER40365 (Indiana University) and No. DE-SC0008808 (NUCLEI SciDAC Collaboration).

  5. Huge-scale molecular dynamics simulation of multibubble nuclei

    KAUST Repository

    Watanabe, Hiroshi


    We have developed molecular dynamics codes for a short-range interaction potential that adopt both the flat-MPI and MPI/OpenMP hybrid parallelizations on the basis of a full domain decomposition strategy. Benchmark simulations involving up to 38.4 billion Lennard-Jones particles were performed on Fujitsu PRIMEHPC FX10, consisting of 4800 SPARC64 IXfx 1.848 GHz processors, at the Information Technology Center of the University of Tokyo, and a performance of 193 teraflops was achieved, which corresponds to a 17.0% execution efficiency. Cavitation processes were also simulated on PRIMEHPC FX10 and SGI Altix ICE 8400EX at the Institute of Solid State Physics of the University of Tokyo, which involved 1.45 billion and 22.9 million particles, respectively. Ostwald-like ripening was observed after the multibubble nuclei. Our results demonstrate that direct simulations of multiscale phenomena involving phase transitions from the atomic scale are possible and that the molecular dynamics method is a promising method that can be applied to petascale computers. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Multi-Scale Initial Conditions For Cosmological Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Oliver; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Abel, Tom; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /ZAH, Heidelberg /HITS, Heidelberg


    We discuss a new algorithm to generate multi-scale initial conditions with multiple levels of refinements for cosmological 'zoom-in' simulations. The method uses an adaptive convolution of Gaussian white noise with a real-space transfer function kernel together with an adaptive multi-grid Poisson solver to generate displacements and velocities following first- (1LPT) or second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT). The new algorithm achieves rms relative errors of the order of 10{sup -4} for displacements and velocities in the refinement region and thus improves in terms of errors by about two orders of magnitude over previous approaches. In addition, errors are localized at coarse-fine boundaries and do not suffer from Fourier-space-induced interference ringing. An optional hybrid multi-grid and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) based scheme is introduced which has identical Fourier-space behaviour as traditional approaches. Using a suite of re-simulations of a galaxy cluster halo our real-space-based approach is found to reproduce correlation functions, density profiles, key halo properties and subhalo abundances with per cent level accuracy. Finally, we generalize our approach for two-component baryon and dark-matter simulations and demonstrate that the power spectrum evolution is in excellent agreement with linear perturbation theory. For initial baryon density fields, it is suggested to use the local Lagrangian approximation in order to generate a density field for mesh-based codes that is consistent with the Lagrangian perturbation theory instead of the current practice of using the Eulerian linearly scaled densities.

  7. Multi-scale initial conditions for cosmological simulations (United States)

    Hahn, Oliver; Abel, Tom


    We discuss a new algorithm to generate multi-scale initial conditions with multiple levels of refinements for cosmological 'zoom-in' simulations. The method uses an adaptive convolution of Gaussian white noise with a real-space transfer function kernel together with an adaptive multi-grid Poisson solver to generate displacements and velocities following first- (1LPT) or second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT). The new algorithm achieves rms relative errors of the order of 10-4 for displacements and velocities in the refinement region and thus improves in terms of errors by about two orders of magnitude over previous approaches. In addition, errors are localized at coarse-fine boundaries and do not suffer from Fourier-space-induced interference ringing. An optional hybrid multi-grid and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) based scheme is introduced which has identical Fourier-space behaviour as traditional approaches. Using a suite of re-simulations of a galaxy cluster halo our real-space-based approach is found to reproduce correlation functions, density profiles, key halo properties and subhalo abundances with per cent level accuracy. Finally, we generalize our approach for two-component baryon and dark-matter simulations and demonstrate that the power spectrum evolution is in excellent agreement with linear perturbation theory. For initial baryon density fields, it is suggested to use the local Lagrangian approximation in order to generate a density field for mesh-based codes that is consistent with the Lagrangian perturbation theory instead of the current practice of using the Eulerian linearly scaled densities.

  8. Changes in the contents of strontium, barium, and lead in scales of bream Abramis brama from the Mozhaisk Reservoir over a quarter century. (United States)

    Saltykova, E A; Pelgunova, L A; Sokolova, E L; Skomorokhov, M O; Demidova, T B; Golubtsov, A S


    The heavy metal contents in the scales of bream (Abramis brama) from the Mozhaisk Reservoir collected in the second half of the 1980s were compared to the current values. The concentrations of three out of the seven elements studied in the bream scales have changed severalfold during the past quarter century: that of strontium has decreased, and those of barium and lead have increased. Short-term variations of heavy metal contents have proved to be smaller than the observed long-term differences. There is grounds to believe that these long-term differences adequately reflect the changes that have occurred in the water body.

  9. Robust large-scale parallel nonlinear solvers for simulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, Brett William; Pawlowski, Roger Patrick; Kolda, Tamara Gibson (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)


    This report documents research to develop robust and efficient solution techniques for solving large-scale systems of nonlinear equations. The most widely used method for solving systems of nonlinear equations is Newton's method. While much research has been devoted to augmenting Newton-based solvers (usually with globalization techniques), little has been devoted to exploring the application of different models. Our research has been directed at evaluating techniques using different models than Newton's method: a lower order model, Broyden's method, and a higher order model, the tensor method. We have developed large-scale versions of each of these models and have demonstrated their use in important applications at Sandia. Broyden's method replaces the Jacobian with an approximation, allowing codes that cannot evaluate a Jacobian or have an inaccurate Jacobian to converge to a solution. Limited-memory methods, which have been successful in optimization, allow us to extend this approach to large-scale problems. We compare the robustness and efficiency of Newton's method, modified Newton's method, Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov method, and our limited-memory Broyden method. Comparisons are carried out for large-scale applications of fluid flow simulations and electronic circuit simulations. Results show that, in cases where the Jacobian was inaccurate or could not be computed, Broyden's method converged in some cases where Newton's method failed to converge. We identify conditions where Broyden's method can be more efficient than Newton's method. We also present modifications to a large-scale tensor method, originally proposed by Bouaricha, for greater efficiency, better robustness, and wider applicability. Tensor methods are an alternative to Newton-based methods and are based on computing a step based on a local quadratic model rather than a linear model. The advantage of Bouaricha's method is that it can use any

  10. Evaluation of the airway of the SimMan full-scale patient simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselfeldt, R; Kristensen, M S; Rasmussen, L S


    SimMan is a full-scale patient simulator, capable of simulating normal and pathological airways. The performance of SimMan has never been critically evaluated.......SimMan is a full-scale patient simulator, capable of simulating normal and pathological airways. The performance of SimMan has never been critically evaluated....

  11. Convective aggregation in realistic convective-scale simulations (United States)

    Holloway, Christopher E.


    To investigate the real-world relevance of idealized-model convective self-aggregation, five 15 day cases of real organized convection in the tropics are simulated. These include multiple simulations of each case to test sensitivities of the convective organization and mean states to interactive radiation, interactive surface fluxes, and evaporation of rain. These simulations are compared to self-aggregation seen in the same model configured to run in idealized radiative-convective equilibrium. Analysis of the budget of the spatial variance of column-integrated frozen moist static energy shows that control runs have significant positive contributions to organization from radiation and negative contributions from surface fluxes and transport, similar to idealized runs once they become aggregated. Despite identical lateral boundary conditions for all experiments in each case, systematic differences in mean column water vapor (CWV), CWV distribution shape, and CWV autocorrelation length scale are found between the different sensitivity runs, particularly for those without interactive radiation, showing that there are at least some similarities in sensitivities to these feedbacks in both idealized and realistic simulations (although the organization of precipitation shows less sensitivity to interactive radiation). The magnitudes and signs of these systematic differences are consistent with a rough equilibrium between (1) equalization due to advection from the lateral boundaries and (2) disaggregation due to the absence of interactive radiation, implying disaggregation rates comparable to those in idealized runs with aggregated initial conditions and noninteractive radiation. This points to a plausible similarity in the way that radiation feedbacks maintain aggregated convection in both idealized simulations and the real world.Plain Language SummaryUnderstanding the processes that lead to the organization of tropical rainstorms is an important challenge for weather

  12. Characteristics of Tornado-Like Vortices Simulated in a Large-Scale Ward-Type Simulator (United States)

    Tang, Zhuo; Feng, Changda; Wu, Liang; Zuo, Delong; James, Darryl L.


    Tornado-like vortices are simulated in a large-scale Ward-type simulator to further advance the understanding of such flows, and to facilitate future studies of tornado wind loading on structures. Measurements of the velocity fields near the simulator floor and the resulting floor surface pressures are interpreted to reveal the mean and fluctuating characteristics of the flow as well as the characteristics of the static-pressure deficit. We focus on the manner in which the swirl ratio and the radial Reynolds number affect these characteristics. The transition of the tornado-like flow from a single-celled vortex to a dual-celled vortex with increasing swirl ratio and the impact of this transition on the flow field and the surface-pressure deficit are closely examined. The mean characteristics of the surface-pressure deficit caused by tornado-like vortices simulated at a number of swirl ratios compare well with the corresponding characteristics recorded during full-scale tornadoes.

  13. Software Integration in Multi-scale Simulations: the PUPIL System (United States)

    Torras, J.; Deumens, E.; Trickey, S. B.


    The state of the art for computational tools in both computational chemistry and computational materials physics includes many algorithms and functionalities which are implemented again and again. Several projects aim to reduce, eliminate, or avoid this problem. Most such efforts seem to be focused within a particular specialty, either quantum chemistry or materials physics. Multi-scale simulations, by their very nature however, cannot respect that specialization. In simulation of fracture, for example, the energy gradients that drive the molecular dynamics (MD) come from a quantum mechanical treatment that most often derives from quantum chemistry. That “QM” region is linked to a surrounding “CM” region in which potentials yield the forces. The approach therefore requires the integration or at least inter-operation of quantum chemistry and materials physics algorithms. The same problem occurs in “QM/MM” simulations in computational biology. The challenge grows if pattern recognition or other analysis codes of some kind must be used as well. The most common mode of inter-operation is user intervention: codes are modified as needed and data files are managed “by hand” by the user (interactively and via shell scripts). User intervention is however inefficient by nature, difficult to transfer to the community, and prone to error. Some progress (e.g Sethna’s work at Cornell [C.R. Myers et al., Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 538(1999) 509, C.-S. Chen et al., Poster presented at the Material Research Society Meeting (2000)]) has been made on using Python scripts to achieve a more efficient level of interoperation. In this communication we present an alternative approach to merging current working packages without the necessity of major recoding and with only a relatively light wrapper interface. The scheme supports communication among the different components required for a given multi-scale calculation and access to the functionalities of those components

  14. Study of reservoir properties and operational parameters influencing in the steam assisted gravity drainage process in heavy oil reservoirs by numerical simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Dianatnasab


    Full Text Available This study was originally aimed at suggesting a two-dimensional program for the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD process based on the correlations proposed by Heidari and Pooladi, using the MATLAB software. In fact, the work presented by Chung and Butler was used as the basis for this study. Since the steam chamber development process and the SAGD production performance are functions of reservoir properties and operational parameters, the new model is capable of analyzing the effects of parameters such as height variation at constant length, length variation at constant height, permeability variation, thermal diffusivity coefficient variation and well location on the production rate and the oil recovery among which, the most important one is the thermal diffusivity coefficient analysis. To investigate the accuracy and authenticity of the model outcomes, they were compared with the results obtained by Chung and Butler. The privilege of this method over that proposed by Heidari and Pooladi lies in its ability to investigate the effect of thermal diffusivity coefficient on recovery and analyzing the effect of temperature distribution changes on thickness diffusivity. Based on the observations, results reveal that the proposed model gives more accurate predictions compared to the old model proposed by Chung & Butler.

  15. Numerical simulation of electricity generation potential from fractured granite reservoir through vertical wells at Yangbajing geothermal field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Yu-chao; Zhan, Jie-min; Wu, Neng-you; Luo, Ying-ying; Cai, Wen-hao


    Yangbajing geothermal field is the first high-temperature hydrothermal convective geothermal system in China. Research and development of the deep fractured granite reservoir is of great importance for capacity expanding and sustaining of the ground power plant. The geological exploration found that there is a fractured granite heat reservoir at depth of 950–1350 m in well ZK4001 in the north of the geothermal field, with an average temperature of 248 °C and a pressure of 8.01–11.57 MPa. In this work, electricity generation potential and its dependent factors from this fractured granite reservoir by water circulating through vertical wells are numerically investigated. The results indicate that the vertical well system attains an electric power of 16.8–14.7 MW, a reservoir impedance of 0.29–0.46 MPa/(kg/s) and an energy efficiency of about 29.6–12.8 during an exploiting period of 50 years under reference conditions, showing good heat production performance. The main parameters affecting the electric power are water production rate and injection temperature. The main parameters affecting reservoir impedance are reservoir permeability, injection temperature and water production rate. The main parameters affecting the energy efficiency are reservoir permeability, injection temperature and water production rate. Higher reservoir permeability or more reasonable injection temperature or water production rate within certain ranges will be favorable for improving the electricity generation performance. - Highlights: • We established a numerical model of vertical well heat mining system. • Desirable electricity production performance can be obtained under suitable conditions. • The system attains an electric power of 16.8–14.7 MW with an efficiency of about 29.6–12.8. • Electric power mainly depends on water production rate and injection temperature. • Higher permeability within a certain range is favorable for electricity generation.

  16. Design and Control of Full Scale Wave Energy Simulator System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik C.; Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Hansen, Rico Hjerm


    For wave energy to become feasible it is a requirement that the efficiency and reliability of the power take-off (PTO) systems are significantly improved. The cost of installing and testing PTO-systems at sea are however very high, and the focus of the current paper is therefore on the design...... of a full scale wave simulator for testing PTO-systems for point absorbers. The main challenge is here to design a system, which mimics the behavior of a wave when interacting with a given PTO-system. The paper includes a description of the developed system, located at Aalborg University......, and the considerations behind the design. Based on the description a model of the system is presented, which, along with a description of the wave theory applied, makes the foundation for the control strategy. The objective of the control strategy is to emulate not only the wave behavior, but also the dynamic wave...

  17. A multi-scale case study of natural fracture systems in outcrops and boreholes with applications to reservoir modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taal-van Koppen, J.K.J.


    Fractured reservoirs are notoriously difficult to characterize because the resolution of seismic data is too low to detect fractures whereas borehole data is detailed but sparse. Therefore, outcrops can be of great support in gaining knowledge of the three-dimensional geometry of fracture networks,

  18. Formation factor in Bentheimer and Fontainebleau sandstones: Theory compared with pore-scale numerical simulations (United States)

    Ghanbarian, Behzad; Berg, Carl F.


    Accurate quantification of formation resistivity factor F (also called formation factor) provides useful insight into connectivity and pore space topology in fully saturated porous media. In particular the formation factor has been extensively used to estimate permeability in reservoir rocks. One of the widely applied models to estimate F is Archie's law (F = ϕ- m in which ϕ is total porosity and m is cementation exponent) that is known to be valid in rocks with negligible clay content, such as clean sandstones. In this study we compare formation factors determined by percolation and effective-medium theories as well as Archie's law with numerical simulations of electrical resistivity on digital rock models. These digital models represent Bentheimer and Fontainebleau sandstones and are derived either by reconstruction or directly from micro-tomographic images. Results show that the universal quadratic power law from percolation theory accurately estimates the calculated formation factor values in network models over the entire range of porosity. However, it crosses over to the linear scaling from the effective-medium approximation at the porosity of 0.75 in grid models. We also show that the effect of critical porosity, disregarded in Archie's law, is nontrivial, and the Archie model inaccurately estimates the formation factor in low-porosity homogeneous sandstones.

  19. Prediction of Gas Injection Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blunt, Martin J.; Orr, Jr., Franklin M.


    This report describes research carried out in the Department of Petroleum Engineering at Stanford University from September 1998 - September 1998 under the third year of a three-year Department of Energy (DOE) grant on the ''Prediction of Gas Injection Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs''. The research effort is an integrated study of the factors affecting gas injection, from the pore scale to the field scale, and involves theoretical analysis, laboratory experiments and numerical simulation. The research is divided into four main areas: (1) Pore scale modeling of three-phase flow in porous media; (2) Laboratory experiments and analysis of factors influencing gas injection performance at the core scale with an emphasis on the fundamentals of three-phase flow; (3) Benchmark simulations of gas injection at the field scale; and (4) Development of streamline-based reservoir simulator.

  20. Tsengwen Reservoir Watershed Hydrological Flood Simulation Under Global Climate Change Using the 20 km Mesh Meteorological Research Institute Atmospheric General Circulation Model (MRI-AGCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuaki Kimura


    Full Text Available Severe rainstorms have occurred more frequently in Taiwan over the last decade. To understand the flood characteristics of a local region under climate change, a hydrological model simulation was conducted for the Tsengwen Reservoir watershed. The model employed was the Integrated Flood Analysis System (IFAS, which has a conceptual, distributed rainfall-runoff analysis module and a GIS data-input function. The high-resolution rainfall data for flood simulation was categorized into three terms: 1979 - 2003 (Present, 2015 - 2039 (Near-future, and 2075 - 2099 (Future, provided by the Meteorological Research Institute atmospheric general circulation model (MRI-AGCM. Ten extreme rainfall (top ten events were selected for each term in descending order of total precipitation volume. Due to the small watershed area the MRI-AGCM3.2S data was downsized into higher resolution data using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model. The simulated discharges revealed that most of the Near-future and Future peaks caused by extreme rainfall increased compared to the Present peak. These ratios were 0.8 - 1.6 (Near-future/Present and 0.9 - 2.2 (Future/Present, respectively. Additionally, we evaluated how these future discharges would affect the reservoir¡¦s flood control capacity, specifically the excess water volume required to be stored while maintaining dam releases up to the dam¡¦s spillway capacity or the discharge peak design for flood prevention. The results for the top ten events show that the excess water for the Future term exceeded the reservoir¡¦s flood control capacity and was approximately 79.6 - 87.5% of the total reservoir maximum capacity for the discharge peak design scenario.

