WorldWideScience

Sample records for reservoir production policies

  1. Managing a hydro-energy reservoir: A policy approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ackere, Ann; Ochoa, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Liberalisation and privatisation have increased the need to gain more understanding into the management of hydro storage (HS) plants. We analyse what types of reservoir management policies enable an owner or a public authority to achieve their respective objectives. By 'policy' we understand simple, easily applicable decision rules, which enable a decision maker to decide when and how much to produce based on currently available information. We use a stylised deterministic simulation model of a hydro-power producer (HP) who behaves strategically. We study a non-liberalised market, where the authorities aim to minimise the total electricity cost for customers and a liberalised market where the HP attempts to maximise his contribution. This enables us to evaluate the impact of the liberalisation of HS production decisions on production volumes and electricity prices. We conclude that imposing rigid policies with the aim of limiting the potential for strategic behaviour can create incentives to produce only at very high prices throughout the year. This can lead to very high total costs, especially when the producer has most flexibility (large reservoirs combined with large turbine capacity). More surprisingly, we observe lower total production in a non-liberalised market. (author)

  2. Optimal reservoir operation policies using novel nested algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delipetrev, Blagoj; Jonoski, Andreja; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2015-04-01

    Historically, the two most widely practiced methods for optimal reservoir operation have been dynamic programming (DP) and stochastic dynamic programming (SDP). These two methods suffer from the so called "dual curse" which prevents them to be used in reasonably complex water systems. The first one is the "curse of dimensionality" that denotes an exponential growth of the computational complexity with the state - decision space dimension. The second one is the "curse of modelling" that requires an explicit model of each component of the water system to anticipate the effect of each system's transition. We address the problem of optimal reservoir operation concerning multiple objectives that are related to 1) reservoir releases to satisfy several downstream users competing for water with dynamically varying demands, 2) deviations from the target minimum and maximum reservoir water levels and 3) hydropower production that is a combination of the reservoir water level and the reservoir releases. Addressing such a problem with classical methods (DP and SDP) requires a reasonably high level of discretization of the reservoir storage volume, which in combination with the required releases discretization for meeting the demands of downstream users leads to computationally expensive formulations and causes the curse of dimensionality. We present a novel approach, named "nested" that is implemented in DP, SDP and reinforcement learning (RL) and correspondingly three new algorithms are developed named nested DP (nDP), nested SDP (nSDP) and nested RL (nRL). The nested algorithms are composed from two algorithms: 1) DP, SDP or RL and 2) nested optimization algorithm. Depending on the way we formulate the objective function related to deficits in the allocation problem in the nested optimization, two methods are implemented: 1) Simplex for linear allocation problems, and 2) quadratic Knapsack method in the case of nonlinear problems. The novel idea is to include the nested

  3. US production of natural gas from tight reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    For the purposes of this report, tight gas reservoirs are defined as those that meet the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) definition of tight. They are generally characterized by an average reservoir rock permeability to gas of 0.1 millidarcy or less and, absent artificial stimulation of production, by production rates that do not exceed 5 barrels of oil per day and certain specified daily volumes of gas which increase with the depth of the reservoir. All of the statistics presented in this report pertain to wells that have been classified, from 1978 through 1991, as tight according to the FERC; i.e., they are ''legally tight'' reservoirs. Additional production from ''geologically tight'' reservoirs that have not been classified tight according to the FERC rules has been excluded. This category includes all producing wells drilled into legally designated tight gas reservoirs prior to 1978 and all producing wells drilled into physically tight gas reservoirs that have not been designated legally tight. Therefore, all gas production referenced herein is eligible for the Section 29 tax credit. Although the qualification period for the credit expired at the end of 1992, wells that were spudded (began to be drilled) between 1978 and May 1988, and from November 5, 1990, through year end 1992, are eligible for the tax credit for a subsequent period of 10 years. This report updates the EIA's tight gas production information through 1991 and considers further the history and effect on tight gas production of the Federal Government's regulatory and tax policy actions. It also provides some high points of the geologic background needed to understand the nature and location of low-permeability reservoirs

  4. Production Optimization of Oil Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völcker, Carsten

    With an increasing demand for oil and diculties in nding new major oil elds, research on methods to improve oil recovery from existing elds is more necessary now than ever. The subject of this thesis is to construct ecient numerical methods for simulation and optimization of oil recovery...... programming (SQP) with line-search and BFGS approximations of the Hessian, and the adjoint method for ecient computation of the gradients. We demonstrate that the application of NMPC for optimal control of smart-wells has the potential to increase the economic value of an oil reservoir....... with emphasis on optimal control of water ooding with the use of smartwell technology. We have implemented immiscible ow of water and oil in isothermal reservoirs with isotropic heterogenous permeability elds. We use the method of lines for solution of the partial differential equation (PDE) system that governs...

  5. Policy Considerations for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Freshwater Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Mäkinen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Emerging concern over greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from wetlands has prompted calls to address the climate impact of dams in climate policy frameworks. Existing studies indicate that reservoirs can be significant sources of emissions, particularly in tropical areas. However, knowledge on the role of dams in overall national emission levels and abatement targets is limited, which is often cited as a key reason for political inaction and delays in formulating appropriate policies. Against this backdrop, this paper discusses the current role of reservoir emissions in existing climate policy frameworks. The distance between a global impact on climate and a need for local mitigation measures creates a challenge for designing appropriate mechanisms to combat reservoir emissions. This paper presents a range of possible policy interventions at different scales that could help address the climate impact of reservoirs. Reservoir emissions need to be treated like other anthropogenic greenhouse gases. A rational treatment of the issue requires applying commonly accepted climate change policy principles as well as promoting participatory water management plans through integrated water resource management frameworks. An independent global body such as the UN system may be called upon to assess scientific information and develop GHG emissions policy at appropriate levels.

  6. Challenges of reservoir properties and production history matching in a CHOPS reservoir study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Mahbub [Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In order to meet increasing world energy demand, wells have to be drilled within very thin reservoir beds. This paper, we present one of the solutions for optimizing the reservoir characterization. Reservoir characterization is the process between the discovery of a property and the reservoir management phase. Principal data for reservoir modeling are: 4D Seismic interpretation, wireline log interpretation, core analysis, and petrophysical analysis. Reservoir conditions, perforation and completion technology are the key issues to the production rate of cold production. Reservoir modeling intends to minimize the risk factor, maximize production, and help determine the location for infill drillings. Cold heavy oil production with sand (CHOPS) is a method for enhancing primary production from heavy oil reservoirs. Gravitational forces, natural fluid pressure gradients and foamy oil flow phenomena are the major driving forces of the CHOPS mechanism. Finally, Reservoir characterization allows better understanding of permeability and porosity prediction.

  7. Sensitivity Analysis of Methane Hydrate Reservoirs: Effects of Reservoir Parameters on Gas Productivity and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. J.; Gaddipati, M.; Nyayapathi, L.

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a parametric study on production rates of natural gas from gas hydrates by the method of depressurization, using CMG STARS. Seven factors/parameters were considered as perturbations from a base-case hydrate reservoir description based on Problem 7 of the International Methane Hydrate Reservoir Simulator Code Comparison Study led by the Department of Energy and the USGS. This reservoir is modeled after the inferred properties of the hydrate deposit at the Prudhoe Bay L-106 site. The included sensitivity variables were hydrate saturation, pressure (depth), temperature, bottom-hole pressure of the production well, free water saturation, intrinsic rock permeability, and porosity. A two-level (L=2) Plackett-Burman experimental design was used to study the relative effects of these factors. The measured variable was the discounted cumulative gas production. The discount rate chosen was 15%, resulting in the gas contribution to the net present value of a reservoir. Eight different designs were developed for conducting sensitivity analysis and the effects of the parameters on the real and discounted production rates will be discussed. The breakeven price in various cases and the dependence of the breakeven price on the production parameters is given in the paper. As expected, initial reservoir temperature has the strongest positive effect on the productivity of a hydrate deposit and the bottom-hole pressure in the production well has the strongest negative dependence. Also resulting in a positive correlation is the intrinsic permeability and the initial free water of the formation. Negative effects were found for initial hydrate saturation (at saturations greater than 50% of the pore space) and the reservoir porosity. These negative effects are related to the available sensible heat of the reservoir, with decreasing productivity due to decreasing available sensible heat. Finally, we conclude that for the base case reservoir, the break-even price (BEP

  8. Bioemulsan Production by Iranian Oil Reservoirs Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Amiriyan, M Mazaheri Assadi, VA Saggadian, A Noohi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The biosurfactants are believed to be surface active components that are shed into the surrounding medium during the growth of the microorganisms. The oil degrading microorganism Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1 produces a poly-anionic biosurfactant, hetero-polysaccharide bioemulsifier termed as emulsan which forms and stabilizes oil-water emulsions with a variety of hydrophobic substrates. In the present paper results of the possibility of biosurfactant (Emulsan production by microorganisms isolated from Iranian oil reservoirs is presented. Fourthy three gram negative and gram positive, non fermentative, rod bacilli and coccobacilli shaped baceria were isolated from the oil wells of Bibi Hakimeh, Siri, Maroon, Ilam , East Paydar and West Paydar. Out of the isolated strains, 39 bacterial strains showed beta haemolytic activity, further screening revealed the emulsifying activity and surface tension. 11 out of 43 tested emulsifiers were identified as possible biosurfactant producers and two isolates produced large surface tension reduction, indicating the high probability of biosurfactant production. Further investigation revealed that, two gram negative, oxidase negative, aerobic and coccoid rods isolates were the best producers and hence designated as IL-1, PAY-4. Whole culture broth of isolates reduced surface tension from 68 mN /m to 30 and 29.1mN/m, respectively, and were stable during exposure to high salinity (10%NaCl and elevated temperatures(120C for 15 min .

  9. Geomechanical production optimization in faulted and fractured reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heege, J.H. ter; Pizzocolo, F.; Osinga, S.; Veer, E.F. van der

    2016-01-01

    Faults and fractures in hydrocarbon reservoirs are key to some major production issues including (1) varying productivity of different well sections due to intersection of preferential flow paths with the wellbore, (2) varying hydrocarbon column heights in different reservoir compartments due to

  10. Liquid oil production from shale gas condensate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, James J.

    2018-04-03

    A process of producing liquid oil from shale gas condensate reservoirs and, more particularly, to increase liquid oil production by huff-n-puff in shale gas condensate reservoirs. The process includes performing a huff-n-puff gas injection mode and flowing the bottom-hole pressure lower than the dew point pressure.

  11. Surrogate reservoir models for CSI well probabilistic production forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Buitrago

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present the construction and use of Surrogate Reservoir Models capable of accurately predicting cumulative oil production for every well stimulated with cyclic steam injection at any given time in a heavy oil reservoir in Mexico considering uncertain variables. The central composite experimental design technique was selected to capture the maximum amount of information from the model response with a minimum number of reservoir models simulations. Four input uncertain variables (the dead oil viscosity with temperature, the reservoir pressure, the reservoir permeability and oil sand thickness hydraulically connected to the well were selected as the ones with more impact on the initial hot oil production rate according to an analytical production prediction model. Twenty five runs were designed and performed with the STARS simulator for each well type on the reservoir model. The results show that the use of Surrogate Reservoir Models is a fast viable alternative to perform probabilistic production forecasting of the reservoir.

  12. Optimizing Wind And Hydropower Generation Within Realistic Reservoir Operating Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, T. M.; Clement, M. A.; Zagona, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have evaluated the benefits of utilizing the flexibility of hydropower systems to balance the variability and uncertainty of wind generation. However, previous hydropower and wind coordination studies have simplified non-power constraints on reservoir systems. For example, some studies have only included hydropower constraints on minimum and maximum storage volumes and minimum and maximum plant discharges. The methodology presented here utilizes the pre-emptive linear goal programming optimization solver in RiverWare to model hydropower operations with a set of prioritized policy constraints and objectives based on realistic policies that govern the operation of actual hydropower systems, including licensing constraints, environmental constraints, water management and power objectives. This approach accounts for the fact that not all policy constraints are of equal importance. For example target environmental flow levels may not be satisfied if it would require violating license minimum or maximum storages (pool elevations), but environmental flow constraints will be satisfied before optimizing power generation. Additionally, this work not only models the economic value of energy from the combined hydropower and wind system, it also captures the economic value of ancillary services provided by the hydropower resources. It is recognized that the increased variability and uncertainty inherent with increased wind penetration levels requires an increase in ancillary services. In regions with liberalized markets for ancillary services, a significant portion of hydropower revenue can result from providing ancillary services. Thus, ancillary services should be accounted for when determining the total value of a hydropower system integrated with wind generation. This research shows that the end value of integrated hydropower and wind generation is dependent on a number of factors that can vary by location. Wind factors include wind penetration level

  13. Oil Reservoir Production Optimization using Optimal Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völcker, Carsten; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2011-01-01

    Practical oil reservoir management involves solution of large-scale constrained optimal control problems. In this paper we present a numerical method for solution of large-scale constrained optimal control problems. The method is a single-shooting method that computes the gradients using the adjo...... reservoir using water ooding and smart well technology. Compared to the uncontrolled case, the optimal operation increases the Net Present Value of the oil field by 10%.......Practical oil reservoir management involves solution of large-scale constrained optimal control problems. In this paper we present a numerical method for solution of large-scale constrained optimal control problems. The method is a single-shooting method that computes the gradients using...

  14. Opportunities to improve oil productivity in unstructured deltaic reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This report contains presentations presented at a technical symposium on oil production. Chapter 1 contains summaries of the presentations given at the Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored symposium and key points of the discussions that followed. Chapter 2 characterizes the light oil resource from fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoirs in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). An analysis of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and advanced secondary recovery (ASR) potential for fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoirs based on recovery performance and economic modeling as well as the potential resource loss due to well abandonments is presented. Chapter 3 provides a summary of the general reservoir characteristics and properties within deltaic deposits. It is not exhaustive treatise, rather it is intended to provide some basic information about geologic, reservoir, and production characteristics of deltaic reservoirs, and the resulting recovery problems.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION TECHNIQUES AND PRODUCTION MODELS FOR EXPLOITING NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Wiggins; Raymon L. Brown; Faruk Civan; Richard G. Hughes

    2002-12-31

    For many years, geoscientists and engineers have undertaken research to characterize naturally fractured reservoirs. Geoscientists have focused on understanding the process of fracturing and the subsequent measurement and description of fracture characteristics. Engineers have concentrated on the fluid flow behavior in the fracture-porous media system and the development of models to predict the hydrocarbon production from these complex systems. This research attempts to integrate these two complementary views to develop a quantitative reservoir characterization methodology and flow performance model for naturally fractured reservoirs. The research has focused on estimating naturally fractured reservoir properties from seismic data, predicting fracture characteristics from well logs, and developing a naturally fractured reservoir simulator. It is important to develop techniques that can be applied to estimate the important parameters in predicting the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs. This project proposes a method to relate seismic properties to the elastic compliance and permeability of the reservoir based upon a sugar cube model. In addition, methods are presented to use conventional well logs to estimate localized fracture information for reservoir characterization purposes. The ability to estimate fracture information from conventional well logs is very important in older wells where data are often limited. Finally, a desktop naturally fractured reservoir simulator has been developed for the purpose of predicting the performance of these complex reservoirs. The simulator incorporates vertical and horizontal wellbore models, methods to handle matrix to fracture fluid transfer, and fracture permeability tensors. This research project has developed methods to characterize and study the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs that integrate geoscience and engineering data. This is an important step in developing exploitation strategies for

  16. Sampling from stochastic reservoir models constrained by production data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegstad, Bjoern Kaare

    1997-12-31

    When a petroleum reservoir is evaluated, it is important to forecast future production of oil and gas and to assess forecast uncertainty. This is done by defining a stochastic model for the reservoir characteristics, generating realizations from this model and applying a fluid flow simulator to the realizations. The reservoir characteristics define the geometry of the reservoir, initial saturation, petrophysical properties etc. This thesis discusses how to generate realizations constrained by production data, that is to say, the realizations should reproduce the observed production history of the petroleum reservoir within the uncertainty of these data. The topics discussed are: (1) Theoretical framework, (2) History matching, forecasting and forecasting uncertainty, (3) A three-dimensional test case, (4) Modelling transmissibility multipliers by Markov random fields, (5) Up scaling, (6) The link between model parameters, well observations and production history in a simple test case, (7) Sampling the posterior using optimization in a hierarchical model, (8) A comparison of Rejection Sampling and Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, (9) Stochastic simulation and conditioning by annealing in reservoir description, and (10) Uncertainty assessment in history matching and forecasting. 139 refs., 85 figs., 1 tab.

  17. NMPC for Oil Reservoir Production Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völcker, Carsten; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Thomsen, Per Grove

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we use nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) to maximize secondary oil recovery from an oil reservoir by controlling two-phase subsurface porous flow using adjustable down-hole control valves. The resulting optimal control problem is nonlinear and large-scale. We solve...... this problem numerically using a single shooting sequential quadratic programming (SQP) based optimization method. Explicit singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta (ESDIRK) methods are used for integration of the stiff system of differential equations describing the two-phase flow, and the adjoint method...

  18. Diagnostic Assessment of the Difficulty Using Direct Policy Search in Many-Objective Reservoir Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatarain-Salazar, J.; Reed, P. M.; Herman, J. D.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.

    2014-12-01

    Globally reservoir operations provide fundamental services to water supply, energy generation, recreation, and ecosystems. The pressures of expanding populations, climate change, and increased energy demands are motivating a significant investment in re-operationalizing existing reservoirs or defining operations for new reservoirs. Recent work has highlighted the potential benefits of exploiting recent advances in many-objective optimization and direct policy search (DPS) to aid in addressing these systems' multi-sector demand tradeoffs. This study contributes to a comprehensive diagnostic assessment of multi-objective evolutionary optimization algorithms (MOEAs) efficiency, effectiveness, reliability, and controllability when supporting DPS for the Conowingo dam in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin. The Lower Susquehanna River is an interstate water body that has been subject to intensive water management efforts due to the system's competing demands from urban water supply, atomic power plant cooling, hydropower production, and federally regulated environmental flows. Seven benchmark and state-of-the-art MOEAs are tested on deterministic and stochastic instances of the Susquehanna test case. In the deterministic formulation, the operating objectives are evaluated over the historical realization of the hydroclimatic variables (i.e., inflows and evaporation rates). In the stochastic formulation, the same objectives are instead evaluated over an ensemble of stochastic inflows and evaporation rates realizations. The algorithms are evaluated in their ability to support DPS in discovering reservoir operations that compose the tradeoffs for six multi-sector performance objectives with thirty-two decision variables. Our diagnostic results highlight that many-objective DPS is very challenging for modern MOEAs and that epsilon dominance is critical for attaining high levels of performance. Epsilon dominance algorithms epsilon-MOEA, epsilon-NSGAII and the auto adaptive Borg

  19. Hierarchical Economic Optimization of Oil Production from Petroleum Reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Essen, G.M.; Van den Hof, P.M.J.; Jansen, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    In oil production waterflooding is a popular recovery technology, which involves the injection of water into an oil reservoir. Studies on model-based dynamic optimization of waterflooding strategies have demonstrated that there is a signifcant potential to increase life-cycle performance, measured

  20. Methane Ebullition in Temperate Hydropower Reservoirs and Implications for US Policy on Greenhouse Gas Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Benjamin L; Arntzen, Evan V; Goldman, Amy E; Richmond, Marshall C

    2017-10-01

    The United States is home to 2198 dams actively used for hydropower production. With the December 2015 consensus adoption of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Paris Agreement, it is important to accurately quantify anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Methane ebullition, or methane bubbles originating from river or lake sediments, has been shown to account for nearly all methane emissions from tropical hydropower reservoirs to the atmosphere. However, distinct ebullitive methane fluxes have been studied in comparatively few temperate hydropower reservoirs globally. This study measures ebullitive and diffusive methane fluxes from two eastern Washington reservoirs, and synthesizes existing studies of methane ebullition in temperate, boreal, and tropical hydropower reservoirs. Ebullition comprises nearly all methane emissions (>97%) from this study's two eastern Washington hydropower reservoirs to the atmosphere. Summer methane ebullition from these reservoirs was higher than ebullition in six southeastern U.S. hydropower reservoirs, however it was similar to temperate reservoirs in other parts of the world. Our literature synthesis suggests that methane ebullition from temperate hydropower reservoirs can be seasonally elevated compared to tropical climates, however annual emissions are likely to be higher within tropical climates, emphasizing the possible range of methane ebullition fluxes and the need for the further study of temperate reservoirs. Possible future changes to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and UNFCCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories highlights the need for accurate assessment of reservoir emissions.

  1. Proprietary policy and production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeong, Byeongju

    -, č. 287 (2006), s. 1-14 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : proprietary regime * direct production * model Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp287.pdf

  2. Efficient operation of a multi-purpose reservoir in Chile: Tradeoffs between irrigation and hydropower production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Cabrera, J. M., Sr.; Olivares, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    This study proposes a method to develop efficient operational policies for a reservoir the southern Chile. The main water uses in this system are hydropower and irrigation, with conflicting seasonal demands. The conflict between these two uses is currently managed through a so-called "irrigation agreement" which defines a series of operational conditions on the reservoir by restricting volumes used for power production depending on reservoir storage level. Other than that, the reservoir operation is driven by cost-minimization over the power grid. Recent evidence shows an increasing degree of conflict in this basin, which suggests that the static approach of irrigation agreements, might no longer be appropriate. Moreover, this agreement could be revised in light of decreased water availability. This problem poses a challenge related to the spatial scope of analysis. Thus, irrigation benefits are driven by decisions made within the basin, whereas hydropower benefits depend on the operation of the entire power grid. Exploring the tradeoffs between these two water uses involves modeling both scales. The proposed methodology integrates information from both a grid-wide power operations model and a basin-wide agro-economic model into a decision model for optimal reservoir operation. The first model, a hydrothermal coordination tool, schedules power production by each plant in the grid, and allows capturing technical and economic aspects to the operation of hydropower reservoirs. The agro-economic model incorporates economic features of irrigation in the basin, and allows obtaining irrigation water demand functions. Finally, the results of both models are integrated into a single model for optimal reservoir operation considering the tradeoffs between the two uses. The result of the joint operation of water resources, show a flexible coordination of uses, revealing the opportunity cost of irrigation, which it gives the possibility of negotiating transfers of water to

  3. Development of Reservoir Characterization Techniques and Production Models for Exploiting Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, M.L.; Evans, R.D.; Brown, R.L.; Gupta, A.

    2001-03-28

    This report focuses on integrating geoscience and engineering data to develop a consistent characterization of the naturally fractured reservoirs. During this reporting period, effort was focused on relating seismic data to reservoir properties of naturally fractured reservoirs, scaling well log data to generate interwell descriptors of these reservoirs, enhancing and debugging a naturally fractured reservoir simulator, and developing a horizontal wellbore model for use in the simulator.

  4. Incorporating teleconnection information into reservoir operating policies using Stochastic Dynamic Programming and a Hidden Markov Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sean; Galelli, Stefano; Wilcox, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Water reservoir systems are often affected by recurring large-scale ocean-atmospheric anomalies, known as teleconnections, that cause prolonged periods of climatological drought. Accurate forecasts of these events -- at lead times in the order of weeks and months -- may enable reservoir operators to take more effective release decisions to improve the performance of their systems. In practice this might mean a more reliable water supply system, a more profitable hydropower plant or a more sustainable environmental release policy. To this end, climate indices, which represent the oscillation of the ocean-atmospheric system, might be gainfully employed within reservoir operating models that adapt the reservoir operation as a function of the climate condition. This study develops a Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) approach that can incorporate climate indices using a Hidden Markov Model. The model simulates the climatic regime as a hidden state following a Markov chain, with the state transitions driven by variation in climatic indices, such as the Southern Oscillation Index. Time series analysis of recorded streamflow data reveals the parameters of separate autoregressive models that describe the inflow to the reservoir under three representative climate states ("normal", "wet", "dry"). These models then define inflow transition probabilities for use in a classic SDP approach. The key advantage of the Hidden Markov Model is that it allows conditioning the operating policy not only on the reservoir storage and the antecedent inflow, but also on the climate condition, thus potentially allowing adaptability to a broader range of climate conditions. In practice, the reservoir operator would effect a water release tailored to a specific climate state based on available teleconnection data and forecasts. The approach is demonstrated on the operation of a realistic, stylised water reservoir with carry-over capacity in South-East Australia. Here teleconnections relating

  5. Beneficial use of nuclear power plant effluent for increasing fish productivity of reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    At present India is having about 19,370 numbers of reservoirs constituting about 3.15 million hector of water spread area. Though we have large water recourses they have been poorly utilized for fisheries purpose. Average fish production of reservoirs in India is only 20.13kg per ha whereas potential production from Indian reservoirs is about 77.7kg per ha. Based on its size reservoirs have been categorised into three groups ie., Large Reservoir > 5000 ha), Medium Reservoir (1000-5000 ha) and Small Reservoir (< 1000 ha) and present productivity status from these reservoirs are 11.43, 12.3, 49.5 kg/ha and potential production are 50, 75 and 100 kg/ha respectively

  6. Electricity production in a hydro system with a reservoir constraint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathiesen, Lars; Skaar, Jostein; Soergard, Lars

    2011-02-15

    The purpose of this article is to analyze how market power may affect the allocation of production between seasons (summer and winter) in a hydro power system with reservoir constraints and inflow uncertainty. We find that even without market power the price in the summer season may be lower than the expected price in the winter season. Market power may in some situations lead to higher sales and lower price in summer than the competitive outcome and in other situations to the opposite result. Furthermore, market power may lead to a smaller price difference between summer and winter than in a competitive market. (Author)

  7. Methane Ebullition in Temperate Hydropower Reservoirs and Implications for US Policy on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Benjamin L.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Goldman, Amy E.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2017-07-21

    The United States is home to more than 87,000 dams, 2,198 of which are actively used for hydropower production. With the December 2015 consensus adoption of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change’s Paris Agreement, it is imperative for the U.S. to accurately quantify greenhouse gas fluxes from its hydropower reservoirs. Methane ebullition, or methane bubbles originating from river or lake sediments, can account for nearly all of a reservoir’s methane emissions to the atmosphere. However, methane ebullition in hydropower reservoirs has been studied in only three temperate locations, none of which are in the United States. This study measures high ebullitive methane fluxes from two hydropower reservoirs in eastern Washington, synthesizes the known information about methane ebullition from tropical, boreal, and temperate hydropower reservoirs, and investigates the implications for U.S. hydropower management and growth.

  8. 76 FR 63957 - Consumer Product Policy Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... COMMISSION Consumer Product Policy Statement AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed revision... general public (consumer products). While the NRC is not making any significant changes to the policy... intended for use by the general public (consumer products). Under this policy, the AEC and then the NRC...

  9. Development of Reservoir Characterization Techniques and Production Models for Exploiting Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, Michael L.; Brown, Raymon L.; Civan, Frauk; Hughes, Richard G.

    2001-08-15

    Research continues on characterizing and modeling the behavior of naturally fractured reservoir systems. Work has progressed on developing techniques for estimating fracture properties from seismic and well log data, developing naturally fractured wellbore models, and developing a model to characterize the transfer of fluid from the matrix to the fracture system for use in the naturally fractured reservoir simulator.

  10. Reservoir Characterization, Production Characteristics, and Research Needs for Fluvial/Alluvial Reservoirs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.L.; Jackson, S.R.; Madden, M.P.; Raw-Schatzinger, V.; Salamy, S.P.; Sarathi, P.; Young, M.A.

    1999-04-28

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program was initiated in 1992 to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from known domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. Cost-shared field demonstration projects are being initiated in geology defined reservoir classes which have been prioritized by their potential for incremental recovery and their risk of abandonment. This document defines the characteristics of the fifth geological reservoir class in the series, fluvial/alluvial reservoirs. The reservoirs of Class 5 include deposits of alluvial fans, braided streams, and meandering streams. Deposit morphologies vary as a complex function of climate and tectonics and are characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity to fluid flow as a result of extreme variations in water energy as the deposits formed.

  11. Biodiesel production from sediments of a eutrophic reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchkina, A.Yu.; Gladyshev, M.I.; Sushchik, N.N.; Kravchuk, E.S.; Kalachova, G.S.

    2011-01-01

    Sediments from eutrophic reservoir Bugach (Siberia, Russia) were tested for possibility to produce biodiesel. We supposed that the sediments could be a promising biodiesel producer. The major reason of high price of biodiesel fuel is cost of a raw material. The use of dredging sediments for biodiesel production reduces production costs, because the dredging sediments are by-products which originated during lake restoration actions, and are free of cost raw materials. Lipid content in sediments was 0.24% of dry weight. To assess the potential of from sediments as a substitute of diesel fuel, the properties of the biodiesel such as cetane number, iodine number and heat of combustion were calculated. All of this parameters complied with limits established by EN 14214 and EN 14213 related to biodiesel quality. -- Highlights: → Dredging sediments were considered as a new feedstock for biodiesel production. → Lipid and fatty acid content in the sediments were determined. → Main properties of the biodiesel were calculated basing on fatty acid composition. → The properties well complied with limits established in biodiesel standards.

  12. Altering Reservoir Wettability to Improve Production from Single Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. W. Weiss

    2006-09-30

    tests were conducted in an area of the field that has not met production expectations. The dataset on the 23 Phosphoria well surfactant soaks was updated. An analysis of the oil decline curves indicted that 4.5 lb of chemical produced a barrel of incremental oil. The AI analysis supports the adage 'good wells are the best candidates.' The generally better performance of surfactant in the high permeability core laboratory tests supports this observation. AI correlations were developed to predict the response to water-frac stimulations in a tight San Andres reservoir. The correlations maybe useful in the design of Cedar Creek Anticline surfactant soak treatments planned for next year. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance scans of dolomite cores to measure porosity and saturation during the high temperature laboratory work were acquired. The scans could not be correlated with physical measurement using either conventional or AI methods.

  13. Gradient-based methods for production optimization of oil reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwartadi, Eka

    2012-07-01

    Production optimization for water flooding in the secondary phase of oil recovery is the main topic in this thesis. The emphasis has been on numerical optimization algorithms, tested on case examples using simple hypothetical oil reservoirs. Gradientbased optimization, which utilizes adjoint-based gradient computation, is used to solve the optimization problems. The first contribution of this thesis is to address output constraint problems. These kinds of constraints are natural in production optimization. Limiting total water production and water cut at producer wells are examples of such constraints. To maintain the feasibility of an optimization solution, a Lagrangian barrier method is proposed to handle the output constraints. This method incorporates the output constraints into the objective function, thus avoiding additional computations for the constraints gradient (Jacobian) which may be detrimental to the efficiency of the adjoint method. The second contribution is the study of the use of second-order adjoint-gradient information for production optimization. In order to speedup convergence rate in the optimization, one usually uses quasi-Newton approaches such as BFGS and SR1 methods. These methods compute an approximation of the inverse of the Hessian matrix given the first-order gradient from the adjoint method. The methods may not give significant speedup if the Hessian is ill-conditioned. We have developed and implemented the Hessian matrix computation using the adjoint method. Due to high computational cost of the Newton method itself, we instead compute the Hessian-timesvector product which is used in a conjugate gradient algorithm. Finally, the last contribution of this thesis is on surrogate optimization for water flooding in the presence of the output constraints. Two kinds of model order reduction techniques are applied to build surrogate models. These are proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and the discrete empirical interpolation method (DEIM

  14. Fluvial facies reservoir productivity prediction method based on principal component analysis and artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyu Gao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to forecast the well productivity because of the complexity of vertical and horizontal developments in fluvial facies reservoir. This paper proposes a method based on Principal Component Analysis and Artificial Neural Network to predict well productivity of fluvial facies reservoir. The method summarizes the statistical reservoir factors and engineering factors that affect the well productivity, extracts information by applying the principal component analysis method and approximates arbitrary functions of the neural network to realize an accurate and efficient prediction on the fluvial facies reservoir well productivity. This method provides an effective way for forecasting the productivity of fluvial facies reservoir which is affected by multi-factors and complex mechanism. The study result shows that this method is a practical, effective, accurate and indirect productivity forecast method and is suitable for field application.

  15. Differences in microbial community composition between injection and production water samples of water flooding petroleum reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Gao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial communities in injected water are expected to have significant influence on those of reservoir strata in long-term water flooding petroleum reservoirs. To investigate the similarities and differences in microbial communities in injected water and reservoir strata, high-throughput sequencing of microbial partial 16S rRNA of the water samples collected from the wellhead and downhole of injection wells, and from production wells in a homogeneous sandstone reservoir and a heterogeneous conglomerate reservoir were performed. The results indicate that a small number of microbial populations are shared between the water samples from the injection and production wells in the sandstone reservoir, whereas a large number of microbial populations are shared in the conglomerate reservoir. The bacterial and archaeal communities in the reservoir strata have high concentrations, which are similar to those in the injected water. However, microbial population abundance exhibited large differences between the water samples from the injection and production wells. The number of shared populations reflects the influence of microbial communities in injected water on those in reservoir strata to some extent, and show strong association with the unique variation of reservoir environments.

  16. Balancing Exploration, Uncertainty Representation and Computational Time in Many-Objective Reservoir Policy Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatarain-Salazar, J.; Reed, P. M.; Quinn, J.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.

    2016-12-01

    As we confront the challenges of managing river basin systems with a large number of reservoirs and increasingly uncertain tradeoffs impacting their operations (due to, e.g. climate change, changing energy markets, population pressures, ecosystem services, etc.), evolutionary many-objective direct policy search (EMODPS) solution strategies will need to address the computational demands associated with simulating more uncertainties and therefore optimizing over increasingly noisy objective evaluations. Diagnostic assessments of state-of-the-art many-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) to support EMODPS have highlighted that search time (or number of function evaluations) and auto-adaptive search are key features for successful optimization. Furthermore, auto-adaptive MOEA search operators are themselves sensitive to having a sufficient number of function evaluations to learn successful strategies for exploring complex spaces and for escaping from local optima when stagnation is detected. Fortunately, recent parallel developments allow coordinated runs that enhance auto-adaptive algorithmic learning and can handle scalable and reliable search with limited wall-clock time, but at the expense of the total number of function evaluations. In this study, we analyze this tradeoff between parallel coordination and depth of search using different parallelization schemes of the Multi-Master Borg on a many-objective stochastic control problem. We also consider the tradeoff between better representing uncertainty in the stochastic optimization, and simplifying this representation to shorten the function evaluation time and allow for greater search. Our analysis focuses on the Lower Susquehanna River Basin (LSRB) system where multiple competing objectives for hydropower production, urban water supply, recreation and environmental flows need to be balanced. Our results provide guidance for balancing exploration, uncertainty, and computational demands when using the EMODPS

  17. Production Decline Analysis for Two-Phase Flow in Multifractured Horizontal Well in Shale Gas Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Yang Xie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After multistage fracturing, the flowback of fracturing fluid will cause two-phase flow through hydraulic fractures in shale gas reservoirs. With the consideration of two-phase flow and desorbed gas transient diffusion in shale gas reservoirs, a two-phase transient flow model of multistage fractured horizontal well in shale gas reservoirs was created. Accurate solution to this flow model is obtained by the use of source function theory, Laplace transform, three-dimensional eigenvalue method, and orthogonal transformation. According to the model’s solution, the bilogarithmic type curves of the two-phase model are illustrated, and the production decline performance under the effects of hydraulic fractures and shale gas reservoir properties are discussed. The result obtained in this paper has important significance to understand pressure response characteristics and production decline law of two-phase flow in shale gas reservoirs. Moreover, it provides the theoretical basis for exploiting this reservoir efficiently.

  18. Evaluating National Weather Service Seasonal Forecast Products in Reservoir Operation Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, A.; Guihan, R.; Polebistki, A.; Palmer, R. N.; Werner, K.; Wood, A. W.

    2014-12-01

    Forecasts of future weather and streamflow can provide valuable information for reservoir operations and water management. A challenge confronting reservoir operators today is how to incorporate both climate and streamflow products into their operations and which of these forecast products are most informative and useful for optimized water management. This study incorporates several reforecast products provided by the Colorado Basin River Forecast Center (CBRFC) which allows a complete retrospective analysis of climate forecasts, resulting in an evaluation of each product's skill in the context of water resources management. The accuracy and value of forecasts generated from the Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2) are compared to the accuracy and value of using an Ensemble Streamflow Predictions (ESP) approach. Using the CFSv2 may offer more insight when responding to climate driven extremes than the ESP approach because the CFSv2 incorporates a fully coupled climate model into its forecasts rather than using all of the historic climate record as being equally probable. The role of forecast updating frequency will also be explored. Decision support systems (DSS) for both Salt Lake City Parley's System and the Snohomish County Public Utility Department's (SnoPUD) Jackson project will be used to illustrate the utility of forecasts. Both DSS include a coupled simulation and optimization model that will incorporate system constraints, operating policies, and environmental flow requirements. To determine the value of the reforecast products, performance metrics meaningful to the managers of each system are to be identified and quantified. Without such metrics and awareness of seasonal operational nuances, it is difficult to identify forecast improvements in meaningful ways. These metrics of system performance are compared using the different forecast products to evaluate the potential benefits of using CFSv2 seasonal forecasts in systems decision making.

  19. Production Characteristics of Oceanic Natural Gas Hydrate Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, M. D.; Johnson, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    -water separation can begin within the seafloor, and specialized production techniques. NGH is the only oceanic hydrocarbon deposit in which pressure can be controlled within the reservoir by balancing conversion and extraction. Oceanic NGH has a very low environmental risk, which also serves to distinguish it from other deepwater hydrocarbon deposits.

  20. Agricultural Productivity and Policy Interventions in Nyamagabe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improving agricultural productivity has received considerable policy intervention in many African countries and particularly in Rwanda. The question remains to know the extent to which the policy contributes to the variation being upwards or downwards of the crop productivity. There are number of determinant factors some ...

  1. Modeling a distributed environment for a petroleum reservoir engineering application with software product line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidt, Rafael de Faria; Vilain, Patrícia; Dantas, M A R

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum reservoir engineering is a complex and interesting field that requires large amount of computational facilities to achieve successful results. Usually, software environments for this field are developed without taking care out of possible interactions and extensibilities required by reservoir engineers. In this paper, we present a research work which it is characterized by the design and implementation based on a software product line model for a real distributed reservoir engineering environment. Experimental results indicate successfully the utilization of this approach for the design of distributed software architecture. In addition, all components from the proposal provided greater visibility of the organization and processes for the reservoir engineers

  2. Production decline type curves analysis of a finite conductivity fractured well in coalbed methane reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mingqiang; Wen, Ming; Duan, Yonggang; Fang, Quantang; Ren, Keyi

    2017-04-01

    Production decline type curves analysis is one of the robust methods used to analyze transport flow behaviors and to evaluate reservoir properties, original gas in place, etc. Although advanced production decline analysis methods for several well types in conventional reservoirs are widely used, there are few models of production decline type curves for a fractured well in coalbed methane (CBM) reservoirs. In this work, a novel pseudo state diffusion and convection model is firstly developed to describe CBM transport in matrix systems. Subsequently, based on the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, pseudo state diffusion and convection in matrix systems and Darcy flow in cleat systems, the production model of a CBM well with a finite conductivity fracture is derived and solved by Laplace transform. Advanced production decline type curves of a fractured well in CBM reservoirs are plotted through the Stehfest numerical inversion algorithm and computer programming. Six flow regimes, including linear flow regime, early radial flow in cleat systems, interporosity flow regime, late pseudo radial flow regime, transient regime and boundary dominated flow regime, are recognized. Finally, the effect of relevant parameters, including the storage coefficient of gas in cleat systems, the transfer coefficient from a matrix system to the cleat system, the modified coefficient of permeability, dimensionless fracture conductivity and dimensionless reservoir drainage radius, are analyzed on type curves. This paper does not only enrich the production decline type curves model of CBM reservoirs, but also expands our understanding of fractured well transport behaviors in CBM reservoirs and guides to analyze the well's production performance.

  3. Effects of Formation Damage on Productivity of Underground Gas Storage Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.I.C. Anyadiegwu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the effects of formation damage on the productivity of gas storage reservoirs was performed with depleted oil reservoir (OB-02, located onshore, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Information on the reservoir and the fluids from OB-02 were collected and used to evaluate the deliverabilities of the gas storage reservoir over a 10-year period of operation. The results obtained were used to plot graphs of deliverability against permeability and skin respectively. The graphs revealed that as the permeability decreased, the skin increased, and hence a decrease in deliverability of gas from the reservoir during gas withdrawal. Over the ten years of operating the reservoir for gas storage, the deliverability and permeability which were initially 2.7 MMscf/d and 50 mD, with a skin of 0.2, changed to new values of 0.88 MMscf/d and 24 mD with the skin as 4.1 at the tenth year.

  4. Production performance laws of vertical wells by volume fracturing in CBM reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liehui Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Volume fracturing technology has been widely applied in the development of coalbed methane (CBM reservoirs. As for the stimulated reservoir volume (SRV created by volume fracturing, the seepage laws of fluids are described more accurately and rationally in the rectangular composite model than in the traditional radial composite model. However, the rectangular composite model considering SRV cannot be solved using the analytical or semi-analytical function method, and its solution from the linear flow model has larger errors. In view of this, SRV areas of CBM reservoirs were described by means of dual-medium model in this paper. The complex CBM migration mechanisms were investigated comprehensively, including adsorption, desorption, diffusion and seepage. A well testing model for rectangular composite fracturing wells in CBM reservoirs based on unsteady-state diffusion was built and solved using the boundary element method combined with Laplace transformation, Stehfest numerical inversion and computer programming technology. Thus, production performance laws of CBM reservoirs were clarified. The flow regimes of typical well testing curves were divided and the effects on change laws of production performance from the boundary size of gas reservoirs, permeability of volume fractured areas, adsorption gas content, reservoir permeability and SRV size were analyzed. Eventually, CBM reservoirs after the volume fracturing stimulation were described more accurately and rationally. This study provides a theoretical basis for a better understanding of the CBM migration laws and an approach to evaluating and developing CBM reservoirs efficiently and rationally.

  5. Reservoir characterization based on tracer response and rank analysis of production and injection rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Refunjol, B.T. [Lagoven, S.A., Pdvsa (Venezuela); Lake, L.W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Quantification of the spatial distribution of properties is important for many reservoir-engineering applications. But, before applying any reservoir-characterization technique, the type of problem to be tackled and the information available should be analyzed. This is important because difficulties arise in reservoirs where production records are the only information for analysis. This paper presents the results of a practical technique to determine preferential flow trends in a reservoir. The technique is a combination of reservoir geology, tracer data, and Spearman rank correlation coefficient analysis. The Spearman analysis, in particular, will prove to be important because it appears to be insightful and uses injection/production data that are prevalent in circumstances where other data are nonexistent. The technique is applied to the North Buck Draw field, Campbell County, Wyoming. This work provides guidelines to assess information about reservoir continuity in interwell regions from widely available measurements of production and injection rates at existing wells. The information gained from the application of this technique can contribute to both the daily reservoir management and the future design, control, and interpretation of subsequent projects in the reservoir, without the need for additional data.

  6. Geological and production characteristics of strandplain/barrier island reservoirs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.; Jackson, S.; Madden, M.P.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Young, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) primary mission in the oil research program is to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. The Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program supports DOE`s mission through cost-shared demonstrations of improved Oil Recovery (IOR) processes and reservoir characterization methods. In the past 3 years, the DOE has issued Program Opportunity Notices (PONs) seeking cost-shared proposals for the three highest priority, geologically defined reservoir classes. The classes have been prioritized based on resource size and risk of abandonment. This document defines the geologic, reservoir, and production characteristics of the fourth reservoir class, strandplain/barrier islands. Knowledge of the geological factors and processes that control formation and preservation of reservoir deposits, external and internal reservoir heterogeneities, reservoir characterization methodology, and IOR process application can be used to increase production of the remaining oil-in-place (IOR) in Class 4 reservoirs. Knowledge of heterogeneities that inhibit or block fluid flow is particularly critical. Using the TORIS database of 330 of the largest strandplain/barrier island reservoirs and its predictive and economic models, the recovery potential which could result from future application of IOR technologies to Class 4 reservoirs was estimated to be between 1.0 and 4.3 billion barrels, depending on oil price and the level of technology advancement. The analysis indicated that this potential could be realized through (1) infill drilling alone and in combination with polymer flooding and profile modification, (2) chemical flooding (sufactant), and (3) thermal processes. Most of this future potential is in Texas, Oklahoma, and the Rocky Mountain region. Approximately two-thirds of the potentially recoverable resource is at risk of abandonment by the year 2000.

  7. Reservoir controls on the occurrence and production of gas hydrates in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Timothy Scott

    2014-01-01

    Gas hydrates in both arctic permafrost regions and deep marine settings can occur at high concentrations in sand-dominated reservoirs, which have been the focus of gas hydrate exploration and production studies in

  8. Long-term fate of hydrate-bearing reservoirs during and after production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, M. T.; Moridis, G. J.; Queiruga, A. F.

    2016-12-01

    Research into the development of feasible production strategies from gas hydrate reservoirs has largely assumed that such reservoirs are bounded by impermeable layers and free of connectivity to faults or fractures. Coupled flow-geomechnical studies have investgated wellbore and overburden stability during production, but have not answered questions about the post-production evolution of such reservoirs. This study investigates, via reservoir simulation, the possibility and potential consequences of uncontrolled gas release during production from hydrates by any of the known dissociation methods (with an emphasis on depressurization). We investigate the possibility of the free gas created by hydrate dissociation escaping along permeable faults, permeable boundaries, or other pathways adjacent to or intercepting the hydrate reservoir. We also investigate the long-term fate and transport of free gas upon the cessation of production operations in both in the presence and absence of permeable features. This work answers questions about the long-term fate of hydrate-bearing sediments, including (a) whether the cessation of production will be followed by considerable hydrate dissociation that lingers for a substantial time, (b) the potential for hydrate reformation after production to be a hazard-mitigating process, (c) the effect of common reservoir parameters and the buoyancy of the released gas on its transport through the subsurface, and (d) the possibility of significant gas emergence at environmentally sensitive locations.

  9. Production of Natural Gas and Fluid Flow in Tight Sand Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria Cecilia Bravo

    2006-06-30

    This document reports progress of this research effort in identifying relationships and defining dependencies between macroscopic reservoir parameters strongly affected by microscopic flow dynamics and production well performance in tight gas sand reservoirs. These dependencies are investigated by identifying the main transport mechanisms at the pore scale that should affect fluids flow at the reservoir scale. A critical review of commercial reservoir simulators, used to predict tight sand gas reservoir, revealed that many are poor when used to model fluid flow through tight reservoirs. Conventional simulators ignore altogether or model incorrectly certain phenomena such as, Knudsen diffusion, electro-kinetic effects, ordinary diffusion mechanisms and water vaporization. We studied the effect of Knudsen's number in Klinkenberg's equation and evaluated the effect of different flow regimes on Klinkenberg's parameter b. We developed a model capable of explaining the pressure dependence of this parameter that has been experimentally observed, but not explained in the conventional formalisms. We demonstrated the relevance of this, so far ignored effect, in tight sands reservoir modeling. A 2-D numerical simulator based on equations that capture the above mentioned phenomena was developed. Dynamic implications of new equations are comprehensively discussed in our work and their relative contribution to the flow rate is evaluated. We performed several simulation sensitivity studies that evidenced that, in general terms, our formalism should be implemented in order to get more reliable tight sands gas reservoirs' predictions.

  10. Production forecasting and economic evaluation of horizontal wells completed in natural fractured reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R. D.

    1996-01-01

    A technique for optimizing recovery of hydrocarbons from naturally fractured reservoirs using horizontal well technology was proposed. The technique combines inflow performance analysis, production forecasting and economic considerations, and is based on material balance analysis and linear approximations of reservoir fluid properties as functions of reservoir pressure. An economic evaluation model accounting for the time value of cash flow, interest and inflation rates, is part of the package. Examples of using the technique have been demonstrated. The method is also applied to a gas well producing from a horizontal wellbore intersecting discrete natural fractures. 11 refs., 2 tabs,. 10 figs

  11. The impact of hydraulic flow unit & reservoir quality index on pressure profile and productivity index in multi-segments reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Al-Rbeawi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is studying the impact of the hydraulic flow unit and reservoir quality index (RQI on pressure profile and productivity index of horizontal wells acting in finite reservoirs. Several mathematical models have been developed to investigate this impact. These models have been built based on the pressure distribution in porous media, depleted by a horizontal well, consist of multi hydraulic flow units and different reservoir quality index. The porous media are assumed to be finite rectangular reservoirs having different configurations and the wellbores may have different lengths. Several analytical models describing flow regimes have been derived wherein hydraulic flow units and reservoir quality index have been included in addition to rock and fluid properties. The impact of these two parameters on reservoir performance has also been studied using steady state productivity index.It has been found that both pressure responses and flow regimes are highly affected by the existence of multiple hydraulic flow units in the porous media and the change in reservoir quality index for these units. Positive change in the RQI could lead to positive change in both pressure drop required for reservoir fluids to move towards the wellbore and hence the productivity index.

  12. Production decline type curves analysis of a finite conductivity fractured well in coalbed methane reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Mingqiang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Production decline type curves analysis is one of the robust methods used to analyze transport flow behaviors and to evaluate reservoir properties, original gas in place, etc. Although advanced production decline analysis methods for several well types in conventional reservoirs are widely used, there are few models of production decline type curves for a fractured well in coalbed methane (CBM reservoirs. In this work, a novel pseudo state diffusion and convection model is firstly developed to describe CBM transport in matrix systems. Subsequently, based on the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, pseudo state diffusion and convection in matrix systems and Darcy flow in cleat systems, the production model of a CBM well with a finite conductivity fracture is derived and solved by Laplace transform. Advanced production decline type curves of a fractured well in CBM reservoirs are plotted through the Stehfest numerical inversion algorithm and computer programming. Six flow regimes, including linear flow regime, early radial flow in cleat systems, interporosity flow regime, late pseudo radial flow regime, transient regime and boundary dominated flow regime, are recognized. Finally, the effect of relevant parameters, including the storage coefficient of gas in cleat systems, the transfer coefficient from a matrix system to the cleat system, the modified coefficient of permeability, dimensionless fracture conductivity and dimensionless reservoir drainage radius, are analyzed on type curves. This paper does not only enrich the production decline type curves model of CBM reservoirs, but also expands our understanding of fractured well transport behaviors in CBM reservoirs and guides to analyze the well's production performance.

  13. Forestry policy and charcoal production in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribot, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the historical, social and political-economic dynamics of environmental policy implementation in Senegal's charcoal market. It explores the relationship between urban demand for charcoal and its rural environmental consequences. It focuses on the ways in which the social and political-economic relations within the market and between the market and state shape production, exchange, regulation, and ultimately the social and econological consequences of charcoal production and use. The article begins by characterizing the patterns of woodfuel supply and use in Senegal and by recounting the historical perception and response to environmental problems associated with the woodfuel trade. It describes the social and economic organization of production and exchange, followed by an analysis of policy implementation. It also shows that where social relations dominate production and exchange, environmental policy making and implementation will be an iterative process. Sustainable resource management is not implemented once and for ever, but will come and go. (author)

  14. Biofilm composition in the Olt River (Romania) reservoirs impacted by a chlor-alkali production plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dranguet, P; Cosio, C; Le Faucheur, S; Hug Peter, D; Loizeau, J-L; Ungureanu, V-Gh; Slaveykova, V I

    2017-05-24

    Freshwater biofilms can be useful indicators of water quality and offer the possibility to assess contaminant effects at the community level. The present field study examines the effects of chlor-alkali plant effluents on the community composition of biofilms grown in the Olt River (Romania) reservoirs. The relationship between ambient water quality variables and community composition alterations was explored. Amplicon sequencing revealed a significant modification of the composition of microalgal, bacterial and fungal communities in the biofilms collected in the impacted reservoirs in comparison with those living in the uncontaminated control reservoir. The abundance corrected Simpson index showed lower richness and diversity in biofilms collected in the impacted reservoirs than in the control reservoir. The biofilm bacterial communities of the impacted reservoirs were characterized by the contaminant-tolerant Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes, whereas microalgal communities were predominantly composed of Bacillariophyta and fungal communities of Lecanoromycetes and Paraglomycetes. A principal component analysis revealed that major contaminants present in the waste water of the chlor-alkali production plant, i.e. Na + , Ca 2+ , Cl - and Hg, were correlated with the alteration of biofilm community composition in the impacted reservoirs. However, the biofilm composition was also influenced by water quality variables such as NO 3 - , SO 4 2- , DOC and Zn from unknown sources. The results of the present study imply that, even when below the environmental quality standards, typical contaminants of chlor-alkali plant releases may affect biofilm composition and that their impacts on the microbial biodiversity might be currently overlooked.

  15. Changes in water chemistry and primary productivity of a reactor cooling reservoir (Par Pond)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilly, L.J.

    1975-01-01

    Water chemistry and primary productivity of a reactor cooling reservoir have been studied for 8 years. Initially the primary productivity increased sixfold, and the dissolved solids doubled. The dissolved-solids increase appears to have been caused by additions of makeup water from the Savannah River and by evaporative concentration during the cooling process. As the dissolved-solids concentrations and the conductivity of makeup water leveled off, the primary productivity stabilized. Major cation and anion concentrations generally followed total dissolved solids through the increase and plateau; however, silica concentrations declined steadily during the initial period of increased plankton productivity. Standing crops of net seston and centrifuge seston did not increase during this initial period. The collective data show the effects of thermal input to a cooling reservoir, illustrate the need for limnological studies before reactor siting, and suggest the possibility of using makeup-water additions to power reactor cooling basins as a reservoir management tool

  16. Coalbed Methane Production System Simulation and Deliverability Forecasting: Coupled Surface Network/Wellbore/Reservoir Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As an unconventional energy, coalbed methane (CBM mainly exists in coal bed with adsorption, whose productivity is different from conventional gas reservoir. This paper explains the wellbore pressure drop, surface pipeline network simulation, and reservoir calculation model of CBM. A coupled surface/wellbore/reservoir calculation architecture was presented, to coordinate the gas production in each calculation period until the balance of surface/wellbore/reservoir. This coupled calculation method was applied to a CBM field for predicting production. The daily gas production increased year by year at the first time and then decreased gradually after several years, while the daily water production was reduced all the time with the successive decline of the formation pressure. The production of gas and water in each well is almost the same when the structure is a star. When system structure is a dendritic surface system, the daily gas production ranked highest at the well which is the nearest to the surface system collection point and lowest at the well which is the farthest to the surface system collection point. This coupled calculation method could be used to predict the water production, gas production, and formation pressure of a CBM field during a period of time.

  17. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.

    2001-11-04

    The objective of this Class III project was demonstrate that reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by CO2 flood can increase production from slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, focused on Geraldine Ford and East Ford fields, which are Delaware Mountain Group fields that produce from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The demonstration phase of the project was a CO2 flood conducted in East Ford field, which is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit.

  18. Well-Production Data and Gas-Reservoir Heterogeneity -- Reserve Growth Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyman, Thaddeus S.; Schmoker, James W.

    2003-01-01

    Oil and gas well production parameters, including peakmonthly production (PMP), peak-consecutive-twelve month production (PYP), and cumulative production (CP), are tested as tools to quantify and understand the heterogeneity of reservoirs in fields where current monthly production is 10 percent or less of PMP. Variation coefficients, defined as VC= (F5-F95)/F50, where F5, F95, and F50 are the 5th, 95th, and 50th (median) fractiles of a probability distribution, are calculated for peak and cumulative production and examined with respect to internal consistency, type of production parameter, conventional versus unconventional accumulations, and reservoir depth. Well-production data for this study were compiled for 69 oil and gas fields in the Lower Pennsylvanian Morrow Formation of the Anadarko Basin, Oklahoma. Of these, 47 fields represent production from marine clastic facies. The Morrow data were supplemented by data from the Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician Arbuckle Group, Middle Ordovician Simpson Group, Middle Pennsylvanian Atoka Formation, and Silurian and Lower Devonian Hunton Group of the Anadarko Basin, one large gas field in Upper Cretaceous reservoirs of north-central Montana (Bowdoin field), and three areas of the Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian Bakken Formation continuous-type (unconventional) oil accumulation in the Williston Basin, North Dakota and Montana. Production parameters (PMP, PYP, and CP) measure the net result of complex geologic, engineering, and economic processes. Our fundamental hypothesis is that well-production data provide information about subsurface heterogeneity in older fields that would be impossible to obtain using geologic techniques with smaller measurement scales such as petrographic, core, and well-log analysis. Results such as these indicate that quantitative measures of production rates and production volumes of wells, expressed as dimensionless variation coefficients, are potentially valuable tools for

  19. Geo textiles and related products used in the waterproofing of reservoirs. Situation in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiro Lopez, A.; Mateo Sanz, B.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the geo textiles, and products related to geo textiles, used for the building of water-storage reservoirs, which can be applicable to the construction of this kind of structures in Morocco. It presents different types of geo textiles and related products most commonly used in reservoirs, such as geo nets, geo grids, geo mats and geo composites, describing their characteristics and experimental methodology. Furthermore, and drawing on the Spanish Manual for Design, Construction, Operation and Maintenance of Reservoirs, emphasis is placed on the functions that geo synthetics can perform, such as protection and filter in the case of geo textiles, and drainage in the case of geo nets and draining composites. Finally, several works of this sort of structures located in Morocco are cited. (Author)

  20. Productivity Analysis of Volume Fractured Vertical Well Model in Tight Oil Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahang Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a semianalytical model to simulate the productivity of a volume fractured vertical well in tight oil reservoirs. In the proposed model, the reservoir is a composite system which contains two regions. The inner region is described as formation with finite conductivity hydraulic fracture network and the flow in fracture is assumed to be linear, while the outer region is simulated by the classical Warren-Root model where radial flow is applied. The transient rate is calculated, and flow patterns and characteristic flowing periods caused by volume fractured vertical well are analyzed. Combining the calculated results with actual production data at the decline stage shows a good fitting performance. Finally, the effects of some sensitive parameters on the type curves are also analyzed extensively. The results demonstrate that the effect of fracture length is more obvious than that of fracture conductivity on improving production in tight oil reservoirs. When the length and conductivity of main fracture are constant, the contribution of stimulated reservoir volume (SRV to the cumulative oil production is not obvious. When the SRV is constant, the length of fracture should also be increased so as to improve the fracture penetration and well production.

  1. A New Model to Predict Productivity of Multiple-Fractured Horizontal Well in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junchao Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to predict productivity of multiple-fractured horizontal well in fractured reservoir, flow models of reservoir and hydraulic fractures based on the volumetric source idealization are developed. The models are solved by utilizing Laplace transformation and orthogonal transformation, and flow rate of the well is calculated by coupling the two models. Compared to traditional point source functions, volumetric source function has many advantages in properties of function and programming calculation. The productivity predicting model is verified via an analytical ternary-porosity model. Moreover, a practical example of fractured horizontal well is studied to analyze the productivity and its influent factors. The result shows that flow rate of each fracture is different and inner fracture contributes least to productivity. Meanwhile, there are optimizing ranges for number, length, and conductivity of hydraulic fractures. In low-permeability reservoir, increasing surface area in contact with reservoir by increasing number and length of hydraulic fractures is the most effective method to improve the productivity.

