WorldWideScience

Sample records for reservoir operable unit

  1. Reservoir release patterns for hydropower operations at the Aspinall Unit on the Gunnison River, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, S.C.L.; Sedlacek, J.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the development of reservoir release patterns for the Aspinall Unit, which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal Reservoirs on the Gunnison River in Colorado. Release patterns were assessed for two hydropower operational scenarios--seasonally adjusted steady flows and seasonally adjusted high fluctuating flows--and three representative hydrologic years--moderate (1987), dry (1989), and wet (1983). The release patterns for the operational scenarios were developed with the aid of monthly, daily, and hourly reservoir operational models, which simulate the linked operation of the three Aspinall Unit reservoirs. Also presented are reservoir fluctuations and downstream water surface elevations corresponding to the reservoir release patterns. Both of the hydropower operational scenarios evaluated are based on the ecological research flows proposed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service for the Aspinall Unit. The first operational scenario allows only seasonally adjusted steady flows (no hourly fluctuations at any dam within one day), whereas the second scenario permits high fluctuating flows from Blue Mesa and Morrow Point Reservoirs during certain times of the year. Crystal Reservoir would release a steady flow within each day under both operational scenarios

  2. Remedial investigation/feasibility study report for Lower Watts Bar Reservoir Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the lower Watts Bar Reservoir (LWBR) Operable Unit (OU). The LWBR is located in Roane, Rhea, and Meigs counties, Tennessee, and consists of Watts Bar Reservoir downstream of the Clinch river. This area has received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). As required by this law, the ORR and all off-site areas that have received contaminants, including LWBR, must be investigated to determine the risk to human health and the environment resulting from these releases, the need for any remedial action to reduce these risks, and the remedial actions that are most feasible for implementation in this OU. Contaminants from the ORR are primarily transported to the LWBR via the Clinch River. There is little data regarding the quantities of most contaminants potentially released from the ORR to the Clinch River, particularly for the early years of ORR operations. Estimates of the quantities released during this period are available for most radionuclides and some inorganic contaminants, indicating that releases 30 to 50 years ago were much higher than today. Since the early 1970s, the release of potential contaminants has been monitored for compliance with environmental law and reported in the annual environmental monitoring reports for the ORR.

  3. Remedial investigation/feasibility study report for Lower Watts Bar Reservoir Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the lower Watts Bar Reservoir (LWBR) Operable Unit (OU). The LWBR is located in Roane, Rhea, and Meigs counties, Tennessee, and consists of Watts Bar Reservoir downstream of the Clinch river. This area has received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). As required by this law, the ORR and all off-site areas that have received contaminants, including LWBR, must be investigated to determine the risk to human health and the environment resulting from these releases, the need for any remedial action to reduce these risks, and the remedial actions that are most feasible for implementation in this OU. Contaminants from the ORR are primarily transported to the LWBR via the Clinch River. There is little data regarding the quantities of most contaminants potentially released from the ORR to the Clinch River, particularly for the early years of ORR operations. Estimates of the quantities released during this period are available for most radionuclides and some inorganic contaminants, indicating that releases 30 to 50 years ago were much higher than today. Since the early 1970s, the release of potential contaminants has been monitored for compliance with environmental law and reported in the annual environmental monitoring reports for the ORR

  4. Remedial investigation/feasibility study report for lower Watts Bar Reservoir Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Lower Watts Bar Reservoir (LWBR) Operable Unit (OU). The LWBR is located in Roane, Rhea, and Meigs counties, Tennessee, and consists of Watts Bar Reservoir downstream of the Clinch River. This area has received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). As required by this law, the ORR and all off-site areas that have received containments, including LWBR, must be investigated to determine the risk to human health and the environment resulting from these releases, the need for any remedial action to reduce these risks, and the remedial actions that are most feasible for implementation in this OU. Contaminants from the ORR are primarily transported to the LWBR via the Clinch River. Water-soluble contaminants released to ORR surface waters are rapidly diluted upon entering the Clinch River and then quickly transported downstream to the Tennessee River where further dilution occurs. Almost the entire quantity of these diluted contaminants rapidly flows through LWBR. In contrast, particle-associated contaminants tend to accumulate in the lower Clinch River and in LWBR in areas of sediment deposition. Those particle-associated contaminants that were released in peak quantities during the early years of ORR operations (e.g., mercury and 137 Cs) are buried under as much as 80 cm of cleaner sediment in LWBR. Certain contaminants, most notably polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have accumulated in LWBR biota. The contamination of aquatic biota with PCBs is best documented for certain fish species and extends to reservoirs upstream of the ORR, indicating a contamination problem that is regional in scope and not specific to the ORR

  5. Optimising reservoir operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Long le

    Anvendelse af optimeringsteknik til drift af reservoirer er blevet et væsentligt element i vandressource-planlægning og -forvaltning. Traditionelt har reservoirer været styret af heuristiske procedurer for udtag af vand, suppleret i en vis udstrækning af subjektive beslutninger. Udnyttelse af...... reservoirer involverer en lang række interessenter med meget forskellige formål (f.eks. kunstig vanding, vandkraft, vandforsyning mv.), og optimeringsteknik kan langt bedre lede frem til afbalancerede løsninger af de ofte modstridende interesser. Afhandlingen foreslår en række tiltag, hvormed traditionelle...

  6. Ecological operation for Three Gorges Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-xian Guo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional operation of the Three Gorges Reservoir has mainly focused on water for flood control, power generation, navigation, water supply, and recreation, and given less attention to the negative impacts of reservoir operation on the river ecosystem. In order to reduce the negative influence of reservoir operation, ecological operation of the reservoir should be studied with a focus on maintaining a healthy river ecosystem. This study considered ecological operation targets, including maintaining the river environmental flow and protecting the spawning and reproduction of the Chinese sturgeon and four major Chinese carps. Using flow data from 1900 to 2006 at the Yichang gauging station as the control station data for the Yangtze River, the minimal and optimal river environmental flows were analyzed, and eco-hydrological targets for the Chinese sturgeon and four major Chinese carps in the Yangtze River were calculated. This paper proposes a reservoir ecological operation model, which comprehensively considers flood control, power generation, navigation, and the ecological environment. Three typical periods, wet, normal, and dry years, were selected, and the particle swarm optimization algorithm was used to analyze the model. The results show that ecological operation modes have different effects on the economic benefit of the hydropower station, and the reservoir ecological operation model can simulate the flood pulse for the requirements of spawning of the Chinese sturgeon and four major Chinese carps. According to the results, by adopting a suitable re-operation scheme, the hydropower benefit of the reservoir will not decrease dramatically while the ecological demand is met. The results provide a reference for designing reasonable operation schemes for the Three Gorges Reservoir.

  7. Operational trade-offs in reservoir control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakakos, Aris P.

    1993-11-01

    Reservoir operation decisions require constant reevaluation in the face of conflicting objectives, varying hydrologic conditions, and frequent operational policy changes. Optimality is a relative concept very much dependent on the circumstances under which a decision is made. More than anything else, reservoir management authorities need the means to assess the impacts of various operational options. It is their responsibility to define what is desirable after a thorough evaluation of the existing circumstances. This article presents a model designed to generate operational trade-offs common among reservoir systems. The model avoids an all-encompassing problem formulation and distinguishes three operational modes (levels) corresponding to normal, drought, and flood operations. Each level addresses only relevant system elements and uses a static and a dynamic control module to optimize turbine performance within each planning period and temporally. The model is used for planning the operation of the Savannah River System.

  8. A Tool for Assessing Future Capacity Loss Due to Sedimentation in the United States' Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, A. O.; Baker, B.; White, K. D.

    2017-12-01

    Federal reservoirs are critical components of the United States' water supply, flood risk management, hydropower and navigation infrastructure. These reservoirs included capacity for storage loss due to the deposition of sediment by inflowing streams in their original design. However, the actual rate of capacity loss experienced is controlled in part by climate, topography, soils, and land use/land cover, and may vary from the design. To assess the current and future vulnerability of its reservoirs to sedimentation. USACE has developed an online planning tool to identify USACE reservoirs where sedimentation is currently a problem (e.g., sedimentation rate exceeds design sedimentation rate, or zone losses disproportionately affect authorized purposes), and reservoirs where rates are expected to increase significantly in the future. The goal is to be able to prioritize operation and maintenance actions to minimize the effects of reservoir capacity loss on authorized purposes and help maximize reservoir use life.

  9. Optimal Operation of Hydropower Reservoirs under Climate Change: The Case of Tekeze Reservoir, Eastern Nile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikru Fentaw Abera

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimal operation of reservoirs is very essential for water resource planning and management, but it is very challenging and complicated when dealing with climate change impacts. The objective of this paper was to assess existing and future hydropower operation at the Tekeze reservoir in the face of climate change. In this study, a calibrated and validated Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT was used to model runoff inflow into the Tekeze hydropower reservoir under present and future climate scenarios. Inflow to the reservoir was simulated using hydro-climatic data from an ensemble of downscaled climate data based on the Coordinated Regional climate Downscaling Experiment over African domain (CORDEX-Africa with Coupled Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5 simulations under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 climate scenarios. Observed and projected inflows to Tekeze hydropower reservoir were used as input to the US Army Corps of Engineer’s Reservoir Evaluation System Perspective Reservoir Model (HEC-ResPRM, a reservoir operation model, to optimize hydropower reservoir release, storage and pool level. Results indicated that climate change has a clear impact on reservoir inflow and showed increase in annual and monthly inflow into the reservoir except in dry months from May to June under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 climate scenarios. HEC-ResPRM optimal operation results showed an increase in Tekeze reservoir power storage potential up to 25% and 30% under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 climate scenarios, respectively. This implies that Tekeze hydropower production will be affected by climate change. This analysis can be used by water resources planners and mangers to develop reservoir operation techniques considering climate change impact to increase power production.

  10. Estimation of Bank Erosion Due To Reservoir Operation in Cascade (Case Study: Citarum Cascade Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Legowo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentation is such a crucial issue to be noted once the accumulated sediment begins to fill the reservoir dead storage, this will then influence the long-term reservoir operation. The sediment accumulated requires a serious attention for it may influence the storage capacity and other reservoir management of activities. The continuous inflow of sediment to the reservoir will decrease the capacity of reservoir storage, the reservoir value in use, and the useful age of reservoir. Because of that, the rate of the sediment needs to be delayed as possible. In this research, the delay of the sediment rate is considered based on the rate of flow of landslide of the reservoir slope. The rate of flow of the sliding slope can be minimized by way of each reservoir autonomous efforts. This effort can be performed through; the regulation of fluctuating rate of reservoir surface current that does not cause suddenly drawdown and upraising as well. The research model is compiled using the searching technique of Non Linear Programming (NLP.The rate of bank erosion for the reservoir variates from 0.0009 to 0.0048 MCM/year, which is no sigrificant value to threaten the life time of reservoir.Mean while the rate of watershed sediment has a significant value, i.e: 3,02 MCM/year for Saguling that causes to fullfill the storage capacity in 40 next years (from years 2008.

  11. Assessing reservoir operations risk under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, L.D.; Maurer, E.P.; Anderson, J.D.; Dettinger, M.D.; Townsley, E.S.; Harrison, A.; Pruitt, T.

    2009-01-01

    Risk-based planning offers a robust way to identify strategies that permit adaptive water resources management under climate change. This paper presents a flexible methodology for conducting climate change risk assessments involving reservoir operations. Decision makers can apply this methodology to their systems by selecting future periods and risk metrics relevant to their planning questions and by collectively evaluating system impacts relative to an ensemble of climate projection scenarios (weighted or not). This paper shows multiple applications of this methodology in a case study involving California's Central Valley Project and State Water Project systems. Multiple applications were conducted to show how choices made in conducting the risk assessment, choices known as analytical design decisions, can affect assessed risk. Specifically, risk was reanalyzed for every choice combination of two design decisions: (1) whether to assume climate change will influence flood-control constraints on water supply operations (and how), and (2) whether to weight climate change scenarios (and how). Results show that assessed risk would motivate different planning pathways depending on decision-maker attitudes toward risk (e.g., risk neutral versus risk averse). Results also show that assessed risk at a given risk attitude is sensitive to the analytical design choices listed above, with the choice of whether to adjust flood-control rules under climate change having considerably more influence than the choice on whether to weight climate scenarios. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Multiobjective Optimization Modeling Approach for Multipurpose Single Reservoir Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosvany Recio Villa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The water resources planning and management discipline recognizes the importance of a reservoir’s carryover storage. However, mathematical models for reservoir operation that include carryover storage are scarce. This paper presents a novel multiobjective optimization modeling framework that uses the constraint-ε method and genetic algorithms as optimization techniques for the operation of multipurpose simple reservoirs, including carryover storage. The carryover storage was conceived by modifying Kritsky and Menkel’s method for reservoir design at the operational stage. The main objective function minimizes the cost of the total annual water shortage for irrigation areas connected to a reservoir, while the secondary one maximizes its energy production. The model includes operational constraints for the reservoir, Kritsky and Menkel’s method, irrigation areas, and the hydropower plant. The study is applied to Carlos Manuel de Céspedes reservoir, establishing a 12-month planning horizon and an annual reliability of 75%. The results highly demonstrate the applicability of the model, obtaining monthly releases from the reservoir that include the carryover storage, degree of reservoir inflow regulation, water shortages in irrigation areas, and the energy generated by the hydroelectric plant. The main product is an operational graph that includes zones as well as rule and guide curves, which are used as triggers for long-term reservoir operation.

  13. System Dynamics Modeling of Multipurpose Reservoir Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Momeni

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available System dynamics, a feedback – based object – oriented simulation approach, not only represents complex dynamic systemic systems in a realistic way but also allows the involvement of end users in model development to increase their confidence in modeling process. The increased speed of model development, the possibility of group model development, the effective communication of model results, and the trust developed in the model due to user participation are the main strengths of this approach. The ease of model modification in response to changes in the system and the ability to perform sensitivity analysis make this approach more attractive compared with systems analysis techniques for modeling water management systems. In this study, a system dynamics model was developed for the Zayandehrud basin in central Iran. This model contains river basin, dam reservoir, plains, irrigation systems, and groundwater. Current operation rule is conjunctive use of ground and surface water. Allocation factor for each irrigation system is computed based on the feedback from groundwater storage in its zone. Deficit water is extracted from groundwater.The results show that applying better rules can not only satisfy all demands such as Gawkhuni swamp environmental demand, but it can also  prevent groundwater level drawdown in future.

  14. Reservoir Operating Rule Optimization for California's Sacramento Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Nelson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss1art6Reservoir operating rules for water resource systems are typically developed by combining intuition, professional discussion, and simulation modeling. This paper describes a joint optimization–simulation approach to develop preliminary economically-based operating rules for major reservoirs in California’s Sacramento Valley, based on optimized results from CALVIN, a hydro-economic optimization model. We infer strategic operating rules from the optimization model results, including storage allocation rules to balance storage among multiple reservoirs, and reservoir release rules to determine monthly release for individual reservoirs. Results show the potential utility of considering previous year type on water availability and various system and sub-system storage conditions, in addition to normal consideration of local reservoir storage, season, and current inflows. We create a simple simulation to further refine and test the derived operating rules. Optimization model results show particular insights for balancing the allocation of water storage among Shasta, Trinity, and Oroville reservoirs over drawdown and refill seasons, as well as some insights for release rules at major reservoirs in the Sacramento Valley. We also discuss the applicability and limitations of developing reservoir operation rules from optimization model results.

  15. Operable Unit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of operable unit data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  16. Fuzzy rule-based model for hydropower reservoirs operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeini, R.; Afshar, A.; Afshar, M.H. [School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    Real-time hydropower reservoir operation is a continuous decision-making process of determining the water level of a reservoir or the volume of water released from it. The hydropower operation is usually based on operating policies and rules defined and decided upon in strategic planning. This paper presents a fuzzy rule-based model for the operation of hydropower reservoirs. The proposed fuzzy rule-based model presents a set of suitable operating rules for release from the reservoir based on ideal or target storage levels. The model operates on an 'if-then' principle, in which the 'if' is a vector of fuzzy premises and the 'then' is a vector of fuzzy consequences. In this paper, reservoir storage, inflow, and period are used as premises and the release as the consequence. The steps involved in the development of the model include, construction of membership functions for the inflow, storage and the release, formulation of fuzzy rules, implication, aggregation and defuzzification. The required knowledge bases for the formulation of the fuzzy rules is obtained form a stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) model with a steady state policy. The proposed model is applied to the hydropower operation of ''Dez'' reservoir in Iran and the results are presented and compared with those of the SDP model. The results indicate the ability of the method to solve hydropower reservoir operation problems. (author)

  17. Reservoir shorelines : a methodology for evaluating operational impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, M.; Braund-Read, J.; Musgrave, B. [BC Hydro, Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    BC Hydro has been operating hydroelectric facilities for over a century in British Columbia. The integrity and stability of the shorelines and slopes bordering hydroelectric reservoirs is affected by changing water levels in the reservoir, natural processes of flooding, wind and wave action and modification of groundwater levels. Establishing setbacks landward of the shoreline are needed in order to protect useable shoreline property that may be at risk of flooding, erosion or instability due to reservoir operations. Many of the reservoirs in British Columbia are situated in steep, glaciated valleys with diverse geological, geomorphological and climatic conditions and a variety of eroding shorelines. As such, geotechnical studies are needed to determine the operational impacts on reservoir shorelines. Since the 1960s BC Hydro has been developing a methodology for evaluating reservoir impacts and determining the land around the reservoir perimeter that should remain as a right of way for operations while safeguarding waterfront development. The methodology was modified in the 1990s to include geomorphological and geological processes. However, uncertainties in the methodology still exist due to limited understanding of key issues such as rates of erosion and shoreline regression, immaturity of present day reservoir shorelines and impacts of climate change. 11 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  18. Modelling of Reservoir Operations using Fuzzy Logic and ANNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Giesen, N.; Coerver, B.; Rutten, M.

    2015-12-01

    Today, almost 40.000 large reservoirs, containing approximately 6.000 km3 of water and inundating an area of almost 400.000 km2, can be found on earth. Since these reservoirs have a storage capacity of almost one-sixth of the global annual river discharge they have a large impact on the timing, volume and peaks of river discharges. Global Hydrological Models (GHM) are thus significantly influenced by these anthropogenic changes in river flows. We developed a parametrically parsimonious method to extract operational rules based on historical reservoir storage and inflow time-series. Managing a reservoir is an imprecise and vague undertaking. Operators always face uncertainties about inflows, evaporation, seepage losses and various water demands to be met. They often base their decisions on experience and on available information, like reservoir storage and the previous periods inflow. We modeled this decision-making process through a combination of fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks in an Adaptive-Network-based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). In a sensitivity analysis, we compared results for reservoirs in Vietnam, Central Asia and the USA. ANFIS can indeed capture reservoirs operations adequately when fed with a historical monthly time-series of inflows and storage. It was shown that using ANFIS, operational rules of existing reservoirs can be derived without much prior knowledge about the reservoirs. Their validity was tested by comparing actual and simulated releases with each other. For the eleven reservoirs modelled, the normalised outflow, , was predicted with a MSE of 0.002 to 0.044. The rules can be incorporated into GHMs. After a network for a specific reservoir has been trained, the inflow calculated by the hydrological model can be combined with the release and initial storage to calculate the storage for the next time-step using a mass balance. Subsequently, the release can be predicted one time-step ahead using the inflow and storage.

  19. A reservoir morphology database for the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Kirk D.

    2017-09-13

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Reservoir Fisheries Habitat Partnership, combined multiple national databases to create one comprehensive national reservoir database and to calculate new morphological metrics for 3,828 reservoirs. These new metrics include, but are not limited to, shoreline development index, index of basin permanence, development of volume, and other descriptive metrics based on established morphometric formulas. The new database also contains modeled chemical and physical metrics. Because of the nature of the existing databases used to compile the Reservoir Morphology Database and the inherent missing data, some metrics were not populated. One comprehensive database will assist water-resource managers in their understanding of local reservoir morphology and water chemistry characteristics throughout the continental United States.

  20. Reservoirs operation and water resources utilization coordination in Hongshuihe basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chonghao; Chi, Kaige; Pang, Bo; Tang, Hongbin

    2018-06-01

    In the recent decade, the demand for water resources has been increasing with the economic development. The reservoirs of cascade hydropower stations in Hongshuihe basin, which are constructed with a main purpose of power generation, are facing more integrated water resources utilization problem. The conflict between power generation of cascade reservoirs and flood control, shipping, environmental protection and water supply has become increasingly prominent. This paper introduces the general situation and integrated water demand of cascade reservoirs in Hongshuihe basin, and it analyses the impact of various types of integrated water demand on power generation and supply. It establishes mathematic models, constrained by various types of integrated water demand, to guide the operation and water resources utilization management of cascade reservoirs in Hongshuihe basin. Integrated water coordination mechanism of Hongshuihe basin is also introduced. It provides a technical and management guide and demonstration for cascade reservoirs operation and integrated water management at home and abroad.

  1. Diffuser Operations at Spring Hollow Reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Gantzer, Paul Anthony

    2002-01-01

    Stratification is a natural occurrence in deep lakes and reservoirs. This phenomenon results in two distinct layers, the warmer, less dense epilimnion on top and the colder, denser, hypolimnion on the bottom. The epilimnion remains saturated with dissolved oxygen (DO) from mass transfer with the atmosphere, while the hypolimnion continues to undergo oxygen-depleting processes. During seasons of high oxygen demand the hypolimnion often becomes anoxic and results in the release of compounds,...

  2. Advancing reservoir operation description in physically based hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Giudici, Federico; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Last decades have seen significant advances in our capacity of characterizing and reproducing hydrological processes within physically based models. Yet, when the human component is considered (e.g. reservoirs, water distribution systems), the associated decisions are generally modeled with very simplistic rules, which might underperform in reproducing the actual operators' behaviour on a daily or sub-daily basis. For example, reservoir operations are usually described by a target-level rule curve, which represents the level that the reservoir should track during normal operating conditions. The associated release decision is determined by the current state of the reservoir relative to the rule curve. This modeling approach can reasonably reproduce the seasonal water volume shift due to reservoir operation. Still, it cannot capture more complex decision making processes in response, e.g., to the fluctuations of energy prices and demands, the temporal unavailability of power plants or varying amount of snow accumulated in the basin. In this work, we link a physically explicit hydrological model with detailed hydropower behavioural models describing the decision making process by the dam operator. In particular, we consider two categories of behavioural models: explicit or rule-based behavioural models, where reservoir operating rules are empirically inferred from observational data, and implicit or optimization based behavioural models, where, following a normative economic approach, the decision maker is represented as a rational agent maximising a utility function. We compare these two alternate modelling approaches on the real-world water system of Lake Como catchment in the Italian Alps. The water system is characterized by the presence of 18 artificial hydropower reservoirs generating almost 13% of the Italian hydropower production. Results show to which extent the hydrological regime in the catchment is affected by different behavioural models and reservoir

  3. Sudden water pollution accidents and reservoir emergency operations: impact analysis at Danjiangkou Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hezhen; Lei, Xiaohui; Shang, Yizi; Duan, Yang; Kong, Lingzhong; Jiang, Yunzhong; Wang, Hao

    2018-03-01

    Danjiangkou Reservoir is the source reservoir of the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (MRP). Any sudden water pollution accident in the reservoir would threaten the water supply of the MRP. We established a 3-D hydrodynamic and water quality model for the Danjiangkou Reservoir, and proposed scientific suggestions on the prevention and emergency management for sudden water pollution accidents based on simulated results. Simulations were performed on 20 hypothetical pollutant discharge locations and 3 assumed amounts, in order to model the effect of pollutant spreading under different reservoir operation types. The results showed that both the location and mass of pollution affected water quality; however, different reservoir operation types had little effect. Five joint regulation scenarios, which altered the hydrodynamic processes of water conveyance for the Danjiangkou and Taocha dams, were considered for controlling pollution dispersion. The results showed that the spread of a pollutant could be effectively controlled through the joint regulation of the two dams and that the collaborative operation of the Danjiangkou and Taocha dams is critical for ensuring the security of water quality along the MRP.

  4. Modeling Reservoir-River Networks in Support of Optimizing Seasonal-Scale Reservoir Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, D. L.; Lowry, T. S.; Bier, A.; Barco, J.; Sun, A.

    2011-12-01

    HydroSCOPE (Hydropower Seasonal Concurrent Optimization of Power and the Environment) is a seasonal time-scale tool for scenario analysis and optimization of reservoir-river networks. Developed in MATLAB, HydroSCOPE is an object-oriented model that simulates basin-scale dynamics with an objective of optimizing reservoir operations to maximize revenue from power generation, reliability in the water supply, environmental performance, and flood control. HydroSCOPE is part of a larger toolset that is being developed through a Department of Energy multi-laboratory project. This project's goal is to provide conventional hydropower decision makers with better information to execute their day-ahead and seasonal operations and planning activities by integrating water balance and operational dynamics across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. This presentation details the modeling approach and functionality of HydroSCOPE. HydroSCOPE consists of a river-reservoir network model and an optimization routine. The river-reservoir network model simulates the heat and water balance of river-reservoir networks for time-scales up to one year. The optimization routine software, DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications - dakota.sandia.gov), is seamlessly linked to the network model and is used to optimize daily volumetric releases from the reservoirs to best meet a set of user-defined constraints, such as maximizing revenue while minimizing environmental violations. The network model uses 1-D approximations for both the reservoirs and river reaches and is able to account for surface and sediment heat exchange as well as ice dynamics for both models. The reservoir model also accounts for inflow, density, and withdrawal zone mixing, and diffusive heat exchange. Routing for the river reaches is accomplished using a modified Muskingum-Cunge approach that automatically calculates the internal timestep and sub-reach lengths to match the conditions of

  5. Reservoir operation schemes for water pollution accidents in Yangtze River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-kang Xin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available After the Three Gorges Reservoir starts running, it can not only take into consideration the interest of departments such as flood control, power generation, water supply, and shipping, but also reduce or eliminate the adverse effects of pollutants by discharge regulation. The evolution of pollutant plumes under different operation schemes of the Three Gorges Reservoir and three kinds of pollutant discharge types were calculated with the MIKE 21 AD software. The feasibility and effectiveness of the reservoir emergency operation when pollution accidents occur were investigated. The results indicate that the emergency operation produces significant effects on the instantaneous discharge type with lesser effects on the constant discharge type, the impact time is shortened, and the concentration of pollutant is reduced. Meanwhile, the results show that the larger the discharge is and the shorter the operation duration is, the more favorable the result is.

  6. Design and modeling of reservoir operation strategies for sediment management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloff, C.J.; Omer, A.Y.A.; Heynert, K.V.; Mohamed, Y.A.

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate operation strategies that allow for sediment flushing and sluicing (sediment routing) can reduce rapid storage losses of (hydropower and water-supply) reservoirs. In this study we have shown, using field observations and computational models, that the efficiency of these operations

  7. Neonatal intensive care unit: Reservoirs of Nosocomial pathogens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improvement in the care and treatment of neonates had contributed to their increased survival. Nosocomial infection remains an important problem in intensive care units. Hospital wards had been shown to act as reservoirs of pathogenic microorganisms associated with infection. To assess the prevalence of pathogenic ...

  8. Quantifying the robustness of optimal reservoir operation for the Xinanjiang-Fuchunjiang Reservoir Cascade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, E.; Xu, YuePing; Booij, Martijn J.; Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this research we investigate the robustness of the common implicit stochastic optimization (ISO) method for dam reoperation. As a case study, we focus on the Xinanjiang-Fuchunjiang reservoir cascade in eastern China, for which adapted operating rules were proposed as a means to reduce the impact

  9. Decision Support System for Reservoir Management and Operation in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navar, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    Africa is currently experiencing a surge in dam construction for flood control, water supply and hydropower production, but ineffective reservoir management has caused problems in the region, such as water shortages, flooding and loss of potential hydropower generation. Our research aims to remedy ineffective reservoir management by developing a novel Decision Support System(DSS) to equip water managers with a technical planning tool based on the state of the art in hydrological sciences. The DSS incorporates a climate forecast model, a hydraulic model of the watershed, and an optimization model to effectively plan for the operation of a system of cascade large-scale reservoirs for hydropower production, while treating water supply and flood control as constraints. Our team will use the newly constructed hydropower plants in the Omo Gibe basin of Ethiopia as the test case. Using the basic HIDROTERM software developed in Brazil, the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) utilizes a combination of linear programing (LP) and non-linear programming (NLP) in conjunction with real time hydrologic and energy demand data to optimize the monthly and daily operations of the reservoir system. We compare the DSS model results with the current reservoir operating policy used by the water managers of that region. We also hope the DSS will eliminate the current dangers associated with the mismanagement of large scale water resources projects in Africa.

  10. Rule Optimization monthly reservoir operation Salvajina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval Garcia, Maria Clemencia; Santacruz Salazar, Santiago; Ramirez Callejas, Carlos A

    2007-01-01

    In the present study a model was designed for the optimization of the rule for monthly operation of the Salvajina dam (Colombia) based in the technology) of dynamic programming. The model maximizes the benefits for electric power generation, ensuring at the same time flood regulation in winter and pollution relief during the summer. For the optimization of the rule of operation, it was necessary to define the levels and volumes of reserve and holding required for the control of flood zones in the Cauca river and to provide an effluent minimal flow and assure a daily flow at the Juanchito station (located 141 km downstream from the dam) of the Cauca river, 90 % of the time during the most critical summer periods.

  11. Inflow forecasting using Artificial Neural Networks for reservoir operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chiamsathit

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, multi-layer perceptron (MLP artificial neural networks have been applied to forecast one-month-ahead inflow for the Ubonratana reservoir, Thailand. To assess how well the forecast inflows have performed in the operation of the reservoir, simulations were carried out guided by the systems rule curves. As basis of comparison, four inflow situations were considered: (1 inflow known and assumed to be the historic (Type A; (2 inflow known and assumed to be the forecast (Type F; (3 inflow known and assumed to be the historic mean for month (Type M; and (4 inflow is unknown with release decision only conditioned on the starting reservoir storage (Type N. Reservoir performance was summarised in terms of reliability, resilience, vulnerability and sustainability. It was found that Type F inflow situation produced the best performance while Type N was the worst performing. This clearly demonstrates the importance of good inflow information for effective reservoir operation.

  12. Optimal reservoir operation policies using novel nested algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delipetrev, Blagoj; Jonoski, Andreja; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2015-04-01

    Historically, the two most widely practiced methods for optimal reservoir operation have been dynamic programming (DP) and stochastic dynamic programming (SDP). These two methods suffer from the so called "dual curse" which prevents them to be used in reasonably complex water systems. The first one is the "curse of dimensionality" that denotes an exponential growth of the computational complexity with the state - decision space dimension. The second one is the "curse of modelling" that requires an explicit model of each component of the water system to anticipate the effect of each system's transition. We address the problem of optimal reservoir operation concerning multiple objectives that are related to 1) reservoir releases to satisfy several downstream users competing for water with dynamically varying demands, 2) deviations from the target minimum and maximum reservoir water levels and 3) hydropower production that is a combination of the reservoir water level and the reservoir releases. Addressing such a problem with classical methods (DP and SDP) requires a reasonably high level of discretization of the reservoir storage volume, which in combination with the required releases discretization for meeting the demands of downstream users leads to computationally expensive formulations and causes the curse of dimensionality. We present a novel approach, named "nested" that is implemented in DP, SDP and reinforcement learning (RL) and correspondingly three new algorithms are developed named nested DP (nDP), nested SDP (nSDP) and nested RL (nRL). The nested algorithms are composed from two algorithms: 1) DP, SDP or RL and 2) nested optimization algorithm. Depending on the way we formulate the objective function related to deficits in the allocation problem in the nested optimization, two methods are implemented: 1) Simplex for linear allocation problems, and 2) quadratic Knapsack method in the case of nonlinear problems. The novel idea is to include the nested

  13. Optimizing Reservoir Operation to Adapt to the Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadgar, S.; Jung, I.; Moradkhani, H.

    2010-12-01

    Climate change and upcoming variation in flood timing necessitates the adaptation of current rule curves developed for operation of water reservoirs as to reduce the potential damage from either flood or draught events. This study attempts to optimize the current rule curves of Cougar Dam on McKenzie River in Oregon addressing some possible climate conditions in 21th century. The objective is to minimize the failure of operation to meet either designated demands or flood limit at a downstream checkpoint. A simulation/optimization model including the standard operation policy and a global optimization method, tunes the current rule curve upon 8 GCMs and 2 greenhouse gases emission scenarios. The Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) is used as the hydrology model to project the streamflow for the period of 2000-2100 using downscaled precipitation and temperature forcing from 8 GCMs and two emission scenarios. An ensemble of rule curves, each associated with an individual scenario, is obtained by optimizing the reservoir operation. The simulation of reservoir operation, for all the scenarios and the expected value of the ensemble, is conducted and performance assessment using statistical indices including reliability, resilience, vulnerability and sustainability is made.

  14. Research needs for strandplain/barrier island reservoirs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.L.; Salamy, S.P.; Sarathi, P.S.; Young, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    This report identifies reservoir characterization and reservoir management research needs and IOR process and related research needs for the fourth geologic class, strandplain/barrier island reservoirs. The 330 Class 4 reservoirs in the DOE Tertiary OH Recovery Information System (TORIS) database contain about 30.8 billion barrels of oil or about 9% of the total original oil-in-place (OOIP) in all United States reservoirs. The current projection of Class 4 ultimate recovery with current operations is only 38% of the OOIP, leaving 19 billion barrels as the target for future IOR projects. Using the TORIS database and its predictive and economic models, the recovery potential which could result from future application of IOR technologies to Class 4 reservoirs was estimated to be between 1.0 and 4.3 billion barrels, depending on oil price and the level of technology advancement. The analysis indicated that this potential could be realized through (1) infill drilling alone and in combination with polymer flooding and profile modification, (2) chemical flooding (surfactant), and (3) thermal processes. Most of this future potential is in Texas, Oklahoma, California, and the Rocky Mountain region. Approximately two-thirds of the potentially recoverable resource is at risk of abandonment by the year 2000, which emphasizes the urgent need for the development and demonstration of cost-effective recovery technologies.

  15. Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the AES Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units (IGODU) project is to demonstrate cost efficient cryogenic operations on a relevant...

  16. Quantum heat engine operating between thermal and spin reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jackson S. S. T.; Gould, Tim; Carvalho, André R. R.; Bedkihal, Salil; Vaccaro, Joan A.

    2018-05-01

    Landauer's erasure principle is a cornerstone of thermodynamics and information theory [R. Landauer, IBM J. Res. Dev. 5, 183 (1961), 10.1147/rd.53.0183]. According to this principle, erasing information incurs a minimum energy cost. Recently, Vaccaro and Barnett [J. A. Vaccaro and S. M. Barnett, Proc. R. Soc. A 467, 1770 (2011), 10.1098/rspa.2010.0577] explored information erasure in the context of multiple conserved quantities and showed that the erasure cost can be solely in terms of spin angular momentum. As Landauer's erasure principle plays a fundamental role in heat engines, their result considerably widens the possible configurations that heat engines can have. Motivated by this, we propose here an optical heat engine that operates under a single thermal reservoir and a spin angular momentum reservoir coupled to a three-level system with two energy degenerate ground states. The proposed heat engine operates without producing waste heat and goes beyond the traditional Carnot engine where the working fluid is subjected to two thermal baths at different temperatures.

  17. Design and development of bio-inspired framework for reservoir operation optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asvini, M. Sakthi; Amudha, T.

    2017-12-01

    Frameworks for optimal reservoir operation play an important role in the management of water resources and delivery of economic benefits. Effective utilization and conservation of water from reservoirs helps to manage water deficit periods. The main challenge in reservoir optimization is to design operating rules that can be used to inform real-time decisions on reservoir release. We develop a bio-inspired framework for the optimization of reservoir release to satisfy the diverse needs of various stakeholders. In this work, single-objective optimization and multiobjective optimization problems are formulated using an algorithm known as "strawberry optimization" and tested with actual reservoir data. Results indicate that well planned reservoir operations lead to efficient deployment of the reservoir water with the help of optimal release patterns.

  18. Stochastic reservoir operation under drought with fuzzy objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parent, E.; Duckstein, L.

    1993-01-01

    Biojective reservoir operation under drought conditions is investigated using stochastic dynamic programming. As both objectives (irrigation water supply, water quality) can only be defined imprecisely, a fuzzy set approach is used to encode the decision maker (DM)'s preferences. The nature driven components are modeled by means of classical stage-state system analysis. The state is three dimensional (inflow memory, drought irrigation index, reservoir level); the decision vector elements are release and irrigation allocation. Stochasticity stems from the random nature of inflows and irrigation demands. The transition function includes a lag one inflow Markov model and mass balance equations. The human driven component is designed as a confluence of fuzzy objectives and constraints after Bellman and Zadeh. Fuzzy numbers are assessed to represent the DM's objectives by two different techniques, the direct one and indirect pairwise comparison. The real case study of the Neste river system in southwestern France is used to illustrate the approach; the result are compared to a classical sequential decision theoretical model derived earlier from the viewpoints of ease of modeling, computational efforts, plausibility and robustness of results

  19. The Economic Benefits Of Multipurpose Reservoirs In The United States- Federal Hydropower Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadjerioua, Boualem [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Witt, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stewart, Kevin M. [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); Bonnet Acosta, Marisol [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); Mobley, Miles [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The United States is home to over 80,000 dams, of which approximately 3% are equipped with hydroelectric generating capabilities. When a dam serves as a hydropower facility, it provides a variety of energy services that range from clean, reliable power generation to load balancing that supports grid stability. In most cases, the benefits of dams and their associated reservoirs go far beyond supporting the nation s energy demand. As evidenced by the substantial presence of non-powered dams with the ability to store water in large capacities, the primary purpose of a dam may not be hydropower, but rather one of many other purposes. A dam and reservoir may support navigation, recreation, flood control, irrigation, and water supply, with each multipurpose benefit providing significant social and economic impacts on a local, regional, and national level. When hydropower is one of the services provided by a multipurpose reservoir, it is then part of an integrated system of competing uses. Operating rules, management practices, consumer demands, and environmental constraints must all be balanced to meet the multipurpose project s objectives. When federal dams are built, they are authorized by Congress to serve one or more functions. Legislation such as the Water Resources Development Act regulates the operation of the facility in order to coordinate the authorized uses and ensure the dam s intended objectives are being met. While multipurpose reservoirs account for billions of dollars in contributions to National Economic Development (NED) every year, no attempt has been made to evaluate their benefits on a national scale. This study is an on-going work conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory in an effort to estimate the economic benefits of multipurpose hydropower reservoirs in the United States. Given the important role that federal hydropower plays in the U.S., the first focus of this research will target the three main federal hydropower owners Tennessee Valley

  20. A dimension reduction method for flood compensation operation of multi-reservoir system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, B.; Wu, S.; Fan, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Multiple reservoirs cooperation compensation operations coping with uncontrolled flood play vital role in real-time flood mitigation. This paper come up with a reservoir flood compensation operation index (ResFCOI), which formed by elements of flood control storage, flood inflow volume, flood transmission time and cooperation operations period, then establish a flood cooperation compensation operations model of multi-reservoir system, according to the ResFCOI to determine a computational order of each reservoir, and lastly the differential evolution algorithm is implemented for computing single reservoir flood compensation optimization in turn, so that a dimension reduction method is formed to reduce computational complexity. Shiguan River Basin with two large reservoirs and an extensive uncontrolled flood area, is used as a case study, results show that (a) reservoirs' flood discharges and the uncontrolled flood are superimposed at Jiangjiaji Station, while the formed flood peak flow is as small as possible; (b) cooperation compensation operations slightly increase in usage of flood storage capacity in reservoirs, when comparing to rule-based operations; (c) it takes 50 seconds in average when computing a cooperation compensation operations scheme. The dimension reduction method to guide flood compensation operations of multi-reservoir system, can make each reservoir adjust its flood discharge strategy dynamically according to the uncontrolled flood magnitude and pattern, so as to mitigate the downstream flood disaster.

  1. Comparison of static and dynamic resilience for a multipurpose reservoir operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonovic, Slobodan P.; Arunkumar, R.

    2016-11-01

    Reliability, resilience, and vulnerability are the traditional risk measures used to assess the performance of a reservoir system. Among these measures, resilience is used to assess the ability of a reservoir system to recover from a failure event. However, the time-independent static resilience does not consider the system characteristics, interaction of various individual components and does not provide much insight into reservoir performance from the beginning of the failure event until the full performance recovery. Knowledge of dynamic reservoir behavior under the disturbance offers opportunities for proactive and/or reactive adaptive response that can be selected to maximize reservoir resilience. A novel measure is required to provide insight into the dynamics of reservoir performance based on the reservoir system characteristics and its adaptive capacity. The reservoir system characteristics include, among others, reservoir storage curve, reservoir inflow, reservoir outflow capacity, and reservoir operating rules. The reservoir adaptive capacity can be expressed using various impacts of reservoir performance under the disturbance (like reservoir release for meeting a particular demand, socioeconomic consequences of reservoir performance, or resulting environmental state of the river upstream and downstream from the reservoir). Another way of expressing reservoir adaptive capacity to a disturbing event may include aggregated measures like reservoir robustness, redundancy, resourcefulness, and rapidity. A novel measure that combines reservoir performance and its adaptive capacity is proposed in this paper and named "dynamic resilience." The paper also proposes a generic simulation methodology for quantifying reservoir resilience as a function of time. The proposed resilience measure is applied to a single multipurpose reservoir operation and tested for a set of failure scenarios. The dynamic behavior of reservoir resilience is captured using the system

  2. Reservoir Characterization, Production Characteristics, and Research Needs for Fluvial/Alluvial Reservoirs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.L.; Jackson, S.R.; Madden, M.P.; Raw-Schatzinger, V.; Salamy, S.P.; Sarathi, P.; Young, M.A.

    1999-04-28

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program was initiated in 1992 to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from known domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. Cost-shared field demonstration projects are being initiated in geology defined reservoir classes which have been prioritized by their potential for incremental recovery and their risk of abandonment. This document defines the characteristics of the fifth geological reservoir class in the series, fluvial/alluvial reservoirs. The reservoirs of Class 5 include deposits of alluvial fans, braided streams, and meandering streams. Deposit morphologies vary as a complex function of climate and tectonics and are characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity to fluid flow as a result of extreme variations in water energy as the deposits formed.

  3. Measurement of Lake Roosevelt biota in relation to reservoir operations. 1991 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, J.R.; McDowell, A.C.; Scholz, A.T.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to collect biological data from Lake Roosevelt to be used in the design of a computer model that would predict biological responses to reservoir operations as part of the System Operation Review program. Major components of the Lake Roosevelt model included: quantification of impacts to phytoplankton, zooplanktons, benthic invertebrates, and fish caused by reservoir drawdowns and low water retention times; quantification of number, distribution, and use of fish food organisms in the reservoir by season; determination of seasonal growth of fish species as related to reservoir operations, prey abundance and utilization; and quantification of entrainment levels of zooplankton and fish as related to reservoir operations and water retention times. This report summarized the data collected on Lake Roosevelt for 1991 and includes limnological, zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrate, fishery, and reservoir operation data. Discussions cover reservoir operation affect upon zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. Reservoir operations brought reservoir elevations to a low of 1,221.7 in April, the result of power operations and a flood control shift from Dworshak Dam, in Idaho, to Grand Coulee Dam. Water retention times were correspondingly low reaching a minimum of 14.7 days on April 27th

  4. Measurement of Lake Roosevelt Biota in Relation to Reservoir Operations; 1991 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Janelle R.; McDowell, Amy C.; Scholz, Allan T.

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to collect biological data from Lake Roosevelt to be used in the design of a computer model that would predict biological responses to reservoir operations as part of the System Operation Review program. Major components of the Lake Roosevelt model included: quantification of impacts to phytoplankton, zooplanktons, benthic invertebrates, and fish caused by reservoir drawdowns and low water retention times; quantification of number, distribution, and use of fish food organisms in the reservoir by season; determination of seasonal growth of fish species as related to reservoir operations, prey abundance and utilization; and quantification of entrainment levels of zooplankton and fish as related to reservoir operations and water retention times. This report summarized the data collected on Lake Roosevelt for 1991 and includes limnological, zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrate, fishery, and reservoir operation data. Discussions cover reservoir operation affect upon zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. Reservoir operations brought reservoir elevations to a low of 1,221.7 in April, the result of power operations and a flood control shift from Dworshak Dam, in Idaho, to Grand Coulee Dam. Water retention times were correspondingly low reaching a minimum of 14.7 days on April 27th.

  5. Optimizing Wind And Hydropower Generation Within Realistic Reservoir Operating Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, T. M.; Clement, M. A.; Zagona, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have evaluated the benefits of utilizing the flexibility of hydropower systems to balance the variability and uncertainty of wind generation. However, previous hydropower and wind coordination studies have simplified non-power constraints on reservoir systems. For example, some studies have only included hydropower constraints on minimum and maximum storage volumes and minimum and maximum plant discharges. The methodology presented here utilizes the pre-emptive linear goal programming optimization solver in RiverWare to model hydropower operations with a set of prioritized policy constraints and objectives based on realistic policies that govern the operation of actual hydropower systems, including licensing constraints, environmental constraints, water management and power objectives. This approach accounts for the fact that not all policy constraints are of equal importance. For example target environmental flow levels may not be satisfied if it would require violating license minimum or maximum storages (pool elevations), but environmental flow constraints will be satisfied before optimizing power generation. Additionally, this work not only models the economic value of energy from the combined hydropower and wind system, it also captures the economic value of ancillary services provided by the hydropower resources. It is recognized that the increased variability and uncertainty inherent with increased wind penetration levels requires an increase in ancillary services. In regions with liberalized markets for ancillary services, a significant portion of hydropower revenue can result from providing ancillary services. Thus, ancillary services should be accounted for when determining the total value of a hydropower system integrated with wind generation. This research shows that the end value of integrated hydropower and wind generation is dependent on a number of factors that can vary by location. Wind factors include wind penetration level

  6. Nested algorithms for optimal reservoir operation and their embedding in a decision support platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delipetrev, B.

    2016-01-01

    Reservoir operation is a multi-objective optimization problem traditionally solved with dynamic programming (DP) and stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) algorithms. The thesis presents novel algorithms for optimal reservoir operation named nested DP (nDP), nested SDP (nSDP), nested reinforcement

  7. Effect of flow forecasting quality on benefits of reservoir operation - a case study for the Geheyan reservoir (China)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, Xiaohua; Dohmen-Janssen, Catarine M.; Booij, Martijn J.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to determine the effect of flow forecasting quality on the benefits of reservoir operation. The benefits are calculated in terms of the electricity generated, and the quality of the flow forecasting is defined in terms of lead time and accuracy of the forecasts. In

  8. Reservoir operations under climate change: Storage capacity options to mitigate risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Nima; Vörösmarty, Charles J.; Fekete, Balázs M.; Stakhiv, Eugene Z.

    2017-12-01

    Observed changes in precipitation patterns, rising surface temperature, increases in frequency and intensity of floods and droughts, widespread melting of ice, and reduced snow cover are some of the documented hydrologic changes associated with global climate change. Climate change is therefore expected to affect the water supply-demand balance in the Northeast United States and challenge existing water management strategies. The hydrological implications of future climate will affect the design capacity and operating characteristics of dams. The vulnerability of water resources systems to floods and droughts will increase, and the trade-offs between reservoir releases to maintain flood control storage, drought resilience, ecological flow, human water demand, and energy production should be reconsidered. We used a Neural Networks based General Reservoir Operation Scheme to estimate the implications of climate change for dams on a regional scale. This dynamic daily reservoir module automatically adapts to changes in climate and re-adjusts the operation of dams based on water storage level, timing, and magnitude of incoming flows. Our findings suggest that the importance of dams in providing water security in the region will increase. We create an indicator of the Effective Degree of Regulation (EDR) by dams on water resources and show that it is expected to increase, particularly during drier months of year, simply as a consequence of projected climate change. The results also indicate that increasing the size and number of dams, in addition to modifying their operations, may become necessary to offset the vulnerabilities of water resources systems to future climate uncertainties. This is the case even without considering the likely increase in future water demand, especially in the most densely populated regions of the Northeast.

  9. Restoring Natural Streamflow Variability by Modifying Multi-purpose Reservoir Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiau, J.

    2010-12-01

    Multi-purpose reservoirs typically provide benefits of water supply, hydroelectric power, and flood mitigation. Hydroelectric power generations generally do not consume water. However, temporal distribution of downstream flows is highly changed due to hydro-peaking effects. Associated with offstream diversion of water supplies for municipal, industrial, and agricultural requirements, natural streamflow characteristics of magnitude, duration, frequency, timing, and rate of change is significantly altered by multi-purpose reservoir operation. Natural flow regime has long been recognized a master factor for ecosystem health and biodiversity. Restoration of altered flow regime caused by multi-purpose reservoir operation is the main objective of this study. This study presents an optimization framework that modifying reservoir operation to seeking balance between human and environmental needs. The methodology presented in this study is applied to the Feitsui Reservoir, located in northern Taiwan, with main purpose of providing stable water-supply and auxiliary purpose of electricity generation and flood-peak attenuation. Reservoir releases are dominated by two decision variables, i.e., duration of water releases for each day and percentage of daily required releases within the duration. The current releasing policy of the Feitsui Reservoir releases water for water-supply and hydropower purposes during 8:00 am to 16:00 pm each day and no environmental flows releases. Although greater power generation is obtained by 100% releases distributed within 8-hour period, severe temporal alteration of streamflow is observed downstream of the reservoir. Modifying reservoir operation by relaxing these two variables and reserve certain ratio of streamflow as environmental flow to maintain downstream natural variability. The optimal reservoir releasing policy is searched by the multi-criterion decision making technique for considering reservoir performance in terms of shortage ratio

  10. Measurement of Lake Roosevelt biota in relation to reservoir operations. Appendices 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, J.R.; McDowell, A.C.; Scholz, A.T.

    1991-01-01

    This report consists of appendices A-F containing the biological data which were collected from Lake Roosevelt, Washington. The data are to be used in the design of a computer model that would predict biological responses of reservoir operations as part of the System Operation Review program. Major components of the model included: Quantification of impacts to phytoplankton, zooplanktons, benthic invertebrates, and fish caused by reservoir drawdowns and low water retention times; quantification of number, distribution, and use of fish food organisms in the reservoir by season; determination of seasonal growth of fish species as related to reservoir operations, prey abundance and utilization; and quantification of entrainment levels of zooplankton and fish as related to reservoir operations and water retention times

  11. Increasing Crop Yields in Water Stressed Countries by Combining Operations of Freshwater Reservoir and Wastewater Reclamation Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, R.; Ng, T. L.

    2015-12-01

    Freshwater resources around the world are increasing in scarcity due to population growth, industrialization and climate change. This is a serious concern for water stressed countries, including those in Asia and North Africa where future food production is expected to be negatively affected by this. To address this problem, we investigate the potential of combining freshwater reservoir and wastewater reclamation operations. Reservoir water is the cheaper source of irrigation, but is often limited and climate sensitive. Treated wastewater is a more reliable alternative for irrigation, but often requires extensive further treatment which can be expensive. We propose combining the operations of a reservoir and a wastewater reclamation plant (WWRP) to augment the supply from the reservoir with reclaimed water for increasing crop yields in water stressed regions. The joint system of reservoir and WWRP is modeled as a multi-objective optimization problem with the double objective of maximizing the crop yield and minimizing total cost, subject to constraints on reservoir storage, spill and release, and capacity of the WWRP. We use the crop growth model Aquacrop, supported by The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), to model crop growth in response to water use. Aquacrop considers the effects of water deficit on crop growth stages, and from there estimates crop yield. We generate results comparing total crop yield under irrigation with water from just the reservoir (which is limited and often interrupted), and yield with water from the joint system (which has the potential of higher supply and greater reliability). We will present results for locations in India and Africa to evaluate the potential of the joint operations for improving food security in those areas for different budgets.

  12. Modeling of reservoir operation in UNH global hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiklomanov, Alexander; Prusevich, Alexander; Frolking, Steve; Glidden, Stanley; Lammers, Richard; Wisser, Dominik

    2015-04-01

    Climate is changing and river flow is an integrated characteristic reflecting numerous environmental processes and their changes aggregated over large areas. Anthropogenic impacts on the river flow, however, can significantly exceed the changes associated with climate variability. Besides of irrigation, reservoirs and dams are one of major anthropogenic factor affecting streamflow. They distort hydrological regime of many rivers by trapping of freshwater runoff, modifying timing of river discharge and increasing the evaporation rate. Thus, reservoirs is an integral part of the global hydrological system and their impacts on rivers have to be taken into account for better quantification and understanding of hydrological changes. We developed a new technique, which was incorporated into WBM-TrANS model (Water Balance Model-Transport from Anthropogenic and Natural Systems) to simulate river routing through large reservoirs and natural lakes based on information available from freely accessible databases such as GRanD (the Global Reservoir and Dam database) or NID (National Inventory of Dams for US). Different formulations were applied for unregulated spillway dams and lakes, and for 4 types of regulated reservoirs, which were subdivided based on main purpose including generic (multipurpose), hydropower generation, irrigation and water supply, and flood control. We also incorporated rules for reservoir fill up and draining at the times of construction and decommission based on available data. The model were tested for many reservoirs of different size and types located in various climatic conditions using several gridded meteorological data sets as model input and observed daily and monthly discharge data from GRDC (Global Runoff Data Center), USGS Water Data (US Geological Survey), and UNH archives. The best results with Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient in the range of 0.5-0.9 were obtained for temperate zone of Northern Hemisphere where most of large

  13. Simulation and optimisation modelling approach for operation of the Hoa Binh Reservoir, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Long le; Madsen, Henrik; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Hoa Binh, the largest reservoir in Vietnam, plays an important role in flood control for the Red River delta and hydropower generation. Due to its multi-purpose character, conflicts and disputes in operating the reservoir have been ongoing since its construction, particularly in the flood season....... This paper proposes to optimise the control strategies for the Hoa Binh reservoir operation by applying a combination of simulation and optimisation models. The control strategies are set up in the MIKE 11 simulation model to guide the releases of the reservoir system according to the current storage level......, the hydro-meteorological conditions, and the time of the year. A heuristic global optimisation tool, the shuffled complex evolution (SCE) algorithm, is adopted for optimising the reservoir operation. The optimisation puts focus on the trade-off between flood control and hydropower generation for the Hoa...

  14. Evaluation of reservoir operation strategies for irrigation in the Macul Basin, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Tinoco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Study focus: An irrigation project is planned in the study basin for developing the agriculture as the main income in the region. The proposed water system comprises three large reservoirs damming the rivers Macul and Maculillo. The river basin planning and operation were investigated by modelling alternative reservoir operation strategies aiming at a sustainable balance between irrigation and river ecology by integrated reservoir/river management. New hydrological insights for the region: After simulation of long-term meteorological series in a model of the integrated water system, covering several historical extreme events, results indicate that the planned irrigation volumes are higher than the available water for a sustainable irrigation strategy. Two lines of action are suggested for reaching the target irrigation demands: design of a deficit irrigation system, and modifications to the reservoir's spillway height. Keywords: Reservoir operation, Conceptual model, Irrigation

  15. Effect of Streamflow Forecast Uncertainty on Real-Time Reservoir Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, T.; Cai, X.; Yang, D.

    2010-12-01

    Various hydrological forecast products have been applied to real-time reservoir operation, including deterministic streamflow forecast (DSF), DSF-based probabilistic streamflow forecast (DPSF), and ensemble streamflow forecast (ESF), which represent forecast uncertainty in the form of deterministic forecast error, deterministic forecast error-based uncertainty distribution, and ensemble forecast errors, respectively. Compared to previous studies that treat these forecast products as ad hoc inputs for reservoir operation models, this paper attempts to model the uncertainties involved in the various forecast products and explores their effect on real-time reservoir operation decisions. In hydrology, there are various indices reflecting the magnitude of streamflow forecast uncertainty; meanwhile, few models illustrate the forecast uncertainty evolution process. This research introduces Martingale Model of Forecast Evolution (MMFE) from supply chain management and justifies its assumptions for quantifying the evolution of uncertainty in streamflow forecast as time progresses. Based on MMFE, this research simulates the evolution of forecast uncertainty in DSF, DPSF, and ESF, and applies the reservoir operation models (dynamic programming, DP; stochastic dynamic programming, SDP; and standard operation policy, SOP) to assess the effect of different forms of forecast uncertainty on real-time reservoir operation. Through a hypothetical single-objective real-time reservoir operation model, the results illustrate that forecast uncertainty exerts significant effects. Reservoir operation efficiency, as measured by a utility function, decreases as the forecast uncertainty increases. Meanwhile, these effects also depend on the type of forecast product being used. In general, the utility of reservoir operation with ESF is nearly as high as the utility obtained with a perfect forecast; the utilities of DSF and DPSF are similar to each other but not as efficient as ESF. Moreover

  16. Studies Regarding the Safety in Operation of Ezer Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balan Isabela

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The dam of the non-permanent reservoir Ezer, located on Jijia river is an earth dam with a maximum height of 6.18 m, which provides a global retention to the canopy of 10.330 million cubic meters. The dam founded on weak, muddy soils suffered in the years 1989 and 1992 downstream slope failures of the fillings. It was found that hydrostatic levels were high in the piezometric wells and that consolidation of the foundation soil was reduced. This paper presents a brief history of the dam and aspects regarding the behaviour monitoring of Ezer non-permanent reservoir during the years 2000-2012.