  1. The simulation research of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus non-point source pollution in Xiao-Jiang watershed of Three Gorges Reservoir area. (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Long, Tian-Yu; Li, Chong-Ming


    Xiao-jiang, with a basin area of almost 5,276 km(2) and a length of 182.4 km, is located in the center of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, and is the largest tributary of the central section in Three Gorges Reservoir Area, farmland accounts for a large proportion of Xiao-jiang watershed, and the hilly cropland of purple soil is much of the farmland of the watershed. After the second phase of water storage in the Three Gorges Reservoir, the majority of sub-rivers in the reservoir area experienced eutrophication phenomenon frequently, and non-point source (NPS) pollution has become an important source of pollution in Xiao-jiang Watershed. Because dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus non-point source pollution are related to surface runoff and interflow, using climatic, topographic and land cover data from the internet and research institutes, the Semi-Distributed Land-use Runoff Process (SLURP) hydrological model was introduced to simulate the complete hydrological cycle of the Xiao-jiang Watershed. Based on the SLURP distributed hydrological model, non-point source pollution annual output load models of land use and rural residents were respectively established. Therefore, using GIS technology, considering the losses of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus in the course of transport, a dissolved non-point source pollution load dynamic model was established by the organic coupling of the SLURP hydrological model and land-use output model. Through the above dynamic model, the annual dissolved non-point source nitrogen and phosphorus pollution output as well as the load in different types were simulated and quantitatively estimated from 2001 to 2008, furthermore, the loads of Xiao-jiang Watershed were calculated and expressed by temporal and spatial distribution in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The simulation results show that: the temporal changes of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus load in the watershed are close to the inter-annual changes of rainfall runoff, and the

  2. An Integrated Model for Computer Aided Reservoir Description : from Outcrop Study to Fluid Flow Simulations Un logiciel intégré pour une description des gisements assistée par ordinateur : de l'étude d'un affleurement aux simulations de l'écoulement des fluides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerillot D.


    Full Text Available An accurate understanding of the internal architecture of a reservoir is required to improve reservoir management for oil recovery. Geostatistical methods give an image of this architecture. The purpose of this paper is to show how this lithological description could be used for reservoir simulation. For this purpose, scale averaging problems must be solved for non-additive variables. A method giving a full effective permeability matrix is proposed. The integrated software described here starts from core analysis and lithologic logs to provide data for reservoir simulators. Each of the steps of this interactive and graphic system is explained here. Pour faire de bonnes prévisions de production pour un gisement pétrolifère, il est nécessaire de connaître précisément son architecture interne. Les méthodes géostatistiques donnent une représentation de cette architecture. L'objectif de cet article est de montrer une façon d'utiliser cette description lithologique pour la simulation des réservoirs. Il faut alors résoudre des problèmes de changement d'échelle pour les variables qui ne sont pas additives. On propose une méthode d'estimation de la perméabilité effective sous la forme d'une matrice pleine. Le logiciel intégré que l'on décrit part de l'analyse des carottes et des diagraphies en lithologies et fournit des données pour les simulateurs de gisement. On détaille ici chaque étape de ce système interactif graphique.

  3. Uncertainties in the simulation of groundwater recharge at different scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bogena


    Full Text Available Digital spatial data always imply some kind of uncertainty. The source of this uncertainty can be found in their compilation as well as the conceptual design that causes a more or less exact abstraction of the real world, depending on the scale under consideration. Within the framework of hydrological modelling, in which numerous data sets from diverse sources of uneven quality are combined, the various uncertainties are accumulated. In this study, the GROWA model is taken as an example to examine the effects of different types of uncertainties on the calculated groundwater recharge. Distributed input errors are determined for the parameters' slope and aspect using a Monte Carlo approach. Landcover classification uncertainties are analysed by using the conditional probabilities of a remote sensing classification procedure. The uncertainties of data ensembles at different scales and study areas are discussed. The present uncertainty analysis showed that the Gaussian error propagation method is a useful technique for analysing the influence of input data on the simulated groundwater recharge. The uncertainties involved in the land use classification procedure and the digital elevation model can be significant in some parts of the study area. However, for the specific model used in this study it was shown that the precipitation uncertainties have the greatest impact on the total groundwater recharge error.

  4. Numerical simulation of lubrication mechanisms at mesoscopic scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubert, C.; Bay, Niels; Christiansen, Peter


    The mechanisms of liquid lubrication in metal forming are studied at a mesoscopic scale, adopting a 2D sequential fluid-solid weak coupling approach earlier developed in the first author's laboratory. This approach involves two computation steps. The first one is a fully coupled fluid-structure F......The mechanisms of liquid lubrication in metal forming are studied at a mesoscopic scale, adopting a 2D sequential fluid-solid weak coupling approach earlier developed in the first author's laboratory. This approach involves two computation steps. The first one is a fully coupled fluid......'s equation, at the asperity level, in order to quantify the fluid leakage in the cavity/plateau network using the lubricant pressure computed previously. The numerical simulation is validated by experimental tests in plane strain strip reduction of aluminium sheet provided with model cavities in form......PlastoHydroDynamic Lubrication (MPHDL) as well as cavity shrinkage due to lubricant compression and escape and strip deformation....

  5. The cascade of reservoirs of the ``Mayak`` Plant: Case history and the first version of a computer simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mironenko, M.V.; Spasennykh, M.Yu.; Polyakov, V.B. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Vernadsky Inst. of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry] [and others


    The improvement of the ecological conditions at waste storing reservoirs is an important task of the restoration activity at Production Association (PA) ``Mayak`` (South Urals). The radionuclides mostly {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and chemical pollutants deposited in the reservoir water and in the bottom sediment are very dangerous sources for the contamination of Techa River below the reservoirs and the contamination of groundwater in the surrounding formations. The spreading of radioactive contaminants has both hydrogeological and the chemical features. The thermodynamic approach used to account for physical-chemical interactions between water and the bed rocks based on Gibbs free energy minimization of multicomponent system (H-O-Ca-Mg-K-Na-S-Cl-C-Sr) permitted the authors to calculate the corresponding ionic and complex species existing in the solutions, and to characterize the processes of precipitation and dissolution. The model takes into account the input and output surface and underground water fluxes, mass exchange of the reservoir with the atmosphere, radioactive decay and water-sediment interaction including processes of the {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs sorption on the grains of the sediment and the radionuclide diffusion in the pore water. This model was used in the retrospective and prognosis calculations of radiation and hydrochemical regime of these reservoirs.

  6. Simulation of Gas Transport in Tight/Shale Gas Reservoirs by a Multicomponent Model Based on PEBI Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longjun Zhang


    Full Text Available The ultra-low permeability and nanosize pores of tight/shale gas reservoir would lead to non-Darcy flow including slip flow, transition flow, and free molecular flow, which cannot be described by traditional Darcy’s law. The organic content often adsorbs some gas content, while the adsorbed amount for different gas species is different. Based on these facts, we develop a new compositional model based on unstructured PEBI (perpendicular bisection grid, which is able to characterize non-Darcy flow including slip flow, transition flow, and free molecular flow and the multicomponent adsorption in tight/shale gas reservoirs. With the proposed model, we study the effect of non-Darcy flow, length of the hydraulic fracture, and initial gas composition on gas production. The results show both non-Darcy flow and fracture length have significant influence on gas production. Ignoring non-Darcy flow would underestimate 67% cumulative gas production in lower permeable gas reservoirs. Gas production increases with fracture length. In lower permeable reservoirs, gas production increases almost linearly with the hydraulic fracture length. However, in higher permeable reservoirs, the increment of the former gradually decreases with the increase in the latter. The results also show that the presence of CO2 in the formation would lower down gas production.

  7. Improvement of Hydrological Simulations by Applying Daily Precipitation Interpolation Schemes in Meso-Scale Catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Szcześniak


    Full Text Available Ground-based precipitation data are still the dominant input type for hydrological models. Spatial variability in precipitation can be represented by spatially interpolating gauge data using various techniques. In this study, the effect of daily precipitation interpolation methods on discharge simulations using the semi-distributed SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool model over a 30-year period is examined. The study was carried out in 11 meso-scale (119–3935 km2 sub-catchments lying in the Sulejów reservoir catchment in central Poland. Four methods were tested: the default SWAT method (Def based on the Nearest Neighbour technique, Thiessen Polygons (TP, Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW and Ordinary Kriging (OK. =The evaluation of methods was performed using a semi-automated calibration program SUFI-2 (Sequential Uncertainty Fitting Procedure Version 2 with two objective functions: Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE and the adjusted R2 coefficient (bR2. The results show that: (1 the most complex OK method outperformed other methods in terms of NSE; and (2 OK, IDW, and TP outperformed Def in terms of bR2. The median difference in daily/monthly NSE between OK and Def/TP/IDW calculated across all catchments ranged between 0.05 and 0.15, while the median difference between TP/IDW/OK and Def ranged between 0.05 and 0.07. The differences between pairs of interpolation methods were, however, spatially variable and a part of this variability was attributed to catchment properties: catchments characterised by low station density and low coefficient of variation of daily flows experienced more pronounced improvement resulting from using interpolation methods. Methods providing higher precipitation estimates often resulted in a better model performance. The implication from this study is that appropriate consideration of spatial precipitation variability (often neglected by model users that can be achieved using relatively simple interpolation methods can

  8. Reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, L.W.; Pope, G.A.; Schechter, R.S.


    The research in this annual report falls into three tasks each dealing with a different aspect of enhanced oil recovery. The first task strives to develop procedures for accurately modeling reservoirs for use as input to numerical simulation flow models. This action describes how we have used a detail characterization of an outcrop to provide insights into what features are important to fluid flow modeling. The second task deals with scaling-up and modeling chemical and solvent EOR processes. In a sense this task is the natural extension of task 1 and, in fact, one of the subtasks uses many of the same statistical procedures for insight into the effects of viscous fingering and heterogeneity. The final task involves surfactants and their interactions with carbon dioxide and reservoir minerals. This research deals primarily with phenomena observed when aqueous surfactant solutions are injected into oil reservoirs.

  9. Production of Natural Gas and Fluid Flow in Tight Sand Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria Cecilia Bravo


    This document reports progress of this research effort in identifying relationships and defining dependencies between macroscopic reservoir parameters strongly affected by microscopic flow dynamics and production well performance in tight gas sand reservoirs. These dependencies are investigated by identifying the main transport mechanisms at the pore scale that should affect fluids flow at the reservoir scale. A critical review of commercial reservoir simulators, used to predict tight sand gas reservoir, revealed that many are poor when used to model fluid flow through tight reservoirs. Conventional simulators ignore altogether or model incorrectly certain phenomena such as, Knudsen diffusion, electro-kinetic effects, ordinary diffusion mechanisms and water vaporization. We studied the effect of Knudsen's number in Klinkenberg's equation and evaluated the effect of different flow regimes on Klinkenberg's parameter b. We developed a model capable of explaining the pressure dependence of this parameter that has been experimentally observed, but not explained in the conventional formalisms. We demonstrated the relevance of this, so far ignored effect, in tight sands reservoir modeling. A 2-D numerical simulator based on equations that capture the above mentioned phenomena was developed. Dynamic implications of new equations are comprehensively discussed in our work and their relative contribution to the flow rate is evaluated. We performed several simulation sensitivity studies that evidenced that, in general terms, our formalism should be implemented in order to get more reliable tight sands gas reservoirs' predictions.

  10. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Infill drilling if wells on a uniform spacing without regard to reservoir performance and characterization foes not optimize reservoir development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. New and emerging technologies, such as geostatistical modeling, rigorous decline curve analysis, reservoir rock typing, and special core analysis can be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations.

  11. EON: software for long time simulations of atomic scale systems (United States)

    Chill, Samuel T.; Welborn, Matthew; Terrell, Rye; Zhang, Liang; Berthet, Jean-Claude; Pedersen, Andreas; Jónsson, Hannes; Henkelman, Graeme


    The EON software is designed for simulations of the state-to-state evolution of atomic scale systems over timescales greatly exceeding that of direct classical dynamics. States are defined as collections of atomic configurations from which a minimization of the potential energy gives the same inherent structure. The time evolution is assumed to be governed by rare events, where transitions between states are uncorrelated and infrequent compared with the timescale of atomic vibrations. Several methods for calculating the state-to-state evolution have been implemented in EON, including parallel replica dynamics, hyperdynamics and adaptive kinetic Monte Carlo. Global optimization methods, including simulated annealing, basin hopping and minima hopping are also implemented. The software has a client/server architecture where the computationally intensive evaluations of the interatomic interactions are calculated on the client-side and the state-to-state evolution is managed by the server. The client supports optimization for different computer architectures to maximize computational efficiency. The server is written in Python so that developers have access to the high-level functionality without delving into the computationally intensive components. Communication between the server and clients is abstracted so that calculations can be deployed on a single machine, clusters using a queuing system, large parallel computers using a message passing interface, or within a distributed computing environment. A generic interface to the evaluation of the interatomic interactions is defined so that empirical potentials, such as in LAMMPS, and density functional theory as implemented in VASP and GPAW can be used interchangeably. Examples are given to demonstrate the range of systems that can be modeled, including surface diffusion and island ripening of adsorbed atoms on metal surfaces, molecular diffusion on the surface of ice and global structural optimization of nanoparticles.

  12. Hybrid mesh generation for the new generation of oil reservoir simulators: 3D extension; Generation de maillage hybride pour les simulateurs de reservoir petrolier de nouvelle generation: extension 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flandrin, N.


    During the exploitation of an oil reservoir, it is important to predict the recovery of hydrocarbons and to optimize its production. A better comprehension of the physical phenomena requires to simulate 3D multiphase flows in increasingly complex geological structures. In this thesis, we are interested in this spatial discretization and we propose to extend in 3D the 2D hybrid model proposed by IFP in 1998 that allows to take directly into account in the geometry the radial characteristics of the flows. In these hybrid meshes, the wells and their drainage areas are described by structured radial circular meshes and the reservoirs are represented by structured meshes that can be a non uniform Cartesian grid or a Corner Point Geometry grids. In order to generate a global conforming mesh, unstructured transition meshes based on power diagrams and satisfying finite volume properties are used to connect the structured meshes together. Two methods have been implemented to generate these transition meshes: the first one is based on a Delaunay triangulation, the other one uses a frontal approach. Finally, some criteria are introduced to measure the quality of the transition meshes and optimization procedures are proposed to increase this quality under finite volume properties constraints. (author)

  13. A domain-reduction approach to bridging-scale simulation of one-dimensional nanostructures (United States)

    Qian, Dong; Phadke, Manas; Karpov, Eduard; Liu, Wing Kam


    We present a domain-reduction approach for the simulation of one-dimensional nanocrystalline structures. In this approach, the domain of interest is partitioned into coarse and fine scale regions and the coupling between the two is implemented through a bridging-scale interfacial boundary condition. The atomistic simulation is used in the fine scale region, while the discrete Fourier transform is applied to the coarse scale region to yield a compact Green's function formulation that represents the effects of the coarse scale domain upon the fine/coarse scale interface. This approach facilitates the simulations for the fine scale, without the requirement to simulate the entire coarse scale domain. After the illustration in a simple 1D problem and comparison with analytical solutions, the proposed method is then implemented for carbon nanotube structures. The robustness of the proposed multiscale method is demonstrated after comparison and verification of our results with benchmark results from fully atomistic simulations.

  14. Improved characterization of reservoir behavior by integration of reservoir performances data and rock type distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, D.K.; Vessell, R.K. [David K. Davies & Associates, Kingwood, TX (United States); Doublet, L.E. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [and others


    An integrated geological/petrophysical and reservoir engineering study was performed for a large, mature waterflood project (>250 wells, {approximately}80% water cut) at the North Robertson (Clear Fork) Unit, Gaines County, Texas. The primary goal of the study was to develop an integrated reservoir description for {open_quotes}targeted{close_quotes} (economic) 10-acre (4-hectare) infill drilling and future recovery operations in a low permeability, carbonate (dolomite) reservoir. Integration of the results from geological/petrophysical studies and reservoir performance analyses provide a rapid and effective method for developing a comprehensive reservoir description. This reservoir description can be used for reservoir flow simulation, performance prediction, infill targeting, waterflood management, and for optimizing well developments (patterns, completions, and stimulations). The following analyses were performed as part of this study: (1) Geological/petrophysical analyses: (core and well log data) - {open_quotes}Rock typing{close_quotes} based on qualitative and quantitative visualization of pore-scale features. Reservoir layering based on {open_quotes}rock typing {close_quotes} and hydraulic flow units. Development of a {open_quotes}core-log{close_quotes} model to estimate permeability using porosity and other properties derived from well logs. The core-log model is based on {open_quotes}rock types.{close_quotes} (2) Engineering analyses: (production and injection history, well tests) Material balance decline type curve analyses to estimate total reservoir volume, formation flow characteristics (flow capacity, skin factor, and fracture half-length), and indications of well/boundary interference. Estimated ultimate recovery analyses to yield movable oil (or injectable water) volumes, as well as indications of well and boundary interference.

  15. Reservoir management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satter, A.; Varnon, J.E.; Hoang, M.T.


    A reservoir's life begins with exploration leading to discovery followed by delineation of the reservoir, development of the field, production by primary, secondary and tertiary means, and finally to abandonment. Sound reservoir management is the key to maximizing economic operation of the reservoir throughout its entire life. Technological advances and rapidly increasing computer power are providing tools to better manage reservoirs and are increasing the gap between good and neutral reservoir management. The modern reservoir management process involves goal setting, planning, implementing, monitoring, evaluating, and revising plans. Setting a reservoir management strategy requires knowledge of the reservoir, availability of technology, and knowledge of the business, political, and environmental climate. Formulating a comprehensive management plan involves depletion and development strategies, data acquisition and analyses, geological and numerical model studies, production and reserves forecasts, facilities requirements, economic optimization, and management approval. This paper provides management, engineers geologists, geophysicists, and field operations staff with a better understanding of the practical approach to reservoir management using a multidisciplinary, integrated team approach

  16. Contextual Compression of Large-Scale Wind Turbine Array Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruchalla, Kenny M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brunhart-Lupo, Nicholas J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Potter, Kristin C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Clyne, John [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)


    Data sizes are becoming a critical issue particularly for HPC applications. We have developed a user-driven lossy wavelet-based storage model to facilitate the analysis and visualization of large-scale wind turbine array simulations. The model stores data as heterogeneous blocks of wavelet coefficients, providing high-fidelity access to user-defined data regions believed the most salient, while providing lower-fidelity access to less salient regions on a block-by-block basis. In practice, by retaining the wavelet coefficients as a function of feature saliency, we have seen data reductions in excess of 94 percent, while retaining lossless information in the turbine-wake regions most critical to analysis and providing enough (low-fidelity) contextual information in the upper atmosphere to track incoming coherent turbulent structures. Our contextual wavelet compression approach has allowed us to deliver interative visual analysis while providing the user control over where data loss, and thus reduction in accuracy, in the analysis occurs. We argue this reduced but contextualized representation is a valid approach and encourages contextual data management.

  17. Shape factor for dual-permeability fractured reservoir simulation : Effect of non-uniform flow in 2D fracture network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, J.; Rossen, W.R.