  2. Characterization of fractured reservoirs joint inversion of seismic and production data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahraini, Ali

    2011-03-15

    Significant amounts of oil and gas reserves are trapped in fractured reservoirs. A proper characterization of fractured reservoirs can contribute to better reservoir management, including optimum well placement, planning of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods, well completion and so on. Characterization of fractured (and faulted) reservoirs has been a challenging and complicated task due to the high degree of heterogeneity and anisotropy that exists in this kind of reservoirs. In this thesis I look at the problem of fractured reservoir characterization as an inverse problem, and try to estimate the uncertain fracture parameters by joint inversion (or history matching) of seismic and production data. Updating a reservoir model to behave as closely as possible to the real reservoir is called history matching, which generally has a non-unique solution. History matching is a time consuming problem. Using both production and seismic data can help to narrow the solution space. This work aims to propose and develop work flows and methodologies for improved characterization of fractured reservoirs. It is based on an integrated approach using both seismic and production data in the characterization process. The fluid flow- seismic wave system for fractured reservoir characterization consists of a reservoir simulator coupled to consistent rock physics models and forward seismic modeling tools. A consistent (computationally inexpensive) rock physics model is used to calculate the effective permeability and stiffness tensors of fractured porous media from a limited number of uncertain fracture parameters. Based on the calculated effective permeability tensors, the reservoir simulator calculates production data such as well oil production, well bottom hole pressure, well water cut, saturation and pressure for all grid blocks at specific time steps. Similarly, using the effective stiffness tensors (calculated from saturation maps and assumed fracture parameters), seismic

  3. Study of gas production from shale reservoirs with multi-stage hydraulic fracturing horizontal well considering multiple transport mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Chaohua; Wei, Mingzhen; Liu, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Development of unconventional shale gas reservoirs (SGRs) has been boosted by the advancements in two key technologies: horizontal drilling and multi-stage hydraulic fracturing. A large number of multi-stage fractured horizontal wells (MsFHW) have been drilled to enhance reservoir production performance. Gas flow in SGRs is a multi-mechanism process, including: desorption, diffusion, and non-Darcy flow. The productivity of the SGRs with MsFHW is influenced by both reservoir conditions and hyd...

  4. Stabilized oil production conditions in the development equilibrium of a water-flooding reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renshi Nie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Water injection can compensate for pressure depletion of production. This paper firstly investigated into the equilibrium issue among water influx, water injection and production. Equilibrium principle was elaborated through deduction of equilibrium equation and presentation of equilibrium curves with an “equilibrium point”. Influences of artificial controllable factors (e.g. well ratio of injection to production and total well number on equilibrium were particularly analyzed using field data. It was found that the influences were mainly reflected as the location move of equilibrium point with factor change. Then reservoir pressure maintenance level was especially introduced to reveal the variation law of liquid rate and oil rate with the rising of water cut. It was also found that, even if reservoir pressure kept constant, oil rate still inevitably declined. However, in the field, a stabilized oil rate was always pursued for development efficiency. Therefore, the equilibrium issue of stabilized oil production was studied deeply through probing into some effective measures to realize oil rate stability after the increase of water cut for the example reservoir. Successful example application indicated that the integrated approach was very practical and feasible, and hence could be used to the other similar reservoir.

  5. A new approach to integrate seismic and production data in reservoir models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouenes, A.; Chawathe, A.; Weiss, W. [New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    A great deal of effort is devoted to reducing the uncertainties in reservoir modeling. For example, seismic properties are used to improve the characterization of interwell properties by providing porosity maps constrained to seismic impedance. Another means to reduce uncertainties is to constrain the reservoir model to production data. This paper describes a new approach where the production and seismic data are simultaneously used to reduce the uncertainties. In this new approach, the primary geologic parameter that controls reservoir properties is identified. Next, the geophysical parameter that is sensitive to the dominant geologic parameter is determined. Then the geology and geophysics are linked using analytic correlations. Unfortunately, the initial guess resulted in a reservoir model that did not match the production history. Since the time required for trial and error matching of production history is exorbitant, an automatic history matching method based on a fast optimization method was used to find the correlating parameters. This new approach was illustrated with an actual field in the Williston Basin. Upscalling problems do not arise since the scale is imposed by the size of the seismic bin (66m, 219 ft) which is the size of the simulator gridblocks.

  6. Numerical investigation of temperature distribution in a confined heterogeneous geothermal reservoir due to injection-production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganguly, Sayantan; Tan, Lippong; Date, Abhijit; Mohan Kumar, M.S.

    The present study deals with the modeling of transient temperature distribution in a heterogeneous geothermal reservoir in response to the injection-production process. The heterogeneous geothermal aquifer considered here is a confined aquifer with homogeneous layers of finite length and overlain

  7. Monitoring of magnetic EOR fluids in reservoir under production by using the electromagnetic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, S.; Min, D. J.; Moon, S.; Kim, W. K.; Shin, Y.

    2014-12-01

    To increase the amount of oil and gas extracted during production, some techniques like EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery) are applied by injecting some materials such as water and CO2. Recently, there are some researches for injecting magnetic nanoparticles with fluids during EOR. The size of particle is nano-scale, which can prevent particles from adhering to the pores of reservoir. The main purpose of injecting magnetic nanoparticles is to monitor movement or distribution of EOR fluids. To monitor the injected magnetic EOR fluids in the reservoir, CSEM (controlled source electromagnetic method) can be the most optimized geophysical method among various geophysical monitoring methods. Depending on the reservoir circumstances, we can control the electric or magnetic sources to monitor reservoir during oil or gas production. In this study, we perform numerical simulation of CSEM for 3D horizontal-layered models assuming a reservoir under production. We suppose that there are two wells: one is for the controlled source; the other is for the receiver. By changing the distribution, movement and magnetization of EOR fluids, we compare the electric or magnetic fields recorded at the receiver. Maxwell's equations are the governing equation of CSEM and are approximated by using the edge-based finite-element method. Direct solver is applied to solve the linear equations. Because injected magnetic nanoparticle changes the conductivity of EOR fluid, there is high contrast of conductivity of reservoir. This high contrast of conductivity induces secondary electric or magnetic fields that are recorded at the receiver well. We compare these recorded secondary fields generated by various movement or distribution of magnetic EOR fluid. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the "Development of Technology for CO2 Marine Geological Storage" grant funded by the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries of Korea, by the "Civil Military Technology Cooperation Center", and by the International

  8. Effect of Permeability Anisotropy on the Production of Multi-Scale Shale Gas Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Huang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Shales or mudstones are fine grained and layered reservoirs, which leads to strong shale permeability anisotropy. Shale has a wide pore-size distribution, and pores with different diameters contribute differently to the apparent permeability of shales. Therefore, understanding the anisotropy of multiscale shale gas reservoirs is an important aspect to model and evaluate gas production from shales. In this paper, a novel model of permeability anisotropy for shale gas reservoirs is presented to calculate the permeability in an arbitrary direction in three dimensional space. A numerical model which is valid for the entire Knudsen’s range (continuum flow, slip flow, transition flow and free molecular flow in shale gas reservoirs was developed, and the effect of gas-water flow and the simulation of hydraulic fracturing cracks were taken into consideration as well. The simulation result of the developed model was validated with field data. Effects of critical factors such as permeability anisotropy, relative permeability curves with different nanopore radii and initial water saturation in formation on the gas production rate of multi-stage fractured horizontal well were discussed. Besides, flow regimes of gas flow in shales were classified by Knudsen number, and the effect of various flow regimes on both apparent permeability of shales and then the gas production has been analyzed thoroughly.

  9. A Reduced Order Model for Fast Production Prediction from an Oil Reservoir with a Gas Cap

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yichen

    2016-01-01

    Master's thesis in Petroleum geosciences engineering Economic evaluations are essential inputs for oil and gas field development decisions. These evaluations are critically dependent on the unbiased assessment of uncertainty in the future oil and gas production from wells. However, many production prediction techniques come at significant computational costs as they often require a very large number of highly detailed grid based reservoir simulations. In this study, we present an alter...

  10. Oil Reservoir Production Optimization using Single Shooting and ESDIRK Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capolei, Andrea; Völcker, Carsten; Frydendall, Jan

    2012-01-01

    the injections and oil production such that flow is uniform in a given geological structure. Even in the case of conventional water flooding, feedback based optimal control technologies may enable higher oil recovery than with conventional operational strategies. The optimal control problems that must be solved......Conventional recovery techniques enable recovery of 10-50% of the oil in an oil field. Advances in smart well technology and enhanced oil recovery techniques enable significant larger recovery. To realize this potential, feedback model-based optimal control technologies are needed to manipulate...... are large-scale problems and require specialized numerical algorithms. In this paper, we combine a single shooting optimization algorithm based on sequential quadratic programming (SQP) with explicit singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta (ESDIRK) integration methods and the a continuous adjoint method...

  11. Application of natural antimicrobial compounds for reservoir souring and MIC prevention in offshore oil and gas production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Skovhus, Torben Lund; Mashietti, Marco

    Offshore oil production facilities are subjectable to internal corrosion, potentially leading to human and environmental risk and significant economic losses. Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) and reservoir souring - sulphide production by sulfate reducing microorganisms in the reservo...

  12. Analysis of Geothermal Reservoir and Well Operational Conditions using Monthly Production Reports from Nevada and California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckers, Koenraad J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Young, Katherine R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Johnston, Henry [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Snyder, Diana M. [Georgia State University

    2017-10-04

    When conducting techno-economic analysis of geothermal systems, assumptions are typically necessary for reservoir and wellbore parameters such as producer/injector well ratio, production temperature drawdown, and production/injection temperature, pressure and flow rate. To decrease uncertainty of several of these parameters, we analyzed field data reported by operators in monthly production reports. This paper presents results of a statistical analysis conducted on monthly production reports at 19 power plants in California and Nevada covering 196 production wells and 175 injection wells. The average production temperature was 304 degrees F (151 degrees C) for binary plants and 310 degrees F (154 degrees C) for flash plants. The average injection temperature was 169 degrees F (76 degrees C) for binary plants and 173 degrees F (78 degrees C) for flash plants. The average production temperature drawdown was 0.5% per year for binary plants and 0.8% per year for flash plants. The average production well flow rate was 112 L/s for binary plant wells and 62 L/s for flash plant wells. For all 19 plants combined, the median injectivity index value was 3.8 L/s/bar, and the average producer/injector well ratio was 1.6. As an additional example of analysis using data from monthly production reports, a coupled reservoir-wellbore model was developed to derive productivity curves at various pump horsepower settings. The workflow and model were applied to two example production wells.

  13. Study of sustainable production in two-phase liquid dominated with steam cap underlying brine reservoir by numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, Heru Berian; Miryani Saptadji, Nenny

    2017-12-01

    The main issue in the management of the two-phase liquid-dominated geothermal field is rapid decline pressure in the reservoir so that the supply of steam to the power plant cannot be fulfilled. To understanding that, modelling and numerical simulation used reservoir simulators. The model is developed on liquid-dominated geothermal fields are assessed in various scenarios of production strategies (focusing only steam cap, brine reservoir and a combination) and injection strategies (deep and shallow injection, centered and dispersed injection), with the calculation using separated steam cycle method. The simulation results of the model for sustainable production are production 25% from steam cap + 75% from brine reservoir, dispersed and deep reinjection with make-up wells from steam cap results 9 make-up well number. The implementation of production-injection strategy needs to be planned right from the beginning of exploitation so that the strategy can adapt to changes in reservoir characteristics.

  14. Succession in the petroleum reservoir microbiome through an oil field production lifecycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneron, Adrien; Alsop, Eric B; Lomans, Bartholomeus P; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Head, Ian M; Tsesmetzis, Nicolas

    2017-09-01

    Subsurface petroleum reservoirs are an important component of the deep biosphere where indigenous microorganisms live under extreme conditions and in isolation from the Earth's surface for millions of years. However, unlike the bulk of the deep biosphere, the petroleum reservoir deep biosphere is subject to extreme anthropogenic perturbation, with the introduction of new electron acceptors, donors and exogenous microbes during oil exploration and production. Despite the fundamental and practical significance of this perturbation, there has never been a systematic evaluation of the ecological changes that occur over the production lifetime of an active offshore petroleum production system. Analysis of the entire Halfdan oil field in the North Sea (32 producing wells in production for 1-15 years) using quantitative PCR, multigenic sequencing, comparative metagenomic and genomic bins reconstruction revealed systematic shifts in microbial community composition and metabolic potential, as well as changing ecological strategies in response to anthropogenic perturbation of the oil field ecosystem, related to length of time in production. The microbial communities were initially dominated by slow growing anaerobes such as members of the Thermotogales and Clostridiales adapted to living on hydrocarbons and complex refractory organic matter. However, as seawater and nitrate injection (used for secondary oil production) delivered oxidants, the microbial community composition progressively changed to fast growing opportunists such as members of the Deferribacteres, Delta-, Epsilon- and Gammaproteobacteria, with energetically more favorable metabolism (for example, nitrate reduction, H 2 S, sulfide and sulfur oxidation). This perturbation has profound consequences for understanding the microbial ecology of the system and is of considerable practical importance as it promotes detrimental processes such as reservoir souring and metal corrosion. These findings provide a new

  15. Reservoir management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satter, A.; Varnon, J.E.; Hoang, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    A reservoir's life begins with exploration leading to discovery followed by delineation of the reservoir, development of the field, production by primary, secondary and tertiary means, and finally to abandonment. Sound reservoir management is the key to maximizing economic operation of the reservoir throughout its entire life. Technological advances and rapidly increasing computer power are providing tools to better manage reservoirs and are increasing the gap between good and neutral reservoir management. The modern reservoir management process involves goal setting, planning, implementing, monitoring, evaluating, and revising plans. Setting a reservoir management strategy requires knowledge of the reservoir, availability of technology, and knowledge of the business, political, and environmental climate. Formulating a comprehensive management plan involves depletion and development strategies, data acquisition and analyses, geological and numerical model studies, production and reserves forecasts, facilities requirements, economic optimization, and management approval. This paper provides management, engineers geologists, geophysicists, and field operations staff with a better understanding of the practical approach to reservoir management using a multidisciplinary, integrated team approach

  16. Constraints on geothermal reservoir volume change calculations from InSAR surface displacements and injection and production data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaven, J. Ole; Barbour, Andrew J.; Ali, Tabrez

    2017-04-01

    Continual production of geothermal energy at times leads to significant surface displacement that can be observed in high spatial resolution using InSAR imagery. The surface displacement can be analyzed to resolve volume change within the reservoir revealing the often-complicated patterns of reservoir deformation. Simple point source models of reservoir deformation in a homogeneous elastic or poro-elastic medium can be superimposed to provide spatially varying, kinematic representations of reservoir deformation. In many cases, injection and production data are known in insufficient detail; but, when these are available, the same Green functions can be used to constrain the reservoir deformation. Here we outline how the injection and production data can be used to constrain bounds on the solution by posing the inversion as a quadratic programming with inequality constraints and regularization rather than a conventional least squares solution with regularization. We apply this method to InSAR-derived surface displacements at the Coso and Salton Sea Geothermal Fields in California, using publically available injection and production data. At both geothermal fields the available surface deformation in conjunction with the injection and production data permit robust solutions for the spatially varying reservoir deformation. The reservoir deformation pattern resulting from the constrained quadratic programming solution is more heterogeneous when compared to a conventional least squares solution. The increased heterogeneity is consistent with the known structural controls on heat and fluid transport in each geothermal reservoir.

  17. Recycling of Clay Sediments for Geopolymer Binder Production. A New Perspective for Reservoir Management in the Framework of Italian Legislation: The Occhito Reservoir Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molino, Bruno; De Vincenzo, Annamaria; Ferone, Claudio; Messina, Francesco; Colangelo, Francesco; Cioffi, Raffaele

    2014-07-31

    Reservoir silting is an unavoidable issue. It is estimated that in Italy, the potential rate of silting-up in large reservoirs ranges from 0.1% to 1% in the presence of wooded river basins and intensive agricultural land use, respectively. In medium and small-sized reservoirs, these values vary between 0.3% and 2%. Considering both the types of reservoirs, the annual average loss of storage capacity would be of about 1.59%. In this paper, a management strategy aimed at sediment productive reuse is presented. Particularly, the main engineering outcomes of an extensive experimental program on geopolymer binder synthesis is reported. The case study deals with Occhito reservoir, located in Southern Italy. Clay sediments coming from this silted-up artificial lake were characterized, calcined and activated, by means of a wide set of alkaline activating solutions. The results showed the feasibility of this recovery process, optimizing a few chemical parameters. The possible reuse in building material production (binders, precast concrete, bricks, etc. ) represents a relevant sustainable alternative to landfill and other more consolidated practices.

  18. Recycling of Clay Sediments for Geopolymer Binder Production. A New Perspective for Reservoir Management in the Framework of Italian Legislation: The Occhito Reservoir Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Molino

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Reservoir silting is an unavoidable issue. It is estimated that in Italy, the potential rate of silting-up in large reservoirs ranges from 0.1% to 1% in the presence of wooded river basins and intensive agricultural land use, respectively. In medium and small-sized reservoirs, these values vary between 0.3% and 2%. Considering both the types of reservoirs, the annual average loss of storage capacity would be of about 1.59%. In this paper, a management strategy aimed at sediment productive reuse is presented. Particularly, the main engineering outcomes of an extensive experimental program on geopolymer binder synthesis is reported. The case study deals with Occhito reservoir, located in Southern Italy. Clay sediments coming from this silted-up artificial lake were characterized, calcined and activated, by means of a wide set of alkaline activating solutions. The results showed the feasibility of this recovery process, optimizing a few chemical parameters. The possible reuse in building material production (binders, precast concrete, bricks, etc. represents a relevant sustainable alternative to landfill and other more consolidated practices.

  19. Estimation of Oil Production Rates in Reservoirs Exposed to Focused Vibrational Energy

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Chanseok

    2014-01-01

    Elastic wave-based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is being investigated as a possible EOR method, since strong wave motions within an oil reservoir - induced by earthquakes or artificially generated vibrations - have been reported to improve the production rate of remaining oil from existing oil fields. To date, there are few theoretical studies on estimating how much bypassed oil within an oil reservoir could be mobilized by such vibrational stimulation. To fill this gap, this paper presents a numerical method to estimate the extent to which the bypassed oil is mobilized from low to high permeability reservoir areas, within a heterogeneous reservoir, via wave-induced cross-flow oscillation at the interface between the two reservoir permeability areas. This work uses the finite element method to numerically obtain the pore fluid wave motion within a one-dimensional fluid-saturated porous permeable elastic solid medium embedded in a non-permeable elastic semi-infinite solid. To estimate the net volume of mobilized oil from the low to the high permeability area, a fluid flow hysteresis hypothesis is adopted to describe the behavior at the interface between the two areas. Accordingly, the fluid that is moving from the low to the high permeability areas is assumed to transport a larger volume of oil than the fluid moving in the opposite direction. The numerical experiments were conducted by using a prototype heterogeneous oil reservoir model, subjected to ground surface dynamic loading operating at low frequencies (1 to 50 Hz). The numerical results show that a sizeable amount of oil could be mobilized via the elastic wave stimulation. It is observed that certain wave frequencies are more effective than others in mobilizing the remaining oil. We remark that these amplification frequencies depend on the formation’s elastic properties. This numerical work shows that the wave-based mobilization of the bypassed oil in a heterogeneous oil reservoir is feasible, especially

  20. Safety policy in the production of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddall, E.

    1982-01-01

    When safety is properly understood, defined and quantified, it can be seen that the development of our present industrial civilization has resulted in a progressive improvement in human safety. Increased safety has come with increased wealth in such close association that a high degree of cause-and-effect relationship must be considered. The quantitative relationship between wealth production and safety improvement is derived from different sources of evidence. When this is applied to the wealth production from electricity generation in a standard module of population in an advanced society, a safety benefit is indicated which exceeds the assessed direct risk associated with the electricity generation by orders of magnitude. It appears that a goal or policy intended to confer the greatest safety benefit to the population would result in attitudes and actions diametrically opposite to those which are conventional at the moment

  1. Discrete fracture modeling of multiphase flow and hydrocarbon production in fractured shale or low permeability reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Y.; Settgast, R. R.; Fu, P.; Tompson, A. F. B.; Morris, J.; Ryerson, F. J.

    2016-12-01

    It has long been recognized that multiphase flow and transport in fractured porous media is very important for various subsurface applications. Hydrocarbon fluid flow and production from hydraulically fractured shale reservoirs is an important and complicated example of multiphase flow in fractured formations. The combination of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing is able to create extensive fracture networks in low permeability shale rocks, leading to increased formation permeability and enhanced hydrocarbon production. However, unconventional wells experience a much faster production decline than conventional hydrocarbon recovery. Maintaining sustainable and economically viable shale gas/oil production requires additional wells and re-fracturing. Excessive fracturing fluid loss during hydraulic fracturing operations may also drive up operation costs and raise potential environmental concerns. Understanding and modeling processes that contribute to decreasing productivity and fracturing fluid loss represent a critical component for unconventional hydrocarbon recovery analysis. Towards this effort we develop a discrete fracture model (DFM) in GEOS (LLNL multi-physics computational code) to simulate multiphase flow and transfer in hydraulically fractured reservoirs. The DFM model is able to explicitly account for both individual fractures and their surrounding rocks, therefore allowing for an accurate prediction of impacts of fracture-matrix interactions on hydrocarbon production. We apply the DFM model to simulate three-phase (water, oil, and gas) flow behaviors in fractured shale rocks as a result of different hydraulic stimulation scenarios. Numerical results show that multiphase flow behaviors at the fracture-matrix interface play a major role in controlling both hydrocarbon production and fracturing fluid recovery rates. The DFM model developed in this study will be coupled with the existing hydro-fracture model to provide a fully integrated

  2. Optimizing Water Use and Hydropower Production in Operational Reservoir System Scheduling with RiverWare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, T. M.; Zagona, E. A.

    2017-12-01

    Practical operational optimization of multipurpose reservoir systems is challenging for several reasons. Each purpose has its own constraints which may conflict with those of other purposes. While hydropower generation typically provides the bulk of the revenue, it is also among the lowest priority purposes. Each river system has important details that are specific to the location such as hydrology, reservoir storage capacity, physical limitations, bottlenecks, and the continuing evolution of operational policy. In addition, reservoir operations models include discrete, nonlinear, and nonconvex physical processes and if-then operating policies. Typically, the forecast horizon for scheduling needs to be extended far into the future to avoid near term (e.g., a few hours or a day) scheduling decisions that result in undesirable future states; this makes the computational effort much larger than may be expected. Put together, these challenges lead to large and customized mathematical optimization problems which must be solved efficiently to be of practical use. In addition, the solution process must be robust in an operational setting. We discuss a unique modeling approach in RiverWare that meets these challenges in an operational setting. The approach combines a Preemptive Linear Goal Programming optimization model to handle prioritized policies complimented by preprocessing and postprocessing with Rulebased Simulation to improve the solution with regard to nonlinearities, discrete issues, and if-then logic. An interactive policy language with a graphical user interface allows modelers to customize both the optimization and simulation based on the unique aspects of the policy for their system while the routine physical aspect of operations are modeled automatically. The modeler is aided by a set of compiled predefined functions and functions shared by other modelers. We illustrate the success of the approach with examples from daily use at the Tennessee Valley

  3. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.; Flanders, W.A.; Guzman, J.I.; Zirczy, H.

    1999-06-08

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through geologically based field development. This year the project focused on reservoir characterization of the East Ford unit, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey Sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit; it contained an estimated 19.8 million barrels (MMbbl) of original oil in place. Petrophysical characterization of the East Ford unit was accomplished by integrating core and log data and quantifying petrophysical properties from wireline logs. Most methods of petrophysical analysis that had been developed during an earlier study of the Ford Geraldine unit were successfully transferred to the East Ford unit. The approach that was used to interpret water saturation from resistivity logs, however, had to be modified because in some East Ford wells the log-calculated water saturation was too high and inconsistent with observations made during the actual production. Log-porosity to core-porosity transforms and core-porosity to core-permeability transforms were derived from the East Ford reservoir. The petrophysical data were used to map porosity, permeability, net pay, water saturation, mobil-oil saturation, and other reservoir properties.

  4. Decline Curve Analysis for Production Forecast and Optimization of Liquid-Dominated Geothermal Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, I.

    2016-09-01

    Power projects in the geothermal field has a long span of about 30 years. The power supply should be maintained at a certain value across a range of time. A geothermal field, however, has the characteristics of natural production decline with time. In a geothermal field, development of decline curve model of steam production is important for forecasting production decline in the future. This study was developed using decline curve by production data along 3 years liquid-dominated geothermal reservoir in Ulubelu field. Decline curve in geothermal field based on decline curve in petroleum industry. The decline curve was correlated by reservoir management in geothermal. The purposes of this study to get best match model decline curve and forecasting production in the future. Based on decline curve analysis by production data in Ulubelu field, the result model decline curve is exponential model. From the model, we can get the value of decline rate in the field is 9.4 %/year. Then, the formula of forecasting steam flow used exponent decline to forecast in the future. By using separated system cycle in Ulubelu field, the minimal steam flowrate towards turbine was 502018.4 ton/month. Based on formula of forecasting production and minimal steam flowrate, we can get the time make up wells to maintain steam supply for stability in generator power capacity.

  5. Conversion of Crude Oil to Methane by a Microbial Consortium Enriched From Oil Reservoir Production Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina eBerdugo-Clavijo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The methanogenic biodegradation of crude oil is an important process occurring in petroleum reservoirs and other oil-containing environments such as contaminated aquifers. In this process, syntrophic bacteria degrade hydrocarbon substrates to products such as acetate, and/or H2 and CO2 that are then used by methanogens to produce methane in a thermodynamically dependent manner. We enriched a methanogenic crude oil-degrading consortium from production waters sampled from a low temperature heavy oil reservoir. Alkylsuccinates indicative of fumarate addition to C5 and C6 n-alkanes were identified in the culture (above levels found in controls, corresponding to the detection of an alkyl succinate synthase gene (assA in the culture. In addition, the enrichment culture was tested for its ability to produce methane from residual oil in a sandstone-packed column system simulating a mature field. Methane production rates of up 5.8 μmol CH4/g of oil/day were measured in the column system. Amounts of produced methane were in relatively good agreement with hydrocarbon loss showing depletion of more than 50% of saturate and aromatic hydrocarbons. Microbial community analysis revealed that the enrichment culture was dominated by members of the genus Smithella, Methanosaeta, and Methanoculleus. However, a shift in microbial community occurred following incubation of the enrichment in the sandstone columns. Here, Methanobacterium sp. were most abundant, as were bacterial members of the genus Pseudomonas and other known biofilm forming organisms. Our findings show that microorganisms enriched from petroleum reservoir waters can bioconvert crude oil components to methane both planktonically and in sandstone-packed columns as test systems. Further, the results suggest that different organisms may contribute to oil biodegradation within different phases (e.g., planktonic versus sessile within a subsurface crude oil reservoir.

  6. Advanced productivity forecast using petrophysical wireline data calibrated with MDT tests and numerical reservoir simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, Carlos de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Canas, Jesus A.; Low, Steven; Barreto, Wesley [Schlumberger, Houston, TX (United States)

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes an integrated and rigorous approach for viscous and middle oil reservoir productivity evaluation using petrophysical models calibrated with permeability derived from mini tests (Dual Packer) and Vertical Interference Tests (VIT) from open hole wire line testers (MDT SLB TM). It describes the process from Dual Packer Test and VIT pre-job design, evaluation via analytical and inverse simulation modeling, calibration and up scaling of petrophysical data into a numerical model, history matching of Dual Packer Tests and VIT with numerical simulation modeling. Finally, after developing a dynamic calibrated model, we perform productivity forecasts of different well configurations (vertical, horizontal and multilateral wells) for several deep offshore oil reservoirs in order to support well testing activities and future development strategies. The objective was to characterize formation static and dynamic properties early in the field development process to optimize well testing design, extended well test (EWT) and support the development strategies in deep offshore viscous oil reservoirs. This type of oil has limitations to flow naturally to surface and special lifting equipment is required for smooth optimum well testing/production. The integrated analysis gave a good overall picture of the formation, including permeability anisotropy and fluid dynamics. Subsequent analysis of different well configurations and lifting schemes allows maximizing formation productivity. The simulation and calibration results are compared to measured well test data. Results from this work shows that if the various petrophysical and fluid properties sources are integrated properly an accurate well productivity model can be achieved. If done early in the field development program, this time/knowledge gain could reduce the risk and maximize the development profitability of new blocks (value of the information). (author)

  7. Spatial distribution and secondary production of Copepoda in a tropical reservoir: Barra Bonita, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ. Santos-Wisniewski

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to describe the spatial distribution of zooplankton copepods, their biomass and instantaneous secondary production, in Barra Bonita, a large eutrophic, polymitic reservoir (22° 29' S and 48° 34' W on the Tietê River, of the Paraná basin. Sampling was carried out during two seasons: dry winter and rainy summer. Species composition, age structure and numerical density of each copepod species population were analyzed at 25 sampling stations. Secondary production was calculated for Copepoda, the dominant group in zooplankton communities, taking Calanoida and Cyclopoida separately. Copepoda represented the largest portion of the total zooplankton biomass, the dominant species being Notodiaptomus iheringi among the Calanoida and Mesocyclops ogunnus and Thermocyclops decipiens among the Cyclopoida. The production of Copepoda was higher during the rainy summer (23.61 mgDW.m-3.d-1 in January 1995 than during the dry winter season (14 mgDW.m-3.d-1 in August 1995, following the general pattern of abundance for the whole zooplankton community. Among the copepods, Cyclopoida production was higher than that of Calanoida, a pattern commonly observed for tropical lakes and reservoirs. Barra Bonita copepods are very productive, but there was a great degree of spatial heterogeneity, related to the physical and chemical conditions, particularly the level of nutrients and also to phytoplankton biomass.

  8. Determination of production biology of Cladocera in a reservoir receiving hyperthermal effluents from a nuclear production reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigerstad, T.J.

    1980-01-01

    The effects on zooplankton of residence in a cooling reservoir receiving hyperthermal effluents directly from a nuclear-production-reactor were examined. The design of the study was to compare rates of cladoceran population production at two stations in the winter and summer of 1976 on Par Pond, the cooling reservoir located on the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC. One station was located in an area of the reservoir directly receiving hyperthermal effluent (Station MAS), and the second was located about 4 km away in an area where surface temperatures were normal for reservoirs in the general geographical region (Station CAS). The statistical properties of the Edmondson egg ratio model (Edmondson, 1960) were examined to determine if it would be a suitable method for calculating cladoceran production rates for comparison between stations. Based on an examination of the variance associated with standing stock and fecundity measurements and other consideratios, the use of the egg ratio model was abandoned. Instead, a non-parametric comparison between stations of standing stock and fecundity data for Bosmina longirostris, taken for the egg ratio model, were used to observe potential hyperthermal effluent effects. There was a statistically higher incidence of deformed eggs in the Bosmina population at Station MAS in the summer. Bosmina standing stock underwent two large oscillations in the winter and three large oscillations in the summer at Station MAS compared with two in the winter and one in the summer at Station CAS. These results are consistent with almost all other Par Pond studies which have found the two stations to be essentially similar in species composition but with some statistically significant differences in various aspects of the biology of the species

  9. Several Methods to Increase Production from Carbonate Reservoirs, Developed by means of Horizontal Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Kh. Akhmadullin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Market conditions during the economic crisis require the provision of high efficiency of capital investments at all stages of production in two main areas: increasing the flow rate of new wells, recovering production from highly-drained and inactive stock of wells, and reducing drilling and well site construction costs. The task is solved by improving the existing development systems, broadly implementing the already proven methods of increasing oil recovery, including the use of horizontal technology that provides more complete production of inter-well space and massive geological and technical measures to restore production from inactive and highly watered wells. Among the latter, there is little costly technology to restore oil production in open wells with a horizontal end, which operate carbonate reservoirs of the Lower and Middle Carboniferous deposits in the Republic of Tatarstan. The essence of the technology is to lower the suspension of the pump directly to the horizontal part of the well, if possible, to the lowest hypsometric mark of its trajectory in the oil-saturated part of the operational object. At the same time, the oil production rate increases, the watering of the well production decreases, its service life is extended, the design levels of production are maintained, the most complete production of oil reserves is achieved and the ultimate oil recovery factor is increased. Taking into account the positive results of the application of the technology, it is proposed to extend it to all fields of Tatarstan, where the carbonate reservoirs with wells with horizontal end are operated.

  10. Optimisation of production from an oil-reservoir using augmented Lagrangian methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doublet, Daniel Christopher

    2007-07-01

    This work studies the use of augmented Lagrangian methods for water flooding production optimisation from an oil reservoir. Commonly, water flooding is used as a means to enhance oil recovery, and due to heterogeneous rock properties, water will flow with different velocities throughout the reservoir. Due to this, water breakthrough can occur when great regions of the reservoir are still unflooded so that much of the oil may become 'trapped' in the reservoir. To avoid or reduce this problem, one can control the production so that the oil recovery rate is maximised, or alternatively the net present value (NPV) of the reservoir is maximised. We have considered water flooding, using smart wells. Smart wells with down-hole valves gives us the possibility to control the injection/production at each of the valve openings along the well, so that it is possible to control the flowregime. One can control the injection/production at all valve openings, and the setting of the valves may be changed during the production period, which gives us a great deal of control over the production and we want to control the injection/ production so that the profit obtained from the reservoir is maximised. The problem is regarded as an optimal control problem, and it is formulated as an augmented Lagrangian saddle point problem. We develop a method for optimal control based on solving the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions for the augmented Lagrangian functional, a method, which to my knowledge has not been presented in the literature before. The advantage of this method is that we do not need to solve the forward problem for each new estimate of the control variables, which reduces the computational effort compared to other methods that requires the solution of the forward problem every time we find a new estimate of the control variables, such as the adjoint method. We test this method on several examples, where it is compared to the adjoint method. Our numerical experiments show

  11. Determination of production biology of cladocera in a reservoir receiving hyperthermal effluents from a nuclear production reactor. [Par Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigerstad, T J

    1980-01-01

    The effects on zooplankton of residence in a cooling reservoir receiving hyperthermal effluents directly from a nuclear-production-reactor were studied. Rates of cladoceran population production were compared at two stations in the winter and summer of 1976 on Par Pond located on the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC. One station was located in an area of the reservoir directly receiving hyperthermal effluent (Station MAS) and the second was located about 4 km away in an area where surface temperatures were normal for reservoirs in the general geographical region (Station CAS). A non-parametric comparison between stations of standing stock and fecundity data for Bosmina longirostris, taken for the egg ratio model, was used to observe potential hyperthermal effluent effects. There was a statistically higher incidence of deformed eggs in the Bosmina population at Station MAS in the summer. Bosmina standing stock underwent two large oscillations in the winter and three large oscillations in the summer at Station MAS compared with two in the winter and one in the summer at Station CAS. These results are consistent with almost all other Par Pond studies which have found the two stations to be essentially similar in spectra composition but with some statistically significant differences in various aspects of the biology of the species.

  12. Secondary productivity of main microcrustacean species of two tropical reservoirs in Brazil and its relationship with trophic state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia L. Brito

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In view of the importance of the zooplankton community in energy transfer between trophic levels, this study had as objective to estimate the secondary productivity rates of the main microcrustacean in two large tropical reservoirs, Três Marias and Furnas, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. We included Thermocyclops minutus, Bosminopsis deitersi, Bosmina hagmanni, Ceriodaphnia cornuta and Moina minuta in Três Marias Reservoir, and, in Furnas, these species and also Notodiaptomus henseni, Daphnia ambigua, Ceriodaphnia silvestrii, Diaphanosoma spinulosum, D. fluviatile and Bosmina freyi. With respect to total productivity, higher rates were obtained in the rainy period in both reservoirs (P<0.000, with mean values during the dry and rainy periods of 0.44 and 1.80 mg DW m-3 d-1 for Três Marias Reservoir and 1.50 and 3.10 mg DW m-3 d-1 for Furnas Reservoir, respectively. Thermocyclops minutus was the most important species in terms of density and biomass in Três Marias Reservoir, and M. minuta showed the highest rates of secondary productivity, especially during the rainy period. In Furnas, N. henseni and D. ambigua showed the highest productivity rates in both periods, and C. silvestrii, C. cornuta, D. spinulosum and D. fluviatile were also important during the rainy period. Values of the productivity:biomass ratio were usually lower for the copepods; the cladoceran M. minuta showed the highest values in both reservoirs. The higher microcrustacean secondary productivity rates in Furnas Reservoir are probably the result of greater efficiency in energy transfer between trophic levels, due to the presence of phytoplankton species with better nutritional quality in this environment.

  13. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-08-08

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The hope is that successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs, including: (1) Development of three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic reservoir simulation models--thermal or otherwise--to aid in reservoir management of the steamflood and post-steamflood phases and subsequent development work. (2) Development of computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid reservoir surveillance and operations. (3) Perform detailed studies of the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (4) Testing and proposed application of a

  14. Modeling of Gas Production from Shale Reservoirs Considering Multiple Transport Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chaohua; Wei, Mingzhen; Liu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Gas transport in unconventional shale strata is a multi-mechanism-coupling process that is different from the process observed in conventional reservoirs. In micro fractures which are inborn or induced by hydraulic stimulation, viscous flow dominates. And gas surface diffusion and gas desorption should be further considered in organic nano pores. Also, the Klinkenberg effect should be considered when dealing with the gas transport problem. In addition, following two factors can play significant roles under certain circumstances but have not received enough attention in previous models. During pressure depletion, gas viscosity will change with Knudsen number; and pore radius will increase when the adsorption gas desorbs from the pore wall. In this paper, a comprehensive mathematical model that incorporates all known mechanisms for simulating gas flow in shale strata is presented. The objective of this study was to provide a more accurate reservoir model for simulation based on the flow mechanisms in the pore scale and formation geometry. Complex mechanisms, including viscous flow, Knudsen diffusion, slip flow, and desorption, are optionally integrated into different continua in the model. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of different mechanisms on the gas production. The results showed that adsorption and gas viscosity change will have a great impact on gas production. Ignoring one of following scenarios, such as adsorption, gas permeability change, gas viscosity change, or pore radius change, will underestimate gas production.

  15. Modeling of Gas Production from Shale Reservoirs Considering Multiple Transport Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaohua Guo

    Full Text Available Gas transport in unconventional shale strata is a multi-mechanism-coupling process that is different from the process observed in conventional reservoirs. In micro fractures which are inborn or induced by hydraulic stimulation, viscous flow dominates. And gas surface diffusion and gas desorption should be further considered in organic nano pores. Also, the Klinkenberg effect should be considered when dealing with the gas transport problem. In addition, following two factors can play significant roles under certain circumstances but have not received enough attention in previous models. During pressure depletion, gas viscosity will change with Knudsen number; and pore radius will increase when the adsorption gas desorbs from the pore wall. In this paper, a comprehensive mathematical model that incorporates all known mechanisms for simulating gas flow in shale strata is presented. The objective of this study was to provide a more accurate reservoir model for simulation based on the flow mechanisms in the pore scale and formation geometry. Complex mechanisms, including viscous flow, Knudsen diffusion, slip flow, and desorption, are optionally integrated into different continua in the model. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of different mechanisms on the gas production. The results showed that adsorption and gas viscosity change will have a great impact on gas production. Ignoring one of following scenarios, such as adsorption, gas permeability change, gas viscosity change, or pore radius change, will underestimate gas production.

  16. The big fat LARS - a LArge Reservoir Simulator for hydrate formation and gas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeskow-Strauch, Bettina; Spangenberg, Erik; Schicks, Judith M.; Giese, Ronny; Luzi-Helbing, Manja; Priegnitz, Mike; Klump, Jens; Thaler, Jan; Abendroth, Sven

    2013-04-01

    differences between gaseous and dissolved methane (Zimmer et al., 2011). Gas hydrate is formed using a confined pressure of 12-15 MPa and a fluid pressure of 8-11 MPa with a set temperature of 275 K. The duration of the formation process depends on the required hydrate saturation and is usually in a range of several weeks. The subsequent decomposition experiments aiming at testing innovative production scenarios such as the application of a borehole tool for thermal stimulation of hydrate via catalytic oxidation of methane within an autothermal catalytic reactor (Schicks et al. 2011). Furthermore, experiments on hydrate decomposition via pressure reduction are performed to mimic realistic scenarios such as found during the production test in Mallik (Yasuda and Dallimore, 2007). In the near future it is planned to scale up existing results on CH4-CO2 exchange efficiency (e.g. Strauch and Schicks, 2012) by feeding CO2 to the hydrate reservoir. All experiments are due to the gain of high-resolution spatial and temporal data predestined as a base for numerical modeling. References Schicks, J. M., Spangenberg, E., Giese, R., Steinhauer, B., Klump, J., Luzi, M., 2011. Energies, 4, 1, 151-172. Zimmer, M., Erzinger, J., Kujawa, C., 2011. Int. J. of Greenhouse Gas Control, 5, 4, 995-1001. Yasuda, M., Dallimore, S. J., 2007. Jpn. Assoc. Pet. Technol., 72, 603-607. Beeskow-Strauch, B., Schicks, J.M., 2012. Energies, 5, 420-437.

  17. Production induced boiling and cold water entry in the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir indicated by chemical and physical measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, M.A. (DSIR, Wellington, New Zealand); Truesdell, A.H.; Manon, A.

    1981-01-01

    Chemical and physical data suggest that the relatively shallow western part of the Cerro Prieto reservoir is bounded below by low permeability rocks, and above and at the sides by an interface with cooler water. There is no continuous permeability barrier around or immediately above the reservoir. Permeability within the reservoir is dominantly intergranular. Mixture with cooler water rather than boiling is the dominant cooling process in the natural state, and production causes displacement of hot water by cooler water, not by vapor. Local boiling occurs near most wells in response to pressure decreases, but no general vapor zone has formed.

  18. Challenges to and countermeasures for the production stabilization of tight sandstone gas reservoirs of the Sulige Gasfield, Ordos Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Lu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With the grade of hydrocarbon resources becoming poorer, tight sandstone gas reservoirs may serve as the key to the enhancement of both reserves and productivity. Accordingly, high efficient and sustainable development of the large and over-large tight sandstone reservoirs is very important. However, currently, there is no effective method available for macro-analysis. Based on the latest research findings from the Sulige Gasfield, the largest onshore tight sandstone gas reservoir in China, studies were conducted in five aspects, i.e. reserve scale, development scale, dynamic reserve evaluation, rules in production declines of gasfields and undeveloped resource evaluation, to identify challenges to the production stabilization of gas reservoirs. In addition, key evidences and constraints for the solutions to the difficulties in production stabilization were proposed to provide necessary technical supports for high-efficient development in later stages. Research results show that the major challenges to production stabilization include seven aspects, such as low development induced by improper allocation of well patterns, uneven declines in productivity induced by specific features of reservoir formations and fluids, difficulties in the development of some reserves due to complex gas/water correlation, and differences in production performances by using different production techniques. Finally, guided by the development principles of “promoting productivity by using innovative technologies in different spaces and time”, 13 key technologies, such as comprehensive optimization of development well patterns, multi-dimensional matrix for gas well management and “positive” water discharging and gas production technologies, were proposed to further prolong peak production time and enhance the recovery rates of tight gas reservoirs.

  19. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It was hoped that the successful application of these technologies would result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

  20. Iron oxides alter methanogenic pathways of acetate in production water of high-temperature petroleum reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Pan; Hong, Bo; Mbadinga, Serge Maurice; Wang, Li-Ying; Liu, Jin-Feng; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2017-09-01

    Acetate is a key intermediate in anaerobic crude oil biodegradation and also a precursor for methanogenesis in petroleum reservoirs. The impact of iron oxides, viz. β-FeOOH (akaganéite) and magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ), on the methanogenic acetate metabolism in production water of a high-temperature petroleum reservoir was investigated. Methane production was observed in all the treatments amended with acetate. In the microcosms amended with acetate solely about 30% of the acetate utilized was converted to methane, whereas methane production was stimulated in the presence of magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) resulting in a 48.34% conversion to methane. Methane production in acetate-amended, β-FeOOH (akaganéite)-supplemented microcosms was much faster and acetate consumption was greatly improved compared to the other conditions in which the stoichiometric expected amounts of methane were not produced. Microbial community analysis showed that Thermacetogenium spp. (known syntrophic acetate oxidizers) and hydrogenotrophic methanogens closely related to Methanothermobacter spp. were enriched in acetate and acetate/magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) microcosms suggesting that methanogenic acetate metabolism was through hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis fueled by syntrophic acetate oxidizers. The acetate/β-FeOOH (akaganéite) microcosms, however, differed by the dominance of archaea closely related to the acetoclastic Methanosaeta thermophila. These observations suggest that supplementation of β-FeOOH (akaganéite) accelerated the production of methane further, driven the alteration of the methanogenic community, and changed the pathway of acetate methanogenesis from hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis fueled by syntrophic acetate oxidizers to acetoclastic.

  1. Coexistence of GMO production, labeling policies, and strategic firm interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venus, Thomas Johann

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes the market effects of the coexistence of genetically modified organism (GMO) and conventional production, labeling policies, and strategic firm interactions through vertical product differentiation. Although we focus on GMOs, the applied frameworks can be adopted and

  2. Reconciling longwall gob gas reservoirs and venthole production performances using multiple rate drawdown well test analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karacan, C. Oezgen [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Pittsburgh Research Laboratory, Pittsburgh 15236, PA (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Longwall mining is an underground mining method during which a mechanical shearer progressively mines a large block of coal, called a panel, in an extensive area. During this operation the roof of the coal seam is supported only temporarily with hydraulic supports that protect the workers and the equipment on the coal face. As the coal is extracted, the supports automatically advance and the roof strata cave behind the supports. Caving results in fracturing and relaxation of the overlying strata, which is called ''gob.'' Due its highly fractured nature, gob contains many flow paths for gas migration. Thus, if the overlying strata contain gassy sandstones or sandstone channels, gas shales or thinner coal seams which are not suitable for mining, then the mining-induced changes can cause unexpected or uncontrolled gas migration into the underground workplace. Vertical gob gas ventholes (GGV) are drilled into each longwall panel to capture the methane within the overlying fractured strata before it enters the work environment. Thus, it is important, first to understand the properties of the gas reservoir created by mining disturbances and, second, to optimize the well parameters and placement accordingly. In this paper, the production rate-pressure behaviors of six GGVs drilled over three adjacent panels were analyzed by using conventional multi-rate drawdown analysis techniques. The analyses were performed for infinite acting and pseudo-steady state flow models, which may be applicable during panel mining (DM) and after mining (AM) production periods of GGVs. These phases were analyzed separately since the reservoir properties, due to dynamic subsidence, boundary conditions and gas capacity of the gob reservoir may change between these two stages. The results suggest that conventional well test analysis techniques can be applicable to highly complex gob reservoirs and GGVs to determine parameters such as skin, permeability, radius of investigation

  3. New prospects in EU environmental policies. The Integrated Product Policy (IPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnimeo, G.; Iraldo, F.

    2000-01-01

    The Integrated Product Policy - IPP - is becoming one of the top priorities for the European Commission within the framework of the product-oriented environmental policies. Rather than a new policy, this is an innovative approach aimed at co-originated existing and forthcoming environmental policies, in order to manage in an integrated way and minimise the impacts connected with the whole product life-cycle. The underlying life-cycle guideline requires the management of each phase by considering what happens in all the other phases. What clearly emerges from a research carried out by Iefe Bocconi is, on the one hand, the effectiveness of co-operation and networking between all the actors involved in the product environmental management within the different phases of its life cycle (policy makers, producers, retailers, consumers, NGOs, etc.) and, on the other, the opportunity of developing an integrated management of both environmental policy instruments and corporate management tools [it

  4. Incentive Policy Options for Product Remanufacturing: Subsidizing Donations or Resales?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaodong; Wang, Yue; Li, Bangyi

    2017-01-01

    Remanufactured products offer better environmental benefits, and governments encourage manufacturers to remanufacture through various subsidy policies. This practice has shown that, in addition to product sales, remanufactured product can also achieve its value through social donation. Based on the remanufactured product value realization approaches, governments provide two kinds of incentive policies, which are remanufactured product sales subsidies and remanufactured product donation subsidies. This paper constructs a two-stage Stackelberg game model including a government and a manufacturer under two different policies, which can be solved by backward induction. By comparing the optimal decision of the two policies, our results show that, compared with the remanufacturing sales subsidy, donation subsidy weakens the cannibalization of remanufactured products for new products and increases the quantity of new products. It reduces the sales quantity of remanufactured products, but increases their total quantity. Under certain conditions of low subsidy, the manufacturer adopting sales subsidy provides better economic and environmental benefits. Under certain conditions of high subsidy, the manufacturer adopting donation subsidy offers better economic and environmental benefits. When untreated product environmental impact is large enough, donation subsidy policy has a better social welfare. Otherwise, the choice of social welfare of these two different policies depends on the social impact of remanufactured product donated. PMID:29194411

  5. Innovation policy & labour productivity growth: Education, research & development, government effectiveness and business policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Raee, Mueid; Ritzen, Jo; Crombrugghe, Denis de

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between labour productivity growth in non-traditional sectors and "innovation policy" for a cross-section of countries. Innovation policy is characterised by investments in tertiary education and research and development as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product

  6. Initialising reservoir models for history matching using pre-production 3D seismic data: constraining methods and uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niri, Mohammad Emami; Lumley, David E.

    2017-10-01

    Integration of 3D and time-lapse 4D seismic data into reservoir modelling and history matching processes poses a significant challenge due to the frequent mismatch between the initial reservoir model, the true reservoir geology, and the pre-production (baseline) seismic data. A fundamental step of a reservoir characterisation and performance study is the preconditioning of the initial reservoir model to equally honour both the geological knowledge and seismic data. In this paper we analyse the issues that have a significant impact on the (mis)match of the initial reservoir model with well logs and inverted 3D seismic data. These issues include the constraining methods for reservoir lithofacies modelling, the sensitivity of the results to the presence of realistic resolution and noise in the seismic data, the geostatistical modelling parameters, and the uncertainties associated with quantitative incorporation of inverted seismic data in reservoir lithofacies modelling. We demonstrate that in a geostatistical lithofacies simulation process, seismic constraining methods based on seismic litho-probability curves and seismic litho-probability cubes yield the best match to the reference model, even when realistic resolution and noise is included in the dataset. In addition, our analyses show that quantitative incorporation of inverted 3D seismic data in static reservoir modelling carries a range of uncertainties and should be cautiously applied in order to minimise the risk of misinterpretation. These uncertainties are due to the limited vertical resolution of the seismic data compared to the scale of the geological heterogeneities, the fundamental instability of the inverse problem, and the non-unique elastic properties of different lithofacies types.

  7. Evaluation of storm event inputs on levels of gross primary production and respiration in a drinking water reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samal, Nihar; Stæhr, Peter A.; Pierson, Donald C.

    Weather related episodic events are typically unpredictable and the episodic inputs of dissolved and particulate material during storm events can have important effects on lake and reservoir ecosystem function and also impact reservoir drinking water quality.   We evaluate the impacts of storm...... events using vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and chlorophyll automatically collected at 6 hour intervals in West basin of Ashokan Reservoir, which is a part of the New York City drinking water supply. Using data from before, during and after storm events, we examine how...... the balance between GPP and R is influenced by storm related increases in turbidity and dissolved organic matter, which would in turn influence light attenuation and bacterial production. Storm driven inputs to the reservoir periodically resulted in large input of suspended sediments raising water turbidity...

  8. Make use of dynamic data - a constraint based EnKF for SAGD reservoir characterization and production management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gul, Ali; Nejadi, Siavash; Shah, Sirish L; Trivedi, Japan J [University of Alberta (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is a thermal recovery process widely used in the Athabasca oil sands, the largest bitumen reservoir in the world. In order to optimize the process, an accurate characterization of the reservoir heterogeneity and identification of the potential steam barriers is necessary. The aim of this paper was to assess the potential of constraint based ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) approach with localization to address these issues. Data records from observation, production and injection wells were used and the method was tested on a twin well SAGD process and a single well SAGD model with hybrid grids. Results showed a better characterization of the reservoir's heterogeneity and a reduction of uncertainty in the prediction of steam chamber growth. The technique developed herein provides accurate information about the steam chamber and the reservoir heterogeneity and can be used for planning and decision making of other field development strategies.

  9. Economic Effects of Reservoir Re-operation Policy in the Rio Grande/Bravo for Sustainable Human and Environmental Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Partida, J. P.; Sandoval Solis, S.; Lane, B.

    2015-12-01

    A central challenge of integrated water management is the design and implementation of policies to allocate water to both humans and the environment in a sustainable manner. This study uses the results from a reach-scale water-planning model to quantify and compare the economic benefits of two water management policies: (1) a business as usual (Baseline) policy and (2) a proposed reservoir re-operation policy to provide environmental flows (EFs). Results show that the EF policy would increase water supply profit, slightly decrease recreational activities profit, and reduce costs from flood damage and environmental restoration compared to the Baseline policy. In addition to supporting ecological objectives, the proposed EF policy would increase the economic benefits of water management objectives.

  10. Hydrocarbon Reservoir Parameter Estimation Using Production Data and Time-Lapse Seismic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Przybysz-Jarnut, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    The numerical simulation of hydrocarbon reservoir flow is necessarily an approximation of the flow in the real reservoir. The knowledge about the reservoir is limited and some of the processes occurring are either not taken into account or not described in an adequate way. The parameters influencing

  11. Evaluation of extracellular products and mutagenicity in cyanobacteria cultures separated from a eutrophic reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, W.-J. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Hung Kuang University, 34 Chung Chie Road, Sha-Lu, Taichung, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: huangwj@sunrise.hk.edu.tw; Lai, C.-H. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Hung Kuang University, 34 Chung Chie Road, Sha-Lu, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Y.-L. [Environmental Toxin and Analysis Laboratory, Hung Kuang University, 34 Chung Chie Road, Sha-Lu, Taichung, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: octling@yahoo.com.tw

    2007-05-15

    The algal extracellular products (ECPs) in three cultures of cyanobacteria species (Anabaena, Microcystis, and Oscillatoria) dominating the eutrophic reservoir populations and their toxins have been investigated in the present work. Using gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution electron-impact mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) and high performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) techniques, more than 20 compounds were found in the algal culture (including cells and filtrates) extracts. The main identified ECPs were classified to polysaccharides, hydrocarbons, and aldehydes. Odor causing substances such as trans-1,10-dimethyl-trans-9-decalol (geosmin) and 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB)were also found in the algal cultures. The potential mutagenicity of the algal suspensions was also studied with the Ames test. The organic extracts of the algal suspension from the axenic cultures were mutagenicity in TA98 without S9 mix and in TA100 with and without S9 mix. The results indicate that the ECPs of three algae species dominating the eutrophic reservoir were mutagenic clearly in the bacterial test.

  12. Evaluation of extracellular products and mutagenicity in cyanobacteria cultures separated from a eutrophic reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.-J.; Lai, C.-H.; Cheng, Y.-L.

    2007-01-01

    The algal extracellular products (ECPs) in three cultures of cyanobacteria species (Anabaena, Microcystis, and Oscillatoria) dominating the eutrophic reservoir populations and their toxins have been investigated in the present work. Using gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution electron-impact mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) and high performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) techniques, more than 20 compounds were found in the algal culture (including cells and filtrates) extracts. The main identified ECPs were classified to polysaccharides, hydrocarbons, and aldehydes. Odor causing substances such as trans-1,10-dimethyl-trans-9-decalol (geosmin) and 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB)were also found in the algal cultures. The potential mutagenicity of the algal suspensions was also studied with the Ames test. The organic extracts of the algal suspension from the axenic cultures were mutagenicity in TA98 without S9 mix and in TA100 with and without S9 mix. The results indicate that the ECPs of three algae species dominating the eutrophic reservoir were mutagenic clearly in the bacterial test

  13. Efforts to Reduce the Impacts of Hydroelectric Power Production on Reservoir Fisheries in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cada, G. F.

    1997-01-01

    Research into the environmental effects of hydroelectric power production in the United States has focused increasingly on resident and migratory fish populations. Hydropower dams and reservoirs can block fish movements in both upstream and downstream directions. These movements are essential for important stocks of anadromous and catadromous fish. In addition, some strictly freshwater fish may move long distances within a river during their life cycle.A dam can pose an impassable barrier for fish trying to move upstream unless mitigation measures in the form of ladders or lifts are provided. Fish moving downstream to the sea may become disoriented when they encounter static water within a reservoir. Both resident and migratory fish may be injured or killed by passing through the turbine or over the spillway. In the United States, a variety of organizations conduct applied research and development of measures to (1) enhance fish passage, (2) reduce the numbers of fish that are drawn into the turbine intakes, and (3) reduce the injury and mortality rates of fish that pass through the turbines. Examples of these efforts from a variety of river systems and hydroelectric power plants are described

  14. High Order Adjoint Derivatives using ESDIRK Methods for Oil Reservoir Production Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capolei, Andrea; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2012-01-01

    In production optimization, computation of the gradients is the computationally expensive step. We improve the computational efficiency of such algorithms by improving the gradient computation using high-order ESDIRK (Explicit Singly Diagonally Implicit Runge-Kutta) temporal integration methods...... and continuous adjoints . The high order integration scheme allows larger time steps and therefore faster solution times. We compare gradient computation by the continuous adjoint method to the discrete adjoint method and the finite-difference method. The methods are implemented for a two phase flow reservoir...... simulator. Computational experiments demonstrate that the accuracy of the sensitivities obtained by the adjoint methods are comparable to the accuracy obtained by the finite difference method. The continuous adjoint method is able to use a different time grid than the forward integration. Therefore, it can...

  15. Non-equilibrium simulation of CH4 production through the depressurization method from gas hydrate reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qorbani, Khadijeh; Kvamme, Bjørn

    2016-04-01

    Natural gas hydrates (NGHs) in nature are formed from various hydrate formers (i.e. aqueous, gas, and adsorbed phases). As a result, due to Gibbs phase rule and the combined first and second laws of thermodynamics CH4-hydrate cannot reach thermodynamic equilibrium in real reservoir conditions. CH4 is the dominant component in NGH reservoirs. It is formed as a result of biogenic degradation of biological material in the upper few hundred meters of subsurface. It has been estimated that the amount of fuel-gas reserve in NGHs exceed the total amount of fossil fuel explored until today. Thus, these reservoirs have the potential to satisfy the energy requirements of the future. However, released CH4 from dissociated NGHs could find its way to the atmosphere and it is a far more aggressive greenhouse gas than CO2, even though its life-time is shorter. Lack of reliable field data makes it difficult to predict the production potential, as well as safety of CH4 production from NGHs. Computer simulations can be used as a tool to investigate CH4 production through different scenarios. Most hydrate simulators within academia and industry treat hydrate phase transitions as an equilibrium process and those which employ the kinetic approach utilize simple laboratory data in their models. Furthermore, it is typical to utilize a limited thermodynamic description where only temperature and pressure projections are considered. Another widely used simplification is to assume only a single route for the hydrate phase transitions. The non-equilibrium nature of hydrate indicates a need for proper kinetic models to describe hydrate dissociation and reformation in the reservoir with respect to thermodynamics variables, CH4 mole-fraction, pressure and temperature. The RetrasoCodeBright (RCB) hydrate simulator has previously been extended to model CH4-hydrate dissociation towards CH4 gas and water. CH4-hydrate is added to the RCB data-base as a pseudo mineral. Phase transitions are treated

  16. Process and product-oriented environmental policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, Carla Kornelia; Nielsen, Eskild Holm; Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg

    2003-01-01

    The article focuses on end-of-life vehicle regulations and product chain management in relation to South Africa.......The article focuses on end-of-life vehicle regulations and product chain management in relation to South Africa....