  17. Measurement of Lake Roosevelt biota in relation to reservoir operations. Final report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voeller, A.C.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to collect biological data from Lake Roosevelt to be used in the design of a computer model that will predict biological responses to reservoir operations as part of the System Operation Review Program. This study worked in conjunction with Lake Roosevelt Monitoring Project which investigated the effectiveness of two kokanee salmon hatcheries. This report summarized the data collected from Lake Roosevelt from 1993 and includes limnological, reservoir operation, zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrate, experimental trawling, and net-pen rainbow trout tagging data. Major components of the Lake Roosevelt model include quantification of impacts to zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish caused by reservoir drawdowns and low water retention times

  18. Effects of climate change on streamflow extremes and implications for reservoir inflow in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, Bibi S.; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Gao, Huilin

    2017-01-01

    The magnitude and frequency of hydrometeorological extremes are expected to increase in the conterminous United States (CONUS) over the rest of this century, and their increase will significantly impact water resource management. While previous efforts focused on the effects of reservoirs on downstream discharge, the effects of climate change on reservoir inflows in upstream areas are not well understood. We evaluated the large-scale climate change effects on extreme hydrological events and their implications for reservoir inflows in 178 headwater basins across CONUS using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model. The VIC model was forced with a 10-member ensemble of global circulation models under the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 that were dynamically downscaled using a regional climate model (RegCM4) and bias-corrected to 1/24° grid cell resolution. The results projected an increase in the likelihood of flood risk by 44% for a majority of subbasins upstream of flood control reservoirs in the central United States and increased drought risk by 11% for subbasins upstream of hydropower reservoirs across the western United States. Increased risk of both floods and droughts can potentially make reservoirs across CONUS more vulnerable to future climate conditions. In conclusion, this study estimates reservoir inflow changes over the next several decades, which can be used to optimize water supply management downstream.

  19. Organization of Control Units with Operational Addressing

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander A. Barkalov; Roman M. Babakov; Larysa A. Titarenko

    2012-01-01

    The using of operational addressing unit as the block of control unit is proposed. The new structure model of Moore finite-state machine with reduced hardware amount is developed. The generalized structure of operational addressing unit is suggested. An example of synthesis process for Moore finite-state machine with operational addressing unit is given. The analytical researches of proposed structure of control unit are executed.

  20. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Owned and Operated Reservoirs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset shows maximum conservation pool or is a reasonable representation of the boundaries for reservoirs and lakes owned and operated by USACE. Data is from...

  1. The impact of hydraulic flow unit & reservoir quality index on pressure profile and productivity index in multi-segments reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Al-Rbeawi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is studying the impact of the hydraulic flow unit and reservoir quality index (RQI on pressure profile and productivity index of horizontal wells acting in finite reservoirs. Several mathematical models have been developed to investigate this impact. These models have been built based on the pressure distribution in porous media, depleted by a horizontal well, consist of multi hydraulic flow units and different reservoir quality index. The porous media are assumed to be finite rectangular reservoirs having different configurations and the wellbores may have different lengths. Several analytical models describing flow regimes have been derived wherein hydraulic flow units and reservoir quality index have been included in addition to rock and fluid properties. The impact of these two parameters on reservoir performance has also been studied using steady state productivity index.It has been found that both pressure responses and flow regimes are highly affected by the existence of multiple hydraulic flow units in the porous media and the change in reservoir quality index for these units. Positive change in the RQI could lead to positive change in both pressure drop required for reservoir fluids to move towards the wellbore and hence the productivity index.

  2. The Improvement of Particle Swarm Optimization: a Case Study of Optimal Operation in Goupitan Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haichen; Qin, Tao; Wang, Weiping; Lei, Xiaohui; Wu, Wenhui

    2018-02-01

    Due to the weakness in holding diversity and reaching global optimum, the standard particle swarm optimization has not performed well in reservoir optimal operation. To solve this problem, this paper introduces downhill simplex method to work together with the standard particle swarm optimization. The application of this approach in Goupitan reservoir optimal operation proves that the improved method had better accuracy and higher reliability with small investment.

  3. Development and operation of Northern Natural's aquifer gas storage reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinson, E V

    1969-01-01

    There are no depleted (or nondepleted) oil and gas fields in Northern Natural Gas Co.'s market area. Consequently, when the search was started for a possible underground field, the company had to resort to the possibility of locating a water-filled, porous-rock formation (aquifer) in a geological structure which would form a suitable trap for gas storage. Geological research and exploratory drilling was carried on in S. Minnesota, E. Nebraska, and W.-central Iowa. An area located about 40 miles northwest of Des Moines, Iowa, near Redfield, appeared to have the most desirable characteristics for development of a gas-storage field. Drilling of deep developmental wells was started in late 1953 on a double- plunging anticline. The geological structure is similar to that of many oil and gas fields, but the porous formations contained only fresh water. To date, 2 major reservoirs and a minor reservoir have been developed in this structure. As much as 120 billion cu ft has been stored in the 3 reservoirs which supplied 43 billion cu ft gas withdrawals this past season from a total of 85 wells. A second aquifer gas-storage field is under development in N.-central Iowa about 15 miles northeast of Ft. Dodge.

  4. Duck Valley Reservoirs Fish Stocking and Operation and Maintenance, 2005-2006 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellman, Jake; Dykstra, Tim [Shoshone-Paiute Tribes

    2009-05-11

    The Duck Valley Reservoirs Fish Stocking and Operations and Maintenance (DV Fisheries) project is an ongoing resident fish program designed to enhance both subsistence fishing, educational opportunities for Tribal members of the Shoshone-Paiute Tribes, and recreational fishing facilities for non-Tribal members. In addition to stocking rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Mountain View, Lake Billy Shaw, and Sheep Creek Reservoirs, the program also intends to afford and maintain healthy aquatic conditions for fish growth and survival, to provide superior facilities with wilderness qualities to attract non-Tribal angler use, and to offer clear, consistent communication with the Tribal community about this project as well as outreach and education within the region and the local community. Tasks for this performance period are divided into operations and maintenance plus monitoring and evaluation. Operation and maintenance of the three reservoirs include fences, roads, dams and all reservoir structures, feeder canals, water troughs and stock ponds, educational signs, vehicles and equipment, and outhouses. Monitoring and evaluation activities included creel, gillnet, wildlife, and bird surveys, water quality and reservoir structures monitoring, native vegetation planting, photo point documentation, control of encroaching exotic vegetation, and community outreach and education. The three reservoirs are monitored in terms of water quality and fishery success. Sheep Creek Reservoir was the least productive as a result of high turbidity levels and constraining water quality parameters. Lake Billy Shaw trout were in poorer condition than in previous years potentially as a result of water quality or other factors. Mountain View Reservoir trout exhibit the best health of the three reservoirs and was the only reservoir to receive constant flows of water.

  5. Real-time reservoir operation considering non-stationary inflow prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J.; Xu, W.; Cai, X.; Wang, Z.

    2011-12-01

    Stationarity of inflow has been a basic assumption for reservoir operation rule design, which is now facing challenges due to climate change and human interferences. This paper proposes a modeling framework to incorporate non-stationary inflow prediction for optimizing the hedging operation rule of large reservoirs with multiple-year flow regulation capacity. A multi-stage optimization model is formulated and a solution algorithm based on the optimality conditions is developed to incorporate non-stationary annual inflow prediction through a rolling, dynamic framework that updates the prediction from period to period and adopt the updated prediction in reservoir operation decision. The prediction model is ARIMA(4,1,0), in which parameter 4 stands for the order of autoregressive, 1 represents a linear trend, and 0 is the order of moving average. The modeling framework and solution algorithm is applied to the Miyun reservoir in China, determining a yearly operating schedule during the period from 1996 to 2009, during which there was a significant declining trend of reservoir inflow. Different operation policy scenarios are modeled, including standard operation policy (SOP, matching the current demand as much as possible), hedging rule (i.e., leaving a certain amount of water for future to avoid large risk of water deficit) with forecast from ARIMA (HR-1), hedging (HR) with perfect forecast (HR-2 ). Compared to the results of these scenarios to that of the actual reservoir operation (AO), the utility of the reservoir operation under HR-1 is 3.0% lower than HR-2, but 3.7% higher than the AO and 14.4% higher than SOP. Note that the utility under AO is 10.3% higher than that under SOP, which shows that a certain level of hedging under some inflow prediction or forecast was used in the real-world operation. Moreover, the impacts of discount rate and forecast uncertainty level on the operation will be discussed.

  6. Intelligent control for modeling of real-time reservoir operation, part II: artificial neural network with operating rule curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Ting; Chang, Li-Chiu; Chang, Fi-John

    2005-04-01

    To bridge the gap between academic research and actual operation, we propose an intelligent control system for reservoir operation. The methodology includes two major processes, the knowledge acquired and implemented, and the inference system. In this study, a genetic algorithm (GA) and a fuzzy rule base (FRB) are used to extract knowledge based on the historical inflow data with a design objective function and on the operating rule curves respectively. The adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is then used to implement the knowledge, to create the fuzzy inference system, and then to estimate the optimal reservoir operation. To investigate its applicability and practicability, the Shihmen reservoir, Taiwan, is used as a case study. For the purpose of comparison, a simulation of the currently used M-5 operating rule curve is also performed. The results demonstrate that (1) the GA is an efficient way to search the optimal input-output patterns, (2) the FRB can extract the knowledge from the operating rule curves, and (3) the ANFIS models built on different types of knowledge can produce much better performance than the traditional M-5 curves in real-time reservoir operation. Moreover, we show that the model can be more intelligent for reservoir operation if more information (or knowledge) is involved.

  7. Studying Operation Rules of Cascade Reservoirs Based on Multi-Dimensional Dynamics Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Jiang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although many optimization models and methods are applied to the optimization of reservoir operation at present, the optimal operation decision that is made through these models and methods is just a retrospective review. Due to the limitation of hydrological prediction accuracy, it is practical and feasible to obtain the suboptimal or satisfactory solution by the established operation rules in the actual reservoir operation, especially for the mid- and long-term operation. In order to obtain the optimized sample data with global optimality; and make the extracted operation rules more reasonable and reliable, this paper presents the multi-dimensional dynamic programming model of the optimal joint operation of cascade reservoirs and provides the corresponding recursive equation and the specific solving steps. Taking Li Xianjiang cascade reservoirs as a case study, seven uncertain problems in the whole operation period of the cascade reservoirs are summarized after a detailed analysis to the obtained optimal sample data, and two sub-models are put forward to solve these uncertain problems. Finally, by dividing the whole operation period into four characteristic sections, this paper extracts the operation rules of each reservoir for each section respectively. When compared the simulation results of the extracted operation rules with the conventional joint operation method; the result indicates that the power generation of the obtained rules has a certain degree of improvement both in inspection years and typical years (i.e., wet year; normal year and dry year. So, the rationality and effectiveness of the extracted operation rules are verified by the comparative analysis.

  8. Efficient operation of a multi-purpose reservoir in Chile: Tradeoffs between irrigation and hydropower production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Cabrera, J. M., Sr.; Olivares, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    This study proposes a method to develop efficient operational policies for a reservoir the southern Chile. The main water uses in this system are hydropower and irrigation, with conflicting seasonal demands. The conflict between these two uses is currently managed through a so-called "irrigation agreement" which defines a series of operational conditions on the reservoir by restricting volumes used for power production depending on reservoir storage level. Other than that, the reservoir operation is driven by cost-minimization over the power grid. Recent evidence shows an increasing degree of conflict in this basin, which suggests that the static approach of irrigation agreements, might no longer be appropriate. Moreover, this agreement could be revised in light of decreased water availability. This problem poses a challenge related to the spatial scope of analysis. Thus, irrigation benefits are driven by decisions made within the basin, whereas hydropower benefits depend on the operation of the entire power grid. Exploring the tradeoffs between these two water uses involves modeling both scales. The proposed methodology integrates information from both a grid-wide power operations model and a basin-wide agro-economic model into a decision model for optimal reservoir operation. The first model, a hydrothermal coordination tool, schedules power production by each plant in the grid, and allows capturing technical and economic aspects to the operation of hydropower reservoirs. The agro-economic model incorporates economic features of irrigation in the basin, and allows obtaining irrigation water demand functions. Finally, the results of both models are integrated into a single model for optimal reservoir operation considering the tradeoffs between the two uses. The result of the joint operation of water resources, show a flexible coordination of uses, revealing the opportunity cost of irrigation, which it gives the possibility of negotiating transfers of water to

  9. Development of Future Rule Curves for Multipurpose Reservoir Operation Using Conditional Genetic and Tabu Search Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anongrit Kangrang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal rule curves are necessary guidelines in the reservoir operation that have been used to assess performance of any reservoir to satisfy water supply, irrigation, industrial, hydropower, and environmental conservation requirements. This study applied the conditional genetic algorithm (CGA and the conditional tabu search algorithm (CTSA technique to connect with the reservoir simulation model in order to search optimal reservoir rule curves. The Ubolrat Reservoir located in the northeast region of Thailand was an illustrative application including historic monthly inflow, future inflow generated by the SWAT hydrological model using 50-year future climate data from the PRECIS regional climate model in case of B2 emission scenario by IPCC SRES, water demand, hydrologic data, and physical reservoir data. The future and synthetic inflow data of reservoirs were used to simulate reservoir system for evaluating water situation. The situations of water shortage and excess water were shown in terms of frequency magnitude and duration. The results have shown that the optimal rule curves from CGA and CTSA connected with the simulation model can mitigate drought and flood situations than the existing rule curves. The optimal future rule curves were more suitable for future situations than the other rule curves.

  10. A prediction of Power Duration Curve from the Optimal Operation of the Multi Reservoirs System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Wahab Younis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available  This study aims of predication Power Duration Curves(PDC resulting from the optimal operation of the multi reservoirs system which comprises the reservoirs of Bakhma dam,Dokan dam and Makhool dam for the division of years over 30 years.Discrete Differential Dynamic Programming(DDDP has been employed to find the optimal operation of the said reservoirs.    PDC representing the relationship between the generated hydroelectric power and percentage of operation time equaled or exceeded . The importance of these curves lies in knowing the volume of electric power available for that percentage of operation time. The results have shown that the sum of yearly hydroelectric power for average Release and for the single operation was 5410,1604,2929(Mwfor the reservoirs of Bakhma, Dokan, Makhool dams, which resulted from the application of independent DDDP technology. Also, the hydroelectric power whose generation can be guranteed for 90% of the time is 344.91,107.7,188.15 (Mw for the single operation and 309.1,134.08,140.7 (Mw for the operation as a one system for the reservoirs of Bakhma, Dokan, and Makhool dams respectively.

  11. Incorporating teleconnection information into reservoir operating policies using Stochastic Dynamic Programming and a Hidden Markov Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sean; Galelli, Stefano; Wilcox, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Water reservoir systems are often affected by recurring large-scale ocean-atmospheric anomalies, known as teleconnections, that cause prolonged periods of climatological drought. Accurate forecasts of these events -- at lead times in the order of weeks and months -- may enable reservoir operators to take more effective release decisions to improve the performance of their systems. In practice this might mean a more reliable water supply system, a more profitable hydropower plant or a more sustainable environmental release policy. To this end, climate indices, which represent the oscillation of the ocean-atmospheric system, might be gainfully employed within reservoir operating models that adapt the reservoir operation as a function of the climate condition. This study develops a Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) approach that can incorporate climate indices using a Hidden Markov Model. The model simulates the climatic regime as a hidden state following a Markov chain, with the state transitions driven by variation in climatic indices, such as the Southern Oscillation Index. Time series analysis of recorded streamflow data reveals the parameters of separate autoregressive models that describe the inflow to the reservoir under three representative climate states ("normal", "wet", "dry"). These models then define inflow transition probabilities for use in a classic SDP approach. The key advantage of the Hidden Markov Model is that it allows conditioning the operating policy not only on the reservoir storage and the antecedent inflow, but also on the climate condition, thus potentially allowing adaptability to a broader range of climate conditions. In practice, the reservoir operator would effect a water release tailored to a specific climate state based on available teleconnection data and forecasts. The approach is demonstrated on the operation of a realistic, stylised water reservoir with carry-over capacity in South-East Australia. Here teleconnections relating

  12. Cascade reservoir flood control operation based on risk grading and warning in the Upper Yellow River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuejiao, M.; Chang, J.; Wang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Flood risk reduction with non-engineering measures has become the main idea for flood management. It is more effective for flood risk management to take various non-engineering measures. In this paper, a flood control operation model for cascade reservoirs in the Upper Yellow River was proposed to lower the flood risk of the water system with multi-reservoir by combining the reservoir flood control operation (RFCO) and flood early warning together. Specifically, a discharge control chart was employed to build the joint RFCO simulation model for cascade reservoirs in the Upper Yellow River. And entropy-weighted fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method was adopted to establish a multi-factorial risk assessment model for flood warning grade. Furthermore, after determining the implementing mode of countermeasures with future inflow, an intelligent optimization algorithm was used to solve the optimization model for applicable water release scheme. In addition, another model without any countermeasure was set to be a comparative experiment. The results show that the model developed in this paper can further decrease the flood risk of water system with cascade reservoirs. It provides a new approach to flood risk management by coupling flood control operation and flood early warning of cascade reservoirs.

  13. Derivation of Optimal Operating Rules for Large-scale Reservoir Systems Considering Multiple Trade-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Lei, X.; Liu, P.; Wang, H.; Li, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Flood control operation of multi-reservoir systems such as parallel reservoirs and hybrid reservoirs often suffer from complex interactions and trade-off among tributaries and the mainstream. The optimization of such systems is computationally intensive due to nonlinear storage curves, numerous constraints and complex hydraulic connections. This paper aims to derive the optimal flood control operating rules based on the trade-off among tributaries and the mainstream using a new algorithm known as weighted non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (WNSGA II). WNSGA II could locate the Pareto frontier in non-dominated region efficiently due to the directed searching by weighted crowding distance, and the results are compared with those of conventional operating rules (COR) and single objective genetic algorithm (GA). Xijiang river basin in China is selected as a case study, with eight reservoirs and five flood control sections within four tributaries and the mainstream. Furthermore, the effects of inflow uncertainty have been assessed. Results indicate that: (1) WNSGA II could locate the non-dominated solutions faster and provide better Pareto frontier than the traditional non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA II) due to the weighted crowding distance; (2) WNSGA II outperforms COR and GA on flood control in the whole basin; (3) The multi-objective operating rules from WNSGA II deal with the inflow uncertainties better than COR. Therefore, the WNSGA II can be used to derive stable operating rules for large-scale reservoir systems effectively and efficiently.

  14. Determination of the Cascade Reservoir Operation for Optimal Firm-Energy Using Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmeri

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia today face a new paradigm in water management where aim to apply integrated water resources management has become unavoidable task in purpose of achieving greater level of effectiveness and efficiency. On of most interesting case study is the case of Citarum river, one of the most potential river for water supply in West Java, Indonesia. Alongside the river, Saguling, Cirata and Djuanda Reservoirs had been constructed in series/cascade. Saguling and Cirata reservoirs are particularly operated for hydroelectric power and Djuanda is multipurpose reservoir mainly operated for irrigation and contribute domestic water supply for Jakarta (capital city of Indonesia. Basically all reservoirs are relying on same resources, therefore this condition has considered addressing management and operational problem. Therefore, an approach toward new management and operation system are urgently required in order to achieve the effective and efficient output and to avoid conflicts of water used. This study aims to obtain energy production from Citarum Cascade Reservoir System using Genetic Algorithms optimization with the objective function to maximize firm-energy. Firm-energy is the minimum energy requirements must be available in a certain time period. Then, the result obtained by using the energy produced by GA is compared to the conventional searching technique of Non-Linier Programming (NLP. The GA derived operating curves reveal the higher energy and firm-energy than NLP model

  15. Designing adaptive operating rules for a large multi-purpose reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geressu, Robel; Rougé, Charles; Harou, Julien

    2017-04-01

    Reservoirs whose live storage capacity is large compared with annual inflow have "memory", i.e., their storage levels contain information about past inflows and reservoir operations. Such "long-memory" reservoirs can be found in basins in dry regions such as the Nile River Basin in Africa, the Colorado River Basin in the US, or river basins in Western and Central Asia. There the effects of a dry year have the potential to impact reservoir levels and downstream releases for several subsequent years, prompting tensions in transboundary basins. Yet, current reservoir operation rules in those reservoirs do not reflect this by integrating past climate history and release decisions among the factors that influence operating decisions. This work proposes and demonstrates an adaptive reservoir operating rule that explicitly accounts for the recent history of release decisions, and not only current storage level and near-term inflow forecasts. This implies adding long-term (e.g., multiyear) objectives to the existing short-term (e.g., annual) ones. We apply these operating rules to the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, a large reservoir under construction on the Blue Nile River. Energy generation has to be balanced with the imperative of releasing enough water in low flow years (e.g., the minimum 1, 2 or 3 year cumulative flow) to avoid tensions with downstream countries, Sudan and Egypt. Maximizing the minimum multi-year releases could be of interest for the Nile problem to minimize the impact on performance of the large High Aswan Dam in Egypt. Objectives include maximizing the average and minimum annual energy generation and maximizing the minimum annual, two year and three year cumulative releases. The system model is tested using 30 stochastically generated streamflow series. One can then derive adaptive release rules depending on the value of one- and two-year total releases with respect to thresholds. Then, there are 3 sets of release rules for the reservoir depending

  16. Applicability of adapted reservoir operation for water stress mitigation under dry year conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsson, O.; Ikramova, M.; Bauer, M.; Froebrich, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the conjunctive use of a deterministic water quality model and water balance criteria for supporting the assessment of simulation and to evaluate the effectiveness of proposed operation strategies. By this, the applicability of enhanced reservoir operation strategies addressing

  17. Evaluation of the operation of Yermasoyia surface and groundwater reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacovides, I.S.

    1988-07-01

    The environmental isotope technique has been used in conjunction with hydrochemical methods to study the conjunctive use of surface and groundwater in the Yermasoyia area of Cyprus. The isotopes used in this study are 18 O, 2 H and 3 H. The isotopically enriched water in the Yermasoyia dam is released periodically in order to study the movement of the released water. From the stable isotopes and tritium data, it became evident that two regions can be distinguished in the aquifer, the Upper part and the Delta area. The secondary aquifer on either side of the river valley does not appear to receive any water from the seepage of the dam. The overall tracer average velocity in the aquifer was computed to be 16±3m per day and this is equivalent to a permeability of 160m per day. Water bodies originating from low frequency spills have been identified at the coast on the basis of oxygen-18 and tritium. A successful simulation of the reservoir for 1985 increased the confidence in the water balance and was used to verify the quantities estimated for evaporation and seepage. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Brucellosis in the United States: Role and Significance of Wildlife Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulatory programs for brucellosis in domestic livestock have been active in the United States for almost 80 years. Wildlife reservoirs of brucellosis include bison (Bison bison) and elk (Cervus elaphus nelsonii) for B. abortus whereas B. suis is the predominant species infecting feral swine. The...

  19. AI techniques for optimizing multi-objective reservoir operation upon human and riverine ecosystem demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Ping; Chang, Fi-John; Chang, Li-Chiu; Herricks, Edwin E.

    2015-11-01

    Flow regime is the key driver of the riverine ecology. This study proposes a novel hybrid methodology based on artificial intelligence (AI) techniques for quantifying riverine ecosystems requirements and delivering suitable flow regimes that sustain river and floodplain ecology through optimizing reservoir operation. This approach addresses issues to better fit riverine ecosystem requirements with existing human demands. We first explored and characterized the relationship between flow regimes and fish communities through a hybrid artificial neural network (ANN). Then the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) was established for river flow management over the Shihmen Reservoir in northern Taiwan. The ecosystem requirement took the form of maximizing fish diversity, which could be estimated by the hybrid ANN. The human requirement was to provide a higher satisfaction degree of water supply. The results demonstrated that the proposed methodology could offer a number of diversified alternative strategies for reservoir operation and improve reservoir operational strategies producing downstream flows that could meet both human and ecosystem needs. Applications that make this methodology attractive to water resources managers benefit from the wide spread of Pareto-front (optimal) solutions allowing decision makers to easily determine the best compromise through the trade-off between reservoir operational strategies for human and ecosystem needs.

  20. Oconee Nuclear Station, Units 1, 2, and 3. Semiannual operating report, January--June 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Information is presented concerning operations, performance characteristics, changes, tests, inspections, containment leak tests, maintenance, primary coolant chemistry, station staff changes, reservoir investigations, plume mapping, and operational environmental radioactivity monitoring data for oconee Units 1, 2, and 3. The non-radiological environmental surveillance program is also described. (FS)

  1. River Stream-Flow and Zayanderoud Reservoir Operation Modeling Using the Fuzzy Inference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Jamali

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Zayanderoud basin is located in the central plateau of Iran. As a result of population increase and agricultural and industrial developments, water demand on this basin has increased extensively. Given the importance of reservoir operation in water resource and management studies, the performance of fuzzy inference system (FIS for Zayanderoud reservoir operation is investigated in this paper. The model of operation consists of two parts. In the first part, the seasonal river stream-flow is forecasted using the fuzzy rule-based system. The southern oscillated index, rain, snow, and discharge are inputs of the model and the seasonal river stream-flow its output. In the second part, the operation model is constructed. The amount of releases is first optimized by a nonlinear optimization model and then the rule curves are extracted using the fuzzy inference system. This model operates on an "if-then" principle, where the "if" is a vector of fuzzy permits and "then" is the fuzzy result. The reservoir storage capacity, inflow, demand, and year condition factor are used as permits. Monthly release is taken as the consequence. The Zayanderoud basin is investigated as a case study. Different performance indices such as reliability, resiliency, and vulnerability are calculated. According to results, FIS works more effectively than the traditional reservoir operation methods such as standard operation policy (SOP or linear regression.

  2. Optimization of conventional rule curves coupled with hedging rules for reservoir operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghian, Mehrdad; Rosbjerg, Dan; Haghighi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    As a common approach to reservoir operating policies, water levels at the end of each time interval should be kept at or above the rule curve. In this study, the policy is captured using rationing of the target yield to reduce the intensity of severe water shortages. For this purpose, a hybrid...... to achieve the optimal water allocation and the target storage levels for reservoirs. As a case study, a multipurpose, multireservoir system in southern Iran is selected. The results show that the model has good performance in extracting the optimum policy for reservoir operation under both normal...... model is developed to optimize simultaneously both the conventional rule curve and the hedging rule. In the compound model, a simple genetic algorithm is coupled with a simulation program, including an inner linear programming algorithm. In this way, operational policies are imposed by priority concepts...

  3. Physical protection of nuclear operational units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The general principles of and basic requirements for the physical protection of operational units in the nuclear field are established. They concern the operational units whose activities are related with production, utilization, processing, reprocessing, handling, transport or storage of materials of interest for the Brazilian Nuclear Program. (I.C.R.) [pt

  4. Future changes in Mekong River hydrology: impact of climate change and reservoir operation on discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lauri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The transboundary Mekong River is facing two ongoing changes that are expected to significantly impact its hydrology and the characteristics of its exceptional flood pulse. The rapid economic development of the riparian countries has led to massive plans for hydropower construction, and projected climate change is expected to alter the monsoon patterns and increase temperature in the basin. The aim of this study is to assess the cumulative impact of these factors on the hydrology of the Mekong within next 20–30 yr. We downscaled the output of five general circulation models (GCMs that were found to perform well in the Mekong region. For the simulation of reservoir operation, we used an optimisation approach to estimate the operation of multiple reservoirs, including both existing and planned hydropower reservoirs. For the hydrological assessment, we used a distributed hydrological model, VMod, with a grid resolution of 5 km × 5 km. In terms of climate change's impact on hydrology, we found a high variation in the discharge results depending on which of the GCMs is used as input. The simulated change in discharge at Kratie (Cambodia between the baseline (1982–1992 and projected time period (2032–2042 ranges from −11% to +15% for the wet season and −10% to +13% for the dry season. Our analysis also shows that the changes in discharge due to planned reservoir operations are clearly larger than those simulated due to climate change: 25–160% higher dry season flows and 5–24% lower flood peaks in Kratie. The projected cumulative impacts follow rather closely the reservoir operation impacts, with an envelope around them induced by the different GCMs. Our results thus indicate that within the coming 20–30 yr, the operation of planned hydropower reservoirs is likely to have a larger impact on the Mekong hydrograph than the impacts of climate change, particularly during the dry season. On the other hand, climate change will

  5. Complex relationship between seasonal streamflow forecast skill and value in reservoir operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. D. Turner

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerable research effort has recently been directed at improving and operationalising ensemble seasonal streamflow forecasts. Whilst this creates new opportunities for improving the performance of water resources systems, there may also be associated risks. Here, we explore these potential risks by examining the sensitivity of forecast value (improvement in system performance brought about by adopting forecasts to changes in the forecast skill for a range of hypothetical reservoir designs with contrasting operating objectives. Forecast-informed operations are simulated using rolling horizon, adaptive control and then benchmarked against optimised control rules to assess performance improvements. Results show that there exists a strong relationship between forecast skill and value for systems operated to maintain a target water level. But this relationship breaks down when the reservoir is operated to satisfy a target demand for water; good forecast accuracy does not necessarily translate into performance improvement. We show that the primary cause of this behaviour is the buffering role played by storage in water supply reservoirs, which renders the forecast superfluous for long periods of the operation. System performance depends primarily on forecast accuracy when critical decisions are made – namely during severe drought. As it is not possible to know in advance if a forecast will perform well at such moments, we advocate measuring the consistency of forecast performance, through bootstrap resampling, to indicate potential usefulness in storage operations. Our results highlight the need for sensitivity assessment in value-of-forecast studies involving reservoirs with supply objectives.

  6. Hybrid Multi-Objective Optimization of Folsom Reservoir Operation to Maximize Storage in Whole Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goharian, E.; Gailey, R.; Maples, S.; Azizipour, M.; Sandoval Solis, S.; Fogg, G. E.

    2017-12-01

    The drought incidents and growing water scarcity in California have a profound effect on human, agricultural, and environmental water needs. California experienced multi-year droughts, which have caused groundwater overdraft and dropping groundwater levels, and dwindling of major reservoirs. These concerns call for a stringent evaluation of future water resources sustainability and security in the state. To answer to this call, Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA) was passed in 2014 to promise a sustainable groundwater management in California by 2042. SGMA refers to managed aquifer recharge (MAR) as a key management option, especially in areas with high variation in water availability intra- and inter-annually, to secure the refill of underground water storage and return of groundwater quality to a desirable condition. The hybrid optimization of an integrated water resources system provides an opportunity to adapt surface reservoir operations for enhancement in groundwater recharge. Here, to re-operate Folsom Reservoir, objectives are maximizing the storage in the whole American-Cosumnes watershed and maximizing hydropower generation from Folsom Reservoir. While a linear programing (LP) module tends to maximize the total groundwater recharge by distributing and spreading water over suitable lands in basin, a genetic based algorithm, Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II), layer above it controls releases from the reservoir to secure the hydropower generation, carry-over storage in reservoir, available water for replenishment, and downstream water requirements. The preliminary results show additional releases from the reservoir for groundwater recharge during high flow seasons. Moreover, tradeoffs between the objectives describe that new operation performs satisfactorily to increase the storage in the basin, with nonsignificant effects on other objectives.

  7. Duck Valley Reservoirs Fish Stocking and Operation and Maintenance, 2006-2007 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellman, Jake; Dykstra, Tim [Shoshone-Paiute Tribes

    2009-05-11

    The Duck Valley Reservoirs Fish Stocking and Operations and Maintenance (DV Fisheries) project is an ongoing resident fish program that serves to partially mitigate the loss of anadromous fish that resulted from downstream construction of the hydropower system. The project's goals are to enhance subsistence fishing and educational opportunities for Tribal members of the Shoshone-Paiute Tribes and provide resident fishing opportunities for non-Tribal members. In addition to stocking rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Mountain View, Lake Billy Shaw, and Sheep Creek Reservoirs, the program is also designed to maintain healthy aquatic conditions for fish growth and survival, to provide superior facilities with wilderness qualities to attract non-Tribal angler use, and to offer clear, consistent communication with the Tribal community about this project as well as outreach and education within the region and the local community. Tasks for this performance period are divided into operations and maintenance plus monitoring and evaluation. Operation and maintenance of the three reservoirs include fences, roads, dams and all reservoir structures, feeder canals, water troughs and stock ponds, educational signs, vehicles and equipment, and outhouses. Monitoring and evaluation activities included creel, gillnet, wildlife, and bird surveys, water quality and reservoir structures monitoring, native vegetation planting, photo point documentation, control of encroaching exotic vegetation, and community outreach and education. The three reservoirs are monitored in terms of water quality and fishery success. Sheep Creek Reservoir was very unproductive this year as a fishery. Fish morphometric and water quality data indicate that the turbidity is severely impacting trout survival. Lake Billy Shaw was very productive as a fishery and received good ratings from anglers. Mountain View was also productive and anglers reported a high number of quality sized fish. Water quality

  8. Estimating irrigation water demand using an improved method and optimizing reservoir operation for water supply and hydropower generation: a case study of the Xinfengjiang reservoir in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Chen, Ji

    2013-01-01

    The ever-increasing demand for water due to growth of population and socioeconomic development in the past several decades has posed a worldwide threat to water supply security and to the environmental health of rivers. This study aims to derive reservoir operating rules through establishing a multi-objective optimization model for the Xinfengjiang (XFJ) reservoir in the East River Basin in southern China to minimize water supply deficit and maximize hydropower generation. Additionally, to enhance the estimation of irrigation water demand from the downstream agricultural area of the XFJ reservoir, a conventional method for calculating crop water demand is improved using hydrological model simulation results. Although the optimal reservoir operating rules are derived for the XFJ reservoir with three priority scenarios (water supply only, hydropower generation only, and equal priority), the river environmental health is set as the basic demand no matter which scenario is adopted. The results show that the new rules derived under the three scenarios can improve the reservoir operation for both water supply and hydropower generation when comparing to the historical performance. Moreover, these alternative reservoir operating policies provide the flexibility for the reservoir authority to choose the most appropriate one. Although changing the current operating rules may influence its hydropower-oriented functions, the new rules can be significant to cope with the increasingly prominent water shortage and degradation in the aquatic environment. Overall, our results and methods (improved estimation of irrigation water demand and formulation of the reservoir optimization model) can be useful for local watershed managers and valuable for other researchers worldwide.

  9. Junior Leader Training Development in Operational Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    UNITS Successful operational units do not arise without tough, realistic, and challenging training. Field Manual (FM) 7-0, Training Units and D...operations. The manual provides junior leaders with guidance on how to conduct training and training management. Of particular importance is the definition...1 Relation htp between ADDIE and the Anny Training Management Model. The Army Training Management Model and ADDIE process appear in TRADOC PAM 350

  10. River and Reservoir Operations Model, Truckee River basin, California and Nevada, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berris, Steven N.; Hess, Glen W.; Bohman, Larry R.

    2001-01-01

    The demand for all uses of water in the Truckee River Basin, California and Nevada, commonly is greater than can be supplied. Storage reservoirs in the system have a maximum effective total capacity equivalent to less than two years of average river flows, so longer-term droughts can result in substantial water-supply shortages for irrigation and municipal users and may stress fish and wildlife ecosystems. Title II of Public Law (P.L.) 101-618, the Truckee?Carson?Pyramid Lake Water Rights Settlement Act of 1990, provides a foundation for negotiating and developing operating criteria, known as the Truckee River Operating Agreement (TROA), to balance interstate and interbasin allocation of water rights among the many interests competing for water from the Truckee River. In addition to TROA, the Truckee River Water Quality Settlement Agreement (WQSA), signed in 1996, provides for acquisition of water rights to resolve water-quality problems during low flows along the Truckee River in Nevada. Efficient execution of many of the planning, management, or environmental assessment requirements of TROA and WQSA will require detailed water-resources data coupled with sound analytical tools. Analytical modeling tools constructed and evaluated with such data could help assess effects of alternative operational scenarios related to reservoir and river operations, water-rights transfers, and changes in irrigation practices. The Truckee?Carson Program of the U.S. Geological Survey, to support U.S. Department of the Interior implementation of P.L. 101-618, is developing a modeling system to support efficient water-resources planning, management, and allocation. The daily operations model documented herein is a part of the modeling system that includes a database management program, a graphical user interface program, and a program with modules that simulate river/reservoir operations and a variety of hydrologic processes. The operations module is capable of simulating lake

  11. Total output operation chart optimization of cascade reservoirs and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Zhiqiang; Ji, Changming; Sun, Ping; Wang, Liping; Zhang, Yanke

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a new double nested model for cascade reservoirs operation optimization. • We use two methods to extract the output distribution ratio. • The adopted two methods perform better than the widely used methods at present. • Stepwise regression method performs better than mean value method on the whole. - Abstract: With the rapid development of cascade hydropower stations in recent decades, the cascade system composed of multiple reservoirs needs unified operation and management. However, the output distribution problem has not yet been solved reasonably when the total output of cascade system obtained, which makes the full utilization of hydropower resources in cascade reservoirs very difficult. Discriminant criterion method is a traditional and common method to solve the output distribution problem at present, but some shortcomings cannot be ignored in the practical application. In response to the above concern, this paper proposes a new total output operation chart optimization model and a new optimal output distribution model, the two models constitute to a double nested model with the goal of maximizing power generation. This paper takes the cascade reservoirs of Li Xianjiang River in China as an instance to obtain the optimal total output operation chart by the proposed double nested model and the 43 years historical runoff data, progressive searching method and progressive optimality algorithm are used in solving the model. In order to take the obtained total output operation chart into practical operation, mean value method and stepwise regression method are adopted to extract the output distribution ratios on the basis of the optimal simulation intermediate data. By comparing with discriminant criterion method and conventional method, the combined utilization of total output operation chart and output distribution ratios presents better performance in terms of power generation and assurance rate, which proves it is an effective

  12. Investigation on the effect of the reservoir variables and operational parameters on SAGD performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemi Kiasari, H.; Naderifar, A. [AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Petroleum Engineering Dept.; Sedaee Sola, B. [University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Faculty of Engineering. Inst. of Petroleum Engineering], e-mail: sedaeesola@yahoo.com

    2010-04-15

    Steam injection is the most important thermal enhanced oil recovery method. One typical procedure is Steam- Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD), which is a promising recovery process to produce heavy oil and bitumen. The method ensures a stable displacement of steam at economical rates by using gravity as the driving force and a pair of horizontal wells for injection/production. There are numerous studies done on SAGD in conventional reservoirs, but the majority of them focus on the investigation of the process in microscopic scale. In this study, we investigate the SAGD process with a preheating period, using steam circulation in well pair on a field scale. The synthetic homogenous model was constructed by CMG and simulated using the STARS module. The effects of operational parameters, such as preheating period, vertical well spacing, well pair length, steam quality and production pressure, and reservoir variables, such as rock porosity and permeability, vertical-to-horizontal permeability ratio, thermal conductivity of the formation and rock heat capacity, on the SAGD performance were investigated. The results show that the preheating period affects mainly the initial stages of production. Due to preheating, the well pair communication with the higher vertical distances is also established; therefore, there was no considerable difference between oil productions in various well spacing cases. As steam quality increases, the oil production in later production times also increases. At shorter well pair, more steam can be injected per unit length of well, but, on the other hand, the production well recovers less heated oil area; therefore the well pair length should be optimized in all cases. By decreasing the production well bottom-hole pressure, more heated oil in near well region is produced; therefore, the injected steam raises more in the depleted area. The results of the simulations show that very low permeability leads to a fully unsuccessful SAGD process. In the

  13. Forecast Informed Reservoir Operations: Bringing Science and Decision-Makers Together to Explore Use of Hydrometeorological Forecasts to Support Future Reservoir Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, F. M.; Jasperse, J.

    2017-12-01

    Forecast Informed Reservoir Operations (FIRO) is a proposed strategy that is exploring inorporation of improved hydrometeorological forecasts of land-falling atmospheric rivers on the U.S. West Coast into reservoir operations. The first testbed for this strategy is Lake Mendocino, which is located in the East Fork of the 1485 mi2 Russian River Watershed in northern California. This project is guided by the Lake Mendocino FIRO Steering Committee (SC). The SC is an ad hoc committee that consists of water managers and scientists from several federal, state, and local agencies, and universities who have teamed to evaluate whether current or improved technology and scientific understanding can be utilized to improve water supply reliability, enhance flood mitigation and support recovery of listed salmon for the Russian River of northern California. In 2015, the SC created a detailed work plan, which included a Preliminary Viability Assessment, which has now been completed. The SC developed a vision that operational efficiency would be improved by using forecasts to inform decisions about releasing or storing water. FIRO would use available reservoir storage in an efficient manner by (1) better forecasting inflow (or lack of inflow) with enhanced technology, and (2) adapting operation in real time to meet the need for storage, rather than making storage available just in case it is needed. The envisioned FIRO strategy has the potential to simultaneously improve water supply reliability, flood protection, and ecosystem outcomes through a more efficient use of existing infrastructure while requiring minimal capital improvements in the physical structure of the dam. This presentation will provide an overview of the creation of the FIRO SC and how it operates, and describes the lessons learned through this partnership. Results in the FIRO Preliminary Viability Assessment will be summarized and next steps described.

  14. Simulation-optimization model of reservoir operation based on target storage curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-bin Fang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new storage allocation rule based on target storage curves. Joint operating rules are also proposed to solve the operation problems of a multi-reservoir system with joint demands and water transfer-supply projects. The joint operating rules include a water diversion rule to determine the amount of diverted water in a period, a hedging rule based on an aggregated reservoir to determine the total release from the system, and a storage allocation rule to specify the release from each reservoir. A simulation-optimization model was established to optimize the key points of the water diversion curves, the hedging rule curves, and the target storage curves using the improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO algorithm. The multi-reservoir water supply system located in Liaoning Province, China, including a water transfer-supply project, was employed as a case study to verify the effectiveness of the proposed join operating rules and target storage curves. The results indicate that the proposed operating rules are suitable for the complex system. The storage allocation rule based on target storage curves shows an improved performance with regard to system storage distribution.

  15. Impacts of operation of CVP regulating reservoirs on water temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vail, L.W.

    1996-01-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets and transmits electric power throughout 15 western states. Western's Sierra Nevada Customer Service Region (Sierra Nevada Region) markets approximately 1,480 megawatts (MW) of firm power (and 100 MW of seasonal peaking capacity) from the Central Valley Project (CVP) and other sources and markets available nonfirm power from the Washoe Project. Western's mission is to sell and deliver electricity generated from CVP powerplants. The hydroelectric facilities of the CVP are operated by the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation). Reclamation manages and releases water in accordance with the various acts authorizing specific projects and with enabling legislation. Western's capacity and energy sales must be in conformance with the laws that govern its sale of electrical power. Further, Western's hydropower operations at each facility must comply with minimum and maximum flows and other constraints set by Reclamation, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, or other agencies, acting in accord with law or policy

  16. Assessing the operation rules of a reservoir system based on a detailed modelling-chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruwier, M.; Erpicum, S.; Pirotton, M.; Archambeau, P.; Dewals, B.

    2014-09-01

    According to available climate change scenarios for Belgium, drier summers and wetter winters are expected. In this study, we focus on two muti-purpose reservoirs located in the Vesdre catchment, which is part of the Meuse basin. The current operation rules of the reservoirs are first analysed. Next, the impacts of two climate change scenarios are assessed and enhanced operation rules are proposed to mitigate these impacts. For this purpose, an integrated model of the catchment was used. It includes a hydrological model, one-dimensional and two-dimensional hydraulic models of the river and its main tributaries, a model of the reservoir system and a flood damage model. Five performance indicators of the reservoir system have been defined, reflecting its ability to provide sufficient drinking, to control floods, to produce hydropower and to reduce low-flow condition. As shown by the results, enhanced operation rules may improve the drinking water potential and the low-flow augmentation while the existing operation rules are efficient for flood control and for hydropower production.

  17. Assessing the operation rules of a reservoir system based on a detailed modelling chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruwier, M.; Erpicum, S.; Pirotton, M.; Archambeau, P.; Dewals, B. J.

    2015-03-01

    According to available climate change scenarios for Belgium, drier summers and wetter winters are expected. In this study, we focus on two multi-purpose reservoirs located in the Vesdre catchment, which is part of the Meuse basin. The current operation rules of the reservoirs are first analysed. Next, the impacts of two climate change scenarios are assessed and enhanced operation rules are proposed to mitigate these impacts. For this purpose, an integrated model of the catchment was used. It includes a hydrological model, one-dimensional and two-dimensional hydraulic models of the river and its main tributaries, a model of the reservoir system and a flood damage model. Five performance indicators of the reservoir system have been defined, reflecting its ability to provide sufficient drinking water, to control floods, to produce hydropower and to reduce low-flow conditions. As shown by the results, enhanced operation rules may improve the drinking water potential and the low-flow augmentation while the existing operation rules are efficient for flood control and for hydropower production.

  18. Extraction of Static and Dynamic Reservoir Operation Rules by Genetic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Akbari Alashti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering the necessity of desirable operation of limited water resources and assuming the significant role of dams in controlling and consuming the surface waters, highlights the advantageous of suitable operation rules for optimal and sustainable operation of dams. This study investigates the hydroelectric supply of a one-reservoir system of Karoon3 using nonlinear programming (NLP, genetic algorithm (GA, genetic programming (GP and fixed length gen GP (FLGGP in real-time operation of dam considering two approaches of static and dynamic operation rules. In static operation rule, only one rule curve is extracted for all months in a year whereas in dynamic operation rule, monthly rule curves (12 rules are extracted for each month of a year. In addition, nonlinear decision rule (NLDR curves are considered, and the total deficiency function as the target (objective function have been used for evaluating the performance of each method and approach. Results show appropriate efficiency of GP and FLGGP methods in extracting operation rules in both approaches. Superiority of these methods to operation methods yielded by GA and NLP is 5%. Moreover, according to the results, it can be remarked that, FLGGP method is an alternative for GP method, whereas the GP method cannot be used due to its limitations. Comparison of two approaches of static and dynamic operation rules demonstrated the superiority of dynamic operation rule to static operation rule (about 10% and therefore this method has more capabilities in real-time operation of the reservoirs systems.

  19. Reservoir adaptive operating rules based on both of historical streamflow and future projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Pan; Wang, Hao; Chen, Jie; Lei, Xiaohui; Feng, Maoyuan

    2017-10-01

    Climate change is affecting hydrological variables and consequently is impacting water resources management. Historical strategies are no longer applicable under climate change. Therefore, adaptive management, especially adaptive operating rules for reservoirs, has been developed to mitigate the possible adverse effects of climate change. However, to date, adaptive operating rules are generally based on future projections involving uncertainties under climate change, yet ignoring historical information. To address this, we propose an approach for deriving adaptive operating rules considering both historical information and future projections, namely historical and future operating rules (HAFOR). A robustness index was developed by comparing benefits from HAFOR with benefits from conventional operating rules (COR). For both historical and future streamflow series, maximizations of both average benefits and the robustness index were employed as objectives, and four trade-offs were implemented to solve the multi-objective problem. Based on the integrated objective, the simulation-based optimization method was used to optimize the parameters of HAFOR. Using the Dongwushi Reservoir in China as a case study, HAFOR was demonstrated to be an effective and robust method for developing adaptive operating rules under the uncertain changing environment. Compared with historical or projected future operating rules (HOR or FPOR), HAFOR can reduce the uncertainty and increase the robustness for future projections, especially regarding results of reservoir releases and volumes. HAFOR, therefore, facilitates adaptive management in the context that climate change is difficult to predict accurately.

  20. Guiding rational reservoir flood operation using penalty-type genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Chiu

    2008-06-01

    SummaryReal-time flood control of a multi-purpose reservoir should consider decreasing the flood peak stage downstream and storing floodwaters for future usage during typhoon seasons. This study proposes a reservoir flood control optimization model with linguistic description of requirements and existing regulations for rational operating decisions. The approach involves formulating reservoir flood operation as an optimization problem and using the genetic algorithm (GA) as a search engine. The optimizing formulation is expressed not only by mathematical forms of objective function and constraints, but also by no analytic expression in terms of parameters. GA is used to search a global optimum of a mixture of mathematical and nonmathematical formulations. Due to the great number of constraints and flood control requirements, it is difficult to reach a solution without violating constraints. To tackle this bottleneck, the proper penalty strategy for each parameter is proposed to guide the GA searching process. The proposed approach is applied to the Shihmen reservoir in North Taiwan for finding the rational release and desired storage as a case study. The hourly historical data sets of 29 typhoon events that have hit the area in last thirty years are investigated bye the proposed method. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, the simplex method was performed. The results demonstrated that a penalty-type genetic algorithm could effectively provide rational hydrographs to reduce flood damage during the flood operation and to increase final storage for future usages.

  1. Monthly Optimal Reservoirs Operation for Multicrop Deficit Irrigation under Fuzzy Stochastic Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An uncertain monthly reservoirs operation and multicrop deficit irrigation model was proposed under conjunctive use of underground and surface water for water resources optimization management. The objective is to maximize the total crop yield of the entire irrigation districts. Meanwhile, ecological water remained for the downstream demand. Because of the shortage of water resources, the monthly crop water production function was adopted for multiperiod deficit irrigation management. The model reflects the characteristics of water resources repetitive transformation in typical inland rivers irrigation system. The model was used as an example for water resources optimization management in Shiyang River Basin, China. Uncertainties in reservoir management shown as fuzzy probability were treated through chance-constraint parameter for decision makers. Necessity of dominance (ND was used to analyse the advantages of the method. The optimization results including reservoirs real-time operation policy, deficit irrigation management, and the available water resource allocation could be used to provide decision support for local irrigation management. Besides, the strategies obtained could help with the risk analysis of reservoirs operation stochastically.

  2. Nuclear units operating improvement by using operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotaru, I.; Bilegan, I.C.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents how the information experience can be used to improve the operation of nuclear units. This areas include the following items: conservative decision making; supervisory oversight; teamwork; control room distraction; communications; expectations and standards; operator training and fundamental knowledge, procedure quality and adherence; plant status awareness. For each of these topics, the information illustrate which are the principles, the lessons learned from operating experience and the most appropriate exemplifying documents. (authors)

  3. The role of predictive uncertainty in the operational management of reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Todini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the operational management of multi-purpose reservoirs, whose optimisation-based rules are derived, in the planning phase, via deterministic (linear and nonlinear programming, dynamic programming, etc. or via stochastic (generally stochastic dynamic programming approaches. In operation, the resulting deterministic or stochastic optimised operating rules are then triggered based on inflow predictions. In order to fully benefit from predictions, one must avoid using them as direct inputs to the reservoirs, but rather assess the "predictive knowledge" in terms of a predictive probability density to be operationally used in the decision making process for the estimation of expected benefits and/or expected losses. Using a theoretical and extremely simplified case, it will be shown why directly using model forecasts instead of the full predictive density leads to less robust reservoir management decisions. Moreover, the effectiveness and the tangible benefits for using the entire predictive probability density instead of the model predicted values will be demonstrated on the basis of the Lake Como management system, operational since 1997, as well as on the basis of a case study on the lake of Aswan.

  4. Impact of upstream river inputs and reservoir operation on phosphorus fractions in water-particulate phases in the Three Gorges Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chaonan; Zheng, Binghui; Qin, Yanwen; Ma, Yingqun; Yang, Chenchen; Liu, Zhichao; Cao, Wei; Chi, Minghui

    2018-01-01

    The impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) has changed water-sand transport regime, with inevitable effects on phosphorus transport behavior in the TGR. In this study, we measured phosphorus fractions in water and suspended particles transported from upstream rivers of the TGR (the Yangtze River, the Jialing River and the Wu River) to reservoir inner region over the full operation schedule of the TGR. The aim was to determine how phosphorus fractions in water and particulate phases varied in response to natural hydrological processes and reservoir operations. The results showed that total phosphorus concentration (TP) in water in the TGR inner region was 0.17±0.05mg/L, which was lower than that in the Yangtze River (0.21±0.04mg/L) and the Wu River (0.23±0.03mg/L), but higher than that in the Jialing River (0.12±0.07mg/L). In the TGR inner region, there was no clear trend of total dissolved phosphorus (TDP), but total particulate phosphorus (TPP) showed a decreasing trend from tail area to head area because of particle deposition along the TGR mainstream. In addition, the concentrations of TPP in water and particulate phosphorus in a unit mass of suspended particles (PP) in the TGR inner region were higher in October 2014 and January 2015 (the impounding period and high water level period) than that in July 2015 (the low water level period). The temporal variations of PP and TPP concentrations in the TGR may be linked to the change of particle size distribution of suspended particles in the TGR. The particle size tended to be finer due to large-size particle deposition under stable hydrodynamic conditions in the process of TGR impoundment, resulting in high adsorption capacities of phosphorus in suspended particles. The results implied that phosphorus temporal variations in the TGR could exert different impacts on water quality in the TGR tributaries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing ecosystem effects of reservoir operations using food web-energy transfer and water quality models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, L.; Johnson, B.M.; Bartholow, J.; Hanna, R.B.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the effects on the reservoir food web of a new temperature control device (TCD) on the dam at Shasta Lake, California. We followed a linked modeling approach that used a specialized reservoir water quality model to forecast operation-induced changes in phytoplankton production. A food web–energy transfer model was also applied to propagate predicted changes in phytoplankton up through the food web to the predators and sport fishes of interest. The food web–energy transfer model employed a 10% trophic transfer efficiency through a food web that was mapped using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis. Stable isotope analysis provided an efficient and comprehensive means of estimating the structure of the reservoir's food web with minimal sampling and background data. We used an optimization procedure to estimate the diet proportions of all food web components simultaneously from their isotopic signatures. Some consumers were estimated to be much more sensitive than others to perturbations to phytoplankton supply. The linked modeling approach demonstrated that interdisciplinary efforts enhance the value of information obtained from studies of managed ecosystems. The approach exploited the strengths of engineering and ecological modeling methods to address concerns that neither of the models could have addressed alone: (a) the water quality model could not have addressed quantitatively the possible impacts to fish, and (b) the food web model could not have examined how phytoplankton availability might change due to reservoir operations.

  6. Integrated Reservoir Modeling of CO2-EOR Performance and Storage Potential in the Farnsworth Field Unit, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampomah, W.; Balch, R. S.; Cather, M.; Dai, Z.

    2017-12-01

    We present a performance assessment methodology and storage potential for CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in partially depleted reservoirs. A three dimensional heterogeneous reservoir model was developed based on geological, geophysics and engineering data from Farnsworth field Unit (FWU). The model aided in improved characterization of prominent rock properties within the Pennsylvanian aged Morrow sandstone reservoir. Seismic attributes illuminated previously unknown faults and structural elements within the field. A laboratory fluid analysis was tuned to an equation of state and subsequently used to predict the thermodynamic minimum miscible pressure (MMP). Datasets including net-to-gross ratio, volume of shale, permeability, and burial history were used to model initial fault transmissibility based on Sperivick model. An improved history match of primary and secondary recovery was performed to set the basis for a CO2 flood study. The performance of the current CO2 miscible flood patterns was subsequently calibrated to historical production and injection data. Several prediction models were constructed to study the effect of recycling, addition of wells and /or new patterns, water alternating gas (WAG) cycles and optimum amount of CO2 purchase on incremental oil production and CO2 storage in the FWU. The history matching study successfully validated the presence of the previously undetected faults within FWU that were seen in the seismic survey. The analysis of the various prediction scenarios showed that recycling a high percentage of produced gas, addition of new wells and a gradual reduction in CO2 purchase after several years of operation would be the best approach to ensure a high percentage of recoverable incremental oil and sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 within the Morrow reservoir. Larger percentage of stored CO2 were dissolved in residual oil and less amount existed as supercritical free CO2. The geomechanical analysis on the caprock proved to an

  7. Completion of potential conflicts of interest through optimization of Rukoh reservoir operation in Pidie District, Aceh Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmeri, Hadihardaja, Iwan K.; Shaskia, Nina; Admaja, Kamal Surya

    2017-11-01

    Rukoh Reservoir's construction was planned to be built in Krueng Rukoh Watershed with supplet ion from Krueng Tiro River. Rukoh Reservoir operating system as a multipurpose reservoir raised potential conflict of interest between raw water and irrigation water. In this study, the operating system of Rukoh Reservoirs was designed to supply raw water in Titeu Sub-District and replenish water shortage in Baro Irrigation Area which is not able to be served by the Keumala Weir. Reservoir operating system should be planned optimally so that utilization of water in accordance with service area demands. Reservoir operation method was analyzed by using optimization technique with nonlinear programming. Optimization of reservoir operation is intended to minimize potential conflicts of interest in the operation. Suppletion discharge from Krueng Tiro River amounted to 46.62%, which was calculated based on ratio of Baro and Tiro irrigation area. However, during dry seasons, water demands could not be fully met, so there was a shortage of water. By considering the rules to minimize potential conflicts of interest between raw water and irrigation water, it would require suppletion from Krueng Tiro amounted to 52.30%. The increment of suppletion volume could minimize conflicts of interest. It produced l00% reservoir reliability for raw water and irrigation demands. Rukoh reservoir could serve raw water demands of Titeu Sub-District and irrigation demands of Baro irrigation area which is covering an area of 6,047 hectars. Reservoir operation guidelines can specify reservoir water release to balance the demands and the target storage.