    The flow properties of naturally fractured reservoirs are dominated by flow through the fractures. In a previous study we showed that even a well-connected fracture network behaves like a much sparser network when the aperture distribution is broad enough: i.e., most fractures can be eliminated

  18. Direct numerical simulation of reactive flow and modeling of pore-scale transport phenomena in porous media (United States)

    Nomeli, Mohammad; Riaz, Amir


    Direct numerical simulation of reactive flow and a long-term geochemical modeling of CO2 sequestration is carried out in a fractured media to investigate its impact on CO2 transport and storage capacity. The fracture is modeled by considering flow of CO2 between finite plates. We study the physics and the critical time of blockage for a fracture to interpret the results. To this end, we employ direct numerical simulation tools and algorithms to simulate incompressible flow along with necessary transport equations that capture the kinetics of relevant chemical reactions. The numerical model is based on a finite volume method using a sequential non-iterative approach. It is found that the reactive transport of minerals has an important effect on reservoir porosity and permeability. According to the simulations, the flow of injected CO2 in the fracture is controlled by changes in the pore-scale permeability. The fracture ceases to be a fluid channel due to geochemical reactions of minerals. In addition, using parameter analysis we also determine the effect of various reaction kinetics on permeability of porous media.

  19. An efficient non hydrostatic dynamical care far high-resolution simulations down to the urban scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonaventura, L.; Cesari, D.


    Numerical simulations of idealized stratified flows aver obstacles at different spatial scales demonstrate the very general applicability and the parallel efficiency of a new non hydrostatic dynamical care far simulation of mesoscale flows aver complex terrain

  20. A simulation of mud invasion and characteristics of array laterolog responses in a low-permeability gas reservoir: a case study (United States)

    Jiang, Yanjiao; Sun, Jianmeng; Gao, Jianshen; Zhang, Pengyun; Cui, Jiangman


    Mud invasion is a complex problem in reservoir evaluation. The original distribution of formation fluid and resistivity near the wellbore changes when mud filtrate invades the permeability formations, and the electric logging response always shows distortion. In this study, the influencing factors in mud invasion analysis are investigated for a low-permeability gas reservoir based on a numerical simulation method. These factors include overbalance pressure, formation permeability, initial water saturation, and relative permeability, and we acquire the law of mud invasion and the main controlling factors of the invasion. Based on the simulation results, the array laterolog responses of different invasion situations are calculated by a three-dimensional finite element method, and we hold the opinion that the characteristics of these responses and the separation differences of the curves at different investigation depths are affected by the depth of the mud invasion. Furthermore, combined with the logging data and invasion simulation results, the calculation relation of the invasion depth is established using physical property parameters and array laterolog responses. This method effectively hides the influencing factors of invasion time and has good applications regarding the logging data of different invasion moments. In a low-invasion well case, the calculated result is in accordance with the actual situation and verifies the reliability of the method. The research shows that the combination of mud invasion characteristics and array laterolog responses can be applied to the prediction and evaluation of mud invasion depth in the study area. Furthermore, it can provide a service for fluid property evaluation and resistivity correction, as well as improve the reliability of reservoir evaluation by electrical logging.

  1. Enabling parallel simulation of large-scale HPC network systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mubarak, Misbah; Carothers, Christopher D.; Ross, Robert B.; Carns, Philip


    Here, with the increasing complexity of today’s high-performance computing (HPC) architectures, simulation has become an indispensable tool for exploring the design space of HPC systems—in particular, networks. In order to make effective design decisions, simulations of these systems must possess the following properties: (1) have high accuracy and fidelity, (2) produce results in a timely manner, and (3) be able to analyze a broad range of network workloads. Most state-of-the-art HPC network simulation frameworks, however, are constrained in one or more of these areas. In this work, we present a simulation framework for modeling two important classes of networks used in today’s IBM and Cray supercomputers: torus and dragonfly networks. We use the Co-Design of Multi-layer Exascale Storage Architecture (CODES) simulation framework to simulate these network topologies at a flit-level detail using the Rensselaer Optimistic Simulation System (ROSS) for parallel discrete-event simulation. Our simulation framework meets all the requirements of a practical network simulation and can assist network designers in design space exploration. First, it uses validated and detailed flit-level network models to provide an accurate and high-fidelity network simulation. Second, instead of relying on serial time-stepped or traditional conservative discrete-event simulations that limit simulation scalability and efficiency, we use the optimistic event-scheduling capability of ROSS to achieve efficient and scalable HPC network simulations on today’s high-performance cluster systems. Third, our models give network designers a choice in simulating a broad range of network workloads, including HPC application workloads using detailed network traces, an ability that is rarely offered in parallel with high-fidelity network simulations

  2. Simulating large-scale spiking neuronal networks with NEST


    Senk, Johanna; Diesmann, Markus


    The Neural Simulation Tool NEST [1,] is the simulator for spiking neural networkmodels of the HBP that focuses on the dynamics, size and structure of neural systems rather than on theexact morphology of individual neurons. Its simulation kernel is written in C++ and it runs on computinghardware ranging from simple laptops to clusters and supercomputers with thousands of processor cores.The development of NEST is coordinated by the NEST Initiative [www.nest-initiative.or...

  3. iTOUGH2-EOS1SC. Multiphase Reservoir Simulator for Water under Sub- and Supercritical Conditions. User's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusdottir, Lilja [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Finsterle, Stefan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Supercritical fluids exist near magmatic heat sources in geothermal reservoirs, and the high enthalpy fluid is becoming more desirable for energy production with advancing technology. In geothermal modeling, the roots of the geothermal systems are normally avoided but in order to accurately predict the thermal behavior when wells are drilled close to magmatic intrusions, it is necessary to incorporate the heat sources into the modeling scheme. Modeling supercritical conditions poses a variety of challenges due to the large gradients in fluid properties near the critical zone. This work focused on using the iTOUGH2 simulator to model the extreme temperature and pressure conditions in magmatic geothermal systems.

  4. A multiscale approach to accelerate pore-scale simulation of porous electrodes (United States)

    Zheng, Weibo; Kim, Seung Hyun


    A new method to accelerate pore-scale simulation of porous electrodes is presented. The method combines the macroscopic approach with pore-scale simulation by decomposing a physical quantity into macroscopic and local variations. The multiscale method is applied to the potential equation in pore-scale simulation of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) catalyst layer, and validated with the conventional approach for pore-scale simulation. Results show that the multiscale scheme substantially reduces the computational cost without sacrificing accuracy.

  5. South Louisiana Enhanced Oil Recovery/Sequestration R&D Project Small Scale Field Tests of Geologic Reservoir Classes for Geologic Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hite, Roger [Blackhorse Energy LLC, Houston, TX (United States)


    The project site is located in Livingston Parish, Louisiana, approximately 26 miles due east of Baton Rouge. This project proposed to evaluate an early Eocene-aged Wilcox oil reservoir for permanent storage of CO2. Blackhorse Energy, LLC planned to conduct a parallel CO2 oil recovery project in the First Wilcox Sand. The primary focus of this project was to examine and prove the suitability of South Louisiana geologic formations for large-scale geologic sequestration of CO2 in association with enhanced oil recovery applications. This was to be accomplished through the focused demonstration of small-scale, permanent storage of CO2 in the First Wilcox Sand. The project was terminated at the request of Blackhorse Energy LLC on October 22, 2014.

  6. Session: Reservoir Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renner, Joel L.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Wannamaker, Philip E.; Horne, Roland N.; Shook, G. Michael


    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five papers: ''Reservoir Technology'' by Joel L. Renner; ''LBL Research on the Geysers: Conceptual Models, Simulation and Monitoring Studies'' by Gudmundur S. Bodvarsson; ''Geothermal Geophysical Research in Electrical Methods at UURI'' by Philip E. Wannamaker; ''Optimizing Reinjection Strategy at Palinpinon, Philippines Based on Chloride Data'' by Roland N. Horne; ''TETRAD Reservoir Simulation'' by G. Michael Shook

  7. Integrated multi-scale modelling and simulation of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valot, C.; Bertolus, M.; Masson, R.; Malerba, L.; Rachid, J.; Besmann, T.; Phillpot, S.; Stan, M.


    This chapter aims at discussing the objectives, implementation and integration of multi-scale modelling approaches applied to nuclear fuel materials. We will first show why the multi-scale modelling approach is required, due to the nature of the materials and by the phenomena involved under irradiation. We will then present the multiple facets of multi-scale modelling approach, while giving some recommendations with regard to its application. We will also show that multi-scale modelling must be coupled with appropriate multi-scale experiments and characterisation. Finally, we will demonstrate how multi-scale modelling can contribute to solving technology issues. (authors)

  8. Multi-scale filling simulation of micro-injection molding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sung Joo; Kim, Sun Kyoung


    This work proposes a multi-scale simulation method that can simulate filling during the micro-injection molding process. The multiscale simulation is comprised of two steps. In the first step, the macro-scale flow is analyzed using the conventional method. In the second step, the micro-scale simulation is conducted taking the slip and surface tension into consideration to investigate the filling of microcavity. Moreover, a conservative level set method is employed to accurately track the flow front. First, numerical tests have been done for circular micro-channels. The results show that slip and surface tension play important roles in the micro-regime. Second, to verify the multi-scale method, filling of a thin plate with micro-channel patterns has been simulated. The results show that the proposed multi-scale method is promising for micro-injection molding simulations

  9. Simulation of Gas Transport in Tight/Shale Gas Reservoirs by a Multicomponent Model Based on PEBI Grid


    Zhang, Longjun; Li, Daolun; Wang, Lei; Lu, Detang


    The ultra-low permeability and nanosize pores of tight/shale gas reservoir would lead to non-Darcy flow including slip flow, transition flow, and free molecular flow, which cannot be described by traditional Darcy’s law. The organic content often adsorbs some gas content, while the adsorbed amount for different gas species is different. Based on these facts, we develop a new compositional model based on unstructured PEBI (perpendicular bisection) grid, which is able to characterize non-Darcy ...

  10. A simple analytical scaling method for a scaled-down test facility simulating SB-LOCA in a passive PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang II; No, Hee Cheon


    A simple analytical scaling method is developed for a scaled-down test facility simulating SB-LOCAs in a passive PWR. In this method, the whole scenario of a SB-LOCA is divided into two phases on the basis of the pressure trend ; depressurization phase and pot-boiling phase. The pressure and the core mixture level are selected as the most critical parameters to be preserved between the prototype and the scaled-down model. In each phase, the high important phenomena having the influence on the critical parameters are identified and the scaling parameters governing the high important phenomena are generated by the present method. To validate the model used in the derivation of the scaling parameters, Marviken CFT and 336 rod bundle are simulated. In order to validate whether the scaled-down model well represents the important phenomena, we simulate the nondimensional pressure response of a 4-inch break transient for AP-600 and the scaled-down model. The results of the present method are in excellent agreement with those of AP-600. It can be concluded that the present method is suitable for scaling the test facility simulating SB-LOCAs in a passive PWR


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Bergeron; Tom Blasingame; Louis Doublet; Mohan Kelkar; George Freeman; Jeff Callard; David Moore; David Davies; Richard Vessell; Brian Pregger; Bill Dixon; Bryce Bezant


    Reservoir performance and characterization are vital parameters during the development phase of a project. Infill drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to characterization does not optimize development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, especially carbonate reservoirs. These reservoirs are typically characterized by: (1) large, discontinuous pay intervals; (2) vertical and lateral changes in reservoir properties; (3) low reservoir energy; (4) high residual oil saturation; and (5) low recovery efficiency. The operational problems they encounter in these types of reservoirs include: (1) poor or inadequate completions and stimulations; (2) early water breakthrough; (3) poor reservoir sweep efficiency in contacting oil throughout the reservoir as well as in the nearby well regions; (4) channeling of injected fluids due to preferential fracturing caused by excessive injection rates; and (5) limited data availability and poor data quality. Infill drilling operations only need target areas of the reservoir which will be economically successful. If the most productive areas of a reservoir can be accurately identified by combining the results of geological, petrophysical, reservoir performance, and pressure transient analyses, then this ''integrated'' approach can be used to optimize reservoir performance during secondary and tertiary recovery operations without resorting to ''blanket'' infill drilling methods. New and emerging technologies such as geostatistical modeling, rock typing, and rigorous decline type curve analysis can be used to quantify reservoir quality and the degree of interwell communication. These results can then be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations. The application of reservoir surveillance techniques to identify additional reservoir ''pay'' zones

  12. Earthquake Source Simulations: A Coupled Numerical Method and Large Scale Simulations (United States)

    Ely, G. P.; Xin, Q.; Faerman, M.; Day, S.; Minster, B.; Kremenek, G.; Moore, R.


    We investigate a scheme for interfacing Finite-Difference (FD) and Finite-Element (FE) models in order to simulate dynamic earthquake rupture. The more powerful but slower FE method allows for (1) unusual geometries (e.g. dipping and curved faults), (2) nonlinear physics, and (3) finite displacements. These capabilities are computationally expensive and limit the useful size of the problem that can be solved. Large efficiencies are gained by employing FE only where necessary in the near source region and coupling this with an efficient FD solution for the surrounding medium. Coupling is achieved through setting up and an overlapping buffer zone between the domains modeled by the two methods. The buffer zone is handled numerically as a set of mutual offset boundary conditions. This scheme eliminates the effect of the artificial boundaries at the interface and allows energy to propagate in both directions across the boundary. In general it is necessary to interpolate variables between the meshes and time discretizations used for each model, and this can create artifacts that must be controlled. A modular approach has been used in which either of the two component codes can be substituted with another code. We have successfully demonstrated coupling for a simulation between a second-order FD rupture dynamics code and fourth-order staggered-grid FD code. To be useful earthquake source models must capture a large range of length and time scales, which is very computationally demanding. This requires that (for current computer technology) codes must utilize parallel processing. Additionally, if larges quantities of output data are to be saved, a high performance data management system is desirable. We show results from a large scale rupture dynamics simulation designed to test these capabilities. We use second-order FD with dimensions of 400 x 800 x 800 nodes, run for 3000 time steps. Data were saved for the entire volume for three components of velocity at every time

  13. Visual Data-Analytics of Large-Scale Parallel Discrete-Event Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Caitlin; Carothers, Christopher D.; Mubarak, Misbah; Carns, Philip; Ross, Robert; Li, Jianping Kelvin; Ma, Kwan-Liu


    Parallel discrete-event simulation (PDES) is an important tool in the codesign of extreme-scale systems because PDES provides a cost-effective way to evaluate designs of highperformance computing systems. Optimistic synchronization algorithms for PDES, such as Time Warp, allow events to be processed without global synchronization among the processing elements. A rollback mechanism is provided when events are processed out of timestamp order. Although optimistic synchronization protocols enable the scalability of large-scale PDES, the performance of the simulations must be tuned to reduce the number of rollbacks and provide an improved simulation runtime. To enable efficient large-scale optimistic simulations, one has to gain insight into the factors that affect the rollback behavior and simulation performance. We developed a tool for ROSS model developers that gives them detailed metrics on the performance of their large-scale optimistic simulations at varying levels of simulation granularity. Model developers can use this information for parameter tuning of optimistic simulations in order to achieve better runtime and fewer rollbacks. In this work, we instrument the ROSS optimistic PDES framework to gather detailed statistics about the simulation engine. We have also developed an interactive visualization interface that uses the data collected by the ROSS instrumentation to understand the underlying behavior of the simulation engine. The interface connects real time to virtual time in the simulation and provides the ability to view simulation data at different granularities. We demonstrate the usefulness of our framework by performing a visual analysis of the dragonfly network topology model provided by the CODES simulation framework built on top of ROSS. The instrumentation needs to minimize overhead in order to accurately collect data about the simulation performance. To ensure that the instrumentation does not introduce unnecessary overhead, we perform a

  14. Direct numerical simulation of reactive flow and modeling of pore-scale transport phenomena in fractured media (United States)

    Nomeli, M. A.; Alizadehnomeli, M.


    A long-term geochemical modeling of CO2 sequestration is carried out in a single fracture to investigate its impact on CO2 transport and storage capacity. We model the fracture by considering flow of CO2 between finite plates. We study the physics and the critical time of blockage for a fracture to interpret the results. To this end, we employ direct numerical simulation tools and algorithms to simulate incompressible flow along with necessary transport equations that capture the kinetics of relevant chemical reactions. The numerical model is based on a finite volume method using a sequential non-iterative approach. It is found that mineral precipitation has an important effect on reservoir porosity and permeability. According to the simulations, the flow of injected CO2 in the fracture is controlled by changes in the pore-scale permeability close to the fracture inlet. The fracture ceases to be a fluid channel because of the precipitation of minerals. In addition, using parameter analysis we also determine the effect of various mineral precipitates on porosity of fractures.

  15. Modeling Chemical EOR Processes: Some Illustrations from Lab to Reservoir Scale Modélisation des procédés EOR chimiques : du laboratoire au réservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douarche F.


    Full Text Available Chemical flooding, SP (Surfactant Polymer or ASP (Alkali-Surfactant-Polymer, are of increasing interest due to the need to increase oil production. Design of chemical processes is very project specific and requires case by case studies including various steps among which reservoir data analysis, chemical formulations, coreflood validations and reservoir simulation. Every step is dependent on the preceding ones and the last reservoir simulation step gathers all the information collected during the project. In this paper, we present a chemical simulator describing two phase flow with chemical transport of alkali, surfactant, polymer and salinity. Two phase flow is related to capillary desaturation curve through the decrease of oil-water interfacial tension. Physical chemistry reactions are described either with a thermodynamic approach or a simplified one using tables or simplified physics to be compatible with large scale reservoir simulations. In this paper, we describe the simulator and present results of numerous experiments specially designed to validate the model: alkaline injections of carbonates and borates, surfactant adsorption experiments at different salinities and pH, systematic effect of salinity on interfacial tension and oil recovery with/without salinity gradient. The good agreement between the experimental and numerical oil recoveries and chemical compositions is very encouraging and supports the validity of the physics implemented in the simulator. In particular, the dominant effect of pH on adsorption and the importance of a salinity gradient on oil recovery is highlighted by numerical simulation. Finally, a sensitivity study at the reservoir scale is presented to illustrate relevant factors for the implementation of an economic surfactant-based process. Les procédés de récupération tertiaire par voie chimique, SP (Surfactant Polymer ou ASP (Alkali-Surfactant-Polymer, sont en plein essor du fait d’une demande croissante

  16. A simple analytical scaling method for a scaled-down test facility simulating SB-LOCAs in a passive PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Il


    A Simple analytical scaling method is developed for a scaled-down test facility simulating SB-LOCAs in a passive PWR. The whole scenario of a SB-LOCA is divided into two phases on the basis of the pressure trend ; depressurization phase and pot-boiling phase. The pressure and the core mixture level are selected as the most critical parameters to be preserved between the prototype and the scaled-down model. In each phase the high important phenomena having the influence on the critical parameters are identified and the scaling parameters governing the high important phenomena are generated by the present method. To validate the model used, Marviken CFT and 336 rod bundle experiment are simulated. The models overpredict both the pressure and two phase mixture level, but it shows agreement at least qualitatively with experimental results. In order to validate whether the scaled-down model well represents the important phenomena, we simulate the nondimensional pressure response of a cold-leg 4-inch break transient for AP-600 and the scaled-down model. The results of the present method are in excellent agreement with those of AP-600. It can be concluded that the present method is suitable for scaling the test facility simulating SB-LOCAs in a passive PWR

  17. The Contribution of Reservoirs to Global Land Surface Water Storage Variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Tian; Nijssen, Bart; Gao, Huilin; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.