  17. Animal Production Research Advances: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Animal production research advances is a peer-review journal established expressly to promote the production of all animal species utilized as food. The journal has an international scope and is intended for professionals in animal production and related sciences. We solicit contributions from animal ...

  18. Increasing Production from Low-Permeability Gas Reservoirs by Optimizing Zone Isolation for Successful Stimulation Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred Sabins

    2005-03-31

    Maximizing production from wells drilled in low-permeability reservoirs, such as the Barnett Shale, is determined by cementing, stimulation, and production techniques employed. Studies show that cementing can be effective in terms of improving fracture effectiveness by 'focusing' the frac in the desired zone and improving penetration. Additionally, a method is presented for determining the required properties of the set cement at various places in the well, with the surprising result that uphole cement properties in wells destined for multiple-zone fracturing is more critical than those applied to downhole zones. Stimulation studies show that measuring pressure profiles and response during Pre-Frac Injection Test procedures prior to the frac job are critical in determining if a frac is indicated at all, as well as the type and size of the frac job. This result is contrary to current industry practice, in which frac jobs are designed well before the execution, and carried out as designed on location. Finally, studies show that most wells in the Barnett Shale are production limited by liquid invasion into the wellbore, and determinants are presented for when rod or downhole pumps are indicated.

  19. Replacement and inspection policies for products with random life cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Won Young; Nakagawa, Toshio

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider maintenance policies for products in which the economical life cycle of products is a random variable. First, we study a periodic replacement policy with minimal repair. The system is minimally repaired at failure and is replaced by new one at age T (periodic replacement policy with minimal repair of Barlow and Hunter). The expected present value of total maintenance cost of products with random life cycle is obtained and the optimal replacement interval minimizing the cost is found. Second, we consider an inspection policy for products with random life cycle to detect the system failure. The expected total cost is obtained and the optimal inspection interval is found. Numerical examples are also included.

  20. Production Decline Analysis for Two-Phase Flow in Multifractured Horizontal Well in Shale Gas Reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Wei-Yang; Li, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Lie-Hui; Tan, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Jun-Chao; Wang, Hai-Tao

    2015-01-01

    After multistage fracturing, the flowback of fracturing fluid will cause two-phase flow through hydraulic fractures in shale gas reservoirs. With the consideration of two-phase flow and desorbed gas transient diffusion in shale gas reservoirs, a two-phase transient flow model of multistage fractured horizontal well in shale gas reservoirs was created. Accurate solution to this flow model is obtained by the use of source function theory, Laplace transform, three-dimensional eigenvalue method, ...

  1. Study of gas production from shale reservoirs with multi-stage hydraulic fracturing horizontal well considering multiple transport mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaohua Guo

    Full Text Available Development of unconventional shale gas reservoirs (SGRs has been boosted by the advancements in two key technologies: horizontal drilling and multi-stage hydraulic fracturing. A large number of multi-stage fractured horizontal wells (MsFHW have been drilled to enhance reservoir production performance. Gas flow in SGRs is a multi-mechanism process, including: desorption, diffusion, and non-Darcy flow. The productivity of the SGRs with MsFHW is influenced by both reservoir conditions and hydraulic fracture properties. However, rare simulation work has been conducted for multi-stage hydraulic fractured SGRs. Most of them use well testing methods, which have too many unrealistic simplifications and assumptions. Also, no systematical work has been conducted considering all reasonable transport mechanisms. And there are very few works on sensitivity studies of uncertain parameters using real parameter ranges. Hence, a detailed and systematic study of reservoir simulation with MsFHW is still necessary. In this paper, a dual porosity model was constructed to estimate the effect of parameters on shale gas production with MsFHW. The simulation model was verified with the available field data from the Barnett Shale. The following mechanisms have been considered in this model: viscous flow, slip flow, Knudsen diffusion, and gas desorption. Langmuir isotherm was used to simulate the gas desorption process. Sensitivity analysis on SGRs' production performance with MsFHW has been conducted. Parameters influencing shale gas production were classified into two categories: reservoir parameters including matrix permeability, matrix porosity; and hydraulic fracture parameters including hydraulic fracture spacing, and fracture half-length. Typical ranges of matrix parameters have been reviewed. Sensitivity analysis have been conducted to analyze the effect of the above factors on the production performance of SGRs. Through comparison, it can be found that hydraulic

  2. Study of gas production from shale reservoirs with multi-stage hydraulic fracturing horizontal well considering multiple transport mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chaohua; Wei, Mingzhen; Liu, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Development of unconventional shale gas reservoirs (SGRs) has been boosted by the advancements in two key technologies: horizontal drilling and multi-stage hydraulic fracturing. A large number of multi-stage fractured horizontal wells (MsFHW) have been drilled to enhance reservoir production performance. Gas flow in SGRs is a multi-mechanism process, including: desorption, diffusion, and non-Darcy flow. The productivity of the SGRs with MsFHW is influenced by both reservoir conditions and hydraulic fracture properties. However, rare simulation work has been conducted for multi-stage hydraulic fractured SGRs. Most of them use well testing methods, which have too many unrealistic simplifications and assumptions. Also, no systematical work has been conducted considering all reasonable transport mechanisms. And there are very few works on sensitivity studies of uncertain parameters using real parameter ranges. Hence, a detailed and systematic study of reservoir simulation with MsFHW is still necessary. In this paper, a dual porosity model was constructed to estimate the effect of parameters on shale gas production with MsFHW. The simulation model was verified with the available field data from the Barnett Shale. The following mechanisms have been considered in this model: viscous flow, slip flow, Knudsen diffusion, and gas desorption. Langmuir isotherm was used to simulate the gas desorption process. Sensitivity analysis on SGRs' production performance with MsFHW has been conducted. Parameters influencing shale gas production were classified into two categories: reservoir parameters including matrix permeability, matrix porosity; and hydraulic fracture parameters including hydraulic fracture spacing, and fracture half-length. Typical ranges of matrix parameters have been reviewed. Sensitivity analysis have been conducted to analyze the effect of the above factors on the production performance of SGRs. Through comparison, it can be found that hydraulic fracture

  3. Productivity model for gas reservoirs with open-hole multi-fracturing horizontal wells and optimization of hydraulic fracture parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiang Xue

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Multi-fractured horizontal wells are commonly employed to improve the productivity of low and ultra-low permeability gas reservoirs. However, conventional productivity models for open-hole multi-fractured horizontal wells do not consider the interferences between hydraulic fractures and the open-hole segments, resulting in significant errors in calculation results. In this article, a novel productivity prediction model for gas reservoirs with open-hole multi-fractured horizontal wells was proposed based on complex potential theories, potential superimposition, and numerical analysis. Herein, an open-hole segment between two adjacent fractures was regarded as an equivalent fracture, which was discretized as in cases of artificial fractures. The proposed model was then applied to investigate the effects of various parameters, such as the angle between the fracture and horizontal shaft, fracture quantity, fracture length, diversion capacity of fractures, horizontal well length, and inter-fracture distance, on the productivity of low permeability gas reservoirs with multi-fractured horizontal wells. Simulation results revealed that the quantity, length, and distribution of fractures had significant effects on the productivity of low permeability gas reservoirs while the effects of the diversion capacity of fractures and the angle between the fracture and horizontal shaft were negligible. Additionally, a U-shaped distribution of fracture lengths was preferential as the quantity of fractures at shaft ends was twice that in the middle area. Keywords: Low permeability gas reservoir, Multi-fractured horizontal well, Productivity prediction, Open-hole completion, Unsteady-state flow, Fracture parameters optimization

  4. Domestic petroleum product pricing policy: Old issues in new perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.C.

    1995-01-01

    It appears that the economic basis of domestic petroleum product pacing has, hitherto, received inadequate attention from economists. International comparisons of petroleum product pricing show that domestic markets are highly distorted This article argues that despite significant developments in theoretical and applied economics, economic theories do not provide any ready made solutions for energy pricing issues to the policy makers who have to deal with a large set of practical issues. As a result, it is not unusual to encounter gross misapplication of economic rules in petroleum pricing policies. This work also focuses on the possible effects of changing domestic market structure vis-a-vis pricing policies

  5. Longitudinal changes in protistan bacterivory and bacterial production in two canyon-shaped reservoirs of different trophic status

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jezbera, Jan; Nedoma, Jiří; Šimek, Karel

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 504, - (2003), s. 115-130 ISSN 0018-8158. [Reservoir Limnology and Water Quality /4./. České Budějovice, 12.08.2002-16.08.2002] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/99/0028; GA ČR GA206/02/0003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6017912 Keywords : canyon-shaped reservoirs * bacterial production * protistan bacterivory Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.720, year: 2003

  6. Limnological evaluation of the fisheries potentials and productivity of a small shallow tropical African reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Moshood K

    2009-12-01

    Morphometrics and physico-chemical parameters of Oyun reservoir, Offa, Nigeria (a small shallow tropical African Reservoir) were used to estimate the potential fish yield of the reservoir according to the morpho-edaphic index (MEI). Physico-chemical characteristics of the water body were sampled monthly from three stations between January 2002 and December 2003 with standard methods. Estimates of the potential fish yield were obtained using the physico-chemical characteristics of the reservoir and the relationship Y = 23.281 MEI(0.447), where Y is the potential fish yield in kg/ha, MEI is the morpho-edaphic index (given in microS/cm and estimated by dividing the mean conductivity by the mean depth). The reservoir mean depth and conductivity values were 2.6m and 113.10 microS/cm respectively, while its potential fish yield was estimated at 125.72 kg/ha. This estimate was higher than other small shallower and larger African reservoirs. The reservoir high ionic content, high nutrient and dissolved oxygen levels, good pH, low level of pollution and shallow depth were responsible for the high estimate of the fish yield. In order to realize this high potential fish yield and sustainable exploration of the fisheries, effective management of the reservoir to curb eutrophication should be adopted, while other management practices such as stocking and conservation of desirable and indigenous fish species, implementation of fishing regulations and adoption of best management practices should be implemented.

  7. Optimisation of Oil Production in Two – Phase Flow Reservoir Using Simultaneous Method and Interior Point Optimiser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerch, Dariusz Michal; Völcker, Carsten; Capolei, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Natural petroleum reservoirs are characterised by 2-phase flow of oil and water in the porous media (e.g. rocks) which they are built of. Conventional methods of extracting oil from those fields, which utilise high initial pressure obtained from natural drive, leave more than 70 % of oil in the r......Natural petroleum reservoirs are characterised by 2-phase flow of oil and water in the porous media (e.g. rocks) which they are built of. Conventional methods of extracting oil from those fields, which utilise high initial pressure obtained from natural drive, leave more than 70 % of oil...... structure leading to change of permeability with position in the reservoir, or high oil viscosity. Therefore it is desired to take into account all these phenomena by implementing a realistic simulator of the 2-phase flow reservoir, which imposes the set of constraints on the state variables of optimisation...... problem. Then, thanks to optimal control, it is possible to adjust effectively injection valves to control 2 phase immiscible flow in every grid block of the reservoir and navigate oil to the production wells so it does not remain in the porous media. The use of such a smart technology known also as smart...

  8. Coexistence of GMO production, labeling policies, and strategic firm interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venus, Thomas Johann

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes the market effects of the coexistence of genetically modified organism (GMO) and conventional production, labeling policies, and strategic firm interactions through vertical product differentiation. Although we focus on GMOs, the applied frameworks can be adopted and

  9. Multi-Objective History Matching with a Proxy Model for the Characterization of Production Performances at the Shale Gas Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaejun Kim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fast, reliable multi-objective history-matching method based on proxy modeling to forecast the production performances of shale gas reservoirs for which all available post-hydraulic-fracturing production data, i.e., the daily gas rate and cumulative-production volume until the given date, are honored. The developed workflow consists of distance-based generalized sensitivity analysis (DGSA to determine the spatiotemporal-parameter significance, fast marching method (FMM as a proxy model, and a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm to integrate the dynamic data. The model validation confirms that the FMM is a sound surrogate model working within an error of approximately 2% for the estimated ultimate recovery (EUR, and it is 11 times faster than a full-reservoir simulation. The predictive accuracy on future production after matching 1.5-year production histories is assessed to examine the applicability of the proposed method. The DGSA determines the effective parameters with respect to the gas rate and the cumulative volume, including fracture permeability, fracture half-length, enhanced permeability in the stimulated reservoir volume, and average post-fracturing porosity. A comparison of the prediction accuracy for single-objective optimization shows that the proposed method accurately estimates the recoverable volume as well as the production profiles to within an error of 0.5%, while the single-objective consideration reveals the scale-dependency problem with lesser accuracy. The results of this study are useful to overcome the time-consuming effort of using a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm and full-scale reservoir simulation as well as to conduct a more-realistic prediction of the shale gas reserves and the corresponding production performances.

  10. Assessment of Policy Integration of Sustainable Consumption and Production into National Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryu Koide

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP was adopted as a stand-alone goal and reflected as one of the cross-cutting objectives of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, with a central role to address global resource consumption and its associated environmental impacts, as well as numerous social and economic issues. With this broad characterization of SCP, policy integration is crucial in addressing it at national level. This paper analyzes characteristics of SCP policy integration based on a survey of national government policies. It reveals that SCP is not fully integrated in national policy-making; high resource consumption sectors such as urban planning, building, and tourism are not fully incorporated into national SCP policies, and there is only limited participation of relevant government ministries other than environment ministries. We find that among countries with horizontal policy integration, those with Green Economy/Green Growth frameworks tend to have better sectoral integration; and those with SCP-specific frameworks are likely to have broader coordination of ministries. By conducting cross-analysis using income level and region, the different characteristics of SCP policy-making approaches were identified. The results of this study provide a better understanding of how SCP is integrated into policy for effective national policy-making and measurement of the SDG Goal 12.

  11. Play Analysis and Digital Portfolio of Major Oil Reservoirs in the Permian Basin: Application and Transfer of Advanced Geological and Engineering Technologies for Incremental Production Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley P. Dutton; Eugene M. Kim; Ronald F. Broadhead; Caroline L. Breton; William D. Raatz; Stephen C. Ruppel; Charles Kerans

    2004-01-13

    A play portfolio is being constructed for the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeast New Mexico, the largest onshore petroleum-producing basin in the United States. Approximately 1,300 reservoirs in the Permian Basin have been identified as having cumulative production greater than 1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) of oil through 2000. Of these significant-sized reservoirs, approximately 1,000 are in Texas and 300 in New Mexico. There are 32 geologic plays that have been defined for Permian Basin oil reservoirs, and each of the 1,300 major reservoirs was assigned to a play. The reservoirs were mapped and compiled in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by play. The final reservoir shapefile for each play contains the geographic location of each reservoir. Associated reservoir information within the linked data tables includes RRC reservoir number and district (Texas only), official field and reservoir name, year reservoir was discovered, depth to top of the reservoir, production in 2000, and cumulative production through 2000. Some tables also list subplays. Play boundaries were drawn for each play; the boundaries include areas where fields in that play occur but are smaller than 1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) of cumulative production. Oil production from the reservoirs in the Permian Basin having cumulative production of >1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) was 301.4 MMbbl (4.79 x 10{sup 7} m{sup 3}) in 2000. Cumulative Permian Basin production through 2000 was 28.9 Bbbl (4.59 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}). The top four plays in cumulative production are the Northwest Shelf San Andres Platform Carbonate play (3.97 Bbbl [6.31 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), the Leonard Restricted Platform Carbonate play (3.30 Bbbl [5.25 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), the Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Horseshoe Atoll Carbonate play (2.70 Bbbl [4.29 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), and the San Andres Platform Carbonate play (2.15 Bbbl [3.42 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]). Detailed studies of three reservoirs

  12. INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES UTILIZING SECONDARY/TERTIARY RECOVERY TECHNIQUES ON SMALL RESERVOIRS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

    2002-11-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from shallow-shelf carbonate buildups or mounds within the Desert Creek zone of the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field at a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. Five fields in southeastern Utah were evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide (CO{sub 2})-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. Geological characterization on a local scale focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity as well as possible compartmentalization within each of the five project fields. The Desert Creek zone includes three generalized facies belts: (1) open-marine, (2) shallow-shelf and shelf-margin, and (3) intra-shelf, salinity-restricted facies. These deposits have modern analogs near the coasts of the Bahamas, Florida, and Australia, respectively, and outcrop analogs along the San Juan River of southeastern Utah. The analogs display reservoir heterogeneity, flow barriers and baffles, and lithofacies geometry observed in the fields; thus, these properties were incorporated in the reservoir simulation models. Productive carbonate buildups consist of three types: (1) phylloid algal, (2) coralline algal, and (3) bryozoan. Phylloid-algal buildups have a mound-core interval and a supra-mound interval. Hydrocarbons are stratigraphically trapped in porous and permeable lithotypes within the mound-core intervals of the lower part of the buildups and the more heterogeneous supramound intervals. To adequately represent the observed spatial heterogeneities in reservoir properties, the phylloid-algal bafflestones of the mound-core interval and the dolomites of the overlying supra-mound interval were subdivided into ten architecturally distinct lithotypes, each of which

  13. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin). Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.; Asquith, G.B.; Barton, M.D.; Cole, A.G.; Gogas, J.; Malik, M.A.; Clift, S.J.; Guzman, J.I.

    1997-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. This project involves reservoir characterization of two Late Permian slope and basin clastic reservoirs in the Delaware Basin, West Texas, followed by a field demonstration in one of the fields. The fields being investigated are Geraldine Ford and Ford West fields in Reeves and Culberson Counties, Texas. Project objectives are divided into two major phases, reservoir characterization and implementation. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project were to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of the two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford West field. Reservoir characterization utilized 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. Once reservoir characterized was completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} at the northern end of the Ford Geraldine unit was chosen for reservoir simulation. This report summarizes the results of the second year of reservoir characterization.

  14. Data for "Controls on nitrous oxide production and consumption in reservoirs of the Ohio River Basin"

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dissolved oxygen, dissolved nitrous oxide, and water temperature in reservoirs. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Beaulieu , J., C. Nietch ,...

  15. Policies for reduced deforestation and their impact on agricultural production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelsen, Arild

    2010-11-16

    Policies to effectively reduce deforestation are discussed within a land rent (von Thünen) framework. The first set of policies attempts to reduce the rent of extensive agriculture, either by neglecting extension, marketing, and infrastructure, generating alternative income opportunities, stimulating intensive agricultural production or by reforming land tenure. The second set aims to increase either extractive or protective forest rent and--more importantly--create institutions (community forest management) or markets (payment for environmental services) that enable land users to capture a larger share of the protective forest rent. The third set aims to limit forest conversion directly by establishing protected areas. Many of these policy options present local win-lose scenarios between forest conservation and agricultural production. Local yield increases tend to stimulate agricultural encroachment, contrary to the logic of the global food equation that suggests yield increases take pressure off forests. At national and global scales, however, policy makers are presented with a more pleasant scenario. Agricultural production in developing countries has increased by 3.3-3.4% annually over the last 2 decades, whereas gross deforestation has increased agricultural area by only 0.3%, suggesting a minor role of forest conversion in overall agricultural production. A spatial delinking of remaining forests and intensive production areas should also help reconcile conservation and production goals in the future.

  16. THE ROLE OF PRODUCT AUDIT POLICY IN INCREASING ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIOLETA RĂDULESCU

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In terms of markets more competitive, competitive advantage becomes a problem getting increasingly more difficult. Offer organization is the first element that can provide differentiation from competitors, the organization should regularly monitor the performance of their products in the market to achieve its objectives. Marketing decisions regarding product policy of the organization should be made after a comprehensive analysis within specific steps of strategic marketing planning. It is necessary, therefore a thorough analysis of the product portfolio of the organizations. In this regard an important role hold product audit policy and brand audit. This paper aims to present the steps and methods to be used for effective analysis of the product portfolio of the organization to effective competition on the relevant market.

  17. Multi variate regression model of the water level and production rate time series of the geothermal reservoir Waiwera (New Zealand)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Michael; Schöne, Tim

    2017-04-01

    Water management tools are essential to ensure the conservation of natural resources. The geothermal hot water reservoir below the village of Waiwera, on the Northern Island of New Zealand is used commercially since 1863. The continuous production of 50 °C hot geothermal water, to supply hotels and spas, has a negative impact on the reservoir. Until the year 1969 from all wells drilled the warm water flow was artesian. Due to overproduction the water needs to be pumped up nowadays. Further, within the years 1975 to 1976 the warm water seeps on the beach of Waiwera ran dry. In order to protect the reservoir and the historical and tourist site in the early 1980s a water management plan was deployed. The "Auckland Council" established guidelines to enable a sustainable management of the resource [1]. The management plan demands that the water level in the official and appropriate observation well of the council is 0.5 m above sea level throughout the year in average. Almost four decades of data (since 1978 until today) are now available [2]. For a sustainable water management, it is necessary to be able to forecast the water level as a function of the production rates in the production wells. The best predictions are provided by a multivariate regression model of the water level and production rate time series, which takes into account the production rates of individual wells. It is based on the inversely proportional relationship between the independent variable (production rate) and the dependent variable (measured water level). In production scenarios, a maximum total production rate of approx. 1,100 m3 / day is determined in order to comply with the guidelines of the "Auckland Council". [1] Kühn M., Stöfen H. (2005) A reactive flow model of the geothermal reservoir Waiwera, New Zealand. Hydrogeology Journal 13, 606-626, doi: 10.1007/s10040-004-0377-6 [2] Kühn M., Altmannsberger C. (2016) Assessment of data driven and process based water management tools for

  18. Environmental risks and impacts of mountain reservoirs for artificial snow production in a context of climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Gaucherand

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Mountain reservoirs are hydraulic structures established in recreational mountain resorts designed to provide a water reserve mainly used for the production of artificial snow. Their siting in high-altitude zones makes them highly specific reservoirs subjected to and inducing risks and impacts on their human and ecological environment. Based on in-depth bibliographic and field research, Cemagref has launched a study on mountain reservoirs. The present article aims to establish the current state of the risks related to mountain reservoirs and their impacts on the environment, placing the development of mountain reservoirs in their societal, social, and environmental contexts. It will then develop mountain reservoir risks and impacts, focusing on the specific risks and uncertainties to which these structures are exposed, and the different environmental impacts related to the construction and management of these reservoirs.Les retenues d’altitude sont des ouvrages hydrauliques implantés dans les stations de loisirs de montagne et destinés à créer une réserve d’eau, dédiée principalement à la production de neige de culture. Leur implantation en altitude en fait indubitablement des retenues spécifiques, subissant et induisant des risques et des impacts sur leur environnement anthropique et écologique. Le Cemagref a engagé un projet de recherche sur la sûreté des retenues d’altitude. Le présent article est issu de ces travaux et vise à établir un état des lieux des risques liés aux retenues d’altitude et de leurs impacts sur l’environnement. Il replace le développement des retenues d’altitude dans leurs contextes sociétal, social et environnemental. Il développe ensuite les risques et impacts des retenues d’altitude, en focalisant son analyse sur les différents risques et aléas spécifiques auxquels sont exposés les ouvrages, et sur les différents impacts environnementaux liés à la réalisation et la gestion

  19. Environmental Policies, Product Market Regulation and Innovation in Renewable Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesta, Lionel; Vona, Francesco; Nicolli, Francesco

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the effectiveness of policies in favor of innovation in renew- able energy under different levels of competition. Using information regarding renewable energy policies, product market regulation and high-quality green patents for OECD countries since the late 1970's, we develop a pre-sample mean count-data econometric specification that also accounts for the endogeneity of policies. We find that renewable energy policies are significantly more effective in fostering green innovation in countries with deregulated energy markets. We also find that public support for renewable energy is crucial only in the generation of high-quality green patents, whereas competition enhances the generation of green patents irrespective of their quality. (authors)

  20. Pricing Policy and Strategies for Consumer High-Tech Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovleac, L.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the complex process of price setting for consumer high-tech products. These prices are highly influenced by some external factors from the economic and social environment. The main objective of this paper is to establish the most effective pricing policies and strategies used by high-tech companies of various sizes. Decisions about price fixing for consumer high-technology products are largely influenced by consumer behaviour, too.

  1. PLAY ANALYSIS AND DIGITAL PORTFOLIO OF MAJOR OIL RESERVOIRS IN THE PERMIAN BASIN: APPLICATION AND TRANSFER OF ADVANCED GEOLOGICAL AND ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES FOR INCREMENTAL PRODUCTION OPPORTUNITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley P. Dutton; Eugene M. Kim; Ronald F. Broadhead; Caroline L. Breton; William D. Raatz; Stephen C. Ruppel; Charles Kerans

    2004-05-01

    The Permian Basin of west Texas and southeast New Mexico has produced >30 Bbbl (4.77 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}) of oil through 2000, most of it from 1,339 reservoirs having individual cumulative production >1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}). These significant-sized reservoirs are the focus of this report. Thirty-two Permian Basin oil plays were defined, and each of the 1,339 significant-sized reservoirs was assigned to a play. The reservoirs were mapped and compiled in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by play. Associated reservoir information within linked data tables includes Railroad Commission of Texas reservoir number and district (Texas only), official field and reservoir name, year reservoir was discovered, depth to top of the reservoir, production in 2000, and cumulative production through 2000. Some tables also list subplays. Play boundaries were drawn for each play; the boundaries include areas where fields in that play occur but are <1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) of cumulative production. This report contains a summary description of each play, including key reservoir characteristics and successful reservoir-management practices that have been used in the play. The CD accompanying the report contains a pdf version of the report, the GIS project, pdf maps of all plays, and digital data files. Oil production from the reservoirs in the Permian Basin having cumulative production >1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) was 301.4 MMbbl (4.79 x 10{sup 7} m{sup 3}) in 2000. Cumulative Permian Basin production through 2000 from these significant-sized reservoirs was 28.9 Bbbl (4.59 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}). The top four plays in cumulative production are the Northwest Shelf San Andres Platform Carbonate play (3.97 Bbbl [6.31 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), the Leonard Restricted Platform Carbonate play (3.30 Bbbl 5.25 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}), the Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Horseshoe Atoll Carbonate play (2.70 Bbbl [4.29 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), and the San Andres

  2. Product assurance policies and procedures for flight dynamics software development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Sandra; Jordan, Leon; Decker, William; Page, Gerald; Mcgarry, Frank E.; Valett, Jon

    1987-01-01

    The product assurance policies and procedures necessary to support flight dynamics software development projects for Goddard Space Flight Center are presented. The quality assurance and configuration management methods and tools for each phase of the software development life cycles are described, from requirements analysis through acceptance testing; maintenance and operation are not addressed.

  3. Linking Social and Productive Development Policies for Inclusive ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Linking Social and Productive Development Policies for Inclusive Growth: A Program of Research and Capacity Building. Peru is one of the fastest growing economies in Latin America, but Peruvians continue to face large disparities in incomes, opportunities, and access to public services. While poverty has declined ...

  4. Characterization and Prediction of the Gas Hydrate Reservoir at the Second Offshore Gas Production Test Site in the Eastern Nankai Trough, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machiko Tamaki

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Following the world’s first offshore production test that was conducted from a gas hydrate reservoir by a depressurization technique in 2013, the second offshore production test has been planned in the eastern Nankai Trough. In 2016, the drilling survey was performed ahead of the production test, and logging data that covers the reservoir interval were newly obtained from three wells around the test site: one well for geological survey, and two wells for monitoring surveys, during the production test. The formation evaluation using the well log data suggested that our target reservoir has a more significant heterogeneity in the gas hydrate saturation distribution than we expected, although lateral continuity of sand layers is relatively good. To evaluate the spatial distribution of gas hydrate, the integration analysis using well and seismic data was performed. The seismic amplitude analysis supports the lateral reservoir heterogeneity that has a significant positive correlation with the resistivity log data at the well locations. The spatial distribution of the apparent low-resistivity interval within the reservoir observed from log data was investigated by the P-velocity volume derived from seismic inversion. The integrated results were utilized for the pre-drill prediction of the reservoir quality at the producing wells. These approaches will reduce the risk of future commercial production from the gas hydrate reservoir.

  5. Bioaugmentation of oil reservoir indigenous Pseudomonas aeruginosa to enhance oil recovery through in-situ biosurfactant production without air injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Li, Ping; Guo, Chao; Shi, Rong-Jiu; Zhang, Ying

    2018-03-01

    Considering the anoxic conditions within oil reservoirs, a new microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) technology through in-situ biosurfactant production without air injection was proposed. High-throughput sequencing data revealed that Pseudomonas was one of dominant genera in Daqing oil reservoirs. Pseudomonas aeruginosa DQ3 which can anaerobically produce biosurfactant at 42 °C was isolated. Strain DQ3 was bioaugmented in an anaerobic bioreactor to approximately simulate MEOR process. During bioaugmentation process, although a new bacterial community was gradually formed, Pseudomonas was still one of dominant genera. Culture-based data showed that hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and biosurfactant-producing bacteria were activated, while sulfate reducing bacteria were controlled. Biosurfactant was produced at simulated reservoir conditions, decreasing surface tension to 33.8 mN/m and emulsifying crude oil with EI 24  = 58%. Core flooding tests revealed that extra 5.22% of oil was displaced by in-situ biosurfactant production. Bioaugmenting indigenous biosurfactant producer P. aeruginosa without air injection is promising for in-situ MEOR applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fracking for shale gas production. A contribution to its assessment from the viewpoints of energy and environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Shale gas is natural gas that is bound in unconventional reservoirs and can only be extracted by hydraulic fracturing, also referred to as fracking. This technology involves the high-pressure injection of water containing various additives into the gas-containing rock formation. This creates cracks in the rock, making it more permeable and allowing the gas to rise up to the surface. In its present opinion the German Advisory Council on the Environment sees the need for a differentiated view on the opportunities and risks of shale gas production by fracking. It advocates taking a bird's eye perspective that includes aspects of both energy and environmental policy.

  7. A new method in predicting productivity of multi-stage fractured horizontal well in tight gas reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsheng Wei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The generally accomplished technique for horizontal wells in tight gas reservoirs is by multi-stage hydraulic fracturing, not to mention, the flow characteristics of a horizontal well with multiple transverse fractures are very intricate. Conventional methods, well as an evaluation unit, are difficult to accurately predict production capacity of each fracture and productivity differences between wells with a different number of fractures. Thus, a single fracture sets the minimum evaluation unit, matrix, fractures, and lateral wellbore model that are then combined integrally to approximate horizontal well with multiple transverse hydraulic fractures in tight gas reservoirs. This paper presents a new semi-analytical methodology for predicting the production capacity of a horizontal well with multiple transverse hydraulic fractures in tight gas reservoirs. Firstly, a mathematical flow model used as a medium, which is disturbed by finite conductivity vertical fractures and rectangular shaped boundaries, is established and explained by the Fourier integral transform. Then the idea of a single stage fracture analysis is incorporated to establish linear flow model within a single fracture with a variable rate. The Fredholm integral numerical solution is applicable for the fracture conductivity function. Finally, the pipe flow model along the lateral wellbore is adapted to couple multi-stages fracture mathematical models, and the equation group of predicting productivity of a multi-stage fractured horizontal well. The whole flow process from the matrix to bottom-hole and production interference between adjacent fractures is also established. Meanwhile, the corresponding iterative algorithm of the equations is given. In this case analysis, the productions of each well and fracture are calculated under the different bottom-hole flowing pressure, and this method also contributes to obtaining the distribution of pressure drop and production for every

  8. Pseudo-Steady-State Productivity Formula for a Partially Penetrating Vertical Well in a Box-Shaped Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For a bounded reservoir with no flow boundaries, the pseudo-steady-state flow regime is common at long-producing times. Taking a partially penetrating well as a uniform line sink in three dimensional space, by the orthogonal decomposition of Dirac function and using Green's function to three-dimensional Laplace equation with homogeneous Neumann boundary condition, this paper presents step-by-step derivations of a pseudo-steady-state productivity formula for a partially penetrating vertical well arbitrarily located in a closed anisotropic box-shaped drainage volume. A formula for calculating pseudo skin factor due to partial penetration is derived in detailed steps. A convenient expression is presented for calculating the shape factor of an isotropic rectangle reservoir with a single fully penetrating vertical well, for arbitrary aspect ratio of the rectangle, and for arbitrary position of the well within the rectangle.

  9. Coal production forecast and low carbon policies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianzhou; Dong Yao; Wu Jie; Mu Ren; Jiang He

    2011-01-01

    With rapid economic growth and industrial expansion, China consumes more coal than any other nation. Therefore, it is particularly crucial to forecast China's coal production to help managers make strategic decisions concerning China's policies intended to reduce carbon emissions and concerning the country's future needs for domestic and imported coal. Such decisions, which must consider results from forecasts, will have important national and international effects. This article proposes three improved forecasting models based on grey systems theory: the Discrete Grey Model (DGM), the Rolling DGM (RDGM), and the p value RDGM. We use the statistical data of coal production in China from 1949 to 2005 to validate the effectiveness of these improved models to forecast the data from 2006 to 2010. The performance of the models demonstrates that the p value RDGM has the best forecasting behaviour over this historical time period. Furthermore, this paper forecasts coal production from 2011 to 2015 and suggests some policies for reducing carbon and other emissions that accompany the rise in forecasted coal production. - Highlights: → Improved forecasting models make full use of the advantages of individual model. → Proposed models create commendable improvements for current research. → Proposed models do not make complicated decisions about the explicit form. → We forecast coal production of China from 2011 to 2015. → We suggest some policies for reducing carbon emissions.

  10. Production functions for climate policy modeling. An empirical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Werf, Edwin

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative models for climate policy modeling differ in the production structure used and in the sizes of the elasticities of substitution. The empirical foundation for both is generally lacking. This paper estimates the parameters of 2-level CES production functions with capital, labour and energy as inputs, and is the first to systematically compare all nesting structures. Using industry-level data from 12 OECD countries, we find that the nesting structure where capital and labour are combined first, fits the data best, but for most countries and industries we cannot reject that all three inputs can be put into one single nest. These two nesting structures are used by most climate models. However, while several climate policy models use a Cobb-Douglas function for (part of the) production function, we reject elasticities equal to one, in favour of considerably smaller values. Finally we find evidence for factor-specific technological change. With lower elasticities and with factor-specific technological change, some climate policy models may find a bigger effect of endogenous technological change on mitigating the costs of climate policy. (author)

  11. Relative lake level fluctuations and their influence on productivity and resilience in tropical lakes and reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolding, J.; Zwieten, van P.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Lakes and reservoirs are traditionally characterised from static morphological or chemical parameters such as depth and dissolved solids, while the dynamic impact of shifting water supplies has received little attention. There is increasing evidence, however, that the hydrodynamic regime in tropical

  12. Controls on nitrous oxide production and consumption in reservoirs of the Ohio River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquatic ecosystems are a globally significant source of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas, but estimates are largely based on studies conducted in streams and rivers with relatively less known about N2O dynamics in lakes and reservoirs. Due to long water residence tim...

  13. Recycling irrigation reservoir stratification and implications for crop health and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratification is often assumed to only take place in deep water bodies. Recycling irrigation reservoirs often are shallow; however, they receive agricultural runoff containing elevated concentrations of nutrients and sediments. This study investigated the temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH charac...

  14. Monitoring pharmaceuticals and personal care products in reservoir water used for drinking water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizabal-Ciro, Carolina; Botero-Coy, Ana María; López, Francisco J; Peñuela, Gustavo A

    2017-03-01

    In this work, the presence of selected emerging contaminants has been investigated in two reservoirs, La Fe (LF) and Rio Grande (RG), which supply water to two drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) of Medellin, one of the most populated cities of Colombia. An analytical method based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) of the sample followed by measurement by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for this purpose. Five monitoring campaigns were performed in each reservoir, collecting samples from 7 sites (LF) and 10 sites (RG) at 3 different depths of the water column. In addition, water samples entering in the DWTPs and treated water samples from these plans were also analysed for the selected compounds. Data from this work showed that parabens, UV filters and the pharmaceutical ibuprofen were commonly present in most of the reservoir samples. Thus, methyl paraben was detected in around 90% of the samples collected, while ibuprofen was found in around 60% of the samples. Water samples feeding the DWTPs also contained these two compounds, as well as benzophenone at low concentrations, which was in general agreement with the results from the reservoir samples. After treatment in the DWTPs, these three compounds were still present in the samples although at low concentrations (water are still unknown. Further research is needed to evaluate the effect of chronic exposure to these compounds via consumption of drinking water.

  15. The EU electricity production structure requires a differentiated energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2016-01-01

    For the electricity production of the EU there are differentiated structures which are based on different natural conditions, political decisions and investments of past decades. It has long been struggled committed to the ''one and correct'' energy policy. But precisely because of the differences in the individual countries, a unified energy and climate policy for the EU is not the right way. Diversity is a strength, which quite the EU Commission considered. Increased understanding of the specifics in other countries should just apply the German politics and the public that all too often judges from their own perspective. [de

  16. Production Characteristics with Different Superimposed Modes Using Variogram: A Case Study of a Super-Giant Carbonate Reservoir in the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenji Wei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneity of permeability is an important factor affecting the production of a carbonate reservoir. How to correctly characterize the heterogeneity of permeability has become a key issue for carbonate reservoir development. In this study, the reservoirs were categorized into four superimposed modes based on the actual logging data from a super-giant heterogeneous carbonate reservoir in the Middle East. A modified permeability formula in terms of the variogram method was presented to reflect the heterogeneity of the reservoirs. Furthermore, the models of oil production and water cut were established and the analytical solutions were obtained. The calculation results show that the present model can predict the productivity of wells with different heterogeneous layers more accurately and rapidly. The larger the varigoram value, the stronger the heterogeneity of the reservoirs, and the faster the decline of production owing to a quicker reduction of formation pressure. With the increase in variogram value, the relative permeability of the oil phase is smaller and the water phase larger, and the water cut becomes larger. This study has provided a quick and reasonable prediction model for heterogeneous reservoir.

  17. Innovation Policy for Knowledge Production and R&D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    Who produces scientific and technical knowledge these days? What type of knowledge is being produced and for what purposes? Why are firms and governments funding research and development? This chapter studies the role of knowledge production (especially R&D activities) in the innovation process...... those tensions and unbalances. This chapter suggests that innovation policy develops a portfolio approach to the public investment in R&D and knowledge production....... from an innovation system perspective. It examines how governments and public agencies in different countries and at different times have actually approached the issue of building, maintaining and using knowledge production in their innovation systems. It also examines the critical and most important...

  18. Responses of Microbial Community Composition to Temperature Gradient and Carbon Steel Corrosion in Production Water of Petroleum Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xiao Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil reservoir production systems are usually associated with a temperature gradient and oil production facilities frequently suffer from pipeline corrosion failures. Both bacteria and archaea potentially contribute to biocorrosion of the oil production equipment. Here the response of microbial populations from the petroleum reservoir to temperature gradient and corrosion of carbon steel coupons were investigated under laboratory condition. Carbon steel coupons were exposed to production water from a depth of 1809 m of Jiangsu petroleum reservoir (China and incubated for periods of 160 and 300 days. The incubation temperatures were set at 37, 55, and 65°C to monitoring mesophilic, thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microorganisms associated with anaerobic carbon steel corrosion. The results showed that corrosion rate at 55°C (0.162 ± 0.013 mm year-1 and 37°C (0.138 ± 0.008 mm year-1 were higher than that at 65°C (0.105 ± 0.007 mm year-1, and a dense biofilm was observed on the surface of coupons under all biotic incubations. The microbial community analysis suggests a high frequency of bacterial taxa associated with families Porphyromonadaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Spirochaetaceae at all three temperatures. While the majority of known sulfate-reducing bacteria, in particular Desulfotignum, Desulfobulbus and Desulfovibrio spp., were predominantly observed at 37°C; Desulfotomaculum spp., Thermotoga spp. and Thermanaeromonas spp. as well as archaeal members closely related to Thermococcus and Archaeoglobus spp. were substantially enriched at 65°C. Hydrogenotrophic methanogens of the family Methanobacteriaceae were dominant at both 37 and 55°C; acetoclastic Methanosaeta spp. and methyltrophic Methanolobus spp. were enriched at 37°C. These observations show that temperature changes significantly alter the microbial community structure in production fluids and also affected the biocorrosion of carbon steel under anaerobic conditions.

  19. Optimal subsidy policy for accelerating the diffusion of green products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongguang Peng

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We consider a dynamic duopoly market in which two firms respectively produce green products and conventional products. The two types of product can substitute each other in some degree. Their demand rates depend on not only prices but the consumers’ increasing environmental awareness. Too high initial cost relative to conventional products becomes one of the major obstacles that hinder the adoption of green products. The government employs subsidy policy to trigger the adoption of green products. The purpose of the paper is to explore the optimal subsidy strategy to fulfill the government’s objective. Design/methodology/approach: We suppose the players in the game employ open-loop strategies, which make sense since the government generally cannot alter his policy for political and economic purposes. We take a differential game approach and use backward induction to analyze the firms’ pricing strategy under Cournot competition, and then focus upon a Stackelberg equilibrium to find the optimal subsidy strategy of the government. Findings: The results show that the more remarkable the energy or environmental performance, or the bigger the initial cost of green products, the higher the subsidy level should be. Due to the increasing environmental awareness and the learning curve, the optimal subsidy level decreases over time. Research limitations/implications: In our model several simplifying assumptions are made to keep the analysis more tractable. In particular, we have assumed only one type of green product. In reality several types of product with different energy or environmental performances exist. Our research can be extended in future work to take into account product differentiation on energy or environmental performance and devise a discriminatory subsidy policy accordingly. Originality/value: In the paper we set the objective of the government as minimizing the total social cost induced by the energy consumption or

  20. Multi-zone coupling productivity of horizontal well fracturing with complex fracture networks in shale gas reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyao Zhu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a series of specific studies were carried out to investigate the complex form of fracture networks and figure out the multi-scale flowing laws of nano/micro pores–complex fracture networks–wellbore during the development of shale reservoirs by means of horizontal well fracturing. First, hydraulic fractures were induced by means of Brazilian splitting tests. Second, the forms of the hydraulic fractures inside the rock samples were observed by means of X-ray CT scanning to measure the opening of hydraulic fractures. Third, based on the multi-scale unified flowing model, morphological description of fractures and gas flowing mechanism in the matrix–complex fracture network–wellbore, the productivity equation of single-stage horizontal well fracturing which includes diffusion, slipping and desorption was established. And fourthly, a productivity prediction model of horizontal well multi-stage fracturing in the shale reservoir was established considering the interference between the multi-stage fracturing zones and the pressure drop in the horizontal wellbore. The following results were obtained. First, hydraulic fractures are in the form of a complex network. Second, the measured opening of hydraulic fractures is in the range of 4.25–453 μm, averaging 112 μm. Third, shale gas flowing in different shapes of fracture networks follows different nonlinear flowing laws. Forth, as the fracture density in the strongly stimulated zones rises and the distribution range of the hydraulic fractures in strongly/weakly stimulated zones enlarges, gas production increases gradually. As the interference occurs in the flowing zones of fracture networks between fractured sections, the increasing amplitude of gas production rates decreases. Fifth, when the length of a simulated horizontal well is 1500 m and the half length of a fracture network in the strongly stimulated zone is 100 m, the productivity effect of stage 10 fracturing is the

  1. Utilizing Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics and Reactive Transport to Model CH4 Production from the Nankai Trough Gas Hydrate Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Qorbani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing search for new sources of energy has brought natural gas hydrate (NGH reservoirs to the forefront of attention in both academia and the industry. The amount of gas reserves trapped within these reservoirs surpasses all of the conventional fossil fuel sources explored so far, which makes it of utmost importance to predict their production potential and safety. One of the challenges facing those attempting to analyse their behaviour is that the large number of involved phases make NGHs unable to ever reach equilibrium in nature. Field-scale experiments are expensive and time consuming. However, computer simulations have now become capable of modelling different gas production scenarios, as well as production optimization analyses. In addition to temperature and pressure, independent thermodynamic parameters for hydrate stabilization include the hydrate composition and concentrations for all co-existing phases. It is therefore necessary to develop and implement realistic kinetic models accounting for all significant routes for dissociation and reformation. The reactive transport simulator makes it easy to deploy nonequilibrium thermodynamics for the study of CH4 production from hydrate-bearing sediments by considering each hydrate-related transition as a separate pseudo reaction. In this work, we have used the expanded version of the RetrasoCodeBright (RCB reactive transport simulator to model exploitation of the methane hydrate (MH reservoir located in the Nankai Trough, Japan. Our results showed that higher permeabilities in the horizontal direction dominated the pressure drop propagation throughout the hydrate layers and affected their hydrate dissociation rates. Additionally, the comparison of the vertical well versus the horizontal well pattern indicated that hydrate dissociation was slightly higher in the vertical well scenario compared to the horizontal.

  2. The potential for hydrocarbon biodegradation and production of extracellular polymeric substances by aerobic bacteria isolated from a Brazilian petroleum reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos, S P; Dellagnezze, B M; Wieland, A; Klock, J-H; Santos Neto, E V; Marsaioli, A J; Oliveira, V M; Michaelis, W

    2011-06-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) can contribute to the cellular degradation of hydrocarbons and have a huge potential for application in biotechnological processes, such as bioremediation and microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). Four bacterial strains from a Brazilian petroleum reservoir were investigated for EPS production, emulsification ability and biodegradation activity when hydrocarbons were supplied as substrates for microbial growth. Two strains of Bacillus species had the highest EPS production when phenanthrene and n-octadecane were offered as carbon sources, either individually or in a mixture. While Pseudomonas sp. and Dietzia sp., the other two evaluated strains, had the highest hydrocarbon biodegradation indices, EPS production was not detected. Low EPS production may not necessarily be indicative of an absence of emulsifier activity, as indicated by the results of a surface tension reduction assay and emulsification indices for the strain of Dietzia sp. The combined results gathered in this work suggest that a microbial consortium consisting of bacteria with interdependent metabolisms could thrive in petroleum reservoirs, thus overcoming the limitations imposed on each individual species by the harsh conditions found in such environments.

  3. Limnological evaluation of the fisheries potentials and productivity of a small shallow tropical African reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshood K Mustapha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphometrics and physico-chemical parameters of Oyun reservoir, Offa, Nigeria (a small shallow tropical African Reservoir were used to estimate the potential fish yield of the reservoir according to the morpho-edaphic index (MEI. Physico-chemical characteristics of the water body were sampled monthly from three stations between January 2002 and December 2003 with standard methods. Estimates of the potential fish yield were obtained using the physico-chemical characteristics of the reservoir and the relationship Y = 23.281 MEI 0.447, where Y is the potential fish yield in kg/ha, MEI is the morpho-edaphic index (given in μS/cm and estimated by dividing the mean conductivity by the mean depth. The reservoir mean depth and conductivity values were 2.6m and 113.10μS/cm respectively, while its potential fish yield was estimated at 125.72 kg/ha. This estimate was higher than other small shallower and larger African reservoirs. The reservoir high ionic content, high nutrient and dissolved oxygen levels, good pH, low level of pollution and shallow depth were responsible for the high estimate of the fish yield. In order to realize this high potential fish yield and sustainable exploration of the fisheries, effective management of the reservoir to curb eutrophication should be adopted, while other management practices such as stocking and conservation of desirable and indigenous fish species, implementation of fishing regulations and adoption of best management practices should be implemented. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4: 1093-1106. Epub 2009 December 01.La morfometría y parámetros físico-químicos del Embalse Oyun, Offa, Nigeria (un pequeño y somero embalse tropical Africano, fueron utilizados con la finalidad de estimar el rendimiento pesquero potencial, de acuerdo con el índice morfo-edáfico (IME. Las características físico-químicas del cuerpo de agua fueron evaluadas mensualmente en tres estaciones, entre enero 2002 y diciembre 2003, con m

  4. Maximize Liquid Oil Production from Shale Oil and Gas Condensate Reservoirs by Cyclic Gas Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, James

    2017-11-17

    The current technology to produce shale oil reservoirs is the primary depletion using fractured wells (generally horizontal wells). The oil recovery is less than 10%. The prize to enhance oil recovery (EOR) is big. Based on our earlier simulation study, huff-n-puff gas injection has the highest EOR potential. This project was to explore the potential extensively and from broader aspects. The huff-n-puff gas injection was compared with gas flooding, water huff-n-puff and waterflooding. The potential to mitigate liquid blockage was also studied and the gas huff-n-puff method was compared with other solvent methods. Field pilot tests were initiated but terminated owing to the low oil price and the operator’s budget cut. To meet the original project objectives, efforts were made to review existing and relevant field projects in shale and tight reservoirs. The fundamental flow in nanopores was also studied.

  5. Environmental policy and regulatory constraints to natural gas production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.

    2004-12-17

    For the foreseeable future, most of the demand for natural gas in the United States will be met with domestic resources. Impediments, or constraints, to developing, producing, and delivering these resources can lead to price increases or supply disruptions. Previous analyses have identified lack of access to natural gas resources on federal lands as such an impediment. However, various other environmental constraints, including laws, regulations, and implementation procedures, can limit natural gas development and production on both federal and private lands. This report identifies and describes more than 30 environmental policy and regulatory impediments to domestic natural gas production. For each constraint, the source and type of impact are presented, and when the data exist, the amount of gas affected is also presented. This information can help decision makers develop and support policies that eliminate or reduce the impacts of such constraints, help set priorities for regulatory reviews, and target research and development efforts to help the nation meet its natural gas demands.

  6. Characteristics of protistan control of bacterial production in three reservoirs of different trophy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Karel; Armengol, J.; Comerma, M.; Garcia, J. C.; Chrzanowski, T. H.; Macek, Miroslav; Nedoma, Jiří; Straškrábová, Viera

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 83, Special Issue (1998), s. 485-494 ISSN 1434-2944. [International Conference on Reservoir Limnology and Water Quality /3./. České Budějovice, 11.08.1997-15.08.1997] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/96/0012; GA AV ČR IAA6007610 Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.632, year: 1997

  7. Geodetic imaging of thermal deformation in geothermal reservoirs - production, depletion and fault reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Kyungjae; Elsworth, Derek; Guglielmi, Yves; Mattioli, Glen S.

    2017-05-01

    We investigate thermally induced surface deformation in geothermal systems. To define source mechanisms at depth, we assess the mechanical process of subsurface deformation by assuming a spherically cooled fractured reservoir in an infinite medium and derive relations that define magnitudes of thermal contraction, stress change and permeability evolution. The magnitude of thermal deformation in typical geothermal system is larger than anticipated and suggests two different modalities of surface subsidence - thermal contraction and fault reactivation. Here, surface deformation (vertical displacement, surface tilt and horizontal strain) induced by the two different modalities are assessed with Mogi (contraction) and Okada (slip) models and compared with instrumental sensitivity of high precision surface geodetic tools. We show that 1 year of geothermal operation at 10 MW with a power plant conversion efficiency of 12% can yield 3.0 × 104 m3 of subsurface volume change. For a reservoir at 2000 m depth, this induces 1.7 mm of vertical surface displacement, 800 nano-radians of surface tilt and 900 nano-strains of surface strain. This result implies that typically observed magnitudes of surface subsidence (order of cm/year) are naturally expected in massive (100 MW scale) geothermal operations and observed surface subsidence may largely be the result of thermal contraction. Conversely, thermal unloading can trigger fault reactivation. Analysis with an Okada slip model shows these shear offsets on pre-existing faults can also result in surface deformations of considerable magnitude. Our analysis of field operational data from various geothermal projects suggests that both thermal contraction and slow fault reactivation may contribute to the observed large surface deformation. Comparison of predicted deformation with instrumental sensitivity of high precision surface tools confirms that geodetic signals, especially tilt and strain, are indeed sufficiently large to

  8. Application of PLT (Production Loggin Tool) surveys to select a vertical grid refinement in gas reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Pablo Julian [Petrosynergy Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Schiozer, Denis Jose [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNISIM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo. Pesquisa em Simulacao e Gerenciamento de Reservatorios

    2012-07-01

    Most of the time, the fluid segregation in porous media between gas and water makes water breakthrough reach a well structurally from the bottom, even when coning effect is present. In this paper we describe a real case of a gas reservoir when water breakthrough reach the vertical well from the middle of the perforation, above gas phase. We also expose how to upgrade the geological model to represent the high permeability channels in the numerical simulation model. (author)

  9. THE ASSESSMENT AND USE OF INTEGRATED PRODUCT POLICY IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna ANDRYKIEWICZ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the implementation of Integrated Product Policy in Poland in the light of the European activities. It analyses the EU laws within this scope. It assesses the progress of LCA implementation, ecolabelling, ecotaxes, EMAS and green public procurement in Poland. It explains the reasons of slow IPP implementation in Polish organisations. It mainly refers to the distribution and promotion of ecolabelling, based on empirical research in Germany and Poland.

  10. Impacts of Sugar Import Policy on Sugar Production in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Suryantoro, Agustinus; Susilo, Albertus Magnus; Supriyono, Supriyono

    2013-01-01

    Production of sugar unful lled consumption of Indonesia society. The lack of consumption and productionhave ful lled by import. Assumption national consumption 2,7 million ton, Indonesia will import sugar in 2013predicted about 300.000 ton (Tempo.co, August, 21, 2012).The aims in general of this research are to understand the impact of sugar import policy on sugar production.Especially (1) to understand the factors that in uence sugar import price, (2) to understand impact of sugarimport pric...

  11. Determining the explosion effects on the Gasbuggy reservoir from computer simulation of the postshot gas production history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, Leo A.

    1970-01-01

    Analysis of the gas production data from Gasbuggy to deduce reservoir properties outside the chimney is complicated by the large gas storage volume in the chimney because the gas flow from the surrounding reservoir into the chimney cannot be directly measured. This problem was overcome by developing a chimney volume factor F (M 2 CF/PSI) based upon analysis of rapid drawdowns during the production tests. The chimney volume factor was in turn used to construct the time history of the required influx of gas into the chimney from the surrounding reservoir. The most probable value of F to describe the chimney is found to be 0.150 M 2 CF/PSI. Postulated models of the reservoir properties outside the chimney are examined by calculating the pressure distribution and flow of gas through the reservoir with the experimentally observed chimney pressure history applied to the cavity wall. The calculated influx from the reservoir into the chimney is then compared to the required influx and the calculated pressure at a radius of 300 feet is compared to the observed pressures in a shut-in satellite well (GB-2RS) which intersects the gas-bearing formation 300 feet from the center of the chimney. A description of the mathematics in the computer program used to perform the calculations is given. Gas flow for a radial model wherein permeability and porosity are uniform through the gas producing sand outside the chimney was calculated for several values of permeability. These calculations indicated that for the first drawdown test (July 1968) the permeability-producing height product (kh) was in the region of 15 to 30 millidarcy-feet (md-ft) and that after several months of testing, the effective kh had dropped to less than 8 md-ft. Calculations wherein (1) the permeability decreases from the chimney out to the 'fracture' radius, and (2) an increased production height is used near the chimney, match the data better than the simple radial model. Reasonable fits to the data for the

  12. Voluntary Tools Of The Environmental Oriented Product Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusko Miroslav

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally oriented product policy is in general determined by the relationships between its aims – subjects – objects - tools. It is based on the integrated approach to the product life cycle, which anticipates an enormous amount of information. It has to solve the questions of the international trade as well as the rules of the International Trade Organization. New forms of preventive environmental strategies and especially Green Marketing are being introduced helping to solve environmental problems and environmental motivation of producers. Many producers face great attention of the public regarding their approach to the environment. Despite the fact that the customers buy products fairly prudently and their behaviour is markedly affected by prices, a particular part of the population prefers the products that do not burden the environment. This brings about a situation, in which the producers within their mutual competition and in relation to customers are enforced to behave responsibly.

  13. Voluntary Tools Of The Environmental Oriented Product Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusko, Miroslav

    2015-06-01

    Environmentally oriented product policy is in general determined by the relationships between its aims - subjects - objects - tools. It is based on the integrated approach to the product life cycle, which anticipates an enormous amount of information. It has to solve the questions of the international trade as well as the rules of the International Trade Organization. New forms of preventive environmental strategies and especially Green Marketing are being introduced helping to solve environmental problems and environmental motivation of producers. Many producers face great attention of the public regarding their approach to the environment. Despite the fact that the customers buy products fairly prudently and their behaviour is markedly affected by prices, a particular part of the population prefers the products that do not burden the environment. This brings about a situation, in which the producers within their mutual competition and in relation to customers are enforced to behave responsibly.

  14. From Policy to Compliance: Federal Energy Efficient Product Procurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMates, Laurèn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Scodel, Anna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-09-06

    Federal buyers are required to purchase energy-efficient products in an effort to minimize energy use in the federal sector, save the federal government money, and spur market development of efficient products. The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)’s Energy Efficient Product Procurement (EEPP) Program helps federal agencies comply with the requirement to purchase energy-efficient products by providing technical assistance and guidance and setting efficiency requirements for certain product categories. Past studies have estimated the savings potential of purchasing energy-efficient products at over $500 million per year in energy costs across federal agencies.1 Despite the strong policy support for EEPP and resources available, energy-efficient product purchasing operates within complex decision-making processes and operational structures; implementation challenges exist that may hinder agencies’ ability to comply with purchasing requirements. The shift to purchasing green products, including energy-efficient products, relies on “buy in” from a variety of potential actors throughout different purchasing pathways. Challenges may be especially high for EEPP relative to other sustainable acquisition programs given that efficient products frequently have a higher first cost than non-efficient ones, which may be perceived as a conflict with fiscal responsibility, or more simply problematic for agency personnel trying to stretch limited budgets. Federal buyers may also face challenges in determining whether a given product is subject to EEPP requirements. Previous analysis on agency compliance with EEPP, conducted by the Alliance to Save Energy (ASE), shows that federal agencies are getting better at purchasing energy-efficient products. ASE conducted two reviews of relevant solicitations for product and service contracts listed on Federal Business Opportunities (FBO), the centralized website where federal agencies are required to post procurements greater

  15. Promotion of tobacco products on Facebook: policy versus practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackler, Robert K; Li, Vanessa Y; Cardiff, Ryan A L; Ramamurthi, Divya

    2018-04-05

    Facebook has a comprehensive set of policies intended to inhibit promotion and sales of tobacco products. Their effectiveness has yet to be studied. Leading tobacco brands (388) were identified via Nielsen and Ranker databases and 108 were found to maintain brand-sponsored Facebook pages. Key indicators of alignment with Facebook policy were evaluated. Purchase links (eg, 'shop now' button) on brand-sponsored pages were found for hookah tobaccos (41%), e-cigarettes (74%), smokeless (50%) and cigars (31%). Sales promotions (eg, discount coupons) were present in hookah tobacco (48%), e-cigarette (76%) and cigar (69%) brand-sponsored pages. While conventional cigarettes did not maintain brand-sponsored pages, they were featured in 80% of online tobacco vendors' Facebook pages. The requirement for age gating, to exclude those Facebook has policies intended to interdict tobacco promotion throughout its platform. Nevertheless, widespread tobacco promotion and sales were found at variance with the company's policies governing advertising, commerce, page content and under age access. Vetting could be improved by automated screening in partnership with human reviewers. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Hospital Policy and Productivity - Evidence from German States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmann, Alexander; Roesel, Felix

    2017-12-01

    Total factor productivity (TFP) growth allows for additional healthcare services under restricted resources. We examine whether hospital policy can stimulate hospital TFP growth. We exploit variation across German federal states in the period 1993-2013. State governments decide on hospital capacity planning (number of hospitals, departments, and beds), ownership, medical students, and hospital investment funding. We show that TFP growth in German hospital care reflects quality improvements rather than increases in output volumes. Second-stage regression results indicate that reducing the length of stay is generally a proper way to foster TFP growth. The effects of other hospital policies depend on the reimbursement scheme: Under activity-based (German Diagnosis-related Group) hospital funding, scope-related policies (privatization and specialization) come with TFP growth. Under fixed daily rate funding, scale matters to TFP (hospital size and occupancy rates). Differences in capitalization in East and West Germany allow to show that deepening capital may enhance TFP growth if capital is scarce. We also show that there is less scope for hospital policies after large-scale restructurings of the hospital sector. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Zirczy, Helena H.