  8. Genetic Algorithm (GA Method for Optimization of Multi-Reservoir Systems Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Momtahen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A Genetic Algorithm (GA method for optimization of multi-reservoir systems operation is proposed in this paper. In this method, the parameters of operating policies are optimized using system simulation results. Hence, any operating problem with any sort of objective function, constraints and structure of operating policy can be optimized by GA. The method is applied to a 3-reservoir system and is compared with two traditional methods of Stochastic Dynamic Programming and Dynamic Programming and Regression. The results show that GA is superior both in objective function value and in computational speed. The proposed method is further improved using a mutation power updating rule and a varying period simulation method. The later is a novel procedure proposed in this paper that is believed to help in solving computational time problem in large systems. These revisions are evaluated and proved to be very useful in converging to better solutions in much less time. The final GA method is eventually evaluated as a very efficient procedure that is able to solve problems of large multi-reservoir system which is usually impossible by traditional methods. In fact, the real performance of the GA method starts where others fail to function.

  9. Environmental hedging: A theory and method for reconciling reservoir operations for downstream ecology and water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, L. E.; Lund, J. R.; Moyle, P. B.; Quiñones, R. M.; Herman, J. D.; O'Rear, T. A.

    2017-09-01

    Building reservoir release schedules to manage engineered river systems can involve costly trade-offs between storing and releasing water. As a result, the design of release schedules requires metrics that quantify the benefit and damages created by releases to the downstream ecosystem. Such metrics should support making operational decisions under uncertain hydrologic conditions, including drought and flood seasons. This study addresses this need and develops a reservoir operation rule structure and method to maximize downstream environmental benefit while meeting human water demands. The result is a general approach for hedging downstream environmental objectives. A multistage stochastic mixed-integer nonlinear program with Markov Chains, identifies optimal "environmental hedging," releases to maximize environmental benefits subject to probabilistic seasonal hydrologic conditions, current, past, and future environmental demand, human water supply needs, infrastructure limitations, population dynamics, drought storage protection, and the river's carrying capacity. Environmental hedging "hedges bets" for drought by reducing releases for fish, sometimes intentionally killing some fish early to reduce the likelihood of large fish kills and storage crises later. This approach is applied to Folsom reservoir in California to support survival of fall-run Chinook salmon in the lower American River for a range of carryover and initial storage cases. Benefit is measured in terms of fish survival; maintaining self-sustaining native fish populations is a significant indicator of ecosystem function. Environmental hedging meets human demand and outperforms other operating rules, including the current Folsom operating strategy, based on metrics of fish extirpation and water supply reliability.

  10. On the effects of adaptive reservoir operating rules in hydrological physically-based models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudici, Federico; Anghileri, Daniela; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Recent years have seen a significant increase of the human influence on the natural systems both at the global and local scale. Accurately modeling the human component and its interaction with the natural environment is key to characterize the real system dynamics and anticipate future potential changes to the hydrological regimes. Modern distributed, physically-based hydrological models are able to describe hydrological processes with high level of detail and high spatiotemporal resolution. Yet, they lack in sophistication for the behavior component and human decisions are usually described by very simplistic rules, which might underperform in reproducing the catchment dynamics. In the case of water reservoir operators, these simplistic rules usually consist of target-level rule curves, which represent the average historical level trajectory. Whilst these rules can reasonably reproduce the average seasonal water volume shifts due to the reservoirs' operation, they cannot properly represent peculiar conditions, which influence the actual reservoirs' operation, e.g., variations in energy price or water demand, dry or wet meteorological conditions. Moreover, target-level rule curves are not suitable to explore the water system response to climate and socio economic changing contexts, because they assume a business-as-usual operation. In this work, we quantitatively assess how the inclusion of adaptive reservoirs' operating rules into physically-based hydrological models contribute to the proper representation of the hydrological regime at the catchment scale. In particular, we contrast target-level rule curves and detailed optimization-based behavioral models. We, first, perform the comparison on past observational records, showing that target-level rule curves underperform in representing the hydrological regime over multiple time scales (e.g., weekly, seasonal, inter-annual). Then, we compare how future hydrological changes are affected by the two modeling

  11. Technology strategy for integrated operations and real time reservoir management; Technology Target Areas; TTA5 - Integrated operations and RTRM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    In Norway Integrated Operations (IO) is a concept which in the first phase (G1) has been used to describe how to integrate processes and people onshore and offshore using ICT solutions and facilities that improve onshore's ability to support offshore operationally. The second generation (G2) Integrated Operations aims to help operators utilize vendors' core competencies and services more efficiently. Utilizing digital services and vendor products, operators will be able to update reservoir models, drilling targets and well trajectories as wells are drilled, manage well completions remotely, optimize production from reservoir to export lines, and implement condition-based maintenance concepts. The total impact on production, recovery rates, costs and safety will be profound. When the international petroleum business moves to the Arctic region the setting is very different from what is the case on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) and new challenges will arise. The Norwegian Ministry of Environment has recently issued an Integrated Management Plan for the Barents Sea where one focus is on 'Monitoring of the Marine Environment in the North'. The Government aims to establish a new and more coordinated system for monitoring the marine ecosystems in the north. A representative group consisting of the major Operators, the Service Industry, Academia and the Authorities have developed the enclosed strategy for the OG21 Integrated Operations and Real Time Reservoir Management (IO and RTRM) Technology Target Area (TTA). Major technology and work process research and development gaps have been identified in several areas: Bandwidth down-hole to surface; Sensor development including Nano-technology; Cross discipline use of Visualisation, Simulation and model development particularly in Drilling and Reservoir management areas; Software development in terms of data handling, model updating and calculation speed; Enabling reliable and robust communications particularly for

  12. Technology strategy for integrated operations and real time reservoir management; Technology Target Areas; TTA5 - Integrated operations and RTRM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    In Norway Integrated Operations (IO) is a concept which in the first phase (G1) has been used to describe how to integrate processes and people onshore and offshore using ICT solutions and facilities that improve onshore's ability to support offshore operationally. The second generation (G2) Integrated Operations aims to help operators utilize vendors' core competencies and services more efficiently. Utilizing digital services and vendor products, operators will be able to update reservoir models, drilling targets and well trajectories as wells are drilled, manage well completions remotely, optimize production from reservoir to export lines, and implement condition-based maintenance concepts. The total impact on production, recovery rates, costs and safety will be profound. When the international petroleum business moves to the Arctic region the setting is very different from what is the case on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) and new challenges will arise. The Norwegian Ministry of Environment has recently issued an Integrated Management Plan for the Barents Sea where one focus is on 'Monitoring of the Marine Environment in the North'. The Government aims to establish a new and more coordinated system for monitoring the marine ecosystems in the north. A representative group consisting of the major Operators, the Service Industry, Academia and the Authorities have developed the enclosed strategy for the OG21 Integrated Operations and Real Time Reservoir Management (IO and RTRM) Technology Target Area (TTA). Major technology and work process research and development gaps have been identified in several areas: Bandwidth down-hole to surface; Sensor development including Nano-technology; Cross discipline use of Visualisation, Simulation and model development particularly in Drilling and Reservoir management areas; Software development in terms of data handling, model updating and calculation speed; Enabling reliable and robust communications

  13. Micro- and macro-scale petrophysical characterization of potential reservoir units from the Northern Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruzi, Peleg; Halisch, Matthias; Katsman, Regina; Waldmann, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Lower Cretaceous sandstone serves as hydrocarbon reservoir in some places over the world, and potentially in Hatira formation in the Golan Heights, northern Israel. The purpose of the current research is to characterize the petrophysical properties of these sandstone units. The study is carried out by two alternative methods: using conventional macroscopic lab measurements, and using CT-scanning, image processing and subsequent fluid mechanics simulations at a microscale, followed by upscaling to the conventional macroscopic rock parameters (porosity and permeability). Comparison between the upscaled and measured in the lab properties will be conducted. The best way to upscale the microscopic rock characteristics will be analyzed based the models suggested in the literature. Proper characterization of the potential reservoir will provide necessary analytical parameters for the future experimenting and modeling of the macroscopic fluid flow behavior in the Lower Cretaceous sandstone.

  14. An effective streamflow process model for optimal reservoir operation using stochastic dual dynamic programming

    OpenAIRE

    Raso , L.; Malaterre , P.O.; Bader , J.C.

    2017-01-01

    International audience; This article presents an innovative streamflow process model for use in reservoir operational rule design in stochastic dual dynamic programming (SDDP). Model features, which can be applied independently, are (1) a multiplicative process model for the forward phase and its linearized version for the backward phase; and (2) a nonuniform time-step length that is inversely proportional to seasonal variability. The advantages are (1) guaranteeing positive streamflow values...

  15. Efficient Operation of a Multi-purpose Reservoir in Chile: Integration of Economic Water Value for Irrigation and Hydropower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, M. A.; Gonzalez Cabrera, J. M., Sr.; Moreno, R.

    2016-12-01

    Operation of hydropower reservoirs in Chile is prescribed by an Independent Power System Operator. This study proposes a methodology that integrates power grid operations planning with basin-scale multi-use reservoir operations planning. The aim is to efficiently manage a multi-purpose reservoir, in which hydroelectric generation is competing with other water uses, most notably irrigation. Hydropower and irrigation are competing water uses due to a seasonality mismatch. Currently, the operation of multi-purpose reservoirs with substantial power capacity is prescribed as the result of a grid-wide cost-minimization model which takes irrigation requirements as constraints. We propose advancing in the economic co-optimization of reservoir water use for irrigation and hydropower at the basin level, by explicitly introducing the economic value of water for irrigation represented by a demand function for irrigation water. The proposed methodology uses the solution of a long-term grid-wide operations planning model, a stochastic dual dynamic program (SDDP), to obtain the marginal benefit function for water use in hydropower. This marginal benefit corresponds to the energy price in the power grid as a function of the water availability in the reservoir and the hydrologic scenarios. This function allows capture technical and economic aspects to the operation of hydropower reservoir in the power grid and is generated with the dual variable of the power-balance constraint, the optimal reservoir operation and the hydrologic scenarios used in SDDP. The economic value of water for irrigation and hydropower are then integrated into a basin scale stochastic dynamic program, from which stored water value functions are derived. These value functions are then used to re-optimize reservoir operations under several inflow scenarios.

  16. Profiles of Reservoir Properties of Oil-Bearing Plays for Selected Petroleum Provinces in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, P.A.; Attanasi, E.D.

    2015-11-05

    Profiles of reservoir properties of oil-bearing plays for selected petroleum provinces in the United States were developed to characterize the database to be used for a potential assessment by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of oil that would be technically recoverable by the application of enhanced oil recovery methods using injection of carbon dioxide (CO2-EOR). The USGS assessment methodology may require reservoir-level data for the purposes of screening conventional oil reservoirs and projecting CO2-EOR performance in terms of the incremental recoverable oil. The information used in this report is based on reservoir properties from the “Significant Oil and Gas Fields of the United States Database” prepared by Nehring Associates, Inc. (2012). As described by Nehring Associates, Inc., the database “covers all producing provinces (basins) in the United States except the Appalachian Basin and the Cincinnati Arch.”

  17. Integrating a Typhoon Event Database with an Optimal Flood Operation Model on the Real-Time Flood Control of the Tseng-Wen Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. W.; Chang, L. C.

    2012-04-01

    Typhoons which normally bring a great amount of precipitation are the primary natural hazard in Taiwan during flooding season. Because the plentiful rainfall quantities brought by typhoons are normally stored for the usage of the next draught period, the determination of release strategies for flood operation of reservoirs which is required to simultaneously consider not only the impact of reservoir safety and the flooding damage in plain area but also for the water resource stored in the reservoir after typhoon becomes important. This study proposes a two-steps study process. First, this study develop an optimal flood operation model (OFOM) for the planning of flood control and also applies the OFOM on Tseng-wun reservoir and the downstream plain related to the reservoir. Second, integrating a typhoon event database with the OFOM mentioned above makes the proposed planning model have ability to deal with a real-time flood control problem and names as real-time flood operation model (RTFOM). Three conditions are considered in the proposed models, OFOM and RTFOM, include the safety of the reservoir itself, the reservoir storage after typhoons and the impact of flooding in the plain area. Besides, the flood operation guideline announced by government is also considered in the proposed models. The these conditions and the guideline can be formed as an optimization problem which is solved by the genetic algorithm (GA) in this study. Furthermore, a distributed runoff model, kinematic-wave geomorphic instantaneous unit hydrograph (KW-GIUH), and a river flow simulation model, HEC-RAS, are used to simulate the river water level of Tseng-wun basin in the plain area and the simulated level is shown as an index of the impact of flooding. Because the simulated levels are required to re-calculate iteratively in the optimization model, applying a recursive artificial neural network (recursive ANN) instead of the HEC-RAS model can significantly reduce the computational burden of

  18. Reservoir operation using El Niño forecasts-case study of Daule Peripa and Baba, Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelati, Emiliano; Madsen, Henrik; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Reservoir operation is studied for the Daule Peripa and Baba system in Ecuador, where El Niño events cause anomalously heavy precipitation. Reservoir inflow is modelled by a Markov-switching model using El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indices as input. Inflow is forecast using 9-month lead time...... Reservoir. Optimized operation is compared to historical management of Daule Peripa. Hypothetical management scenarios are used as the benchmark for the planned system, for which no operation policy is known. Upper bounds for operational performance are found via dynamic programming by assuming perfect...... knowledge of future inflow. The results highlight the advantages of combining inflow forecasts and storage targets in reservoir operation. © 2014 © 2014 IAHS Press....

  19. Unpacking Referent Units in Fraction Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Randolph A.; Hawthorne, Casey

    2015-01-01

    Although fraction operations are procedurally straightforward, they are complex, because they require learners to conceptualize different units and view quantities in multiple ways. Prospective secondary school teachers sometimes provide an algebraic explanation for inverting and multiplying when dividing fractions. That authors of this article…

  20. Preparing nuclear power plant units for operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudcovic, R.; Telgarsky, K.; Kmosena, J.

    1984-01-01

    The factors are listed which have to be taken into consideration for planning the unit operation, i.e., the implementation of planned repairs, checks of equipment and refuellings. All basic input data were evaluated as the basic for drawing up the schedule of routine repairs and overhauls for the coming period. (E.S.)

  1. A real-time control framework for urban water reservoirs operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galelli, S.; Goedbloed, A.; Schwanenberg, D.

    2012-04-01

    Drinking water demand in urban areas is growing parallel to the worldwide urban population, and it is acquiring an increasing part of the total water consumption. Since the delivery of sufficient water volumes in urban areas represents a difficult logistic and economical problem, different metropolitan areas are evaluating the opportunity of constructing relatively small reservoirs within urban areas. Singapore, for example, is developing the so-called 'Four National Taps Strategies', which detects the maximization of water yields from local, urban catchments as one of the most important water sources. However, the peculiar location of these reservoirs can provide a certain advantage from the logistical point of view, but it can pose serious difficulties in their daily management. Urban catchments are indeed characterized by large impervious areas: this results in a change of the hydrological cycle, with decreased infiltration and groundwater recharge, and increased patterns of surface and river discharges, with higher peak flows, volumes and concentration time. Moreover, the high concentrations of nutrients and sediments characterizing urban discharges can cause further water quality problems. In this critical hydrological context, the effective operation of urban water reservoirs must rely on real-time control techniques, which can exploit hydro-meteorological information available in real-time from hydrological and nowcasting models. This work proposes a novel framework for the real-time control of combined water quality and quantity objectives in urban reservoirs. The core of this framework is a non-linear Model Predictive Control (MPC) scheme, which employs the current state of the system, the future discharges furnished by a predictive model and a further model describing the internal dynamics of the controlled sub-system to determine an optimal control sequence over a finite prediction horizon. The main advantage of this scheme stands in its reduced

  2. Operating performance of LWR nuclear generating units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pia, S.

    1984-01-01

    This work aims at reviewing, on the basis of historical data, the operational problem areas which explain the degree of availability and productivity achieved up to now by nuclear power plants in commercial operation in the world. The operating performance data of nuclear power plants area analysed with respect to plant type, size and other significant reference parameters and they are evaluated also by comparison with fossil generating unit data. Major performance indices data are presented for both nuclear and fossil units type and distribution of outage causes. Unplanned full outages caused by nuclear power plant equipment and components failure are particulary emphasized. The trend for unplanned full outages due to the failure of components shows decreasing numerical values in 1981 with respect to the previous years. But this result should be weighed with the increasing plant unavailability hours needed for maintenance and repair action (chiefly preventive maintenance on critical components). This means that the number and downtime of forced outage must be drastically reduced for economic reasons (production losses and problems associated with the unavailable unit unplanned replacement) as well as for plant safe and reliable operation (sudden unavailability of key components and frequency of transients associated with plant shutdown and routine startup operation)

  3. Operation of Dokan Reservoir under Stochastic Conditions as Regards the Inflows and the Energy Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, G. I.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presented a way of obtaining certain operating rules on time steps for the management of a large reservoir operation with a peak hydropower plant associated to it. The rules were allowed to have the form of non-linear regression equations which link a decision variable (here the water volume in the reservoir at the end of the time step) by several parameters influencing it. This paper considered the Dokan hydroelectric development KR-Iraq, which operation data are available for. It was showing that both the monthly average inflows and the monthly power demands are random variables. A model of deterministic dynamic programming intending the minimization of the total amount of the squares differences between the demanded energy and the generated energy is run with a multitude of annual scenarios of inflows and monthly required energies. The operating rules achieved allow the efficient and safe management of the operation and it is quietly and accurately known the forecast of the inflow and of the energy demand on the next time step.

  4. Dokan Hydropower Reservoir Operation under Stochastic Conditions as Regards the Inflows and the Energy Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izat Rashed, Ghamgeen

    2018-03-01

    This paper presented a way of obtaining certain operating rules on time steps for the management of a large reservoir operation with a peak hydropower plant associated to it. The rules were allowed to have the form of non-linear regression equations which link a decision variable (here the water volume in the reservoir at the end of the time step) by several parameters influencing it. This paper considered the Dokan hydroelectric development KR-Iraq, which operation data are available for. It was showing that both the monthly average inflows and the monthly power demands are random variables. A model of deterministic dynamic programming intending the minimization of the total amount of the squares differences between the demanded energy and the generated energy is run with a multitude of annual scenarios of inflows and monthly required energies. The operating rules achieved allow the efficient and safe management of the operation and it is quietly and accurately known the forecast of the inflow and of the energy demand on the next time step.

  5. Integrating desalination to reservoir operation to increase redundancy for more secure water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Rashi; Ng, Tze Ling

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the potential of integrating desalination to existing reservoir systems to mitigate supply uncertainty. Desalinated seawater and wastewater are relatively reliable but expensive. Water from natural resources like reservoirs is generally cheaper but climate sensitive. We propose combining the operation of a reservoir and seawater and wastewater desalination plants for an overall system that is less vulnerable to scarcity and uncertainty, while constraining total cost. The joint system is modeled as a multiobjective optimization problem with the double objectives of minimizing risk and vulnerability, subject to a minimum limit on resilience. The joint model is applied to two cases, one based on the climate and demands of a location in India and the other of a location in California. The results for the Indian case indicate that it is possible for the joint system to reduce risk and vulnerability to zero given a budget increase of 20-120% under current climate conditions and 30-150% under projected future conditions. For the Californian case, this would require budget increases of 20-80% and 30-140% under current and future conditions, respectively. Further, our analysis shows a two-way interaction between the reservoir and desalination plants where the optimal operation of the former is just as much affected by the latter as the latter by the former. This highlights the importance of an integrated management approach. This study contributes to a greater quantitative understanding of desalination as a redundancy measure for adapting water supply infrastructures for a future of greater scarcity and uncertainty.

  6. Investigation on Reservoir Operation of Agricultural Water Resources Management for Drought Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Investigation on Reservoir Operation of Agricultural Water Resources Management for Drought Mitigation Chung-Lien Cheng, Wen-Ping Tsai, Fi-John Chang* Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Da-An District, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC.Corresponding author: Fi-John Chang (changfj@ntu.edu.tw) AbstractIn Taiwan, the population growth and economic development has led to considerable and increasing demands for natural water resources in the last decades. Under such condition, water shortage problems have frequently occurred in northern Taiwan in recent years such that water is usually transferred from irrigation sectors to public sectors during drought periods. Facing the uneven spatial and temporal distribution of water resources and the problems of increasing water shortages, it is a primary and critical issue to simultaneously satisfy multiple water uses through adequate reservoir operations for sustainable water resources management. Therefore, we intend to build an intelligent reservoir operation system for the assessment of agricultural water resources management strategy in response to food security during drought periods. This study first uses the grey system to forecast the agricultural water demand during February and April for assessing future agricultural water demands. In the second part, we build an intelligent water resources system by using the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II), an optimization tool, for searching the water allocation series based on different water demand scenarios created from the first part to optimize the water supply operation for different water sectors. The results can be a reference guide for adequate agricultural water resources management during drought periods. Keywords: Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II); Grey System; Optimization; Agricultural Water Resources Management.

  7. APPLICATION OF INTEGRATED RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT AND RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Bergeron; Tom Blasingame; Louis Doublet; Mohan Kelkar; George Freeman; Jeff Callard; David Moore; David Davies; Richard Vessell; Brian Pregger; Bill Dixon; Bryce Bezant

    2000-03-01

    , and to monitor pressure and preferential fluid movement in the reservoir is demonstrated. These techniques are: long-term production and injection data analysis, pressure transient analysis, and advanced open and cased hole well log analysis. The major contribution of this project is to demonstrate the use of cost effective reservoir characterization and management tools that will be helpful to both independent and major operators for the optimal development of heterogeneous, low permeability carbonate reservoirs such as the North Robertson (Clearfork) Unit.

  8. Development of a Reservoir System Operation Model for Water Sustainability in the Yaqui River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounir, A.; Che, D.; Robles-Morua, A.; Kauneckis, D.

    2017-12-01

    The arid state of Sonora, Mexico underwent the Sonora SI project to provide additional water supply to the capital of Hermosillo. The main component of the project involves an interbasin transfer from the Yaqui River Basin (YRB) to the Sonora River Basin via the Independencia aqueduct. This project has generated conflicts over water among different social sectors in the YRB. To improve the management of the Yaqui reservoir system, we developed a daily watershed model. This model allowed us to predict the amount of water available in different regions of the basin. We integrated this simulation to an optimization model which calculates the best water allocation according to water rights established in Mexico's National Water Law. We compared different precipitation forcing scenarios: (1) a network of ground observations from Mexican water agencies during the historical period of 1980-2013, (2) gridded fields from the North America Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) at 12 km resolution, and (3) we will be studying a future forecast scenario. The simulation results were compared to historical observations at the three reservoirs existing in the YRB to generate confidence in the simulation tools. Our results are presented in the form of flow duration, reliability and exceedance frequency curves that are commonly used in the water management agencies. Through this effort, we anticipate building confidence among regional stakeholders in utilizing hydrological models in the development of reservoir operation policies.

  9. Effects of bubbling operations on a thermally stratified reservoir: implications for water quality amelioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, R L; Bonansea, M; Cosavella, A; Monarde, F; Ferreyra, M; Bresciano, J

    2012-01-01

    Artificial thermal mixing of the water column is a common method of addressing water quality problems with the most popular method of destratification being the bubble curtain. The air or oxygen distribution along submerged multiport diffusers is based on similar basic principles as those of outfall disposal systems. Moreover, the disposal of sequestered greenhouse gases into the ocean, as recently proposed by several researchers to mitigate the global warming problem, requires analogous design criteria. In this paper, the influence of a bubble-plume is evaluated using full-scale temperature and water quality data collected in San Roque Reservoir, Argentina. A composite system consisting of seven separated diffusers connected to four 500 kPa compressors was installed at this reservoir by the end of 2008. The original purpose of this air bubble system was to reduce the stratification, so that the water body may completely mix under natural phenomena and remain well oxygenated throughout the year. By using a combination of the field measurements and modelling, this work demonstrates that thermal mixing by means of compressed air may improve water quality; however, if improperly sized or operated, such mixing can also cause deterioration. Any disruption in aeration during the destratification process, for example, may result in a reduction of oxygen levels due to the higher hypolimnetic temperatures. Further, the use of artificial destratification appears to have insignificant influence on reducing evaporation rates in relatively shallow impoundments such as San Roque reservoir.

  10. MULTIDISCIPLINARY IMAGING OF ROCK PROPERTIES IN CARBONATE RESERVOIRS FOR FLOW-UNIT TARGETING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen C. Ruppel

    2005-02-01

    Despite declining production rates, existing reservoirs in the US contain large quantities of remaining oil and gas that constitute a huge target for improved diagnosis and imaging of reservoir properties. The resource target is especially large in carbonate reservoirs, where conventional data and methodologies are normally insufficient to resolve critical scales of reservoir heterogeneity. The objectives of the research described in this report were to develop and test such methodologies for improved imaging, measurement, modeling, and prediction of reservoir properties in carbonate hydrocarbon reservoirs. The focus of the study is the Permian-age Fullerton Clear Fork reservoir of the Permian Basin of West Texas. This reservoir is an especially appropriate choice considering (a) the Permian Basin is the largest oil-bearing basin in the US, and (b) as a play, Clear Fork reservoirs have exhibited the lowest recovery efficiencies of all carbonate reservoirs in the Permian Basin.

  11. 200-UP-2 operable unit radiological surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendling, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes and documents the results of the radiological surveys conducted from August 17 through December 16, 1993 over a partial area of the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit, 200-W Area, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. In addition, this report explains the survey methodology of the Mobile Surface Contamination Monitor 11 (MSCM-II) and the Ultra Sonic Ranging And Data System (USRADS). The radiological survey of the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit was conducted by the Site Investigative Surveys/Environmental Restoration Health Physics Organization of the Westinghouse Hanford Company. The survey methodology for the majority of area was based on utilization of the MSCM-II or the USRADS for automated recording of the gross beta/gamma radiation levels at or near six (6) inches from the surface soil

  12. Optimizing Water Use and Hydropower Production in Operational Reservoir System Scheduling with RiverWare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, T. M.; Zagona, E. A.

    2017-12-01

    Practical operational optimization of multipurpose reservoir systems is challenging for several reasons. Each purpose has its own constraints which may conflict with those of other purposes. While hydropower generation typically provides the bulk of the revenue, it is also among the lowest priority purposes. Each river system has important details that are specific to the location such as hydrology, reservoir storage capacity, physical limitations, bottlenecks, and the continuing evolution of operational policy. In addition, reservoir operations models include discrete, nonlinear, and nonconvex physical processes and if-then operating policies. Typically, the forecast horizon for scheduling needs to be extended far into the future to avoid near term (e.g., a few hours or a day) scheduling decisions that result in undesirable future states; this makes the computational effort much larger than may be expected. Put together, these challenges lead to large and customized mathematical optimization problems which must be solved efficiently to be of practical use. In addition, the solution process must be robust in an operational setting. We discuss a unique modeling approach in RiverWare that meets these challenges in an operational setting. The approach combines a Preemptive Linear Goal Programming optimization model to handle prioritized policies complimented by preprocessing and postprocessing with Rulebased Simulation to improve the solution with regard to nonlinearities, discrete issues, and if-then logic. An interactive policy language with a graphical user interface allows modelers to customize both the optimization and simulation based on the unique aspects of the policy for their system while the routine physical aspect of operations are modeled automatically. The modeler is aided by a set of compiled predefined functions and functions shared by other modelers. We illustrate the success of the approach with examples from daily use at the Tennessee Valley

  13. Effects of Coordinated Operation of Weirs and Reservoirs on the Water Quality of the Geum River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Min Ahn

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Multifunctional weirs can be used to maintain water supply during dry seasons and to improve downstream water quality during drought conditions through discharge based on retained flux. Sixteen multifunctional weirs were recently constructed in four river systems as part of the Four Rivers Restoration Project. In this study, three multifunctional weirs in the Geum River Basin were investigated to analyze the environmental effects of multifunctional weir operation on downstream flow. To determine seasonal vulnerability to drought, the basin was evaluated using the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI. Furthermore, the downstream flow regime and the effect on water quality improvement of a coordinated dam–multifunctional weir operation controlled by: (a a rainfall–runoff model; (b a reservoir optimization model; and (c a water quality model, were examined. A runoff estimate at each major location in the Geum River Basin was performed using the water quality model, and examined variation in downstream water quality depending on the operational scenario of each irrigation facility such as dams and weirs. Although the water quality was improved by the coordinated operation of the dams and weirs, when the discharged water quality is poor, the downstream water quality is not improved. Therefore, it is necessary to first improve the discharged water quality on the lower Geum River. Improvement of the water quality of main stream in the Geum River is important, but water quality from tributaries should also be improved. By applying the estimated runoff data to the reservoir optimization model, these scenarios will be utilized as basic parameters for assessing the optimal operation of the river.

  14. Optimization of Multipurpose Reservoir Operation with Application Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Fallah Mehdipour

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimal operation of multipurpose reservoirs is one of the complex and sometimes nonlinear problems in the field of multi-objective optimization. Evolutionary algorithms are optimization tools that search decision space using simulation of natural biological evolution and present a set of points as the optimum solutions of problem. In this research, application of multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO in optimal operation of Bazoft reservoir with different objectives, including generating hydropower energy, supplying downstream demands (drinking, industry and agriculture, recreation and flood control have been considered. In this regard, solution sets of the MOPSO algorithm in bi-combination of objectives and compromise programming (CP using different weighting and power coefficients have been first compared that the MOPSO algorithm in all combinations of objectives is more capable than the CP to find solution with appropriate distribution and these solutions have dominated the CP solutions. Then, ending points of solution set from the MOPSO algorithm and nonlinear programming (NLP results have been compared. Results showed that the MOPSO algorithm with 0.3 percent difference from the NLP results has more capability to present optimum solutions in the ending points of solution set.

  15. Optimization of European call options considering physical delivery network and reservoir operation rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei-Chen; Hsu, Nien-Sheng; Cheng, Wen-Ming; Yeh, William W.-G.

    2011-10-01

    This paper develops alternative strategies for European call options for water purchase under hydrological uncertainties that can be used by water resources managers for decision making. Each alternative strategy maximizes its own objective over a selected sequence of future hydrology that is characterized by exceedance probability. Water trade provides flexibility and enhances water distribution system reliability. However, water trade between two parties in a regional water distribution system involves many issues, such as delivery network, reservoir operation rules, storage space, demand, water availability, uncertainty, and any existing contracts. An option is a security giving the right to buy or sell an asset; in our case, the asset is water. We extend a flow path-based water distribution model to include reservoir operation rules. The model simultaneously considers both the physical distribution network as well as the relationships between water sellers and buyers. We first test the model extension. Then we apply the proposed optimization model for European call options to the Tainan water distribution system in southern Taiwan. The formulation lends itself to a mixed integer linear programming model. We use the weighing method to formulate a composite function for a multiobjective problem. The proposed methodology provides water resources managers with an overall picture of water trade strategies and the consequence of each strategy. The results from the case study indicate that the strategy associated with a streamflow exceedence probability of 50% or smaller should be adopted as the reference strategy for the Tainan water distribution system.

  16. The use of contained nuclear explosions to create underground reservoirs, and experience of operating these for gas condensate storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedrovskij, O.L.; Myasnikov, K.V.; Leonov, E.A.; Romadin, N.M.; Dorodnov, V.F.; Nikiforov, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations on the creation of underground reservoirs by means of nuclear explosions have been going on in the Soviet Union for many years. In this paper the authors consider three main kinds of sites or formations that can be used for constructing reservoirs by this method, namely, low-permeable rocks, worked-out mines and rock salt formations. Formulae are given for predicting the mechanical effect of an explosion in rocks, taking their strength characteristics into account. Engineering procedures are described for sealing and restoring the emplacement holes, so that they can be used for operating the underground reservoir. Experience with the contruction and operation of a 50 000 m 3 gas-condensate reservoir in a rock salt formation is described. In the appendix to the paper a method is presented for calculating the stability of spherical cavities created by nuclear explosions in rock salt, allowing for the development of elasto-plastic deformations and creep

  17. HDS unit revamp and operating experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, J. [Veba Oel Verarbeitungs-GmbH, Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Balfanz, U. [Aral Forschung, Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Dimmig, T. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Freiberg (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    Ruhr Oel GmbH, a joint venture between BP and PDVSA, operates a HDS unit at its Gelsenkirchen-Scholven site. The unit produces a major blend component for diesel fuel. Driven by ambitious German environmental policy and by an agreement between the German car and oil industries on the one hand and the government on the other, more stringent low sulphur fuel specifications will be enforced in Germany much earlier than in the rest of the European Union. In view of this situation a project was developed to fulfill the new product specifications with minimum investment. In a joint effort involving the refinery, the company research facilities and the catalyst supplier (AKZO NOBEL), pilot plant tests were performed to develop the best catalyst system and the new process conditions. Based on these results, an existing HDS unit was accordingly revamped. After the revamp, the unit produced diesel fuel with 50 ppm sulphur content and furthermore test runs at 10 ppm were carried out successfully. These results are displayed in this article. (orig.)

  18. Determining effective forecast horizons for multi-purpose reservoirs with short- and long-term operating objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchner, Jakob; Anghileri, Daniela; Castelletti, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Real-time control of multi-purpose reservoirs can benefit significantly from hydro-meteorological forecast products. Because of their reliability, the most used forecasts range on time scales from hours to few days and are suitable for short-term operation targets such as flood control. In recent years, hydro-meteorological forecasts have become more accurate and reliable on longer time scales, which are more relevant to long-term reservoir operation targets such as water supply. While the forecast quality of such products has been studied extensively, the forecast value, i.e. the operational effectiveness of using forecasts to support water management, has been only relatively explored. It is comparatively easy to identify the most effective forecasting information needed to design reservoir operation rules for flood control but it is not straightforward to identify which forecast variable and lead time is needed to define effective hedging rules for operational targets with slow dynamics such as water supply. The task is even more complex when multiple targets, with diverse slow and fast dynamics, are considered at the same time. In these cases, the relative importance of different pieces of information, e.g. magnitude and timing of peak flow rate and accumulated inflow on different time lags, may vary depending on the season or the hydrological conditions. In this work, we analyze the relationship between operational forecast value and streamflow forecast horizon for different multi-purpose reservoir trade-offs. We use the Information Selection and Assessment (ISA) framework to identify the most effective forecast variables and horizons for informing multi-objective reservoir operation over short- and long-term temporal scales. The ISA framework is an automatic iterative procedure to discriminate the information with the highest potential to improve multi-objective reservoir operating performance. Forecast variables and horizons are selected using a feature

  19. Habitat Demonstration Unit Medical Operations Workstation Upgrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trageser, Katherine H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the design and fabrication associated with upgrades for the Medical Operations Workstation in the Habitat Demonstration Unit. The work spanned a ten week period. The upgrades will be used during the 2011 Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) field campaign. Upgrades include a deployable privacy curtain system, a deployable tray table, an easily accessible biological waste container, reorganization and labeling of the medical supplies, and installation of a retractable camera. All of the items were completed within the ten week period.

  20. Operational Precipitation prediction in Support of Real-Time Flash Flood Prediction and Reservoir Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakakos, K. P.

    2006-05-01

    The presentation will outline the implementation and performance evaluation of a number of national and international projects pertaining to operational precipitation estimation and prediction in the context of hydrologic warning systems and reservoir management support. In all cases, uncertainty measures of the estimates and predictions are an integral part of the precipitation models. Outstanding research issues whose resolution is likely to lead to improvements in the operational environment are presented. The presentation draws from the experience of the Hydrologic Research Center (http://www.hrc-lab.org) prototype implementation projects at the Panama Canal, Central America, Northern California, and South-Central US. References: Carpenter, T.M, and K.P. Georgakakos, "Discretization Scale Dependencies of the Ensemble Flow Range versus Catchment Area Relationship in Distributed Hydrologic Modeling," Journal of Hydrology, 2006, in press. Carpenter, T.M., and K.P. Georgakakos, "Impacts of Parametric and Radar Rainfall Uncertainty on the Ensemble Streamflow Simulations of a Distributed Hydrologic Model," Journal of Hydrology, 298, 202-221, 2004. Georgakakos, K.P., Graham, N.E., Carpenter, T.M., Georgakakos, A.P., and H. Yao, "Integrating Climate- Hydrology Forecasts and Multi-Objective Reservoir Management in Northern California," EOS, 86(12), 122,127, 2005. Georgakakos, K.P., and J.A. Sperfslage, "Operational Rainfall and Flow Forecasting for the Panama Canal Watershed," in The Rio Chagres: A Multidisciplinary Profile of a Tropical Watershed, R.S. Harmon, ed., Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, Chapter 16, 323-334, 2005. Georgakakos, K. P., "Analytical results for operational flash flood guidance," Journal of Hydrology, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.05.009, 2005.

  1. Reservoir management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satter, A.; Varnon, J.E.; Hoang, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    A reservoir's life begins with exploration leading to discovery followed by delineation of the reservoir, development of the field, production by primary, secondary and tertiary means, and finally to abandonment. Sound reservoir management is the key to maximizing economic operation of the reservoir throughout its entire life. Technological advances and rapidly increasing computer power are providing tools to better manage reservoirs and are increasing the gap between good and neural reservoir management. The modern reservoir management process involves goal setting, planning, implementing, monitoring, evaluating, and revising plans. Setting a reservoir management strategy requires knowledge of the reservoir, availability of technology, and knowledge of the business, political, and environmental climate. Formulating a comprehensive management plan involves depletion and development strategies, data acquisition and analyses, geological and numerical model studies, production and reserves forecasts, facilities requirements, economic optimization, and management approval. This paper provides management, engineers, geologists, geophysicists, and field operations staff with a better understanding of the practical approach to reservoir management using a multidisciplinary, integrated team approach

  2. Reservoir management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satter, A.; Varnon, J.E.; Hoang, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    A reservoir's life begins with exploration leading to discovery followed by delineation of the reservoir, development of the field, production by primary, secondary and tertiary means, and finally to abandonment. Sound reservoir management is the key to maximizing economic operation of the reservoir throughout its entire life. Technological advances and rapidly increasing computer power are providing tools to better manage reservoirs and are increasing the gap between good and neutral reservoir management. The modern reservoir management process involves goal setting, planning, implementing, monitoring, evaluating, and revising plans. Setting a reservoir management strategy requires knowledge of the reservoir, availability of technology, and knowledge of the business, political, and environmental climate. Formulating a comprehensive management plan involves depletion and development strategies, data acquisition and analyses, geological and numerical model studies, production and reserves forecasts, facilities requirements, economic optimization, and management approval. This paper provides management, engineers geologists, geophysicists, and field operations staff with a better understanding of the practical approach to reservoir management using a multidisciplinary, integrated team approach

  3. Reservoir Operation Rules for Controlling Algal Blooms in a Tributary to the Impoundment of Three Gorges Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijian Lian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the first impoundment of Three Gorges Dam in 2003, algal blooms occur frequently in the near-dam tributaries. It is widely recognized that the impoundment-induced change in hydrodynamic condition with the lower current velocity will make the eutrophication problem even more severe when an excessive amount of nutrients is already loaded into a reservoir and/or its tributaries. Operation tests carried out by Three Gorges Corporation in 2010 point to some feasible reservoir operation schemes that may have positive impacts on reducing the algal bloom level. In our study, an attempt is made to obtain, through a numerical hydrodynamic and water quality modeling and analysis, the reservoir operation rules that would reduce the level of algal blooms in the Xiangxi River (XXR, a near-dam tributary. Water movements and algal blooms in XXR are simulated and analyzed under different scenarios of one-day water discharge fluctuation or two-week water level variation. The model results demonstrate that the reservoir operations can further increase the water exchange between the mainstream of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR and the XXR tributary and thus move a larger amount of algae into the deep water where it will die. Analysis of the model results indicate that the water discharge fluctuation constituted of a lower valley-load flow and a larger flow difference for the short-term operation (within a day, the rise in water level for the medium-term operation (e.g., over weeks, and the combination of the above two for the long-term operation (e.g., over months can be the feasible reservoir operation rules in the non-flood season for TGR.

  4. SWOT data assimilation for operational reservoir management on the upper Niger River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier, S.; Polebistki, A.; Brown, C.; Belaud, G.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2015-01-01

    The future Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission will provide two-dimensional maps of water elevation for rivers with width greater than 100 m globally. We describe a modeling framework and an automatic control algorithm that prescribe optimal releases from the Selingue dam in the Upper Niger River Basin, with the objective of understanding how SWOT data might be used to the benefit of operational water management. The modeling framework was used in a twin experiment to simulate the "true" system state and an ensemble of corrupted model states. Virtual SWOT observations of reservoir and river levels were assimilated into the model with a repeat cycle of 21 days. The updated state was used to initialize a Model Predictive Control (MPC) algorithm that computed the optimal reservoir release that meets a minimum flow requirement 300 km downstream of the dam. The data assimilation results indicate that the model updates had a positive effect on estimates of both water level and discharge. The "persistence," which describes the duration of the assimilation effect, was clearly improved (greater than 21 days) by integrating a smoother into the assimilation procedure. We compared performances of the MPC with SWOT data assimilation to an open-loop MPC simulation. Results show that the data assimilation resulted in substantial improvements in the performances of the Selingue dam management with a greater ability to meet environmental requirements (the number of days the target is missed falls to zero) and a minimum volume of water released from the dam.

  5. Environmental and Water Quality Operational Studies. General Guidelines for Monitoring Contaminants in Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    espacially trte for the topics of sampling and analytical methods, statistical considerations, and the design of general water quality monitoring networks. For...and to the establishment and habitat differentiation of biological populations within reservoirs. Reservoir operatirn, esp- cially the timing...8217 % - - % properties of bottom sediments, as well as specific habitat associations of biological populations of reservoirs. Thus, such heterogeneities

  6. Comparison of the diagenetic and reservoir quality evolution between the anticline crest and flank of an Upper Jurassic carbonate gas reservoir, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morad, Daniel; Nader, Fadi H.; Gasparrini, Marta; Morad, Sadoon; Rossi, Carlos; Marchionda, Elisabetta; Al Darmaki, Fatima; Martines, Marco; Hellevang, Helge

    2018-05-01

    This petrographic, stable isotopic and fluid inclusion microthermometric study of the Upper Jurassic limestones of an onshore field, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE) compares diagenesis in flanks and crest of the anticline. The results revealed that the diagenetic and related reservoir quality evolution occurred during three phases, including: (i) eogenesis to mesogenesis 1, during which reservoir quality across the field was either deteriorated or preserved by calcite cementation presumably derived from marine or evolved marine pore waters. Improvement of reservoir quality was due to the formation of micropores by micritization of allochems and creation of moldic/intragranular pores by dissolution of peloids and skeletal fragments. (ii) Obduction of Oman ophiolites and formation of the anticline of the studied field was accompanied by cementation by saddle dolomite and blocky calcite. High homogenization temperatures (125-175 °C) and high salinity (19-26 wt% NaCl eq) of the fluid inclusions, negative δ18OVPDB values (-7.7 to -2.9‰), saddle shape of dolomite, and the presence of exotic cements (i.e. fluorite and sphalerite) suggest that these carbonates were formed by flux of hot basinal brines, probably related to this tectonic compression event. (iii) Mesogenesis 2 during subsidence subsequent to the obduction event, which resulted in extensive stylolitization and cementation by calcite. This calcite cement occluded most of the remaining moldic and inter-/intragranular pores of the flank limestones (water zone) whereas porosity was preserved in the crest. This study contributes to: (1) our understanding of differences in the impact of diagenesis on reservoir quality evolution in flanks and crests of anticlines, i.e. impact of hydrocarbon emplacement on diagenesis, and (2) relating various diagenetic processes to burial history and tectonic events of foreland basins in the Arabian Gulf area and elsewhere.

  7. Natural and human drivers of salinity in reservoirs and their implications in water supply operation through a Decision Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Eva; Gómez-Beas, Raquel; Linares-Sáez, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Salt can be a problem when is originally in aquifers or when it dissolves in groundwater and comes to the ground surface or flows into streams. The problem increases in lakes hydraulically connected with aquifers affecting water quality. This issue is even more alarming when water resources are used for urban and irrigation supply and water quantity and quality restrict that water demand. This work shows a data based and physical modeling approach in the Guadalhorce reservoir, located in southern Spain. This water body receives salt contribution from mainly groundwater flow, getting salinity values in the reservoir from 3500 to 5500 μScm-1. Moreover, Guadalhorce reservoir is part of a complex system of reservoirs fed from the Guadalhorce River that supplies all urban, irrigation, tourism, energy and ecology water uses, which makes that implementation and validation of methods and tools for smart water management is required. Meteorological, hydrological and water quality data from several monitoring networks and data sources, with both historical and real time data during a 40-years period, were used to analyze the impact salinity. On the other hand, variables that mainly depend on the dam operation, such as reservoir water level and water outflow, were also analyzed to understand how they affect to salinity in depth and time. Finally surface and groundwater inflows to the reservoir were evaluated through a physically based hydrological model to forecast when the major contributions take place. Reservoir water level and surface and groundwater inflows were found to be the main drivers of salinity in the reservoir. When reservoir water level is high, daily water inflow around 0.4 hm3 causes changes in salinity (both drop and rise) up to 500 μScm-1, but no significant changes are found when water level falls 2-3 m. However the gradual water outflows due to dam operation and consequent decrease in reservoir water levels makes that, after dry periods, salinity

  8. Operational resilience of reservoirs to climate change, agricultural demand, and tourism: A case study from Sardinia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereu, Simone; Sušnik, Janez; Trabucco, Antonio; Daccache, Andre; Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia, Lydia; Renoldi, Stefano; Virdis, Andrea; Savić, Dragan; Assimacopoulos, Dionysis

    2016-02-01

    Many (semi-) arid locations globally, and particularly islands, rely heavily on reservoirs for water supply. Some reservoirs are particularly vulnerable to climate and development changes (e.g. population change, tourist growth, hydropower demands). Irregularities and uncertainties in the fluvial regime associated with climate change and the continuous increase in water demand by different sectors will add new challenges to the management and to the resilience of these reservoirs. The resilience of vulnerable reservoirs must be studied in detail to prepare for and mitigate potential impacts of these changes. In this paper, a reservoir balance model is developed and presented for the Pedra e' Othoni reservoir in Sardinia, Italy, to assess resilience to climate and development changes. The model was first calibrated and validated, then forced with extensive ensemble climate data for representative concentration pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5, agricultural data, and with four socio-economic development scenarios. Future projections show a reduction in annual reservoir inflow and an increase in demand, mainly in the agricultural sector. Under no scenario is reservoir resilience significantly affected, the reservoir always achieves refill. However, this occurs at the partial expenses of hydropower production with implications for the production of renewable energy. There is also the possibility of conflict between the agricultural sector and hydropower sector for diminishing water supply. Pedra e' Othoni reservoir shows good resilience to future change mostly because of the disproportionately large basin feeding it. However this is not the case of other Sardinian reservoirs and hence a detailed resilience assessment of all reservoirs is needed, where development plans should carefully account for the trade-offs and potential conflicts among sectors. For Sardinia, the option of physical connection between reservoirs is available, as are alternative water supply measures

  9. On the effect of operation of the hydropower plant on the water quality of Rapel reservoir, central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossel, V.; De La Fuente, A.

    2013-12-01

    Eutrophication of lakes and reservoirs is a common problem in systems with high incoming loads of nutrients. The consequent algae bloom related to the eutrophication alters the water quality and generates an incompatibility with the tourist and recreational activities. This study is focused on Rapel reservoir: an old, dentritic and monomictic reservoir, located in central Chile (34°S, 71.6°W), that has experienced numerous algae bloom events in the past years produced by high loads of nutrients, sediments and metals. This reservoir was originally constructed in 1968 for hydropower generation without environmental restrictions on its operation. Rapel is part of Chile's Central Interconnected System (SIC), and is controlled by an independent system operator (ISO) that decides the optimal allocation of water by minimizing the SIC's operation cost. As a result of this framework, Rapel reservoir operates based on a hydropeaking scheme, thus producing energy few hours a day while zero outflows are observed the remaining hours, impacting on Rapel river located downstream the reservoir. However, previous research showed that this hydropeaking has important effects on the hydrodynamic of the reservoir as well. Particularly, it enhances vertical mixing nears the dam, and reduces horizontal dispersion. Furthermore, hydropeaking defines the outflows water temperature, and the temperature profile near the dam. As a consequence of this role of hydropeaking on the hydrodynamics and mixing of Rapel reservoir, it is expected to be a link between hydropeaking and water quality. The aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of the operation of hydropower plant on the water quality of Rapel reservoir, for which the reservoir system is modeled using the three dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model ELCOM-CAEDYM. Field data to validate the results and to define boundary and initial conditions are available for the austral summer period of 2009-2010. Different scenarios of

  10. The Application of GA, SMPSO and HGAPSO in Optimal Reservoirs Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Moghaddam

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The reservoir operation is a multi-objective optimization problem with large-scale which consider reliability and the needs of hydrology, energy, agriculture and the environment. There were not the any algorithms with this ability which consider all the above-mentioned demands until now. Almost the existing algorithms usually solve a simple form of the problem for their limitations. In the recent decay the application of meta-heuristic algorithms were introduced into the water resources problem to overcome on some complexity, such as non-linear, non-convex and description of these problems which limited the mathematical optimization methods. In this paper presented a Simple Modified Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm (SMPSO with applying a new factor in Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm. Then a new suggested hybrid method which called HGAPSO developed based on combining with Genetic algorithm (GA. In the end, the performance of GA, MPSO and HGAPSO algorithms on the reservoir operation problem is investigated with considering water supplying as objective function in a period of 60 months according to inflow data. Materials and Methods: The GA is one of the newer programming methods which use of the theory of evolution and survival in biology and genetics principles. GA has been developed as an effective method in optimization problems which doesn’t have the limitation of classical methods. The SMPSO algorithm is the member of swarm intelligence methods that a solution is a population of birds which know as a particle. In this collection, the birds have the individual artificial intelligence and develop the social behavior and their coordinate movement toward a specific destination. The goal of this process is the communication between individual intelligence with social interaction. The new modify factor in SMPSO makes to improve the speed of convergence in optimal answer. The HGAPSO is a suggested combination of GA

  11. Geological and production characteristics of strandplain/barrier island reservoirs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.; Jackson, S.; Madden, M.P.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Young, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) primary mission in the oil research program is to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. The Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program supports DOE`s mission through cost-shared demonstrations of improved Oil Recovery (IOR) processes and reservoir characterization methods. In the past 3 years, the DOE has issued Program Opportunity Notices (PONs) seeking cost-shared proposals for the three highest priority, geologically defined reservoir classes. The classes have been prioritized based on resource size and risk of abandonment. This document defines the geologic, reservoir, and production characteristics of the fourth reservoir class, strandplain/barrier islands. Knowledge of the geological factors and processes that control formation and preservation of reservoir deposits, external and internal reservoir heterogeneities, reservoir characterization methodology, and IOR process application can be used to increase production of the remaining oil-in-place (IOR) in Class 4 reservoirs. Knowledge of heterogeneities that inhibit or block fluid flow is particularly critical. Using the TORIS database of 330 of the largest strandplain/barrier island reservoirs and its predictive and economic models, the recovery potential which could result from future application of IOR technologies to Class 4 reservoirs was estimated to be between 1.0 and 4.3 billion barrels, depending on oil price and the level of technology advancement. The analysis indicated that this potential could be realized through (1) infill drilling alone and in combination with polymer flooding and profile modification, (2) chemical flooding (sufactant), and (3) thermal processes. Most of this future potential is in Texas, Oklahoma, and the Rocky Mountain region. Approximately two-thirds of the potentially recoverable resource is at risk of abandonment by the year 2000.

  12. 200-BP-5 operable unit treatability test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The 200-BP-5 Operable Unit was established in response to recommendations presented in the 200 East Groundwater Aggregate Area Management Study Report (AAMSR) (DOE-RL 1993a). Recognizing different approaches to remediation, the groundwater AAMSR recommended separating groundwater from source and vadose zone operable units and subdividing 200 East Area groundwater into two operable units. The division between the 200-BP-5 and 200-PO-1 Operable Units was based principally on source operable unit boundaries and distribution of groundwater plumes derived from either B Plant or Plutonium/Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant liquid waste disposal sites.

  13. 200-BP-5 operable unit treatability test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    The 200-BP-5 Operable Unit was established in response to recommendations presented in the 200 East Groundwater Aggregate Area Management Study Report (AAMSR) (DOE-RL 1993a). Recognizing different approaches to remediation, the groundwater AAMSR recommended separating groundwater from source and vadose zone operable units and subdividing 200 East Area groundwater into two operable units. The division between the 200-BP-5 and 200-PO-1 Operable Units was based principally on source operable unit boundaries and distribution of groundwater plumes derived from either B Plant or Plutonium/Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant liquid waste disposal sites

  14. SIMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF THE HYDRAULIC FRACTURING OPERATION IN A HEAVY OIL RESERVOIR IN SOUTHERN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REZA MASOOMI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of oil from some Iranian reservoirs due to high viscosity of their oil or reducing the formation permeability due to asphaltene precipitation or other problems is not satisfactory. Hydraulic fracturing method increases production in the viscous oil reservoirs that the production rate is low. So this is very important for some Iranian reservoirs that contain these characteristics. In this study, hydraulic fracturing method has been compositionally simulated in a heavy oil reservoir in southern Iran. In this study, the parameters of the fracture half length, the propagation direction of the cracks and the depth of fracturing have been considered in this oil reservoir. The aim of this study is to find the best scenario which has the highest recovery factor in this oil reservoir. For this purpose the parameters of the length, propagation direction and depth of fracturing have been optimized in this reservoir. Through this study the cumulative oil production has been evaluated with the compositional simulation for the next 10 years in this reservoir. Also at the end of this paper, increasing the final production of this oil reservoir caused by optimized hydraulic fracturing has been evaluated.

  15. Hydrological Response Unit Analysis Using AVSWAT 2000 for Keuliling Reservoir Watershed, Aceh Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Azmeri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sediments deposition derived from the erosion in upstream areas can lead to river siltation or canals downstream irrigation. According to the complexity of erosion problem at Keuliling reservoir, it is essential that topography, hydrology, soil type and land use to be analyzed comprehensively. Software used to analyze is AVSWAT 2000 (Arc View Soil and Water Assessment Tools-2000, one of the additional tool of ArcView program. The results obtained are the watershed delineation map, soil type map to produce soil erodibility factor (K which indicates the resistance of soil particles toward exfoliation, land use map to produce crop management factor (C and soil conservation and its management factors (P. Hydrology analysis includes soil type, land use and utility for the erosion rate analysis through Hydrologic Response Unit (HRU. The biggest HRU value of sub-basin is on area 5 and the lowest one is on area 10. All four HRU in sub-basin area 5 are potentially donating high value for HRU. In short, this area has the longest slope length so that it has a large LS factor. About 50% of the land was covered by bushes which gain higher C factor rather than forest. Moreover, it has contour crop conservation technique with 9-20 % declivity resulting in having dominant factor of P. Soil type is dominated by Meucampli Formation which has soil erodibility factor with high level of vulnerable toward the rainfall kinetic energy. All in all, the vast majority of HRU parameters in this sub-basin area obtain the highest HRU value. Hydrology analysis, soil type, and use-land are useful for land area analysis that is susceptible to erosion which was identified through Hydrologic Response Unit (HRU using GIS. As the matter of fact, spatially studies constructed with GIS can facilitate the agency to determine critical areas which are needed to be aware or fully rehabilitated.

  16. Adapting Reservoir Operations to Reduce the Multi-Sectoral Impacts of Flood Intensification in the Lower Susquehanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatarain-Salazar, J.; Reed, P. M.; Quinn, J.

    2017-12-01

    This study characterizes how changes in reservoir operations can be used to better balance growing flood intensities and the conflicting multi-sectorial demands in the Lower Susequehanna River Basin (LSRB), USA. Tensions in the LSRB are increasing with urban population pressures, evolving energy demands, and growing flood-based infrastructure vulnerabilities. This study explores how re-operation of the Conowingo Reservoir, located in the LSRB, can improve the balance between competing demands for hydropower production, urban water supply to Chester, PA and Baltimore, MD, cooling water supply for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Plant, recreation, federal environmental flow requirements and improved mitigation of growing flood hazards. The LSRB is also one of the most flood prone basins in the US, impacted by hurricanes and rain-on-snow induced flood events causing on average $100 million in economic losses and infrastructure damages to downstream settlements every year. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the consequences of mathematical formulation choices, uncertainty characterization and the value of information when defining the Conowingo reservoir's multi-purpose operations. This work seeks to strike a balance between the complexity and the efficacy of rival framings for the problem formulations used to discover effective operating policies. More broadly, the problem of intensifying urban floods in reservoir systems with complex multi-sectoral demands is broadly relevant to developed river basins globally.