    Man-made reservoirs play a key role in the terrestrial water system. They alter water fluxes at the land surface and impact surface water storage through water management regulations for diverse purposes such as irrigation, municipal water supply, hydropower generation, and flood control. Although most developed countries have established sophisticated observing systems for many variables in the land surface water cycle, long-term and consistent records of reservoir storage are much more limited and not always shared. Furthermore, most land surface hydrological models do not represent the effects of water management activities. Here, the contribution of reservoirs to seasonal water storage variations is investigated using a large-scale water management model to simulate the effects of reservoir management at basin and continental scales. The model was run from 1948 to 2010 at a spatial resolution of 0.258 latitude–longitude. A total of 166 of the largest reservoirs in the world with a total capacity of about 3900 km3 (nearly 60%of the globally integrated reservoir capacity) were simulated. The global reservoir storage time series reflects the massive expansion of global reservoir capacity; over 30 000 reservoirs have been constructed during the past half century, with a mean absolute interannual storage variation of 89 km3. The results indicate that the average reservoir-induced seasonal storage variation is nearly 700 km3 or about 10%of the global reservoir storage. For some river basins, such as the Yellow River, seasonal reservoir storage variations can be as large as 72%of combined snow water equivalent and soil moisture storage.

  18. Simulation in full-scale mock-ups: an ergonomics evaluation method?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simone Nyholm; Broberg, Ole


    This paper presents and exploratory study of four simulation sessions in full-scale mock-ups of future hospital facilities.......This paper presents and exploratory study of four simulation sessions in full-scale mock-ups of future hospital facilities....

  19. Genome-Scale Metabolic Modeling in the Simulation of Field-Scale Uranium Bioremediation (United States)

    Yabusaki, S.; Wilkins, M.; Fang, Y.; Williams, K. H.; Waichler, S.; Long, P. E.


    Coupled variably saturated flow and biogeochemical reactive transport modeling is used to improve understanding of the processes, properties, and conditions controlling uranium bio-immobilization in a field experiment where uranium-contaminated groundwater was amended with acetate and bicarbonate. The acetate stimulates indigenous microorganisms that catalyze metal reduction, including the conversion of aqueous U(VI) to solid-phase U(IV), which effectively removes uranium from solution. The initiation of the bicarbonate amendment prior to biostimulation was designed to promote U(VI) desorption that would increase the aqueous U(VI) available for bioreduction. The three-dimensional simulations were able to largely reproduce the timing and magnitude of the physical, chemical and biological responses to the acetate and bicarbonate amendment in the context of changing water table elevation and gradient. A time series of groundwater proteomic samples exhibited correlations between the most abundant Geobacter metallireducens proteins and the genome-scale metabolic model-predicted fluxes of intra-cellular reactions associated with each of those proteins. The desorption of U(VI) induced by the bicarbonate amendment led to initially higher rates of bioreduction compared to locations with minimal bicarbonate exposure. After bicarbonate amendment ceased, bioreduction continued at these locations whereas U(VI) sorption was the dominant removal mechanism at the bicarbonate-impacted sites.

  20. Determining the explosion effects on the Gasbuggy reservoir from computer simulation of the postshot gas production history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, Leo A.


    Analysis of the gas production data from Gasbuggy to deduce reservoir properties outside the chimney is complicated by the large gas storage volume in the chimney because the gas flow from the surrounding reservoir into the chimney cannot be directly measured. This problem was overcome by developing a chimney volume factor F (M 2 CF/PSI) based upon analysis of rapid drawdowns during the production tests. The chimney volume factor was in turn used to construct the time history of the required influx of gas into the chimney from the surrounding reservoir. The most probable value of F to describe the chimney is found to be 0.150 M 2 CF/PSI. Postulated models of the reservoir properties outside the chimney are examined by calculating the pressure distribution and flow of gas through the reservoir with the experimentally observed chimney pressure history applied to the cavity wall. The calculated influx from the reservoir into the chimney is then compared to the required influx and the calculated pressure at a radius of 300 feet is compared to the observed pressures in a shut-in satellite well (GB-2RS) which intersects the gas-bearing formation 300 feet from the center of the chimney. A description of the mathematics in the computer program used to perform the calculations is given. Gas flow for a radial model wherein permeability and porosity are uniform through the gas producing sand outside the chimney was calculated for several values of permeability. These calculations indicated that for the first drawdown test (July 1968) the permeability-producing height product (kh) was in the region of 15 to 30 millidarcy-feet (md-ft) and that after several months of testing, the effective kh had dropped to less than 8 md-ft. Calculations wherein (1) the permeability decreases from the chimney out to the 'fracture' radius, and (2) an increased production height is used near the chimney, match the data better than the simple radial model. Reasonable fits to the data for the

  1. Long time scale simulation of a grain boundary in copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A.; Henkelman, G.; Schiøtz, Jakob


    A general, twisted and tilted, grain boundary in copper has been simulated using the adaptive kinetic Monte Carlo method to study the atomistic structure of the non-crystalline region and the mechanism of annealing events that occur at low temperature. The simulated time interval spanned 67 mu s...... was also observed. In the final low-energy configurations, the thickness of the region separating the crystalline grains corresponds to just one atomic layer, in good agreement with reported experimental observations. The simulated system consists of 1307 atoms and atomic interactions were described using...

  2. Industrial Scale Production of Celestial Body Simulants, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The technical objectives of this program are to develop a cost-effective process to deliver Celestial body simulants for the foreseeable future. Specifically, the...

  3. Using Discrete Event Simulation for Programming Model Exploration at Extreme-Scale: Macroscale Components for the Structural Simulation Toolkit (SST).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, Jeremiah J [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Kenny, Joseph P. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Discrete event simulation provides a powerful mechanism for designing and testing new extreme- scale programming models for high-performance computing. Rather than debug, run, and wait for results on an actual system, design can first iterate through a simulator. This is particularly useful when test beds cannot be used, i.e. to explore hardware or scales that do not yet exist or are inaccessible. Here we detail the macroscale components of the structural simulation toolkit (SST). Instead of depending on trace replay or state machines, the simulator is architected to execute real code on real software stacks. Our particular user-space threading framework allows massive scales to be simulated even on small clusters. The link between the discrete event core and the threading framework allows interesting performance metrics like call graphs to be collected from a simulated run. Performance analysis via simulation can thus become an important phase in extreme-scale programming model and runtime system design via the SST macroscale components.

  4. Relative influence of deposition and diagenesis on carbonate reservoir layering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poli, Emmanuelle [Total E and P, Courbevoie (France); Javaux, Catherine [Total E and P, Pointe Noire (Congo)


    The architecture heterogeneities and petrophysical properties of carbonate reservoirs result from a combination of platform morphology, related depositional environments, relative sea level changes and diagenetic events. The reservoir layering built for static and dynamic modelling purposes should reflect the key heterogeneities (depositional or diagenetic) which govern the fluid flow patterns. The layering needs to be adapted to the goal of the modelling, ranging from full field computations of hydrocarbon volumes, to sector-based fine-scale simulations to test the recovery improvement. This paper illustrates various reservoir layering types, including schemes dominated by depositional architecture, and those more driven by the diagenetic overprint. The examples include carbonate platform reservoirs from different stratigraphic settings (Tertiary, Cretaceous, Jurassic and Permian) and different regions (Europe, Africa and Middle East areas). This review shows how significant stratigraphic surfaces (such as sequence boundaries or maximum flooding) with their associated facies shifts, can be often considered as key markers to constrain the reservoir layering. Conversely, how diagenesis (dolomitization and karst development), resulting in units with particular poroperm characteristics, may significantly overprint the primary reservoir architecture by generating flow units which cross-cut depositional sequences. To demonstrate how diagenetic processes can create reservoir bodies with geometries that cross-cut the depositional fabric, different types of dolomitization and karst development are illustrated. (author)

  5. Simulation of Runoff and Reservoir Inflow for Use in a Flood-Analysis Model for the Delaware River, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York, 2004-2006 (United States)

    Goode, Daniel J.; Koerkle, Edward H.; Hoffman, Scott A.; Regan, R. Steve; Hay, Lauren E.; Markstrom, Steven L.


    A model was developed to simulate inflow to reservoirs and watershed runoff to streams during three high-flow events between September 2004 and June 2006 for the main-stem subbasin of the Delaware River draining to Trenton, N.J. The model software is a modified version of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), a modular, physically based, distributed-parameter modeling system developed to evaluate the impacts of various combinations of precipitation, climate, and land use on surface-water runoff and general basin hydrology. The PRMS model simulates time periods associated with main-stem flooding that occurred in September 2004, April 2005, and June 2006 and uses both daily and hourly time steps. Output from the PRMS model was formatted for use as inflows to a separately documented reservoir and riverrouting model, the HEC-ResSim model, developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center to evaluate flooding. The models were integrated through a graphical user interface. The study area is the 6,780 square-mile watershed of the Delaware River in the states of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York that drains to Trenton, N.J. A geospatial database was created for use with a geographic information system to assist model discretization, determine land-surface characterization, and estimate model parameters. The USGS National Elevation Dataset at 100-meter resolution, a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), was used for model discretization into streams and hydrologic response units. In addition, geospatial processing was used to estimate initial model parameters from the DEM and other data layers, including land use. The model discretization represents the study area using 869 hydrologic response units and 452 stream segments. The model climate data for point stations were obtained from multiple sources. These sources included daily data for 22 National Weather Service (NWS) Cooperative Climate Station network

  6. Influence of the geothermal fluid rheology in the large scale hydro-thermal circulation in Soultz-sous-Forêts reservoir. (United States)

    Vallier, Bérénice; Magnenet, Vincent; Fond, Christophe; Schmittbuhl, Jean


    Many numerical models have been developed in deep geothermal reservoir engineering to interpret field measurements of the natural hydro-thermal circulations or to predict exploitation scenarios. They typically aim at analyzing the Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical and Chemical (THMC) coupling including complex rheologies of the rock matrix like thermo-poro-elasticity. Few approaches address in details the role of the fluid rheology and more specifically the non-linear sensitivity of the brine rheology with temperature and pressure. Here we use the finite element Code_Aster to solve the balance equations of a 2D THM model of the Soultz-sous-Forêts reservoir. The brine properties are assumed to depend on the fluid pressure and the temperature as in Magnenet et al. (2014). A sensitive parameter is the thermal dilatation of the brine that is assumed to depend quadratically with temperature as proposed by the experimental measurements of Rowe and Chou (1970). The rock matrix is homogenized at the scale of the equation resolution assuming to have a representative elementary volume of the fractured medium smaller than the mesh size. We still chose four main geological units to adjust the rock physic parameters at large scale: thermal conductivity, permeability, radioactive source production rate, elastic and Biot parameters. We obtain a three layer solution with a large hydro-thermal convection below the cover-basement transition. Interestingly, the geothermal gradient in the sedimentary layer is controlled by the radioactive production rate in the upper altered granite. The second part of the study deals with an inversion approach of the homogenized solid and fluid parameters at large scale using our direct THM model. The goal is to compare the large scale inverted estimates of the rock and brine properties with direct laboratory measurements on cores and discuss their upscaling in the context of a fractured network hydraulically active. Magnenet V., Fond C., Genter A. and

  7. Use of simulated evaporation to assess the potential for scale formation during reverse osmosis desalination (United States)

    Huff, G.F.


    The tendency of solutes in input water to precipitate efficiency lowering scale deposits on the membranes of reverse osmosis (RO) desalination systems is an important factor in determining the suitability of input water for desalination. Simulated input water evaporation can be used as a technique to quantitatively assess the potential for scale formation in RO desalination systems. The technique was demonstrated by simulating the increase in solute concentrations required to form calcite, gypsum, and amorphous silica scales at 25??C and 40??C from 23 desalination input waters taken from the literature. Simulation results could be used to quantitatively assess the potential of a given input water to form scale or to compare the potential of a number of input waters to form scale during RO desalination. Simulated evaporation of input waters cannot accurately predict the conditions under which scale will form owing to the effects of potentially stable supersaturated solutions, solution velocity, and residence time inside RO systems. However, the simulated scale-forming potential of proposed input waters could be compared with the simulated scale-forming potentials and actual scale-forming properties of input waters having documented operational histories in RO systems. This may provide a technique to estimate the actual performance and suitability of proposed input waters during RO.

  8. Galaxy metallicity scaling relations in the EAGLE simulations (United States)

    De Rossi, María Emilia; Bower, Richard G.; Font, Andreea S.; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom


    We quantify the correlations between gas-phase and stellar metallicities and global properties of galaxies, such as stellar mass, halo mass, age and gas fraction, in the Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. The slope of the correlation between stellar mass and metallicity of star-forming (SF) gas (M*-ZSF,gas relation) depends somewhat on resolution, with the higher resolution run reproducing a steeper slope. This simulation predicts a non-zero metallicity evolution, increasing by ≈0.5 dex at ∼109 M⊙ since z = 3. The simulated relation between stellar mass, metallicity and star formation rate at z ≲ 5 agrees remarkably well with the observed fundamental metallicity relation. At M* ≲ 1010.3 M⊙ and fixed stellar mass, higher metallicities are associated with lower specific star formation rates, lower gas fractions and older stellar populations. On the other hand, at higher M*, there is a hint of an inversion of the dependence of metallicity on these parameters. The fundamental parameter that best correlates with the metal content, in the simulations, is the gas fraction. The simulated gas fraction-metallicity relation exhibits small scatter and does not evolve significantly since z = 3. In order to better understand the origin of these correlations, we analyse a set of lower resolution simulations in which feedback parameters are varied. We find that the slope of the simulated M*-ZSF,gas relation is mostly determined by stellar feedback at low stellar masses (M* ≲ 1010 M⊙), and at high masses (M* ≳ 1010 M⊙) by the feedback from active galactic nuclei.

  9. Simulation of large-scale rule-based models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlavacek, William S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Monnie, Michael I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Colvin, Joshua [NON LANL; Faseder, James [NON LANL


    Interactions of molecules, such as signaling proteins, with multiple binding sites and/or multiple sites of post-translational covalent modification can be modeled using reaction rules. Rules comprehensively, but implicitly, define the individual chemical species and reactions that molecular interactions can potentially generate. Although rules can be automatically processed to define a biochemical reaction network, the network implied by a set of rules is often too large to generate completely or to simulate using conventional procedures. To address this problem, we present DYNSTOC, a general-purpose tool for simulating rule-based models. DYNSTOC implements a null-event algorithm for simulating chemical reactions in a homogenous reaction compartment. The simulation method does not require that a reaction network be specified explicitly in advance, but rather takes advantage of the availability of the reaction rules in a rule-based specification of a network to determine if a randomly selected set of molecular components participates in a reaction during a time step. DYNSTOC reads reaction rules written in the BioNetGen language which is useful for modeling protein-protein interactions involved in signal transduction. The method of DYNSTOC is closely related to that of STOCHSIM. DYNSTOC differs from STOCHSIM by allowing for model specification in terms of BNGL, which extends the range of protein complexes that can be considered in a model. DYNSTOC enables the simulation of rule-based models that cannot be simulated by conventional methods. We demonstrate the ability of DYNSTOC to simulate models accounting for multisite phosphorylation and multivalent binding processes that are characterized by large numbers of reactions. DYNSTOC is free for non-commercial use. The C source code, supporting documentation and example input files are available at .

  10. Scaling for integral simulation of thermal-hydraulic phenomena in SBWR during LOCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, M.; Revankar, S.T.; Dowlati, R [Purdue Univ., West Layfayette, IN (United States)] [and others


    A scaling study has been conducted for simulation of thermal-hydraulic phenomena in the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) during a loss of coolant accident. The scaling method consists of a three-level scaling approach. The integral system scaling (global scaling or top down approach) consists of two levels, the integral response function scaling which forms the first level, and the control volume and boundary flow scaling which forms the second level. The bottom up approach is carried out by local phenomena scaling which forms the third level scaling. Based on this scaling study the design of the model facility called Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly (PUMA) has been carried out. The PUMA facility has 1/4 height and 1/100 area ratio scaling, corresponding to the volume scaling of 1/400. The PUMA power scaling based on the integral scaling is 1/200. The present scaling method predicts that PUMA time scale will be one-half that of the SBWR. The system pressure for PUMA is full scale, therefore, a prototypic pressure is maintained. PUMA is designed to operate at and below 1.03 MPa (150 psi), which allows it to simulate the prototypic SBWR accident conditions below 1.03 MPa (150 psi). The facility includes models for all components of importance.

  11. Sampling from stochastic reservoir models constrained by production data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegstad, Bjoern Kaare


    When a petroleum reservoir is evaluated, it is important to forecast future production of oil and gas and to assess forecast uncertainty. This is done by defining a stochastic model for the reservoir characteristics, generating realizations from this model and applying a fluid flow simulator to the realizations. The reservoir characteristics define the geometry of the reservoir, initial saturation, petrophysical properties etc. This thesis discusses how to generate realizations constrained by production data, that is to say, the realizations should reproduce the observed production history of the petroleum reservoir within the uncertainty of these data. The topics discussed are: (1) Theoretical framework, (2) History matching, forecasting and forecasting uncertainty, (3) A three-dimensional test case, (4) Modelling transmissibility multipliers by Markov random fields, (5) Up scaling, (6) The link between model parameters, well observations and production history in a simple test case, (7) Sampling the posterior using optimization in a hierarchical model, (8) A comparison of Rejection Sampling and Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, (9) Stochastic simulation and conditioning by annealing in reservoir description, and (10) Uncertainty assessment in history matching and forecasting. 139 refs., 85 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Numerical simulation of scale-up effects of methanol-to-olefins fluidized bed reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Bona; Zhang, Jingyuan; Luo, Hao


    factors and is expected to speed up the experiment-based scale-up process with lower cost. In this study, we aim to investigate the scale-up effects through simulations of a series of methanol-to-olefins (MTO) reactors of different sizes. The two-fluid model and energy-minimization multi-scale (EMMS...