    2000-05-24

    The objective of this Class 3 project was to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, was completed this year, and Phase 2 began. The project is focused on East Ford field, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit. A CO{sub 2} flood is being conducted in the unit, and this flood is the Phase 2 demonstration for the project.

  18. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, Shirley P.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this Class 3 project was demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two main phases. The original objectives of the reservoir-characterization phase of the project were (1) to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two representative fields of the Delaware Mountain Group, Geraldine Ford and Ford West, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, (2) to chose a demonstration area in one of the fields, and (3) to simulate a CO 2 flood in the demonstration area

  19. Current status of zooplankton in reservoir R-3 of the 'Mayak' production association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipova, O.; Pryakhin, E. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine - URCRM (Russian Federation); Ivanov, I. [FSUE Mayak PA (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    One of the commonly used objects for the study of human influence on aquatic ecosystems is zooplankton. Zooplankton community is a sensitive component of biota in reservoir which can change their functional parameters and species composition in response to exposure to different factors. The role of zooplankton in the transformation of energy and in the biotic cycling of the substance is very important. The study of the responses of this element in the water ecosystem with anthropogenic influences, including radioactive contamination, is an important task. The object of the study was the zooplankton in the reservoir R-3, Chelyabinsk region, Russia. R-3 is located in the buffer zone of the 'Mayak' PA and is the storage for low-level radioactive waste. In addition to the high content of radionuclides (the average specific activity of {sup 90}Sr in water was 2.8 kBq/l, {sup 137}Cs - 0.7 kBq/l), this reservoir is characterized by high values of dichromate oxidizability and phosphate contamination. Previously, the study of the zooplankton of this reservoir was conducted in 1952, regular observations were not organized. Assessment of the current status of the community, more than half a century residing in the conditions of radioactive and chemical contamination, seems highly interesting. Sampling was carried out in 2011-2012 at three stations: in the upper, middle, and near the dam of the reservoir by the method of weighted average of samples with bathometer. Analysis of samples showed that the zooplankton community consists of the following major groups: rotifers and cladocerans and copepods crustaceans. In total in R-3 27 species of zooplankton, including 19 species of rotifers, 3 species of copepod and 3 species of cladocerans, as well as two species of ciliates were discovered. Zooplankton abundance in 2011 was 9±9 million individuals/m{sup 3} (given the mean and standard deviation), in 2012 - 26.0±0.9 million individuals/m{sup 3}. The main contribution

  20. Coherence in product-oriented policies and environmental management systems in the car industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, Carla Kornelia; Nielsen, Eskild Holm

    Over the last decade, product-oriented policies as Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) and Integrated Product Policy (IPP) are more and more recognised as a target for both corporate environmental strategy and government environmental policy. These product-oriented policies are distinct from...... more traditional process-oriented policies and are a challenge for companies. The article presents some of the authors  investigations on how the car industry has dealt with both process-oriented and product-oriented policies. [1] EPR refers to extending producer responsibility for products beyond...

  1. Production Optimization for Two-Phase Flow in an Oil Reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völcker, Carsten; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Thomsen, Per Grove

    2012-01-01

    time. When the natural pressure becomes insufficient, the pressure must be maintained artificially by injection of water. Conventional technologies for recovery leaves more than 50% of the oil in the reservoir. Wells with adjustable downhole flow control devices coupled with modern control technology...... offer the potential to increase the oil recovery significantly. In optimal control of smart wells, downhole sensor equipment and remotely controlled valves are used in combination with large-scale subsurface flow models and gradient based optimization methods in a Nonlinear Model Predictive Control...

  2. Increasing Heavy Oil in the Wilmington Oil Fiel Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies. Annual Report, March 30, 1995--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, Edith

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in a portion of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, by implementing advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Based on the knowledge and experience gained with this project, these technologies are intended to be extended to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, and, through technology transfer, will be available to increase heavy oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

  3. Increasing Heavy Oil in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies. Annual Report, March 30, 1995--March 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, Edith

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in a portion of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, by implementing advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Based on the knowledge and experience gained with this project, these technologies are intended to be extended to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, and, through technology transfer, will be available to increase heavy oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs

  4. Performance Analysis of MODIS 500-m Spatial Resolution Products for Estimating Chlorophyll-a Concentrations in Oligo- to Meso-Trophic Waters Case Study: Itumbiara Reservoir, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Ogashawara

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring chlorophyll-a (chl-a concentrations is important for the management of water quality, because it is a good indicator of the eutrophication level in an aquatic system. Thus, our main purpose was to develop an alternative technique to monitor chl-a in time and space through remote sensing techniques. However, one of the limitations of remote sensing is the resolution. To achieve a high temporal resolution and medium space resolution, we used the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS 500-m reflectance product, MOD09GA, and limnological parameters from the Itumbiara Reservoir. With these data, an empirical (O14a and semi-empirical (O14b algorithm were developed. Algorithms were cross-calibrated and validated using three datasets: one for each campaign and a third consisting of a combination of the two individual campaigns. Algorithm O14a produced the best validation with a root mean square error (RMSE of 30.4%, whereas O14b produced an RMSE of 32.41% using the mixed dataset calibration. O14a was applied to MOD09GA to build a time series for the reservoir for the year of 2009. The time-series analysis revealed that there were occurrences of algal blooms in the summer that were likely related to the additional input of nutrients caused by rainfall runoff. During the winter, however, the few observed algal blooms events were related to periods of atmospheric meteorological variations that represented an enhanced external influence on the processes of mixing and stratification of the water column. Finally, the use of remote sensing techniques can be an important tool for policy makers, environmental managers and the scientific community with which to monitor water quality.

  5. 32 CFR 644.4 - Reservoir Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reservoir Projects. 644.4 Section 644.4 National... HANDBOOK Project Planning Civil Works § 644.4 Reservoir Projects. (a) Joint land acquisition policy for reservoir projects. The joint policies of the Department of the Interior and the Department of the Army...

  6. PLAY ANALYSIS AND DIGITAL PORTFOLIO OF MAJOR OIL RESERVOIRS IN THE PERMIAN BASIN: APPLICATION AND TRANSFER OF ADVANCED GEOLOGICAL AND ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES FOR INCREMENTAL PRODUCTION OPPORTUNITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley P. Dutton; Eugene M. Kim; Ronald F. Broadhead; William Raatz; Cari Breton; Stephen C. Ruppel; Charles Kerans; Mark H. Holtz

    2003-04-01

    A play portfolio is being constructed for the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeast New Mexico, the largest petroleum-producing basin in the US. Approximately 1300 reservoirs in the Permian Basin have been identified as having cumulative production greater than 1 MMbbl of oil through 2000. Of these major reservoirs, approximately 1,000 are in Texas and 300 in New Mexico. On a preliminary basis, 32 geologic plays have been defined for Permian Basin oil reservoirs and assignment of each of the 1300 major reservoirs to a play has begun. The reservoirs are being mapped and compiled in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by play. Detailed studies of three reservoirs are in progress: Kelly-Snyder (SACROC unit) in the Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Horseshoe Atoll Carbonate play, Fullerton in the Leonardian Restricted Platform Carbonate play, and Barnhart (Ellenburger) in the Ellenburger Selectively Dolomitized Ramp Carbonate play. For each of these detailed reservoir studies, technologies for further, economically viable exploitation are being investigated.

  7. Class III Mid-Term Project, "Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2007-03-31

    The overall objective of this project was to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involved improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective has been to transfer technology that can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The first budget period addressed several producibility problems in the Tar II-A and Tar V thermal recovery operations that are common in SBC reservoirs. A few of the advanced technologies developed include a three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic geologic model, a 3-D deterministic thermal reservoir simulation model to aid in reservoir management and subsequent post-steamflood development work, and a detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rocks and fluids. State of the art operational work included drilling and performing a pilot steam injection and production project via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors), implementing a hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steamflood area to improve thermal efficiency, installing a 2400-foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location, testing a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems, and starting on an advanced reservoir management system through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation. The second budget period phase (BP2) continued to implement state-of-the-art operational work to optimize thermal recovery processes, improve well drilling and completion practices, and evaluate the

  8. Transport of reservoir fines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Modeling transport of reservoir fines is of great importance for evaluating the damage of production wells and infectivity decline. The conventional methodology accounts for neither the formation heterogeneity around the wells nor the reservoir fines’ heterogeneity. We have developed an integral...

  9. 16 CFR 1615.63 - Policy regarding garment production unit identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy regarding garment production unit identification. 1615.63 Section 1615.63 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS...) Interpretations and Policies § 1615.63 Policy regarding garment production unit identification. No provision of...

  10. 16 CFR 1616.63 - Policy regarding garment production unit identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy regarding garment production unit identification. 1616.63 Section 1616.63 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS...) Interpretations and Policies § 1616.63 Policy regarding garment production unit identification. No provision of 16...

  11. Numerical simulations of depressurization-induced gas production from gas hydrate reservoirs at the Walker Ridge 312 site, northern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myshakin, Evgeniy M.; Gaddipati, Manohar; Rose, Kelly; Anderson, Brian J.

    2012-06-01

    In 2009, the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Gas Hydrates Joint-Industry-Project (JIP) Leg II drilling program confirmed that gas hydrate occurs at high saturations within reservoir-quality sands in the GOM. A comprehensive logging-while-drilling dataset was collected from seven wells at three sites, including two wells at the Walker Ridge 313 site. By constraining the saturations and thicknesses of hydrate-bearing sands using logging-while-drilling data, two-dimensional (2D), cylindrical, r-z and three-dimensional (3D) reservoir models were simulated. The gas hydrate occurrences inferred from seismic analysis are used to delineate the areal extent of the 3D reservoir models. Numerical simulations of gas production from the Walker Ridge reservoirs were conducted using the depressurization method at a constant bottomhole pressure. Results of these simulations indicate that these hydrate deposits are readily produced, owing to high intrinsic reservoir-quality and their proximity to the base of hydrate stability. The elevated in situ reservoir temperatures contribute to high (5–40 MMscf/day) predicted production rates. The production rates obtained from the 2D and 3D models are in close agreement. To evaluate the effect of spatial dimensions, the 2D reservoir domains were simulated at two outer radii. The results showed increased potential for formation of secondary hydrate and appearance of lag time for production rates as reservoir size increases. Similar phenomena were observed in the 3D reservoir models. The results also suggest that interbedded gas hydrate accumulations might be preferable targets for gas production in comparison with massive deposits. Hydrate in such accumulations can be readily dissociated due to heat supply from surrounding hydrate-free zones. Special cases were considered to evaluate the effect of overburden and underburden permeability on production. The obtained data show that production can be significantly degraded in comparison with a case using

  12. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew G. Cole; George B. Asquith; Jose I. Guzman; Mark D. Barton; Mohammad A. Malik; Shirley P. Dutton; Sigrid J. Clift

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of clastic reservoirs in basinal sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover more of the original oil in place by strategic infill-well placement and geologically based enhanced oil recovery. The study focused on the Ford Geraldine unit, which produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). Reservoirs in this and other Delaware Mountain Group fields have low producibility (average recovery <14 percent of the original oil in place) because of a high degree of vertical and lateral heterogeneity caused by depositional processes and post-depositional diagenetic modification. Outcrop analogs were studied to better interpret the depositional processes that formed the reservoirs at the Ford Geraldine unit and to determine the dimensions of reservoir sandstone bodies. Facies relationships and bedding architecture within a single genetic unit exposed in outcrop in Culberson County, Texas, suggest that the sandstones were deposited in a system of channels and levees with attached lobes that initially prograded basinward, aggraded, and then turned around and stepped back toward the shelf. Channel sandstones are 10 to 60 ft thick and 300 to 3,000 ft wide. The flanking levees have a wedge-shaped geometry and are composed of interbedded sandstone and siltstone; thickness varies from 3 to 20 ft and length from several hundred to several thousands of feet. The lobe sandstones are broad lens-shaped bodies; thicknesses range up to 30 ft with aspect ratios (width/thickness) of 100 to 10,000. Lobe sandstones may be interstratified with laminated siltstones.

  13. Analysis of product efficiency of hybrid vehicles and promotion policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyundo; Oh, Inha

    2010-01-01

    The key aim of this study is to evaluate the product efficiency of current hybrid vehicles and suggest effective policies to promote hybrid vehicles in the Korean automobile market and development trends of hybrid vehicles. The efficiency levels for car models sold in Korea, including hybrid ones, were measured using the recently developed discrete additive data envelopment analysis (DEA) model that reflects consumer preference. The result of the analysis shows that current hybrid vehicles on the market are still at lower competitive advantage than traditional car models with conventional combustion engines and we can suggest a mix of incentive policies to promote the competitiveness of hybrid vehicles. In addition, we also identify two distinctive trends of hybrid vehicle development: environment-oriented hybrid vehicles and performance-oriented hybrid vehicles. It implies that the government should take account of development trends of hybrid vehicles to achieve the policy goals in designing support schemes and automobile companies that are willing to develop hybrid vehicles can also gain some insights for making strategic decisions. (author)

  14. Harvesting green algae from eutrophic reservoir by electroflocculation and post-use for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Enrique; Álvarez, Xana; Cancela, Ángeles; Sánchez, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Each year there are more frequent blooms of green algae and cyanobacteria, representing a serious environmental problem of eutrophication. Electroflocculation (EF) was studied to harvest the algae which are present in reservoirs, as well as different factors which may influence on the effectiveness of the process: the voltage applied to the culture medium, run times, electrodes separation and natural sedimentation. Finally, the viability of its use to obtain biodiesel was studied by direct transesterification. The EF process carried out at 10V for 1min, with an electrode separation of 5.5cm and a height of 4cm in culture vessel, obtained a recovery efficiency greater than 95%, and octadecenoic and palmitic acids were obtained as the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). EF is an effective method to harvest green algae during the blooms, obtaining the greatest amount of biomass for subsequent use as a source of biodiesel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Annual report, February 9, 1996--February 8, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidsey, T.C. Jr.

    1997-08-01

    The Paradox basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups or mounds within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels of oil per field at a 15 to 20% recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels of oil is at risk of being unrecovered in these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Five fields (Anasazi, Mule, Blue Hogan, Heron North, and Runway) within the Navajo Nation of southeastern Utah are being evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. The results can be applied to other fields in the Paradox basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois basins, and the Midcontinent. The Anasazi field was selected for the initial geostatistical modeling and reservoir simulation. A compositional simulation approach is being used to model primary depletion, waterflood, and CO{sub 2}-flood processes. During this second year of the project, team members performed the following reservoir-engineering analysis of Anasazi field: (1) relative permeability measurements of the supra-mound and mound-core intervals, (2) completion of geologic model development of the Anasazi reservoir units for use in reservoir simulation studies including completion of a series of one-dimensional, carbon dioxide-displacement simulations to analyze the carbon dioxide-displacement mechanism that could operate in the Paradox basin system of reservoirs, and (3) completion of the first phase of the full-field, three-dimensional Anasazi reservoir simulation model, and the start of the history matching and reservoir performance prediction phase of the simulation study.

  16. Increasing heavy oil reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Annual report, March 30, 1995--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in a portion of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, by implementing advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Based on the knowledge and experience gained with this project, these technologies are intended to be extended to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, and, through technology transfer, will be available to increase heavy oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The project involves implementing thermal recovery in the southern half of the Fault Block II-A Tar zone. The existing steamflood in Fault Block II-A has been relatively inefficient due to several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery efficiency and reduce operating costs.

  17. Integrated techniques for rapid and highly-efficient development and production of ultra-deep tight sand gas reservoirs of Keshen 8 Block in the Tarim Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongwen Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The unusually ultra-deep and ultra-high-pressure gas reservoirs in the Keshen 8 Block on the Kelasu structural belt of the Tarim Basin are also featured by high temperature, well-developed fault fissures, huge thickness, tight matrix, complex oil–water distribution, etc., which brings about great difficulties to reserves evaluation and further development. In view of this, an overall study was made on the fine description of reservoir fractures and their seepage mechanism, technical problems were being tackled on seismic data processing and interpretation of complex and high & steep structural zones, optimal development design, safe & rapid drilling and completion wells, reservoir stimulation, dynamic monitoring, etc. to promote the development level of such ultra-deep tight gas reservoirs, and 22 complete sets of specific techniques were formulated in the fields of high-efficiency well spacing, safe and fast drilling, recovery enhancement by well completion transformation, efficient development of optimization design, and so on. Through the technical progress and innovative management of integrated exploration & development, reserves evaluation and productivity construction have been completed on the Keshen 8 Block in the last three years of the 12th Five-Year Plan period (2011–2015, as a result, rapid and high-efficiency productivity construction is realized, and a new area is explored in the development of ultra-deep and ultra-high-pressure fractured tight sand gas reservoirs. This study is of great reference to the development of similar gas reservoirs at home and abroad.

  18. Metal and physico-chemical variations at a hydroelectric reservoir analyzed by Multivariate Analyses and Artificial Neural Networks: environmental management and policy/decision-making tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Y L; Hauser-Davis, R A; Saraiva, A C F; Brandão, I L S; Oliveira, T F; Silveira, A M

    2013-01-01

    This paper compared and evaluated seasonal variations in physico-chemical parameters and metals at a hydroelectric power station reservoir by applying Multivariate Analyses and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) statistical techniques. A Factor Analysis was used to reduce the number of variables: the first factor was composed of elements Ca, K, Mg and Na, and the second by Chemical Oxygen Demand. The ANN showed 100% correct classifications in training and validation samples. Physico-chemical analyses showed that water pH values were not statistically different between the dry and rainy seasons, while temperature, conductivity, alkalinity, ammonia and DO were higher in the dry period. TSS, hardness and COD, on the other hand, were higher during the rainy season. The statistical analyses showed that Ca, K, Mg and Na are directly connected to the Chemical Oxygen Demand, which indicates a possibility of their input into the reservoir system by domestic sewage and agricultural run-offs. These statistical applications, thus, are also relevant in cases of environmental management and policy decision-making processes, to identify which factors should be further studied and/or modified to recover degraded or contaminated water bodies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Water-level fluctuations influence sediment porewater chemistry and methylmercury production in a flood-control reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reservoirs typically have elevated fish mercury (Hg) levels compared to natural lakes and rivers. A unique feature of reservoirs is water-level management which can result in sediment exposure to the air. The objective of this study is to identify how reservoir water-level fluct...

  20. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Mendez, Daniel L.

    2001-05-08

    The objective of this Class 3 project was demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstone's of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover oil more economically through geologically based field development. This project was focused on East Ford field, a Delaware Mountain Group field that produced from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The field, discovered in 9160, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit. A CO2 flood was being conducted in the unit, and this flood is the Phase 2 demonstration for the project.

  1. Hydrocarbon production and reservoir management: recent advances in closed-loop optimization technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, O.A.; Hanea, R.G.; Nennie, E.D.; Peters, R.C.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Petroleum production is a relatively inefficient process. For oil production, it is, generally, less than 60 % effective on a macro scale and less than 60 % effective on a micro scale. This results, commonly, in an actual oil recovery of less than 35 %. Optimization of the production process will,

  2. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidsey Jr., Thomas C.

    2003-01-01

    The primary objective of this project was to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced-oil-recovery technology in the Paradox Basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox Basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels (23,850,000-31,800,000 m3) of oil. This project was designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon-dioxide-(CO2-) miscible flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place within the Navajo Nation, San Juan County, Utah

  3. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidsey, T.C. Jr.

    1997-02-01

    The Paradox basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups or mounds within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels of oil per field at a 15 to 20% recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels of oil is at risk of being unrecovered in these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Five fields (Anasazi, mule, Blue Hogan, heron North, and Runway) within the Navajo Nation of southeastern utah are being evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. The results can be applied to other fields in the Paradox basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois basins, and the Midcontinent. The reservoir engineering component of the work completed to date included analysis of production data and well tests, comprehensive laboratory programs, and preliminary mechanistic reservoir simulation studies. A comprehensive fluid property characterization program was completed. Mechanistic reservoir production performance simulation studies were also completed.

  4. Pulses production in Italy: trade, marketing and policy issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rino Ghelfi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Italian pulses production has sharply fallen since the middle of the last century and the role that pulses played has diminished at both the agricultural and food levels. This is the result of several factors that are analysed in this article, among which the most important can be identified in the low profitability compared to other crops, mainly cereals, the historic collapse of domestic consumption and a strong competition from foreign producers. Conversely, in recent years, different signals appear to delineate a possible framework for recovery for legumes: the first of these is represented by the recent reversal trend in domestic consumption, due to healthy reasons and a fall in meat consumption. The favourable trend of organic consumption can also be considered as a positive factor for pulses. However, the focus point for pulses future perspective is the recent development of the European policy (2014-2020 that planned several actions in support of them, such as coupled payments and the provisions of greening rules. These policies aim to support the training effort needed to bring home to producers the importance of legumes in a proper crop rotation that maintains soil fertility and therefore better yields and profitability. In light of this and based on the general crisis in cereals prices, it is possible to be reasonably optimistic regarding the future of the legumes sector in Italy.

  5. Geo textiles and related products used in the waterproofing of reservoirs. Situation in Morocco; Geotextiles y productos relacionados utilizados en la impermeabilizacion de balsas. Situacion en Marruecos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiro Lopez, A.; Mateo Sanz, B.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the geo textiles, and products related to geo textiles, used for the building of water-storage reservoirs, which can be applicable to the construction of this kind of structures in Morocco. It presents different types of geo textiles and related products most commonly used in reservoirs, such as geo nets, geo grids, geo mats and geo composites, describing their characteristics and experimental methodology. Furthermore, and drawing on the Spanish Manual for Design, Construction, Operation and Maintenance of Reservoirs, emphasis is placed on the functions that geo synthetics can perform, such as protection and filter in the case of geo textiles, and drainage in the case of geo nets and draining composites. Finally, several works of this sort of structures located in Morocco are cited. (Author)

  6. International trade agreements, environmental policy, and relocation of production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerola, Essi

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the influence of free trade agreements on national environmental policies and location strategies of polluting firms. It is shown that banning export subsidies makes relocation of production more attractive for firms. When export subsidies are banned relocation is profitable because: (1) the rival firm reduces output due to more stringent emission regulation in the host country of the investment and (2) relocation leads to lower emission tax rate in the original home country of the investing firm. When export subsidies are used, the first effect is absent because the host government is able to use the export subsidy to compensate the negative effect of more stringent emission taxation on domestic shareholders. (author)

  7. A multi-reservoir based water-hydroenergy management model for identifying the risk horizon of regional resources-energy policy under uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, X.T.; Zhang, S.J.; Feng, J.; Huang, G.H.; Li, Y.P.; Zhang, P.; Chen, J.P.; Li, K.L.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A multi-reservoir system can handle water/energy deficit, flood and sediment damage. • A MWH model is developed for planning a water allocation and energy generation issue. • A mixed fuzzy-stochastic risk analysis method (MFSR) can handle uncertainties in MWH. • A hybrid MWH model can plan human-recourse-energy with a robust and effective manner. • Results can support adjusting water-energy policy to satisfy increasing demands. - Abstract: In this study, a multi-reservoir based water-hydroenergy management (MWH) model is developed for planning water allocation and hydroenergy generation (WAHG) under uncertainties. A mixed fuzzy-stochastic risk analysis method (MFSR) is introduced to handle objective and subjective uncertainties in MWH model, which can couple fuzzy credibility programming and risk management within a general two-stage context, with aim to reflect the infeasibility risks between expected targets and random second-stage recourse costs. The developed MWH model (embedded by MFSR method) can be applied to a practical study of WAHG issue in Jing River Basin (China), which encounters conflicts between human activity and resource/energy crisis. The construction of water-energy nexus (WEN) is built to reflect integrity of economic development and resource/energy conservation, as well as confronting natural and artificial damages such as water deficit, electricity insufficient, floodwater, high sedimentation deposition contemporarily. Meanwhile, the obtained results with various credibility levels and target-violated risk levels can support generating a robust plan associated with risk control for identification of the optimized water-allocation and hydroenergy-generation alternatives, as well as flood controls. Moreover, results can be beneficial for policymakers to discern the optimal water/sediment release routes, reservoirs’ storage variations (impacted by sediment deposition), electricity supply schedules and system benefit

  8. Water for animal products: a blind spot in water policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2014-09-01

    We know from land, energy and climate studies that the livestock sector plays a substantial role in deforestation, biodiversity loss and climate change. More recently it has become clear that livestock also significantly contributes to humanity’s water footprint, water pollution and water scarcity. Jalava et al (Environ. Res. Lett. 9 074016) show that considerable water savings can be achieved by reducing the fraction of animal products in our diet. The findings are in line with a few earlier studies on water use in relation to diets. As yet, this insight has not been taken forward in national water policies, which focus on ‘sustainable production’ rather than ‘sustainable consumption’. Most studies and practical efforts focus on increasing water-use efficiency in crop production (more crop per drop) and feed conversion efficiency in the livestock sector (more meat with less feed). Water-use efficiency in the food system as a whole (more nutritional value per drop) remains a blind spot.

  9. Educational Productivity. The Impact of Policy Decisions on School Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.

    In order to elicit discussion on issues of concern to policy-makers at all levels of government, the Regional Planning and Service Project of the Southwest Educational Development Laboratory invited educational policy-makers from its region to participate in a symposium on the impact of policy decisions on school performance. Symposium…

  10. Microalgae in the postgenomic era: a blooming reservoir for new natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasso, Severin; Pohnert, Georg; Lohr, Martin; Mittag, Maria; Hertweck, Christian

    2012-07-01

    Bacteria, fungi, algae and higher plants are the most prolific producers of natural products (secondary metabolites). Compared to macroalgae, considerably fewer natural products have been isolated from microalgae, which offer the possibility of obtaining sufficient and well-defined biological material from laboratory cultures. Interest in microalgae is reinforced by large-scale data sets from genome sequencing projects and the development of genetic tools such as transformation protocols. This review highlights what is currently known about the biosynthesis and biological role of natural products in microalgae, with examples from isoprenoids, complex polyketides, nonribosomal peptides, polyunsaturated fatty acids and oxylipins, alkaloids, and aromatic secondary metabolites. In addition, we introduce a bioinformatic analysis of available genome sequences from totally 16 microalgae, belonging to the green and red algae, heterokonts and haptophytes. The results suggest that the biosynthetic potential of microalgae is underestimated and many microalgal natural products remain to be discovered. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. High Frequency monitoring of cyanoHABs and cyanotoxin production to characterize periods of greatest risk on an inland reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    A monitoring approach combining wet chemistry and high frequency (HF) water quality sensors has been employed to improve our understanding of the ecology of an inland reservoir with a history of cyanoHAB events. Lake Harsha is a multi-use reservoir managed by the USACE in southwe...

  12. Analytical filtration model for nonlinear viscoplastic oil in the theory of oil production stimulation and heating of oil reservoir in a dual-well system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovich Astafev, Vladimir; Igorevich Gubanov, Sergey; Alexandrovna Olkhovskaya, Valeria; Mikhailovna Sylantyeva, Anastasia; Mikhailovich Zinovyev, Alexey

    2018-02-01

    Production of high-viscosity oil and design of field development systems for such oil is one of the most promising directions in the development of world oil industry. The ability of high-viscosity oil to show in filtration process properties typical for non-Newtonian systems is proven by experimental studies. Nonlinear relationship between the pressure gradient and the rate of oil flow is due to interaction of high-molecular substances, in particular, asphaltenes and tars that form a plastic structure in it. The authors of this article have used the analytical model of stationary influx of nonlinear viscoplastic oil to the well bottom in order to provide rationale for the intensifying impact on a reservoir. They also have analyzed the method of periodic heating of productive reservoir by means of dual-wells. The high-temperature source is placed at the bottom of the vertical well, very close to the reservoir; at the same time the side well, located outside the zone of expected rock damage, is used for production. Suggested method of systemic treatment of reservoirs with dual wells can be useful for small fields of high-viscosity oil. The effect is based on the opportunity to control the structural and mechanical properties of high-viscosity oil and to increase depletion of reserves.

  13. Methods, systems, and computer program products for network firewall policy optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulp, Errin W [Winston-Salem, NC; Tarsa, Stephen J [Duxbury, MA

    2011-10-18

    Methods, systems, and computer program products for firewall policy optimization are disclosed. According to one method, a firewall policy including an ordered list of firewall rules is defined. For each rule, a probability indicating a likelihood of receiving a packet matching the rule is determined. The rules are sorted in order of non-increasing probability in a manner that preserves the firewall policy.

  14. 76 FR 41178 - Pesticides; Policies Concerning Products Containing Nanoscale Materials; Opportunity for Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... Pesticides; Policies Concerning Products Containing Nanoscale Materials; Opportunity for Public Comment; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed policy statement; extension of comment period. SUMMARY: EPA issued a proposed policy statement in the Federal Register of June...

  15. East and West African milk products are reservoirs for human and livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Christoph; Merz, Axel; Johler, Sophia; Younan, Mario; Tanner, Sabine A; Kaindi, Dasel Wambua Mulwa; Wangoh, John; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Meile, Leo; Tasara, Taurai

    2017-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus frequently isolated from milk products in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is a major pathogen responsible for food intoxication, human and animal diseases. SSA hospital-derived strains are well studied but data on the population structure of foodborne S. aureus required to identify possible staphylococcal food poisoning sources is lacking. Therefore, the aim was to assess the population genetic structure, virulence and antibiotic resistance genes associated with milk-derived S. aureus isolates from Côte d'Ivoire, Kenya and Somalia through spa-typing, MLST, and DNA microarray analysis. Seventy milk S. aureus isolates from the three countries were assigned to 27 spa (7 new) and 23 (12 new) MLST sequence types. Milk-associated S. aureus of the three countries is genetically diverse comprising human and livestock-associated clonal complexes (CCs) predominated by the CC5 (n = 10) and CC30 (n = 9) isolates. Panton-Valentine leukocidin, toxic shock syndrome toxin and enterotoxin encoding genes were predominantly observed among human-associated CCs. Penicillin, fosfomycin and tetracycline, but not methicillin resistance genes were frequently detected. Our findings indicate that milk-associated S. aureus in SSA originates from human and animal sources alike highlighting the need for an overarching One Health approach to reduce S. aureus disease burdens through improving production processes, animal care and hygienic measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. APPLICATION OF INTEGRATED RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT AND RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Bergeron; Tom Blasingame; Louis Doublet; Mohan Kelkar; George Freeman; Jeff Callard; David Moore; David Davies; Richard Vessell; Brian Pregger; Bill Dixon; Bryce Bezant

    2000-03-01

    Reservoir performance and characterization are vital parameters during the development phase of a project. Infill drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to characterization does not optimize development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, especially carbonate reservoirs. These reservoirs are typically characterized by: (1) large, discontinuous pay intervals; (2) vertical and lateral changes in reservoir properties; (3) low reservoir energy; (4) high residual oil saturation; and (5) low recovery efficiency. The operational problems they encounter in these types of reservoirs include: (1) poor or inadequate completions and stimulations; (2) early water breakthrough; (3) poor reservoir sweep efficiency in contacting oil throughout the reservoir as well as in the nearby well regions; (4) channeling of injected fluids due to preferential fracturing caused by excessive injection rates; and (5) limited data availability and poor data quality. Infill drilling operations only need target areas of the reservoir which will be economically successful. If the most productive areas of a reservoir can be accurately identified by combining the results of geological, petrophysical, reservoir performance, and pressure transient analyses, then this ''integrated'' approach can be used to optimize reservoir performance during secondary and tertiary recovery operations without resorting to ''blanket'' infill drilling methods. New and emerging technologies such as geostatistical modeling, rock typing, and rigorous decline type curve analysis can be used to quantify reservoir quality and the degree of interwell communication. These results can then be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations. The application of reservoir surveillance techniques to identify additional reservoir ''pay'' zones

  17. Anaerobic biodegradation of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide in long-term methanogenic enrichment cultures from production water of oil reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Liu, Jin-Feng; Li, Cai-Yun; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2018-03-03

    The increasing usage of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) in oilfields as a flooding agent to enhance oil recovery at so large quantities is an ecological hazard to the subsurface ecosystem due to persistence and inertness. Biodegradation of HPAM is a potentially promising strategy for dealing with this problem among many other methods available. To understand the responsible microorganisms and mechanism of HPAM biodegradation under anaerobic conditions, an enrichment culture from production waters of oil reservoirs were established with HPAM as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen incubated for over 328 days, and analyzed using both molecular microbiology and chemical characterization methods. Gel permeation chromatography, High-pressure liquid chromatography and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy results indicated that, after 328 days of anaerobic incubation, some of the amide groups on HPAM were removed and released as ammonia/ammonium and carboxylic groups, while the carbon backbone of HPAM was converted to smaller polymeric fragments, including oligomers and various fatty acids. Based on these results, the biochemical process of anaerobic biodegradation of HPAM was proposed. The phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from the enrichments showed that Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes were the dominant bacteria in the culture with HPAM as the source of carbon and nitrogen, respectively. For archaea, Methanofollis was more abundant in the anaerobic enrichment. These results are helpful for understanding the process of HPAM biodegradation and provide significant insights to the fate of HPAM in subsurface environment and for possible bioremediation.

  18. Analysis of alkane-dependent methanogenic community derived from production water of a high-temperature petroleum reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbadinga, Serge Maurice; Li, Kai-Ping; Zhou, Lei; Wang, Li-Ying; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Liu, Jin-Feng; Mu, Bo-Zhong [East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). State Key Lab. of Bioreactor Engineering and Inst. of Applied Chemistry; Gu, Ji-Dong [Hong Kong Univ. (China). School of Biological Sciences

    2012-10-15

    Microbial assemblage in an n-alkanes-dependent thermophilic methanogenic enrichment cultures derived from production waters of a high-temperature petroleum reservoir was investigated in this study. Substantially higher amounts of methane were generated from the enrichment cultures incubated at 55 C for 528 days with a mixture of long-chain n-alkanes (C{sub 15}-C{sub 20}). Stoichiometric estimation showed that alkanes-dependent methanogenesis accounted for about 19.8% of the total amount of methane expected. Hydrogen was occasionally detected together with methane in the gas phase of the cultures. Chemical analysis of the liquid cultures resulted only in low concentrations of acetate and formate. Phylogenetic analysis of the enrichment revealed the presence of several bacterial taxa related to Firmicutes, Thermodesulfobiaceae, Thermotogaceae, Nitrospiraceae, Dictyoglomaceae, Candidate division OP8 and others without close cultured representatives, and Archaea predominantly related to uncultured members in the order Archaeoglobales and CO{sub 2}-reducing methanogens. Screening of genomic DNA retrieved from the alkanes-amended enrichment cultures also suggested the presence of new alkylsuccinate synthase alpha-subunit (assA) homologues. These findings suggest the presence of poorly characterized (putative) anaerobic n-alkanes degraders in the thermophilic methanogenic enrichment cultures. Our results indicate that methanogenesis of alkanes under thermophilic condition is likely to proceed via syntrophic acetate and/or formate oxidation linked with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. (orig.)

  19. Preliminary study of discharge characteristics of slim holes compared to production wells in liquid-dominated geothermal reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchett, J.W. [S-Cubed, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    1993-06-01

    There is current interest in using slim holes for geothermal exploration and reservoir assessment. A major question that must be addressed is whether results from flow or injection testing of slim holes can be scaled to predict large diameter production well performance. This brief report describes a preliminary examination of this question from a purely theoretical point of view. The WELBOR computer program was used to perform a series of calculations of the steady flow of fluid up geothermal boreholes of various diameters at various discharge rates. Starting with prescribed bottomhole conditions (pressure, enthalpy), the WELBOR code integrates the equations expressing conservation of mass, momentum and energy (together with fluid constitutive properties obtained from the steam tables) upwards towards the wellhead using numerical techniques. This results in computed profiles of conditions (pressure, temperature, steam volume fraction, etc.) as functions of depth within the flowing well, and also in a forecast of wellhead conditions (pressure, temperature, enthalpy, etc.). From these results, scaling rules are developed and discussed.

  20. Diversity and Composition of Sulfate-Reducing Microbial Communities Based on Genomic DNA and RNA Transcription in Production Water of High Temperature and Corrosive Oil Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xiao Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep subsurface petroleum reservoir ecosystems harbor a high diversity of microorganisms, and microbial influenced corrosion is a major problem for the petroleum industry. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing to explore the microbial communities based on genomic 16S rDNA and metabolically active 16S rRNA analyses of production water samples with different extents of corrosion from a high-temperature oil reservoir. Results showed that Desulfotignum and Roseovarius were the most abundant genera in both genomic and active bacterial communities of all the samples. Both genomic and active archaeal communities were mainly composed of Archaeoglobus and Methanolobus. Within both bacteria and archaea, the active and genomic communities were compositionally distinct from one another across the different oil wells (bacteria p = 0.002; archaea p = 0.01. In addition, the sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRMs were specifically assessed by Sanger sequencing of functional genes aprA and dsrA encoding the enzymes adenosine-5′-phosphosulfate reductase and dissimilatory sulfite reductase, respectively. Functional gene analysis indicated that potentially active Archaeoglobus, Desulfotignum, Desulfovibrio, and Thermodesulforhabdus were frequently detected, with Archaeoglobus as the most abundant and active sulfate-reducing group. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that the SRM communities in petroleum reservoir system were closely related to pH of the production water and sulfate concentration. This study highlights the importance of distinguishing the metabolically active microorganisms from the genomic community and extends our knowledge on the active SRM communities in corrosive petroleum reservoirs.

  1. Diversity and Composition of Sulfate-Reducing Microbial Communities Based on Genomic DNA and RNA Transcription in Production Water of High Temperature and Corrosive Oil Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Xiao; Liu, Jin-Feng; Zhou, Lei; Mbadinga, Serge M.; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Deep subsurface petroleum reservoir ecosystems harbor a high diversity of microorganisms, and microbial influenced corrosion is a major problem for the petroleum industry. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing to explore the microbial communities based on genomic 16S rDNA and metabolically active 16S rRNA analyses of production water samples with different extents of corrosion from a high-temperature oil reservoir. Results showed that Desulfotignum and Roseovarius were the most abundant genera in both genomic and active bacterial communities of all the samples. Both genomic and active archaeal communities were mainly composed of Archaeoglobus and Methanolobus. Within both bacteria and archaea, the active and genomic communities were compositionally distinct from one another across the different oil wells (bacteria p = 0.002; archaea p = 0.01). In addition, the sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRMs) were specifically assessed by Sanger sequencing of functional genes aprA and dsrA encoding the enzymes adenosine-5′-phosphosulfate reductase and dissimilatory sulfite reductase, respectively. Functional gene analysis indicated that potentially active Archaeoglobus, Desulfotignum, Desulfovibrio, and Thermodesulforhabdus were frequently detected, with Archaeoglobus as the most abundant and active sulfate-reducing group. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that the SRM communities in petroleum reservoir system were closely related to pH of the production water and sulfate concentration. This study highlights the importance of distinguishing the metabolically active microorganisms from the genomic community and extends our knowledge on the active SRM communities in corrosive petroleum reservoirs. PMID:28638372

  2. Controlling effect of fractures on gas accumulation and production within the tight sandstone: A case study on the Jurassic Dibei gas reservoir in the eastern part of the Kuqa foreland basin, China

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Hui; Lu, Xuesong; Fan, Junjia; Zhao, Mengjun; Wei, Hongxing; Zhang, Baoshou; Lu, Yuhong

    2016-01-01

    Using Dibei tight sandstone gas reservoir in the eastern part of the Kuqa foreland basin as an example, this paper discusses tight sandstone reservoir fractures characterization, its effect on storage space and gas flow capacity, and its contribution to gas accumulation, enrichment and production in tight sandstone reservoir by using laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) observation, mercury intrusion capillary pressure (MICP) testing, and gas-water two-phase relative permeability testing...

  3. The productive techniques and constitutive effects of 'evidence-based policy' and 'consumer participation' discourses in health policy processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, K; Seear, K; Treloar, C; Ritter, A

    2017-03-01

    For over twenty years there have been calls for greater 'consumer' participation in health decision-making. While it is recognised by governments and other stakeholders that 'consumer' participation is desirable, barriers to meaningful involvement nonetheless remain. It has been suggested that the reifying of 'evidence-based policy' may be limiting opportunities for participation, through the way this discourse legitimates particular voices to the exclusion of others. Others have suggested that assumptions underpinning the very notion of the 'affected community' or 'consumers' as fixed and bounded 'policy publics' need to be problematised. In this paper, drawing on interviews (n = 41) with individuals closely involved in Australian drug policy discussions, we critically interrogate the productive techniques and constitutive effects of 'evidence-based policy' and 'consumer participation' discourses in the context of drug policy processes. To inform our analysis, we draw on and combine a number of critical perspectives including Foucault's concept of subjugated knowledges, the work of feminist theorists, as well as recent work regarding conceptualisations of emergent policy publics. First, we explore how the subject position of 'consumer' might be seen as enacted in the material-discursive practices of 'evidence-based policy' and 'consumer participation' in drug policy processes. Secondly, we consider the centralising power-effects of the dominant 'evidence-based policy' paradigm, and how resistance may be thought about in this context. We suggest that such interrogation has potential to recast the call for 'consumer' participation in health policy decision-making and drug policy processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Cost Structure - Key Element in the Development of Product Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jiroveanu

    2016-01-01

    In this regard, planning the launch of new products or services requires a strategic approach, astructural analysis of the costs and the identification of opportunities to increase optimization withthe aim of increasing the effectiveness of the product policy.

  5. Urban park soil microbiomes are a rich reservoir of natural product biosynthetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlop-Powers, Zachary; Pregitzer, Clara C; Lemetre, Christophe; Ternei, Melinda A; Maniko, Jeffrey; Hover, Bradley M; Calle, Paula Y; McGuire, Krista L; Garbarino, Jeanne; Forgione, Helen M; Charlop-Powers, Sarah; Brady, Sean F

    2016-12-20

    Numerous therapeutically relevant small molecules have been identified from the screening of natural products (NPs) produced by environmental bacteria. These discovery efforts have principally focused on culturing bacteria from natural environments rich in biodiversity. We sought to assess the biosynthetic capacity of urban soil environments using a phylogenetic analysis of conserved NP biosynthetic genes amplified directly from DNA isolated from New York City park soils. By sequencing genes involved in the biosynthesis of nonribosomal peptides and polyketides, we found that urban park soil microbiomes are both rich in biosynthetic diversity and distinct from nonurban samples in their biosynthetic gene composition. A comparison of sequences derived from New York City parks to genes involved in the biosynthesis of biomedically important NPs produced by bacteria originally collected from natural environments around the world suggests that bacteria producing these same families of clinically important antibiotics, antifungals, and anticancer agents are actually present in the soils of New York City. The identification of new bacterial NPs often centers on the systematic exploration of bacteria present in natural environments. Here, we find that the soil microbiomes found in large cities likely hold similar promise as rich unexplored sources of clinically relevant NPs.

  6. Petrophysical Characterization and Reservoir Simulator for Methane Gas Production from Gulf of Mexico Hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishore Mohanty; Bill Cook; Mustafa Hakimuddin; Ramanan Pitchumani; Damiola Ogunlana; Jon Burger; John Shillinglaw

    2006-06-30

    Gas hydrates are crystalline, ice-like compounds of gas and water molecules that are formed under certain thermodynamic conditions. Hydrate deposits occur naturally within ocean sediments just below the sea floor at temperatures and pressures existing below about 500 meters water depth. Gas hydrate is also stable in conjunction with the permafrost in the Arctic. Most marine gas hydrate is formed of microbially generated gas. It binds huge amounts of methane into the sediments. Estimates of the amounts of methane sequestered in gas hydrates worldwide are speculative and range from about 100,000 to 270,000,000 trillion cubic feet (modified from Kvenvolden, 1993). Gas hydrate is one of the fossil fuel resources that is yet untapped, but may play a major role in meeting the energy challenge of this century. In this project novel techniques were developed to form and dissociate methane hydrates in porous media, to measure acoustic properties and CT properties during hydrate dissociation in the presence of a porous medium. Hydrate depressurization experiments in cores were simulated with the use of TOUGHFx/HYDRATE simulator. Input/output software was developed to simulate variable pressure boundary condition and improve the ease of use of the simulator. A series of simulations needed to be run to mimic the variable pressure condition at the production well. The experiments can be matched qualitatively by the hydrate simulator. The temperature of the core falls during hydrate dissociation; the temperature drop is higher if the fluid withdrawal rate is higher. The pressure and temperature gradients are small within the core. The sodium iodide concentration affects the dissociation pressure and rate. This procedure and data will be useful in designing future hydrate studies.

  7. Historicizing in Critical Policy Analysis: The Production of Cultural Histories and Microhistories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Curtis A.

    2014-01-01

    The practice of critical policy analysis often emphasizes the importance of historicizing the present. However, there is very little guidance for critical policy analysts on the methodical production of histories. In this paper, I meet this need by arguing for the use of methodologies embedded in the production of both cultural histories and…

  8. Petroleum reservoir data for testing simulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, J.M.; Harrison, W.

    1980-09-01

    This report consists of reservoir pressure and production data for 25 petroleum reservoirs. Included are 5 data sets for single-phase (liquid) reservoirs, 1 data set for a single-phase (liquid) reservoir with pressure maintenance, 13 data sets for two-phase (liquid/gas) reservoirs and 6 for two-phase reservoirs with pressure maintenance. Also given are ancillary data for each reservoir that could be of value in the development and validation of simulation models. A bibliography is included that lists the publications from which the data were obtained.

  9. Comparison of Microbial Community Compositions of Injection and Production Well Samples in a Long-Term Water-Flooded Petroleum Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Song, Zhi-yong; Rupert, Wieger; Gao, Guang-Jun; Guo, Sheng-xue; Zhao, Li-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Water flooding plays an important role in recovering oil from depleted petroleum reservoirs. Exactly how the microbial communities of production wells are affected by microorganisms introduced with injected water has previously not been adequately studied. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, the comparison of microbial communities is carried out between one injection water and two production waters collected from a working block of the water-flooded Gudao petroleum reservoir located in the Yellow River Delta. DGGE fingerprints showed that the similarities of the bacterial communities between the injection water and production waters were lower than between the two production waters. It was also observed that the archaeal composition among these three samples showed no significant difference. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries showed that the dominant groups within the injection water were Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Methanomicrobia, while the dominant groups in the production waters were Gammaproteobacteria and Methanobacteria. Only 2 out of 54 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and 5 out of 17 archaeal OTUs in the injection water were detected in the production waters, indicating that most of the microorganisms introduced by the injection water may not survive to be detected in the production waters. Additionally, there were 55.6% and 82.6% unique OTUs in the two production waters respectively, suggesting that each production well has its specific microbial composition, despite both wells being flooded with the same injection water. PMID:21858049

  10. The Impact of the Subsidy Policy on Total Factor Productivity: An Empirical Analysis of China's Cotton Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwen Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops one model to explore the relationship between the subsidy policy and the agricultural total factor productivity (TFP. It indicates that the agricultural TFP will be lower after the subsidy policy is implemented and there exists a negative relation between the subsidy and TFP, if subsidies are associated with the acreage. Using Malmquist index, this paper measures the changes of TFP in China's cotton production before and after the subsidy policy is implemented. The results verify that the subsidy policy could not increase but decrease the TFP of China's cotton production, not only in the whole country but also in major provinces of China. Based on the positive study, some policy implications are provided in the end of this paper.

  11. Occurrence and ecological potential of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in groundwater and reservoirs in the vicinity of municipal landfills in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xianzhi; Ou, Weihui; Wang, Chunwei; Wang, Zhifang; Huang, Qiuxin; Jin, Jiabin; Tan, Jianhua

    2014-08-15

    Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), including antibiotics, azole anti-fungals, non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, lipid regulators, parabens, antiseptics, and bisphenol A, were investigated in groundwater and reservoirs in the vicinity of two municipal landfills in the metropolis of Guangzhou, South China. Dehydroerythromycin, sulfamethoxazole, fluconazole, salicylic acid, methylparaben, triclosan, and bisphenol A were the mostly frequently detected PPCPs in the groundwater at low ng L(-1) levels. In the reservoirs, the PPCPs were widely detected at higher frequencies and concentrations, especially sulfamethoxazole, propiconazole, and ibuprofen, with maximal concentrations above 1 μg L(-1). The PPCPs in the groundwater did not show significant seasonal differences or spatial trends. However, in the reservoirs, higher PPCP concentrations were observed in spring than in other seasons. The anti-bacterials in the groundwater posed medium risks to algae. In the reservoirs, the sulfonamides and macrolides posed low to high risks, while ibuprofen, salicylic acid, and clofibric acid presented low to medium risks to aquatic organisms. Overall, the results showed that the PPCP contaminants and subsequent ecological risks in the groundwater and surface water in the vicinity of the landfills may be of serious concern. More research is needed to better correlate the landfill leachates and PPCP contamination in the nearby aquatic environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Studies on the replacement policies in dairy cattle II.Optimum policy and influence of changes in production and prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1985-01-01

    A dynamic programming model was developed to determine the optimum replacement policy of dairy cows. In the model cows were described in terms of lactation number, stage of lactation and the level of milk production during the previous and present lactations. The objective in determining the optimum

  13. Dissolved methane in Indian freshwater reservoirs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Narvenkar, G.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Kurian, S.; Shenoy, D.M.; Pratihary, A.K.; Naik, H.; Patil, S.; Sarkar, A.; Gauns, M.

    Emission of methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas, from tropical reservoirs is of interest because such reservoirs experience conducive conditions for CH4 production through anaerobic microbial activities. It has been suggested that Indian...

  14. Renewable electricity production costs-A framework to assist policy-makers' decisions on price support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinica, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent progress, the production costs for renewable electricity remain above those for conventional power. Expectations of continuous reductions in production costs, typically underpin governments' policies for financial support. They often draw on the technology-focused versions of the Experience Curve model. This paper discusses how national-contextual factors also have a strong influence on production costs, such as geographic, infrastructural, institutional, and resource factors. As technologies mature, and as they reach significant levels of diffusion nationally, sustained increases in production costs might be recorded, due to these nationally contextual factors, poorly accounted for in policy-making decisions for price support. The paper suggests an analytical framework for a more comprehensive understanding of production costs. Based on this, it recommends that the evolution of specific cost levels and factors be monitored to locate 'sources of changes'. The paper also suggests policy instruments that governments may use to facilitate cost decreases, whenever possible. The application of the framework is illustrated for the diffusion of wind power in Spain during the past three decades. - Highlights: → Models, frameworks for policy-making on price support for renewable electricity production costs. → Policy instruments to help reduce production costs. → Limits to the influence of policies of production costs reductions.

  15. Spatio-temporal patterns of bacterioplankton production and community composition related to phytoplankton composition and protistan bacterivory in a dam reservoir

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Karel; Horňák, Karel; Jezbera, Jan; Nedoma, Jiří; Znachor, Petr; Hejzlar, Josef; Seďa, Jaromír

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 3 (2008), s. 249-262 ISSN 0948-3055 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/08/0015; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/0007; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS600170504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : bacterioplankton composition and production * algal-bacterial relationships * extracellular phytoplankton production * protistan bacterivory * phytoplankton community * reservoir * betaproteobacterial groups Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 2.190, year: 2008

  16. Origin and evolution of formation water at the Jujo-Tecominoacan oil reservoir, Gulf of Mexico. Part 2: Isotopic and field-production evidence for fluid connectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkle, Peter, E-mail: birkle@iie.org.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca 62490, Morelos (Mexico); Garcia, Bernardo Martinez; Milland Padron, Carlos M. [PEMEX Exploracion y Produccion, Region Sur, Activo Integral Bellota-Jujo, Diseno de Explotacion, Cardenas, Tabasco (Mexico); Eglington, Bruce M. [Saskatchewan Isotope Laboratory, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada SK S7N 5E2 (Canada)

    2009-04-15

    The chemical and isotopic characterization of formation water from 18 oil production wells, extracted from 5200 to 6100 m b.s.l. at the Jujo-Tecominoacan carbonate reservoir in SE-Mexico, and interpretations of historical production records, were undertaken to determine the origin and hydraulic behavior of deep groundwater systems. The infiltration of surface water during Late Pleistocene to Early Holocene time is suggested by {sup 14}C-concentrations from 2.15 to 31.86 pmC, and by {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr-ratios for high-salinity formation water (0.70923-0.70927) that are close to the composition of Holocene to modern seawater. Prior to infiltration, the super-evaporation of seawater reached maximum TDS concentrations of 385 g/L, with lowest {delta}{sup 18}O values characterizing the most hypersaline samples. Minor deviations of formation water and dolomite host rocks from modern and Jurassic {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr-seawater composition, respectively, suggest ongoing water-rock interaction, and partial isotopic equilibration between both phases. The abundance of {sup 14}C in all sampled formation water, {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr-ratios for high-salinity water close to Holocene - present seawater composition, a water salinity distribution that is independent of historic water-cut, and a total water extraction volume of 2.037 MMm{sup 3} (1/83-4/07) excludes a connate, oil-leg origin for the produced water of the Jurassic-Cretaceous mudstone-dolomite sequence. Temporal fluctuations of water chemistry in production intervals, the accelerated migration of water fronts from the reservoir flanks, and isotopic mixing trends between sampled wells confirms the existence of free aquifer water below oil horizons. Vertical and lateral hydraulic mobility has probably been accelerated by petroleum extraction. The combination of interpreting historical fluctuations of salinity and water percentage in production wells with chemical-isotopic analysis of formation water resulted in a

  17. Origin and evolution of formation water at the Jujo-Tecominoacan oil reservoir, Gulf of Mexico. Part 2: Isotopic and field-production evidence for fluid connectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkle, Peter; Garcia, Bernardo Martinez; Milland Padron, Carlos M.; Eglington, Bruce M.

    2009-01-01

    The chemical and isotopic characterization of formation water from 18 oil production wells, extracted from 5200 to 6100 m b.s.l. at the Jujo-Tecominoacan carbonate reservoir in SE-Mexico, and interpretations of historical production records, were undertaken to determine the origin and hydraulic behavior of deep groundwater systems. The infiltration of surface water during Late Pleistocene to Early Holocene time is suggested by 14 C-concentrations from 2.15 to 31.86 pmC, and by 87 Sr/ 86 Sr-ratios for high-salinity formation water (0.70923-0.70927) that are close to the composition of Holocene to modern seawater. Prior to infiltration, the super-evaporation of seawater reached maximum TDS concentrations of 385 g/L, with lowest δ 18 O values characterizing the most hypersaline samples. Minor deviations of formation water and dolomite host rocks from modern and Jurassic 87 Sr/ 86 Sr-seawater composition, respectively, suggest ongoing water-rock interaction, and partial isotopic equilibration between both phases. The abundance of 14 C in all sampled formation water, 87 Sr/ 86 Sr-ratios for high-salinity water close to Holocene - present seawater composition, a water salinity distribution that is independent of historic water-cut, and a total water extraction volume of 2.037 MMm 3 (1/83-4/07) excludes a connate, oil-leg origin for the produced water of the Jurassic-Cretaceous mudstone-dolomite sequence. Temporal fluctuations of water chemistry in production intervals, the accelerated migration of water fronts from the reservoir flanks, and isotopic mixing trends between sampled wells confirms the existence of free aquifer water below oil horizons. Vertical and lateral hydraulic mobility has probably been accelerated by petroleum extraction. The combination of interpreting historical fluctuations of salinity and water percentage in production wells with chemical-isotopic analysis of formation water resulted in a successful method to distinguish four groundwater bodies

  18. Environmental potentials of policy instruments to mitigate nutrient emissions in Chinese livestock production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, C.; Liu, Y.; Bluemling, B.; Mol, A.P.J.; Chen, J.

    2015-01-01

    To minimize negative environmental impact of livestock production, policy-makers face a challenge to design and implement more effective policy instruments for livestock farmers at different scales. This research builds an assessment framework on the basis of an agent-based model, named ANEM, to

  19. Juvenile competitive bottleneck in the production of brown trout in hydroelectric reservoirs due to intraspecific habitat segregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegge, O.; Hesthagen, T.; Skurdal, J.

    1993-01-01

    Resource utilization and growth of brown trout were studied in four deep (mean depths 16.2 - 37.5 m) Norwegian hydroelectric reservoirs by benthic and pelagic gillnet sampling. In all the reservoirs supplementary stockings are carried out. The brown trout were spatially segregated according to size as the habitat use of small individuals (< 180-220 mm) was completely restricted to benthic habitats, whereas larger individuals mainly utilized the upper strata of pelagic waters. It is argued that the pelagic habitat is the more rewarding, and that small-sized brown trout are forced into the less favourable benthic habitat through social interactions with larger specimens. This is supported by an increase in growth of brown trout from their third to fifth year of life, which seems to be related to the shift from benthic to pelagic behaviour. It is also argued that the conditions for small-sized brown trout may be a bottleneck in the capacity to produce brown trout in hydroelectric reservoirs with limited benthic feeding conditions, despite ample access to food in pelagic habitats. When evaluating the possibility of increasing the yield of brown trout through supplementary stockings, it is therefore important to consider food and growth conditions for all age and size groups of brown trout. In reservoirs with poor benthic feeding conditions it may be necessary to stock with brown trout of sizes that are large enough to utilize pelagic habitat, to avoid the limiting benthic living stage. (Author)

  20. Place-Based Policies, Firm Productivity and Displacement Effects: Evidence from Shenzhen, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.R.A. Koster (Hans); F.F. Cheng (Fang); M.J.A. Gerritse (Michiel); F.G. van Oort (Frank)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe analyse the economic impacts of place-based policies that aim to enhance economic development by stimulating growth and productivity of firms in designated areas. We use unique panel data from China with information on manufacturing firms’ production factors, productivity and

  1. [Ribosome engineering of streptomyces sp. FJ3 from Three Gorges reservoir area and metabolic product of the selected mutant strain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Le; Huang, Yuqi; Liao, Guojian; Hu, Changhua

    2011-07-01

    To explore new resource from inactive actinomycete strains, we screened resistant mutant strains by ribosome engineering, and analyzed the products derived from the selected mutant strains. Three Gorges reservoir area-derived actinomycete strains including BD20, FJ3, WZ20 and FJ5 were used as initial strains, which showed no-antibacterial activities. The streptomycin-resistant (str(R)) mutants and rifampicin-resistant (rif(R)) mutants were screened by single colony isolation on streptomycin-containing plates and rifampicin-containing plates according to the method for obtaining drug-resistant mutants in ribosome engineering. The four initial strains and their str(R)-mutants and rif(R)-mutants were fermented in a liquid medium with the same composition. Mutants with anti-Staphylococcus aureus activity were obtained by paper chromatography. The components of fermentation broth were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Furthermore, FJ3 strain was identified by 16S rDNA and morphology. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of streptomycin and rifampicin for FJ3 was: 0.5 microg/mL and 110 microg/mL, respectively. Twenty-four strR-mutant strains and 20 rif(R)-mutant strains of FJ3 mutant strains were selected for bioassay. The result of the antibacterial activity screening demonstrated that six strains inhibited bacteria. Two strains (FJ3-2 and FJ3-6) were screened from the streptomycin-resistance mutants of inactive strain FJ3. The result of bioassay showed that the fermentation broth of FJ3-2 and FJ3-6 exhibited obvious anti-Staphylococcus aureus activity. The assay of paper chromatography showed that the active substance may be nucleic acid class antibiotic via using solvent system Doskochilova. Moreover, the results of HPLC and LC-MS exhibited that this substance may be thiolutin. Ribosome engineering for changing the secondary metabolic function of the inactive wild

  2. unconventional natural gas reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa G, Tomas F; Osorio, Nelson; Restrepo R, Dora P

    2009-01-01

    This work is an exploration about different unconventional gas reservoirs worldwide: coal bed methane, tight gas, shale gas and gas hydrate? describing aspects such as definition, reserves, production methods, environmental issues and economics. The overview also mentioned preliminary studies about these sources in Colombia.