  17. Succession of phytoplankton assemblages in response to large-scale reservoir operation: a case study in a tributary of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yan; Li, Zhe; Guo, Jinsong; Fang, Fang; Smith, Val H

    2016-03-01

    The Three Gorges Dam (TGD) has greatly altered ecological and environmental conditions within the reservoir region, but it is not known how these changes affect phytoplankton structure and dynamics. Here, a bimonthly monitoring program was implemented from 2007 to 2009 to study the impact of damming on phytoplankton assemblages in the backwater area of the Pengxi River (PBA). By application of the phytoplankton functional group (C strategists, competitive species; S strategists, stress-tolerant species; R strategists, rapid propagation species), seasonal changes in phytoplankton relative to environmental variations were evaluated using ordination analysis. Seasonal patterns of phytoplankton dynamics were detected during this study, with CS/S strategists causing algal blooms from mid-spring to early summer, CS/CR strategists often observed during flood season, and CS strategists dominant during mid-autumn. CR/R groups dominated during winter and caused algal blooms in February. Our results indicated that phytoplankton assemblages were directly related to reservoir operation effects. Generally, the TGD had a low water level during flood season, resulting in a relatively short hydraulic retention time and intensive variability, which supported the cooccurrence of CS and CR species. During the winter drought season, water storage in the TGD increased the water level and the hydraulic retention time in the PBA, enabling R/CR strategists to overcome the sedimentation effect and to out-compete S/CS species in winter. As expected, these diversity patterns were significantly correlated with the hydraulic retention time and nutrient limitation pattern in the PBA. This study provides strategic insight for evaluating the impacts of reservoir operations on phytoplankton adaptation.

  18. Model Development to Establish Integrated Operational Rule Curves for Hungry Horse and Libby Reservoirs - Montana, 1996 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marotz, Brian; Althen, Craig; Gustafson, Daniel

    1996-01-01

    Hungry Horse and Libby dams have profoundly affected the aquatic ecosystems in two major tributaries of the Columbia River by altering habitat and water quality, and by imposing barriers to fish migration. In 1980, the U.S. Congress passed the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act, designed in part to balance hydropower development with other natural resources in the Columbia System. The Act formed the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) who developed a program to protect, mitigate and enhance fish and wildlife on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Pursuant to the Council`s Fish and Wildlife Program for the Columbia River System (1987), we constructed computer models to simulate the trophic dynamics of the reservoir biota as related to dam operation. Results were used to develop strategies to minimize impacts and enhance the reservoir and riverine fisheries, following program measures 903(a)(1-4) and 903(b)(1-5). Two FORTRAN simulation models were developed for Hungry Horse and Libby reservoirs located in northwestern Montana. The models were designed to generate accurate, short-term predictions specific to two reservoirs and are not directly applicable to other waters. The modeling strategy, however, is portable to other reservoir systems where sufficient data are available. Reservoir operation guidelines were developed to balance fisheries concerns in the headwaters with anadromous species recovery actions in the lower Columbia (Biological Rule Curves). These BRCs were then integrated with power production and flood control to reduce the economic impact of basin-wide fisheries recovery actions. These Integrated Rule Curves (IRCs) were developed simultaneously in the Columbia Basin System Operation Review (SOR), the Council`s phase IV amendment process and recovery actions associated with endangered Columbia Basin fish species.

  19. Optimal Operation of a Network of Multi-purpose Reservoir : A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nay Myo Lin, N.M.; Rutten, M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Due to the effects of climate change and population growth, reservoirs play a more and more important role in water resources management. The management of a multi-reservoir system is complex due to the curse of dimensionalities, nonlinearities and conflicts between different objectives. The

  20. First report of the successful operation of a side stream supersaturation hypolimnetic oxygenation system in a eutrophic, shallow reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerling, Alexandra B; Browne, Richard G; Gantzer, Paul A; Mobley, Mark H; Little, John C; Carey, Cayelan C

    2014-12-15

    Controlling hypolimnetic hypoxia is a key goal of water quality management. Hypoxic conditions can trigger the release of reduced metals and nutrients from lake sediments, resulting in taste and odor problems as well as nuisance algal blooms. In deep lakes and reservoirs, hypolimnetic oxygenation has emerged as a viable solution for combating hypoxia. In shallow lakes, however, it is difficult to add oxygen into the hypolimnion efficiently, and a poorly designed hypolimnetic oxygenation system could potentially result in higher turbidity, weakened thermal stratification, and warming of the sediments. As a result, little is known about the viability of hypolimnetic oxygenation in shallow bodies of water. Here, we present the results from recent successful tests of side stream supersaturation (SSS), a type of hypolimnetic oxygenation system, in a shallow reservoir and compare it to previous side stream deployments. We investigated the sensitivity of Falling Creek Reservoir, a shallow (Zmax = 9.3 m) drinking water reservoir located in Vinton, Virginia, USA, to SSS operation. We found that the SSS system increased hypolimnetic dissolved oxygen concentrations at a rate of ∼1 mg/L/week without weakening stratification or warming the sediments. Moreover, the SSS system suppressed the release of reduced iron and manganese, and likely phosphorus, from the sediments. In summary, SSS systems hold great promise for controlling hypolimnetic oxygen conditions in shallow lakes and reservoirs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Derivation of optimal joint operating rules for multi-purpose multi-reservoir water-supply system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qiao-feng; Wang, Xu; Wang, Hao; Wang, Chao; Lei, Xiao-hui; Xiong, Yi-song; Zhang, Wei

    2017-08-01

    The derivation of joint operating policy is a challenging task for a multi-purpose multi-reservoir system. This study proposed an aggregation-decomposition model to guide the joint operation of multi-purpose multi-reservoir system, including: (1) an aggregated model based on the improved hedging rule to ensure the long-term water-supply operating benefit; (2) a decomposed model to allocate the limited release to individual reservoirs for the purpose of maximizing the total profit of the facing period; and (3) a double-layer simulation-based optimization model to obtain the optimal time-varying hedging rules using the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II, whose objectives were to minimize maximum water deficit and maximize water supply reliability. The water-supply system of Li River in Guangxi Province, China, was selected for the case study. The results show that the operating policy proposed in this study is better than conventional operating rules and aggregated standard operating policy for both water supply and hydropower generation due to the use of hedging mechanism and effective coordination among multiple objectives.

  2. Monitoring algal blooms in drinking water reservoirs using the Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Darryl; Rover, Jennifer; Green, Jason; Zalewsky, Brian; Charpentier, Mike; Hursby, Glen; Bishop, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated that the Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) sensor is a powerful tool that can provide periodic and system-wide information on the condition of drinking water reservoirs. The OLI is a multispectral radiometer (30 m spatial resolution) that allows ecosystem observations at spatial and temporal scales that allow the environmental community and water managers another means to monitor changes in water quality not feasible with field-based monitoring. Using the provisional Land Surface Reflectance product and field-collected chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentrations from drinking water monitoring programs in North Carolina and Rhode Island, we compared five established approaches for estimating chl-aconcentrations using spectral data. We found that using the three band reflectance approach with a combination of OLI spectral bands 1, 3, and 5 produced the most promising results for accurately estimating chl-a concentrations in lakes (R2 value of 0.66; root mean square error value of 8.9 µg l−1). Using this model, we forecast the spatial and temporal variability of chl-a for Jordan Lake, a recreational and drinking water source in piedmont North Carolina and several small ponds that supply drinking water in southeastern Rhode Island.

  3. In the Way of Peacemaker Guide Curve between Water Supply and Flood Control for Short Term Reservoir Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, G.; Sensoy, A.; Yavuz, O.; Sorman, A. A.; Gezgin, T.

    2012-04-01

    Effective management of a controlled reservoir system where it involves multiple and sometimes conflicting objectives is a complex problem especially in real time operations. Yuvacık Dam Reservoir, located in the Marmara region of Turkey, is built to supply annual demand of 142 hm3 water for Kocaeli city requires such a complex management strategy since it has relatively small (51 hm3) effective capacity. On the other hand, the drainage basin is fed by both rainfall and snowmelt since the elevation ranges between 80 - 1548 m. Excessive water must be stored behind the radial gates between February and May in terms of sustainability especially for summer and autumn periods. Moreover, the downstream channel physical conditions constraint the spillway releases up to 100 m3/s although the spillway is large enough to handle major floods. Thus, this situation makes short term release decisions the challenging task. Long term water supply curves, based on historical inflows and annual water demand, are in conflict with flood regulation (control) levels, based on flood attenuation and routing curves, for this reservoir. A guide curve, that is generated using both water supply and flood control of downstream channel, generally corresponds to upper elevation of conservation pool for simulation of a reservoir. However, sometimes current operation necessitates exceeding this target elevation. Since guide curves can be developed as a function of external variables, the water potential of a basin can be an indicator to explain current conditions and decide on the further strategies. Besides, releases with respect to guide curve are managed and restricted by user-defined rules. Although the managers operate the reservoir due to several variable conditions and predictions, still the simulation model using variable guide curve is an urgent need to test alternatives quickly. To that end, using HEC-ResSim, the several variable guide curves are defined to meet the requirements by

  4. Effects of the uncertainty of energy price and water availability forecasts on the operation of Alpine hydropower reservoir systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, D.; Castelletti, A.; Burlando, P.

    2016-12-01

    European energy markets have experienced dramatic changes in the last years because of the massive introduction of Variable Renewable Sources (VRSs), such as wind and solar power sources, in the generation portfolios in many countries. VRSs i) are intermittent, i.e., their production is highly variable and only partially predictable, ii) are characterized by no correlation between production and demand, iii) have negligible costs of production, and iv) have been largely subsidized. These features result in lower energy prices, but, at the same time, in increased price volatility, and in network stability issues, which pose a threat to traditional power sources because of smaller incomes and higher maintenance costs associated to a more flexible operation of power systems. Storage hydropower systems play an important role in compensating production peaks, both in term of excess and shortage of energy. Traditionally, most of the research effort in hydropower reservoir operation has focused on modeling and forecasting reservoir inflow as well as designing reservoir operation accordingly. Nowadays, price variability may be the largest source of uncertainty in the context of hydropower systems, especially when considering medium-to-large reservoirs, whose storage can easily buffer small inflow fluctuations. In this work, we compare the effects of uncertain inflow and energy price forecasts on hydropower production and profitability. By adding noise to historic inflow and price trajectories, we build a set of synthetic forecasts corresponding to different levels of predictability and assess their impact on reservoir operating policies and performances. The study is conducted on different hydropower systems, including storage systems and pumped-storage systems, with different characteristics, e.g., different inflow-capacity ratios. The analysis focuses on Alpine hydropower systems where the hydrological regime ranges from purely ice and snow-melt dominated to mixed snow

  5. The Iġnik Sikumi Field Experiment, Alaska North Slope: Design, operations, and implications for CO2−CH4 exchange in gas hydrate reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Ray; Schoderbek, David; Collett, Timothy S.; Ohtsuki, Satoshi; White, Mark; Anderson, Brian J.

    2017-01-01

    The Iġnik Sikumi Gas Hydrate Exchange Field Experiment was conducted by ConocoPhillips in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy, the Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation, and the U.S. Geological Survey within the Prudhoe Bay Unit on the Alaska North Slope during 2011 and 2012. The primary goals of the program were to (1) determine the feasibility of gas injection into hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs and (2) observe reservoir response upon subsequent flowback in order to assess the potential for CO2 exchange for CH4 in naturally occurring gas hydrate reservoirs. Initial modeling determined that no feasible means of injection of pure CO2 was likely, given the presence of free water in the reservoir. Laboratory and numerical modeling studies indicated that the injection of a mixture of CO2 and N2 offered the best potential for gas injection and exchange. The test featured the following primary operational phases: (1) injection of a gaseous phase mixture of CO2, N2, and chemical tracers; (2) flowback conducted at downhole pressures above the stability threshold for native CH4 hydrate; and (3) an extended (30-days) flowback at pressures near, and then below, the stability threshold of native CH4 hydrate. The test findings indicate that the formation of a range of mixed-gas hydrates resulted in a net exchange of CO2 for CH4 in the reservoir, although the complexity of the subsurface environment renders the nature, extent, and efficiency of the exchange reaction uncertain. The next steps in the evaluation of exchange technology should feature multiple well applications; however, such field test programs will require extensive preparatory experimental and numerical modeling studies and will likely be a secondary priority to further field testing of production through depressurization. Additional insights gained from the field program include the following: (1) gas hydrate destabilization is self-limiting, dispelling any notion of the potential for

  6. Multi-Objective Optimization of the Hedging Model for reservoir Operation Using Evolutionary Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sadegh sadeghitabas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Multi-objective problems rarely ever provide a single optimal solution, rather they yield an optimal set of outputs (Pareto fronts. Solving these problems was previously accomplished by using some simplifier methods such as the weighting coefficient method used for converting a multi-objective problem to a single objective function. However, such robust tools as multi-objective meta-heuristic algorithms have been recently developed for solving these problems. The hedging model is one of the classic problems for reservoir operation that is generally employed for mitigating drought impacts in water resources management. According to this method, although it is possible to supply the total planned demands, only portions of the demands are met to save water by allowing small deficits in the current conditions in order to avoid or reduce severe deficits in future. The approach heavily depends on economic and social considerations. In the present study, the meta-heuristic algorithms of NSGA-II, MOPSO, SPEA-II, and AMALGAM are used toward the multi-objective optimization of the hedging model. For this purpose, the rationing factors involved in Taleghan dam operation are optimized over a 35-year statistical period of inflow. There are two objective functions: a minimizing the modified shortage index, and b maximizing the reliability index (i.e., two opposite objectives. The results show that the above algorithms are applicable to a wide range of optimal solutions. Among the algorithms, AMALGAM is found to produce a better Pareto front for the values of the objective function, indicating its more satisfactory performance.

  7. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling, Class II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, Jack; Blasingame, Tom; Doublet, Louis; Kelkar, Mohan; Freeman, George; Callard, Jeff; Moore, David; Davies, David; Vessell, Richard; Pregger, Brian; Dixon, Bill; Bezant, Bryce

    2000-03-16

    The major purpose of this project was to demonstrate the use of cost effective reservoir characterization and management tools that will be helpful to both independent and major operators for the optimal development of heterogeneous, low permeability carbonate reservoirs such as the North Robertson (Clearfork) Unit.

  8. 2014 Highlights of Ferry Operations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Based on information provided by operators who responded to the 2014 National Census of Ferry Operators (NCFO), the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) conservatively estimates that ferries in the United States carried just over 115 million pas...

  9. Ensemble Flow Forecasts for Risk Based Reservoir Operations of Lake Mendocino in Mendocino County, California: A Framework for Objectively Leveraging Weather and Climate Forecasts in a Decision Support Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, C.; Hartman, R. K.; Mendoza, J.; Whitin, B.

    2017-12-01

    Forecast informed reservoir operations (FIRO) is a methodology that incorporates short to mid-range precipitation and flow forecasts to inform the flood operations of reservoirs. The Ensemble Forecast Operations (EFO) alternative is a probabilistic approach of FIRO that incorporates ensemble streamflow predictions (ESPs) made by NOAA's California-Nevada River Forecast Center (CNRFC). With the EFO approach, release decisions are made to manage forecasted risk of reaching critical operational thresholds. A water management model was developed for Lake Mendocino, a 111,000 acre-foot reservoir located near Ukiah, California, to evaluate the viability of the EFO alternative to improve water supply reliability but not increase downstream flood risk. Lake Mendocino is a dual use reservoir, which is owned and operated for flood control by the United States Army Corps of Engineers and is operated for water supply by the Sonoma County Water Agency. Due to recent changes in the operations of an upstream hydroelectric facility, this reservoir has suffered from water supply reliability issues since 2007. The EFO alternative was simulated using a 26-year (1985-2010) ESP hindcast generated by the CNRFC. The ESP hindcast was developed using Global Ensemble Forecast System version 10 precipitation reforecasts processed with the Hydrologic Ensemble Forecast System to generate daily reforecasts of 61 flow ensemble members for a 15-day forecast horizon. Model simulation results demonstrate that the EFO alternative may improve water supply reliability for Lake Mendocino yet not increase flood risk for downstream areas. The developed operations framework can directly leverage improved skill in the second week of the forecast and is extendable into the S2S time domain given the demonstration of improved skill through a reliable reforecast of adequate historical duration and consistent with operationally available numerical weather predictions.

  10. Impact of the operation of cascade reservoirs in upper Yangtze River on hydrological variability of the mainstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changjiang, Xu; Dongdong, Zhang

    2018-06-01

    As the impacts by climate changes and human activities are intensified, variability may occur in river's annual runoff as well as flood and low water characteristics. In order to understand the characteristics of variability in hydrological series, diagnosis and identification must be conducted specific to the variability of hydrological series, i.e., whether there was variability and where the variability began to occur. In this paper, the mainstream of Yangtze River was taken as the object of study. A model was established to simulate the impounding and operation of upstream cascade reservoirs so as to obtain the runoff of downstream hydrological control stations after the regulation by upstream reservoirs in different level years. The Range of Variability Approach was utilized to analyze the impact of the operation of upstream reservoirs on the variability of downstream. The results indicated that the overall hydrologic alterations of Yichang hydrological station in 2010 level year, 2015 level year and the forward level year were 68.4, 72.5 and 74.3 % respectively, belonging to high alteration in all three level years. The runoff series of mainstream hydrological stations presented variability in different degrees, where the runoff series of the four hydrological stations including Xiangjiaba, Gaochang and Wulong belonged to high alteration in the three level years; and the runoff series of Beibei hydrological station in 2010 level year belonged to medium alteration, and high alteration in 2015 level year and the forward level year. The study on the impact of the operation of cascade reservoirs in Upper Yangtze River on hydrological variability of the mainstream had important practical significance on the sustainable utilization of water resources, disaster prevention and mitigation, safe and efficient operation and management of water conservancy projects and stable development of the economic society.

  11. Assessment of Short Term Flood Operation Strategies Using Numerical Weather Prediction Data in YUVACΙK DAM Reservoir, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, G.; Yavuz, O.; Sensoy, A.; Sorman, A.; Akgun, T.; Gezgin, T.

    2011-12-01

    Yuvacik Dam Reservoir Basin, located in the Marmara region of Turkey with 248 km2 drainage area, has steep topography, mild and rainy climate thus induces high flood potential with fast flow response, especially to early spring and fall precipitation events. Moreover, the basin provides considerable snowmelt contribution to the streamflow during melt season since the elevation ranges between 80 - 1548 m. The long term strategies are based on supplying annual demand of 142 hm3 water despite a relatively small reservoir capacity of 51 hm3. This situation makes short term release decisions as the challenging task regarding the constrained downstream safe channel capacity especially in times of floods. Providing the demand of 1.5 million populated city of Kocaeli is the highest priority issue in terms of reservoir management but risk optimization is also required due to flood regulation. Although, the spillway capacity is 1560 m3/s, the maximum amount of water to be released is set as 100 m3/s by the regional water authority taking into consideration the downstream channel capacity which passes through industrial region of the city. The reservoir is a controlled one and it is possible to hold back the 15 hm3 additional water by keeping the gates closed. Flood regulation is set to achieve the maximum possible flood attenuation by using the full flood-control zone capacity in the reservoir before making releases in excess of the downstream safe-channel capacity. However, the operators still need to exceed flood regulation zones to take precautions for drought summer periods in order to supply water without any shortage that increases the risk in times of flood. Regarding to this circumstances, a hydrological model integrated reservoir modeling system, is applied to account for the physical behavior of the system. Hence, this reservoir modeling is carried out to analyze both previous decisions and also the future scenarios as a decision support tool for operators. In the

  12. Analysis of Serbian Military Riverine Units Capability for Participation in the United Nations Peacekeeping Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Radojevic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses required personnel, training capacities and equipment for participation in the United Nations peacekeeping operations with the riverine elements. In order to meet necessary capabilities for engagement in United Nations peacekeeping operations, Serbian military riverine units have to be compatible with the issued UN requirements. Serbian Armed Forces have the potential to reach such requirements with the River Flotilla as a pivot for the participation in UN missions. Serbian Military Academy adopted and developed educational and training program in accordance with the provisions and recommendations of the IMO conventions and IMO model courses. Serbian Military Academy has opportunities for education and training military riverine units for participation in the United Nations peacekeeping operations. Moreover, Serbia has Multinational Operations Training Center and Peacekeeping Operations Center certified to provide selection, training, equipping and preparations of individuals and units to the United Nations multinational operations.

  13. UNITED STATES SPECIAL OPERATIONS FORCES IN AFRICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    hundreds of traditional African religions associated with the plethora of tribal groups as well as large populations of Muslims, primarily in the...engagement, and the complexities of the African continent, Special Operations Forces (SOF) are uniquely suited to further those interests. Additionally...protecting access to abundant strategic resources, fostering integration into the global economy, and empowering Africans and their partners to deal

  14. Operational experience in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronow, W.S.

    1977-01-01

    In the UK there are 26 Magnox reactors and 4 AGRs operating on 11 licensed sites; a further 6 AGRs are under construction on 2 additional and one of the existing sites. The arrangements by which the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate, on behalf of the Health and Safety Executive, carries out its regulatory functions at operating nuclear power plants are described. The range of activities undertaken is described with special reference being made to the biennial shutdowns for approved maintenance and inspections which are required by conditions attached to the site licence. The other means by which the continuing safety of these power reactors is assured are explained and include the relationship with the licensee's own Nuclear Safety Committee, approved arrangements for modifications to plant systems or components which have importance for safety and long term reviews of safety aspects. (author)

  15. Unit costs of waste management operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisieleski, W.E.; Folga, S.M.; Gillette, J.L.; Buehring, W.A.

    1994-04-01

    This report provides estimates of generic costs for the management, disposal, and surveillance of various waste types, from the time they are generated to the end of their institutional control. Costs include monitoring and surveillance costs required after waste disposal. Available data on costs for the treatment, storage, disposal, and transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive, low-level radioactive, transuranic radioactive, hazardous, mixed (low-level radioactive plus hazardous), and sanitary wastes are presented. The costs cover all major elements that contribute to the total system life-cycle (i.e., ''cradle to grave'') cost for each waste type. This total cost is the sum of fixed and variable cost components. Variable costs are affected by operating rates and throughput capacities and vary in direct proportion to changes in the level of activity. Fixed costs remain constant regardless of changes in the amount of waste, operating rates, or throughput capacities. Key factors that influence cost, such as the size and throughput capacity of facilities, are identified. In many cases, ranges of values for the key variables are presented. For some waste types, the planned or estimated costs for storage and disposal, projected to the year 2000, are presented as graphics

  16. Fast reactor operation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.R.; Cissel, D.W.

    1978-01-01

    Of the many American facilities dedicated to fast reactor technology, six qualify as liquid-metal-cooled fast reactors. All of these satisfy the following criteria: an unmoderated neutron spectrum, highly enriched fuel material, substantial heat production, and the use of a liquid metal coolant. These include the following: EBR-I Clementine, LAMPRE, EBR-II, EFFBR, and SEFOR. Collectively, these facilities encompassed all of the more important features of liquid-metal-cooled fast reactor technology. Coolant types ranged from mercury in Clementine, to NaK in EBR-I, and sodium in the others. Fuels included enriched-uranium metallic alloys in EBR-I, EBR-II, and EFFBR; metallic plutonium in Clementine; molten plutonium alloy in LAMPRE; and a mixed UO 2 -PuO 2 ceramic in SEFOR. Heat removal techniques ranged from air-blast cooling in LAMPRE and SEFOR; steam-electrical generation in EBR-I, EBR-II, and EFFBR; to a mercury-to-water heat dump in Clementine. Operational experience with such diverse systems has contributed heavily to the U.S. Each of the six systems is described from the viewpoints of purpose, history, design, and operation. Attempts are made to limit descriptive material to the most important features and to refer the reader to a few select references if additional information is needed

  17. Using a Bayesian Probabilistic Forecasting Model to Analyze the Uncertainty in Real-Time Dynamic Control of the Flood Limiting Water Level for Reservoir Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dedi; Li, Xiang; Guo, Shenglian

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic control of the flood limiting water level (FLWL) is a valuable and effective way to maximize the benefits from reservoir operation without exceeding the design risk. In order to analyze the impacts of input uncertainty, a Bayesian forecasting system (BFS) is adopted. Applying quantile water...... inflow values and their uncertainties obtained from the BFS, the reservoir operation results from different schemes can be analyzed in terms of benefits, dam safety, and downstream impacts during the flood season. When the reservoir FLWL dynamic control operation is implemented, there are two fundamental......, also deterministic water inflow was tested. The proposed model in the paper emphasizes the importance of analyzing the uncertainties of the water inflow forecasting system for real-time dynamic control of the FLWL for reservoir operation. For the case study, the selected quantile inflow from...

  18. Reservoir model for the Alameda Central waterflood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, T E

    1968-01-01

    The basic approach used in developing the model to characterize the Alameda Central Unit Waterflood assumes continuity of the reservoir mechanics with time. The past performance was analyzed to describe the reservoir and future performance was assumed to follow the established patterns. To develop a mathematical picture of the Alameda Central Unit reservoir, a two-dimensional single-phase steady-state model was used in conjunction with material balance calculations, real-time conversion methods and oil-water interface advance calculations. The model was developed to optimize water injection allocation, determine the configuration of the frontal advance and evaluate the success of the waterflood. The model also provides a basis for continuing review and revision of the basic concepts of reservoir operation. The results of the reservoir study have confirmed the apparent lack of permeability orientation in the pool and indicate that the waterflood is progressing better than originally anticipated.

  19. Analysis of operating reliability of WWER-1000 unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortlik, J.

    1985-01-01

    The nuclear power unit was divided into 33 technological units. Input data for reliability analysis were surveys of operating results obtained from the IAEA information system and certain indexes of the reliability of technological equipment determined using the Bayes formula. The missing reliability data for technological equipment were used from the basic variant. The fault tree of the WWER-1000 unit was determined for the peak event defined as the impossibility of reaching 100%, 75% and 50% of rated power. The period was observed of the nuclear power plant operation with reduced output owing to defect and the respective time needed for a repair of the equipment. The calculation of the availability of the WWER-1000 unit was made for different variant situations. Certain indexes of the operating reliability of the WWER-1000 unit which are the result of a detailed reliability analysis are tabulated for selected variants. (E.S.)

  20. An Appraisal Of The Operation And Management Of Unit Trust ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Appraisal Of The Operation And Management Of Unit Trust Schemes In Nigeria. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... instead of being invested in shares or in money market instruments as a result of widespread financial illiteracy.

  1. Reservoir quality of intrabasalt volcaniclastic units onshore Faroe Islands, North Atlantic Igneous Province, northeast Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólavsdóttir, Jana; Andersen, Morten Sparre; Boldreel, Lars Ole

    2015-01-01

    The Paleocene and Eocene strata in the western part of the FaroeShetland Basin contain abundant volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks. Recently, hydrocarbon discoveries have been made in reservoirs of siliciclastic origin in intra- and post-volcanic strata in the central Faroe-Shetland Basin that show....... Onshore samples are used as Faroese offshore volcaniclastic intervals are represented by a few confidential samples where the stratigraphic level is uncertain. The onshore samples have been taken from 29 geotechnical (made related to tunnel building, etc.) and 2 scientific (made related to research of the geology...

  2. Initial startup and operations of Yonggwang Units 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, T.J.; Chari, D.R.; Kiraly, F.

    1996-01-01

    A significant milestone in the nuclear power industry was achieved in 1995, when Yonggwang (YGN) Units 3 and 4 were accepted into in commercial operation by Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO). YGN Unit 3 was accepted into commercial operation on March 31, 1995, the original date established during project initiation. YGN Unit 4 was accepted into operation on January 1, 1996, 3 months ahead of schedule. Each YGN unit produces approximately 1,050 Mwe and supplies approximately ten percent of the total electric power demand in the Republic of Korea (ROK). The overall plant efficiency is approximately 37% which is at least 1% higher than most nuclear units. Since achieving commercial operation, YGN Unit 3 has operated at essentially full power which has resulted in an annual performance rate in excess of 85%. YGN Unit 3 is the first of six pressurized water reactors which are currently under design and construction in the ROK and serves as the reference design for the Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant program. Both YGN Units 3 and 4 include a System 800 Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS). The NSSS is rated at 2,815 Mwth and is the ABB-CE standard design. The design includes numerous advanced design features which enhance plant safety, performance and operability. A well executed startup test program was successfully completed on both units prior to commercial operation. A summary of the YGN NSSS design features, the startup test program and selected test results demonstrating the performance of those features are presented in this paper

  3. Stability Analysis for Operation of DG Units in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouresmaeil, Edris; Shaker, Hamid Reza; Mehrasa, Majid

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multifunction control strategy for the stable operation of Distributed Generation (DG) units during grid integration. The proposed control model is based on Direct Lyapunov Control (DLC) theory and provides a stable region for the appropriate operation of DG units during grid....... Application of this concept can guarantee to reduce the stress on the grid during the energy demand peak. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the proficiency and performance of the proposed DLC technique in DG technology....

  4. Eielson Air Force Base Operable Unit 2 baseline risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, R.E.; Jarvis, T.T.; Jarvis, M.R.; Whelan, G.

    1994-10-01

    Operable Unit 2 at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) near Fairbanks, is one of several operable units characterized by petroleum, oil, and lubricant contamination, and by the presence of organic products floating at the water table, as a result of Air Force operations since the 1940s. The base is approximately 19,270 acres in size, and comprises the areas for military operations and a residential neighborhood for military dependents. Within Operable Unit 2, there are seven source areas. These source areas were grouped together primarily because of the contaminants released and hence are not necessarily in geographical proximity. Source area ST10 includes a surface water body (Hardfill Lake) next to a fuel spill area. The primary constituents of concern for human health include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Monitored data showed these volatile constituents to be present in groundwater wells. The data also showed an elevated level of trace metals in groundwater.

  5. An Alternative Approach to the Operation of Multinational Reservoir Systems: Application to the Amistad & Falcon System (Lower Rio Grande/Rí-o Bravo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrat-Capdevila, A.; Valdes, J. B.

    2005-12-01

    An optimization approach for the operation of international multi-reservoir systems is presented. The approach uses Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) algorithms, both steady-state and real-time, to develop two models. In the first model, the reservoirs and flows of the system are aggregated to yield an equivalent reservoir, and the obtained operating policies are disaggregated using a non-linear optimization procedure for each reservoir and for each nation water balance. In the second model a multi-reservoir approach is applied, disaggregating the releases for each country water share in each reservoir. The non-linear disaggregation algorithm uses SDP-derived operating policies as boundary conditions for a local time-step optimization. Finally, the performance of the different approaches and methods is compared. These models are applied to the Amistad-Falcon International Reservoir System as part of a binational dynamic modeling effort to develop a decision support system tool for a better management of the water resources in the Lower Rio Grande Basin, currently enduring a severe drought.

  6. GestAqua.AdaPT - Mediterranean river basin modeling and reservoir operation strategies for climate change adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre Diogo, Paulo; Nunes, João Pedro; Marco, Machado; Aal, Carlo; Carmona Rodrigues, António; Beça, Pedro; Casanova Lino, Rafael; Rocha, João; Carvalho Santos, Cláudia

    2016-04-01

    Climate change (CC) scenarios for the Mediterranean region include an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events such as drought periods. higher average temperatures and evapotranspiration, combined with the decrease of annual precipitation may strongly affect the sustainability of water resources. In face of these risks, improving water management actions? by anticipating necessary operational measures is required to insure water quantity and quality according to the needs of the populations and irrigation in agriculture. This is clearly the case of the Alentejo region, southern Portugal, where present climatic conditions already pose significant challenges to water resources stakeholders, mainly from the agricultural and the urban supply sectors. With this in mind, the GestAqua.AdaPT project is underway during 2015 and 2016, aiming at analyzing CC impacts until 2100 and develop operational procedures to ensure water needs are adequately satisfied in the Monte Novo and Vigia reservoirs, which supply water for the city of Évora and nearby irrigation systems. Specific project objectives include: a) defining management and operational adaptation strategies aiming to ensure resource sustainability, both quantitatively and qualitatively; b) evaluate future potential costs and available alternatives to the regional water transfer infrastructure linked with the large Alqueva reservoir implemented in 2011; c) defining CC adaptation strategies to reduce irrigation water needs and d) identification of CC adaptation strategies which can be suitable also to other similar water supply systems. The methodology is centered on the implementation of a cascade of modeling tools, allowing the integrated simulation of the multiple variables under analysis. The project is based on CC scenarios resulting from the CORDEX project for 10 combinations of Global and regional climate models (GCMs and RCMs). The study follows by using two of these combinations

  7. A two-stage method of quantitative flood risk analysis for reservoir real-time operation using ensemble-based hydrologic forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P.

    2013-12-01

    Quantitative analysis of the risk for reservoir real-time operation is a hard task owing to the difficulty of accurate description of inflow uncertainties. The ensemble-based hydrologic forecasts directly depict the inflows not only the marginal distributions but also their persistence via scenarios. This motivates us to analyze the reservoir real-time operating risk with ensemble-based hydrologic forecasts as inputs. A method is developed by using the forecast horizon point to divide the future time into two stages, the forecast lead-time and the unpredicted time. The risk within the forecast lead-time is computed based on counting the failure number of forecast scenarios, and the risk in the unpredicted time is estimated using reservoir routing with the design floods and the reservoir water levels of forecast horizon point. As a result, a two-stage risk analysis method is set up to quantify the entire flood risks by defining the ratio of the number of scenarios that excessive the critical value to the total number of scenarios. The China's Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is selected as a case study, where the parameter and precipitation uncertainties are implemented to produce ensemble-based hydrologic forecasts. The Bayesian inference, Markov Chain Monte Carlo, is used to account for the parameter uncertainty. Two reservoir operation schemes, the real operated and scenario optimization, are evaluated for the flood risks and hydropower profits analysis. With the 2010 flood, it is found that the improvement of the hydrologic forecast accuracy is unnecessary to decrease the reservoir real-time operation risk, and most risks are from the forecast lead-time. It is therefore valuable to decrease the avarice of ensemble-based hydrologic forecasts with less bias for a reservoir operational purpose.

  8. Feasibility study report for the 200-BP-1 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This feasibility study examines a range of alternatives and provides recommendations for selecting a preferred alternative for remediating contamination at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 operable unit is located in the center of the Hanford Site along the northern boundary of the 200 East Area. The 241-BY Tank Farm is located immediately to the south of the operable unit. 200-BP-1 is a source operable unit with contaminated soils associated primarily with nine inactive cribs (known as the 216-B cribs). These cribs were used for disposal of low-level radioactive liquid waste from U Plant uranium recovery operations, and waste storage tank condensate from the adjacent 241-BY Tank Farm. The cribs used for disposal of U Plant waste were in operation from 1955--1965, and the cribs used for disposal of tank condensate were in operation from 1965--1975. In addition to the cribs, four unplanned releases of radioactive materials have occurred within the operable unit. Contaminated surface soils associated with the unplanned releases have been consolidated over the cribs and covered with clean soil to reduce contaminant migration and exposure. Discharge of wastes to the cribs has resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. The groundwater is being addressed as part of the 200 East Aggregate Area, groundwater operable unit. Contaminated soils at the site can be categorized by the types of contaminants, their distribution in the soil column, and the risk posed by the various potential exposure pathways. Below the clean soil cover, the near surface soils contain low-levels of contamination with cesium-137, radium-226, strontium-90, thorium-228, and uranium. The lifetime incremental cancer risk associated with these soils if they were exposed at the surface is 9x10 -5

  9. Feasibility study report for the 200-BP-1 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This feasibility study (FS) examines a range of alternatives and provides recommendations for selecting a preferred altemative for remediating contamination at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 operable unit is located in the center of the Hanford Site along the northern boundary of the 200 East Area. The 241-BY Tank Farm is located immediately to the south of the operable unit. 200-BP-1 is a source operable unit with contaminated soils associated primarily with nine inactive cribs (known as the 216-B cribs). These cribs were used for disposal of low-level radioactive liquid waste from U Plant uranium recovery operations, and waste storage tank condensate from the adjacent 241-BY Tank Farm. The cribs used for disposal of U Plant waste were in operation from 1955--1965, and the cribs used for disposal of tank condensate were in operation from 1965-1975. In addition to the cribs, four unplanned releases of radioactive materials have occurred within the operable unit. Contaminated surface soils associated with the unplanned releases have been consolidated over the cribs and covered with clean soil to reduce contaminant migration and exposure. Discharge of wastes to the cribs has resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. The groundwater is being addressed as part of the 200 East Aggregate Area groundwater operable unit. Contaminated soils at the site can be categorized by the types of contaminants, their distribution in the soil column, and the risk posed by the various potential exposure pathways. Below the clean soil cover, the near surface soils contain low-:levels of contamination with cesium-137, radium-226, strontium-90, thorium-228 and uranium. The lifetime incremental cancer risk associated with these soils if they were exposed at the surface is 9 x 10 5

  10. Feasibility study report for the 200-BP-1 operable unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This feasibility study examines a range of alternatives and provides recommendations for selecting a preferred alternative for remediating contamination at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 operable unit is located in the center of the Hanford Site along the northern boundary of the 200 East Area. The 241-BY Tank Farm is located immediately to the south of the operable unit. 200-BP-1 is a source operable unit with contaminated soils associated primarily with nine inactive cribs (known as the 216-B cribs). These cribs were used for disposal of low-level radioactive liquid waste from U Plant uranium recovery operations, and waste storage tank condensate from the adjacent 241-BY Tank Farm. The cribs used for disposal of U Plant waste were in operation from 1955--1965, and the cribs used for disposal of tank condensate were in operation from 1965--1975. In addition to the cribs, four unplanned releases of radioactive materials have occurred within the operable unit. Contaminated surface soils associated with the unplanned releases have been consolidated over the cribs and covered with clean soil to reduce contaminant migration and exposure. Discharge of wastes to the cribs has resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. The groundwater is being addressed as part of the 200 East Aggregate Area, groundwater operable unit. Contaminated soils at the site can be categorized by the types of contaminants, their distribution in the soil column, and the risk posed by the various potential exposure pathways. Below the clean soil cover, the near surface soils contain low-levels of contamination with cesium-137, radium-226, strontium-90, thorium-228, and uranium. The lifetime incremental cancer risk associated with these soils if they were exposed at the surface is 9{times}10{sup {minus}5}.

  11. Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units Testing Plans and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert G.; Notardonato, William U.; Currin, Kelly M.; Orozco-Smith, Evelyn M.

    2012-01-01

    Cryogenic propellant loading operations with their associated flight and ground systems are some of the most complex, critical activities in launch operations. Consequently, these systems and operations account for a sizeable portion of the life cycle costs of any launch program. NASA operations for handling cryogens in ground support equipment have not changed substantially in 50 years, despite advances in cryogenics, system health management and command and control technologies. This project was developed to mature, integrate and demonstrate advancement in the current state of the art in these areas using two distinct integrated ground operations demonstration units (GODU): GODU Integrated Refrigeration and Storage (IRAS) and GODU Autonomous Control

  12. Quantification of Libby Reservoir Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, 1983-1987 Methods and Data Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, Ian

    1989-12-01

    Libby Reservoir was created under an International Columbia River Treaty between the United States and Canada for cooperative water development of the Columbia River Basin. The authorized purpose of the dam is to provide power, flood control, and navigation and other benefits. Research began in May 1983 to determine how operations of Libby dam impact the reservoir fishery and to suggest ways to lessen these impacts. This study is unique in that it was designed to accomplish its goal through detailed information gathering on every trophic level in the reservoir system and integration of this information into a quantitative computer model. The specific study objectives are to: quantify available reservoir habitat, determine abundance, growth and distribution of fish within the reservoir and potential recruitment of salmonids from Libby Reservoir tributaries within the United States, determine abundance and availability of food organisms for fish in the reservoir, quantify fish use of available food items, develop relationships between reservoir drawdown and reservoir habitat for fish and fish food organisms, and estimate impacts of reservoir operation on the reservoir fishery. 115 refs., 22 figs., 51 tabs.

  13. 200-UP-2 Operable Unit technical baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deford, D.H.

    1991-02-01

    This report is prepared in support of the development of a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Work Plan for the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit by EBASCO Environmental, Incorporated. It provides a technical baseline of the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit and results from an environmental investigation undertaken by the Technical Baseline Section of the Environmental Engineering Group, Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The 200-UP-2 Operable Unit Technical Baseline Report is based on review and evaluation of numerous Hanford Site current and historical reports, Hanford Site drawings and photographs and is supplemented with Hanford Site inspections and employee interviews. No field investigations or sampling were conducted. Each waste site in the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit is described separately. Close relationships between waste units, such as overflow from one to another, are also discussed. The 200-UP-2 Operable Unit consists of liquid-waste disposal sites in the vicinity of, and related to, U Plant operations in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The ''U Plant'' refers to the 221-U Process Canyon Building, a chemical separations facility constructed during World War 2. It also includes the Uranium Oxide (UO 3 ) Plant, which was constructed at the same time and, like the 221-U Process Canyon Building, was later converted for other missions. Waste sites in the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit are associated with the U Plant Uranium Metal Recovery Program mission that occurred between 1952 and 1958 and the UO 3 Plant's ongoing uranium oxide mission and include one or more cribs, reverse wells, french drains, septic tanks and drain fields, trenches, catch tanks, settling tanks, diversion boxes, waste vaults, and the lines and encasements that connect them. 11 refs., 1 tab

  14. Operation and Maintenance Plan for the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleton, K.M.

    1996-09-01

    This document is the operation and maintenance plan for the 300-FF-5 groundwater operable unit. The purpose of this plan is to identify tasks necessary to verify the effectiveness of the selected alternative. This plan also describes the monitoring program and administrative tasks that will be used as the preferred alternative for the remediation of groundwater in the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit. The preferred alternative selected for remediation of groundwater consists of institutional controls

  15. Conversion of 3D seismic attributes to reservoir hydraulic flow units using a neural network approach: An example from the Kangan and Dalan carbonate reservoirs, the world's largest non-associated gas reservoirs, near the Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Dezfoolian

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an intelligent model based on probabilistic neural networks (PNN to produce a quantitative formulation between seismic attributes and hydraulic flow units (HFUs. Neural networks have been used for the last several years to estimate reservoir properties. However, their application for hydraulic flow unit estimation on a cube of seismic data is an interesting topic for research. The methodology for this application is illustrated using 3D seismic attributes and petrophysical and core data from 6 wells from the Kangan and Dalan gas reservoirs in the Persian Gulf basin. The methodology introduced in this study estimates HFUs from a large volume of 3D seismic data. This may increase exploration success rates and reduce costs through the application of more reliable output results in hydrocarbon exploration programs. 4 seismic attributes, including acoustic impedance, dominant fre- quency, amplitude weighted phase and instantaneous phase, are considered as the optimal inputs for pre- dicting HFUs from seismic data. The proposed technique is successfully tested in a carbonate sequence of Permian-Triassic rocks from the studied area. The results of this study demonstrate that there is a good agreement between the core and PNN-derived flow units. The PNN used in this study is successful in modeling flow units from 3D seismic data for which no core data or well log data are available.  Resumen Este estudio presenta un modelo inteligente basado en redes neuronales probabilísticas (PNN para pro- ducir una formulación cuantitativa entre atributos sísmicos y unidades de flujo hidráulico (HFU. Las redes neuronales han sido utilizadas durante los últimos años para estimar las propiedades de reserva. Sin embargo, su aplicación para estimación de unidades de flujo hidráulico en un cubo de datos sísmicos es un tema importante de investigación. La metodología para esta aplicación está ilustrada a partir de datos tridimensionales y

  16. Impact of stylolitization on diagenesis of a Lower Cretaceous carbonate reservoir from a giant oilfield, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganoni, Matteo; Al Harthi, Amena; Morad, Daniel; Morad, Sadoon; Ceriani, Andrea; Mansurbeg, Howri; Al Suwaidi, Aisha; Al-Aasm, Ihsan S.; Ehrenberg, Stephen N.; Sirat, Manhal

    2016-04-01

    Bed-parallel stylolites are a widespread diagenetic feature in Lower Cretaceous limestone reservoirs, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Diagenetic calcite, dolomite, kaolin and small amounts of pyrite, fluorite, anhydrite and sphalerite occur along and in the vicinity of the stylolites. Petrographic observations, negative δ18OVPDB, fluid inclusion microthermometry, and enrichment in 87Sr suggest that these cements have precipitated from hot basinal brines, which migrated along the stylolites and genetically related microfractures (tension gashes). Fluid migration was presumably related to lateral tectonic compression events related to the foreland basin formation. The low solubility of Al3 + in formation waters suggests that kaolin precipitation was linked to derivation of organic acids during organic matter maturation, probably in siliciclastic source rocks. The mass released from stylolitization was presumably re-precipitated as macro- and microcrystalline calcite cement in the host limestones. The flanks of the oilfield (water zone) display more frequent presence and higher amplitude of stylolites, lower porosity and permeability, higher homogenization temperatures and more radiogenic composition of carbonates compared to the crest (oil zone). This indicates that oil emplacement retards diagenesis. This study demonstrates that stylolitization plays a crucial role in fluid flow and diagenesis of carbonate reservoirs during basin evolution.

  17. Impact of Risk Aversion on the Operation of Hydroelectric Reservoirs in the Presence of Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Jovanović

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing share of renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar generation, has a direct impact on the planning and operation of power systems. In addition, the consideration of risk criteria within the decision support tools used by market participants (generation companies, energy services companies, and arbitrageurs is becoming a common activity given the increasing level of uncertainties faced by them. As a consequence, the behavior of market participants is affected by their level of risk aversion, and the application of equilibrium-based models is a common technique used in order to simulate their behavior. This paper presents a multi-stage market equilibrium model of risk-averse agents in order to analyze up to what extent the operation of hydro reservoirs can be affected by the risk-averse profile of market participants in a context of renewable energy source penetration and fuel price volatility.

  18. Scheduling of head-dependent cascaded reservoirs considering discharge ramping constraints and start/stop of units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalao, J.P.S.; Pousinho, H.M.I. [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Beira Interior, R. Fonte do Lameiro, 6201-001 Covilha (Portugal); Mendes, V.M.F. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, R. Conselheiro Emidio Navarro, 1950-062 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2010-10-15

    This paper is on the problem of short-term hydro scheduling (STHS), particularly concerning head-dependent reservoirs under competitive environment. We propose a novel method, based on mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP), for optimising power generation efficiency. This method considers hydroelectric power generation as a nonlinear function of water discharge and of the head. The main contribution of this paper is that discharge ramping constraints and start/stop of units are also considered, in order to obtain more realistic and feasible results. The proposed method has been applied successfully to solve two case studies based on Portuguese cascaded hydro systems, providing a higher profit at an acceptable computation time in comparison with classical optimisation methods based on mixed-integer linear programming (MILP). (author)

  19. Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi Among Eleven Potential Reservoir Species from Six States Across the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Emily L.; Roellig, Dawn M.; Gompper, Matthew E.; Monello, Ryan J.; Wenning, Krista M.; Gabriel, Mourad W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease, is a substantial public health concern in Latin America. Although rare in humans and domestic animals in the United States, T. cruzi is commonly detected in some wildlife species, most commonly raccoons (Procyon lotor) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana). To increase our understanding of the reservoir host species range and geographic distribution, 11 species of mammals from six states spanning the known range of T. cruzi (Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Missouri, and Virginia) were tested for antibodies to T. cruzi using indirect immunofluorescent antibody testing. In addition, culture isolation attempts were conducted on a limited number of animals from Georgia and Florida. Evidence of T. cruzi was found in every state except California; however, low numbers of known reservoirs were tested in California. In general, the highest seroprevalence rates were found in raccoons (0–68%) and opossums (17–52%), but antibodies to T. cruzi were also detected in small numbers of striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) from Arizona and Georgia, bobcats (Lynx rufus) from Georgia, two coyotes (Canis latrans) from Georgia and Virginia, and a ringtail (Bassariscus astutus) from Arizona. Culture-based prevalence rates for raccoons were significantly greater than those for opossums; however, seroprevalences of raccoons and opossums from several geographic locations in Georgia and Florida were not different, indicating that exposure rates of these two species are similar within these areas. For both raccoons and opossums, seroprevalence was significantly higher in females than in males. No difference was detected in seroprevalence between adults and juveniles and between animals caught in urban and rural locations. Our results indicate that T. cruzi prevalence varies by host species, host characteristics, and geographic region and provides data to guide future studies on the natural history of T. cruzi

  20. Enhancement of the sweep efficiency of waterflooding operations by the in-situ microbial population of petroleum reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.R.; Vadie, A.A.; Stephens, J.O.; Azadpour, A.

    1995-12-31

    Live cores were obtained from five reservoirs using special precautions to prevent contamination by exogenous microorganisms and minimize exposure to oxygen. The depths from which the cores were obtained ranged from 2,705 ft to 6,568 ft. Core plugs were cut radially from live cores, encased in heat-shrink plastic tubes, placed in core holders, and fitted with inlets and outlets. Nutrient additions stimulated the in-situ microbial population to increase, dissolve stratal material, produce gases, and release oil. Reduction in flow through the core plugs was observed in some cases, while in other cases flow was increased, probably due to the dissolution of carbonates in the formation. A field demonstration of the ability of the in-situ microbial population to increase oil recovery by blocking the more permeable zones of the reservoir is currently underway. This demonstration is being conducted in the North Blowhorn Creek Unit situated in Lamar County, Alabama. Live cores were obtained from a newly drilled well in the field and tested as described above. The field project involves four test patterns each including one injector, four to five producers, and a comparable control injector with its four to five producers. Nutrient injection in the field began November 1994.

  1. Analysis on Isolation Condenser Operation by Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 Operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Man Cheol

    2014-01-01

    Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident resulted in the core damage in three reactors and the release of considerable amount of radioactive material to the environment, not to mention significant social impact and anti-nuclear atmosphere all around the world. This paper provides a review of the findings related to shift operators' operation of the isolation condenser in Unit 1 to examine shift operators' response to the situation. Based on the review of the findings, a situation assessment model was developed to analyze shift operators' understanding on whether core cooling was successfully performed in Unit 1 through the operation of isolation condenser. It was found that lack of information could be one of the main causes for the failure in core cooling by the IC in Unit 1. It is also recommended that the differences in the mathematical model for the situation assessment and that of the real operator need to be further investigated

  2. Analysis on Isolation Condenser Operation by Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 Operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Man Cheol [Chungang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident resulted in the core damage in three reactors and the release of considerable amount of radioactive material to the environment, not to mention significant social impact and anti-nuclear atmosphere all around the world. This paper provides a review of the findings related to shift operators' operation of the isolation condenser in Unit 1 to examine shift operators' response to the situation. Based on the review of the findings, a situation assessment model was developed to analyze shift operators' understanding on whether core cooling was successfully performed in Unit 1 through the operation of isolation condenser. It was found that lack of information could be one of the main causes for the failure in core cooling by the IC in Unit 1. It is also recommended that the differences in the mathematical model for the situation assessment and that of the real operator need to be further investigated.

  3. Operational behaviour of WWER nuclear power units after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milivojevic, S.; Spasojevic, D.

    2000-01-01

    The indicators of effectiveness of WWER operation, in 1987-1998 were analyzed. For three groups of nuclear units (WWER, NPP Kozloduy, NPP Paks), the trends of Indicators flow were established. The comparative analysis of forced outage rate, and load factor of WWERs and nuclear units all in the world was carried out; it gives the general picture of accident influence on the states and the relations of these indicators in considered period (author)

  4. On Point: The United States Army in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    to retain operational context. Moreover, times noted in the text have been adjusted from Greenwich Mean Time (“ Zulu ”) to local Kuwait time (+ 3...TF 1-64 AR unit history is composed of short narratives for each subordinate unit. Most cite times in zulu . 34. Ibid. 35. Ibid. Numbers of enemy...places in the world. Inside the city cemetery is the Tomb of Ali, son-in-law and cousin to Mohammed and founder of the Shiite sect. Coalition leaders

  5. 200-BP-5 operable unit Technical Baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacques, I.D.; Kent, S.K.

    1991-10-01

    This report supports development of a remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 200-BP-5 operable unit. The report summarizes baseline information for waste sites and unplanned release sites located in the 200-BP-5 operable unit. The sites were investigated by the Technical Baseline Section of the Environmental Engineering Group, Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The investigation consisted of review and evaluation of current and historical Hanford Site reports, drawings, and photographs, and was supplemented with recent inspections of the Hanford Site and employee interviews. No field investigations or sampling were conducted

  6. Implementation of Active Learning Method in Unit Operations II Subject

    OpenAIRE

    Ma'mun, Sholeh

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Active Learning Method which requires students to take an active role in the process of learning in the classroom has been applied in Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Islamic University of Indonesia for Unit Operations II subject in the Even Semester of Academic Year 2015/2016. The purpose of implementation of the learning method is to assist students in achieving competencies associated with the Unit Operations II subject and to help in creating...

  7. Operational safety experience reporting in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartfield, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    Licensees of nuclear power plants in the United States have many reporting requirements included in their technical specifications and the code of federal regulations, title 10. The Nuclear Regulatory Commisson receives these reports and utilizes them in its regulatory program. Part of this usage includes collecting and publishing this operating experience data in various reports and storing information in various data systems. This paper will discuss the data systems and reports on operating experience published and used by the NRC. In addition, some observations on operating experience will be made. Subjects included will be the Licensee Event Report (LER) Data File, the Operating Unit Status Report (Gray Book), Radiation Exposure Reports, Effluents Reports, the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, Current Events, Bulletin Wrapups and Annual Summaries. Some of the uses of the reports and systems will be discussed. The Abnormal Occurence Report to the US Congress will also be described and discussed. (author)

  8. Play-level distributions of estimates of recovery factors for a miscible carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery method used in oil reservoirs in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2016-03-02

    In a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study, recovery-factor estimates were calculated by using a publicly available reservoir simulator (CO2 Prophet) to estimate how much oil might be recovered with the application of a miscible carbon dioxide (CO2) enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method to technically screened oil reservoirs located in onshore and State offshore areas in the conterminous United States. A recovery factor represents the percentage of an oil reservoir’s original oil in place estimated to be recoverable by the application of a miscible CO2-EOR method. The USGS estimates were calculated for 2,018 clastic and 1,681 carbonate candidate reservoirs in the “Significant Oil and Gas Fields of the United States Database” prepared by Nehring Associates, Inc. (2012).

  9. Correlation Analysis of Rainstorm Runoff and Density Current in a Canyon-Shaped Source Water Reservoir: Implications for Reservoir Optimal Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Extreme weather has recently become frequent. Heavy rainfall forms storm runoff, which is usually very turbid and contains a high concentration of organic matter, therefore affecting water quality when it enters reservoirs. The large canyon-shaped Heihe Reservoir is the most important raw water source for the city of Xi’an. During the flood season, storm runoff flows into the reservoir as a density current. We determined the relationship among inflow peak discharge (Q, suspended sediment concentration, inflow water temperature, and undercurrent water density. The relationships between (Q and inflow suspended sediment concentration (CS0 could be described by the equation CS0 = 0.3899 × e0.0025Q, that between CS0 and suspended sediment concentration at the entrance of the main reservoir area S1 (CS1 was determined using CS1 = 0.0346 × e0.2335CS0, and air temperature (Ta and inflow water temperature (Tw based on the meteorological data were related as follows: Tw = 0.7718 × Ta + 1.0979. Then, we calculated the density of the undercurrent layer. Compared to the vertical water density distribution at S1 before rainfall, the undercurrent elevation was determined based on the principle of equivalent density inflow. Based on our results, we proposed schemes for optimizing water intake selection and flood discharge during the flood season.

  10. Eastern Cave- and Crevice-Dwelling Bats Potentially Impacted by USACE Reservoir Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, C.O

    2002-01-01

    ...; Kasul, Martin, and Allen 2000). This note provides information on six species of forest bats that roost in caves or cave-like structures and potentially occur on Corps projects in the Eastern United States...

  11. An Optimization Model for Kardeh Reservoir Operation Using Interval-Parameter, Multi-stage, Stochastic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rastegaripour

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates water allocation of Kardeh Reservoir to domestic and agricultural users using an Interval Parameter, Multi-stage, Stochastic Programming (IMSLP under uncertainty. The advantages of the method include its dynamics nature, use of a pre-defined policy in its optimization process, and the use of interval parameter and probability under uncertainty conditions. Additionally, it offers different decision-making alternatives for different scenarios of water shortage. The required data were collected from Khorasan Razavi Regional Water Organization and from the Water and Wastewater Co. for the period 1988-2007. Results showed that, under the worst conditions, the water deficits expected to occur for each of the next 3 years will be 1.9, 2.55, and 3.11 million cubic meters for the domestic use and 0.22, 0.32, 0.75 million cubic meters for irrigation. Approximate reductions of 0.5, 0.7, and 1 million cubic meters in the monthly consumption of the urban community and enhanced irrigation efficiencies of about 6, 11, and 20% in the agricultural sector are recommended as approaches for combating the water shortage over the next 3 years.

  12. Adaptation of Professional Skills in the Unit Operations Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rende, Deniz; Rende, Sevinc; Baysal, Nihat

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the design of three consecutive unit operations laboratory (UOL) courses that retain the academic rigor of the course while incorporating skills essential for professional careers, such as ability to propose ideas, develop practical solutions, participate in teamwork, meet deadlines, establish communication between technical support…

  13. Pressure Swing Adsorption in the Unit Operations Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganley, Jason

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a student laboratory in the Unit Operations Laboratory at the Colorado School of Mines: air separation by pressure swing adsorption. The flexibility of the system enables students to study the production of enriched nitrogen or oxygen streams. Automatic data acquisition permits the study of cycle steps and performance.…

  14. Basewide Groundwater Operable Unit. Groundwater Operable Unit Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    units would be reused in the remedy. Contingency measures to be included in the remedy are potential metals removal prior to water end use, potential...onbase reuse of a portion of the water, and wellhead treatment on offbase supply wells. The contingency measures will only be implemented if necessary...94 LEGEND Ouatmar aluvi dposts agua Frmaion(cosoldatd aluval epoits W iead rdetilnsMhte omtin(neitccnlmeae ansoe9ndkeca F 70 Quvatei-lernayalvu e pk

  15. Thunderstorm Algorithm for Determining Unit Commitment in Power System Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Nur Afandi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Solving the unit commitment problem is an important task in power system operation for deciding a balanced power production between various types of generating units under technical constraints and environmental limitations. This paper presents a new intelligent computation method, called the Thunderstorm Algorithm (TA, for searching the optimal solution of the integrated economic and emission dispatch (IEED problem as the operational assessment for determining unit commitment. A simulation using the IEEE-62 bus system showed that TA has smooth convergence and is applicable for solving the IEED problem. The IEED’s solution is associated with the total fuel consumption and pollutant emission. The proposed TA method seems to be a viable new approach for finding the optimal solution of the IEED problem.