  13. Persistence of Initial Conditions in Continental Scale Air Quality Simulations (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains the data used in Figures 1 – 6 and Table 2 of the technical note "Persistence of Initial Conditions in Continental Scale Air Quality...

  14. Fuzzy Modelling and Simulation - The Evaluating Scales Problem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrba, Josef


    Roč. 41, - (2001), s. 257-288 ISSN 0232-9298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : fuzzy evaluating scale * membership asymmetry * fuzzy arithmetic Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  15. Unconvergence of very-large-scale giant impact simulations (United States)

    Hosono, Natsuki; Iwasawa, Masaki; Tanikawa, Ataru; Nitadori, Keigo; Muranushi, Takayuki; Makino, Junichiro


    The giant impact (GI) hypothesis is one of the most important hypotheses both in planetary science and in geoscience, since it is related to the origin of the Moon and also the initial condition of the Earth. A number of numerical simulations have been done using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method. However, GI hypothesis is currently in a crisis. The “canonical” GI scenario failed to explain the identical isotope ratio between the Earth and the Moon. On the other hand, little has been known about the reliability of the result of GI simulations. In this paper, we discuss the effect of the resolution on the results of the GI simulations by varying the number of particles from 3 × 103 to 108. We found that the results does not converge, but show oscillatory behaviour. We discuss the origin of this oscillatory behaviour.

  16. Large-scale multi-agent transportation simulations (United States)

    Cetin, Nurhan; Nagel, Kai; Raney, Bryan; Voellmy, Andreas


    It is now possible to microsimulate the traffic of whole metropolitan areas with 10 million travelers or more, "micro" meaning that each traveler is resolved individually as a particle. In contrast to physics or chemistry, these particles have internal intelligence; for example, they know where they are going. This means that a transportation simulation project will have, besides the traffic microsimulation, modules which model this intelligent behavior. The most important modules are for route generation and for demand generation. Demand is generated by each individual in the simulation making a plan of activities such as sleeping, eating, working, shopping, etc. If activities are planned at different locations, they obviously generate demand for transportation. This however is not enough since those plans are influenced by congestion which initially is not known. This is solved via a relaxation method, which means iterating back and forth between the activities/routes generation and the traffic simulation.

  17. Manufacturing Process Simulation of Large-Scale Cryotanks (United States)

    Babai, Majid; Phillips, Steven; Griffin, Brian


    NASA's Space Launch Initiative (SLI) is an effort to research and develop the technologies needed to build a second-generation reusable launch vehicle. It is required that this new launch vehicle be 100 times safer and 10 times cheaper to operate than current launch vehicles. Part of the SLI includes the development of reusable composite and metallic cryotanks. The size of these reusable tanks is far greater than anything ever developed and exceeds the design limits of current manufacturing tools. Several design and manufacturing approaches have been formulated, but many factors must be weighed during the selection process. Among these factors are tooling reachability, cycle times, feasibility, and facility impacts. The manufacturing process simulation capabilities available at NASA.s Marshall Space Flight Center have played a key role in down selecting between the various manufacturing approaches. By creating 3-D manufacturing process simulations, the varying approaches can be analyzed in a virtual world before any hardware or infrastructure is built. This analysis can detect and eliminate costly flaws in the various manufacturing approaches. The simulations check for collisions between devices, verify that design limits on joints are not exceeded, and provide cycle times which aide in the development of an optimized process flow. In addition, new ideas and concerns are often raised after seeing the visual representation of a manufacturing process flow. The output of the manufacturing process simulations allows for cost and safety comparisons to be performed between the various manufacturing approaches. This output helps determine which manufacturing process options reach the safety and cost goals of the SLI. As part of the SLI, The Boeing Company was awarded a basic period contract to research and propose options for both a metallic and a composite cryotank. Boeing then entered into a task agreement with the Marshall Space Flight Center to provide manufacturing

  18. Impacts of different characterizations of large-scale background on simulated regional-scale ozone over the continental United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hogrefe


    Full Text Available This study analyzes simulated regional-scale ozone burdens both near the surface and aloft, estimates process contributions to these burdens, and calculates the sensitivity of the simulated regional-scale ozone burden to several key model inputs with a particular emphasis on boundary conditions derived from hemispheric or global-scale models. The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model simulations supporting this analysis were performed over the continental US for the year 2010 within the context of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII and Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF-HTAP activities. CMAQ process analysis (PA results highlight the dominant role of horizontal and vertical advection on the ozone burden in the mid-to-upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Vertical mixing, including mixing by convective clouds, couples fluctuations in free-tropospheric ozone to ozone in lower layers. Hypothetical bounding scenarios were performed to quantify the effects of emissions, boundary conditions, and ozone dry deposition on the simulated ozone burden. Analysis of these simulations confirms that the characterization of ozone outside the regional-scale modeling domain can have a profound impact on simulated regional-scale ozone. This was further investigated by using data from four hemispheric or global modeling systems (Chemistry – Integrated Forecasting Model (C-IFS, CMAQ extended for hemispheric applications (H-CMAQ, the Goddard Earth Observing System model coupled to chemistry (GEOS-Chem, and AM3 to derive alternate boundary conditions for the regional-scale CMAQ simulations. The regional-scale CMAQ simulations using these four different boundary conditions showed that the largest ozone abundance in the upper layers was simulated when using boundary conditions from GEOS-Chem, followed by the simulations using C-IFS, AM3, and H-CMAQ boundary conditions, consistent with the analysis of the

  19. Impacts of different characterizations of large-scale background on simulated regional-scale ozone over the continental United States (United States)

    Hogrefe, Christian; Liu, Peng; Pouliot, George; Mathur, Rohit; Roselle, Shawn; Flemming, Johannes; Lin, Meiyun; Park, Rokjin J.


    This study analyzes simulated regional-scale ozone burdens both near the surface and aloft, estimates process contributions to these burdens, and calculates the sensitivity of the simulated regional-scale ozone burden to several key model inputs with a particular emphasis on boundary conditions derived from hemispheric or global-scale models. The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations supporting this analysis were performed over the continental US for the year 2010 within the context of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) and Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF-HTAP) activities. CMAQ process analysis (PA) results highlight the dominant role of horizontal and vertical advection on the ozone burden in the mid-to-upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Vertical mixing, including mixing by convective clouds, couples fluctuations in free-tropospheric ozone to ozone in lower layers. Hypothetical bounding scenarios were performed to quantify the effects of emissions, boundary conditions, and ozone dry deposition on the simulated ozone burden. Analysis of these simulations confirms that the characterization of ozone outside the regional-scale modeling domain can have a profound impact on simulated regional-scale ozone. This was further investigated by using data from four hemispheric or global modeling systems (Chemistry - Integrated Forecasting Model (C-IFS), CMAQ extended for hemispheric applications (H-CMAQ), the Goddard Earth Observing System model coupled to chemistry (GEOS-Chem), and AM3) to derive alternate boundary conditions for the regional-scale CMAQ simulations. The regional-scale CMAQ simulations using these four different boundary conditions showed that the largest ozone abundance in the upper layers was simulated when using boundary conditions from GEOS-Chem, followed by the simulations using C-IFS, AM3, and H-CMAQ boundary conditions, consistent with the analysis of the ozone fields

  20. The role of reservoir characterization in the reservoir management process (as reflected in the Department of Energy`s reservoir management demonstration program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, M.L. [BDM-Petroleum Technologies, Bartlesville, OK (United States); Young, M.A.; Madden, M.P. [BDM-Oklahoma, Bartlesville, OK (United States)] [and others


    Optimum reservoir recovery and profitability result from guidance of reservoir practices provided by an effective reservoir management plan. Success in developing the best, most appropriate reservoir management plan requires knowledge and consideration of (1) the reservoir system including rocks, and rock-fluid interactions (i.e., a characterization of the reservoir) as well as wellbores and associated equipment and surface facilities; (2) the technologies available to describe, analyze, and exploit the reservoir; and (3) the business environment under which the plan will be developed and implemented. Reservoir characterization is the essential to gain needed knowledge of the reservoir for reservoir management plan building. Reservoir characterization efforts can be appropriately scaled by considering the reservoir management context under which the plan is being built. Reservoir management plans de-optimize with time as technology and the business environment change or as new reservoir information indicates the reservoir characterization models on which the current plan is based are inadequate. BDM-Oklahoma and the Department of Energy have implemented a program of reservoir management demonstrations to encourage operators with limited resources and experience to learn, implement, and disperse sound reservoir management techniques through cooperative research and development projects whose objectives are to develop reservoir management plans. In each of the three projects currently underway, careful attention to reservoir management context assures a reservoir characterization approach that is sufficient, but not in excess of what is necessary, to devise and implement an effective reservoir management plan.

  1. A Framework for Parallel Numerical Simulations on Multi-Scale Geometries

    KAUST Repository

    Varduhn, Vasco


    In this paper, an approach on performing numerical multi-scale simulations on fine detailed geometries is presented. In particular, the focus lies on the generation of sufficient fine mesh representations, whereas a resolution of dozens of millions of voxels is inevitable in order to sufficiently represent the geometry. Furthermore, the propagation of boundary conditions is investigated by using simulation results on the coarser simulation scale as input boundary conditions on the next finer scale. Finally, the applicability of our approach is shown on a two-phase simulation for flooding scenarios in urban structures running from a city wide scale to a fine detailed in-door scale on feature rich building geometries. © 2012 IEEE.

  2. Mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of two-phase flow problems at pore scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Luna


    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of two-phase flow through porous media is a very active field of research, because of its relevancy in a wide range of physical and technological applications. Some outstanding applications concern reservoir simulation and oil and gas recovery, fields in which a great effort is being paid in the development of efficient numerical methods. The mathematical model used in this work is written as a system comprising an elliptic equation for pressure and a hyperbolic one for saturation. Our aim is to obtain the numerical solution of this model by combining finite element and finite volume techniques, with a second-order non-oscillatory reconstruction procedure to build the values of the velocities at the cell interfaces of the FV mesh from pointwise values of the pressure at the FE nodes. The numerical results are compared to those obtained using the commercial code ECLIPSE showing an appropriate behavior from a qualitative point of view. The use of this FE-FV procedure is not the usual numerical method in petroleum reservoir simulation, since the techniques most frequently used are based on finite differences, even in standard commercial tools.

  3. Tenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The workshop contains presentations in the following areas: (1) reservoir engineering research; (2) field development; (3) vapor-dominated systems; (4) the Geysers thermal area; (5) well test analysis; (6) production engineering; (7) reservoir evaluation; (8) geochemistry and injection; (9) numerical simulation; and (10) reservoir physics. (ACR)

  4. Atomistic simulations of graphite etching at realistic time scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aussems, D.; Bal, K. M.; Morgan, T. W.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.; Neyts, E.


    Hydrogen-graphite interactions are relevant to a wide variety of applications, ranging from astrophysics to fusion devices and nano-electronics. In order to shed light on these interactions, atomistic simulation by Molecular Dynamics (MD) has been shown to be an invaluable tool. It suffers, however,

  5. Monitoring and Steering of Large-Scale Distributed Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, G.A.; Kohl, J.A.


    Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing a state-of-the-art parallel application development system called CUMULVS, which allows scientists to easily incorporate interactive visualization, computational steering and fault tolerance into distributed software applications. The system is a valuable tool for many large scientific applications because it enables the scientist to visually monitor large data fields and remotely control parameters inside a running application. Collaborative monitoring is provided by allowing multiple researchers to simultaneously attach to a simulation, each controlling their own view of the same or different data fields within the simulation. By supporting steering of a simulation while it is running, CUMULVS provides the opportunity to accelerate the process of scientific discovery. CUMULVS also provides a simple mechanism to incorporate automatic checkpointing and heterogeneous task migration into large applications so that simulations can continue to run for weeks unattended. This paper will give an overview of the CUMULVS system and its capabilities, including several case histories. The status of the project is described with instructions on how to obtain the software.

  6. Representative Sinusoids for Hepatic Four-Scale Pharmacokinetics Simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Ole Schwen

    Full Text Available The mammalian liver plays a key role for metabolism and detoxification of xenobiotics in the body. The corresponding biochemical processes are typically subject to spatial variations at different length scales. Zonal enzyme expression along sinusoids leads to zonated metabolization already in the healthy state. Pathological states of the liver may involve liver cells affected in a zonated manner or heterogeneously across the whole organ. This spatial heterogeneity, however, cannot be described by most computational models which usually consider the liver as a homogeneous, well-stirred organ. The goal of this article is to present a methodology to extend whole-body pharmacokinetics models by a detailed liver model, combining different modeling approaches from the literature. This approach results in an integrated four-scale model, from single cells via sinusoids and the organ to the whole organism, capable of mechanistically representing metabolization inhomogeneity in livers at different spatial scales. Moreover, the model shows circulatory mixing effects due to a delayed recirculation through the surrounding organism. To show that this approach is generally applicable for different physiological processes, we show three applications as proofs of concept, covering a range of species, compounds, and diseased states: clearance of midazolam in steatotic human livers, clearance of caffeine in mouse livers regenerating from necrosis, and a parameter study on the impact of different cell entities on insulin uptake in mouse livers. The examples illustrate how variations only discernible at the local scale influence substance distribution in the plasma at the whole-body level. In particular, our results show that simultaneously considering variations at all relevant spatial scales may be necessary to understand their impact on observations at the organism scale.

  7. Modeling and simulation in tribology across scales: An overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vakis, A.I.; Yastrebov, V.A.; Scheibert, J.


    This review summarizes recent advances in the area of tribology based on the outcome of a Lorentz Center workshop surveying various physical, chemical and mechanical phenomena across scales. Among the main themes discussed were those of rough surface representations, the breakdown of continuum...... theories at the nano- and micro-scales, as well as multiscale and multiphysics aspects for analytical and computational models relevant to applications spanning a variety of sectors, from automotive to biotribology and nanotechnology. Significant effort is still required to account for complementary...

  8. Experimental simulation of the geological storage of CO2: particular study of the interfaces between well cement, cap-rock and reservoir rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobard, Emmanuel


    The geological storage of the CO 2 is envisaged to mitigate the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in the short term. CO 2 is trapped from big emitters and is directly injected into a reservoir rock (mainly in deep salty aquifers, depleted hydrocarbon oil fields or unexploited charcoal lodes) located at more than 800 m deep. In the framework of the CO 2 storage, it is crucial to ensure the integrity of the solicited materials in order to guarantee the permanent confinement of the sequestrated fluids. Using experimental simulation the purpose of this work is to study the mechanisms which could be responsible for the system destabilization and could lead CO 2 leakage from the injection well. The experimental simulations are performed under pressure and temperature conditions of the geological storage (100 bar and from 80 to 100 deg. C). The first experimental model, called COTAGES (for 'Colonne Thermoregulee A Grains pour Gaz a Effet de Serre') allows studying the effects of the thermal destabilisation caused by the injection of a fluid at 25 deg. C in a hotter reservoir (submitted to the geothermal gradient). This device composed of an aqueous saline solution (4 g.L -1 of NaCl), crushed rock (Lavoux limestone or Callovo-Oxfordian argillite) and gas (N 2 or CO 2 ) allows demonstrating an important matter transfer from the cold area (30 deg. C) toward the hot area (100 deg. C). The observed dissolution/precipitation phenomena leading to changes of the petro-physical rocks properties occur in presence of N 2 or CO 2 but are significantly amplified by the presence of CO 2 . Concerning the experiments carried out with Lavoux limestone, the dissolution in the cold zone causes a raise of porosity of about 2% (initial porosity of 8%) due to the formation of about 500 pores/mm 2 with a size ranging between 10 and 100 μm 2 . The precipitation in the hot zone forms a micro-calcite fringe on the external part of the grains and fills the intergrain porosity

  9. CO2 Reaction Induced Wettability Alteration and its Impacts on CO2 Storage: Pore to Core Scale Reservoir Condition Experimental Studies (United States)

    Wan, J.; Tokunaga, T. K.; Kim, Y.; Jung, J.; Kim, T.; Dong, W.


    Wettability of the mineral surfaces plays an important role in subsurface multiphase flow and transport. Wettability affects the capillary pressure-saturation (Pc- S) relations, relative permeability (kr) of each fluid phase, and relative phase occupancy in reservoir pores. Although wettability issues have been studied extensively in other fields, significant knowledge gaps remain when applying the existing understanding to geological carbon sequestration; due largely to the unique physical-chemical properties of supercritical (sc) CO2 relative to other common non-wetting fluids such as air and oil. Here, we report our recent progress on wettability alteration upon reaction with CO2 and the resulting differences in capillary trapping of CO2 versus air. (1) Pore Scale Studies. There are conflict predictions in the literature concerning the effect of wettability on capillary trapping; some find that larger contact angles lead to lower capillary trapping while others have found opposite behavior. We hypothesized that spontaneous imbibition becomes energetically unfavorable with decreased wettability, so that increased residual trapping of scCO2 should occur during the post-injection inbibition stage. We developed a laboratory high-pressure and elevated temperature microscopic-micromodel system that is capable of controlling fine scale capillary pressure of scCO2-brine, and enabled us to conduct imbibition under controlled capillary pressures at the pore scale. We found that the de-wetting enhanced scCO2 capillary trapping is significant. These results suggest that scCO2 reaction induced dewetting can result in higher degrees of CO2 residual trapping in the post-injection stage than previously predicted. (2) Core Scale Studies. Capillary scaling is used routinely to predict Pc(S) relations for scCO2-brine systems at field scale, based on relations measured with air-water or mercury porosimetry. However, scaling-based predictions for CO2-brine systems have not been

  10. Numerical Simulation of tsunami-scale wave boundary layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, Isaac A.; Fuhrman, David R.


    This paper presents a numerical study of the boundary layer flow and properties induced by tsunami-scale waves. For this purpose, an existing one-dimensional vertical (1DV) boundary layer model, based on the horizontal component of the incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations,

  11. Modeling and Simulation Techniques for Large-Scale Communications Modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Webb, Steve


    .... Tests of random number generators were also developed and applied to CECOM models. It was found that synchronization of random number strings in simulations is easy to implement and can provide significant savings for making comparative studies. If synchronization is in place, then statistical experiment design can be used to provide information on the sensitivity of the output to input parameters. The report concludes with recommendations and an implementation plan.

  12. Multi-scale simulation of viscoelastic fiber-reinforced composites


    Staub, S.; Andrä, H.; Kabel, M.; Zangmeister, T.


    This paper presents an effective algorithm to simulate the anisotropic viscoelastic wbehavior of a fiber-reinforced composite including the influence of the local geometric properties, like fiber-orientation and volume fraction. The considered composites consist of a viscoelastic matrix which is reinforced by elastic fibers. The viscoelastic composite behavior results anisotropic due to the local anisotropic fiber-orientations. The influence of the local time-dependent viscoelastic properties...

  13. Full-scale retrieval of simulated buried transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentich, D.J.


    This report describes the results of a field test conducted to determine the effectiveness of using conventional type construction equipment for the retrieval of buried transuranic (TRU) waste. A cold (nonhazardous and nonradioactive) test pit (1,100 yd 3 volume) was constructed with boxes and drums filled with simulated waste materials, such as metal, plastic, wood, concrete, and sludge. Large objects, including truck beds, tanks, vaults, pipes, and beams, were also placed in the pit. These materials were intended to simulate the type of wastes found in TRU buried waste pits and trenches. A series of commercially available equipment items, such as excavators and tracked loaders outfitted with different end effectors, were used to remove the simulated waste. Work was performed from both the abovegrade and belowgrade positions. During the demonstration, a number of observations, measurements, and analyses were performed to determine which equipment was the most effective in removing the waste. The retrieval rates for the various excavation techniques were recorded. The inherent dust control capabilities of the excavation methods used were observed. The feasibility of teleoperating reading equipment was also addressed

  14. Parallel Earthquake Simulations on Large-Scale Multicore Supercomputers

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xingfu


    Earthquakes are one of the most destructive natural hazards on our planet Earth. Hugh earthquakes striking offshore may cause devastating tsunamis, as evidenced by the 11 March 2011 Japan (moment magnitude Mw9.0) and the 26 December 2004 Sumatra (Mw9.1) earthquakes. Earthquake prediction (in terms of the precise time, place, and magnitude of a coming earthquake) is arguably unfeasible in the foreseeable future. To mitigate seismic hazards from future earthquakes in earthquake-prone areas, such as California and Japan, scientists have been using numerical simulations to study earthquake rupture propagation along faults and seismic wave propagation in the surrounding media on ever-advancing modern computers over past several decades. In particular, ground motion simulations for past and future (possible) significant earthquakes have been performed to understand factors that affect ground shaking in populated areas, and to provide ground shaking characteristics and synthetic seismograms for emergency preparation and design of earthquake-resistant structures. These simulation results can guide the development of more rational seismic provisions for leading to safer, more efficient, and economical50pt]Please provide V. Taylor author e-mail ID. structures in earthquake-prone regions.

  15. Small-scale multi-axial hybrid simulation of a shear-critical reinforced concrete frame (United States)

    Sadeghian, Vahid; Kwon, Oh-Sung; Vecchio, Frank


    This study presents a numerical multi-scale simulation framework which is extended to accommodate hybrid simulation (numerical-experimental integration). The framework is enhanced with a standardized data exchange format and connected to a generalized controller interface program which facilitates communication with various types of laboratory equipment and testing configurations. A small-scale experimental program was conducted using a six degree-of-freedom hydraulic testing equipment to verify the proposed framework and provide additional data for small-scale testing of shearcritical reinforced concrete structures. The specimens were tested in a multi-axial hybrid simulation manner under a reversed cyclic loading condition simulating earthquake forces. The physical models were 1/3.23-scale representations of a beam and two columns. A mixed-type modelling technique was employed to analyze the remainder of the structures. The hybrid simulation results were compared against those obtained from a large-scale test and finite element analyses. The study found that if precautions are taken in preparing model materials and if the shear-related mechanisms are accurately considered in the numerical model, small-scale hybrid simulations can adequately simulate the behaviour of shear-critical structures. Although the findings of the study are promising, to draw general conclusions additional test data are required.

  16. Implementation of Grid-computing Framework for Simulation in Multi-scale Structural Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Data Iranata


    Full Text Available A new grid-computing framework for simulation in multi-scale structural analysis is presented. Two levels of parallel processing will be involved in this framework: multiple local distributed computing environments connected by local network to form a grid-based cluster-to-cluster distributed computing environment. To successfully perform the simulation, a large-scale structural system task is decomposed into the simulations of a simplified global model and several detailed component models using various scales. These correlated multi-scale structural system tasks are distributed among clusters and connected together in a multi-level hierarchy and then coordinated over the internet. The software framework for supporting the multi-scale structural simulation approach is also presented. The program architecture design allows the integration of several multi-scale models as clients and servers under a single platform. To check its feasibility, a prototype software system has been designed and implemented to perform the proposed concept. The simulation results show that the software framework can increase the speedup performance of the structural analysis. Based on this result, the proposed grid-computing framework is suitable to perform the simulation of the multi-scale structural analysis.

  17. Simulation of Winter Wheat Yield with WOFOST in County Scale


    Ma, Shangjie; Pei, Zhiyuan; He, Yajuan; Wang, Lianlin; Ma, Zhiping


    International audience; Winter wheat is mainly planted in water shortage area, such as North China and Northwest China. As a key field management measure, irrigation plays an important role in the production of winter wheat. This paper focuses on the improvement of regional winter wheat yield estimation technique in county scale by adjusting the irrigation management measure in crop growth model. The WOFOST (World Food Study) model was used by dividing the whole county into a number of EMUs (...

  18. Investigating the dependence of SCM simulated precipitation and clouds on the spatial scale of large-scale forcing at SGP (United States)

    Tang, Shuaiqi; Zhang, Minghua; Xie, Shaocheng


    Large-scale forcing data, such as vertical velocity and advective tendencies, are required to drive single-column models (SCMs), cloud-resolving models, and large-eddy simulations. Previous studies suggest that some errors of these model simulations could be attributed to the lack of spatial variability in the specified domain-mean large-scale forcing. This study investigates the spatial variability of the forcing and explores its impact on SCM simulated precipitation and clouds. A gridded large-scale forcing data during the March 2000 Cloud Intensive Operational Period at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program's Southern Great Plains site is used for analysis and to drive the single-column version of the Community Atmospheric Model Version 5 (SCAM5). When the gridded forcing data show large spatial variability, such as during a frontal passage, SCAM5 with the domain-mean forcing is not able to capture the convective systems that are partly located in the domain or that only occupy part of the domain. This problem has been largely reduced by using the gridded forcing data, which allows running SCAM5 in each subcolumn and then averaging the results within the domain. This is because the subcolumns have a better chance to capture the timing of the frontal propagation and the small-scale systems. Other potential uses of the gridded forcing data, such as understanding and testing scale-aware parameterizations, are also discussed.

  19. GPU-Accelerated Sparse Matrix Solvers for Large-Scale Simulations, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Many large-scale numerical simulations can be broken down into common mathematical routines. While the applications may differ, the need to perform functions such as...

  20. Prediction of Microstructure Evolution in DMLM processed Inconel 718 with Part Scale Simulation (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project is to develop part-scale process-microstructure simulation tool to predict the microstructure evolution of Inconel 718 processed by powder...

  1. Proceedings of joint meeting of the 6th simulation science symposium and the NIFS collaboration research 'large scale computer simulation'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Joint meeting of the 6th Simulation Science Symposium and the NIFS Collaboration Research 'Large Scale Computer Simulation' was held on December 12-13, 2002 at National Institute for Fusion Science, with the aim of promoting interdisciplinary collaborations in various fields of computer simulations. The present meeting attended by more than 40 people consists of the 11 invited and 22 contributed papers, of which topics were extended not only to fusion science but also to related fields such as astrophysics, earth science, fluid dynamics, molecular dynamics, computer science etc. (author)

  2. BlazeDEM3D-GPU A Large Scale DEM simulation code for GPUs


    Govender Nicolin; Wilke Daniel; Pizette Patrick; Khinast Johannes


    Accurately predicting the dynamics of particulate materials is of importance to numerous scientific and industrial areas with applications ranging across particle scales from powder flow to ore crushing. Computational discrete element simulations is a viable option to aid in the understanding of particulate dynamics and design of devices such as mixers, silos and ball mills, as laboratory scale tests comes at a significant cost. However, the computational time required to simulate an industri...

  3. Adequacy of power-to-volume scaling philosophy to simulate natural circulation in Integral Test Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, A.K.; Vijayan, P.K.; Saha, D.; Venkat Raj, V.; Aritomi, Masanori


    Theoretical and experimental investigations were carried out to study the adequacy of power-to-volume scaling philosophy for the simulation of natural circulation and to establish the scaling philosophy applicable for the design of the Integral Test Facility (ITF-AHWR) for the Indian Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR). The results indicate that a reduction in the flow channel diameter of the scaled facility as required by the power-to-volume scaling philosophy may affect the simulation of natural circulation behaviour of the prototype plants. This is caused by the distortions due to the inability to simulate the frictional resistance of the scaled facility. Hence, it is recommended that the flow channel diameter of the scaled facility should be as close as possible to the prototype. This was verified by comparing the natural circulation behaviour of a prototype 220 MWe Indian PHWR and its scaled facility (FISBE-1) designed based on power-to-volume scaling philosophy. It is suggested from examinations using a mathematical model and a computer code that the FISBE-1 simulates the steady state and the general trend of transient natural circulation behaviour of the prototype reactor adequately. Finally the proposed scaling method was applied for the design of the ITF-AHWR. (author)

  4. Towards an integrated multiscale simulation of turbulent clouds on PetaScale computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lianping; Ayala, Orlando; Parishani, Hossein; Gao, Guang R; Kambhamettu, Chandra; Li Xiaoming; Rossi, Louis; Orozco, Daniel; Torres, Claudio; Grabowski, Wojciech W; Wyszogrodzki, Andrzej A; Piotrowski, Zbigniew


    The development of precipitating warm clouds is affected by several effects of small-scale air turbulence including enhancement of droplet-droplet collision rate by turbulence, entrainment and mixing at the cloud edges, and coupling of mechanical and thermal energies at various scales. Large-scale computation is a viable research tool for quantifying these multiscale processes. Specifically, top-down large-eddy simulations (LES) of shallow convective clouds typically resolve scales of turbulent energy-containing eddies while the effects of turbulent cascade toward viscous dissipation are parameterized. Bottom-up hybrid direct numerical simulations (HDNS) of cloud microphysical processes resolve fully the dissipation-range flow scales but only partially the inertial subrange scales. it is desirable to systematically decrease the grid length in LES and increase the domain size in HDNS so that they can be better integrated to address the full range of scales and their coupling. In this paper, we discuss computational issues and physical modeling questions in expanding the ranges of scales realizable in LES and HDNS, and in bridging LES and HDNS. We review our on-going efforts in transforming our simulation codes towards PetaScale computing, in improving physical representations in LES and HDNS, and in developing better methods to analyze and interpret the simulation results.

  5. Cross-scale MD simulations of dynamic strength of tantalum (United States)

    Bulatov, Vasily


    Dislocations are ubiquitous in metals where their motion presents the dominant and often the only mode of plastic response to straining. Over the last 25 years computational prediction of plastic response in metals has relied on Discrete Dislocation Dynamics (DDD) as the most fundamental method to account for collective dynamics of moving dislocations. Here we present first direct atomistic MD simulations of dislocation-mediated plasticity that are sufficiently large and long to compute plasticity response of single crystal tantalum while tracing the underlying dynamics of dislocations in all atomistic details. Where feasible, direct MD simulations sidestep DDD altogether thus reducing uncertainties of strength predictions to those of the interatomic potential. In the specific context of shock-induced material dynamics, the same MD models predict when, under what conditions and how dislocations interact and compete with other fundamental mechanisms of dynamic response, e.g. twinning, phase-transformations, fracture. In collaboration with: Luis Zepeda-Ruiz, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Alexander Stukowski, Technische Universitat Darmstadt; Tomas Oppelstrup, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. Long-term trend analysis of reservoir water quality and quantity at the landscape scale in two major river basins of Texas, USA. (United States)

    Patino, Reynaldo; Asquith, William H.; VanLandeghem, Matthew M.; Dawson, D.


    Trends in water quality and quantity were assessed for 11 major reservoirs of the Brazos and Colorado river basins in the southern Great Plains (maximum period of record, 1965–2010). Water quality, major contributing-stream inflow, storage, local precipitation, and basin-wide total water withdrawals were analyzed. Inflow and storage decreased and total phosphorus increased in most reservoirs. The overall, warmest-, or coldest-monthly temperatures increased in 7 reservoirs, decreased in 1 reservoir, and did not significantly change in 3 reservoirs. The most common monotonic trend in salinity-related variables (specific conductance, chloride, sulfate) was one of no change, and when significant change occurred, it was inconsistent among reservoirs. No significant change was detected in monthly sums of local precipitation. Annual water withdrawals increased in both basins, but the increase was significant (P quality data due to the presence of high- and low-salinity reservoirs in both basins. These observations present a landscape in the Brazos and Colorado river basins where, in the last ∼40 years, reservoir inflow and storage generally decreased, eutrophication generally increased, and water temperature generally increased in at least 1 of 3 temperature indicators evaluated. Because local precipitation remained generally stable, observed reductions in reservoir inflow and storage during the study period may be attributable to other proximate factors, including increased water withdrawals (at least in the Colorado River basin) or decreased runoff from contributing watersheds.

  7. Numerical simulation of the environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing of tight/shale gas reservoirs on near-surface ground water: background, base cases, shallow reservoirs, short-term gas and water transport (United States)

    Researchers examined gas and water transport between a deep tight shale gas reservoir and a shallow overlying aquifer in the two years following hydraulic fracturing, assuming a pre-existing connecting pathway.

  8. Theoretical and Numerical Properties of a Gyrokinetic Plasma: Issues Related to Transport Time Scale Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.W.


    Particle simulation has played an important role for the recent investigations on turbulence in magnetically confined plasmas. In this paper, theoretical and numerical properties of a gyrokinetic plasma as well as its relationship with magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are discussed with the ultimate aim of simulating microturbulence in transport time scale using massively parallel computers

  9. Molecular-scale simulation of electroluminescence in a multilayer white organic light-emitting diode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mesta, Murat; Carvelli, Marco; de Vries, Rein J


    we show that it is feasible to carry out Monte Carlo simulations including all of these molecular-scale processes for a hybrid multilayer organic light-emitting diode combining red and green phosphorescent layers with a blue fluorescent layer. The simulated current density and emission profile...

  10. An Efficient Two-Scale Hybrid Embedded Fracture Model for Shale Gas Simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Amir, Sahar Z.


    Natural and hydraulic fractures existence and state differs on a reservoir-by-reservoir or even on a well-by-well basis leading to the necessity of exploring the flow regimes variations with respect to the diverse fracture-network shapes forged. Conventional Dual-Porosity Dual-Permeability (DPDP) schemes are not adequate to model such complex fracture-network systems. To overcome this difficulty, in this paper, an iterative Hybrid Embedded multiscale (two-scale) Fracture model (HEF) is applied on a derived fit-for-purpose shale gas model. The HEF model involves splitting the fracture computations into two scales: 1) fine-scale solves for the flux exchange parameter within each grid cell; 2) coarse-scale solves for the pressure applied to the domain grid cells using the flux exchange parameter computed at each grid cell from the fine-scale. After that, the D dimensions matrix pressure and the (D-1) lower dimensional fracture pressure are solved as a system to apply the matrix-fracture coupling. HEF model combines the DPDP overlapping continua concept, the DFN lower dimensional fractures concept, the HFN hierarchical fracture concept, and the CCFD model simplicity. As for the fit-for-purpose shale gas model, various fit-for-purpose shale gas models can be derived using any set of selected properties plugged in one of the most popularly used proposed literature models as shown in the appendix. Also, this paper shows that shale extreme low permeability cause flow behavior to be dominated by the structure and magnitude of high permeability fractures.

  11. Mercury and methylmercury stream concentrations in a Coastal Plain watershed: a multi-scale simulation analysis. (United States)

    Knightes, C D; Golden, H E; Journey, C A; Davis, G M; Conrads, P A; Marvin-DiPasquale, M; Brigham, M E; Bradley, P M


    Mercury is a ubiquitous global environmental toxicant responsible for most US fish advisories. Processes governing mercury concentrations in rivers and streams are not well understood, particularly at multiple spatial scales. We investigate how insights gained from reach-scale mercury data and model simulations can be applied at broader watershed scales using a spatially and temporally explicit watershed hydrology and biogeochemical cycling model, VELMA. We simulate fate and transport using reach-scale (0.1 km(2)) study data and evaluate applications to multiple watershed scales. Reach-scale VELMA parameterization was applied to two nested sub-watersheds (28 km(2) and 25 km(2)) and the encompassing watershed (79 km(2)). Results demonstrate that simulated flow and total mercury concentrations compare reasonably to observations at different scales, but simulated methylmercury concentrations are out-of-phase with observations. These findings suggest that intricacies of methylmercury biogeochemical cycling and transport are under-represented in VELMA and underscore the complexity of simulating mercury fate and transport. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Nebula Scale Mixing Between Non-Carbonaceous and Carbonaceous Chondrite Reservoirs: Testing the Grand Tack Model with Almahata Sitta Stones (United States)

    Yin, Q.-Z.; Sanborn, M. E.; Goodrich, C. A.; Zolensky, M.; Fioretti, A. M.; Shaddad, M.; Kohl, I. E.; Young, E. D.


    There is an increasing number of Cr-O-Ti isotope studies that show that solar system materials are divided into two main populations, one carbonaceous chondrite (CC)-like and the other is non-carbonaceous (NCC)-like, with minimal mixing between them attributed to a gap opened in the propoplanetary disk due to Jupiter's formation. The Grand Tack model suggests that there should be a particular time in the disk history when this gap is breached and ensuring a subsequent large-scale mixing between S- and C-type asteroids (inner solar system and outer solar system materials), an idea supported by our recent work on chondrule (Delta)17O-(epsilon)54Cr isotope systematics.

  13. Site scale groundwater flow in Olkiluoto - complementary simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefman, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)


    This work comprises of the complementary simulations to the previous groundwater flow analysis at the Olkiluoto site. The objective is to study the effects of flow porosity, conceptual model for solute transport, fracture zones, land uplift and initial conditions on the results. The numerical simulations are carried out up to 10000 years into the future employing the same modelling approach and site-specific flow and transport model as in the previous work except for the differences in the case descriptions. The result quantities considered are the salinity and the driving force in the vicinity of the repository. The salinity field and the driving force are sensitive to the flow porosity and the conceptual model for solute transport. Ten-fold flow porosity and the dual-porosity approach retard the transport of solutes in the bedrock resulting in brackish groundwater conditions at the repository at 10000 years A.P. (in the previous work the groundwater in the repository turned into fresh). The higher driving forces can be attributed to the higher concentration gradients resulting from the opposite effects of the land uplift, which pushes fresh water deeper and deeper into the bedrock, and the higher flow porosity and the dual-porosity model, which retard the transport of solutes. The cases computed (unrealistically) without fracture zones and postglacial land uplift show that they both have effect on the results and can not be ignored in the coupled and transient groundwater flow analyses. The salinity field and the driving force are also sensitive to the initial salinity field especially at the beginning during the first 500 years A.P. The sensitivity will, however, diminish as soon as fresh water dilutes brackish and saline water and decreases the concentration gradients. Fresh water conditions result in also a steady state for the driving force in the repository area. (orig.)

  14. A small-scale experimental reactor combined with a simulator for training purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destot, M.; Hagendorf, M.; Vanhumbeeck, D.; Lecocq-Bernard, J.


    The authors discuss how a small-scale reactor combined to a training simulator can be a valuable aid in all forms of training. They describe the CEN-based SILOETTE reactor in Grenoble and its combined simulator. They also take a look at prospects for the future of the system in the light of experience acquired with the ARIANE reactor and the trends for the development of simulators for training purposes [fr

  15. Scaling analysis of the integral test loop to simulate Korean PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Chul Hwa; Park, C. K.; Lee, S. J. and others


    This report presents the results of scaling analysis on the integral test loop to simulate Korean PWR plants, which includes the scaling methodology, scaling priority and scaling distortion Based on the priority of the key test matrix, the scaling priority is drawn to apply to the design of the integral test loop. Scaling analysis on the test loop is done based on the design basis and performed by the so-called ''Modified Volume Scaling'' methodology. In the first stage of scaling analysis(global scaling), the specifications and capacity of the components in the major systems are determined by the volume scaling methodology. In the second stage of scaling, local phenomena scaling is performed on major thermal hydraulic phenomena in each component and reproduction of local thermal hydraulic phenomena is checked. According to the local phenomena scaling results, specifications and capacity of the components in a system are modified. Finally, scaling distortion, which might occur in a certain system, is analyzed. Scaling results in this report might be modified in the stage of detailed design of the integral test loop, which will be carried out in near future. More comprehensive analysis on scaling distortion shall be carried out based on manufacturing specifications and performance verification test results of the integral test loop

  16. Potential knowledge gain in large-scale simulations of forest carbon fluxes from remotely sensed biomass and height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellassen, V.; Delbart, N.; Le Maire, Guerric; Luyssaert, S.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.


    Global vegetation models (GVMs) simulate CO2, water and energy fluxes at large scales, typically no smaller than 10×10km. GVM simulations are thus expected to simulate the average functioning, but not the local variability. The two main limiting factors in refining this scale are (1) the scale at

  17. Numerical simulation of tsunami-scale wave boundary layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Isaac A.; Fuhrman, David R.


    This paper presents a numerical study of the boundary layer flow and properties induced by tsunami-scalewaves. For this purpose, an existing one-dimensional vertical (1DV) boundary layer model, based on the horizontal component of the incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations...... demonstrating the ability to reproduce accurate velocity profiles, turbulence, and bed shear stresses on both smooth and rough beds.The validated model is then employed for the study of transient wave boundary layers at full tsunami scales,covering a wide and realistic geophysical range in terms of the flow...... duration, bottom roughness, and associated Reynolds numbers. For this purpose, three different “synthetic” (idealised) tsunami wave descriptions are considered i.e., invoking: (1) single wave (solitary-like, but with independent period and wave height),(2) sinusoidal, and (3) N-wave descriptions. The flow...

  18. Modeling and simulation of large scale stirred tank (United States)

    Neuville, John R.

    The purpose of this dissertation is to provide a written record of the evaluation performed on the DWPF mixing process by the construction of numerical models that resemble the geometry of this process. There were seven numerical models constructed to evaluate the DWPF mixing process and four pilot plants. The models were developed with Fluent software and the results from these models were used to evaluate the structure of the flow field and the power demand of the agitator. The results from the numerical models were compared with empirical data collected from these pilot plants that had been operated at an earlier date. Mixing is commonly used in a variety ways throughout industry to blend miscible liquids, disperse gas through liquid, form emulsions, promote heat transfer and, suspend solid particles. The DOE Sites at Hanford in Richland Washington, West Valley in New York, and Savannah River Site in Aiken South Carolina have developed a process that immobilizes highly radioactive liquid waste. The radioactive liquid waste at DWPF is an opaque sludge that is mixed in a stirred tank with glass frit particles and water to form slurry of specified proportions. The DWPF mixing process is composed of a flat bottom cylindrical mixing vessel with a centrally located helical coil, and agitator. The helical coil is used to heat and cool the contents of the tank and can improve flow circulation. The agitator shaft has two impellers; a radial blade and a hydrofoil blade. The hydrofoil is used to circulate the mixture between the top region and bottom region of the tank. The radial blade sweeps the bottom of the tank and pushes the fluid in the outward radial direction. The full scale vessel contains about 9500 gallons of slurry with flow behavior characterized as a Bingham Plastic. Particles in the mixture have an abrasive characteristic that cause excessive erosion to internal vessel components at higher impeller speeds. The desire for this mixing process is to ensure the

  19. Modeling Group Perceptions Using Stochastic Simulation: Scaling Issues in the Multiplicative AHP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn; van den Honert, Robin; Salling, Kim Bang


    This paper proposes a new decision support approach for applying stochastic simulation to the multiplicative analytic hierarchy process (AHP) in order to deal with issues concerning the scale parameter. The paper suggests a new approach that captures the influence from the scale parameter by making...

  20. Large Scale Earth's Bow Shock with Northern IMF as Simulated by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we propose a 3D kinetic model (particle-in-cell, PIC) for the description of the large scale Earth's bow shock. The proposed version is stable and does not require huge or extensive computer resources. Because PIC simulations work with scaled plasma and field parameters, we also propose to validate our ...

  1. Scaling of mesoscale simulations of polymer melts with the bare friction coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kindt, P.; Kindt, P.; Briels, Willem J.


    Both the Rouse and reptation model predict that the dynamics of a polymer melt scale inversely proportional with the Langevin friction coefficient (E). Mesoscale Brownian dynamics simulations of polyethylene validate these scaling predictions, providing the reptational friction (E)R=(E)+(E)C is

  2. Scale issues in soil hydrology related to measurement and simulation: A case study in Colorado (United States)

    State variables, such as soil water content (SWC), are typically measured or inferred at very small scales while being simulated at larger scales relevant to spatial management or hillslope areas. Thus there is an implicit spatial disparity that is often ignored. Surface runoff, on the other hand, ...

  3. Continuum mechanics at the atomic scale : Insights into non-adhesive contacts using molecular dynamics simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solhjoo, Soheil; Vakis, Antonis I.


    Classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to study non-adhesive contact at the atomic scale. Starting from the case of Hertzian contact, it was found that the reduced Young’s modulus E* for shallow indentations scales as a function of, both, the indentation depth and the contact

  4. Simulation of counter-current imbibition in water-wet fractured reservoirs based on discrete-fracture model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yueying


    Full Text Available Isolated fractures usually exist in fractured media systems, where the capillary pressure in the fracture is lower than that of the matrix, causing the discrepancy in oil recoveries between fractured and non-fractured porous media. Experiments, analytical solutions and conventional simulation methods based on the continuum model approach are incompetent or insufficient in describing media containing isolated fractures. In this paper, the simulation of the counter-current imbibition in fractured media is based on the discrete-fracture model (DFM. The interlocking or arrangement of matrix and fracture system within the model resembles the traditional discrete fracture network model and the hybrid-mixed-finite-element method is employed to solve the associated equations. The Behbahani experimental data validates our simulation solution for consistency. The simulation results of the fractured media show that the isolated-fractures affect the imbibition in the matrix block. Moreover, the isolated fracture parameters such as fracture length and fracture location influence the trend of the recovery curves. Thus, the counter-current imbibition behavior of media with isolated fractures can be predicted using this method based on the discrete-fracture model.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franci, Luca; Verdini, Andrea; Landi, Simone [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 2, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Matteini, Lorenzo [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Hellinger, Petr [Astronomical Institute, AS CR, Bocni II/1401, CZ-14100 Prague (Czech Republic)


    We present results from a high-resolution and large-scale hybrid (fluid electrons and particle-in-cell protons) two-dimensional numerical simulation of decaying turbulence. Two distinct spectral regions (separated by a smooth break at proton scales) develop with clear power-law scaling, each one occupying about a decade in wavenumbers. The simulation results simultaneously exhibit several properties of the observed solar wind fluctuations: spectral indices of the magnetic, kinetic, and residual energy spectra in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) inertial range along with a flattening of the electric field spectrum, an increase in magnetic compressibility, and a strong coupling of the cascade with the density and the parallel component of the magnetic fluctuations at sub-proton scales. Our findings support the interpretation that in the solar wind, large-scale MHD fluctuations naturally evolve beyond proton scales into a turbulent regime that is governed by the generalized Ohm’s law.

  6. Anomalous scaling of structure functions and dynamic constraints on turbulence simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakhot, Victor; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.


    The connection between anomalous scaling of structure functions (intermittency) and numerical methods for turbulence simulations is discussed. It is argued that the computational work for direct numerical simulations (DNS) of fully developed turbulence increases as Re 4 , and not as Re 3 expected from Kolmogorov's theory, where Re is a large-scale Reynolds number. Various relations for the moments of acceleration and velocity derivatives are derived. An infinite set of exact constraints on dynamically consistent subgrid models for Large Eddy Simulations (LES) is derived from the Navier-Stokes equations, and some problems of principle associated with existing LES models are highlighted. (author)

  7. On the successful use of a simplified model to simulate the succession of toxic cyanobacteria in a hypereutrophic reservoir with a highly fluctuating water level. (United States)

    Fadel, Ali; Lemaire, Bruno J; Vinçon-Leite, Brigitte; Atoui, Ali; Slim, Kamal; Tassin, Bruno


    Many freshwater bodies worldwide that suffer from harmful algal blooms would benefit for their management from a simple ecological model that requires few field data, e.g. for early warning systems. Beyond a certain degree, adding processes to ecological models can reduce model predictive capabilities. In this work, we assess whether a simple ecological model without nutrients is able to describe the succession of cyanobacterial blooms of different species in a hypereutrophic reservoir and help understand the factors that determine these blooms. In our study site, Karaoun Reservoir, Lebanon, cyanobacteria Aphanizomenon ovalisporum and Microcystis aeruginosa alternatively bloom. A simple configuration of the model DYRESM-CAEDYM was used; both cyanobacteria were simulated, with constant vertical migration velocity for A. ovalisporum, with vertical migration velocity dependent on light for M. aeruginosa and with growth limited by light and temperature and not by nutrients for both species. The model was calibrated on two successive years with contrasted bloom patterns and high variations in water level. It was able to reproduce the measurements; it showed a good performance for the water level (root-mean-square error (RMSE) lower than 1 m, annual variation of 25 m), water temperature profiles (RMSE of 0.22-1.41 °C, range 13-28 °C) and cyanobacteria biomass (RMSE of 1-57 μg Chl a L -1 , range 0-206 μg Chl a L -1 ). The model also helped understand the succession of blooms in both years. The model results suggest that the higher growth rate of M. aeruginosa during favourable temperature and light conditions allowed it to outgrow A. ovalisporum. Our results show that simple model configurations can be sufficient not only for theoretical works when few major processes can be identified but also for operational applications. This approach could be transposed on other hypereutrophic lakes and reservoirs to describe the competition between dominant phytoplankton

  8. An Assessment of Some Design Constraints on Heat Production of a 3D Conceptual EGS Model Using an Open-Source Geothermal Reservoir Simulation Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yidong Xia; Mitch Plummer; Robert Podgorney; Ahmad Ghassemi


    Performance of heat production process over a 30-year period is assessed in a conceptual EGS model with a geothermal gradient of 65K per km depth in the reservoir. Water is circulated through a pair of parallel wells connected by a set of single large wing fractures. The results indicate that the desirable output electric power rate and lifespan could be obtained under suitable material properties and system parameters. A sensitivity analysis on some design constraints and operation parameters indicates that 1) the fracture horizontal spacing has profound effect on the long-term performance of heat production, 2) the downward deviation angle for the parallel doublet wells may help overcome the difficulty of vertical drilling to reach a favorable production temperature, and 3) the thermal energy production rate and lifespan has close dependence on water mass flow rate. The results also indicate that the heat production can be improved when the horizontal fracture spacing, well deviation angle, and production flow rate are under reasonable conditions. To conduct the reservoir modeling and simulations, an open-source, finite element based, fully implicit, fully coupled hydrothermal code, namely FALCON, has been developed and used in this work. Compared with most other existing codes that are either closed-source or commercially available in this area, this new open-source code has demonstrated a code development strategy that aims to provide an unparalleled easiness for user-customization and multi-physics coupling. Test results have shown that the FALCON code is able to complete the long-term tests efficiently and accurately, thanks to the state-of-the-art nonlinear and linear solver algorithms implemented in the code.

  9. Simulation test of PIUS-type reactor with large scale experimental apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, M.; Tsuji, Y.; Ito, T.; Tasaka, K.; Kukita, Yutaka


    A large scale experimental apparatus for simulating the PIUS-type reactor has been constructed keeping the volumetric scaling ratio to the realistic reactor model. Fundamental experiments such as a steady state operation and a pump trip simulation were performed. Experimental results were compared with those obtained by the small scale apparatus in JAERI. We have already reported the effectiveness of the feedback control for the primary loop pump speed (PI control) for the stable operation. In this paper this feedback system is modified and the PID control is introduced. This new system worked well for the operation of the PIUS-type reactor even in a rapid transient condition. (author)

  10. A simulation infrastructure for examining the performance of resilience strategies at scale.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Levy, Scott N.; Bridges, Patrick G.


    Fault-tolerance is a major challenge for many current and future extreme-scale systems, with many studies showing it to be the key limiter to application scalability. While there are a number of studies investigating the performance of various resilience mechanisms, these are typically limited to scales orders of magnitude smaller than expected for next-generation systems and simple benchmark problems. In this paper we show how, with very minor changes, a previously published and validated simulation framework for investigating appli- cation performance of OS noise can be used to simulate the overheads of various resilience mechanisms at scale. Using this framework, we compare the failure-free performance of this simulator against an analytic model to validate its performance and demonstrate its ability to simulate the performance of two popular rollback recovery methods on traces from real

  11. The small-scale urban reservoir fisheries of Lago Paranoá, Brasília, DF, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Walter

    Full Text Available In many cases in large urban centers, which have appropriate waterbodies, small-scale fisheries are the only source of cheap protein for the poor. In Lago Paranoá, located in Brasília, the capital city of Brazil, fishing was studied by conducting interviews with 53 fishers filling in logbooks from March, 1999 to March, 2000 in three fishing communities. The fishers come from the poorest towns around Brasília, known as satellite-towns. They have been living there on average for 21.7 years (s = 9.6 years, their families have 4.9 members (s = 3.6 on average and 44.2% do not have a basic education. However, such characteristics are similar to the socioeconomic indices of the metropolis where they live. In spite of being illegal between 1966 and 2000, fishing generated an average monthly income of U$ 239.00 (s = U$ 171.77. The Nile Tilapia Oreocrhromis niloticus is the main captured species (85% of a total number of landings in weight of 62.5 t.. Fishing is carried out in rowing boats, individually or in pairs. The fishing equipment used are gillnets and castnets. Gillnets were used actively, whereby the surface of the water is beaten with a stick to drive Tilapias towards nets as they have the ability to swim backwards. This fishing strategy was used in 64.7% of the fisheries, followed by castnets (31.1% and by gillnets which were used less (4.2%. The fish is sold directly in the streets and fairs of the satellite-towns to middlemen or to bar owners. Three communities have different strategies in terms of fishing equipments, fishing spots and commercialization. Consequently, there are statistically significant differences in relation to the monthly income for each one of these communities.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy R. Carr; Don W. Green; G. Paul Willhite


    This annual report describes progress during the final year of the project entitled ''Improved Oil Recovery in Mississippian Carbonate Reservoirs in Kansas''. This project funded under the Department of Energy's Class 2 program targets improving the reservoir performance of mature oil fields located in shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs. The focus of the project was development and demonstration of cost-effective reservoir description and management technologies to extend the economic life of mature reservoirs in Kansas and the mid-continent. As part of the project, tools and techniques for reservoir description and management were developed, modified and demonstrated, including PfEFFER spreadsheet log analysis software. The world-wide-web was used to provide rapid and flexible dissemination of the project results through the Internet. A summary of demonstration phase at the Schaben and Ness City North sites demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed reservoir management strategies and technologies. At the Schaben Field, a total of 22 additional locations were evaluated based on the reservoir characterization and simulation studies and resulted in a significant incremental production increase. At Ness City North Field, a horizontal infill well (Mull Ummel No.4H) was planned and drilled based on the results of reservoir characterization and simulation studies to optimize the location and length. The well produced excellent and predicted oil rates for the first two months. Unexpected presence of vertical shale intervals in the lateral resulted in loss of the hole. While the horizontal well was not economically successful, the technology was demonstrated to have potential to recover significant additional reserves in Kansas and the Midcontinent. Several low-cost approaches were developed to evaluate candidate reservoirs for potential horizontal well applications at the field scale, lease level, and well level, and enable the small

  13. Fully predictive simulation of real-scale cable tray fire based on small-scale laboratory experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beji, Tarek; Merci, Bart [Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Flow, Heat and Combustion Mechanics; Bonte, Frederick [Bel V, Brussels (Belgium)


    This paper presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based modelling strategy for real-scale cable tray fires. The challenge was to perform fully predictive simulations (that could be called 'blind' simulations) using solely information from laboratory-scale experiments, in addition to the geometrical arrangement of the cables. The results of the latter experiments were used (1) to construct the fuel molecule and the chemical reaction for combustion, and (2) to estimate the overall pyrolysis and burning behaviour. More particularly, the strategy regarding the second point consists of adopting a surface-based pyrolysis model. Since the burning behaviour of each cable could not be tracked individually (due to computational constraints), 'groups' of cables were modelled with an overall cable surface area equal to the actual value. The results obtained for one large-scale test (a stack of five horizontal trays) are quite encouraging, especially for the peak Heat Release Rate (HRR) that was predicted with a relative deviation of 3 %. The time to reach the peak is however overestimated by 4.7 min (i.e. 94 %). Also, the fire duration is overestimated by 5 min (i.e. 24 %). These discrepancies are mainly attributed to differences in the HRRPUA (heat release rate per unit area) profiles between the small-scale and large-scale. The latter was calculated by estimating the burning area of cables using video fire analysis (VFA).

  14. Chance-constrained overland flow modeling for improving conceptual distributed hydrologic simulations based on scaling representation of sub-daily rainfall variability. (United States)

    Han, Jing-Cheng; Huang, Guohe; Huang, Yuefei; Zhang, Hua; Li, Zhong; Chen, Qiuwen


    Lack of hydrologic process representation at the short time-scale would lead to inadequate simulations in distributed hydrological modeling. Especially for complex mountainous watersheds, surface runoff simulations are significantly affected by the overland flow generation, which is closely related to the rainfall characteristics at a sub-time step. In this paper, the sub-daily variability of rainfall intensity was considered using a probability distribution, and a chance-constrained overland flow modeling approach was proposed to capture the generation of overland flow within conceptual distributed hydrologic simulations. The integrated modeling procedures were further demonstrated through a watershed of China Three Gorges Reservoir area, leading to an improved SLURP-TGR hydrologic model based on SLURP. Combined with rainfall thresholds determined to distinguish various magnitudes of daily rainfall totals, three levels of significance were simultaneously employed to examine the hydrologic-response simulation. Results showed that SLURP-TGR could enhance the model performance, and the deviation of runoff simulations was effectively controlled. However, rainfall thresholds were so crucial for reflecting the scaling effect of rainfall intensity that optimal levels of significance and rainfall threshold were 0.05 and 10 mm, respectively. As for the Xiangxi River watershed, the main runoff contribution came from interflow of the fast store. Although slight differences of overland flow simulations between SLURP and SLURP-TGR were derived, SLURP-TGR was found to help improve the simulation of peak flows, and would improve the overall modeling efficiency through adjusting runoff component simulations. Consequently, the developed modeling approach favors efficient representation of hydrological processes and would be expected to have a potential for wide applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Limnology in the Upper Paraná River floodplain: large-scale spatial and temporal patterns, and the influence of reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MC. Roberto

    Full Text Available Knowledge of abiotic limnological factors is important to monitor changes caused by humans, and to explain the structure and dynamics of populations and communities in a variety of inland water ecosystems. In this study, we used a long term data-set (eight years collected in 10 habitats with different features (river channels, and connected and isolated lakes to describe the spatial and temporal patterns of some of the principal limnological factors. In general, the degree of connectivity of the lakes, together with the rivers to which the lakes are connected, were important determinants of their limnological characteristics. These differences are expected, because rivers entering the floodplain come from different geological regions and are subject to different human impacts. At large spatial scales, these differences contribute to the increased habitat diversity of the floodplain and thus to its high biodiversity. With regard to temporal variation, Secchi-disk transparency increased, and total phosphorus decreased in the Paraná River main channel during the last 20 years. Although these changes are directly attributed to the several reservoir cascades located upstream, the closing of the Porto Primavera dam in 1998 enhanced this effect. The increase in water transparency explains biotic changes within the floodplain. The lower-phosphorus Paraná River water probably dilutes concentrations of this element in the floodplain waterbodies during major floods, with future consequences for their productivity.

  16. Simulation of a tablet coating process at different scales using DEM. (United States)

    Boehling, P; Toschkoff, G; Just, S; Knop, K; Kleinebudde, P; Funke, A; Rehbaum, H; Rajniak, P; Khinast, J G


    Spray coating of tablets is an important unit operation in the pharmaceutical industry and is mainly used for modified release, enteric protection, better appearance and brand recognition. It can also be used to apply an additional active pharmaceutical ingredient to the tablet core. Scale-up of such a process is an important step in commercialization. However, scale-up is not trivial and frequently, at manufacturing scales the required coating quality cannot be reached. Thus, we propose a method where laboratory experiments are carried out, yet scale-up is done via computational methods, i.e., by extrapolating results to larger scales. In the recent years, the Discrete Element Method (DEM) has widely been used to simulate tablet behavior in a laboratory scale drum coater. Due the increasing computational power and more sophisticated DEM algorithms, it has become possible to simulate millions of particles on regular PCs and model industrial scale tablet coating devices. In this work, simulations were performed on the laboratory, pilot and industrial scales and DEM was used to study how different scale-up rules influence the bed behavior on larger scales. The material parameters of the tablets were measured in the laboratory and a glued sphere approach was applied to model the tablet shape. The results include a vast amount of qualitative and quantitative data at the different scales. In conclusion, the evolution of the inter-tablet coating variation for the different scales and process parameters is presented. The results suggest that keeping the Froude number constant during the scale up process leads to faster processes as the cycle time is shorter and the spray residence time is more uniform when compared to keeping the circumferential velocity constant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, west Texas (Delaware Basin). Annual progress report, March 31, 1995--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.; Hovorka, S.D.; Cole, A.G.


    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of clastic reservoirs in basinal sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover more of the original oil in place by strategic infill-well placement and geologically based field development. Reservoirs in the Delaware Mountain Group have low producibility (average recovery <14 percent of the original oil in place) because of a high degree of vertical and lateral heterogeneity caused by depositional processes and post-depositional diagenetic modification. Detailed correlations of the Ramsey sandstone reservoirs in Geraldine Ford field suggest that lateral sandstone continuity is less than interpreted by previous studies. The degree of lateral heterogeneity in the reservoir sandstones suggests that they were deposited by eolian-derived turbidites. According to the eolian-derived turbidite model, sand dunes migrated across the exposed shelf to the shelf break during sea-level lowstands and provided well sorted sand for turbidity currents or grain flows into the deep basin.

  18. Integration of dynamical data in a geostatistical model of reservoir; Integration des donnees dynamiques dans un modele geostatistique de reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Reis, L.


    We have developed in this thesis a methodology of integrated characterization of heterogeneous reservoirs, from geologic modeling to history matching. This methodology is applied to the reservoir PBR, situated in Campos Basin, offshore Brazil, which has been producing since June 1979. This work is an extension of two other thesis concerning geologic and geostatistical modeling of the reservoir PBR from well data and seismic information. We extended the geostatistical litho-type model to the whole reservoir by using a particular approach of the non-stationary truncated Gaussian simulation method. This approach facilitated the application of the gradual deformation method to history matching. The main stages of the methodology for dynamic data integration in a geostatistical reservoir model are presented. We constructed a reservoir model and the initial difficulties in the history matching led us to modify some choices in the geological, geostatistical and flow models. These difficulties show the importance of dynamic data integration in reservoir modeling. The petrophysical property assignment within the litho-types was done by using well test data. We used an inversion procedure to evaluate the petrophysical parameters of the litho-types. The up-scaling is a necessary stage to reduce the flow simulation time. We compared several up-scaling methods and we show that the passage from the fine geostatistical model to the coarse flow model should be done very carefully. The choice of the fitting parameter depends on the objective of the study. In the case of the reservoir PBR, where water is injected in order to improve the oil recovery, the water rate of the producing wells is directly related to the reservoir heterogeneity. Thus, the water rate was chosen as the fitting parameter. We obtained significant improvements in the history matching of the reservoir PBR. First, by using a method we have proposed, called patchwork. This method allows us to built a coherent

  19. Development and validation of the Simulation Learning Effectiveness Scale for nursing students. (United States)

    Pai, Hsiang-Chu


    To develop and validate the Simulation Learning Effectiveness Scale, which is based on Bandura's social cognitive theory. A simulation programme is a significant teaching strategy for nursing students. Nevertheless, there are few evidence-based instruments that validate the effectiveness of simulation learning in Taiwan. This is a quantitative descriptive design. In Study 1, a nonprobability convenience sample of 151 student nurses completed the Simulation Learning Effectiveness Scale. Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the factor structure of the instrument. In Study 2, which involved 365 student nurses, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling were used to analyse the construct validity of the Simulation Learning Effectiveness Scale. In Study 1, exploratory factor analysis yielded three components: self-regulation, self-efficacy and self-motivation. The three factors explained 29·09, 27·74 and 19·32% of the variance, respectively. The final 12-item instrument with the three factors explained 76·15% of variance. Cronbach's alpha was 0·94. In Study 2, confirmatory factor analysis identified a second-order factor termed Simulation Learning Effectiveness Scale. Goodness-of-fit indices showed an acceptable fit overall with the full model (χ 2 /df (51) = 3·54, comparative fit index = 0·96, Tucker-Lewis index = 0·95 and standardised root-mean-square residual = 0·035). In addition, teacher's competence was found to encourage learning, and self-reflection and insight were significantly and positively associated with Simulation Learning Effectiveness Scale. Teacher's competence in encouraging learning also was significantly and positively associated with self-reflection and insight. Overall, theses variable explained 21·9% of the variance in the student's learning effectiveness. The Simulation Learning Effectiveness Scale is a reliable and valid means to assess simulation learning effectiveness for nursing students

  20. Reservoir simulation with imposed flux continuity conditions on heterogeneous and anisotropic media for general geometries, and the inclusion of hysteresis in forward modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eigestad, Geir Terje


    The thesis is divided into two main parts. Part I gives an overview and summary of the theory that lies behind the flow equations and the discretization principles used in the work. Part II is a collection of research papers that have been written by the candidate (in collaboration with others). The main objective of this thesis is the discretization of an elliptic PDE which describes the pressure in a porous medium. The porous medium will in general be described by permeability tensors which are heterogeneous and anisotropic. In addition, the geometry is often complex for practical applications. This requires discretization approaches that are suited for the problems in mind. The discretization approaches used here are based on imposed flux and potential continuity, and will be discussed in detail in Chapter 3 of Part I. These methods are called Multi Point Flux Approximation Methods, and the acronym MPFA will be used for them. Issues related to these methods will be the main issue of this thesis. The rest of this thesis is organised as follows: Part I: Chapter 1 gives a brief overview of the physics and mathematics behind reservoir simulation. The standard mass balance equations are presented, and we try to explain what reservoir simulation is. Some standard discretization s methods are briefly discussed in Chapter 2. The main focus in Part I is on the MPFA discretization approach for various geometries, and is given in Chapter 3. Some details may have been left out in the papers of Part II, and the section serves both as a summary of the discretization method(s), as well as a more detailed description than what is found in the papers. In Chapter 4, extensions to handle time dependent and nonlinear problems are discussed. Some of the numerical examples presented in Part II deal with two phase flow, and are based on the extension given in this chapter. Chapter 5 discusses numerical results that have been obtained for the MPFA methods for elliptic problems, and

  1. Comparison of Waste Feed Delivery Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Simulant to Hanford Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Beric E.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.


    'The Hanford double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste feed delivery to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Hall (2008) includes WTP acceptance criteria that describe physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be certified as acceptable before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST. The objectives of Washington River Protection Solutions' (WRPS) Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project are to understand and demonstrate the DST sampling and batch transfer performance at multiple scales using slurry simulants comprised of UDS particles and liquid (Townson 2009). The SSMD project utilizes geometrically scaled DST feed tanks to generate mixing, sampling, and transfer test data. In Phase 2 of the testing, RPP-49740, the 5-part simulant defined in RPP-48358 was used as the waste slurry simulant. The Phase 2 test data are being used to estimate the expected performance of the prototypic systems in the full-scale DSTs. As such, understanding of the how the small-scale systems as well as the simulant relate to the full-scale DSTs and actual waste is required. The focus of this report is comparison of the size and density of the 5-part SSMD simulant to that of the Hanford waste. This is accomplished by computing metrics for particle mobilization, suspension, settling, transfer line intake, and pipeline transfer from the characterization of the 5-part SSMD simulant and characterizations of the Hanford waste. In addition, the effects of the suspending fluid characteristics on the test results are considered, and a computational fluid dynamics tool useful to quantify uncertainties from simulant selections is discussed.'

  2. Analysis of real-time reservoir monitoring : reservoirs, strategies, & modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani, Seethambal S.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Normann, Randy Allen; Jennings, Jim (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Gilbert, Bob (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Lake, Larry W. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Weiss, Chester Joseph; Lorenz, John Clay; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Wheeler, Mary Fanett (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Thomas, Sunil G. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Rightley, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Adolfo (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Klie, Hector (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Banchs, Rafael (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Nunez, Emilio J. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Jablonowski, Chris (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX)


    The project objective was to detail better ways to assess and exploit intelligent oil and gas field information through improved modeling, sensor technology, and process control to increase ultimate recovery of domestic hydrocarbons. To meet this objective we investigated the use of permanent downhole sensors systems (Smart Wells) whose data is fed real-time into computational reservoir models that are integrated with optimized production control systems. The project utilized a three-pronged approach (1) a value of information analysis to address the economic advantages, (2) reservoir simulation modeling and control optimization to prove the capability, and (3) evaluation of new generation sensor packaging to survive the borehole environment for long periods of time. The Value of Information (VOI) decision tree method was developed and used to assess the economic advantage of using the proposed technology; the VOI demonstrated the increased subsurface resolution through additional sensor data. Our findings show that the VOI studies are a practical means of ascertaining the value associated with a technology, in this case application of sensors to production. The procedure acknowledges the uncertainty in predictions but nevertheless assigns monetary value to the predictions. The best aspect of the procedure is that it builds consensus within interdisciplinary teams The reservoir simulation and modeling aspect of the project was developed to show the capability of exploiting sensor information both for reservoir characterization and to optimize control of the production system. Our findings indicate history matching is improved as more information is added to the objective function, clearly indicating that sensor information can help in reducing the uncertainty associated with reservoir characterization. Additional findings and approaches used are described in detail within the report. The next generation sensors aspect of the project evaluated sensors and packaging

  3. Volume 4: Characterization of representative reservoirs -- Gulf of Mexico field, U-8 reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koperna, G.J. Jr.; Johnson, H.R. [BDM Federal, Inc., McLean, VA (United States); Salamy, S.P.; Reeves, T.K. [BDM-Oklahoma, Inc., Bartlesville, OK (United States); Sawyer, W.K. [Mathematical and Computer Services, Inc., Danville, VA (United States); Kimbrell, W.C.; Schenewerk, P.A. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering


    A reservoir study was performed using a publicly available black oil simulator to history match and predict the performance of a Gulf of Mexico reservoir. The first objective of this simulation study was to validate the Black Oil Applied Simulation Tool version three for personal computers (BOAST3-PC) model to ensure the integrity of the simulation runs. Once validation was completed, a field history match for the Gulf of Mexico U-8 oil reservoir was attempted. A verbal agreement was reached with the operator of this reservoir to blindcode the name and location of the reservoir. In return, the operator supplied data and assistance in regards to the technical aspects of the research. On the basis of the best history match, different secondary recovery techniques were simulated as a predictive study for enhancing the reservoir productivity.

  4. Data Integration for the Generation of High Resolution Reservoir Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert Reynolds; Dean Oliver; Gaoming Li; Yong Zhao; Chaohui Che; Kai Zhang; Yannong Dong; Chinedu Abgalaka; Mei Han


    The goal of this three-year project was to develop a theoretical basis and practical technology for the integration of geologic, production and time-lapse seismic data in a way that makes best use of the information for reservoir description and reservoir performance predictions. The methodology and practical tools for data integration that were developed in this research project have been incorporated into computational algorithms that are feasible for large scale reservoir simulation models. As the integration of production and seismic data require calibrating geological/geostatistical models to these data sets, the main computational tool is an automatic history matching algorithm. The following specific goals were accomplished during this research. (1) We developed algorithms for calibrating the location of the boundaries of geologic facies and the distribution of rock properties so that production and time-lapse seismic data are honored. (2) We developed and implemented specific procedures for conditioning reservoir models to time-lapse seismic data. (3) We developed and implemented algorithms for the characterization of measurement errors which are needed to determine the relative weights of data when conditioning reservoir models to production and time-lapse seismic data by automatic history matching. (4) We developed and implemented algorithms for the adjustment of relative permeability curves during the history matching process. (5) We developed algorithms for production optimization which accounts for geological uncertainty within the context of closed-loop reservoir management. (6) To ensure the research results will lead to practical public tools for independent oil companies, as part of the project we built a graphical user interface for the reservoir simulator and history matching software using Visual Basic.

  5. High Fidelity Simulations of Large-Scale Wireless Networks (Plus-Up)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onunkwo, Uzoma [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Sandia has built a strong reputation in scalable network simulation and emulation for cyber security studies to protect our nation’s critical information infrastructures. Georgia Tech has preeminent reputation in academia for excellence in scalable discrete event simulations, with strong emphasis on simulating cyber networks. Many of the experts in this field, such as Dr. Richard Fujimoto, Dr. George Riley, and Dr. Chris Carothers, have strong affiliations with Georgia Tech. The collaborative relationship that we intend to immediately pursue is in high fidelity simulations of practical large-scale wireless networks using ns-3 simulator via Dr. George Riley. This project will have mutual benefits in bolstering both institutions’ expertise and reputation in the field of scalable simulation for cyber-security studies. This project promises to address high fidelity simulations of large-scale wireless networks. This proposed collaboration is directly in line with Georgia Tech’s goals for developing and expanding the Communications Systems Center, the Georgia Tech Broadband Institute, and Georgia Tech Information Security Center along with its yearly Emerging Cyber Threats Report. At Sandia, this work benefits the defense systems and assessment area with promise for large-scale assessment of cyber security needs and vulnerabilities of our nation’s critical cyber infrastructures exposed to wireless communications.

  6. ROSA-IV Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) system description for second simulated fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The ROSA-IV Program's Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) is a test facility for integral simulation of thermal-hydraulic response of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) during small break loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) and transients. In this facility, the PWR core nuclear fuel rods are simulated using electric heater rods. The simulated fuel assembly which was installed during the facility construction was replaced with a new one in 1988. The first test with this second simulated fuel assembly was conducted in December 1988. This report describes the facility configuration and characteristics as of this date (December 1988) including the new simulated fuel assembly design and the facility changes which were made during the testing with the first assembly as well as during the renewal of the simulated fuel assembly. (author)

  7. Development of gas and gas condensate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In the study of gas reservoir development, the first year topics are restricted on reservoir characterization. There are two types of reservoir characterization. One is the reservoir formation characterization and the other is the reservoir fluid characterization. For the reservoir formation characterization, calculation of conditional simulation was compared with that of unconditional simulation. The results of conditional simulation has higher confidence level than the unconditional simulation because conditional simulation considers the sample location as well as distance correlation. In the reservoir fluid characterization, phase behavior calculations revealed that the component grouping is more important than the increase of number of components. From the liquid volume fraction with pressure drop, the phase behavior of reservoir fluid can be estimated. The calculation results of fluid recombination, constant composition expansion, and constant volume depletion are matched very well with the experimental data. In swelling test of the reservoir fluid with lean gas, the accuracy of dew point pressure forecast depends on the component characterization. (author). 28 figs., 10 tabs.

  8. Prediction of Gas Injection Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklin M. Orr, Jr; Martin J. Blunt


    This project performs research in four main areas: laboratory experiments to measure three-phase relative permeability; network modeling to predict three-phase relative perme- ability; benchmark simulations of gas injection and waterfl ooding at the field scale; and the development of fast streamline techniques to study field-scale oil. The aim of the work is to achieve a comprehensive description of gas injection processes from the pore to the core to the reservoir scale. In this report we provide a detailed description of our measurements of three-phase relative permeability.

  9. Modelling sediment export, retention and reservoir sedimentation in drylands with the WASA-SED model

    Directory of Open