  3. The Vegetable industry in China; Developments in policies, production, marketing and international trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.M.; Jinsong, C.; Zhang XiaoYong, Xiaoyong; Kamphuis, B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Development of Chinese vegetable industry over the past three decades. The changes of governmental vegetable policy and the major institutions involved. The major production regions in China, their leading vegetable varieties and cultivation technology. The reform of vegetable marketing structure

  4. From Product to System Approaches in European Sustainable Product Policies: Analysis of the Package Concept of Heating Systems in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Calero-Pastor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Different policies with the goal of reducing energy consumption and other environmental impacts in the building sector coexist in Europe. Sustainable product polices, such as the Ecodesign and Energy Labelling Directives, have recently broadened the scope of their target product groups from a strict product approach to extended product and system approaches. Indeed, there is a potential for greater savings when the focus is at a system level rather than on regulating individual products. Product policies for space and water heating systems have recently introduced and implemented the package label, which is a modular approach, standing between the extended product and the system approaches. This paper presents a systematic analysis of the different system approaches of various policies from an engineering perspective. It analyses in detail the package concept and its features through a practical application using a real case study. It focuses on how the package concept can support decisions made in the building design phase and, in particular, how can support the choice of appropriate components based on estimating system performances. This brings building engineers and regulators closer regarding the use of more consistent data on energy performance. Finally, this paper highlights the need to improve the alignment of the building-related product policies with the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive.

  5. Sensitivity Studies on Productivity Performance from 3D Heterogeneous Reservoir Model Based on the L-Pad Gas Hydrate Accumulation in Prudhoe Bay Unit, North Slope Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myshakin, E. M.; Ajayi, T.; Seol, Y.; Boswell, R.

    2016-12-01

    Three-dimensional reservoir model of the "L-Pad" hydrate deposit located in the Prudhoe Bay region of the Alaska's North Slope was created including four stratigraphic units; silty shale overburden, hydrate-bearing D sand, inter-reservoir silty shale, hydrate-bearing C sand, and silty shale underburden. The model incorporates the actual geological settings, accounts for the presence of faults, reservoir dip, the hydrate-water contact in the C sand. Geostatistical porosity distributions in D and C sands conditioned to log data from 78 wells drilled in the vicinity of the Prudhoe Bay "L-pad" were developed providing vertical and lateral 3D heterogeneity in porosity and porosity-dependent hydrate saturation and intrinsic permeability. Gas production potential was estimated using a conventional vertical wellbore completion and a deviated toe-down wellbore perforated through both sand units to induce hydrate depressurization at a constant bottom-hole pressure. The results have shown the greater performance of the deviated well design over the vertical one. The scenarios involving simultaneous and sequential hydrate dissociation in sand units were explored and the effect of the underlying aquifer in the C sand was estimated. Sensitivity analysis has demonstrated that hydraulic communication with over- and underlying shale units affects production in the beginning of depressurization due to competitive water influx into producing mobile flow and could suppress efficient hydrate decomposition resulting in production lag. Another important factor greatly influencing the productivity performance is the effective permeability of hydrate-bearing sediment controlled by the relative permeability function. The results call for the necessity of thorough fundamental studies to understand multi-phase flow in hydrate-bearing sediments with different hydrate precipitation habits.

  6. Policies and Strategies for Eco-Friendly Dairy Product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziggers, G.W.; Conte, F.; Del Nobile, M.A.; Faccia, M.; Zambrini, A.V.; Conte, A.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the growing interest in, and market for, eco-friendly dairy production, a large-scale transition is not taking place. This is partly explained by the institutional context, since dairy production is organized in supply chains that generate interdependencies and, in turn, are subject to

  7. Sustainable production and consumption in a regional policy perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    One of the main challenges regions face in sustainable development is changing their production and consumption patterns. This paper focuses on the role of regional government in sustainable production and consumption polices, one of the specific topics in the framework of the European Regional

  8. Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine is published by the Nigerian Society of Pharmacognosy, a non profit organisation established in 1982 dedicated to the promotion of Pharmacognosy, Natural Products and Traditional Medicine. It has a current circulation of about 500 to scientists in ...

  9. Economic effects of a reservoir re-operation policy in the Rio Grande/Bravo for integrated human and environmental water management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pablo Ortiz-Partida

    2016-12-01

    New hydrological insights: This study determines the economic feasibility of the EF policy. Results show that a proposed Environmental Flow policy would increase irrigated agriculture profit, slightly decrease recreational activities profit, and reduce costs from flood damage and environmental restoration compared to the baseline policy. In addition to supporting ecological objectives, the proposed EF policy would increase the economic benefits of water management objectives.

  10. Molecular processes in the biodegradation of crude oils and crude oil products in the natural reservoir and in laboratory experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalenbach, S.S.

    1993-10-01

    Two ains were pursued in the present study; first, to find positive indicators of the onset of biodegradation of reservoir oil wherever other parameters fail to give a clear picture; second, to establish a basic understanding of the molecular processes underlying the biodegradation of hydrocarbons and thus create a starting point for finding better criteria for valuating biological restoration methods for crude oil contaminated soils. (orig./HS) [de

  11. Improvement of productivity for carbonate reservoir. Field test on Khafji oil field in Arabian gulf (field test on Khafji oil field in Arabian gulf); Tansan`enganso seisansei kojo gijutsu. Khafji yuden field test (Khafji yuden field test)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, F.; Okutsu, H.; Eto, K. [Tech. Research Center, Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-11-10

    Development, demonstration and overall evaluation were given on a productivity improving technology including a well stimulating technology and a horizontal well technology for a carbonate reservoir with low permeability and poor productivity. As an objective test field, the A-limestone reservoir was used in the Khafji oil field in Saudi Arabia, whose rights are possessed by Arabian Oil Company. Furthermore, a fractured reservoir evaluation technology and a well stimulating technology were demonstrated and utilized to enhance the productivity improving technology for carbonate reservoirs. To achieve the objective, it was necessary to evaluate detailed geological features and reservoirs that are worth developing a technology to improve productivity, select an optimal well stimulating technology, and discuss productivity improvement by using horizontal wells. Fiscal 1994 has performed evaluations on geological features and reservoirs, and started drilling the No. 1 experimental well. Activities executed for geological analyses include analyses from fossilization and deposition point of view, analyses of cores taken from newly drilled wells, core fracture analyses, and geological structure analyses using slanted well logging analyses. As a result of drilling the No. 1 experimental well, the vertical well produced oil of about 600 barrels a day, and the horizontal well 2900 barrels a day. 2 figs.

  12. Tenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-22

    The workshop contains presentations in the following areas: (1) reservoir engineering research; (2) field development; (3) vapor-dominated systems; (4) the Geysers thermal area; (5) well test analysis; (6) production engineering; (7) reservoir evaluation; (8) geochemistry and injection; (9) numerical simulation; and (10) reservoir physics. (ACR)

  13. Bridging environmental and financial cost of dairy production: A case study of Irish agricultural policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenhao; Holden, Nicholas M

    2018-02-15

    The Irish agricultural policy 'Food Harvest 2020' is a roadmap for sectoral expansion and Irish dairy farming is expected to intensify, which could influence the environmental and economic performance of Irish milk production. Evaluating the total environmental impacts and the real cost of Irish milk production is a key step towards understanding the possibility of sustainable production. This paper addresses two main issues: aggregation of environmental impacts of Irish milk production by monetization, to understand the real cost of Irish milk production, including the environmental costs; and the effect of the agricultural policy 'Food Harvest 2020' on total cost (combining financial cost and environmental cost) of Irish milk production. This study used 2013 Irish dairy farming as a baseline, and defined 'bottom', 'target' and 'optimum' scenarios, according to the change of elementary inputs required to meet agricultural policy ambitions. The study demonstrated that the three monetization methods, Stepwise 2006, Eco-cost 2012 and EPS 2000, could be used for aggregating different environmental impacts into monetary unit, and to provide an insight for evaluating policy related to total environmental performance. The results showed that the total environmental cost of Irish milk production could be greater than the financial cost (up to €0.53/kg energy corrected milk). The dairy expansion policy with improved herbage utilization and fertilizer application could reduce financial cost and minimize the total environmental cost of per unit milk produced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Nutrient scavenging in Upper Bear Creek from mine wastes: The birth and death of a productive reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isphording, W.C.

    1994-01-01

    In 1978 the Tennessee Valley Authority constructed a reservoir on Upper Bear Creek in northern Alabama for the purpose of flood control. Secondary objectives were to provide a recreational site and one that would also benefit the local economy. Prior to flooding of the stream valley, however, extensive coal mining activities were carried out and the waste materials from these operations were left adjacent to the area to be flooded. In spite of an ambitious fish stocking program, within two years the reservoir was found to be near sterile. Biologists attributed the demise of the fish (and flora) to a combination of high silt loads, high acidity, and heavy metal poisoning from adjacent mine tailings. A detailed investigation was recently funded to confirm the above conclusions. The results indicated that, while there was some evidence of heavy metal poisoning, none of the other presumed causes were important. The principal culprit, however, was simply a lack of the basic nutrient phosphorus in the lake waters. The cause of this was ultimately traced to the absorption of available phosphorus onto suspended particles of iron oxy-hydroxides. The oxy-hydroxides originated by breakdown of iron sulfides that were abundantly present in the mine tailings. It is therefore likely that this phenomenon occurs in many lakes, ponds, and reservoirs adjacent to abandoned coal mines and that acid mine drainage may be, in many cases, only one of several mitigating factors causing sterility and destruction of the aquatic habitat

  15. The Marginalization of Sustainable Charcoal Production in the Policies of a Modernizing African Nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nike Doggart

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Charcoal is the main cooking fuel for urban populations in many African countries. Urbanization and population growth are driving an increase in demand for charcoal, whilst deforestation reduces biomass stocks. Given increasing demand for charcoal, and decreasing availability of biomass, policies are urgently needed that ensure secure energy supplies for urban households and reduce deforestation. There is potential for charcoal to be produced sustainably in natural woodlands, but this requires supportive policies. Previous research has identified policy issues that have contributed to the charcoal sector remaining informal and environmentally destructive. In this paper, we describe how national policies in Tanzania on energy, forests, agriculture, land, and water, consider charcoal, and the degree to which they do, and do not, support sustainable charcoal production. The paper identifies policy gaps and a cross-sector tendency to marginalize natural forest management. By adopting a nexus approach, the paper highlights the inter-connections between sustainable charcoal production, ecosystem services, and trade-offs in the allocation of land, labor, and net primary production. In conclusion, sustainable charcoal production has been marginalized in multiple national policies. As a result, potential benefits of sustainable charcoal production are lost to multiple sectors.

  16. Food product design: emerging evidence for food policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdani, Mohammed; Smith, Steven

    2017-03-01

    The research on the impact of specific brand elements such as food descriptors and package colors is underexplored. We tested whether a "light" color and a "low-calorie" descriptor on food packages gain favorable consumer perception ratings as compared with regular packages. Our online experiment recruited 406 adults in a 3 (product type: Chips versus Juice versus Yoghurt) × 2 (descriptor type: regular versus low-calorie) × 2 (color type: regular versus light) mixed design. Dependent variables were sensory (evaluations of the product's nutritional value and quality), product-based (evaluations of the product's physical appeal), and consumer-based (evaluations of the potential consumers of the product) scales. "Low-calorie" descriptors were found to increase sensory ratings as compared with regular descriptors and light-colored packages received higher product-based ratings as compared with their regular-colored counterparts. Food package color and descriptors present a promising venue for understanding preventative measures against obesity.[Formula: see text].

  17. IS INCREASED INSTABILITY IN CEREAL PRODUCTION IN ETHIOPIA CAUSED BY POLICY CHANGES?

    OpenAIRE

    Alemu, Zerihun Gudeta; Oosthuizen, Klopper; van Schalkwyk, Herman D.

    2003-01-01

    In Ethiopia, growth in cereal production is accompanied by a more than proportionate increase in the standard deviation of production. This study applies descriptive and variance decomposition procedures to determine the sources of increased instability in cereal production in order to show whether they are caused by policy changes. It was found that production instability was caused more by increased yield instability. Considering the fact that use of high-powered inputs is limited to a smal...

  18. Fish habitat degradation in U.S. reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Spickard, M.; Dunn, T.; Webb, K.M.; Aycock, J.N.; Hunt, K.

    2010-01-01

    As the median age of the thousands of large reservoirs (> 200 ha) in the United States tops 50, many are showing various signs of fish habitat degradation. Our goal was to identify major factors degrading fish habitat in reservoirs across the country, and to explore regional degradation patterns. An online survey including 14 metrics was scored on a 0 (no degradation) to 5 (high degradation) point scale by 221 fisheries scientists (92% response rate) to describe degradation in 482 reservoirs randomly distributed throughout the continental United States. The highest scored sources of degradation were lack of aquatic macrophytes (41% of the reservoirs scored as 4–5), lack or loss of woody debris (35% scored 4–5), mistimed water level fluctuations (34% scored 4–5), and sedimentation (31% scored 4–5). Factor analysis identified five primary degradation factors that accounted for most of the variability in the 14 degradation metrics. The factors reflected siltation, structural habitat, eutrophication, water regime, and aquatic plants. Three degradation factors were driven principally by in-reservoir processes, whereas the other two were driven by inputs from the watershed. A comparison across U.S. regions indicated significant geographical differences in degradation relative to the factors emphasized by each region. Reservoirs sometimes have been dismissed as unnatural and disruptive, but they are a product of public policy, a critical feature of landscapes, and they cannot be overlooked if managers are to effectively conserve river systems. Protection and restoration of reservoir habitats may be enhanced with a broader perspective that includes watershed management, in addition to in reservoir activities.

  19. Decision Support System for Reservoir Management and Operation in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navar, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    Africa is currently experiencing a surge in dam construction for flood control, water supply and hydropower production, but ineffective reservoir management has caused problems in the region, such as water shortages, flooding and loss of potential hydropower generation. Our research aims to remedy ineffective reservoir management by developing a novel Decision Support System(DSS) to equip water managers with a technical planning tool based on the state of the art in hydrological sciences. The DSS incorporates a climate forecast model, a hydraulic model of the watershed, and an optimization model to effectively plan for the operation of a system of cascade large-scale reservoirs for hydropower production, while treating water supply and flood control as constraints. Our team will use the newly constructed hydropower plants in the Omo Gibe basin of Ethiopia as the test case. Using the basic HIDROTERM software developed in Brazil, the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) utilizes a combination of linear programing (LP) and non-linear programming (NLP) in conjunction with real time hydrologic and energy demand data to optimize the monthly and daily operations of the reservoir system. We compare the DSS model results with the current reservoir operating policy used by the water managers of that region. We also hope the DSS will eliminate the current dangers associated with the mismanagement of large scale water resources projects in Africa.

  20. Reservoir resistivity characterization incorporating flow dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Arango, Santiago

    2016-04-07

    Systems and methods for reservoir resistivity characterization are provided, in various aspects, an integrated framework for the estimation of Archie\\'s parameters for a strongly heterogeneous reservoir utilizing the dynamics of the reservoir are provided. The framework can encompass a Bayesian estimation/inversion method for estimating the reservoir parameters, integrating production and time lapse formation conductivity data to achieve a better understanding of the subsurface rock conductivity properties and hence improve water saturation imaging.

  1. Eco label and integrated product policies. Supporting companies by networking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, M.; Iraldo, F.

    1999-01-01

    In 1998 IEFE Bocconi University (Italy) carried out a project for the diffusion of the European Commission Eco label, the certification of the environmental quality of products. What clearly emerges from this experience is that some Italian SMEs, among the most innovative and market-oriented, are prone and ready to grasp the opportunities connected with the Eco label adoption. The more these enterprises are capable of starting up a network of socio-institutional actors eager to support them in promoting the environmental quality of their products, the more they succeed in exploiting the above mentioned opportunities [it

  2. Children's Language Production: How Cognitive Neuroscience and Industrial Engineering Can Inform Public Education Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisman, Gerry

    2012-01-01

    Little of 150 years of research in Cognitive Neurosciences, Human Factors, and the mathematics of Production Management have found their way into educational policy and certainly not into the classroom or in the production of educational materials in any meaningful or practical fashion. Whilst more mundane concepts of timing, sequencing, spatial…

  3. Research Productivity and Its Policy Implications in Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quimbo, Maria Ana T.; Sulabo, Evangeline C.

    2014-01-01

    Responding to the Commission on Higher Education's development plan of enhancing research culture among higher education institutions, this study was conducted to analyze the research productivity of selected higher education institutions. It covered five state universities in the Philippines where a total of 377 randomly selected faculty members…

  4. Linking Social and Productive Development Policies for Inclusive ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Consortium for Economic and Social Research (CIES - Consorcio de Investigación Económica y Social), a network of 48 research institutions across Peru, will lead the project. CIES will fund social and economic research with a focus on the linkages between social protection and productive development programs.

  5. Basic Science and Public Policy: Informed Regulation for Nicotine and Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Christie D; Gipson, Cassandra D; Kleykamp, Bethea A; Rupprecht, Laura E; Harrell, Paul T; Rees, Vaughan W; Gould, Thomas J; Oliver, Jason; Bagdas, Deniz; Damaj, M Imad; Schmidt, Heath D; Duncan, Alexander; De Biasi, Mariella

    2017-08-03

    Scientific discoveries over the past few decades have provided significant insight into the abuse liability and negative health consequences associated with tobacco and nicotine-containing products. While many of these advances have led to the development of policies and laws that regulate access to and formulations of these products, further research is critical to guide future regulatory efforts, especially as novel nicotine-containing products are introduced and selectively marketed to vulnerable populations. In this narrative review, we provide an overview of the scientific findings that have impacted regulatory policy and discuss considerations for further translation of science into policy decisions. We propose that open, bidirectional communication between scientists and policy makers is essential to develop transformative preventive- and intervention-focused policies and programs to reduce appeal, abuse liability, and toxicity of the products. Through these types of interactions, collaborative efforts to inform and modify policy have the potential to significantly decrease the use of tobacco and alternative nicotine products and thus enhance health outcomes for individuals. This work addresses current topics in the nicotine and tobacco research field to emphasize the importance of basic science research and provide examples of how it can be utilized to inform public policy. In addition to relaying current thoughts on the topic from experts in the field, the article encourages continued efforts and communication between basic scientists and policy officials. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. An Analysis for the Influences of Fracture Network System on Multi-Stage Fractured Horizontal Well Productivity in Shale Gas Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deliang Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two representative models to analyze the flow dynamic of multi-scale porous medium in hydraulic fractured horizontal shale gas wells. In this work, considering the characteristic mechanisms (multi-scale porous space, desorption and diffusion, flow equations in shale are established. After that, two representative models (discrete fracture model and dual-porosity model are tailored to our issues. Solved by the control-volume finite element method (CVFEM, influences of fracture network system on productivity in shale reservoirs are analyzed in detail. Based on the analysis, the effects can be summarized as follow: at the beginning of production, high conductivity fracture network means more free gas could be produced; at the later part of production, high conductive fracture network can form a large low pressure region, which can not only stimulate the desorption of adsorbed gas, but also reduce the flow resistance to the well. Finally, the sensitivities of characteristic parameters in shale are discussed.

  7. Analysis on biomass and productivity of epilithic algae and their relations to environmental factors in the Gufu River basin, Three Gorges Reservoir area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jiwen; Wu, Shuyuan; Touré, Dado; Cheng, Lamei; Miao, Wenjie; Cao, Huafen; Pan, Xiaoying; Li, Jianfeng; Yao, Minmin; Feng, Liang

    2017-12-01

    The main purpose of this study conducted from August 2010 was to find biomass and productivity of epilithic algae and their relations to environmental factors and try to explore the restrictive factors affecting the growth of algae in the Gufu River, the one of the branches of Xiangxi River located in the Three Gorges Reservoir of the Yangtze River, Hubei Province, Central China. An improved method of in situ primary productivity measurement was utilized to estimate the primary production of the epilithic algae. It was shown that in rivers, lakes, and reservoirs, algae are the main primary producers and have a central role in the ecosystem. Chlorophyll a concentration and ash-free dry mass (AFDM) were estimated for epilithic algae of the Gufu River basin in Three Gorges Reservoir area. Environmental factors in the Gufu River ecosystem highlighted differences in periphyton chlorophyll a ranging from 1.49 mg m -2 (origin) to 69.58 mg m -2 (terminal point). The minimum and maximum gross primary productivity of epilithic algae were 96.12 and 1439.89 mg C m -2  day -1 , respectively. The mean net primary productivity was 290.24 mg C m -2  day -1 . The mean autotrophic index (AFDM:chlorophyll a) was 407.40. The net primary productivity, community respiration ratio (P/R ratio) ranged from 0.98 to 9.25 with a mean of 2.76, showed that autotrophic productivity was dominant in the river. Relationship between physicochemical characteristics and biomass was discussed through cluster and stepwise regression analysis which indicated that altitude, total nitrogen (TN), NO 3 - -N, and NH 4 + -N were significant environmental factors affecting the biomass of epilithic algae. However, a negative logarithmic relationship between altitude and the chlorophyll a of epilithic algae was high. The results also highlighted the importance of epilithic algae in maintaining the Gufu River basin ecosystems health.

  8. An Assessment of Some Design Constraints on Heat Production of a 3D Conceptual EGS Model Using an Open-Source Geothermal Reservoir Simulation Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yidong Xia; Mitch Plummer; Robert Podgorney; Ahmad Ghassemi

    2016-02-01

    Performance of heat production process over a 30-year period is assessed in a conceptual EGS model with a geothermal gradient of 65K per km depth in the reservoir. Water is circulated through a pair of parallel wells connected by a set of single large wing fractures. The results indicate that the desirable output electric power rate and lifespan could be obtained under suitable material properties and system parameters. A sensitivity analysis on some design constraints and operation parameters indicates that 1) the fracture horizontal spacing has profound effect on the long-term performance of heat production, 2) the downward deviation angle for the parallel doublet wells may help overcome the difficulty of vertical drilling to reach a favorable production temperature, and 3) the thermal energy production rate and lifespan has close dependence on water mass flow rate. The results also indicate that the heat production can be improved when the horizontal fracture spacing, well deviation angle, and production flow rate are under reasonable conditions. To conduct the reservoir modeling and simulations, an open-source, finite element based, fully implicit, fully coupled hydrothermal code, namely FALCON, has been developed and used in this work. Compared with most other existing codes that are either closed-source or commercially available in this area, this new open-source code has demonstrated a code development strategy that aims to provide an unparalleled easiness for user-customization and multi-physics coupling. Test results have shown that the FALCON code is able to complete the long-term tests efficiently and accurately, thanks to the state-of-the-art nonlinear and linear solver algorithms implemented in the code.

  9. JOINT DETERMINATION OF PRICE, WAR RANTY LENGTH AND PRODUCTION QUANTITY FOR NEW PRODUCTS UNDER FREE RENEWAL WARRANTY POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jeyakumar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available An optimal business strategy which integrates the decisions, such as pricing, production quantity, and custom er service, in or der to maximize profit is vital for any manufacturing industry. Post sale factors like warranty, spare parts availability, maintenance, service and cost play an important role in the sale of a product. As better warranty signals higher product quality which provides greater assurance to customers, warranty is an important factor in marketing new products. In this paper, a decision model with the price, warranty length and production quantity of a product as decision variables to maximize profit based on the pre-determined product life cycle is presented. The study considers free renewal warranty policy for producers in the static sales market. The expected number of renewals based on the warranty length is derived for lognormally distributed products. The effect of model parameters on the profit is studied.

  10. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin). Quarterly report, October 1 - December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two major phases. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project are to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford West field, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, of the Delaware Mountain Group and to compare Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon reservoirs. Reservoir characterization will utilize 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. Once the reservoir-characterization study of both fields is completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} in one of the fields will be chosen for reservoir simulation. The objectives of the implementation phase of the project are to (1) apply the knowledge gained from reservoir characterization and simulation studies to increase recovery from the pilot area, (2) demonstrate that economically significant unrecovered oil remains in geologically resolvable untapped compartments, and (3) test the accuracy of reservoir characterization and flow simulation as predictive tools in resource preservation of mature fields. A geologically designed, enhanced-recovery program (CO{sub 2} flood, waterflood, or polymer flood) and well-completion program will be developed, and one to three infill wells will be drilled and cored. Technical progress is summarized for: geophysical characterization; reservoir characterization; outcrop characterization; and recovery technology identification and analysis.

  11. Toward a comprehensive policy on nicotine delivery products and harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solyst, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Implementation of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act is resulting in FDA establishing a comprehensive tobacco policy, which includes a scientific evidence based process to characterize tobacco harm reduction products. The existence of the Act has also served as a catalyst for debate on nicotine delivery products in general, including nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products, and new products such as dissolvable tobacco and the electronic cigarette. Although presently the Act only regulates tobacco products--not NRTs, and not currently electronic cigarettes--it has served as an impetus for science and policy discussions focused on the fundamental public health concepts of harm reduction and continuum of risk. The regulatory environment is certainly changing with tobacco in the US, and also with medicinal nicotine products in the UK--and change could continue globally as science and public health policy evolve. In the US, the Modified Risk Tobacco Product (MRTP) provisions of the Tobacco Control Act provides a process for companies to apply for harm reduction status of a product, and in the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) is scheduled to issue a final report in 2013 that will assess and act on the regulation of nicotine containing products, including the electronic cigarette. This article suggests that FDA develop a comprehensive policy on nicotine delivery products. Currently FDA is moving forward, but on three separate tracks: examining the risks and benefits associated with the long-term use of NRTs; evaluating evidence submitted by companies seeking to have a tobacco product be characterized as a MRTP; and considering how best to regulate e-cigarettes.

  12. Place-Based Policies, Firm Productivity and Displacement Effects: Evidence from Shenzhen, China

    OpenAIRE

    Koster, Hans; Cheng, Fang; Gerritse, Michiel; Oort, Frank

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe analyse the economic impacts of place-based policies that aim to enhance economic development by stimulating growth and productivity of firms in designated areas. We use unique panel data from China with information on manufacturing firms’ production factors, productivity and location, and we exploit temporal and spatial variation in place-based interventions due to the opening of science parks in the metropolitan area of Shenzhen. The identification strategy enables us to addr...

  13. Environmental potentials of policy instruments to mitigate nutrient emissions in Chinese livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaohui; Liu, Yi; Bluemling, Bettina; Mol, Arthur P J; Chen, Jining

    2015-01-01

    To minimize negative environmental impact of livestock production, policy-makers face a challenge to design and implement more effective policy instruments for livestock farmers at different scales. This research builds an assessment framework on the basis of an agent-based model, named ANEM, to explore nutrient mitigation potentials of five policy instruments, using pig production in Zhongjiang county, southwest China, as the empirical filling. The effects of different policy scenarios are simulated and compared using four indicators and differentiating between small, medium and large scale pig farms. Technology standards, biogas subsidies and information provisioning prove to be the most effective policies, while pollution fees and manure markets fail to environmentally improve manure management in pig livestock farming. Medium-scale farms are the more relevant scale category for a more environmentally sound development of Chinese livestock production. A number of policy recommendations are formulated as conclusion, as well as some limitations and prospects of the simulations are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Maintaining environmental quality while expanding biomass production: Sub-regional U.S. policy simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egbendewe-Mondzozo, Aklesso; Swinton, Scott M.; Izaurralde, R. César; Manowitz, David H.; Zhang, Xuesong

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates environmental policy effects on ligno-cellulosic biomass production and environmental outcomes using an integrated bioeconomic optimization model. The environmental policy integrated climate (EPIC) model is used to simulate crop yields and environmental indicators in current and future potential bioenergy cropping systems based on weather, topographic and soil data. The crop yield and environmental outcome parameters from EPIC are combined with biomass transport costs and economic parameters in a representative farmer profit-maximizing mathematical optimization model. The model is used to predict the impact of alternative policies on biomass production and environmental outcomes. We find that without environmental policy, rising biomass prices initially trigger production of annual crop residues, resulting in increased greenhouse gas emissions, soil erosion, and nutrient losses to surface and ground water. At higher biomass prices, perennial bioenergy crops replace annual crop residues as biomass sources, resulting in lower environmental impacts. Simulations of three environmental policies namely a carbon price, a no-till area subsidy, and a fertilizer tax reveal that only the carbon price policy systematically mitigates environmental impacts. The fertilizer tax is ineffectual and too costly to farmers. The no-till subsidy is effective only at low biomass prices and is too costly to government. - Highlights: ► Bioeconomic optimization model predicts how biomass production affects environment. ► Rising biomass production could impair climate and water quality. ► Environmental protection policies compared as biomass supply grows. ► Carbon price protects the environment cost-effectively as biomass supply expands

  15. Analysis of real-time reservoir monitoring : reservoirs, strategies, & modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani, Seethambal S.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Normann, Randy Allen; Jennings, Jim (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Gilbert, Bob (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Lake, Larry W. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Weiss, Chester Joseph; Lorenz, John Clay; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Wheeler, Mary Fanett (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Thomas, Sunil G. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Rightley, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Adolfo (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Klie, Hector (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Banchs, Rafael (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Nunez, Emilio J. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Jablonowski, Chris (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX)

    2006-11-01

    The project objective was to detail better ways to assess and exploit intelligent oil and gas field information through improved modeling, sensor technology, and process control to increase ultimate recovery of domestic hydrocarbons. To meet this objective we investigated the use of permanent downhole sensors systems (Smart Wells) whose data is fed real-time into computational reservoir models that are integrated with optimized production control systems. The project utilized a three-pronged approach (1) a value of information analysis to address the economic advantages, (2) reservoir simulation modeling and control optimization to prove the capability, and (3) evaluation of new generation sensor packaging to survive the borehole environment for long periods of time. The Value of Information (VOI) decision tree method was developed and used to assess the economic advantage of using the proposed technology; the VOI demonstrated the increased subsurface resolution through additional sensor data. Our findings show that the VOI studies are a practical means of ascertaining the value associated with a technology, in this case application of sensors to production. The procedure acknowledges the uncertainty in predictions but nevertheless assigns monetary value to the predictions. The best aspect of the procedure is that it builds consensus within interdisciplinary teams The reservoir simulation and modeling aspect of the project was developed to show the capability of exploiting sensor information both for reservoir characterization and to optimize control of the production system. Our findings indicate history matching is improved as more information is added to the objective function, clearly indicating that sensor information can help in reducing the uncertainty associated with reservoir characterization. Additional findings and approaches used are described in detail within the report. The next generation sensors aspect of the project evaluated sensors and packaging

  16. Analysis of federal and state policies and environmental issues for bioethanol production facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Chandra; Chan Hilton, Amy B

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate incentives and barriers to fuel ethanol production from biomass in the U.S. during the past decade (2000-2010). In particular, we examine the results of policies and economic conditions during this period by way of cellulosic ethanol activity in four selected states with the potential to produce different types of feedstocks (i.e., sugar, starch, and cellulosic crops) for ethanol production (Florida, California, Hawaii, and Iowa). Two of the four states, Iowa and California, currently have commercial ethanol production facilities in operation using corn feedstocks. While several companies have proposed commercial scale facilities in Florida and Hawaii, none are operating to date. Federal and state policies and incentives, potential for feedstock production and conversion to ethanol and associated potential environmental impacts, and environmental regulatory conditions among the states were investigated. Additionally, an analysis of proposed and operational ethanol production facilities provided evidence that a combination of these policies and incentives along with the ability to address environmental issues and regulatory environment and positive economic conditions all impact ethanol production. The 2000-2010 decade saw the rise of the promise of cellulosic ethanol. Federal and state policies were enacted to increase ethanol production. Since the initial push for development, expansion of cellulosic ethanol production has not happened as quickly as predicted. Government and private funding supported the development of ethanol production facilities, which peaked and then declined by the end of the decade. Although there are technical issues that remain to be solved to more efficiently convert cellulosic material to ethanol while reducing environmental impacts, the largest barriers to increasing ethanol production appear to be related to government policies, economics, and logistical issues. The numerous federal and state

  17. Controlling effect of fractures on gas accumulation and production within the tight sandstone: A case study on the Jurassic Dibei gas reservoir in the eastern part of the Kuqa foreland basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Lu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Using Dibei tight sandstone gas reservoir in the eastern part of the Kuqa foreland basin as an example, this paper discusses tight sandstone reservoir fractures characterization, its effect on storage space and gas flow capacity, and its contribution to gas accumulation, enrichment and production in tight sandstone reservoir by using laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM observation, mercury intrusion capillary pressure (MICP testing, and gas-water two-phase relative permeability testing. The statistics of laser scanning confocal microscopy observation showed that the microstructural fractures width in the Dibei gas reservoir was mainly 8–25 μm, and the associated micro-fractures width was mainly 4–10 μm. Additionally, the throat radius was mainly 1–4 μm. The fractures width was significantly wider than the throat radius that served as the main channel of in gas flow. In addition, it illustrated that the samples with developed fractures became easier for gas to flow under equal porosity condition, because of lower expulsion pressure, higher mercury injection saturation, and increased gas relative permeability based on the physical simulation experiment of gas charging into core samples with saturated water, mercury injection and gas-water two-phase permeability experiments. Furthermore, it had been concluded that the fractures control tight gas in the following aspects: (1 Fractures play a significant role in reservoir property improvement. The isolated pores were linked by the fractures to form connective reservoir spaces, and dissolution is prone to occur along the fractures forming new pores. The fractures with bigger width are reservoir space as well. (2 Fractures increased fluid flow capacity because it decreased the starting pressure gradient, and it increased gas effective permeability. Thus, fractures improved the gas injection efficiency as well as gas production. (3 Fractures that developed in different time and spatial

  18. Effect of reservoir heterogeneity on air injection performance in a light oil reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Jia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Air injection is a good option to development light oil reservoir. As well-known that, reservoir heterogeneity has great effect for various EOR processes. This also applies to air injection. However, oil recovery mechanisms and physical processes for air injection in heterogeneous reservoir with dip angle are still not well understood. The reported setting of reservoir heterogeneous for physical model or simulation model of air injection only simply uses different-layer permeability of porous media. In practice, reservoir heterogeneity follows the principle of geostatistics. How much of contrast in permeability actually challenges the air injection in light oil reservoir? This should be investigated by using layered porous medial settings of the classical Dykstra-Parsons style. Unfortunately, there has been no work addressing this issue for air injection in light oil reservoir. In this paper, Reservoir heterogeneity is quantified based on the use of different reservoir permeability distribution according to classical Dykstra-Parsons coefficients method. The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of reservoir heterogeneity on physical process and production performance of air injection in light oil reservoir through numerical reservoir simulation approach. The basic model is calibrated based on previous study. Total eleven pseudo compounders are included in this model and ten complexity of reactions are proposed to achieve the reaction scheme. Results show that oil recovery factor is decreased with the increasing of reservoir heterogeneity both for air and N2 injection from updip location, which is against the working behavior of air injection from updip location. Reservoir heterogeneity sometimes can act as positive effect to improve sweep efficiency as well as enhance production performance for air injection. High O2 content air injection can benefit oil recovery factor, also lead to early O2 breakthrough in heterogeneous reservoir. Well

  19. Multi-objective Optimization of the Mississippi Headwaters Reservoir System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, B. A.; Harou, J. J.

    2006-12-01

    The Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC) of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is participating in a re- operation study of the Mississippi Headwaters reservoir system. The study, termed ROPE (Reservoir Operation Plan Evaluation), will develop a new operation policy for the reservoir system in a Shared Vision Planning effort. The current operating plan is 40 years old and does not account for the diverse objectives of the system altered by increased development and resource awareness. Functions of the six-reservoir system include flood damage reduction, recreation, fish and wildlife habitat considerations, tribal resources, water quality, water supply, erosion and sedimentation control, and hydropower production. Experience has shown that a modeling approach using both optimization, which makes decisions based on their value to objectives, and simulation, which makes decisions that follow operating instructions or rules, is an effective way to improve or develop new operating policies. HEC's role in this study was to develop a multi- objective optimization model of the system using HEC-PRM (Prescriptive Reservoir Model), a generalized computer program that performs multi-period deterministic network-flow optimization of reservoir systems. The optimization model's purpose is to enable stakeholders and decision makers to select appropriate tradeoffs between objectives, and have these tradeoffs reflected in proposed rules. Initial single-objective optimizations allow stakeholders to verify that the penalty functions developed by experts accurately represent their interests. Once penalty functions are confirmed, trade-off curves between pairs of system objectives are developed, and stakeholders and decision makers choose a desired balance between the two objectives. These chosen balance points are maintained in optimizations that consider all objectives. Finally, optimal system decisions are studied to infer operating patterns that embody the chosen tradeoffs. The

  20. In search of standards to support circularity in product policies: A systematic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecchio, Paolo; McAlister, Catriona; Mathieux, Fabrice; Ardente, Fulvio

    2017-12-01

    The aspiration of a circular economy is to shift material flows toward a zero waste and pollution production system. The process of shifting to a circular economy has been initiated by the European Commission in their action plan for the circular economy. The EU Ecodesign Directive is a key policy in this transition. However, to date the focus of access to market requirements on products has primarily been upon energy efficiency. The absence of adequate metrics and standards has been a key barrier to the inclusion of resource efficiency requirements. This paper proposes a framework to boost sustainable engineering and resource use by systematically identifying standardization needs and features. Standards can then support the setting of appropriate material efficiency requirements in EU product policy. Three high-level policy goals concerning material efficiency of products were identified: embodied impact reduction, lifetime extension and residual waste reduction. Through a lifecycle perspective, a matrix of interactions among material efficiency topics (recycled content, re-used content, relevant material content, durability, upgradability, reparability, re-manufacturability, reusability, recyclability, recoverability, relevant material separability) and policy goals was created. The framework was tested on case studies for electronic displays and washing machines. For potential material efficiency requirements, specific standardization needs were identified, such as adequate metrics for performance measurements, reliable and repeatable tests, and calculation procedures. The proposed novel framework aims to provide a method by which to identify key material efficiency considerations within the policy context, and to map out the generic and product-specific standardisation needs to support ecodesign. Via such an approach, many different stakeholders (industry, academics, policy makers, non-governmental organizations etc.) can be involved in material efficiency

  1. Asymptotically optimal production policies in dynamic stochastic jobshops with limited buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yumei; Sethi, Suresh P.; Zhang, Hanqin; Zhang, Qing

    2006-05-01

    We consider a production planning problem for a jobshop with unreliable machines producing a number of products. There are upper and lower bounds on intermediate parts and an upper bound on finished parts. The machine capacities are modelled as finite state Markov chains. The objective is to choose the rate of production so as to minimize the total discounted cost of inventory and production. Finding an optimal control policy for this problem is difficult. Instead, we derive an asymptotic approximation by letting the rates of change of the machine states approach infinity. The asymptotic analysis leads to a limiting problem in which the stochastic machine capacities are replaced by their equilibrium mean capacities. The value function for the original problem is shown to converge to the value function of the limiting problem. The convergence rate of the value function together with the error estimate for the constructed asymptotic optimal production policies are established.

  2. Cross-border health and productivity effects of alcohol policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Per; Pekkarinen, Tuomas; Verho, Jouko

    2014-07-01

    This paper studies the cross-border health and productivity effects of alcohol taxes. We estimate the effect of a large cut in the Finnish alcohol tax on mortality, alcohol-related illnesses and work absenteeism in Sweden. This tax cut led to large differences in the prices of alcoholic beverages between these two countries and to a considerable increase in cross-border shopping. The effect is identified using differences-in-differences strategy where changes in these outcomes in regions near the Finnish border are compared to changes in other parts of northern Sweden. We use register data where micro level data on deaths, hospitalisations and absenteeism is merged to population-wide micro data on demographics and labour market outcomes. Our results show that the Finnish tax cut did not have any clear effect on mortality or alcohol-related hospitalisations in Sweden. However, we find that workplace absenteeism increased by 9% for males and by 15% for females near the Finnish border as a result of the tax cut. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Geothermal reservoir management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, C.R.; Golabi, K.

    1978-02-01

    The optimal management of a hot water geothermal reservoir was considered. The physical system investigated includes a three-dimensional aquifer from which hot water is pumped and circulated through a heat exchanger. Heat removed from the geothermal fluid is transferred to a building complex or other facility for space heating. After passing through the heat exchanger, the (now cooled) geothermal fluid is reinjected into the aquifer. This cools the reservoir at a rate predicted by an expression relating pumping rate, time, and production hole temperature. The economic model proposed in the study maximizes discounted value of energy transferred across the heat exchanger minus the discounted cost of wells, equipment, and pumping energy. The real value of energy is assumed to increase at r percent per year. A major decision variable is the production or pumping rate (which is constant over the project life). Other decision variables in this optimization are production timing, reinjection temperature, and the economic life of the reservoir at the selected pumping rate. Results show that waiting time to production and production life increases as r increases and decreases as the discount rate increases. Production rate decreases as r increases and increases as the discount rate increases. The optimal injection temperature is very close to the temperature of the steam produced on the other side of the heat exchanger, and is virtually independent of r and the discount rate. Sensitivity of the decision variables to geohydrological parameters was also investigated. Initial aquifer temperature and permeability have a major influence on these variables, although aquifer porosity is of less importance. A penalty was considered for production delay after the lease is granted.

  4. Formate-Dependent Microbial Conversion of CO2 and the Dominant Pathways of methanogenesis in production water of high-temperature oil reservoirs amended with bicarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Chao eYang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available CO2 sequestration in deep-subsurface formations including oil reservoirs is a potential measure to reduce the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. However, the fate of the CO2 and the ecological influences in Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (CDCS facilities is not understood clearly. In the current study, the fate of CO2 (in bicarbonate form (0~90 mM with 10 mM of formate as electron donor and carbon source was investigated with high-temperature production water from oilfield in China. The isotope data showed that bicarbonate could be reduced to methane by methanogens and major pathway of methanogenesis could be syntrophic formate oxidation coupled with CO2 reduction and formate methanogenesis under the anaerobic conditions. The bicarbonate addition induced the shift of microbial community. Addition of bicarbonate and formate was associated with a decrease of Methanosarcinales, but promotion of Methanobacteriales in all treatments. Thermodesulfovibrio was the major group in all the samples and Thermacetogenium dominated in the high bicarbonate treatments. The results indicated that CO2 from CDCS could be transformed to methane and the possibility of microbial CO2 conversion for enhanced microbial energy recovery in oil reservoirs.

  5. Powerplant productivity improvement study: policy analysis and incentive assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-05-01

    Policy options that the Illinois Commerce Commission might adopt in order to promote improved power plant productivity for existing units in Illinois are identified and analyzed. These policy options would generally involve either removing existing disincentives and/or adding direct incentives through the regulatory process. The following activities are reported: in-depth review of existing theoretical and empirical literature in the areas of power plant reliability, regulatory utility efficiency and performance incentives, and impacts of various regulatory mechanisms such as the Fuel Adjustment Clauses on productivity; contacts with other state public utility commissions known to be investigating or implementing productivity improvement incentive mechanisms; documentation and analysis of incentive mechanisms adopted or under consideration in other states; analysis of current regulatory practice in Illinois as it relates to power plant productivity incentives and disincentives; identification of candidate incentive mechanisms for consideration by the Illinois Commerce Commission; and analysis and evaluation of these candidates. 72 references, 8 figures.

  6. Policy-Driven Productivity in Chile and Mexico in the 1980s and 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael Bergoeing; Patrick J. Kehoe; Timothy J. Kehoe; Raimundo Soto

    2002-01-01

    Both Chile and Mexico experienced severe economic crises in the early 1980s, but Chile recovered much faster than did Mexico. Using growth accounting and a calibrated dynamic general equilibrium model, we conclude that the crucial determinant of this difference between the two countries was the faster productivity growth in Chile, rather than higher investment or employment. Our hypothesis is that this difference in productivity was driven by earlier policy reforms in Chile, the most crucial ...

  7. Beyond product innovation; improving innovation policy support for SMEs in traditional industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wintjes, R.J.M.; Douglas, D.; Fairburn, J.; Hollanders, H.J.G.M.; Pugh, G.

    2014-01-01

    Innovation support measures in the EU are mostly designed to support product innovation in R&D intensive sectors. To increase the still considerable contribution to regional employment and competitiveness from SMEs in traditional manufacturing industries a broader innovation (policy) mix is more

  8. Policy reforms, rice production and sustainable land use in China: A macro-micro analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerink, N.; Qu, F.; Kuiper, M.H.; Shi Xiaoping, X.; Tan Shuhao,

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a macro¿micro analysis of the impact of policy reforms in China on agricultural production, input use and soil quality change for a major rice-producing area, namely Jiangxi province. This is done in three steps. First, a quantitative assessment is made of the impact of market

  9. The interaction between EU biofuel policy and first- and second-generation biodiesel production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutesteijn, C.; Drabik, D.; Venus, T.J.

    2017-01-01

    We build a tractable partial equilibrium model to study the interactions between the EU biofuel policies (mandate and double-counting of second-generation biofuels) and first- and second-generation biodiesel production. We find that increasing the biodiesel mandate results in a higher share of

  10. TRITIUM RESERVOIR STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE PREDICTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, P.S.; Morgan, M.J

    2005-11-10

    The burst test is used to assess the material performance of tritium reservoirs in the surveillance program in which reservoirs have been in service for extended periods of time. A materials system model and finite element procedure were developed under a Savannah River Site Plant-Directed Research and Development (PDRD) program to predict the structural response under a full range of loading and aged material conditions of the reservoir. The results show that the predicted burst pressure and volume ductility are in good agreement with the actual burst test results for the unexposed units. The material tensile properties used in the calculations were obtained from a curved tensile specimen harvested from a companion reservoir by Electric Discharge Machining (EDM). In the absence of exposed and aged material tensile data, literature data were used for demonstrating the methodology in terms of the helium-3 concentration in the metal and the depth of penetration in the reservoir sidewall. It can be shown that the volume ductility decreases significantly with the presence of tritium and its decay product, helium-3, in the metal, as was observed in the laboratory-controlled burst tests. The model and analytical procedure provides a predictive tool for reservoir structural integrity under aging conditions. It is recommended that benchmark tests and analysis for aged materials be performed. The methodology can be augmented to predict performance for reservoir with flaws.

  11. Modeling the potential effects of new tobacco products and policies: a dynamic population model for multiple product use and harm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Vugrin

    Full Text Available Recent declines in US cigarette smoking prevalence have coincided with increases in use of other tobacco products. Multiple product tobacco models can help assess the population health impacts associated with use of a wide range of tobacco products.We present a multi-state, dynamical systems population structure model that can be used to assess the effects of tobacco product use behaviors on population health. The model incorporates transition behaviors, such as initiation, cessation, switching, and dual use, related to the use of multiple products. The model tracks product use prevalence and mortality attributable to tobacco use for the overall population and by sex and age group. The model can also be used to estimate differences in these outcomes between scenarios by varying input parameter values. We demonstrate model capabilities by projecting future cigarette smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable mortality and then simulating the effects of introduction of a hypothetical new lower-risk tobacco product under a variety of assumptions about product use. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine the range of population impacts that could occur due to differences in input values for product use and risk. We demonstrate that potential benefits from cigarette smokers switching to the lower-risk product can be offset over time through increased initiation of this product. Model results show that population health benefits are particularly sensitive to product risks and initiation, switching, and dual use behaviors.Our model incorporates the variety of tobacco use behaviors and risks that occur with multiple products. As such, it can evaluate the population health impacts associated with the introduction of new tobacco products or policies that may result in product switching or dual use. Further model development will include refinement of data inputs for non-cigarette tobacco products and inclusion of health outcomes such as morbidity

  12. Modeling the Potential Effects of New Tobacco Products and Policies: A Dynamic Population Model for Multiple Product Use and Harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vugrin, Eric D.; Rostron, Brian L.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Brodsky, Nancy S.; Brown, Theresa J.; Choiniere, Conrad J.; Coleman, Blair N.; Paredes, Antonio; Apelberg, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent declines in US cigarette smoking prevalence have coincided with increases in use of other tobacco products. Multiple product tobacco models can help assess the population health impacts associated with use of a wide range of tobacco products. Methods and Findings We present a multi-state, dynamical systems population structure model that can be used to assess the effects of tobacco product use behaviors on population health. The model incorporates transition behaviors, such as initiation, cessation, switching, and dual use, related to the use of multiple products. The model tracks product use prevalence and mortality attributable to tobacco use for the overall population and by sex and age group. The model can also be used to estimate differences in these outcomes between scenarios by varying input parameter values. We demonstrate model capabilities by projecting future cigarette smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable mortality and then simulating the effects of introduction of a hypothetical new lower-risk tobacco product under a variety of assumptions about product use. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine the range of population impacts that could occur due to differences in input values for product use and risk. We demonstrate that potential benefits from cigarette smokers switching to the lower-risk product can be offset over time through increased initiation of this product. Model results show that population health benefits are particularly sensitive to product risks and initiation, switching, and dual use behaviors. Conclusion Our model incorporates the variety of tobacco use behaviors and risks that occur with multiple products. As such, it can evaluate the population health impacts associated with the introduction of new tobacco products or policies that may result in product switching or dual use. Further model development will include refinement of data inputs for non-cigarette tobacco products and inclusion of health

  13. Modeling the potential effects of new tobacco products and policies: a dynamic population model for multiple product use and harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vugrin, Eric D; Rostron, Brian L; Verzi, Stephen J; Brodsky, Nancy S; Brown, Theresa J; Choiniere, Conrad J; Coleman, Blair N; Paredes, Antonio; Apelberg, Benjamin J

    2015-01-01

    Recent declines in US cigarette smoking prevalence have coincided with increases in use of other tobacco products. Multiple product tobacco models can help assess the population health impacts associated with use of a wide range of tobacco products. We present a multi-state, dynamical systems population structure model that can be used to assess the effects of tobacco product use behaviors on population health. The model incorporates transition behaviors, such as initiation, cessation, switching, and dual use, related to the use of multiple products. The model tracks product use prevalence and mortality attributable to tobacco use for the overall population and by sex and age group. The model can also be used to estimate differences in these outcomes between scenarios by varying input parameter values. We demonstrate model capabilities by projecting future cigarette smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable mortality and then simulating the effects of introduction of a hypothetical new lower-risk tobacco product under a variety of assumptions about product use. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine the range of population impacts that could occur due to differences in input values for product use and risk. We demonstrate that potential benefits from cigarette smokers switching to the lower-risk product can be offset over time through increased initiation of this product. Model results show that population health benefits are particularly sensitive to product risks and initiation, switching, and dual use behaviors. Our model incorporates the variety of tobacco use behaviors and risks that occur with multiple products. As such, it can evaluate the population health impacts associated with the introduction of new tobacco products or policies that may result in product switching or dual use. Further model development will include refinement of data inputs for non-cigarette tobacco products and inclusion of health outcomes such as morbidity and disability.

  14. Base Stock Policy in a Join-Type Production Line with Advanced Demand Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraiwa, Mikihiko; Tsubouchi, Satoshi; Nakade, Koichi

    Production control such as the base stock policy, the kanban policy and the constant work-in-process policy in a serial production line has been studied by many researchers. Production lines, however, usually have fork-type, join-type or network-type figures. In addition, in most previous studies on production control, a finished product is required at the same time as arrival of demand at the system. Demand information is, however, informed before due date in practice. In this paper a join-type (assembly) production line under base stock control with advanced demand information in discrete time is analyzed. The recursive equations for the work-in-process are derived. The heuristic algorithm for finding appropriate base stock levels of all machines at short time is proposed and the effect of advanced demand information is examined by simulation with the proposed algorithm. It is shown that the inventory cost can decreases with little backlogs by using the appropriate amount of demand information and setting appropriate base stock levels.

  15. Competition between biomass and food production in the presence of energy policies: a partial equilibrium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignaciuk, A.; Voehringer, F.; Ruijs, A.; Ierland, E.C. van

    2006-01-01

    Bioenergy has several advantages over fossil fuels. For example, it delivers energy at low net CO 2 emission levels and contributes to sustaining future energy supplies. The concern, however, is that an increase in biomass plantations will reduce the land available for agricultural production. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of taxing conventional electricity production or carbon use in combination with subsidizing biomass or bioelectricity production on the production of biomass and agricultural commodities and on the share of bioelectricity in total electricity production. We develop a partial equilibrium model to illustrate some of the potential impacts of these policies on greenhouse gas emissions, land reallocation and food and electricity prices. As a case study, we use data for Poland, which has a large potential for biomass production. Results show that combining a conventional electricity tax of 10% with a 25% subsidy on bioelectricity production increases the share of bioelectricity to 7.5%. Under this policy regime, biomass as well as agricultural production increase. A carbon tax that gives equal net tax yields, has better environmental results, however, at higher welfare costs and resulting in 1% to 4% reduction of agricultural production. (author)

  16. Bringing down the Barriers. Making America Work. Productive People, Productive Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Governors' Association, Washington, DC. Center for Policy Research and Analysis.

    This book presents policy recommendations for ensuring the success of American citizens in the areas of welfare prevention, school dropouts, teenage pregnancy, adult literacy, and alcohol and drug abuse. Welfare prevention strategies involve reduction of welfare dependency and targeting of resources and programs that reduce the need for families…

  17. Primary productivity C-14 and algal assay in the study of water pollution effects in the Citarum River and Jatiluhur Reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahbub, B.

    1983-01-01

    Water quality of the Citarum River and the Jatiluhur Reservoir in Indonesia was evaluated using C-14 radioisotope. A close relationship between the abiotic (physical and chemical) and the biotic (algal growth potential, primary productivity, chlorophylla and diversity index of planktonic and benthic macroinvertebrate) parameters was obtained. Algal growth potential to abiotic parameters relationship has the highest correlation coefficient and can be used as a pollution indicator. The other biotic parameters do not show clear relationship with the abiotic parameters. The Citarum water quality is the lowest in those locations which receive human and industrial waste from Bandung and its environment. This water cannot be used for drinking purposes and fishery. The water quality in other locations of the river, however, meets the criteria for agriculture. Agricultural waste does not show any drastic effect on the water quality profile due to non-polluted characteristics of its sources

  18. Joint Optimal Production Planning for Complex Supply Chains Constrained by Carbon Emission Abatement Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfei He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on the joint production planning of complex supply chains facing stochastic demands and being constrained by carbon emission reduction policies. We pick two typical carbon emission reduction policies to research how emission regulation influences the profit and carbon footprint of a typical supply chain. We use the input-output model to capture the interrelated demand link between an arbitrary pair of two nodes in scenarios without or with carbon emission constraints. We design optimization algorithm to obtain joint optimal production quantities combination for maximizing overall profit under regulatory policies, respectively. Furthermore, numerical studies by featuring exponentially distributed demand compare systemwide performances in various scenarios. We build the “carbon emission elasticity of profit (CEEP” index as a metric to evaluate the impact of regulatory policies on both chainwide emissions and profit. Our results manifest that by facilitating the mandatory emission cap in proper installation within the network one can balance well effective emission reduction and associated acceptable profit loss. The outcome that CEEP index when implementing Carbon emission tax is elastic implies that the scale of profit loss is greater than that of emission reduction, which shows that this policy is less effective than mandatory cap from industry standpoint at least.

  19. Multiscale ensemble filtering for reservoir engineering applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawniczak, W.; Hanea, R.G.; Heemink, A.; McLaughlin, D.

    2009-01-01

    Reservoir management requires periodic updates of the simulation models using the production data available over time. Traditionally, validation of reservoir models with production data is done using a history matching process. Uncertainties in the data, as well as in the model, lead to a nonunique

  20. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, west Texas (Delaware Basin). Annual progress report, March 31, 1995--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.; Hovorka, S.D.; Cole, A.G.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of clastic reservoirs in basinal sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover more of the original oil in place by strategic infill-well placement and geologically based field development. Reservoirs in the Delaware Mountain Group have low producibility (average recovery <14 percent of the original oil in place) because of a high degree of vertical and lateral heterogeneity caused by depositional processes and post-depositional diagenetic modification. Detailed correlations of the Ramsey sandstone reservoirs in Geraldine Ford field suggest that lateral sandstone continuity is less than interpreted by previous studies. The degree of lateral heterogeneity in the reservoir sandstones suggests that they were deposited by eolian-derived turbidites. According to the eolian-derived turbidite model, sand dunes migrated across the exposed shelf to the shelf break during sea-level lowstands and provided well sorted sand for turbidity currents or grain flows into the deep basin.

  1. Analysis of the effectiveness of fertilizer subsidy policy and its effect on rice production in Karanganyar Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyadiana, A. T.; Marwanti, S.; Rahayu, W.

    2018-03-01

    The research aims to know the factors which affecting rice production, and to know the effectiveness of fertilizer subsidy policy on rice production in Karanganyar Regency. The fertilizer subsidy policy was based on four indicators of fertilizer subsidy namely exact price, exact place, exact time, and exact quantity. Data was analyzed using descriptive quantitative and qualitative and multiple linear regression. The result of research showed that fertilizer subsidy policy in Karanganyar Regency evaluated from four indicators was not effective because the distribution of fertilizer subsidy to farmers still experience some mistakes. The result of regression analysis showed that production factors such as land area, use of urea fertilizer, use of NPK fertilizer, and effectiveness of fertilizer subsidy policy had positive correlation and significant influence on rice production, while labor utilization and use of seeds factors had no significant effect on rice production in Karanganyar Regency. This means that if the fertilizer subsidy policy is more effective, rice production is also increased.

  2. [Fiscal policy, affordability and cross effects in the demand for tobacco products: the case of Uruguay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajales, Alejandro Ramos; Curti, Dardo

    2010-01-01

    Uruguay, a country with a solid tobacco control policy since 2005 shows, contrary to expectations, an insignificant decrease in total tobacco products' sales in the last five years. The hypothesis is that on one side, changes in household income and the income elasticity of the demand for cigarettes were important countervailing factors in the demand of both products. The period 2005-2009 shows a large increase of 36% in household real income in Uruguay due to fast economic recovery after the 2002 crisis. The second factor is the interchangeability of roll your own and cigarettes and the impact on the demand of each product as a reaction to tax and price changes. The tax and price of roll your own tobacco remains substantially lower than that of cigarettes. This fact, and the increased substitution of roll your own for cigarettes seems to be the main reasons for the low impact of the policy of tobacco tax and price increases. This paper then consists of a revision of a 2004 study to estimate separate demands for both main tobacco products and obtain estimates for own price, cross price and income elasticities. Then, a simulation study was performed using the elasticities found and two scenarios of increases in household income: moderate (2.5% per year) and high (5% per year) confirming that countries where income is growing fast and with a potential for substitution towards cheaper products require substantial cigarette tax and price increases for a fiscal tobacco control policy to become effective.

  3. The ACEGES laboratory for energy policy: Exploring the production of crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voudouris, Vlasios; Stasinopoulos, Dimitrios; Rigby, Robert; Di Maio, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    An agent-based computational laboratory for exploratory energy policy by means of controlled computational experiments is proposed. It is termed the ACEGES (agent-based computational economics of the global energy system). In particular, it is shown how agent-based modelling and simulation can be applied to understand better the challenging outlook for oil production by accounting for uncertainties in resource estimates, demand growth, production growth and peak/decline point. The approach emphasises the idea that the oil system is better modelled not as black-box abode of 'the invisible hand' but as a complex system whose macroscopic explananda emerges from the interactions of its constituent components. Given the estimated volumes of oil originally present before any extraction, simulations show that on average the world peak of crude oil production may happen in the broad vicinity of the time region between 2008 and 2027. Using the proposed petroleum market diversity, the market diversity weakness rapidly towards the peak year. - Highlights: → Development of oil scenarios using computational experiments. → Support of energy policy using agent-based modelling and simulation. → Demonstration of the agent-based computational economics of the global energy system (ACEGES) policy-support tool. → Energy policy by means of evidence-based forward-looking probabilistic forecasts.

  4. The impact of policy on hospital productivity: a time series analysis of Dutch hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Jos L T; Eggink, Evelien

    2014-06-01

    The health care industry, in particular the hospital industry, is under an increasing degree of pressure, by an ageing population, advancing expensive medical technology a shrinking labor. The pressure on hospitals is further increased by the planned budget cuts in public spending by many current administrations as a result of the economic and financial crises. However, productivity increases may alleviate these problems. Therefore we study whether productivity in the hospital sector is growing, and whether this productivity growth can be influenced by government policy. Using an econometric time series analysis of the hospital sector in the Netherlands, productivity is estimated for the period 1972-2010. Then, productivity is linked to the different regulation regimes during that period, ranging from output funding in the 1970s to the current liberalized hospital market. The results indicate that the average productivity of the hospital sector in different periods differs and that these differences are related to the structure of regulation in those periods.

  5. Green technological change. Renewable energies, policy mix and innovation. Results of the GRETCHEN project on the impact of policy mixes on the technological and structural change in renewable energy electricity production technologies in Germany; Gruener Wandel. Erneuerbare Energien, Policy Mix und Innovation. Ergebnisse des GRETCHEN-Projektes zum Einfluss des Policy Mixes auf technologischen und strukturellen Wandel bei erneuerbaren Stromerzeugungstechnologien in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogge, Karoline S.; Breitschopf, Barbara; Mattes, Katharina [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Cantner, Uwe; Graf, Holger; Herrmann, Johannes; Kalthaus, Martin [Jena Univ. (Germany); Lutz, Christian; Wiebe, Kirsten [Gesellschaft fuer Wirtschaftliche Strukturforschung mbH (GWS), Osnabrueck (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    The report on the GRETCHEN project that was concerned with the impact of policy mixes on the technological and structural change in renewable energy electricity production technologies in Germany covers the following issues: market and technology development of renewable energy electricity production technologies; the policy mix for renewable electricity production technologies, innovative impact of the policy mix; subordinate conclusions for politics and research.

  6. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, M.

    1992-09-01

    This annual report describes the progress during the second year of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description and scale-up procedures; (ii) outcrop investigation; (iii) in-fill drilling potential. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be characterized, can be described in three dimensions, and can be scaled up with respect to its properties, appropriate for simulation purposes. The second section describes the progress on investigation of an outcrop. The outcrop is an analog of Bartlesville Sandstone. We have drilled ten wells behind the outcrop and collected extensive log and core data. The cores have been slabbed, photographed and the several plugs have been taken. In addition, minipermeameter is used to measure permeabilities on the core surface at six inch intervals. The plugs have been analyzed for the permeability and porosity values. The variations in property values will be tied to the geological descriptions as well as the subsurface data collected from the Glen Pool field. The third section discusses the application of geostatistical techniques to infer in-fill well locations. The geostatistical technique used is the simulated annealing technique because of its flexibility. One of the important reservoir data is the production data. Use of production data will allow us to define the reservoir continuities, which may in turn, determine the in-fill well locations. The proposed technique allows us to incorporate some of the production data as constraints in the reservoir descriptions. The technique has been validated by comparing the results with numerical simulations.

  7. Global impacts of U.S. bioenergy production and policy: A general equilibrium perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Samuel Garner

    The conversion of biomass to energy represents a promising pathway forward in efforts to reduce fossil fuel use in the transportation and electricity sectors. In addition to potential benefits, such as greenhouse gas reductions and increased energy security, bioenergy production also presents a unique set of challenges. These challenges include tradeoffs between food and fuel production, distortions in energy markets, and terrestrial emissions associated with changing land-use patterns. Each of these challenges arises from market-mediated responses to bioenergy production, and are therefore largely economic in nature. This dissertation directly addresses these opportunities and challenges by evaluating the economic impacts of U.S. bioenergy production and policy, focusing on both existing and future biomass-to-energy pathways. The analysis approaches the issue from a global, economy-wide perspective, reflecting two important facts. First, that large-scale bioenergy production connects multiple sectors of the economy due to the use of agricultural land resources for biomass production, and competition with fossil fuels in energy markets. Second, markets for both agricultural and energy commodities are highly integrated globally, causing domestic policies to have international effects. The reader can think of this work as being comprised of three parts. Part I provides context through an extensive review of the literature on the market-mediated effects of conventional biofuel production (Chapter 2) and develops a general equilibrium modeling framework for assessing the extent to which these phenomenon present a challenge for future bioenergy pathways (Chapter 3). Part II (Chapter 4) explores the economic impacts of the lignocellulosic biofuel production targets set in the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard on global agricultural and energy commodity markets. Part III (Chapter 5) extends the analysis to consider potential inefficiencies associated with policy

  8. Environmental cost-effectiveness of bio diesel production in Greece. Current policies and alternative scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliopoulos, Constantine; Rozakis, Stelios

    2010-01-01

    Following European Directive 2003/30/EC, the Greek Government adapted legislation that introduces and regulates the bio diesel market. The implemented quota scheme allocates the country's annual, predetermined, tax exempt production of bio diesel to industries based on their ability to meet several criteria. A number of bio diesel supply chain stakeholders have criticized this policy for being efficiency-robbing and vague. This paper uses 2007 data from energy crop farms and three bio diesel-producing companies in order to assess these criticisms. We study the economic and environmental aspects of the currently adopted policy and compare them to three alternative scenarios. We conclude that such criticisms have a merit and that policy makers need to reconsider their alternative options regarding the promotion of bio diesel in transport. Permission of sales directly to local consumers and promotion of forward integration by farmers are efficiency enhancing and environment-friendly means of promoting the use of bio diesel in transport. (author)

  9. Global Outlook on Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) Policies: Taking Action Together. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaton, Chris; Perera, Oshani [International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), Winnepeg, Ontario (Canada); Arden-Clarke, Charles; Farah, Adriana Zacarias; Polsterer, Nicole [UNEP, Paris (France)

    2012-03-21

    This executive summary, which will be complemented by the full report, was developed by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) with the financial support of the European Commission, The study provides a non-exhaustive review of policies and initiatives that are promoting the shift towards Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) patterns. It is illustrated by 56 case studies ranging from global multilateral agreements and regional strategies to specific policies and initiatives being implemented by governments, businesses and civil society organizations. The main objectives are to provide information about existing activities promoting SCP, to identify best practices, and to provide recommendations to adapt, replicate and scale up SCP policies and initiatives contributing to the overarching goal of achieving sustainable development.

  10. IMPACT OF FISCAL POLICIES ON INPUTS AND PRODUCTION COSTS IN GREENHOUSE IN ALBANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvin ZHLLIMA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analysis agriculture input related taxes and tariffs policies and their impact on input prices, production costs and profitability, focusing on the greenhouse sector in Albania. The study combines desk research and expert interviews to collect data and to analyse the main policy reforms and the tariff regime. A financial cost benefit analysis is implemented in order to observe the effect of the change of taxes in both sides: at farm gate profitability of Albanian farmers as well as in terms of revenues forgone in the state budget based on revenues collected.According to our research findings, tax exemption on inputs such as agrochemicals and fuel would significantly affect positively the profitability at the farm level and the overall agriculture sector competitiveness. Several political implications of the various scenarios of tax reduction are discussed and provided to policy-makers.

  11. Synchronization of production and sales target through pull inventory management policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silitonga, Roland; Pakpahan, Eka KA; Anggraeni, Marrietta

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this research is to resolve high inventory problem at RBI Cileungsi warehouse due to the imbalance flow between production outputs compared to sales realization. As an attempt to synchronize these flows we will analyse sales realization data as a representation of customer demand and determine the optimal inventory policy to meet them. Analysis will be conducted to three SKUs which had high investment value. P inventory models will be implemented and then evaluated against current condition to determine their financial benefit. Evaluation suggested that the proposed policy would give total savings of Rp. 780,667,909.97 for the first SKU, Rp. 35,361,072.53 for the second SKU and Rp. 136,729,725.19 for the third SKU. These results lead to the conclusions that the proposed policy should be further considered to be applied to other SKUs.

  12. Declining agricultural production in rapidly urbanizing semi-arid regions: policy tradeoffs and sustainability indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, André Q.; Arabi, Mazdak; Wostoupal, Benjamin C.; Goemans, Christopher G.; Zhang, Yao; Paustian, Keith

    2017-08-01

    In rapidly urbanizing semi-arid regions, increasing amounts of historically irrigated cropland lies permanently fallowed due to water court policies as agricultural water rights are voluntarily being sold to growing cities. This study develops an integrative framework for assessing the effects of population growth and land use change on agricultural production and evaluating viability of alternative management strategies, including alternative agricultural transfer methods, regional water ownership restrictions, and urban conservation. A partial equilibrium model of a spatially-diverse regional water rights market is built in application of the framework to an exemplary basin. The model represents agricultural producers as profit-maximizing suppliers and municipalities as cost-minimizing consumers of water rights. Results indicate that selling an agricultural water right today is worth up to two times more than 40 years of continued production. All alternative policies that sustain agricultural cropland and crop production decrease total agricultural profitability by diminishing water rights sales revenue, but in doing so, they also decrease municipal water acquisition costs. Defining good indicators and incorporating adequate spatial and temporal detail are critical to properly analyzing policy impacts. To best improve agricultural profit from production and sale of crops, short-term solutions include alternative agricultural transfer methods while long-term solutions incorporate urban conservation.

  13. Comparing the effects of resource enrichment and grazing on viral production in a meso-eutrophic reservoir

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weinbauer, M. G.; Christaki, U.; Nedoma, Jiří; Šimek, Karel

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 2 (2003), s. 137-144 ISSN 0948-3055 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/02/0003; GA MŠk KONTAKT 22-2000/9513514 Grant - others:CNRS(FR) ATIPE; CNRS(FR) PICS 1111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM 123100004CZ; CEZ:MSM 123100004 Keywords : viral lysis * bacterial production * system productivity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.116, year: 2003

  14. Could Mexico become the new ‘China’? Policy drivers of competitiveness and productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M. Dougherty

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, Mexico’s unit labour costs decreased relative to other emerging markets’, especially compared to China’s. This decrease boosted Mexico’s trade competitiveness, particularly in the manufacturing sector. However, Mexico’s increasing competitiveness masks one of the country’s fundamental concerns, which is the absence of productivity improvements. The aim of this paper is two-fold: first, we examine the evolution of total factor productivity in Mexico’s manufacturing sector, as compared to China’s. Firm-level data is employed to analyse the distribution and characteristics of productivity across Mexico’s regions. Second, using regional data for the period 2005–2012, we study the policy impediments behind sluggish productivity improvements, particularly to determine how labour informality may have contributed. The study takes advantage of Mexico’s heterogeneity across regions in terms of productivity, market regulation, financial constraints and firm size to identify economic policies that can help to boost productivity in the future.

  15. Barriers to knowledge production, knowledge translation, and urban health policy change: ideological, economic, and political considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo; Murphy, Kelly; Ng, Edwin

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we consider social forces that affect the processes of both knowledge production and knowledge translation in relation to urban health research. First, we briefly review our conceptual model, derived from a social-conflict framework, to outline how unequal power relations and health inequalities are causally linked. Second, we critically discuss ideological, political, and economic barriers that exist within academia that affect knowledge production related to urban health and health inequalities. Third, we broaden the scope of our analysis to examine how the ideological, political, and economic environment beyond the academy creates barriers to health equity policy making. We conclude with some key questions about the role that knowledge translation can possibly play in light of these constraints on research and policy for urban health.

  16. Building public capabilities for productive development policies: Costa Rican case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Cornick, Jorge; Trejos, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the development of public sector capabilities for Productive Development Policies in Costa Rica through four case studies of successful experiences, with less successful cases presented as counterfactuals. To some extent the paper tests the Technical, Organizational and Political Capabilities (TOP) conceptual framework of Cornick (2013), suggesting adjustments and extensions of that framework. Strong commonalities are found among the cases, notably high technical and polit...

  17. U.S. forest products trade policies: what are the options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Darr

    1975-01-01

    Trade and other policies are being considered by the U.S. Forest Service according to the terms of the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-378,93d Congress, S.2296). This paper describes the issues involved in the question, "Should we or should we not attempt to reduce net imports of forest products?" In terms of...

  18. Green technological change. Renewable energies, policy mix and innovation. Results of the GRETCHEN project on the impact of policy mixes on the technological and structural change in renewable energy electricity production technologies in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogge, Karoline S.; Breitschopf, Barbara; Mattes, Katharina; Cantner, Uwe; Graf, Holger; Herrmann, Johannes; Kalthaus, Martin; Lutz, Christian; Wiebe, Kirsten

    2015-09-01

    The report on the GRETCHEN project that was concerned with the impact of policy mixes on the technological and structural change in renewable energy electricity production technologies in Germany covers the following issues: market and technology development of renewable energy electricity production technologies; the policy mix for renewable electricity production technologies, innovative impact of the policy mix; subordinate conclusions for politics and research.

  19. Economics of Developing Hot Stratigraphic Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Mines; Hillary Hanson; Rick Allis; Joseph Moore

    2014-09-01

    Stratigraphic geothermal reservoirs at 3 – 4 km depth in high heat-flow basins are capable of sustaining 100 MW-scale power plants at about 10 c/kWh. This paper examines the impacts on the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of reservoir depth and temperature, reservoir productivity, and drillhole/casing options. For a reservoir at 3 km depth with a moderate productivity index by hydrothermal reservoir standards (about 50 L/s/MPa, 5.6 gpm/psi), an LCOE of 10c/kWh requires the reservoir to be at about 200°C. This is the upper temperature limit for pumps. The calculations assume standard hydrothermal drilling costs, with the production interval completed with a 7 inch liner in an 8.5 inch hole. If a reservoir at 4 km depth has excellent permeability characteristics with a productivity index of 100 L/s/MPa (11.3 gpm/psi), then the LCOE is about 11 c/kWh assuming the temperature decline rate with development is not excessive (< 1%/y, with first thermal breakthrough delayed by about 10 years). Completing wells with modest horizontal legs (e.g. several hundred meters) may be important for improving well productivity because of the naturally high, sub-horizontal permeability in this type of reservoir. Reducing the injector/producer well ratio may also be cost-effective if the injectors are drilled as larger holes.

  20. Industrial policy, production efficiency improvement and the Chinese county economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhenhua

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at analyzing the difference in the level of economic development between China’s counties from the two perspectives of industrial policy and production efficiency. Based on panel data of 1830 Chinese counties, this study employs the new classical economic growth theory framework to analyze the counties’ economic growth by the perpetual inventory method, Malmquist index, among others. The results show that the economy of the counties exhibits δ convergence since 2004, and the absolute differences in the different counties are expanding. Industrial policy ensures the additional deepening of the level of capital in the county. Additionally, a substantial difference was observed between the agricultural sector and the non-agricultural sector, whereby the total factor productivity and the technical efficiency are on the rise, resulting in the phenomenon of dual paths of technological progress. In summary, the capital deepening difference between the sectors, production efficiency, and dual paths of technological progress owing to the counties’ industrial policy are the basic reasons for the regional differences in the level of economic development in China.

  1. Bioenergy production and sustainable development: science base for policy-making remains limited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robledo-Abad, Carmenza; Althaus, H.J.; Berndes, G.

    2017-01-01

    The possibility of using bioenergy as a climate change mitigation measure has sparked a discussion of whether and how bioenergy production contributes to sustainable development. We undertook a systematic review of the scientific literature to illuminate this relationship and found a limited...... substitution of GHG emission from fossil fuel). More focused and transparent research is needed to validate these patterns and develop a strong science underpinning for establishing policies and governance agreements that prevent/mitigate negative and promote positive impacts from bioenergy production....

  2. Impact of Reservoir Operation to the Inflow Flood - a Case Study of Xinfengjiang Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.

    2017-12-01

    Building of reservoir shall impact the runoff production and routing characteristics, and changes the flood formation. This impact, called as reservoir flood effect, could be divided into three parts, including routing effect, volume effect and peak flow effect, and must be evaluated in a whole by using hydrological model. After analyzing the reservoir flood formation, the Liuxihe Model for reservoir flood forecasting is proposed. The Xinfengjiang Reservoir is studied as a case. Results show that the routing effect makes peak flow appear 4 to 6 hours in advance, volume effect is bigger for large flood than small one, and when rainfall focus on the reservoir area, this effect also increases peak flow largely, peak flow effect makes peak flow increase 6.63% to 8.95%. Reservoir flood effect is obvious, which have significant impact to reservoir flood. If this effect is not considered in the flood forecasting model, the flood could not be forecasted accurately, particularly the peak flow. Liuxihe Model proposed for Xinfengjiang Reservoir flood forecasting has a good performance, and could be used for real-time flood forecasting of Xinfengjiang Reservoir.Key words: Reservoir flood effect, reservoir flood forecasting, physically based distributed hydrological model, Liuxihe Model, parameter optimization

  3. Environmental liabilities in Billings reservoir and its impacts on hydropower generation Plant Henry Borden; Os passivos ambientais no reservatorio Billings e os seus impactos na geracao hidroenergetica da Usina Henry Borden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Daniel Ladeira [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The primary assertion is that this article argues that the recovery in production of hydropower in Henry Borden (UHB) is the reduction of environmental liabilities in the Billings reservoir. In this context, the aim of this paper is to provide a first consideration of the possibility of recovery of production Henry Borden hydropower plant of recovering the multiple uses of the reservoir. From this perspective, we interviewed representatives of CETESB (Sanitation Environmental Technology Company) and EMAE (Metropolitan Water and Energy Company SA) for consideration of actions that include environmental policies aimed at increasing the production of electricity in Henry Borden in order to obtain results that may contribute to the multiple uses of the Billings reservoir. Noting that the range of laws aimed at protecting the water sources was limited to disjointed public policy that has reduced the resilience of the Billings reservoir. (author)

  4. The Governance of Indigenous Natural Products in Namibia: A Policy Network Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndeinoma, Albertina; Wiersum, K Freerk; Arts, Bas

    2018-01-09

    At the end of the 20th century, optimism existed that non-timber forest products (NTFPs) can form an integral part in conservation and development strategies. However, there is limited knowledge on how the different stakeholders could relate to the state or to each other in promoting commercialization of NTFPs. Applying the policy network as an analytical framework, we investigated the structural patterns of actor relations in the governance structure of indigenous natural products (INPs) in Namibia, to understand the implications of such relations on INP policy process. The findings indicate that the INP policy network in Namibia is multi-dimensional, consisting of the Indigenous Plant Task Team (IPTT)-the key governance structure for resource mobilization and information sharing; and functional relations which serve specific roles in the INP value chain. The existing relations have facilitated policy development particularly for heavily regulated species, such as devil's claw; but for other species, only incremental changes are observed in terms of small-scale processing facilities for value addition and exclusive purchase agreements for sustainable sourcing of INPs. Participation of primary producers, private actors and quality standardization bodies is limited in INPs governance structures, which narrow the scope of information sharing. Consequently, despite that the IPTT has fostered publicly funded explorative pilot projects, ranging from production to marketing of INPs, there are no clear guidelines how these projects results can be transferred to private entities for possible commercialization. Further collaboration and information sharing is needed to guide public sector relations with the private entities and cooperatives.

  5. Understanding the True Stimulated Reservoir Volume in Shale Reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Maaruf

    2017-06-06

    Successful exploitation of shale reservoirs largely depends on the effectiveness of hydraulic fracturing stimulation program. Favorable results have been attributed to intersection and reactivation of pre-existing fractures by hydraulically-induced fractures that connect the wellbore to a larger fracture surface area within the reservoir rock volume. Thus, accurate estimation of the stimulated reservoir volume (SRV) becomes critical for the reservoir performance simulation and production analysis. Micro-seismic events (MS) have been commonly used as a proxy to map out the SRV geometry, which could be erroneous because not all MS events are related to hydraulic fracture propagation. The case studies discussed here utilized a fully 3-D simulation approach to estimate the SRV. The simulation approach presented in this paper takes into account the real-time changes in the reservoir\\'s geomechanics as a function of fluid pressures. It is consisted of four separate coupled modules: geomechanics, hydrodynamics, a geomechanical joint model for interfacial resolution, and an adaptive re-meshing. Reservoir stress condition, rock mechanical properties, and injected fluid pressure dictate how fracture elements could open or slide. Critical stress intensity factor was used as a fracture criterion governing the generation of new fractures or propagation of existing fractures and their directions. Our simulations were run on a Cray XC-40 HPC system. The studies outcomes proved the approach of using MS data as a proxy for SRV to be significantly flawed. Many of the observed stimulated natural fractures are stress related and very few that are closer to the injection field are connected. The situation is worsened in a highly laminated shale reservoir as the hydraulic fracture propagation is significantly hampered. High contrast in the in-situ stresses related strike-slip developed thereby shortens the extent of SRV. However, far field nature fractures that were not connected to

  6. Incorporating EM Inversion into Reservoir Monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirianto, M.; Mulder, W.A.; Slob, E.C.

    2012-01-01

    In the application of controlled source electromagnetics for reservoir monitoring on land, the timelapse signal measured with a surface-to-surface acquisition can reveal the lateral extent on the surface of resistivity changes at depth in a hydrocarbon reservoir under production. However, a direct

  7. Optimizing two-dimensional renewable warranty policies for sensor embedded remanufactured products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alqahtani, Ammar; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2017-01-01

    Remanufactured products, in addition to being environment friendly, are popular with consumers because they can offer the latest technology with lower prices in comparison to brand new products. However, some consumers are hesitant to buy remanufactured products because they are skeptical about the quality of the remanufactured product and thus are unsure of the extent to which the product will render services when compared to a new product. A strategy that remanufacturers may employ to entice customers is to offer warranties on remanufactured products. To that end, this paper studies and scrutinizes the impact of offering renewing warranties on remanufactured products. Specifically, the paper suggests a methodology which simultaneously minimizes the cost incurred by the remanufacturers and maximizes the confidence of the consumers towards buying remanufacturing products. Design/methodology/approach: This study uses discrete-event simulation to optimize the implementation of a two-dimensional renewing warranty policy for remanufactured products. The implementation is illustrated using a specific product recovery system called the Advanced Remanufacturing-To-Order (ARTO) system. The experiments used in the study were designed using Taguchi’s Orthogonal Arrays to represent the entire domain of the recovery system so as to observe the system behavior under various experimental conditions. In order to determine the optimum strategy offered by the remanufacturer, various warranty and preventive maintenance scenarios were analyzed using pairwise t-tests along with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey pairwise comparisons tests for every scenario. Findings: The proposed methodology is able to simultaneously minimize the cost incurred by the remanufacturer, optimize the warranty price and period, and optimize the preventive maintenance strategy resulting in increased consumer confidence. Originality/value: This is the first study that evaluates in a

  8. Optimizing two-dimensional renewable warranty policies for sensor embedded remanufactured products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Alqahtani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Remanufactured products, in addition to being environment friendly, are popular with consumers because they can offer the latest technology with lower prices in comparison to brand new products. However, some consumers are hesitant to buy remanufactured products because they are skeptical about the quality of the remanufactured product and thus are unsure of the extent to which the product will render services when compared to a new product. A strategy that remanufacturers may employ to entice customers is to offer warranties on remanufactured products. To that end, this paper studies and scrutinizes the impact of offering renewing warranties on remanufactured products. Specifically, the paper suggests a methodology which simultaneously minimizes the cost incurred by the remanufacturers and maximizes the confidence of the consumers towards buying remanufacturing products. Design/methodology/approach: This study uses discrete-event simulation to optimize the implementation of a two-dimensional renewing warranty policy for remanufactured products. The implementation is illustrated using a specific product recovery system called the Advanced Remanufacturing-To-Order (ARTO system. The experiments used in the study were designed using Taguchi’s Orthogonal Arrays to represent the entire domain of the recovery system so as to observe the system behavior under various experimental conditions. In order to determine the optimum strategy offered by the remanufacturer, various warranty and preventive maintenance scenarios were analyzed using pairwise t-tests along with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey pairwise comparisons tests for every scenario. Findings: The proposed methodology is able to simultaneously minimize the cost incurred by the remanufacturer, optimize the warranty price and period, and optimize the preventive maintenance strategy resulting in increased consumer confidence. Originality/value: This is the first study that

  9. Rural Development Policy in Brazil: the dilemma between productive inclusion and social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Antonio Cazella

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7984.2016v15nesp1p49 In the past two decades an evident dichotomy has been established between policies of a productive nature and those aimed at social assistance for family farms in Brazil. The purpose of this article is to analyze this duality in the main public policies for family farming, and presents a quantitative overview of the results. From a methodological perspective the analysis was based on the number of farmers who benefit from the agrarian reform policies, rural credit, institutional food markets, rural social security and income transfer. The main results of this study indicate that the economic support for the productive activities of Brazilian family farming have been concentrated among the intermediary and well-established farms that are inserted in markets. In parallel, most family farmers are relegated to social assistance programs and not integrated to the working agendas of the main professional organizations in agriculture.

  10. Connecting Climate Science to Policy: from Global Food Production to the US Supreme Court

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, D. S.

    2016-12-01

    There are myriad ways climate science has been used to inform on global food security, and to affect law and policy. In this talk, I will summarize examples that include the application of the El Nino - Southern Oscillation science to improve food security in Indonesia and provide water forecasts for agriculture in northwest Mexico, as well as the application of climate change science to project changes in global grain production. In the latter case, reliable information on the impact of increasing greenhouse gases on growing season temperature is applied to assess the impact of climate change on average crop yields, on the volatility in crop yields, and on the loss of yield due to increasing pest pressure - all of which have acute implications for agricultural policy. In the US, climate change science was of paramount importance for the Supreme Court decision in the case "Massachusetts vs. EPA," which to this day greatly shapes US policy related to climate change - most notably in setting emission standards for vehicles. My colleagues and I have learned several lessons from our experiences in these applications of climate science that I will share, including some thoughts on the nature of interdisciplinary teams for producing reliable and effective products, and the on the professional pros and cons of pursuing applied work.

  11. The evaluation of land consolidation policy in improving agricultural productivity in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaobin; Shao, Yang; Zhang, Zhihong; Resler, Lynn M; Campbell, James B; Chen, Guo; Zhou, Yinkang

    2017-06-05

    China is presently undergoing rapid economic development and unprecedented urbanization. Concerns over food security have prompted the Chinese government to implement large-scale land consolidation projects. However, no formal evaluation has been conducted on such projects. Thus, effectiveness of land consolidation policy remains uncertain. We obtained detailed geo-spatial information for 5328 land consolidation projects implemented between 2006 and 2010, and used time-series MODIS NDVI (2006-2016) data to assess effectiveness of China's land consolidation policy in improving agricultural productivity. Our results show that the overall effectiveness of land consolidation in improving agricultural productivity is low, which lies in contrast to optimistic estimates based on regional statistical analysis and theoretical approaches. For projects (n = 560) implemented in 2006, about 29.5% showed significant (p consolidation. For 2007-2010, lower percentages (e.g., 25.9% in 2007 and 13.5% in 2010) of projects showed significant increasing trends. Furthermore, we found effectiveness of land consolidation projects displayed clear regional differences and driving factors are inconsistent with policy design. We anticipate our research to be a starting point for a more comprehensive evaluation involving longer time-series and higher spatial resolution data.

  12. Money-back guarantee warranty policy with preventive maintenance strategy for sensor-embedded remanufactured products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Ammar Y.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2018-01-01

    In today's global environment, technology is constantly evolving. Being able to stay up-to-date with the very latest technological advances can be extremely hard to accomplish. As a result of these changes and developments in technology, which often come unexpectedly, consumers are frequently tempted to update their devices to the very latest model. The result is that the life cycle of a product is becoming shorter and shorter than before. Manufacturers attempt to respond to consumers' concerns involving environmental issues as well as the more governmentally stringent environmental legislations by establishing facilities which include the minimization of the totality of waste relocated to landfills by recovering materials and components from returned, or End-Of-Life products and reuse them to build a remanufactured product, and/or novel components. With the rapid growth of interest in remanufactured products' market, offering warranty for remanufactured products and components is becoming a necessity for remanufacturer in order to meet customers' requirement and as a marketing mechanism. During that process, maintenance policies are of great importance in order to reduce the warranty cost on the remanufacturer. In this paper, an optimization simulation model for remanufactured items sold with one-dimensional non-renewing money-back guarantee (MBG) warranty policy is proposed from the view of remanufacturer, in which, an End-Of-Life product is subjected to upgrade action at the end of its past life and during the warranty period, preventive maintenance actions are carried out when the remaining life of the product reaches a pre-specified value so that the remanufacturer's expected profit can be maximized. Finally, a numerical example and design of experiment analysis are provided to demonstrate the proposed approach.

  13. Maps showing petroleum exploration intensity and production in major Cambrian to Ordovician reservoir rocks in the Anadarko Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Mitch; Hester, Tim

    1996-01-01

    The Anadarko basin is a large, deep, two-stage Paleozoic basin (Feinstein, 1981) that is petroleum rich and generally well explored. The Anadarko basin province, a geogrphic area used here mostly for the convenience of mapping and data management, is defined by political boundaries that include the Anadarko basin proper. The boundaries of the province are identical to those used by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the 1995 National Assessment of United Stated Oil and Gas Resources. The data in this report, also identical to those used in the national assessment, are from several computerized data bases including Nehring Research Group (NRG) Associates Inc., Significant Oil and Gas Fields of the United States (1992); Petroleum Information (PI), Inc., Well History Control System (1991); and Petroleum Information (PI), Inc., Petro-ROM: Production data on CD-ROM (1993). Although generated mostly in response to the national assessment, the data presented here arc grouped differently and arc displayed and described in greater detail. In addition, the stratigraphic sequences discussed may not necessarily correlate with the "plays" of the 1995 national assessment. This report uses computer-generated maps to show drilling intensity, producing wells, major fields, and other geologic information relevant to petroleum exploration and production in the lower Paleozoic part of the Anadarko basin province as defined for the U.S. Geological Survey's 1995 national petroleum assessment. Hydrocarbon accumulations must meet a minimum standard of 1 million barrels of oil (MMBO) or 6 billion cubic feet of gas (BCFG) estimated ultimate recovery to be included in this report as a major field or revoir. Mapped strata in this report include the Upper Cambrian to Lower Ordovician Arbuckle and Low Ordovician Ellenburger Groups, the Middle Ordovician Simpson Group, and the Middle to Upper Ordovician Viola Group.

  14. Upper Hiwassee River Basin reservoirs 1989 water quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehring, J.P.

    1991-08-01

    The water in the Upper Hiwassee River Basin is slightly acidic and low in conductivity. The four major reservoirs in the Upper Hiwassee River Basin (Apalachia, Hiwassee, Chatuge, and Nottely) are not threatened by acidity, although Nottely Reservoir has more sulfates than the other reservoirs. Nottely also has the highest organic and nutrient concentrations of the four reservoirs. This results in Nottely having the poorest water clarity and the most algal productivity, although clarity as measured by color and secchi depths does not indicate any problem with most water use. However, chlorophyll concentrations indicate taste and odor problems would be likely if the upstream end of Nottely Reservoir were used for domestic water supply. Hiwassee Reservoir is clearer and has less organic and nutrient loading than either of the two upstream reservoirs. All four reservoirs have sufficient algal activity to produce supersaturated dissolved oxygen conditions and relatively high pH values at the surface. All four reservoirs are thermally stratified during the summer, and all but Apalachia have bottom waters depleted in oxygen. The very short residence time of Apalachia Reservoir, less than ten days as compared to over 100 days for the other three reservoirs, results in it being more riverine than the other three reservoirs. Hiwassee Reservoir actually develops three distinct water temperature strata due to the location of the turbine intake. The water quality of all of the reservoirs supports designated uses, but water quality complaints are being received regarding both Chatuge and Nottely Reservoirs and their tailwaters

  15. Loss-Averse Retailer’s Optimal Ordering Policies for Perishable Products with Customer Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the loss-averse retailer’s ordering policies for perishable product with customer returns. With the introduction of the segmental loss utility function, we depict the retailer’s loss aversion decision bias and establish the loss-averse retailer’s ordering policy model. We derive that the loss-averse retailer’s optimal order quantity with customer returns exists and is unique. By comparison, we obtain that both the risk-neutral and the loss-averse retailer’s optimal order quantities depend on the inventory holding cost and the marginal shortage cost. Through the sensitivity analysis, we also discuss the effect of loss-averse coefficient and the ratio of return on the loss-averse retailer’s optimal order quantity with customer returns.

  16. Changes in steam production due to the reservoir conditions in Cerro Prieto, Baja California; Cambios en la produccion de vapor debido a las condiciones del yacimiento en Cerro Prieto, Baja California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Cardenas, Ramon; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Marco H. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, B.C. (Mexico)]. E-mail: marco.rodriguez01@gfe.gob.mx

    2011-07-15

    In more than 35 years of exploitation, thermodynamic conditions have changed in the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir. The effects are analyzed of the changes to the reservoir and their consequences to steam production in different field zones. For steam production, the most important features of reservoir fluids are enthalpies and pressures. The evolution of these features is presented in an enthalpy-pressure diagram. Here it can be seen that some reservoir zones have almost reached abandonment conditions. [Spanish] En mas de 35 anos de explotacion el yacimiento geotermico de Cerro Prieto ha experimentado cambios en sus condiciones termodinamicas. En este trabajo se analiza el efecto de esos cambios del yacimiento y su repercusion en la produccion de vapor para las diferentes zonas en las que se ha dividido el campo. Las propiedades mas importantes del fluido en el yacimiento para la produccion de vapor son su entalpia y su presion, por lo que se presenta la evolucion de esas propiedades en un diagrama de presion-entalpia, en el que se observa que hay zonas del yacimiento que estan proximas a alcanzar condiciones de abandono.

  17. Saints, Cops and Camorristi. Editorial Policies and Production Models of Italian TV Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Barra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary Italian TV fiction production is the result of both a long historical tradition and a complex broadcasting scenario. In recent years, three different models clearly emerged, following the divergent goals and needs of public service broadcaster Rai, commercial television Mediaset and pay-TV operator Sky Italia: respectively, with a pedagogical approach resulting in hagiographic miniseries, socially committed fiction and relevant comedies; with procedural and legal dramas following the US commercial models and romance-filled prime time soaps; and with a cable-oriented tension towards anti-heroes, high-budget productions and “quality television”. The paper reconstructs the main traits of each model, focusing on their main titles and most emblematic genres, as well as on the national production companies that helped the broadcasters in defining and establishing peculiar “fiction styles” and editorial policies.

  18. Application of fluorinated nanofluid for production enhancement of a carbonate gas-condensate reservoir through wettability alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhaei, Zahra; Azin, Reza; Naghizadeh, Arefeh; Osfouri, Shahriar; Saboori, Rahmatollah; Vahdani, Hosein

    2018-03-01

    Condensate blockage phenomenon in near-wellbore region decreases gas production rate remarkably. Wettability alteration using fluorinated chemicals is an efficacious way to vanquish this problem. In this study, new synthesized fluorinated silica nanoparticles with an optimized condition and mean diameter of 50 nm is employed to modify carbonate rock surface wettability. Rock characterization tests consisting Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Energy Dispersive x-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) were utilized to assess the nanofluid adsorption on rock surface after treatment. Contact angle, spontaneous imbibition and core flooding experiments were performed to investigate the effect of synthesized nanofluid adsorption on wettability of rock surface and liquid mobility. Results of contact angle experiments revealed that wettability of rock could alter from strongly oil-wetting to the intermediate gas-wetting even at elevated temperature. Imbibition rates of oil and brine were diminished noticeably after treatment. 60% and 30% enhancement in pressure drop of condensate and brine floods after wettability alteration with modified nanofluid were observed which confirm successful field applicability of this chemical.

  19. Improving reservoir history matching of EM heated heavy oil reservoirs via cross-well seismic tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced recovery methods have become significant in the industry\\'s drive to increase recovery rates from oil and gas reservoirs. For heavy oil reservoirs, the immobility of the oil at reservoir temperatures, caused by its high viscosity, limits the recovery rates and strains the economic viability of these fields. While thermal recovery methods, such as steam injection or THAI, have extensively been applied in the field, their success has so far been limited due to prohibitive heat losses and the difficulty in controlling the combustion process. Electromagnetic (EM) heating via high-frequency EM radiation has attracted attention due to its wide applicability in different environments, its efficiency, and the improved controllability of the heating process. While becoming a promising technology for heavy oil recovery, its effect on overall reservoir production and fluid displacements are poorly understood. Reservoir history matching has become a vital tool for the oil & gas industry to increase recovery rates. Limited research has been undertaken so far to capture the nonlinear reservoir dynamics and significantly varying flow rates for thermally heated heavy oil reservoir that may notably change production rates and render conventional history matching frameworks more challenging. We present a new history matching framework for EM heated heavy oil reservoirs incorporating cross-well seismic imaging. Interfacing an EM heating solver to a reservoir simulator via Andrade’s equation, we couple the system to an ensemble Kalman filter based history matching framework incorporating a cross-well seismic survey module. With increasing power levels and heating applied to the heavy oil reservoirs, reservoir dynamics change considerably and may lead to widely differing production forecasts and increased uncertainty. We have shown that the incorporation of seismic observations into the EnKF framework can significantly enhance reservoir simulations, decrease forecasting

  20. Reservoir fisheries of Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S.S. De.

    1990-01-01

    At a workshop on reservoir fisheries research, papers were presented on the limnology of reservoirs, the changes that follow impoundment, fisheries management and modelling, and fish culture techniques. Separate abstracts have been prepared for three papers from this workshop

  1. Pricing and inventory policies for Hi-tech products under replacement warranty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Yu-Chung; Teng, Wei-Guang; Chen, Ruey-Shii; Chou, Wang-Ying

    2014-06-01

    Companies, especially in the Hi-tech (high-technology) industry (such as computer, communication and consumer electronic products), often provide a replacement warranty period for purchased items. In reality, simultaneously determining the price and inventory decisions under warranty policy is an important issue. The objective of this paper is to develop a joint pricing and inventory model for Hi-tech products under replacement warranty policy. In the first model, we consider a Hi-tech product feature in which the selling price is declining in a trend. We determine the optimal inventory level for each period and retail price for the first period while maximising the total profit. In the second model, we further determine the optimal retail price and inventory level for each period in the dynamic demand market. This study develops solution approaches to solve the problems described above. Numerical analysis discusses the influence of system parameters on the company's decisions and behaviours. The results of this study could serve as a reference for business managers or administrators.

  2. The Tools of Financial Policy in the Dairy Products Subdivision of the Agroindustrial Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bielosviet Oleksandr. V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at definition and classification of tools of the State financial policy in the dairy products subdivision of the agroindustrial complex (DPS of AIC. The article considers the financial policy tools used in terms of targeted programs of the State support for the DPS of AIC: the State target program for development of Ukrainian villages, sectoral program for dairy breeding and the project of the conception of the State target program for development of dairy breeding in Ukraine for the period up to 2020. The existing tools are divided into direct and indirect action tools. As of 2016, the tasks that were relevant to the corresponding targeted programs have not been implemented on any item, except for the milk productivity of cows. Still the productivity indicator of 4500 kg/year of milk from a cow is low enough and does not correspond to the general world-wide tendencies. This suggests the need for further assessment of the existing list of tools with a view to adjusting them and defining priorities for the State support of the DPS of AIC.

  3. Large reservoirs: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2010-01-01

    Large impoundments, defined as those with surface area of 200 ha or greater, are relatively new aquatic ecosystems in the global landscape. They represent important economic and environmental resources that provide benefits such as flood control, hydropower generation, navigation, water supply, commercial and recreational fisheries, and various other recreational and esthetic values. Construction of large impoundments was initially driven by economic needs, and ecological consequences received little consideration. However, in recent decades environmental issues have come to the forefront. In the closing decades of the 20th century societal values began to shift, especially in the developed world. Society is no longer willing to accept environmental damage as an inevitable consequence of human development, and it is now recognized that continued environmental degradation is unsustainable. Consequently, construction of large reservoirs has virtually stopped in North America. Nevertheless, in other parts of the world construction of large reservoirs continues. The emergence of systematic reservoir management in the early 20th century was guided by concepts developed for natural lakes (Miranda 1996). However, we now recognize that reservoirs are different and that reservoirs are not independent aquatic systems inasmuch as they are connected to upstream rivers and streams, the downstream river, other reservoirs in the basin, and the watershed. Reservoir systems exhibit longitudinal patterns both within and among reservoirs. Reservoirs are typically arranged sequentially as elements of an interacting network, filter water collected throughout their watersheds, and form a mosaic of predictable patterns. Traditional approaches to fisheries management such as stocking, regulating harvest, and in-lake habitat management do not always produce desired effects in reservoirs. As a result, managers may expend resources with little benefit to either fish or fishing. Some locally

  4. Beyond excise taxes: a systematic review of literature on non-tax policy approaches to raising tobacco product prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Shelley D; Smith, Margaret Holt; Feighery, Ellen C; Roeseler, April; Rogers, Todd; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2016-07-01

    Raising the price of tobacco products is considered one of the most effective ways to reduce tobacco use. In addition to excise taxes, governments are exploring other policies to raise tobacco prices and minimise price dispersion, both within and across price tiers. We conducted a systematic review to determine how these policies are described, recommended and evaluated in the literature. We systematically searched six databases and the California Tobacco Control library for English language studies or reports, indexed on or before 18 December 2013, that included a tobacco keyword (eg, cigarette), policy keyword (eg, legislation) and a price keyword (eg, promotion). We identified 3067 abstracts. Two coders independently reviewed all abstracts and identified 56 studies or reports that explicitly described a public policy likely to impact the retail price of tobacco products through non-tax means. Two coders independently identified tobacco products targeted by policies described, recommendations for implementing policies and empirical assessments of policy impacts. The most prevalent non-tax price policies were price promotion restrictions and minimum price laws. Few studies measured the impact of non-tax policies on average prices, price dispersion or disparities in tobacco consumption, but the literature includes suggestions for crafting policies and preparing for legal challenges or tobacco industry opposition. Price-focused evaluations of well-implemented non-tax price policies are needed to determine whether they can deliver on their promise to raise prices, reduce price dispersion and serve as an important complement to excise taxes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Identify re-development concepts to enhance Abu Roash “C” oil reservoir productivity Sitra Area, Abu Gharadig Basin, Western Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Salama

    2017-06-01

    The resultant stratigraphic units consist of: genetically related depositional cycles (3 cycles and their components of facies sequences (5 facies types, each cycle has its own distribution, facies classification and reservoir characteristics.

  6. Policy Recommendation from Stakeholders to Improve Forest Products Transportation: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Koirala

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With recently announced federal funding and subsidies to redevelop vacant mills and the communities they were in, the forest products industry in Maine is poised to gain its momentum once again. One of the important components influencing the cost of delivered forest products is transportation. A recent study in the region has shown that the location and availability of markets along with lack of skilled labor force are the major challenges faced by the forest products transportation sector in Maine. This study was focused on developing a management guideline which included various field level options for improving trucking enterprises in Maine. For this, a qualitative research approach utilizing a case study research tradition was employed, with in-depth semi-structured interviews with professionals directly related to the forest products transportation sector used for data generation. Thirteen semi-structured interviews were conducted, with each being audio recorded and later transcribed verbatim. Interview transcriptions were analyzed using NVivo 11. Suggestions, like increasing benefits to drivers and providing training, were proposed for challenges related to manpower shortage, while the marketing of new forest products and adjustment in some state-level policies were proposed for challenges related to the forest products market condition of the state.

  7. China’s Rare Earths Production Forecasting and Sustainable Development Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xibo Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of their unique physical and chemical properties, Rare earth elements (REEs perform important functions in our everyday lives, with use in a range of products. Recently, the study of China’s rare earth elements production has become a hot topic of worldwide interest, because of its dominant position in global rare earth elements supply, and an increasing demand for rare earth elements due to the constant use of rare earth elements in high-tech manufacturing industries. At the same time, as an exhaustible resource, the sustainable development of rare earth elements has received extensive attention. However, most of the study results are based on a qualitative analysis of rare earth elements distribution and production capacity, with few studies using quantitative modeling. To achieve reliable results with more factors being taken into consideration, this paper applies the generic multivariant system dynamics model to forecast China’s rare earth elements production trend and Hubbert peak, using Vensim software based on the Hubbert model. The results show that the peak of China’s rare earth elements production will appear by 2040, and that production will slowly decline afterwards. Based on the results, the paper proposes some policy recommendations for the sustainable development of China’s—and the world’s—rare earth elements market and rare earth-related industries.

  8. Green Economy Performance and Green Productivity Growth in China’s Cities: Measures and Policy Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianglong Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Resource depletion and environmental degradation have become serious challenges for China’s sustainable development. This paper constructs indicators to assess China’s green economy performance and green productivity growth, in which economic expansion, resource conservation and environmental protection need to be incorporated simultaneously. For this purpose, we combine non-radial directional distance function and meta-frontier Malmquist productivity to develop the indicators. The methodology also allows for the decomposition of driving forces of China’s green economy. Moreover, the dataset employed in this paper allows for the evaluation of 275 cities in China during the period 2003–2012. The main findings are as follows. First, most of China’s cities did not perform efficiently in terms of the green economy, with an average score of only 0.233. Second, the growth rate of green productivity is slower than real GDP, and the green productivity growth in China is only moderate. Third, innovation is the main driving force of China’s green productivity growth, but the central region lags behind when it comes to green innovation. Fourth, artificial local protectionism and transport limitations impede the progress of cities that perform ineffectively in the green economy. Based on our empirical findings, we provide policy implications and suggestions for enhancing China’s green economy performance and productivity growth.

  9. Technology transfer to US oil producers: A policy tool to sustain or increase oil production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowd, W. T.

    1990-03-01

    The Department of Energy provided the Interstate Oil Compact Commission with a grant to identify and evaluate existing technology transfer channels to operators, to devise and test improvements or new technology transfer channels and to make recommendations as to how the Department of Energy's oil and gas technology transfer methods could be improved. The IOCC conducted this effort in a series of four tasks: a structural analysis to characterize the oil producing industry according to operator production size class, geographic location, awareness and use of reservoir management technologies, and strategies for adding reserves and replacing produced reserves; targeted interviews conducted with some 300 oil and gas industry participants to identify current technology transfer channels and their relative usefulness for various classes of industry participants; a design and testing phase, in which the IOCC critiqued the current technology transfer structure, based on results of the structural analysis and targeted interviews, and identified several strategies for improvement; and an evaluation of existing state outreach programs to determine whether they might provide a model for development of additional outreach programs in other producing states.

  10. Stratigraphic and Structural Analysis of Coals in the Ferron Sandstone Member of the Mancos Shale and Fruitland Formation: Relationship to Coal Reservoir Permeability and Coalbed Methane Production

    OpenAIRE

    Kneedy, Jason Lynn

    2005-01-01

    Coal reservoir quality in the Ferron Sandstone Member of the Mancos Shale, and in the Fruitland Formation is dependent on coal cleat characteristics. Coal reservoir permeability increases as a result of high cleat density. From careful outcrop examination, we were able to identify several factors that increase cleat density. Vitrain coal typically has the highest fracture density as a result of having well-developed face cleats and conchoidal fractures. Clarain coal contains face and butt cle...

  11. Analyzing Market Economies from the Perspective of Information Production, Policy, and Self-Organized Equilibrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C-Rene DOMINIQUE

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A modern market economy is an exceedingly complex, infinite-dimensional, stochastic dynamical system. The failure of mainstream economists to characterize its dynamics may well be due to its intractability. This paper argues that the characterization of its dynamics becomes almost trivial when it is analyzed from the perspective of information production. Whether its Jacobian matrix is specifiable or not, a Lyapunov spectrum can be constructed from which the potential Kolmogorov-Sinai or Shannon entropy can be assessed. However, a self-organized equilibrium must first obtain, and for that a suitable policy must be operational.

  12. Policy of productive development and energy efficiency; Politica de desenvolvimento produtivo e eficiencia energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naturesa, Jim Silva [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Civil Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], e-mail: cam@fec.unicamp.br; Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto [Faculdade Politecnica de Jundiai (FPJ), SP (Brazil). Anhanguera Educacional

    2008-07-01

    The new industry policy in Brazil called PDP (Politica de Desenvolvimento Produtivo) and implications on Brazilian energy efficiency program are discussed. The PINTEC - Industrial Research for Technology Innovation (2003/05) indicates a low R and D and I investment of the Brazilian industries. It is expected that and energy efficiency project can be seen as an innovation project because this brings new equipment and a more advanced knowledge to industry, which helps to reduce electrical energy consumption, consumer' bills and production costs. (author)

  13. The Sustainable Development Assessment of Reservoir Resettlement Based on a BP Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Huang, Jian; Wang, Wei

    2018-01-18

    Resettlement affects not only the resettlers' production activities and life but also, directly or indirectly, the normal operation of power stations, the sustainable development of the resettlers, and regional social stability. Therefore, a scientific evaluation index system for the sustainable development of reservoir resettlement must be established that fits Chinese national conditions and not only promotes reservoir resettlement research but also improves resettlement practice. This essay builds an evaluation index system for resettlers' sustainable development based on a back-propagation (BP) neural network, which can be adopted in China, taking the resettlement necessitated by step hydropower stations along the Wujiang River cascade as an example. The assessment results show that the resettlement caused by step power stations along the Wujiang River is sustainable, and this evaluation supports the conclusion that national policies and regulations, which are undergoing constant improvement, and resettlement has increasingly improved. The results provide a reference for hydropower reservoir resettlement in developing countries.

  14. The Sustainable Development Assessment of Reservoir Resettlement Based on a BP Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Huang, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Resettlement affects not only the resettlers’ production activities and life but also, directly or indirectly, the normal operation of power stations, the sustainable development of the resettlers, and regional social stability. Therefore, a scientific evaluation index system for the sustainable development of reservoir resettlement must be established that fits Chinese national conditions and not only promotes reservoir resettlement research but also improves resettlement practice. This essay builds an evaluation index system for resettlers’ sustainable development based on a back-propagation (BP) neural network, which can be adopted in China, taking the resettlement necessitated by step hydropower stations along the Wujiang River cascade as an example. The assessment results show that the resettlement caused by step power stations along the Wujiang River is sustainable, and this evaluation supports the conclusion that national policies and regulations, which are undergoing constant improvement, and resettlement has increasingly improved. The results provide a reference for hydropower reservoir resettlement in developing countries. PMID:29346305

  15. The Sustainable Development Assessment of Reservoir Resettlement Based on a BP Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Resettlement affects not only the resettlers’ production activities and life but also, directly or indirectly, the normal operation of power stations, the sustainable development of the resettlers, and regional social stability. Therefore, a scientific evaluation index system for the sustainable development of reservoir resettlement must be established that fits Chinese national conditions and not only promotes reservoir resettlement research but also improves resettlement practice. This essay builds an evaluation index system for resettlers’ sustainable development based on a back-propagation (BP neural network, which can be adopted in China, taking the resettlement necessitated by step hydropower stations along the Wujiang River cascade as an example. The assessment results show that the resettlement caused by step power stations along the Wujiang River is sustainable, and this evaluation supports the conclusion that national policies and regulations, which are undergoing constant improvement, and resettlement has increasingly improved. The results provide a reference for hydropower reservoir resettlement in developing countries.

  16. Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and acquisition of reservoir property measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, C.D.; Salamy, S.P.

    1991-09-01

    In October, a contract was awarded for the Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and Acquisition of Reservoir Property measurements from wells in the Michigan, Illinois, and Appalachian Basins. Geologic and engineering data collected through this project will provide a better understanding of the mechanisms and conditions controlling shale gas production. This report summarizes the results obtained from the various testing procedures used at each wellsite and the activities conducted at the Reservoir Testing Facility.

  17. Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and acquisition of reservoir property measurements. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, C.D.; Salamy, S.P.

    1991-09-01

    In October, a contract was awarded for the Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and Acquisition of Reservoir Property measurements from wells in the Michigan, Illinois, and Appalachian Basins. Geologic and engineering data collected through this project will provide a better understanding of the mechanisms and conditions controlling shale gas production. This report summarizes the results obtained from the various testing procedures used at each wellsite and the activities conducted at the Reservoir Testing Facility.

  18. Knowledge production and the science-policy relation in Dutch soil policy: Results from a survey on perceived roles of organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souren, A.F.M.M.; Poppen, R.S.; Groenewegen, P.; van Straalen, N.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present results from a survey on the perceived roles of organisations on the production and transfer of knowledge in Dutch soil policy. The results are interpreted by applying three theoretical perspectives to this relation: technical communities, epistemic communities and Mode 2

  19. A reservoir operating method for riverine ecosystem protection, reservoir sedimentation control and water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xin-An; Yang, Zhi-Feng; Petts, Geoffrey E.; Kondolf, G. Mathias

    2014-05-01

    Riverine ecosystem protection requires the maintenance of natural flow and sediment regimes downstream from dams. In reservoir management schedules this requirement should be integrated with sedimentation control and human water supply. However, traditional eco-friendly reservoir operating methods have usually only considered the natural flow regime. This paper seeks to develop a reservoir operating method that accounts for both the natural flow and sediment regimes as well as optimizing the water supply allocations. Herein, reservoir water level (RWL), sediment-occupied ratio of reservoir volume (SOR) and rate of change of SOR (RCSOR) are adopted as three triggers of a drawdown-flushing-based sediment management policy. Two different groups of reservoir operating rule curves (RORCs) are designed for sediment-flushing and non-sediment-flushing years, and the three triggers, RWL, SOR and RCSOR, are used to change the “static” RORCs to “dynamic” ones. The approach is applied to the Wangkuai Reservoir, China to test its effectiveness. This shows that the approach can improve the flexibility of reservoir operators to balance the reservoir management, water supply management and the flow and sediment needs of the downstream riverine ecosystem.

  20. Technology for Increasing Geothermal Energy Productivity. Computer Models to Characterize the Chemical Interactions of Goethermal Fluids and Injectates with Reservoir Rocks, Wells, Surface Equiptment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nancy Moller Weare

    2006-07-25

    This final report describes the results of a research program we carried out over a five-year (3/1999-9/2004) period with funding from a Department of Energy geothermal FDP grant (DE-FG07-99ID13745) and from other agencies. The goal of research projects in this program were to develop modeling technologies that can increase the understanding of geothermal reservoir chemistry and chemistry-related energy production processes. The ability of computer models to handle many chemical variables and complex interactions makes them an essential tool for building a fundamental understanding of a wide variety of complex geothermal resource and production chemistry. With careful choice of methodology and parameterization, research objectives were to show that chemical models can correctly simulate behavior for the ranges of fluid compositions, formation minerals, temperature and pressure associated with present and near future geothermal systems as well as for the very high PT chemistry of deep resources that is intractable with traditional experimental methods. Our research results successfully met these objectives. We demonstrated that advances in physical chemistry theory can be used to accurately describe the thermodynamics of solid-liquid-gas systems via their free energies for wide ranges of composition (X), temperature and pressure. Eight articles on this work were published in peer-reviewed journals and in conference proceedings. Four are in preparation. Our work has been presented at many workshops and conferences. We also considerably improved our interactive web site (geotherm.ucsd.edu), which was in preliminary form prior to the grant. This site, which includes several model codes treating different XPT conditions, is an effective means to transfer our technologies and is used by the geothermal community and other researchers worldwide. Our models have wide application to many energy related and other important problems (e.g., scaling prediction in petroleum

  1. Technology for Increasing Geothermal Energy Productivity. Computer Models to Characterize the Chemical Interactions of Geothermal Fluids and Injectates with Reservoir Rocks, Wells, Surface Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nancy Moller Weare

    2006-01-01

    This final report describes the results of a research program we carried out over a five-year (3/1999-9/2004) period with funding from a Department of Energy geothermal FDP grant (DE-FG07-99ID13745) and from other agencies. The goal of research projects in this program were to develop modeling technologies that can increase the understanding of geothermal reservoir chemistry and chemistry-related energy production processes. The ability of computer models to handle many chemical variables and complex interactions makes them an essential tool for building a fundamental understanding of a wide variety of complex geothermal resource and production chemistry. With careful choice of methodology and parameterization, research objectives were to show that chemical models can correctly simulate behavior for the ranges of fluid compositions, formation minerals, temperature and pressure associated with present and near future geothermal systems as well as for the very high PT chemistry of deep resources that is intractable with traditional experimental methods. Our research results successfully met these objectives. We demonstrated that advances in physical chemistry theory can be used to accurately describe the thermodynamics of solid-liquid-gas systems via their free energies for wide ranges of composition (X), temperature and pressure. Eight articles on this work were published in peer-reviewed journals and in conference proceedings. Four are in preparation. Our work has been presented at many workshops and conferences. We also considerably improved our interactive web site (geotherm.ucsd.edu), which was in preliminary form prior to the grant. This site, which includes several model codes treating different XPT conditions, is an effective means to transfer our technologies and is used by the geothermal community and other researchers worldwide. Our models have wide application to many energy related and other important problems (e.g., scaling prediction in petroleum

  2. Impact of public policy uncertainty on renewable energy investment: Wind power and the production tax credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barradale, Merrill Jones

    2010-01-01

    It is generally understood that the pattern of repeated expiration and short-term renewal of the federal production tax credit (PTC) causes a boom-bust cycle in wind power plant investment in the US. This on-off pattern is detrimental to the wind industry, since ramp-up and ramp-down costs are high, and players are deterred from making long-term investments. It is often assumed that the severe downturn in investment during 'off' years implies that wind power is unviable without the PTC. This assumption turns out to be unsubstantiated: this paper demonstrates that it is not the absence of the PTC that causes the investment downturn during 'off' years, but rather the uncertainty over its return. Specifically, it is the dynamic of power purchase agreement (PPA) negotiations in the face of PTC renewal uncertainty that drives investment volatility. With contract negotiations prevalent in the renewable energy industry, this finding suggests that reducing uncertainty is a crucial component of effective renewable energy policy. The PTC as currently structured is not the only means, existing or potential, for encouraging wind power investment. Using data from a survey of energy professionals, various policy instruments are compared in terms of their perceived stability for supporting long-term investment. - Research highlights: →The case of wind energy investment in the face of PTC uncertainty provides an important study in how industry structure, and in particular the process of contract negotiations, can amplify the impact of public policy uncertainty on corporate investment. →The finding that contract negotiations in the face of uncertainty are sufficient in themselves to hinder investment implies that the assumption that investment downturns reflect unfavorable economics is unfounded. This assumption falsely discourages interest and investment in wind energy. →Policy stability should be added to the list of criteria explicitly considered in designing policy

  3. Stream, Lake, and Reservoir Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jingjing; Mei, Ying; Chang, Chein-Chi

    2017-10-01

    This review on stream, lake, and reservoir management covers selected 2016 publications on the focus of the following sections: Stream, lake, and reservoir management • Water quality of stream, lake, and reservoirReservoir operations • Models of stream, lake, and reservoir • Remediation and restoration of stream, lake, and reservoir • Biota of stream, lake, and reservoir • Climate effect of stream, lake, and reservoir.

  4. The effect of Common Agricultural Policy on Dairy production in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Šakić Bobić

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the year 2007 there was price jump at world milk market. In the middle of the year 2008 the market was temporarily stabilized, because European Commission introduced Common Agricultural Policy modernization suggestion to the members of the European Parliament as the answer to an increasing food demand. The main elements of this suggestion were to abolish obligation to keep some agricultural areas set aside, milk quota removal, and abolition of subvention rate - production quantity link. When East and Central European countries entered in the European Union, they faced agricultural tax and milk price decrease. Today in new member states, the protection taxes are lower then before entering the Union (exceptions are Poland and Romania. The production costs in new member states are higher then in the Union, so there is higher market pressure at milk producers to increase their capacity (Livestock unit, to increase capacity utilization (milk per animal, and to produce at lower cost price. One part of smaller producers could not react to this pressure, so they decided to leave the dairy business. The consequence is decreased export of milk and dairy products in the new member states. Today milk market production in Croatia is around 650 million liters. In the production, there are around 32 thousand producers with 177 thousand of dairy cows. In the last 5 years of Croatian dairy, there was important shift in the production and redemption. Help to dairy sector through annual high investments as state subsidies and credit loans, and dairy industry subsidies at basic price, made redemption increase of more then 150 million liters, but also milk producer’s decrease. To stay at present production and redemption level, the only one that counts as Quota I, with around 90 % standard milk, there is a need to increase standard milk for 119 million liters. This increase in production quality, in the negotiation period and just after planned Croatian

  5. Cleaner Production Practices, Environmental Management and National Policy Development in Malaysia for Electroplating Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne; Mohamed, Maketab; Agamuthu, P.

    2004-01-01

    figures on the results achieved, and discussing the experiences gained. Reviewing the approach and results of the Centre, as well as the status of cleaner production (CP) in Malaysia, the paper outlines the challenges for national policy making, when moving from promotion by project intervention towards......Cleaner technologies (CT) have been introduced into the Malaysian Small and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) sector primarily by foreign donor supported project interventions. The establishment of the Environmental and Energy Technology Centre at SIRIM was funded by a grant from the Danish Co......-operation for Environment and Development (DANCED), Ministry of Environment and Energy. SMEs were targeted within three sectors: Textile, food and electroplating industries. The paper illustrates the change process from the perspective of electroplating SMEs by reviewing the cleaner production options chosen, presenting...

  6. Model of refrigerated display-space allocation for multi agro-perishable products considering markdown policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satiti, D.; Rusdiansyah, A.

    2018-04-01

    Problems that need more attention in the agri-food supply chain are loss and waste as consequences from improper quality control and excessive inventories. The use of cold storage is still being one of favourite technologies in controlling product quality by majority of retailers. We considerate the temperature of cold storage in determining the inventory and pricing strategies based on identified product quality. This study aims to minimize the agri-food waste, utility of cold storage facilities and maximize retailer’s profit through determining the refrigerated display-space allocation and markdown policy based on identified food shelf life. The proposed model evaluated with several different scenarios to find out the right strategy.

  7. Status of Wheeler Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of status reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Wheeler Reservoir summarizes reservoir purposes and operation, reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, and water quality and aquatic biological conditions. The information presented here is from the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. If no recent data were available, historical data were summarized. If data were completely lacking, environmental professionals with special knowledge of the resource were interviewed. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Sustainable data policy for a data production facility: a work in (continual) progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketcham, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    The University of Texas High-Resolution X-Ray Computed Tomography Facility (UTCT) has been producing volumetric data and data products of geological and other scientific specimens and engineering materials for over 20 years. Data volumes, both in terms of the size of individual data sets and overall facility production, have progressively grown and fluctuated near the upper boundary of what can be managed by contemporary workstations and lab-scale servers and network infrastructure, making data policy a preoccupation for our entire history. Although all projects have been archived since our first day of operation, policies on which data to keep (raw, reconstructed after corrections, processed) have varied, and been periodically revisited in consideration of the cost of curation and the likelihood of revisiting and reprocessing data when better techniques become available, such as improved artifact corrections or iterative tomographic reconstruction. Advances in instrumentation regularly make old data obsolete and more advantageous to reacquire, but the simple act of getting a sample to a scanning facility is a practical barrier that cannot be overlooked. In our experience, the main times that raw data have been revisited using improved processing to improve image quality were predictable, high-impact charismatic projects (e.g., Archaeopteryx, A. Afarensis "Lucy"). These cases actually provided the impetus for development of the new techniques (ring and beam hardening artifact reduction), which were subsequently incorporated into our data processing pipeline going forward but were rarely if ever retroactively applied to earlier data sets. The only other times raw data have been reprocessed were when reconstruction parameters were inappropriate, due to unnoticed sample features or human error, which are usually recognized fairly quickly. The optimal data retention policy thus remains an open question, although erring on the side of caution remains the default

  9. Multiperiod Production and Ordering Policies for a Retailer-Led Supply Chain through Option Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Wan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper formulates two groups of multiperiod production and ordering models with call and bidirectional option contracts for a two-party supply chain consisting of one followed supplier and one dominant retailer, respectively. Based on dynamic programming theory, we characterize the optimal policy structures for two partners in each period. We also provide an approximation for the corresponding policy parameters evaluation in two cases. Then, we investigate the impacts of different option contracts and the demand risk on the decisions and performances of two members. Our results suggest that, whether concerning call or bidirectional option contracts, the optimal policies for two members always follow a base stock type. When the price parameters are the same for different option contracts, the service levels of both the system and the retailer are higher with call option contracts than with bidirectional ones, whereas the retailer’s inventory risk is lower with bidirectional option contracts than with call ones. Under the same conditions stated above, call option contracts can always benefit the supplier, but not the retailer. Owing to the retailer’s dominant position, call option contracts are better choice for the supply chain if the option (exercise price is low (high, while bidirectional option contracts are more suitable choice for the supply chain if the option (exercise price is high (low. In addition, an increase in the demand risk would prompt the supplier to increase his production quantity and the retailer to reduce the initial firm order quantity, either with call or bidirectional option contracts.

  10. Energy production from biogas in the Italian countryside: Policies and organizational models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrosio, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, Italy has witnessed a proliferation of agricultural biogas plants. This article argues that institutional factors have played an important role in their diffusion. It describes the state and evolution of agricultural biogas in Italy, and then investigates the extent to which institutional pressures have been influential in shaping organizational models of biogas production. It finds that the dominance of one particular organizational model is the result of an isomorphic process in which a monopolistic market, legal structures, and subsidies play a role. The prevalence of this organizational model, however, does not lead to the effective use of biogas production, and furthermore it results in low environmental efficiency. For a more sustainable development of bioenergy, Italian policy-makers should reform the existing institutional framework by reorganizing subsidies, liberalizing the management of gas grids, and involving farmers in local projects. - Highlights: • Institutional factors played an important role for the diffusion of biogas plants in Italy. • The dominance of one organizational model is the result of an isomorphic process. • The prevalence of one organizational model results in low environmental efficiency. • Italian policy makers should reform the existing institutional framework

  11. Case study of information product for strategy research, planning research, and policy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yujun; Zou Lin; Liu Qun; Wang Yongping

    2010-01-01

    Soft science research is significant and can directly support the decision-making and development. The strategy research, planning research, and policy research each play an important role in soft science research. As the National Strategy of Informatization being implemented and advanced, some progress are made and some special information tools are produced in the process of strengthening the development research with information technologies. At first, the article introduced some cases of information products application, such as the domestic and overseas information products for energy strategy research and planning research and policy research, the governmental management information system for planning and investment, examination and approval and permission system for the planning of the land for construction, China agriculture decision support system and so on, and also gave a brief analysis on the theories and methods, main functions and application status. And then, with a analysis on the features of the works of development planning of China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) development, this article gave some suggestions on how to strengthen the development of information system for the development planning of the CNNC. (authors)

  12. Applying consequential LCA to support energy policy: Land use change effects of bioenergy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Marvuglia, Antonino; Rege, Sameer; Benetto, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Luxembourg aims at complying with the EU objective of attaining a 14% use of bioenergy in the national grid by 2020. The increase of biomethane production from energy crops could be a valuable option in achieving this objective. However, the overall environmental benefit of such option is yet to be proven. Consequential Life Cycle Assessment (CLCA) has shown to be a useful tool to evaluate the environmental suitability of future energy scenarios and policies. The objective of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the environmental consequences of modifying the Luxembourgish agricultural system to increase maize production for biomethane generation. A total of 10 different scenarios were modelled using a partial equilibrium (PE) model to identify changes in land cultivation based on farmers' revenue maximisation, which were then compared to the baseline scenario, i.e. the state of the agricultural sector in 2009. The results were divided into three different consequential decision contexts, presenting differing patterns in terms of land use changes (LUCs) but with minor shifts in environmental impacts. Nevertheless, energy from maize production would imply substantially higher environmental impacts when compared with the current use of natural gas, mainly due to increases in climate change and agricultural land occupation impacts. The results are discussed based on the consequences they may generate on the bioenergy policy, the management of arable land, the changes in import–export flows in Luxembourg and LUCs in the domestic agricultural system. In addition, the specific PE + LCA method presented intends to be of use for other regional studies in which a high level of site-specific data is available. - Highlights: • Partial equilibrium (PE) model created for the agricultural sector in Luxembourg • PE model combined with a consequential LCA approach to support energy policy • The impact of LUCs due to the additional production of maize for energy was

  13. a Stochastic Approach to Multiobjective Optimization of Large-Scale Water Reservoir Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottacin-Busolin, A.; Worman, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    A main challenge for the planning and management of water resources is the development of multiobjective strategies for operation of large-scale water reservoir networks. The optimal sequence of water releases from multiple reservoirs depends on the stochastic variability of correlated hydrologic inflows and on various processes that affect water demand and energy prices. Although several methods have been suggested, large-scale optimization problems arising in water resources management are still plagued by the high dimensional state space and by the stochastic nature of the hydrologic inflows. In this work, the optimization of reservoir operation is approached using approximate dynamic programming (ADP) with policy iteration and function approximators. The method is based on an off-line learning process in which operating policies are evaluated for a number of stochastic inflow scenarios, and the resulting value functions are used to design new, improved policies until convergence is attained. A case study is presented of a multi-reservoir system in the Dalälven River, Sweden, which includes 13 interconnected reservoirs and 36 power stations. Depending on the late spring and summer peak discharges, the lowlands adjacent to Dalälven can often be flooded during the summer period, and the presence of stagnating floodwater during the hottest months of the year is the cause of a large proliferation of mosquitos, which is a major problem for the people living in the surroundings. Chemical pesticides are currently being used as a preventive countermeasure, which do not provide an effective solution to the problem and have adverse environmental impacts. In this study, ADP was used to analyze the feasibility of alternative operating policies for reducing the flood risk at a reasonable economic cost for the hydropower companies. To this end, mid-term operating policies were derived by combining flood risk reduction with hydropower production objectives. The performance

  14. Land Use Change under Biofuel Policies and a Tax on Meat and Dairy Products: Considering Complexity in Agricultural Production Chains Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Delzeit

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Growing demand for meat and dairy products (MDP, biofuels, and scarcity of agricultural land are drivers of global land use competition. Impacts of policies targeting demand for MDP or biofuels have only been analysed separately. We use the computable general equilibrium model DART-BIO to investigate combined effects, since MDP and biofuel production are closely related via feestock use and co-production of animal feed. We implement four scenarios: (a a baseline scenario; (b halving MDP consumption in industrialised countries by a tax; (c abolishing current biofuel policies; and (d no exogenous land use change. We find that a MDP tax and exogenous land use change have larger effects on land use and food markets than biofuel policies. International trade is affected in all scenarios. With respect to combined effects of a MDP tax and biofuel policies, we find decreasing biodiesel but increasing bioethanol production. In addition, the MDP tax decreases the impact of biofuel policies on agricultural markets and land use. Our results highlight the importance of a detailed representation of different vegetable oils used in biodiesel production and related by-products. Finally, since the MDP tax increases the use of fossil fuels, the net climate mitigation potentials of such a tax should be investigated further.

  15. Enabling sustainable pastoralism: policies and investments that optimise livestock production and rangeland stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, R; Davies, J

    2016-11-01

    Pastoralism is a system of dynamically managing livestock and land for economic, social and environmental benefit. To a large extent, pastoralism is an adaptation to ecological and climatic variability and is not simply a livestock production system but provides significant environmental services to humanity. Evidence from a range of national contexts shows that sustainable pastoralist development requires an understanding of the dual environmental and economic roles of pastoralism and an adaptation of policies and investments to support both. The current paper examines three cornerstones that have proven to be crucial for sustainable pastoralist development and for maximising the links between livestock production and environmental stewardship: strengthening pastoral capabilities and institutions, securing land tenure and natural resource governance, and ensuring equitable markets for pastoral diversity. To effectively support the dual economic-environmental roles of pastoralism requires not only optimisation of the production of ecosystem services through extensive livestock production, but also a major overhaul of the way we approach pastoralist development, and major investment in the people who are central to the system. As long as pastoralists remain marginalised, with weak rights and little access to services, their future will remain uncertain.

  16. Oil policies and privatization strategies in Mexico: implications for the petrochemical sector and its production spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laguna, N.M.

    2004-01-01

    Through a retrospective analysis of Mexico's oil history, this work examines the privatization processes that occurred in the petrochemical sector, from the abolishment of the government's monopoly, Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) during the 1980s, until the restructuring and open liberalization in the early 1990s, focusing on the areas incorporated to production processes, particularly along the Gulf coast. As a result of the industrial policies and regional development strategies promoted by the government from the sixties, oriented towards strengthening production in areas with the highest potential, attractive business investment areas were developed. These included southern Tamaulipas, a strategic region where a number of industrial factors facilitated access to raw materials at competitive prices, as well as their processing and distribution to local and international markets, all of these within a single location. The strategic nature of the petrochemical location and production have made southern Tamaulipas a key factor for the territorial shaping and industrial development linked to the behavior of transnational companies that, seeking comparative advantages, have relocated parts of their production capacity in this region

  17. Policy plan for the early approval for irradiated meat products and the promotion of irradiated meats in market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Wang Geun; Kim, Kyong Su; Yook, Hong Sun; Kim, Cheon Jei

    2008-01-01

    The consumption of meat products is gradually being increased by the development of livestock raising technology, industrialized farm management and international trade. This increased consumption also created new market for ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook meat products. However, these convenience meat products can be easily contaminated during the processing and storage by pathogens, and there have been many reported cases of food borne illness by meats. One of the most effective methods for the decontamination of meat products is the radiation technology. Food irradiation was the established, well-recognized and safe sterilization method. Many other countries researched the effect of irradiation on the meat products and approved the irradiation. In this article, the effectiveness, the international acceptance, the economics and the research trend of irradiation on meat products have been reviewed. Also, the policy plans for the early approval of the irradiated meat products in Korea and the promotion policy of irradiated meats in market were discussed

  18. Volume 4: Characterization of representative reservoirs -- Gulf of Mexico field, U-8 reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koperna, G.J. Jr.; Johnson, H.R. [BDM Federal, Inc., McLean, VA (United States); Salamy, S.P.; Reeves, T.K. [BDM-Oklahoma, Inc., Bartlesville, OK (United States); Sawyer, W.K. [Mathematical and Computer Services, Inc., Danville, VA (United States); Kimbrell, W.C.; Schenewerk, P.A. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering

    1998-07-01

    A reservoir study was performed using a publicly available black oil simulator to history match and predict the performance of a Gulf of Mexico reservoir. The first objective of this simulation study was to validate the Black Oil Applied Simulation Tool version three for personal computers (BOAST3-PC) model to ensure the integrity of the simulation runs. Once validation was completed, a field history match for the Gulf of Mexico U-8 oil reservoir was attempted. A verbal agreement was reached with the operator of this reservoir to blindcode the name and location of the reservoir. In return, the operator supplied data and assistance in regards to the technical aspects of the research. On the basis of the best history match, different secondary recovery techniques were simulated as a predictive study for enhancing the reservoir productivity.

  19. Reservoir architecture and tough gas reservoir potential of fluvial crevasse-splay deposits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Toorenenburg, K.A.; Donselaar, M.E.; Weltje, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Unconventional tough gas reservoirs in low-net-to-gross fluvial stratigraphic intervals may constitute a secondary source of fossil energy to prolong the gas supply in the future. To date, however, production from these thin-bedded, fine-grained reservoirs has been hampered by the economic risks

  20. Top-Down, Intelligent Reservoir Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    2010-05-01

    Conventional reservoir simulation and modeling is a bottom-up approach. It starts with building a geological model of the reservoir that is populated with the best available petrophysical and geophysical information at the time of development. Engineering fluid flow principles are added and solved numerically so as to arrive at a dynamic reservoir model. The dynamic reservoir model is calibrated using the production history of multiple wells and the history matched model is used to strategize field development in order to improve recovery. Top-Down, Intelligent Reservoir Modeling approaches the reservoir simulation and modeling from an opposite angle by attempting to build a realization of the reservoir starting with the measured well production behavior (history). The production history is augmented by core, log, well test and seismic data in order to increase the accuracy of the Top-Down modeling technique. Although not intended as a substitute for the conventional reservoir simulation of large, complex fields, this novel approach to reservoir modeling can be used as an alternative (at a fraction of the cost) to conventional reservoir simulation and modeling in cases where performing conventional modeling is cost (and man-power) prohibitive. In cases where a conventional model of a reservoir already exists, Top-Down modeling should be considered as a compliment to, rather than a competition for the conventional technique, to provide an independent look at the data coming from the reservoir/wells for optimum development strategy and recovery enhancement. Top-Down, Intelligent Reservoir Modeling starts with well-known reservoir engineering techniques such as Decline Curve Analysis, Type Curve Matching, History Matching using single well numerical reservoir simulation, Volumetric Reserve Estimation and calculation of Recovery Factors for all the wells (individually) in the field. Using statistical techniques multiple Production Indicators (3, 6, and 9 months cum

  1. Detecting Vegetation Changes Induced by Government Policy in China Using Multiple Satellite Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichii, K.; Yanagi, Y.; Xiao, J.

    2016-12-01

    The use of multiple satellite-based data products can help analyze and understand changes in terrestrial vegetation cover and terrestrial CO2 cycles. Terrestrial vegetation environment in China is known as affected by many changes including both natural and anthropogenic changes. Especially, afforestation and land use change are considered as two of the most important factors. To date, satellite-based monitoring of terrestrial vegetation changes in China is conducted at either regional or country scales with coarse spatial resolutions. In this study, we analyzed and attributed vegetation changes in China from 2000 to 2015 using multiple satellite-based data products with higher spatial resolution (from 25m to 1km). The products include ALOS PALSAR Forest/NonForest Map, LANDSAT based land cover map, MODIS land cover (MCD12Q1), vegetation continuous field (MOD44B) and vegetation index (MOD13A2), and data-driven estimates of terrestrial CO2 fluxes (Support Vector Regression with AsiaFlux data). First, we assessed changes in forest cover from 2000 to 2015 using multiple products. We confirmed that two MODIS datasets, MCD12Q1 and MOD44B, were consistent with high resolution satellite based products (LANDSAT and ALOS PALSAR) with slight negative bias for MOD44B. The changes of forest cover by MCD12Q1 and MOD44B products were consistent, showing large increases in forest cover in central China, where afforestation were intensively conducted. Second, we analyzed temporal trends of vegetation index and data-driven estimates of CO2 fluxes, and their dependency on land cover changes. Clear relations between temporal trends of vegetation index and land use change history were obtained; the highest increasing trends were observed in the grid cells where land use change from non-forest to forest occured. These multiple pieces of evidence show that afforestation policy in China significantly affects forest areas, terrestrial vegetation and CO2 cycle for the 2000 to 2015 period.

  2. Effects of US biofuel policies on US and world petroleum product markets with consequences for greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Wyatt; Whistance, Jarrett; Meyer, Seth

    2011-01-01

    US biofuel policy includes greenhouse gas reduction targets. Regulators do not address the potential that biofuel policy can have indirect impacts on greenhouse gases through its impacts on petroleum product markets, and scientific research only partially addresses this question. We use economic models of US biofuel and agricultural markets and US and world petroleum and petroleum product markets to show that discontinuing biofuel tax credits and ethanol tariff lower biofuel use could lead to increased US petroleum product use, and a reduction in petroleum product use in other parts of the world. The net effect is lower greenhouse gas emissions. Under certain assumptions, we show that biofuel use mandate elimination can have positive or negative impacts on greenhouse gas emissions. The magnitude and the direction of effects depend on how US biofuel trade affects biofuel in other countries with different emissions, context that determines how important use mandates are in the first place, who pays mandate costs, and the price responsiveness of global petroleum supplies and uses. However, our results show that counter-intuitive effects are possible and discourage broad conclusions about the greenhouse gas impacts of removing these elements of US biofuel policy. - Highlights: → Biofuel policy has counter-intuitive greenhouse gas effects under certain conditions. → US biofuel policies affect global petroleum markets, with implications for GHGs. → US biofuel use mandate GHG effects depend on whether they are binding and who pays. → US biofuel GHGs are sensitive to policy, petroleum market responses, and biofuel trade.

  3. Some practical aspects of reservoir management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, M.L.; Young, M.A.; Cole, E.L.; Madden, M.P. [BDM-Oklahoma, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The practical essence of reservoir management is the optimal application of available resources-people, equipment, technology, and money to maximize profitability and recovery. Success must include knowledge and consideration of (1) the reservoir system, (2) the technologies available, and (3) the reservoir management business environment. Two Reservoir Management Demonstration projects (one in a small, newly-discovered field and one in a large, mature water-flood) implemented by the Department of Energy through BDM-Oklahoma illustrate the diversity of situations suited for reservoir management efforts. Project teams made up of experienced engineers, geoscientists, and other professionals arrived at an overall reservoir management strategy for each field. in 1993, Belden & Blake Corporation discovered a regionally significant oil reservoir (East Randolph Field) in the Cambrian Rose Run formation in Portage County, Ohio. Project objectives are to improve field operational economics and optimize oil recovery. The team focused on characterizing the reservoir geology and analyzing primary production and reservoir data to develop simulation models. Historical performance was simulated and predictions were made to assess infill drilling, water flooding, and gas repressurization. The Citronelle Field, discovered in 1955 in Mobile County, Alabama, has produced 160 million barrels from fluvial sandstones of the Cretaceous Rodessa formation. Project objectives are to address improving recovery through waterflood optimization and problems related to drilling, recompletions, production operations, and regulatory and environmental issues. Initial efforts focused on defining specific problems and on defining a geographic area within the field where solutions might best be pursued. Geologic and reservoir models were used to evaluate past performance and to investigate improved recovery operations.

  4. Electromagnetic Heating Methods for Heavy Oil Reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahni, A.; Kumar, M.; Knapp, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    The most widely used method of thermal oil recovery is by injecting steam into the reservoir. A well-designed steam injection project is very efficient in recovering oil, however its applicability is limited in many situations. Simulation studies and field experience has shown that for low injectivity reservoirs, small thickness of the oil-bearing zone, and reservoir heterogeneity limits the performance of steam injection. This paper discusses alternative methods of transferring heat to heavy oil reservoirs, based on electromagnetic energy. They present a detailed analysis of low frequency electric resistive (ohmic) heating and higher frequency electromagnetic heating (radio and microwave frequency). They show the applicability of electromagnetic heating in two example reservoirs. The first reservoir model has thin sand zones separated by impermeable shale layers, and very viscous oil. They model preheating the reservoir with low frequency current using two horizontal electrodes, before injecting steam. The second reservoir model has very low permeability and moderately viscous oil. In this case they use a high frequency microwave antenna located near the producing well as the heat source. Simulation results presented in this paper show that in some cases, electromagnetic heating may be a good alternative to steam injection or maybe used in combination with steam to improve heavy oil production. They identify the parameters which are critical in electromagnetic heating. They also discuss past field applications of electromagnetic heating including technical challenges and limitations

  5. Performance Analysis of Depleted Oil Reservoirs for Underground Gas Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. C.I.C. Anyadiegwu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The performance of underground gas storage in depleted oil reservoir was analysed with reservoir Y-19, a depleted oil reservoir in Southern region of the Niger Delta. Information on the geologic and production history of the reservoir were obtained from the available field data of the reservoir. The verification of inventory was done to establish the storage capacity of the reservoir. The plot of the well flowing pressure (Pwf against the flow rate (Q, gives the deliverability of the reservoir at various pressures. Results of the estimated properties signified that reservoir Y-19 is a good candidate due to its storage capacity and its flow rate (Q of 287.61 MMscf/d at a flowing pressure of 3900 psig

  6. Cost-effective policy instruments for greenhouse gas emission reduction and fossil fuel substitution through bioenergy production in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Johannes; Leduc, Sylvain; Dotzauer, Erik; Schmid, Erwin

    2011-01-01

    Climate change mitigation and security of energy supply are important targets of Austrian energy policy. Bioenergy production based on resources from agriculture and forestry is an important option for attaining these targets. To increase the share of bioenergy in the energy supply, supporting policy instruments are necessary. The cost-effectiveness of these instruments in attaining policy targets depends on the availability of bioenergy technologies. Advanced technologies such as second-generation biofuels, biomass gasification for power production, and bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) will likely change the performance of policy instruments. This article assesses the cost-effectiveness of energy policy instruments, considering new bioenergy technologies for the year 2030, with respect to greenhouse gas emission (GHG) reduction and fossil fuel substitution. Instruments that directly subsidize bioenergy are compared with instruments that aim at reducing GHG emissions. A spatially explicit modeling approach is used to account for biomass supply and energy distribution costs in Austria. Results indicate that a carbon tax performs cost-effectively with respect to both policy targets if BECCS is not available. However, the availability of BECCS creates a trade-off between GHG emission reduction and fossil fuel substitution. Biofuel blending obligations are costly in terms of attaining the policy targets. - Highlights: → Costs of energy policies and effects on reduction of CO 2 emissions and fossil fuel consumption. → Particular focus on new bioenergy production technologies such as second generation biofuels. → Spatially explicit techno-economic optimization model. → CO 2 tax: high costs for reducing fossil fuel consumption if carbon capture and storage is available. → Biofuel policy: no significant reductions in CO 2 emissions or fossil fuel consumption.

  7. Cost-effective policy instruments for greenhouse gas emission reduction and fossil fuel substitution through bioenergy production in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.schmidt@boku.ac.at [Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Leduc, Sylvain [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, A-2361 Laxenburg (Austria); Dotzauer, Erik [Maelardalen University, P.O. Box 883, SE-72123 Vaesteras (Sweden); Schmid, Erwin [Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-06-15

    Climate change mitigation and security of energy supply are important targets of Austrian energy policy. Bioenergy production based on resources from agriculture and forestry is an important option for attaining these targets. To increase the share of bioenergy in the energy supply, supporting policy instruments are necessary. The cost-effectiveness of these instruments in attaining policy targets depends on the availability of bioenergy technologies. Advanced technologies such as second-generation biofuels, biomass gasification for power production, and bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) will likely change the performance of policy instruments. This article assesses the cost-effectiveness of energy policy instruments, considering new bioenergy technologies for the year 2030, with respect to greenhouse gas emission (GHG) reduction and fossil fuel substitution. Instruments that directly subsidize bioenergy are compared with instruments that aim at reducing GHG emissions. A spatially explicit modeling approach is used to account for biomass supply and energy distribution costs in Austria. Results indicate that a carbon tax performs cost-effectively with respect to both policy targets if BECCS is not available. However, the availability of BECCS creates a trade-off between GHG emission reduction and fossil fuel substitution. Biofuel blending obligations are costly in terms of attaining the policy targets. - Highlights: > Costs of energy policies and effects on reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions and fossil fuel consumption. > Particular focus on new bioenergy production technologies such as second generation biofuels. > Spatially explicit techno-economic optimization model. > CO{sub 2} tax: high costs for reducing fossil fuel consumption if carbon capture and storage is available. > Biofuel policy: no significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions or fossil fuel consumption.

  8. Policy options to reduce consumer waste to zero: comparing product stewardship and extended producer responsibility for refrigerator waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Scott; Thompson, Shirley

    2007-06-01

    Today, over-consumption, pollution and resource depletion threaten sustainability. Waste management policies frequently fail to reduce consumption, prevent pollution, conserve resources and foster sustainable products. However, waste policies are changing to focus on lifecycle impacts of products from the cradle to the grave by extending the responsibilities of stakeholders to post-consumer management. Product stewardship and extended producer responsibility are two policies in use, with radically different results when compared for one consumer product, refrigerators. North America has enacted product stewardship policies that fail to require producers to take physical or financial responsibility for recycling or for environmentally sound disposal, so that releases of ozone depleting substances routinely occur, which contribute to the expanding the ozone hole. Conversely, Europe's Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive requires extended producer responsibility, whereby producers collect and manage their own post-consumer waste products. WEEE has resulted in high recycling rates of greater than 85%, reduced emissions of ozone-depleting substances and other toxins, greener production methods, such as replacing greenhouse gas refrigerants with environmentally friendly hydrocarbons and more reuse of refrigerators in the EU in comparison with North America.

  9. Managing climate risks through transformational adaptation: Economic and policy implications for key production regions in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbaz Mushtaq

    Full Text Available Transformational adaptations are expected to become more frequent and widespread in Australia, and globally, with a changing climate. However, any transformation adaptation will have complex and interconnected effects on rural communities, particularly income, employment and service provision, which will impact on regional sustainability. This paper investigates regional transformative adaptation options to manage climate risks for the rice and cotton industries of northern Queensland, Australia. More specifically, it seeks to identify when to move from incremental adaptation to transformative adaptation and, more importantly, to assess the potential regional economic consequences of such a transformative adaptation. The results indicate transformative adaptation could have large negative effects on regional economies. Relocation of rice or cotton in sugarcane production system will not compensate some negative regional impacts. More importantly, the increase in wheat production in Riverina will not compensate for the reduction in the higher value rice commodity. However, the cotton production system in Queensland is capable of transformational adaptation and incremental adaptation with little impact on regional communities. In contrast, the southern rice production region of the Riverina shows limited capacity for incremental adaptation, given the already high adoption of improved irrigation technologies and practices, and the limited scope to improve these further. The market incentives for the transformation adaptation of cotton and/or rice production in north Queensland are limited without government support. Alternatively, there may be interest from international investors, which would shift the focus from market opportunities to international food security. Keywords: Structural adjustment, Climate change, Environmental and water policy, Rice, Cotton, Regional economic model

  10. Human Resources Management and Effective Function of WLB Policies: A cross-national comparison of influence on workplace productivity (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    MATSUBARA Mitsuyo

    2011-01-01

    This study compares Japan and four other countries (the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Germany) with regard to human resources management, focusing on companies where work-life balance (WLB) policies are believed to have had a positive effect on workplace productivity. It aims to clarify the challenges in promoting WLB policies in Japan from the viewpoint of human resources management. The study has found the following: First, while incentive systems in the four foreign countrie...

  11. Dimensionless reference curves to estimate mass and energy productivities of geothermal reservoirs with or without carbon dioxide; Curvas de referencia adimensionales para estimar productividades de masa y energia de yacimientos geotermicos con/sin bioxido de carbono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moya, Sara L.; Iglesias, Eduardo R.; Aragon, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-09-01

    A numerical research over the contribution of the rock-fluid medium of geothermal reservoirs to mass and energy productivities of geothermal wells is made. This considering the effect of carbon dioxide and a wide range of rock matrix and fluid properties, pressure-temperature initial conditions and exploitation state of reservoir. The results are shown in form of inflow characteristics curves interrelating flowing pressure in the interface well-reservoir and the produced enthalpy with discharged mass flow. Normalizing these curves with their respective maximum values, two dimensionless curves are obtained which are proposed as reference curves to estimate the mass and energy productivities of geothermal wells. Both proposed reference curves are independents of reservoir parameters and the produced cumulative mass. [Espanol] Se investiga numericamente la contribucion del medio roca-fluido de los yacimientos geotermicos a las productividades de masa y energia de los pozos geotermicos. Se considera el efecto del bioxido de carbono y de un amplio intervalo de propiedades de la formacion rocosa y del fluido, de las condiciones iniciales de presion y temperatura, y del grado de explotacion del yacimiento. Los resultados se muestran en forma de curva caracteristicas de influjo que relacionan la presion fluyente en la intercara pozo-yacimiento y la entalpia producida, con la velocidad de flujo masico producido. Normalizando estas curvas con los correspondientes valores maximos, se obtienen dos curvas adimensionales las cuales se proponen como curvas de referencia para estimar las productividades de masa y energia de los pozos geotermicos. Las dos curvas de referencia propuestas son independientes de los parametros del yacimiento y del porcentaje de masa producida acumulada.

  12. Physical Aspects in Upscaling of Fractured Reservoirs and Improved Oil Recovery Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salimi, H.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with upscaled models for waterflooded naturally fractured reservoirs (NFRs). Naturally fractured petroleum reservoirs provide over 20% of the world’s oil reserves and production. From the fluid-flow point of view, a fractured reservoir is defined as a reservoir in which a

  13. FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    1999-06-11

    The four chapters that are described in this report cover a variety of subjects that not only give insight into the understanding of multiphase flow in fractured porous media, but they provide also major contribution towards the understanding of flow processes with in-situ phase formation. In the following, a summary of all the chapters will be provided. Chapter I addresses issues related to water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. There are two parts in this chapter. Part I covers extensive set of measurements for water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. Both single matrix block and multiple matrix blocks tests are covered. There are two major findings from these experiments: (1) co-current imbibition can be more efficient than counter-current imbibition due to lower residual oil saturation and higher oil mobility, and (2) tight fractured porous media can be more efficient than a permeable porous media when subjected to water injection. These findings are directly related to the type of tests one can perform in the laboratory and to decide on the fate of water injection in fractured reservoirs. Part II of Chapter I presents modeling of water injection in water-wet fractured media by modifying the Buckley-Leverett Theory. A major element of the new model is the multiplication of the transfer flux by the fractured saturation with a power of 1/2. This simple model can account for both co-current and counter-current imbibition and computationally it is very efficient. It can be orders of magnitude faster than a conventional dual-porosity model. Part II also presents the results of water injection tests in very tight rocks of some 0.01 md permeability. Oil recovery from water imbibition tests from such at tight rock can be as high as 25 percent. Chapter II discusses solution gas-drive for cold production from heavy-oil reservoirs. The impetus for this work is the study of new gas phase formation from in-situ process which can be significantly

  14. Multi-data reservoir history matching for enhanced reservoir forecasting and uncertainty quantification

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2015-04-01

    Reservoir simulations and history matching are critical for fine-tuning reservoir production strategies, improving understanding of the subsurface formation, and forecasting remaining reserves. Production data have long been incorporated for adjusting reservoir parameters. However, the sparse spatial sampling of this data set has posed a significant challenge for efficiently reducing uncertainty of reservoir parameters. Seismic, electromagnetic, gravity and InSAR techniques have found widespread applications in enhancing exploration for oil and gas and monitoring reservoirs. These data have however been interpreted and analyzed mostly separately, rarely exploiting the synergy effects that could result from combining them. We present a multi-data ensemble Kalman filter-based history matching framework for the simultaneous incorporation of various reservoir data such as seismic, electromagnetics, gravimetry and InSAR for best possible characterization of the reservoir formation. We apply an ensemble-based sensitivity method to evaluate the impact of each observation on the estimated reservoir parameters. Numerical experiments for different test cases demonstrate considerable matching enhancements when integrating all data sets in the history matching process. Results from the sensitivity analysis further suggest that electromagnetic data exhibit the strongest impact on the matching enhancements due to their strong differentiation between water fronts and hydrocarbons in the test cases.

  15. SILTATION IN RESERVOIRS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calls have been made to the government through various media to assist its populace in combating this nagging problem. It was concluded that sediment maximum accumulation is experienced in reservoir during the periods of maximum flow. Keywords: reservoir model, siltation, sediment, catchment, sediment transport. 1.

  16. Dynamic reservoir well interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, W.L.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Wolfswinkel, O. van; Peters, M.C.A.M.; Verhelst, F.J.P.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    In order to develop smart well control systems for unstable oil wells, realistic modeling of the dynamics of the well is essential. Most dynamic well models use a semi-steady state inflow model to describe the inflow of oil and gas from the reservoir. On the other hand, reservoir models use steady

  17. Reservoir Engineering Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.H.; Schwarz, W.J.

    1977-12-14

    The Reservoir Engineering Management Program being conducted at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory includes two major tasks: 1) the continuation of support to geothermal reservoir engineering related work, started under the NSF-RANN program and transferred to ERDA at the time of its formation; 2) the development and subsequent implementation of a broad plan for support of research in topics related to the exploitation of geothermal reservoirs. This plan is now known as the GREMP plan. Both the NSF-RANN legacies and GREMP are in direct support of the DOE/DGE mission in general and the goals of the Resource and Technology/Resource Exploitation and Assessment Branch in particular. These goals are to determine the magnitude and distribution of geothermal resources and reduce risk in their exploitation through improved understanding of generically different reservoir types. These goals are to be accomplished by: 1) the creation of a large data base about geothermal reservoirs, 2) improved tools and methods for gathering data on geothermal reservoirs, and 3) modeling of reservoirs and utilization options. The NSF legacies are more research and training oriented, and the GREMP is geared primarily to the practical development of the geothermal reservoirs. 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  18. First assessment of the ecological status of Karaoun reservoir, Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadel, A.; Lemaire, B.; Vinc on Leite, B.; Tassin, B.; Amacha, N.; Slim, K.; Atoui, A.

    2014-01-01

    Many reservoirs have been constructed throughout the world during the 20th century, with many also suffering from eutrophication. The resulting increased phytoplankton biomass in reservoirs impairs their use. Except for Lake Kinneret, the environmental status of lakes and reservoirs in the Middle East is poorly documented. Karaoun reservoir, also known as Qaroun, Qaraoun or Qarun, is the largest water body in Lebanon, having been constructed for irrigation and hydropower production. This present study reviews Karaoun reservoir, including its characteristics, uses, water quality and phytoplankton succession, to assess the environmental status of the reservoir on the basis of the few existing previous publications about the reservoir. Since 2004, which is 39 years after its construction, the reservoir is considered to be hypereutrophic, with low phytoplankton biodiversity and regular blooms of toxic cyanobacteria. The nutrient and trace metal concentrations would not prevent use of the reservoir for a drinking water supply for Beirut, as is currently being planned, although not all the micropollutants in the lake were documented. Karaoun reservoir is compared to other monitored lakes and reservoirs around the Mediterranean Sea. They share annual toxic cyanobacteria blooms of Aphanizomenon ovalisporum and of Microcystis aeruginosa. The phytoplankton composition and succession of Karaoun reservoir is more similar to El Gergal reservoir (Spain) than nearby natural lakes such as Lake Kinneret (Israel) and Lake Trichonis (Greece). Phytoplankton diversity in Karaoun reservoir was the lowest, due to higher nutrient concentrations and a larger decrease in water level in the dry season. Karaoun reservoir represents an interesting example of the potential response of the phytoplankton community in other lakes and reservoirs during the drought periods expected to occur as a result of global climate change. (author)

  19. Effect of policies on pellet production and forests in the U.S. South: a technical document supporting the Forest Service update of the 2010 RPA Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen L. Abt; Robert C. Abt; Christopher S. Galik; Kenneth E. Skog

    2014-01-01

    Current policies in the European Union (EU) requiring renewable and low greenhouse gas-emitting energy are affecting wood products manufacturing and forests in the United States. These policies have led to increased U.S. pellet production and export to the EU, which has in turn affected U.S. forests and other wood products manufacturing. At this time, the primary...

  20. Marginalization and challenge: the production of knowledge and landscape in Canadian nuclear waste management policy making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, A.E.

    2006-01-01

    Aboriginal peoples have recently become politically significant in Canadian nuclear fuel waste (NFW) management policy making. Their newfound significance comes on the heels of an important challenge to the knowledge and authority of the nuclear industry with respect to its plans for NFW lead by a number of public groups and Aboriginal peoples from across Canada, including the Serpent River First Nation. This dissertation examines the relationships between the discourses of the Serpent River First Nation (SRFN) about their experiences of the nuclear fuel chain and the discourses of the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) about the management of NFW. Two trends are found to characterize these relationships: marginalization and challenge. The discourses of the NWMO marginalize the SRFN, excluding their experiences of the nuclear fuel chain, radioactivity, and the effects of nuclear industries from the policy making process. The discourses of the SRFN challenge the claims of the NWMO about the effects of nuclear wastes and radioactivity, as well as about the safe and beneficial development of the nuclear fuel chain. I identify discourses of 'modern risk' and 'citizenship' found in the work of the NWMO as instrumental for maintaining the nuclear industry's control over the production of knowledge about NFW and its effects and subjugating the knowledge of the SRFN. I also identify discourses of identity, oppression, and 'situated knowledge' as important challenges to the content, method and premises of the claims of the nuclear industry about the management of NFW. While I conclude that the NWMO's discourses of risk and citizenship constitute a colonial politics of exclusion, I note that their discourses are contingent on the exclusion of the experiences of the SRFN with the fuel chain. For their accounts to be coherent, the NWMO need to maintain a strategic silence on the overwhelming implication Aboriginal peoples, as a category, in the nuclear fuel chain

  1. The united states and the world oil security. US oil policy and production of a global collective good

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to define and discusses the part of the Unites States in the world oil system operating and more particularly the US oil security policy in the world policy. It refutes some established ideas as the necessity of the US military supremacy to provide the oil security, the necessity of ''agreements'' with oil exporting countries facing the US energy consumption increase or the limitation of the resources access to other countries. At the opposite the United States seem to invest in the production of a global public good in matter of energy security. In order to illustrate this opinion the author defines the problem of the US oil security in a world context. He analyzes then the US policies to show the impacts in the world oil security and studies the specific part of the military factor in the security policy. (A.L.B.)

  2. Stochastic Reservoir Characterization Constrained by Seismic Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eide, Alfhild Lien

    1999-07-01

    In order to predict future production of oil and gas from a petroleum reservoir, it is important to have a good description of the reservoir in terms of geometry and physical parameters. This description is used as input to large numerical models for the fluid flow in the reservoir. With increased quality of seismic data, it is becoming possible to extend their use from the study of large geologic structures such as seismic horizons to characterization of the properties of the reservoir between the horizons. Uncertainties because of the low resolution of seismic data can be successfully handled by means of stochastic modeling, and spatial statistics can provide tools for interpolation and simulation of reservoir properties not completely resolved by seismic data. This thesis deals with stochastic reservoir modeling conditioned to seismic data and well data. Part I presents a new model for stochastic reservoir characterization conditioned to seismic traces. Part II deals with stochastic simulation of high resolution impedance conditioned to measured impedance. Part III develops a new stochastic model for calcite cemented objects in a sandstone background; it is a superposition of a marked point model for the calcites and a continuous model for the background.

  3. Sediment management for reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.

    2005-01-01

    All natural lakes and reservoirs whether on rivers, tributaries or off channel storages are doomed to be sited up. Pakistan has two major reservoirs of Tarbela and Managla and shallow lake created by Chashma Barrage. Tarbela and Mangla Lakes are losing their capacities ever since first impounding, Tarbela since 1974 and Mangla since 1967. Tarbela Reservoir receives average annual flow of about 62 MAF and sediment deposits of 0.11 MAF whereas Mangla gets about 23 MAF of average annual flows and is losing its storage at the rate of average 34,000 MAF annually. The loss of storage is a great concern and studies for Tarbela were carried out by TAMS and Wallingford to sustain its capacity whereas no study has been done for Mangla as yet except as part of study for Raised Mangla, which is only desk work. Delta of Tarbala reservoir has advanced to about 6.59 miles (Pivot Point) from power intakes. In case of liquefaction of delta by tremor as low as 0.12g peak ground acceleration the power tunnels I, 2 and 3 will be blocked. Minimum Pool of reservoir is being raised so as to check the advance of delta. Mangla delta will follow the trend of Tarbela. Tarbela has vast amount of data as reservoir is surveyed every year, whereas Mangla Reservoir survey was done at five-year interval, which has now been proposed .to be reduced to three-year interval. In addition suspended sediment sampling of inflow streams is being done by Surface Water Hydrology Project of WAPDA as also some bed load sampling. The problem of Chasma Reservoir has also been highlighted, as it is being indiscriminately being filled up and drawdown several times a year without regard to its reaction to this treatment. The Sediment Management of these reservoirs is essential and the paper discusses pros and cons of various alternatives. (author)

  4. Zooplankton assemblage of Oyun Reservoir, Offa, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Moshood K

    2009-12-01

    The influence of physico-chemical properties of Oyun Reservoir, Offa, Nigeria (a shallow tropical African reservoir) on its zooplankton composition and abundance were investigated at three stations for two years between January 2002 and December 2003. Diversity is not high: only three groups of zooplankton were found: Rotifera with eight genera; and Cladocera and Copepoda with three genera each. Rotifera dominated numerically (71.02%), followed by Cladocera (16.45%) and Copepoda (12.53%). The zooplankton was more prevalent during the rainy season, and there were variations in the composition and abundance along the reservoir continuum. Factors such as temperature, nutrients, food availability, shape and hydrodynamics of the reservoir, as well as reproductive strategies of the organisms, strongly influence the generic composition and population density of zooplankton. Prevention of ecological deterioration of the water body would greatly should result in a more productive water body, rich in zooplankton and with better fisheries.

  5. Hydrological ensemble predictions for reservoir inflow management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalachori, Ioanna; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Garçon, Rémy; Gailhard, Joel

    2013-04-01

    Hydrologic forecasting is a topic of special importance for a variety of users with different purposes. It concerns operational hydrologists interested in forecasting hazardous events (eg., floods and droughts) for early warning and prevention, as well as planners and managers searching to optimize the management of water resources systems at different space-time scales. The general aim of this study is to investigate the benefits of using hydrological ensemble predictions for reservoir inflow management. Ensemble weather forecasts are used as input to a hydrologic forecasting model and daily ensemble streamflow forecasts are generated up to a lead time of 7 days. Forecasts are then integrated into a heuristic decision model for reservoir management procedures. Performance is evaluated in terms of potential gain in energy production. The sensitivity of the results to various reservoir characteristics and future streamflow scenarios is assessed. A set of 11 catchments in France is used to illustrate the added value of ensemble streamflow forecasts for reservoir management.

  6. Rabbit Production in Selected Urban Areas of Southern Ghana: Status and Implications for Policy and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DY Osei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted to elicit information on rabbit keeping in 26 urban areas of southern Ghana. The average age of the rabbit keepers was 44.3 years, and 95.5% of the keepers had formal education. Most of the producers got into rabbit keeping for money to meet urgent family needs, while household consumption was a major factor influencing the decision for rearing rabbits. Personal savings was the main source of income for the establishment of the rabbit enterprises. The major breeds of rabbits kept were the California White, New Zealand White and crossbreds of varied genetic variations. Backyard, small-scale and medium-scale commercial rabbit holdings were held by 18.2, 51.7 and 30.2% of the keepers respectively. The average rabbit population per farm was 77.8, with an average of 8.4 bucks, 21.6 does. Young rabbits formed 70.0% of the rabbit population. Owners of rabbitries usually cared for their animals as hired labour was expensive and often not available. High cost of feed was the most significant constraint to rabbit keeping, and mange was the most common disease affecting the rabbits. Marketing of rabbits was not organized, and this served as a disincentive to expanding the holdings. The rabbits were mostly sold either life or as fresh carcasses at the farm gate. To ensure a rapid growth of the rabbit industry, research should be undertaken to address the identified constraints to production while appropriate policies are put in place to enhance the growth of the industry. Keywords: rabbit keeping, socio-economic characteristics, farming technologies   Animal Production 14(2:131-139

  7. Product policy - the main component of the marketing mix in the Romanian health services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coculescu, BI; Purcarea, VL; Coculescu, EC

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the reforms in the EU healthcare systems are based on the implementation of the marketing concept in the health systems, which are, among other things: • efficient management of the financial resources and control costs of the rendered health services; • increased satisfaction of the clients of health care services; • broad accessibility to health services; • effective implementation of modern technologies; • rational stimulation of medical services consumption; • achievement of a fair and neutral competition between the public/ private providers and health insurance companies; • introduction of performance criteria in order to increase the incomes of the medical staff and hierarchy in hospitals; • implementation of modern management methods in health services management; • decentralization of the public healthcare system. Product policy in the medical system of healthcare - the most important component of the marketing mix - is the attitude that addresses a medical organization to the volume, structure, and diversity of services subject to their own activities in relation to the requirements of the services market and the competitive actions of other medical institutions. PMID:27974913

  8. Product policy - the main component of the marketing mix in the Romanian health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coculescu, B I; Purcarea, V L; Coculescu, E C

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the reforms in the EU healthcare systems are based on the implementation of the marketing concept in the health systems, which are, among other things: • efficient management of the financial resources and control costs of the rendered health services; • increased satisfaction of the clients of health care services; • broad accessibility to health services; • effective implementation of modern technologies; • rational stimulation of medical services consumption; • achievement of a fair and neutral competition between the public/ private providers and health insurance companies; • introduction of performance criteria in order to increase the incomes of the medical staff and hierarchy in hospitals; • implementation of modern management methods in health services management; • decentralization of the public healthcare system. Product policy in the medical system of healthcare - the most important component of the marketing mix - is the attitude that addresses a medical organization to the volume, structure, and diversity of services subject to their own activities in relation to the requirements of the services market and the competitive actions of other medical institutions.

  9. Disclosure of electricity products--lessons from consumer research as guidance for energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markard, Jochen; Holt, Edward

    2003-01-01

    In this article we compare recent findings from focus group research on electricity information disclosure in Switzerland with consumer research in the US. On the basis of the results, we provide an overview of disclosure schemes in the US and in Europe. Our aim is to summarize the key issues of electricity disclosure from a residential customer's point of view and to underline the potential of consumer research for energy policy making. The results are as follows: Consumer preferences for electricity disclosure are very similar in Switzerland and the US. There is a basic demand for trustworthy information and market transparency. Consumers want to compare electricity products with regard to price, generation sources, and environmental and contractual attributes. Thus, the disclosure of critical information is important to improve competition by increasing consumer confidence in their ability to choose among electricity offerings. Even more, electricity disclosure is a key element of consumer protection in general, and is a useful educational tool in regulated electricity markets

  10. Quantification of Libby Reservoir Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservior Fisheries, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, Bradley B.

    1985-06-01

    We are evaluating the potential impacts of Libby Reservoir operation on the fishery in Libby Reservoir. The sampling program has been tested and modified to provide data for developing an understanding of how reservoir operation impacts the reservoir fishery. Temperature appears to be an important variable influenced by reservoir operation which regulates fish and fish food production and distribution. 39 refs., 21 figs., 19 tabs.

  11. Borehole radar modeling for reservoir monitoring applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miorali, M.; Slob, E.C.; Arts, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    The use of down-hole sensors and remotely controlled valves in wells provide enormous benefits to reservoir management and oil production. We suggest borehole radar measurements as a promising technique capable of monitoring the arrival of undesired fluids in the proximity of production wells. The

  12. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian sandstone reservoirs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, M.

    1995-02-01

    This final report summarizes the progress during the three years of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description; (ii) scale-up procedures; (iii) outcrop investigation. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be described in three dimensions. The next step in reservoir description is to scale up reservoir properties for flow simulation. The second section addresses the issue of scale-up of reservoir properties once the spatial descriptions of properties are created. The last section describes the investigation of an outcrop.

  13. Changes in the epilimnetic bacterial community composition, production, and protist-induced mortality along the longitudinal axis of a highly eutrophic reservoir

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Karel; Armengol, J.; Comerma, M.; Garcia, J. C.; Kojecká, P.; Nedoma, Jiří; Hejzlar, Josef

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 42, - (2001), s. 359-371 ISSN 0095-3628 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/99/0028; GA ČR GA206/98/0727; GA AV ČR IPP1011802 Grant - others:SIMCST(ES) CICYT HID99-599-CO2-O1 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6017912 Keywords : bacterial community composition * eutrophic reservoir * microbial food webs Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.891, year: 2001

  14. LATERAL MARKETING IN THE CONTEXT OF THE SUCCESSFUL PRODUCT POLICY OF WINERIES IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana GHENOVA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This scientific publication is aimed at solving application of lateral marketing the issues of in the context of commodity policy of wineries in the Republic of Moldova. Currently, Moldovan wineries face with a high level of competition,both in foreign and domestic market of alcoholic beverages, which leads to an unstable dynamics of growth of volumes of production and sales of their products. We have also studied examples of applying the lateral technology of Moldovan wineries, which revealed the level of the problem and their implementation. Along with this, a number of recommendations have been made in the framework of lateral marketing at the product level, market and marketing mix, allowing increasing the efficiency of commodity policy of domestic wineries.

  15. An Optimization of (Q,r Inventory Policy Based on Health Care Apparel Products with Compound Poisson Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Pan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the problems of a health care center which produces tailor-made clothes for specific people, the paper proposes a single product continuous review model and establishes an optimal policy for the center based on (Q,r control policy to minimize expected average cost on an order cycle. A generic mathematical model to compute cost on real-time inventory level is developed to generate optimal order quantity under stochastic stock variation. The customer demands are described as compound Poisson process. Comparisons on cost between optimization method and experience-based decision on Q are made through numerical studies conducted for the inventory system of the center.

  16. A New Method for Fracturing Wells Reservoir Evaluation in Fractured Gas Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianchun Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural fracture is a geological phenomenon widely distributed in tight formation, and fractured gas reservoir stimulation effect mainly depends on the communication of natural fractures. Therefore it is necessary to carry out the evaluation of this reservoir and to find out the optimal natural fractures development wells. By analyzing the interactions and nonlinear relationships of the parameters, it establishes three-level index system of reservoir evaluation and proposes a new method for gas well reservoir evaluation model in fractured gas reservoir on the basis of fuzzy logic theory and multilevel gray correlation. For this method, the Gaussian membership functions to quantify the degree of every factor in the decision-making system and the multilevel gray relation to determine the weight of each parameter on stimulation effect. Finally through fuzzy arithmetic operator between multilevel weights and fuzzy evaluation matrix, score, rank, the reservoir quality, and predicted production will be gotten. Result of this new method shows that the evaluation of the production coincidence rate reaches 80%, which provides a new way for fractured gas reservoir evaluation.

  17. The role of water reservoir operation in climate change impact assessments: expanding uncertainties and evolving tradeoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Matteo; Anghileri, Daniela; Castelletti, Andrea; Soncini-Sessa, Rodolfo

    2015-04-01

    Climate change and growing population are expected to severely affect freshwater availability by the end of 21th century. Although many river basins are likely to become more prone to periods of reduced water supply, risking considerable impacts on the society, the economy, and the environment, the operations of many water resource systems are still designed on the basis of the observed historical hydrologic variability. Yet, under changing hydroclimatic forcing, no guarantee exists that policies optimized over the past will not fail in coming years. This work explores the impact of projected climate change and the associated uncertainty on the policy performance for different future time horizons. A perturbed physics ensemble of projected hydroclimatic conditions based on the HadCM3 General Circulation Modelis is used to simulate the whole set of Pareto optimal policies over the different futures. The changes in the overall system performance and the evolution of each single-tradeoff are analyzed to improve our understanding of the system's vulnerabilities. The study is developed on the Red-Thai Binh River system, Vietnam. The Red River Basin is the second largest basin of Vietnam, draining an area of about 169,000 km2, and comprises three main tributaries and several reservoirs, namely SonLa and HoaBinh on the Da River, ThacBa and TuyenQuang on the Lo River. These reservoirs are regulated for maximizing hydropower production, mitigating downstream flood, primarily in Hanoi, and guaranteeing irrigation water supply to the agricultural districts in the delta. We address the challenges of the policy design problem (e.g., dimensionality of the system, number of objectives involved) by adopting the evolutionary multi-objective direct policy search (EMODPS), an approximate dynamic programming method that combines direct policy search, nonlinear approximating networks and multi-objective evolutionary algorithms to design Pareto approximate operating policies for multi

  18. Policy-Relevant Systematic Reviews to Strengthen Health Systems: Models and Mechanisms to Support Their Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Sandra; Dickson, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Support for producing systematic reviews about health systems is less well developed than for those about clinical practice. From interviewing policy makers and systematic reviewers we identified institutional mechanisms which bring systematic reviews and policy priorities closer by harnessing organisational and individual motivations, emphasising…

  19. Policy-Relevant Nonconvexities in the Production of Multiple Forest Benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen K. Swallow; Peter J. Parks; David N. Wear

    1990-01-01

    This paper challenges common assumptions about convexity in forest rotation models which optimize timber plus nontimber benefits. If a local optimum occurs earlier than the globally optimal age, policy based on marginal incentives may achieve suboptimal results. Policy-relevant nonconvexities are more likely if (i) nontimber benefits dominate for young stands while...

  20. Dynamic modeling of surfactant flooding in low permeable argillaceous reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, A. N.; Gunkin, A. S.; Rogachev, M. К

    2017-10-01

    This article reveals the current state and problems of the Russian oil production sector. Physicochemical enhanced oil recovery methods are proposed as a solution. The investigation of surfactant treatment efficiency and their integrated effect on oil and reservoir rock is conducted as well as its applicability analysis for low permeable poly-mineral reservoir. The results of dynamic modeling of oil displacement by the developed surfactant composition in a low permeable reservoir are presented.

  1. What Geological, Economic, or Policy Forces Might Limit Fossil Fuel Production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinberg, R.

    2015-12-01

    In order to ensure a 50% chance of keeping global temperatures from exceeding 2°C above pre-industrial levels, it has been estimated that total carbon dioxide emissions between 2011-2050 must be capped at roughly 1,100 gigatons.[1] However, some estimates calculate that global fossil fuel reserves—including unconventional oil and gas—hold at least three times this amount of potential greenhouse gas emissions.[2]What socio-political, technological, or economic forces are most likely to keep these energy resources from being burned? While it is difficult to predict with specificity what combination of technological, geological, or human factors will significantly minimize global fossil fuel production, there are at least four key potential drivers: 1. Under-investment and the economics of unconventional oil and natural gas; 2. International policy, driven by citizen demand and leadership from key nations; 3. Massive deployment of renewable energy sources and other technological solutions; and 4. Large-scale energy curtailment resulting from global economic contraction. We will explore the implications, viability, and consequences of each of these potential factors. [1] [1]United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) Report of the Conference of the Parties on its Fifteenth Session, held in Copenhagen from 7 to 19 December 2009. Part Two: Action taken by the Conference of the Parties at its Fifteenth Session. United Nations Climate Change Conf. Report 43 http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2009/cop15/eng/11a01.pdf (UNFCC, 2009) [2] Raupach, M. R. et al. Sharing a quota on cumulative carbon emissions. Nature Clim. Chang. 4, 873-879 (2014)

  2. MULTIDISCIPLINARY IMAGING OF ROCK PROPERTIES IN CARBONATE RESERVOIRS FOR FLOW-UNIT TARGETING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen C. Ruppel

    2005-02-01

    Despite declining production rates, existing reservoirs in the US contain large quantities of remaining oil and gas that constitute a huge target for improved diagnosis and imaging of reservoir properties. The resource target is especially large in carbonate reservoirs, where conventional data and methodologies are normally insufficient to resolve critical scales of reservoir heterogeneity. The objectives of the research described in this report were to develop and test such methodologies for improved imaging, measurement, modeling, and prediction of reservoir properties in carbonate hydrocarbon reservoirs. The focus of the study is the Permian-age Fullerton Clear Fork reservoir of the Permian Basin of West Texas. This reservoir is an especially appropriate choice considering (a) the Permian Basin is the largest oil-bearing basin in the US, and (b) as a play, Clear Fork reservoirs have exhibited the lowest recovery efficiencies of all carbonate reservoirs in the Permian Basin.

  3. Conformance Control in Heterogeneous Oil Reservoirs with Polymer Gels and Nano-Spheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenchenkov, N.

    2017-01-01

    In many oil fields, water is injected into a reservoir to displace oil to the production wells. During the injection process, oil is pushed by water towards production wells which have a lower pressure than the rest of the reservoir. If the reservoir is homogeneous, then a good sweep efficiency of

  4. Space for innovation for sustainable community-based biofuel production and use: Lessons learned for policy from Nhambita community, Mozambique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schut, Marc; Paassen, Annemarie van; Leeuwis, Cees; Bos, Sandra; Leonardo, Wilson; Lerner, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides insights and recommendations for policy on the opportunities and constrains that influence the space for innovation for sustainable community-based biofuel production and use. Promoted by the Mozambican government, Nhambita community established jatropha trials in 2005. Initial results were promising, but crop failure and the absence of organized markets led to scepticism amongst farmers. We start from the idea that the promotion of community-based biofuel production and use requires taking interactions between social-cultural, biophysical, economic, political and legal subsystems across different scales and levels of analysis through time into account. Our analysis demonstrates that heterogeneous farming strategies and their synergies at community level should be carefully assessed. Furthermore, national and international political and legal developments, such as the development of biofuel sustainability criteria, influence the local space in which community-based biofuel developments take place. We conclude that ex-ante integrated assessment and creating an enabling environment can enhance space for sustainable community-based biofuel production and use. It may provide insights into the opportunities and constraints for different types of smallholders, and promote the development of adequate policy mechanisms to prevent biofuels from becoming a threat rather than an opportunity for smallholders. - Highlights: → This paper explores space for innovation for community-based biofuel production and use. → Heterogeneous farming strategies and their synergies at community level are key. → Farmers have little trust in jatropha due to crop failure and absence of markets. → (Inter)national biofuel policies influence space for local biofuel production and use. → Policies should focus on ex-ante integrated assessment and creating an enabling environment.

  5. Estimation of reservoir fluid volumes through 4-D seismic analysis on Gullfaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veire, H.S.; Reymond, S.B.; Signer, C.; Tenneboe, P.O.; Soenneland, L.; Schlumberger, Geco-Prakla

    1998-12-31

    4-D seismic has the potential to monitor hydrocarbon movement in reservoirs during production, and could thereby supplement the predictions of reservoir parameters offered by the reservoir simulator. However 4-D seismic is often more band limited than the vertical resolution required in the reservoir model. As a consequence the seismic data holds a composite response from reservoir parameter changes during production so that the inversion becomes non-unique. A procedure where data from the reservoir model are integrated with seismic data will be presented. The potential of such a procedure is demonstrated through a case study from a recent 4-D survey over the Gullfaks field. 2 figs.

  6. Biomass and production of Cladocera in Furnas Reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil Biomassa e produção de Cladocera no Reservatório de Furnas, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RM Santos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Secondary production of zooplankton, the main energy pathway in many aquatic ecosystems, is crucial to an Understanding of functioning of these systems function. In this study, we analyzed the magnitude and seasonal variations of the population density, biomass and secondary production of Cladocera in the Furnas Reservoir (Brazil. Samples were carried out monthly at 6 points in the reservoir, from August 2006 to July 2007. Main physical and chemical variables in the water column were measured in situ. Data on density, biomass and development times were obtained and used to calculate the secondary production of eight Cladocera species. The total production of Cladocera varied from 0.02 to 28.6 mgDWm-3.day-1, among the sampling sites. The highest values were recorded in spring and summer months (September to January, and were correlated to the increase in the biomass of the phytoplankton. The mean production:biomass ratio was 0.32. The level of production in Furnas Reservoir fell within the range of those reported in the literature and was of the same order of magnitude of the production values recorded for oligotrophic reservoirs. Cladocera production differed spatially inside the Sapucaí compartment and also in the temporal scale, seasonally.A produção secundária do zooplâncton é uma variável importante no funcionamento dos ambientes aquáticos, sendo o principal caminho da energia em muitos ecossistemas. Neste trabalho, o principal objetivo foi determinar a magnitude e as mudanças sazonais na densidade, biomassa e produção secundária dos cladóceros, no Reservatório de Furnas. As amostragens de Cladocera foram realizadas mensalmente em seis pontos do reservatório no período de agosto de 2006 a julho de 2007. As principais variáveis físicas e químicas da coluna d´água foram medidas in situ. Dados de densidade, biomassa e tempo de desenvolvimento foram obtidos e utilizados para calcular a produção secundária de oito esp

  7. INCREASING WATERFLOOD RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH IMPROVED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Walker; Chris Phillips; Roy Koerner; Don Clarke; Dan Moos; Kwasi Tagbor

    2002-02-28

    This project increased recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project. This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate. Although these reservoirs have been waterflooded over 40 years, researchers have found areas of remaining oil saturation. Areas such as the top sand in the Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the western fault slivers of Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the bottom sands of the Tar Zone Fault Block V, and the eastern edge of Fault Block IV in both the Upper Terminal and Lower Terminal Zones all show significant remaining oil saturation. Each area of interest was uncovered emphasizing a different type of reservoir characterization technique or practice. This was not the original strategy but was necessitated by the different levels of progress in each of the project activities.

  8. Pricing and sales tax collection policies for e-cigarette starter kits and disposable products sold online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Raphael E; Miner, Angela; Mackey, Tim K

    2015-10-23

    Previous studies have examined marketing characteristics of e-cigarettes sold online and others have examined e-cigarettes pricing in retail (non-Internet) settings. This study expands on these findings by examining pricing and marketing characteristics of interest among e-cigarette online vendors. Structured web searches were conducted from August-September 2014 to identify popular e-cigarette Internet vendors. We then collected pricing data (e-cigarette starter kits and disposables), sales tax collection policies and other vendor marketing characteristics. Average price for each product category was then compared with marketing characteristics using linear regression for continuous variables and independent t-tests for binary variables. Our searches yielded 44 e-cigarette Internet vendors of which 77% (n = 34) sold a total of 238 starter kit offerings (Mprice = $55.89). Half (n = 22) sold disposable types of e-cigarettes (Mprice = $7.17 p/e-cigarette) at a price lower than reported elsewhere in retail settings. Average disposable e-cigarette prices were also significantly higher for vendors displaying more health warning notices (P = 0.001). Only 46% disclosed sales tax collection policies and only 39% collected sales tax in their state of business. This study expands on current understanding of e-cigarette pricing and availability online and finds variation in e-cigarette pricing may be influenced by type of product, use of online health warnings and vendor sales tax collection policies. It also finds that e-cigarette online access and availability may be impacted by a combination of pricing and marketing strategies uniquely different from e-cigarette retail settings that requires further study and targeted policy-making. [Cuomo RE, Miner A, Mackey TK. Pricing and sales tax collection policies for e-cigarette starter kits and disposable products sold online. Drug Alcohol Rev 2015]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and

  9. Different accounting approaches to harvested wood products in national greenhouse gas inventories: their incentives to achievement of major policy goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Seiji

    2008-01-01

    The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories provide four accounting approaches to harvested wood products (HWP). These differ in the way they define system boundaries. Therefore, reported national carbon emissions differ according to the accounting approach used, and the implications of each accounting approach differ for different countries. This paper investigates four IPCC accounting approaches, as well as the 1996 IPCC default approach, to determine whether they provide incentives to achievement of major policy goals related to climate, forest, trade, and waste, taking into account indirect effects of wood use change (i.e., the effects on forest carbon stocks and on carbon emissions from the use of other fuels and materials). Conclusions are as follows: (1) The analyses produced many different results from those of previous studies. These differences appear to be attributable to whether or not the indirect effects of wood use change are taken into account and the reference scenarios that are assumed; (2) The best approaches for achieving each policy goal differ, and the best approaches for particular policy goals might pose problems for other policy goals; (3) Overall, the IPCC default approach is the best accounting approach from the viewpoint of greater compatibility with, or integration across, the array of policy goals, although it does not address the issue of an increasing global carbon stock in HWP

  10. Monthly Optimal Reservoirs Operation for Multicrop Deficit Irrigation under Fuzzy Stochastic Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An uncertain monthly reservoirs operation and multicrop deficit irrigation model was proposed under conjunctive use of underground and surface water for water resources optimization management. The objective is to maximize the total crop yield of the entire irrigation districts. Meanwhile, ecological water remained for the downstream demand. Because of the shortage of water resources, the monthly crop water production function was adopted for multiperiod deficit irrigation management. The model reflects the characteristics of water resources repetitive transformation in typical inland rivers irrigation system. The model was used as an example for water resources optimization management in Shiyang River Basin, China. Uncertainties in reservoir management shown as fuzzy probability were treated through chance-constraint parameter for decision makers. Necessity of dominance (ND was used to analyse the advantages of the method. The optimization results including reservoirs real-time operation policy, deficit irrigation management, and the available water resource allocation could be used to provide decision support for local irrigation management. Besides, the strategies obtained could help with the risk analysis of reservoirs operation stochastically.

  11. Characteristics of volcanic reservoirs and distribution rules of effective reservoirs in the Changling fault depression, Songliao Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujun Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Songliao Basin, volcanic oil and gas reservoirs are important exploration domains. Based on drilling, logging, and 3D seismic (1495 km2 data, 546 sets of measured physical properties and gas testing productivity of 66 wells in the Changling fault depression, Songliao Basin, eruptive cycles and sub-lithofacies were distinguished after lithologic correction of the 19,384 m volcanic well intervals, so that a quantitative analysis was conducted on the relation between the eruptive cycles, lithologies and lithofacies and the distribution of effective reservoirs. After the relationship was established between lithologies, lithofacies & cycles and reservoir physical properties & oil and gas bearing situations, an analysis was conducted on the characteristics of volcanic reservoirs and the distribution rules of effective reservoirs. It is indicated that 10 eruptive cycles of 3 sections are totally developed in this area, and the effective reservoirs are mainly distributed at the top cycles of eruptive sequences, with those of the 1st and 3rd Members of Yingcheng Formation presenting the best reservoir properties. In this area, there are mainly 11 types of volcanic rocks, among which rhyolite, rhyolitic tuff, rhyolitic tuffo lava and rhyolitic volcanic breccia are the dominant lithologies of effective reservoirs. In the target area are mainly developed 4 volcanic lithofacies (11 sub-lithofacies, among which upper sub-lithofacies of effusive facies and thermal clastic sub-lithofacies of explosion lithofacies are predominant in effective reservoirs. There is an obvious corresponding relationship between the physical properties of volcanic reservoirs and the development degree of effective reservoirs. The distribution of effective reservoirs is controlled by reservoir physical properties, and the formation of effective reservoirs is influenced more by porosity than by permeability. It is concluded that deep volcanic gas exploration presents a good

  12. Clonal Diversity of Chilean Isolates of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli from Patients with Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome, Asymptomatic Subjects, Animal Reservoirs, and Food Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Maritza; Prado, Valeria; Trucksis, Michele; Arellano, Carolina; Borie, Consuelo; Alexandre, Marcela; Fica, Alberto; Levine, Myron M.

    1999-01-01

    To determine clonal relationship among Chilean enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains from different sources (clinical infections, animal reservoirs, and food), 54 EHEC isolates (44 of E. coli O157, 5 of E. coli O111, and 5 of E. coli O26) were characterized for virulence genes by colony blot hybridization and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). By colony blotting, 12 different genotypes were identified among the 44 E. coli O157 isolates analyzed, of which the genetic profile stx1+ stx2+ hly+ eae+ was the most prevalent. All human O157 strains that were associated with sporadic cases of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) carried both the stx1 and stx2 toxin-encoding genes and were eaeA positive. Only 9 of 13 isolates from human controls were stx1+ stx2+, and 8 carried the eaeA gene. Comparison of profiles obtained by PFGE of XbaI-digested genomic DNA showed a great diversity among the E. coli O157 isolates, with 37 different profiles among 39 isolates analyzed. Cluster analysis of PFGE profiles showed a wide distribution of clinical isolates obtained from HUS cases and asymptomatic individuals and a clonal relationship among O157 isolates obtained from HUS cases and pigs. Analysis of virulence genes showed that a correlation exists among strains with the genotype stx1+ stx2+ eae+ and pathogenic potential. A larger difference in the PFGE restriction patterns was observed among the EHEC strains of serogroups O26 and O111. These results indicate that several different EHEC clones circulate in Chile and suggest that pigs are an important animal reservoir for human infections by EHEC. Guidelines have been proposed for better practices in the slaughter of animals in Chile. PMID:9986852

  13. Production of antimicrobial substances by Bacillus subtilis LFE-1, B. firmus HO-1 and B. licheniformis T6-5 isolated from an oil reservoir in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenblum, E; der Weid, I; Santos, A L S; Rosado, A S; Sebastián, G V; Coutinho, C M L M; Magalhães, F C M; Paiva, M M; Seldin, L

    2005-01-01

    Forty Bacillus strains isolated from a Brazilian oil reservoir were tested against each other to select strains producing antimicrobial substances (AMS). Three strains, Bacillus subtilis (LFE-1), Bacillus firmus (H2O-1) and Bacillus licheniformis (T6-5), were selected due to their ability to inhibit more than 65% of the Bacillus strains tested. These three strains were also investigated for their capability to inhibit sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Furthermore, physiological and biochemical characteristics of the antimicrobial compounds produced by the selected strains were determined. Among the forty strains tested, 36 (90%) strains were able to inhibit at least one Bacillus strain used as indicator in plate assays and three of them (LFE-1, T6-5 and H2O-1) were able to inhibit 65, 70 and 97.5% of the 40 strains studied here respectively. Clear zones of inhibition were observed when H2O-1 was tested against SRB-containing consortium T6-lab and Desulfovibrio alaskensis strain NCIMB 13491, while strain T6-5 was able to inhibit only the D. alaskensis strain. The three substances showed to be insensitive to different enzymes and chemicals, were heat stable and the substances produced by strains T6-5 and H2O-1 were active over a wide pH range. Three different AMS produced by Bacillus strains from an oil reservoir, two of them with activity against SRB, are presented here. The preliminary characterization of these AMS points to their potential use as biocides in the petroleum industry for controlling problems associated with SRB.

  14. FULFILMENT OF GOALS OF THE INTEGRATED PRODUCT POLICY IN POLAND IN COMPARISON TO OTHER EUROPEAN UNION MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna SŁONIMIEC

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the progress of implementation of the Integrated Product Policy in Poland in comparison to other European Union member states. It provides a detailed evaluation of certain IPP instruments, i.e. taxes and green premi-ums, EMAS scheme, eco-labeling and green public procurements. The paper also provides an assessment of the progress of implementation activities and requests further studies in this respect.

  15. Contributions of knowledge products to health policy: a case study on the Public Health Status and Forecasts Report 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegger, Ingrid; Kok, Maarten O; Janssen, Susan W J; Schuit, Albertine J; van Oers, Hans A M

    2016-12-01

    The Dutch Public Health Status and Forecasts report (PHSF Report) integrates research data and identifies future trends affecting public health in the Netherlands. To investigate how PHSF contributions to health policy can be enhanced, we analysed the development process whereby the PHSF Report for 2010 was produced (PHSF-2010). To collect data, a case study approach was used along the lines of Contribution Mapping including analysis of documents from the PHSF-2010 process and interviews with actors involved. All interviews were recorded and transcribed ad verbatim and coded using an inductive code list. The PHSF-2010 process included activities aimed at alignment between researchers and policy-makers, such as informal meetings. However, we identified three issues that are easily overlooked in knowledge development, but provide suggestions for enhancing contributions: awareness of divergent; continuously changing actor scenarios; vertical alignment within organizations involved and careful timing of draft products to create early adopters. To enhance the contributions made by an established public health report, such as the PHSF Report, it is insufficient to raise the awareness of potential users. The knowledge product must be geared to policy-makers' needs and must be introduced into the scenarios of actors who may be less familiar. The demand for knowledge product adaptations has to be considered. This requires continuous alignment efforts in all directions: horizontal and vertical, external and internal. The findings of this study may be useful to researchers who aim to enhance the contributions of their knowledge products to health policy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  16. 'Demand pull' government policies to support Product-Service System activity: The case of Energy Service Companies in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Hannon, MJ; Foxon, TJ; Gale, WF

    2015-01-01

    Product-Service Systems (PSSs) constitute a family of service-based business models designed to satisfy our societal needs in an economically and environmentally sustainable manner. To date however PSS application has remained niche due to a variety of critical barriers. This paper explores how ‘demand pull’ national government policies could support PSS activity by addressing these barriers and cultivating market demand. Lessons are drawn from a case study of how regulatory, economic incenti...

  17. Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitzman, D.O.; Bailey, S.A.; Stepp, A.K.

    2003-02-11

    This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil releasing agents. The potential of the system will be illustrated and demonstrated by the example of biopolymer production on oil recovery.

  18. Model based management of a reservoir system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharaw, B.; Westerhoff, T. [Fraunhofer IITB, Ilmenau (Germany). Anwendungszentrum Systemtechnik; Puta, H.; Wernstedt, J. [Technische Univ. Ilmenau (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The main goals of reservoir management systems consist of prevention against flood water damages, the catchment of raw water and keeping all of the quality parameters within their limits besides controlling the water flows. In consideration of these goals a system model of the complete reservoir system Ohra-Schmalwasser-Tambach Dietharz was developed. This model has been used to develop optimized strategies for minimization of raw water production cost, for maximization of electrical energy production and to cover flood situations, as well. Therefore a proper forecast of the inflow to the reservoir from the catchment areas (especially flooding rivers) and the biological processes in the reservoir is important. The forecast model for the inflow to the reservoir is based on the catchment area model of Lorent and Gevers. It uses area precipitation, water supply from the snow cover, evapotranspiration and soil wetness data to calculate the amount of flow in rivers. The other aim of the project is to ensure the raw water quality using quality models, as well. Then a quality driven raw water supply will be possible. (orig.)

  19. Optimising reservoir operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Long le

    Anvendelse af optimeringsteknik til drift af reservoirer er blevet et væsentligt element i vandressource-planlægning og -forvaltning. Traditionelt har reservoirer været styret af heuristiske procedurer for udtag af vand, suppleret i en vis udstrækning af subjektive beslutninger. Udnyttelse af...... reservoirer involverer en lang række interessenter med meget forskellige formål (f.eks. kunstig vanding, vandkraft, vandforsyning mv.), og optimeringsteknik kan langt bedre lede frem til afbalancerede løsninger af de ofte modstridende interesser. Afhandlingen foreslår en række tiltag, hvormed traditionelle...... driftsstrategier kan erstattes af optimale strategier baseret på den nyeste udvikling indenfor computer-baserede beregninger. Hovedbidraget i afhandlingen er udviklingen af et beregningssystem, hvori en simuleringsmodel er koblet til en model for optimering af nogle udvalgte beslutningsvariable, der i særlig grad...

  20. Imaging fluid/solid interactions in hydrocarbon reservoir rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwins, P J; Baker, J C; Mackinnon, I D

    1993-08-01

    The environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) has been used to image liquid hydrocarbons in sandstones and oil shales. Additionally, the fluid sensitivity of selected clay minerals in hydrocarbon reservoirs was assessed via three case studies: HCl acid sensitivity of authigenic chlorite in sandstone reservoirs, freshwater sensitivity of authigenic illite/smectite in sandstone reservoirs, and bleach sensitivity of a volcanic reservoir containing abundant secondary chlorite/corrensite. The results showed the suitability of using ESEM for imaging liquid hydrocarbon films in hydrocarbon reservoirs and the importance of simulating in situ fluid-rock interactions for hydrocarbon production programmes. In each case, results of the ESEM studies greatly enhanced prediction of reservoir/borehole reactions and, in some cases, contradicted conventional wisdom regarding the outcome of potential engineering solutions.

  1. Sustaining reservoir use through sediment trapping in NW Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Getahun, Mulatie Mekonnen

    2016-01-01

    To increase crop production and improve food self-sufficiency, rain-fed agriculture need to be supplemented with irrigated agriculture. To this end, a large number of reservoirs had been constructed in Ethiopia. However, reservoirs are suffering from sedimentation. This study was conducted in Minizr

  2. BEKWAAM, a model fit for reservoir design and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benoist, A.P.; Brinkman, A.G.; Diepenbeek, van P.M.J.A.; Waals, J.M.J.

    1998-01-01

    In the Province of Limburg in the Netherlands a new reservoir will be used for the drinking water production of 20 million m3 per annum from the year 2002. With the use of this reservoir the WML is shifting towards the use of surface water (River Meuse) as primary source instead of ground water.

  3. The role of rainfall variability in reservoir storage management at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reservoir operation and management is usually patterned after the background of long standing water resources management experience. Reservoir management for optimum power production at any hydropower station requires constant assessment of the quantity of available water. The hydrographic responses of flow ...

  4. Optimizing the Benefits of Conversion of Depleted Oil Reservoirs for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimizing the Benefits of Conversion of Depleted Oil Reservoirs for Underground Natural Gas Storage in Nigeria. ... (1) utilization of the abandoned oil wells of known production histories; (2) recovery of substantial quantities of oil that otherwise might not have been recovered; (3) converting partially depleted oil reservoirs ...

  5. Integrated Approach to Drilling Project in Unconventional Reservoir Using Reservoir Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopa, Jerzy; Wiśniowski, Rafał; Wojnarowski, Paweł; Janiga, Damian; Skrzypaszek, Krzysztof

    2018-03-01

    Accumulation and flow mechanisms in unconventional reservoir are different compared to conventional. This requires a special approach of field management with drilling and stimulation treatments as major factor for further production. Integrated approach of unconventional reservoir production optimization assumes coupling drilling project with full scale reservoir simulation for determine best well placement, well length, fracturing treatment design and mid-length distance between wells. Full scale reservoir simulation model emulate a part of polish shale - gas field. The aim of this paper is to establish influence of technical factor for gas production from shale gas field. Due to low reservoir permeability, stimulation treatment should be direct towards maximizing the hydraulic contact. On the basis of production scenarios, 15 stages hydraulic fracturing allows boost gas production over 1.5 times compared to 8 stages. Due to the possible interference of the wells, it is necessary to determine the distance between the horizontal parts of the wells trajectories. In order to determine the distance between the wells allowing to maximize recovery factor of resources in the stimulated zone, a numerical algorithm based on a dynamic model was developed and implemented. Numerical testing and comparative study show that the most favourable arrangement assumes a minimum allowable distance between the wells. This is related to the volume ratio of the drainage zone to the total volume of the stimulated zone.

  6. Geothermal reservoir engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Malcolm Alister

    2011-01-01

    As nations alike struggle to diversify and secure their power portfolios, geothermal energy, the essentially limitless heat emanating from the earth itself, is being harnessed at an unprecedented rate.  For the last 25 years, engineers around the world tasked with taming this raw power have used Geothermal Reservoir Engineering as both a training manual and a professional reference.  This long-awaited second edition of Geothermal Reservoir Engineering is a practical guide to the issues and tasks geothermal engineers encounter in the course of their daily jobs. The bo

  7. Session: Reservoir Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renner, Joel L.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Wannamaker, Philip E.; Horne, Roland N.; Shook, G. Michael

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five papers: ''Reservoir Technology'' by Joel L. Renner; ''LBL Research on the Geysers: Conceptual Models, Simulation and Monitoring Studies'' by Gudmundur S. Bodvarsson; ''Geothermal Geophysical Research in Electrical Methods at UURI'' by Philip E. Wannamaker; ''Optimizing Reinjection Strategy at Palinpinon, Philippines Based on Chloride Data'' by Roland N. Horne; ''TETRAD Reservoir Simulation'' by G. Michael Shook

  8. High Alcohol Concentration Products Associated With Poverty and State Alcohol Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossheim, Matthew E; Thombs, Dennis L; Wagenaar, Alexander C; Xuan, Ziming; Aryal, Subhash

    2015-09-01

    We examined the associations among zip code demographics, the state alcohol policy environment, and the retail outlet availability of multiple fruit-flavored alcoholic drinks in a can (MFAC). In a nationally representative sample of zip codes (n = 872), we merged data from 4 sources: publicly available marketing information from 2 major MFAC producers, the US Census Bureau, state alcohol regulatory agencies, and recent research on state alcohol policies. We used zero-inflated negative binomial regression models to examine MFAC outlet availability in the United States. More than 98% of MFAC outlets were off-premises alcohol establishments. After we controlled for population size and the number of licensed on- and off-premises alcohol outlets within zip codes, more families below the poverty line and weaker state alcohol control policies were associated with greater MFAC outlet availability. Economic conditions and alcohol policy environment appeared to be related to MFAC outlet availability, after adjusting for the general availability of alcohol. Research is needed to determine whether MFACs are disproportionately contributing to alcohol-related harm in socially and economically disadvantaged communities. Policies to better regulate the off-premises sale of alcohol are needed.

  9. Consumer Food Security and Labeling Intervention on Food Products through Public Policies in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dacinia Crina Petrescu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The correct understanding of consumers’ food labeling knowledge and perceptions is a prerequisite to develop and implement coherent and appropriate food safety policies. One objective of the paper was to discover how often consumers access and use specific food label information. Another objective was to explore stakeholders’ preferences for several public policy options relevant for food safety. In this respect, a survey on a sample of 312 Romanian consumers and the evaluation of several public policy options by four stakeholder groups (food producers and sellers, doctors, fitness trainers, and consumers were carried out. The results revealed that the most frequently read types of information on the label were “expiration date” and “price”, closely followed by “quantity” and “brand”. Among tested public policies, those related to the traffic light labels and to the social interest messages with health claims were rewarded with high scores by investigated stakeholders. Although nutrition has a decisive impact on health state, nutrition information was not frequently read by people, thus justifying the implementation of a public policy meant to enhance consumers’ interest in and reading frequency of nutrition information on food label.

  10. The Determination of Production and Distribution Policy in Push-Pull Production Chain with Supply Hub as the Junction Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaga, A. T.; Wangsaputra, R.

    2018-03-01

    The development of technology causes the needs of products and services become increasingly complex, diverse, and fluctuating. This causes the level of inter-company dependencies within a production chains increased. To be able to compete, efficiency improvements need to be done collaboratively in the production chain network. One of the efforts to increase efficiency is to harmonize production and distribution activities in the production chain network. This paper describes the harmonization of production and distribution activities by applying the use of push-pull system and supply hub in the production chain between two companies. The research methodology begins with conducting empirical and literature studies, formulating research questions, developing mathematical models, conducting trials and analyses, and taking conclusions. The relationship between the two companies is described in the MINLP mathematical model with the total cost of production chain as the objective function. Decisions generated by the mathematical models are the size of production lot, size of delivery lot, number of kanban, frequency of delivery, and the number of understock and overstock lot.

  11. Improved characterization of reservoir behavior by integration of reservoir performances data and rock type distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, D.K.; Vessell, R.K. [David K. Davies & Associates, Kingwood, TX (United States); Doublet, L.E. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    An integrated geological/petrophysical and reservoir engineering study was performed for a large, mature waterflood project (>250 wells, {approximately}80% water cut) at the North Robertson (Clear Fork) Unit, Gaines County, Texas. The primary goal of the study was to develop an integrated reservoir description for {open_quotes}targeted{close_quotes} (economic) 10-acre (4-hectare) infill drilling and future recovery operations in a low permeability, carbonate (dolomite) reservoir. Integration of the results from geological/petrophysical studies and reservoir performance analyses provide a rapid and effective method for developing a comprehensive reservoir description. This reservoir description can be used for reservoir flow simulation, performance prediction, infill targeting, waterflood management, and for optimizing well developments (patterns, completions, and stimulations). The following analyses were performed as part of this study: (1) Geological/petrophysical analyses: (core and well log data) - {open_quotes}Rock typing{close_quotes} based on qualitative and quantitative visualization of pore-scale features. Reservoir layering based on {open_quotes}rock typing {close_quotes} and hydraulic flow units. Development of a {open_quotes}core-log{close_quotes} model to estimate permeability using porosity and other properties derived from well logs. The core-log model is based on {open_quotes}rock types.{close_quotes} (2) Engineering analyses: (production and injection history, well tests) Material balance decline type curve analyses to estimate total reservoir volume, formation flow characteristics (flow capacity, skin factor, and fracture half-length), and indications of well/boundary interference. Estimated ultimate recovery analyses to yield movable oil (or injectable water) volumes, as well as indications of well and boundary interference.

  12. Optimum temperature policy for sorption enhanced steam methane reforming process for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retnamma, Rajasree [National Laboratory of energy and Geology (LNEG), Lisbon (PT). Energy Systems Modeling and Optimization Unit (UMOSE); Ravi Kumar, V.; Kulkarni, B.D. [National Chemical Laboratory, Pune (India). Chemical Engineering and Process Development

    2010-07-01

    Sorption enhanced steam methane reforming (SE-SMR) process offers high potential for producing H{sub 2} in fuel cell applications compared to conventional catalytic steam methane reforming (SMR) process. The reactor temperature can significantly affect the performance of the SE-SMR reaction and simultaneous adsorption behavior of CO{sub 2}. Determination of an optimal temperature policy in SE-SMR reactor is therefore an important optimization issue. Multi-stage operation is a possible way to implement optimum temperature policies. In the present work, simulation study has been carried out for multi-stage operation using a mathematical model incorporating basic mechanisms operating in a fixed bed reactor with nonlinear reaction kinetic features of an SE-SMR process. Three cases were considered for implementing the multi-stage concept and the results show that increase in temperature based on a policy leads to considerable improvement in the process performance. (orig.)

  13. Integrating gravimetric and interferometric synthetic aperture radar data for enhancing reservoir history matching of carbonate gas and volatile oil reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2016-08-25

    Reservoir history matching is assuming a critical role in understanding reservoir characteristics, tracking water fronts, and forecasting production. While production data have been incorporated for matching reservoir production levels and estimating critical reservoir parameters, the sparse spatial nature of this dataset limits the efficiency of the history matching process. Recently, gravimetry techniques have significantly advanced to the point of providing measurement accuracy in the microgal range and consequently can be used for the tracking of gas displacement caused by water influx. While gravity measurements provide information on subsurface density changes, i.e., the composition of the reservoir, these data do only yield marginal information about temporal displacements of oil and inflowing water. We propose to complement gravimetric data with interferometric synthetic aperture radar surface deformation data to exploit the strong pressure deformation relationship for enhancing fluid flow direction forecasts. We have developed an ensemble Kalman-filter-based history matching framework for gas, gas condensate, and volatile oil reservoirs, which synergizes time-lapse gravity and interferometric synthetic aperture radar data for improved reservoir management and reservoir forecasts. Based on a dual state-parameter estimation algorithm separating the estimation of static reservoir parameters from the dynamic reservoir parameters, our numerical experiments demonstrate that history matching gravity measurements allow monitoring the density changes caused by oil-gas phase transition and water influx to determine the saturation levels, whereas the interferometric synthetic aperture radar measurements help to improve the forecasts of hydrocarbon production and water displacement directions. The reservoir estimates resulting from the dual filtering scheme are on average 20%-40% better than those from the joint estimation scheme, but require about a 30% increase in

  14. Environmental flows in the context of small reservoirs in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Kirshen, P.; Vogel, R.; Walker, P.

    2009-04-01

    Modification of rivers by dams reduces the magnitude and frequency of floods, and impacts the entire flow regime. In many cases, these modifications have adversely affected the ecological and hydrological integrity of the watershed as well as impacting food security and livelihood choices of the local community. There is now an increasing consensus that modification to river flows needs to be balanced with maintenance of essential water-dependent ecological services. Many small multi-purpose reservoirs have been built in West Africa, where rainfall is highly variable, and droughts and flash floods are frequent. These small reservoirs are an important source of water for domestic use, livestock watering, small-scale irrigation and other beneficial uses in rural communities. The small reservoirs are hydrologically linked by their associated stream network. The reservoirs alter the hydrology of the streams and the groundwater resources within the region. When an individual reservoir is considered, alteration to the entire watershed is usually not significant. However, when considered as a system, together the small reservoirs store a significant quantity of water and influence downstream flows. The small reservoirs have rarely been considered as a system, thus little consideration has been given to their collective impact on the natural environment and livelihoods of the local population in the long term. Furthermore, the impact is difficult to quantify given the diffuse nature of the small reservoirs. Therefore, a comprehensive environmental flow assessment is needed to investigate the effect of the small reservoirs as a system on the watershed, and appropriate water policy should be formulated to implement the finding from the assessment. Our project is specifically aimed at addressing this topic. We will present a case study conducted in the Upper East Region of Ghana and will discuss the findings on the hydrological, ecological and socio-economic implications of

  15. The emerging landscape of reimbursement of regenerative medicine products in the UK: publications, policies and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalatchimy, Aurélie; Faulkner, Alex

    2017-09-01

    This paper aims to map the trends and analyze key institutional dynamics that constitute the policies for reimbursement of regenerative medicine (RM), especially in the UK. Two quantitative publications studies using Google Scholar and a qualitative study based on a larger study of 43 semi-structured interviews. Reimbursement has been a growing topic of publications specific to RM and independent from orphan drugs. Risk-sharing schemes receive attention among others for dealing with RM reimbursement. Trade organizations have been especially involved on RM reimbursement issues and have proposed solutions. The policy and institutional landscape of reimbursement studies in RM is a highly variegated and conflictual one and in its infancy.

  16. Effects of the uncertainty of energy price and water availability forecasts on the operation of Alpine hydropower reservoir systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, D.; Castelletti, A.; Burlando, P.

    2016-12-01

    European energy markets have experienced dramatic changes in the last years because of the massive introduction of Variable Renewable Sources (VRSs), such as wind and solar power sources, in the generation portfolios in many countries. VRSs i) are intermittent, i.e., their production is highly variable and only partially predictable, ii) are characterized by no correlation between production and demand, iii) have negligible costs of production, and iv) have been largely subsidized. These features result in lower energy prices, but, at the same time, in increased price volatility, and in network stability issues, which pose a threat to traditional power sources because of smaller incomes and higher maintenance costs associated to a more flexible operation of power systems. Storage hydropower systems play an important role in compensating production peaks, both in term of excess and shortage of energy. Traditionally, most of the research effort in hydropower reservoir operation has focused on modeling and forecasting reservoir inflow as well as designing reservoir operation accordingly. Nowadays, price variability may be the largest source of uncertainty in the context of hydropower systems, especially when considering medium-to-large reservoirs, whose storage can easily buffer small inflow fluctuations. In this work, we compare the effects of uncertain inflow and energy price forecasts on hydropower production and profitability. By adding noise to historic inflow and price trajectories, we build a set of synthetic forecasts corresponding to different levels of predictability and assess their impact on reservoir operating policies and performances. The study is conducted on different hydropower systems, including storage systems and pumped-storage systems, with different characteristics, e.g., different inflow-capacity ratios. The analysis focuses on Alpine hydropower systems where the hydrological regime ranges from purely ice and snow-melt dominated to mixed snow

  17. Short-term global warming mitigation costs of fischer-tropsch diesel production and policy scenarios in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bright, Ryan M.; Stroemman, Anders Hammer

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Increasing the supply of advanced biofuels like synthetic diesel produced from woody biomass require attractive investment environments so that novel technologies are deployed and technological learning can lead to reduced production costs and accelerated market diffusion. Technology-specific biofuel policy designed to minimize perceived risk may encourage shortterm investment into those biofuels offering superior environmental benefits - particularly climate mitigation benefits - thereby leading to steeper learning curves and deeper greenhouse gas (GHG) emission cuts over the medium- and long-term horizon. We perform both a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and an economic analysis of Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) produced from Norwegian forest biomass at an 'nth' commercial plant (a plant with the same technologies that have been employed in previous commercial plants). This is followed with a cost growth analysis in order to derive production costs likely to be borne by pioneer commercial plants in Norway in the short-term (2016). LCA results are used to calculate shortterm GHG mitigation costs. We then assess, through scenarios, how various policy measures and financial support mechanisms would reduce production costs for incentivizing short-term investment and expediting commercial deployment in Norway. Because 'top-down' or 'market pull' biofuel support policy like excise tax exemptions or carbon taxes do not directly encourage investment into specific biofuel technologies like wood-FTD in the short term, we choose to analyze three 'bottom-up' or 'market push' policy scenarios to assess their effects on reducing levelized unit production costs. These include a Capital Grant, a low-interest Loan Guarantee, a Corporate Tax Credit, and a Feedstock Credit scenario. Under the Capital Grant scenario, we assess the change in levelized production and thus GHG abatement costs when a 50% capital grant (TCI) is

  18. Parallel reservoir simulator computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemanth-Kumar, K.; Young, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    The adaptation of a reservoir simulator for parallel computations is described. The simulator was originally designed for vector processors. It performs approximately 99% of its calculations in vector/parallel mode and relative to scalar calculations it achieves speedups of 65 and 81 for black oil and EOS simulations, respectively on the CRAY C-90

  19. The use of green waste from tourist attractions for renewable energy production: The potential and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yan; Du, Yuanyuan; Yang, Guofu; Tang, Yuli; Fan, Likun; Zhang, Jun; Lu, Yijun; Ge, Ying; Chang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying potential renewable energy sources from tourist attractions is a pivotal initial step in developing energy policies and strategies for low-carbon tourist industry development. Although solar energy and wind power have been in use for providing power for tourist attractions, the value of using waste biomass for energy production is still poorly understood. Here we advocate a promising approach that produces energy from green waste created by tourism attractions currently existing in large numbers and is still increasing dramatically. Using the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) of China as an example, we evaluated the potential of utilizing green waste to produce energy from 385 tourist attractions in 16 cities of this region. Our results showed that the total potential energy production using the green waste biomass was estimated at 6740 TJ/yr (1 TJ=10 12 J) with an average of 137 GJ/ha/yr (1 GJ=10 9 J), accounting for 6% (the average of the Yangtze River Delta, some scenic areas up to 93%) of YRD′s tourism industry′s energy consumption in 2008. The use of green waste for energy production is possible using current technology and could result in a win–win approach by reducing waste and increasing the renewable energy yields. -- Highlights: •Green waste from tourist attractions could help offset the tourist′s fossil fuel consumption. •Economic, technical, and social feasibility analysis of green waste for energy production. •Puts forward policy recommendations, from management regulations, public support etc

  20. Are Geotehrmal Reservoirs Stressed Out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davatzes, N. C.; Laboso, R. C.; Layland-Bachmann, C. E.; Feigl, K. L.; Foxall, W.; Tabrez, A. R.; Mellors, R. J.; Templeton, D. C.; Akerley, J.

    2017-12-01

    Crustal permeability can be strongly influenced by developing connected networks of open fractures. However, the detailed evolution of a fracture network, its extent, and the persistence of fracture porosity are difficult to analyze. Even in fault-hosted geothermal systems, where heat is brought to the surface from depth along a fault, hydrothermal flow is heterogeneously distributed. This is presumably due to variations in fracture density, connectivity, and attitude, as well as variations in fracture permeability caused by sealing of fractures by precipitated cements or compaction. At the Brady Geothermal field in Nevada, we test the relationship between the modeled local stress state perturbed by dislocations representing fault slip or volume changes in the geothermal reservoir inferred from surface deformation measured by InSAR and the location of successful geothermal wells, hydrothermal activity, and seismicity. We postulate that permeability is favored in volumes that experience positive Coulomb stress changes and reduced compression, which together promote high densities of dilatant fractures. Conversely, permeability can be inhibited in locations where Coulomb stress is reduced, compression promotes compaction, or where the faults are poorly oriented in the stress field and consequently slip infrequently. Over geologic time scales spanning the development of the fault system, these local stress states are strongly influenced by the geometry of the fault network relative to the remote stress driving slip. At shorter time scales, changes in fluid pressure within the fracture network constituting the reservoir cause elastic dilations and contractions. We integrate: (1) direct observations of stress state and fractures in boreholes and the mapped geometry of the fault network; (2) evidence of permeability from surface hydrothermal features, production/injection wells and surface deformations related to pumping history; and (3) seismicity to test the

  1. Rethinking Food: How United States Agriculture Production Affects Security Policy and Global Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    policy as well as domestic socioeconomic issues. The author cobbles disparate data sets; many from “mirror” data points, or rather data from North...our objectives in the world and our viewpoint, and try to be a little more sympathetic in recognizing them. I don’t say just rubber -stamp anything we

  2. The Production of the "Battered Immigrant" in Public Policy and Domestic Violence Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Rupaleem

    2008-01-01

    In the context of U.S. public policy, "battered immigrant" signifies a person who is eligible to adjust his or her status under immigration law if he or she can demonstrate they have suffered domestic violence in the United States perpetrated by a U.S. citizen or legal permanent resident. Among community organizers, the term…

  3. Impact of EU biofuel policies on world agricultural production and land use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banse, M.; Meijl, van H.; Tabeau, A.A.; Woltjer, G.B.; Hellmann, F.; Verburg, P.H.

    2011-01-01

    The European Union aims to increase the share of renewable energy in its total energy consumption to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and make the economy more CO2 neutral. This policy is further motivated by a desire to reduce dependency on fossil fuel imports and to stimulate rural development and

  4. Business as Means of Foreign Policy or Politics as Means of Production?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reckendrees, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    and to use them efficiently building up an industrial empire that comprehended the German, Polish, and Austrian iron and steel industry. The interplay of German foreign policy and private business activities in the inter-war years is analyzed as an agency problem in a specific “public-private partnership...

  5. Regional Integrated Assessments in Support of Decision-making: Process, Product, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luers, A. L.; Hayhoe, K.

    2006-12-01

    Regional integrated climate assessments are increasingly viewed as critical for informing sound climate policy. Yet, the scientific information in many assessments often is not effectively transformed in to policies to protect the environment. Why are some assessments more effective at informing policies than others? We will provide some insight into this question by describing the lessons learned from a series of regional assessments organized by the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS). Working with independent experts in the global change research community, UCS has produced assessments in three regions of the US California, the Great Lakes, and the Gulf Coast. The reports from each of these assessments continue to be used by local, state and regional decision-makers in related management and policy initiatives. We attribute the success of these assessments in motivating and supporting climate-related decisions to four factors: (1) credibility, attained both through scientific peer-review and by engaging local scientific and community leaders; (2) regional relevance of assessment focus areas; (3) accessible presentation of the results to non-technical audiences; and (4) wide communication and distribution of the report to the media, the public, civic groups, and public officials.

  6. Symposium on participatory approaches to reservoir fisheries management: issues, challenges and policies. Dambulla, Sri Lanka, 04-06 Oct. 2004 Session I. Community-based fisheries management; experience in other countries: presentation on STREAM Vietnam’s experience

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, S.H.

    2004-01-01

    Established in early 2002, STREAM Vietnam has so far attained a number of good experiences and lessons in using participatory approaches for its work. The Country Office has been able to link to a wide range of stakeholders, and is working hard to build close relationships amongst them, so that institutional entities can better support the livelihoods of poor aquatic resources users, and support disadvantaged groups of people to improve their living standards by themselves. Reservoir f...

  7. The glaciogenic reservoir analogue studies project (GRASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moscariello, A.; Moreau, Julien; Vegt, P. van der

    increasing the risk associated with developing effectively these reservoirs. Therefore a analogue-based predictive stratigraphical and sedimentological model can help to steer drilling strategy and reduce uncertainties and associated risks. For this purpose the GRASP joint industry programme was established......Tunnel galleys are common features in Palaeozoic glacigenic succession in North Afrcica and Middle East and they are amongst the most challenging target for hydrocarbon exploration and developing drilling in these regions. Similarly, these buried valleys form important groundwater reservoirs...... in Quaternary glaciated areas and their nature and sediment composition is critical to drive a sustainable production strategy and assess their vulnerability. Seismic resolution however, often limits the understanding of channel valleys morphology, 3D geometry and internal reservoir distribution, thus...

  8. Product Replacement Bias in Inflation and its Consequences for Monetary Policy

    OpenAIRE

    WEBER, Henning

    2012-01-01

    Article first published online: 27 MAR 2012 The article is a revised version of EUI Working Paper, RSCAS 2009/44 The paper examines a New Keynesian model with product entry and exit and with two types of households. Households consume different product baskets, and therefore, face different inflation rates. The statistical bureau used in the model measures aggregate inflation, but observes product entry with a probabilistic delay. Consequently, measured inflation suffers from product re...

  9. Saturation distributions in heavy oil reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staten, Joshua Todd

    Models that describe conventional reservoirs can be used to explore the possibility of heavier-than-water oil. Steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is a common process in reservoirs with extra heavy oils (oil sands). In some cases, oil that is heavier than water is present in these reservoirs. The segregation of oil and water may cause issues for recovery. It is important to understand the initial saturation distribution of oil and water for proper design of injection. It was found through simulation that the heavy oil would pool towards the bottom of a heavy oil reservoir with water remaining on top of the oil. With capillary pressure, the heavy oil and water will form a transition zone. The extent of the transition zone is dependent on the density gradient of the oil, the density difference between the oil and water, and the slope of the capillary pressure saturation profile. This finding influences the positioning of production piping in steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) as well as possible geological pooling areas for recovery. The possibility of a water zone between oil zones increases the risk of missing oil in the reservoir when drilling or perforating.

  10. Tracing fluid flow in geothermal reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, P.E.; Adams, M.C. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A family of fluorescent compounds, the polycyclic aromatic sulfonates, were evaluated for application in intermediate- and high-temperature geothermal reservoirs. Whereas the naphthalene sulfonates were found to be very thermally stable and reasonably detectable, the amino-substituted naphthalene sulfonates were found to be somewhat less thermally stable, but much more detectable. A tracer test was conducted at the Dixie Valley, Nevada, geothermal reservoir using one of the substituted naphthalene sulfonates, amino G, and fluorescein. Four of 9 production wells showed tracer breakthrough during the first 200 days of the test. Reconstructed tracer return curves are presented that correct for the thermal decay of tracer assuming an average reservoir temperature of 227{degrees}C. In order to examine the feasibility of using numerical simulation to model tracer flow, we developed simple, two-dimensional models of the geothermal reservoir using the numerical simulation programs TETRAD and TOUGH2. By fitting model outputs to measured return curves, we show that numerical reservoir simulations can be calibrated with the tracer data. Both models predict the same order of elution, approximate tracer concentrations, and return curve shapes. Using these results, we propose a method for using numerical models to design a tracer test.

  11. Optimal ordering, issuance and disposal policies for inventory management of perishable products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haijema, R.

    2014-01-01

    Perishables, such as packed fresh food and pharmaceutical products (a.o. blood products), typically have a fixed shelf life set by a fixed use-by date or sell-by date. Despite their limited life time, orders in practice are usually based on the stock level irrespective of the ages of the products in

  12. Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. O. Hitzman; A. K. Stepp; D. M. Dennis; L. R. Graumann

    2003-03-31

    This research program is directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal is to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. Experimental laboratory work is underway. Microbial cultures have been isolated from produced water samples. Comparative laboratory studies demonstrating in situ production of microbial products as oil recovery agents were conducted in sand packs with natural field waters with cultures and conditions representative of oil reservoirs. Field pilot studies are underway.

  13. The EU anti-dumping policy towards Russia and China: product quality and the choice of an analogue country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Rutkowski, Aleksander Jerzy

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses the theory of international trade in vertically differentiated products in order to assess whether the EU has calculated disproportionately high dumping margins in its anti-dumping policy towards the two non-market economies (NMEs) Russia and China since 1992. Specifically......, the investigation concerns cases in which the level of economic development in and the quality of the products from the chosen analogue country are higher than in the two NMEs. The conclusion drawn here is that, even when the EU chooses analogue countries at a higher level of economic development than Russia...... and China, the differences in product quality and in the levels of economic development between the dumpers and the analogue countries provide no systematic explanation of the size of dumping margins. Udgivelsesdato: JAN...

  14. Gas prices and fuel efficiency in the U.S. automobile industry: Policy implications of endogenous product choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramlich, Jacob Pleune

    I develop, estimate, and utilize an economic model of the U.S. automobile industry. I do so to address policy questions concerning automotive fuel efficiency (the relationship between gasoline used and distance traveled). Fuel efficiency has played a prominent role in our domestic energy policy for over 30 years. Recently it has received even more attention due to rising gas prices and concern over the environment and energy dependence. The model gives quantitative predictions for market fuel efficiency at various gas prices and taxes. The model makes contributions that are both methodological and policy based, and the two chapters of the dissertation focus on each in turn. The first chapter discusses the economic model of the U.S. automobile industry. The model allows firms to choose the fuel efficiency of their new vehicles, which allows me to predict fuel efficiency responses to policy and market conditions. These predictions were not possible with previous economic models which held fuel efficiency fixed. In the model, consumers care more about fuel efficiency when gas prices are high, and firms face a technological tradeoff between providing fuel efficiency and other quality. The level of the gas price, therefore, working through consumer demand, shifts firms' optimal locations along this technology frontier. Demand is nested logit, supply is differentiated products oligopoly, and data are from the U.S. automobile market from 1971-2007. In addition to endogenizing product choice, I also contribute to the modeling literature by relaxing restrictive identifying assumptions and obtaining more realistic estimates of fuel efficiency preference. The model predicts sales declines and compositions from the summer of 2008 with reasonable success. The second chapter discusses two counterfactual policy scenarios: maintained summer 2008 gas prices, and achieving 35 mpg (miles per gallon). At 3.43 per gallon (the summer 2008 price, 23% above 2007), the model predicts

  15. Biological fundamentals of stocking the Zaporizhzhia (Dnipro reservoir with fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Fedonenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The main purpose is developing effective measures for stocking the Zaporizhzhia (Dnipro reservoir with valuable fish species by studying the biological and fishery aspects of the formation and exploitation of their commercial stocks. Methods. During the work, we used the generalized results of integrated hydrobiological studies performed in 2015-2017. Materials were collected in the Zaporizhzhia (Dnipro reservoir using standard fishing gears for fish sampling. Collection and processing of phyto-, zooplankton and zoobenthos samples were carried out using conventional hydrobiological methods. Calculation of fish seed amounts was carried out using classical fishery and ichthyological methods. Findings. The status of fish feed supply of the Zaporizhzhia (Dnipro reservoir and its production potential was determined. Based on the obtained data, we calculated the potential productivity of the reservoir. It was found that the reservoir had certain feed supply reserves allowing large scale stocking with the juveniles of commercial fish species. The recommended amounts of reservoir stocking in 2017 were calculated as follows: 570 thousand 1+ carp (weight 100-130 g; 1560 thousand 1+ silver carp (weight of 100-130 g; 400 thousand 1+ bighead carp (weight of 100-130 g; 220 thousand 1+ grass carp (weight of 100-130 g; 135 thousand 0+ tench (weight of 10-20 g; 83 thousand 0+ pike (weight of 100 g; 83 thousand 1+ pikeperch (weight 100 g. Scientific novelty. The presented results of the study of the state of fish feed supply in the reservoir allow stocking with the calculated amounts creating the bases of the rational use of aquatic bioresources with the preservation of the productive potential of commercial fish species exploited by commercial fishery in the Zaporizhzhia (Dnipro reservoir. Practical value. Stocking the reservoir with fish allows improving the overall ecological status of the reservoir and increasing fish productivity under the

  16. Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitzman, D.O.; Stepp, A.K.; Dennis, D.M.; Graumann, L.R.

    2003-02-11

    This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents.

  17. Patenting productivity and intellectual property policies at Research I universities: An exploratory comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Mendoza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1980s, the US government encouraged the cooperation of industries with universities in order to bridge funding gaps and cope with global competitive markets through legislations that allow universities to start spin-off businesses and to generate profits from patents. At the turn of the century, university partnerships with the private sector have greatly increased through research grants, licensing patents, and in some cases, the formation of new firms'mainly at research universities and in the hard sciences. In response to these entrepreneurial opportunities, university administrators developed intellectual property policies to facilitate the commercialization of research. The purpose of this study is to explore the differences across IP policies among nine research universities as potential sources of influence on faculty engagement in for-profit research ventures according to existing models of faculty role performance and achievement.

  18. 30 CFR 250.1302 - What if I have a competitive reservoir on a lease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... that the Regional Supervisor make a preliminary determination whether a reservoir is competitive. When... you conduct drilling or production operations in a reservoir determined competitive by the Regional... What if I have a competitive reservoir on a lease? (a) The Regional Supervisor may require you to...

  19. The influence of geological data on the reservoir modelling and history matching process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jager, G.

    2012-01-01

    For efficient production of hydrocarbons from subsurface reservoirs it is important to understand the spatial properties of the reservoir. As there is almost always too little information on the reservoir to build a representative model directly, other techniques have been developed for generating

  20. Model Structure Analysis of Model-based Operation of Petroleum Reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Doren, J.F.M.

    2010-01-01

    The demand for petroleum is expected to increase in the coming decades, while the production of petroleum from subsurface reservoirs is becoming increasingly complex. To meet the demand petroleum reservoirs should be operated more efficiently. Physics-based petroleum reservoir models that describe

  1. AREAS OF MARKETING ACTIVITIES AND ESPECIALLY OF COMMUNICATION POLICY ON THE MARKET FLOWER PRODUC-TION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyulnara M. Gasymova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies basic aspects of marketing applying on the Russian flower market. The author has identified the main trends of marketing activities of companies and selected features of marketing mix of the flowers. In addition, the features of the communication policy of flower companies are identified. The author conducted a competitive analysis of companies at the wholesale and retail sectors of the Russian flower market.

  2. Carbon Sequestration and Carbon Management Policy Effects on Production Agriculture in the Texas High Plains

    OpenAIRE

    Zivkovic, Sanja; Hudson, Darren

    2013-01-01

    Increased concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, especially of carbon dioxide, has led to attempts to implement carbon policies in order to limit and stabilize gases at acceptable levels. Agricultural activities increase greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, but they can also mitigate concentration of carbon dioxide by sequestering additional carbon. This study evaluated carbon emissions and carbon sequestration and examined the impacts of payments for sequestration and taxes on c...

  3. Optimization of conventional rule curves coupled with hedging rules for reservoir operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghian, Mehrdad; Rosbjerg, Dan; Haghighi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    As a common approach to reservoir operating policies, water levels at the end of each time interval should be kept at or above the rule curve. In this study, the policy is captured using rationing of the target yield to reduce the intensity of severe water shortages. For this purpose, a hybrid...... to achieve the optimal water allocation and the target storage levels for reservoirs. As a case study, a multipurpose, multireservoir system in southern Iran is selected. The results show that the model has good performance in extracting the optimum policy for reservoir operation under both normal...

  4. Gasbuggy reservoir evaluation - 1969 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, C.H.; Ward, Don C.; Lemon, R.F.

    1970-01-01

    The December 10, 1967, Project Gasbuggy nuclear detonation followed the drilling and testing of two exploratory wells which confirmed reservoir characteristics and suitability of the site. Reentry and gas production testing of the explosive emplacement hole indicated a collapse chimney about 150 feet in diameter extending from the 4,240-foot detonation depth to about 3,900 feet, the top of the 300-foot-thick Pictured Cliffs gas sand. Production tests of the chimney well in the summer of 1968 and during the last 12 months have resulted in a cumulative production of 213 million cubic feet of hydrocarbons, and gas recovery in 20 years is estimated to be 900 million cubic feet, which would be an increase by a factor of at least 5 over estimated recovery from conventional field wells in this low permeability area. At the end of production tests the flow rate was 160,000 cubic feet per day, which is 6 to 7 times that of an average field well in the area. Data from reentry of a pre-shot test well and a new postshot well at distances from the detonation of 300 and 250 feet, respectively, indicate low productivity and consequently low permeability in any fractures at these locations. (author)

  5. Selection of production strategy in heterogeneous reservoirs under uncertainty with emphasis on analysis of wells; Selecao de estrategia de producao em campos com fortes heterogeneidades sob incertezas com enfase na analise de pocos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botechia, Vinicius E.; Schiozer, Denis J. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEP/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo

    2012-07-01

    The selection of a good production strategy for an oil field is a very important task, because it should enable the field to produce a quantity of hydrocarbons efficiently, in order to maximize the performance of the reservoir. This task, however, is extremely complex due to the large number of variables involved and possible alternatives. In scenarios under uncertainty, this complexity is even greater, since risks increase. The studies that focus on methodologies to select production strategies take into account, in most cases, only field indicators in the process. However, in heterogeneous fields and in scenarios under uncertainty, the behavior of the wells may have a very large range between the scenarios, due mainly to differences in simulation models in these cases. Thus, this paper proposes an approach to analyze the behavior of wells in the selection of production strategy in order to make the optimization process more efficient, increasing the average economic return on the considered scenarios or decreasing the risk involved in the process. The results showed that this type of analysis can provide new alternatives of strategies or can give greater robustness to the chosen strategy. (author)

  6. Clinical Translation of Cell Therapy, Tissue Engineering, and Regenerative Medicine Product in Malaysia and Its Regulatory Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bt Hj Idrus, Ruszymah; Abas, Arpah; Ab Rahim, Fazillahnor; Saim, Aminuddin Bin

    2015-12-01

    With the worldwide growth of cell and tissue therapy (CTT) in treating diseases, the need of a standardized regulatory policy is of paramount concern. Research in CTT in Malaysia has reached stages of clinical trials and commercialization. In Malaysia, the regulation of CTT is under the purview of the National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau (NPCB), Ministry of Health (MOH). NPCB is given the task of regulating CTT, under a new Cell and Gene Therapy Products framework, and the guidelines are currently being formulated. Apart from the laboratory accreditation, researchers are advised to follow Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Therapy from the Medical Development Division, MOH, published in 2009.

  7. The role of the University in the context of Inclusive Education Policy: reflections about human resources formation and knowledge production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Glat

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Avai