  16. Optimal operation of cogeneration units. State of art and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polimeni, S.

    2001-01-01

    Optimal operation of cogeneration plants and of power plant fueling waste products is a complex challenge as they have to fulfill, beyond the contractual obligation of electric power supply, the constraints of supplying the required thermal energy to the user (for cogeneration units) or to burn completely the by-products of the industrial complex where they are integrated. Electrical power market evolution is pushing such units to a more and more volatile operation caused by uncertain selling price levels. This work intends to pinpoint the state of art in the optimization of these units outlining the important differences among the different size and cycles. The effect of the market liberalization on the automation systems and the optimization algorithms will be discussed [it

  17. An Analytical Method for Deriving Reservoir Operation Curves to Maximize Social Benefits from Multiple Uses of Water in the Willamette River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, K. M.; Jaeger, W. K.; Jones, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    A central characteristic of large river basins in the western US is the spatial and temporal disjunction between the supply of and demand for water. Water sources are typically concentrated in forested mountain regions distant from municipal and agricultural water users, while precipitation is super-abundant in winter and deficient in summer. To cope with these disparities, systems of reservoirs have been constructed throughout the West. These reservoir systems are managed to serve two main competing purposes: to control flooding during winter and spring, and to store spring runoff and deliver it to populated, agricultural valleys during the summer. The reservoirs also provide additional benefits, including recreation, hydropower and instream flows for stream ecology. Since the storage capacity of the reservoirs cannot be used for both flood control and storage at the same time, these uses are traded-off during spring, as the most important, or dominant use of the reservoir, shifts from buffering floods to storing water for summer use. This tradeoff is expressed in the operations rule curve, which specifies the maximum level to which a reservoir can be filled throughout the year, apart from real-time flood operations. These rule curves were often established at the time a reservoir was built. However, climate change and human impacts may be altering the timing and amplitude of flood events and water scarcity is expected to intensify with anticipated changes in climate, land cover and population. These changes imply that reservoir management using current rule curves may not match future societal values for the diverse uses of water from reservoirs. Despite a broad literature on mathematical optimization for reservoir operation, these methods are not often used because they 1) simplify the hydrologic system, raising doubts about the real-world applicability of the solutions, 2) exhibit perfect foresight and assume stationarity, whereas reservoir operators face

  18. Centrifugal microfluidic platforms: advanced unit operations and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmeier, O; Keller, M; Schwemmer, F; Zehnle, S; Mark, D; von Stetten, F; Zengerle, R; Paust, N

    2015-10-07

    Centrifugal microfluidics has evolved into a mature technology. Several major diagnostic companies either have products on the market or are currently evaluating centrifugal microfluidics for product development. The fields of application are widespread and include clinical chemistry, immunodiagnostics and protein analysis, cell handling, molecular diagnostics, as well as food, water, and soil analysis. Nevertheless, new fluidic functions and applications that expand the possibilities of centrifugal microfluidics are being introduced at a high pace. In this review, we first present an up-to-date comprehensive overview of centrifugal microfluidic unit operations. Then, we introduce the term "process chain" to review how these unit operations can be combined for the automation of laboratory workflows. Such aggregation of basic functionalities enables efficient fluidic design at a higher level of integration. Furthermore, we analyze how novel, ground-breaking unit operations may foster the integration of more complex applications. Among these are the storage of pneumatic energy to realize complex switching sequences or to pump liquids radially inward, as well as the complete pre-storage and release of reagents. In this context, centrifugal microfluidics provides major advantages over other microfluidic actuation principles: the pulse-free inertial liquid propulsion provided by centrifugal microfluidics allows for closed fluidic systems that are free of any interfaces to external pumps. Processed volumes are easily scalable from nanoliters to milliliters. Volume forces can be adjusted by rotation and thus, even for very small volumes, surface forces may easily be overcome in the centrifugal gravity field which enables the efficient separation of nanoliter volumes from channels, chambers or sensor matrixes as well as the removal of any disturbing bubbles. In summary, centrifugal microfluidics takes advantage of a comprehensive set of fluidic unit operations such as

  19. Expert system for operational personnel support during power unit operation control in regulation range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanitskij, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    The problems met when developing the systems for NPP operator support in the process of power unit operation are considered. The expert system for NPP personnel intelligent support combining the properties belonging to the artificial intelligence systems including selection of the analysis method taking into account the concrete technological situation and capability of application of algothmic calculations of the equipment characteristics using the information accumulated during the system development, erection and operation is described

  20. Operational reservoir inflow forecasting with radar altimetry: The Zambezi case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michailovsky, Claire Irene B.; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2014-01-01

    uncertainty. Data assimilation is widely used in operational applications to update hydrological models with in situ discharge or level measurements. In areas where timely access to in situ data is not possible, remote sensing data products can be used in assimilation schemes. While river discharge itself...... cannot be measured from space, radar altimetry can track surface water level variations at crossing locations between the satellite ground track and the river system called virtual stations (VS). Use of radar altimetry versus traditional monitoring in operational settings is complicated by the low...

  1. 43 CFR 419.4 - What specific provisions govern operations of the reservoirs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in the following sections of the TROA . . . Recitals, Definitions Recitals 1 through 9. Definitions (1) through (106). Satisfaction of provisions of law, general operational principles, protection of... 1.F. Administration Sections 2.A through 2.C. Accounting, reporting, forecasting, and monitoring...

  2. Radioactive acid digestion test unit nonradioactive startup operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, C.R.; Cowan, R.G.; Crippen, M.D.; Divine, J.R.

    1978-05-01

    The Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) will process 5 kg/hour of combustible solid waste and is designed to handle almost all solid combustible waste found in plutonium processing with plutonium contamination levels up to scrap. The RADTU is designed with special safety features to safely contain high masses of fissile materials and to safely handle unusual materials and reactive chemicals which may find their way into the waste. Nonradioactive operating experience to date has been very satisfactory. RADTU has been operated for extended runs on both a 24-hour per day basis as well as on a one shift per day basis. Some minor operating problems have been encountered as expected in a shakedown operation. In general, solutions to these have been readily found. 12 figures

  3. Large reservoirs: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2010-01-01

    expressed effects, such as turbidity and water quality, zooplankton density and size composition, or fish growth rates and assemblage composition, are the upshot of large-scale factors operating outside reservoirs and not under the direct control of reservoir managers. Realistically, abiotic and biotic conditions in reservoirs are shaped by factors working inside and outside reservoirs, with the relative importance of external factors differing among reservoirs. With this perspective, large reservoirs are viewed from a habitat standpoint within the framework of a conceptual model in which individual reservoir characteristics are influenced by both local- and landscape-scale factors (Figure 17.1). In the sections that follow, how each element of this hierarchical model influences habitat and fish assemblages in reservoirs is considered. Important in-reservoir habitat issues and reservoirs as part of larger systems, where reservoir management requires looking for real solutions outside individual reservoirs are described.

  4. Trade-off analysis of discharge-desiltation-turbidity and ANN analysis on sedimentation of a combined reservoir-reach system under multi-phase and multi-layer conjunctive releasing operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Lin; Hsu, Nien-Sheng; Wei, Chih-Chiang; Yao, Chun-Hao

    2017-10-01

    Multi-objective reservoir operation considering the trade-off of discharge-desiltation-turbidity during typhoons and sediment concentration (SC) simulation modeling are the vital components for sustainable reservoir management. The purposes of this study were (1) to analyze the multi-layer release trade-offs between reservoir desiltation and intake turbidity of downstream purification plants and thus propose a superior conjunctive operation strategy and (2) to develop ANFIS-based (adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system) and RTRLNN-based (real-time recurrent learning neural networks) substitute SC simulation models. To this end, this study proposed a methodology to develop (1) a series of multi-phase and multi-layer sediment-flood conjunctive release modes and (2) a specialized SC numerical model for a combined reservoir-reach system. The conjunctive release modes involve (1) an optimization model where the decision variables are multi-phase reduction/scaling ratios and the timings to generate a superior total release hydrograph for flood control (Phase I: phase prior to flood arrival, Phase II/III: phase prior to/subsequent to peak flow) and (2) a combination method with physical limitations regarding separation of the singular hydrograph into multi-layer release hydrographs for sediment control. This study employed the featured signals obtained from statistical quartiles/sediment duration curve in mesh segmentation, and an iterative optimization model with a sediment unit response matrix and corresponding geophysical-based acceleration factors, for efficient parameter calibration. This research applied the developed methodology to the Shihmen Reservoir basin in Taiwan. The trade-off analytical results using Typhoons Sinlaku and Jangmi as case examples revealed that owing to gravity current and re-suspension effects, Phase I + II can de-silt safely without violating the intake's turbidity limitation before reservoir discharge reaches 2238 m3/s; however

  5. Forecasting analysis of runoff for reservoir regulation of dams and weirs in terms of hydro power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maradjieva, Mariana; Nikolov, Nikola

    2008-01-01

    In order to meet the needs of Hydropower Plant (HPP) production new algorithms and software were developed for daily, seasonal, annual and long-term control of the runoff for the design of dam and weirs. This control is carried out for monitored periods from 20 to 50 years. The control depends on economic considerations, namely that the accepted probability of required water power is 90%, i.e. concerning the runoff and in this way for the useful volume of water dams. The research is accomplished by a design with the observations. First the hydrometric stations are selected at the available analogy with the building project and then the correlative connection is found assessed by general and true correlative coefficients. The transferring to the project of the observations for the average annual and average monthly water discharges is made with the coefficient of the analogy. The theoretical probability curves are chosen with a minimum dispersion. By the last curves the average monthly distributions are settled with probability from 2% to 90% by statistical method. During the investigated period of the regulation the volumes of discharge, overflow and shortage are calculated as and the determination for the accepted volume of the reservoir if the normative probability of the need is executed. As well the power output of the HPP and its participation in the coverage of the charge diagram on the peak load, under peak load, daily and nightly part are determined in separate observed or forecasting periods. The upper problems about the design and the operation of HPP, water output, reservoir volume and coverage of the charge diagram are solved by iterations. Practical examples are given for the runoff and for the time forecasting system.

  6. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Development through High-Resolution 3C3D Seismic and Horizontal Drilling: Eva South Marrow Sand Unit, Texas County, Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler,David M.; Miller, William A.; Wilson, Travis C.

    2002-03-11

    The Eva South Morrow Sand Unit is located in western Texas County, Oklahoma. The field produces from an upper Morrow sandstone, termed the Eva sandstone, deposited in a transgressive valley-fill sequence. The field is defined as a combination structural stratigraphic trap; the reservoir lies in a convex up -dip bend in the valley and is truncated on the west side by the Teepee Creek fault. Although the field has been a successful waterflood since 1993, reservoir heterogeneity and compartmentalization has impeded overall sweep efficiency. A 4.25 square mile high-resolution, three component three-dimensional (3C3D) seismic survey was acquired in order to improve reservoir characterization and pinpoint the optimal location of a new horizontal producing well, the ESU 13-H.

  7. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) control display unit software description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Parks, Mark A.; Debure, Kelly R.; Heaphy, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The software created for the Control Display Units (CDUs), used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project, on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) is described. Module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, a detailed description, and global references. The global reference section includes subroutines, functions, and common variables referenced by a particular module. The CDUs, one for the pilot and one for the copilot, are used for flight management purposes. Operations performed with the CDU affects the aircraft's guidance, navigation, and display software.

  8. SCOPING SUMMARY FOR THE P-AREA OPERABLE UNIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupar, J; Sadika Baladi, S; Mark Amidon, M

    2007-01-01

    This scoping summary supports development of the combined Remedial Investigation (RI)/Baseline Risk Assessment (BRA)/Feasibility Study (FS) for the P-Area Operable Unit (PAOU), or Combined document, which will be submitted on or before 09/28/2007. The objective of this Feasibility Study scoping summary meeting is to agree on the likely response actions to be evaluated and developed as alternatives in the combined document and agree on the uncertainties identified and whether they have been adequately managed

  9. SCOPING SUMMARY FOR THE P-AREA OPERABLE UNIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupar, J; Sadika Baladi, S; Mark Amidon, M

    2007-05-22

    This scoping summary supports development of the combined Remedial Investigation (RI)/Baseline Risk Assessment (BRA)/Feasibility Study (FS) for the P-Area Operable Unit (PAOU), or Combined document, which will be submitted on or before 09/28/2007. The objective of this Feasibility Study scoping summary meeting is to agree on the likely response actions to be evaluated and developed as alternatives in the combined document and agree on the uncertainties identified and whether they have been adequately managed.

  10. 100-KR-1 Operable Unit focused feasibility study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The standard Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 Feasibility Study (FS) includes development and screening of alternatives and the detailed analysis of alternatives. This focused feasibility study (FFS) was conducted for the 100-KR-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. The objective of this operable unit-specific FFS is to provide decision makers with sufficient information to allow appropriate and timely selection of interim remedial measures (IRM) for the five sites (116-K-1 crib, 116-K-2 trench, 116-KE-4 and 116-KW-3 retention basins, and process effluent pipelines) associated with the 100-KR-1 Operable Unit. The IRM candidate waste sites are determined in the limited field investigation. Site profiles are developed for each of these waste site. The site profiles are used in the application of the plug-in approach. The waste site either plugs into the analysis of the alternatives for the group, or deviations from the developed group alternatives are described and documented

  11. Licensed operating reactors. Operating units status report, data as of 2-28-79

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    This report is divided into three sections: the first contains monthly highlights and statistics for commercial operating units, and errata from previously reported data; the second is a compilation of detailed information on each unit, provided by NRC Regional Offices and IE Headquarters; and the third section is an appendix containing comparative statistics of U.S. nuclear/fossil capacity, identification of nuclear power plants within regional Electric Reliability Councils, the relative status of U.S. nuclear electric production to all U.S. electric production by state, and selected Edison Electric Institute operating statistics. Throughout the report, statistical factors for periods greater than a report month, or for more than one unit, are computed as the arithmetic average of each unit's individual operating statistics. The statistical factors for each unit for the report month are computed from actual power production for the month. The factors for the life-span of each unit (the ''Cumulative'' column) are reported by the utility and are not entirely re-computed by NRC. Utility power production data is checked for consistency with previously submitted statistics

  12. Potential urban runoff impacts and contaminant distributions in shoreline and reservoir environments of Lake Havasu, southwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Doyle C

    2018-04-15

    Heavy metal, nutrient, and hydrocarbon levels in and adjacent to Lake Havasu, a regionally significant water supply reservoir with a highly controlled, dynamic flow regime, are assessed in relation to possible stormwater runoff impacts from an arid urban center. Shallow groundwater and sediment analyses from ephemeral drainage (wash) mouths that convey stormwater runoff from Lake Havasu City, Arizona to the reservoir, provided contaminant control points and correlation ties with the reservoir environment. Fine-grain sediments tend to contain higher heavy metal concentrations whereas nutrients are more evenly distributed, except low total organic carbon levels from young wash mouth surfaces devoid of vegetation. Heavy metal and total phosphate sediment concentrations in transects from wash mouths into the reservoir have mixed and decreasing trends, respectively. Both series may indicate chemical depositional influences from urban runoff, yet no statistically significant concentration differences occur between specific wash mouths and corresponding offshore transects. Heavy metal pollution indices of all sediments indicate no discernible to minor contamination, indicating that runoff impacts are minimal. Nevertheless, several heavy metal concentrations from mid-reservoir sediment sites increase southward through the length of the reservoir. Continual significant water flow through the reservoir may help to disperse locally derived runoff particulates, which could mix and settle down gradient with chemical loads from upriver sources and local atmospheric deposition. Incorporating the shoreline environment with the reservoir investigation provides spatial continuity in assessing contaminant sources and distribution patterns. This is particularly acute in the investigation of energetic, flow-through reservoirs in which sources may be overlooked if solely analyzing the reservoir environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Application of multi-agent simulation to evaluate the influence of reservoir operation strategies on the distribution of water availability in the semi-arid Jaguaribe basin, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oel, P.R.; Krol, Martinus S.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2012-01-01

    Studying the processes responsible for the distribution of water resources in a river basin over space and time is of great importance for spatial planning. In this study a multi-agent simulation approach is applied for exploring the influence of alternative reservoir operation strategies on water

  14. Treatability test plan for the 200-ZP-1 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump and treat testing at the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit. The approach discussed in this treatability test plan is to conduct a pilot-scale pump and treat test for the contaminant plume associated with the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit. The primary contaminants of concern are carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and trichloroethylene (TCE). The pilot-scale treatability testing has as its primary purpose to assess the performance of aboveground treatment systems with respect to the ability to remove the primary contaminants present in groundwater withdrawn from the contaminant plume. The overall scope of this test plan includes: description of the pump and treat system to be tested, as well as the test performance objectives and data quality objectives (DQOs) that will be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the pilot-scale treatment system; discussion of the treatment technology to be tested and supporting development activities, including process flow and conceptual design descriptions and equipment, fabrication, utility, and system startup needs; description of pilot-scale treatment system performance, operating procedures, and operational controls, as well as anticipated monitoring activities, analytes, parameters, analytical procedures, and quality assurance protocols; summaries of other related treatability testing elements, including personnel and environmental health and safety controls, process and secondary waste management and disposition, schedule, and program organization

  15. Heat recovery unit operation of HVAC system in IMEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paek, S. R.; Oh, Y. W.; Song, E. S.; Park, D. K.; Joo, Y. S.; Hong, K. P.

    2003-01-01

    HVAC system including a supply and exhaust air system in IMEF(Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) is an essential facility for preventing a leakage of radioactive materials and for a preservation of a working environment. It costs a lot to operate the HVAC system in IMEF because our ventilation type is once-through system, and an air flow is maintained from low level contamination area to high level and maintained high turns of ventilation air under certain conditions. As HRU(Heat Recovery Unit) at HVAC system based on PIEF(Post Irradiation Examination Facility) operation experiences is designed and adopted, it prevents from a heating coil freezing destruction in winter and makes much energy saving etc.. Heat pipe type HRU is adopted in IMEF, and a construction and operation result of HRU is examined

  16. [Effects of cascading hydropower dams operation on the structure and distribution pattern of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in Manwan Reservoir, Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin Peng; Dong, Shi Kui; Peng, Ming Chun; Wu, Xuan; Zhou, Fang; Yu, Yin

    2017-12-01

    Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages are one of the biological groups in aquatic ecosystem most sensitive to the habitat change and degradation, and can be a biological indicator for the aquatic ecosystem change and succession in cascading hydropower dam reservoir. The middle and lower reaches of the Lancang River are key spot for international biodiversity conservation and ecological studies on the effects of cascading hydropower dam exploitation. In this study, the reservoir of Manwan hydropower dam, the first dam in Lancang-Mekong river main stream, was selected as the study site. The benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were sampled in 2011 and 2016 respectively. Meanwhile, the survey data before impounding (natural river, 1996) and early stage of single dam (1997) were collected to conduct the overall analysis for structure, distribution pattern and evolution of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages. The results showed that the dominant biological group was gradually changed from the Oligochaeta and Insecta to the Mollusca. Along the longitudinal gradient, the density and biomass of the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were remarkably increased in reservoir, especially in the lacustrine zone. As for the functional feeding group, the predator and gatherer-collector changed into filter-collector predominantly in lacustrine zone. With the cascading dams operation, the biotic index indicated that the water quality of reservoir in 2016 was better than in 2011. The evolution of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in the Manwan Reservoir was related to the operation of Xiaowan dam in the upper reach, the hydrological regime and siltation in the reservoir, and would continue with dynamic changes with the operation of the cascading hydropower dam.

  17. WTP Waste Feed Qualification: Glass Fabrication Unit Operation Testing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Hanford Missions Programs; Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Process Technology Programs; Johnson, F. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Engineering Process Development; Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Engineering Process Development

    2016-07-14

    The waste feed qualification program is being developed to protect the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) design, safety basis, and technical basis by assuring waste acceptance requirements are met for each staged waste feed campaign prior to transfer from the Tank Operations Contractor to the feed receipt vessels inside the Pretreatment Facility. The Waste Feed Qualification Program Plan describes the three components of waste feed qualification: 1. Demonstrate compliance with the waste acceptance criteria 2. Determine waste processability 3. Test unit operations at laboratory scale. The glass fabrication unit operation is the final step in the process demonstration portion of the waste feed qualification process. This unit operation generally consists of combining each of the waste feed streams (high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW)) with Glass Forming Chemicals (GFCs), fabricating glass coupons, performing chemical composition analysis before and after glass fabrication, measuring hydrogen generation rate either before or after glass former addition, measuring rheological properties before and after glass former addition, and visual observation of the resulting glass coupons. Critical aspects of this unit operation are mixing and sampling of the waste and melter feeds to ensure representative samples are obtained as well as ensuring the fabrication process for the glass coupon is adequate. Testing was performed using a range of simulants (LAW and HLW simulants), and these simulants were mixed with high and low bounding amounts of GFCs to evaluate the mixing, sampling, and glass preparation steps in shielded cells using laboratory techniques. The tests were performed with off-the-shelf equipment at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that is similar to equipment used in the SRNL work during qualification of waste feed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and other waste treatment facilities at the

  18. The quality of operative notes at a general surgery unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A; Bunting, M; Atherstone, A

    2008-09-01

    With the increasingly litigious nature of medical practice, accurate documentation is critical. This is particularly true for operative procedures, and medical councils have identified this and published guidelines to aid surgeons. However, these remain a frequently cited weakness in their defence in medico-legal cases. This study assessed the accuracy of operative notes in a general surgery unit in order to improve our practice. An audit of 100 consecutive operative notes was performed, and notes were assessed using the Royal College of Surgeons guidelines. The quality of note-taking of trainees was compared with that of consultant surgeons. A series of operation note pro formas was designed in response to the findings. Of the notes, 66% were completed by trainees. The vast majority of notes had no diagram to demonstrate the surgical findings or illustrate the actions. Specialist surgeons were more likely to describe the actions accurately, but less likely to describe wound closure methods or dressings used. They were also less likely to complete adequate postoperative orders. This study identifies key areas of weakness in our operative note-keeping. Pro formas should be introduced and made available for commonly performed procedures, and diagrams should be used wherever possible.

  19. Feasibility study report for Operable Unit 4: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This report documents the Feasibility Study (FS) phase of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) Operable Unit 4 Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Program. The FEMP, formerly known as the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), is a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility that operated from 1952 to 1989. The facility's primarily function was to provide high purity uranium metal products to support United States defense programs. Production operations were suspended in 1989 to focus on environmental restoration and waste management activities at the facility. The RI/FS is being conducted pursuant to the terms of a Consent Agreement between DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under Sections 120 and 106(a) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA) is also participating in the RI/FS process at the FEMP through direct involvement in program review meetings and technical review of project documentation. The objective of the RI/FS process is to gather information to support an informed risk management decision regarding which remedy appears to be the most appropriate action for addressing the environmental concerns identified at the FEMP

  20. Feasibility study report for Operable Unit 4: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This report documents the Feasibility Study (FS) phase of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) Operable Unit 4 Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Program. The FEMP, formerly known as the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), is a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility that operated from 1952 to 1989. The facility's primarily function was to provide high purity uranium metal products to support United States defense programs. Production operations were suspended in 1989 to focus on environmental restoration and waste management activities at the facility. The RI/FS is being conducted pursuant to the terms of a Consent Agreement between DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under Sections 120 and 106(a) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA) is also participating in the RI/FS process at the FEMP through direct involvement in program review meetings and technical review of project documentation. The objective of the RI/FS process is to gather information to support an informed risk management decision regarding which remedy appears to be the most appropriate action for addressing the environmental concerns identified at the FEMP. This volume contains appendices A--E

  1. Exploring the interactions between forecast accuracy, risk perception and perceived forecast reliability in reservoir operator's decision to use forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee-Jood, M.; Cai, X.

    2017-12-01

    Advances in streamflow forecasts at different time scales offer a promise for proactive flood management and improved risk management. Despite the huge potential, previous studies have found that water resources managers are often not willing to incorporate streamflow forecasts information in decisions making, particularly in risky situations. While low accuracy of forecasts information is often cited as the main reason, some studies have found that implementation of streamflow forecasts sometimes is impeded by institutional obstacles and behavioral factors (e.g., risk perception). In fact, a seminal study by O'Connor et al. (2005) found that risk perception is the strongest determinant of forecast use while managers' perception about forecast reliability is not significant. In this study, we aim to address this issue again. However, instead of using survey data and regression analysis, we develop a theoretical framework to assess the user-perceived value of streamflow forecasts. The framework includes a novel behavioral component which incorporates both risk perception and perceived forecast reliability. The framework is then used in a hypothetical problem where reservoir operator should react to probabilistic flood forecasts with different reliabilities. The framework will allow us to explore the interactions among risk perception and perceived forecast reliability, and among the behavioral components and information accuracy. The findings will provide insights to improve the usability of flood forecasts information through better communication and education.

  2. Consistent lithological units and its influence on geomechanical stratification in shale reservoir: case study from Baltic Basin, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachytel, Radomir; Jarosiński, Marek; Bobek, Kinga

    2017-04-01

    Geomechanical investigations in shale reservoir are crucial to understand rock behavior during hydraulic fracturing treatment and to solve borehole wall stability problem. Anisotropy should be considered as key mechanical parameter while trying to characterize shale properties in variety of scales. We are developing a concept of step-by-step approach to characterize and upscale the Consistent Lithological Units (CLU) at several scales of analysis. We decided that the most regional scale model, comparable to lithostratigraphic formations, is too general for hydraulic fracture propagation study thus a more detailed description is needed. The CLU's hierarchic model aims in upscale elastic properties with their anisotropy based on available data from vertical borehole. For the purpose of our study we have an access to continuous borehole core profile and full set of geophysical logging from several wells in the Pomeranian part of the Ordovician and Silurian shale complex belongs to the Baltic Basin. We are focused on shale properties that might be crucial for mechanical response to hydraulic fracturing: mineral components, porosity, density, elastic parameters and natural fracture pattern. To prepare the precise CLU model we compare several methods of determination and upscaling every single parameter used for consistent units secretion. Mineralogical data taken from ULTRA log, GEM log, X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence were compared with Young modulus from sonic logs and Triaxial Compressive Strength Tests. The results showed the impact of clay content and porosity increase on Young's modulus reduction while carbonates (both calcite and dolomite) have stronger impact on elastic modulus growth, more than quartz, represented here mostly by detrital particles. Comparing the shales of similar composition in a few wells of different depths we concluded that differences in diagenesis and compaction due to variation in formation depth in a range of 1 km has negligible

  3. Training operators of VVER-1000 units in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normand, X.; Nabet, E.; Hauesberger, P.

    1996-01-01

    The VVER 1000 is the most recent nuclear reactor designed in the former Soviet Union. Its design and operation principles are close to Western four-loop reactors in the 1000- to 1500-MW class; therefore, the Western simulation technology is usually directly applicable to the simulation of these units. Moreover, the current number of state-of-the-art training simulators in operation is very limited. A total of 19 units are in operation, while only 2 modern simulators are available (full-scope type) in Balakovo and Zaporozhe. Access to these simulators is practically limited to the respective plants' trainees, which means that the other units have to be satisfied with hands-on training. Facing this situation and taking into account the predicted lifetime of these plants (15 to 25 yr to go, maybe more), a lot of effort has been made in recent years to provide the plants with modern simulators. The major hurdles to this action were obviously financial and technical (availability of codes, computers, software tools). Today, one full-scope project (Kalinin) is almost complete, and three have been announced (Novovoronezh, Khmelnitsky, Kozloduy). Full-scope simulators are clearly the ultimate target of a concerned power plants. However, all users do realize the advantages of the complementary approach with compact simulators: 1. They can be available quickly for starting the training process. 2. They cover a training field that is not (or partly) addressed by full-scope simulators, i.e., the demonstration of physical phenomena in normal and accidental situations

  4. The role of heat pipes in intensified unit operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reay, David; Harvey, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Heat pipes are heat transfer devices that rely, most commonly, on the evaporation and condensation of a working fluid contained within them, with passive pumping of the condensate back to the evaporator. They are sometimes referred to as ‘thermal superconductors’ because of their exceptionally high effective thermal conductivity (substantially higher than any metal). This, together with several other characteristics make them attractive to a range of intensified unit operations, particularly reactors. The majority of modern computers deploy heat pipes for cooling of the CPU. The application areas of heat pipes come within a number of broad groups, each of which describes a property of the heat pipe. The ones particularly relevant to chemical reactors are: i. Separation of heat source and sink. ii. Temperature flattening, or isothermalisation. iii. Temperature control. Chemical reactors, as a heat pipe application area, highlight the benefits of the heat pipe based on isothermalisation/temperature flattening device and on being a highly effective heat transfer unit. Temperature control, done passively, is also of relevance. Heat pipe technology offers a number of potential benefits to reactor performance and operation. The aim of increased yield of high purity, high added value chemicals means less waste and higher profitability. Other intensified unit operations, such as those employing sorption processes, can also profit from heat pipe technology. This paper describes several variants of heat pipe and the opportunities for their use in intensified plant, and will give some current examples. -- Highlights: ► Heat pipes – thermal superconductors – can lead to improved chemical reactor performance. ► Isothermalisation within a reactor vessel is an ideal application. ► The variable conductance heat pipe can control reaction temperatures within close limits. ► Heat pipes can be beneficial in intensified reactors

  5. Occurrence of sulfonylurea, sulfonamide, imidazolinone, and other herbicides in rivers, reservoirs and ground water in the Midwestern United States, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglin, W.A.; Furlong, E.T.; Burkhardt, M.R.; Peter, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    Sulfonylurea (SU), sulfonamide (SA), and imidazolinone (IMI) herbicides are relatively new classes of chemical compounds that function by inhibiting the action of a plant enzyme, stopping plant growth, and eventually killing the plant. These compounds generally have low mammalian toxicity, but plants demonstrate a wide range in sensitivity to SUs, SAs, and IMIs with over a 10000-fold difference in observed toxicity levels for some compounds. SUs, SAs, and IMIs are applied either pre- or post-emergence to crops commonly at 1/50th or less of the rate of other herbicides. Little is known about their occurrence, fate, or transport in surface water or ground water in the USA. To obtain information on the occurrence of SU, SA, and IMI herbicides in the Midwestern United States, 212 water samples were collected from 75 surface-water and 25 ground-water sites in 1998. These samples were analyzed for 16 SU, SA and IMI herbicides by USGS Methods Research and Development Program staff using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Samples were also analyzed for 47 pesticides or pesticide degradation products. At least one of the 16 SUs, SAs or IMIs was detected above the method reporting limit (MRL) of 0.01 ??g/l in 83% of 130 stream samples. Imazethapyr was detected most frequently (71% of samples) followed by flumetsulam (63% of samples) and nicosulfuron (52% of samples). The sum of SU, SA and IMI concentrations exceeded 0.5 ??g/l in less than 10% of stream samples. Acetochlor, alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine and metolachlor were all detected in 90% or more of 129 stream samples. The sum of the concentration of these five herbicides exceeded 50 ??g/l in approximately 10% of stream samples. At least one SU, SA, or IMI herbicide was detected above the MRL in 24% of 25 ground-water samples and 86% of seven reservoir samples. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  6. Correlation between hydrological drought, climatic factors, reservoir operation, and vegetation cover in the Xijiang Basin, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qingxia; Wu, Zhiyong; Singh, Vijay P.; Sadeghi, S. H. R.; He, Hai; Lu, Guihua

    2017-06-01

    The Xijiang River is known as the Golden Watercourse because of its role in the development of the Pearl River Delta Regional Economic System in China, which was made possible by its abundant water resources. At present, the hydrological regime of the Xijiang River has now become complicated, the water shortages and successive droughts pose a threat to regional economic development. However, the complexity of hydroclimatological processes with emphasizes on drought has not been comprehended. In order to effectively predict and develop the adaptation strategies to cope with the water scarcity damage caused by hydrological droughts, it is essential to thoroughly analyze the relationship between hydrological droughts and pre/post-dependent hydroclimatological factors. To accomplish this, the extreme-point symmetric mode decomposition method (ESMD) was utilized to reveal the periodic variation in hydrological droughts that is characterized by the Standardized Drought Index (SDI). In addition, the cross-wavelet transform method was applied to investigate the correlation between large-scale climate indices and drought. The results showed that hydrological drought had the most significant response to spring ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation), and the response lags in sub-basins were mostly 8-9 months except that in Yujiang River were mainly 5 or 8 months. Signal reservoir operation in the Yujiang River reduced drought severity by 52-95.8% from January to April over the 2003-2014 time period. Similarly, the cascade reservoir alleviated winter and spring droughts in the Hongshuihe River Basin. However, autumn drought was aggravated with severity increased by 41.9% in September and by 160.9% in October, so that the land surface models without considering human intervention must be used with caution in the hydrological simulation. The response lags of the VCI (Vegetation Condition Index) to hydrological drought were different in the sub-basins. The response lag for the

  7. Feasibility Study for Operable Unit 7-13/14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Jean Holdren Thomas E. Bechtold Brian D. Preussner

    2007-01-01

    The Subsurface Disposal Area is a radioactive waste landfill located within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in southeastern Idaho. This Feasibility Study for Operable Unit 7-13/14 analyzes options for mitigating risks to human health and the environment associated with the landfill. Analysis is conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, using nine evaluation criteria to develop detailed and comparative analysis of five assembled alternatives. Assembled alternatives are composed of discrete modules. Ultimately, decision-makers will select, recombine, and sum various modules into an optimized preferred alternative and final remedial decision

  8. Feasibility Study for Operable Unit 7-13/14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Jean Holdren

    2007-05-29

    The Subsurface Disposal Area is a radioactive waste landfill located within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in southeastern Idaho. This Feasibility Study for Operable Unit 7-13/14 analyzes options for mitigating risks to human health and the environment associated with the landfill. Analysis is conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, using nine evaluation criteria to develop detailed and comparative analysis of five assembled alternatives. Assembled alternatives are composed of discrete modules. Ultimately, decision-makers will select, recombine, and sum various modules into an optimized preferred alternative and final remedial decision.

  9. Article separation apparatus and method for unit operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Allan F.; Gervais, Kevin L.; Mathews, Royce A.; Hockey, Ronald L.

    2010-06-22

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for separating articles from a group of articles. The apparatus includes a container for containing one or more articles coupled to a suitable fluidizer for suspending articles within the container and transporting articles to an induction tube. A portal in the induction tube introduces articles singly into the induction tube. A vacuum pulls articles through the induction tube separating the articles from the group of articles in the container. The apparatus and method can be combined with one or more unit operations or modules, e.g., for inspecting articles, assessing quality of articles, or ascertaining material properties and/or parameters of articles, including layers thereof.

  10. Risk-based decision analysis for groundwater operable units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaramonte, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    This document proposes a streamlined approach and methodology for performing risk assessment in support of interim remedial measure (IRM) decisions involving the remediation of contaminated groundwater on the Hanford Site. This methodology, referred to as ''risk-based decision analysis,'' also supports the specification of target cleanup volumes and provides a basis for design and operation of the groundwater remedies. The risk-based decision analysis can be completed within a short time frame and concisely documented. The risk-based decision analysis is more versatile than the qualitative risk assessment (QRA), because it not only supports the need for IRMs, but also provides criteria for defining the success of the IRMs and provides the risk-basis for decisions on final remedies. For these reasons, it is proposed that, for groundwater operable units, the risk-based decision analysis should replace the more elaborate, costly, and time-consuming QRA

  11. Operational benchmark for VVER-1000, unit 6, Kozloduy NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolov, T.; Petrov, B.

    1999-01-01

    Benchmark calculations have been carried out using the 3D nodal code TRAPEZ. Global neutron-physics characteristics of the VVER-1000 core, Kozloduy NPP Unit 6, have been determined taking into account the real loading patterns and operational history of the first three cycles. The code TRLOAD has been used to perform the fuel reloading between any two cycles. The reactor and components descriptions as well as material compositions are given. The results presented include the critical boric acid concentration, the radial power distribution, the axial power distribution for the maximum overload assembly, and the burnup distribution at three different moments during each cycle. Calculated values have been compared with measured data. It is shown that the results obtained by the TRAPEZ code are in good agreement with the experimental data. The information presented could serve as a test case for validation of code packages designed for analyzing the steady-state operation of VVERs. (author)

  12. Operational aerial snow surveying in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peck, E L; Carroll, T R; Vandemark, S C

    1980-03-01

    An airborne gamma radiation detector and data acquisition system has been designed for rapid measurement of the snow cover water equivalent over large open areas. Research and field tests conducted prior to the implementation of an operational snow measurement system in the United States are reviewed. Extensive research test flights were conducted over large river basins of the north-central plains and in the high mountain valleys of the inter-mountain West. Problems encountered during development include: (1) error in the gross gamma flux produced by atmospheric radon gas daughters; (2) spatial and temporal variability in soil moisture; and (3) errors in gamma radiation count rate introduced by aircraft and cosmic background radiation. Network design of operational flight line and ground observation data used in a river forecasting system are discussed. 22 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  13. Method of approximate electric modeling of oil reservoir operation with formation of a gas cap during mixed exploitation regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragin, V A; Lyadkin, V Ya

    1969-01-01

    A potentiometric model is used to simulate the behavior of a reservoir in which pressure was dropped rapidly and solution gas migrated to the top of the structure forming a gas cap. Behavior of the system was represented by a differential equation, which was solved by an electrointegrator. The potentiometric model was found to closely represent past history of the reservoir, and to predict its future behavior. When this method is used in reservoirs where large pressure drops occur, repeated determination should be made at various time intervals, so that changes in relative permeability are taken into account.

  14. Flow units classification for geostatisitical three-dimensional modeling of a non-marine sandstone reservoir: A case study from the Paleocene Funing Formation of the Gaoji Oilfield, east China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Penghui; Zhang, Jinliang; Wang, Jinkai; Li, Ming; Liang, Jie; Wu, Yingli

    2018-05-01

    Flow units classification can be used in reservoir characterization. In addition, characterizing the reservoir interval into flow units is an effective way to simulate the reservoir. Paraflow units (PFUs), the second level of flow units, are used to estimate the spatial distribution of continental clastic reservoirs at the detailed reservoir description stage. In this study, we investigate a nonroutine methodology to predict the external and internal distribution of PFUs. The methodology outlined enables the classification of PFUs using sandstone core samples and log data. The relationships obtained between porosity, permeability and pore throat aperture radii (r35) values were established for core and log data obtained from 26 wells from the Funing Formation, Gaoji Oilfield, Subei Basin, China. The present study refines predicted PFUs at logged (0.125-m) intervals, whose scale is much smaller than routine methods. Meanwhile, three-dimensional models are built using sequential indicator simulation to characterize PFUs in wells. Four distinct PFUs are classified and located based on the statistical methodology of cluster analysis, and each PFU has different seepage ability. The results of this study demonstrate the obtained models are able to quantify reservoir heterogeneity. Due to different petrophysical characteristics and seepage ability, PFUs have a significant impact on the distribution of the remaining oil. Considering these allows a more accurate understanding of reservoir quality, especially within non-marine sandstone reservoirs.

  15. 100-BC-1 Operable Unit focused feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    The standard Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act feasibility study includes development and screening of alternatives (Phases 1 and 2) and the detailed analysis of alternatives (Phase 3). This focused feasibility study constitutes the Phase 3 portion of the feasibility study process for the remedial alternatives initially developed and screened in the 100 Area Feasibility Study Phases 1 and 2 (DOE-RL 1993a). The focused feasibility study process is conducted in two stages, a Process Document (DOE-RL 1994a) and an operable unit-specific focused feasibility study document, such as this one. The focused feasibility study process is performed by implementing a ''plug-in'' style approach; as defined in greater detail in the Process Document, which is a companion to this document. The objective of this focused feasibility study is to provide decision makers with sufficient information to allow appropriate and timely selection of interim remedial measures for candidate waste sites associated with the 100-BC-1 Operable Unit which is located in the north-central part of the Hanford Site. The interim remedial measure candidate waste sites are determined in the Limited Field Investigation (DOE-RL 1993b). Site profiles are developed for each of these waste sites. The site profiles are used in the application of the plug-in approach. The waste site either plugs into the analysis of the alternatives for the group, or deviations from the developed group alternatives are described and documented

  16. Model for energy planning of degraded river basins based on hydrological evaluation of hydroelectric reservoirs in operation; Modelo de planejamento energetico de bacias hidrograficas degradadas baseado na avaliacao hidrica de reservatorios hidreletricos em operacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Afonso Henriques Moreira [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil); Ferreira, Aloisio Caetano; Ottoni, Arthur Benedicto; Nogueira Neto, Claudio; Silva, Denis de Souza

    2008-07-01

    The human occupation of the hydrographic basin, made in the past without plans, generated alteration of the hydrology characteristics, presenting as direct consequence modifications of its hydric availabilities. Or either, the floods in the rainy periods and the droughts in the ones of dryness currently tend to be more frequent and with bigger intensity. These conditions have affected the operation as well as the planning of the hydroelectric reservoirs, that have generated energy in conditions of different hydric availabilities (worse) of those foreseeing at the time of the project. These situations result in uncertainties and energy losses for the investor as well as in the system. Under such premises, the present article analyzes the energy-economic influences of the deterioration of the hydric regimen of some on exploitations in operation to the system, located in basins degrades in the South, Southeastern and Northeast regions; enhancing the importance of the studies of hydric economy of these units of management (degraded basins) as subsidy of taking of decision for gradual recovery of its hydric availabilities; taking in account the energy optimization of the hydroelectric reservoirs in located operation as well as the minimization of inherent the financial losses to the uncertainties of its hydric resources. (author)

  17. The Dora-Maira Unit (Italian Cottian Alps): a reservoir of ornamental stones locally and worldwide employed since Roman age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Alessandro; Cadoppi, Paola; Antonella Dino, Giovanna

    2015-04-01

    The Dora-Maira is a geological unit belonging to the Penninic Domain of the Western Alps (NW Italy), which covers over 1000 km2 from the Susa to the Maira valleys, in the inner part of the Cottian Alps. It consists of different superposed complexes made of micaschists, fine-grained gneisses, quartzites, impure and dolomitic marbles, metabasites and various types of orthogneisses deriving from metamorphic transformation, during alpine orogeny, of a Palaeozoic upper continental crust and its Mesozoic carbonate cover. Thanks to the presence of different varieties of rocks, the Dora-Maira Unit can be considered as a reservoir of ornamental stones, locally employed, since Roman age, for military and religious buildings. Furthermore, these materials were used in Piedmont region for the construction of important historical palaces (17th and 18th centuries). Several varieties of gneisses, quartzites and marbles, exploited in the past and up to now, come from the Paleozoic basement. The most famous variety of gneiss is the so called "Luserna stone", a leucocratic gneiss characterized by a mylonitic fabric deriving from highly differentiated granitoids of Permian age. The first traces of Luserna Stone exploitation arise to the medieval age in the Pellice Valley). This material was widely employed in Turin, from Savoia kingdom period up to know. The very peculiar and precious application of Luserna stone were: Royal Palace and Venaria Reale Palace, Mole Antonelliana. Recently, it has been employed for the construction of Turin Metro stations (launched in 2006). Other varieties of orthogneisses, not yet exploited, are: Borgone and Vaie Stones, Villarfocchiardo and Cumiana Stones. They were used for the realization of the columns characterising the façade of several churches in Turin and in the piers of different bridges over the Po River. Another gneiss variety, with dioritic composition, is the Malanaggio Stone employed in the Fenestrelle Fortress. As for the palaeozoic

  18. Explanation of significant differences for the TNX groundwater operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, E.R.

    1997-01-01

    This Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD) is being issued by the Department of Energy (DOE), the lead agency for the Savannah River Site (SRS), with concurrence by the Environmental Protection Agency-Region IV (EPA) and South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) to announce changes in the interim remediation strategy selected for the TNX Groundwater Operable Unit. The TNX Area is located adjacent to the Savannah River in the southwestern portion of SRS. The remedy selected in the Interim Record of Decision (IROD) to achieve the interim action goals was the Hybrid Groundwater Corrective Action (HGCA). The HGCA consisted of a recirculation well system and an air stripper with a series of groundwater extraction wells. The original remediation strategy needs to be modified because the recirculation well system was determined to be ineffective in this area due to geological factors and the nature of the contamination

  19. Environmental Control Plan for the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit Remedial Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    This environmental control plan is for the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit Remedial Action Project. The purpose of this plan is to identify environmental requirements for the 300-FF-1 operable unit Remedial Action/Waste Disposal Project

  20. Effects of flood control and other reservoir operations on the water quality of the lower Roanoke River, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ana Maria

    2012-01-01

    The Roanoke River is an important natural resource for North Carolina, Virginia, and the Nation. Flood plains of the lower Roanoke River, which extend from Roanoke Rapids Dam to Batchelor Bay near Albemarle Sound, support a large and diverse population of nesting birds, waterfowl, freshwater and anadromous fish, and other wildlife, including threatened and endangered species. The flow regime of the lower Roanoke River is affected by a number of factors, including flood-management operations at the upstream John H. Kerr Dam and Reservoir. A three-dimensional, numerical water-quality model was developed to explore links between upstream flows and downstream water quality, specifically in-stream dissolved-oxygen dynamics. Calibration of the hydrodynamics and dissolved-oxygen concentrations emphasized the effect that flood-plain drainage has on water and oxygen levels, especially at locations more than 40 kilometers away from the Roanoke Rapids Dam. Model hydrodynamics were calibrated at three locations on the lower Roanoke River, yielding coefficients of determination between 0.5 and 0.9. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were calibrated at the same sites, and coefficients of determination ranged between 0.6 and 0.8. The model has been used to quantify relations among river flow, flood-plain water level, and in-stream dissolved-oxygen concentrations in support of management of operations of the John H. Kerr Dam, which affects overall flows in the lower Roanoke River. Scenarios have been developed to mitigate the negative effects that timing, duration, and extent of flood-plain inundation may have on vegetation, wildlife, and fisheries in the lower Roanoke River corridor. Under specific scenarios, the model predicted that mean dissolved-oxygen concentrations could be increased by 15 percent by flow-release schedules that minimize the drainage of anoxic flood-plain waters. The model provides a tool for water-quality managers that can help identify options that improve

  1. Operation of the radioactive acid digestion test unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasewitz, A.G.; Allen, C.R.; Lerch, R.E.; Ely, P.C.; Richardson, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    The Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) has been constructed at Hanford to demonstrate the application of the Acid Digestion Process for treating combustible transuranic wastes and scrap materials. The RADTU with its original tray digestion vessel has recently completed a six-month campaign processing potentially contaminated nonglovebox wastes from a Hanford plutonium facility. During this campaign, it processed 2100 kg of largely cellulosic wastes at an average sustained processing rate of 3 kg/h as limited by the water boiloff rate from the acid feeds. The on-line operating efficiency was nearly 50% on a twelve hour/day, five day/week basis. Following this campaign, a new annular high rate digester has been installed for testing. In preliminary tests with simulated wastes, the new digester demonstrated a sustained capacity of 10 kg/h with greatly improved intimacy of contact between the digestion acid and the waste. The new design also doubles the heat transfer surface, which with reduced heat loss area, is expected to provide at least three times the water boiloff rate of the previous tray digester design. Following shakedown testing with simulated and low-level wastes, the new unit will be used to process combustible plutonium scrap and waste from Hanford plutonium facilities for the purposes of volume reduction, plutonium recovery, and stabilization of the final waste form

  2. A History of Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the United States. Reservoir Engineering 1976-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, B. Mack [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pruess, Karsten [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lippmann, Marcelo J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Majer, Ernest L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rose, Peter E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Adams, Michael [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Roberston-Tait, Ann [GeothermEx Inc., San Pablo, CA (United States); Moller, Nancy [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Weare, John [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Clutter, Ted [ArtComPhoto (United States); Brown, Donald W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This report, the third in a four-part series, summarizes significant research projects performed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) over 30 years to overcome challenges in reservoir engineering and to make generation of electricity from geothermal resources more cost-competitive.

  3. Improved characterization of reservoir behavior by integration of reservoir performances data and rock type distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, D.K.; Vessell, R.K. [David K. Davies & Associates, Kingwood, TX (United States); Doublet, L.E. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    An integrated geological/petrophysical and reservoir engineering study was performed for a large, mature waterflood project (>250 wells, {approximately}80% water cut) at the North Robertson (Clear Fork) Unit, Gaines County, Texas. The primary goal of the study was to develop an integrated reservoir description for {open_quotes}targeted{close_quotes} (economic) 10-acre (4-hectare) infill drilling and future recovery operations in a low permeability, carbonate (dolomite) reservoir. Integration of the results from geological/petrophysical studies and reservoir performance analyses provide a rapid and effective method for developing a comprehensive reservoir description. This reservoir description can be used for reservoir flow simulation, performance prediction, infill targeting, waterflood management, and for optimizing well developments (patterns, completions, and stimulations). The following analyses were performed as part of this study: (1) Geological/petrophysical analyses: (core and well log data) - {open_quotes}Rock typing{close_quotes} based on qualitative and quantitative visualization of pore-scale features. Reservoir layering based on {open_quotes}rock typing {close_quotes} and hydraulic flow units. Development of a {open_quotes}core-log{close_quotes} model to estimate permeability using porosity and other properties derived from well logs. The core-log model is based on {open_quotes}rock types.{close_quotes} (2) Engineering analyses: (production and injection history, well tests) Material balance decline type curve analyses to estimate total reservoir volume, formation flow characteristics (flow capacity, skin factor, and fracture half-length), and indications of well/boundary interference. Estimated ultimate recovery analyses to yield movable oil (or injectable water) volumes, as well as indications of well and boundary interference.

  4. Climate change impact on operation of dams and hydroelectricity generation in the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, N.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Fekete, B. M.

    2016-12-01

    We are using a large-scale, high-resolution, fully integrated hydrological/reservoir/hydroelectricity model to investigate the impact of climate change on the operation of 11037 dams and generation of electricity from 375 hydroelectric power plants in the Northeastern United States. Moreover, we estimate the hydropower potential of the region by energizing the existing non-powered dams and then studying the impact of climate change on the hydropower potential. We show that climate change increases the impact of dams on the hydrology of the region. Warmer temperatures produce shorter frozen periods, earlier snowmelt and elevated evapotranspiration rates, which when combined with changes in precipitation, are projected to increase water availability in winter but reduce it during summer. As a result, the water that is stored by dams will be more than ever a necessary part of the routine water systems operations to compensate for these seasonal imbalances. The function of dams as emergency water storage for creating drought resiliency will mostly diminish in the future. Building more dams to cope with the local impacts of climate change on water resources and to offset the increased drought vulnerability may thus be inevitable. Annual hydroelectricity generation in the region is 41 Twh. Our estimate of the annual hydropower potential of non-powered dams adds up to 350 Twh. Climate change may reduce hydropower potential from non-powered dams by up to 13% and reduce current hydroelectricity generation by up to 8% annually. Hydroelectricity generation and hydropower potential may increase in winter months and decline in months of summer and fall. These changes call for recalibration of dam operations and may raise conflict of interests in multipurpose dams.

  5. 77 FR 62247 - Dynamic Positioning Operations Guidance for Vessels Other Than Mobile Offshore Drilling Units...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... Operations Guidance for Vessels Other Than Mobile Offshore Drilling Units Operating on the U.S. Outer... ``Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit Dynamic Positioning Guidance''. The notice recommended owners and operators of Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs) follow Marine Technology Society (MTS) Dynamic Positioning...

  6. Spatio-temporal variations of carbon dioxide and its gross emission regulated by artificial operation in a typical hydropower reservoir in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Zhang, Zengyu; Xiao, Yan; Guo, Jinsong; Wu, Shengjun; Liu, Jing

    2014-05-01

    Supersaturation and excess emission of greenhouse gases in freshwater reservoirs have received a great deal of attention in recent years. Although impoundment of reservoirs has been shown to contribute to the net emission of greenhouse gases, reservoir age, geographical distribution, submerged soil type and artificial regulation also have a great impact on their emissions. To examine how large scale reservoir operation impact the water column CO2 and its air-water interface flux, a field study was conducted in 2010 to evaluate potential ecological processes that regulate the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in the water column in the Pengxi River backwater area (PBA), a typical tributary in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China. Measurements of total alkalinity (TA), pH and water temperature were applied to compute the pCO2. And this approach was also validated by calculation of pCO2 from the dissolved inorganic carbon data of samples. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to determine how the dynamics of the water pCO2 were related to the available variables. The estimated pCO2 in our sample ranged from 26 to 4,087 μatm in the surface water. During low water operation from July to early September, there was an obvious pCO2 stratification, and pCO2 in the surface was almost unsaturated. This phenomenon was also observed in the spring bloom during discharge period. Conversely, there was no significant pCO2 stratification and the entire water column was supersaturated during high water operation from November to the following February. Significant correlation was observed between the magnitude of pCO2, DO and chlorophyll a, suggesting that phytoplankton dynamics regulate pCO2 in the PBA. The average areal rate of CO2 emissions from the Pengxi River ranged from 18.06 to 48.09 mmol m(-2) day(-1), with an estimated gross CO2 emission from the water surface of 14-37 t day(-1) in this area in 2010. Photosynthesis and respiration rates by phytoplankton might be the

  7. Evaluating the Implications of Climate Phenomenon Indices in Supporting Reservoir Operation Using the Artificial Neural Network and Decision-Tree Methods: A Case Study on Trinity Lake in Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T.; Akbari Asanjan, A.; Gao, X.; Sorooshian, S.

    2016-12-01

    Reservoirs are fundamental human-built infrastructures that collect, store, and deliver fresh surface water in a timely manner for all kinds of purposes, including residential and industrial water supply, flood control, hydropower, and irrigation, etc. Efficient reservoir operation requires that policy makers and operators understand how reservoir inflows, available storage, and discharges are changing under different climatic conditions. Over the last decade, the uses of Artificial Intelligence and Data Mining (AI & DM) techniques in assisting reservoir management and seasonal forecasts have been increasing. Therefore, in this study, two distinct AI & DM methods, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Random Forest (RF), are employed and compared with respect to their capabilities of predicting monthly reservoir inflow, managing storage, and scheduling reservoir releases. A case study on Trinity Lake in northern California is conducted using long-term (over 50 years) reservoir operation records and 17 known climate phenomenon indices, i.e. PDO and ENSO, etc., as predictors. Results show that (1) both ANN and RF are capable of providing reasonable monthly reservoir storage, inflow, and outflow prediction with satisfactory statistics, and (2) climate phenomenon indices are useful in assisting monthly or seasonal forecasts of reservoir inflow and outflow. It is also found that reservoir storage has a consistent high autocorrelation effect, while inflow and outflow are more likely to be influenced by climate conditions. Using a Gini diversity index, RF method identifies that the reservoir discharges are associated with Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and reservoir inflows are influenced by multiple climate phenomenon indices during different seasons. Furthermore, results also show that, during the winter season, reservoir discharges are controlled by the storage level for flood-control purposes, while, during the summer season, the flood-control operation is not as

  8. IMPROVED MISCIBLE NITROGEN FLOOD PERFORMANCE UTILIZING ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND HORIZONTAL LATERALS IN A CLASS I RESERVOIR - EAST BINGER (MARCHAND) UNIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinner, Joe

    2004-01-01

    Budget Period 2 of the East Binger Unit (''EBU'') DOE Project has been. Recent activities included additional data gathering and project monitoring, plus initiation of work on an SPE paper on the modeling efforts of the project. Early production performance suggests horizontal wells do not provide sufficient additional production over vertical wells to justify their incremental cost. It will take more time to evaluate the impact of the horizontal wells on sweep and ultimate recovery, but it is unlikely that an improvement in recovery will be sufficient to make the overall economic value of horizontal wells greater than the economic value of vertical wells. Monitoring of overall performance of the pilot area continues. Overall response to the various projects continues to be very favorable. Injection into the pilot area has nearly doubled, while gas production and nitrogen content of produced gas have both decreased. Nitrogen recycle within the pilot area has dropped from 60% to 20%. Efforts to further disseminate knowledge gained through this project, by means of technical paper presentations to industry groups, are underway. Project monitoring and technology transfer will be focus areas of Budget Period 3

  9. Response of currents and water quality to changes in dam operations in Hoover Reservoir, Columbus, Ohio, August 24–28, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonins, Branden L.; Jackson, P. Ryan

    2017-05-25

    Hoover Reservoir, an important drinking water supply for the City of Columbus, Ohio, has been the source of a series of taste and odor problems in treated drinking water during the past few years. These taste and odor problems were caused by the compounds geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, which are thought to have been related to cyanobacteria blooms. In an effort to reduce the phosphorus available for cyanobacteria blooms at fall turnover, the City of Columbus began experimenting with the dam’s selective withdrawal system to remove excess phosphorus in the hypolimnion, which is released from bottom sediments during summer anoxic conditions.The U.S. Geological Survey completed two synoptic survey campaigns to assess distributions of water quality and water velocity in the lower part of Hoover Reservoir to provide information on the changes to reservoir dynamics caused by changing dam operations. One campaign (campaign 1) was done while water was being withdrawn from the reservoir through the dam’s middle gate and the other (campaign 2) while water was being withdrawn through the dam’s lower gate. Velocities were measured using an acoustic Doppler current profiler, and water-quality parameters were measured using an autonomous underwater vehicle equipped with water-quality sensors. Along with the water-quality and water-velocity data, meteorological, inflow and outflow discharges, and independent water-quality data were compiled to monitor changes in other parameters that affect reservoir behavior. Monthly nutrient data, collected by the City of Columbus, were also analyzed for trends in concentration during periods of expected stratification.Based on the results of the two campaigns, when compared to withdrawing water through the middle gate, withdrawing water through the lower gate seemed to increase shear-driven mixing across the thermocline, which resulted in an increase in the depth of the epilimnion throughout the lower part of Hoover Reservoir. The

  10. Spatio-temporal spawning and larval dynamics of a zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) population in a North Texas Reservoir: implications for invasions in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Christopher John

    2013-01-01

    Zebra mussels were first observed in Texas in 2009 in a reservoir (Lake Texoma) on the Texas-Oklahoma border. In 2012, an established population was found in a near-by reservoir, Ray Roberts Lake, and in June 2013, settled mussels were detected in a third north Texas reservoir, Lake Lewisville. An established population was detected in Belton Lake in September 2013. With the exception of Louisiana, these occurrences in Texas mark the current southern extent of the range of this species in the United States. Previous studies indicate that zebra mussel populations could be affected by environmental conditions, especially increased temperatures and extreme droughts, which are characteristic of surface waters of the southern and southwestern United States. Data collected during the first three years (2010–12) of a long-term monitoring program were analyzed to determine if spatio-temporal zebra mussel spawning and larval dynamics were related to physicochemical water properties in Lake Texoma. Reproductive output of the local population was significantly related to water temperature and lake elevation. Estimated mean date of first spawn in Lake Texoma was approximately 1.5 months earlier and peak veliger densities were observed two months earlier than in Lake Erie. Annual maximum veliger density declined significantly during the study period (p mussels in littoral zones. Veliger spatial distributions were associated with physicochemical stratification characteristics. Veligers were observed in the deepest oxygenated water after lake stratification, which occurred in late spring. Results of this study indicate environmental conditions can influence variability of population sizes and spatial distributions of zebra mussels along the current southern frontier of their geographic range. Although the future population size trajectory and geographic range are uncertain, increased temperatures and intermittent, extreme droughts likely will affect spatio-temporal dynamics of

  11. Aquifer test plan for the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, L.C.; Hartman, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    This test plan directs hydrologic testing activities planned at three existing Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) wells in the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit of the Hanford Site. Three additional wells will be installed near these existing wells and used as additional testing arid observation points during the field activities. Figure 1 shows the locations of the three test sites. A primary objective of the testing program is to provide more detailed hydraulic characterization information for the unconfined aquifer and targeted test sites than provided by the initial reconnaissance-level slug testing of Vukelich. A second objective is to evaluate the applicability of slug interference and dipole flow tests for detailed hydraulic characterization in an unconfined aquifer. This aquifer testing program will also be useful for substantiating hydraulic conductivities reported from previous slug tests and evaluating the effects of filter pack volume/configuration on slug test data. Vukelich recommended additional testing to address the latter two issues

  12. Optimization of multi-reservoir operation with a new hedging rule: application of fuzzy set theory and NSGA-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadianfar, Iman; Adib, Arash; Taghian, Mehrdad

    2017-10-01

    The reservoir hedging rule curves are used to avoid severe water shortage during drought periods. In this method reservoir storage is divided into several zones, wherein the rationing factors are changed immediately when water storage level moves from one zone to another. In the present study, a hedging rule with fuzzy rationing factors was applied for creating a transition zone in up and down each rule curve, and then the rationing factor will be changed in this zone gradually. For this propose, a monthly simulation model was developed and linked to the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm for calculation of the modified shortage index of two objective functions involving water supply of minimum flow and agriculture demands in a long-term simulation period. Zohre multi-reservoir system in south Iran has been considered as a case study. The results of the proposed hedging rule have improved the long-term system performance from 10 till 27 percent in comparison with the simple hedging rule, where these results demonstrate that the fuzzification of hedging factors increase the applicability and the efficiency of the new hedging rule in comparison to the conventional rule curve for mitigating the water shortage problem.

  13. 100-HR-2 Operable Unit Focused Feasibility study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The standard Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) Feasibility Study (FS) includes development and screening of alternatives (Phases 1 and 2) and the detailed analysis of alternatives (Phase 3). This focused feasibility study (FFS) was conducted for the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. This FFS constitutes the Phase 3 portion of the FS process for the remedial alternatives initially developed and screened in the 100 Area Feasibility Study Phases 1 and 2 (DOE-RL 1993a). The objective of this OU-specific FFS is to provide decision makers with sufficient information to allow appropriate and timely selection of interim remedial measures (IRM) for the seven IRM candidate sites associated with the 100-HR-2 OU. The IRM candidate waste sites identified in Table ES-1 are determined in the limited field investigation (DOE-RL 1994b). Site profiles are developed for each of these waste sites. The site profiles are used in the application of the plug-in approach. The waste site either plugs into the analysis of the alternatives for the group, or deviations from the developed group alternatives are described and documented. A summary for the 100-HR-2 IRM candidate waste site is as follows: none of the waste sites require additional alternative development. six of the seven waste sites directly plug into the waste site group alternatives. The site-specific detailed analysis is conducted, referencing the waste site group analysis as appropriate. A waste site detailed analysis summary is presented in Table ES-1.A comparative analysis of remedial alternatives is presented for each waste site. A summary of the comparative analysis is presented in Table ES-2

  14. Operator support system for power unit control in abnormal modes of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurka, J.

    1993-01-01

    I and C system technology, partly Soviet and partly Czechoslovakian, used on the NPP Dukovany units represents the control technology standard of late 70-ties and it becomes the weak part of the whole system. The modernization of the system, therefore, is necessary and it is already in preparation. The specification of both the scope and the depth of upgrading/replacement is being carried out within the framework of the PHARE program. The second phase of the program aimed at the final specifications of requirements on new I and C system is in progress. The output will serve as detailed specification for bid invitation for control system supplier. Parallely, the preparation of specification for WWER-440 full-scope plant simulator for operator training is in progress as well. In the case of two units with WWER-1000 MW reactors, the completion of construction of which was even threaten for a certain period of time, essential changes have taken place in the design of both the I and C systems and the reactor core. 7 figs

  15. 40 CFR 60.105a - Monitoring of emissions and operations for fluid catalytic cracking units (FCCU) and fluid coking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery Units. (iii) The owner or operator shall install, operate... for fluid catalytic cracking units (FCCU) and fluid coking units (FCU). 60.105a Section 60.105a... and operations for fluid catalytic cracking units (FCCU) and fluid coking units (FCU). (a) FCCU and...

  16. 77 FR 29701 - Impact of Construction (Under a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plant Units on Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... New Nuclear Power Plant Units on Operating Units at Multi-Unit Sites AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... construct and operate new nuclear power plants (NPPs) on multi-unit sites to provide an evaluation of the... License) of New Nuclear Power Plants on Operating Units at Multi-Unit Sites (Package). ML112630039 Federal...

  17. 2016 Highlights of Ferry Operations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This publication highlights data collected by the 2016 NCFO. The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) conducted the NCFO from April through November 2016, collecting the operational characteristics of the 2015 calendar year ferry operations.

  18. Fortescue reservoir development and reservoir studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzell, S.T.; Hicks, G.J.; Horden, M.J.; Irrgang, H.R.; Janssen, E.J.; Kable, C.W.; Mitchell, R.A.H.; Morrell, N.W.; Palmer, I.D.; Seage, N.W.

    1985-03-01

    The Fortescue field in the Gippsland Basin, offshore southeastern Australia is being developed from two platforms (Fortescue A and Cobia A) by Esso Australia Ltd. (operator) and BHP Petroleum. The Fortescue reservoir is a stratigraphic trap at the top of the Latrobe Group of sediments. It overlies the western flank of the Halibut and Cobia fields and is separated from them by a non-net sequence of shales and coals which form a hydraulic barrier between the two systems. Development drilling into the Fortescue reservoir commenced in April 1983 with production coming onstream in May 1983. Fortescue, with booked reserves of 44 stock tank gigalitres (280 million stock tank barrels) of 43/sup 0/ API oil, is the seventh major oil reservoir to be developed in the offshore Gippsland Basin by Esso/BHP. In mid-1984, after drilling a total of 20 exploration and development wells, and after approximately one year of production, a detailed three-dimensional, two-phase reservoir simulation study was performed to examine the recovery efficiency, drainage patterns, pressure performance and production rate potential of the reservoir. The model was validated by history matching an extensive suite of Repeat Formation Test (RFT) pressure data. The results confirmed the reserves basis, and demonstrated that the ultimate oil recovery from the reservoir is not sensitive to production rate. This result is consistent with studies on other high quality Latrobe Group reservoirs in the Gippsland Basin which contain undersaturated crudes and receive very strong water drive from the Basin-wide aquifer system. With the development of the simulation model during the development phase, it has been possible to more accurately define the optimal well pattern for the remainder of the development.

  19. Unit information system operational displays for VVER-1000 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikanov, S.S.; Carrera, J.P.; Gordon, P.

    1997-01-01

    The role of high level operational displays is explained as well as the principles of the design of such displays. The tasks of WWER operating personnel are described and the support provided by operational displays is highlighted. The architecture of the displays is also dealt with. (A.K.)

  20. United States Military in Central Asia: Beyond Operation Enduring Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-23

    Malinowski , advocacy director for Human Rights Watch, stated, “the United States is most effective in promoting liberty around the world when people...26 U.S. President, The National Security Strategy of the United States of America, page? 27 Thomas Malinowski , “Testimony

  1. Operative training in otolaryngology in the United Kingdom: a specialist registrar survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgalas, Christos; Hadjihannas, Edward; Ghufoor, Khalid; Pracy, Paul; Papesch, Michael

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the current status of operative training for otolaryngology specialist registrars in the United Kingdom. DESIGN: Web-based questionnaire survey. PARTICIPANTS: All otolaryngology specialist registrars in the United Kingdom. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The overall satisfaction with

  2. MeProRisk - a toolbox for evaluating risks in exploration, development, and operation of geothermal reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauser, C.

    2009-04-01

    When developing geothermal resources, the risk of failure is still high when compared to hydrocarbon exploration. The MeProRisk projects aims at the improvement of strategies in all phases of the reservoir life cycle. It is a joint enterprise of five university institutes at RWTH Aachen University, Free University Berlin, and Kiel University. Two partners, namely Geophysica Beratunggesellschaft mbH, (Aachen), and RWE Dea AG (Hamburg) present the industrial side. It is funded by the German Ministry of Education and Science (BMBF). The key idea followed in this project is that the development of the understanding of a given reservoir is an iterative process. Starting from geological base knowledge and geophysical exploration one or more conceptual models will emerge, which will be incorporated in first numerical models. The use of inverse techniques in a broad sense will not only lead to an optimal model, but will produce uncertainty and resolution estimates for this model. This information may be used for further setup of optimal experiments, including the choice of exploration well locations. In later stages of reservoir development, the numerical models will be continuously updated based on the most recent models. Once wells have been drilled, the character of experiments shifts from static methods to dynamic interaction with the reservoir, e.g. by injection experiments and their monitoring. The use of all the methods with one simulation tool poses large challenges. Inverse problems require orders of magnitude larger computer resources, and the development of appropriate theoretical and numerical methods for this is on of the primary aims of this project. Due to the less obvious signatures of geothermally relevant targets, it is also necessary to improve the experimental base for model setup and update by developing new and better methods for some of the key problems in the case of geothermal targets. Among these are the development of methods to estimate

  3. How Can the United States Army Improve Human Intelligence in Peace Operations?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wright, David

    2003-01-01

    .... These secondary collectors, such as the Military Police, Psychological Operations, Civil Affairs and Line Units conduct liaison with international and local police forces, host-government official...

  4. USE OF ELECTRONIC CASE HISTORIES IN OPERATION OF MEDICAL UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Boltenkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of electronic case histories to medical units including TB units is one of the factors allowing enhancing quality of medical care provision. Use of the electronic case histories provides conditions for information transparency improvement in a medical unit: financial, statistic and medico-technological. Information contained in the electronic case history is important and required both for internal and external use. Use of electronic case histories contributes to reduction of labor costs of workers in medical units, provides fast access of medical personnel to information, formalizes data, provides preservation, invariance and reliability of the information entered into electronic case history during the whole period of storage, regulates the access rights and confidentiality, personifies data and allows unifying health data of all Russian population into one pool.

  5. Design and operation of gas-heated thermal pumping units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostek, H A [Ruhrgas A.G., Essen (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-03-01

    The first gas heat pump systems have been operated since spring 1977. These are applied in living houses, school, swimming pools, and sport places and administration buildings. The heating performance of these systems is 150-3800 kW. Two of these systems, one in a swimming pool and one in a house for several families are operating, each of them for one heating period. The operational experiences with these gas heat pumps are reported on, basing on measurement results. The experience gathered from the operation of gas heat pumps systems is applied to the planning of other plants. The development of a standardized gas heat pump-series is emphasized.

  6. Nonlinear Filtering Effects of Reservoirs on Flood Frequency Curves at the Regional Scale: RESERVOIRS FILTER FLOOD FREQUENCY CURVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Hong-Yi; Leung, Lai-Yung; Yigzaw, Wondmagegn Y.; Zhao, Jianshi; Lu, Hui; Deng, Zhiqun; Demissie, Yonas; Bloschl, Gunter

    2017-10-01

    Anthropogenic activities, e.g., reservoir operation, may alter the characteristics of Flood Frequency Curve (FFC) and challenge the basic assumption of stationarity used in flood frequency analysis. This paper presents a combined data-modeling analysis of the nonlinear filtering effects of reservoirs on the FFCs over the contiguous United States. A dimensionless Reservoir Impact Index (RII), defined as the total upstream reservoir storage capacity normalized by the annual streamflow volume, is used to quantify reservoir regulation effects. Analyses are performed for 388 river stations with an average record length of 50 years. The first two moments of the FFC, mean annual maximum flood (MAF) and coefficient of variations (CV), are calculated for the pre- and post-dam periods and compared to elucidate the reservoir regulation effects as a function of RII. It is found that MAF generally decreases with increasing RII but stabilizes when RII exceeds a threshold value, and CV increases with RII until a threshold value beyond which CV decreases with RII. The processes underlying the nonlinear threshold behavior of MAF and CV are investigated using three reservoir models with different levels of complexity. All models capture the non-linear relationships of MAF and CV with RII, suggesting that the basic flood control function of reservoirs is key to the non-linear relationships. The relative roles of reservoir storage capacity, operation objectives, available storage prior to a flood event, and reservoir inflow pattern are systematically investigated. Our findings may help improve flood-risk assessment and mitigation in regulated river systems at the regional scale.

  7. Operational test procedure for SY tank farm replacement exhauster unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClees, J.

    1995-01-01

    This operational test procedure will verify that the remaining functions not tested per WHC-SD-WM-ATP-080, or components disturbed during final installation, as well as interfaces with other tank farm equipment and remote monitoring stations are operating correctly

  8. BN-600 power unit 15-year operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraev, O.M.; Oshkanov, N.N.; Vylomov, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    Comprehensive experience has been gained with the operating fast reactor BN-600 with a power out of 600 MWe. This paper includes important performance results and gives also an overview of the experience gained from BN-600 NPP commercial operation during 15 years. (author). 2 figs, 1 tab

  9. Phase I remedial investigation report for the 300-FF-5 operable unit, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-01-01

    The focus of this remedial investigation (RI) is the 300-FF-5 operable unit, one of five operable units associated with the 300 Area aggregate of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site. The 300-FF-5 operable unit is a groundwater operable unit beneath the 300-FF-1, 300-FF-2, and 300-FF-3 source operable units. This operable unit was designated to include all contamination detected in the groundwater and sediments below the water table that emanates from the 300-FF-1, 300-FF-2, and 300-FF-3 operable units (DOE-RL 1990a). In November 1989, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the 300 Area on the National Priorities List (NPL) contained within Appendix B of the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP, 53 FR 51391 et seq.). The EPA took this action pursuant to their authority under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA, 42 USC 9601 et seq.). The DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), the EPA and Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) issued the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), in May 1989 (Ecology et al. 1992, Rev. 2). This agreement, among other matters, governs all CERCLA efforts at the Hanford Site. In June 1990, a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) workplan for the 300-FF-5 operable unit was issued pursuant to the Tri-Party Agreement.

  10. Phase I remedial investigation report for the 300-FF-5 operable unit, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The focus of this remedial investigation (RI) is the 300-FF-5 operable unit, one of five operable units associated with the 300 Area aggregate of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site. The 300-FF-5 operable unit is a groundwater operable unit beneath the 300-FF-1, 300-FF-2, and 300-FF-3 source operable units. This operable unit was designated to include all contamination detected in the groundwater and sediments below the water table that emanates from the 300-FF-1, 300-FF-2, and 300-FF-3 operable units (DOE-RL 1990a). In November 1989, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the 300 Area on the National Priorities List (NPL) contained within Appendix B of the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP, 53 FR 51391 et seq.). The EPA took this action pursuant to their authority under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA, 42 USC 9601 et seq.). The DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), the EPA and Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) issued the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), in May 1989 (Ecology et al. 1992, Rev. 2). This agreement, among other matters, governs all CERCLA efforts at the Hanford Site. In June 1990, a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) workplan for the 300-FF-5 operable unit was issued pursuant to the Tri-Party Agreement

  11. Information Operations: Countering the Asymmetric Threat to the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKeown, Wendell

    1999-01-01

    .... The cornerstone of Joint Vision 2010 is information superiority. Every facet of future military operations will be critically linked to an aggregate cyber network that relies on critical national infrastructures to provide for information superiority...

  12. An Examination of the United States Air Service's Logistics Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunt, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    This historical study details the U.S. Air Service's logistics operations at home and abroad in an attempt to determine the relationship between the process and more recently established logistic principles...

  13. Reviving Abandoned Reservoirs with High-Pressure Air Injection: Application in a Fractured and Karsted Dolomite Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Loucks; Stephen C. Ruppel; Dembla Dhiraj; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jeff Kane; Jon Olson; John A. Jackson; Katherine G. Jackson

    2006-09-30

    Despite declining production rates, existing reservoirs in the United States contain vast volumes of remaining oil that is not being effectively recovered. This oil resource constitutes a huge target for the development and application of modern, cost-effective technologies for producing oil. Chief among the barriers to the recovery of this oil are the high costs of designing and implementing conventional advanced recovery technologies in these mature, in many cases pressure-depleted, reservoirs. An additional, increasingly significant barrier is the lack of vital technical expertise necessary for the application of these technologies. This lack of expertise is especially notable among the small operators and independents that operate many of these mature, yet oil-rich, reservoirs. We addressed these barriers to more effective oil recovery by developing, testing, applying, and documenting an innovative technology that can be used by even the smallest operator to significantly increase the flow of oil from mature U.S. reservoirs. The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The Permian Basin, the largest oil-bearing basin in North America, contains more than 70 billion barrels of remaining oil in place and is an ideal venue to validate this technology. We have demonstrated the potential of HPAI for oil-recovery improvement in preliminary laboratory tests and a reservoir pilot project. To more completely test the technology, this project emphasized detailed characterization of reservoir properties, which were integrated to access the effectiveness and economics of HPAI. The characterization phase of the project utilized geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum

  14. 7 CFR 631.22 - Access to operating unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING GREAT PLAINS CONSERVATION PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 631.22... unit for the purpose of ascertaining the accuracy of any representations made in a contract or leading up to a contract, and as to the performance of the terms and conditions of the contract. Access shall...

  15. Interim remedial measures proposed plan for the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, D.L.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this interim remedial measures (IRM) proposed plan is to present and solicit public comments on the IRM planned for the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site in Washington state. The 200-ZP-1 is one of two operable units that envelop the groundwater beneath the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site

  16. Survey method for radiological surveys of 300 FF-1 Operable Unit soil and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greif, A.A.

    1997-06-01

    This technical basis document is to be used to survey soils at the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit during remediation of the site. Its purpose is to provide a basis for the survey methods to be employed by the Radiological Control Technician to determine if excavated areas require continued remediation in accordance with the Record of Decision for the operable unit

  17. Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2. Annual operating report for 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Net electrical energy generated by Unit 1 was 30,399 MWH with the generator on line 334.5 hrs. Unit 2 generated 2,481,014 MWH with the generator on line 4,915.53 hrs. Information is presented concerning operations, shutdowns and power reductions, maintenance, power generation, modifications, changes to operational procedures, radiation exposures, and leak rate testing

  18. Increasing the flexibility of base-load generating units in operation on fossil fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girshfel' d, V Ya; Khanaev, V A; Volkova, E D; Gorelov, V A; Gershenkroi, M L

    1979-01-01

    Increasing the flexibility of base-load generating units operating on fossil fuel by modifying them is a necessary measure. The highest economic effect is attained with modification of gas- and oil-fired generating units in the Western United Power Systems of the European part of the SPSS. On the basis of available experience, 150- and 200-MW units can be extensively used to regulate the power in the European part of the SPSS through putting them into reserve for the hours of the load dip at night. The change under favorable conditions of 150- and 200-MW units operating on coal to a district-heating operating mode does not reduce the possibilities for flexible operation of these units because it is possible greatly to unload the turbines while the minimum load level of the pulverized fuel fired boiler is retained through transferring a part of the heat load to the desuperheater. It is necessary to accumulate and analyze experience with operation of generating units (especially of supercritical units) with regular shutdowns and starts of groups of units and to solve the problems of modification of generating units, with differentiation with respect to types of fuel and to the united power supply system.

  19. Twenty years of operation of WWER 440/230 units in Jaslovske Bohunice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomek, J.

    1998-01-01

    It is twenty years this year since the first unit WWER 440 of Slovak Nuclear Power Plant Jaslovske Bohunice was commissioned. There are four units WWER 440 in operation Jaslovske Bohunice site. First two units of older soviet PWR design V-230 (also known as V-1) and other two units of newer V-213 type (also known as V-2). The goal of this presentation is to summarize and evaluate the operation of Unit 1 and 2 for this period of time and mainly to describe what has been done and what is planned to be done to increase the nuclear safety and operational reliability of both units. The operating organization and regulatory authority assume that an internationally acceptable level of safety will be reached by accomplishing of the upgrading program.(author)

  20. AN OPERATIONAL MANAGEMENT MODEL FOR A COAL MINING PRODUCTION UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Visser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The coal mining industry faces increased pressure for higher quality coal at lower cost and increased volumes. To satisfy these requirements the industry needs technically skilled first line supervisors with operational management skills. Most first line supervisors possess the necessary technical, but not the required operational management skills. Various operational management philosophies, describing world-class operational management practices exist; however, it is not possible to implement these philosophies as-is in a mining environment due to the various differences between manufacturing and mining. The solution is to provide an operational management model, adapted from these philosophies, to first line supervisors in the coal mining industry.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die steenkoolmynbedryf ervaar groeiende druk van die mark vir hoër gehalte steenkool, laer koste en verhoogde volumes. Om hierdie behoefte te bevredig benodig die myn tegniesgeskoolde eerstelyntoesighouers met bedryfsbestuursvaardighede. Ongelukkig beskik die meeste toesighouers wel oor die nodige tegniese kennis, maar nie die nodige bedryfsbestuursvaardighede nie. Daar bestaan verskeie bedryfsbestuursfilosofieë wat wêreldklas bedryfsbestuurspraktyke omskryf. Dit is egter nie moontlik om die filisofieë net so in die mynbedryf te implimenteer nie a.g.v. die verskille tussen vervaardiging en mynbou. Die oplossing is om ‘n bedryfsbestuurmodel wat op hierdie filosofieë geskoei is, aan eerstelyntoesighouers in die steenkoolbedryf te verskaf.

  1. Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2. Annual operating report: January--December 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Unit 1 successfully completed its first core cycle with unit availability of 95.2 percent. Saltwater leakage into the condenser continues to be a problem. Unit 2 achieved initial criticality November 30 and was initially paralleled to the Baltimore system on December 7. Information is presented concerning operations, specifications, maintenance, shutdowns and power reduction, and personnel exposures

  2. Operational challenges and opportunities in pastured poultry operations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhoraibi, C; Pitesky, M; Dailey, N; Niemeier, D

    2017-06-01

    As pastured poultry production has gained increased popularity in the United States in recent years, there is a growing need for research and outreach efforts aimed at this sector of poultry production. In order to get familiarized with American pastured poultry producers, we conducted an online questionnaire aimed primarily at evaluating what operational challenges are faced by producers and what educational opportunities should be initiated by researchers. Results showed that pastured poultry farms largely vary in total number of acres farmed and total number of birds kept. The vast majority of farms (96%) rotate their flocks on pasture and include livestock species (78%) in their rotation systems. Mobile coops are the preferred housing option provided by producers (88%). The most common source of mortality listed by respondents was predation (52%), followed by "other" (32%). However, predation was not selected as the most important challenge by the majority of respondents. Sixty-four percent of participants instead mentioned providing adequate feed at reasonable cost as the major challenge in raising poultry on pasture, followed again by "other" (52%) and lack of processing facilities for small numbers of birds (40%). Finally, the topics considered by respondents as the most helpful to learn more about were how to improve egg production rate and/or feed conversion ratio (67%), followed by how to improve pasture condition and optimum vegetative cover all year round (62%). Despite its small sample size, this study's results provide some valuable insights of challenges encountered and information needed on pastured poultry farms. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Deep reservoir and barrier rock units in Bavaria. An overview; Tiefliegende Speicher- und Barrieregesteinskomplexe in Bayern. Ein Ueberblick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diepolder, Gerold W.; Schulz, Uta [Bayerisches Landesamt fuer Umweltschutz, Muenchen (Germany). Geologischer Dienst

    2011-07-01

    In order to meet the challenges of sustainable development the capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2} (CCS) is generally accepted as one option for the mitigation of climate change. Within the scope of the project ''Information system on geological storage options in Germany'' 23 potential reservoir and barrier rock suites of the deeper subsurface in Bavaria have been re-evaluated based on existing data and reports. Focused on the feasibility of CO{sub 2}-sequestration only areas at a depth of more than 800 m have been investigated in two major basins: the deeper parts of the Franconian Basin and the Molasse Basin. Due to the heterogeneous distribution of borehole data with large areas completely lacking information and, in many cases, insufficient lithological characterisations many formations are described rather cursory. Mapping of the spatial distribution is confined to four examples from the project's deliverables showing typical and complex situations. Contour maps of strate as well as isopach maps produced within the project's scope are mentioned. A reasonable regionalisation of porosity and permeability data was not feasible. Competing subsurface uses strongly restricting the utilisation of CO{sub 2}-sequestration are summarised. Owing to insufficient data available all statements made and summary maps depicted in this report are rather vague even at the 1: 1m. overview scale. Thus, an appraisal of the effective suitability of particular areas for geological storage of CO{sub 2} requires additional investigations in detail considering all structural features and the reach of impact of competing subsurface rights. (orig.)

  4. Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1. Annual operating report, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Net electric power generated in 1975 was 1,074,401 MW(e) with the generator on line 4,680.7 hrs. Information is presented concerning operations, maintenance, radioactive effluents and waste shipments, health physics, shutdowns, and personnel exposures

  5. Startup operation of Browns Ferry's 1152-MW nuclear units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calhoun, J.R.; Green, H.J.; Beers, R.B.

    1975-01-01

    An overview is presented of startup operation for the Browns Ferry-1 reactor, and comparisons are made with the startup of Browns Ferry-2. Included are comments on the selection of the BWR type steam supply system, reactor fueling, problems encountered, and plant availability

  6. Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Unit 2. Annual operating report, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Initial criticality occurred in March and start-up testing continued for most of the year. Information is presented concerning operations, shutdowns, maintenance, design changes, personnel radiation exposures, thermal transients, safety/relief valve malfunctions, condenser tube leaks, and recirculation pump seal failures

  7. Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1. Annual operating report, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Net electrical power generated was 2,587,248 MWH(e) with the reactor on line 6,242.4 hr. Information is presented concerning operations, power generation, shutdowns, corrective maintenance, chemistry and radiochemistry, occupational radiation exposure, release of radioactive materials, and reportable occurrences

  8. An outbreak of Serratia marcescens infection in a special-care baby unit of a community hospital in United Arab Emirates: the importance of the air conditioner duct as a nosocomial reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uduman, S A; Farrukh, A S; Nath, K N R; Zuhair, M Y H; Ifrah, A; Khawla, A D; Sunita, P

    2002-11-01

    We report an outbreak of Serratia marcescens infection in a special-care baby unit (SCBU) of a university-affiliated community hospital in the United Arab Emirates. The outbreak involved 36 infants and lasted for 20 weeks. Seven of the colonized infants developed invasive illnesses in the form of bacteraemia (four cases), bacteraemic meningitis (two) and clinical sepsis (one). Three other term infants had purulent conjunctivitis. There were five deaths with an overall mortality of 14%. S. marcescens was cultured from airflow samples from the air conditioning (AC) which was the reservoir of infection in this outbreak. Elimination of the nosocomial source and outbreak containment were eventually achieved by specialized robotic cleaning of the entire AC duct system of the SCBU. Strict adherence to the infection control policies was reinforced to prevent transmission of cross-infection. Copyright 2002 The Hospital Infection Society

  9. Nutrient-based ecological consideration of a temporary river catchment affected by a reservoir operation to facilitate efficient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzoraki, Ourania A; Dörflinger, Gerald; Kathijotes, Nicholas; Kontou, Artemis

    2014-01-01

    The water quality status of the Kouris river in Cyprus was examined in order to fulfil the requirements for ecological quality as defined by the Water Framework Directive-2000/60/EC. Nitrate concentration (mean value) was increased in the Limnatis (2.8 mg L(-1)) tributary in comparison with the Kryos (2.1 mg L(-1)) and Kouris (1.0 mg L(-1)) tributaries depicting the influence of anthropogenic activities. The total maximum daily nutrients loads (TMDLs) based on the flow duration curves approach, showed that nutrients loads exceeded threshold values (33.3-75.6% in all hydrologic condition classes in the Kouris tributary, and 65-78% in the Limnatis tributary) especially under low flow conditions. The TMDL graph is intended to guide the temporal schedule for chemical sampling in all hydrologic classes. Kouris reservoir is an oligotrophic system, strongly influenced by the river's flash-flood character but also by the implemented management practices. Kouris river outflow, which was reduced to one-tenth in the post dam period altered the wetland hydrologic network and contributed to the decrease of aquifer thickness. Continuous evaluation and update of the River Basin Management Plans will be the basis for the sustainable development of the Kouris basin.

  10. The role of reservoir characterization in the reservoir management process (as reflected in the Department of Energy`s reservoir management demonstration program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, M.L. [BDM-Petroleum Technologies, Bartlesville, OK (United States); Young, M.A.; Madden, M.P. [BDM-Oklahoma, Bartlesville, OK (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Optimum reservoir recovery and profitability result from guidance of reservoir practices provided by an effective reservoir management plan. Success in developing the best, most appropriate reservoir management plan requires knowledge and consideration of (1) the reservoir system including rocks, and rock-fluid interactions (i.e., a characterization of the reservoir) as well as wellbores and associated equipment and surface facilities; (2) the technologies available to describe, analyze, and exploit the reservoir; and (3) the business environment under which the plan will be developed and implemented. Reservoir characterization is the essential to gain needed knowledge of the reservoir for reservoir management plan building. Reservoir characterization efforts can be appropriately scaled by considering the reservoir management context under which the plan is being built. Reservoir management plans de-optimize with time as technology and the business environment change or as new reservoir information indicates the reservoir characterization models on which the current plan is based are inadequate. BDM-Oklahoma and the Department of Energy have implemented a program of reservoir management demonstrations to encourage operators with limited resources and experience to learn, implement, and disperse sound reservoir management techniques through cooperative research and development projects whose objectives are to develop reservoir management plans. In each of the three projects currently underway, careful attention to reservoir management context assures a reservoir characterization approach that is sufficient, but not in excess of what is necessary, to devise and implement an effective reservoir management plan.

  11. Cognitive model of the power unit operator activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chachko, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Basic notions making it possible to study and simulate the peculiarities of man-operator activity, in particular his way of thiking, are considered. Special attention is paid to cognitive models based on concept of decisive role of knowledge (its acquisition, storage and application) in the man mental processes and activity. The models are based on three basic notions, which are the professional world image, activity strategy and spontaneous decisions

  12. Operations Research and the US (United States) Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-07

    technology "developed more rapidly than it could be absorbed effectively into military tactics and strategy." 4 World War II is usually identified as...Corporation, was formed by the Air Force as a non-profit organization to provide technological advice. 7 By the early 1950’s the public recognized operations... enlight - ening. He recognized the important and clearly distinguishable roles played by the technical analyst and the military decision maker. The systems

  13. Cost and Operational Effectiveness Analysis of Aiternative Force Structures for Fulfillment of the United States Marine Corps Operational Support Airlift and Search and Rescue Missions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chase, Eric

    2000-01-01

    This thesis provides a preliminary cost and operational effectiveness analysis of alternative force structures for the United States Marine Corps operational support airlift and search and rescue missions...

  14. Economic Effects of Reservoir Re-operation Policy in the Rio Grande/Bravo for Sustainable Human and Environmental Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Partida, J. P.; Sandoval Solis, S.; Lane, B.

    2015-12-01

    A central challenge of integrated water management is the design and implementation of policies to allocate water to both humans and the environment in a sustainable manner. This study uses the results from a reach-scale water-planning model to quantify and compare the economic benefits of two water management policies: (1) a business as usual (Baseline) policy and (2) a proposed reservoir re-operation policy to provide environmental flows (EFs). Results show that the EF policy would increase water supply profit, slightly decrease recreational activities profit, and reduce costs from flood damage and environmental restoration compared to the Baseline policy. In addition to supporting ecological objectives, the proposed EF policy would increase the economic benefits of water management objectives.

  15. Experimental determinations of the turbine condenser operation at Cernavoda NPP Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romascu, Gabriel; Dragusin, Dumitru; Rogociu, Ioan; Macodean, Luminita; Marciulescu, George

    1999-01-01

    The condenser system represents one of the most important BOP (balance of plant) systems of the CANDU 700 MW Unit at Cernavoda NPP. The paper presents theoretical calculation elements, mathematical model for simulation of condenser operation and the results obtained by model implementation as compared to operation data. The model could be adapted to other turbine and operation regime types. (authors)

  16. 14 CFR 375.41 - Agricultural and industrial operations within the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agricultural and industrial operations... Agricultural and industrial operations within the United States. Foreign civil aircraft shall not be used for such commercial air operations as crop dusting, pest control, pipeline patrol, mapping, surveying...

  17. Biota of the 300-FF-1 operable unit. [Westinghouse Hanford Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Fitzner, R.E.; Brandt, C.A.

    1990-10-01

    This report summarizes Task 5a-2 of the Phase I Remedial Investigation -- Operable Unit Characterization of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit on the Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. The ultimate goal of Phase I is to determine the nature and extent of the threat to public health and the environment from releases of hazardous substances from the operable unit. The purpose of Task 5a-2 was to determine what species inhabit the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit and how they use the unit. The focus is on those species listed as endangered or threatened, those that are economically important, or those that constitute significant components of the human food chain. 39 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Mobile phones and computer keyboards: unlikely reservoirs of multidrug-resistant organisms in the tertiary intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smibert, O C; Aung, A K; Woolnough, E; Carter, G P; Schultz, M B; Howden, B P; Seemann, T; Spelman, D; McGloughlin, S; Peleg, A Y

    2018-03-02

    Few studies have used molecular epidemiological methods to study transmission links to clinical isolates in intensive care units. Ninety-four multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) cultured from routine specimens from intensive care unit (ICU) patients over 13 weeks were stored (11 meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), two vancomycin-resistant enterococci and 81 Gram-negative bacteria). Medical staff personal mobile phones, departmental phones, and ICU keyboards were swabbed and cultured for MDROs; MRSA was isolated from two phones. Environmental and patient isolates of the same genus were selected for whole genome sequencing. On whole genome sequencing, the mobile phone isolates had a pairwise single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) distance of 183. However, >15,000 core genome SNPs separated the mobile phone and clinical isolates. In a low-endemic setting, mobile phones and keyboards appear unlikely to contribute to hospital-acquired MDROs. Copyright © 2018 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Operation of the radioactive acid-digestion test unit (RADTU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasewitz, A.G.; Allen, C.R.; Lerch, R.E.; Ely, P.C.; Richardson, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    At the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, research and development work concerned with the acid digestion of combustible waste with high plutonium content is being carried out. The main objectives are the reduction of the waste volume, the recovery of the plutonium and the transformation of the process residues into a product suitable for final disposal. For this purpose an inactive demonstration plant with a throughput of 1.5 kg/h has been constructed. In the first version, the reactor of this plant was a tray reactor of the HEDL type. During test operations the sedimentation of a residue was observed on the tray. The density of this residue was higher than that of the residue suspended in the reaction acid. Experiments using tantalum oxide (D=8.4 g/cm 3 ) to simulate the plutonium oxide (D=11.5 g/cm 3 ) have verified this observation. This means that in active operation a sedimentation of plutonium oxide on the tray is to be expected. With respect to these results a new reactor was developed where the settling of the residue is avoided by appropriate design and high circulation velocity of the reaction acid. The reactor consists of a tube 50-80 mm in diameter, which is curved to form a closed loop with an arm length of about 1x1 m. Since October 1979 this ring reactor has been under inactive test operation. Its behaviour is very stable. The velocity of the reaction acid in the heater is 0.5-1 m/s. A settling of residues or tantalum oxide has not been observed. The throughput attained is comparable to that of the tray reactor but the space requirement is three times smaller, and the volume of the reaction acid four times smaller. (author)

  20. Radioprotection in the operation of accelerator and plasma units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewen, K.

    1984-01-01

    Relatively great problems of radioprotection can be caused by accelerator units, above all in the field of science, because all kinds of ionizing radiation and radioactive substances can be produced in all stages of aggregation. Furthermore, activities with relatively long half-lifes are induced by high particle streams with energies beyond the thresholds of many nuclear reations, to that the conditions of a control zone, even of a prohibited zone exist at many points after having switched off the accelerator. Not all of these radioprotective problems can be solved by constructive or technical measures. A sufficient skill of the persons responsible for radioprotection is very important in this connection. Efficient radioprotective measures are only possible by a close cooperation between the radiation protection officer, the competent authority, and the expert. (orig.) [de

  1. United Kingdom: Procurement Related Nuclear Experience (Operating Experience)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Procurement of nuclear facilities in the United Kingdom is subject to nuclear site licence conditions issued by the Government through the Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR). Each nuclear facility in the United Kingdom must have a nuclear site licence and must comply with the 36 general conditions that are set out in the Licence Condition Handbook (October 2014). In addition, the ONR has published a technical assessment guide for the procurement of nuclear safety related items or services; a guide on intelligent customers and a guide on records management also apply to the procurement phase, and ONR interventions look across all three of these documents. Procurement governance arrangements need to be developed (including a policy, manual, procedures and template documents) and approved within the utility company. The ONR monitors the arrangements via interventions and deems the arrangements to be ‘adequate’. Some procurement contracts become lifetime records for nuclear safety related systems and need to be retained while the plant is in place. A formal record retention schedule needs to be created and managed by the procurement organization. The utility company may elect to set hold points during the various procurement stages and, importantly, obtain approval for the contract and its content from all technical stakeholders (with particular emphasis on the engineering, project management and design authority quality functions before contract award). For contracts with high nuclear safety significance, the ONR may enforce additional hold points before and/or after contract award. There is a general requirement that the utility puts in place adequate arrangements to ensure that suitably qualified and experienced personnel are employed to implement adequate management arrangements and to act as an intelligent customer. This includes being able to demonstrate that any contractor or supplier is suitable, capable and experienced, and has the necessary processes and

  2. Ground Operations Demonstration Unit for Liquid Hydrogen Initial Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notardonato, W. U.; Johnson, W. L.; Swanger, A. M.; Tomsik, T.

    2015-01-01

    NASA operations for handling cryogens in ground support equipment have not changed substantially in 50 years, despite major technology advances in the field of cryogenics. NASA loses approximately 50% of the hydrogen purchased because of a continuous heat leak into ground and flight vessels, transient chill down of warm cryogenic equipment, liquid bleeds, and vent losses. NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) needs to develop energy-efficient cryogenic ground systems to minimize propellant losses, simplify operations, and reduce cost associated with hydrogen usage. The GODU LH2 project has designed, assembled, and started testing of a prototype storage and distribution system for liquid hydrogen that represents an advanced end-to-end cryogenic propellant system for a ground launch complex. The project has multiple objectives including zero loss storage and transfer, liquefaction of gaseous hydrogen, and densification of liquid hydrogen. The system is unique because it uses an integrated refrigeration and storage system (IRAS) to control the state of the fluid. This paper will present and discuss the results of the initial phase of testing of the GODU LH2 system.

  3. Standard formatted data units-control authority operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to illustrate a Control Authority's (CA) possible operation. The document is an interpretation and expansion of the concept found in the CA Procedures Recommendation. The CA is described in terms of the functions it performs for the management and control of data descriptions (metadata). Functions pertaining to the organization of Member Agency Control Authority Offices (MACAOs) (e.g., creating and disbanding) are not discussed. The document also provides an illustrative operational view of a CA through scenarios describing interaction between those roles involved in collecting, controlling, and accessing registered metadata. The roles interacting with the CA are identified by their actions in requesting and responding to requests for metadata, and by the type of information exchanged. The scenarios and examples presented in this document are illustrative only. They represent possible interactions supported by either a manual or automated system. These scenarios identify requirements for an automated system. These requirements are expressed by identifying the information to be exchanged and the services that may be provided by a CA for that exchange.

  4. Cesium reservoir and interconnective components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The program objective is to demonstrate the technology readiness of a TFE (thermionic fuel element) suitable for use as the basic element in a thermionic reactor with electric power output in the 0.5 to 5.0 MW range. A thermionic converter must be supplied with cesium vapor for two reasons. Cesium atoms adsorbed on the surface of the emitter cause a reduction of the emitter work function to permit high current densities without excessive heating of the emitter. The second purpose of the cesium vapor is to provide space-charge neutralization in the emitter-collector gap so that the high current densities may flow across the gap unattenuated. The function of the cesium reservoir is to provide a source of cesium atoms, and to provide a reserve in the event that cesium is lost from the plasma by any mechanism. This can be done with a liquid cesium metal reservoir in which case it is heated to the desired temperature with auxiliary heaters. In a TFE, however, it is desirable to have the reservoir passively heated by the nuclear fuel. In this case, the reservoir must operate at a temperature intermediate between the emitter and the collector, ruling out the use of liquid reservoirs. Integral reservoirs contained within the TFE will produce cesium vapor pressures in the desired range at typical electrode temperatures. The reservoir material that appears to be the best able to meet requirements is graphite. Cesium intercalates easily into graphite, and the cesium pressure is insensitive to loading for a given intercalation stage. The goals of the cesium reservoir test program were to verify the performance of Cs-graphite reservoirs in the temperature-pressure range of interest to TFE operation, and to test the operation of these reservoirs after exposure to a fast neutron fluence corresponding to seven year mission lifetime. In addition, other materials were evaluated for possible use in the integral reservoir

  5. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.

    2001-11-04

    The objective of this Class III project was demonstrate that reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by CO2 flood can increase production from slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, focused on Geraldine Ford and East Ford fields, which are Delaware Mountain Group fields that produce from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The demonstration phase of the project was a CO2 flood conducted in East Ford field, which is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit.

  6. Preparation status for continuous operation of Kori unit 1 NPP in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, C.H. . E-mail : chechee@khnp.co.kr

    2005-01-01

    Kori unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant is the first commercial operation plant in Korea. In Korea, the life extension of NPP beyond design lifetime reached practically application stage. Preparations status for continuous operation of Kori unit 1, Many researches have demonstrated that life extension beyond design lifetime is possible in terms of technology. This paper is to introduce and to share the continuous operation preparations status and schedule for Kori unit 1 License Renewal Process an additional every 10 years beyond the design life 30 years term. (author)

  7. Hospital markup and operation outcomes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Faiz; Ejaz, Aslam; Makary, Martin A; Pawlik, Timothy M

    2016-07-01

    Although the price hospitals charge for operations has broad financial implications, hospital pricing is not subject to regulation. We sought to characterize national variation in hospital price markup for major cardiothoracic and gastrointestinal operations and to evaluate perioperative outcomes of hospitals relative to hospital price markup. All hospitals in which a patient underwent a cardiothoracic or gastrointestinal procedure were identified using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample for 2012. Markup ratios (ratio of charges to costs) for the total cost of hospitalization were compared across hospitals. Risk-adjusted morbidity, failure-to-rescue, and mortality were calculated using multivariable, hierarchical logistic regression. Among the 3,498 hospitals identified, markup ratios ranged from 0.5-12.2, with a median markup ratio of 2.8 (interquartile range 2.7-3.9). For the 888 hospitals with extreme markup (greatest markup ratio quartile: markup ratio >3.9), the median markup ratio was 4.9 (interquartile range 4.3-6.0), with 10% of these hospitals billing more than 7 times the Medicare-allowable costs (markup ratio ≥7.25). Extreme markup hospitals were more often large (46.3% vs 33.8%, P markup ratio compared with 19.3% (n = 452) and 6.8% (n = 35) of nonprofit and government hospitals, respectively. Perioperative morbidity (32.7% vs 26.4%, P markup hospitals. There is wide variation in hospital markup for cardiothoracic and gastrointestinal procedures, with approximately a quarter of hospital charges being 4 times greater than the actual cost of hospitalization. Hospitals with an extreme markup had greater perioperative morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The chemical energy unit partial oxidation reactor operation simulation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrakin, A. N.; Selivanov, A. A.; Batrakov, P. A.; Sotnikov, D. G.

    2018-01-01

    The chemical energy unit scheme for synthesis gas, electric and heat energy production which is possible to be used both for the chemical industry on-site facilities and under field conditions is represented in the paper. The partial oxidation reactor gasification process mathematical model is described and reaction products composition and temperature determining algorithm flow diagram is shown. The developed software product verification showed good convergence of the experimental values and calculations according to the other programmes: the temperature determining relative discrepancy amounted from 4 to 5 %, while the absolute composition discrepancy ranged from 1 to 3%. The synthesis gas composition was found out practically not to depend on the supplied into the partial oxidation reactor (POR) water vapour enthalpy and compressor air pressure increase ratio. Moreover, air consumption coefficient α increase from 0.7 to 0.9 was found out to decrease synthesis gas target components (carbon and hydrogen oxides) specific yield by nearly 2 times and synthesis gas target components required ratio was revealed to be seen in the water vapour specific consumption area (from 5 to 6 kg/kg of fuel).

  9. Nurse managers' decision-making in daily unit operation in peri-operative settings: a cross-sectional descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siirala, Eriikka; Peltonen, Laura-Maria; Lundgrén-Laine, Heljä; Salanterä, Sanna; Junttila, Kristiina

    2016-09-01

    To describe the tactical and the operational decisions made by nurse managers when managing the daily unit operation in peri-operative settings. Management is challenging as situations change rapidly and decisions are constantly made. Understanding decision-making in this complex environment helps to develop decision support systems to support nurse managers' operative and tactical decision-making. Descriptive cross-sectional design. Data were collected from 20 nurse managers with the think-aloud method during the busiest working hours and analysed using thematic content analysis. Nurse managers made over 700 decisions; either ad hoc (n = 289), near future (n = 268) or long-term (n = 187) by nature. Decisions were often made simultaneously with many interruptions. Ad hoc decisions covered staff allocation, ensuring adequate staff, rescheduling surgical procedures, confirmation tangible resources and following-up the daily unit operation. Decisions in the near future were: planning of surgical procedures and tangible resources, and planning staff allocation. Long-term decisions were: human recourses, nursing development, supplies and equipment, and finances in the unit. Decision-making was vulnerable to interruptions, which sometimes complicated the managing tasks. The results can be used when planning decision support systems and when defining the nurse managers' tasks in peri-operative settings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Female Participation in Formed Police Units: A Report on the Integration of Women in Formed Police Units of Peacekeeping Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    of Peacekeeping Operations in accor- dance with the principles of United Nations (UN) Res- olution 1325. To address this topic the study (1) briefly...that the eligibility criteria was revised to include women who played support roles to the combatants, as cooks, por- ters, sex slaves or spies

  11. Smolt monitoring at the head of lower granite reservoir and lower Granite Dam, annual report 1999 operations.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Division of Fish and Wildlife; Idaho. Dept. of Fish and Game.

    2001-01-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon smolts O. nerka during the 1999 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. All hatchery chinook salmon released above Lower Granite Dam were marked with a fin clip in 1999. Total annual hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 440% of the 1998 number. The wild chinook catch was 603% of the previous year's catch. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 93% of 1998 numbers. Wild steelhead trout catch was 68% of 1998 numbers. The Snake River trap collected 62 age-0 chinook salmon. During 1998 the Snake River trap captured 173 hatchery and 37 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 130 hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with high flows. Trap operations began on March 14 and were terminated for the season due to high flows on May 25. The trap was out of operation for 18 d during the season due to high flow and debris. Hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 214%, and wild chinook salmon catch was 384% of 1998 numbers. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 1999 was 210% of the 1998 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 1999 was 203% of the 1998 catch. Trap operations began on March 14 and were terminated for the season due to high flows on May 21. The trap was out of operation for 17 d during the season due to high flow and debris

  12. Smolt monitoring at the head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, annual report 1997 operations.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Division of Fish and Wildlife.

    1999-01-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead trout O. mykiss smolts during the 1997 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. All hatchery chinook salmon released above Lower Granite Dam were marked with a fin clip in 1997. Total annual hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 49% of the 1996 number but only 6% of the 1995 catch. The wild chinook catch was 77% of the 1996 but was only 13% of 1995. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 18% of 1996 numbers but only 7% of the 1995 numbers. Wild steelhead trout catch was 22% of 1996 but only 11% of the 1995 numbers. The Snake River trap collected eight age-0 chinook salmon and one sockeye/kokanee salmon O. nerka. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with high flows. Trap operations were terminated for the season due to high flows and trap damage on May 8 and were out of operation for 23 d due to high flow and debris. Hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 37% and wild chinook salmon catch was 60% of 1996 numbers but only 5% and 11% of 1995 catch, respectively. The 1997 hatchery steelhead trout collection was 13% of the 1996 catch and 32% of the 1995 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 1997 was 21% of the 1996 catch and 13% of the 1995 numbers. Trap operations were terminated for the season due to high flows and trap damage on May 7 and were out of operation for 19 d due to high flow and debris

  13. Multi-unit Operations in Non-Nuclear Systems: Lessons Learned for Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OHara J. M.; Higgins, J.; DAgostino, A.

    2012-01-17

    The nuclear-power community has reached the stage of proposing advanced reactor designs to support power generation for decades to come. Small modular reactors (SMRs) are one approach to meet these energy needs. While the power output of individual reactor modules is relatively small, they can be grouped to produce reactor sites with different outputs. Also, they can be designed to generate hydrogen, or to process heat. Many characteristics of SMRs are quite different from those of current plants and may be operated quite differently. One difference is that multiple units may be operated by a single crew (or a single operator) from one control room. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is examining the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of SMRs to support licensing reviews. While we reviewed information on SMR designs to obtain information, the designs are not completed and all of the design and operational information is not yet available. Nor is there information on multi-unit operations as envisioned for SMRs available in operating experience. Thus, to gain a better understanding of multi-unit operations we sought the lesson learned from non-nuclear systems that have experience in multi-unit operations, specifically refineries, unmanned aerial vehicles and tele-intensive care units. In this paper we report the lessons learned from these systems and the implications for SMRs.

  14. Analysis of Fukushima unit 2 accident considering the operating conditions of RCIC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Il, E-mail: sikim@kaeri.re.kr; Park, Jong Hwa; Ha, Kwang Soon; Cho, Song-Won; Song, JinHo

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Fukushima unit 2 accident was analyzed using MELCOR 1.8.6. • RCIC operating conditions were assumed and best case was selected. • Effect of RCIC operating condition on accident scenario was found. - Abstract: A severe accident in Fukushima occurred on March 11, 2011 and units 1, 2 and 3 were damaged severely. A tsunami following an earthquake made the supply of electricity power stop, and the safety systems, which use AC or DC power in plants could not operate properly. It is supposed that the degree of core degradation of unit 2 is less serious than in the other plants, and it was estimated that the operation of reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system at the initial stage of the accident minimized the core damage through decay heat removal. Although the operating conditions of the RCIC system are not known clearly, it can be important to analyze the accident scenario of unit 2. In this study, best case of the Fukushima unit 2 accident was presented considering the operating conditions of the RCIC system. The effects of operating condition on core degradation and fission product release rate to environment were also examined. In addition, importance of torus room flooding level in the accident analysis was discussed. MELCOR 1.8.6 was used in this research, and the geometries of plant and operating conditions of safety system were obtained from TEPCO through OECD/NEA BSAF Project.

  15. Explicit isospectral flows for the AKNS operator on the unit interval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amour, L

    2009-01-01

    We consider the AKNS operator on the unit interval. The boundary conditions are self-adjoint separated boundary conditions. For fixed boundary conditions, we make the formulae for flows induced by general tangent vector fields on isospectral sets explicit

  16. Analysis of the Vertical Takeoff and Landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (VTUAV) in Small Unit Urban Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cason, Roman

    2004-01-01

    ...) to replace the aging Pioneer Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system. This thesis examines the critical elements this platform must possess to effectively support small units operating in urban environments...

  17. Start-up and commercial operation of the Laguna Verde power plants, unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres R, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    The main features of the unit 1 of the Laguna Verde Power Plant is presented as well as the phases of the start-up process. The process includes various steps and tests up to start the commercial operation. (author)

  18. Description of work for 100-DR-2 Operable Unit Vadose Drilling/test pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naiknimbalkar, N.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the scope of work for the boreholes/test pits of the 100-DR-2 Operable Unit. Sampling and field activities include: Soil screening; geologic sampling; soil sampling (physical property); analytical sampling and depths; and geophysical logging

  19. Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1. Annual operating report for 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Net electrical power generated was 2,415,511 MWH with the generator on line 5,333.6 hrs. Information is presented concerning operations, procedure changes, tests, experiments, maintenance, unit shutdowns and power reductions, and radiation doses to personnel

  20. Proposed plan for remedial action at the quarry residuals operable unit of the Weldon Spring Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    This proposed plan addresses the management of contamination present in various components of the quarry residuals operable unit (QROU) of the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri. The QROU consists of (1) residual waste at the quarry proper; (2) the Femme Osage Slough, Little Femme Osage Creek, and Femme Osage Creek; and (3) quarry groundwater located primarily north of the slough. Potential impacts to the St. Charles County well field downgradient of the quarry area are also being addressed as part of the evaluations for this operable unit. Remedial activities for the QROU will be conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. As part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process required for the QROU under CERCLA, three major evaluation documents have been prepared to support cleanup decisions for this operable unit. decisions for this operable unit

  1. Salem Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 1. Annual operating report for 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Initial reactor criticality was achieved 12/11/76 and power generation began 12/25/76. Information is presented concerning operation, maintenance, procedure and specification changes, power generation, unit shutdowns and forced power reductions, testing, and personnel radiation exposures

  2. Record of Decision for the Ford Building Waste Unit (643-11G) Operable Unit; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraley, S.

    2002-01-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial for the Ford Building Waste Unit (FBWU), in Aiken, South Carolina, which was chosen in accordance with CERCLA, as amended by SARA, and, to the extent practical, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This decision is based on the Administrative Record File for this specific RCRA/CERCLA site

  3. An operating nuclear utility's experience with the ALARA design of a new nuclear unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    This talk presents a review of how operating experience at Northeast Utilities has been factored into the design of a new nuclear unit and the development and management of the radiation protection program. Their operational experience has indicated that there are two facets to keeping radiation exposures ALARA. The first is the proper ALARA design of the unit. The other facet is the design of a comprehensive radiation protection program. The author discusses these facets in some detail

  4. Characterization of Sensitive Species and Habitats Affected by the Operation of USACE Water Resource Development Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kasul, Richard

    2000-01-01

    ...) work unit titled "Reservoir Operations - Impacts on Target Species." Current knowledge regarding the occurrence of sensitive species that have been identified as a management concern in the operation of Corps projects is reviewed...

  5. Quad-Cities Station, Units 1 and 2. Semiannual operating report, January--June 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Unit 1 generated 2,024,125 net electrical MWH and the generator was on line 3162.6 hours. Unit 2 generated 746,184 net electrical MWH and was on line 1475.3 hrs. Data is included concerning operations, power generation, shutdowns, maintenance, changes, and tests. (FS)

  6. H. B. Robinson Plant, Unit 2. Annual operating report for 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The unit achieved a good performance record through the year, experiencing only short duration shutdowns or power reductions. Information is presented concerning operations, maintenance, shutdowns, and occupational radiation exposures. In November there was a scheduled refueling lasting 40 days. After a start-up physics test program, the unit achieved 100 percent power on December 22, 1976

  7. Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Units 1, 2, and 3. Annual operating report: January thru December 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Net electrical energy generated by Unit 1 was 953,015.5 MWH with the generator on line 7,399.37 hrs. Unit 2 generated 4,371,553.689 MWH with the generator on line 6,664.58 hrs while Unit 3 generated 4,034,251 MWH with the generator on line 7,234.86 hrs. Information is presented concerning operations, maintenance, and shutdowns

  8. 2006 Annual Operations Report for INTEC Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. E. Shanklin

    2007-01-01

    This annual operations report describes the requirements followed and activities conducted to inspect, monitor, and maintain the items installed during performance of the Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action, at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. This report covers the time period from January 1 through December 31, 2006, and describes inspection and monitoring activities for the surface-sealed areas within the tank farm, concrete-lined ditches and culverts in and around the tank farm, the lift station, and the lined evaporation pond. These activities are intended to assure that the interim action is functioning adequately to meet the objectives stated in the Operable Unit 3-13, Record of Decision for the Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action (DOE/ID-10660) as described in the Group 1 Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan (DOE/ID-10772)

  9. 2005 Annual Operations Report for INTEC Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Shanklin

    2006-01-01

    This annual operations report describes the requirements followed and activities conducted to inspect, monitor, and maintain the items installed during performance of the Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action, at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. This report describes inspection and monitoring activities for the surface-sealed areas within the tank farm, concrete-lined ditches and culverts in and around the tank farm, the lift station, and the lined evaporation pond. These activities are intended to assure that the interim action is functioning adequately to meet the objectives stated in the Operable Unit 3-13, Record of Decision for the Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action, (DOE/ID-10660) and as amended by the agreement to resolve dispute, which was effective in February 2003

  10. The FAST-T approach for operational, real time, short term hydrological forecasting: Results from the Betania Hydropower Reservoir case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Efraín; Angarita, Hector; Rosmann, Thomas; Mendez, Zulma; Angulo, Gustavo

    2013-04-01

    A viable quantitative hydrological forecasting service is a combination of technological elements, personnel and knowledge, working together to establish a stable operational cycle of forecasts emission, dissemination and assimilation; hence, the process for establishing such system usually requires significant resources and time to reach an adequate development and integration in order to produce forecasts with acceptable levels of performance. Here are presented the results of this process for the recently implemented Operational Forecast Service for the Betania's Hydropower Reservoir - or SPHEB, located at the Upper-Magdalena River Basin (Colombia). The current scope of the SPHEB includes forecasting of water levels and discharge for the three main streams affluent to the reservoir, for lead times between +1 to +57 hours, and +1 to +10 days. The core of the SPHEB is the Flexible, Adaptive, Simple and Transient Time forecasting approach, namely FAST-T. This comprises of a set of data structures, mathematical kernel, distributed computing and network infrastructure designed to provide seamless real-time operational forecast and automatic model adjustment in case of failures in data transmission or assimilation. Among FAST-T main features are: an autonomous evaluation and detection of the most relevant information for the later configuration of forecasting models; an adaptively linearized mathematical kernel, the optimal adaptive linear combination or OALC, which provides a computationally simple and efficient algorithm for real-time applications; and finally, a meta-model catalog, containing prioritized forecast models at given stream conditions. The SPHEB is at present feed by the fraction of hydrological monitoring network installed at the basin that has telemetric capabilities via NOAA-GOES satellites (8 stages, approximately 47%) with data availability of about a 90% at one hour intervals. However, there is a dense network of 'conventional' hydro

  11. Impacts of Mechanical Macrophyte Removal Devices on Sediment Scouring in Littoral Habitats: II. Experimental Operation in the Littoral Zone of Eau Galle Reservoir, Wisconsin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James, William F; Wright, David I; Barko, John W; Eakin, Harry L

    2006-01-01

    ... in Eau Galle Reservoir, Wisconsin. Mechanical macrophyte removal devices are an attractive, low-cost means of removing macrophytes in specific areas without herbicides or repeated mechanical harvesting...

  12. The regional abundance and size distribution of lakes and reservoirs in the United States and implication for estimates of global lake extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Cory P.; Rover, Jennifer; Stets, Edward G.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed complete geospatial data for the 3.5 million lakes and reservoirs larger than 0.001 km2, with a combined surface area of 131,000 km2, in the contiguous United States (excluding the Laurentian Great Lakes) and identified their regional distribution characteristics. For Alaska, we also analyzed (1) incomplete data that suggest that the state contains 1–2.5 million lakes larger than 0.001 km2 covering over 50,000 km2 and (2) localized high-resolution (5 m) data that suggest that the number of very small water bodies ( 0.001 km2 in some areas. The Pareto distribution cannot accurately describe the lake abundance-size relationship across the entire size spectrum, and extrapolation of this density function to small size classes has likely resulted in the overestimation of the number of small lakes in the world. While small water bodies dominate in terms of numbers, they are not numerous enough to dominate in terms of surface area, as has been previously suggested. Extending our results to the global scale suggests that there are on the order of 64 million water bodies larger than 0.001 km2 in the world, with a total surface area of approximately 3.8 million km2.

  13. 78 FR 14361 - U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation, Mckeesport, PA; Notice of Initiation of Investigation To Terminate Certification of Eligibility Pursuant to... Tubular Products, McKeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation...

  14. Operating experience with unit for sulfuric acid alkylation of isobutane by butylenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagavov, I.T.; Sumanov, V.T.; Khadzhiev, S.N.

    1988-09-01

    The operation of units for the sulfuric acid alkylation of isobutanes by butylenes have been performed. The reaction was carried out in a KSG-3 horizontal sulfuric acid contractor. A butane-butylene fraction from catalytic cracking and an isobutane fraction from the central gas fractionating unit were used as a feedstock. The studies have shown that the unit will give a high-quality product under various conditions of operation. The specific consumption of sulfuric acid in processing different types of feed remains within acceptable limits.

  15. Decommissioning strategy of the operating WWER type units in the Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinsky, L.L.; Lobach, Yu.N.; Skripov, A.E.

    2002-01-01

    At present in Ukraine, 13 WWER type units are in operation and two other ones are in the final stage of construction. Decommissioning of these units is expected after the year 2010. General planning of their decommissioning is developed in the framework of the decommissioning strategy of operating WWER type units. The strategy contains the objectives, principles and main tasks of the decommissioning as well as the activities at each phase of decommissioning. It is considered a broad range of factors important for the planning and implementation of decommissioning. (author)

  16. OPERATING OF MOBILE MACHINE UNITS SYSTEM USING THE MODEL OF MULTICOMPONENT COMPLEX MOVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lebedev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problems of mobile machine units system operating it is proposed using complex multi-component (composite movement physical models. Implementation of the proposed method is possible by creating of automatic operating systems of fuel supply to the engines using linear accelerometers. Some examples to illustrate the proposed method are offered.

  17. Operating of mobile machine units system using the model of multicomponent complex movement

    OpenAIRE

    A. Lebedev; R. Kaidalov; N. Artiomov; M. Shulyak; M. Podrigalo; D. Abramov; D. Klets

    2015-01-01

    To solve the problems of mobile machine units system operating it is proposed using complex multi-component (composite) movement physical models. Implementation of the proposed method is possible by creating of automatic operating systems of fuel supply to the engines using linear accelerometers. Some examples to illustrate the proposed method are offered.

  18. Effect of RCIC Operating Conditions on the Accident Scenario in Fukushima Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Il; Park, Jong Hwa; Ha, Kwang Soon

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted by using MELCOR 1.8.6. Fukushima unit 2 accident was analyzed using MELCOR in this study, and best estimate scenario with considering RCIC operating conditions was presented. Researches on the boiling water reactor (BWR) plant with reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system have been conducted. Research on the RCIC operation in Fukushima unit 2 was also conducted by Sandia National Laboratory. MELCOR analysis of the Fukushima unit 2 accident was conducted in the report and energy balance in wetwell was described by considering RCIC operation. However, the effect of RCIC operation condition on the accident scenario has not been studied. The operating conditions of RCIC system affect the pressures in wetwell and drywell, and the high pressure can make leakage path of fission product from PCV to reactor building. Thus it can be directly related with the amount of fission product which released to environment. In this study, severe accident on Fukushima unit 2 was analyzed considering the operating condition of RCIC system, and best estimated scenario was presented. In addition, the effect of RCIC turbine efficiency on the accident progression was examined. Energy balance in suppression chamber was also considered with discussion on the effect of torus room flooding level. It was found that the operating condition of RCIC turbine not only affects the variation of drywell pressure but also the amount of released fission products to environment. It was also confirmed that the RCIC turbine efficiency in the accident would be less than normal operating condition

  19. Analysis of long-time operation of micro-cogeneration unit with fuel cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patsch Marek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro-cogeneration is cogeneration with small performance, with maximal electric power up to 50 kWe. On the present, there are available small micro-cogeneration units with small electric performance, about 1 kWe, which are usable also in single family houses or flats. These micro-cogeneration units operate on principle of conventional combustion engine, Stirling engine, steam engine or fuel cell. Micro-cogeneration units with fuel cells are new progressive developing type of units for single family houses. Fuel cell is electrochemical device which by oxidation-reduction reaction turn directly chemical energy of fuel to electric power, secondary products are pure water and thermal energy. The aim of paper is measuring and evaluation of operation parameters of micro-cogeneration unit with fuel cell which uses natural gas as a fuel.

  20. United States Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, completion report Operation KLAXON, Fiscal Year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Completion Report provides a summary of activities conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) between October 1, 1992, and September 30, 1993, associated with Operation KLAXON. (In the past, each annual Completion Report dealt with a series of underground nuclear detonations; however, because no nuclear tests were conducted during FY 1993, this Report summarizes continuing nonnuclear and nuclear test readiness activities at the NTS sponsored by DOE/NV.) The report serves as a reference for those involved with the planning and execution of Operation KLAXON and also serves as a planning guide for future operations. Information in the report covers the logistics and management of activities. Scientific information and data associated with NTS activities are presented in technical documents published by participating agencies. In September 1992, Congress legislated a nine-month moratorium on the testing of nuclear weapons. The bill also provided for a resumption of testing (with no more than five tests per year, or a total of 15 during the next three years) in July 1993, and mandated an end to nuclear testing, entirely, by 1996. President Bush signed the bill into law in October 1992.

  1. United States Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, completion report Operation KLAXON, Fiscal Year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Completion Report provides a summary of activities conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) between October 1, 1992, and September 30, 1993, associated with Operation KLAXON. (In the past, each annual Completion Report dealt with a series of underground nuclear detonations; however, because no nuclear tests were conducted during FY 1993, this Report summarizes continuing nonnuclear and nuclear test readiness activities at the NTS sponsored by DOE/NV.) The report serves as a reference for those involved with the planning and execution of Operation KLAXON and also serves as a planning guide for future operations. Information in the report covers the logistics and management of activities. Scientific information and data associated with NTS activities are presented in technical documents published by participating agencies. In September 1992, Congress legislated a nine-month moratorium on the testing of nuclear weapons. The bill also provided for a resumption of testing (with no more than five tests per year, or a total of 15 during the next three years) in July 1993, and mandated an end to nuclear testing, entirely, by 1996. President Bush signed the bill into law in October 1992

  2. Use of Special Operations Forces in United Nations Missions: a Method to Resolve Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    physical stamina and psychological stability, followed by a rigorous training program are the imperatives to create SOF soldiers.42 Mark Bowden in...recommendation is that the United Nations should establish a Special Operations planning cell within the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations. As of...now, the cell is nonexistent. This cell should be able to facilitate the integration of SOF into the overall peace operations concept. Finally, the

  3. Improved Oil Recovery in Fluvial Dominated Deltaic Reservoirs of Kansas - Near-Term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Don W.; McCune, A.D.; Michnick, M.; Reynolds, R.; Walton, A.; Watney, L.; Willhite, G. Paul

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to address waterflood problems of the type found in Morrow sandstone reservoirs in southwestern Kansas and in Cherokee Group reservoirs in southeastern Kansas. Two demonstration sites operated by different independent oil operators are involved in this project. The Stewart Field is located in Finney County, Kansas and is operated by PetroSantander, Inc. Te Nelson Lease is located in Allen County, Kansas, in the N.E. Savonburg Field and is operated by James E. Russell Petroleum, Inc. General topics to be addressed are (1) reservoir management and performance evaluation, (2) waterflood optimization, and (3) the demonstration of recovery processes involving off-the-shelf technologies which can be used to enhance waterflood recovery, increase reserves, and reduce the abandonment rate of these reservoir types. In the Stewart Project, the reservoir management portion of the project conducted during Budget Period 1 involved performance evaluation. This included (1) reservoir characterization and the development of a reservoir database, (2) volumetric analysis to evaluate production performance, (3) reservoir modeling, (4) laboratory work, (5) identification of operational problems, (6) identification of unrecovered mobile oil and estimation of recovery factors, and (7) Identification of the most efficient and economical recovery process. To accomplish these objectives the initial budget period was subdivided into three major tasks. The tasks were (1) geological and engineering analysis, (2) laboratory testing, and (3) unitization. Due to the presence of different operators within the field, it was necessary to unitize the field in order to demonstrate a field-wide improved recovery process. This work was completed and the project moved into Budget Period 2

  4. Indian Point Station, Units 1, 2, and 3. Annual operating report for 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Unit 1 remained in a shutdown condition pending a decision by the Company on the installation of an ECCS as required by NRC. Net electrical power generated by Unit 2 was 2,267,654 MWH with the unit on line 3,056.45 hrs. Unit 3 generated 1,872,947 MWH and was on line 2,286.01 hrs. Information is presented concerning operations, reportable events, corrective maintenance, fuel performance, radioactivity releases, shutdowns, primary coolant chemistry, and occupational radiation exposures

  5. Results of toxicity tests and chemical analyses conducted on sediments collected from the TNX Outfall Delta Operable Unit, July 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, W.L.

    2000-01-01

    In order to provide unit specific toxicity data that will be used to address critical uncertainty in the ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the TNX Outfall Delta Operable Unit (TNXOD OU), sediments were collected from eight locations in the Inner Swamp portion of the operable unit and two unit specific background locations. These samples were analyzed for total mercury, total uranium, and sediment toxicity

  6. An Analysis of United States Marine Corps Enlisted Entry-Level Training Using Supply Chain and Operations Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    An Analysis of United States Marine Corps Enlisted Entry-Level Training Using Supply Chain and Operations Management ______________________________________ By...Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: An Analysis of United States Marine Corps Enlisted Entry-Level Training Using Supply Chain and Operations Management 6...Level Training; United States Marine Corps; Operations Management ; Supply Chain Management; Process Analysis 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY

  7. 100 Area source operable unit focused feasibility study report. Draft A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    In accordance with the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy (HPPS), a focused feasibility study (FFS) is performed for those waste sites which have been identified as candidates for interim remedial measures (IRM) based on information contained in applicable work plans and limited field investigations (LFI). The FFS process for the 100 Area source operable units will be conducted in two stages. This report, hereafter referred to as the Process Document, documents the first stage of the process. In this stage, IRM alternatives are developed and analyzed on the basis of waste site groups associated with the 100 Area source operable units. The second stage, site-specific evaluation of the IRM alternatives presented in this Process Document, is documented in a series of operable unit-specific reports. The objective of the FFS (this Process Document and subsequent operable unit-specific reports) is to provide decision makers with sufficient information to allow appropriate and timely selection of IRM for sites associated with the 100 Area source operable units. Accordingly, the following information is presented: a presentation of remedial action objectives; a description of 100 Area waste site groups and associated group profiles; a description of IRM alternatives; and detailed and comparative analyses of the IRM alternatives

  8. The Applied Meteorology Unit: Nineteen Years Successfully Transitioning Research Into Operations for America's Space Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madura, John T.; Bauman, William H., III; Merceret, Francis J.; Roeder, William P.; Brody, Frank C.; Hagemeyer, Bartlett C.

    2011-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) provides technology development and transition services to improve operational weather support to America's space program . The AMU was founded in 1991 and operates under a triagency Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the United States Air Force (USAF) and the National Weather Service (NWS) (Ernst and Merceret, 1995). It is colocated with the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) and funded by the Space Shuttle Program . Its primary customers are the 45WS, the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) operated for NASA by the NWS at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, TX, and the NWS forecast office in Melbourne, FL (MLB). The gap between research and operations is well known. All too frequently, the process of transitioning research to operations fails for various reasons. The mission of the AMU is in essence to bridge this gap for America's space program.

  9. Multipurpose units: combining of technological operations of a soil cultivating and seeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Petukhov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern domestic market of technique for grain crops seeding differs variety of machines brands and types. The intensive type technologies combining technological operations of a soil cultivating and grain crops seeding in one pass are more widely used. The authors have established that one-operational units in new machine park have to be replaced multipurpose, universal and combined machines. Such approach will reduce number of machines in grain production from 20-30 to 5-6 name titles. Possibilities of multipurpose sowing units for simultaneous fertilizers application, soil cultivating and weeds destruction were analyzed. It was specified that nowadays there are several technologies types with two, four or six operations overlapping. Operational performance, technological and economical efficiency of the best multipurpose and also efficiency of technological operations overlapping at grain crops cultivating in the conditions of their real operation and at a trial establishment in the Kuban research institute of information and technical and economic studies of agro-industrial complex engineering and technical services were studied. Tit was defined that use of multipurpose sowing units and also studied efficiency of decreases operational costs by 48-71 percent, fuel consumption - by 41-76 percent and reduces labor input by 72-80 percent. Thus grain crops seeding is possible in optimal agrotime because of 4-6 technological operations overlapping in one pass.

  10. An efficient linear approach in the reservoirs operation for electric power generation; Uma eficiente abordagem linear na operacao de reservatorios para geracao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambon, Katia Livia

    1997-07-01

    A new approach for the Scheduling of Hydrothermal Systems, with a formulation that allows the solution of the problem through the linear programming techniques, otherwise the original form, which is complex and difficult is presented. The models were developed through a linear form for the generation function of hydroelectric plants, successive of the linearization of the cost function of the problem. The linear techniques used were the Simplex Method, with some modification that is is efficient, fast and simple. The important physical aspects of the system were preserved, like the individual representation of the hydroelectric plant, the features of cost function with the exponential increase and the head effect. Besides, this formulation can lead to stochastic approaches. All the optimization methods were implemented for the solution of the problem. The performance obtained were compared with each other and with that obtained through the non linear techniques. The algorithms showed to be efficient, with good results and very near to the optimal behavior of the reservoir operation planning obtained by traditional methods. (author)

  11. Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) in The Intensive Care Unit in a Nonoutbreak Setting: Identification of Potential Reservoirs and Epidemiological Associations Between Patient and Environmental VRE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Hélène; Skally, Mairead; O'Rourke, James; Humphreys, Hilary; Fitzgerald-Hughes, Deirdre

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Among nosocomial bloodstream infections caused by enterococcal species, Ireland has the highest proportion caused by vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in Europe at 45.8%. The contribution of the near-patient environment to VRE transmission outside of outbreaks was investigated. DESIGN A prospective observational study was conducted during 7 sampling periods. METHODS Recovery of VRE isolates by swabbing the near-patient environment and patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) was conducted to identify reservoirs, clinical and molecular epidemiological associations, and the success of active surveillance cultures (ASCs). RESULTS Of 289 sampling occasions involving 157 patients and their bed spaces, VRE isolates were recovered from patient bed spaces, clinical samples, or both on 114 of 289 sampling occasions (39.4%). The patient and their bed space were positive for VRE on 34 of 114 VRE-associated sampling occasions (29.8%). Of 1,647 environment samples, 107 sites (6.5%) were VRE positive, with significantly greater VRE recovery from isolation rooms than from the open-plan area (9.1% vs 4.1%; P < .0001). The most frequently VRE-contaminated sites were the drip stand, bed control panel, and chart holders, which together accounted for 61% of contaminated sites. The use of ASCs resulted in a 172% increase in identification of VRE-colonized patients. Molecular typing revealed 2 environmental clusters, 1 cluster involving 3 patients and generally greater heterogeneity of patient isolates compared to environmental isolates. CONCLUSION Even outside of outbreaks, near-patient ICU environmental contamination with VRE is common. Better infection control policies that limit environmental transmission of VRE in the ICU and that are supported by molecular epidemiological studies, in real time, are needed. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;39:40-45.

  12. Compex system for teaching and training operators for TPP and NPP power units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsiptsyura, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Requirements, taken as a principle for constructing the system for operator teaching and training (OTT), have been formulated on the basis of investigation of operators' work at TPP and NPP power units. Functional structure and a structural block-diagram for OTT are built. As a criterion, which determines the structure of any trainers, being a part of OTT a requirement has been chosen satisfying the correspondence beetween habits developed with the help of trainers and habits of real operators' work. Results of analysis permit to confirm that refusal or under statement of the role of any stage of operator training leads to reduction of quality of his training

  13. NRC plan for cleanup operations at Three Mile Island Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, R.; Snyder, B.J.

    1980-07-01

    The NRC plan defines the functional role of the NRC in cleanup operations at Three Mile Island Unit 2 to assure that agency regulatory responsibilities and objectives will be fulfilled. The plan outlines NRC functions in TMI-2 cleanup operations in the following areas: (1) the functional relationship of NRC to other government agencies, the public, and the licensee to coordinate activities, (2) the functional roles of these organizations in cleanup operations, (3) the NRC review and decision-making procedure for the licensee's proposed cleanup operation, (4) the NRC/licensee estimated schedule of major actions, and (5) NRC's functional role in overseeing implementation of approved licensee activities

  14. Study of the thermal behavior of a latent heat cold storage unit operating under frosting conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simard, A.P.; Lacroix, M.

    2003-01-01

    A study is performed of the thermal behavior of a latent heat cold storage unit operating under frosting conditions. This unit is employed to maintain the temperature inside the refrigerated compartment of a truck below 265 K. The system consists of parallel plates filled with a phase change material (PCM) that absorbs heat from the flow of warm moist air. A mathematical model for the system is first presented and, next, validated with numerical and experimental data. It is then exploited to assess the effects of design parameters and operating conditions on the performance of the system. The recommended thickness and distance separating the PCM plates are found to be 50x10 -3 and 30x10 -3 m, respectively. The results indicate that the performance of the unit is enhanced by turbulent air flow in spite of the increased pressure loss and accentuated frost growth. The unit also performs well even when the surrounding relative humidity is 100%

  15. Geomechanical Framework for Secure CO2 Storage in Fractured Reservoirs and Caprocks for Sedimentary Basins in theMidwest United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sminchak, Joel [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-09-29

    This report presents final technical results for the project Geomechanical Framework for Secure CO2 Storage in Fractured Reservoirs and Caprocks for Sedimentary Basins in the Midwest United States (DE-FE0023330). The project was a three-year effort consisting of seven technical tasks focused on defining geomechanical factors for CO2 storage applications in deep saline rock formations in Ohio and the Midwest United States, because geomechancial issues have been identified as a significant risk factor for large-scale CO2 storage applications. A basin-scale stress-strain analysis was completed to describe the geomechanical setting for rock formations of Ordovician-Cambrian age in Ohio and adjacent areas of the Midwest United States in relation to geologic CO2 storage applications. The tectonic setting, stress orientation-magnitude, and geomechanical and petrophysical parameters for CO2 storage zones and caprocks in the region were cataloged. Ten geophysical image logs were analyzed for natural fractures, borehole breakouts, and drilling-induced fractures. The logs indicated mostly less than 10 fractures per 100 vertical feet in the borehole, with mostly N65E principal stress orientation through the section. Geophysical image logs and other logs were obtained for three wells located near the sites where specific models were developed for geomechanical simulations: Arches site in Boone County, Kentucky; Northern Appalachian Basin site in Chautauqua County, New York; and E-Central Appalachian Basin site in Tuscarawas County, Ohio. For these three wells, 9,700 feet of image logs were processed and interpreted to provide a systematic review of the distribution within each well of natural fractures, wellbore breakouts, faults, and drilling induced fractures. There were many borehole breakouts and drilling-induced tensile fractures but few natural fractures. Concentrated fractures were present at the Rome-basal sandstone

  16. Barriers to high conversion operations in an ebullated bed unit -- Relationship between sedimentation and operability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, D. [Criterion Catalysts Company L.P., Houston, TX (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Ebullated-Bed (EB) catalytic processes are high temperature, high pressure residue hydrocrackers, which transform sour feeds into light, sweet products. EB processes typically involve one or more trains, with one, two, or three EB reactors in series. The key to operating any EB process is to control the 'sediment' which tends to increase with increasing level of conversion. Sediment problems are generally attributed to the catalyst. While this is true in some cases, there are certain problems that occur regardless of the catalyst used, whereas in some situations sediments from the EB process can actually be controlled by the catalyst. This paper describes two typical sedimentation patterns; one in which the sediment increases, and another in which sediment decreases as the EB products move through the recovery section. The benefits of sediment control are illustrated for the latter sedimentation pattern.

  17. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.; Flanders, W.A.; Guzman, J.I.; Zirczy, H.

    1999-06-08

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through geologically based field development. This year the project focused on reservoir characterization of the East Ford unit, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey Sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit; it contained an estimated 19.8 million barrels (MMbbl) of original oil in place. Petrophysical characterization of the East Ford unit was accomplished by integrating core and log data and quantifying petrophysical properties from wireline logs. Most methods of petrophysical analysis that had been developed during an earlier study of the Ford Geraldine unit were successfully transferred to the East Ford unit. The approach that was used to interpret water saturation from resistivity logs, however, had to be modified because in some East Ford wells the log-calculated water saturation was too high and inconsistent with observations made during the actual production. Log-porosity to core-porosity transforms and core-porosity to core-permeability transforms were derived from the East Ford reservoir. The petrophysical data were used to map porosity, permeability, net pay, water saturation, mobil-oil saturation, and other reservoir properties.

  18. Estimation of the optimal operating conditions for a radiation chemical neutralization unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putilov, A.V.; Kamenetskaya, S.A.; Pshezhetskii, S.Ya.; Kazakov, M.S.; Kudryavtsev, S.L.; Petrukhin, N.V.; Misharin, B.A.; Koneev, V.Z.

    1985-01-01

    An estimate is made of the effect of the hydrodynamic conditions on the efficiency of foam units for the radiation chemical neutralization of impurities, taking into account the penetrating power of accelerated electrons having various energies. Expressions are obtained for calculating the efficiency of such units with sectionized operation of the chamber and taking account of the effect of incomplete mixing of the products of radiolysis through the height of the foam layer

  19. Design and operational parameters of transportable supercritical water oxidation waste destruction unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, R.D.; Brewer, G.R.; Rofer, C.K.

    1991-12-01

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is the destruction of hazardous waste by oxidation in the presence of water at temperatures and pressures above its critical point. A 1 gal/h SCWO waste destruction unit (WDU) has been designed, built, and operated at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This unit is transportable and is intended to demonstrate the SCWO technology on wastes at Department of Energy sites. This report describes the design of the WDU and the preliminary testing phase leading to demonstration

  20. Control technique for enhancing the stable operation of distributed generation units within a microgrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrasa, Majid; Pouresmaeil, Edris; Mehrjerdi, Hasan; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard; Catalão, João P.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A control technique for enhancing the stable operation of distributed generation units is proposed. • Passivity-based control technique is considered to analyze the dynamic and steady-state behaviors. • The compensation of instantaneous variations in the reference current components is considered. • Simulation results confirm the performance of the control scheme within the microgrid. - Abstract: This paper describes a control technique for enhancing the stable operation of distributed generation (DG) units based on renewable energy sources, during islanding and grid-connected modes. The Passivity-based control technique is considered to analyze the dynamic and steady-state behaviors of DG units during integration and power sharing with loads and/or power grid, which is an appropriate tool to analyze and define a stable operating condition for DG units in microgrid technology. The compensation of instantaneous variations in the reference current components of DG units in ac-side, and dc-link voltage variations in dc-side of interfaced converters, are considered properly in the control loop of DG units, which is the main contribution and novelty of this control technique over other control strategies. By using the proposed control technique, DG units can provide the continuous injection of active power from DG sources to the local loads and/or utility grid. Moreover, by setting appropriate reference current components in the control loop of DG units, reactive power and harmonic current components of loads can be supplied during the islanding and grid-connected modes with a fast dynamic response. Simulation results confirm the performance of the control scheme within the microgrid during dynamic and steady-state operating conditions

  1. Turkey Point Plant, Units 3 and 4. Semiannual operating report No. 7, July--December 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Unit 3 generated 1,968,074 MWh(e) net electric power and the generator was on line 2,802.9 hrs. Unit 4 generated 2,560,476 MWh(e) and was on line 3,944.8 hrs. Information is presented concerning operations, power generation, shutdowns, maintenance, changes, tests, experiments, radioactive effluent releases, radiological environmental monitoring, and occupational personnel radiation monitoring

  2. Interim action record of decision remedial alternative selection: TNX area groundwater operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, E.R.

    1994-10-01

    This document presents the selected interim remedial action for the TNX Area Groundwater Operable Unit at the Savannah River Site (SRS), which was developed in accordance with CERCLA of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986, and to the extent practicable, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution contingency Plan (NCP). This decision is based on the Administrative Record File for this specific CERCLA unit

  3. Prospects and requirements for an operational modelling unit in flood crisis situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dike failure events pose severe flood crisis situations on areas in the hinterland of dikes. In recent decades the importance of being prepared for dike breaches has been increasingly recognized. However, the pre-assessment of inundation resulting from dike breaches is possible only based on scenarios, which might not reflect the situation of a real event. This paper presents a setup and workflow that allows to model dike breachinduced inundation operationally, i.e. when an event is imminent or occurring. A comprehensive system setup of an operational modelling unit has been developed and implemented in the frame of a federal project in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. The modelling unit setup comprises a powerful methodology of flood modelling and elaborated operational guidelines for crisis situations. Nevertheless, it is of fundamental importance that the modelling unit is instated prior to flood events as a permanent system. Moreover the unit needs to be fully integrated in flood crisis management. If these crucial requirements are met, a modelling unit is capable of fundamentally supporting flood management with operational prognoses of adequate quality even in the limited timeframe of crisis situations.

  4. Biblis 1,300 MW unit B in operation for thirty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauer, H.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past thirty years, unit B of the Biblis nuclear power station has contributed towards safe, reliable and non-polluting electricity generation. Unit B was the first 1,300 MW unit in the world confirming the good experience accumulated in the construction and operation of plants this size. It laid the foundation for the advanced development of nuclear power plants up to the convoy line. The good availability this plant has achieved in its operating cycles proves the mature state of technology and the high level of qualification and motivation of the power plant staff and the personnel of external firms contracted to work for Biblis. Biblis B has served as a reference plant in German nuclear safety research, demonstrating that units this size can be operated safely. Unit B is also living proof of the possibility to raise nuclear power plants built in the seventies to the current state of the art by implementing the appropriate backfitting and modernization measures. Today, Biblis B is operated at a safety level clearly higher than that to be achieved for new plants internationally. This is also evident from comparison with the guiding values for the safety of new facilities as published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (orig.)

  5. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggerstaff, R.L.

    1994-06-30

    This report provides the qualitative risk assessment (QRA) for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The extent of the groundwater beneath the 100 K Area is defined in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan for the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit (DOE-RL 1992a). The QRA is an evaluation or risk using a limited amount of data and a predefined set of human and environmental exposure scenarios and is not intended to replace or be a substitute for a baseline risk assessment.

  6. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils (Phase II) Field Sampling Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. L. Schwendiman

    2006-07-27

    This Field Sampling Plan describes the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils, Phase II remediation field sampling activities to be performed at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center located within the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Sampling activities described in this plan support characterization sampling of new sites, real-time soil spectroscopy during excavation, and confirmation sampling that verifies that the remedial action objectives and remediation goals presented in the Final Record of Decision for Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13 have been met.

  7. Engineering evaluation/conceptual plan for the 200-UP-1 groundwater operable unit interim remedial measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.A.; Swanson, L.C.; Weeks, R.S.; Giacinto, J.; Gustafson, F.W.; Ford, B.H.; Wittreich, C.; Parnell, S.; Green, J.

    1995-04-01

    This report presents an engineering evaluation and conceptual plan for an interim remedial measure (ERM) to address a uranium and technetium-99 groundwater plume and an associated nitrate contamination plume in the 200-UP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This report provides information regarding the need and potentially achievable objectives and goals for an IRM and evaluates alternatives to contain elevated concentrations of uranium, technetium-99, nitrate, and carbon tetrachloride and to obtain information necessary to develop final remedial actions for the operable unit

  8. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggerstaff, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report provides the qualitative risk assessment (QRA) for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The extent of the groundwater beneath the 100 K Area is defined in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan for the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit (DOE-RL 1992a). The QRA is an evaluation or risk using a limited amount of data and a predefined set of human and environmental exposure scenarios and is not intended to replace or be a substitute for a baseline risk assessment

  9. RCRA facility investigation report for the 200-PO-1 operable unit. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    This Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) report is prepared in support of the RFI/corrective measures study process for the 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. This report summarizes existing information on this operable unit presented in the 200 East and PUREX Aggregate Area Management Study Reports, contaminant specific studies, available modeling data, and groundwater monitoring data summary reports. Existing contaminant data are screened against current regulatory limits to determine contaminants of potential concern (COPC). Each identified COPC is evaluated using well-specific and plume trend analyses

  10. Survey Method for Radiological Surveys of 300-FF-1 Operable Unit Soils and Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brehm, D.M.

    1998-06-01

    This technical basis is to be used to survey soils at the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit during remediation of the site. Its purpose is to provide a basis for the survey methods to be employed by radiological control technician (RCTs) to guide the excavation effort in accordance with the 300-FF-1 waste site Record of Decision (ROD). The ROD for the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit requires selective excavation, removal, and disposal of contaminated soil above 350 pCi/g total uranium activity. Soil above this level will be disposed of as radioactive waste. The remaining soil will remain onsite

  11. Phase 1 remedial investigation report for 200-BP-1 operable unit. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, in Washington State is organized into numerically designated operational areas including the 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 1100 Areas. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in November 1989 included the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site on the National Priority List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Inclusion on the NPL initiated the remedial investigation (RD process for the 200-BP-1 operable unit. These efforts are being addressed through the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1989) which was negotiated and approved by the DOE, the EPA, and the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) in May 1989. This agreement, known as the Tri-Party Agreement, governs all CERCLA efforts at Hanford. In March of 1990, the Department of Energy, Richland Operations (DOE-RL) issued a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) work plan (DOE-RL 1990a) for the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The work plan initiated the first phase of site characterization activities associated with the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The purpose of the 200-BP-1 operable unit RI is to gather and develop the necessary information to adequately understand the risks to human health and the environment posed by the site and to support the development and analysis of remedial alternatives during the FS. The RI analysis will, in turn, be used by Tri-Party Agreement signatories to make a risk-management-based selection of remedies for the releases of hazardous substances that have occurred from the 200-BP-1 operable unit.

  12. Phase 1 remedial investigation report for 200-BP-1 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, in Washington State is organized into numerically designated operational areas including the 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 1100 Areas. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in November 1989 included the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site on the National Priority List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Inclusion on the NPL initiated the remedial investigation (RD process for the 200-BP-1 operable unit. These efforts are being addressed through the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1989) which was negotiated and approved by the DOE, the EPA, and the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) in May 1989. This agreement, known as the Tri-Party Agreement, governs all CERCLA efforts at Hanford. In March of 1990, the Department of Energy, Richland Operations (DOE-RL) issued a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) work plan (DOE-RL 1990a) for the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The work plan initiated the first phase of site characterization activities associated with the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The purpose of the 200-BP-1 operable unit RI is to gather and develop the necessary information to adequately understand the risks to human health and the environment posed by the site and to support the development and analysis of remedial alternatives during the FS. The RI analysis will, in turn, be used by Tri-Party Agreement signatories to make a risk-management-based selection of remedies for the releases of hazardous substances that have occurred from the 200-BP-1 operable unit

  13. Structural characterization and condition for measurement statistics preservation of a unital quantum operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kai-Yan; Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Chau, H F

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the necessary and sufficient condition for a convex cone of positive semidefinite operators to be fixed by a unital quantum operation ϕ acting on finite-dimensional quantum states. By reducing this problem to the problem of simultaneous diagonalization of the Kraus operators associated with ϕ, we can completely characterize the kinds of quantum states that are fixed by ϕ. Our work has several applications. It gives a simple proof of the structural characterization of a unital quantum operation that acts on finite-dimensional quantum states—a result not explicitly mentioned in earlier studies. It also provides a necessary and sufficient condition for determining what kind of measurement statistics is preserved by a unital quantum operation. Finally, our result clarifies and extends the work of Størmer by giving a proof of a reduction theorem on the unassisted and entanglement-assisted classical capacities, coherent information, and minimal output Renyi entropy of a unital channel acting on a finite-dimensional quantum state. (paper)

  14. Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and 3. Annual operating report: January--December 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Unit 2 experienced 11 forced outages, 5 power reductions, and one major refueling outage which lasted about 3 months during which time the feedwater spargers were replaced. Net electrical power generated was 5,569,633 MWH with the generator on line 5,998 hrs. Unit 3 experienced 17 forced outages, 11 power reductions and 2 major outages. The first refueling outage began 12/24/77. Net electrical power generated was 6,049,644 MWH with the unit on line 6,829 hrs. Information is presented concerning operations, personnel exposures, radioactive releases, maintenance, and irradiated fuel examination

  15. NUMATH: a nuclear-material-holdup estimator for unit operations and chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krichinsky, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program, NUMATH (Nuclear Material Holdup Estimator), has been developed to permit inventory estimation in vessels involved in unit operations and chemical processes. This program has been implemented in an operating nuclear fuel processing plant. NUMATH's purpose is to provide steady-state composition estimates for material residing in process vessels until representative samples can be obtained and chemical analyses can be performed. Since these compositions are used for inventory estimation, the results are determined for and cataloged in container-oriented files. The estimated compositions represent material collected in applicable vessels-including consideration for material previously acknowledged in these vessels. The program utilizes process measurements and simple material balance models to estimate material holdups and distribution within unit operations. During simulated run testing, NUMATH-estimated inventories typically produced material balances within 7% of the associated measured material balances for uranium and within 16% of the associated, measured material balance for thorium during steady-state process operation

  16. Categorization of safety related motor operated valve safety significance for Ulchin Unit 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, D. I.; Kim, K. Y.

    2002-03-01

    We performed a categorization of safety related Motor Operated Valve (MOV) safety significance for Ulchin Unit 3. The safety evaluation of MOV of domestic nuclear power plants affects the generic data used for the quantification of MOV common cause failure ( CCF) events in Ulchin Units 3 PSA. Therefore, in this study, we re-estimated the MGL(Multiple Greek Letter) parameter used for the evaluation of MOV CCF probabilities in Ulchin Units 3 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) and performed a classification of the MOV safety significance. The re-estimation results of the MGL parameter show that its value is decreased by 30% compared with the current value in Ulchin Unit 3 PSA. The categorization results of MOV safety significance using the changed value of MGL parameter shows that the number of HSSCs(High Safety Significant Components) is decreased by 54.5% compared with those using the current value of it in Ulchin Units 3 PSA

  17. Analysis and application of classification methods of complex carbonate reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiongyan; Qin, Ruibao; Ping, Haitao; Wei, Dan; Liu, Xiaomei

    2018-06-01

    There are abundant carbonate reservoirs from the Cenozoic to Mesozoic era in the Middle East. Due to variation in sedimentary environment and diagenetic process of carbonate reservoirs, several porosity types coexist in carbonate reservoirs. As a result, because of the complex lithologies and pore types as well as the impact of microfractures, the pore structure is very complicated. Therefore, it is difficult to accurately calculate the reservoir parameters. In order to accurately evaluate carbonate reservoirs, based on the pore structure evaluation of carbonate reservoirs, the classification methods of carbonate reservoirs are analyzed based on capillary pressure curves and flow units. Based on the capillary pressure curves, although the carbonate reservoirs can be classified, the relationship between porosity and permeability after classification is not ideal. On the basis of the flow units, the high-precision functional relationship between porosity and permeability after classification can be established. Therefore, the carbonate reservoirs can be quantitatively evaluated based on the classification of flow units. In the dolomite reservoirs, the average absolute error of calculated permeability decreases from 15.13 to 7.44 mD. Similarly, the average absolute error of calculated permeability of limestone reservoirs is reduced from 20.33 to 7.37 mD. Only by accurately characterizing pore structures and classifying reservoir types, reservoir parameters could be calculated accurately. Therefore, characterizing pore structures and classifying reservoir types are very important to accurate evaluation of complex carbonate reservoirs in the Middle East.

  18. Discussion of the feasibility of air injection for enhanced oil recovery in shale oil reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Jia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Air injection in light oil reservoirs has received considerable attention as an effective, improved oil recovery process, based primarily on the success of several projects within the Williston Basin in the United States. The main mechanism of air injection is the oxidation behavior between oxygen and crude oil in the reservoir. Air injection is a good option because of its wide availability and low cost. Whether air injection can be applied to shale is an interesting topic from both economic and technical perspectives. This paper initiates a comprehensive discussion on the feasibility and potential of air injection in shale oil reservoirs based on state-of-the-art literature review. Favorable and unfavorable effects of using air injection are discussed in an analogy analysis on geology, reservoir features, temperature, pressure, and petrophysical, mineral and crude oil properties of shale oil reservoirs. The available data comparison of the historically successful air injection projects with typical shale oil reservoirs in the U.S. is summarized in this paper. Some operation methods to improve air injection performance are recommended. This paper provides an avenue for us to make use of many of the favorable conditions of shale oil reservoirs for implementing air injection, or air huff ‘n’ puff injection, and the low cost of air has the potential to improve oil recovery in shale oil reservoirs. This analysis may stimulate further investigation.

  19. Denver Radium Site -- Operable Unit I closeout report for the US Environmental Protection Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The Denver Radium Site consists of properties in the Denver, Colorado, area having radioactive contamination left from radium processing in the early 1900s. The properties are divided into 11 gaps or operable units to facilitate remedial action of the Site. Operable Unit I is an 8-acre block bounded by Quivas Street to the east, Shoshone Street to the west, West 12th Avenue to the south, and West 13th Avenue to the north. The primary focus of interest concerning investigations of radiological contamination was a radium, vanadium, and uranium processing facility at 1201 Quivas Street owned by the Pittsburgh Radium Company (PRC) from 1925 until 1926. The Radium Ores Company, which was associated with PRC, operated the facility until 1927. A Remedial investigation (RI) of Operable Unit I was prepared by Jacobs Engineering Group and CH 2 M Hill on behalf of EPA in April 1986. The draft Feasibility Study (FS), prepared by Jacobs Engineering Group and CH 2 M Hill, was issued in July 1987 (the final FS is the Community Relations Responsiveness Summary with an errata to the draft, issued September 1987). The RI focused on radium uranium processing residues discarded in the early 1900s. These residues contained uranium, radium, and thorium. EPA s Community Relations Plan involved the community in the decision-making process relating to the remedy to be implemented at Operable Unit X, and promoted communications among interested parties throughout the course of the project. The remedial action alternative preferred by EPA for Operable Unit I was Off-Site Permanent Disposal. Because a permanent disposal facility was not available at the time the Record of Decision was issued in September 1987, EPA selected the On-Site Temporary Containment (capping) with the Off-Site Permanent Disposal alternative

  20. 40 CFR 60.2989 - Does this subpart directly affect incineration unit owners and operators in my State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... incineration unit owners and operators in my State? 60.2989 Section 60.2989 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced... incineration unit owners and operators in my State? (a) No, this subpart does not directly affect incineration...

  1. 40 CFR 62.15145 - What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit? 62.15145 Section 62.15145 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Good Combustion Practices: Operating Requirements § 62.15145 What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit? (a) You...

  2. RCRA facility investigation/corrective measures study work plan for the 100-HR-1 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    Four areas of the Hanford Site (the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas) have been included on the US. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, signed by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), EPA, and the US Department of Energy (DOE), more than 1,000 inactive waste disposal and unplanned release sites on the Hanford Site have been grouped into a number of source and groundwater operable units. These operable units contain contamination in the form of hazardous waste, radioactive/hazardous mixed waste, and other CERCLA hazardous substances. This work plan and the attached supporting project plans establish the operable unit setting and the objectives, procedures, tasks, and schedule for conducting the RCRA facility investigation/corrective measures study (RFI/CMS) for the 100-HR-1 source operable unit. Source operable units include facilities and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of contamination. The 100-HR-3 operable unit underlies the D/DR and H Areas, the 600 Area between them, and the six source operable units these areas contain. The 100-HR-3 operable unit includes all contamination found in the aquifer soils and water within its boundary. Separate work plans have been initiated for the 100-HR-3 groundwater operable unit (DOE-RL 1992a) and the 100-DR-1 (DOE-RL 1992b) source operable units

  3. An environmental data base for all Hydro-Quebec reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demers, C.

    1988-01-01

    Hydro-Quebec has created two management positions specifically for reservoirs, namely Reservoir Ecology Advisor and Reservoir Management Advisor. To assist management decisions, a means was required of bringing together all existing environmental information for each reservoir operated by Hydro-Quebec, including storage reservoirs, auxiliary reservoirs and forebays. A relational database using Reflex software was developed on a network of Macintosh computers. The database contains five blocks of information: general information, and physical, physiochemical, biologic and socioeconomic characteristics for each reservoir. Data will be collected on over 100 sites, and the tool will form the basis for developing a medium-range study program on reservoir ecology. The program must take into account the physical, biological and socioeconomic aspects of the environment, as well as the concerns of management personnel operating the reservoirs, the local population, reservoir users, and various government departments. 2 figs

  4. Final environmental statement related to the operation of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2: (Docket Nos. 50-445 and 50-446)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of operating licenses to the Texas Utilities Generating Company for the startup and operation of Units 1 and 2 of the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station located on Squaw Creek Reservoir in Somervell County, Texas, about 7 km north-northeast of Glen Rose, Texas, and about 65 km southwest of Fort Worth in north-central Texas. The information in this environmental statement represents the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station pursuant to the guidelines of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and 10 CFR Part 51 of the Commission's Regulations. After receiving an application to construct this station, the staff carried out a review of impact that would occur during its construction and operation. This evaluation was issued as a Final Environmental Statement -- Construction Phase. After this environmental review, a safety review, an evaluation by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, and public hearings in Glen Rose, Texas, the US Atomic Energy Commission (now US Nuclear Regulatory Commission) issued construction permits for the construction of Units 1 and 2 of the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station. 16 figs., 34 tabs

  5. Hydrologic resources management program and underground test area operable unit fy 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D. F., LLNL

    1998-05-01

    This report present the results of FY 1997 technical studies conducted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program (HRMP) and Underground Test Area Operable Unit (UGTA). The HRMP is sponsored by the US Department of Energy to assess the environmental (radiochemical and hydrologic) consequences of underground nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site.

  6. Use of the LITEE Lorn Manufacturing Case Study in a Senior Chemical Engineering Unit Operations Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nithin Susan; Abulencia, James Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the effectiveness of incorporating the Laboratory for Innovative Technology and Engineering Education (LITEE) Lorn Manufacturing case into a senior level chemical engineering unit operations course at Manhattan College. The purpose of using the case study is to demonstrate the relevance of ethics to chemical engineering…

  7. Ambiguity in Units and the Referents: Two Cases in Rational Number Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathouz, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    I explore the impact of ambiguous referral to the unit on understanding of decimal and fraction operations during episodes in two different mathematics courses for pre-service teachers (PSTs). In one classroom, the instructor introduces a rectangular area diagram to help the PSTs visualize decimal multiplication. A transcript from this classroom…

  8. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-NR-2 Operable Unit. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This qualitative risk assessment provides information about the 100- NR-2 Groundwater Operable Unit of the Hanford reservation. Topics discussed in this report are: data evaluation; human health risk assessment overview; ecological evaluations; summary of uncertainty; results of both the ecological and human health evaluations; toxicity assessment; risk characterization; and a summary of contaminants of potential concern

  9. Limited field investigation report for the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) was conducted to optimize the use of interim remedial measures (IRM) for expediting clean up while maintaining a technically sound and cost-effective program. The 100-KR-4 Operable Unit is one of four operable units associated with the 100 K Area. Operable units KR-1, KR-2 and KR-3 address contaminant sources while 100-KR-4 addresses contamination present in the underlying groundwater. The IRM decision process for groundwater operable units is based on three aspects: (1) Is the concentration greater than Hanford background? (2) Does the concentration present a medium or high human-health risk? (3) Does the concentration exceed an ecologically based applicable, relevant and appropriate requirements (ARAR) or present an environmental hazard quotient > I? The primary methods of investigation used during this LFI were the installation of monitoring wells and sampling of groundwater. The samples collected from the groundwater and soils were submitted for laboratory analysis. Boreholes were surveyed for radiological contamination using downhole geophysical techniques to further delineate the location and degree of contamination. All soil samples were screened to ascertain the presence of volatile organic compounds and radionuclides. Analytical data were subjected to validation; all first round and a minimum of 10% of subsequent round data were validated

  10. Donald C. Cook Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1. Annual operating report for 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The unit was paralleled to the grid 83.1 percent of the time and 7,073,200 MWH gross was generated. There were six scheduled outages and 14 forced outages/load reductions. Information is presented concerning operations, shutdowns, power reductions, inservice maintenance, personnel radiation exposures, fuel history, and facility changes

  11. Storm water control plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the erosion and sediment control, storm water management, maintenance, and reporting and record keeping practices to be employed during Phase II of the remediation project for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) Operable Unit

  12. A Moveable Feast--A Progressive Approach to the Unit Operations Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Wm. Curtis, Jr.; Hammond, Karl D.; Laurence, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe an alternative format for the senior laboratory in which students are allowed--indeed, expected--to communicate with previous groups and build on their results. The effect is a unit operations laboratory in which students are empowered to propose the experiments they wish to do and in which the cumulative experience of the…

  13. Interim Action Proposed Plan for the Chemicals, Metals, and Pesticides (CMP) Pits Operable Unit; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, J.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this Interim Action Proposed Plan (IAPP) is to describe the preferred interim remedial action for addressing the Chemicals, Metals, and Pesticides (CMP) Pits Operable Unit and to provide an opportunity for public input into the remedial action selection process

  14. Limited field investigation report for the 100-DR-1 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-DR-1 Source Operable Unite LFI and the associated qualitative risk assessment (QRA), and makes recommendations on the continued candidacy of high-priority sites for interim remedial measures (IRM). The results and recommendations presented in this report are generally independent of future land use scenarios. The 100-DR-1 Operable Unit is one of four operable units associated with the 100 D/DR Area at the Hanford Site. The 100-DR-1 Operable Unit encompasses approximately 1.5 km 2 (0.59 mi 2 ) and is located immediately adjacent to the Columbia River shoreline. In general, it contains waste facilities associated with the original plant facilities constructed to support D Reactor facilities, as well as cooling water retention basin systems for both D and DR Reactors. The 100-DR-1 LFI began the investigative phase of the remedial investigation for a select number of high-priority sites. The LFI was performed to provide additional data needed to support selection, design and implementation of IRM, if needed. The LFI included data compilation, nonintrusive investigations, intrusive investigations, summarization of 100 Area aggregate studies, and data evaluation

  15. NSSS design and cycle 1 operating history data for Arkansas Nuclear One, Unit-2. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, P.A.

    1981-03-01

    This report contains design and cycle 1 operating data for the Arkansas Nuclear One, Unit-2 nuclear steam supply system. The design data include descriptions of the reactor core, reactor coolant system, and control systems which are a part of the nuclear steam supply system. Operating history data are provided for the period of December 1978 through January 1980. The most important operating history data provided include reactor power, cumulative fuel burnup, control rod position, primary coolant temperature, and a series of power distribution state points

  16. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-HR-3 groundwater operable unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukelich, S.E. [Golder Associates, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-09-22

    This report provides the qualitative risk assessment for the 100-HR-3 operable unit on the Hanford Reservation. 100-HR-3 is a ground water unit. The purpose of the QRA at the 100-HR-3 operable unit is to focus on a predefined set of human and environmental exposure scenarios in order to provides sufficient information that will assist the Tri-Party signatories (Washington State Department of Ecology, EPA and US DOE) in making defensible decisions on the necessity of Interim Remedial Measures. Frequent- and occasional-use exposure scenarios are evaluated in the human health risk assessment to provide bounding estimates of risk. The ecological risk assessment consists of an evaluation of the risks to riparian and aquatic receptors which live in or near the Columbia River.

  17. Remedial investigation for the 200-BP-1 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckmaster, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, contains over 1500 identified waste sites that will be characterized and remediated over the next 30 years. In support of the ''Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order,'' the US Department of Energy has initiated a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 RI is the first Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) investigation on the Hanford Site that involves drilling into highly radioactive and chemically contaminated soils. The initial phase of the site characterization is oriented toward determining the nature and extent of any contamination present in the vicinity of the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The major focus of the Phase I RI is the drilling and sampling of 10 inactive waste disposal units which received low level radioactive liquid waste

  18. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-HR-3 groundwater operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukelich, S.E.

    1994-01-01

    This report provides the qualitative risk assessment for the 100-HR-3 operable unit on the Hanford Reservation. 100-HR-3 is a ground water unit. The purpose of the QRA at the 100-HR-3 operable unit is to focus on a predefined set of human and environmental exposure scenarios in order to provides sufficient information that will assist the Tri-Party signatories (Washington State Department of Ecology, EPA and US DOE) in making defensible decisions on the necessity of Interim Remedial Measures. Frequent- and occasional-use exposure scenarios are evaluated in the human health risk assessment to provide bounding estimates of risk. The ecological risk assessment consists of an evaluation of the risks to riparian and aquatic receptors which live in or near the Columbia River

  19. Operating experience gained during the copper oxide plugging incident in Koeberg unit 1 generator stator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellor, S.P.; Matthee, F.W. [ESKOM, Koeberg Nuclear Power Station (South Africa)

    2002-07-01

    In June 1999 Koeberg's unit 1 started to experience adverse operating conditions which were later ascribed to blockages in the hollow conductors of the generator stator. These blockages were attributed to copper oxide plugs which developed progressively during the following year and culminated in reduced power operation. Many attempts were made to address the plugging by implementing various off-line and on-line cleaning processes. Subsequent to a successful on-line cleaning operation, the unit was returned to full power and the chemistry regime for the stator cooling water system was changed to allow for operation at an elevated pH. This paper discusses Koeberg's experience with copper oxide blockages, describes the initial indications of the problem and the impact on the operating parameters. The remainder of the paper focuses on the actions taken to address the deteriorating situation and the different cleaning methods implemented to remove the copper oxide deposits. The paper concludes with the current status of the unit 1 generator stator and the lessons learned during the resolution of this problem. (authors)

  20. Operating experience gained during the copper oxide plugging incident in Koeberg unit 1 generator stator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellor, S.P.; Matthee, F.W.

    2002-01-01

    In June 1999 Koeberg's unit 1 started to experience adverse operating conditions which were later ascribed to blockages in the hollow conductors of the generator stator. These blockages were attributed to copper oxide plugs which developed progressively during the following year and culminated in reduced power operation. Many attempts were made to address the plugging by implementing various off-line and on-line cleaning processes. Subsequent to a successful on-line cleaning operation, the unit was returned to full power and the chemistry regime for the stator cooling water system was changed to allow for operation at an elevated pH. This paper discusses Koeberg's experience with copper oxide blockages, describes the initial indications of the problem and the impact on the operating parameters. The remainder of the paper focuses on the actions taken to address the deteriorating situation and the different cleaning methods implemented to remove the copper oxide deposits. The paper concludes with the current status of the unit 1 generator stator and the lessons learned during the resolution of this problem. (authors)

  1. Level 1 shutdown and low power operation of Mochovce NPP, Unit 1, Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halada, P.; Cillik, I.; Stojka, T.; Kuzma, M.; Prochaska, J.; Vrtik, L.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents general approach, used methods and form of documentation of the results that have been applied within the shutdown and low power PSA (SPSA) study for Mochovce NPP, Unit 1, Slovakia. The SPSA project was realized by VUJE Trnava Inc., Slovakia in 2001-2002 years. The Level 1 SPSA study for Mochovce NPP Unit 1 covers internal events as well as internal (fires, floods and heavy load drop) and external (aircraft crash, extreme meteorological conditions, seismic event and influence of surrounding industry) hazards. Mochovce NPP consists of two operating units equipped with VVER 440/V213 reactors safety upgraded before construction finishing and operation start. 87 safety measures based on VVER 440 operational experience and international mission insights were implemented to enhance its operational and nuclear safety. The SPSA relates to full power PSA (FPSA) as a continuation of the effort to create a harmonized level 1 PSA model for all operational modes of the plant with the goal to use it for further purposes as follows: Real Time Risk Monitor, Maintenance Optimization, Technical Specifications Optimization, Living PSA. (author)

  2. Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 200-UP-1 groundwater Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittreich, C.D.

    1994-05-01

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump and treat testing at the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. This treatability test plan has been prepared in response to an agreement between the US Department of Energy, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology, as documented in Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1989a) Change Control Form M-13-93-03 (Ecology et al. 1994). The agreement also requires that, following completion of the activities described in this test plan, a 200-UP-1 Operable Unit interim remedial measure (IRM) proposed plan be developed for use in preparing an interim action record of decision (ROD). The IRM Proposed Plan will be supported by the results of the testing described in this treatability test plan, as well as by other 200-UP-1 Operable Unit activities (e.g., limited field investigation, development of a qualitative risk assessment). Once issued, the interim action ROD will specify the interim action for groundwater contamination at the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. The approach discussed in this treatability test plan is to conduct a pilot-scale pump and treat test for the contaminant plume associated with the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. Primary contaminants of concern are uranium and technetium-99; the secondary contaminant of concern is nitrate. The pilot-scale treatability testing presented in this test plan has as its primary purpose to assess the performance of aboveground treatment systems with respect to the ability to remove the primary contaminants in groundwater withdrawn from the contaminant plume

  3. Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 200-BP-5 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump and treat testing at the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. This treatability test plan has been prepared in response to an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology), as documented in Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement, Ecology et al. 1989a) Change Control Form M-13-93-03 (Ecology et al. 1994) and a recent 200 NPL Agreement Change Control Form (Appendix A). The agreement also requires that, following completion of the activities described in this test plan, a 200-BP-5 Operable Unit Interim Remedial Measure (IRM) Proposed Plan be developed for use in preparing an Interim Action Record of Decision (ROD). The IRM Proposed Plan will be supported by the results of this treatability test plan, as well as by other 200-BP-5 Operable Unit activities (e.g., development of a qualitative risk assessment). Once issued, the Interim Action ROD will specify the interim action(s) for groundwater contamination at the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. The treatability test approach is to conduct a pilot-scale pump and treat test for each of the two contaminant plumes associated with the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. Primary contaminants of concern are 99 Tc and 60 Co for underwater affected by past discharges to the 216-BY Cribs, and 90 Sr, 239/240 Pu, and Cs for groundwater affected by past discharges to the 216-B-5 Reverse Well. The purpose of the pilot-scale treatability testing presented in this testplan is to provide the data basis for preparing an IRM Proposed Plan. To achieve this objective, treatability testing must: Assess the performance of groundwater pumping with respect to the ability to extract a significant amount of the primary contaminant mass present in the two contaminant plumes

  4. Limited field investigation report for the 100-HR-3 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) was conducted to assess the applicability of interim remedial measures (IRM) for reducing human health and environmental risks within the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Unit. The 100-HR-3 Operable Unit is comprised of three subareas; the 100 D Area, the 100 H Area and those portions of the 600 Area between the two reactor areas. The operable unit is one of seven operable units associated with the 100 D and H Areas. Operable units 100-DR-1, 100-DR-2, 100-DR-3, 100-HR-1, 100-HR-2 and 100-IU-4 address contaminant sources while 100-HR-3 addresses contamination present in the underlying groundwater. The primary method of field investigation used during this LFI was the installation and sampling of monitoring wells. Samples were collected from the groundwater and soils, and submitted for laboratory analysis. Boreholes were surveyed for radiological contamination using downhole geophysical techniques to further delineate the locations and levels of contaminants. All samples were screened to ascertain the presence of volatile organic compounds and radionuclides. Analytical data were subjected to validation; all round one, two and three and a minimum of 10% of round four data associated with the LFI were validated. A screening method was used to identify contaminants of potential concern (COPC). This screening method eliminated from further consideration, constituents that were below background. Constituents which are considered non-toxic to humans were eliminated from the human health evaluation. Data consistency and blank contamination were also evaluated in the screening process. These COPC were then evaluated further in the qualitative risk assessment (QRA). A human health QRA was performed using conservative (maximum equilibrated contaminant levels from the LFI) analyses

  5. Limited field investigation report for the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit investigative phase and the associated qualitative risk assessment (QRA). The 100-HR-2 Operable Unit contains solid waste burial grounds, an ash pit, bum pits, electrical facilities, septic systems, and support facilities. All known and suspected areas of contamination were classified as solid waste burial grounds or low-priority waste sites based on the collective knowledge of the operable unit managers (representatives from the US Department of Energy [DOE], the US Environmental Protection Agency [EPA], and Washington Department of Ecology [Ecology]) during the preparation of the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit work plan (DOE/RL 1993f). Solid waste burial grounds were judged to pose sufficient risk(s), through one or more pathways, to require evaluation for an interim remedial measure (IRM) as per the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy (HPPS) (DOE/RL 1991) and negotiations with DOE, EPA, and Ecology. An IRM is intended to achieve remedies that are likely to lead to a final record of decision. Low-priority sites are those judged not to pose significant risk to require the streamlined evaluation. There were six low-priority waste sites and seven solid waste burial grounds identified. The investigative phase was conducted in accordance with the RCRA Facility Investigation/Corrective Measures Study Work Plan for the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit (DOE/RL 1993f). The QRA was performed in accordance with the Hanford Site Baseline Risk Assessment Methodology (DOE/RL 1993b) and the recommendations incorporate the strategies of the HPPS. The purpose of this report is to: (1) provide a summary of site investigative activities; (2) refine the conceptual exposure model (as needed); (3) identify chemical- and location-specific corrective action requirements; and (4) provide a human health and ecological QRA associated with solid waste burial grounds

  6. Soil washing physical separations test procedure - 300-FF-1 operable unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belden, R.D.

    1993-10-08

    This procedure provides the operations approach, a field sampling plan, and laboratory procedures for a soil washing test to be conducted by Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc. (ART) in the 300-FF-1 area at the Hanford site. The {open_quotes}Quality Assurance Project Plan for the Soil Washing Physical Separations Test, 300-FF-1 Operable Unit,{close_quotes} Hanford, Washington, Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc., February 1994 (QAPP) is provided in a separate document that presents the procedural and organizational guidelines for this test. This document describes specifications, responsibilities, and general procedures to be followed to conduct physical separation soil treatability tests in the North Process Pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site. These procedures are based on the {open_quotes}300-FF-1 Physical Separations CERCLA Treatability Test Plan, DOE/RL 92-2l,{close_quotes} (DOE-RL 1993).

  7. Soil washing physical separations test procedure - 300-FF-1 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belden, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    This procedure provides the operations approach, a field sampling plan, and laboratory procedures for a soil washing test to be conducted by Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc. (ART) in the 300-FF-1 area at the Hanford site. The open-quotes Quality Assurance Project Plan for the Soil Washing Physical Separations Test, 300-FF-1 Operable Unit,close quotes Hanford, Washington, Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc., February 1994 (QAPP) is provided in a separate document that presents the procedural and organizational guidelines for this test. This document describes specifications, responsibilities, and general procedures to be followed to conduct physical separation soil treatability tests in the North Process Pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site. These procedures are based on the open-quotes 300-FF-1 Physical Separations CERCLA Treatability Test Plan, DOE/RL 92-2l,close quotes (DOE-RL 1993)

  8. Aging Reservoirs in a Changing Climate: Examining Storage Loss of Large Reservoirs and Variability of Sedimentation Rate in a Dominant Cropland Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, V.; Kastens, J.; deNoyelles, F.; Huggins, D.; Martinko, E.

    2015-12-01

    Dam construction has multiple environmental and hydrological consequences including impacts on upstream and downstream ecosystems, water chemistry, and streamflow. Behind the dam the reservoir can trap sediment from the stream and fill over time. With increasing population and drinking and irrigation water demands, particularly in the areas that have highly variable weather and extended drought periods such as the United States Great Plains, reservoir sedimentation escalates water management concerns. Under nearly all projected climate change scenarios we expect that reservoir water storage and management will come under intense scrutiny because of the extensive use of interstate river compacts in the Great Plains. In the state of Kansas, located in the Great Plains, bathymetric surveys have been completed during the last decade for many major lakes by the Kansas Biological Survey, Kansas Water Office, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. In this paper, we studied the spatial and temporal changes of reservoir characteristics including sedimentation yield, depletion rate, and storage capacity loss for 24 federally-operated reservoirs in Kansas. These reservoirs have an average age of about 50 years and collectively have lost approximately 15% of their original capacity, with the highest annual observed single-reservoir depletion rate of 0.84% and sedimentation yield of 1,685 m3 km-2 yr-1.

  9. Remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 100-KR-4 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    Four areas of the Hanford Site (the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas) have been included on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). This work plan and the attached supporting project plans establish the operable unit setting and the objectives, procedures, tasks, and schedule for conducting the CERCLA remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 100-KR-4 operable unit. The 100-K Area consists of the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit and three source operable units. The 100-KR-4 operable unit includes all contamination found in the aquifer soils and water beneath the 100-K Area. Source operable units include facilities and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of contamination

  10. Remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 100-KR-4 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    Four areas of the Hanford Site (the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas) have been included on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). This work plan and the attached supporting project plans establish the operable unit setting and the objectives, procedures, tasks, and schedule for conducting the CERCLA remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 100-KR-4 operable unit. The 100-K Area consists of the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit and three source operable units. The 100-KR-4 operable unit includes all contamination found in the aquifer soils and water beneath the 100-K Area. Source operable units include facilities and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of contamination.

  11. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 3. Appendix E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document contains Appendix E: Toxicity Information and Uncertainty Analysis, description of methods, from the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

  12. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 4. Appendix F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This section contains ecotoxicological profiles for the COPECs for the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The ecotoxicological information is presented for only those endpoints for which the chemicals are COPECs. The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

  13. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 4. Appendix F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This section contains ecotoxicological profiles for the COPECs for the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The ecotoxicological information is presented for only those endpoints for which the chemicals are COPECs. The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include 137 Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and 137 Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River

  14. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1. Main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This is the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

  15. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 3. Appendix E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This document contains Appendix E: Toxicity Information and Uncertainty Analysis, description of methods, from the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include 137 Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and 137 Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River

  16. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1. Main text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This is the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include 137 Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and 137 Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River

  17. Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2. Semiannual operating report No. 10, January--June 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Unit 1 operated at an average capacity factor of 65.2 percent with a net efficiency of 31.41 percent. Unit 2 operted at an average capacity factor of 88.6 lpercent with a net efficiency of 32.28 percent. Unit 1 was essentially base loaded while Unit 2 operated on load follow. Information is presented concerning power generation, shutdowns, corrective maintenance, chemistry and radiochemistry, occupational radiation exposure, release of radioactive materials, abnormal occurrences, and environmental monitoring. (FS)

  18. Emergency operating instruction improvements at San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station Units 2 and 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trillo, M.W.; Smith, B.H.

    1989-01-01

    In late 1987, San Onofre nuclear generating station (SONGS) began an extensive upgrade of the units 2 and 3 emergency operating instructions (EOIs). The original intent of this program was to incorporate revised generic guidance and to correct problems that were identified by operators. While this program was in progress, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) conducted a series of audits of emergency operating procedure (EOP) development and maintenance programs as 16 commercial nuclear facilities in the United States. These audits included four stations with Combustion Engineering-designed nuclear steam supply systems. (One of these audits included a review of preupgrade SONGS units 2 and 3 EOIs.) Significant industrywide comments resulted from these audits. The NRC has stated its intent to continue the review and audit of EOIs and the associated maintenance programs at all US commercial nuclear facilities. The units 2 and 3 EOI upgrade program developed procedural improvements and procedural program maintenance improvements that address many of the existing audit comments that have been received by the industry. Other resulting improvements may be useful in minimizing NRC comments in future such audits. Specific improvements are discussed. The upgrade program resulted in benefits that were not originally anticipated. The results of this program can be of significant use by other utilities in addressing the industrywide concerns that have been raised in recent NRC audits of EOP development and maintenance programs

  19. Reservoir floodplains support distinct fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Wigen, S. L.; Dagel, Jonah D.

    2014-01-01

    Reservoirs constructed on floodplain rivers are unique because the upper reaches of the impoundment may include extensive floodplain environments. Moreover, reservoirs that experience large periodic water level fluctuations as part of their operational objectives seasonally inundate and dewater floodplains in their upper reaches, partly mimicking natural inundations of river floodplains. In four flood control reservoirs in Mississippi, USA, we explored the dynamics of connectivity between reservoirs and adjacent floodplains and the characteristics of fish assemblages that develop in reservoir floodplains relative to those that develop in reservoir bays. Although fish species richness in floodplains and bays were similar, species composition differed. Floodplains emphasized fish species largely associated with backwater shallow environments, often resistant to harsh environmental conditions. Conversely, dominant species in bays represented mainly generalists that benefit from the continuous connectivity between the bay and the main reservoir. Floodplains in the study reservoirs provided desirable vegetated habitats at lower water level elevations, earlier in the year, and more frequently than in bays. Inundating dense vegetation in bays requires raising reservoir water levels above the levels required to reach floodplains. Therefore, aside from promoting distinct fish assemblages within reservoirs and helping promote diversity in regulated rivers, reservoir floodplains are valued because they can provide suitable vegetated habitats for fish species at elevations below the normal pool, precluding the need to annually flood upland vegetation that would inevitably be impaired by regular flooding. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 100-FR-3 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    Four areas of the Hanford Site (the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas) have been included on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Figure 1-1 shows the location of these areas. Under the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement, Ecology et al. 1990a), signed by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), EPA, and the US Department of Energy (DOE), more than 1,000 inactive waste disposal and unplanned release sites on the Hanford Site have been grouped into a number of source and groundwater operable units. These operable units contain contamination in the form of hazardous waste, radioactive/hazardous mixed waste, and other CERCLA hazardous substances. This work plan and the attached supporting project plans establish the operable unit setting and the objectives, procedures, tasks, and schedule for conducting the CERCLA remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 100-FR-3 operable unit. The 100-K Area consists of the 100-FR-3 groundwater operable unit and two source operable units. The 100-FR-3 operable unit includes all contamination found in the aquifer soils and water beneath the 100-F Area. Source operable units include facilities and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of contamination. A separate work plan has been initiated for the 100-FR-1 source operable unit (DOE-RL 1992a)

  1. Remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 100-FR-1 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    Four areas of the Hanford Site (the 100, 200,300, and 1100 Areas) have been included on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement, Ecology et al. 1990a), signed by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), EPA, and the US Department of Energy (DOE), more than 1,000 inactive waste disposal and unplanned release sites on the Hanford Site have been grouped into a number of source and groundwater operable units. These operable units contain contamination in the form of hazardous waste, radioactive/hazardous mixed waste, and other CERCLA hazardous substances. This work plan and the attached supporting project plans establish the objectives, procedures, tasks, and schedule for conducting the CERCLA remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 100-FR-1 operable unit. The 100-FR-1 source operable unit is one of two source operable units in the 100-F Area. Source operable units include facilities and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of hazardous substance contamination. The groundwater affected or potentially affected by the entire 100-F Area is considered as a separate operable unit, the 100-FR-3 groundwater operable unit. A separate work plan has been initiated for the 100-FR-3 operable unit (DOE/RL 1992a)

  2. Surry Power Station, Units 1 and 2. Semiannual operating report, July--December 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Net electric power generated by Surry Unit 1 was 6,930,353 MWH with the generator on line for 10,417.7 hours. Net electric power generated by Unit 2 was 5,699,299 MWH with the generator on line for 8,384.2 hours. Information is presented concerning operation, radioactive effluent releases, solid radioactive wastes, fuel shipments, occurrences in which temperature limitations on the condenser cooling water discharge were exceeded, changes in station organization, occupational personnel radiation exposure, nonradiological monitoring including thermal, physical, and biological programs, and the radiological environmental monitoring program. (U.S.)

  3. Retrofitting and operation solid radwaste system Dresden Station, Units 2 and 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testa, J.; Homer, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    Units 2 and 3 at Dresden Station are twin 794 MW (net) BWR units that became operational in 1970 and 1971. The waste streams are typical of BWR stations, namely, bead resin and filter sludge (powdered resins and diatomaceous earth), evaporator concentrate containing approximately 25% dissolved solids and dry active waste. The original solid radwaste system utilized cement for solidification in open top 55 gallon drums. Remote handling was provided by means of a monorail with moving platforms supporting the drums. A relatively light-weight compactor was used to compact DAW into 55 gallon drums. Difficulties were experienced with this system

  4. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-FR-1 source operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corporation, I.T.

    1994-08-01

    This report provides the Qualitative risk assessment (QRA) for the waste sites associated with the 100-FR-1 Operable Unit. The QRA is an evaluation of risk for a predefined set of human and ecological exposure scenarios. It is not intended to replace or be a substitute for a baseline risk assessment. The QRA is streamlined to consider only two human health scenarios (frequent-and occasional-use) with four exposure pathways (soil ingestion, fugitive dust inhalation, inhalation of volatile organics, and external radiation exposure) and a limited ecological evaluation. The use of these scenarios and pathways was agreed to by the 100 Area Tri-Party unit managers

  5. Indian Point Station, Unit 1 and 2. Semiannual operating report No. 24, July--December 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Net electrical power generated by Unit 1 was 519,130 MWH with the reactor critical for 2,400.39 hours and the generator on line for 2,316.14 hours. Unit 2 generated 2,427,828 MWH electrical power, was critical for 3,590.31 hours and the generator was on line for 3,485.41 hours. Operations and maintenance are summarized. Information is presented concerning radioactive effluent releases, occupational personnel radiation protection, primary coolant chemistry, changes, tests, and experiments. Environmental radioactivity is discussed. (U.S.)

  6. Commercial operation and outage experience of ABWR at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa units Nos. 6 and 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anahara, N.; Yamada, M.; Kataoka, H.

    2000-01-01

    Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station Units Nos. 6 and 7, the world's first ABWRs (Advanced Boiling Water Reactor), started commercial operation on November 7, 1996 and July 2, 1997, respectively, and continued their commercial operation with a high capacity factor, low occupational radiation exposure and radioactive waste. Units 6 and 7 were in their 3rd cycle operation until 25th April 1999 and 1st November 1999, respectively. Thermal efficiency was 35.4-35.8% (design thermal efficiency: 34.5%) during these period, demonstrating better performance than that of BWR-5 (design thermal efficiency: 33.4%). Nos. 6 and 7 have experienced 2 annual outages. The first outage of unit No. 6 started on November 20, 1997 and was completed within 61 days (including 6 New Year holidays), and the second outage started on March 13, 1999 and was completed within 44 days. The first annual outage of unit No. 7 started on May 27, 1998, earlier than it would normally have been, to avoid an annual outage during the summer, and was completed within 55 days, and the second outage started on September 18th, 1999 and was completed within 45 days, All annual outages were carried out within a very short time period without any severe malfunctions, including newly designed ABWR systems and equipment. As the first outage in Japan, 55 days is a very short period, despite the fact that the Nos. 6 and 7 are the first ABWRs in the world and the largest capacity units in Japan. The total occupational radiation exposure of No. 6 was 300 man-mSv (1st outage) and 331 man-mSv (2nd outage). That of Unit 7 was 153 man-mSv (1st outage) Those of unit No. 6 were at the same level as those of unit No. 3, which is the latest design 1100MW(e) BWR-5. That of unit No. 7 was the lowest ever at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power station. The drums of radioactive waste discharged during the annual outage numbered 54 (1st outage) for No. 6 and 62 (1st outage) for No. 7, which was less than the design target of 100

  7. Automated processing of whole blood units: operational value and in vitro quality of final blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Marisa; Algora, Manuel; Garcia-Sanchez, Félix; Vico, Santiago; Rodriguez, Eva; Perez, Sonia; Barbolla, Luz

    2012-01-01

    The Community Transfusion Centre in Madrid currently processes whole blood using a conventional procedure (Compomat, Fresenius) followed by automated processing of buffy coats with the OrbiSac system (CaridianBCT). The Atreus 3C system (CaridianBCT) automates the production of red blood cells, plasma and an interim platelet unit from a whole blood unit. Interim platelet unit are pooled to produce a transfusable platelet unit. In this study the Atreus 3C system was evaluated and compared to the routine method with regards to product quality and operational value. Over a 5-week period 810 whole blood units were processed using the Atreus 3C system. The attributes of the automated process were compared to those of the routine method by assessing productivity, space, equipment and staffing requirements. The data obtained were evaluated in order to estimate the impact of implementing the Atreus 3C system in the routine setting of the blood centre. Yield and in vitro quality of the final blood components processed with the two systems were evaluated and compared. The Atreus 3C system enabled higher throughput while requiring less space and employee time by decreasing the amount of equipment and processing time per unit of whole blood processed. Whole blood units processed on the Atreus 3C system gave a higher platelet yield, a similar amount of red blood cells and a smaller volume of plasma. These results support the conclusion that the Atreus 3C system produces blood components meeting quality requirements while providing a high operational efficiency. Implementation of the Atreus 3C system could result in a large organisational improvement.

  8. An analysis of post-traumatic stress symptoms in United States Air Force drone operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelle, Wayne; Goodman, Tanya; Reardon, Laura; Thompson, William

    2014-06-01

    Remotely piloted aircraft (RPA), commonly referred to as "drones," have emerged over the past decade as an innovative warfighting tool. Given there is a paucity of empirical research assessing drone operators, the purpose of this study was to assess for the prevalence of PTSD symptoms among this cohort. Of the 1084 United States Air Force (USAF) drone operators that participated, a total of 4.3% endorsed a pattern of symptoms of moderate to extreme level of severity meeting criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-4th edition. The incidence of PTSD among USAF drone operators in this study was lower than rates of PTSD (10-18%) among military personnel returning from deployment but higher than incidence rates (less than 1%) of USAF drone operators reported in electronic medical records. Although low PTSD rates may be promising, limitations to this study are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Experiments with Interaction between the National Water Model and the Reservoir System Simulation Model: A Case Study of Russian River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Johnson, L.; Cifelli, R.; Chandra, C. V.; Gochis, D.; McCreight, J. L.; Yates, D. N.; Read, L.; Flowers, T.; Cosgrove, B.

    2017-12-01

    NOAA National Water Center (NWC) in partnership with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and other academic partners have produced operational hydrologic predictions for the nation using a new National Water Model (NWM) that is based on the community WRF-Hydro modeling system since the summer of 2016 (Gochis et al., 2015). The NWM produces a variety of hydrologic analysis and prediction products, including gridded fields of soil moisture, snowpack, shallow groundwater levels, inundated area depths, evapotranspiration as well as estimates of river flow and velocity for approximately 2.7 million river reaches. Also included in the NWM are representations for more than 1,200 reservoirs which are linked into the national channel network defined by the USGS NHDPlusv2.0 hydrography dataset. Despite the unprecedented spatial and temporal coverage of the NWM, many known deficiencies exist, including the representation of lakes and reservoirs. This study addresses the implementation of a reservoir assimilation scheme through coupling of a reservoir simulation model to represent the influence of managed flows. We examine the use of the reservoir operations to dynamically update lake/reservoir storage volume states, characterize flow characteristics of river reaches flowing into and out of lakes and reservoirs, and incorporate enhanced reservoir operating rules for the reservoir model options within the NWM. Model experiments focus on a pilot reservoir domain-Lake Mendocino, CA, and its contributing watershed, the East Fork Russian River. This reservoir is modeled using United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) HEC-ResSim developed for application to examine forecast informed reservoir operations (FIRO) in the Russian River basin.

  10. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Zirczy, Helena H.

    2000-05-24

    The objective of this Class 3 project was to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, was completed this year, and Phase 2 began. The project is focused on East Ford field, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit. A CO{sub 2} flood is being conducted in the unit, and this flood is the Phase 2 demonstration for the project.

  11. RCRA facility investigation/corrective measures study work plan for the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    The 200-UP-2 Operable Unit is one of two source operable units at the U Plant Aggregate Area at the Hanford Site. Source operable units include waste management units and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of radioactive and/or hazardous substance contamination. This work plan, while maintaining the title RFI/CMS, presents the background and direction for conducting a limited field investigation in the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit, which is the first part of the process leading to final remedy selection. This report discusses the background, prior recommendations, goals, organization, and quality assurance for the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit Work Plan. The discussion begins with a summary of the regulatory framework and the role of the work plan. The specific recommendations leading into the work plan are then addressed. Next, the goals and organization of the report are discussed. Finally, the quality assurance and supporting documentation are presented

  12. Dose rate evaluation of workers on the operation floor in Fukushima-Daiichi Unit 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Kaoru; Kurosawa, Masahiko; Shirai, Keisuke; Matsuoka, Ippei; Mukaida, Naoki

    2017-09-01

    At Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3, installation of a fuel handling machine is planned to support the removal of spent fuel. The dose rates at the workplace were calculated based on the source distribution measured using a collimator in order to confirm that the dose rates on the operation floor were within a manageable range. It was confirmed that the accuracy of the source distribution was C/M = 1.0-2.4. These dose rates were then used to plan the work on the operation floor.

  13. Ageing Management of the reactor internals in Belgian nuclear units in view of Long Term Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, R.; Bertolis, D.; Vissers, S.

    2012-01-01

    The reactor internals support the reactor core, distribute the coolant flow through the core, and guide and protect the rod control cluster assemblies and in-core instrumentation. Their integrity must be guaranteed in all operating and accident conditions. They are exposed to specific degradation mechanisms linked to the intense neutron irradiation, like Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC) or potentially void swelling, in addition to more classical mechanisms like fatigue, wear and stress corrosion cracking. A rigorous follow-up of in-service degradation and an effective ageing management is therefore of crucial importance and contributes to the safe and economical operation of nuclear PWR units. (author)

  14. Development of in-situ product removal strategies in biocatalysis applying scaled-down unit operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heintz, Søren; Börner, Tim; Ringborg, Rolf Hoffmeyer

    2017-01-01

    different process steps while operating it as a combined system, giving the possibility to test and characterize the performance of novel process concepts and biocatalysts with minimal influence of inhibitory products. Here the capabilities of performing process development by applying scaled-down unit...... operations are highlighted through a case study investigating the asymmetric synthesis of 1-methyl-3-phenylpropylamine (MPPA) using ω-transaminase, an enzyme in the sub-family of amino transferases (ATAs). An on-line HPLC system was applied to avoid manual sample handling and to semi...

  15. Coordinating bifurcated remediation of soil and groundwater at sites containing multiple operable units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laney, D.F.

    1996-01-01

    On larger and/or more complex sites, remediation of soil and groundwater is sometimes bifurcated. This presents some unique advantages with respect to expedited cleanup of one medium, however, it requires skillful planning and significant forethought to ensure that initial remediation efforts do not preclude some long-term options, and/or unduly influence the subsequent selection of a technology for the other operable units and/or media. this paper examines how the decision to bifurcate should be approached, the various methods of bifurcation, the advantages and disadvantages of bifurcation, and the best methods to build flexibility into the design of initial remediation systems so as to allow for consideration of a fuller range of options for remediation of other operable units and/or media at a later time. Pollutants of concern include: metals; petroleum hydrocarbons; and chlorinated solvents

  16. Steam generator tube integrity requirements and operating experience in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karwoski, K.J.

    2009-01-01

    Steam generator tube integrity is important to the safe operation of pressurized-water reactors. For ensuring tube integrity, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission uses a regulatory framework that is largely performance based. This performance-based framework is supplemented with some prescriptive requirements. The framework recognizes that there are three combinations of tube materials and heat treatments currently used in the United States and that the operating experience depends, in part, on the type of material used. This paper summarizes the regulatory framework for ensuring steam generator tube integrity, it highlights the current status of steam generators, and it highlights some of the steam generator issues and challenges that exist in the United States. (author)

  17. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Reactor Technology Complex Operable Unit 2-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard P. Wells

    2007-01-01

    This Groundwater Monitoring Plan describes the objectives, activities, and assessments that will be performed to support the on-going groundwater monitoring requirements at the Reactor Technology Complex, formerly the Test Reactor Area (TRA). The requirements for groundwater monitoring were stipulated in the Final Record of Decision for Test Reactor Area, Operable Unit 2-13, signed in December 1997. The monitoring requirements were modified by the First Five-Year Review Report for the Test Reactor Area, Operable Unit 2-13, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to focus on those contaminants of concern that warrant continued surveillance, including chromium, tritium, strontium-90, and cobalt-60. Based upon recommendations provided in the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Status Report for 2006, the groundwater monitoring frequency was reduced to annually from twice a year

  18. Development of Regulatory Audit Programs for Wolsong Unit 1 Continued Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hong Key; Nho, Seung Hwan; Song, Myung Ho [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Wolsong Unit 1 (PHWR type) design life expires on November 20, 2010. In relation to it, KHNP submitted its application to get approval of the MEST on December 30, 2009 and KINS is under review to confirm the appropriateness of continued operation. For the comprehensive review of Wolsong Unit 1 continued operation, KINS has developed the review guidelines for PHWR type reactor including a total of 39 aging management program (AMP) items and 7 time limited aging analysis (TLAA) items. Evaluations or calculations to verify the integrity of nuclear components are required for plant specific AMP and TLAA items as well as the ones specified in the guidelines. In this paper, audit calculation programs developed for KINS staff use in reviewing applicant's submitted evaluation results are presented

  19. Computer Drawing Method for Operating Characteristic Curve of PV Power Plant Array Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jianbin

    2018-02-01

    According to the engineering design of large-scale grid-connected photovoltaic power stations and the research and development of many simulation and analysis systems, it is necessary to draw a good computer graphics of the operating characteristic curves of photovoltaic array elements and to propose a good segmentation non-linear interpolation algorithm. In the calculation method, Component performance parameters as the main design basis, the computer can get 5 PV module performances. At the same time, combined with the PV array series and parallel connection, the computer drawing of the performance curve of the PV array unit can be realized. At the same time, the specific data onto the module of PV development software can be calculated, and the good operation of PV array unit can be improved on practical application.

  20. Main problems experienced on diesel generators of French 900 MWe operating units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dredemis, Geoffroy; Jude, Francois [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, Institut de Protection et Surete Nucleaire, Departement d' Analyse de Surete, B.P. No. 6, 92260 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    1986-02-15

    Each unit of all the French nuclear power plant is equipped with two diesel emergency generator sets., For the totality of standards PWRs of 900 MWe, they are identical. We present in this communication the most significative failures met with diesel engines on operating units, such as rupture of fuel injection pipes, breaking of the connecting rods, and cylinder lubrication failures. All these incidents, which affected the emergency power sources of concerned units, had generic characteristics. In view of their potential consequences, it was proceeded in each case to an immediate control of the components concerned of all PWR 900 MWe diesel engines. At the same time, studies were started as to what modifications would permit to solve rapidly each one of the problems met with. (authors)

  1. Start up and commercial operation of Laguna Verde nuclear power plant. Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Ramirez, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    Prior to start up of Laguna Verde nuclear power plant preoperational tests and start tests were performed and they are described in its more eminent aspects. In relation to commercial operation of nuclear station a series of indicator were set to which allow the measurement of performance in unit 1, in areas of plant efficiency and personal safety. Antecedents. Laguna Verde station is located in Alto Lucero municipality in Veracruz state, 70 kilometers north-northeast from port of Veracruz and a 290 kilometers east-northeast from Mexico city. The station consist of two units manufactured by General Electric, with a nuclear system of vapor supply also called boiling water (BWR/5), and with a system turbine-generator manufactured by Mitsubishi. Each unit has a nominal power of 1931 MWt and a level design power of 675 Mwe and a net power of 654 Electric Megawatts

  2. 200-ZP-1 operable unit borehole summary report for FY 1995 and FY 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrach, M.E.

    1996-10-01

    This document details the well construction, sampling, analyses, and geologic character of the Ringold Formation fluvial unit E gravels as encountered in 16 boreholes in the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit. These boreholes were drilled by Water Development Hanford Corporation during fiscal years 1995 and 1996. Two of the sixteen boreholes were abandoned; the remaining 14 boreholes were completed as functioning production and compliance wells. The borehole logs and well summary sheets included as Appendices A and B of this document, respectively, depict and describe the vadose zone stratigraphic units encountered during the course of drilling. Appendix C contains the results of sieve analyses conducted on samples obtained via resonant sonic coring and standard split-spoon methods. The sieve analyses were the driver behind the majority of the well designs. Also, for completeness, Appendices D and E contain the well design calculations and the well development process

  3. Aquatic studies at the 100-HR-3 and 100-NR-1 operable units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushing, C.E.

    1993-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a program to characterize selected aquatic biological populations to determine (1) existing levels of inorganic chemical and radionuclide contamination, and (2) the populations' suitability as indicators of chemical releases during cleanup activities at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Following work plans for the ground-water operable units, lower trophic levels in the aquatic habitat (periphyton and caddisfly larvae) were evaluated for contaminants at the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit and 100-NR-1 Operable Unit. The results were evaluated to determine the need for further sampling. If the results showed no significant contamination compared to upriver levels, sampling would be discontinued. The periphyton community appears to be suitable for determining contamination levels. Baseline concentrations for stable chromium were established and will be useful for comparing samples collected when contaminant release is expected. Concentrations of 60 Co, 90 Sr, and 137 Cs in periphyton were essentially below detectable limits, which will also make this community useful in detecting potential releases of radionuclides during cleanup activities. Levels for both stable chromium and radionuclides were essentially below detection limits for caddisfly larvae. Thus, these organisms may be used to monitor suspected contaminant releases from cleanup activities; if concentrations exceed detection limits, they may be related to these activities. Two candidate threatened and endangered species of molluscs occur in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. These are the shortface lanx (Fisherola nuttalli), which is a Washington State candidate species, and the Columbia pebblesnail (Fluminicola columbiana), which is both a state and federal candidate species. Specimens of the shortface lanx were observed in the vicinity of N Springs (100-NR-1 Operable Unit); they likely occur throughout this area

  4. Condition based monitoring, diagnosis and maintenance on operating equipments of a hydraulic generator unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X T; Feng, F Z; Si, A W

    2012-01-01

    According to performance characteristics of operating equipments in a hydraulic generator unit (HGU), the relative techniques on condition monitoring and fault diagnosis (CMFD) are introduced in this paper, especially the key technologies are emphasized, such as equipment monitoring, expert system (ES), intelligent diagnosis and condition based maintenance (CBM). Meanwhile, according to the instructor on CBM proposed by State electric power corporation, based on integrated mode, the main steps on implementation of CBM are discussed in this paper.

  5. INEL Operable Unit 7-13 containment and stabilization configuration option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raivo, B.D.; Richardson, J.G.; Nickelson, D.F.

    1993-05-01

    A containment and stabilization configuration option has been developed for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's Subsurface Disposal Area Operable Unit 7-13, the transuranic (TRU)-contaminated waste pits and trenches. The configuration option is presented as an end-to-end system block diagram. Functional subelements are separately discussed, and technical background information, assumptions, input, high-level subelement requirements, and output are presented for each option

  6. Baseline groundwater model update for p-area groundwater operable unit, NBN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Amidon, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report documents the development of a numerical groundwater flow and transport model of the hydrogeologic system of the P-Area Reactor Groundwater Operable Unit at the Savannah River Site (SRS) (Figure 1-1). The P-Area model provides a tool to aid in understanding the hydrologic and geochemical processes that control the development and migration of the current tritium, tetrachloroethene (PCE), and trichloroethene (TCE) plumes in this region.

  7. Black Fox Station, Units 1 and 2. Application for construction permits and operating licenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    An application to construct and operate Black Fox Station, Units 1 and 2, is presented. The two BWR type reactors will have a rated core thermal power of 3579 MW(t) and a net electrical power of approximately 1150 MW(e). The facility will be located in Inola Township, 23 miles east of Tulsa on the east side of the Verdigris River in Rogers County, Oklahoma

  8. The new local control systems for operating gaseous diffusion plant units at Pierrelatte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delacroix, C.

    1990-01-01

    The development of a local control network for operating gaseous diffusion plant units is presented. The objective of the control system up date was to replace all the information network hardware. The new generation HP1000 calculators and a network architecture were chosen. The validation tests performed in laboratory and in situ, and the management policies towards the personnel during the technical changes are summarized [fr

  9. Limited field investigation report for the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit investigative phase and the associated qualitative risk assessment. The 100-HR-2 Operable Unit contains solid waste burial grounds, an ash pit, burn pits, electrical facilities, septic systems, and support facilities. All known and suspected areas of contamination were classified as solid waste burial grounds or low-priority waste sites based on the collective knowledge of the operable unit managers (representatives from the US Department of Energy, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology during the preparation of the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit Work Plan (DOE-RL 1993f). Solid waste burial grounds were judged to pose sufficient risk(s), through one or more pathways, to require evaluation for an interim remedial measure as per the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy (DOE-RL 1991) and negotiations with the Department of Energy, US Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology. An interim remedial measure is intended to achieve remedies that are likely to lead to a final record of decision. Low-priority sites are those judged not to pose significant risk to require the streamlined evaluation. There were six low-priority waste sites and seven solid waste burial grounds identified. The purpose of this report is to: (1) provide a summary of site investigative activities; (2) refine the conceptual exposure model (as needed); (3) identify chemical- and location-specific corrective action requirements; and 4) provide a human health and ecological QRA associated with solid waste burial grounds

  10. Site-specific waste management instruction for the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, J.T.

    1996-07-01

    This site-specific waste management instruction provides guidance for the management of waste generated as a result of groundwater well installations in the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit (OU). The well installations are necessary to implement the Remedial Action (RA) option (pump-and-treat using ion exchange) to prevent discharge of hexavalent chromium at levels above those considered protective of aquatic life in the Columbia River and riverbed sediments

  11. Site-specific waste management instruction for the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit drilling. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, J.T.

    1996-08-01

    This site-specific waste management instruction provides guidance for the management of waste generated as a result of groundwater well installations in the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit (OU). The well installations are necessary to implement the Remedial Action (RA) option (pump-and-treat using ion exchange) to prevent discharge of hexavalent chromium at levels above those considered protective of aquatic life in the Columbia River and riverbed sediments

  12. Data validation report for the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit, fifth round groundwater samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukelich, S.E.

    1994-01-01

    The data from the chemical analysis of 68 samples from the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit Third Quarter 1993 Groundwater Sampling Investigation and their related quality assurance samples were reviewed and validated to verify that reported sample results were of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding remedial actions performed at the site. Sample analysis included inorganics and general chemical parameters. Fifty three samples were validated for radiochemical parameters

  13. Data validation report for the 100-KR-4 operable unit first quarter, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, A.D.

    1994-01-01

    Samples were obtained from the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit first Quarter 1994 Groundwater Sampling event. The data from the chemical analysis of fifty-eight samples from this sampling event and their related quality assurance samples were reviewed and validated to verify that reported samples results were of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding remedial actions performed at this site. Information fro the sampling event and the information validation processes are presented in this document

  14. Data validation report for the 100-D Ponds Operable Unit: 100-D ponds sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankovich, M.T.

    1994-01-01

    Westinghouse-Hanford has requested that 100 percent of the Sample Delivery Groups be validated for the 100-D Ponds Operable Unit Sampling Investigation. Therefore the data from the chemical analysis of all 30 samples from this sampling event and their related quality assurance samples were reviewed and validated to verify that reported sample results were of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding remedial actions performed at this site

  15. Data validation summary report for the 100-BC-5 Operable Unit Round 8 Groundwater Sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearney, A.T.

    1996-03-01

    The information provided in this validation summary report includes data from the chemical analyses of samples from the 100-BC-5 Operable Unit Round 8 Groundwater Sampling Investigation. All of the data from this sampling event and their related quality assurance samples were reviewed and validated to verify that the reported sample results were of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding remedial actions performed at this site. Sample analyses included metals, general chemistry and radiochemistry

  16. Contaminant Attenuation and Transport Characterization of 200-DV-1 Operable Unit Sediment Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Szecsody, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, Nikolla [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moran, James J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lee, Brady D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snyder, Michelle M.V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lawter, Amanda R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Resch, Charles T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gartman, Brandy N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhong, Lirong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nims, Megan K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Saunders, Danielle L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, Benjamin D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Horner, Jacob A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Leavy, Ian I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Baum, Steven R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Christiansen, Beren B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clayton, Ray E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McElroy, Erin M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Appriou, Delphine [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tyrrell, Kimberly J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Striluk, Miranda L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-05-15

    A laboratory study was conducted to quantify contaminant attenuation processes and associated contaminant transport parameters that are needed to evaluate transport of contaminants through the vadose zone to the groundwater. The laboratory study information, in conjunction with transport analyses, can be used as input to evaluate the feasibility of Monitored Natural Attenuation and other remedies for the 200-DV-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site.

  17. Hydrologic-agronomic-economic model for the optimal operation of the Yaqui river reservoir system using genetic algorithms; Modelo hidrologico-agronomico-economico para la operacion optima del sistema de presas del rio Yaqui, usando algoritmos geneticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minjares-Lugo, Jose Luis; Salmon-Castelo, Roberto Fernando; Oroz-Ramos, Lucas Antonio [Comision Nacional del Agua (Mexico); Cruz-Medina, Isidro Roberto [Instituto Tecnologico de Sonora (Mexico)

    2008-07-15

    The objective of this study is to develop an integrated hydrologic-agronomic-economic annual model for the optimal operation of the Yaqui River reservoir system to support irrigation and urban water supply in the watershed. The model solves for each year's water allocations by crop, maximizing annual agricultural income for a specified risk of reservoir shortages and spills. It accounts for adjustments in water supply arising from changes in precipitation and runoff uncertainty and from changes in water demand arising from variations in crop prices and production costs. Model predictions for the agricultural year 2000-2001 are compared with observed results to test the model's predictive ability. Results demonstrate that the model can be used to optimize and analyze reservoir system operation and for water resources management in the Irrigation District No. 041, providing a framework for improving the operation of a reservoir system, selecting an optimal cropping pattern according to its maximum economic benefits, and in the optimal monthly water releases from the reservoir system. The model considers the simultaneous operation of three dams and it is applied to the Irrigation District No. 041, Rio Yaqui. [Spanish] El objetivo de este estudio es desarrollar un modelo integral de optimizacion anual para definir la operacion del sistema de presas del rio Yaqui y la asignacion del volumen mensual de agua para la irrigacion de diferentes cultivos, asi como para satisfacer los requerimientos de uso urbano basado en las condiciones hidrologicas, agronomicas y economicas en la cuenca. El modelo maximiza los beneficios anuales netos del sector agricola, minimizando el riesgo de deficit o derrames en el sistema de presas; incluye cambios en el suministro de agua debido a la incertidumbre de las precipitaciones y del escurrimiento del rio y cambios en la demanda de agua provocados por la incertidumbre de los precios y costos de los cultivos. Se utilizaron datos del

  18. Initial closed operation of the CELSS Test Facility Engineering Development Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliss, M.; Blackwell, C.; Zografos, A.; Drews, M.; MacElroy, R.; McKenna, R.; Heyenga, A. G.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the NASA Advanced Life Support Flight Program, a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Test Facility Engineering Development Unit has been constructed and is undergoing initial operational testing at NASA Ames Research Center. The Engineering Development Unit (EDU) is a tightly closed, stringently controlled, ground-based testbed which provides a broad range of environmental conditions under which a variety of CELSS higher plant crops can be grown. Although the EDU was developed primarily to provide near-term engineering data and a realistic determination of the subsystem and system requirements necessary for the fabrication of a comparable flight unit, the EDU has also provided a means to evaluate plant crop productivity and physiology under controlled conditions. This paper describes the initial closed operational testing of the EDU, with emphasis on the hardware performance capabilities. Measured performance data during a 28-day closed operation period are compared with the specified functional requirements, and an example of inferring crop growth parameters from the test data is presented. Plans for future science and technology testing are also discussed. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  19. Final record of decision for remedial actions at Operable Unit 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for Operable Unit 4 of the Fernald Site in Fernald, Ohio. This remedial action was selected in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), and to the extent practicable 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 300, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). For Operable Unit 4 at the FEMP, DOE has chosen to complete an integrated CERCLA/NEPA process. This decision was based on the longstanding interest on the part of local stakeholders to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on the restoration activities at the FEMP and on the recognition that the draft document was issued and public comments received. Therefore, this single document is intended to serve as DOE's Record of Decision (ROD) for Operable Unit 4 under both CERCLA and NEPA; however, it is not the intent of the DOE to make a statement on the legal applicability of NEPA to CERCLA actions

  20. Enhanced teaching and student learning through a simulator-based course in chemical unit operations design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasem, Nayef

    2016-07-01

    This paper illustrates a teaching technique used in computer applications in chemical engineering employed for designing various unit operation processes, where the students learn about unit operations by designing them. The aim of the course is not to teach design, but rather to teach the fundamentals and the function of unit operation processes through simulators. A case study presenting the teaching method was evaluated using student surveys and faculty assessments, which were designed to measure the quality and effectiveness of the teaching method. The results of the questionnaire conclusively demonstrate that this method is an extremely efficient way of teaching a simulator-based course. In addition to that, this teaching method can easily be generalised and used in other courses. A student's final mark is determined by a combination of in-class assessments conducted based on cooperative and peer learning, progress tests and a final exam. Results revealed that peer learning can improve the overall quality of student learning and enhance student understanding.

  1. 100-HR-1 Operable Unit focused feasibility study report. Draft A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The standard Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 Feasibility Study (FS) includes development and screening of alternatives (phases 1 and 2) and the detailed analysis of alternatives (phase 3). This focused feasibility study (FFS) constitutes the phase 3 portion of the FS process. The FFS process is conducted in two stages, a Process Document (DOE-RL 1994a) and an operable unit-specific FFS document, such as this one. The FFS process is performed by implementing a ''plug-in'' style approach as defined in great detail in the Process Document. The objective of this operable unit-specific FFS is to provide decision makers with sufficient information to allow appropriate and timely selection of interim remedial measures (IRM) for sites associated with the 100-HR-1 Operable Unit. The IRM candidate waste sites are determined in the limited field investigation. Site profiles are developed for each of these waste sites. The site profiles are used in the application of the plug-in approach. The waste site either plugs into the analysis of the alternatives for the group, or deviations from the developed group alternatives are described and documented

  2. Water level measurements for modeling hydraulic properties in the 300-FF-5 and 100 Aggregate Area Operable units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, M.D.; McMahon, W.J.; Simpson, K.R.

    1993-04-01

    Pressure transducers connected to dataloggers were used to measure ground water and Columbia River water elevations simultaneously and hourly at 35 locations in the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit and 16 locations in the 100 Aggregate Area Operable Unit on the Hanford Site. Water temperatures were also measured at 12 of these locations. This report details the findings of these studies

  3. 40 CFR 60.1200 - What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1200 Section 60.1200 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is... Good Combustion Practices: Operating Requirements § 60.1200 What are the operating practice...

  4. Development of a processor embedded timing unit for the synchronized operation in KSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Woongryol, E-mail: wrlee@nfri.re.kr; Lee, Taegu; Hong, Jaesic

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Timing board for the synchronized tokamak operation. • Processor embedded distributed control system. • Single clock source and multiple trigger signal for the plasma diagnostics. • Delay compensation among the distributed timing boards. - Abstract: The Local Timing Unit (LTU) in KSTAR provides a single clock source and multiple trigger signals with flexible configuration. Over the past seven years, the LTU had a mechanical redesign and several firmware updates for the purpose of provision of a robust operation and precision timing signal. Now we have developed a third version of a local timing unit which has a standalone operation capability. The LTU is built in a cabinet mountable 1U PIZZA box and provides twelve signal output ports, a packet mirroring interface, and an LCD interface panel. The core functions of the LTU are implemented in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) which has an internal hardcore processor. The internal processor allows the use of Linux Operating System (OS) and the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). All user level application functions are controllable through the EPICS, however the time critical internal functions are performed by the FPGA logic blocks same as the previous version. The new LTU provides pluggable output module so that we can easily extend the signal output port. The easy installation and effective replacement reduce the efforts of maintenance. This paper describes design, development, and commissioning results of the new KSTAR LTU.

  5. PREMATH: a Precious-Material Holdup Estimator for unit operations and chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krichinsky, A.M.; Bruns, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    A computer program, PREMATH (Precious Material Holdup Estimator), has been developed to permit inventory estimation in vessels involved in unit operations and chemical processes. This program has been implemented in an operating nuclear fuel processing plant. PREMATH's purpose is to provide steady-state composition estimates for material residing in process vessels until representative samples can be obtained and chemical analyses can be performed. Since these compositions are used for inventory estimation, the results are determined for and cataloged in container-oriented files. The estimated compositions represent material collected in applicable vessels - including consideration for material previously acknowledged in these vessels. The program utilizes process measurements and simple material balance models to estimate material holdups and distribution within unit operations. During simulated run testing, PREMATH-estimated inventories typically produced material balances within 7% of the associated measured material balances for uranium and within 16% of the associated, measured material balances for thorium (a less valuable material than uranium) during steady-state process operation

  6. Implementation and Operational Analysis of an Interactive Intensive Care Unit within a Smart Health Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Erik

    2018-01-01

    In the context of hospital management and operation, Intensive Care Units (ICU) are one of the most challenging in terms of time responsiveness and criticality, in which adequate resource management and signal processing play a key role in overall system performance. In this work, a context aware Intensive Care Unit is implemented and analyzed to provide scalable signal acquisition capabilities, as well as to provide tracking and access control. Wireless channel analysis is performed by means of hybrid optimized 3D Ray Launching deterministic simulation to assess potential interference impact as well as to provide required coverage/capacity thresholds for employed transceivers. Wireless system operation within the ICU scenario, considering conventional transceiver operation, is feasible in terms of quality of service for the complete scenario. Extensive measurements of overall interference levels have also been carried out, enabling subsequent adequate coverage/capacity estimations, for a set of Zigbee based nodes. Real system operation has been tested, with ad-hoc designed Zigbee wireless motes, employing lightweight communication protocols to minimize energy and bandwidth usage. An ICU information gathering application and software architecture for Visitor Access Control has been implemented, providing monitoring of the Boxes external doors and the identification of visitors via a RFID system. The results enable a solution to provide ICU access control and tracking capabilities previously not exploited, providing a step forward in the implementation of a Smart Health framework. PMID:29382148

  7. Development of a processor embedded timing unit for the synchronized operation in KSTAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Woongryol; Lee, Taegu; Hong, Jaesic

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Timing board for the synchronized tokamak operation. • Processor embedded distributed control system. • Single clock source and multiple trigger signal for the plasma diagnostics. • Delay compensation among the distributed timing boards. - Abstract: The Local Timing Unit (LTU) in KSTAR provides a single clock source and multiple trigger signals with flexible configuration. Over the past seven years, the LTU had a mechanical redesign and several firmware updates for the purpose of provision of a robust operation and precision timing signal. Now we have developed a third version of a local timing unit which has a standalone operation capability. The LTU is built in a cabinet mountable 1U PIZZA box and provides twelve signal output ports, a packet mirroring interface, and an LCD interface panel. The core functions of the LTU are implemented in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) which has an internal hardcore processor. The internal processor allows the use of Linux Operating System (OS) and the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). All user level application functions are controllable through the EPICS, however the time critical internal functions are performed by the FPGA logic blocks same as the previous version. The new LTU provides pluggable output module so that we can easily extend the signal output port. The easy installation and effective replacement reduce the efforts of maintenance. This paper describes design, development, and commissioning results of the new KSTAR LTU.

  8. Implementation and Operational Analysis of an Interactive Intensive Care Unit within a Smart Health Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peio Lopez-Iturri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of hospital management and operation, Intensive Care Units (ICU are one of the most challenging in terms of time responsiveness and criticality, in which adequate resource management and signal processing play a key role in overall system performance. In this work, a context aware Intensive Care Unit is implemented and analyzed to provide scalable signal acquisition capabilities, as well as to provide tracking and access control. Wireless channel analysis is performed by means of hybrid optimized 3D Ray Launching deterministic simulation to assess potential interference impact as well as to provide required coverage/capacity thresholds for employed transceivers. Wireless system operation within the ICU scenario, considering conventional transceiver operation, is feasible in terms of quality of service for the complete scenario. Extensive measurements of overall interference levels have also been carried out, enabling subsequent adequate coverage/capacity estimations, for a set of Zigbee based nodes. Real system operation has been tested, with ad-hoc designed Zigbee wireless motes, employing lightweight communication protocols to minimize energy and bandwidth usage. An ICU information gathering application and software architecture for Visitor Access Control has been implemented, providing monitoring of the Boxes external doors and the identification of visitors via a RFID system. The results enable a solution to provide ICU access control and tracking capabilities previously not exploited, providing a step forward in the implementation of a Smart Health framework.

  9. Implementation and Operational Analysis of an Interactive Intensive Care Unit within a Smart Health Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Iturri, Peio; Aguirre, Erik; Trigo, Jesús Daniel; Astrain, José Javier; Azpilicueta, Leyre; Serrano, Luis; Villadangos, Jesús; Falcone, Francisco

    2018-01-29

    In the context of hospital management and operation, Intensive Care Units (ICU) are one of the most challenging in terms of time responsiveness and criticality, in which adequate resource management and signal processing play a key role in overall system performance. In this work, a context aware Intensive Care Unit is implemented and analyzed to provide scalable signal acquisition capabilities, as well as to provide tracking and access control. Wireless channel analysis is performed by means of hybrid optimized 3D Ray Launching deterministic simulation to assess potential interference impact as well as to provide required coverage/capacity thresholds for employed transceivers. Wireless system operation within the ICU scenario, considering conventional transceiver operation, is feasible in terms of quality of service for the complete scenario. Extensive measurements of overall interference levels have also been carried out, enabling subsequent adequate coverage/capacity estimations, for a set of Zigbee based nodes. Real system operation has been tested, with ad-hoc designed Zigbee wireless motes, employing lightweight communication protocols to minimize energy and bandwidth usage. An ICU information gathering application and software architecture for Visitor Access Control has been implemented, providing monitoring of the Boxes external doors and the identification of visitors via a RFID system. The results enable a solution to provide ICU access control and tracking capabilities previously not exploited, providing a step forward in the implementation of a Smart Health framework.

  10. RCRA facility investigation/corrective measures study work plan for the 100-HR-3 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    Four areas of the Hanford Site (the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas) have been included on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, signed by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), EPA, and the US Department of Energy (DOE), more than 1000 inactive waste disposal and unplanned release sites on the Hanford Site have been grouped into a number of source and groundwater operable units. These operable units contain contamination in the form of hazardous waste, radioactive/hazardous mixed waste, and other CERCLA hazardous substances. Also included in the Tri-Party Agreement are 55 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facilities that will be closed or permitted to operate in accordance with RCRA regulations, under the authority of Chapter 173-303 Washington Administrative Code (WAC). Some of the TSD facilities are included in the operable units. This work plan and the attached supporting project plans establish the operable unit setting and the objectives, procedures, tasks, and schedule for conducting the RCRA facility investigation/corrective measures study (RFI/CMS) for the 100-HR-3 operable unit. The 100-HR-3 operable unit underlies the D/DR and H Areas, the 600 Area between them, and the six source operable units these areas contain. The 100-HR-3 operable unit includes all contamination found in the aquifer soils and water within its boundary. Source operable units include facilities and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of contamination. Separate work plans have been initiated for the 100-DR-1 (DOE-RL 1992a) and 100-HR-1 (DOE-RL 1992b) source operable units

  11. On an Integral-Type Operator Acting between Bloch-Type Spaces on the Unit Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevo Stević

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Let 𝔹 denote the open unit ball of ℂn. For a holomorphic self-map φ of 𝔹 and a holomorphic function g in 𝔹 with g(0=0, we define the following integral-type operator: Iφgf(z=∫01ℜf(φ(tzg(tz(dt/t, z∈𝔹. Here ℜf denotes the radial derivative of a holomorphic function f in 𝔹. We study the boundedness and compactness of the operator between Bloch-type spaces ℬω and ℬμ, where ω is a normal weight function and μ is a weight function. Also we consider the operator between the little Bloch-type spaces ℬω,0 and ℬμ,0.

  12. Operation of Beaver Valley Power Station, Unit 2, Docket No. 50-412, Beaver County, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    The final environmental impact statement (EPA No. 850438F) assesses the effects of operating a pressurized water reactor in Pennsylvania on the south bank of the Ohio River, which would serve as the final heat sink for the cooling system. Operation of Unit 2 would add 836 MW of capacity and increase system reliability. The plant would employ 465 at an $18 million payroll. Facilities for the plant would take up 56 acres of agricultural land. The operation result in both water and noise pollution. There is only a small probability of impacts due to potential radiation exposure. The Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 and Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulations require the impact statement

  13. NRC plan for cleanup operations at Three Mile Island Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, R.; Snyder, B.

    1982-02-01

    This NRC Plan, which defines NRC's functional role in cleanup operations at Three Mile Island Unit 2 and outlines NRC's regulatory responsibilities in fulfilling this role, is the first revision to the initial plan issued in July 1980 (NUREG-0698). Since 1980, a number of policy developments have occurred which will have an impact on the course of cleanup operations. This revision reflects these developments in the area of NRC's review and approval process with regard to cleanup operations as well as NRC's interface with the Department of Energy's involvement in the cleanup and waste disposal. This revision is also intended to update the cleanup schedule by presenting the cleanup progress that has taken place and NRC's role in ongoing and future cleanup activities

  14. Regulating manure application discharges from concentrated animal feeding operations in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centner, Terence J.; Feitshans, Theodore A.

    2006-01-01

    In the United States, reducing pollution from agriculture has received attention due to data suggesting that this is the leading source of impairment of many waterbodies. The federal government revised its regulations governing concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) to enhance governmental oversight over sources of pollution. For the application of manure resulting in pollutant discharges, CAFOs need to implement nutrient management plans. A federal court affirmed the ability of the US federal government to oversee the application of manure from CAFOs that have discharges. Simultaneously, owners and operators of CAFOs who have implemented an appropriate nutrient management plan may forgo securing a permit if their discharges qualify under the agricultural stormwater discharge exemption. - New rules applying to the application of manure by large concentrated animal feeding operations should reduce water contamination

  15. Seventeenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings