Fuzzy rule-based model for hydropower reservoirs operation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moeini, R.; Afshar, A.; Afshar, M.H. [School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2011-02-15
Real-time hydropower reservoir operation is a continuous decision-making process of determining the water level of a reservoir or the volume of water released from it. The hydropower operation is usually based on operating policies and rules defined and decided upon in strategic planning. This paper presents a fuzzy rule-based model for the operation of hydropower reservoirs. The proposed fuzzy rule-based model presents a set of suitable operating rules for release from the reservoir based on ideal or target storage levels. The model operates on an 'if-then' principle, in which the 'if' is a vector of fuzzy premises and the 'then' is a vector of fuzzy consequences. In this paper, reservoir storage, inflow, and period are used as premises and the release as the consequence. The steps involved in the development of the model include, construction of membership functions for the inflow, storage and the release, formulation of fuzzy rules, implication, aggregation and defuzzification. The required knowledge bases for the formulation of the fuzzy rules is obtained form a stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) model with a steady state policy. The proposed model is applied to the hydropower operation of ''Dez'' reservoir in Iran and the results are presented and compared with those of the SDP model. The results indicate the ability of the method to solve hydropower reservoir operation problems. (author)
Advancing reservoir operation description in physically based hydrological models
Anghileri, Daniela; Giudici, Federico; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo
2016-04-01
Last decades have seen significant advances in our capacity of characterizing and reproducing hydrological processes within physically based models. Yet, when the human component is considered (e.g. reservoirs, water distribution systems), the associated decisions are generally modeled with very simplistic rules, which might underperform in reproducing the actual operators' behaviour on a daily or sub-daily basis. For example, reservoir operations are usually described by a target-level rule curve, which represents the level that the reservoir should track during normal operating conditions. The associated release decision is determined by the current state of the reservoir relative to the rule curve. This modeling approach can reasonably reproduce the seasonal water volume shift due to reservoir operation. Still, it cannot capture more complex decision making processes in response, e.g., to the fluctuations of energy prices and demands, the temporal unavailability of power plants or varying amount of snow accumulated in the basin. In this work, we link a physically explicit hydrological model with detailed hydropower behavioural models describing the decision making process by the dam operator. In particular, we consider two categories of behavioural models: explicit or rule-based behavioural models, where reservoir operating rules are empirically inferred from observational data, and implicit or optimization based behavioural models, where, following a normative economic approach, the decision maker is represented as a rational agent maximising a utility function. We compare these two alternate modelling approaches on the real-world water system of Lake Como catchment in the Italian Alps. The water system is characterized by the presence of 18 artificial hydropower reservoirs generating almost 13% of the Italian hydropower production. Results show to which extent the hydrological regime in the catchment is affected by different behavioural models and reservoir
Physical Model-Based Investigation of Reservoir Sedimentation Processes
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Cheng-Chia Huang
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Sedimentation is a serious problem in the operations of reservoirs. In Taiwan, the situation became worse after the Chi-Chi Earthquake recorded on 21 September 1999. The sediment trap efficiency in several regional reservoirs has been sharply increased, adversely affecting the operations on water supplies. According to the field record, the average annual sediment deposition observed in several regional reservoirs in Taiwan has been increased. For instance, the typhoon event recorded in 2008 at the Wushe Reservoir, Taiwan, produced a 3 m sediment deposit upstream of the dam. The remaining storage capacity in the Wushe Reservoir was reduced to 35.9% or a volume of 53.79 million m3 for flood water detention in 2010. It is urgent that research should be conducted to understand the sediment movement in the Wushe Reservoir. In this study, a scale physical model was built to reproduce the flood flow through the reservoir, investigate the long-term depositional pattern, and evaluate sediment trap efficiency. This allows us to estimate the residual life of the reservoir by proposing a modification of Brune’s method. It can be presented to predict the lifespan of Taiwan reservoirs due to higher applicability in both the physical model and the observed data.
Potential implementation of reservoir computing models based on magnetic skyrmions
Bourianoff, George; Pinna, Daniele; Sitte, Matthias; Everschor-Sitte, Karin
2018-05-01
Reservoir Computing is a type of recursive neural network commonly used for recognizing and predicting spatio-temporal events relying on a complex hierarchy of nested feedback loops to generate a memory functionality. The Reservoir Computing paradigm does not require any knowledge of the reservoir topology or node weights for training purposes and can therefore utilize naturally existing networks formed by a wide variety of physical processes. Most efforts to implement reservoir computing prior to this have focused on utilizing memristor techniques to implement recursive neural networks. This paper examines the potential of magnetic skyrmion fabrics and the complex current patterns which form in them as an attractive physical instantiation for Reservoir Computing. We argue that their nonlinear dynamical interplay resulting from anisotropic magnetoresistance and spin-torque effects allows for an effective and energy efficient nonlinear processing of spatial temporal events with the aim of event recognition and prediction.
Development and application of 3-D fractal reservoir model based on collage theorem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, I.K.; Kim, K.S.; Sung, W.M. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
1995-04-30
Reservoir characterization is the essential process to accurately evaluate the reservoir and has been conducted by geostatistical method, SRA algorithm, and etc. The characterized distribution of heterogeneous property by these methods shows randomly distributed phenomena, and does not present anomalous shape of property variation at discontinued space as compared with the observed shape in nature. This study proposed a new algorithm of fractal concept based on collage theorem, which can virtually present not only geometric shape of irregular and anomalous pore structures or coastlines, but also property variation for discontinuously observed data. With a basis of fractal concept, three dimensional fractal reservoir model was developed to more accurately characterize the heterogeneous reservoir. We performed analysis of pre-predictable hypothetically observed permeability data by using the fractal reservoir model. From the results, we can recognize that permeability distributions in the areal view or the cross-sectional view were consistent with the observed data. (author). 8 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.
Homayounfar, Mehran; Zomorodian, Mehdi; Martinez, Christopher J; Lai, Sai Hin
2015-01-01
So far many optimization models based on Nash Bargaining Theory associated with reservoir operation have been developed. Most of them have aimed to provide practical and efficient solutions for water allocation in order to alleviate conflicts among water users. These models can be discussed from two viewpoints: (i) having a discrete nature; and (ii) working on an annual basis. Although discrete dynamic game models provide appropriate reservoir operator policies, their discretization of variables increases the run time and causes dimensionality problems. In this study, two monthly based non-discrete optimization models based on the Nash Bargaining Solution are developed for a reservoir system. In the first model, based on constrained state formulation, the first and second moments (mean and variance) of the state variable (water level in the reservoir) is calculated. Using moment equations as the constraint, the long-term utility of the reservoir manager and water users are optimized. The second model is a dynamic approach structured based on continuous state Markov decision models. The corresponding solution based on the collocation method is structured for a reservoir system. In this model, the reward function is defined based on the Nash Bargaining Solution. Indeed, it is used to yield equilibrium in every proper sub-game, thereby satisfying the Markov perfect equilibrium. Both approaches are applicable for water allocation in arid and semi-arid regions. A case study was carried out at the Zayandeh-Rud river basin located in central Iran to identify the effectiveness of the presented methods. The results are compared with the results of an annual form of dynamic game, a classical stochastic dynamic programming model (e.g. Bayesian Stochastic Dynamic Programming model, BSDP), and a discrete stochastic dynamic game model (PSDNG). By comparing the results of alternative methods, it is shown that both models are capable of tackling conflict issues in water allocation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehran Homayounfar
Full Text Available So far many optimization models based on Nash Bargaining Theory associated with reservoir operation have been developed. Most of them have aimed to provide practical and efficient solutions for water allocation in order to alleviate conflicts among water users. These models can be discussed from two viewpoints: (i having a discrete nature; and (ii working on an annual basis. Although discrete dynamic game models provide appropriate reservoir operator policies, their discretization of variables increases the run time and causes dimensionality problems. In this study, two monthly based non-discrete optimization models based on the Nash Bargaining Solution are developed for a reservoir system. In the first model, based on constrained state formulation, the first and second moments (mean and variance of the state variable (water level in the reservoir is calculated. Using moment equations as the constraint, the long-term utility of the reservoir manager and water users are optimized. The second model is a dynamic approach structured based on continuous state Markov decision models. The corresponding solution based on the collocation method is structured for a reservoir system. In this model, the reward function is defined based on the Nash Bargaining Solution. Indeed, it is used to yield equilibrium in every proper sub-game, thereby satisfying the Markov perfect equilibrium. Both approaches are applicable for water allocation in arid and semi-arid regions. A case study was carried out at the Zayandeh-Rud river basin located in central Iran to identify the effectiveness of the presented methods. The results are compared with the results of an annual form of dynamic game, a classical stochastic dynamic programming model (e.g. Bayesian Stochastic Dynamic Programming model, BSDP, and a discrete stochastic dynamic game model (PSDNG. By comparing the results of alternative methods, it is shown that both models are capable of tackling conflict issues in
Zhuang, Y.; Tian, F.; Yigzaw, W.; Hejazi, M. I.; Li, H. Y.; Turner, S. W. D.; Vernon, C. R.
2017-12-01
More and more reservoirs are being build or planned in order to help meet the increasing water demand all over the world. However, is building new reservoirs always helpful to water supply? To address this question, the river routing module of Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) has been extended with a simple yet physical-based reservoir scheme accounting for irrigation, flood control and hydropower operations at each individual reservoir. The new GCAM river routing model has been applied over the global domain with the runoff inputs from the Variable Infiltration Capacity Model. The simulated streamflow is validated at 150 global river basins where the observed streamflow data are available. The model performance has been significantly improved at 77 basins and worsened at 35 basins. To facilitate the analysis of additional reservoir storage impacts at the basin level, a lumped version of GCAM reservoir model has been developed, representing a single lumped reservoir at each river basin which has the regulation capacity of all reservoir combined. A Sequent Peak Analysis is used to estimate how much additional reservoir storage is required to satisfy the current water demand. For basins with water deficit, the water supply reliability can be improved with additional storage. However, there is a threshold storage value at each basin beyond which the reliability stops increasing, suggesting that building new reservoirs will not help better relieve the water stress. Findings in the research can be helpful to the future planning and management of new reservoirs.
Di Maggio, Jimena; Fernández, Carolina; Parodi, Elisa R; Diaz, M Soledad; Estrada, Vanina
2016-01-01
In this paper we address the formulation of two mechanistic water quality models that differ in the way the phytoplankton community is described. We carry out parameter estimation subject to differential-algebraic constraints and validation for each model and comparison between models performance. The first approach aggregates phytoplankton species based on their phylogenetic characteristics (Taxonomic group model) and the second one, on their morpho-functional properties following Reynolds' classification (Functional group model). The latter approach takes into account tolerance and sensitivity to environmental conditions. The constrained parameter estimation problems are formulated within an equation oriented framework, with a maximum likelihood objective function. The study site is Paso de las Piedras Reservoir (Argentina), which supplies water for consumption for 450,000 population. Numerical results show that phytoplankton morpho-functional groups more closely represent each species growth requirements within the group. Each model performance is quantitatively assessed by three diagnostic measures. Parameter estimation results for seasonal dynamics of the phytoplankton community and main biogeochemical variables for a one-year time horizon are presented and compared for both models, showing the functional group model enhanced performance. Finally, we explore increasing nutrient loading scenarios and predict their effect on phytoplankton dynamics throughout a one-year time horizon. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yin Yanshu
2017-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a location-based multiple point statistics method is developed to model a non-stationary reservoir. The proposed method characterizes the relationship between the sedimentary pattern and the deposit location using the relative central position distance function, which alleviates the requirement that the training image and the simulated grids have the same dimension. The weights in every direction of the distance function can be changed to characterize the reservoir heterogeneity in various directions. The local integral replacements of data events, structured random path, distance tolerance and multi-grid strategy are applied to reproduce the sedimentary patterns and obtain a more realistic result. This method is compared with the traditional Snesim method using a synthesized 3-D training image of Poyang Lake and a reservoir model of Shengli Oilfield in China. The results indicate that the new method can reproduce the non-stationary characteristics better than the traditional method and is more suitable for simulation of delta-front deposits. These results show that the new method is a powerful tool for modelling a reservoir with non-stationary characteristics.
Hedging Rules for Water Supply Reservoir Based on the Model of Simulation and Optimization
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Yi Ji
2016-06-01
Full Text Available This study proposes a hedging rule model which is composed of a two-period reservior operation model considering the damage depth and hedging rule parameter optimization model. The former solves hedging rules based on a given poriod’s water supply weighting factor and carryover storage target, while the latter optimization model is used to optimize the weighting factor and carryover storage target based on the hedging rules. The coupling model gives the optimal poriod’s water supply weighting factor and carryover storage target to guide release. The conclusions achieved from this study as follows: (1 the water supply weighting factor and carryover storage target have a direct impact on the three elements of the hedging rule; (2 parameters can guide reservoirs to supply water reasonably after optimization of the simulation and optimization model; and (3 in order to verify the utility of the hedging rule, the Heiquan reservoir is used as a case study and particle swarm optimization algorithm with a simulation model is adopted for optimizing the parameter. The results show that the proposed hedging rule can improve the operation performances of the water supply reservoir.
Simulation-optimization model of reservoir operation based on target storage curves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hong-bin Fang
2014-10-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a new storage allocation rule based on target storage curves. Joint operating rules are also proposed to solve the operation problems of a multi-reservoir system with joint demands and water transfer-supply projects. The joint operating rules include a water diversion rule to determine the amount of diverted water in a period, a hedging rule based on an aggregated reservoir to determine the total release from the system, and a storage allocation rule to specify the release from each reservoir. A simulation-optimization model was established to optimize the key points of the water diversion curves, the hedging rule curves, and the target storage curves using the improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO algorithm. The multi-reservoir water supply system located in Liaoning Province, China, including a water transfer-supply project, was employed as a case study to verify the effectiveness of the proposed join operating rules and target storage curves. The results indicate that the proposed operating rules are suitable for the complex system. The storage allocation rule based on target storage curves shows an improved performance with regard to system storage distribution.
On the effects of adaptive reservoir operating rules in hydrological physically-based models
Giudici, Federico; Anghileri, Daniela; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo
2017-04-01
Recent years have seen a significant increase of the human influence on the natural systems both at the global and local scale. Accurately modeling the human component and its interaction with the natural environment is key to characterize the real system dynamics and anticipate future potential changes to the hydrological regimes. Modern distributed, physically-based hydrological models are able to describe hydrological processes with high level of detail and high spatiotemporal resolution. Yet, they lack in sophistication for the behavior component and human decisions are usually described by very simplistic rules, which might underperform in reproducing the catchment dynamics. In the case of water reservoir operators, these simplistic rules usually consist of target-level rule curves, which represent the average historical level trajectory. Whilst these rules can reasonably reproduce the average seasonal water volume shifts due to the reservoirs' operation, they cannot properly represent peculiar conditions, which influence the actual reservoirs' operation, e.g., variations in energy price or water demand, dry or wet meteorological conditions. Moreover, target-level rule curves are not suitable to explore the water system response to climate and socio economic changing contexts, because they assume a business-as-usual operation. In this work, we quantitatively assess how the inclusion of adaptive reservoirs' operating rules into physically-based hydrological models contribute to the proper representation of the hydrological regime at the catchment scale. In particular, we contrast target-level rule curves and detailed optimization-based behavioral models. We, first, perform the comparison on past observational records, showing that target-level rule curves underperform in representing the hydrological regime over multiple time scales (e.g., weekly, seasonal, inter-annual). Then, we compare how future hydrological changes are affected by the two modeling
System Identification Based Proxy Model of a Reservoir under Water Injection
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Berihun M. Negash
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Simulation of numerical reservoir models with thousands and millions of grid blocks may consume a significant amount of time and effort, even when high performance processors are used. In cases where the simulation runs are required for sensitivity analysis, dynamic control, and optimization, the act needs to be repeated several times by continuously changing parameters. This makes it even more time-consuming. Currently, proxy models that are based on response surface are being used to lessen the time required for running simulations during sensitivity analysis and optimization. Proxy models are lighter mathematical models that run faster and perform in place of heavier models that require large computations. Nevertheless, to acquire data for modeling and validation and develop the proxy model itself, hundreds of simulation runs are required. In this paper, a system identification based proxy model that requires only a single simulation run and a properly designed excitation signal was proposed and evaluated using a benchmark case study. The results show that, with proper design of excitation signal and proper selection of model structure, system identification based proxy models are found to be practical and efficient alternatives for mimicking the performance of numerical reservoir models. The resulting proxy models have potential applications for dynamic well control and optimization.
Multi-Site Calibration of Linear Reservoir Based Geomorphologic Rainfall-Runoff Models
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Bahram Saeidifarzad
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Multi-site optimization of two adapted event-based geomorphologic rainfall-runoff models was presented using Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II method for the South Fork Eel River watershed, California. The first model was developed based on Unequal Cascade of Reservoirs (UECR and the second model was presented as a modified version of Geomorphological Unit Hydrograph based on Nash’s model (GUHN. Two calibration strategies were considered as semi-lumped and semi-distributed for imposing (or unimposing the geomorphology relations in the models. The results of models were compared with Nash’s model. Obtained results using the observed data of two stations in the multi-site optimization framework showed reasonable efficiency values in both the calibration and the verification steps. The outcomes also showed that semi-distributed calibration of the modified GUHN model slightly outperformed other models in both upstream and downstream stations during calibration. Both calibration strategies for the developed UECR model during the verification phase showed slightly better performance in the downstream station, but in the upstream station, the modified GUHN model in the semi-lumped strategy slightly outperformed the other models. The semi-lumped calibration strategy could lead to logical lag time parameters related to the basin geomorphology and may be more suitable for data-based statistical analyses of the rainfall-runoff process.
Forward modeling of seepage of reservoir dam based on ground penetrating radar
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Xueli WU
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The risk of the reservoir dam seepage will bring the waste of water resources and the loss of life and property. The ground penetrating radar (GPR is designed as a daily inspection system of dams to improve the existing technology which can't determine the actual situation of the dam seepage tunnel coordinates. The finite difference time domain (FDTD is used to solve the Yee's grids discreatization in two-dimensional space, and its electromagnetic distribution equation is obtained as well. Based on the actual structure of reservoir dam foundation, the ideal model of air layer, concrete layer, clay layer and two water seepage holes is described in detail, and the concrete layer interference model with limestone interference point is established. The system architecture is implemented by using MATLAB, and the forward modeling is performed. The results indicate that ground penetrating radar can be used for deep target detection. Through comparing the detection spectrum of three kinds of frequency electromagnetic wave by changing the center frequency of the GPR electromagnetic wave of 50 MHz, 100 MHz and 200 MHz, it is concluded that the scanning result is more accurate at 100 MHz. At the same time, the simulation results of the interference model show that this method can be used for the detection of complex terrain.
Modeling of carbonate reservoir variable secondary pore space based on CT images
Nie, X.; Nie, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, Z.
2017-12-01
Digital core technology has brought convenience to us, and X-ray CT scanning is one of the most common way to obtain 3D digital cores. However, it can only provide the original information of the only samples being scanned, and we can't modify the porosity of the scanned cores. For numerical rock physical simulations, a series of cores with variable porosities are needed to determine the relationship between the physical properties and porosity. In carbonate rocks, the secondary pore space including dissolution pores, caves and natural fractures is the key reservoir space, which makes the study of carbonate secondary porosity very important. To achieve the variation of porosities in one rock sample, based on CT scanned digital cores, according to the physical and chemical properties of carbonate rocks, several mathematical methods are chosen to simulate the variation of secondary pore space. We use the erosion and dilation operations of mathematical morphology method to simulate the pore space changes of dissolution pores and caves. We also use the Fractional Brownian Motion model to generate natural fractures with different widths and angles in digital cores to simulate fractured carbonate rocks. The morphological opening-and-closing operations in mathematical morphology method are used to simulate distribution of fluid in the pore space. The established 3D digital core models with different secondary porosities and water saturation status can be used in the study of the physical property numerical simulations of carbonate reservoir rocks.
Assessing the operation rules of a reservoir system based on a detailed modelling-chain
Bruwier, M.; Erpicum, S.; Pirotton, M.; Archambeau, P.; Dewals, B.
2014-09-01
According to available climate change scenarios for Belgium, drier summers and wetter winters are expected. In this study, we focus on two muti-purpose reservoirs located in the Vesdre catchment, which is part of the Meuse basin. The current operation rules of the reservoirs are first analysed. Next, the impacts of two climate change scenarios are assessed and enhanced operation rules are proposed to mitigate these impacts. For this purpose, an integrated model of the catchment was used. It includes a hydrological model, one-dimensional and two-dimensional hydraulic models of the river and its main tributaries, a model of the reservoir system and a flood damage model. Five performance indicators of the reservoir system have been defined, reflecting its ability to provide sufficient drinking, to control floods, to produce hydropower and to reduce low-flow condition. As shown by the results, enhanced operation rules may improve the drinking water potential and the low-flow augmentation while the existing operation rules are efficient for flood control and for hydropower production.
Assessing the operation rules of a reservoir system based on a detailed modelling chain
Bruwier, M.; Erpicum, S.; Pirotton, M.; Archambeau, P.; Dewals, B. J.
2015-03-01
According to available climate change scenarios for Belgium, drier summers and wetter winters are expected. In this study, we focus on two multi-purpose reservoirs located in the Vesdre catchment, which is part of the Meuse basin. The current operation rules of the reservoirs are first analysed. Next, the impacts of two climate change scenarios are assessed and enhanced operation rules are proposed to mitigate these impacts. For this purpose, an integrated model of the catchment was used. It includes a hydrological model, one-dimensional and two-dimensional hydraulic models of the river and its main tributaries, a model of the reservoir system and a flood damage model. Five performance indicators of the reservoir system have been defined, reflecting its ability to provide sufficient drinking water, to control floods, to produce hydropower and to reduce low-flow conditions. As shown by the results, enhanced operation rules may improve the drinking water potential and the low-flow augmentation while the existing operation rules are efficient for flood control and for hydropower production.
Chenghua, Ou; Chaochun, Li; Siyuan, Huang; Sheng, James J.; Yuan, Xu
2017-12-01
As the platform-based horizontal well production mode has been widely applied in petroleum industry, building a reliable fine reservoir structure model by using horizontal well stratigraphic correlation has become very important. Horizontal wells usually extend between the upper and bottom boundaries of the target formation, with limited penetration points. Using these limited penetration points to conduct well deviation correction means the formation depth information obtained is not accurate, which makes it hard to build a fine structure model. In order to solve this problem, a method of fine reservoir structure modeling, based on 3D visualized stratigraphic correlation among horizontal wells, is proposed. This method can increase the accuracy when estimating the depth of the penetration points, and can also effectively predict the top and bottom interfaces in the horizontal penetrating section. Moreover, this method will greatly increase not only the number of points of depth data available, but also the accuracy of these data, which achieves the goal of building a reliable fine reservoir structure model by using the stratigraphic correlation among horizontal wells. Using this method, four 3D fine structure layer models have been successfully built of a specimen shale gas field with platform-based horizontal well production mode. The shale gas field is located to the east of Sichuan Basin, China; the successful application of the method has proven its feasibility and reliability.
Evaluation of Gaussian approximations for data assimilation in reservoir models
Iglesias, Marco A.; Law, Kody J H; Stuart, Andrew M.
2013-01-01
is fundamental for the optimal management of reservoirs. Unfortunately, due to the large-scale highly nonlinear properties of standard reservoir models, characterizing the posterior is computationally prohibitive. Instead, more affordable ad hoc techniques, based
Fsheikh, Ahmed H.
2013-01-01
A nonlinear orthogonal matching pursuit (NOMP) for sparse calibration of reservoir models is presented. Sparse calibration is a challenging problem as the unknowns are both the non-zero components of the solution and their associated weights. NOMP is a greedy algorithm that discovers at each iteration the most correlated components of the basis functions with the residual. The discovered basis (aka support) is augmented across the nonlinear iterations. Once the basis functions are selected from the dictionary, the solution is obtained by applying Tikhonov regularization. The proposed algorithm relies on approximate gradient estimation using an iterative stochastic ensemble method (ISEM). ISEM utilizes an ensemble of directional derivatives to efficiently approximate gradients. In the current study, the search space is parameterized using an overcomplete dictionary of basis functions built using the K-SVD algorithm.
The reservoir model: a differential equation model of psychological regulation.
Deboeck, Pascal R; Bergeman, C S
2013-06-01
Differential equation models can be used to describe the relationships between the current state of a system of constructs (e.g., stress) and how those constructs are changing (e.g., based on variable-like experiences). The following article describes a differential equation model based on the concept of a reservoir. With a physical reservoir, such as one for water, the level of the liquid in the reservoir at any time depends on the contributions to the reservoir (inputs) and the amount of liquid removed from the reservoir (outputs). This reservoir model might be useful for constructs such as stress, where events might "add up" over time (e.g., life stressors, inputs), but individuals simultaneously take action to "blow off steam" (e.g., engage coping resources, outputs). The reservoir model can provide descriptive statistics of the inputs that contribute to the "height" (level) of a construct and a parameter that describes a person's ability to dissipate the construct. After discussing the model, we describe a method of fitting the model as a structural equation model using latent differential equation modeling and latent distribution modeling. A simulation study is presented to examine recovery of the input distribution and output parameter. The model is then applied to the daily self-reports of negative affect and stress from a sample of older adults from the Notre Dame Longitudinal Study on Aging. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Analysis of real-time reservoir monitoring : reservoirs, strategies, & modeling.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mani, Seethambal S.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Normann, Randy Allen; Jennings, Jim (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Gilbert, Bob (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Lake, Larry W. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Weiss, Chester Joseph; Lorenz, John Clay; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Wheeler, Mary Fanett (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Thomas, Sunil G. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Rightley, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Adolfo (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Klie, Hector (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Banchs, Rafael (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Nunez, Emilio J. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Jablonowski, Chris (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX)
2006-11-01
The project objective was to detail better ways to assess and exploit intelligent oil and gas field information through improved modeling, sensor technology, and process control to increase ultimate recovery of domestic hydrocarbons. To meet this objective we investigated the use of permanent downhole sensors systems (Smart Wells) whose data is fed real-time into computational reservoir models that are integrated with optimized production control systems. The project utilized a three-pronged approach (1) a value of information analysis to address the economic advantages, (2) reservoir simulation modeling and control optimization to prove the capability, and (3) evaluation of new generation sensor packaging to survive the borehole environment for long periods of time. The Value of Information (VOI) decision tree method was developed and used to assess the economic advantage of using the proposed technology; the VOI demonstrated the increased subsurface resolution through additional sensor data. Our findings show that the VOI studies are a practical means of ascertaining the value associated with a technology, in this case application of sensors to production. The procedure acknowledges the uncertainty in predictions but nevertheless assigns monetary value to the predictions. The best aspect of the procedure is that it builds consensus within interdisciplinary teams The reservoir simulation and modeling aspect of the project was developed to show the capability of exploiting sensor information both for reservoir characterization and to optimize control of the production system. Our findings indicate history matching is improved as more information is added to the objective function, clearly indicating that sensor information can help in reducing the uncertainty associated with reservoir characterization. Additional findings and approaches used are described in detail within the report. The next generation sensors aspect of the project evaluated sensors and packaging
RECENT ADVANCES IN NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIR MODELING
ORDOÑEZ, A; PEÑUELA, G; IDROBO, E. A; MEDINA, C. E
2001-01-01
Large amounts of oil reserves are contained in naturally fractured reservoirs. Most of these hydrocarbon volumes have been left behind because of the poor knowledge and/or description methodology of those reservoirs. This lack of knowledge has lead to the nonexistence of good quantitative models for this complicated type of reservoirs. The complexity of naturally fractured reservoirs causes the need for integration of all existing information at all scales (drilling, well logging, seismic, we...
High resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang Changmin; Lin Kexiang; Liu Huaibo [Jianghan Petroleum Institute, Hubei (China)] [and others
1997-08-01
This is China`s first case study of high resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information. The key of the modelling process is to build a prototype model and using the model as a geological knowledge bank. Outcrop information used in geological modelling including seven aspects: (1) Determining the reservoir framework pattern by sedimentary depositional system and facies analysis; (2) Horizontal correlation based on the lower and higher stand duration of the paleo-lake level; (3) Determining the model`s direction based on the paleocurrent statistics; (4) Estimating the sandbody communication by photomosaic and profiles; (6) Estimating reservoir properties distribution within sandbody by lithofacies analysis; and (7) Building the reservoir model in sandbody scale by architectural element analysis and 3-D sampling. A high resolution reservoir geological model of Youshashan oil field has been built by using this method.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Manoonpong, Poramate; Dasgupta, Sakyasingha; Goldschmidt, Dennis
2014-01-01
Walking animals show fascinating locomotor abilities and complex behaviors. Biological study has revealed that such complex behaviors is a result of a combination of biomechanics and neural mechanisms. While biomechanics allows for flexibility and a variety of movements, neural mechanisms generate...... locomotion, make predictions, and provide adaptation. Inspired by this finding, we present here an artificial bio-inspired walking system which combines biomechanics (in terms of its body and leg structures) and neural mechanisms. The neural mechanisms consist of 1) central pattern generator-based control...... for generating basic rhythmic patterns and coordinated movements, 2) reservoir-based adaptive forward models with efference copies for sensory prediction as well as state estimation, and 3) searching and elevation control for adapting the movement of an individual leg to deal with different environmental...
Modelling souring in a high salinity reservoir
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adams, Michael; Crossland, Alan; Stott, Jim
2006-03-15
CAPCIS Ltd (Capcis) have developed a souring model for use in highly saline reservoirs where salinity limits the growth of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB). Capcis have successfully applied the model to a field in North Africa. The conceptual basis of the model considers the course of the H2S from generation in the reservoir including dilution, sulphide retardation and scavenging and H2S fluid phase partitioning. At each stage mathematical equations governing the behaviour of the H2S were produced. In order to estimate the potential for H2S generation, it is required to know the chemistry of the injection and formation waters, as well as the properties of the indigenous SRB, i.e. the maximum salinity for their growth. This is determined by bottle testing of H2S generation by SRB at a range of injection/formation water ratios. The maximum salinity for SRB growth then determines the mixing ratios at which H2S generation takes place. Sulphide retardation due to adsorption at immobile interfaces was empirically modeled from reservoir data. Sulphide scavenging due to reaction with iron generated from corrosion was also modelled. Reservoir mineral scavenging was not modelled but could be incorporated in an extension to the model. Finally, in order to compute the gas-phase concentration of generated H2S, the H2S in the well stream is partitioned between the gas, oil and water phases. Capcis has carried out detailed computations of H2S solubility in crude oil and formation waters and the derivation of distribution ratios based on the respective partition coefficients using Gerard's line method, a modification of Henry's Law. (author) (tk)
Reservoir pressure evolution model during exploration drilling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Korotaev B. A.
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Based on the analysis of laboratory studies and literature data the method for estimating reservoir pressure in exploratory drilling has been proposed, it allows identify zones of abnormal reservoir pressure in the presence of seismic data on reservoir location depths. This method of assessment is based on developed at the end of the XX century methods using d- and σ-exponentials taking into account the mechanical drilling speed, rotor speed, bit load and its diameter, lithological constant and degree of rocks' compaction, mud density and "regional density". It is known that in exploratory drilling pulsation of pressure at the wellhead is observed. Such pulsation is a consequence of transferring reservoir pressure through clay. In the paper the mechanism for transferring pressure to the bottomhole as well as the behaviour of the clay layer during transmission of excess pressure has been described. A laboratory installation has been built, it has been used for modelling pressure propagation to the bottomhole of the well through a layer of clay. The bulge of the clay layer is established for 215.9 mm bottomhole diameter. Functional correlation of pressure propagation through the layer of clay has been determined and a reaction of the top clay layer has been shown to have bulge with a height of 25 mm. A pressure distribution scheme (balance has been developed, which takes into account the distance from layers with abnormal pressure to the bottomhole. A balance equation for reservoir pressure evaluation has been derived including well depth, distance from bottomhole to the top of the formation with abnormal pressure and density of clay.
Qin, Guan
2010-01-01
Naturally-fractured carbonate karst reservoirs are characterized by various-sized solution caves that are connected via fracture networks at multiple scales. These complex geologic features can not be fully resolved in reservoir simulations due to the underlying uncertainty in geologic models and the large computational resource requirement. They also bring in multiple flow physics which adds to the modeling difficulties. It is thus necessary to develop a method to accurately represent the effect of caves, fractures and their interconnectivities in coarse-scale simulation models. In this paper, we present a procedure based on our previously proposed Stokes-Brinkman model (SPE 125593) and the discrete fracture network method for accurate and efficient upscaling of naturally fractured carbonate karst reservoirs.
Reservoir model for the Alameda Central waterflood
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Randall, T E
1968-01-01
The basic approach used in developing the model to characterize the Alameda Central Unit Waterflood assumes continuity of the reservoir mechanics with time. The past performance was analyzed to describe the reservoir and future performance was assumed to follow the established patterns. To develop a mathematical picture of the Alameda Central Unit reservoir, a two-dimensional single-phase steady-state model was used in conjunction with material balance calculations, real-time conversion methods and oil-water interface advance calculations. The model was developed to optimize water injection allocation, determine the configuration of the frontal advance and evaluate the success of the waterflood. The model also provides a basis for continuing review and revision of the basic concepts of reservoir operation. The results of the reservoir study have confirmed the apparent lack of permeability orientation in the pool and indicate that the waterflood is progressing better than originally anticipated.
Modelling of Reservoir Operations using Fuzzy Logic and ANNs
Van De Giesen, N.; Coerver, B.; Rutten, M.
2015-12-01
Today, almost 40.000 large reservoirs, containing approximately 6.000 km3 of water and inundating an area of almost 400.000 km2, can be found on earth. Since these reservoirs have a storage capacity of almost one-sixth of the global annual river discharge they have a large impact on the timing, volume and peaks of river discharges. Global Hydrological Models (GHM) are thus significantly influenced by these anthropogenic changes in river flows. We developed a parametrically parsimonious method to extract operational rules based on historical reservoir storage and inflow time-series. Managing a reservoir is an imprecise and vague undertaking. Operators always face uncertainties about inflows, evaporation, seepage losses and various water demands to be met. They often base their decisions on experience and on available information, like reservoir storage and the previous periods inflow. We modeled this decision-making process through a combination of fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks in an Adaptive-Network-based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). In a sensitivity analysis, we compared results for reservoirs in Vietnam, Central Asia and the USA. ANFIS can indeed capture reservoirs operations adequately when fed with a historical monthly time-series of inflows and storage. It was shown that using ANFIS, operational rules of existing reservoirs can be derived without much prior knowledge about the reservoirs. Their validity was tested by comparing actual and simulated releases with each other. For the eleven reservoirs modelled, the normalised outflow, , was predicted with a MSE of 0.002 to 0.044. The rules can be incorporated into GHMs. After a network for a specific reservoir has been trained, the inflow calculated by the hydrological model can be combined with the release and initial storage to calculate the storage for the next time-step using a mass balance. Subsequently, the release can be predicted one time-step ahead using the inflow and storage.
Modeling of reservoir operation in UNH global hydrological model
Shiklomanov, Alexander; Prusevich, Alexander; Frolking, Steve; Glidden, Stanley; Lammers, Richard; Wisser, Dominik
2015-04-01
Climate is changing and river flow is an integrated characteristic reflecting numerous environmental processes and their changes aggregated over large areas. Anthropogenic impacts on the river flow, however, can significantly exceed the changes associated with climate variability. Besides of irrigation, reservoirs and dams are one of major anthropogenic factor affecting streamflow. They distort hydrological regime of many rivers by trapping of freshwater runoff, modifying timing of river discharge and increasing the evaporation rate. Thus, reservoirs is an integral part of the global hydrological system and their impacts on rivers have to be taken into account for better quantification and understanding of hydrological changes. We developed a new technique, which was incorporated into WBM-TrANS model (Water Balance Model-Transport from Anthropogenic and Natural Systems) to simulate river routing through large reservoirs and natural lakes based on information available from freely accessible databases such as GRanD (the Global Reservoir and Dam database) or NID (National Inventory of Dams for US). Different formulations were applied for unregulated spillway dams and lakes, and for 4 types of regulated reservoirs, which were subdivided based on main purpose including generic (multipurpose), hydropower generation, irrigation and water supply, and flood control. We also incorporated rules for reservoir fill up and draining at the times of construction and decommission based on available data. The model were tested for many reservoirs of different size and types located in various climatic conditions using several gridded meteorological data sets as model input and observed daily and monthly discharge data from GRDC (Global Runoff Data Center), USGS Water Data (US Geological Survey), and UNH archives. The best results with Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient in the range of 0.5-0.9 were obtained for temperate zone of Northern Hemisphere where most of large
modeling of modeling of reservoir in reservoir in artificial neu
African Journals Online (AJOL)
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adequate inflow data modeling and forecasting is v essential for proper ... eed correct measurement, ates for future planning and .... (CCANN) were used to evaluate performance of ANNs in estimating ... appropriate low flow forecast model for the Meuse. River in Netherlands based on the comparison of output uncertainties ...
Junakova, N.; Balintova, M.; Junak, J.
2017-10-01
The aim of this paper is to propose a mathematical model for determining of total nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) content in eroded soil particles with emphasis on prediction of bottom sediment quality in reservoirs. The adsorbed nutrient concentrations are calculated using the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) extended by the determination of the average soil nutrient concentration in top soils. The average annual vegetation and management factor is divided into five periods of the cropping cycle. For selected plants, the average plant nutrient uptake divided into five cropping periods is also proposed. The average nutrient concentrations in eroded soil particles in adsorbed form are modified by sediment enrichment ratio to obtain the total nutrient content in transported soil particles. The model was designed for the conditions of north-eastern Slovakia. The study was carried out in the agricultural basin of the small water reservoir Klusov.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Michael L. Wiggins; Raymon L. Brown; Faruk Civan; Richard G. Hughes
2002-12-31
For many years, geoscientists and engineers have undertaken research to characterize naturally fractured reservoirs. Geoscientists have focused on understanding the process of fracturing and the subsequent measurement and description of fracture characteristics. Engineers have concentrated on the fluid flow behavior in the fracture-porous media system and the development of models to predict the hydrocarbon production from these complex systems. This research attempts to integrate these two complementary views to develop a quantitative reservoir characterization methodology and flow performance model for naturally fractured reservoirs. The research has focused on estimating naturally fractured reservoir properties from seismic data, predicting fracture characteristics from well logs, and developing a naturally fractured reservoir simulator. It is important to develop techniques that can be applied to estimate the important parameters in predicting the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs. This project proposes a method to relate seismic properties to the elastic compliance and permeability of the reservoir based upon a sugar cube model. In addition, methods are presented to use conventional well logs to estimate localized fracture information for reservoir characterization purposes. The ability to estimate fracture information from conventional well logs is very important in older wells where data are often limited. Finally, a desktop naturally fractured reservoir simulator has been developed for the purpose of predicting the performance of these complex reservoirs. The simulator incorporates vertical and horizontal wellbore models, methods to handle matrix to fracture fluid transfer, and fracture permeability tensors. This research project has developed methods to characterize and study the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs that integrate geoscience and engineering data. This is an important step in developing exploitation strategies for
Modeling reservoir geomechanics using discrete element method : Application to reservoir monitoring
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alassi, Haitham Tayseer
2008-09-15
Understanding reservoir geomechanical behavior is becoming more and more important for the petroleum industry. Reservoir compaction, which may result in surface subsidence and fault reactivation, occurs during reservoir depletion. Stress changes and possible fracture development inside and outside a depleting reservoir can be monitored using time-lapse (so-called '4D') seismic and/or passive seismic, and this can give valuable information about the conditions of a given reservoir during production. In this study we will focus on using the (particle-based) Discrete Element Method (DEM) to model reservoir geomechanical behavior during depletion and fluid injection. We show in this study that DEM can be used in modeling reservoir geomechanical behavior by comparing results obtained from DEM to those obtained from analytical solutions. The match of the displacement field between DEM and the analytical solution is good, however there is mismatch of the stress field which is related to the way stress is measured in DEM. A good match is however obtained by measuring the stress field carefully. We also use DEM to model reservoir geomechanical behavior beyond the elasticity limit where fractures can develop and faults can reactivate. A general technique has been developed to relate DEM parameters to rock properties. This is necessary in order to use correct reservoir geomechanical properties during modeling. For any type of particle packing there is a limitation that the maximum ratio between P- and S-wave velocity Vp/Vs that can be modeled is 3 . The static behavior for a loose packing is different from the dynamic behavior. Empirical relations are needed for the static behavior based on numerical test observations. The dynamic behavior for both dense and loose packing can be given by analytical relations. Cosserat continuum theory is needed to derive relations for Vp and Vs. It is shown that by constraining the particle rotation, the S-wave velocity can be
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiqing Li
2018-04-01
Full Text Available GIS (Geographic Information System can be used to combine multiple hydrologic data and geographic data for FIA (Flood Impact Assessment. For a developing country like China, a lot of geographic data is in the CAD (Computer Aided Design format. The commonly used method for converting CAD into DEM may result in data loss. This paper introduces a solution for the conversion between CAD data and DEM data. The method has been applied to the FIA based on the topographic map of CAD in Hanjiang River. When compared with the other method, the new method solves the data loss problem. Besides, the paper use GIS to simulate the inundation range, area, and the depth distribution of flood backwater. Based on the analysis, the author concludes: (1 the differences of the inundation areas between the flood of HQ100 and the flood of HQ50 are small. (2 The inundation depth shows a decreasing trend along the upstream of the river. (3 The inundation area less than 4 m in flood of HQ50 is larger than that in flood of HQ100, the result is opposite when the inundation depth is greater than 4 m. (4 The flood loss is 392.32 million RMB for flood of HQ50 and 610.02 million RMB for flood of HQ100. The method can be applied to FIA.
Reservoir Models for Gas Hydrate Numerical Simulation
Boswell, R.
2016-12-01
Scientific and industrial drilling programs have now providing detailed information on gas hydrate systems that will increasingly be the subject of field experiments. The need to carefully plan these programs requires reliable prediction of reservoir response to hydrate dissociation. Currently, a major emphasis in gas hydrate modeling is the integration of thermodynamic/hydrologic phenomena with geomechanical response for both reservoir and bounding strata. However, also critical to the ultimate success of these efforts is the appropriate development of input geologic models, including several emerging issues, including (1) reservoir heterogeneity, (2) understanding of the initial petrophysical characteristics of the system (reservoirs and seals), the dynamic evolution of those characteristics during active dissociation, and the interdependency of petrophysical parameters and (3) the nature of reservoir boundaries. Heterogeneity is ubiquitous aspect of every natural reservoir, and appropriate characterization is vital. However, heterogeneity is not random. Vertical variation can be evaluated with core and well log data; however, core data often are challenged by incomplete recovery. Well logs also provide interpretation challenges, particularly where reservoirs are thinly-bedded due to limitation in vertical resolution. This imprecision will extend to any petrophysical measurements that are derived from evaluation of log data. Extrapolation of log data laterally is also complex, and should be supported by geologic mapping. Key petrophysical parameters include porosity, permeability and it many aspects, and water saturation. Field data collected to date suggest that the degree of hydrate saturation is strongly controlled by/dependant upon reservoir quality and that the ratio of free to bound water in the remaining pore space is likely also controlled by reservoir quality. Further, those parameters will also evolve during dissociation, and not necessary in a simple
Reservoir management under geological uncertainty using fast model update
Hanea, R.; Evensen, G.; Hustoft, L.; Ek, T.; Chitu, A.; Wilschut, F.
2015-01-01
Statoil is implementing "Fast Model Update (FMU)," an integrated and automated workflow for reservoir modeling and characterization. FMU connects all steps and disciplines from seismic depth conversion to prediction and reservoir management taking into account relevant reservoir uncertainty. FMU
System Dynamics Modeling of Multipurpose Reservoir Operation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ebrahim Momeni
2006-03-01
Full Text Available System dynamics, a feedback – based object – oriented simulation approach, not only represents complex dynamic systemic systems in a realistic way but also allows the involvement of end users in model development to increase their confidence in modeling process. The increased speed of model development, the possibility of group model development, the effective communication of model results, and the trust developed in the model due to user participation are the main strengths of this approach. The ease of model modification in response to changes in the system and the ability to perform sensitivity analysis make this approach more attractive compared with systems analysis techniques for modeling water management systems. In this study, a system dynamics model was developed for the Zayandehrud basin in central Iran. This model contains river basin, dam reservoir, plains, irrigation systems, and groundwater. Current operation rule is conjunctive use of ground and surface water. Allocation factor for each irrigation system is computed based on the feedback from groundwater storage in its zone. Deficit water is extracted from groundwater.The results show that applying better rules can not only satisfy all demands such as Gawkhuni swamp environmental demand, but it can also prevent groundwater level drawdown in future.
A Statistical Graphical Model of the California Reservoir System
Taeb, A.; Reager, J. T.; Turmon, M.; Chandrasekaran, V.
2017-11-01
The recent California drought has highlighted the potential vulnerability of the state's water management infrastructure to multiyear dry intervals. Due to the high complexity of the network, dynamic storage changes in California reservoirs on a state-wide scale have previously been difficult to model using either traditional statistical or physical approaches. Indeed, although there is a significant line of research on exploring models for single (or a small number of) reservoirs, these approaches are not amenable to a system-wide modeling of the California reservoir network due to the spatial and hydrological heterogeneities of the system. In this work, we develop a state-wide statistical graphical model to characterize the dependencies among a collection of 55 major California reservoirs across the state; this model is defined with respect to a graph in which the nodes index reservoirs and the edges specify the relationships or dependencies between reservoirs. We obtain and validate this model in a data-driven manner based on reservoir volumes over the period 2003-2016. A key feature of our framework is a quantification of the effects of external phenomena that influence the entire reservoir network. We further characterize the degree to which physical factors (e.g., state-wide Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), average temperature, snow pack) and economic factors (e.g., consumer price index, number of agricultural workers) explain these external influences. As a consequence of this analysis, we obtain a system-wide health diagnosis of the reservoir network as a function of PDSI.
Use of natural geochemical tracers to improve reservoir simulation models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huseby, O.; Chatzichristos, C.; Sagen, J.; Muller, J.; Kleven, R.; Bennett, B.; Larter, S.; Stubos, A.K.; Adler, P.M.
2005-01-01
This article introduces a methodology for integrating geochemical data in reservoir simulations to improve hydrocarbon reservoir models. The method exploits routine measurements of naturally existing inorganic ion concentration in hydrocarbon reservoir production wells, and uses the ions as non-partitioning water tracers. The methodology is demonstrated on a North Sea field case, using the field's reservoir model, together with geochemical information (SO{sub 4}{sup 2}, Mg{sup 2+} K{sup +}, Ba{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Cl{sup -} concentrations) from the field's producers. From the data-set we show that some of the ions behave almost as ideal sea-water tracers, i.e. without sorption to the matrix, ion-exchange with the matrix or scale-formation with other ions in the formation water. Moreover, the dataset shows that ion concentrations in pure formation-water vary according to formation. This information can be used to allocate produced water to specific water-producing zones in commingled production. Based on an evaluation of the applicability of the available data, one inorganic component, SO{sub 4}{sup 2}, is used as a natural seawater tracer. Introducing SO{sub 4}{sup 2} as a natural tracer in a tracer simulation has revealed a potential for improvements of the reservoir model. By tracking the injected seawater it was possible to identify underestimated fault lengths in the reservoir model. The demonstration confirms that geochemical data are valuable additional information for reservoir characterization, and shows that integration of geochemical data into reservoir simulation procedures can improve reservoir simulation models. (author)
Three dimensional heat transport modeling in Vossoroca reservoir
Arcie Polli, Bruna; Yoshioka Bernardo, Julio Werner; Hilgert, Stephan; Bleninger, Tobias
2017-04-01
Curitiba - Brazil. It is monomictic and its function is to regulate the flow to Chaminé hydropower plant. Vossoroca is monitored since 2012. Temperature is measured with seven temperature sensors in the deepest region of the reservoir and meteorological data is measured on a station close to the reservoir. The objective of this work is the 3D modeling of heat transport in Vossoroca reservoir with Delft3D. Temperature gradients between surface and bottom of Vossoroca reservoir during summer may reach 10°C, with surface temperatures around 25°C. Vossoroca is mixed during winter, with temperatures around 15°C. Based on these results, the position of the oxycline can be reconstructed. This information may lead to an adapted reservoir management, minimizing the potential effects to the downstream ecosystem, which normally can be strongly affected by the exposure to oxygen depleted water.
Hydrodynamic modeling of petroleum reservoirs using simulator MUFITS
Afanasyev, Andrey
2015-04-01
MUFITS is new noncommercial software for numerical modeling of subsurface processes in various applications (www.mufits.imec.msu.ru). To this point, the simulator was used for modeling nonisothermal flows in geothermal reservoirs and for modeling underground carbon dioxide storage. In this work, we present recent extension of the code to petroleum reservoirs. The simulator can be applied in conventional black oil modeling, but it also utilizes a more complicated models for volatile oil and gas condensate reservoirs as well as for oil rim fields. We give a brief overview of the code by providing the description of internal representation of reservoir models, which are constructed of grid blocks, interfaces, stock tanks as well as of pipe segments and pipe junctions for modeling wells and surface networks. For conventional black oil approach, we present the simulation results for SPE comparative tests. We propose an accelerated compositional modeling method for sub- and supercritical flows subjected to various phase equilibria, particularly to three-phase equilibria of vapour-liquid-liquid type. The method is based on the calculation of the thermodynamic potential of reservoir fluid as a function of pressure, total enthalpy and total composition and storing its values as a spline table, which is used in hydrodynamic simulation for accelerated PVT properties prediction. We provide the description of both the spline calculation procedure and the flashing algorithm. We evaluate the thermodynamic potential for a mixture of two pseudo-components modeling the heavy and light hydrocarbon fractions. We develop a technique for converting black oil PVT tables to the potential, which can be used for in-situ hydrocarbons multiphase equilibria prediction under sub- and supercritical conditions, particularly, in gas condensate and volatile oil reservoirs. We simulate recovery from a reservoir subject to near-critical initial conditions for hydrocarbon mixture. We acknowledge
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gökçen Uysal
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Optimal control of reservoirs is a challenging task due to conflicting objectives, complex system structure, and uncertainties in the system. Real time control decisions suffer from streamflow forecast uncertainty. This study aims to use Probabilistic Streamflow Forecasts (PSFs having a lead-time up to 48 h as input for the recurrent reservoir operation problem. A related technique for decision making is multi-stage stochastic optimization using scenario trees, referred to as Tree-based Model Predictive Control (TB-MPC. Deterministic Streamflow Forecasts (DSFs are provided by applying random perturbations on perfect data. PSFs are synthetically generated from DSFs by a new approach which explicitly presents dynamic uncertainty evolution. We assessed different variables in the generation of stochasticity and compared the results using different scenarios. The developed real-time hourly flood control was applied to a test case which had limited reservoir storage and restricted downstream condition. According to hindcasting closed-loop experiment results, TB-MPC outperforms the deterministic counterpart in terms of decreased downstream flood risk according to different independent forecast scenarios. TB-MPC was also tested considering different number of tree branches, forecast horizons, and different inflow conditions. We conclude that using synthetic PSFs in TB-MPC can provide more robust solutions against forecast uncertainty by resolution of uncertainty in trees.
Geological model of supercritical geothermal reservoir related to subduction system
Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi
2017-04-01
Following the Great East Japan Earthquake and the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear power station on 3.11 (11th March) 2011, geothermal energy came to be considered one of the most promising sources of renewable energy for the future in Japan. The temperatures of geothermal fields operating in Japan range from 200 to 300 °C (average 250 °C), and the depths range from 1000 to 2000 m (average 1500 m). In conventional geothermal reservoirs, the mechanical behavior of the rocks is presumed to be brittle, and convection of the hydrothermal fluid through existing network is the main method of circulation in the reservoir. In order to minimize induced seismicity, a rock mass that is "beyond brittle" is one possible candidate, because the rock mechanics of "beyond brittle" material is one of plastic deformation rather than brittle failure. Supercritical geothermal resources could be evaluated in terms of present volcanic activities, thermal structure, dimension of hydrothermal circulation, properties of fracture system, depth of heat source, depth of brittle factures zone, dimension of geothermal reservoir. On the basis of the GIS, potential of supercritical geothermal resources could be characterized into the following four categories. 1. Promising: surface manifestation d shallow high temperature, 2 Probability: high geothermal gradient, 3 Possibility: Aseismic zone which indicates an existence of melt, 4 Potential : low velocity zone which indicates magma input. Base on geophysical data for geothermal reservoirs, we have propose adequate tectonic model of development of the supercritical geothermal reservoirs. To understand the geological model of a supercritical geothermal reservoir, granite-porphyry system, which had been formed in subduction zone, was investigated as a natural analog of the supercritical geothermal energy system. Quartz veins, hydrothermal breccia veins, and glassy veins are observed in a granitic body. The glassy veins formed at 500-550
Mohamad Noor, Faris; Adipta, Agra
2018-03-01
Coal Bed Methane (CBM) as a newly developed resource in Indonesia is one of the alternatives to relieve Indonesia’s dependencies on conventional energies. Coal resource of Muara Enim Formation is known as one of the prolific reservoirs in South Sumatra Basin. Seismic inversion and well analysis are done to determine the coal seam characteristics of Muara Enim Formation. This research uses three inversion methods, which are: model base hard- constrain, bandlimited, and sparse-spike inversion. Each type of seismic inversion has its own advantages to display the coal seam and its characteristic. Interpretation result from the analysis data shows that the Muara Enim coal seam has 20 (API) gamma ray value, 1 (gr/cc) – 1.4 (gr/cc) from density log, and low AI cutoff value range between 5000-6400 (m/s)*(g/cc). The distribution of coal seam is laterally thinning northwest to southeast. Coal seam is seen biasedly on model base hard constraint inversion and discontinued on band-limited inversion which isn’t similar to the geological model. The appropriate AI inversion is sparse spike inversion which has 0.884757 value from cross plot inversion as the best correlation value among the chosen inversion methods. Sparse Spike inversion its self-has high amplitude as a proper tool to identify coal seam continuity which commonly appears as a thin layer. Cross-sectional sparse spike inversion shows that there are possible new boreholes in CDP 3662-3722, CDP 3586-3622, and CDP 4004-4148 which is seen in seismic data as a thick coal seam.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jian Zhou
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing is a useful tool for enhancing rock mass permeability for shale gas development, enhanced geothermal systems, and geological carbon sequestration by the high-pressure injection of a fracturing fluid into tight reservoir rocks. Although significant advances have been made in hydraulic fracturing theory, experiments, and numerical modeling, when it comes to the complexity of geological conditions knowledge is still limited. Mechanisms of fluid injection-induced fracture initiation and propagation should be better understood to take full advantage of hydraulic fracturing. This paper presents the development and application of discrete particle modeling based on two-dimensional particle flow code (PFC2D. Firstly, it is shown that the modeled value of the breakdown pressure for the hydraulic fracturing process is approximately equal to analytically calculated values under varied in situ stress conditions. Furthermore, a series of simulations for hydraulic fracturing in competent rock was performed to examine the influence of the in situ stress ratio, fluid injection rate, and fluid viscosity on the borehole pressure history, the geometry of hydraulic fractures, and the pore-pressure field, respectively. It was found that the hydraulic fractures in an isotropic medium always propagate parallel to the orientation of the maximum principal stress. When a high fluid injection rate is used, higher breakdown pressure is needed for fracture propagation and complex geometries of fractures can develop. When a low viscosity fluid is used, fluid can more easily penetrate from the borehole into the surrounding rock, which causes a reduction of the effective stress and leads to a lower breakdown pressure. Moreover, the geometry of the fractures is not particularly sensitive to the fluid viscosity in the approximate isotropic model.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wiggins, Michael L.; Brown, Raymon L.; Civan, Frauk; Hughes, Richard G.
2001-08-15
Research continues on characterizing and modeling the behavior of naturally fractured reservoir systems. Work has progressed on developing techniques for estimating fracture properties from seismic and well log data, developing naturally fractured wellbore models, and developing a model to characterize the transfer of fluid from the matrix to the fracture system for use in the naturally fractured reservoir simulator.
Advances in complex reservoir evaluation based on geophysical well logs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fertl, W.H.; Sinha, A.K. (Western Atlas International, Inc., Houston, TX (USA)); McDougall, J.G. (Western Atlas Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada))
1988-09-01
The matrix of reservoirs having complex lithologies, cause different density, neutron, and acoustic responses. Therefore the lithologies and effective porosity of reservoirs can be determined by using various crossplot techniques on data collected from two of these logs. The Complex Reservoir Analysis program (CRA) computes lithology, porosity, water saturation and relative permeabilities in formations with interbedded limestone, dolomite, and anhydrite. Porosity options include crossplot and individual log response techniques. Corrections for light hydrocarbons were applied. In solving for porosity and mineral volumes, sand, limestone, dolomite, and anhydrite lines were defined on either density/neutron or neutron/acoustic crossplots. Four additional mineral lines were specified. Incorporation of Pe data from the Z-Densilog provided a significant advance in evaluating complex reservoirs via the Z-CRA analysis. The classic reservoir evaluation program CLASS, was used to perform both minerals and shaly evaluation based on density, neutron, resistivity, and natural gamma ray spectral measurements. Computations included total and effective porosities, fluid saturation distribution based on the Wasman-Smits model, productivity indices, and volume and distribution of clay minerals. Additional computed formation parameters included log-derived cation exchange capacity and hydrogen index of dry clay matrix to determine the type and amount of smectite, illite and chlorite/kaolinite present. Canadian field experiences was used to illustrate and support the techniques described. 11 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.
Mishra, Srikanta; Kelley, Mark; Oruganti, YagnaDeepika; Bhattacharya, Indra; Spitznogle, Gary
2014-05-01
We present an integrated approach for formation permeability estimation, front tracking, reservoir model calibration, and plume migration modeling based on injection rate and down-hole pressure data from CO2 geologic sequestration projects. The data are taken from the 20 MW CO2 capture and storage project at American Electric Power's Mountaineer Plant in West Virginia, USA. The Mountaineer CO2 injection system consists of two injection wells - one in the Copper Ridge Dolomite formation and one in the Rose Run sandstone formation, and three deep observation wells that were operational between October 2009 and May 2011. Approximately 27000 MT and 10000 MT were injected into the Copper Ridge dolomite formation and Rose Run sandstone formation, respectively. A wealth of pressure and rate data from injection and observation wells is available covering a series of injection and pressure falloff events. The methodology developed and applied for interpreting and integrating the data during reservoir analysis and modeling from the Rose Run formation is the subject of this paper. For the analysis of transient pressure data at the injection and observation wells, the CO2 storage reservoir is conceptualized as a radial composite system, where the inner (invaded) zone consists of both supercritical CO2 and brine, and the outer (uninvaded) zone consists of undisturbed brine. Using established analytical solutions for analyzing fluid injection problems in the petroleum reservoir engineering literature, we show how the late-time pressure derivative response from both injection and observation wells will be identical - reflecting the permeability-thickness product of the undisturbed brine-filled formation. We also show how the expanding CO2 plume affects the "effective" compressibility that can be estimated by history matching injection-falloff data and how this can be used to develop a relationship between the plume radius and "effective" compressibility. This provides a novel non
Chen, Jiliang; Jiang, Fangming
2016-02-01
With a previously developed numerical model, we perform a detailed study of the heat extraction process in enhanced or engineered geothermal system (EGS). This model takes the EGS subsurface heat reservoir as an equivalent porous medium while it considers local thermal non-equilibrium between the rock matrix and the fluid flowing in the fractured rock mass. The application of local thermal non-equilibrium model highlights the temperature-difference heat exchange process occurring in EGS reservoirs, enabling a better understanding of the involved heat extraction process. The simulation results unravel the mechanism of preferential flow or short-circuit flow forming in homogeneously fractured reservoirs of different permeability values. EGS performance, e.g. production temperature and lifetime, is found to be tightly related to the flow pattern in the reservoir. Thermal compensation from rocks surrounding the reservoir contributes little heat to the heat transmission fluid if the operation time of an EGS is shorter than 15 years. We find as well the local thermal equilibrium model generally overestimates EGS performance and for an EGS with better heat exchange conditions in the heat reservoir, the heat extraction process acts more like the local thermal equilibrium process.
Spatial Stochastic Point Models for Reservoir Characterization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Syversveen, Anne Randi
1997-12-31
The main part of this thesis discusses stochastic modelling of geology in petroleum reservoirs. A marked point model is defined for objects against a background in a two-dimensional vertical cross section of the reservoir. The model handles conditioning on observations from more than one well for each object and contains interaction between objects, and the objects have the correct length distribution when penetrated by wells. The model is developed in a Bayesian setting. The model and the simulation algorithm are demonstrated by means of an example with simulated data. The thesis also deals with object recognition in image analysis, in a Bayesian framework, and with a special type of spatial Cox processes called log-Gaussian Cox processes. In these processes, the logarithm of the intensity function is a Gaussian process. The class of log-Gaussian Cox processes provides flexible models for clustering. The distribution of such a process is completely characterized by the intensity and the pair correlation function of the Cox process. 170 refs., 37 figs., 5 tabs.
Secure information transfer based on computing reservoir
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Szmoski, R.M.; Ferrari, F.A.S. [Department of Physics, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900, Ponta Grossa (Brazil); Pinto, S.E. de S, E-mail: desouzapinto@pq.cnpq.br [Department of Physics, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900, Ponta Grossa (Brazil); Baptista, M.S. [Institute for Complex Systems and Mathematical Biology, SUPA, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Viana, R.L. [Department of Physics, Universidade Federal do Parana, 81531-990, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil)
2013-04-01
There is a broad area of research to ensure that information is transmitted securely. Within this scope, chaos-based cryptography takes a prominent role due to its nonlinear properties. Using these properties, we propose a secure mechanism for transmitting data that relies on chaotic networks. We use a nonlinear on–off device to cipher the message, and the transfer entropy to retrieve it. We analyze the system capability for sending messages, and we obtain expressions for the operating time. We demonstrate the system efficiency for a wide range of parameters. We find similarities between our method and the reservoir computing.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zeng, X.T.; Zhang, S.J.; Feng, J.; Huang, G.H.; Li, Y.P.; Zhang, P.; Chen, J.P.; Li, K.L.
2017-01-01
Highlights: • A multi-reservoir system can handle water/energy deficit, flood and sediment damage. • A MWH model is developed for planning a water allocation and energy generation issue. • A mixed fuzzy-stochastic risk analysis method (MFSR) can handle uncertainties in MWH. • A hybrid MWH model can plan human-recourse-energy with a robust and effective manner. • Results can support adjusting water-energy policy to satisfy increasing demands. - Abstract: In this study, a multi-reservoir based water-hydroenergy management (MWH) model is developed for planning water allocation and hydroenergy generation (WAHG) under uncertainties. A mixed fuzzy-stochastic risk analysis method (MFSR) is introduced to handle objective and subjective uncertainties in MWH model, which can couple fuzzy credibility programming and risk management within a general two-stage context, with aim to reflect the infeasibility risks between expected targets and random second-stage recourse costs. The developed MWH model (embedded by MFSR method) can be applied to a practical study of WAHG issue in Jing River Basin (China), which encounters conflicts between human activity and resource/energy crisis. The construction of water-energy nexus (WEN) is built to reflect integrity of economic development and resource/energy conservation, as well as confronting natural and artificial damages such as water deficit, electricity insufficient, floodwater, high sedimentation deposition contemporarily. Meanwhile, the obtained results with various credibility levels and target-violated risk levels can support generating a robust plan associated with risk control for identification of the optimized water-allocation and hydroenergy-generation alternatives, as well as flood controls. Moreover, results can be beneficial for policymakers to discern the optimal water/sediment release routes, reservoirs’ storage variations (impacted by sediment deposition), electricity supply schedules and system benefit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Yueying
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Isolated fractures usually exist in fractured media systems, where the capillary pressure in the fracture is lower than that of the matrix, causing the discrepancy in oil recoveries between fractured and non-fractured porous media. Experiments, analytical solutions and conventional simulation methods based on the continuum model approach are incompetent or insufficient in describing media containing isolated fractures. In this paper, the simulation of the counter-current imbibition in fractured media is based on the discrete-fracture model (DFM. The interlocking or arrangement of matrix and fracture system within the model resembles the traditional discrete fracture network model and the hybrid-mixed-finite-element method is employed to solve the associated equations. The Behbahani experimental data validates our simulation solution for consistency. The simulation results of the fractured media show that the isolated-fractures affect the imbibition in the matrix block. Moreover, the isolated fracture parameters such as fracture length and fracture location influence the trend of the recovery curves. Thus, the counter-current imbibition behavior of media with isolated fractures can be predicted using this method based on the discrete-fracture model.
Evaluation of Gaussian approximations for data assimilation in reservoir models
Iglesias, Marco A.
2013-07-14
The Bayesian framework is the standard approach for data assimilation in reservoir modeling. This framework involves characterizing the posterior distribution of geological parameters in terms of a given prior distribution and data from the reservoir dynamics, together with a forward model connecting the space of geological parameters to the data space. Since the posterior distribution quantifies the uncertainty in the geologic parameters of the reservoir, the characterization of the posterior is fundamental for the optimal management of reservoirs. Unfortunately, due to the large-scale highly nonlinear properties of standard reservoir models, characterizing the posterior is computationally prohibitive. Instead, more affordable ad hoc techniques, based on Gaussian approximations, are often used for characterizing the posterior distribution. Evaluating the performance of those Gaussian approximations is typically conducted by assessing their ability at reproducing the truth within the confidence interval provided by the ad hoc technique under consideration. This has the disadvantage of mixing up the approximation properties of the history matching algorithm employed with the information content of the particular observations used, making it hard to evaluate the effect of the ad hoc approximations alone. In this paper, we avoid this disadvantage by comparing the ad hoc techniques with a fully resolved state-of-the-art probing of the Bayesian posterior distribution. The ad hoc techniques whose performance we assess are based on (1) linearization around the maximum a posteriori estimate, (2) randomized maximum likelihood, and (3) ensemble Kalman filter-type methods. In order to fully resolve the posterior distribution, we implement a state-of-the art Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method that scales well with respect to the dimension of the parameter space, enabling us to study realistic forward models, in two space dimensions, at a high level of grid refinement. Our
Statistical modeling of geopressured geothermal reservoirs
Ansari, Esmail; Hughes, Richard; White, Christopher D.
2017-06-01
Identifying attractive candidate reservoirs for producing geothermal energy requires predictive models. In this work, inspectional analysis and statistical modeling are used to create simple predictive models for a line drive design. Inspectional analysis on the partial differential equations governing this design yields a minimum number of fifteen dimensionless groups required to describe the physics of the system. These dimensionless groups are explained and confirmed using models with similar dimensionless groups but different dimensional parameters. This study models dimensionless production temperature and thermal recovery factor as the responses of a numerical model. These responses are obtained by a Box-Behnken experimental design. An uncertainty plot is used to segment the dimensionless time and develop a model for each segment. The important dimensionless numbers for each segment of the dimensionless time are identified using the Boosting method. These selected numbers are used in the regression models. The developed models are reduced to have a minimum number of predictors and interactions. The reduced final models are then presented and assessed using testing runs. Finally, applications of these models are offered. The presented workflow is generic and can be used to translate the output of a numerical simulator into simple predictive models in other research areas involving numerical simulation.
The Potosi Reservoir Model 2013c, Property Modeling Update
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adushita, Yasmin; Smith, Valerie; Leetaru, Hannes
2014-09-30
property modeling workflows and layering. This model was retained as the base case. In the preceding Task [1], the Potosi reservoir model was updated to take into account the new data from the Verification Well #2 (VW2) which was drilled in 2012. The porosity and permeability modeling was revised to take into account the log data from the new well. Revisions of the 2010 modeling assumptions were also done on relative permeability, capillary pressures, formation water salinity, and the maximum allowable well bottomhole pressure. Dynamic simulations were run using the injection target of 3.5 million tons per annum (3.2 MTPA) for 30 years. This dynamic model was named Potosi Dynamic Model 2013b. In this Task, a new property modeling workflow was applied, where seismic inversion data guided the porosity mapping and geobody extraction. The static reservoir model was fully guided by PorosityCube interpretations and derivations coupled with petrophysical logs from three wells. The two main assumptions are: porosity features in the PorosityCube that correlate with lost circulation zones represent vugular zones, and that these vugular zones are laterally continuous. Extrapolation was done carefully to populate the vugular facies and their corresponding properties outside the seismic footprint up to the boundary of the 30 by 30 mi (48 by 48 km) model. Dynamic simulations were also run using the injection target of 3.5 million tons per annum (3.2 MTPA) for 30 years. This new dynamic model was named Potosi Dynamic Model 2013c. Reservoir simulation with the latest model gives a cumulative injection of 43 million tons (39 MT) in 30 years with a single well, which corresponds to 40% of the injection target. The injection rate is approx. 3.2 MTPA in the first six months as the well is injecting into the surrounding vugs, and declines rapidly to 1.8 million tons per annum (1.6 MTPA) in year 3 once the surrounding vugs are full and the CO2 start to reach the matrix. After, the injection
Evaluation of field development plans using 3-D reservoir modelling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seifert, D.; Lewis, J.J.M. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Newbery, J.D.H. [Conoco, UK Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom)] [and others
1997-08-01
Three-dimensional reservoir modelling has become an accepted tool in reservoir description and is used for various purposes, such as reservoir performance prediction or integration and visualisation of data. In this case study, a small Northern North Sea turbiditic reservoir was to be developed with a line drive strategy utilising a series of horizontal producer and injector pairs, oriented north-south. This development plan was to be evaluated and the expected outcome of the wells was to be assessed and risked. Detailed analyses of core, well log and analogue data has led to the development of two geological {open_quotes}end member{close_quotes} scenarios. Both scenarios have been stochastically modelled using the Sequential Indicator Simulation method. The resulting equiprobable realisations have been subjected to detailed statistical well placement optimisation techniques. Based upon bivariate statistical evaluation of more than 1000 numerical well trajectories for each of the two scenarios, it was found that the wells inclinations and lengths had a great impact on the wells success, whereas the azimuth was found to have only a minor impact. After integration of the above results, the actual well paths were redesigned to meet external drilling constraints, resulting in substantial reductions in drilling time and costs.
Bi, Linfeng
2009-01-01
The main challenges in modeling fluid flow through naturally-fractured carbonate karst reservoirs are how to address various flow physics in complex geological architectures due to the presence of vugs and caves which are connected via fracture networks at multiple scales. In this paper, we present a unified multi-physics model that adapts to the complex flow regime through naturally-fractured carbonate karst reservoirs. This approach generalizes Stokes-Brinkman model (Popov et al. 2007). The fracture networks provide the essential connection between the caves in carbonate karst reservoirs. It is thus very important to resolve the flow in fracture network and the interaction between fractures and caves to better understand the complex flow behavior. The idea is to use Stokes-Brinkman model to represent flow through rock matrix, void caves as well as intermediate flows in very high permeability regions and to use an idea similar to discrete fracture network model to represent flow in fracture network. Consequently, various numerical solution strategies can be efficiently applied to greatly improve the computational efficiency in flow simulations. We have applied this unified multi-physics model as a fine-scale flow solver in scale-up computations. Both local and global scale-up are considered. It is found that global scale-up has much more accurate than local scale-up. Global scale-up requires the solution of global flow problems on fine grid, which generally is computationally expensive. The proposed model has the ability to deal with large number of fractures and caves, which facilitate the application of Stokes-Brinkman model in global scale-up computation. The proposed model flexibly adapts to the different flow physics in naturally-fractured carbonate karst reservoirs in a simple and effective way. It certainly extends modeling and predicting capability in efficient development of this important type of reservoir.
Level-set techniques for facies identification in reservoir modeling
Iglesias, Marco A.; McLaughlin, Dennis
2011-03-01
In this paper we investigate the application of level-set techniques for facies identification in reservoir models. The identification of facies is a geometrical inverse ill-posed problem that we formulate in terms of shape optimization. The goal is to find a region (a geologic facies) that minimizes the misfit between predicted and measured data from an oil-water reservoir. In order to address the shape optimization problem, we present a novel application of the level-set iterative framework developed by Burger in (2002 Interfaces Free Bound. 5 301-29 2004 Inverse Problems 20 259-82) for inverse obstacle problems. The optimization is constrained by (the reservoir model) a nonlinear large-scale system of PDEs that describes the reservoir dynamics. We reformulate this reservoir model in a weak (integral) form whose shape derivative can be formally computed from standard results of shape calculus. At each iteration of the scheme, the current estimate of the shape derivative is utilized to define a velocity in the level-set equation. The proper selection of this velocity ensures that the new shape decreases the cost functional. We present results of facies identification where the velocity is computed with the gradient-based (GB) approach of Burger (2002) and the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) technique of Burger (2004). While an adjoint formulation allows the straightforward application of the GB approach, the LM technique requires the computation of the large-scale Karush-Kuhn-Tucker system that arises at each iteration of the scheme. We efficiently solve this system by means of the representer method. We present some synthetic experiments to show and compare the capabilities and limitations of the proposed implementations of level-set techniques for the identification of geologic facies.
Level-set techniques for facies identification in reservoir modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iglesias, Marco A; McLaughlin, Dennis
2011-01-01
In this paper we investigate the application of level-set techniques for facies identification in reservoir models. The identification of facies is a geometrical inverse ill-posed problem that we formulate in terms of shape optimization. The goal is to find a region (a geologic facies) that minimizes the misfit between predicted and measured data from an oil–water reservoir. In order to address the shape optimization problem, we present a novel application of the level-set iterative framework developed by Burger in (2002 Interfaces Free Bound. 5 301–29; 2004 Inverse Problems 20 259–82) for inverse obstacle problems. The optimization is constrained by (the reservoir model) a nonlinear large-scale system of PDEs that describes the reservoir dynamics. We reformulate this reservoir model in a weak (integral) form whose shape derivative can be formally computed from standard results of shape calculus. At each iteration of the scheme, the current estimate of the shape derivative is utilized to define a velocity in the level-set equation. The proper selection of this velocity ensures that the new shape decreases the cost functional. We present results of facies identification where the velocity is computed with the gradient-based (GB) approach of Burger (2002) and the Levenberg–Marquardt (LM) technique of Burger (2004). While an adjoint formulation allows the straightforward application of the GB approach, the LM technique requires the computation of the large-scale Karush–Kuhn–Tucker system that arises at each iteration of the scheme. We efficiently solve this system by means of the representer method. We present some synthetic experiments to show and compare the capabilities and limitations of the proposed implementations of level-set techniques for the identification of geologic facies
Modeling of Reservoir Inflow for Hydropower Dams Using Artificial ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The stream flow at the three hydropower reservoirs in Nigeria were modeled using hydro-meteorological parameters and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The model revealed positive relationship between the observed and the modeled reservoir inflow with values of correlation coefficient of 0.57, 0.84 and 0.92 for Kainji, ...
Risk Decision Making Model for Reservoir Floodwater resources Utilization
Huang, X.
2017-12-01
Floodwater resources utilization(FRU) can alleviate the shortage of water resources, but there are risks. In order to safely and efficiently utilize the floodwater resources, it is necessary to study the risk of reservoir FRU. In this paper, the risk rate of exceeding the design flood water level and the risk rate of exceeding safety discharge are estimated. Based on the principle of the minimum risk and the maximum benefit of FRU, a multi-objective risk decision making model for FRU is constructed. Probability theory and mathematical statistics method is selected to calculate the risk rate; C-D production function method and emergy analysis method is selected to calculate the risk benefit; the risk loss is related to flood inundation area and unit area loss; the multi-objective decision making problem of the model is solved by the constraint method. Taking the Shilianghe reservoir in Jiangsu Province as an example, the optimal equilibrium solution of FRU of the Shilianghe reservoir is found by using the risk decision making model, and the validity and applicability of the model are verified.
Representing Reservoir Stratification in Land Surface and Earth System Models
Yigzaw, W.; Li, H. Y.; Leung, L. R.; Hejazi, M. I.; Voisin, N.; Payn, R. A.; Demissie, Y.
2017-12-01
A one-dimensional reservoir stratification modeling has been developed as part of Model for Scale Adaptive River Transport (MOSART), which is the river transport model used in the Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) and Community Earth System Model (CESM). Reservoirs play an important role in modulating the dynamic water, energy and biogeochemical cycles in the riverine system through nutrient sequestration and stratification. However, most earth system models include lake models that assume a simplified geometry featuring a constant depth and a constant surface area. As reservoir geometry has important effects on thermal stratification, we developed a new algorithm for deriving generic, stratified area-elevation-storage relationships that are applicable at regional and global scales using data from Global Reservoir and Dam database (GRanD). This new reservoir geometry dataset is then used to support the development of a reservoir stratification module within MOSART. The mixing of layers (energy and mass) in the reservoir is driven by eddy diffusion, vertical advection, and reservoir inflow and outflow. Upstream inflow into a reservoir is treated as an additional source/sink of energy, while downstream outflow represented a sink. Hourly atmospheric forcing from North American Land Assimilation System (NLDAS) Phase II and simulated daily runoff by ACME land component are used as inputs for the model over the contiguous United States for simulations between 2001-2010. The model is validated using selected observed temperature profile data in a number of reservoirs that are subject to various levels of regulation. The reservoir stratification module completes the representation of riverine mass and heat transfer in earth system models, which is a major step towards quantitative understanding of human influences on the terrestrial hydrological, ecological and biogeochemical cycles.
Fractured reservoir history matching improved based on artificial intelligent
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sayyed Hadi Riazi
2016-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a new robust approach based on Least Square Support Vector Machine (LSSVM as a proxy model is used for an automatic fractured reservoir history matching. The proxy model is made to model the history match objective function (mismatch values based on the history data of the field. This model is then used to minimize the objective function through Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA. In automatic history matching, sensitive analysis is often performed on full simulation model. In this work, to get new range of the uncertain parameters (matching parameters in which the objective function has a minimum value, sensitivity analysis is also performed on the proxy model. By applying the modified ranges to the optimization methods, optimization of the objective function will be faster and outputs of the optimization methods (matching parameters are produced in less time and with high precision. This procedure leads to matching of history of the field in which a set of reservoir parameters is used. The final sets of parameters are then applied for the full simulation model to validate the technique. The obtained results show that the present procedure in this work is effective for history matching process due to its robust dependability and fast convergence speed. Due to high speed and need for small data sets, LSSVM is the best tool to build a proxy model. Also the comparison of PSO and ICA shows that PSO is less time-consuming and more effective.
Multiobjective Optimization Modeling Approach for Multipurpose Single Reservoir Operation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iosvany Recio Villa
2018-04-01
Full Text Available The water resources planning and management discipline recognizes the importance of a reservoir’s carryover storage. However, mathematical models for reservoir operation that include carryover storage are scarce. This paper presents a novel multiobjective optimization modeling framework that uses the constraint-ε method and genetic algorithms as optimization techniques for the operation of multipurpose simple reservoirs, including carryover storage. The carryover storage was conceived by modifying Kritsky and Menkel’s method for reservoir design at the operational stage. The main objective function minimizes the cost of the total annual water shortage for irrigation areas connected to a reservoir, while the secondary one maximizes its energy production. The model includes operational constraints for the reservoir, Kritsky and Menkel’s method, irrigation areas, and the hydropower plant. The study is applied to Carlos Manuel de Céspedes reservoir, establishing a 12-month planning horizon and an annual reliability of 75%. The results highly demonstrate the applicability of the model, obtaining monthly releases from the reservoir that include the carryover storage, degree of reservoir inflow regulation, water shortages in irrigation areas, and the energy generated by the hydroelectric plant. The main product is an operational graph that includes zones as well as rule and guide curves, which are used as triggers for long-term reservoir operation.
Modeling Reservoir-River Networks in Support of Optimizing Seasonal-Scale Reservoir Operations
Villa, D. L.; Lowry, T. S.; Bier, A.; Barco, J.; Sun, A.
2011-12-01
HydroSCOPE (Hydropower Seasonal Concurrent Optimization of Power and the Environment) is a seasonal time-scale tool for scenario analysis and optimization of reservoir-river networks. Developed in MATLAB, HydroSCOPE is an object-oriented model that simulates basin-scale dynamics with an objective of optimizing reservoir operations to maximize revenue from power generation, reliability in the water supply, environmental performance, and flood control. HydroSCOPE is part of a larger toolset that is being developed through a Department of Energy multi-laboratory project. This project's goal is to provide conventional hydropower decision makers with better information to execute their day-ahead and seasonal operations and planning activities by integrating water balance and operational dynamics across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. This presentation details the modeling approach and functionality of HydroSCOPE. HydroSCOPE consists of a river-reservoir network model and an optimization routine. The river-reservoir network model simulates the heat and water balance of river-reservoir networks for time-scales up to one year. The optimization routine software, DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications - dakota.sandia.gov), is seamlessly linked to the network model and is used to optimize daily volumetric releases from the reservoirs to best meet a set of user-defined constraints, such as maximizing revenue while minimizing environmental violations. The network model uses 1-D approximations for both the reservoirs and river reaches and is able to account for surface and sediment heat exchange as well as ice dynamics for both models. The reservoir model also accounts for inflow, density, and withdrawal zone mixing, and diffusive heat exchange. Routing for the river reaches is accomplished using a modified Muskingum-Cunge approach that automatically calculates the internal timestep and sub-reach lengths to match the conditions of
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ricard, L.
2005-12-15
The high level geo-statistic description of the subsurface are often far too detailed for use in routine flow simulators. To make flow simulations tractable, the number of grid blocks has to be reduced: an approximation, still relevant with flow description, is necessary. In this work, we place the emphasis on the scaling procedure from the fine scale model to the multi-scale reservoir model. Two main problems appear: Near wells, faults and channels, the volume of flexible cells may be less than fine ones, so we need to solve a down-scaling problem; Far from these regions, the volume of cells are bigger than fine ones so we need to solve an up-scaling problem. In this work, research has been done on each of these three areas: down-scaling, up-scaling and fluid flow simulation. For each of these subjects, a review, some news improvements and comparative study are proposed. The proposed down-scaling method is build to be compatible with existing data integration methods. The comparative study shows that empirical methods are not enough accurate to solve the problem. Concerning the up-scaling step, the proposed approach is based on an existing method: the perturbed boundary conditions. An extension to unstructured mesh is developed for the inter-cell permeability tensor. The comparative study shows that numerical methods are not always as accurate as expected and the empirical model can be sufficient in lot of cases. A new approach to single-phase fluid flow simulation is developed. This approach can handle with full tensorial permeability fields with source or sink terms.(author)
Surrogate reservoir models for CSI well probabilistic production forecast
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saúl Buitrago
2017-09-01
Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present the construction and use of Surrogate Reservoir Models capable of accurately predicting cumulative oil production for every well stimulated with cyclic steam injection at any given time in a heavy oil reservoir in Mexico considering uncertain variables. The central composite experimental design technique was selected to capture the maximum amount of information from the model response with a minimum number of reservoir models simulations. Four input uncertain variables (the dead oil viscosity with temperature, the reservoir pressure, the reservoir permeability and oil sand thickness hydraulically connected to the well were selected as the ones with more impact on the initial hot oil production rate according to an analytical production prediction model. Twenty five runs were designed and performed with the STARS simulator for each well type on the reservoir model. The results show that the use of Surrogate Reservoir Models is a fast viable alternative to perform probabilistic production forecasting of the reservoir.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scheidt, Rafael de Faria; Vilain, Patrícia; Dantas, M A R
2014-01-01
Petroleum reservoir engineering is a complex and interesting field that requires large amount of computational facilities to achieve successful results. Usually, software environments for this field are developed without taking care out of possible interactions and extensibilities required by reservoir engineers. In this paper, we present a research work which it is characterized by the design and implementation based on a software product line model for a real distributed reservoir engineering environment. Experimental results indicate successfully the utilization of this approach for the design of distributed software architecture. In addition, all components from the proposal provided greater visibility of the organization and processes for the reservoir engineers
de Faria Scheidt, Rafael; Vilain, Patrícia; Dantas, M. A. R.
2014-10-01
Petroleum reservoir engineering is a complex and interesting field that requires large amount of computational facilities to achieve successful results. Usually, software environments for this field are developed without taking care out of possible interactions and extensibilities required by reservoir engineers. In this paper, we present a research work which it is characterized by the design and implementation based on a software product line model for a real distributed reservoir engineering environment. Experimental results indicate successfully the utilization of this approach for the design of distributed software architecture. In addition, all components from the proposal provided greater visibility of the organization and processes for the reservoir engineers.
Reservoir Modeling Combining Geostatistics with Markov Chain Monte Carlo Inversion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zunino, Andrea; Lange, Katrine; Melnikova, Yulia
2014-01-01
We present a study on the inversion of seismic reflection data generated from a synthetic reservoir model. Our aim is to invert directly for rock facies and porosity of the target reservoir zone. We solve this inverse problem using a Markov chain Monte Carlo (McMC) method to handle the nonlinear...
The egg model - a geological ensemble for reservoir simulation
Jansen, J.D.; Fonseca, R.M.; Kahrobaei, S.; Siraj, M.M.; Essen, van G.M.; Hof, Van den P.M.J.
2014-01-01
The ‘Egg Model’ is a synthetic reservoir model consisting of an ensemble of 101 relatively small three-dimensional realizations of a channelized oil reservoir produced under water flooding conditions with eight water injectors and four oil producers. It has been used in numerous publications to
Scale Model Simulation of Enhanced Geothermal Reservoir Creation
Gutierrez, M.; Frash, L.; Hampton, J.
2012-12-01
Geothermal energy technology has successfully provided a means of generating stable base load electricity for many years. However, implementation has been spatially limited to limited availability of high quality traditional hydro-thermal resources possessing the combination of a shallow high heat flow anomaly and an aquifer with sufficient permeability and continuous fluid recharge. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) has been proposed as a potential solution to enable additional energy production from the non-conventional hydro-thermal resources. Hydraulic fracturing is considered the primary means of creating functional EGS reservoirs at sites where the permeability of the rock is too limited to allow cost effective heat recovery. EGS reservoir creation requires improved fracturing methodology, rheologically controllable fracturing fluids, and temperature hardened proppants. Although large fracture volumes (several cubic km) have been created in the field, circulating fluid through these full volumes and maintaining fracture volumes have proven difficult. Stimulation technology and methodology as used in the oil and gas industry for sedimentary formations are well developed; however, they have not sufficiently been demonstrated for EGS reservoir creation. Insufficient data and measurements under geothermal conditions make it difficult to directly translate experience from the oil and gas industries to EGS applications. To demonstrate the feasibility of EGS reservoir creation and subsequent geothermal energy production, and to improve the understanding of hydraulic and propping in EGS reservoirs, a heated true-triaxial load cell with a high pressure fluid injection system was developed to simulate an EGS system from stimulation to production. This apparatus is capable of loading a 30x30x30 cubic cm rock sample with independent principal stresses up to 13 MPa while simultaneously providing heating up to 180 degree C. Multiple orientated boreholes of 5 to 10 mm
Direct Use Reservoir Models - How We think They Work
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Culver, G.
1990-01-01
The resource base for low-to-moderate temperature direct use geothermal applications is large and wide spread throughout the western United States. The models for direct use resources likely to be utilized in EPA Region IX depict fluids percolating to significant depths, being heated and convecting to the surface or near surface. The most commonly utilized resource is the fault controlled lateral leakage type. Geothermal fluids within the shallow reservoir vary in temperature and chemistry depending on the distance from the upflow zone. Regulations governing injected water chemistry compared to receiving water chemistry should take variations of chemistry into account.
Seismic Modeling Of Reservoir Heterogeneity Scales: An Application To Gas Hydrate Reservoirs
Huang, J.; Bellefleur, G.; Milkereit, B.
2008-12-01
Natural gas hydrates, a type of inclusion compound or clathrate, are composed of gas molecules trapped within a cage of water molecules. The occurrence of gas hydrates in permafrost regions has been confirmed by core samples recovered from the Mallik gas hydrate research wells located within Mackenzie Delta in Northwest Territories of Canada. Strong vertical variations of compressional and shear sonic velocities and weak surface seismic expressions of gas hydrates indicate that lithological heterogeneities control the distribution of hydrates. Seismic scattering studies predict that typical scales and strong physical contrasts due to gas hydrate concentration will generate strong forward scattering, leaving only weak energy captured by surface receivers. In order to understand the distribution of hydrates and the seismic scattering effects, an algorithm was developed to construct heterogeneous petrophysical reservoir models. The algorithm was based on well logs showing power law features and Gaussian or Non-Gaussian probability density distribution, and was designed to honor the whole statistical features of well logs such as the characteristic scales and the correlation among rock parameters. Multi-dimensional and multi-variable heterogeneous models representing the same statistical properties were constructed and applied to the heterogeneity analysis of gas hydrate reservoirs. The petrophysical models provide the platform to estimate rock physics properties as well as to study the impact of seismic scattering, wave mode conversion, and their integration on wave behavior in heterogeneous reservoirs. Using the Biot-Gassmann theory, the statistical parameters obtained from Mallik 5L-38, and the correlation length estimated from acoustic impedance inversion, gas hydrate volume fraction in Mallik area was estimated to be 1.8%, approximately 2x108 m3 natural gas stored in a hydrate bearing interval within 0.25 km2 lateral extension and between 889 m and 1115 m depth
All-optical reservoir computer based on saturation of absorption.
Dejonckheere, Antoine; Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Fang, Li; Oudar, Jean-Louis; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge
2014-05-05
Reservoir computing is a new bio-inspired computation paradigm. It exploits a dynamical system driven by a time-dependent input to carry out computation. For efficient information processing, only a few parameters of the reservoir needs to be tuned, which makes it a promising framework for hardware implementation. Recently, electronic, opto-electronic and all-optical experimental reservoir computers were reported. In those implementations, the nonlinear response of the reservoir is provided by active devices such as optoelectronic modulators or optical amplifiers. By contrast, we propose here the first reservoir computer based on a fully passive nonlinearity, namely the saturable absorption of a semiconductor mirror. Our experimental setup constitutes an important step towards the development of ultrafast low-consumption analog computers.
Integration of 3D photogrammetric outcrop models in the reservoir modelling workflow
Deschamps, Remy; Joseph, Philippe; Lerat, Olivier; Schmitz, Julien; Doligez, Brigitte; Jardin, Anne
2014-05-01
3D technologies are now widely used in geosciences to reconstruct outcrops in 3D. The technology used for the 3D reconstruction is usually based on Lidar, which provides very precise models. Such datasets offer the possibility to build well-constrained outcrop analogue models for reservoir study purposes. The photogrammetry is an alternate methodology which principles are based in determining the geometric properties of an object from photographic pictures taken from different angles. Outcrop data acquisition is easy, and this methodology allows constructing 3D outcrop models with many advantages such as: - light and fast acquisition, - moderate processing time (depending on the size of the area of interest), - integration of field data and 3D outcrops into the reservoir modelling tools. Whatever the method, the advantages of digital outcrop model are numerous as already highlighted by Hodgetts (2013), McCaffrey et al. (2005) and Pringle et al. (2006): collection of data from otherwise inaccessible areas, access to different angles of view, increase of the possible measurements, attributes analysis, fast rate of data collection, and of course training and communication. This paper proposes a workflow where 3D geocellular models are built by integrating all sources of information from outcrops (surface picking, sedimentological sections, structural and sedimentary dips…). The 3D geomodels that are reconstructed can be used at the reservoir scale, in order to compare the outcrop information with subsurface models: the detailed facies models of the outcrops are transferred into petrophysical and acoustic models, which are used to test different scenarios of seismic and fluid flow modelling. The detailed 3D models are also used to test new techniques of static reservoir modelling, based either on geostatistical approaches or on deterministic (process-based) simulation techniques. A modelling workflow has been designed to model reservoir geometries and properties from
Molecular Simulation towards Efficient and Representative Subsurface Reservoirs Modeling
Kadoura, Ahmad Salim
2016-01-01
This dissertation focuses on the application of Monte Carlo (MC) molecular simulation and Molecular Dynamics (MD) in modeling thermodynamics and flow of subsurface reservoir fluids. At first, MC molecular simulation is proposed as a promising method
The model coupling fluid flow in reservoir with flow in horizontal wellbore
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Xiangping; Jiang, Zhixiang [RIPED-TEXACO Horizontal Well Technology Laboratory (United States)
1998-12-31
Three-dimensional pressure distributions of oil flow in a reservoir with horizontal well were derived, and a new formula to calculate pressure drop along the horizontal wellbore was developed based on the principle of conservation of matter and momentum. The formula considers the effect of influx into the horizontal wellbore from the reservoir on pressure drop in the wellbore. A mathematical model to couple fluid flow in the reservoir with flow in the horizontal wellbore is presented. Model results and experimental data showed good correspondence. Results showed the influence of pressure drop on well performance. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.
Mathematical modeling of large floating roof reservoir temperature arena
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu Yang
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The current study is a simplification of related components of large floating roof tank and modeling for three dimensional temperature field of large floating roof tank. The heat transfer involves its transfer between the hot fluid in the oil tank, between the hot fluid and the tank wall and between the tank wall and the external environment. The mathematical model of heat transfer and flow of oil in the tank simulates the temperature field of oil in tank. Oil temperature field of large floating roof tank is obtained by numerical simulation, map the curve of central temperature dynamics with time and analyze axial and radial temperature of storage tank. It determines the distribution of low temperature storage tank location based on the thickness of the reservoir temperature. Finally, it compared the calculated results and the field test data; eventually validated the calculated results based on the experimental results.
Sampling from stochastic reservoir models constrained by production data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hegstad, Bjoern Kaare
1997-12-31
When a petroleum reservoir is evaluated, it is important to forecast future production of oil and gas and to assess forecast uncertainty. This is done by defining a stochastic model for the reservoir characteristics, generating realizations from this model and applying a fluid flow simulator to the realizations. The reservoir characteristics define the geometry of the reservoir, initial saturation, petrophysical properties etc. This thesis discusses how to generate realizations constrained by production data, that is to say, the realizations should reproduce the observed production history of the petroleum reservoir within the uncertainty of these data. The topics discussed are: (1) Theoretical framework, (2) History matching, forecasting and forecasting uncertainty, (3) A three-dimensional test case, (4) Modelling transmissibility multipliers by Markov random fields, (5) Up scaling, (6) The link between model parameters, well observations and production history in a simple test case, (7) Sampling the posterior using optimization in a hierarchical model, (8) A comparison of Rejection Sampling and Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, (9) Stochastic simulation and conditioning by annealing in reservoir description, and (10) Uncertainty assessment in history matching and forecasting. 139 refs., 85 figs., 1 tab.
Allawi, Mohammed Falah; Jaafar, Othman; Mohamad Hamzah, Firdaus; Abdullah, Sharifah Mastura Syed; El-Shafie, Ahmed
2018-05-01
Efficacious operation for dam and reservoir system could guarantee not only a defenselessness policy against natural hazard but also identify rule to meet the water demand. Successful operation of dam and reservoir systems to ensure optimal use of water resources could be unattainable without accurate and reliable simulation models. According to the highly stochastic nature of hydrologic parameters, developing accurate predictive model that efficiently mimic such a complex pattern is an increasing domain of research. During the last two decades, artificial intelligence (AI) techniques have been significantly utilized for attaining a robust modeling to handle different stochastic hydrological parameters. AI techniques have also shown considerable progress in finding optimal rules for reservoir operation. This review research explores the history of developing AI in reservoir inflow forecasting and prediction of evaporation from a reservoir as the major components of the reservoir simulation. In addition, critical assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of integrated AI simulation methods with optimization methods has been reported. Future research on the potential of utilizing new innovative methods based AI techniques for reservoir simulation and optimization models have also been discussed. Finally, proposal for the new mathematical procedure to accomplish the realistic evaluation of the whole optimization model performance (reliability, resilience, and vulnerability indices) has been recommended.
Chen, Y. Y.; Ho, C. C.; Chang, L. C.
2017-12-01
The reservoir management in Taiwan faces lots of challenge. Massive sediment caused by landslide were flushed into reservoir, which will decrease capacity, rise the turbidity, and increase supply risk. Sediment usually accompanies nutrition that will cause eutrophication problem. Moreover, the unevenly distribution of rainfall cause water supply instability. Hence, how to ensure sustainable use of reservoirs has become an important task in reservoir management. The purpose of the study is developing an optimal planning model for reservoir sustainable management to find out an optimal operation rules of reservoir flood control and sediment sluicing. The model applies Genetic Algorithms to combine with the artificial neural network of hydraulic analysis and reservoir sediment movement. The main objective of operation rules in this study is to prevent reservoir outflow caused downstream overflow, minimum the gap between initial and last water level of reservoir, and maximum sluicing sediment efficiency. A case of Shihmen reservoir was used to explore the different between optimal operating rule and the current operation of the reservoir. The results indicate optimal operating rules tended to open desilting tunnel early and extend open duration during flood discharge period. The results also show the sluicing sediment efficiency of optimal operating rule is 36%, 44%, 54% during Typhoon Jangmi, Typhoon Fung-Wong, and Typhoon Sinlaku respectively. The results demonstrate the optimal operation rules do play a role in extending the service life of Shihmen reservoir and protecting the safety of downstream. The study introduces a low cost strategy, alteration of operation reservoir rules, into reservoir sustainable management instead of pump dredger in order to improve the problem of elimination of reservoir sediment and high cost.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Costa Reis, L.
2001-01-01
We have developed in this thesis a methodology of integrated characterization of heterogeneous reservoirs, from geologic modeling to history matching. This methodology is applied to the reservoir PBR, situated in Campos Basin, offshore Brazil, which has been producing since June 1979. This work is an extension of two other thesis concerning geologic and geostatistical modeling of the reservoir PBR from well data and seismic information. We extended the geostatistical litho-type model to the whole reservoir by using a particular approach of the non-stationary truncated Gaussian simulation method. This approach facilitated the application of the gradual deformation method to history matching. The main stages of the methodology for dynamic data integration in a geostatistical reservoir model are presented. We constructed a reservoir model and the initial difficulties in the history matching led us to modify some choices in the geological, geostatistical and flow models. These difficulties show the importance of dynamic data integration in reservoir modeling. The petrophysical property assignment within the litho-types was done by using well test data. We used an inversion procedure to evaluate the petrophysical parameters of the litho-types. The up-scaling is a necessary stage to reduce the flow simulation time. We compared several up-scaling methods and we show that the passage from the fine geostatistical model to the coarse flow model should be done very carefully. The choice of the fitting parameter depends on the objective of the study. In the case of the reservoir PBR, where water is injected in order to improve the oil recovery, the water rate of the producing wells is directly related to the reservoir heterogeneity. Thus, the water rate was chosen as the fitting parameter. We obtained significant improvements in the history matching of the reservoir PBR. First, by using a method we have proposed, called patchwork. This method allows us to built a coherent
Numerical modeling of shear stimulation in naturally fractured geothermal reservoirs
Ucar, Eren
2018-01-01
Shear-dilation-based hydraulic stimulations are conducted to create enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) from low permeable geothermal reservoirs, which are initially not amenable to energy production. Reservoir stimulations are done by injecting low-pressurized fluid into the naturally fractured formations. The injection aims to activate critically stressed fractures by decreasing frictional strength and ultimately cause a shear failure. The shear failure leads to a permanent ...
Yassin, F.; Anis, M. R.; Razavi, S.; Wheater, H. S.
2017-12-01
Water management through reservoirs, diversions, and irrigation have significantly changed river flow regimes and basin-wide energy and water balance cycles. Failure to represent these effects limits the performance of land surface-hydrology models not only for streamflow prediction but also for the estimation of soil moisture, evapotranspiration, and feedbacks to the atmosphere. Despite recent research to improve the representation of water management in land surface models, there remains a need to develop improved modeling approaches that work in complex and highly regulated basins such as the 406,000 km2 Saskatchewan River Basin (SaskRB). A particular challenge for regional and global application is a lack of local information on reservoir operational management. To this end, we implemented a reservoir operation, water abstraction, and irrigation algorithm in the MESH land surface-hydrology model and tested it over the SaskRB. MESH is Environment Canada's Land Surface-hydrology modeling system that couples Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS) with hydrological routing model. The implemented reservoir algorithm uses an inflow-outflow relationship that accounts for the physical characteristics of reservoirs (e.g., storage-area-elevation relationships) and includes simplified operational characteristics based on local information (e.g., monthly target volume and release under limited, normal, and flood storage zone). The irrigation algorithm uses the difference between actual and potential evapotranspiration to estimate irrigation water demand. This irrigation demand is supplied from the neighboring reservoirs/diversion in the river system. We calibrated the model enabled with the new reservoir and irrigation modules in a multi-objective optimization setting. Results showed that the reservoir and irrigation modules significantly improved the MESH model performance in generating streamflow and evapotranspiration across the SaskRB and that this our approach provides
Data Integration for the Generation of High Resolution Reservoir Models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Albert Reynolds; Dean Oliver; Gaoming Li; Yong Zhao; Chaohui Che; Kai Zhang; Yannong Dong; Chinedu Abgalaka; Mei Han
2009-01-07
The goal of this three-year project was to develop a theoretical basis and practical technology for the integration of geologic, production and time-lapse seismic data in a way that makes best use of the information for reservoir description and reservoir performance predictions. The methodology and practical tools for data integration that were developed in this research project have been incorporated into computational algorithms that are feasible for large scale reservoir simulation models. As the integration of production and seismic data require calibrating geological/geostatistical models to these data sets, the main computational tool is an automatic history matching algorithm. The following specific goals were accomplished during this research. (1) We developed algorithms for calibrating the location of the boundaries of geologic facies and the distribution of rock properties so that production and time-lapse seismic data are honored. (2) We developed and implemented specific procedures for conditioning reservoir models to time-lapse seismic data. (3) We developed and implemented algorithms for the characterization of measurement errors which are needed to determine the relative weights of data when conditioning reservoir models to production and time-lapse seismic data by automatic history matching. (4) We developed and implemented algorithms for the adjustment of relative permeability curves during the history matching process. (5) We developed algorithms for production optimization which accounts for geological uncertainty within the context of closed-loop reservoir management. (6) To ensure the research results will lead to practical public tools for independent oil companies, as part of the project we built a graphical user interface for the reservoir simulator and history matching software using Visual Basic.
Ronchin, Erika; Masterlark, Timothy; Dawson, John; Saunders, Steve; Martì Molist, Joan
2017-06-01
We test an innovative inversion scheme using Green's functions from an array of pressure sources embedded in finite-element method (FEM) models to image, without assuming an a-priori geometry, the composite and complex shape of a volcano deformation source. We invert interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data to estimate the pressurization and shape of the magma reservoir of Rabaul caldera, Papua New Guinea. The results image the extended shallow magmatic system responsible for a broad and long-term subsidence of the caldera between 2007 February and 2010 December. Elastic FEM solutions are integrated into the regularized linear inversion of InSAR data of volcano surface displacements in order to obtain a 3-D image of the source of deformation. The Green's function matrix is constructed from a library of forward line-of-sight displacement solutions for a grid of cubic elementary deformation sources. Each source is sequentially generated by removing the corresponding cubic elements from a common meshed domain and simulating the injection of a fluid mass flux into the cavity, which results in a pressurization and volumetric change of the fluid-filled cavity. The use of a single mesh for the generation of all FEM models avoids the computationally expensive process of non-linear inversion and remeshing a variable geometry domain. Without assuming an a-priori source geometry other than the configuration of the 3-D grid that generates the library of Green's functions, the geodetic data dictate the geometry of the magma reservoir as a 3-D distribution of pressure (or flux of magma) within the source array. The inversion of InSAR data of Rabaul caldera shows a distribution of interconnected sources forming an amorphous, shallow magmatic system elongated under two opposite sides of the caldera. The marginal areas at the sides of the imaged magmatic system are the possible feeding reservoirs of the ongoing Tavurvur volcano eruption of andesitic products on the
Wang, Weifeng; Roulet, Nigel T; Strachan, Ian B; Tremblay, Alain
2016-04-15
The thermal dynamics of human created northern reservoirs (e.g., water temperatures and ice cover dynamics) influence carbon processing and air-water gas exchange. Here, we developed a process-based one-dimensional model (Snow, Ice, WAater, and Sediment: SIWAS) to simulate a full year's surface energy fluxes and thermal dynamics for a moderately large (>500km(2)) boreal hydroelectric reservoir in northern Quebec, Canada. There is a lack of climate and weather data for most of the Canadian boreal so we designed SIWAS with a minimum of inputs and with a daily time step. The modeled surface energy fluxes were consistent with six years of observations from eddy covariance measurements taken in the middle of the reservoir. The simulated water temperature profiles agreed well with observations from over 100 sites across the reservoir. The model successfully captured the observed annual trend of ice cover timing, although the model overestimated the length of ice cover period (15days). Sensitivity analysis revealed that air temperature significantly affects the ice cover duration, water and sediment temperatures, but that dissolved organic carbon concentrations have little effect on the heat fluxes, and water and sediment temperatures. We conclude that the SIWAS model is capable of simulating surface energy fluxes and thermal dynamics for boreal reservoirs in regions where high temporal resolution climate data are not available. SIWAS is suitable for integration into biogeochemical models for simulating a reservoir's carbon cycle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Abdel-Fattah, Mohamed I.; Metwalli, Farouk I.; Mesilhi, El Sayed I.
2018-02-01
3D static reservoir modeling of the Bahariya reservoirs using seismic and wells data can be a relevant part of an overall strategy for the oilfields development in South Umbarka area (Western Desert, Egypt). The seismic data is used to build the 3D grid, including fault sticks for the fault modeling, and horizon interpretations and surfaces for horizon modeling. The 3D grid is the digital representation of the structural geology of Bahariya Formation. When we got a reasonably accurate representation, we fill the 3D grid with facies and petrophysical properties to simulate it, to gain a more precise understanding of the reservoir properties behavior. Sequential Indicator Simulation (SIS) and Sequential Gaussian Simulation (SGS) techniques are the stochastic algorithms used to spatially distribute discrete reservoir properties (facies) and continuous reservoir properties (shale volume, porosity, and water saturation) respectively within the created 3D grid throughout property modeling. The structural model of Bahariya Formation exhibits the trapping mechanism which is a fault assisted anticlinal closure trending NW-SE. This major fault breaks the reservoirs into two major fault blocks (North Block and South Block). Petrophysical models classified Lower Bahariya reservoir as a moderate to good reservoir rather than Upper Bahariya reservoir in terms of facies, with good porosity and permeability, low water saturation, and moderate net to gross. The Original Oil In Place (OOIP) values of modeled Bahariya reservoirs show hydrocarbon accumulation in economic quantity, considering the high structural dips at the central part of South Umbarka area. The powerful of 3D static modeling technique has provided a considerable insight into the future prediction of Bahariya reservoirs performance and production behavior.
Nonlinear Model Predictive Control for Oil Reservoirs Management
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Capolei, Andrea
expensive gradient computation by using high-order ESDIRK (Explicit Singly Diagonally Implicit Runge-Kutta) temporal integration methods and continuous adjoints. The high order integration scheme allows larger time steps and therefore faster solution times. We compare gradient computation by the continuous...... gradient-based optimization and the required gradients are computed by the adjoint method. We propose the use of efficient high order implicit time integration methods for the solution of the forward and the adjoint equations of the dynamical model. The Ensemble Kalman filter is used for data assimilation...... equivalent strategy is not justified for the particular case studied in this paper. The third contribution of this thesis is a mean-variance method for risk mitigation in production optimization of oil reservoirs. We introduce a return-risk bicriterion objective function for the profit-risk tradeoff...
Ensemble-Based Data Assimilation in Reservoir Characterization: A Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seungpil Jung
2018-02-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a review of ensemble-based data assimilation for strongly nonlinear problems on the characterization of heterogeneous reservoirs with different production histories. It concentrates on ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF and ensemble smoother (ES as representative frameworks, discusses their pros and cons, and investigates recent progress to overcome their drawbacks. The typical weaknesses of ensemble-based methods are non-Gaussian parameters, improper prior ensembles and finite population size. Three categorized approaches, to mitigate these limitations, are reviewed with recent accomplishments; improvement of Kalman gains, add-on of transformation functions, and independent evaluation of observed data. The data assimilation in heterogeneous reservoirs, applying the improved ensemble methods, is discussed on predicting unknown dynamic data in reservoir characterization.
Remotely Sensed Based Lake/Reservoir Routing in Congo River Basin
Raoufi, R.; Beighley, E.; Lee, H.
2017-12-01
Lake and reservoir dynamics can influence local to regional water cycles but are often not well represented in hydrologic models. One challenge that limits their inclusion in models is the need for detailed storage-discharge behavior that can be further complicated in reservoirs where specific operation rules are employed. Here, the Hillslope River Routing (HRR) model is combined with a remotely sensed based Reservoir Routing (RR) method and applied to the Congo River Basin. Given that topographic data are often continuous over the entire terrestrial surface (i.e., does not differentiate between land and open water), the HRR-RR model integrates topographic derived river networks and catchment boundaries (e.g., HydroSHEDs) with water boundary extents (e.g., Global Lakes and Wetlands Database) to develop the computational framework. The catchments bordering lakes and reservoirs are partitioned into water and land portions, where representative flowpath characteristics are determined and vertical water balance and lateral routings is performed separately on each partition based on applicable process models (e.g., open water evaporation vs. evapotranspiration). To enable reservoir routing, remotely sensed water surface elevations and extents are combined to determine the storage change time series. Based on the available time series, representative storage change patterns are determined. Lake/reservoir routing is performed by combining inflows from the HRR-RR model and the representative storage change patterns to determine outflows. In this study, a suite of storage change patterns derived from remotely sensed measurements are determined representative patterns for wet, dry and average conditions. The HRR-RR model dynamically selects and uses the optimal storage change pattern for the routing process based on these hydrologic conditions. The HRR-RR model results are presented to highlight the importance of lake attenuation/routing in the Congo Basin.
Fast Multiscale Reservoir Simulations using POD-DEIM Model Reduction
Ghasemi, Mohammadreza
2015-02-23
In this paper, we present a global-local model reduction for fast multiscale reservoir simulations in highly heterogeneous porous media with applications to optimization and history matching. Our proposed approach identifies a low dimensional structure of the solution space. We introduce an auxiliary variable (the velocity field) in our model reduction that allows achieving a high degree of model reduction. The latter is due to the fact that the velocity field is conservative for any low-order reduced model in our framework. Because a typical global model reduction based on POD is a Galerkin finite element method, and thus it can not guarantee local mass conservation. This can be observed in numerical simulations that use finite volume based approaches. Discrete Empirical Interpolation Method (DEIM) is used to approximate the nonlinear functions of fine-grid functions in Newton iterations. This approach allows achieving the computational cost that is independent of the fine grid dimension. POD snapshots are inexpensively computed using local model reduction techniques based on Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Method (GMsFEM) which provides (1) a hierarchical approximation of snapshot vectors (2) adaptive computations by using coarse grids (3) inexpensive global POD operations in a small dimensional spaces on a coarse grid. By balancing the errors of the global and local reduced-order models, our new methodology can provide an error bound in simulations. Our numerical results, utilizing a two-phase immiscible flow, show a substantial speed-up and we compare our results to the standard POD-DEIM in finite volume setup.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gusfan Halik
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Climate change has significant impacts on changing precipitation patterns causing the variation of the reservoir inflow. Nowadays, Indonesian hydrologist performs reservoir inflow prediction according to the technical guideline of Pd-T-25-2004-A. This technical guideline does not consider the climate variables directly, resulting in significant deviation to the observation results. This research intends to predict the reservoir inflow using the statistical downscaling (SD of General Circulation Model (GCM outputs. The GCM outputs are obtained from the National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research Reanalysis (NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis. A new proposed hybrid SD model named Wavelet Support Vector Machine (WSVM was utilized. It is a combination of the Multiscale Principal Components Analysis (MSPCA and nonlinear Support Vector Machine regression. The model was validated at Sutami Reservoir, Indonesia. Training and testing were carried out using data of 1991–2008 and 2008–2012, respectively. The results showed that MSPCA produced better extracting data than PCA. The WSVM generated better reservoir inflow prediction than the one of technical guideline. Moreover, this research also applied WSVM for future reservoir inflow prediction based on GCM ECHAM5 and scenario SRES A1B.
Design and modeling of reservoir operation strategies for sediment management
Sloff, C.J.; Omer, A.Y.A.; Heynert, K.V.; Mohamed, Y.A.
2015-01-01
Appropriate operation strategies that allow for sediment flushing and sluicing (sediment routing) can reduce rapid storage losses of (hydropower and water-supply) reservoirs. In this study we have shown, using field observations and computational models, that the efficiency of these operations
Reservoir theory, groundwater transit time distributions, and lumped parameter models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Etcheverry, D.; Perrochet, P.
1999-01-01
The relation between groundwater residence times and transit times is given by the reservoir theory. It allows to calculate theoretical transit time distributions in a deterministic way, analytically, or on numerical models. Two analytical solutions validates the piston flow and the exponential model for simple conceptual flow systems. A numerical solution of a hypothetical regional groundwater flow shows that lumped parameter models could be applied in some cases to large-scale, heterogeneous aquifers. (author)
Modeling Tools for Drilling, Reservoir Navigation, and Formation Evaluation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sushant Dutta
2012-06-01
Full Text Available The oil and gas industry routinely uses borehole tools for measuring or logging rock and fluid properties of geologic formations to locate hydrocarbons and maximize their production. Pore fluids in formations of interest are usually hydrocarbons or water. Resistivity logging is based on the fact that oil and gas have a substantially higher resistivity than water. The first resistivity log was acquired in 1927, and resistivity logging is still the foremost measurement used for drilling and evaluation. However, the acquisition and interpretation of resistivity logging data has grown in complexity over the years. Resistivity logging tools operate in a wide range of frequencies (from DC to GHz and encounter extremely high (several orders of magnitude conductivity contrast between the metal mandrel of the tool and the geologic formation. Typical challenges include arbitrary angles of tool inclination, full tensor electric and magnetic field measurements, and interpretation of complicated anisotropic formation properties. These challenges combine to form some of the most intractable computational electromagnetic problems in the world. Reliable, fast, and convenient numerical modeling of logging tool responses is critical for tool design, sensor optimization, virtual prototyping, and log data inversion. This spectrum of applications necessitates both depth and breadth of modeling software—from blazing fast one-dimensional (1-D modeling codes to advanced threedimensional (3-D modeling software, and from in-house developed codes to commercial modeling packages. In this paper, with the help of several examples, we demonstrate our approach for using different modeling software to address different drilling and evaluation applications. In one example, fast 1-D modeling provides proactive geosteering information from a deep-reading azimuthal propagation resistivity measurement. In the second example, a 3-D model with multiple vertical resistive fractures
Matthews, S.; Lovell, M.; Davies, S. J.; Pritchard, T.; Sirju, C.; Abdelkarim, A.
2012-12-01
Heterolithic or 'shaly' sandstone reservoirs constitute a significant proportion of hydrocarbon resources. Petroacoustic models (a combination of petrophysics and rock physics) enhance the ability to extract reservoir properties from seismic data, providing a connection between seismic and fine-scale rock properties. By incorporating sedimentological observations these models can be better constrained and improved. Petroacoustic modelling is complicated by the unpredictable effects of clay minerals and clay-sized particles on geophysical properties. Such effects are responsible for erroneous results when models developed for "clean" reservoirs - such as Gassmann's equation (Gassmann, 1951) - are applied to heterolithic sandstone reservoirs. Gassmann's equation is arguably the most popular petroacoustic modelling technique in the hydrocarbon industry and is used to model elastic effects of changing reservoir fluid saturations. Successful implementation of Gassmann's equation requires well-constrained drained rock frame properties, which in heterolithic sandstones are heavily influenced by reservoir sedimentology, particularly clay distribution. The prevalent approach to categorising clay distribution is based on the Thomas - Stieber model (Thomas & Stieber, 1975), this approach is inconsistent with current understanding of 'shaly sand' sedimentology and omits properties such as sorting and grain size. The novel approach presented here demonstrates that characterising reservoir sedimentology constitutes an important modelling phase. As well as incorporating sedimentological constraints, this novel approach also aims to improve drained frame moduli estimates through more careful consideration of Gassmann's model assumptions and limitations. A key assumption of Gassmann's equation is a pore space in total communication with movable fluids. This assumption is often violated by conventional applications in heterolithic sandstone reservoirs where effective porosity, which
Qin, Guan; Bi, Linfeng; Popov, Peter; Efendiev, Yalchin; Espedal, Magne
2010-01-01
, fractures and their interconnectivities in coarse-scale simulation models. In this paper, we present a procedure based on our previously proposed Stokes-Brinkman model (SPE 125593) and the discrete fracture network method for accurate and efficient upscaling
Turner, Sean; Galelli, Stefano; Wilcox, Karen
2015-04-01
Water reservoir systems are often affected by recurring large-scale ocean-atmospheric anomalies, known as teleconnections, that cause prolonged periods of climatological drought. Accurate forecasts of these events -- at lead times in the order of weeks and months -- may enable reservoir operators to take more effective release decisions to improve the performance of their systems. In practice this might mean a more reliable water supply system, a more profitable hydropower plant or a more sustainable environmental release policy. To this end, climate indices, which represent the oscillation of the ocean-atmospheric system, might be gainfully employed within reservoir operating models that adapt the reservoir operation as a function of the climate condition. This study develops a Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) approach that can incorporate climate indices using a Hidden Markov Model. The model simulates the climatic regime as a hidden state following a Markov chain, with the state transitions driven by variation in climatic indices, such as the Southern Oscillation Index. Time series analysis of recorded streamflow data reveals the parameters of separate autoregressive models that describe the inflow to the reservoir under three representative climate states ("normal", "wet", "dry"). These models then define inflow transition probabilities for use in a classic SDP approach. The key advantage of the Hidden Markov Model is that it allows conditioning the operating policy not only on the reservoir storage and the antecedent inflow, but also on the climate condition, thus potentially allowing adaptability to a broader range of climate conditions. In practice, the reservoir operator would effect a water release tailored to a specific climate state based on available teleconnection data and forecasts. The approach is demonstrated on the operation of a realistic, stylised water reservoir with carry-over capacity in South-East Australia. Here teleconnections relating
Modeling of CO2 migration injected in Weyburn oil reservoir
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Wei; Stenhouse, M.J.; Arthur, R.
2008-01-01
Injecting CO 2 into oil and gas field is a way to enhance oil recovery (EOR) as well as mitigate global warming effect by permanently storing the greenhouse gas into underground. This paper details the models and results of simulating the long-term migration of CO 2 injected into the Weyburn field for both Enhanced Oil Recovery operations and CO 2 sequestration. A System Model was established to define the spatial and temporal extents of the analysis. The Base Scenario was developed to identify key processes, features, and events (FEPs) for the expected evolution of the storage system. A compositional reservoir simulator with equations-of-states (EOS) was used as the modeling tool in order to simulate multiphase, multi-component flow and transport coupled with CO 2 mass partitioning into oil, gas, and water phases. We apply a deterministic treatment to CO 2 migration in the geosphere (natural pathways), whereas the variability of abandoned wells (man-made pathways) necessitates a stochastic treatment. The simulation result was then used to carry out consequence analysis to the local environment. (authors)
Local Refinement of the Super Element Model of Oil Reservoir
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A.B. Mazo
2017-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a two-stage method for petroleum reservoir simulation. The method uses two models with different degrees of detailing to describe hydrodynamic processes of different space-time scales. At the first stage, the global dynamics of the energy state of the deposit and reserves is modeled (characteristic scale of such changes is km / year. The two-phase flow equations in the model of global dynamics operate with smooth averaged pressure and saturation fields, and they are solved numerically on a large computational grid of super-elements with a characteristic cell size of 200-500 m. The tensor coefficients of the super-element model are calculated using special procedures of upscaling of absolute and relative phase permeabilities. At the second stage, a local refinement of the super-element model is constructed for calculating small-scale processes (with a scale of m / day, which take place, for example, during various geological and technical measures aimed at increasing the oil recovery of a reservoir. Then we solve the two-phase flow problem in the selected area of the measure exposure on a detailed three-dimensional grid, which resolves the geological structure of the reservoir, and with a time step sufficient for describing fast-flowing processes. The initial and boundary conditions of the local problem are formulated on the basis of the super-element solution. This approach allows us to reduce the computational costs in order to solve the problems of designing and monitoring the oil reservoir. To demonstrate the proposed approach, we give an example of the two-stage modeling of the development of a layered reservoir with a local refinement of the model during the isolation of a water-saturated high-permeability interlayer. We show a good compliance between the locally refined solution of the super-element model in the area of measure exposure and the results of numerical modeling of the whole history of reservoir
Simulating reservoir lithologies by an actively conditioned Markov chain model
Feng, Runhai; Luthi, Stefan M.; Gisolf, Dries
2018-06-01
The coupled Markov chain model can be used to simulate reservoir lithologies between wells, by conditioning them on the observed data in the cored wells. However, with this method, only the state at the same depth as the current cell is going to be used for conditioning, which may be a problem if the geological layers are dipping. This will cause the simulated lithological layers to be broken or to become discontinuous across the reservoir. In order to address this problem, an actively conditioned process is proposed here, in which a tolerance angle is predefined. The states contained in the region constrained by the tolerance angle will be employed for conditioning in the horizontal chain first, after which a coupling concept with the vertical chain is implemented. In order to use the same horizontal transition matrix for different future states, the tolerance angle has to be small. This allows the method to work in reservoirs without complex structures caused by depositional processes or tectonic deformations. Directional artefacts in the modeling process are avoided through a careful choice of the simulation path. The tolerance angle and dipping direction of the strata can be obtained from a correlation between wells, or from seismic data, which are available in most hydrocarbon reservoirs, either by interpretation or by inversion that can also assist the construction of a horizontal probability matrix.
A global water supply reservoir yield model with uncertainty analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuria, Faith W; Vogel, Richard M
2014-01-01
Understanding the reliability and uncertainty associated with water supply yields derived from surface water reservoirs is central for planning purposes. Using a global dataset of monthly river discharge, we introduce a generalized model for estimating the mean and variance of water supply yield, Y, expected from a reservoir for a prespecified reliability, R, and storage capacity, S assuming a flow record of length n. The generalized storage–reliability–yield (SRY) relationships reported here have numerous water resource applications ranging from preliminary water supply investigations, to economic and climate change impact assessments. An example indicates how our generalized SRY relationship can be combined with a hydroclimatic model to determine the impact of climate change on surface reservoir water supply yields. We also document that the variability of estimates of water supply yield are invariant to characteristics of the reservoir system, including its storage capacity and reliability. Standardized metrics of the variability of water supply yields are shown to depend only on the sample size of the inflows and the statistical characteristics of the inflow series. (paper)
ADVANCED TECHNIQUES FOR RESERVOIR SIMULATION AND MODELING OF NONCONVENTIONAL WELLS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Louis J. Durlofsky; Khalid Aziz
2004-08-20
Nonconventional wells, which include horizontal, deviated, multilateral and ''smart'' wells, offer great potential for the efficient management of oil and gas reservoirs. These wells are able to contact larger regions of the reservoir than conventional wells and can also be used to target isolated hydrocarbon accumulations. The use of nonconventional wells instrumented with downhole inflow control devices allows for even greater flexibility in production. Because nonconventional wells can be very expensive to drill, complete and instrument, it is important to be able to optimize their deployment, which requires the accurate prediction of their performance. However, predictions of nonconventional well performance are often inaccurate. This is likely due to inadequacies in some of the reservoir engineering and reservoir simulation tools used to model and optimize nonconventional well performance. A number of new issues arise in the modeling and optimization of nonconventional wells. For example, the optimal use of downhole inflow control devices has not been addressed for practical problems. In addition, the impact of geological and engineering uncertainty (e.g., valve reliability) has not been previously considered. In order to model and optimize nonconventional wells in different settings, it is essential that the tools be implemented into a general reservoir simulator. This simulator must be sufficiently general and robust and must in addition be linked to a sophisticated well model. Our research under this five year project addressed all of the key areas indicated above. The overall project was divided into three main categories: (1) advanced reservoir simulation techniques for modeling nonconventional wells; (2) improved techniques for computing well productivity (for use in reservoir engineering calculations) and for coupling the well to the simulator (which includes the accurate calculation of well index and the modeling of multiphase flow
An Analysis Model for Water Cone Subsidence in Bottom Water Drive Reservoirs
Wang, Jianjun; Xu, Hui; Wu, Shucheng; Yang, Chao; Kong, lingxiao; Zeng, Baoquan; Xu, Haixia; Qu, Tailai
2017-12-01
Water coning in bottom water drive reservoirs, which will result in earlier water breakthrough, rapid increase in water cut and low recovery level, has drawn tremendous attention in petroleum engineering field. As one simple and effective method to inhibit bottom water coning, shut-in coning control is usually preferred in oilfield to control the water cone and furthermore to enhance economic performance. However, most of the water coning researchers just have been done on investigation of the coning behavior as it grows up, the reported studies for water cone subsidence are very scarce. The goal of this work is to present an analytical model for water cone subsidence to analyze the subsidence of water cone when the well shut in. Based on Dupuit critical oil production rate formula, an analytical model is developed to estimate the initial water cone shape at the point of critical drawdown. Then, with the initial water cone shape equation, we propose an analysis model for water cone subsidence in bottom water reservoir reservoirs. Model analysis and several sensitivity studies are conducted. This work presents accurate and fast analytical model to perform the water cone subsidence in bottom water drive reservoirs. To consider the recent interests in development of bottom drive reservoirs, our approach provides a promising technique for better understanding the subsidence of water cone.
A Step Forward to Closing the Loop between Static and Dynamic Reservoir Modeling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cancelliere M.
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The current trend for history matching is to find multiple calibrated models instead of a single set of model parameters that match the historical data. The advantage of several current workflows involving assisted history matching techniques, particularly those based on heuristic optimizers or direct search, is that they lead to a number of calibrated models that partially address the problem of the non-uniqueness of the solutions. The importance of achieving multiple solutions is that calibrated models can be used for a true quantification of the uncertainty affecting the production forecasts, which represent the basis for technical and economic risk analysis. In this paper, the importance of incorporating the geological uncertainties in a reservoir study is demonstrated. A workflow, which includes the analysis of the uncertainty associated with the facies distribution for a fluvial depositional environment in the calibration of the numerical dynamic models and, consequently, in the production forecast, is presented. The first step in the workflow was to generate a set of facies realizations starting from different conceptual models. After facies modeling, the petrophysical properties were assigned to the simulation domains. Then, each facies realization was calibrated separately by varying permeability and porosity fields. Data assimilation techniques were used to calibrate the models in a reasonable span of time. Results showed that even the adoption of a conceptual model for facies distribution clearly representative of the reservoir internal geometry might not guarantee reliable results in terms of production forecast. Furthermore, results also showed that realizations which seem fully acceptable after calibration were not representative of the true reservoir internal configuration and provided wrong production forecasts; conversely, realizations which did not show a good fit of the production data could reliably predict the reservoir
Long, James M.; Liang, Yu; Shoup, Daniel E.; Dzialowski, Andrew R.; Bidwell, Joseph R.
2014-01-01
Broad-scale niche models are good for examining the potential for invasive species occurrences, but can fall short in providing managers with site-specific locations for monitoring. Using Oklahoma as an example, where invasive bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) are established in certain reservoirs, but predicted to be widely distributed based on broad-scale niche models, we cast bighead carp reproductive ecology in a site-specific geospatial framework to determine their potential establishment in additional reservoirs. Because bighead carp require large, long free-flowing rivers with suitable hydrology for reproduction but can persist in reservoirs, we considered reservoir tributaries with mean annual daily discharge ≥8.5 cubic meters per second (m3 /s) and quantified the length of their unimpeded portions. In contrast to published broad-scale niche models that identified nearly the entire state as susceptible to invasion, our site-specific models showed that few reservoirs in Oklahoma (N = 9) were suitable for bighead carp establishment. Moreover, this method was rapid and identified sites that could be prioritized for increased study or scrutiny. Our results highlight the importance of considering the environmental characteristics of individual sites, which is often the level at which management efforts are implemented when assessing susceptibility to invasion.
Three-Dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geothermal Reservoirs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghassemi, Ahmad [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)
2017-08-11
The objective of this is to develop a 3-D numerical model for simulating mode I, II, and III (tensile, shear, and out-of-plane) propagation of multiple fractures and fracture clusters to accurately predict geothermal reservoir stimulation using the virtual multi-dimensional internal bond (VMIB). Effective development of enhanced geothermal systems can significantly benefit from improved modeling of hydraulic fracturing. In geothermal reservoirs, where the temperature can reach or exceed 350oC, thermal and poro-mechanical processes play an important role in fracture initiation and propagation. In this project hydraulic fracturing of hot subsurface rock mass will be numerically modeled by extending the virtual multiple internal bond theory and implementing it in a finite element code, WARP3D, a three-dimensional finite element code for solid mechanics. The new constitutive model along with the poro-thermoelastic computational algorithms will allow modeling the initiation and propagation of clusters of fractures, and extension of pre-existing fractures. The work will enable the industry to realistically model stimulation of geothermal reservoirs. The project addresses the Geothermal Technologies Office objective of accurately predicting geothermal reservoir stimulation (GTO technology priority item). The project goal will be attained by: (i) development of the VMIB method for application to 3D analysis of fracture clusters; (ii) development of poro- and thermoelastic material sub-routines for use in 3D finite element code WARP3D; (iii) implementation of VMIB and the new material routines in WARP3D to enable simulation of clusters of fractures while accounting for the effects of the pore pressure, thermal stress and inelastic deformation; (iv) simulation of 3D fracture propagation and coalescence and formation of clusters, and comparison with laboratory compression tests; and (v) application of the model to interpretation of injection experiments (planned by our
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Elsharkawy, A.M.; Foda, S.G. [Kuwait University, Safat (Kuwait). Petroleum Engineering Dept.
1998-03-01
Currently, two approaches are being used to predict the changes in retrograde gas condensate composition and estimate the pressure depletion behavior of gas condensate reservoirs. The first approach uses the equation of states whereas the second uses empirical correlations. Equations of states (EOS) are poor predictive tools for complex hydrocarbon systems. The EOS needs adjustment against phase behavior data of reservoir fluid of known composition. The empirical correlation does not involve numerous numerical computations but their accuracy is limited. This study presents two general regression neural network (GRNN) models. The first model, GRNNM1, is developed to predict dew point pressure and gas compressibility at dew point using initial composition of numerous samples while the second model, GRNNM2, is developed to predict the changes in well stream effluent composition at any stages of pressure depletion. GRNNM2 can also be used to determine the initial reservoir fluid composition using dew point pressure, gas compressibility at dew point, and reservoir temperature. These models are based on analysis of 142 sample of laboratory studies of constant volume depletion (CVD) for gas condensate systems forming a total of 1082 depletion stages. The database represents a wide range of gas condensate systems obtained worldwide. The performance of the GRNN models has been compared to simulation results of the equation of state. The study shows that the proposed general regression neural network models are accurate, valid, and reliable. These models can be used to forecast CVD data needed for many reservoir engineering calculations in case laboratory data is unavailable. The GRNN models save computer time involved in EOS calculations. The study also show that once these models are properly trained they can be used to cut expenses of frequent sampling and laborious experimental CVD tests required for gas condensate reservoirs. 55 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.
Daily reservoir inflow forecasting combining QPF into ANNs model
Zhang, Jun; Cheng, Chun-Tian; Liao, Sheng-Li; Wu, Xin-Yu; Shen, Jian-Jian
2009-01-01
Daily reservoir inflow predictions with lead-times of several days are essential to the operational planning and scheduling of hydroelectric power system. The demand for quantitative precipitation forecasting (QPF) is increasing in hydropower operation with the dramatic advances in the numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. This paper presents a simple and an effective algorithm for daily reservoir inflow predictions which solicits the observed precipitation, forecasted precipitation from QPF as predictors and discharges in following 1 to 6 days as predicted targets for multilayer perceptron artificial neural networks (MLP-ANNs) modeling. An improved error back-propagation algorithm with self-adaptive learning rate and self-adaptive momentum coefficient is used to make the supervised training procedure more efficient in both time saving and search optimization. Several commonly used error measures are employed to evaluate the performance of the proposed model and the results, compared with that of ARIMA model, show that the proposed model is capable of obtaining satisfactory forecasting not only in goodness of fit but also in generalization. Furthermore, the presented algorithm is integrated into a practical software system which has been severed for daily inflow predictions with lead-times varying from 1 to 6 days of more than twenty reservoirs operated by the Fujian Province Grid Company, China.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fischer, K.; Henk, A. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften
2013-08-01
The tectonic stress field strongly affects the optimal exploitation of conventional and unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs. Amongst others, wellbore stability, orientation of hydraulically induced fractures and - particularly in fractured reservoirs - permeability anisotropies depend on the magnitudes and orientations of the recent stresses. Geomechanical reservoir models can provide unique insights into the tectonic stress field revealing the local perturbations resulting from faults and lithological changes. In order to provide robust predictions, such numerical models are based on the finite element (FE) method and account for the complexities of real reservoirs with respect to subsurface geometry, inhomogeneous material distribution and nonlinear rock mechanical behavior. We present a refined workflow for geomechanical reservoir modeling which allows for an easier set-up of the model geometry, high resolution submodels and faster calculation times due to element savings in the load frame. Transferring the reservoir geometry from the geological subsurface model, e.g., a Petrel {sup registered} project, to the FE model represents a special challenge as the faults are discontinuities in the numerical model and no direct interface exists between the two software packages used. Point clouds displaying faults and lithostratigraphic horizons can be used for geometry transfer but this labor-intensive approach is not feasible for complex field-scale models with numerous faults. Instead, so-called Coon's patches based on horizon lines, i.e. the intersection lines between horizons and faults, are well suited to re-generate the various surfaces in the FE software while maintaining their topology. High-resolution submodels of individual fault blocks can be incorporated into the field-scale model. This allows to consider both a locally refined mechanical stratigraphy and the impact of the large-scale fault pattern. A pressure load on top of the model represents the
Bannach, Andreas; Hauer, Rene; Martin, Streibel; Stienstra, Gerard; Kühn, Michael
2015-04-01
The IPCC Report 2014 strengthens the need for CO2 storage as part of CCS or BECCS to reach ambitious climate goals despite growing energy demand in the future. The further expansion of renewable energy sources is a second major pillar. As it is today in Germany the weather becomes the controlling factor for electricity production by fossil fuelled power plants which lead to significant fluctuations of CO2-emissions which can be traced in injection rates if the CO2 were captured and stored. To analyse the impact of such changing injection rates on a CO2 storage reservoir. two reservoir simulation models are applied: a. An (smaller) reservoir model approved by gas storage activities for decades, to investigate the dynamic effects in the early stage of storage filling (initial aquifer displacement). b. An anticline structure big enough to accommodate a total amount of ≥ 100 Mega tons CO2 to investigate the dynamic effects for the entire operational life time of the storage under particular consideration of very high filling levels (highest aquifer compression). Therefore a reservoir model was generated. The defined yearly injection rate schedule is based on a study performed on behalf of IZ Klima (DNV GL, 2014). According to this study the exclusive consideration of a pool of coal-fired power plants causes the most intensive dynamically changing CO2 emissions and hence accounts for variations of a system which includes industry driven CO2 production. Besides short-term changes (daily & weekly cycles) seasonal influences are also taken into account. Simulation runs cover a variation of injection points (well locations at the top vs. locations at the flank of the structure) and some other largely unknown reservoir parameters as aquifer size and aquifer mobility. Simulation of a 20 year storage operation is followed by a post-operational shut-in phase which covers approximately 500 years to assess possible effects of changing injection rates on the long-term reservoir
Modeling Study of High Pressure and High Temperature Reservoir Fluids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Varzandeh, Farhad
properties like saturation pressures, densities at reservoir temperature and Stock TankviOil (STO) densities, while keeping the n-alkane limit of the correlations unchanged. Apart from applying this general approach to PC-SAFT, we have also shown that the approach can be applied to classical cubic models...... approach to characterizing reservoir fluids for any EoS. The approach consists in developing correlations of model parameters first with a database for well-defined components and then adjusting the correlations with a large PVT database. The adjustment is made to minimize the deviation in key PVT...... method to SRK and PR improved the saturation pressure calculation in comparisonto the original characterization method for SRK and PR. Using volume translationtogether with the new characterization approach for SRK and PR gives comparable results for density and STO density to that of original...
Combined reservoir simulation and seismic technology, a new approach for modeling CHOPS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aghabarati, H.; Lines, L.; Settari, A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Dumitrescu, C. [Sensor Geophysical Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)
2008-10-15
One of the primary recovery schemes for developing heavy oil reservoirs in Canada is cold heavy oil production with sand (CHOPS). With the introduction of progressive cavity pumps, CHOPS can be applied in unconsolidated or weakly consolidated formations. In order to better understand reservoir properties and recovery mechanism, this paper discussed the use of a combined reservoir simulation and seismic technology that were applied for a heavy oil reservoir situated in Saskatchewan, Canada. Using a seismic survey acquired in 1989, the study used geostatistical methods to estimate the initial reservoir porosity. Sand production was then modeled using an erosional velocity approach and the model was run based on oil production. The paper also compared the results of true porosity derived from simulation against the porosity estimated from a second seismic survey acquired in 2001. Last, the extent and the shape of the enhanced permeability region was modelled in order to estimate porosity distribution. It was concluded that the performance of the CHOPS wells depended greatly on the rate of creation of the high permeability zone around the wells. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs., 1 appendix.
Scalable and Robust BDDC Preconditioners for Reservoir and Electromagnetics Modeling
Zampini, S.; Widlund, O.B.; Keyes, David E.
2015-01-01
The purpose of the study is to show the effectiveness of recent algorithmic advances in Balancing Domain Decomposition by Constraints (BDDC) preconditioners for the solution of elliptic PDEs with highly heterogeneous coefficients, and discretized by means of the finite element method. Applications to large linear systems generated by div- and curl- conforming finite elements discretizations commonly arising in the contexts of modelling reservoirs and electromagnetics will be presented.
Scalable and Robust BDDC Preconditioners for Reservoir and Electromagnetics Modeling
Zampini, S.
2015-09-13
The purpose of the study is to show the effectiveness of recent algorithmic advances in Balancing Domain Decomposition by Constraints (BDDC) preconditioners for the solution of elliptic PDEs with highly heterogeneous coefficients, and discretized by means of the finite element method. Applications to large linear systems generated by div- and curl- conforming finite elements discretizations commonly arising in the contexts of modelling reservoirs and electromagnetics will be presented.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Du, J.; Davis, E.J.; Roadarmel, W.H.; Wolhart, S.L.; Marsic, S.; Gusek, R.; Wright, C.A. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Pinnacle Technologies Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Brissenden, S.J.; McGillivray, P. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada). Calgary Research Centre; Bourne, S.; Hofstra, P. [Shell International E and P, Calgary, AB (Canada)
2005-11-01
Surface deformation measurements have been effectively used to monitor production, waterflooding, waste injection and steam flooding in oil fields, and in cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) applications. It was shown that further information can be obtained from this technique by inverting the surface deformation for the volumetric deformation at the reservoir level, so that the aerial distribution of volumetric distribution can be identified. A poroelastic model calculated deformation resulting from volumetric changes in the reservoir. A linear geophysical model was then formulated to invert the reservoir volumetric deformation from the measured surface deformation. Constraints were applied to resolve the inversion problem. Theoretical surface deformation was calculated after each inversion from the inverted volumetric deformation distribution which best fit the measured information data, or tilt, at the surface. The technique was then applied to real data from a CSS injection project at Shell Canada's Peace River development in northern Alberta, where several pads of horizontal wells have been developed. A total of 50 tiltmeters were used to monitor half of Pad A and 70 tiltmeters were used to monitor Pad B. Monitoring was used to identify and characterize any hydraulic fracturing that was contributing to injection mechanisms in the reservoir. It was noted that inverting the measured surface tilt for the volumetric change at reservoir levels improved the ability to interpret reservoir processes. It was observed that volumetric changes can be non-uniform with some pad areas deforming more than others. It was concluded that deformation-based, reservoir-level monitoring has proven helpful in ongoing efforts to optimize such variables as the length of well laterals, injection rates, lateral spacing and cycle times. 10 refs., 32 figs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ochałek Agnieszka
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The significant part of the hydrography is bathymetry, which is the empirical part of it. Bathymetry is the study of underwater depth of waterways and reservoirs, and graphic presentation of measured data in form of bathymetric maps, cross-sections and three-dimensional bottom models. The bathymetric measurements are based on using Global Positioning System and devices for hydrographic measurements – an echo sounder and a side sonar scanner. In this research authors focused on introducing the case of obtaining and processing the bathymetrical data, building numerical bottom models of two post-mining reclaimed water reservoirs: Dwudniaki Lake in Wierzchosławice and flooded quarry in Zabierzów. The report includes also analysing data from still operating mining water reservoirs located in Poland to depict how bathymetry can be used in mining industry. The significant issue is an integration of bathymetrical data and geodetic data from tachymetry, terrestrial laser scanning measurements.
Ochałek, Agnieszka; Lipecki, Tomasz; Jaśkowski, Wojciech; Jabłoński, Mateusz
2018-03-01
The significant part of the hydrography is bathymetry, which is the empirical part of it. Bathymetry is the study of underwater depth of waterways and reservoirs, and graphic presentation of measured data in form of bathymetric maps, cross-sections and three-dimensional bottom models. The bathymetric measurements are based on using Global Positioning System and devices for hydrographic measurements - an echo sounder and a side sonar scanner. In this research authors focused on introducing the case of obtaining and processing the bathymetrical data, building numerical bottom models of two post-mining reclaimed water reservoirs: Dwudniaki Lake in Wierzchosławice and flooded quarry in Zabierzów. The report includes also analysing data from still operating mining water reservoirs located in Poland to depict how bathymetry can be used in mining industry. The significant issue is an integration of bathymetrical data and geodetic data from tachymetry, terrestrial laser scanning measurements.
Gradient-based methods for production optimization of oil reservoirs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suwartadi, Eka
2012-07-01
Production optimization for water flooding in the secondary phase of oil recovery is the main topic in this thesis. The emphasis has been on numerical optimization algorithms, tested on case examples using simple hypothetical oil reservoirs. Gradientbased optimization, which utilizes adjoint-based gradient computation, is used to solve the optimization problems. The first contribution of this thesis is to address output constraint problems. These kinds of constraints are natural in production optimization. Limiting total water production and water cut at producer wells are examples of such constraints. To maintain the feasibility of an optimization solution, a Lagrangian barrier method is proposed to handle the output constraints. This method incorporates the output constraints into the objective function, thus avoiding additional computations for the constraints gradient (Jacobian) which may be detrimental to the efficiency of the adjoint method. The second contribution is the study of the use of second-order adjoint-gradient information for production optimization. In order to speedup convergence rate in the optimization, one usually uses quasi-Newton approaches such as BFGS and SR1 methods. These methods compute an approximation of the inverse of the Hessian matrix given the first-order gradient from the adjoint method. The methods may not give significant speedup if the Hessian is ill-conditioned. We have developed and implemented the Hessian matrix computation using the adjoint method. Due to high computational cost of the Newton method itself, we instead compute the Hessian-timesvector product which is used in a conjugate gradient algorithm. Finally, the last contribution of this thesis is on surrogate optimization for water flooding in the presence of the output constraints. Two kinds of model order reduction techniques are applied to build surrogate models. These are proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and the discrete empirical interpolation method (DEIM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Ragab
2001-01-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of "what reservoir storage capacity is required to maintain a yield with a given probability of failure?". It is an important issue in terms of construction and cost. HYDROMED offers a solution based on the modified Gould probability matrix method. This method has the advantage of sampling all years data without reference to the sequence and is therefore particularly suitable for catchments with patchy data. In the HYDROMED model, the probability of failure is calculated on a monthly basis. The model has been applied to the El-Gouazine catchment in Tunisia using a long rainfall record from Kairouan together with the estimated Hortonian runoff, class A pan evaporation data and estimated abstraction data. Generally, the probability of failure differed from winter to summer. Generally, the probability of failure approaches zero when the reservoir capacity is 500,000 m3. The 25% probability of failure (75% success is achieved with a reservoir capacity of 58,000 m3 in June and 95,000 m3 in January. The probability of failure for a 240,000 m3 capacity reservoir (closer to storage capacity of El-Gouazine 233,000 m3, is approximately 5% in November, December and January, 3% in March, and 1.1% in May and June. Consequently there is no high risk of El-Gouazine being unable to meet its requirements at a capacity of 233,000 m3. Subsequently the benefit, in terms of probability of failure, by increasing the reservoir volume of El-Gouazine to greater than the 250,000 m3 is not high. This is important for the design engineers and the funding organizations. However, the analysis is based on the existing water abstraction policy, absence of siltation rate data and on the assumption that the present climate will prevail during the lifetime of the reservoir. Should these conditions change, a new analysis should be carried out. Keywords: HYDROMED, reservoir, storage capacity, probability of failure, Mediterranean
An environmental data base for all Hydro-Quebec reservoirs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demers, C.
1988-01-01
Hydro-Quebec has created two management positions specifically for reservoirs, namely Reservoir Ecology Advisor and Reservoir Management Advisor. To assist management decisions, a means was required of bringing together all existing environmental information for each reservoir operated by Hydro-Quebec, including storage reservoirs, auxiliary reservoirs and forebays. A relational database using Reflex software was developed on a network of Macintosh computers. The database contains five blocks of information: general information, and physical, physiochemical, biologic and socioeconomic characteristics for each reservoir. Data will be collected on over 100 sites, and the tool will form the basis for developing a medium-range study program on reservoir ecology. The program must take into account the physical, biological and socioeconomic aspects of the environment, as well as the concerns of management personnel operating the reservoirs, the local population, reservoir users, and various government departments. 2 figs
Experimental and numerical modeling of sulfur plugging in carbonate reservoirs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abou-Kassem, J.H. [Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Department, UAE University, PO Box 17555, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates)
2000-05-01
Sour gas, mainly in the form of hydrogen sulfide, is produced in large amounts from many oil and gas reservoirs in the United Arab Emirates. In addition to creating problems in production lines, the precipitation of elemental sulfur in vicinity of the wellbore is often reported to cause wellbore damage. While there have been several studies performed on the role of solid deposition in gas reservoirs, the role of sulfur deposition in oil reservoirs has not been investigated. This paper presents experimental results along with a comprehensive wellbore model that predicts sulfur precipitation as well as plugging. Two separate sets of experiments, one for a gas phase system and another for a crude oil system, were conducted to investigate the deposition of elemental sulfur in (linear) carbonate cores. The gas flow tests were conducted with elemental sulfur being carried with nitrogen through limestone cores. Changes in gas flow rate were monitored while the injection pressure was held constant. A series of experiments generated valuable data for plugging with elemental sulfur. X-ray diffraction tests provided evidence of sulfur deposition along the cores. The oil flow tests were carried out to observe sulfur precipitation and plugging in a carbonate core. The crude oil was de-asphalted before conducting these tests in order to isolate the effect of asphaltene plugging. Significant plugging was observed and was found to be dependent on flow rate and initial sulfur concentration. This information was used in a phenomenological model that was incorporated in the wellbore numerical model. The data for the numerical model were obtained from both test tube and oil flow experiments. By using a phenomenological model, the wellbore plugging was modeled with an excellent match (with experimental results)
Optimal model of radiocarbon residence time in exchange reservoir
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dergachev, V.A.
1977-01-01
Radiocarbon content variations in the earth atmosphere were studied using a mathematical model. The so-called exchange reservoir was considered consisting of layers, and the radiocarbon exchange rate at the interfaces between these layers was supposed to be constant. The process of 14 C mixing and exchange in a dynamic system is described by a system of nonhomogeneous 1st order differential equations. The model also accounts for the change in rate of radiocarbon formation in the earth atmosphere due to cosmic and geophysical effects (solar activity, solar cycle, etc.). (J.P.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Elsworth, Derek [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Izadi, Ghazal [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Gan, Quan [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Fang, Yi [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Taron, Josh [US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Sonnenthal, Eric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
2015-07-28
This work has investigated the roles of effective stress induced by changes in fluid pressure, temperature and chemistry in contributing to the evolution of permeability and induced seismicity in geothermal reservoirs. This work has developed continuum models [1] to represent the progress or seismicity during both stimulation [2] and production [3]. These methods have been used to resolve anomalous observations of induced seismicity at the Newberry Volcano demonstration project [4] through the application of modeling and experimentation. Later work then focuses on the occurrence of late stage seismicity induced by thermal stresses [5] including the codifying of the timing and severity of such responses [6]. Furthermore, mechanistic linkages between observed seismicity and the evolution of permeability have been developed using data from the Newberry project [7] and benchmarked against field injection experiments. Finally, discontinuum models [8] incorporating the roles of discrete fracture networks have been applied to represent stimulation and then thermal recovery for new arrangements of geothermal wells incorporating the development of flow manifolds [9] in order to increase thermal output and longevity in EGS systems.
Kim, J.; Johnson, L.; Cifelli, R.; Chandra, C. V.; Gochis, D.; McCreight, J. L.; Yates, D. N.; Read, L.; Flowers, T.; Cosgrove, B.
2017-12-01
NOAA National Water Center (NWC) in partnership with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and other academic partners have produced operational hydrologic predictions for the nation using a new National Water Model (NWM) that is based on the community WRF-Hydro modeling system since the summer of 2016 (Gochis et al., 2015). The NWM produces a variety of hydrologic analysis and prediction products, including gridded fields of soil moisture, snowpack, shallow groundwater levels, inundated area depths, evapotranspiration as well as estimates of river flow and velocity for approximately 2.7 million river reaches. Also included in the NWM are representations for more than 1,200 reservoirs which are linked into the national channel network defined by the USGS NHDPlusv2.0 hydrography dataset. Despite the unprecedented spatial and temporal coverage of the NWM, many known deficiencies exist, including the representation of lakes and reservoirs. This study addresses the implementation of a reservoir assimilation scheme through coupling of a reservoir simulation model to represent the influence of managed flows. We examine the use of the reservoir operations to dynamically update lake/reservoir storage volume states, characterize flow characteristics of river reaches flowing into and out of lakes and reservoirs, and incorporate enhanced reservoir operating rules for the reservoir model options within the NWM. Model experiments focus on a pilot reservoir domain-Lake Mendocino, CA, and its contributing watershed, the East Fork Russian River. This reservoir is modeled using United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) HEC-ResSim developed for application to examine forecast informed reservoir operations (FIRO) in the Russian River basin.
River Stream-Flow and Zayanderoud Reservoir Operation Modeling Using the Fuzzy Inference System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saeed Jamali
2007-12-01
Full Text Available The Zayanderoud basin is located in the central plateau of Iran. As a result of population increase and agricultural and industrial developments, water demand on this basin has increased extensively. Given the importance of reservoir operation in water resource and management studies, the performance of fuzzy inference system (FIS for Zayanderoud reservoir operation is investigated in this paper. The model of operation consists of two parts. In the first part, the seasonal river stream-flow is forecasted using the fuzzy rule-based system. The southern oscillated index, rain, snow, and discharge are inputs of the model and the seasonal river stream-flow its output. In the second part, the operation model is constructed. The amount of releases is first optimized by a nonlinear optimization model and then the rule curves are extracted using the fuzzy inference system. This model operates on an "if-then" principle, where the "if" is a vector of fuzzy permits and "then" is the fuzzy result. The reservoir storage capacity, inflow, demand, and year condition factor are used as permits. Monthly release is taken as the consequence. The Zayanderoud basin is investigated as a case study. Different performance indices such as reliability, resiliency, and vulnerability are calculated. According to results, FIS works more effectively than the traditional reservoir operation methods such as standard operation policy (SOP or linear regression.
Hydrogeochemistry and reservoir model of Fuzhou geothermal field, China
Huang, H. F.; Goff, Fraser
1986-03-01
Fuzhou geothermal field is a low- to intermediate-temperature geothermal system consisting of meteoric water that circulates deeply along faults. The area of the field is about 9 km 2 but it is elongated in a NNW-trending direction. Fluids in the field are controlled by a series of four NNW extensional faults in Cretaceous granitic basement (Fuzhou fault zone). These faults feed warm waters into overlying permeable Quaternary sediments. The hydrothermal system consists of north and south parts whose chemical compositions are subtly different. In the northern part the system discharges sulfate/chloride waters with relatively low chloride concentrations, but in the south the system discharges chloride waters having relatively high chloride concentrations. Maximum wellhead temperatures are 97°C, which agrees with the chalcedony geothermometer in many cases. Based on the solubility of quartz, the deep-reservoir temperature cannot exceed 123 to 131°C. From heat and mass balance calculations, we conclude that the present total extracted capacity of fluid from the reservoir (20,000 tons/day) could be doubled without noticeable drawdown. We estimate the recoverable heat in the reservoir to be about 1.71 × 10 11 MJ.
Moscariello, A.; Hoof, T.B. van; Kunakbayeva, G.; Veen, J.H. ten; Belt, F. van den; Twerda, A.; Peters, L.; Davis, P.; Williams, H.
2013-01-01
The Geological Model Calibration - Learnings from Integration of Reservoir Geology and Field Performance: example from the Upper Carboniferous Reservoirs of the Southern North Sea. Copyright © (2012) by the European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers All rights reserved.
Taherdangkoo, Reza; Tatomir, Alexandru; Sauter, Martin
2017-04-01
Hydraulic fracturing operation in shale gas reservoir has gained growing interest over the last few years. Groundwater contamination is one of the most important environmental concerns that have emerged surrounding shale gas development (Reagan et al., 2015). The potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing could be studied through the possible pathways for subsurface migration of contaminants towards overlying aquifers (Kissinger et al., 2013; Myers, 2012). The intent of this study is to investigate, by means of numerical simulation, two failure scenarios which are based on the presence of a fault zone that penetrates the full thickness of overburden and connect shale gas reservoir to aquifer. Scenario 1 addresses the potential transport of fracturing fluid from the shale into the subsurface. This scenario was modeled with COMSOL Multiphysics software. Scenario 2 deals with the leakage of methane from the reservoir into the overburden. The numerical modeling of this scenario was implemented in DuMux (free and open-source software), discrete fracture model (DFM) simulator (Tatomir, 2012). The modeling results are used to evaluate the influence of several important parameters (reservoir pressure, aquifer-reservoir separation thickness, fault zone inclination, porosity, permeability, etc.) that could affect the fluid transport through the fault zone. Furthermore, we determined the main transport mechanisms and circumstances in which would allow frack fluid or methane migrate through the fault zone into geological layers. The results show that presence of a conductive fault could reduce the contaminant travel time and a significant contaminant leakage, under certain hydraulic conditions, is most likely to occur. Bibliography Kissinger, A., Helmig, R., Ebigbo, A., Class, H., Lange, T., Sauter, M., Heitfeld, M., Klünker, J., Jahnke, W., 2013. Hydraulic fracturing in unconventional gas reservoirs: risks in the geological system, part 2. Environ Earth Sci 70, 3855
On-line Optimization-Based Simulators for Fractured and Non-fractured Reservoirs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Milind D. Deo
2005-08-31
Oil field development is a multi-million dollar business. Reservoir simulation is often used to guide the field management and development process. Reservoir characterization and geologic modeling tools have become increasingly sophisticated. As a result the geologic models produced are complex. Most reservoirs are fractured to a certain extent. The new geologic characterization methods are making it possible to map features such as faults and fractures, field-wide. Significant progress has been made in being able to predict properties of the faults and of the fractured zones. Traditionally, finite difference methods have been employed in discretizing the domains created by geologic means. For complex geometries, finite-element methods of discretization may be more suitable. Since reservoir simulation is a mature science, some of the advances in numerical methods (linear, nonlinear solvers and parallel computing) have not been fully realized in the implementation of most of the simulators. The purpose of this project was to address some of these issues. {sm_bullet} One of the goals of this project was to develop a series of finite-element simulators to handle problems of complex geometry, including systems containing faults and fractures. {sm_bullet} The idea was to incorporate the most modern computing tools; use of modular object-oriented computer languages, the most sophisticated linear and nonlinear solvers, parallel computing methods and good visualization tools. {sm_bullet} One of the tasks of the project was also to demonstrate the construction of fractures and faults in a reservoir using the available data and to assign properties to these features. {sm_bullet} Once the reservoir model is in place, it is desirable to find the operating conditions, which would provide the best reservoir performance. This can be accomplished by utilization optimization tools and coupling them with reservoir simulation. Optimization-based reservoir simulation was one of the
Coupling a fluid flow simulation with a geomechanical model of a fractured reservoir
Segura Segarra, José María; Paz, C.M.; de Bayser, M.; Zhang, J.; Bryant, P.W.; Gonzalez, Nubia Aurora; Rodrigues, E.; Vargas, P.E.; Carol, Ignacio; Lakshmikantha, Ramasesha Mookanahallipatna; Das, K. C.; Sandha, S.S.; Cerqueira, R.; Mello,, U.
2013-01-01
Improving the reliability of integrated reservoir development planning and addressing subsidence, fault reactivation and other environmental impacts, requires increasingly sophisticated geomechanical models, especially in the case of fractured reservoirs where fracture deformation is strongly coupled with its permeability change. Reservoir simulation has historically treated any geomechanical effects by means of a rock compressibility term/table, which can be improved by simulating the actual...
Gómez-Beas, R.; Moñino, A.; Polo, M. J.
2012-05-01
In compliance with the development of the Water Framework Directive, there is a need for an integrated management of water resources, which involves the elaboration of reservoir management models. These models should include the operational and technical aspects which allow us to forecast an optimal management in the short term, besides the factors that may affect the volume of water stored in the medium and long term. The climate fluctuations of the water cycle that affect the reservoir watershed should be considered, as well as the social and economic aspects of the area. This paper shows the development of a management model for Rules reservoir (southern Spain), through which the water supply is regulated based on set criteria, in a sustainable way with existing commitments downstream, with the supply capacity being well established depending on demand, and the probability of failure when the operating requirements are not fulfilled. The results obtained allowed us: to find out the reservoir response at different time scales, to introduce an uncertainty analysis and to demonstrate the potential of the methodology proposed here as a tool for decision making.
A new approach to integrate seismic and production data in reservoir models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ouenes, A.; Chawathe, A.; Weiss, W. [New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM (United States)] [and others
1997-08-01
A great deal of effort is devoted to reducing the uncertainties in reservoir modeling. For example, seismic properties are used to improve the characterization of interwell properties by providing porosity maps constrained to seismic impedance. Another means to reduce uncertainties is to constrain the reservoir model to production data. This paper describes a new approach where the production and seismic data are simultaneously used to reduce the uncertainties. In this new approach, the primary geologic parameter that controls reservoir properties is identified. Next, the geophysical parameter that is sensitive to the dominant geologic parameter is determined. Then the geology and geophysics are linked using analytic correlations. Unfortunately, the initial guess resulted in a reservoir model that did not match the production history. Since the time required for trial and error matching of production history is exorbitant, an automatic history matching method based on a fast optimization method was used to find the correlating parameters. This new approach was illustrated with an actual field in the Williston Basin. Upscalling problems do not arise since the scale is imposed by the size of the seismic bin (66m, 219 ft) which is the size of the simulator gridblocks.
Detailed geologic modeling of a turbidity reservoir interval at the Mars discovery
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mahaffie, M.J.; Chapin, M.A. [Shell Exploration and Production Technology Co. (United States); Henry, W.A. [Shell Offshore, Inc. (United States)
1995-12-31
Detailed reservoir architecture studies using high resolution seismic data coupled with geologic and seismic inversion modeling have been used to evaluate a major hydrocarbon bearing turbidite reservoir found within Prospect Mars. Early interpretations of this interval, based on lower frequency (40 Hz) seismic data, indicated the presence of a single, laterally continuous event covering an area nearly 3 miles square ({approx} 5200 acres). Correlations from well control supported the notion that this seismic event comprised a series of continuous sheet sands exhibiting a high degree of lateral continuity and connectivity. However pressure data taken during fluid sampling of the reservoir suggested the possibility of discontinuities not observed within the resolution of the seismic data. Seismic reprocessing enhancements to increase frequency content revealed the presence of multiple stratigraphic features not previously recognized. Detailed seismic mapping using loop-level seismic attributes and seismic inversion studies constrained by geologic models provide a more realistic depiction of the environment of deposition and improve reservoir simulation modeling for this stratigraphic interval. (author). 3 figs
Integrated Reflection Seismic Monitoring and Reservoir Modeling for Geologic CO2 Sequestration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
John Rogers
2011-12-31
The US DOE/NETL CCS MVA program funded a project with Fusion Petroleum Technologies Inc. (now SIGMA) to model the proof of concept of using sparse seismic data in the monitoring of CO{sub 2} injected into saline aquifers. The goal of the project was to develop and demonstrate an active source reflection seismic imaging strategy based on deployment of spatially sparse surface seismic arrays. The primary objective was to test the feasibility of sparse seismic array systems to monitor the CO{sub 2} plume migration injected into deep saline aquifers. The USDOE/RMOTC Teapot Dome (Wyoming) 3D seismic and reservoir data targeting the Crow Mountain formation was used as a realistic proxy to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed methodology. Though the RMOTC field has been well studied, the Crow Mountain as a saline aquifer has not been studied previously as a CO{sub 2} sequestration (storage) candidate reservoir. A full reprocessing of the seismic data from field tapes that included prestack time migration (PSTM) followed by prestack depth migration (PSDM) was performed. A baseline reservoir model was generated from the new imaging results that characterized the faults and horizon surfaces of the Crow Mountain reservoir. The 3D interpretation was integrated with the petrophysical data from available wells and incorporated into a geocellular model. The reservoir structure used in the geocellular model was developed using advanced inversion technologies including Fusion's ThinMAN{trademark} broadband spectral inversion. Seal failure risk was assessed using Fusion's proprietary GEOPRESS{trademark} pore pressure and fracture pressure prediction technology. CO{sub 2} injection was simulated into the Crow Mountain with a commercial reservoir simulator. Approximately 1.2MM tons of CO{sub 2} was simulated to be injected into the Crow Mountain reservoir over 30 years and subsequently let 'soak' in the reservoir for 970 years. The relatively small plume
Tamaki, M.; Komatsu, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Takayama, T.; Fujii, T.
2012-12-01
results show that geological modeling including AT1 well data is important to reduce the uncertainty of the reservoir properties around the production test site. The geological models including AT1 well data were constructed taking into account for the lateral continuity of turbidite formations based on the well correlations. The concepts of these models are considered to be much more effective for describing reservoir continuity and heterogeneity and predicting upcoming production tests.
Maximization of wave motion within a hydrocarbon reservoir for wave-based enhanced oil recovery
Jeong, C.
2015-05-01
© 2015 Elsevier B.V. We discuss a systematic methodology for investigating the feasibility of mobilizing oil droplets trapped within the pore space of a target reservoir region by optimally directing wave energy to the region of interest. The motivation stems from field and laboratory observations, which have provided sufficient evidence suggesting that wave-based reservoir stimulation could lead to economically viable oil recovery.Using controlled active surface wave sources, we first describe the mathematical framework necessary for identifying optimal wave source signals that can maximize a desired motion metric (kinetic energy, particle acceleration, etc.) at the target region of interest. We use the apparatus of partial-differential-equation (PDE)-constrained optimization to formulate the associated inverse-source problem, and deploy state-of-the-art numerical wave simulation tools to resolve numerically the associated discrete inverse problem.Numerical experiments with a synthetic subsurface model featuring a shallow reservoir show that the optimizer converges to wave source signals capable of maximizing the motion within the reservoir. The spectra of the wave sources are dominated by the amplification frequencies of the formation. We also show that wave energy could be focused within the target reservoir area, while simultaneously minimizing the disturbance to neighboring formations - a concept that can also be exploited in fracking operations.Lastly, we compare the results of our numerical experiments conducted at the reservoir scale, with results obtained from semi-analytical studies at the granular level, to conclude that, in the case of shallow targets, the optimized wave sources are likely to mobilize trapped oil droplets, and thus enhance oil recovery.
Investigation of seasonal thermal flow in a real dam reservoir using 3-D numerical modeling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Üneş Fatih
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Investigations indicate that correct estimation of seasonal thermal stratification in a dam reservoir is very important for the dam reservoir water quality modeling and water management problems. The main aim of this study is to develop a hydrodynamics model of an actual dam reservoir in three dimensions for simulating a real dam reservoir flows for different seasons. The model is developed using nonlinear and unsteady continuity, momentum, energy and k-ε turbulence model equations. In order to include the Coriolis force effect on the flow in a dam reservoir, Coriolis force parameter is also added the model equations. Those equations are constructed using actual dimensions, shape, boundary and initial conditions of the dam and reservoir. Temperature profiles and flow visualizations are used to evaluate flow conditions in the reservoir. Reservoir flow’s process and parameters are determined all over the reservoir. The mathematical model developed is capable of simulating the flow and thermal characteristics of the reservoir system for seasonal heat exchanges. Model simulations results obtained are compared with field measurements obtained from gauging stations for flows in different seasons. The results show a good agreement with the field measurements.
A welfare study into capture fisheries in cirata reservoir: a bio-economic model
Anna, Z.; Hindayani, P.
2018-04-01
Capture fishery in inland such as reservoirs can be a source of food security and even the economy and public welfare of the surrounding community. This research was conducted on Cirata reservoir fishery in West Java, to see how far reservoir capture fishery can contribute economically in the form of resource rents. The method used is the bioeconomic model Copes, which can analyze the demand and supply functions to calculate the optimization of stakeholders’ welfare in various management regimes. The results showed that the management of capture fishery using Maximum Economic Yield regime (MEY) gave the most efficient result, where fewer inputs would produce maximum profit. In the MEY management, the producer surplus obtained is IDR 2,610.203.099, - per quarter and IDR 273.885.400,- of consumer surplus per quarter. Furthermore, researches showed that sustainable management regime policy MEY result in the government rent/surplus ofIDR 217.891,345, - per quarter with the average price of fish per kg being IDR 13.929. In open access fishery, it was shown that the producer surplus becomesIDR 0. Thus the implementation of the MEY-based instrument policy becomes a necessity for Cirata reservoir capture fishery.
Optimal nonlinear information processing capacity in delay-based reservoir computers
Grigoryeva, Lyudmila; Henriques, Julie; Larger, Laurent; Ortega, Juan-Pablo
2015-09-01
Reservoir computing is a recently introduced brain-inspired machine learning paradigm capable of excellent performances in the processing of empirical data. We focus in a particular kind of time-delay based reservoir computers that have been physically implemented using optical and electronic systems and have shown unprecedented data processing rates. Reservoir computing is well-known for the ease of the associated training scheme but also for the problematic sensitivity of its performance to architecture parameters. This article addresses the reservoir design problem, which remains the biggest challenge in the applicability of this information processing scheme. More specifically, we use the information available regarding the optimal reservoir working regimes to construct a functional link between the reservoir parameters and its performance. This function is used to explore various properties of the device and to choose the optimal reservoir architecture, thus replacing the tedious and time consuming parameter scannings used so far in the literature.
Parallel processing using an optical delay-based reservoir computer
Van der Sande, Guy; Nguimdo, Romain Modeste; Verschaffelt, Guy
2016-04-01
Delay systems subject to delayed optical feedback have recently shown great potential in solving computationally hard tasks. By implementing a neuro-inspired computational scheme relying on the transient response to optical data injection, high processing speeds have been demonstrated. However, reservoir computing systems based on delay dynamics discussed in the literature are designed by coupling many different stand-alone components which lead to bulky, lack of long-term stability, non-monolithic systems. Here we numerically investigate the possibility of implementing reservoir computing schemes based on semiconductor ring lasers. Semiconductor ring lasers are semiconductor lasers where the laser cavity consists of a ring-shaped waveguide. SRLs are highly integrable and scalable, making them ideal candidates for key components in photonic integrated circuits. SRLs can generate light in two counterpropagating directions between which bistability has been demonstrated. We demonstrate that two independent machine learning tasks , even with different nature of inputs with different input data signals can be simultaneously computed using a single photonic nonlinear node relying on the parallelism offered by photonics. We illustrate the performance on simultaneous chaotic time series prediction and a classification of the Nonlinear Channel Equalization. We take advantage of different directional modes to process individual tasks. Each directional mode processes one individual task to mitigate possible crosstalk between the tasks. Our results indicate that prediction/classification with errors comparable to the state-of-the-art performance can be obtained even with noise despite the two tasks being computed simultaneously. We also find that a good performance is obtained for both tasks for a broad range of the parameters. The results are discussed in detail in [Nguimdo et al., IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. Learn. Syst. 26, pp. 3301-3307, 2015
A poroelastic reservoir model for predicting subsidence and mapping subsurface pressure fronts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Du, J.; Olson, J.E.
2001-01-01
A forward model was constructed to numerically predict surface subsidence and reservoir compaction following the approach of Segall [Pure Appl. Phys. 139 (1992) 536]. A nucleus of poroelastic strain is numerically integrated over a rectangular prism assuming constant pressure change. This fundamental geometry allows a reservoir to be divided into many small cubic blocks in a manner similar to reservoir simulation. The subsidence and compaction effects of the pressure change throughout the reservoir are calculated by the superposition of results from each individual block. Using forward modeling, pressure boundary conditions can be acquired from pressure test data or reservoir simulation predictions. An inversion model also was developed that can track pressure fronts in a subsurface reservoir using surface displacements. The capability of the inversion model was demonstrated using synthetic examples of one-well and four-well cases with different layouts of surface observation locations. The impact of noise on the inversion result is also included
Digital Core Modelling for Clastic Oil and Gas Reservoir
Belozerov, I.; Berezovsky, V.; Gubaydullin, M.; Yur’ev, A.
2018-05-01
"Digital core" is a multi-purpose tool for solving a variety of tasks in the field of geological exploration and production of hydrocarbons at various stages, designed to improve the accuracy of geological study of subsurface resources, the efficiency of reproduction and use of mineral resources, as well as applying the results obtained in production practice. The actuality of the development of the "Digital core" software is that even a partial replacement of natural laboratory experiments with mathematical modelling can be used in the operative calculation of reserves in exploratory drilling, as well as in the absence of core material from wells. Or impossibility of its research by existing laboratory methods (weakly cemented, loose, etc. rocks). 3D-reconstruction of the core microstructure can be considered as a cheap and least time-consuming method for obtaining petrophysical information about the main filtration-capacitive properties and fluid motion in reservoir rocks.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Henn, N.
2000-12-13
Some of the most productive oil and gas reservoirs are found in formations crossed by multi-scale fractures/faults. Among them, conductive faults may closely control reservoir performance. However, their modelling encounters numerical and physical difficulties linked with (a) the necessity to keep an explicit representation of faults through small-size grid blocks, (b) the modelling of multiphase flow exchanges between the fault and the neighbouring medium. In this thesis, we propose a physically-representative and numerically efficient modelling approach in order to incorporate sub-vertical conductive faults in single and dual-porosity simulators. To validate our approach and demonstrate its efficiency, simulation results of multiphase displacements in representative field sector models are presented. (author)
Müller, Ruben; Schütze, Niels
2014-05-01
Water resources systems with reservoirs are expected to be sensitive to climate change. Assessment studies that analyze the impact of climate change on the performance of reservoirs can be divided in two groups: (1) Studies that simulate the operation under projected inflows with the current set of operational rules. Due to non adapted operational rules the future performance of these reservoirs can be underestimated and the impact overestimated. (2) Studies that optimize the operational rules for best adaption of the system to the projected conditions before the assessment of the impact. The latter allows for estimating more realistically future performance and adaption strategies based on new operation rules are available if required. Multi-purpose reservoirs serve various, often conflicting functions. If all functions cannot be served simultaneously at a maximum level, an effective compromise between multiple objectives of the reservoir operation has to be provided. Yet under climate change the historically preferenced compromise may no longer be the most suitable compromise in the future. Therefore a multi-objective based climate change impact assessment approach for multi-purpose multi-reservoir systems is proposed in the study. Projected inflows are provided in a first step using a physically based rainfall-runoff model. In a second step, a time series model is applied to generate long-term inflow time series. Finally, the long-term inflow series are used as driving variables for a simulation-based multi-objective optimization of the reservoir system in order to derive optimal operation rules. As a result, the adapted Pareto-optimal set of diverse best compromise solutions can be presented to the decision maker in order to assist him in assessing climate change adaption measures with respect to the future performance of the multi-purpose reservoir system. The approach is tested on a multi-purpose multi-reservoir system in a mountainous catchment in Germany. A
Estimating the Optimal Capacity for Reservoir Dam based on Reliability Level for Meeting Demands
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehrdad Taghian
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Introduction: One of the practical and classic problems in the water resource studies is estimation of the optimal reservoir capacity to satisfy demands. However, full supplying demands for total periods need a very high dam to supply demands during severe drought conditions. That means a major part of reservoir capacity and costs is only usable for a short period of the reservoir lifetime, which would be unjustified in economic analysis. Thus, in the proposed method and model, the full meeting demand is only possible for a percent time of the statistical period that is according to reliability constraint. In the general methods, although this concept apparently seems simple, there is a necessity to add binary variables for meeting or not meeting demands in the linear programming model structures. Thus, with many binary variables, solving the problem will be time consuming and difficult. Another way to solve the problem is the application of the yield model. This model includes some simpler assumptions and that is so difficult to consider details of the water resource system. The applicationof evolutionary algorithms, for the problems have many constraints, is also very complicated. Therefore, this study pursues another solution. Materials and Methods: In this study, for development and improvement the usual methods, instead of mix integer linear programming (MILP and the above methods, a simulation model including flow network linear programming is used coupled with an interface manual code in Matlab to account the reliability based on output file of the simulation model. The acre reservoir simulation program (ARSP has been utilized as a simulation model. A major advantage of the ARSP is its inherent flexibility in defining the operating policies through a penalty structure specified by the user. The ARSP utilizes network flow optimization techniques to handle a subset of general linear programming (LP problems for individual time intervals
He, Y.-X.; Angus, D. A.; Blanchard, T. D.; Wang, G.-L.; Yuan, S.-Y.; Garcia, A.
2016-04-01
Extraction of fluids from subsurface reservoirs induces changes in pore pressure, leading not only to geomechanical changes, but also perturbations in seismic velocities and hence observable seismic attributes. Time-lapse seismic analysis can be used to estimate changes in subsurface hydromechanical properties and thus act as a monitoring tool for geological reservoirs. The ability to observe and quantify changes in fluid, stress and strain using seismic techniques has important implications for monitoring risk not only for petroleum applications but also for geological storage of CO2 and nuclear waste scenarios. In this paper, we integrate hydromechanical simulation results with rock physics models and full-waveform seismic modelling to assess time-lapse seismic attribute resolution for dynamic reservoir characterization and hydromechanical model calibration. The time-lapse seismic simulations use a dynamic elastic reservoir model based on a North Sea deep reservoir undergoing large pressure changes. The time-lapse seismic traveltime shifts and time strains calculated from the modelled and processed synthetic data sets (i.e. pre-stack and post-stack data) are in a reasonable agreement with the true earth models, indicating the feasibility of using 1-D strain rock physics transform and time-lapse seismic processing methodology. Estimated vertical traveltime shifts for the overburden and the majority of the reservoir are within ±1 ms of the true earth model values, indicating that the time-lapse technique is sufficiently accurate for predicting overburden velocity changes and hence geomechanical effects. Characterization of deeper structure below the overburden becomes less accurate, where more advanced time-lapse seismic processing and migration is needed to handle the complex geometry and strong lateral induced velocity changes. Nevertheless, both migrated full-offset pre-stack and near-offset post-stack data image the general features of both the overburden and
Modelling of sedimentation processes inside Roseires Reservoir (Sudan) (abstract)
Ali, Y.S.A.; Omer, A.Y.A.; Crosato, A.
2013-01-01
Roseires Reservoir is located on the Blue Nile River, in Sudan (figure 1). It is the first trap to the sediments coming from the upper catchment in Ethiopia, which suffers from high erosion and desertification problems. The reservoir lost already more than one third of its storage capacity due to
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Isabella Eckerle
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Due to novel, improved and high-throughput detection methods, there is a plethora of newly identified viruses within the genus Hantavirus. Furthermore, reservoir host species are increasingly recognized besides representatives of the order Rodentia, now including members of the mammalian orders Soricomorpha/Eulipotyphla and Chiroptera. Despite the great interest created by emerging zoonotic viruses, there is still a gross lack of in vitro models, which reflect the exclusive host adaptation of most zoonotic viruses. The usually narrow host range and genetic diversity of hantaviruses make them an exciting candidate for studying virus-host interactions on a cellular level. To do so, well-characterized reservoir cell lines covering a wide range of bat, insectivore and rodent species are essential. Most currently available cell culture models display a heterologous virus-host relationship and are therefore only of limited value. Here, we review the recently established approaches to generate reservoir-derived cell culture models for the in vitro study of virus-host interactions. These successfully used model systems almost exclusively originate from bats and bat-borne viruses other than hantaviruses. Therefore we propose a parallel approach for research on rodent- and insectivore-borne hantaviruses, taking the generation of novel rodent and insectivore cell lines from wildlife species into account. These cell lines would be also valuable for studies on further rodent-borne viruses, such as orthopox- and arenaviruses.
Advanced Techniques for Reservoir Simulation and Modeling of Non-Conventional Wells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Durlofsky, Louis J.
2000-08-28
This project targets the development of (1) advanced reservoir simulation techniques for modeling non-conventional wells; (2) improved techniques for computing well productivity (for use in reservoir engineering calculations) and well index (for use in simulation models), including the effects of wellbore flow; and (3) accurate approaches to account for heterogeneity in the near-well region.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Claudia Ledesma
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Water quality is traditionally monitored and evaluated based upon field data collected at limited locations. The storage capacity of reservoirs is reduced by deposits of suspended matter. The major factors affecting surface water quality are suspended sediments, chlorophyll and nutrients. Modeling and monitoring the biogeochemical status of reservoirs can be done through data from remote sensors. Since the improvement of sensors’ spatial and spectral resolutions, satellites have been used to monitor the interior areas of bodies of water. Water quality parameters, such as chlorophyll-a concentration and secchi disk depth, were found to have a high correlation with transformed spectral variables derived from bands 1, 2, 3 and 4 of LANDSAT 5TM satellite. We created models of estimated responses in regard to values of chlorophyll-a. To do so, we used population models of single and multiple linear regression, whose parameters are associated with the reflectance data of bands 2 and 4 of the sub-image of the satellite, as well as the data of chlorophyll-a obtained in 25 selected stations. According to the physico-chemical analyzes performed, the characteristics of the water in the reservoir of Rio Tercero, correspond to somewhat hard freshwater with calcium bicarbonate. The water was classified as usable as a source of plant treatment, excellent for irrigation because of its low salinity and low residual sodium carbonate content, but unsuitable for animal consumption because of its low salt content.
Simulation of land use change in the three gorges reservoir area based on CART-CA
Yuan, Min
2018-05-01
This study proposes a new method to simulate spatiotemporal complex multiple land uses by using classification and regression tree algorithm (CART) based CA model. In this model, we use classification and regression tree algorithm to calculate land class conversion probability, and combine neighborhood factor, random factor to extract cellular transformation rules. The overall Kappa coefficient is 0.8014 and the overall accuracy is 0.8821 in the land dynamic simulation results of the three gorges reservoir area from 2000 to 2010, and the simulation results are satisfactory.
Mineral content prediction for unconventional oil and gas reservoirs based on logging data
Maojin, Tan; Youlong, Zou; Guoyue
2012-09-01
Coal bed methane and shale oil &gas are both important unconventional oil and gas resources, whose reservoirs are typical non-linear with complex and various mineral components, and the logging data interpretation model are difficult to establish for calculate the mineral contents, and the empirical formula cannot be constructed due to various mineral. The radial basis function (RBF) network analysis is a new method developed in recent years; the technique can generate smooth continuous function of several variables to approximate the unknown forward model. Firstly, the basic principles of the RBF is discussed including net construct and base function, and the network training is given in detail the adjacent clustering algorithm specific process. Multi-mineral content for coal bed methane and shale oil &gas, using the RBF interpolation method to achieve a number of well logging data to predict the mineral component contents; then, for coal-bed methane reservoir parameters prediction, the RBF method is used to realized some mineral contents calculation such as ash, volatile matter, carbon content, which achieves a mapping from various logging data to multimineral. To shale gas reservoirs, the RBF method can be used to predict the clay content, quartz content, feldspar content, carbonate content and pyrite content. Various tests in coalbed and gas shale show the method is effective and applicable for mineral component contents prediction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fowler, M.L. [BDM-Petroleum Technologies, Bartlesville, OK (United States); Young, M.A.; Madden, M.P. [BDM-Oklahoma, Bartlesville, OK (United States)] [and others
1997-08-01
Optimum reservoir recovery and profitability result from guidance of reservoir practices provided by an effective reservoir management plan. Success in developing the best, most appropriate reservoir management plan requires knowledge and consideration of (1) the reservoir system including rocks, and rock-fluid interactions (i.e., a characterization of the reservoir) as well as wellbores and associated equipment and surface facilities; (2) the technologies available to describe, analyze, and exploit the reservoir; and (3) the business environment under which the plan will be developed and implemented. Reservoir characterization is the essential to gain needed knowledge of the reservoir for reservoir management plan building. Reservoir characterization efforts can be appropriately scaled by considering the reservoir management context under which the plan is being built. Reservoir management plans de-optimize with time as technology and the business environment change or as new reservoir information indicates the reservoir characterization models on which the current plan is based are inadequate. BDM-Oklahoma and the Department of Energy have implemented a program of reservoir management demonstrations to encourage operators with limited resources and experience to learn, implement, and disperse sound reservoir management techniques through cooperative research and development projects whose objectives are to develop reservoir management plans. In each of the three projects currently underway, careful attention to reservoir management context assures a reservoir characterization approach that is sufficient, but not in excess of what is necessary, to devise and implement an effective reservoir management plan.
Application of Stochastic Partial Differential Equations to Reservoir Property Modelling
Potsepaev, R.
2010-09-06
Existing algorithms of geostatistics for stochastic modelling of reservoir parameters require a mapping (the \\'uvt-transform\\') into the parametric space and reconstruction of a stratigraphic co-ordinate system. The parametric space can be considered to represent a pre-deformed and pre-faulted depositional environment. Existing approximations of this mapping in many cases cause significant distortions to the correlation distances. In this work we propose a coordinate free approach for modelling stochastic textures through the application of stochastic partial differential equations. By avoiding the construction of a uvt-transform and stratigraphic coordinates, one can generate realizations directly in the physical space in the presence of deformations and faults. In particular the solution of the modified Helmholtz equation driven by Gaussian white noise is a zero mean Gaussian stationary random field with exponential correlation function (in 3-D). This equation can be used to generate realizations in parametric space. In order to sample in physical space we introduce a stochastic elliptic PDE with tensor coefficients, where the tensor is related to correlation anisotropy and its variation is physical space.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jae Chung Park
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The Andong and Imha reservoirs in South Korea are connected by a water transfer tunnel. The turbidity of the Imha reservoir is much higher than that of the Andong reservoir. Thus, it is necessary to examine the movement of turbidity between the two reservoirs via the water transfer tunnel. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the water transfer tunnel on the turbidity behavior of the two connecting reservoirs and to further understand the effect of reservoir turbidity distribution as a function of the selective withdrawal depth. This study applied the CE-QUAL-W2, a water quality and 2-dimensional hydrodynamic model, for simulating the hydrodynamic processes of the two reservoirs. Results indicate that, in the Andong reservoir, the turbidity of the released water with the water transfer tunnel was similar to that without the tunnel. However, in the Imha reservoir, the turbidity of the released water with the water transfer tunnel was lower than that without the tunnel. This can be attributed to the higher capacity of the Andong reservoir, which has double the storage of the Imha reservoir. Withdrawal turbidity in the Imha reservoir was investigated using the water transfer tunnel. This study applied three withdrawal selections as elevation (EL. 141.0 m, 146.5 m, and 152.0 m. The highest withdrawal turbidity resulted in EL. 141.0 m, which indicates that the high turbidity current is located at a vertical depth of about 20–30 m because of the density difference. These results will be helpful for understanding the release and selective withdrawal turbidity behaviors for a water transfer tunnel between two reservoirs.
Climate modeling - a tool for the assessment of the paleodistribution of source and reservoir rocks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roscher, M.; Schneider, J.W. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie; Berner, U. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany). Referat Organische Geochemie/Kohlenwasserstoff-Forschung
2008-10-23
In an on-going project of BGR and TU Bergakademie Freiberg, numeric paleo-climate modeling is used as a tool for the assessment of the paleo-distribution of organic rich deposits as well as of reservoir rocks. This modeling approach is based on new ideas concerning the formation of the Pangea supercontinent. The new plate tectonic concept is supported by paleo- magnetic data as it fits the 95% confidence interval of published data. Six Permocarboniferous time slices (340, 320, 300, 290, 270, 255 Ma) were chosen within a first paleo-climate modeling approach as they represent the most important changes of the Late Paleozoic climate development. The digital maps have a resolution of 2.8 x 2.8 (T42), suitable for high-resolution climate modeling, using the PLASIM model. CO{sub 2} concentrations of the paleo-atmosphere and paleo-insolation values have been estimated by published methods. For the purpose of validation, quantitative model output, had to be transformed into qualitative parameters in order to be able to compare digital data with qualitative data of geologic indicators. The model output of surface temperatures and precipitation was therefore converted into climate zones. The reconstructed occurrences of geological indicators like aeolian sands, evaporites, reefs, coals, oil source rocks, tillites, phosphorites and cherts were then compared to the computed paleo-climate zones. Examples of the Permian Pangea show a very good agreement between model results and geological indicators. From the modeling approach we are able to identify climatic processes which lead to the deposition of hydrocarbon source and reservoir rocks. The regional assessment of such atmospheric processes may be used for the identification of the paleo-distribution of organic rich deposits or rock types suitable to form hydrocarbon reservoirs. (orig.)
Kozel, Tomas; Stary, Milos
2017-12-01
The main advantage of stochastic forecasting is fan of possible value whose deterministic method of forecasting could not give us. Future development of random process is described better by stochastic then deterministic forecasting. Discharge in measurement profile could be categorized as random process. Content of article is construction and application of forecasting model for managed large open water reservoir with supply function. Model is based on neural networks (NS) and zone models, which forecasting values of average monthly flow from inputs values of average monthly flow, learned neural network and random numbers. Part of data was sorted to one moving zone. The zone is created around last measurement average monthly flow. Matrix of correlation was assembled only from data belonging to zone. The model was compiled for forecast of 1 to 12 month with using backward month flows (NS inputs) from 2 to 11 months for model construction. Data was got ridded of asymmetry with help of Box-Cox rule (Box, Cox, 1964), value r was found by optimization. In next step were data transform to standard normal distribution. The data were with monthly step and forecast is not recurring. 90 years long real flow series was used for compile of the model. First 75 years were used for calibration of model (matrix input-output relationship), last 15 years were used only for validation. Outputs of model were compared with real flow series. For comparison between real flow series (100% successfully of forecast) and forecasts, was used application to management of artificially made reservoir. Course of water reservoir management using Genetic algorithm (GE) + real flow series was compared with Fuzzy model (Fuzzy) + forecast made by Moving zone model. During evaluation process was founding the best size of zone. Results show that the highest number of input did not give the best results and ideal size of zone is in interval from 25 to 35, when course of management was almost same for
He, W.; Anderson, R.N.
1998-08-25
A method is disclosed for inverting 3-D seismic reflection data obtained from seismic surveys to derive impedance models for a subsurface region, and for inversion of multiple 3-D seismic surveys (i.e., 4-D seismic surveys) of the same subsurface volume, separated in time to allow for dynamic fluid migration, such that small scale structure and regions of fluid and dynamic fluid flow within the subsurface volume being studied can be identified. The method allows for the mapping and quantification of available hydrocarbons within a reservoir and is thus useful for hydrocarbon prospecting and reservoir management. An iterative seismic inversion scheme constrained by actual well log data which uses a time/depth dependent seismic source function is employed to derive impedance models from 3-D and 4-D seismic datasets. The impedance values can be region grown to better isolate the low impedance hydrocarbon bearing regions. Impedance data derived from multiple 3-D seismic surveys of the same volume can be compared to identify regions of dynamic evolution and bypassed pay. Effective Oil Saturation or net oil thickness can also be derived from the impedance data and used for quantitative assessment of prospective drilling targets and reservoir management. 20 figs.
Ayatollahy Tafti, Tayeb
We develop a new method for integrating information and data from different sources. We also construct a comprehensive workflow for characterizing and modeling a fracture network in unconventional reservoirs, using microseismic data. The methodology is based on combination of several mathematical and artificial intelligent techniques, including geostatistics, fractal analysis, fuzzy logic, and neural networks. The study contributes to scholarly knowledge base on the characterization and modeling fractured reservoirs in several ways; including a versatile workflow with a novel objective functions. Some the characteristics of the methods are listed below: 1. The new method is an effective fracture characterization procedure estimates different fracture properties. Unlike the existing methods, the new approach is not dependent on the location of events. It is able to integrate all multi-scaled and diverse fracture information from different methodologies. 2. It offers an improved procedure to create compressional and shear velocity models as a preamble for delineating anomalies and map structures of interest and to correlate velocity anomalies with fracture swarms and other reservoir properties of interest. 3. It offers an effective way to obtain the fractal dimension of microseismic events and identify the pattern complexity, connectivity, and mechanism of the created fracture network. 4. It offers an innovative method for monitoring the fracture movement in different stages of stimulation that can be used to optimize the process. 5. Our newly developed MDFN approach allows to create a discrete fracture network model using only microseismic data with potential cost reduction. It also imposes fractal dimension as a constraint on other fracture modeling approaches, which increases the visual similarity between the modeled networks and the real network over the simulated volume.
Rheinheimer, David Emmanuel
generally well simulated, mostly limited by the accuracy of inflow hydrology. System-wide hydropower generation is reduced by 9% with 6 °C warming. Most reductions in hydropower generation occur in the highly productive watersheds in the northern Sierra Nevada. The central Sierra Nevada sees less reduction in annual runoff and can adapt better to changes in runoff timing. Generation in southern watersheds is expected to decrease. System-wide, reservoirs adapt to capture earlier runoff, but mostly decrease in mean reservoir storage with warming due to decreasing annual runoff. Second, a multi-reservoir optimization model is developed using linear programming that considers the minimum instream flows (MIFs) and weekly down ramp rates (DRRs) in the Upper Yuba River in the northern Sierra Nevada. Weekly DRR constraints are used to mimic spring snowmelt flows, which are particularly important for downstream ecosystems in the Sierra Nevada but are currently missing due to the influence of dams. Trade-offs between MIFs, DRRs and hydropower are explored with air temperature warming (+0, 2, 4 and 6 °C). Under base case operations, mean annual hydropower generation increases slightly with 2 °C warming and decreases slightly with 6 °C warming. With 6 °C warming, the most ecologically beneficial MIF and DRR reduce hydropower generation 5.5% compared to base case operations and a historical climate, which has important implications for re-licensing the hydropower project. Finally, reservoir management for downstream temperatures is explored using a linear programming model to optimally release water from a reservoir using selective withdrawal. The objective function is to minimize deviations from desired downstream temperatures, which are specified to mimic the natural temperature regime in the river. One objective of this study was to develop a method that can be readily integrated into a basin-scale multi-reservoir optimization model using a network representation of system
Chang, Ya-Ting; Chang, Li-Chiu; Chang, Fi-John
2005-04-01
To bridge the gap between academic research and actual operation, we propose an intelligent control system for reservoir operation. The methodology includes two major processes, the knowledge acquired and implemented, and the inference system. In this study, a genetic algorithm (GA) and a fuzzy rule base (FRB) are used to extract knowledge based on the historical inflow data with a design objective function and on the operating rule curves respectively. The adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is then used to implement the knowledge, to create the fuzzy inference system, and then to estimate the optimal reservoir operation. To investigate its applicability and practicability, the Shihmen reservoir, Taiwan, is used as a case study. For the purpose of comparison, a simulation of the currently used M-5 operating rule curve is also performed. The results demonstrate that (1) the GA is an efficient way to search the optimal input-output patterns, (2) the FRB can extract the knowledge from the operating rule curves, and (3) the ANFIS models built on different types of knowledge can produce much better performance than the traditional M-5 curves in real-time reservoir operation. Moreover, we show that the model can be more intelligent for reservoir operation if more information (or knowledge) is involved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haiyang Yu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This work presents numerical well testing interpretation model and analysis techniques to evaluate formation by using pressure transient data acquired with logging tools in crossflow double-layer reservoirs by polymer flooding. A well testing model is established based on rheology experiments and by considering shear, diffusion, convection, inaccessible pore volume (IPV, permeability reduction, wellbore storage effect, and skin factors. The type curves were then developed based on this model, and parameter sensitivity is analyzed. Our research shows that the type curves have five segments with different flow status: (I wellbore storage section, (II intermediate flow section (transient section, (III mid-radial flow section, (IV crossflow section (from low permeability layer to high permeability layer, and (V systematic radial flow section. The polymer flooding field tests prove that our model can accurately determine formation parameters in crossflow double-layer reservoirs by polymer flooding. Moreover, formation damage caused by polymer flooding can also be evaluated by comparison of the interpreted permeability with initial layered permeability before polymer flooding. Comparison of the analysis of numerical solution based on flow mechanism with observed polymer flooding field test data highlights the potential for the application of this interpretation method in formation evaluation and enhanced oil recovery (EOR.
Adaptive forward-inverse modeling of reservoir fluids away from wellbores; TOPICAL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ziagos, J P; Gelinas, R J; Doss, S K; Nelson, R G
1999-01-01
This Final Report contains the deliverables of the DeepLook Phase I project entitled, ''Adaptive Forward-Inverse Modeling of Reservoir Fluids Away from Wellbores''. The deliverables are: (i) a description of 2-D test problem results, analyses, and technical descriptions of the techniques used, (ii) a listing of program setup commands that construct and execute the codes for selected test problems (these commands are in mathematical terminology, which reinforces technical descriptions in the text), and (iii) an evaluation and recommendation regarding continuance of this project, including considerations of possible extensions to 3-D codes, additional technical scope, and budget for the out-years. The far-market objective in this project is to develop advanced technologies that can help locate and enhance the recovery of oil from heterogeneous rock formations. The specific technical objective in Phase I was to develop proof-of-concept of new forward and inverse (F-I) modeling techniques[Gelinas et al, 1998] that seek to enhance estimates (images) of formation permeability distributions and fluid motion away from wellbore volumes. This goes to the heart of improving industry's ability to jointly image reservoir permeability and flow predictions of trapped and recovered oil versus time. The estimation of formation permeability away from borehole measurements is an ''inverse'' problem. It is an inseparable part of modeling fluid flows throughout the reservoir in efforts to increase the efficiency of oil recovery at minimum cost. Classic issues of non-uniqueness, mathematical instability, noise effects, and inadequate numerical solution techniques have historically impeded progress in reservoir parameter estimations. Because information pertaining to fluid and rock properties is always sampled sparsely by wellbore measurements, a successful method for interpolating permeability and fluid data between the measurements must be: (i) physics-based, (ii) conditioned by signal
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Wang
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The conservation of drinking water source reservoirs has a close relationship between regional economic development and people’s livelihood. Research on the non-point pollution characteristics in its watershed is crucial for reservoir security. Tang Pu Reservoir watershed was selected as the study area. The non-point pollution model of Tang Pu Reservoir was established based on the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool model. The model was adjusted to analyse the temporal-spatial distribution patterns of total nitrogen (TN and total phosphorus (TP. The results showed that the loss of TN and TP in the reservoir watershed were related to precipitation in flood season. And the annual changes showed an "M" shape. It was found that the contribution of loss of TN and TP accounted for 84.5% and 85.3% in high flow years, and for 70.3% and 69.7% in low flow years, respectively. The contributions in normal flow years were 62.9% and 63.3%, respectively. The TN and TP mainly arise from Wangtan town, Gulai town, and Wangyuan town, etc. In addition, it was found that the source of TN and TP showed consistency in space.
Reservoirs for Comets: Compositional Differences Based on Infrared Observations
Disanti, Michael A.; Mumma, Michael J.
Tracing measured compositions of comets to their origins continues to be of keen interest to cometary scientists and to dynamical modelers of Solar System formation and evolution. This requires building a taxonomy of comets from both present-day dynamical reservoirs: the Kuiper Belt (hereafter KB), sampled through observation of ecliptic comets (primarily Jupiter Family comets, or JFCs), and the Oort cloud (OC), represented observationally by the long-period comets and by Halley Family comets (HFCs). Because of their short orbital periods, JFCs are subjected to more frequent exposure to solar radiation compared with OC comets. The recent apparitions of the JFCs 9P/Tempel 1 and 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 permitted detailed observations of material issuing from below their surfaces—these comets added significantly to the compositional database on this dynamical class, which is under-represented in studies of cometary parent volatiles. This chapter reviews the latest techniques developed for analysis of high-resolution spectral observations from ˜2-5 μm, and compares measured abundances of native ices among comets. While no clear compositional delineation can be drawn along dynamical lines, interesting comparisons can be made. The sub-surface composition of comet 9P, as revealed by the Deep Impact ejecta, was similar to the majority of OC comets studied. Meanwhile, 73P was depleted in all native ices except HCN, similar to the disintegrated OC comet C/1999 S4 (LINEAR). These results suggest that 73P may have formed in the inner giant planets' region while 9P formed farther out or, alternatively, that both JFCs formed farther from the Sun but with 73P forming later in time.
Simulation and optimisation modelling approach for operation of the Hoa Binh Reservoir, Vietnam
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ngo, Long le; Madsen, Henrik; Rosbjerg, Dan
2007-01-01
Hoa Binh, the largest reservoir in Vietnam, plays an important role in flood control for the Red River delta and hydropower generation. Due to its multi-purpose character, conflicts and disputes in operating the reservoir have been ongoing since its construction, particularly in the flood season....... This paper proposes to optimise the control strategies for the Hoa Binh reservoir operation by applying a combination of simulation and optimisation models. The control strategies are set up in the MIKE 11 simulation model to guide the releases of the reservoir system according to the current storage level......, the hydro-meteorological conditions, and the time of the year. A heuristic global optimisation tool, the shuffled complex evolution (SCE) algorithm, is adopted for optimising the reservoir operation. The optimisation puts focus on the trade-off between flood control and hydropower generation for the Hoa...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kerr, D.; Epili, D.; Kelkar, M.; Redner, R.; Reynolds, A.
1998-12-01
The study was comprised of four investigations: facies architecture; seismic modeling and interpretation; Markov random field and Boolean models for geologic modeling of facies distribution; and estimation of geological architecture using the Bayesian/maximum entropy approach. This report discusses results from all four investigations. Investigations were performed using data from the E and F units of the Middle Frio Formation, Stratton Field, one of the major reservoir intervals in the Gulf Coast Basin.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paul La Pointe; Jan Hermanson; Robert Parney; Thorsten Eiben; Mike Dunleavy; Ken Steele; John Whitney; Darrell Eubanks; Roger Straub
2002-11-18
of matrix properties was greatly extended by calibrating wireline logs from 113 wells with incomplete or older-vintage logging suites to wells with a full suite of modern logs. The model for the fault block architecture was derived by 3D palinspastic reconstruction. This involved field work to construct three new cross-sections at key areas in the Field; creation of horizon and fault surface maps from well penetrations and tops; and numerical modeling to derive the geometry, chronology, fault movement and folding history of the Field through a 3D restoration of the reservoir units to their original undeformed state. The methodology for predicting fracture intensity and orientation variations throughout the Field was accomplished by gathering outcrop and subsurface image log fracture data, and comparing it to the strain field produced by the various folding and faulting events determined through the 3D palinspastic reconstruction. It was found that the strains produced during the initial folding of the Tensleep and Phosphoria Formations corresponded well without both the orientations and relative fracture intensity measured in outcrop and in the subsurface. The results have led to a 15% to 20% increase in estimated matrix pore volume, and to the plan to drill two horizontal drain holes located and oriented based on the modeling results. Marathon Oil is also evaluating alternative tertiary recovery processes based on the quantitative 3D integrated reservoir model.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leflon, B.
2005-10-15
When modelling a petroleum reservoir, well data are very useful to model properties at a sub-seismic scale. Petrophysical properties like porosity or permeability are linked to the rock-type. Two methods based on well data have been developed to model facies. The first one is used to model marine carbonates deposits. The geometry of sedimentary layers is modelled through a special parameterization of the reservoir similar to Wheeler space. The time parameter is defined along the well paths thanks to correlations. The layer thickness is then extrapolated between wells. A given relationship between facies and bathymetry of sedimentation makes it possible to compute bathymetry along the well paths. Bathymetry is then extrapolated from wells and a reference map using the concept of accommodation. The model created this way is stratigraphically consistent. Facies simulation can then be constrained by the computed bathymetry. The second method describes a novel approach to fluvial reservoirs modelling. The core of the method lies in the association of a fairway with the channels to be simulated. Fairways are positioned so that all data are taken in account; they can be stochastic if unknown or explicitly entered if identified on seismic data. A potential field is defined within the fairway. Specifying a transfer function to map this potential field to thickness results in generating a channel inside the fairway. A residual component is stochastically simulated and added to the potential field creating realistic channel geometries. Conditioning to well data is obtained by applying the inverse transfer function at the data location to derive thickness values that will constrain the simulation of residuals. (author)
Use of XML and Java for collaborative petroleum reservoir modeling on the Internet
Victorine, J.; Watney, W.L.; Bhattacharya, S.
2005-01-01
The GEMINI (Geo-Engineering Modeling through INternet Informatics) is a public-domain, web-based freeware that is made up of an integrated suite of 14 Java-based software tools to accomplish on-line, real-time geologic and engineering reservoir modeling. GEMINI facilitates distant collaborations for small company and academic clients, negotiating analyses of both single and multiple wells. The system operates on a single server and an enterprise database. External data sets must be uploaded into this database. Feedback from GEMINI users provided the impetus to develop Stand Alone Web Start Applications of GEMINI modules that reside in and operate from the user's PC. In this version, the GEMINI modules run as applets, which may reside in local user PCs, on the server, or Java Web Start. In this enhanced version, XML-based data handling procedures are used to access data from remote and local databases and save results for later access and analyses. The XML data handling process also integrates different stand-alone GEMINI modules enabling the user(s) to access multiple databases. It provides flexibility to the user to customize analytical approach, database location, and level of collaboration. An example integrated field-study using GEMINI modules and Stand Alone Web Start Applications is provided to demonstrate the versatile applicability of this freeware for cost-effective reservoir modeling. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pranter, Matthew J; Vargas, Marielis F; Davis, Thomas L
2008-01-01
This study describes the stratigraphic characteristics and distribution of fluvial deposits of the Upper Cretaceous Williams Fork Formation in a portion of Rulison Field and addresses 3D geologic modelling of reservoir sand bodies and their associated connectivity. Fluvial deposits include isolated and stacked point-bar deposits, crevasse splays and overbank (floodplain) mudrock. Within the Williams Fork Formation, the distribution and connectivity of fluvial sandstones significantly impact reservoir productivity and ultimate recovery. The reservoir sandstones are primarily fluvial point-bar deposits interbedded with shales and coals. Because of the lenticular geometry and limited lateral extent of the reservoir sandstones (common apparent widths of ∼500–1000 ft; ∼150–300 m), relatively high well densities (e.g. 10 acre (660 ft; 200 m) spacing) are often required to deplete the reservoir. Heterogeneity of these fluvial deposits includes larger scale stratigraphic variability associated with vertical stacking patterns and structural heterogeneities associated with faults that exhibit lateral and reverse offsets. The discontinuous character of the fluvial sandstones and lack of distinct marker beds in the middle and upper parts of the Williams Fork Formation make correlation between wells tenuous, even at a 10 acre well spacing. Some intervals of thicker and amalgamated sandstones within the middle and upper Williams Fork Formation can be correlated across greater distances. To aid correlation and for 3D reservoir modelling, vertical lithology proportion curves were used to estimate stratigraphic trends and define the stratigraphic zonation within the reservoir interval. Object-based and indicator-based modelling methods have been applied to the same data and results from the models were compared. Results from the 3D modelling indicate that sandstone connectivity increases with net-to-gross ratio and, at lower net-to-gross ratios (<30%), differences exist in
Integrated hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling to assess water exchange in a data-scarce reservoir
Wu, Binbin; Wang, Guoqiang; Wang, Zhonggen; Liu, Changming; Ma, Jianming
2017-12-01
Integrated hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling is useful in evaluating hydrodynamic characteristics (e.g. water exchange processes) in data-scarce water bodies, however, most studies lack verification of the hydrologic model. Here, water exchange (represented by water age) was investigated through integrated hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling of the Hongfeng Reservoir, a poorly gauged reservoir in southwest China. The performance of the hydrologic model and parameter replacement among sub-basins with hydrological similarity was verified by historical data. Results showed that hydrological similarity based on the hierarchical cluster analysis and topographic index probability density distribution was reliable with satisfactory performance of parameter replacement. The hydrodynamic model was verified using daily water levels and water temperatures from 2009 and 2010. The water exchange processes in the Hongfeng Reservoir are very complex with temporal, vertical, and spatial variations. The temporal water age was primarily controlled by the variable inflow and outflow, and the maximum and minimum ages for the site near the dam were 406.10 d (15th June) and 90.74 d (3rd August), respectively, in 2010. Distinct vertical differences in water age showed that surface flow, interflow, and underflow appeared alternately, depending on the season and water depth. The worst water exchange situation was found in the central areas of the North Lake with the highest water ages in the bottom on both 15th June and 3rd August, in 2010. Comparison of the spatial water ages revealed that the more favorable hydraulic conditions on 3rd August mainly improved the water exchange in the dam areas and most areas of the South Lake, but had little effect on the bottom layers of the other deepest areas in the South and North Lakes. The presented framework can be applied in other data-scarce waterbodies worldwide to provide better understanding of water exchange processes.
Assessment of CO2 Storage Potential in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs With Dual-Porosity Models
March, Rafael; Doster, Florian; Geiger, Sebastian
2018-03-01
Naturally Fractured Reservoirs (NFR's) have received little attention as potential CO2 storage sites. Two main facts deter from storage projects in fractured reservoirs: (1) CO2 tends to be nonwetting in target formations and capillary forces will keep CO2 in the fractures, which typically have low pore volume; and (2) the high conductivity of the fractures may lead to increased spatial spreading of the CO2 plume. Numerical simulations are a powerful tool to understand the physics behind brine-CO2 flow in NFR's. Dual-porosity models are typically used to simulate multiphase flow in fractured formations. However, existing dual-porosity models are based on crude approximations of the matrix-fracture fluid transfer processes and often fail to capture the dynamics of fluid exchange accurately. Therefore, more accurate transfer functions are needed in order to evaluate the CO2 transfer to the matrix. This work presents an assessment of CO2 storage potential in NFR's using dual-porosity models. We investigate the impact of a system of fractures on storage in a saline aquifer, by analyzing the time scales of brine drainage by CO2 in the matrix blocks and the maximum CO2 that can be stored in the rock matrix. A new model to estimate drainage time scales is developed and used in a transfer function for dual-porosity simulations. We then analyze how injection rates should be limited in order to avoid early spill of CO2 (lost control of the plume) on a conceptual anticline model. Numerical simulations on the anticline show that naturally fractured reservoirs may be used to store CO2.
Maschio, Célio; José Schiozer, Denis
2015-01-01
In this article, a new optimization framework to reduce uncertainties in petroleum reservoir attributes using artificial intelligence techniques (neural network and genetic algorithm) is proposed. Instead of using the deterministic values of the reservoir properties, as in a conventional process, the parameters of the probability density function of each uncertain attribute are set as design variables in an optimization process using a genetic algorithm. The objective function (OF) is based on the misfit of a set of models, sampled from the probability density function, and a symmetry factor (which represents the distribution of curves around the history) is used as weight in the OF. Artificial neural networks are trained to represent the production curves of each well and the proxy models generated are used to evaluate the OF in the optimization process. The proposed method was applied to a reservoir with 16 uncertain attributes and promising results were obtained.
Molecular Simulation towards Efficient and Representative Subsurface Reservoirs Modeling
Kadoura, Ahmad
2016-09-01
This dissertation focuses on the application of Monte Carlo (MC) molecular simulation and Molecular Dynamics (MD) in modeling thermodynamics and flow of subsurface reservoir fluids. At first, MC molecular simulation is proposed as a promising method to replace correlations and equations of state in subsurface flow simulators. In order to accelerate MC simulations, a set of early rejection schemes (conservative, hybrid, and non-conservative) in addition to extrapolation methods through reweighting and reconstruction of pre-generated MC Markov chains were developed. Furthermore, an extensive study was conducted to investigate sorption and transport processes of methane, carbon dioxide, water, and their mixtures in the inorganic part of shale using both MC and MD simulations. These simulations covered a wide range of thermodynamic conditions, pore sizes, and fluid compositions shedding light on several interesting findings. For example, the possibility to have more carbon dioxide adsorbed with more preadsorbed water concentrations at relatively large basal spaces. The dissertation is divided into four chapters. The first chapter corresponds to the introductory part where a brief background about molecular simulation and motivations are given. The second chapter is devoted to discuss the theoretical aspects and methodology of the proposed MC speeding up techniques in addition to the corresponding results leading to the successful multi-scale simulation of the compressible single-phase flow scenario. In chapter 3, the results regarding our extensive study on shale gas at laboratory conditions are reported. At the fourth and last chapter, we end the dissertation with few concluding remarks highlighting the key findings and summarizing the future directions.
Monte Carlo Analysis of Reservoir Models Using Seismic Data and Geostatistical Models
Zunino, A.; Mosegaard, K.; Lange, K.; Melnikova, Y.; Hansen, T. M.
2013-12-01
We present a study on the analysis of petroleum reservoir models consistent with seismic data and geostatistical constraints performed on a synthetic reservoir model. Our aim is to invert directly for structure and rock bulk properties of the target reservoir zone. To infer the rock facies, porosity and oil saturation seismology alone is not sufficient but a rock physics model must be taken into account, which links the unknown properties to the elastic parameters. We then combine a rock physics model with a simple convolutional approach for seismic waves to invert the "measured" seismograms. To solve this inverse problem, we employ a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, because it offers the possibility to handle non-linearity, complex and multi-step forward models and provides realistic estimates of uncertainties. However, for large data sets the MCMC method may be impractical because of a very high computational demand. To face this challenge one strategy is to feed the algorithm with realistic models, hence relying on proper prior information. To address this problem, we utilize an algorithm drawn from geostatistics to generate geologically plausible models which represent samples of the prior distribution. The geostatistical algorithm learns the multiple-point statistics from prototype models (in the form of training images), then generates thousands of different models which are accepted or rejected by a Metropolis sampler. To further reduce the computation time we parallelize the software and run it on multi-core machines. The solution of the inverse problem is then represented by a collection of reservoir models in terms of facies, porosity and oil saturation, which constitute samples of the posterior distribution. We are finally able to produce probability maps of the properties we are interested in by performing statistical analysis on the collection of solutions.
Development of a Cerebrospinal Fluid Lateral Reservoir Model in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)
Lester McCully, Cynthia M; Bacher, John; MacAllister, Rhonda P; Steffen-Smith, Emilie A; Saleem, Kadharbatcha; Thomas, Marvin L; Cruz, Rafael; Warren, Katherine E
2015-01-01
Rapid, serial, and humane collection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in nonhuman primates (NHP) is an essential element of numerous research studies and is currently accomplished via two different models. The CSF reservoir model (FR) combines a catheter in the 4th ventricle with a flexible silastic reservoir to permit circulating CSF flow. The CSF lateral port model (LP) consists of a lateral ventricular catheter and an IV port that provides static access to CSF and volume restrictions on sample...
Unstructured grids and an element based conservative approach for a black-oil reservoir simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nogueira, Regis Lopes; Fernandes, Bruno Ramon Batista [Federal University of Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Araujo, Andre Luiz de Souza [Federal Institution of Education, Science and Technology of Ceara - IFCE, Fortaleza (Brazil). Industry Department], e-mail: andre@ifce.edu.br; Marcondes, Francisco [Federal University of Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering and Material Science], e-mail: marcondes@ufc.br
2010-07-01
Unstructured meshes presented one upgrade in modeling the main important features of the reservoir such as discrete fractures, faults, and irregular boundaries. From several methodologies available, the Element based Finite Volume Method (EbFVM), in conjunction with unstructured meshes, is one methodology that deserves large attention. In this approach, the reservoir, for 2D domains, is discretized using a mixed two-dimensional mesh using quadrilateral and triangle elements. After the initial step of discretization, each element is divided into sub-elements and the mass balance for each component is developed for each sub-element. The equations for each control-volume using a cell vertex construction are formulated through the contribution of different neighboured elements. This paper presents an investigation of an element-based approach using the black-oil model based on pressure and global mass fractions. In this approach, even when all gas phase is dissolved in oil phase the global mass fraction of gas will be different from zero. Therefore, no additional numerical procedure is necessary in order to treat the gas phase appear/disappearance. In this paper the above mentioned approach is applied to multiphase flows involving oil, gas, and water. The mass balance equations in terms of global mass fraction of oil, gas and water are discretized through the EbFVM and linearized by the Newton's method. The results are presented in terms of volumetric rates of oil, gas, and water and phase saturations. (author)
Wastewater injection and slip triggering: Results from a 3D coupled reservoir/rate-and-state model
Babazadeh, M.; Olson, J. E.; Schultz, R.
2017-12-01
Seismicity induced by fluid injection is controlled by parameters related to injection conditions, reservoir properties, and fault frictional behavior. We present results from a combined model that brings together injection physics, reservoir dynamics, and fault physics to better explain the primary controls on induced seismicity. We created a 3D fluid flow simulator using the embedded discrete fracture technique and then coupled it with a 3D displacement discontinuity model that uses rate and state friction to model slip events. The model is composed of three layers, including the top-seal, the injection reservoir, and the basement. Permeability is anisotropic (vertical vs horizontal) and along with porosity varies by layer. Injection control can be either rate or pressure. Fault properties include size, 2D permeability, and frictional properties. Several suites of simulations were run to evaluate the relative importance of each of the factors from all three parameter groups. We find that the injection parameters interact with the reservoir parameters in the context of the fault physics and these relations change for different reservoir and fault characteristics, leading to the need to examine the injection parameters only within the context of a particular faulted reservoir. For a reservoir with no flow boundaries, low permeability (5 md), and a fault with high fault-parallel permeability and critical stress, injection rate exerts the strongest control on magnitude and frequency of earthquakes. However, for a higher permeability reservoir (80 md), injection volume becomes the more important factor. Fault permeability structure is a key factor in inducing earthquakes in basement rocks below the injection reservoir. The initial failure state of the fault, which is challenging to assess, can have a big effect on the size and timing of events. For a fault 2 MPa below critical state, we were able to induce a slip event, but it occurred late in the injection history
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pengyu Gao
2016-03-01
Full Text Available It is difficult to forecast the well productivity because of the complexity of vertical and horizontal developments in fluvial facies reservoir. This paper proposes a method based on Principal Component Analysis and Artificial Neural Network to predict well productivity of fluvial facies reservoir. The method summarizes the statistical reservoir factors and engineering factors that affect the well productivity, extracts information by applying the principal component analysis method and approximates arbitrary functions of the neural network to realize an accurate and efficient prediction on the fluvial facies reservoir well productivity. This method provides an effective way for forecasting the productivity of fluvial facies reservoir which is affected by multi-factors and complex mechanism. The study result shows that this method is a practical, effective, accurate and indirect productivity forecast method and is suitable for field application.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Satter, A.; Varnon, J.E.; Hoang, M.T.
1992-01-01
A reservoir's life begins with exploration leading to discovery followed by delineation of the reservoir, development of the field, production by primary, secondary and tertiary means, and finally to abandonment. Sound reservoir management is the key to maximizing economic operation of the reservoir throughout its entire life. Technological advances and rapidly increasing computer power are providing tools to better manage reservoirs and are increasing the gap between good and neural reservoir management. The modern reservoir management process involves goal setting, planning, implementing, monitoring, evaluating, and revising plans. Setting a reservoir management strategy requires knowledge of the reservoir, availability of technology, and knowledge of the business, political, and environmental climate. Formulating a comprehensive management plan involves depletion and development strategies, data acquisition and analyses, geological and numerical model studies, production and reserves forecasts, facilities requirements, economic optimization, and management approval. This paper provides management, engineers, geologists, geophysicists, and field operations staff with a better understanding of the practical approach to reservoir management using a multidisciplinary, integrated team approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Satter, A.; Varnon, J.E.; Hoang, M.T.
1992-01-01
A reservoir's life begins with exploration leading to discovery followed by delineation of the reservoir, development of the field, production by primary, secondary and tertiary means, and finally to abandonment. Sound reservoir management is the key to maximizing economic operation of the reservoir throughout its entire life. Technological advances and rapidly increasing computer power are providing tools to better manage reservoirs and are increasing the gap between good and neutral reservoir management. The modern reservoir management process involves goal setting, planning, implementing, monitoring, evaluating, and revising plans. Setting a reservoir management strategy requires knowledge of the reservoir, availability of technology, and knowledge of the business, political, and environmental climate. Formulating a comprehensive management plan involves depletion and development strategies, data acquisition and analyses, geological and numerical model studies, production and reserves forecasts, facilities requirements, economic optimization, and management approval. This paper provides management, engineers geologists, geophysicists, and field operations staff with a better understanding of the practical approach to reservoir management using a multidisciplinary, integrated team approach
Optimization of Multipurpose Reservoir Systems Using Power Market Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pereira-Cardenal, S. J.; Mo, B.; Riegels, N.
2015-01-01
optimal operation rules that maximize current and expected future benefits as a function of reservoir level, week of the year, and inflow state. The method was tested on the Iberian Peninsula and performed better than traditional approaches that use exogenous prices: resulting operation rules were more...
2-D Water Quality Modelling of a Drinking Water Reservoir
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Růžička, Martin; Hejzlar, J.; Mikešová, P.; Cole, T. M.
2002-01-01
Roč. 50, č. 3 (2002), s. 258-272 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/98/0281; GA AV ČR IAA3042903 Grant - others:USARGD-UK(USA) N68171-99-M-6754 Keywords : CE-QUAL-W2 * Dimictic stratified reservoir * Sensitivity analysis Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology
A lithology identification method for continental shale oil reservoir based on BP neural network
Han, Luo; Fuqiang, Lai; Zheng, Dong; Weixu, Xia
2018-06-01
The Dongying Depression and Jiyang Depression of the Bohai Bay Basin consist of continental sedimentary facies with a variable sedimentary environment and the shale layer system has a variety of lithologies and strong heterogeneity. It is difficult to accurately identify the lithologies with traditional lithology identification methods. The back propagation (BP) neural network was used to predict the lithology of continental shale oil reservoirs. Based on the rock slice identification, x-ray diffraction bulk rock mineral analysis, scanning electron microscope analysis, and the data of well logging and logging, the lithology was divided with carbonate, clay and felsic as end-member minerals. According to the core-electrical relationship, the frequency histogram was then used to calculate the logging response range of each lithology. The lithology-sensitive curves selected from 23 logging curves (GR, AC, CNL, DEN, etc) were chosen as the input variables. Finally, the BP neural network training model was established to predict the lithology. The lithology in the study area can be divided into four types: mudstone, lime mudstone, lime oil-mudstone, and lime argillaceous oil-shale. The logging responses of lithology were complicated and characterized by the low values of four indicators and medium values of two indicators. By comparing the number of hidden nodes and the number of training times, we found that the number of 15 hidden nodes and 1000 times of training yielded the best training results. The optimal neural network training model was established based on the above results. The lithology prediction results of BP neural network of well XX-1 showed that the accuracy rate was over 80%, indicating that the method was suitable for lithology identification of continental shale stratigraphy. The study provided the basis for the reservoir quality and oily evaluation of continental shale reservoirs and was of great significance to shale oil and gas exploration.
Detecting fluid leakage of a reservoir dam based on streaming self-potential measurements
Song, Seo Young; Kim, Bitnarae; Nam, Myung Jin; Lim, Sung Keun
2015-04-01
Between many reservoir dams for agriculture in suburban area of South Korea, water leakage has been reported several times. The dam under consideration in this study, which is located in Gyeong-buk, in the south-east of the Korean Peninsula, was reported to have a large leakage at the right foot of downstream side of the reservoir dam. For the detection of the leakage, not only geological survey but also geophysical explorations have been made for precision safety diagnosis, since the leakage can lead to dam failure. Geophysical exploration includes both electrical-resistivity and self-potential surveys, while geological surveys water permeability test, standard penetration test, and sampling for undisturbed sample during the course of the drilling investigation. The geophysical explorations were made not only along the top of dam but also transverse the heel of dam. The leakage of water installations can change the known-heterogeneous structure of the dam body but also cause streaming spontaneous (self) potential (SP) anomaly, which can be detected by electrical resistivity and SP measurements, respectively. For the interpretation of streaming SP, we used trial-and-error method by comparing synthetic SP data with field SP data for model update. For the computation, we first invert the resistivity data to obtain the distorted resistivity structure of the dam levee then make three-dimensional electrical-resistivity modeling for the streaming potential distribution of the dam levee. Our simulation algorithm of streaming SP distribution based on the integrated finite difference scheme computes two-dimensional (2D) SP distribution based on the distribution of calculated flow velocities of fluid for a given permeability structure together with physical properties. This permeability is repeatedly updated based on error between synthetic and field SP data, until the synthetic data match the field data. Through this trial-and-error-based SP interpretation, we locate the
Owen, Alexander Emory
This field case study focuses on Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian) Smackover hydrocarbon reservoir characterization, modeling and evaluation at Fishpond Field, Escambia County, Alabama, eastern Gulf Coastal Plain of North America. The field is located in the Conecuh Embayment area, south of the Little Cedar Creek Field in Conecuh County and east of Appleton Field in Escambia County. In the Conecuh Embayment, Smackover microbial buildups commonly developed on Paleozoic basement paleohighs in an inner to middle carbonate ramp setting. The microbial and associated facies identified in Fishpond Field are: (F-1) peloidal wackestone, (F-2) peloidal packstone, (F-3) peloidal grainstone, (F-4) peloidal grainstone/packstone, (F-5) microbially-influenced wackestone, (F-6) microbially-influenced packstone, (F-7) microbial boundstone, (F-8) oolitic grainstone, (F-9) shale, and (F-10) dolomitized wackestone/packstone. The Smackover section consists of an alternation of carbonate facies, including F-1 through F-8. The repetitive vertical trend in facies indicates variations in depositional conditions in the area as a result of changes in water depth, energy conditions, salinity, and/or water chemistry due to temporal variations or changes in relative sea level. Accommodation for sediment accumulation also was produced by a change in base level due to differential movement of basement rocks as a result of faulting and/or subsidence due to burial compaction and extension. These changes in base level contributed to the development of a microbial buildup that ranges between 130-165 ft in thickness. The Fishpond Field carbonate reservoir includes a lower microbial buildup interval, a middle grainstone/packstone interval and an upper microbial buildup interval. The Fishpond Field has sedimentary and petroleum system characteristics similar to the neighboring Appleton and Little Cedar Creek Fields, but also has distinct differences from these Smackover fields. The characteristics of the
Fast Multiscale Reservoir Simulations using POD-DEIM Model Reduction
Ghasemi, Mohammadreza; Yang, Yanfang; Gildin, Eduardo; Efendiev, Yalchin R.; Calo, Victor M.
2015-01-01
snapshots are inexpensively computed using local model reduction techniques based on Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Method (GMsFEM) which provides (1) a hierarchical approximation of snapshot vectors (2) adaptive computations by using coarse grids (3
Kondo dynamics of quasiparticle tunneling in a two-reservoir Anderson model.
Hong, Jongbae
2011-07-13
We study the Kondo dynamics in a two-reservoir Anderson impurity model in which quasiparticle tunneling occurs between two reservoirs. We show that singlet hopping is an essential component of Kondo dynamics in the quasiparticle tunneling. We prove that two resonant tunneling levels exist in the two-reservoir Anderson impurity model and the quasiparticle tunnels through one of these levels when a bias is applied. The Kondo dynamics is explained by obtaining the retarded Green's function. We obtain the analytic expressions of the spectral weights of coherent peaks by analyzing the Green's function at the atomic limit.
Kondo dynamics of quasiparticle tunneling in a two-reservoir Anderson model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hong, Jongbae
2011-01-01
We study the Kondo dynamics in a two-reservoir Anderson impurity model in which quasiparticle tunneling occurs between two reservoirs. We show that singlet hopping is an essential component of Kondo dynamics in the quasiparticle tunneling. We prove that two resonant tunneling levels exist in the two-reservoir Anderson impurity model and the quasiparticle tunnels through one of these levels when a bias is applied. The Kondo dynamics is explained by obtaining the retarded Green's function. We obtain the analytic expressions of the spectral weights of coherent peaks by analyzing the Green's function at the atomic limit.
Modular reservoir concept for MEMS-based transdermal drug delivery systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cantwell, Cara T; Wei, Pinghung; Ziaie, Babak; Rao, Masaru P
2014-01-01
While MEMS-based transdermal drug delivery device development efforts have typically focused on tightly-integrated solutions, we propose an alternate conception based upon a novel, modular drug reservoir approach. By decoupling the drug storage functionality from the rest of the delivery system, this approach seeks to minimize cold chain storage volume, enhance compatibility with conventional pharmaceutical practices, and allow independent optimization of reservoir device design, materials, and fabrication. Herein, we report the design, fabrication, and preliminary characterization of modular reservoirs that demonstrate the virtue of this approach within the application context of transdermal insulin administration for diabetes management. (technical note)
Modular reservoir concept for MEMS-based transdermal drug delivery systems
Cantwell, Cara T.; Wei, Pinghung; Ziaie, Babak; Rao, Masaru P.
2014-11-01
While MEMS-based transdermal drug delivery device development efforts have typically focused on tightly-integrated solutions, we propose an alternate conception based upon a novel, modular drug reservoir approach. By decoupling the drug storage functionality from the rest of the delivery system, this approach seeks to minimize cold chain storage volume, enhance compatibility with conventional pharmaceutical practices, and allow independent optimization of reservoir device design, materials, and fabrication. Herein, we report the design, fabrication, and preliminary characterization of modular reservoirs that demonstrate the virtue of this approach within the application context of transdermal insulin administration for diabetes management.
Prediction of tectonic stresses and fracture networks with geomechanical reservoir models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henk, A.; Fischer, K.
2014-09-01
This project evaluates the potential of geomechanical Finite Element (FE) models for the prediction of in situ stresses and fracture networks in faulted reservoirs. Modeling focuses on spatial variations of the in situ stress distribution resulting from faults and contrasts in mechanical rock properties. In a first methodological part, a workflow is developed for building such geomechanical reservoir models and calibrating them to field data. In the second part, this workflow was applied successfully to an intensively faulted gas reservoir in the North German Basin. A truly field-scale geomechanical model covering more than 400km 2 was built and calibrated. It includes a mechanical stratigraphy as well as a network of 86 faults. The latter are implemented as distinct planes of weakness and allow the fault-specific evaluation of shear and normal stresses. A so-called static model describes the recent state of the reservoir and, thus, after calibration its results reveal the present-day in situ stress distribution. Further geodynamic modeling work considers the major stages in the tectonic history of the reservoir and provides insights in the paleo stress distribution. These results are compared to fracture data and hydraulic fault behavior observed today. The outcome of this project confirms the potential of geomechanical FE models for robust stress and fracture predictions. The workflow is generally applicable and can be used for modeling of any stress-sensitive reservoir.
Prediction of tectonic stresses and fracture networks with geomechanical reservoir models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Henk, A.; Fischer, K. [TU Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften
2014-09-15
This project evaluates the potential of geomechanical Finite Element (FE) models for the prediction of in situ stresses and fracture networks in faulted reservoirs. Modeling focuses on spatial variations of the in situ stress distribution resulting from faults and contrasts in mechanical rock properties. In a first methodological part, a workflow is developed for building such geomechanical reservoir models and calibrating them to field data. In the second part, this workflow was applied successfully to an intensively faulted gas reservoir in the North German Basin. A truly field-scale geomechanical model covering more than 400km{sup 2} was built and calibrated. It includes a mechanical stratigraphy as well as a network of 86 faults. The latter are implemented as distinct planes of weakness and allow the fault-specific evaluation of shear and normal stresses. A so-called static model describes the recent state of the reservoir and, thus, after calibration its results reveal the present-day in situ stress distribution. Further geodynamic modeling work considers the major stages in the tectonic history of the reservoir and provides insights in the paleo stress distribution. These results are compared to fracture data and hydraulic fault behavior observed today. The outcome of this project confirms the potential of geomechanical FE models for robust stress and fracture predictions. The workflow is generally applicable and can be used for modeling of any stress-sensitive reservoir.
Modelling CO2 emissions from water surface of a boreal hydroelectric reservoir.
Wang, Weifeng; Roulet, Nigel T; Kim, Youngil; Strachan, Ian B; Del Giorgio, Paul; Prairie, Yves T; Tremblay, Alain
2018-01-15
To quantify CO 2 emissions from water surface of a reservoir that was shaped by flooding the boreal landscape, we developed a daily time-step reservoir biogeochemistry model. We calibrated the model using the measured concentrations of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (C) in a young boreal hydroelectric reservoir, Eastmain-1 (EM-1), in northern Quebec, Canada. We validated the model against observed CO 2 fluxes from an eddy covariance tower in the middle of EM-1. The model predicted the variability of CO 2 emissions reasonably well compared to the observations (root mean square error: 0.4-1.3gCm -2 day -1 , revised Willmott index: 0.16-0.55). In particular, we demonstrated that the annual reservoir surface effluxes were initially high, steeply declined in the first three years, and then steadily decreased to ~115gCm -2 yr -1 with increasing reservoir age over the estimated "engineering" reservoir lifetime (i.e., 100years). Sensitivity analyses revealed that increasing air temperature stimulated CO 2 emissions by enhancing CO 2 production in the water column and sediment, and extending the duration of open water period over which emissions occur. Increasing the amount of terrestrial organic C flooded can enhance benthic CO 2 fluxes and CO 2 emissions from the reservoir water surface, but the effects were not significant over the simulation period. The model is useful for the understanding of the mechanism of C dynamics in reservoirs and could be used to assist the hydro-power industry and others interested in the role of boreal hydroelectric reservoirs as sources of greenhouse gas emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Modeling of Gas Production from Shale Reservoirs Considering Multiple Transport Mechanisms.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chaohua Guo
Full Text Available Gas transport in unconventional shale strata is a multi-mechanism-coupling process that is different from the process observed in conventional reservoirs. In micro fractures which are inborn or induced by hydraulic stimulation, viscous flow dominates. And gas surface diffusion and gas desorption should be further considered in organic nano pores. Also, the Klinkenberg effect should be considered when dealing with the gas transport problem. In addition, following two factors can play significant roles under certain circumstances but have not received enough attention in previous models. During pressure depletion, gas viscosity will change with Knudsen number; and pore radius will increase when the adsorption gas desorbs from the pore wall. In this paper, a comprehensive mathematical model that incorporates all known mechanisms for simulating gas flow in shale strata is presented. The objective of this study was to provide a more accurate reservoir model for simulation based on the flow mechanisms in the pore scale and formation geometry. Complex mechanisms, including viscous flow, Knudsen diffusion, slip flow, and desorption, are optionally integrated into different continua in the model. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of different mechanisms on the gas production. The results showed that adsorption and gas viscosity change will have a great impact on gas production. Ignoring one of following scenarios, such as adsorption, gas permeability change, gas viscosity change, or pore radius change, will underestimate gas production.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tchamen, G.W.; Gaucher, J. [Hydro-Quebec Production, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Direction Barrage et Environnement, Unite Barrages et Hydraulique
2010-08-15
Owners and operators of high capacity dams in Quebec have a legal obligation to conduct dam break analysis for each of their dams in order to ensure public safety. This paper described traditional hydraulic methodologies and models used to perform dam break analyses. In particular, it examined the influence of the reservoir drawdown submodel on the numerical results of a dam break analysis. Numerical techniques from the field of fluid mechanics and aerodynamics have provided the basis for developing effective hydrodynamic codes that reduce the level of uncertainties associated with dam-break analysis. A static representation that considers the storage curve was compared with a dynamic representation based on Saint-Venant equations and the real bathymetry of the reservoir. The comparison was based on breach of reservoir, maximum water level, flooded area, and wave arrival time in the valley downstream. The study showed that the greatest difference in attained water level was in the vicinity of the dam, and the difference decreased as the distance from the reservoir increased. The analysis showed that the static representation overestimated the maximum depth and inundated area by as much as 20 percent. This overestimation can be reduced by 30 to 40 percent by using dynamic representation. A dynamic model based on a synthetic trapezoidal reconstruction of the storage curve was used, given the lack of bathymetric data for the reservoir. It was concluded that this model can significantly reduce the uncertainty associated with the static model. 7 refs., 9 tabs., 7 figs.
Xuejiao, M.; Chang, J.; Wang, Y.
2017-12-01
Flood risk reduction with non-engineering measures has become the main idea for flood management. It is more effective for flood risk management to take various non-engineering measures. In this paper, a flood control operation model for cascade reservoirs in the Upper Yellow River was proposed to lower the flood risk of the water system with multi-reservoir by combining the reservoir flood control operation (RFCO) and flood early warning together. Specifically, a discharge control chart was employed to build the joint RFCO simulation model for cascade reservoirs in the Upper Yellow River. And entropy-weighted fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method was adopted to establish a multi-factorial risk assessment model for flood warning grade. Furthermore, after determining the implementing mode of countermeasures with future inflow, an intelligent optimization algorithm was used to solve the optimization model for applicable water release scheme. In addition, another model without any countermeasure was set to be a comparative experiment. The results show that the model developed in this paper can further decrease the flood risk of water system with cascade reservoirs. It provides a new approach to flood risk management by coupling flood control operation and flood early warning of cascade reservoirs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maoyuan Feng
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This study proposes a mixed integer linear programming (MILP model to optimize the spillways scheduling for reservoir flood control. Unlike the conventional reservoir operation model, the proposed MILP model specifies the spillways status (including the number of spillways to be open and the degree of the spillway opened instead of reservoir release, since the release is actually controlled by using the spillway. The piecewise linear approximation is used to formulate the relationship between the reservoir storage and water release for a spillway, which should be open/closed with a status depicted by a binary variable. The control order and symmetry rules of spillways are described and incorporated into the constraints for meeting the practical demand. Thus, a MILP model is set up to minimize the maximum reservoir storage. The General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS and IBM ILOG CPLEX Optimization Studio (CPLEX software are used to find the optimal solution for the proposed MILP model. The China’s Three Gorges Reservoir, whose spillways are of five types with the total number of 80, is selected as the case study. It is shown that the proposed model decreases the flood risk compared with the conventional operation and makes the operation more practical by specifying the spillways status directly.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cope, G.
2008-07-15
Tight sand gas plays are low permeability reservoirs that have contributed an output of 5.7 trillion cubic feet of natural gas per year in the United States alone. Anadarko Petroleum Corporation has significant production from thousands of wells in Texas, Colorado, Wyoming and Utah. Hydraulic fracturing is the key to successful tight sand production. Production engineers use modelling software to calculate a well stimulation program in which large volumes of water are forced under high pressure in the reservoir, fracturing the rock and creating high permeability conduits for the natural gas to escape. Reservoir engineering researchers at the University of Calgary, led by world expert Tony Settari, have improved traditional software modelling of petroleum reservoirs by combining fracture analysis with geomechanical processes. This expertise has been a valuable asset to Anadarko, as the dynamic aspect can have a significant effect on the reservoir as it is being drilled. The challenges facing reservoir simulation is the high computing time needed for analyzing fluid production based on permeability, porosity, gas and fluid properties along with geomechanical analysis. Another challenge has been acquiring high quality field data. Using Anadarko's field data, the University of Calgary researchers found that water fracturing creates vertical primary fractures, and in some cases secondary fractures which enhance permeability. However, secondary fracturing is not permanent in all wells. The newly coupled geomechanical model makes it possible to model fracture growth more accurately. The Society of Petroleum Engineers recently awarded Settari with an award for distinguished achievement in improving the technique and practice of finding and producing petroleum. 1 fig.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cisneros, Sergio; Zeberg-Mikkelsen, Claus Kjær; Stenby, Erling Halfdan
2003-01-01
The general one-parameter friction theory (f-theory) models have been further extended to the prediction of the viscosity of real "live" reservoir fluids based on viscosity measurements of the "dead" oil and the compositional information of the live fluid. This work representation of the viscosity...... of real fluids is obtained by a simple one-parameter tuning of a linear equation derived from a general one-parameter f-theory model. Further, this is achieved using simple cubic equations of state (EOS), such as the Peng-Robinson (PR) EOS or the Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) EOS, which are commonly used...... within the oil industry. In sake of completeness, this work also presents a simple characterization procedure which is based on compositional information of an oil sample. This procedure provides a method for characterizing an oil into a number of compound groups along with the critical constants...
Rudiyanti, Siti; Anggoro, Sutrisno; Rahman, Arif
2018-02-01
Jatibarang Reservoir is one of the Indonesian Reservoirs, which used for human activities such as tourism and agriculture. These activities will provide input of organic matter and nutrients into the water. These materials will impact water quality and eutrophication process. Eutrophication is the water enrichment by nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus which can promote the growth of phytoplankton. Some indicators of eutrophication are increasing nutrients, trophic states, and change of phytoplankton composition. The relationship between water quality and phytoplankton community can be used as an indicator of trophic states in Jatibarang Reservoir. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of nutrients concentration and phytoplankton abundance to the trophic states and mapping trophic states based on nutrients concentration and phytoplankton in Jatibarang Reservoir. This study was conducted in June and July 2017 at 9 stations around Jatibarang Reservoir. The results showed that average concentration of nitrate, phosphate, and chlorophyll-a in Jatibarang Reservoir was 0.69 mg/L, 0.27 mg/L, and 1.66 mg/m3, respectively. The phytoplankton abundance ranged 16-62,200 cells/L, consists of 21 genera of four classes, i.e. Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, and Dinophyceae. Cyanophyceae was a dominant phytoplankton group based on the composition of abundance (>80%). High nutrient concentrations and phytoplankton dominated by Anabaena (Cyanophyceae) which indicated that the waters in Jatibarang Reservoir were eutrophic.
Reservoir Engineering Management Program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Howard, J.H.; Schwarz, W.J.
1977-12-14
The Reservoir Engineering Management Program being conducted at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory includes two major tasks: 1) the continuation of support to geothermal reservoir engineering related work, started under the NSF-RANN program and transferred to ERDA at the time of its formation; 2) the development and subsequent implementation of a broad plan for support of research in topics related to the exploitation of geothermal reservoirs. This plan is now known as the GREMP plan. Both the NSF-RANN legacies and GREMP are in direct support of the DOE/DGE mission in general and the goals of the Resource and Technology/Resource Exploitation and Assessment Branch in particular. These goals are to determine the magnitude and distribution of geothermal resources and reduce risk in their exploitation through improved understanding of generically different reservoir types. These goals are to be accomplished by: 1) the creation of a large data base about geothermal reservoirs, 2) improved tools and methods for gathering data on geothermal reservoirs, and 3) modeling of reservoirs and utilization options. The NSF legacies are more research and training oriented, and the GREMP is geared primarily to the practical development of the geothermal reservoirs. 2 tabs., 3 figs.
Model Studies on the Effectiveness of MBBR Reactors for the Restoration of Small Water Reservoirs
Nowak, Agata; Mazur, Robert; Panek, Ewa; Chmist, Joanna
2018-02-01
The authors present the Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) model with a quasi-continuous flow for small water reservoir restoration, characterized by high concentrations of organic pollutants. To determine the efficiency of wastewater treatment the laboratory analysis of physic-chemical parameters were conducted for the model on a semi-technical scale of 1:3. Wastewater treatment process was carried out in 24 h for 1 m3 for raw sewage. The startup period was 2 weeks for all biofilters (biological beds). Approximately 50% reduction in COD and BOD5 was obtained on average for the studied bioreactors. Significant improvements were achieved in theclarity of the treated wastewater, with the reduction of suspension by 60%. The oxygen profile has improved significantly in 7 to 9 hours of the process, and a diametric reduction in the oxidative reduction potential was recorded. A preliminary model of biological treatment effectiveness was determined based on the conducted studies. In final stages, the operation mode was set in real conditions of polluted water reservoirs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Milind Deo; Chung-Kan Huang; Huabing Wang
2008-08-31
volume of injection at lower rates. However, if oil production can be continued at high water cuts, the discounted cumulative production usually favors higher production rates. The workflow developed during the project was also used to perform multiphase simulations in heterogeneous, fracture-matrix systems. Compositional and thermal-compositional simulators were developed for fractured reservoirs using the generalized framework. The thermal-compositional simulator was based on a novel 'equation-alignment' approach that helped choose the correct variables to solve depending on the number of phases present and the prescribed component partitioning. The simulators were used in steamflooding and in insitu combustion applications. The framework was constructed to be inherently parallel. The partitioning routines employed in the framework allowed generalized partitioning on highly complex fractured reservoirs and in instances when wells (incorporated in these models as line sources) were divided between two or more processors.
Rosa, Sarah N.; Hay, Lauren E.
2017-12-01
In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense’s Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, initiated a project to evaluate the potential impacts of projected climate-change on Department of Defense installations that rely on Guam’s water resources. A major task of that project was to develop a watershed model of southern Guam and a water-balance model for the Fena Valley Reservoir. The southern Guam watershed model provides a physically based tool to estimate surface-water availability in southern Guam. The U.S. Geological Survey’s Precipitation Runoff Modeling System, PRMS-IV, was used to construct the watershed model. The PRMS-IV code simulates different parts of the hydrologic cycle based on a set of user-defined modules. The southern Guam watershed model was constructed by updating a watershed model for the Fena Valley watersheds, and expanding the modeled area to include all of southern Guam. The Fena Valley watershed model was combined with a previously developed, but recently updated and recalibrated Fena Valley Reservoir water-balance model.Two important surface-water resources for the U.S. Navy and the citizens of Guam were modeled in this study; the extended model now includes the Ugum River watershed and improves upon the previous model of the Fena Valley watersheds. Surface water from the Ugum River watershed is diverted and treated for drinking water, and the Fena Valley watersheds feed the largest surface-water reservoir on Guam. The southern Guam watershed model performed “very good,” according to the criteria of Moriasi and others (2007), in the Ugum River watershed above Talofofo Falls with monthly Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency statistic values of 0.97 for the calibration period and 0.93 for the verification period (a value of 1.0 represents perfect model fit). In the Fena Valley watershed, monthly simulated streamflow volumes from the watershed model compared reasonably well with the
Li, D.; Fang, N. Z.
2017-12-01
Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex (DFW) has a population of over 7 million depending on many water supply reservoirs. The reservoir inflow plays a vital role in water supply decision making process and long-term strategic planning for the region. This paper demonstrates a method of utilizing deep learning algorithms and multi-general circulation model (GCM) platform to forecast reservoir inflow for three reservoirs within the DFW: Eagle Mountain Lake, Lake Benbrook and Lake Arlington. Ensemble empirical mode decomposition was firstly employed to extract the features, which were then represented by the deep belief networks (DBNs). The first 75 years of the historical data (1940 -2015) were used to train the model, while the last 2 years of the data (2016-2017) were used for the model validation. The weights of each DBN gained from the training process were then applied to establish a neural network (NN) that was able to forecast reservoir inflow. Feature predictors used for the forecasting model were generated from weather forecast results of the downscaled multi-GCM platform for the North Texas region. By comparing root mean square error (RMSE) and mean bias error (MBE) with the observed data, the authors found that the deep learning with downscaled multi-GCM platform is an effective approach in the reservoir inflow forecasting.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doligez, B.; Eschard, R. [Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil Malmaison (France); Geffroy, F. [Centre de Geostatistique, Fontainebleau (France)] [and others
1997-08-01
The classical approach to construct reservoir models is to start with a fine scale geological model which is informed with petrophysical properties. Then scaling-up techniques allow to obtain a reservoir model which is compatible with the fluid flow simulators. Geostatistical modelling techniques are widely used to build the geological models before scaling-up. These methods provide equiprobable images of the area under investigation, which honor the well data, and which variability is the same than the variability computed from the data. At an appraisal phase, when few data are available, or when the wells are insufficient to describe all the heterogeneities and the behavior of the field, additional constraints are needed to obtain a more realistic geological model. For example, seismic data or stratigraphic models can provide average reservoir information with an excellent areal coverage, but with a poor vertical resolution. New advances in modelisation techniques allow now to integrate this type of additional external information in order to constrain the simulations. In particular, 2D or 3D seismic derived information grids, or sand-shale ratios maps coming from stratigraphic models can be used as external drifts to compute the geological image of the reservoir at the fine scale. Examples are presented to illustrate the use of these new tools, their impact on the final reservoir model, and their sensitivity to some key parameters.
Amplitude various angles (AVA) phenomena in thin layer reservoir: Case study of various reservoirs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B., E-mail: bagusnur@bdg.centrin.net.id, E-mail: bagusnur@rock-fluid.com [Wave Inversion and Subsurface Fluid Imaging Research Laboratory (WISFIR), Basic Science Center A 4" t" hfloor, Physics Dept., FMIPA, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia); Susilowati, E-mail: bagusnur@bdg.centrin.net.id, E-mail: bagusnur@rock-fluid.com [Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia)
2015-04-16
Amplitude various offset is widely used in petroleum exploration as well as in petroleum development field. Generally, phenomenon of amplitude in various angles assumes reservoir’s layer is quite thick. It also means that the wave is assumed as a very high frequency. But, in natural condition, the seismic wave is band limited and has quite low frequency. Therefore, topic about amplitude various angles in thin layer reservoir as well as low frequency assumption is important to be considered. Thin layer reservoir means the thickness of reservoir is about or less than quarter of wavelength. In this paper, I studied about the reflection phenomena in elastic wave which considering interference from thin layer reservoir and transmission wave. I applied Zoeppritz equation for modeling reflected wave of top reservoir, reflected wave of bottom reservoir, and also transmission elastic wave of reservoir. Results show that the phenomena of AVA in thin layer reservoir are frequency dependent. Thin layer reservoir causes interference between reflected wave of top reservoir and reflected wave of bottom reservoir. These phenomena are frequently neglected, however, in real practices. Even though, the impact of inattention in interference phenomena caused by thin layer in AVA may cause inaccurate reservoir characterization. The relation between classes of AVA reservoir and reservoir’s character are different when effect of ones in thin reservoir and ones in thick reservoir are compared. In this paper, I present some AVA phenomena including its cross plot in various thin reservoir types based on some rock physics data of Indonesia.
Amplitude various angles (AVA) phenomena in thin layer reservoir: Case study of various reservoirs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
thfloor, Physics Dept., FMIPA, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia))" data-affiliation=" (Wave Inversion and Subsurface Fluid Imaging Research Laboratory (WISFIR), Basic Science Center A 4thfloor, Physics Dept., FMIPA, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia))" >Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.; Susilowati
2015-01-01
Amplitude various offset is widely used in petroleum exploration as well as in petroleum development field. Generally, phenomenon of amplitude in various angles assumes reservoir’s layer is quite thick. It also means that the wave is assumed as a very high frequency. But, in natural condition, the seismic wave is band limited and has quite low frequency. Therefore, topic about amplitude various angles in thin layer reservoir as well as low frequency assumption is important to be considered. Thin layer reservoir means the thickness of reservoir is about or less than quarter of wavelength. In this paper, I studied about the reflection phenomena in elastic wave which considering interference from thin layer reservoir and transmission wave. I applied Zoeppritz equation for modeling reflected wave of top reservoir, reflected wave of bottom reservoir, and also transmission elastic wave of reservoir. Results show that the phenomena of AVA in thin layer reservoir are frequency dependent. Thin layer reservoir causes interference between reflected wave of top reservoir and reflected wave of bottom reservoir. These phenomena are frequently neglected, however, in real practices. Even though, the impact of inattention in interference phenomena caused by thin layer in AVA may cause inaccurate reservoir characterization. The relation between classes of AVA reservoir and reservoir’s character are different when effect of ones in thin reservoir and ones in thick reservoir are compared. In this paper, I present some AVA phenomena including its cross plot in various thin reservoir types based on some rock physics data of Indonesia
Nguyen, L. H.; Wildman, R.
2012-12-01
This study characterizes quantitatively the flow and mixing regimes of a water supply reservoir, while also conducting numerical tracer experiments on different operation scenarios. We investigate the effects of weather events on water quality via storm water inflows. Our study site the Kensico Reservoir, New York, the penultimate reservoir of New York City's water supply, is never filtered and thus dependent on stringent watershed protection. This reservoir must meet federal drinking water standards under changing conditions such as increased suburban, commercial, and highway developments that are much higher than the rest of the watershed. Impacts from these sources on water quality are magnified by minor tributary flows subject to contaminants from development projects as other tributaries providing >99% of water to this reservoir are exceedingly clean due to management practices upstream. These threats, coupled with possible changes in the frequency/intensity of weather events due to climate change, increase the potential for contaminants to enter the reservoir and drinking water intakes. This situation provides us with the unique ability to study the effects of weather events on water quality via insignificant storm water inflows, without influence from the major tributaries due to their pristine water quality characteristics. The concentration of contaminants at the drinking water intake depends partially on transport from their point of entry in the reservoir. Thus, it is crucial to understand water circulation in this reservoir and to estimate residence times and water ages at different locations and under different hydrologic scenarios. We described water age, residence time, thermal structure, and flow dynamics of tributary plumes in Kensico Reservoir during a 22-year simulation period using a two-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model (CE-QUAL-W2). Our estimates of water age can reach a maximum of ~300 days in deep-reservoir-cells, with
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdukhalikov, Ya.N; Serebrennikov, V.S.
1979-01-01
Experiment on carbonate reservoir identification according to well logging data for boreholes drilled using oil base muds is described. Pulse neutron-neutron logging (PNNL) was widely used at the territory of Pripyat' hole to solve the task. To evaluate volumetric clayiness of carbonate rocks the dependence of gamma-logging, that is data of gamma-logging against clayey rocks built for every hollow, is used. Quantitative estimation of clayiness of dense and clayey carbonate rocks-non-reservoirs is carried out on the basis of the data of neutron-gamma and acoustic logging. Porosity coefficient and lithological characteristic of rocks are also determined according to the data of acoustic and neutron gamma-logging
Chung, S W; Lee, H S
2009-01-01
In monsoon climate area, turbidity flows typically induced by flood runoffs cause numerous environmental impacts such as impairment of fish habitat and river attraction, and degradation of water supply efficiency. This study was aimed to characterize the physical dynamics of turbidity plume induced into a stratified reservoir using field monitoring and numerical simulations, and to assess the effect of different withdrawal scenarios on the control of downstream water quality. Three different turbidity models (RUN1, RUN2, RUN3) were developed based on a two-dimensional laterally averaged hydrodynamic and transport model, and validated against field data. RUN1 assumed constant settling velocity of suspended sediment, while RUN2 estimated the settling velocity as a function of particle size, density, and water temperature to consider vertical stratification. RUN3 included a lumped first-order turbidity attenuation rate taking into account the effects of particles aggregation and degradable organic particles. RUN3 showed best performance in replicating the observed variations of in-reservoir and release turbidity. Numerical experiments implemented to assess the effectiveness of different withdrawal depths showed that the alterations of withdrawal depth can modify the pathway and flow regimes of the turbidity plume, but its effect on the control of release water quality could be trivial.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Watney, W.L.
1994-12-01
Reservoirs in the Lansing-Kansas City limestone result from complex interactions among paleotopography (deposition, concurrent structural deformation), sea level, and diagenesis. Analysis of reservoirs and surface and near-surface analogs has led to developing a {open_quotes}strandline grainstone model{close_quotes} in which relative sea-level stabilized during regressions, resulting in accumulation of multiple grainstone buildups along depositional strike. Resulting stratigraphy in these carbonate units are generally predictable correlating to inferred topographic elevation along the shelf. This model is a valuable predictive tool for (1) locating favorable reservoirs for exploration, and (2) anticipating internal properties of the reservoir for field development. Reservoirs in the Lansing-Kansas City limestones are developed in both oolitic and bioclastic grainstones, however, re-analysis of oomoldic reservoirs provides the greatest opportunity for developing bypassed oil. A new technique, the {open_quotes}Super{close_quotes} Pickett crossplot (formation resistivity vs. porosity) and its use in an integrated petrophysical characterization, has been developed to evaluate extractable oil remaining in these reservoirs. The manual method in combination with 3-D visualization and modeling can help to target production limiting heterogeneities in these complex reservoirs and moreover compute critical parameters for the field such as bulk volume water. Application of this technique indicates that from 6-9 million barrels of Lansing-Kansas City oil remain behind pipe in the Victory-Northeast Lemon Fields. Petroleum geologists are challenged to quantify inferred processes to aid in developing rationale geologically consistent models of sedimentation so that acceptable levels of prediction can be obtained.
Stochastic reservoir simulation for the modeling of uncertainty in coal seam degasification
Karacan, C. Özgen; Olea, Ricardo A.
2015-01-01
Coal seam degasification improves coal mine safety by reducing the gas content of coal seams and also by generating added value as an energy source. Coal seam reservoir simulation is one of the most effective ways to help with these two main objectives. As in all modeling and simulation studies, how the reservoir is defined and whether observed productions can be predicted are important considerations.
Study on fine geological modelling of the fluvial sandstone reservoir in Daqing oilfield
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhoa Han-Qing [Daqing Research Institute, Helongjiang (China)
1997-08-01
These paper aims at developing a method for fine reservoir description in maturing oilfields by using close spaced well logging data. The main productive reservoirs in Daqing oilfield is a set of large fluvial-deltaic deposits in the Songliao Lake Basin, characterized by multi-layers and serious heterogeneities. Various fluvial channel sandstone reservoirs cover a fairly important proportion of reserves. After a long period of water flooding, most of them have turned into high water cut layers, but there are considerable residual reserves within them, which are difficult to find and tap. Making fine reservoir description and developing sound a geological model is essential for tapping residual oil and enhancing oil recovery. The principal reason for relative lower precision of predicting model developed by using geostatistics is incomplete recognition of complex distribution of fluvial reservoirs and their internal architecture`s. Tasking advantage of limited outcrop data from other regions (suppose no outcrop data available in oilfield) can only provide the knowledge of subtle changing of reservoir parameters and internal architecture. For the specific geometry distribution and internal architecture of subsurface reservoirs (such as in produced regions) can be gained only from continuous infilling logging well data available from studied areas. For developing a geological model, we think the first important thing is to characterize sandbodies geometries and their general architecture`s, which are the framework of models, and then the slight changing of interwell parameters and internal architecture`s, which are the contents and cells of the model. An excellent model should possess both of them, but the geometry is the key to model, because it controls the contents and cells distribution within a model.
Multi-objective calibration of a reservoir model: aggregation and non-dominated sorting approaches
Huang, Y.
2012-12-01
Numerical reservoir models can be helpful tools for water resource management. These models are generally calibrated against historical measurement data made in reservoirs. In this study, two methods are proposed for the multi-objective calibration of such models: aggregation and non-dominated sorting methods. Both methods use a hybrid genetic algorithm as an optimization engine and are different in fitness assignment. In the aggregation method, a weighted sum of scaled simulation errors is designed as an overall objective function to measure the fitness of solutions (i.e. parameter values). The contribution of this study to the aggregation method is the correlation analysis and its implication to the choice of weight factors. In the non-dominated sorting method, a novel method based on non-dominated sorting and the method of minimal distance is used to calculate the dummy fitness of solutions. The proposed methods are illustrated using a water quality model that was set up to simulate the water quality of Pepacton Reservoir, which is located to the north of New York City and is used for water supply of city. The study also compares the aggregation and the non-dominated sorting methods. The purpose of this comparison is not to evaluate the pros and cons between the two methods but to determine whether the parameter values, objective function values (simulation errors) and simulated results obtained are significantly different with each other. The final results (objective function values) from the two methods are good compromise between all objective functions, and none of these results are the worst for any objective function. The calibrated model provides an overall good performance and the simulated results with the calibrated parameter values match the observed data better than the un-calibrated parameters, which supports and justifies the use of multi-objective calibration. The results achieved in this study can be very useful for the calibration of water
Risk Analysis of Reservoir Flood Routing Calculation Based on Inflow Forecast Uncertainty
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Binquan Li
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Possible risks in reservoir flood control and regulation cannot be objectively assessed by deterministic flood forecasts, resulting in the probability of reservoir failure. We demonstrated a risk analysis of reservoir flood routing calculation accounting for inflow forecast uncertainty in a sub-basin of Huaihe River, China. The Xinanjiang model was used to provide deterministic flood forecasts, and was combined with the Hydrologic Uncertainty Processor (HUP to quantify reservoir inflow uncertainty in the probability density function (PDF form. Furthermore, the PDFs of reservoir water level (RWL and the risk rate of RWL exceeding a defined safety control level could be obtained. Results suggested that the median forecast (50th percentiles of HUP showed better agreement with observed inflows than the Xinanjiang model did in terms of the performance measures of flood process, peak, and volume. In addition, most observations (77.2% were bracketed by the uncertainty band of 90% confidence interval, with some small exceptions of high flows. Results proved that this framework of risk analysis could provide not only the deterministic forecasts of inflow and RWL, but also the fundamental uncertainty information (e.g., 90% confidence band for the reservoir flood routing calculation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jieqiong Su
2015-04-01
Full Text Available With decreasing water availability as a result of climate change and human activities, analysis of the influential factors and variation trends of chlorophyll a has become important to prevent reservoir eutrophication and ensure water supply safety. In this paper, a structurally simplified hybrid model of the genetic algorithm (GA and the support vector machine (SVM was developed for the prediction of monthly concentration of chlorophyll a in the Miyun Reservoir of northern China over the period from 2000 to 2010. Based on the influence factor analysis, the four most relevant influence factors of chlorophyll a (i.e., total phosphorus, total nitrogen, permanganate index, and reservoir storage were extracted using the method of feature selection with the GA, which simplified the model structure, making it more practical and efficient for environmental management. The results showed that the developed simplified GA-SVM model could solve nonlinear problems of complex system, and was suitable for the simulation and prediction of chlorophyll a with better performance in accuracy and efficiency in the Miyun Reservoir.
Seismic modeling of acid-gas injection in a deep saline reservoir
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ursenbach, C.P.; Lawton, D.C. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geoscience, Consortium for Research in Elastic Wave Exploration Seismology
2008-07-01
Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) are common byproducts of the energy industry. As such, remediation studies are underway to determine the feasibility of sequestering these byproducts in subsurface reservoirs, including deep saline reservoirs. Acid gas injection at smaller gas wells holds promise. However, in order for such injection programs to work, the progress of the injection plume must be tracked. A modeling study of fluid substitution was carried out to gain insight into the ability of seismic monitoring to distinguish pre- and post-injection states of the reservoir medium. The purpose of this study was to carry out fluid substitution calculations for the modeling of an injection process. A methodology that may be applied or adapted to a variety of acid-gas injection scenarios was also developed. The general approach involved determining acoustic properties at reservoir temperature and pressure of relevant fluids; obtaining elastic properties of the reservoir rock for some reference saturated state, and the elastic properties of the mineral comprising it; and, determining the change in reservoir elastic properties due to fluid substitution via Gassmann's equation. Water, brine and non-aqueous acid gas were the 3 fluids of interest in this case. The feasibility of monitoring was judged by the sensitivity of travel times and reflection coefficients to fluid substitution. 4 refs., 2 figs.
Performance modeling of an integral, self-regulating cesium reservoir for the ATI-TFE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thayer, K.L.; Ramalingam, M.L.; Young, T.J.
1993-01-01
This work covers the performance modeling of an integral metal-matrix cesium-graphite reservoir for operation in the Advanced Thermionic Initiative-Thermionic Fuel Element (ATI-TFE) converter configuration. The objectives of this task were to incorporate an intercalated cesium-graphite reservoir for the 3C 24 Cs→2C 36 Cs+Cs (g) two phase equilibrium reaction into the emitter lead region of the ATI-TFE. A semi two-dimensional, cylindrical TFE computer model was used to obtain thermal and electrical converter output characteristics for various reservoir locations. The results of this study are distributions for the interelectrode voltage, output current density, and output power density as a function of axial position along the TFE emitter. This analysis was accomplished by identifying an optimum cesium pressure for three representative pins in the ATI ''driverless'' reactor core and determining the corresponding position of the graphite reservoir in the ATI-TFE lead region. The position for placement of the graphite reservoir was determined by performing a first-order heat transfer analysis of the TFE lead region to determine its temperature distribution. The results of this analysis indicate that for the graphite reservoirs investigated the 3C 24 Cs→2C 36 Cs+Cs (g) equilibrium reaction reservoir is ideal for placement in the TFE emitter lead region. This reservoir can be directly coupled to the emitter, through conduction, to provide the desired cesium pressure for optimum performance. The cesium pressure corresponding to the optimum converter output performance was found to be 2.18 torr for the ATI core least power TFE, 2.92 torr for the average power TFE, and 4.93 torr for the maximum power TFE
Turnbull, S. J.
2017-12-01
Within the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), reservoirs are typically operated according to a rule curve that specifies target water levels based on the time of year. The rule curve is intended to maximize flood protection by specifying releases of water before the dominant rainfall period for a region. While some operating allowances are permissible, generally the rule curve elevations must be maintained. While this operational approach provides for the required flood control purpose, it may not result in optimal reservoir operations for multi-use impoundments. In the Russian River Valley of California a multi-agency research effort called Forecast-Informed Reservoir Operations (FIRO) is assessing the application of forecast weather and streamflow predictions to potentially enhance the operation of reservoirs in the watershed. The focus of the study has been on Lake Mendocino, a USACE project important for flood control, water supply, power generation and ecological flows. As part of this effort the Engineer Research and Development Center is assessing the ability of utilizing the physics based, distributed watershed model Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) model to simulate stream flows, reservoir stages, and discharges while being driven by weather forecast products. A key question in this application is the effect of watershed model resolution on forecasted stream flows. To help resolve this question, GSSHA models of multiple grid resolutions, 30, 50, and 270m, were developed for the upper Russian River, which includes Lake Mendocino. The models were derived from common inputs: DEM, soils, land use, stream network, reservoir characteristics, and specified inflows and discharges. All the models were calibrated in both event and continuous simulation mode using measured precipitation gages and then driven with the West-WRF atmospheric model in prediction mode to assess the ability of the model to function in short term, less than one week
Using outcrop data for geological well test modelling in fractured reservoirs
Aljuboori, F.; Corbett, P.; Bisdom, K.; Bertotti, G.; Geiger, S.
2015-01-01
Outcrop fracture data sets can now be acquired with ever more accuracy using drone technology augmented by field observations. These models can be used to form realistic, deterministic models of fractured reservoirs. Fractured well test models are traditionally seen to be finite or infinite
Modeling the Transport and Fate of Fecal Pollution and Nutrients of Miyun Reservoir
Liu, L.; Fu, X.; Wang, G.
2009-12-01
Miyun Reservoir, a mountain valley reservoir, is located 100 km northeast of Beijing City. Besides the functions of flood control, irrigation and fishery for Beijing area, Miyun Reservoir is the main drinking water storage for Beijing city. The water quality is therefore of great importance. Recently, the concentration of fecal pollution and nutrients in the reservoir are constantly rising to arrest the attention of Beijing municipality. Fecal pollution from sewage is a significant public health concern due to the known presence of human viruses and parasites in these discharges. To investigate the transport and fate of the fecal pollution and nutrients at Miyun reservoir and the health risks associated with drinking and fishery, the reservoir and two tributaries, Chaohe river and Baihe river discharging into it are being examined for bacterial, nutrients and other routine pollution. To understand the relative importance of different processes influencing pollution transport and inactivation, a finite-element model of surf-zone hydrodynamics (coupled with models for temperature, fecal pollution, nutrients and other routine contaminants) is used. The developed models are being verified by the observed water quality data including water temperature, conductivities and dissolved oxygen from the reservoir and its tributaries. Different factors impacting the inactivation of fecal pollution and the transport of nutrients such as water temperature, sedimentation, sunlight insolation are evaluated for Miyun reservoir by a sensitivity analysis analogized from the previous research of Lake Michigan (figure 1, indicating that solar insolation dominates the inactivation of E. Coli, an indicator of fecal pollution, Liu et al. 2006). The calibrated modeling system can be used to temporally and spatially simulate and predict the variation of the concentration of fecal pollution and nutrients of Miyun reservoir. Therefore this research can provide a forecasting tool for the
Pu, Wanli
The Bakken Formation in the Williston Basin is one of the most productive liquid-rich unconventional plays. The Bakken Formation is divided into three members, and the Middle Bakken Member is the primary target for horizontal wellbore landing and hydraulic fracturing because of its better rock properties. Even with this new technology, the primary recovery factor is believed to be only around 10%. This study is to evaluate various gas injection EOR methods to try to improve on that low recovery factor of 10%. In this study, the Elm Coulee Oil Field in the Williston Basin was selected as the area of interest. Static reservoir models featuring the rock property heterogeneity of the Middle Bakken Member were built, and fluid property models were built based on Bakken reservoir fluid sample PVT data. By employing both compositional model simulation and Todd-Longstaff solvent model simulation methods, miscible gas injections were simulated and the simulations speculated that oil recovery increased by 10% to 20% of OOIP in 30 years. The compositional simulations yielded lower oil recovery compared to the solvent model simulations. Compared to the homogeneous model, the reservoir model featuring rock property heterogeneity in the vertical direction resulted in slightly better oil recovery, but with earlier CO2 break-through and larger CO2 production, suggesting that rock property heterogeneity is an important property for modeling because it has a big effect on the simulation results. Long hydraulic fractures shortened CO2 break-through time greatly and increased CO 2 production. Water-alternating-gas injection schemes and injection-alternating-shut-in schemes can provide more options for gas injection EOR projects, especially for gas production management. Compared to CO2 injection, separator gas injection yielded slightly better oil recovery, meaning separator gas could be a good candidate for gas injection EOR; lean gas generated the worst results. Reservoir
The Pore-scale modeling of multiphase flows in reservoir rocks using the lattice Boltzmann method
Mu, Y.; Baldwin, C. H.; Toelke, J.; Grader, A.
2011-12-01
Digital rock physics (DRP) is a new technology to compute the physical and fluid flow properties of reservoir rocks. In this approach, pore scale images of the porous rock are obtained and processed to create highly accurate 3D digital rock sample, and then the rock properties are evaluated by advanced numerical methods at the pore scale. Ingrain's DRP technology is a breakthrough for oil and gas companies that need large volumes of accurate results faster than the current special core analysis (SCAL) laboratories can normally deliver. In this work, we compute the multiphase fluid flow properties of 3D digital rocks using D3Q19 immiscible LBM with two relaxation times (TRT). For efficient implementation on GPU, we improved and reformulated color-gradient model proposed by Gunstensen and Rothmann. Furthermore, we only use one-lattice with the sparse data structure: only allocate memory for pore nodes on GPU. We achieved more than 100 million fluid lattice updates per second (MFLUPS) for two-phase LBM on single Fermi-GPU and high parallel efficiency on Multi-GPUs. We present and discuss our simulation results of important two-phase fluid flow properties, such as capillary pressure and relative permeabilities. We also investigate the effects of resolution and wettability on multiphase flows. Comparison of direct measurement results with the LBM-based simulations shows practical ability of DRP to predict two-phase flow properties of reservoir rock.
Management of Water Quantity and Quality Based on Copula for a Tributary to Miyun Reservoir, Beijing
Zang, N.; Wang, X.; Liang, P.
2017-12-01
Due to the complex mutual influence between water quantity and water quality of river, it is difficult to reflect the actual characters of the tributaries to reservoir. In this study, the acceptable marginal probability distributions for water quantity and quality of reservoir inflow were calculated. A bivariate Archimedean copula was further applied to establish the joint distribution function of them. Then multiple combination scenarios of water quantity and water quality were designed to analyze their coexistence relationship and reservoir management strategies. Taking Bai river, an important tributary into the Miyun Reservoir, as a study case. The results showed that it is feasible to apply Frank copula function to describe the jointed distribution function of water quality and water quantity for Bai river. Furthermore, the monitoring of TP concentration needs to be strengthen in Bai river. This methodology can be extended to larger dimensions and is transferable to other reservoirs via establishment of models with relevant data for a particular area. Our findings help better analyzing the coexistence relationship and influence degree of the water quantity and quality of the tributary to reservoir for the purpose of water resources protection.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pan, Lehua [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Oldenburg, Curtis M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
2017-07-26
Potential CO_{2} leakage through existing open wellbores is one of the most significant hazards that need to be addressed in geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) projects. In the framework of the National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) which requires fast computations for uncertainty analysis, rigorous simulation of the coupled wellbore-reservoir system is not practical. We have developed a 7,200-point look-up table reduced-order model (ROM) for estimating the potential leakage rate up open wellbores in response to CO_{2} injection nearby. The ROM is based on coupled simulations using T2Well/ECO2H which was run repeatedly for representative conditions relevant to NRAP to create a look-up table response-surface ROM. The ROM applies to a wellbore that fully penetrates a 20-m thick reservoir that is used for CO_{2} storage. The radially symmetric reservoir is assumed to have initially uniform pressure, temperature, gas saturation, and brine salinity, and it is assumed these conditions are held constant at the far-field boundary (100 m away from the wellbore). In such a system, the leakage can quickly reach quasi-steady state. The ROM table can be used to estimate both the free-phase CO_{2} and brine leakage rates through an open well as a function of wellbore and reservoir conditions. Results show that injection-induced pressure and reservoir gas saturation play important roles in controlling leakage. Caution must be used in the application of this ROM because well leakage is formally transient and the ROM lookup table was populated using quasi-steady simulation output after 1000 time steps which may correspond to different physical times for the various parameter combinations of the coupled wellbore-reservoir system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kovscek, A.R.; Wang, Y.
2005-01-01
Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is already injected into a limited class of reservoirs for oil recovery purposes; however, the engineering design question for simultaneous oil recovery and storage of anthropogenic CO 2 is significantly different from that of oil recovery alone. Currently, the volumes of CO 2 injected solely for oil recovery are minimized due to the purchase cost of CO 2 . If and when CO 2 emissions to the atmosphere are managed, it will be necessary to maximize simultaneously both economic oil recovery and the volumes of CO 2 emplaced in oil reservoirs. This process is coined 'cooptimization'. This paper proposes a work flow for cooptimization of oil recovery and geologic CO 2 storage. An important component of the work flow is the assessment of uncertainty in predictions of performance. Typical methods for quantifying uncertainty employ exhaustive flow simulation of multiple stochastic realizations of the geologic architecture of a reservoir. Such approaches are computationally intensive and thereby time consuming. An analytic streamline based proxy for full reservoir simulation is proposed and tested. Streamline trajectories represent the three-dimensional velocity field during multiphase flow in porous media and so are useful for quantifying the similarity and differences among various reservoir models. The proxy allows rational selection of a representative subset of equi-probable reservoir models that encompass uncertainty with respect to true reservoir geology. The streamline approach is demonstrated to be thorough and rapid
Use of black oil simulator for coal bed methane reservoir model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sonwa, R.; Enachescu, C.; Rohs, S. [Golder Associates GmbH, Celle (Germany)
2013-08-01
This paper starts from the work done by Seidle et al. (1990) and other authors on the topic of coal degasification and develops a more accurate representative naturally fractured CBM-reservoir by using a Discrete Fracture Network modeling approach. For this issue we firstly calibrate the reservoir simulator tNAVIGATOR by showing his ability to reproduce the work done by Seidle et al. and secondly generate a DFN model using FracMan in accordance with the distribution and orientation of the cleats. tNavigator was then used to simulate multiphase flow through the DFN- Model. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Teuku Ferijal
2015-05-01
Full Text Available This study aimed to model watershed area of Keliling Reservoir using SWAT model. The reservoir is located in Aceh Besar District, Province of Aceh. The model was setup using 90m x 90m digital elevation model, land use data extracted from remote sensing data and soil characteristic obtained from laboratory analysis on soil samples. Model was calibrated using observed daily reservoir volume and the model performance was analyzed using RMSE-observations standard deviation ratio (RSR, Nash-Sutcliffe efﬁciency (NSE and percent bias (PBIAS. The model delineated the study area into 3,448 Ha having 13 subwatersheds and 76 land units (HRUs. The watershed is mostly covered by forest (53% and grassland (31%. The analysis revealed the 10 most sensitive parameters i.e. GW_DELAY, CN2, REVAPMN, ALPHA_BF, SOL_AWC, GW_REVAP, GWQMN, CH_K2 and ESCO. Model performances were categorized into very good for monthly reservoir volume with ENS 0.95, RSR 0.23, and PBIAS 2.97. The model performance decreased when it used to analyze daily reservoir inﬂow with ENS 0.55, RSR 0.67, and PBIAS 3.46. Keywords: Keliling Reservoir, SWAT, Watershed ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk untuk memodelkan daerah tangkapan air Waduk Keliling dengan menggunakan Model SWAT. Waduk Keliling terletak di Kabupaten Aceh Besar, Propinsi Aceh. Dalam penelitian ini Model SWAT dikembangkan berdasarkan data digital elevasi model resolusi 90 m x90 m, tata guna lahan yang diperoleh dari intepretasi citra satelit dan data soil dari hasil analisa sampel tanah yang diperoleh di daerah penelitian. Model dikalibrasi dengan data volume waduk dan kinerja model dianalisa menggunakan parameter rasio akar rata-rata kuadrat error dan standard deviasi observasi (RSR, efesiensi Nash-Sutcliffe (NSE dan persentase bias (PBIAS. Hasil deleniasi untuk daerah penelitian menghasilkan suatu DAS dengan luas 3,448 Ha dan memiliki 13 Sub DAS yang dikelompokkan menjadi 76 unit lahan. Sebagian besar wilayah study
Modeling and Crustal Structure in the Future Reservoir of Jequitaí, Brazil
Teixeira, C. D.; Von Huelsen, M. G.; Chemale, F., Jr.; Nascimento, A. V. D. S., Sr.; do Sacramento, V., Sr.; Garcia, V. B. P., Sr.
2017-12-01
Integrated geophysical and geological data analysis in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, allowed the modeling of the subsurface framework in a region where a reservoir - the Jequitaí reservoir - will be constructed. Studies of this nature during the previous stages of the construction of large hydroelectric projects are highly important, because the regional geology understanding associated with geophysical data interpretation can help to prevent damage in the physical structure of the dam, which will aid in its preservation. The use of gravity and magnetic data in a 2D crustal model provided information on a possible framework of the area and revealed features not mapped until now, which may be useful for further studies and can contribute to the understanding of this portion of the crust. The results show the presence of high gravity anomalies in the southern part of the study area, besides extensive lineaments that cross the whole area, interpreted as possible faults and dykes. Depth estimation techniques, such as Euler deconvolution and radially averaged power spectrum, allowed the identification of continuous structures up to 400 m depth, and showed differences in the basement depth in the northern and southern portions of the study area. Inversion of the gravity data along a profile crossing a gravity anomaly yielded to information about the depth, thickness and shape of a possible intrusive body. The geological-geophysical model was consistent with the interpretations based on surface geology and in the gravity and magnetic signal, because the section could be modeled respecting the geophysical data and the pre-existing structural proposals.
Saito, L.; Johnson, B.M.; Bartholow, J.; Hanna, R.B.
2001-01-01
We investigated the effects on the reservoir food web of a new temperature control device (TCD) on the dam at Shasta Lake, California. We followed a linked modeling approach that used a specialized reservoir water quality model to forecast operation-induced changes in phytoplankton production. A food web–energy transfer model was also applied to propagate predicted changes in phytoplankton up through the food web to the predators and sport fishes of interest. The food web–energy transfer model employed a 10% trophic transfer efficiency through a food web that was mapped using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis. Stable isotope analysis provided an efficient and comprehensive means of estimating the structure of the reservoir's food web with minimal sampling and background data. We used an optimization procedure to estimate the diet proportions of all food web components simultaneously from their isotopic signatures. Some consumers were estimated to be much more sensitive than others to perturbations to phytoplankton supply. The linked modeling approach demonstrated that interdisciplinary efforts enhance the value of information obtained from studies of managed ecosystems. The approach exploited the strengths of engineering and ecological modeling methods to address concerns that neither of the models could have addressed alone: (a) the water quality model could not have addressed quantitatively the possible impacts to fish, and (b) the food web model could not have examined how phytoplankton availability might change due to reservoir operations.
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Fehler, Michael [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
2017-04-19
The primary objective of this project was to improve our ability to predict performance of an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) reservoir over time by relating, in a quantitative manner, microseismic imaging with fluid and temperature changes within the reservoir. Historically, microseismic data have been used qualitatively to place bounds on the growth of EGS reservoirs created by large hydraulic fracturing experiments. Previous investigators used an experimentally based fracture opening relationship (fracture aperture as a function of pressure), the spatial extent of microseismic events, and some assumptions about fracture frequency to determine the size of an EGS reservoir created during large pumping tests. We addressed a number of issues (1) locating microearthquakes that occur during hydraulic fracturing, (2) obtaining more information about a reservoir than the microearthquake locations from the microearthquake data, for example, information about the seismic velocity structure of the reservoir or the scattering of seismic waves within the reservoir, (3) developing an improved methodology for estimating properties of fractures that intersect wellbores in a reservoir, and (4) developing a conceptual model for explaining the downward growth of observed seismicity that accompanies some hydraulic injections into geothermal reservoirs. We used two primary microseismic datasets for our work. The work was motivated by a dataset from the Salak Geothermal Field in Indonesia where seismicity accompanying a hydraulic injection was observed to migrate downward. We also used data from the Soultz EGS site in France. We also used Vertical Seismic Profiling data from a well in the United States. The work conducted is of benefit for characterizing reservoirs that are created by hydraulic fracturing for both EGS and for petroleum recovery.
Peel, M. C.; Srikanthan, R.; McMahon, T. A.; Karoly, D. J.
2015-04-01
Two key sources of uncertainty in projections of future runoff for climate change impact assessments are uncertainty between global climate models (GCMs) and within a GCM. Within-GCM uncertainty is the variability in GCM output that occurs when running a scenario multiple times but each run has slightly different, but equally plausible, initial conditions. The limited number of runs available for each GCM and scenario combination within the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3) and phase 5 (CMIP5) data sets, limits the assessment of within-GCM uncertainty. In this second of two companion papers, the primary aim is to present a proof-of-concept approximation of within-GCM uncertainty for monthly precipitation and temperature projections and to assess the impact of within-GCM uncertainty on modelled runoff for climate change impact assessments. A secondary aim is to assess the impact of between-GCM uncertainty on modelled runoff. Here we approximate within-GCM uncertainty by developing non-stationary stochastic replicates of GCM monthly precipitation and temperature data. These replicates are input to an off-line hydrologic model to assess the impact of within-GCM uncertainty on projected annual runoff and reservoir yield. We adopt stochastic replicates of available GCM runs to approximate within-GCM uncertainty because large ensembles, hundreds of runs, for a given GCM and scenario are unavailable, other than the Climateprediction.net data set for the Hadley Centre GCM. To date within-GCM uncertainty has received little attention in the hydrologic climate change impact literature and this analysis provides an approximation of the uncertainty in projected runoff, and reservoir yield, due to within- and between-GCM uncertainty of precipitation and temperature projections. In the companion paper, McMahon et al. (2015) sought to reduce between-GCM uncertainty by removing poorly performing GCMs, resulting in a selection of five better performing GCMs from
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Ernest A. Mancini
2003-09-25
processes influencing pore system development and heterogeneity in these reef and shoal reservoirs have been made. Petrophysical and engineering property characterization has been completed. Porosity and permeability data at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been analyzed, and well performance analysis has been conducted. Data integration is up to date, in that, the geological, geophysical, petrophysical and engineering data collected to date for Appleton and Vocation Fields have been compiled into a fieldwide digital database. 3-D geologic modeling of the structures and reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields has been completed. The models represent an integration of geological, petrophysical and seismic data. 3-D reservoir simulation of the reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields has been completed. The 3-D geologic models served as the framework for the simulations. The geologic-engineering models of the Appleton and Vocation Field reservoirs have been developed. These models are being tested. The geophysical interpretation for the paleotopographic feature being tested has been made, and the study of the data resulting from drilling of a well on this paleohigh is in progress. Numerous presentations on reservoir characterization and modeling at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been made at professional meetings and conferences and a short course on microbial reservoir characterization and modeling based on these fields has been prepared.
Geological Model of Supercritical Geothermal Reservoir on the Top of the Magma Chamber
Tsuchiya, N.
2017-12-01
We are conducting supercritical geothermal project, and deep drilling project named as "JBBP: Japan Beyond Brittle Project" The temperatures of geothermal fields operating in Japan range from 200 to 300 °C (average 250 °C), and the depths range from 1000 to 2000 m (average 1500 m). In conventional geothermal reservoirs, the mechanical behavior of the rocks is presumed to be brittle, and convection of the hydrothermal fluid through existing network is the main method of circulation in the reservoir. In order to minimize induced seismicity, a rock mass that is "beyond brittle" is one possible candidate, because the rock mechanics of "beyond brittle" material is one of plastic deformation rather than brittle failure. To understand the geological model of a supercritical geothermal reservoir, granite-porphyry system, which had been formed in subduction zone, was investigated as a natural analog of the supercritical geothermal energy system. Quartz veins, hydrothermal breccia veins, and glassy veins are observed in a granitic body. The glassy veins formed at 500-550 °C under lithostatic pressures, and then pressures dropped drastically. The solubility of silica also dropped, resulting in formation of quartz veins under a hydrostatic pressure regime. Connections between the lithostatic and hydrostatic pressure regimes were key to the formation of the hydrothermal breccia veins, and the granite-porphyry system provides useful information for creation of fracture clouds in supercritical geothermal reservoirs. A granite-porphyry system, associated with hydrothermal activity and mineralization, provides a suitable natural analog for studying a deep-seated geothermal reservoir where stockwork fracture systems are created in the presence of supercritical geothermal fluids. I describe fracture networks and their formation mechanisms using petrology and fluid inclusion studies in order to understand this "beyond brittle" supercritical geothermal reservoir, and a geological
A Physical Model for Three-Phase Compaction in Silicic Magma Reservoirs
Huber, Christian; Parmigiani, Andrea
2018-04-01
We develop a model for phase separation in magma reservoirs containing a mixture of silicate melt, crystals, and fluids (exsolved volatiles). The interplay between the three phases controls the dynamics of phase separation and consequently the chemical and physical evolution of magma reservoirs. The model we propose is based on the two-phase damage theory approach of Bercovici et al. (2001, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000JB900430) and Bercovici and Ricard (2003, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-246X.2003.01854.x) because it offers the leverage of considering interface (in the macroscopic limit) between phases that can deform depending on the mechanical work and phase changes taking place locally in the magma. Damage models also offer the advantage that pressure is defined uniquely to each phase and does not need to be equal among phases, which will enable us to consider, in future studies, the large capillary pressure at which fluids are mobilized in mature, crystal-rich, magma bodies. In this first analysis of three-phase compaction, we solve the three-phase compaction equations numerically for a simple 1-D problem where we focus on the effect of fluids on the efficiency of melt-crystal separation considering the competition between viscous and buoyancy stresses only. We contrast three sets of simulations to explore the behavior of three-phase compaction, a melt-crystal reference compaction scenario (two-phase compaction), a three-phase scenario without phase changes, and finally a three-phase scenario with a parameterized second boiling (crystallization-induced exsolution). The simulations show a dramatic difference between two-phase (melt crystals) and three-phase (melt-crystals-exsolved volatiles) compaction-driven phase separation. We find that the presence of a lighter, significantly less viscous fluid hinders melt-crystal separation.
Viseur, Sophie; Chiaberge, Christophe; Rhomer, Jérémy; Audigane, Pascal
2015-04-01
Fluvial systems generate highly heterogeneous reservoir. These heterogeneities have major impact on fluid flow behaviors. However, the modelling of such reservoirs is mainly performed in under-constrained contexts as they include complex features, though only sparse and indirect data are available. Stochastic modeling is the common strategy to solve such problems. Multiple 3D models are generated from the available subsurface dataset. The generated models represent a sampling of plausible subsurface structure representations. From this model sampling, statistical analysis on targeted parameters (e.g.: reserve estimations, flow behaviors, etc.) and a posteriori uncertainties are performed to assess risks. However, on one hand, uncertainties may be huge, which requires many models to be generated for scanning the space of possibilities. On the other hand, some computations performed on the generated models are time consuming and cannot, in practice, be applied on all of them. This issue is particularly critical in: 1) geological modeling from outcrop data only, as these data types are generally sparse and mainly distributed in 2D at large scale but they may locally include high-resolution descriptions (e.g.: facies, strata local variability, etc.); 2) CO2 storage studies as many scales of investigations are required, from meter to regional ones, to estimate storage capacities and associated risks. Recent approaches propose to define distances between models to allow sophisticated multivariate statistics to be applied on the space of uncertainties so that only sub-samples, representative of initial set, are investigated for dynamic time-consuming studies. This work focuses on defining distances between models that characterize the topology of the reservoir rock network, i.e. its compactness or connectivity degree. The proposed strategy relies on the study of the reservoir rock skeleton. The skeleton of an object corresponds to its median feature. A skeleton is
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rongwang Yin
2018-01-01
Full Text Available A mathematical model for multistage hydraulically fractured horizontal wells (MFHWs in tight oil and gas reservoirs was derived by considering the variations in the permeability and porosity of tight oil and gas reservoirs that depend on formation pressure and mixed fluid properties and introducing the pseudo-pressure; analytical solutions were presented using the Newman superposition principle. The CPU-GPU asynchronous computing model was designed based on the CUDA platform, and the analytic solution was decomposed into infinite summation and integral forms for parallel computation. Implementation of this algorithm on an Intel i5 4590 CPU and NVIDIA GT 730 GPU demonstrates that computation speed increased by almost 80 times, which meets the requirement for real-time calculation of the formation pressure of MFHWs.
Effect of reservoir heterogeneity on air injection performance in a light oil reservoir
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Hu Jia
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Air injection is a good option to development light oil reservoir. As well-known that, reservoir heterogeneity has great effect for various EOR processes. This also applies to air injection. However, oil recovery mechanisms and physical processes for air injection in heterogeneous reservoir with dip angle are still not well understood. The reported setting of reservoir heterogeneous for physical model or simulation model of air injection only simply uses different-layer permeability of porous media. In practice, reservoir heterogeneity follows the principle of geostatistics. How much of contrast in permeability actually challenges the air injection in light oil reservoir? This should be investigated by using layered porous medial settings of the classical Dykstra-Parsons style. Unfortunately, there has been no work addressing this issue for air injection in light oil reservoir. In this paper, Reservoir heterogeneity is quantified based on the use of different reservoir permeability distribution according to classical Dykstra-Parsons coefficients method. The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of reservoir heterogeneity on physical process and production performance of air injection in light oil reservoir through numerical reservoir simulation approach. The basic model is calibrated based on previous study. Total eleven pseudo compounders are included in this model and ten complexity of reactions are proposed to achieve the reaction scheme. Results show that oil recovery factor is decreased with the increasing of reservoir heterogeneity both for air and N2 injection from updip location, which is against the working behavior of air injection from updip location. Reservoir heterogeneity sometimes can act as positive effect to improve sweep efficiency as well as enhance production performance for air injection. High O2 content air injection can benefit oil recovery factor, also lead to early O2 breakthrough in heterogeneous reservoir. Well
Studying Operation Rules of Cascade Reservoirs Based on Multi-Dimensional Dynamics Programming
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Zhiqiang Jiang
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Although many optimization models and methods are applied to the optimization of reservoir operation at present, the optimal operation decision that is made through these models and methods is just a retrospective review. Due to the limitation of hydrological prediction accuracy, it is practical and feasible to obtain the suboptimal or satisfactory solution by the established operation rules in the actual reservoir operation, especially for the mid- and long-term operation. In order to obtain the optimized sample data with global optimality; and make the extracted operation rules more reasonable and reliable, this paper presents the multi-dimensional dynamic programming model of the optimal joint operation of cascade reservoirs and provides the corresponding recursive equation and the specific solving steps. Taking Li Xianjiang cascade reservoirs as a case study, seven uncertain problems in the whole operation period of the cascade reservoirs are summarized after a detailed analysis to the obtained optimal sample data, and two sub-models are put forward to solve these uncertain problems. Finally, by dividing the whole operation period into four characteristic sections, this paper extracts the operation rules of each reservoir for each section respectively. When compared the simulation results of the extracted operation rules with the conventional joint operation method; the result indicates that the power generation of the obtained rules has a certain degree of improvement both in inspection years and typical years (i.e., wet year; normal year and dry year. So, the rationality and effectiveness of the extracted operation rules are verified by the comparative analysis.
Ampomah, W.; Balch, R. S.; Cather, M.; Dai, Z.
2017-12-01
We present a performance assessment methodology and storage potential for CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in partially depleted reservoirs. A three dimensional heterogeneous reservoir model was developed based on geological, geophysics and engineering data from Farnsworth field Unit (FWU). The model aided in improved characterization of prominent rock properties within the Pennsylvanian aged Morrow sandstone reservoir. Seismic attributes illuminated previously unknown faults and structural elements within the field. A laboratory fluid analysis was tuned to an equation of state and subsequently used to predict the thermodynamic minimum miscible pressure (MMP). Datasets including net-to-gross ratio, volume of shale, permeability, and burial history were used to model initial fault transmissibility based on Sperivick model. An improved history match of primary and secondary recovery was performed to set the basis for a CO2 flood study. The performance of the current CO2 miscible flood patterns was subsequently calibrated to historical production and injection data. Several prediction models were constructed to study the effect of recycling, addition of wells and /or new patterns, water alternating gas (WAG) cycles and optimum amount of CO2 purchase on incremental oil production and CO2 storage in the FWU. The history matching study successfully validated the presence of the previously undetected faults within FWU that were seen in the seismic survey. The analysis of the various prediction scenarios showed that recycling a high percentage of produced gas, addition of new wells and a gradual reduction in CO2 purchase after several years of operation would be the best approach to ensure a high percentage of recoverable incremental oil and sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 within the Morrow reservoir. Larger percentage of stored CO2 were dissolved in residual oil and less amount existed as supercritical free CO2. The geomechanical analysis on the caprock proved to an
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marcondes, Francisco [Federal University of Ceara, Fortaleza (Brazil). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering and Material Science], e-mail: marcondes@ufc.br; Varavei, Abdoljalil; Sepehrnoori, Kamy [The University of Texas at Austin (United States). Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering Dept.], e-mails: varavei@mail.utexas.edu, kamys@mail.utexas.edu
2010-07-01
An element-based finite-volume approach in conjunction with unstructured grids for naturally fractured compositional reservoir simulation is presented. In this approach, both the discrete fracture and the matrix mass balances are taken into account without any additional models to couple the matrix and discrete fractures. The mesh, for two dimensional domains, can be built of triangles, quadrilaterals, or a mix of these elements. However, due to the available mesh generator to handle both matrix and discrete fractures, only results using triangular elements will be presented. The discrete fractures are located along the edges of each element. To obtain the approximated matrix equation, each element is divided into three sub-elements and then the mass balance equations for each component are integrated along each interface of the sub-elements. The finite-volume conservation equations are assembled from the contribution of all the elements that share a vertex, creating a cell vertex approach. The discrete fracture equations are discretized only along the edges of each element and then summed up with the matrix equations in order to obtain a conservative equation for both matrix and discrete fractures. In order to mimic real field simulations, the capillary pressure is included in both matrix and discrete fracture media. In the implemented model, the saturation field in the matrix and discrete fractures can be different, but the potential of each phase in the matrix and discrete fracture interface needs to be the same. The results for several naturally fractured reservoirs are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the method. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fei Wang
2017-11-01
Full Text Available The water leak-off during hydraulic fracturing in shale gas reservoirs is a complicated transport behavior involving thermal (T, hydrodynamic (H, mechanical (M and chemical (C processes. Although many leak-off models have been published, none of the models fully coupled the transient fluid flow modeling with heat transfer, chemical-potential equilibrium and natural-fracture dilation phenomena. In this paper, a coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC model based on non-equilibrium thermodynamics, hydrodynamics, thermo-poroelastic rock mechanics, and non-isothermal chemical-potential equations is presented to simulate the water leak-off process in shale gas reservoirs. The THMC model takes into account a triple-porosity medium, which includes hydraulic fractures, natural fractures and shale matrix. The leak-off simulation with the THMC model involves all the important processes in this triple-porosity medium, including: (1 water transport driven by hydraulic, capillary, chemical and thermal osmotic convections; (2 gas transport induced by both hydraulic pressure driven convection and adsorption; (3 heat transport driven by thermal convection and conduction; and (4 natural-fracture dilation considered as a thermo-poroelastic rock deformation. The fluid and heat transport, coupled with rock deformation, are described by a set of partial differential equations resulting from the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. The semi-implicit finite-difference algorithm is proposed to solve these equations. The evolution of pressure, temperature, saturation and salinity profiles of hydraulic fractures, natural fractures and matrix is calculated, revealing the multi-field coupled water leak-off process in shale gas reservoirs. The influences of hydraulic pressure, natural-fracture dilation, chemical osmosis and thermal osmosis on water leak-off are investigated. Results from this study are expected to provide a better understanding of the
Forecasting monthly inflow discharge of the Iffezheim reservoir using data-driven models
Zhang, Qing; Aljoumani, Basem; Hillebrand, Gudrun; Hoffmann, Thomas; Hinkelmann, Reinhard
2017-04-01
River stream flow is an essential element in hydrology study fields, especially for reservoir management, since it defines input into reservoirs. Forecasting this stream flow plays an important role in short or long-term planning and management in the reservoir, e.g. optimized reservoir and hydroelectric operation or agricultural irrigation. Highly accurate flow forecasting can significantly reduce economic losses and is always pursued by reservoir operators. Therefore, hydrologic time series forecasting has received tremendous attention of researchers. Many models have been proposed to improve the hydrological forecasting. Due to the fact that most natural phenomena occurring in environmental systems appear to behave in random or probabilistic ways, different cases may need a different methods to forecast the inflow and even a unique treatment to improve the forecast accuracy. The purpose of this study is to determine an appropriate model for forecasting monthly inflow to the Iffezheim reservoir in Germany, which is the last of the barrages in the Upper Rhine. Monthly time series of discharges, measured from 1946 to 2001 at the Plittersdorf station, which is located 6 km downstream of the Iffezheim reservoir, were applied. The accuracies of the used stochastic models - Fiering model and Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average models (ARIMA) are compared with Artificial Intelligence (AI) models - single Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Wavelet ANN models (WANN). The Fiering model is a linear stochastic model and used for generating synthetic monthly data. The basic idea in modeling time series using ARIMA is to identify a simple model with as few model parameters as possible in order to provide a good statistical fit to the data. To identify and fit the ARIMA models, four phase approaches were used: identification, parameter estimation, diagnostic checking, and forecasting. An automatic selection criterion, such as the Akaike information criterion, is utilized
Advanced Gas Hydrate Reservoir Modeling Using Rock Physics
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McConnell, Daniel
2017-12-30
Prospecting for high saturation gas hydrate deposits can be greatly aided with improved approaches to seismic interpretation and especially if sets of seismic attributes can be shown as diagnostic or direct hydrocarbon indicators for high saturation gas hydrates in sands that would be of most interest for gas hydrate production.
A large 3D seismic data set in the deep water Eastern Gulf of Mexico was screened for gas hydrates using a set of techniques and seismic signatures that were developed and proven in the Central deepwater Gulf of Mexico in the DOE Gulf of Mexico Joint Industry Project JIP Leg II in 2009 and recently confirmed with coring in 2017.
A large gas hydrate deposit is interpreted in the data where gas has migrated from one of the few deep seated faults plumbing the Jurassic hydrocarbon source into the gas hydrate stability zone. The gas hydrate deposit lies within a flat-lying within Pliocene Mississippi Fan channel that was deposited outboard in a deep abyssal environment. The uniform architecture of the channel aided the evaluation of a set of seismic attributes that relate to attenuation and thin-bed energy that could be diagnostic of gas hydrates. Frequency attributes derived from spectral decomposition also proved to be direct hydrocarbon indicators by pseudo-thickness that could be only be reconciled by substituting gas hydrate in the pore space. The study emphasizes that gas hydrate exploration and reservoir characterization benefits from a seismic thin bed approach.
Luo, Rutao; Piovoso, Michael J.; Martinez-Picado, Javier; Zurakowski, Ryan
2012-01-01
Mathematical models based on ordinary differential equations (ODE) have had significant impact on understanding HIV disease dynamics and optimizing patient treatment. A model that characterizes the essential disease dynamics can be used for prediction only if the model parameters are identifiable from clinical data. Most previous parameter identification studies for HIV have used sparsely sampled data from the decay phase following the introduction of therapy. In this paper, model parameters are identified from frequently sampled viral-load data taken from ten patients enrolled in the previously published AutoVac HAART interruption study, providing between 69 and 114 viral load measurements from 3–5 phases of viral decay and rebound for each patient. This dataset is considerably larger than those used in previously published parameter estimation studies. Furthermore, the measurements come from two separate experimental conditions, which allows for the direct estimation of drug efficacy and reservoir contribution rates, two parameters that cannot be identified from decay-phase data alone. A Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo method is used to estimate the model parameter values, with initial estimates obtained using nonlinear least-squares methods. The posterior distributions of the parameter estimates are reported and compared for all patients. PMID:22815727
Modeling of Single and Dual Reservoir Porous Media Compressed Gas (Air and CO2) Storage Systems
Oldenburg, C. M.; Liu, H.; Borgia, A.; Pan, L.
2017-12-01
Intermittent renewable energy sources are causing increasing demand for energy storage. The deep subsurface offers promising opportunities for energy storage because it can safely contain high-pressure gases. Porous media compressed air energy storage (PM-CAES) is one approach, although the only facilities in operation are in caverns (C-CAES) rather than porous media. Just like in C-CAES, PM-CAES operates generally by injecting working gas (air) through well(s) into the reservoir compressing the cushion gas (existing air in the reservoir). During energy recovery, high-pressure air from the reservoir is mixed with fuel in a combustion turbine to produce electricity, thereby reducing compression costs. Unlike in C-CAES, the storage of energy in PM-CAES occurs variably across pressure gradients in the formation, while the solid grains of the matrix can release/store heat. Because air is the working gas, PM-CAES has fairly low thermal efficiency and low energy storage density. To improve the energy storage density, we have conceived and modeled a closed-loop two-reservoir compressed CO2 energy storage system. One reservoir is the low-pressure reservoir, and the other is the high-pressure reservoir. CO2 is cycled back and forth between reservoirs depending on whether energy needs to be stored or recovered. We have carried out thermodynamic and parametric analyses of the performance of an idealized two-reservoir CO2 energy storage system under supercritical and transcritical conditions for CO2 using a steady-state model. Results show that the transcritical compressed CO2 energy storage system has higher round-trip efficiency and exergy efficiency, and larger energy storage density than the supercritical compressed CO2 energy storage. However, the configuration of supercritical compressed CO2 energy storage is simpler, and the energy storage densities of the two systems are both higher than that of PM-CAES, which is advantageous in terms of storage volume for a given
A simple multistage closed-(box+reservoir model of chemical evolution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Caimmi R.
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Simple closed-box (CB models of chemical evolution are extended on two respects, namely (i simple closed-(box+reservoir (CBR models allowing gas outflow from the box into the reservoir (Hartwick 1976 or gas inflow into the box from the reservoir (Caimmi 2007 with rate proportional to the star formation rate, and (ii simple multistage closed-(box+reservoir (MCBR models allowing different stages of evolution characterized by different inflow or outflow rates. The theoretical differential oxygen abundance distribution (TDOD predicted by the model maintains close to a continuous broken straight line. An application is made where a fictitious sample is built up from two distinct samples of halo stars and taken as representative of the inner Galactic halo. The related empirical differential oxygen abundance distribution (EDOD is represented, to an acceptable extent, as a continuous broken line for two viable [O/H]-[Fe/H] empirical relations. The slopes and the intercepts of the regression lines are determined, and then used as input parameters to MCBR models. Within the errors (-+σ, regression line slopes correspond to a large inflow during the earlier stage of evolution and to low or moderate outflow during the subsequent stages. A possible inner halo - outer (metal-poor bulge connection is also briefly discussed. Quantitative results cannot be considered for applications to the inner Galactic halo, unless selection effects and disk contamination are removed from halo samples, and discrepancies between different oxygen abundance determination methods are explained.
An ensemble-based method for constrained reservoir life-cycle optimization
Leeuwenburgh, O.; Egberts, P.J.P.; Chitu, A.G.
2015-01-01
We consider the problem of finding optimal long-term (life-cycle) recovery strategies for hydrocarbon reservoirs by use of simulation models. In such problems the presence of operating constraints, such as for example a maximum rate limit for a group of wells, may strongly influence the range of
Model-reduced gradient-based history matching
Kaleta, M.P.
2011-01-01
Since the world's energy demand increases every year, the oil & gas industry makes a continuous effort to improve fossil fuel recovery. Physics-based petroleum reservoir modeling and closed-loop model-based reservoir management concept can play an important role here. In this concept measured data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bulgakova, G T; Kharisov, R Ya; Sharifullin, A R; Pestrikov, A V
2015-01-01
Application of a self-diverting-acid based on viscoelastic surfactant (SDVA) is a promising technology for improving the efficacy of acid treatment in oil and gas-bearing carbonate reservoirs. In this study, we present a mathematical model for assessing SDVA flow and reaction with carbonate rock using the SDVA rheological characteristics. The model calculates the technological parameters for acidizing operations and the prediction of well productivity after acid treatment, in addition to technical and economic optimization of the acidizing process by modeling different acid treatment options with varying volumes, injection rates, process fluids stages and initial economic scenarios
Research on Water Velocity Measurement of Reservoir Based on Pressure Sensor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoqiang Zhao
2014-11-01
Full Text Available To address the problem that pressure sensor can only measure the liquid level in reservoir, we designed a current velocity measurement system of reservoir based on pressure sensor, analyzed the error of current velocity measurement system, and proposed the error processing method and corresponding program. Several tests and experimental results show that in this measurement system, the liquid level measurement standard deviation is no more than 0.01 cm, and the current velocity measurement standard deviation is no more than 0.35 mL/s, which proves that the pressure sensor can measure both liquid level and current velocity synchronously.
The Sustainable Development Assessment of Reservoir Resettlement Based on a BP Neural Network.
Huang, Li; Huang, Jian; Wang, Wei
2018-01-18
Resettlement affects not only the resettlers' production activities and life but also, directly or indirectly, the normal operation of power stations, the sustainable development of the resettlers, and regional social stability. Therefore, a scientific evaluation index system for the sustainable development of reservoir resettlement must be established that fits Chinese national conditions and not only promotes reservoir resettlement research but also improves resettlement practice. This essay builds an evaluation index system for resettlers' sustainable development based on a back-propagation (BP) neural network, which can be adopted in China, taking the resettlement necessitated by step hydropower stations along the Wujiang River cascade as an example. The assessment results show that the resettlement caused by step power stations along the Wujiang River is sustainable, and this evaluation supports the conclusion that national policies and regulations, which are undergoing constant improvement, and resettlement has increasingly improved. The results provide a reference for hydropower reservoir resettlement in developing countries.
The Sustainable Development Assessment of Reservoir Resettlement Based on a BP Neural Network
Huang, Li; Huang, Jian
2018-01-01
Resettlement affects not only the resettlers’ production activities and life but also, directly or indirectly, the normal operation of power stations, the sustainable development of the resettlers, and regional social stability. Therefore, a scientific evaluation index system for the sustainable development of reservoir resettlement must be established that fits Chinese national conditions and not only promotes reservoir resettlement research but also improves resettlement practice. This essay builds an evaluation index system for resettlers’ sustainable development based on a back-propagation (BP) neural network, which can be adopted in China, taking the resettlement necessitated by step hydropower stations along the Wujiang River cascade as an example. The assessment results show that the resettlement caused by step power stations along the Wujiang River is sustainable, and this evaluation supports the conclusion that national policies and regulations, which are undergoing constant improvement, and resettlement has increasingly improved. The results provide a reference for hydropower reservoir resettlement in developing countries. PMID:29346305
Research of processes of eutrophication of Teteriv river reservoir based on neural networks mass
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yelnikova T.A.
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Methods of process control of eutrophication in water are based on water sampling, handling them in the laboratory and calculation of indexes of pond ecosystem. However, these methods have some significant drawbacks associated with using manual labor. The method of determining of the geometric parameters of phytoplankton through the use of neural networks for processing water samples is developed. Due to this method eutrophic processes of reservoirs of river Teteriv are investigated. A comparative analysis of eutrophic processes of reservoirs "Denyshi" and “Vidsichne” intake during 2014-2015 years are given. The differences between qualitative and quantitative composition of phytoplankton algae in two reservoirs of the river Teteriv used for water supply of Zhitomir city area are found out. The influence of exogenous and endogenous factors on the expansion of phytoplankton is researched. Research results can be used for monitoring and forecasting of ecological state of water for household purposes, used for water supply of cities.
The Sustainable Development Assessment of Reservoir Resettlement Based on a BP Neural Network
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Huang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Resettlement affects not only the resettlers’ production activities and life but also, directly or indirectly, the normal operation of power stations, the sustainable development of the resettlers, and regional social stability. Therefore, a scientific evaluation index system for the sustainable development of reservoir resettlement must be established that fits Chinese national conditions and not only promotes reservoir resettlement research but also improves resettlement practice. This essay builds an evaluation index system for resettlers’ sustainable development based on a back-propagation (BP neural network, which can be adopted in China, taking the resettlement necessitated by step hydropower stations along the Wujiang River cascade as an example. The assessment results show that the resettlement caused by step power stations along the Wujiang River is sustainable, and this evaluation supports the conclusion that national policies and regulations, which are undergoing constant improvement, and resettlement has increasingly improved. The results provide a reference for hydropower reservoir resettlement in developing countries.
Zhu, Linqi; Zhang, Chong; Zhang, Chaomo; Wei, Yang; Zhou, Xueqing; Cheng, Yuan; Huang, Yuyang; Zhang, Le
2018-06-01
There is increasing interest in shale gas reservoirs due to their abundant reserves. As a key evaluation criterion, the total organic carbon content (TOC) of the reservoirs can reflect its hydrocarbon generation potential. The existing TOC calculation model is not very accurate and there is still the possibility for improvement. In this paper, an integrated hybrid neural network (IHNN) model is proposed for predicting the TOC. This is based on the fact that the TOC information on the low TOC reservoir, where the TOC is easy to evaluate, comes from a prediction problem, which is the inherent problem of the existing algorithm. By comparing the prediction models established in 132 rock samples in the shale gas reservoir within the Jiaoshiba area, it can be seen that the accuracy of the proposed IHNN model is much higher than that of the other prediction models. The mean square error of the samples, which were not joined to the established models, was reduced from 0.586 to 0.442. The results show that TOC prediction is easier after logging prediction has been improved. Furthermore, this paper puts forward the next research direction of the prediction model. The IHNN algorithm can help evaluate the TOC of a shale gas reservoir.
Feng, R.; Sharma, S.; Luthi, S.M.; Gisolf, A.
2015-01-01
Previously, Tetyukhina et al. (2014) developed a geological and petrophysical model based on the Book Cliffs outcrops that contained eight lithotypes. For reservoir modelling purposes, this model is judged to be too coarse because in the same lithotype it contains reservoir and non-reservoir
modelling for optimal number of line storage reservoirs in a water
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
RESERVOIRS IN A WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. By. B.U. Anyata. Department ... water distribution systems, in order to balance the ... distribution line storage systems to meet peak demands at .... Evaluation Method. The criteria ... Pipe + Energy Cost (N). 191, 772 ... Economic Planning Model for Distributed information ...
van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Osinga, Sander; Van Thienen-Visser, Karin; Fokker, Peter A.
2018-03-01
The Groningen gas field in the Netherlands experienced an immediate reduction in seismic events in the year following a massive cut in production. This reduction is inconsistent with existing models of seismicity predictions adopting compaction strains as proxy, since reservoir creep would then result in a more gradual reduction of seismic events after a production stop. We argue that the discontinuity in seismic response relates to a physical discontinuity in stress loading rate on faults upon the arrest of pressure change. The stresses originate from a combination of the direct poroelastic effect through the pressure changes and the delayed effect of ongoing compaction after cessation of reservoir production. Both mechanisms need to be taken into account. To this end, we employed finite-element models in a workflow that couples Kelvin-Chain reservoir creep with a semi-analytical approach for the solution of slip and seismic moment from the predicted stress change. For ratios of final creep and elastic compaction up to 5, the model predicts that the cumulative seismic moment evolution after a production stop is subject to a very moderate increase, 2-10 times less than the values predicted by the alternative approaches using reservoir compaction strain as proxy. This is in agreement with the low seismicity in the central area of the Groningen field immediately after reduction in production. The geomechanical model findings support scope for mitigating induced seismicity through adjusting rates of pressure change by cutting down production.
Study on detailed geological modelling for fluvial sandstone reservoir in Daqing oil field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao Hanqing; Fu Zhiguo; Lu Xiaoguang [Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Daqing (China)
1997-08-01
Guided by the sedimentation theory and knowledge of modern and ancient fluvial deposition and utilizing the abundant information of sedimentary series, microfacies type and petrophysical parameters from well logging curves of close spaced thousands of wells located in a large area. A new method for establishing detailed sedimentation and permeability distribution models for fluvial reservoirs have been developed successfully. This study aimed at the geometry and internal architecture of sandbodies, in accordance to their hierarchical levels of heterogeneity and building up sedimentation and permeability distribution models of fluvial reservoirs, describing the reservoir heterogeneity on the light of the river sedimentary rules. The results and methods obtained in outcrop and modem sedimentation studies have successfully supported the study. Taking advantage of this method, the major producing layers (PI{sub 1-2}), which have been considered as heterogeneous and thick fluvial reservoirs extending widely in lateral are researched in detail. These layers are subdivided into single sedimentary units vertically and the microfacies are identified horizontally. Furthermore, a complex system is recognized according to their hierarchical levels from large to small, meander belt, single channel sandbody, meander scroll, point bar, and lateral accretion bodies of point bar. The achieved results improved the description of areal distribution of point bar sandbodies, provide an accurate and detailed framework model for establishing high resolution predicting model. By using geostatistic technique, it also plays an important role in searching for enriched zone of residual oil distribution.
Raso , L.; Malaterre , P.O.; Bader , J.C.
2017-01-01
International audience; This article presents an innovative streamflow process model for use in reservoir operational rule design in stochastic dual dynamic programming (SDDP). Model features, which can be applied independently, are (1) a multiplicative process model for the forward phase and its linearized version for the backward phase; and (2) a nonuniform time-step length that is inversely proportional to seasonal variability. The advantages are (1) guaranteeing positive streamflow values...
Productivity Analysis of Volume Fractured Vertical Well Model in Tight Oil Reservoirs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiahang Wang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a semianalytical model to simulate the productivity of a volume fractured vertical well in tight oil reservoirs. In the proposed model, the reservoir is a composite system which contains two regions. The inner region is described as formation with finite conductivity hydraulic fracture network and the flow in fracture is assumed to be linear, while the outer region is simulated by the classical Warren-Root model where radial flow is applied. The transient rate is calculated, and flow patterns and characteristic flowing periods caused by volume fractured vertical well are analyzed. Combining the calculated results with actual production data at the decline stage shows a good fitting performance. Finally, the effects of some sensitive parameters on the type curves are also analyzed extensively. The results demonstrate that the effect of fracture length is more obvious than that of fracture conductivity on improving production in tight oil reservoirs. When the length and conductivity of main fracture are constant, the contribution of stimulated reservoir volume (SRV to the cumulative oil production is not obvious. When the SRV is constant, the length of fracture should also be increased so as to improve the fracture penetration and well production.
Simulating cold production by a coupled reservoir-geomechanics model with sand erosion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Y.; Xue, S. [Petro-Geotech Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)
2002-06-01
This paper presents a newly developed fully coupled reservoir-geomechanics model with sand erosion. Sand production occurs during aggressive production induced by the impact of viscous fluid flow and the in situ stress concentration near a wellbore, as well as by perforation tips in poorly consolidated formations. This compromises oil production, increases well completion costs, and reduces the life cycles of equipment down hole and on the surface. The proposed model can be used for sand production studies in conventional oil/gas reservoirs such as the North Sea as well as in heavy oil reservoirs such as in northwestern Canada. Instead of generating a high permeability network in reservoirs, the enhanced oil production is determined by the increase in the effective wellbore radius. This paper presents the general model. A detailed study on the capillary pressure and the impact of multiphase flow on sanding and erosion will be conducted at a later date. It appears that 2 phase flow can be important to elastoplasticity if no significant sand erosion has occurred. It was determined that high porosity is induced by erosion and capillary pressure. Two phase flow can be important when the built-up drag force carries sand-fluid slurry into the well. It is concluded that viscosity and flow velocity can help estimate the slurry transport, sand rate and enhanced oil production. 22 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.
A novel methodology improves reservoir characterization models using geologic fuzzy variables
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soto B, Rodolfo [DIGITOIL, Maracaibo (Venezuela); Soto O, David A. [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States)
2004-07-01
One of the research projects carried out in Cusiana field to explain its rapid decline during the last years was to get better permeability models. The reservoir of this field has a complex layered system that it is not easy to model using conventional methods. The new technique included the development of porosity and permeability maps from cored wells following the same trend of the sand depositions for each facie or layer according to the sedimentary facie and the depositional system models. Then, we used fuzzy logic to reproduce those maps in three dimensions as geologic fuzzy variables. After multivariate statistical and factor analyses, we found independence and a good correlation coefficient between the geologic fuzzy variables and core permeability and porosity. This means, the geologic fuzzy variable could explain the fabric, the grain size and the pore geometry of the reservoir rock trough the field. Finally, we developed a neural network permeability model using porosity, gamma ray and the geologic fuzzy variable as input variables. This model has a cross-correlation coefficient of 0.873 and average absolute error of 33% compared with the actual model with a correlation coefficient of 0.511 and absolute error greater than 250%. We tested different methodologies, but this new one showed dramatically be a promiser way to get better permeability models. The use of the models have had a high impact in the explanation of well performance and workovers, and reservoir simulation models. (author)
River and Reservoir Operations Model, Truckee River basin, California and Nevada, 1998
Berris, Steven N.; Hess, Glen W.; Bohman, Larry R.
2001-01-01
The demand for all uses of water in the Truckee River Basin, California and Nevada, commonly is greater than can be supplied. Storage reservoirs in the system have a maximum effective total capacity equivalent to less than two years of average river flows, so longer-term droughts can result in substantial water-supply shortages for irrigation and municipal users and may stress fish and wildlife ecosystems. Title II of Public Law (P.L.) 101-618, the Truckee?Carson?Pyramid Lake Water Rights Settlement Act of 1990, provides a foundation for negotiating and developing operating criteria, known as the Truckee River Operating Agreement (TROA), to balance interstate and interbasin allocation of water rights among the many interests competing for water from the Truckee River. In addition to TROA, the Truckee River Water Quality Settlement Agreement (WQSA), signed in 1996, provides for acquisition of water rights to resolve water-quality problems during low flows along the Truckee River in Nevada. Efficient execution of many of the planning, management, or environmental assessment requirements of TROA and WQSA will require detailed water-resources data coupled with sound analytical tools. Analytical modeling tools constructed and evaluated with such data could help assess effects of alternative operational scenarios related to reservoir and river operations, water-rights transfers, and changes in irrigation practices. The Truckee?Carson Program of the U.S. Geological Survey, to support U.S. Department of the Interior implementation of P.L. 101-618, is developing a modeling system to support efficient water-resources planning, management, and allocation. The daily operations model documented herein is a part of the modeling system that includes a database management program, a graphical user interface program, and a program with modules that simulate river/reservoir operations and a variety of hydrologic processes. The operations module is capable of simulating lake
Modeling lakes and reservoirs in the climate system
MacKay, M.D.; Neale, P.J.; Arp, C.D.; De Senerpont Domis, L. N.; Fang, X.; Gal, G.; Jo, K.D.; Kirillin, G.; Lenters, J.D.; Litchman, E.; MacIntyre, S.; Marsh, P.; Melack, J.; Mooij, W.M.; Peeters, F.; Quesada, A.; Schladow, S.G.; Schmid, M.; Spence, C.; Stokes, S.L.
2009-01-01
Modeling studies examining the effect of lakes on regional and global climate, as well as studies on the influence of climate variability and change on aquatic ecosystems, are surveyed. Fully coupled atmosphere-land surface-lake climate models that could be used for both of these types of study simultaneously do not presently exist, though there are many applications that would benefit from such models. It is argued here that current understanding of physical and biogeochemical processes in freshwater systems is sufficient to begin to construct such models, and a path forward is proposed. The largest impediment to fully representing lakes in the climate system lies in the handling of lakes that are too small to be explicitly resolved by the climate model, and that make up the majority of the lake-covered area at the resolutions currently used by global and regional climate models. Ongoing development within the hydrological sciences community and continual improvements in model resolution should help ameliorate this issue.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
La Pointe, Paul R.; Hermanson, Jan
2002-09-09
The goal of this project is to improve the recovery of oil from the Circle Ridge Oilfield, located on the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming, through an innovative integration of matrix characterization, structural reconstruction, and the characterization of the fracturing in the reservoir through the use of discrete fracture network models.
Modeling of Salinity Effects on Waterflooding of Petroleum Reservoirs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alexeev, Artem
films on the surface of the rock. Oil ganglia are mobilized and carried by the slow flow of wetting films. Considering simplistic pore-network model, we derive the macroscopic system of equations involving description of the transport of oil ganglia. As a result of numerical modeling of the tertiary...... is produced after the active species reaches the effluent. Further extension of the model is achieved by introduction of the non-equilibrium alteration of wettability and non-instantaneous oil mobilization. Such modifications may explain the delay observed in some experiments, where mobilized oil is produced...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yang Du
2015-03-01
Full Text Available This paper studies the lithofacies, sedimentary facies, depositional models and reservoir architecture of the rudist-bearing Sar-3 zone of Cretaceous Sarvak in the Southwest of Iran by utilizing coring, thin section, XRD data of five coring wells and 3D seismic data. Research results include the following: According to lithofacies features and their association, the rudist-mound and tidal flat are the main microfacies in the Sar-3 depositional time. By investigating the regional tectonic setting and seismic interpretation, a depositional model was built for the Sar-3 zone, which highlights four key points: 1 The distribution of the rudist-buildup is controlled by the paleo-high. 2 The build-up outside of the wide colonize stage but reached the wave-base level in a short time by regression and formation uplift, and was destroyed by the high energy current, then forming the moundy allochthonous deposition after being dispersed and redeposited. 3 The tidal flat develops widely in the upper Sar-3, and the deposition thickness depends on the paleo-structure. The tidal channel develops in the valley and fringe of the Paleo-structure. 4 The exposure within the leaching effect by the meteoric water of the top of Sar-3 is the main controlling factor of the reservoir vertical architecture. The Sar-3 zone featured as the dualistic architecture consists of two regions: the lower is the rudist reef limestone reservoir and the upper is the tidal condense limestone interlayer. The thickness of each is controlled by the paleo-structure. The Paleo-high zone is the preferential development zone. Based on reservoir characteristics of the different zones, a targeted development strategy has been proposed. Keeping the trajectory in the middle of the oil-layer in the paleo-high, and in the paleo-low, make the trajectory crossing the oil-zone and then keep it in the lower.
Development of a cerebrospinal fluid lateral reservoir model in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).
Lester McCully, Cynthia M; Bacher, John; MacAllister, Rhonda P; Steffen-Smith, Emilie A; Saleem, Kadharbatcha; Thomas, Marvin L; Cruz, Rafael; Warren, Katherine E
2015-02-01
Rapid, serial, and humane collection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in nonhuman primates (NHP) is an essential element of numerous research studies and is currently accomplished via two different models. The CSF reservoir model (FR) combines a catheter in the 4th ventricle with a flexible silastic reservoir to permit circulating CSF flow. The CSF lateral port model (LP) consists of a lateral ventricular catheter and an IV port that provides static access to CSF and volume restrictions on sample collection. The FR model is associated with an intensive, prolonged recovery and frequent postsurgical hydrocephalus and nonpatency, whereas the LP model is associated with an easier recovery. To maximize the advantages of both systems, we developed the CSF lateral reservoir model (LR), which combines the beneficial features of the 2 previous models but avoids their limitations by using a reservoir for circulating CSF flow combined with catheter placement in the lateral ventricle. Nine adult male rhesus monkeys were utilized in this study. Pre-surgical MRI was performed to determine the coordinates of the lateral ventricle and location of choroid plexus (CP). The coordinates were determined to avoid the CP and major blood vessels. The predetermined coordinates were 100% accurate, according to MRI validation. The LR system functioned successfully in 67% of cases for 221 d, and 44% remain functional at 426 to 510 d postoperatively. Compared with established models, our LR model markedly reduced postoperative complications and recovery time. Development of the LR model was successful in rhesus macaques and is a useful alternative to the FR and LP methods of CSF collection from nonhuman primates.
modelling of hydropower reservoir variables for energy generation
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Osondu
the River Niger (Kainji and Jebba dams) in Nigeria for energy generation using multilayer ... coefficient showed that the networks are reliable for modeling energy generation as a function of ... water, like wind and sun, is a renewable resource.
modelling of hydropower reservoir variables for energy generation
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Osondu
the River Niger (Kainji and Jebba dams) in Nigeria for energy generation using multilayer ... coefficient showed that the networks are reliable for modeling energy generation as a function of ... through turbines and electric generator system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yose, L.A.
2004-01-01
A case study of the Norman Wells field will be presented to highlight the work-flow and data integration steps associated with characterization and modeling of a complex hydrocarbon reservoir. Norman Wells is a Devonian-age carbonate bank ('reef') located in the Northwest Territories of Canada, 60 kilometers south of the Arctic Circle. The reservoir reaches a maximum thickness of 130 meters in the reef interior and thins toward the basin due to depositional pinch outs. Norman Wells is an oil reservoir and is currently under a 5-spot water injection scheme for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). EOR strategies require a detailed understanding of how reservoir flow units, flow barriers and flow baffles are distributed to optimize hydrocarbon sweep and recovery and to minimize water handling. Reservoir models are routinely used by industry to characterize the 3-D distribution of reservoir architecture (stratigraphic layers, depositional facies, faults) and rock properties (porosity. permeability). Reservoir models are validated by matching historical performance data (e.g., reservoir pressures, well production or injection rates). Geologic models are adjusted until they produce a history match, and model adjustments are focused on inputs that have the greatest geologic uncertainty. Flow simulation models are then used to optimize field development strategies and to forecast field performance under different development scenarios. (author)
Modeling Alpine hydropower reservoirs management to study the water-energy nexus under change.
Castelletti, A.; Giuliani, M.; Fumagalli, E.; Weber, E.
2014-12-01
Climate change and growing population are expected to severely affect freshwater availability by the end of 21th century. Many river basins, especially in the Mediterranean region, are likely to become more prone to periods of reduced water supply, risking considerable impacts on the society, the environment, and the economy, thus emphasizing the need to rethink the way water resources are distributed, managed, and used at the regional and river basin scale. This paradigm shift will be essential to cope with the undergoing global change, characterized by growing water demands and by increasingly uncertain hydrologic regimes. Most of the literature traditionally focused on predicting the impacts of climate change on water resources, while our understanding of the human footprint on the hydrological cycle is limited. For example, changes in the operation of the Alpine hydropower reservoirs induced by socio-economic drivers (e.g., development of renewable energy) were already observed over the last few years and produced relevant impacts on multiple water uses due to the altered distribution of water volumes in time and space. Modeling human decisions as well as the links between society and environmental systems becomes key to develop reliable projections on the co-evolution of the coupled human-water systems and deliver robust adaptation strategies This work contributes a preliminary model-based analysis of the behaviour of hydropower operators under changing energy market and climate conditions. The proposed approach is developed for the San Giacomo-Cancano reservoir system, Italy. The identification of the current operating policy is supported by input variable selection methods to select the most relevant hydrological and market based drivers to explain the observed release time series.. The identified model is then simulated under a set of future scenarios, accounting for both climate and socio-economic change (e.g. expansion of the electric vehicle sector, load
Orren, L. H.; Ziman, G. M.; Jones, S. C.
1981-01-01
A financial accounting model that incorporates physical and institutional uncertainties was developed for geothermal projects. Among the uncertainties it can handle are well depth, flow rate, fluid temperature, and permit and construction times. The outputs of the model are cumulative probability distributions of financial measures such as capital cost, levelized cost, and profit. These outputs are well suited for use in an investment decision incorporating risk. The model has the powerful feature that conditional probability distribution can be used to account for correlations among any of the input variables. The model has been applied to a geothermal reservoir at Heber, California, for a 45-MW binary electric plant. Under the assumptions made, the reservoir appears to be economically viable.
Real-time management of a multipurpose water reservoir with a heteroscedastic inflow model
Pianosi, F.; Soncini-Sessa, R.
2009-10-01
Stochastic dynamic programming has been extensively used as a method for designing optimal regulation policies for water reservoirs. However, the potential of this method is dramatically reduced by its computational burden, which often forces to introduce strong approximations in the model of the system, especially in the description of the reservoir inflow. In this paper, an approach to partially remedy this problem is proposed and applied to a real world case study. It foresees solving the management problem on-line, using a reduced model of the system and the inflow forecast provided by a dynamic model. By doing so, all the hydrometeorological information that is available in real-time is fully exploited. The model here proposed for the inflow forecasting is a nonlinear, heteroscedastic model that provides both the expected value and the standard deviation of the inflow through dynamic relations. The effectiveness of such model for the purpose of the reservoir regulation is evaluated through simulation and comparison with the results provided by conventional homoscedastic inflow models.
Experimental and numerical modeling of sulfur plugging in a carbonate oil reservoir
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Al-Awadhy, F. [ADMA-OPCO, Abudhabi (United Arab Emirates); Kocabas, I.; Abou-Kassem, J.H. [UAE University, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Islam, M.R. [Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS (United States)
2005-01-15
Many oil and gas reservoirs in the United Arab Emirates produce large amounts of sour gas, mainly in the form of hydrogen sulfide. In addition to creating problems in the production line, wellbore damage is often reported due to the precipitation of elemental sulfur in the vicinity of the wellbore. While there have been several studies performed on the role of solid deposition in a gas reservoir, the role of sulfur deposition in oil reservoirs has not been investigated. This article presents experimental results along with a comprehensive wellbore model that predicts sulfur precipitation as well as plugging. The experiments were conducted in a core (linear) system. Both analytical and numerical modelings were performed in a linear coordinate system. Data for the numerical model was obtained from both test tube and coreflood experiments. By using a phenomenological model, the wellbore plugging was modeled with an excellent match (with experimental results). The crude oil was de-asphalted prior to conducting the experiment in order to isolate the effect of asphaltene plugging. A series of coreflood tests was carried out to observe sulfur precipitation and plugging in a carbonate rock. Significant plugging was observed and was found to be dependent on flow rate and initial sulfur concentration. This information was used in the phenomenological model and can be incorporated in the wellbore numerical model. (author)
Well test mathematical model for fractures network in tight oil reservoirs
Diwu, Pengxiang; Liu, Tongjing; Jiang, Baoyi; Wang, Rui; Yang, Peidie; Yang, Jiping; Wang, Zhaoming
2018-02-01
Well test, especially build-up test, has been applied widely in the development of tight oil reservoirs, since it is the only available low cost way to directly quantify flow ability and formation heterogeneity parameters. However, because of the fractures network near wellbore, generated from artificial fracturing linking up natural factures, traditional infinite and finite conductivity fracture models usually result in significantly deviation in field application. In this work, considering the random distribution of natural fractures, physical model of fractures network is proposed, and it shows a composite model feature in the large scale. Consequently, a nonhomogeneous composite mathematical model is established with threshold pressure gradient. To solve this model semi-analytically, we proposed a solution approach including Laplace transform and virtual argument Bessel function, and this method is verified by comparing with existing analytical solution. The matching data of typical type curves generated from semi-analytical solution indicates that the proposed physical and mathematical model can describe the type curves characteristic in typical tight oil reservoirs, which have up warping in late-term rather than parallel lines with slope 1/2 or 1/4. It means the composite model could be used into pressure interpretation of artificial fracturing wells in tight oil reservoir.
Xu, Zhongyan; Godrej, Adil N.; Grizzard, Thomas J.
2007-10-01
SummaryRunoff models such as HSPF and reservoir models such as CE-QUAL-W2 are used to model water quality in watersheds. Most often, the models are independently calibrated to observed data. While this approach can achieve good calibration, it does not replicate the physically-linked nature of the system. When models are linked by using the model output from an upstream model as input to a downstream model, the physical reality of a continuous watershed, where the overland and waterbody portions are parts of the whole, is better represented. There are some additional challenges in the calibration of such linked models, because the aim is to simulate the entire system as a whole, rather than piecemeal. When public entities are charged with model development, one of the driving forces is to use public-domain models. This paper describes the use of two such models, HSPF and CE-QUAL-W2, in the linked modeling of the Occoquan watershed located in northern Virginia, USA. The description of the process is provided, and results from the hydrological calibration and validation are shown. The Occoquan model consists of six HSPF and two CE-QUAL-W2 models, linked in a complex way, to simulate two major reservoirs and the associated drainage areas. The overall linked model was calibrated for a three-year period and validated for a two-year period. The results show that a successful calibration can be achieved using the linked approach, with moderate additional effort. Overall flow balances based on the three-year calibration period at four stream stations showed agreement ranging from -3.95% to +3.21%. Flow balances for the two reservoirs, compared via the daily water surface elevations, also showed good agreement ( R2 values of 0.937 for Lake Manassas and 0.926 for Occoquan Reservoir), when missing (un-monitored) flows were included. Validation of the models ranged from poor to fair for the watershed models and excellent for the waterbody models, thus indicating that the
Vasquez, D. A.; Swift, J. N.; Tan, S.; Darrah, T. H.
2013-12-01
The integration of precise geochemical analyses with quantitative engineering modeling into an interactive GIS system allows for a sophisticated and efficient method of reservoir engineering and characterization. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is utilized as an advanced technique for oil field reservoir analysis by combining field engineering and geological/geochemical spatial datasets with the available systematic modeling and mapping methods to integrate the information into a spatially correlated first-hand approach in defining surface and subsurface characteristics. Three key methods of analysis include: 1) Geostatistical modeling to create a static and volumetric 3-dimensional representation of the geological body, 2) Numerical modeling to develop a dynamic and interactive 2-dimensional model of fluid flow across the reservoir and 3) Noble gas geochemistry to further define the physical conditions, components and history of the geologic system. Results thus far include using engineering algorithms for interpolating electrical well log properties across the field (spontaneous potential, resistivity) yielding a highly accurate and high-resolution 3D model of rock properties. Results so far also include using numerical finite difference methods (crank-nicholson) to solve for equations describing the distribution of pressure across field yielding a 2D simulation model of fluid flow across reservoir. Ongoing noble gas geochemistry results will also include determination of the source, thermal maturity and the extent/style of fluid migration (connectivity, continuity and directionality). Future work will include developing an inverse engineering algorithm to model for permeability, porosity and water saturation.This combination of new and efficient technological and analytical capabilities is geared to provide a better understanding of the field geology and hydrocarbon dynamics system with applications to determine the presence of hydrocarbon pay zones (or
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bevillon, D.
2000-11-30
The aim of this study is to provide a better description of the rock contribution to fluid flows in petroleum reservoirs. The production of oil/gas in soft highly compacting reservoirs induces important reduction of the pore volume, which increases oil productivity. This compaction leads to undesirable effects such as surface subsidence or damage of well equipment. Analysis of compaction and subsidence can be performed using either engineering reservoir models or coupled poro-mechanical models. Poro-mechanical model offers a rigorous mechanical framework, but does not permit a complete description of the fluids. The reservoir model gives a good description of the fluid phases, but the description of the mechanic phenomenon is then simplified. To satisfy the set of equations (mechanical equilibrium and diffusivity equations), two simulators can be used together sequentially. Each of the two simulators solves its own system independently, and information passed both directions between simulators. This technique is usually referred to the partially coupled scheme. In this study, reservoir and hydro-mechanical simulations show that reservoir theory is not a rigorous framework to represent the evolution of the high porous rocks strains. Then, we introduce a partially coupled scheme that is shown to be consistent and unconditionally stable, which permits to describe correctly poro-mechanical theory in reservoir models. (author)
System-level modeling for economic evaluation of geological CO2 storage in gas reservoirs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.
2007-01-01
One way to reduce the effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on climate is to inject carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from industrial sources into deep geological formations such as brine aquifers or depleted oil or gas reservoirs. Research is being conducted to improve understanding of factors affecting particular aspects of geological CO 2 storage (such as storage performance, storage capacity, and health, safety and environmental (HSE) issues) as well as to lower the cost of CO 2 capture and related processes. However, there has been less emphasis to date on system-level analyses of geological CO 2 storage that consider geological, economic, and environmental issues by linking detailed process models to representations of engineering components and associated economic models. The objective of this study is to develop a system-level model for geological CO 2 storage, including CO 2 capture and separation, compression, pipeline transportation to the storage site, and CO 2 injection. Within our system model we are incorporating detailed reservoir simulations of CO 2 injection into a gas reservoir and related enhanced production of methane. Potential leakage and associated environmental impacts are also considered. The platform for the system-level model is GoldSim [GoldSim User's Guide. GoldSim Technology Group; 2006, http://www.goldsim.com]. The application of the system model focuses on evaluating the feasibility of carbon sequestration with enhanced gas recovery (CSEGR) in the Rio Vista region of California. The reservoir simulations are performed using a special module of the TOUGH2 simulator, EOS7C, for multicomponent gas mixtures of methane and CO 2 . Using a system-level modeling approach, the economic benefits of enhanced gas recovery can be directly weighed against the costs and benefits of CO 2 injection
Ge, Xinmin; Fan, Yiren; Liu, Jianyu; Zhang, Li; Han, Yujiao; Xing, Donghui
2017-10-01
Permeability is an important parameter in formation evaluation since it controls the fluid transportation of porous rocks. However, it is challengeable to compute the permeability of bioclastic limestone reservoirs by conventional methods linking petrophysical and geophysical data, due to the complex pore distributions. A new method is presented to estimate the permeability based on laboratory and downhole nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements. We divide the pore space into four intervals by the inflection points between the pore radius and the transversal relaxation time. Relationships between permeability and percentages of different pore intervals are investigated to investigate influential factors on the fluid transportation. Furthermore, an empirical model, which takes into account of the pore size distributions, is presented to compute the permeability. 212 core samples in our case show that the accuracy of permeability calculation is improved from 0.542 (SDR model), 0.507 (TIM model), 0.455 (conventional porosity-permeability regressions) to 0.803. To enhance the precision of downhole application of the new model, we developed a fluid correction algorithm to construct the water spectrum of in-situ NMR data, aiming to eliminate the influence of oil on the magnetization. The result reveals that permeability is positively correlated with percentages of mega-pores and macro-pores, but negatively correlated with the percentage of micro-pores. Poor correlation is observed between permeability and the percentage of meso-pores. NMR magnetizations and T 2 spectrums after the fluid correction agree well with laboratory results for samples saturated with water. Field application indicates that the improved method provides better performance than conventional models such as Schlumberger-Doll Research equation, Timur-Coates equation, and porosity-permeability regressions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ge, Xinmin; Fan, Yiren; Liu, Jianyu; Zhang, Li; Han, Yujiao; Xing, Donghui
2017-10-01
Permeability is an important parameter in formation evaluation since it controls the fluid transportation of porous rocks. However, it is challengeable to compute the permeability of bioclastic limestone reservoirs by conventional methods linking petrophysical and geophysical data, due to the complex pore distributions. A new method is presented to estimate the permeability based on laboratory and downhole nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements. We divide the pore space into four intervals by the inflection points between the pore radius and the transversal relaxation time. Relationships between permeability and percentages of different pore intervals are investigated to investigate influential factors on the fluid transportation. Furthermore, an empirical model, which takes into account of the pore size distributions, is presented to compute the permeability. 212 core samples in our case show that the accuracy of permeability calculation is improved from 0.542 (SDR model), 0.507 (TIM model), 0.455 (conventional porosity-permeability regressions) to 0.803. To enhance the precision of downhole application of the new model, we developed a fluid correction algorithm to construct the water spectrum of in-situ NMR data, aiming to eliminate the influence of oil on the magnetization. The result reveals that permeability is positively correlated with percentages of mega-pores and macro-pores, but negatively correlated with the percentage of micro-pores. Poor correlation is observed between permeability and the percentage of meso-pores. NMR magnetizations and T2 spectrums after the fluid correction agree well with laboratory results for samples saturated with water. Field application indicates that the improved method provides better performance than conventional models such as Schlumberger-Doll Research equation, Timur-Coates equation, and porosity-permeability regressions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ernest A. Mancini
2004-02-25
reservoir architecture and geographic distribution of Smackover reservoirs is the fabric and texture of the depositional lithofacies, diagenesis (chiefly dolomitization) is a significant factor that preserves and enhances reservoir quality. The evaporative pumping mechanism is favored to explain the dolomitization of the thrombolite doloboundstone and dolostone reservoir flow units at Appleton and Vocation Fields. Geologic modeling, reservoir simulation, and the testing and applying the resulting integrated geologic-engineering models have shown that little oil remains to be recovered at Appleton Field and a significant amount of oil remains to be recovered at Vocation Field through a strategic infill drilling program. The drive mechanisms for primary production in Appleton and Vocation Fields remain effective; therefore, the initiation of a pressure maintenance program or enhanced recovery project is not required at this time. The integrated geologic-engineering model developed for a low-relief paleohigh (Appleton Field) was tested for three scenarios involving the variables of present-day structural elevation and the presence/absence of potential reef thrombolite lithofacies. In each case, the predictions based upon the model were correct. From this modeling, the characteristics of the ideal prospect in the basement ridge play include a low-relief paleohigh associated with dendroidal/chaotic thrombolite doloboundstone and dolostone that has sufficient present-day structural relief so that these carbonates rest above the oil-water contact. Such a prospect was identified from the modeling, and it is located northwest of well Permit No. 3854B (Appleton Field) and south of well No. Permit No.11030B (Northwest Appleton Field).
Computer Modeling of the Displacement Behavior of Carbon Dioxide in Undersaturated Oil Reservoirs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ju Binshan
2015-11-01
Full Text Available The injection of CO2 into oil reservoirs is performed not only to improve oil recovery but also to store CO2 captured from fuel combustion. The objective of this work is to develop a numerical simulator to predict quantitatively supercritical CO2 flooding behaviors for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR. A non-isothermal compositional flow mathematical model is developed. The phase transition diagram is designed according to the Minimum Miscibility Pressure (MMP and CO2 maximum solubility in oil phase. The convection and diffusion of CO2 mixtures in multiphase fluids in reservoirs, mass transfer between CO2 and crude and phase partitioning are considered. The governing equations are discretized by applying a fully implicit finite difference technique. Newton-Raphson iterative technique was used to solve the nonlinear equation systems and a simulator was developed. The performances of CO2 immiscible and miscible flooding in oil reservoirs are predicted by the new simulator. The distribution of pressure and temperature, phase saturations, mole fraction of each component in each phase, formation damage caused by asphaltene precipitation and the improved oil recovery are predicted by the simulator. Experimental data validate the developed simulator by comparison with simulation results. The applications of the simulator in prediction of CO2 flooding in oil reservoirs indicate that the simulator is robust for predicting CO2 flooding performance.
Jeznach, Lillian C; Hagemann, Mark; Park, Mi-Hyun; Tobiason, John E
2017-10-01
Extreme precipitation events are of concern to managers of drinking water sources because these occurrences can affect both water supply quantity and quality. However, little is known about how these low probability events impact organic matter and nutrient loads to surface water sources and how these loads may impact raw water quality. This study describes a method for evaluating the sensitivity of a water body of interest from watershed input simulations under extreme precipitation events. An example application of the method is illustrated using the Wachusett Reservoir, an oligo-mesotrophic surface water reservoir in central Massachusetts and a major drinking water supply to metropolitan Boston. Extreme precipitation event simulations during the spring and summer resulted in total organic carbon, UV-254 (a surrogate measurement for reactive organic matter), and total algae concentrations at the drinking water intake that exceeded recorded maximums. Nutrient concentrations after storm events were less likely to exceed recorded historical maximums. For this particular reservoir, increasing inter-reservoir transfers of water with lower organic matter content after a large precipitation event has been shown in practice and in model simulations to decrease organic matter levels at the drinking water intake, therefore decreasing treatment associated oxidant demand, energy for UV disinfection, and the potential for formation of disinfection byproducts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A GIS-model for predicting the impact of climate change on shore erosion in hydroelectric reservoirs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Penner, L.A.; Zimmer, T.A.M.; St Laurent, M.
2008-01-01
Shoreline erosion affects inland lakes and hydroelectric reservoirs in several ways. This poster described a vector-based geographic information system (GIS) model designed to predict changes in shore zone geometry, top-of-bluff recession, and eroded sediment volumes. The model was designed for use in Manitoba Hydro's reservoirs in northern Manitoba, and simulated near-shore downcutting and bank recession caused by wind-generated waves. Parameters for the model included deep water wave energy, and water level fluctuations. Effective wave energy was seen as a function of the water level fluctuation range, wave conditions, and near-shore slope. The model was validated by field monitoring studies that included repeated shore zone transect surveys and sediment coring studies. Results of the study showed that the model provides a systematic method of predicting potential changes in erosion associated with climatic change. The volume and mass of eroded sediment predicted for the different modelling scenarios will be used as input data for future sedimentation models. tabs., figs
Full field reservoir modeling of shale assets using advanced data-driven analytics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Soodabeh Esmaili
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Hydrocarbon production from shale has attracted much attention in the recent years. When applied to this prolific and hydrocarbon rich resource plays, our understanding of the complexities of the flow mechanism (sorption process and flow behavior in complex fracture systems - induced or natural leaves much to be desired. In this paper, we present and discuss a novel approach to modeling, history matching of hydrocarbon production from a Marcellus shale asset in southwestern Pennsylvania using advanced data mining, pattern recognition and machine learning technologies. In this new approach instead of imposing our understanding of the flow mechanism, the impact of multi-stage hydraulic fractures, and the production process on the reservoir model, we allow the production history, well log, completion and hydraulic fracturing data to guide our model and determine its behavior. The uniqueness of this technology is that it incorporates the so-called “hard data” directly into the reservoir model, so that the model can be used to optimize the hydraulic fracture process. The “hard data” refers to field measurements during the hydraulic fracturing process such as fluid and proppant type and amount, injection pressure and rate as well as proppant concentration. This novel approach contrasts with the current industry focus on the use of “soft data” (non-measured, interpretive data such as frac length, width, height and conductivity in the reservoir models. The study focuses on a Marcellus shale asset that includes 135 wells with multiple pads, different landing targets, well length and reservoir properties. The full field history matching process was successfully completed using this data driven approach thus capturing the production behavior with acceptable accuracy for individual wells and for the entire asset.
Rutqvist, J.; Rinaldi, A. P.
2017-12-01
The exploitation of a geothermal system is one of the most promising clean and almost inexhaustible forms of energy production. However, the exploitation of hot dry rock (HDR) reservoirs at depth requires circulation of a large amount of fluids. Indeed, the conceptual model of an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) requires that the circulation is enhanced by fluid injection. The pioneering experiments at Fenton Hill demonstrated the feasibility of EGS by producing the world's first HDR reservoirs. Such pioneering project demonstrated that the fluid circulation can be effectively enhanced by stimulating a preexisting fracture zone. The so-called "hydroshearing" involving shear activation of preexisting fractures is recognized as one of the main processes effectively enhancing permeability. The goal of this work is to quantify the effect of shear reactivation on permeability by proposing a model that accounts for fracture opening and shearing. We develop a case base on a pressure stimulation experiment at Fenton Hill, in which observation suggest that a fracture was jacked open by pressure increase. The proposed model can successfully reproduce such a behavior, and we compare the base case of pure elastic opening with the hydroshearing model to demonstrate that this latter could have occurred at the field, although no "felt" seismicity was observed. Then we investigate on the sensitivity of the proposed model by varying some of the critical parameters such as the maximum aperture, the dilation angle, as well as the fracture density.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Keywords: reservoir model, siltation, sediment, catchment, sediment transport. 1. Introduction. Sediment ... rendered water storage structures useless in less than 25 years. ... reservoir, thus reducing the space available for water storage and ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, S.S. De.
1990-01-01
At a workshop on reservoir fisheries research, papers were presented on the limnology of reservoirs, the changes that follow impoundment, fisheries management and modelling, and fish culture techniques. Separate abstracts have been prepared for three papers from this workshop
Liu, Mei-Bing; Chen, Dong-Ping; Chen, Xing-Wei; Chen, Ying
2013-12-01
A coupled watershed-reservoir modeling approach consisting of a watershed distributed model (SWAT) and a two-dimensional laterally averaged model (CE-QUAL-W2) was adopted for simulating the impact of non-point source pollution from upland watershed on water quality of Shanmei Reservoir. Using the daily serial output from Shanmei Reservoir watershed by SWAT as the input to Shanmei Reservoir by CE-QUAL-W2, the coupled modeling was calibrated for runoff and outputs of sediment and pollutant at watershed scale and for elevation, temperature, nitrate, ammonium and total nitrogen in Shanmei Reservoir. The results indicated that the simulated values agreed fairly well with the observed data, although the calculation precision of downstream model would be affected by the accumulative errors generated from the simulation of upland model. The SWAT and CE-QUAL-W2 coupled modeling could be used to assess the hydrodynamic and water quality process in complex watershed comprised of upland watershed and downstream reservoir, and might further provide scientific basis for positioning key pollution source area and controlling the reservoir eutrophication.
Xu, Cong; Zhang, Jingjie; Bi, Xiaowei; Xu, Zheng; He, Yiliang; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong
2017-12-01
An integrated 3D-hydrodynamic and emerging contaminant model was developed for better understanding of the fate and transport of emerging contaminants in Qingcaosha Reservoir. The reservoir, which supplies drinking water for nearly half of Shanghai's population, is located in Yangtze Delta. The integrated model was built by Delft3D suite, a fully integrated multidimensional modeling software. Atrazine and Bisphenol A (BPA) were selected as two representative emerging contaminants for the study in this reservoir. The hydrodynamic model was calibrated and validated against observations from 2011 to 2015 while the integrated model was calibrated against observations from 2014 to 2015 and then applied to explore the potential risk of high atrazine concentrations in the reservoir driven by agriculture activities. Our results show that the model is capable of describing the spatial and temporal patterns of water temperature, salinity and the dynamic distributions of two representative emerging contaminants (i.e. atrazine and BPA) in the reservoir. The physical and biodegradation processes in this study were found to play a crucial role in determining the fate and transport of atrazine and BPA in the reservoir. The model also provides an insight into the potential risk of emerging contaminants and possible mitigation thresholds. The integrated approach can be a very useful tool to support policy-makers in the future management of Qingcaosha Reservoir. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iloghalu, E.M.
2002-01-01
Artificial neural network is a virtual intelligence tool, which mimics the human brain to do analysis and come out with results. Its application in petroleum engineering is very recent and is gradually evolving and is set to dominate or take over other analytical tools used in the Exploration and Production industry.There are two types of neural network namely, unsupervised and supervised neural networks. A proper combination of these two types of neural networks produces high-resolution results.In this work, interpreted core data was depth matched to well logs and 5 genetic units were calibrated to define the combined log responses for each genetic unit. These combined log responses were then used to train the supervised neural networks to recognise and interpret these units elsewhere in the field. Thereafter, the unsupervised neural network was run to generate classes within the cored interval. The results were then compared with the supervised network output and were then extrapolated vertically and laterally to other parts of the field.This technique having been used successfully to perform automatic interpretation of genetic units and lithofacies associations in reservoir scale is also very useful and applicable in exploration. Specific reservoirs or stratigraphic units can be automatically interpreted across a wide area using well data controlled by one or a combination of lithostratigraphy, allostratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy and biostratigraphy.Using this technique, well data cost and time are saved tremendously. It is the key to achieving computerised Basin-Scale Reservoir characterisation for the Niger Delta
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Susan Nissen; Saibal Bhattacharya; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton
2009-03-31
Our project goal was to develop innovative seismic-based workflows for the incremental recovery of oil from karst-modified reservoirs within the onshore continental United States. Specific project objectives were: (1) to calibrate new multi-trace seismic attributes (volumetric curvature, in particular) for improved imaging of karst-modified reservoirs, (2) to develop attribute-based, cost-effective workflows to better characterize karst-modified carbonate reservoirs and fracture systems, and (3) to improve accuracy and predictiveness of resulting geomodels and reservoir simulations. In order to develop our workflows and validate our techniques, we conducted integrated studies of five karst-modified reservoirs in west Texas, Colorado, and Kansas. Our studies show that 3-D seismic volumetric curvature attributes have the ability to re-veal previously unknown features or provide enhanced visibility of karst and fracture features compared with other seismic analysis methods. Using these attributes, we recognize collapse features, solution-enlarged fractures, and geomorphologies that appear to be related to mature, cockpit landscapes. In four of our reservoir studies, volumetric curvature attributes appear to delineate reservoir compartment boundaries that impact production. The presence of these compartment boundaries was corroborated by reservoir simulations in two of the study areas. Based on our study results, we conclude that volumetric curvature attributes are valuable tools for mapping compartment boundaries in fracture- and karst-modified reservoirs, and we propose a best practices workflow for incorporating these attributes into reservoir characterization. When properly calibrated with geological and production data, these attributes can be used to predict the locations and sizes of undrained reservoir compartments. Technology transfer of our project work has been accomplished through presentations at professional society meetings, peer-reviewed publications
Development of a Reservoir System Operation Model for Water Sustainability in the Yaqui River Basin
Mounir, A.; Che, D.; Robles-Morua, A.; Kauneckis, D.
2017-12-01
The arid state of Sonora, Mexico underwent the Sonora SI project to provide additional water supply to the capital of Hermosillo. The main component of the project involves an interbasin transfer from the Yaqui River Basin (YRB) to the Sonora River Basin via the Independencia aqueduct. This project has generated conflicts over water among different social sectors in the YRB. To improve the management of the Yaqui reservoir system, we developed a daily watershed model. This model allowed us to predict the amount of water available in different regions of the basin. We integrated this simulation to an optimization model which calculates the best water allocation according to water rights established in Mexico's National Water Law. We compared different precipitation forcing scenarios: (1) a network of ground observations from Mexican water agencies during the historical period of 1980-2013, (2) gridded fields from the North America Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) at 12 km resolution, and (3) we will be studying a future forecast scenario. The simulation results were compared to historical observations at the three reservoirs existing in the YRB to generate confidence in the simulation tools. Our results are presented in the form of flow duration, reliability and exceedance frequency curves that are commonly used in the water management agencies. Through this effort, we anticipate building confidence among regional stakeholders in utilizing hydrological models in the development of reservoir operation policies.
Thermo-hydrodynamical modelling of a flooded deep mine reservoir - Case of the Lorraine Coal Basin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reichart, Guillaume
2015-01-01
Since 2006, cessation of dewatering in Lorraine Coal Basin (France) led to the flooding of abandoned mines, resulting in a new hydrodynamic balance in the area. Recent researches concerning geothermal exploitation of flooded reservoirs raised new questions, which we propose to answer. Our work aimed to understand the thermos-hydrodynamic behaviour of mine water in a flooding or flooded system. Firstly, we synthesized the geographical, geological and hydrogeological contexts of the Lorraine Coal Basin, and we chose a specific area for our studies. Secondly, temperature and electric conductivity log profiles were measured in old pits of the Lorraine Coal Basin, giving a better understanding of the water behaviour at a deep mine shaft scale. We were able to build a thermos-hydrodynamic model and simulate water behaviour at this scale. Flow regime stability is also studied. Thirdly, a hydrodynamic spatialized meshed model was realized to study the hydrodynamic behaviour of a mine reservoir as a whole. Observed water-table rise was correctly reproduced: moreover, the model can be used in a predictive way after the flooding. Several tools were tested, improved or developed to ease the study of flooded reservoirs, as three-dimensional up-scaling of hydraulic conductivities and a coupled spatialized meshed model with a pipe network. (author) [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Xiao-Lu; Fan, Xiang-Yu; Nie, Ren-Shi; Huang, Quan-Hua; He, Yong-Ming
2013-01-01
Based on material balance and Darcy's law, the governing equation with the quadratic pressure gradient term was deduced. Then the nonlinear model for fluid flow in a multiple-zone composite reservoir including the quadratic gradient term was established and solved using a Laplace transform. A series of standard log–log type curves of 1-zone (homogeneous), 2-zone and 3-zone reservoirs were plotted and nonlinear flow characteristics were analysed. The type curves governed by the coefficient of the quadratic gradient term (β) gradually deviate from those of a linear model with time elapsing. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were implemented to compare the solutions of the linear and nonlinear models. The results showed that differences of pressure transients between the linear and nonlinear models increase with elapsed time and β. At the end, a successful application of the theoretical model data against the field data shows that the nonlinear model will be a good tool to evaluate formation parameters more accurately. (paper)
Kühn, Michael; Schöne, Tim
2017-04-01
Water management tools are essential to ensure the conservation of natural resources. The geothermal hot water reservoir below the village of Waiwera, on the Northern Island of New Zealand is used commercially since 1863. The continuous production of 50 °C hot geothermal water, to supply hotels and spas, has a negative impact on the reservoir. Until the year 1969 from all wells drilled the warm water flow was artesian. Due to overproduction the water needs to be pumped up nowadays. Further, within the years 1975 to 1976 the warm water seeps on the beach of Waiwera ran dry. In order to protect the reservoir and the historical and tourist site in the early 1980s a water management plan was deployed. The "Auckland Council" established guidelines to enable a sustainable management of the resource [1]. The management plan demands that the water level in the official and appropriate observation well of the council is 0.5 m above sea level throughout the year in average. Almost four decades of data (since 1978 until today) are now available [2]. For a sustainable water management, it is necessary to be able to forecast the water level as a function of the production rates in the production wells. The best predictions are provided by a multivariate regression model of the water level and production rate time series, which takes into account the production rates of individual wells. It is based on the inversely proportional relationship between the independent variable (production rate) and the dependent variable (measured water level). In production scenarios, a maximum total production rate of approx. 1,100 m3 / day is determined in order to comply with the guidelines of the "Auckland Council". [1] Kühn M., Stöfen H. (2005) A reactive flow model of the geothermal reservoir Waiwera, New Zealand. Hydrogeology Journal 13, 606-626, doi: 10.1007/s10040-004-0377-6 [2] Kühn M., Altmannsberger C. (2016) Assessment of data driven and process based water management tools for
Reservoir adaptive operating rules based on both of historical streamflow and future projections
Zhang, Wei; Liu, Pan; Wang, Hao; Chen, Jie; Lei, Xiaohui; Feng, Maoyuan
2017-10-01
Climate change is affecting hydrological variables and consequently is impacting water resources management. Historical strategies are no longer applicable under climate change. Therefore, adaptive management, especially adaptive operating rules for reservoirs, has been developed to mitigate the possible adverse effects of climate change. However, to date, adaptive operating rules are generally based on future projections involving uncertainties under climate change, yet ignoring historical information. To address this, we propose an approach for deriving adaptive operating rules considering both historical information and future projections, namely historical and future operating rules (HAFOR). A robustness index was developed by comparing benefits from HAFOR with benefits from conventional operating rules (COR). For both historical and future streamflow series, maximizations of both average benefits and the robustness index were employed as objectives, and four trade-offs were implemented to solve the multi-objective problem. Based on the integrated objective, the simulation-based optimization method was used to optimize the parameters of HAFOR. Using the Dongwushi Reservoir in China as a case study, HAFOR was demonstrated to be an effective and robust method for developing adaptive operating rules under the uncertain changing environment. Compared with historical or projected future operating rules (HOR or FPOR), HAFOR can reduce the uncertainty and increase the robustness for future projections, especially regarding results of reservoir releases and volumes. HAFOR, therefore, facilitates adaptive management in the context that climate change is difficult to predict accurately.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bryant, R.S.
1989-09-01
One aspect of NIPER's microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) research program has been focused on obtaining all available information regarding the use of microorganisms in enhanced oil recovery field projects. The data have been evaluated in order to construct a data base of MEOR field projects. The data base has been used in this report to present a list of revised reservoir screening criteria for MEOR field processes. This list is by no means complete; however, until more information is available from ongoing field tests, it represents the best available data to date. The data base has been studied in this report in order to determine any significant reports from MEOR field projects where the microbial treatment was unsuccessful. Such information could indicate limitations of MEOR processes. The types of reservoir information sought from these projects that could be limitations of microorganisms include reservoir permeability, salinity, temperature, and high concentrations of minerals in the rock such as selenium, arsenic, or mercury. Unfortunately, most of the MEOR field projects to date have not reported this type of information; thus we still cannot assess field limitations until more projects report these data. 7 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrea Sulis
2014-04-01
Full Text Available The definition of a synthetic index for classifying the quality of water bodies is a key aspect in integrated planning and management of water resource systems. In previous works [1,2], a water system optimization modeling approach that requires a single quality index for stored water in reservoirs has been applied to a complex multi-reservoir system. Considering the same modeling field, this paper presents an improved quality index estimated both on the basis of the overall trophic state of the water body and on the basis of the density values of the most potentially toxic Cyanobacteria. The implementation of the index into the optimization model makes it possible to reproduce the conditions limiting water use due to excessive nutrient enrichment in the water body and to the health hazard linked to toxic blooms. The analysis of an extended limnological database (1996–2012 in four reservoirs of the Flumendosa-Campidano system (Sardinia, Italy provides useful insights into the strengths and limitations of the proposed synthetic index.
Sulis, Andrea; Buscarinu, Paola; Soru, Oriana; Sechi, Giovanni M
2014-04-22
The definition of a synthetic index for classifying the quality of water bodies is a key aspect in integrated planning and management of water resource systems. In previous works [1,2], a water system optimization modeling approach that requires a single quality index for stored water in reservoirs has been applied to a complex multi-reservoir system. Considering the same modeling field, this paper presents an improved quality index estimated both on the basis of the overall trophic state of the water body and on the basis of the density values of the most potentially toxic Cyanobacteria. The implementation of the index into the optimization model makes it possible to reproduce the conditions limiting water use due to excessive nutrient enrichment in the water body and to the health hazard linked to toxic blooms. The analysis of an extended limnological database (1996-2012) in four reservoirs of the Flumendosa-Campidano system (Sardinia, Italy) provides useful insights into the strengths and limitations of the proposed synthetic index.
Analysis and Modelling of Taste and Odour Events in a Shallow Subtropical Reservoir
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Edoardo Bertone
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Understanding and predicting Taste and Odour events is as difficult as critical for drinking water treatment plants. Following a number of events in recent years, a comprehensive statistical analysis of data from Lake Tingalpa (Queensland, Australia was conducted. Historical manual sampling data, as well as data remotely collected by a vertical profiler, were collected; regression analysis and self-organising maps were the used to determine correlations between Taste and Odour compounds and potential input variables. Results showed that the predominant Taste and Odour compound was geosmin. Although one of the main predictors was the occurrence of cyanobacteria blooms, it was noticed that the cyanobacteria species was also critical. Additionally, water temperature, reservoir volume and oxidised nitrogen availability, were key inputs determining the occurrence and magnitude of the geosmin peak events. Based on the results of the statistical analysis, a predictive regression model was developed to provide indications on the potential occurrence, and magnitude, of peaks in geosmin concentration. Additionally, it was found that the blue green algae probe of the lake’s vertical profiler has the potential to be used as one of the inputs for an automated geosmin early warning system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Birkholzer, Jens; Pruess, Karsten; Lewicki, Jennifer; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Karimjee, Anhar
2005-01-01
While the purpose of geologic storage of CO 2 in deep saline formations is to trap greenhouse gases underground, the potential exists for CO 2 to escape from the target reservoir, migrate upward along permeable pathways, and discharge at the land surface. Such discharge is not necessarily a serious concern, as CO 2 is a naturally abundant and relatively benign gas in low concentrations. However, there is a potential risk to health, safety and environment (HSE) in the event that large localized fluxes of CO 2 were to occur at the land surface, especially where CO 2 could accumulate. In this paper, we develop possible scenarios for large CO 2 fluxes based on the analysis of natural analogues, where large releases of gas have been observed. We are particularly interested in scenarios which could generate sudden, possibly self-enhancing, or even eruptive release events. The probability for such events may be low, but the circumstances under which they might occur and potential consequences need to be evaluated in order to design appropriate site selection and risk management strategies. Numerical modeling of hypothetical test cases is needed to determine critical conditions for such events, to evaluate whether such conditions may be possible at designated storage sites, and, if applicable, to evaluate the potential HSE impacts of such events and design appropriate mitigation strategies
Scenario-based fitted Q-iteration for adaptive control of water reservoir systems under uncertainty
Bertoni, Federica; Giuliani, Matteo; Castelletti, Andrea
2017-04-01
Over recent years, mathematical models have largely been used to support planning and management of water resources systems. Yet, the increasing uncertainties in their inputs - due to increased variability in the hydrological regimes - are a major challenge to the optimal operations of these systems. Such uncertainty, boosted by projected changing climate, violates the stationarity principle generally used for describing hydro-meteorological processes, which assumes time persisting statistical characteristics of a given variable as inferred by historical data. As this principle is unlikely to be valid in the future, the probability density function used for modeling stochastic disturbances (e.g., inflows) becomes an additional uncertain parameter of the problem, which can be described in a deterministic and set-membership based fashion. This study contributes a novel method for designing optimal, adaptive policies for controlling water reservoir systems under climate-related uncertainty. The proposed method, called scenario-based Fitted Q-Iteration (sFQI), extends the original Fitted Q-Iteration algorithm by enlarging the state space to include the space of the uncertain system's parameters (i.e., the uncertain climate scenarios). As a result, sFQI embeds the set-membership uncertainty of the future inflow scenarios in the action-value function and is able to approximate, with a single learning process, the optimal control policy associated to any scenario included in the uncertainty set. The method is demonstrated on a synthetic water system, consisting of a regulated lake operated for ensuring reliable water supply to downstream users. Numerical results show that the sFQI algorithm successfully identifies adaptive solutions to operate the system under different inflow scenarios, which outperform the control policy designed under historical conditions. Moreover, the sFQI policy generalizes over inflow scenarios not directly experienced during the policy design
A Reduced Order Model for Fast Production Prediction from an Oil Reservoir with a Gas Cap
Yang, Yichen
2016-01-01
Master's thesis in Petroleum geosciences engineering Economic evaluations are essential inputs for oil and gas field development decisions. These evaluations are critically dependent on the unbiased assessment of uncertainty in the future oil and gas production from wells. However, many production prediction techniques come at significant computational costs as they often require a very large number of highly detailed grid based reservoir simulations. In this study, we present an alter...
Bao, Kai
2013-01-01
The present work describes a parallel computational framework for CO2 sequestration simulation by coupling reservoir simulation and molecular dynamics (MD) on massively parallel HPC systems. In this framework, a parallel reservoir simulator, Reservoir Simulation Toolbox (RST), solves the flow and transport equations that describe the subsurface flow behavior, while the molecular dynamics simulations are performed to provide the required physical parameters. Numerous technologies from different fields are employed to make this novel coupled system work efficiently. One of the major applications of the framework is the modeling of large scale CO2 sequestration for long-term storage in the subsurface geological formations, such as depleted reservoirs and deep saline aquifers, which has been proposed as one of the most attractive and practical solutions to reduce the CO2 emission problem to address the global-warming threat. To effectively solve such problems, fine grids and accurate prediction of the properties of fluid mixtures are essential for accuracy. In this work, the CO2 sequestration is presented as our first example to couple the reservoir simulation and molecular dynamics, while the framework can be extended naturally to the full multiphase multicomponent compositional flow simulation to handle more complicated physical process in the future. Accuracy and scalability analysis are performed on an IBM BlueGene/P and on an IBM BlueGene/Q, the latest IBM supercomputer. Results show good accuracy of our MD simulations compared with published data, and good scalability are observed with the massively parallel HPC systems. The performance and capacity of the proposed framework are well demonstrated with several experiments with hundreds of millions to a billion cells. To our best knowledge, the work represents the first attempt to couple the reservoir simulation and molecular simulation for large scale modeling. Due to the complexity of the subsurface systems
Bao, Kai
2015-10-26
The present work describes a parallel computational framework for carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration simulation by coupling reservoir simulation and molecular dynamics (MD) on massively parallel high-performance-computing (HPC) systems. In this framework, a parallel reservoir simulator, reservoir-simulation toolbox (RST), solves the flow and transport equations that describe the subsurface flow behavior, whereas the MD simulations are performed to provide the required physical parameters. Technologies from several different fields are used to make this novel coupled system work efficiently. One of the major applications of the framework is the modeling of large-scale CO2 sequestration for long-term storage in subsurface geological formations, such as depleted oil and gas reservoirs and deep saline aquifers, which has been proposed as one of the few attractive and practical solutions to reduce CO2 emissions and address the global-warming threat. Fine grids and accurate prediction of the properties of fluid mixtures under geological conditions are essential for accurate simulations. In this work, CO2 sequestration is presented as a first example for coupling reservoir simulation and MD, although the framework can be extended naturally to the full multiphase multicomponent compositional flow simulation to handle more complicated physical processes in the future. Accuracy and scalability analysis are performed on an IBM BlueGene/P and on an IBM BlueGene/Q, the latest IBM supercomputer. Results show good accuracy of our MD simulations compared with published data, and good scalability is observed with the massively parallel HPC systems. The performance and capacity of the proposed framework are well-demonstrated with several experiments with hundreds of millions to one billion cells. To the best of our knowledge, the present work represents the first attempt to couple reservoir simulation and molecular simulation for large-scale modeling. Because of the complexity of
Permeability Estimation of Rock Reservoir Based on PCA and Elman Neural Networks
Shi, Ying; Jian, Shaoyong
2018-03-01
an intelligent method which based on fuzzy neural networks with PCA algorithm, is proposed to estimate the permeability of rock reservoir. First, the dimensionality reduction process is utilized for these parameters by principal component analysis method. Further, the mapping relationship between rock slice characteristic parameters and permeability had been found through fuzzy neural networks. The estimation validity and reliability for this method were tested with practical data from Yan’an region in Ordos Basin. The result showed that the average relative errors of permeability estimation for this method is 6.25%, and this method had the better convergence speed and more accuracy than other. Therefore, by using the cheap rock slice related information, the permeability of rock reservoir can be estimated efficiently and accurately, and it is of high reliability, practicability and application prospect.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sri Legowo
2009-11-01
Full Text Available Sedimentation is such a crucial issue to be noted once the accumulated sediment begins to fill the reservoir dead storage, this will then influence the long-term reservoir operation. The sediment accumulated requires a serious attention for it may influence the storage capacity and other reservoir management of activities. The continuous inflow of sediment to the reservoir will decrease the capacity of reservoir storage, the reservoir value in use, and the useful age of reservoir. Because of that, the rate of the sediment needs to be delayed as possible. In this research, the delay of the sediment rate is considered based on the rate of flow of landslide of the reservoir slope. The rate of flow of the sliding slope can be minimized by way of each reservoir autonomous efforts. This effort can be performed through; the regulation of fluctuating rate of reservoir surface current that does not cause suddenly drawdown and upraising as well. The research model is compiled using the searching technique of Non Linear Programming (NLP.The rate of bank erosion for the reservoir variates from 0.0009 to 0.0048 MCM/year, which is no sigrificant value to threaten the life time of reservoir.Mean while the rate of watershed sediment has a significant value, i.e: 3,02 MCM/year for Saguling that causes to fullfill the storage capacity in 40 next years (from years 2008.
Li, Yuanyao; Huang, Jinsong; Jiang, Shui-Hua; Huang, Faming; Chang, Zhilu
2017-12-07
It is important to monitor the displacement time series and to explore the failure mechanism of reservoir landslide for early warning. Traditionally, it is a challenge to monitor the landslide displacements real-timely and automatically. Globe Position System (GPS) is considered as the best real-time monitoring technology, however, the accuracies of the landslide displacements monitored by GPS are not assessed effectively. A web-based GPS system is developed to monitor the landslide displacements real-timely and automatically in this study. And the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is proposed to assess the accuracy of the GPS monitoring displacements. Wangmiao landslide in Three Gorges Reservoir area in China is used as case study. The results show that the web-based GPS system has advantages of high precision, real-time, remote control and automation for landslide monitoring; the Root Mean Square Errors of the monitoring landslide displacements are less than 5 mm. Meanwhile, the results also show that a rapidly falling reservoir water level can trigger the reactivation of Wangmiao landslide. Heavy rainfall is also an important factor, but not a crucial component.
Inverse Problems in Geosciences: Modelling the Rock Properties of an Oil Reservoir
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lange, Katrine
. We have developed and implemented the Frequency Matching method that uses the closed form expression of the a priori probability density function to formulate an inverse problem and compute the maximum a posteriori solution to it. Other methods for computing models that simultaneously fit data...... of the subsurface of the reservoirs. Hence the focus of this work has been on acquiring models of spatial parameters describing rock properties of the subsurface using geostatistical a priori knowledge and available geophysical data. Such models are solutions to often severely under-determined, inverse problems...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rockhold, Mark L.; Sullivan, E. C.; Murray, Christopher J.; Last, George V.; Black, Gary D.
2009-09-30
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has embarked on an initiative to develop world-class capabilities for performing experimental and computational analyses associated with geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide. The ultimate goal of this initiative is to provide science-based solutions for helping to mitigate the adverse effects of greenhouse gas emissions. This Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) initiative currently has two primary focus areas—advanced experimental methods and computational analysis. The experimental methods focus area involves the development of new experimental capabilities, supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory (EMSL) housed at PNNL, for quantifying mineral reaction kinetics with CO2 under high temperature and pressure (supercritical) conditions. The computational analysis focus area involves numerical simulation of coupled, multi-scale processes associated with CO2 sequestration in geologic media, and the development of software to facilitate building and parameterizing conceptual and numerical models of subsurface reservoirs that represent geologic repositories for injected CO2. This report describes work in support of the computational analysis focus area. The computational analysis focus area currently consists of several collaborative research projects. These are all geared towards the development and application of conceptual and numerical models for geologic sequestration of CO2. The software being developed for this focus area is referred to as the Geologic Sequestration Software Suite or GS3. A wiki-based software framework is being developed to support GS3. This report summarizes work performed in FY09 on one of the LDRD projects in the computational analysis focus area. The title of this project is Data Assimilation Tools for CO2 Reservoir Model Development. Some key objectives of this project in FY09 were to assess the current state
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chakravarty, Krishna Hara
recovery can increase that capture up to 25-30% of original oil in place (OOIP). But cost effective Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) techniques if implemented correctly canbe used to produce another 10-15% of the initially available hydrocarbons. Advanced water flooding (i.e. altering injection brine...... compositions by varying concentration of selected ions) is an enhanced oil recovery method which in alow cost, non-toxic manner increases oil recovery from various carbonate reservoirs. Dan and Halfdan are chalk reservoirs from the Danish North Sea, which are matured oil fields that have been flooded......For most oil reservoirs which were drilled with conventional methods, the expected initial recovery of available hydrocarbons maybe as low as 15% – thusleaving 85+% of hydrocarbons in the reservoir. Implementation of mechanical methods including pump jacks and initial gas injection or thermal...
Multi-objective game-theory models for conflict analysis in reservoir watershed management.
Lee, Chih-Sheng
2012-05-01
This study focuses on the development of a multi-objective game-theory model (MOGM) for balancing economic and environmental concerns in reservoir watershed management and for assistance in decision. Game theory is used as an alternative tool for analyzing strategic interaction between economic development (land use and development) and environmental protection (water-quality protection and eutrophication control). Geographic information system is used to concisely illustrate and calculate the areas of various land use types. The MOGM methodology is illustrated in a case study of multi-objective watershed management in the Tseng-Wen reservoir, Taiwan. The innovation and advantages of MOGM can be seen in the results, which balance economic and environmental concerns in watershed management and which can be interpreted easily by decision makers. For comparison, the decision-making process using conventional multi-objective method to produce many alternatives was found to be more difficult. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Application of Ant-Colony-Based Algorithms to Multi-Reservoir Water Resources Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alireza Borhani Darian
2011-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the continuous Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm (ACOR is used to investigate the optimum operation of complex multi-reservoir systems. The results are compared with those of the well-known Genetic Algorithm (GA. For this purpose, GA and ACOR are used to solve the long-term operation of a three-reservoir system in Karkheh Basin, southwestern Iran. The solution must determine monthly releases from the three reservoirs and their optimum allocations among the four agricultural demand areas. Meanwhile, a minimum discharge must be maintained within the river reaches for environmental concerns. Review of past research shows that only a few applications of Ant Colony have been generally made in water resources system problems; however, up to the time of initiating this paper, we found no other application of the ACOR in this area. Therefore, unlike GA, application of Ant-Colony-based algorithms in water resources systems has not been thoroughly evaluated and deserves serious study. In this paper, the ACOR is stuided as the most recent Ant-Colony-based algorithm and its application in a multi-reservoir system is evaluated. The results indicate that with when the number of decision variables increases, a longer computational time is required and the optimum solutions found are inferior. Therefore, the ACOR would be unable to solve complex water resources problems unless some modifications are considered. To overcome a part of these drawbacks, a number of techniques are introduced in this paper that considerably improve the quality of the method by decreasing the required computation time and by enhancing optimum solutions found.
Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shu-Guang
2012-01-01
Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is tightly linked to land use activities that determine the sources and magnitudes of pollutant loadings to stream water. The pollutant loads may also be alleviated within reservoirs because of the physical interception resulting from changed hydrological regimes and other biochemical processes. It is important but challenging to assess the NPS pollution processes with human effects due to the measurement limitations. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of human activities such as land uses and reservoir operation on the hydrological and NPS pollution processes in a highly agricultural area-the Iowa River Basin-using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The evaluation of model performance at multiple sites reveals that SWAT can consistently simulate the daily streamflow, and monthly/annual sediment and nutrient loads (nitrate nitrogen and mineral phosphorus) in the basin. We also used the calibrated model to estimate the trap efficiencies of sediment (~78%) and nutrients (~30%) in the Coralville Reservoir within the basin. These non-negligible effects emphasize the significance of incorporating the sediment and nutrient removal mechanisms into watershed system studies. The spatial quantification of the critical NPS pollution loads can help identify hot-spot areas that are likely locations for the best management practices.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bragin, V A; Lyadkin, V Ya
1969-01-01
A potentiometric model is used to simulate the behavior of a reservoir in which pressure was dropped rapidly and solution gas migrated to the top of the structure forming a gas cap. Behavior of the system was represented by a differential equation, which was solved by an electrointegrator. The potentiometric model was found to closely represent past history of the reservoir, and to predict its future behavior. When this method is used in reservoirs where large pressure drops occur, repeated determination should be made at various time intervals, so that changes in relative permeability are taken into account.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Santos, Afonso Henriques Moreira [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil); Ferreira, Aloisio Caetano; Ottoni, Arthur Benedicto; Nogueira Neto, Claudio; Silva, Denis de Souza
2008-07-01
The human occupation of the hydrographic basin, made in the past without plans, generated alteration of the hydrology characteristics, presenting as direct consequence modifications of its hydric availabilities. Or either, the floods in the rainy periods and the droughts in the ones of dryness currently tend to be more frequent and with bigger intensity. These conditions have affected the operation as well as the planning of the hydroelectric reservoirs, that have generated energy in conditions of different hydric availabilities (worse) of those foreseeing at the time of the project. These situations result in uncertainties and energy losses for the investor as well as in the system. Under such premises, the present article analyzes the energy-economic influences of the deterioration of the hydric regimen of some on exploitations in operation to the system, located in basins degrades in the South, Southeastern and Northeast regions; enhancing the importance of the studies of hydric economy of these units of management (degraded basins) as subsidy of taking of decision for gradual recovery of its hydric availabilities; taking in account the energy optimization of the hydroelectric reservoirs in located operation as well as the minimization of inherent the financial losses to the uncertainties of its hydric resources. (author)
Boro, H.; Rosero, E.; Bertotti, G.V.
2014-01-01
Fractures in subsurface reservoirs are known to have significant impacts on reservoir productivity. Quantifying their importance, however, is challenged by limited subsurface observations, and intense computations for modelling and upscaling. In this paper, we present a workflow to construct and
Sub-seasonal-to-seasonal Reservoir Inflow Forecast using Bayesian Hierarchical Hidden Markov Model
Mukhopadhyay, S.; Arumugam, S.
2017-12-01
Sub-seasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) (15-90 days) streamflow forecasting is an emerging area of research that provides seamless information for reservoir operation from weather time scales to seasonal time scales. From an operational perspective, sub-seasonal inflow forecasts are highly valuable as these enable water managers to decide short-term releases (15-30 days), while holding water for seasonal needs (e.g., irrigation and municipal supply) and to meet end-of-the-season target storage at a desired level. We propose a Bayesian Hierarchical Hidden Markov Model (BHHMM) to develop S2S inflow forecasts for the Tennessee Valley Area (TVA) reservoir system. Here, the hidden states are predicted by relevant indices that influence the inflows at S2S time scale. The hidden Markov model also captures the both spatial and temporal hierarchy in predictors that operate at S2S time scale with model parameters being estimated as a posterior distribution using a Bayesian framework. We present our work in two steps, namely single site model and multi-site model. For proof of concept, we consider inflows to Douglas Dam, Tennessee, in the single site model. For multisite model we consider reservoirs in the upper Tennessee valley. Streamflow forecasts are issued and updated continuously every day at S2S time scale. We considered precipitation forecasts obtained from NOAA Climate Forecast System (CFSv2) GCM as predictors for developing S2S streamflow forecasts along with relevant indices for predicting hidden states. Spatial dependence of the inflow series of reservoirs are also preserved in the multi-site model. To circumvent the non-normality of the data, we consider the HMM in a Generalized Linear Model setting. Skill of the proposed approach is tested using split sample validation against a traditional multi-site canonical correlation model developed using the same set of predictors. From the posterior distribution of the inflow forecasts, we also highlight different system behavior
Rock-physics and seismic-inversion based reservoir characterization of the Haynesville Shale
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang, Meijuan; Spikes, Kyle T
2016-01-01
Seismic reservoir characterization of unconventional gas shales is challenging due to their heterogeneity and anisotropy. Rock properties of unconventional gas shales such as porosity, pore-shape distribution, and composition are important for interpreting seismic data amplitude variations in order to locate optimal drilling locations. The presented seismic reservoir characterization procedure applied a grid-search algorithm to estimate the composition, pore-shape distribution, and porosity at the seismic scale from the seismically inverted impedances and a rock-physics model, using the Haynesville Shale as a case study. All the proposed rock properties affected the seismic velocities, and the combined effects of these rock properties on the seismic amplitude were investigated simultaneously. The P- and S-impedances correlated negatively with porosity, and the V _P/V _S correlated positively with clay fraction and negatively with the pore-shape distribution and quartz fraction. The reliability of these estimated rock properties at the seismic scale was verified through comparisons between two sets of elastic properties: one coming from inverted impedances, which were obtained from simultaneous inversion of prestack seismic data, and one derived from these estimated rock properties. The differences between the two sets of elastic properties were less than a few percent, verifying the feasibility of the presented seismic reservoir characterization. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Onyeagoro, U. O.; Ebong, U. E.; Nworie, E. A.
2002-01-01
The large and varied portfolio of assets managed by oil companies requires quick decision-making and the deployment of best in class technologies in asset management. Timely decision making and the application of the best technologies in reservoir management are however sometimes in conflict due to large time requirements of the latter.Optimizing the location of development wells is critical to account for variable fluid contact movements and pressure interference effects between wells, which can be significant because of the high permeability (Darcy range) of Niger Delta reservoirs. With relatively high drilling costs, the optimization of well locations necessitates a good realistic static and dynamic 3D reservoir description, especially in the recovery of remaining oil and oil rim type of reservoirs.A detailed 3D reservoir model with fault properties was constructed for a Niger delta producing field. This involved the integration of high quality 3D seismic, core, petrophysics, reservoir engineering, production and structural geology data to construct a realistic 3D reservoir/fault property model for the field. The key parameters considered during the construction of the internal architecture of the model were the vertical and horizontal reservoir heterogeneities-this controls the fluid flow within the reservoir. In the production realm, the fault thickness and fault permeabilities are factors that control the impedance of fluid flow across the fault-fault transmissibility. These key internal and external reservoir/structural variables were explicitly modeled in a 3D modeling software to produce different realizations and manage the uncertainties.The resulting 3D reservoir/fault property model was upscaled for simulation purpose such that grid blocks along the fault planes have realistic transmissibility multipliers of 0 to 1 attached to them. The model was also used in the well planner to optimize the positioning of a high angle deviated well that penetrated
Zheleznyak, M.; Kivva, S.; Nanba, K.; Wakiyama, Y.; Konoplev, A.; Onda, Y.; Gallego, E.; Papush, L.; Maderych, V.
2015-12-01
The highest densities of the radioisotopes in fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP in March 2011 were measured at the north eastern part of Fukushima Prefecture. The post-accidental aquatic transfer of cesium -134/137 includes multiscale processes: wash-off from the watersheds in solute and with the eroded soil, long-range transport in the rivers, deposition and resuspension of contaminated sediments in reservoirs and floodplains. The models of EU decision support system RODOS are used for predicting dynamics of 137Cs in the Fukushima surface waters and for assessing efficiency of the remediation measures. The transfer of 137Cs through the watershed of Niida River was simulated by DHSVM -R model that includes the modified code of the distributed hydrological and sediment transport model DHSVM (Lettenmayer, Wigmosta et al.) and new module of radionuclide transport. DHSMV-R was tested by modelling the wash-off from the USLE experimental plots in Fukushima prefecture. The model helps to quantify the influence of the differentiators of Fukushima and Chernobyl watersheds, - intensity of extreme precipitation and steepness of watershed, on the much higher values of the ratio "particulated cesium /soluted cesium" in Fukushima rivers than in Chernobyl rivers. Two dimensional model COASTOX and three dimensional model THREETOX are used to simulate the fate of 137Cs in water and sediments of reservoirs in the Manogawa River, Otagawa River, Mizunashigawa River, which transport 137Cs from the heavy contaminated watersheds to the populated areas at the Pacific coast. The modeling of the extreme floods generated by typhoons shows the resuspension of the bottom sediments from the heavy contaminated areas in reservoirs at the mouths of inflowing rivers at the peaks of floods and then re-deposition of 137Cs downstream in the deeper areas. The forecasts of 137Cs dynamics in bottom sediments of the reservoirs were calculated for the set of the scenarios of the sequences of the high
Agent-based modelling of cholera diffusion
Augustijn-Beckers, Petronella; Doldersum, Tom; Useya, Juliana; Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.
2016-01-01
This paper introduces a spatially explicit agent-based simulation model for micro-scale cholera diffusion. The model simulates both an environmental reservoir of naturally occurring V.cholerae bacteria and hyperinfectious V. cholerae. Objective of the research is to test if runoff from open refuse
Modeling Highly Buoyant Flows in the Castel Giorgio: Torre Alfina Deep Geothermal Reservoir
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giorgio Volpi
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The Castel Giorgio-Torre Alfina (CG-TA, central Italy is a geothermal reservoir whose fluids are hosted in a carbonate formation at temperatures ranging between 120°C and 210°C. Data from deep wells suggest the existence of convective flow. We present the 3D numerical model of the CG-TA to simulate the undisturbed natural geothermal field and investigate the impacts of the exploitation process. The open source finite-element code OpenGeoSys is applied to solve the coupled systems of partial differential equations. The commercial software FEFLOW® is also used as additional numerical constraint. Calculated pressure and temperature have been calibrated against data from geothermal wells. The flow field displays multicellular convective patterns that cover the entire geothermal reservoir. The resulting thermal plumes protrude vertically over 3 km at Darcy velocity of about 7⁎10-8 m/s. The analysis of the exploitation process demonstrated the sustainability of a geothermal doublet for the development of a 5 MW pilot plant. The buoyant circulation within the geothermal system allows the reservoir to sustain a 50-year production at a flow rate of 1050 t/h. The distance of 2 km, between the production and reinjection wells, is sufficient to prevent any thermal breakthrough within the estimated operational lifetime. OGS and FELFOW results are qualitatively very similar with differences in peak velocities and temperatures. The case study provides valuable guidelines for future exploitation of the CG-TA deep geothermal reservoir.
Huang, Yongtai
2014-03-01
Numerical water quality models are developed to predict contaminant fate and transport in receiving waters such as reservoirs and lakes. They can be helpful tools for water resource management. The objective of this study is to calibrate a water quality model which was set up to simulate the water quality conditions of Pepacton Reservoir, Downsville, New York, USA, using an aggregation hybrid genetic algorithm (AHGA) and a non-dominated sorting hybrid genetic algorithm (NSHGA). Both AHGA and NSHGA use a hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA) as optimization engines but are different in fitness assignment. In the AHGA, a weighted sum of scaled simulation errors is designed as an overall objective function to measure the fitness of solutions (i.e., parameter values). In the NSHGA, a method based on non-dominated sorting and Euclidean distances is proposed to calculate the dummy fitness of solutions. In addition, this study also compares the AHGA and the NSHGA. The purpose of this comparison is to determine whether the objective function values (i.e., simulation errors) and simulated results obtained by the AHGA and the NSHGA are significantly different from each other. The results show that the objective function values from the two HGAs are good compromises between all objective functions, and the calibrated model results match the observed data reasonably well and are comparable to other studies, supporting and justifying the use of multi-objective calibration.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Si Le Van
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Chemical flooding has been widely utilized to recover a large portion of the oil remaining in light and viscous oil reservoirs after the primary and secondary production processes. As core-flood tests and reservoir simulations take time to accurately estimate the recovery performances as well as analyzing the feasibility of an injection project, it is necessary to find a powerful tool to quickly predict the results with a level of acceptable accuracy. An approach involving the use of an artificial neural network to generate a representative model for estimating the alkali-surfactant-polymer flooding performance and evaluating the economic feasibility of viscous oil reservoirs from simulation is proposed in this study. A typical chemical flooding project was referenced for this numerical study. A number of simulations have been made for training on the basis of a base case from the design of 13 parameters. After training, the network scheme generated from a ratio data set of 50%-20%-30% corresponding to the number of samples used for training-validation-testing was selected for estimation with the total coefficient of determination of 0.986 and a root mean square error of 1.63%. In terms of model application, the chemical concentration and injection strategy were optimized to maximize the net present value (NPV of the project at a specific oil price from the just created ANN model. To evaluate the feasibility of the project comprehensively in terms of market variations, a range of oil prices from 30 $/bbl to 60 $/bbl referenced from a real market situation was considered in conjunction with its probability following a statistical distribution on the NPV computation. Feasibility analysis of the optimal chemical injection scheme revealed a variation of profit from 0.42 $MM to 1.0 $MM, corresponding to the changes in oil price. In particular, at the highest possible oil prices, the project can earn approximately 0.61 $MM to 0.87 $MM for a quarter
Barragán, Rosa María; Núñez, José; Arellano, Víctor Manuel; Nieva, David
2016-03-01
Exploration and exploitation of geothermal resources require the estimation of important physical characteristics of reservoirs including temperatures, pressures and in situ two-phase conditions, in order to evaluate possible uses and/or investigate changes due to exploitation. As at relatively high temperatures (>150 °C) reservoir fluids usually attain chemical equilibrium in contact with hot rocks, different models based on the chemistry of fluids have been developed that allow deep conditions to be estimated. Currently either in water-dominated or steam-dominated reservoirs the chemistry of steam has been useful for working out reservoir conditions. In this context, three methods based on the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) and combined H2S-H2 (HSH) mineral-gas reactions have been developed for estimating temperatures and the quality of the in situ two-phase mixture prevailing in the reservoir. For these methods the mineral buffers considered to be controlling H2S-H2 composition of fluids are as follows. The pyrite-magnetite buffer (FT-HSH1); the pyrite-hematite buffer (FT-HSH2) and the pyrite-pyrrhotite buffer (FT-HSH3). Currently from such models the estimations of both, temperature and steam fraction in the two-phase fluid are obtained graphically by using a blank diagram with a background theoretical solution as reference. Thus large errors are involved since the isotherms are highly nonlinear functions while reservoir steam fractions are taken from a logarithmic scale. In order to facilitate the use of the three FT-HSH methods and minimize visual interpolation errors, the EQUILGAS program that numerically solves the equations of the FT-HSH methods was developed. In this work the FT-HSH methods and the EQUILGAS program are described. Illustrative examples for Mexican fields are also given in order to help the users in deciding which method could be more suitable for every specific data set.
Lu, M.; Lall, U.
2013-12-01
decadal flow simulations are re-initialized every year with updated climate projections to improve the reliability of the operation rules for the next year, within which the seasonal operation strategies are nested. The multi-level structure can be repeated for monthly operation with weekly subperiods to take advantage of evolving weather forecasts and seasonal climate forecasts. As a result of the hierarchical structure, sub-seasonal even weather time scale updates and adjustment can be achieved. Given an ensemble of these scenarios, the McISH reservoir simulation-optimization model is able to derive the desired reservoir storage levels, including minimum and maximum, as a function of calendar date, and the associated release patterns. The multi-time scale approach allows adaptive management of water supplies acknowledging the changing risks, meeting both the objectives over the decade in expected value and controlling the near term and planning period risk through probabilistic reliability constraints. For the applications presented, the target season is the monsoon season from June to September. The model also includes a monthly flood volume forecast model, based on a Copula density fit to the monthly flow and the flood volume flow. This is used to guide dynamic allocation of the flood control volume given the forecasts.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Molina-Navarro, Euginio; Trolle, Dennis; Martinez-Pérez, Silvia
Assessment Tool (SWAT) model developed for a small Mediterranean catchment to quantify the potential effects of various climate change scenarios on catchment hydrology as well as the trophic state of a new kind of waterbody, a limno-reservoir (Pareja Limno-reservoir), created for environmental...... and recreational purposes. Simulations showed a noticeable impact of climate change in the river flow regime and consequently the water level of the limno-reservoir, especially during summer, complicating the fulfillment of its purposes. All the scenarios predicted a deterioration of trophic conditions...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yan Zeng
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Multistage fractured horizontal wells (MFHWs have become the main technology for shale gas exploration. However, the existing models have neglected the percolation mechanism in nanopores of organic matter and failed to consider the differences among the reservoir properties in different areas. On that account, in this study, a modified apparent permeability model was proposed describing gas flow in shale gas reservoirs by integrating bulk gas flow in nanopores and gas desorption from nanopores. The apparent permeability was introduced into the macroseepage model to establish a dynamic pressure analysis model for MFHWs dual-porosity formations. The Laplace transformation and the regular perturbation method were used to obtain an analytical solution. The influences of fracture half-length, fracture permeability, Langmuir volume, matrix radius, matrix permeability, and induced fracture permeability on pressure and production were discussed. Results show that fracture half-length, fracture permeability, and induced fracture permeability exert a significant influence on production. A larger Langmuir volume results in a smaller pressure and pressure derivative. An increase in matrix permeability increases the production rate. Besides, this model fits the actual field data relatively well. It has a reliable theoretical foundation and can preferably describe the dynamic changes of pressure in the exploration process.
Historical Streamflow Series Analysis Applied to Furnas HPP Reservoir Watershed Using the SWAT Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Viviane de Souza Dias
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Over the last few years, the operation of the Furnas Hydropower Plant (HPP reservoir, located in the Grande River Basin, has been threatened due to a significant reduction in inflow. In the region, hydrological modelling tools are being used and tested to support decision making and water sustainability. In this study, the streamflow was modelled in the area of direct influence of the Furnas HPP reservoir, and the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model performance was verified for studies in the region. Analyses of sensitivity and uncertainty were undertaken using the Sequential Uncertainty Fitting algorithm (SUFI-2 with a Calibration Uncertainty Program (SWAT-CUP. The hydrological modelling, at a monthly scale, presented good results in the calibration (NS 0.86, with a slight reduction of the coefficient in the validation period (NS 0.64. The results suggested that this tool could be applied in future hydrological studies in the region of study. With the consideration that special attention should be given to the historical series used in the calibration and validation of the models. It is important to note that this region has high demands for water resources, primarily for agricultural use. Water demands must also be taken into account in future hydrological simulations. The validation of this methodology led to important contributions to the management of water resources in regions with tropical climates, whose climatological and geological reality resembles the one studied here.
Zhang, Penghui; Zhang, Jinliang; Wang, Jinkai; Li, Ming; Liang, Jie; Wu, Yingli
2018-05-01
Flow units classification can be used in reservoir characterization. In addition, characterizing the reservoir interval into flow units is an effective way to simulate the reservoir. Paraflow units (PFUs), the second level of flow units, are used to estimate the spatial distribution of continental clastic reservoirs at the detailed reservoir description stage. In this study, we investigate a nonroutine methodology to predict the external and internal distribution of PFUs. The methodology outlined enables the classification of PFUs using sandstone core samples and log data. The relationships obtained between porosity, permeability and pore throat aperture radii (r35) values were established for core and log data obtained from 26 wells from the Funing Formation, Gaoji Oilfield, Subei Basin, China. The present study refines predicted PFUs at logged (0.125-m) intervals, whose scale is much smaller than routine methods. Meanwhile, three-dimensional models are built using sequential indicator simulation to characterize PFUs in wells. Four distinct PFUs are classified and located based on the statistical methodology of cluster analysis, and each PFU has different seepage ability. The results of this study demonstrate the obtained models are able to quantify reservoir heterogeneity. Due to different petrophysical characteristics and seepage ability, PFUs have a significant impact on the distribution of the remaining oil. Considering these allows a more accurate understanding of reservoir quality, especially within non-marine sandstone reservoirs.
Miranda, Leandro E.; Bettoli, Phillip William
2010-01-01
expressed effects, such as turbidity and water quality, zooplankton density and size composition, or fish growth rates and assemblage composition, are the upshot of large-scale factors operating outside reservoirs and not under the direct control of reservoir managers. Realistically, abiotic and biotic conditions in reservoirs are shaped by factors working inside and outside reservoirs, with the relative importance of external factors differing among reservoirs. With this perspective, large reservoirs are viewed from a habitat standpoint within the framework of a conceptual model in which individual reservoir characteristics are influenced by both local- and landscape-scale factors (Figure 17.1). In the sections that follow, how each element of this hierarchical model influences habitat and fish assemblages in reservoirs is considered. Important in-reservoir habitat issues and reservoirs as part of larger systems, where reservoir management requires looking for real solutions outside individual reservoirs are described.
Müller, Daniel; Regenspurg, Simona; Milsch, Harald; Blöcher, Guido; Kranz, Stefan; Saadat, Ali
2014-05-01
In aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) systems, large amounts of energy can be stored by injecting hot water into deep or intermediate aquifers. In a seasonal production-injection cycle, water is circulated through a system comprising the porous aquifer, a production well, a heat exchanger and an injection well. This process involves large temperature and pressure differences, which shift chemical equilibria and introduce or amplify mechanical processes. Rock-fluid interaction such as dissolution and precipitation or migration and deposition of fine particles will affect the hydraulic properties of the porous medium and may lead to irreversible formation damage. In consequence, these processes determine the long-term performance of the ATES system and need to be predicted to ensure the reliability of the system. However, high temperature and pressure gradients and dynamic feedback cycles pose challenges on predicting the influence of the relevant processes. Within this study, a reservoir model comprising a coupled hydraulic-thermal-chemical simulation was developed based on an ATES demonstration project located in the city of Berlin, Germany. The structural model was created with Petrel, based on data available from seismic cross-sections and wellbores. The reservoir simulation was realized by combining the capabilities of multiple simulation tools. For the reactive transport model, COMSOL Multiphysics (hydraulic-thermal) and PHREEQC (chemical) were combined using the novel interface COMSOL_PHREEQC, developed by Wissmeier & Barry (2011). It provides a MATLAB-based coupling interface between both programs. Compared to using COMSOL's built-in reactive transport simulator, PHREEQC additionally calculates adsorption and reaction kinetics and allows the selection of different activity coefficient models in the database. The presented simulation tool will be able to predict the most important aspects of hydraulic, thermal and chemical transport processes relevant to
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang, Liming; Sun, Jianmeng; Wang, Haitao; Liu, Xuefeng
2011-01-01
The effects of the wettability and solubility of natural gas in formation water on the electrical properties of natural gas reservoir rocks are studied using the finite element method based on digital cores. The results show that the resistivity index of gas-wet reservoir rocks is significantly higher than that of water-wet reservoir rocks in the entire range of water saturation. The difference between them increases with decreasing water saturation. The resistivity index of natural gas reservoir rocks decreases with increasing additional conduction of water film. The solubility of natural gas in formation water has a dramatic effect on the electrical properties of reservoir rocks. The resistivity index of reservoir rocks increases as the solubility of natural gas increases. The effect of the solubility of natural gas on the resistivity index is very obvious under conditions of low water saturation, and it becomes weaker with increasing water saturation. Therefore, the reservoir wettability and the solubility of natural gas in formation water should be considered in defining the saturation exponent
Alexandre Diogo, Paulo; Nunes, João Pedro; Marco, Machado; Aal, Carlo; Carmona Rodrigues, António; Beça, Pedro; Casanova Lino, Rafael; Rocha, João; Carvalho Santos, Cláudia
2016-04-01
Climate change (CC) scenarios for the Mediterranean region include an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events such as drought periods. higher average temperatures and evapotranspiration, combined with the decrease of annual precipitation may strongly affect the sustainability of water resources. In face of these risks, improving water management actions? by anticipating necessary operational measures is required to insure water quantity and quality according to the needs of the populations and irrigation in agriculture. This is clearly the case of the Alentejo region, southern Portugal, where present climatic conditions already pose significant challenges to water resources stakeholders, mainly from the agricultural and the urban supply sectors. With this in mind, the GestAqua.AdaPT project is underway during 2015 and 2016, aiming at analyzing CC impacts until 2100 and develop operational procedures to ensure water needs are adequately satisfied in the Monte Novo and Vigia reservoirs, which supply water for the city of Évora and nearby irrigation systems. Specific project objectives include: a) defining management and operational adaptation strategies aiming to ensure resource sustainability, both quantitatively and qualitatively; b) evaluate future potential costs and available alternatives to the regional water transfer infrastructure linked with the large Alqueva reservoir implemented in 2011; c) defining CC adaptation strategies to reduce irrigation water needs and d) identification of CC adaptation strategies which can be suitable also to other similar water supply systems. The methodology is centered on the implementation of a cascade of modeling tools, allowing the integrated simulation of the multiple variables under analysis. The project is based on CC scenarios resulting from the CORDEX project for 10 combinations of Global and regional climate models (GCMs and RCMs). The study follows by using two of these combinations
Simulation of California's Major Reservoirs Outflow Using Data Mining Technique
Yang, T.; Gao, X.; Sorooshian, S.
2014-12-01
The reservoir's outflow is controlled by reservoir operators, which is different from the upstream inflow. The outflow is more important than the reservoir's inflow for the downstream water users. In order to simulate the complicated reservoir operation and extract the outflow decision making patterns for California's 12 major reservoirs, we build a data-driven, computer-based ("artificial intelligent") reservoir decision making tool, using decision regression and classification tree approach. This is a well-developed statistical and graphical modeling methodology in the field of data mining. A shuffled cross validation approach is also employed to extract the outflow decision making patterns and rules based on the selected decision variables (inflow amount, precipitation, timing, water type year etc.). To show the accuracy of the model, a verification study is carried out comparing the model-generated outflow decisions ("artificial intelligent" decisions) with that made by reservoir operators (human decisions). The simulation results show that the machine-generated outflow decisions are very similar to the real reservoir operators' decisions. This conclusion is based on statistical evaluations using the Nash-Sutcliffe test. The proposed model is able to detect the most influential variables and their weights when the reservoir operators make an outflow decision. While the proposed approach was firstly applied and tested on California's 12 major reservoirs, the method is universally adaptable to other reservoir systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maddalena, Amedeo; Petris, Milo; Palade, Petru; Sartori, Sabrina; Principi, Giovanni [Settore Materiali and CNISM, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova (Italy); Settimo, Eliseo [Celco-Profil, via dell' Artigianato 4, 30030 Vigonovo (Venezia) (Italy); Molinas, Bernardo [Venezia Tecnologie, via delle Industrie 39, 30175 Marghera (Venezia) (Italy); Lo Russo, Sergio [Dipartimento di Fisica and CNISM, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)
2006-11-15
Powders mixtures of nanosized MgH{sub 2} and suitable additives, obtained by high energy milling, have been studied as materials to be used in a functional solid state hydrogen reservoir. A prototype of a two stages reservoir is under development (patent pending). The hydrogen release from the main stage, with high capacity Mg-based hydrides, is primed by a primer stage containing commercial hydrides able to operate at room temperature. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Mrabet, R.; Abril, J.M.; Barros, H.; Manjon, G.
2004-01-01
Kinetic transfer coefficients are important parameters to understand and reliably model the behaviour of non-conservative radionuclides in aquatic environments. This report pertains to a series of radiotracer experiments on 239 Pu uptake in natural unfiltered waters from the Hueznar reservoir (southern Spain). The experimental procedure ensures the preservation of environmental conditions and the dissolved Pu activity was measured by liquid scintillation technique. The data suggest that the main pathways for Pu uptake consist of two parallel and reversible reactions followed by a consecutive reversible reaction. We studied the effects of suspended matter concentrations and the specific surface area on the kinetic transfer coefficients. (author)
Estimates of reservoir methane emissions based on a spatially balanced probabilistic-survey
Global estimates of methane (CH4) emissions from reservoirs are poorly constrained, partly due to the challenges of accounting for intra-reservoir spatial variability. Reservoir-scale emission rates are often estimated by extrapolating from measurement made at a few locations; h...
COSTING MODELS FOR WATER SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION: PART III- PUMPS, TANKS, AND RESERVOIRS
Distribution systems are generally designed to ensure hydraulic reliability. Storage tanks, reservoirs and pumps are critical in maintaining this reliability. Although storage tanks, reservoirs and pumps are necessary for maintaining adequate pressure, they may also have a negati...
Wang, Lei; Bai, Bing; Li, Xiaochun; Liu, Mingze; Wu, Haiqing; Hu, Shaobin
2016-07-01
Induced seismicity and fault reactivation associated with fluid injection and depletion were reported in hydrocarbon, geothermal, and waste fluid injection fields worldwide. Here, we establish an analytical model to assess fault reactivation surrounding a reservoir during fluid injection and extraction that considers the stress concentrations at the fault tips and the effects of fault length. In this model, induced stress analysis in a full-space under the plane strain condition is implemented based on Eshelby's theory of inclusions in terms of a homogeneous, isotropic, and poroelastic medium. The stress intensity factor concept in linear elastic fracture mechanics is adopted as an instability criterion for pre-existing faults in surrounding rocks. To characterize the fault reactivation caused by fluid injection and extraction, we define a new index, the "fault reactivation factor" η, which can be interpreted as an index of fault stability in response to fluid pressure changes per unit within a reservoir resulting from injection or extraction. The critical fluid pressure change within a reservoir is also determined by the superposition principle using the in situ stress surrounding a fault. Our parameter sensitivity analyses show that the fault reactivation tendency is strongly sensitive to fault location, fault length, fault dip angle, and Poisson's ratio of the surrounding rock. Our case study demonstrates that the proposed model focuses on the mechanical behavior of the whole fault, unlike the conventional methodologies. The proposed method can be applied to engineering cases related to injection and depletion within a reservoir owing to its efficient computational codes implementation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andre, Laurent; Spycher, Nicolas; Xu, Tianfu; Vuataz,Francois-D.; Pruess, Karsten.
2006-12-31
precipitation, pH values calculated with FRACHEM and TOUGHREACT/Debye-Hueckel decrease by up to half a pH unit, whereas pH values calculated with TOUGHREACT/Pitzer increase by a similar amount. As a result of these differences, calcite solubilities computed using the Pitzer formalism (the more accurate approach) are up to about 1.5 orders of magnitude lower. Because of differences in Pitzer ion-interaction parameters, the calcite solubility computed with TOUGHREACT/Pitzer is also typically about 0.5 orders of magnitude lower than that computed with FRACHEM, with the latter expected to be most accurate. In a second part of this investigation, both models were applied to model the evolution of a Soultz-type geothermal reservoir under high pressure and temperature conditions. By specifying initial conditions reflecting a reservoir fluid saturated with respect to calcite (a reasonable assumption based on field data), we found that THC reservoir simulations with the three models yield similar results, including similar trends and amounts of reservoir porosity decrease over time, thus pointing to the importance of model conceptualization. This study also highlights the critical effect of input thermodynamic data on the results of reactive transport simulations, most particularly for systems involving brines.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Renchun Huang
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Various methods are available for calculating the TOC of shale reservoirs with logging data, and each method has its unique applicability and accuracy. So it is especially important to establish a regional experimental calculation model based on a thorough analysis of their applicability. With the Upper Ordovician Wufeng Fm-Lower Silurian Longmaxi Fm shale reservoirs as an example, TOC calculation models were built by use of the improved ΔlgR, bulk density, natural gamma spectroscopy, multi-fitting and volume model methods respectively, considering the previous research results and the geologic features of the area. These models were compared based on the core data. Finally, the bulk density method was selected as the regional experimental calculation model. Field practices demonstrated that the improved ΔlgR and natural gamma spectroscopy methods are poor in accuracy; although the multi-fitting method and bulk density method have relatively high accuracy, the bulk density method is simpler and wider in application. For further verifying its applicability, the bulk density method was applied to calculate the TOC of shale reservoirs in several key wells in the Jiaoshiba shale gas field, Sichuan Basin, and the calculation accuracy was clarified with the measured data of core samples, showing that the coincidence rate of logging-based TOC calculation is up to 90.5%–91.0%.
Web3DGIS-Based System for Reservoir Landslide Monitoring and Early Warning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huang Huang
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Landslides are the most frequent type of natural disaster, and they bring about large-scale damage and are a threat to human lives and infrastructure; therefore, the ability to conduct real-time monitoring and early warning is important. In this study, a Web3DGIS (Web3D geographic information systems system for monitoring and forecasting landslides was developed using the Danjiangkou Reservoir area as a case study. The development of this technique involved system construction, functional design, organizing and managing multi-source spatial data, and implementing a forecasting plan and landslide-forecasting model. By integrating sensor technologies, spatial information technologies, 3D visualization technologies, and a landslide-forecasting model, the results of this study provide a tool for real-time monitoring at potential landslide sites. When relevant data from these sites reach threshold values, the model automatically initiates forecasting procedures, and sends information to disaster prevention sectors for emergency management.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Ascencao, Erika M.; Munckton, Toni; Digregorio, Ricardo [Petropiar (Venezuela)
2011-07-01
The Huyapari field, situated within the Faja Petrolifera del Orinoco (FPO) of Venezuela presents unique problems in terms of modeling. This field is spread over a wide area and is therefore subject to variable oil quality and complex fluvial facies architecture. Ameriven and PDVSA have been working on characterizing the ld's reservoirs in this field since 2000 and the aim of this paper is to present these efforts. Among others, a 3-D seismic survey completed in 1998 and a stratigraphic framework built from 149 vertical wells were used for reservoir characterization. Geostatistical techniques such as sequential Gaussian simulation with locally varying mean and cloud transform were also used. Results showed that these geostatistical methods accurately represented the architecture and properties of the reservoir and its fluid distribution. This paper showed that the application of numerous different techniques in the Hamasca area permitted reservoir complexity to be captured.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jan Dolfing
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Souring is the undesirable production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S in oil reservoirs by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB. Souring is a common problem during secondary oil recovery via water flooding, especially when seawater with its high sulfate concentration is introduced. Nitrate injection into these oil reservoirs can prevent and remediate souring by stimulating nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB. Two conceptually different mechanisms for NRB-facilitated souring control have been proposed: nitrate-sulfate competition for electron donors (oil-derived organics or H2 and nitrate driven sulfide oxidation. Thermodynamics can facilitate predictions about which nitrate-driven mechanism is most likely to occur in different scenarios. From a thermodynamic perspective the question “Which reaction yields more energy, nitrate driven oxidation of sulfide or nitrate driven oxidation of organic compounds?” can be rephrased as: “Is acetate driven sulfate reduction to sulfide exergonic or endergonic?” Our analysis indicates that under conditions encountered in oil fields, sulfate driven oxidation of acetate (or other SRB organic electron donors is always more favorable than sulfide oxidation to sulfate. That predicts that organotrophic NRB that oxidize acetate would outcompete lithotrophic NRB that oxidize sulfide. However, sulfide oxidation to elemental sulfur is different. At low acetate HS− oxidation is more favorable than acetate oxidation. Incomplete oxidation of sulfide to S0 is likely to occur when nitrate levels are low, and is favored by low temperatures; conditions that can be encountered at oil field above-ground facilities where intermediate sulfur compounds like S0 may cause corrosion. These findings have implications for reservoir management strategies and for assessing the success and progress of nitrate-based souring control strategies and the attendant risks of corrosion associated with souring and nitrate injection.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lubis, L A; Harith, Z Z T
2014-01-01
It has been recognized that carbonate reservoirs are one of the biggest sources of hydrocarbon. Clearly, the evaluation of these reservoirs is important and critical. For rigorous reservoir characterization and performance prediction from geophysical measurements, the exact interpretation of geophysical response of different carbonate pore types is crucial. Yet, the characterization of carbonate reservoir rocks is difficult due to their complex pore systems. The significant diagenesis process and complex depositional environment makes pore systems in carbonates far more complicated than in clastics. Therefore, it is difficult to establish rock physics model for carbonate rock type. In this paper, we evaluate the possible rock physics model of 20 core plugs of a Miocene carbonate platform in Central Luconia, Sarawak. The published laboratory data of this area were used as an input to create the carbonate rock physics models. The elastic properties were analyzed to examine the validity of an existing analytical carbonate rock physics model. We integrate the Xu-Payne Differential Effective Medium (DEM) Model and the elastic modulus which was simulated from a digital carbonate rock image using Finite Element Modeling. The results of this integration matched well for the separation of carbonate pore types and sonic P-wave velocity obtained from laboratory measurement. Thus, the results of this study show that the integration of rock digital image and theoretical rock physics might improve the elastic properties prediction and useful for more advance geophysical techniques (e.g. Seismic Inversion) of carbonate reservoir in Sarawak
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fikru Fentaw Abera
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Optimal operation of reservoirs is very essential for water resource planning and management, but it is very challenging and complicated when dealing with climate change impacts. The objective of this paper was to assess existing and future hydropower operation at the Tekeze reservoir in the face of climate change. In this study, a calibrated and validated Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT was used to model runoff inflow into the Tekeze hydropower reservoir under present and future climate scenarios. Inflow to the reservoir was simulated using hydro-climatic data from an ensemble of downscaled climate data based on the Coordinated Regional climate Downscaling Experiment over African domain (CORDEX-Africa with Coupled Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5 simulations under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 climate scenarios. Observed and projected inflows to Tekeze hydropower reservoir were used as input to the US Army Corps of Engineer’s Reservoir Evaluation System Perspective Reservoir Model (HEC-ResPRM, a reservoir operation model, to optimize hydropower reservoir release, storage and pool level. Results indicated that climate change has a clear impact on reservoir inflow and showed increase in annual and monthly inflow into the reservoir except in dry months from May to June under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 climate scenarios. HEC-ResPRM optimal operation results showed an increase in Tekeze reservoir power storage potential up to 25% and 30% under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 climate scenarios, respectively. This implies that Tekeze hydropower production will be affected by climate change. This analysis can be used by water resources planners and mangers to develop reservoir operation techniques considering climate change impact to increase power production.
Estimating Western U.S. Reservoir Sedimentation
Bensching, L.; Livneh, B.; Greimann, B. P.
2017-12-01
Reservoir sedimentation is a long-term problem for water management across the Western U.S. Observations of sedimentation are limited to reservoir surveys that are costly and infrequent, with many reservoirs having only two or fewer surveys. This work aims to apply a recently developed ensemble of sediment algorithms to estimate reservoir sedimentation over several western U.S. reservoirs. The sediment algorithms include empirical, conceptual, stochastic, and processes based approaches and are coupled with a hydrologic modeling framework. Preliminary results showed that the more complex and processed based algorithms performed better in predicting high sediment flux values and in a basin transferability experiment. However, more testing and validation is required to confirm sediment model skill. This work is carried out in partnership with the Bureau of Reclamation with the goal of evaluating the viability of reservoir sediment yield prediction across the western U.S. using a multi-algorithm approach. Simulations of streamflow and sediment fluxes are validated against observed discharges, as well as a Reservoir Sedimentation Information database that is being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers. Specific goals of this research include (i) quantifying whether inter-algorithm differences consistently capture observational variability; (ii) identifying whether certain categories of models consistently produce the best results, (iii) assessing the expected sedimentation life-span of several western U.S. reservoirs through long-term simulations.
Oldenburg, C. M.; Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J. T.
2017-12-01
The injection of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) in fractured reservoirs has been conducted at several storage sites. However, no site-specific dual-continuum modeling for fractured reservoirs has been reported and modeling studies have generally underestimated the fracture-matrix interactions. We developed a conceptual model for enhanced CO2 storage to take into account global scCO2 migration in the fracture continuum, local storage of scCO2 and dissolved CO2 (dsCO2) in the matrix continuum, and driving forces for scCO2 invasion and dsCO2 diffusion from fractures. High-resolution discrete fracture-matrix models were developed for a column of idealized matrix blocks bounded by vertical and horizontal fractures and for a km-scale fractured reservoir. The column-scale simulation results show that equilibrium storage efficiency strongly depends on matrix entry capillary pressure and matrix-matrix connectivity while the time scale to reach equilibrium is sensitive to fracture spacing and matrix flow properties. The reservoir-scale modeling results shows that the preferential migration of scCO2 through fractures is coupled with bulk storage in the rock matrix that in turn retards the fracture scCO2 plume. We also developed unified-form diffusive flux equations to account for dsCO2 storage in brine-filled matrix blocks and found solubility trapping is significant in fractured reservoirs with low-permeability matrix.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan
Modeling transport of reservoir fines is of great importance for evaluating the damage of production wells and infectivity decline. The conventional methodology accounts for neither the formation heterogeneity around the wells nor the reservoir fines’ heterogeneity. We have developed an integral...... dispersion equation in modeling the transport and the deposition of reservoir fines. It successfully predicts the unsymmetrical concentration profiles and the hyperexponential deposition in experiments....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cortes, P.; Petit, J.P. [Montpellier-2 Univ., Lab. de Geophysique, Tectonique et Sedimentologie, UMR CNRS 5573, 34 (France); Guy, L. [ELF Aquitaine Production, 64 - Pau (France); Thiry-Bastien, Ph. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 (France)
1999-07-01
The characterization of structural heterogeneities of reservoirs is of prime importance for hydrocarbons recovery. A methodology is presented which allows to compare the dynamic behaviour of fractured reservoirs and the observation of microstructures on drilled cores or surface reservoir analogues. (J.S.)
Sustainable Irrigation Allocation Model for Dry and Wet Periods using Reservoir Storage and Inflow
Surianarayanan, S.; Suribabu, C. R.; Ramakrishnan, K.
2017-07-01
The dry period agriculture is inevitable both for the farmers for their earning, and for the soil for its fertility by crop-rotation. In tropical countries like INDIA, dry period agriculture becomes difficult because of less (or) no rain fall. Hence a simple water balancing model for irrigation scheduling, using the measure “Volumetric Reliability” is prepared in this paper, with the storage and inflow of a reservoir both for the dry and wet periods. The case-study is done for a reservoir in INDIA with thirty one years of hydrological data(from 1982 to 2012). The objective of this paper is to prepare a simple water balance model taking 10 days periods of demand and supply for ID crop(Irrigated Dry crop, ground nut) with usage of volumetric reliability concept for the periods of deficiency and adoption of less water requirement crops to reduce the water-stress during critical periods of crop growth, and finally arrive at a feasible allocation schedule for the success of agriculture and the yield throughout the year both for wet and dry crops with the available storage on the start of irrigation for a particular year. The reservoir is divided for storages such as full, deficient and critical storages. The starting storage for the dry period from January is used after adequate allocation for wet crops, the quantity for riparian rights and for drinking water, for the sustainability. By the water-balancing, the time-series for thirty one years, it is found that for twenty two years the demand for the ID crops is satisfied with the storage in the reservoir, and in the remaining years of deficient inflows, for three years (1986,1996,2004)the demand is managed by using the safe reliability factor for demand which can nullify the deficit in demand for the whole supply period. But it is genuine to assure that the reduction in the amount of water for each 10 days periods should not exceed the survival limit of the crop. Necessary soil-moisture must be ensured in the crop
Augustin, Matthias Albert
2015-01-01
This monograph focuses on the numerical methods needed in the context of developing a reliable simulation tool to promote the use of renewable energy. One very promising source of energy is the heat stored in the Earth’s crust, which is harnessed by so-called geothermal facilities. Scientists from fields like geology, geo-engineering, geophysics and especially geomathematics are called upon to help make geothermics a reliable and safe energy production method. One of the challenges they face involves modeling the mechanical stresses at work in a reservoir. The aim of this thesis is to develop a numerical solution scheme by means of which the fluid pressure and rock stresses in a geothermal reservoir can be determined prior to well drilling and during production. For this purpose, the method should (i) include poroelastic effects, (ii) provide a means of including thermoelastic effects, (iii) be inexpensive in terms of memory and computational power, and (iv) be flexible with regard to the locations of data ...
Ratnam, T. C.; Ghosh, D. P.; Negash, B. M.
2018-05-01
Conventional reservoir modeling employs variograms to predict the spatial distribution of petrophysical properties. This study aims to improve property distribution by incorporating elastic wave properties. In this study, elastic wave properties obtained from seismic inversion are used as input for an artificial neural network to predict neutron porosity in between well locations. The method employed in this study is supervised learning based on available well logs. This method converts every seismic trace into a pseudo-well log, hence reducing the uncertainty between well locations. By incorporating the seismic response, the reliance on geostatistical methods such as variograms for the distribution of petrophysical properties is reduced drastically. The results of the artificial neural network show good correlation with the neutron porosity log which gives confidence for spatial prediction in areas where well logs are not available.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chun-tian Cheng
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Accurate daily runoff forecasting is of great significance for the operation control of hydropower station and power grid. Conventional methods including rainfall-runoff models and statistical techniques usually rely on a number of assumptions, leading to some deviation from the exact results. Artificial neural network (ANN has the advantages of high fault-tolerance, strong nonlinear mapping and learning ability, which provides an effective method for the daily runoff forecasting. However, its training has certain drawbacks such as time-consuming, slow learning speed and easily falling into local optimum, which cannot be ignored in the real world application. In order to overcome the disadvantages of ANN model, the artificial neural network model based on quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO, ANN-QPSO for short, is presented for the daily runoff forecasting in this paper, where QPSO was employed to select the synaptic weights and thresholds of ANN, while ANN was used for the prediction. The proposed model can combine the advantages of both QPSO and ANN to enhance the generalization performance of the forecasting model. The methodology is assessed by using the daily runoff data of Hongjiadu reservoir in southeast Guizhou province of China from 2006 to 2014. The results demonstrate that the proposed approach achieves much better forecast accuracy than the basic ANN model, and the QPSO algorithm is an alternative training technique for the ANN parameters selection.
Ivanovich Astafev, Vladimir; Igorevich Gubanov, Sergey; Alexandrovna Olkhovskaya, Valeria; Mikhailovna Sylantyeva, Anastasia; Mikhailovich Zinovyev, Alexey
2018-02-01
Production of high-viscosity oil and design of field development systems for such oil is one of the most promising directions in the development of world oil industry. The ability of high-viscosity oil to show in filtration process properties typical for non-Newtonian systems is proven by experimental studies. Nonlinear relationship between the pressure gradient and the rate of oil flow is due to interaction of high-molecular substances, in particular, asphaltenes and tars that form a plastic structure in it. The authors of this article have used the analytical model of stationary influx of nonlinear viscoplastic oil to the well bottom in order to provide rationale for the intensifying impact on a reservoir. They also have analyzed the method of periodic heating of productive reservoir by means of dual-wells. The high-temperature source is placed at the bottom of the vertical well, very close to the reservoir; at the same time the side well, located outside the zone of expected rock damage, is used for production. Suggested method of systemic treatment of reservoirs with dual wells can be useful for small fields of high-viscosity oil. The effect is based on the opportunity to control the structural and mechanical properties of high-viscosity oil and to increase depletion of reserves.
The modified SWAT model for predicting fecal coliforms in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed, USA.
Cho, Kyung Hwa; Pachepsky, Yakov A; Kim, Joon Ha; Kim, Jung-Woo; Park, Mi-Hyun
2012-10-01
This study assessed fecal coliform contamination in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed in Massachusetts, USA using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) because bacteria are one of the major water quality parameters of concern. The bacteria subroutine in SWAT, considering in-stream bacteria die-off only, was modified in this study to include solar radiation-associated die-off and the contribution of wildlife. The result of sensitivity analysis demonstrates that solar radiation is one of the most significant fate factors of fecal coliform. A water temperature-associated function to represent the contribution of beaver activity in the watershed to fecal contamination improved prediction accuracy. The modified SWAT model provides an improved estimate of bacteria from the watershed. Our approach will be useful for simulating bacterial concentrations to provide predictive and reliable information of fecal contamination thus facilitating the implementation of effective watershed management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cowton, L. R.; Neufeld, J. A.; Bickle, M.; White, N.; White, J.; Chadwick, A.
2017-12-01
Vertically-integrated gravity current models enable computationally efficient simulations of CO2 flow in sub-surface reservoirs. These simulations can be used to investigate the properties of reservoirs by minimizing differences between observed and modeled CO2 distributions. At the Sleipner project, about 1 Mt yr-1 of supercritical CO2 is injected at a depth of 1 km into a pristine saline aquifer with a thick shale caprock. Analysis of time-lapse seismic reflection surveys shows that CO2 is distributed within 9 discrete layers. The trapping mechanism comprises a stacked series of 1 m thick, impermeable shale horizons that are spaced at 30 m intervals through the reservoir. Within the stratigraphically highest reservoir layer, Layer 9, a submarine channel deposit has been mapped on the pre-injection seismic survey. Detailed measurements of the three-dimensional CO2 distribution within Layer 9 have been made using seven time-lapse surveys, providing a useful benchmark against which numerical flow simulations can be tested. Previous simulations have, in general, been largely unsuccessful in matching the migration rate of CO2 in this layer. Here, CO2 flow within Layer 9 is modeled as a vertically-integrated gravity current that spreads beneath a structurally complex caprock using a two-dimensional grid, considerably increasing computational efficiency compared to conventional three-dimensional simulators. This flow model is inverted to find the optimal reservoir permeability in Layer 9 by minimizing the difference between observed and predicted distributions of CO2 as a function of space and time. A three parameter inverse model, comprising reservoir permeability, channel permeability and channel width, is investigated by grid search. The best-fitting reservoir permeability is 3 Darcys, which is consistent with measurements made on core material from the reservoir. Best-fitting channel permeability is 26 Darcys. Finally, the ability of this simplified numerical model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gawusu, S.
2015-07-01
Oil extraction represents an important investment and the control of a rational exploitation of a field means mastering various scientific techniques including the understanding of the dynamics of fluids in place. This thesis presents a theoretical investigation of the dynamic behaviour of an oil reservoir during its exploitation. The study investigated the dynamics of fluid flow patterns in a homogeneous oil reservoir using the Radial Diffusivity Equation (RDE) as well as two phase oil-water flow equations. The RDE model was solved analytically and numerically for pressure using the Constant Terminal Rate Solution (CTRS) and the fully implicit Finite Difference Method (FDM) respectively. The mathematical derivations of the models and their solution procedures were presented to allow for easy utilization of the techniques for reservoir and engineering applications. The study predicted that the initial oil reservoir pressure will be able to do the extraction for a very long time before any other recovery method will be used to aid in the extraction process depending on the rate of production. Reservoir simulation describing a one dimensional radial flow of a compressible fluid in porous media may be adequately performed using ordinary laptop computers as revealed by the study. For the simulation of MATLAB, the case of the Jubilee Fields, Tano Basin was studied, an algorithm was developed for the simulation of pressure in the reservoir. It ensues from the analysis of the plots of pressure vrs time and space that the Pressure Transient Analysis (PTA) was duly followed. The approximate solutions of the analytical and numerical solutions to the Radial Diffusivity Equation (RDE) were in excellent agreement, thus the reservoir simulation model developed can be used to describe typical pressure-time relationships that are used in conventional Pressure Transient Analysis (PTA). The study was extended to two phase oil-water flow in reservoirs. The flow of fluids in multi
Driba, D. L.; De Lucia, M.; Peiffer, S.
2014-12-01
Fluid-rock interactions in geothermal reservoirs are driven by the state of disequilibrium that persists among solid and solutes due to changing temperature and pressure. During operation of enhanced geothermal systems, injection of cooled water back into the reservoir disturbs the initial thermodynamic equilibrium between the reservoir and its geothermal fluid, which may induce modifications in permeability through changes in porosity and pore space geometry, consequently bringing about several impairments to the overall system.Modeling of fluid-rock interactions induced by injection of cold brine into Groß Schönebeck geothermal reservoir system situated in the Rotliegend sandstone at 4200m depth have been done by coupling geochemical modeling Code Phreeqc with OpenGeoSys. Through batch modeling the re-evaluation of the measured hydrochemical composition of the brine has been done using Quintessa databases, the results from the calculation indicate that a mineral phases comprising of K-feldspar, hematite, Barite, Calcite and Dolomite was found to match the hypothesis of equilibrium with the formation fluid, Reducing conditions are presumed in the model (pe = -3.5) in order to match the amount of observed dissolved Fe and thus considered as initial state for the reactive transport modeling. based on a measured composition of formation fluids and the predominant mineralogical assemblage of the host rock, a preliminary 1D Reactive transport modeling (RTM) was run with total time set to 30 years; results obtained for the initial simulation revealed that during this period, no significant change is evident for K-feldspar. Furthermore, the precipitation of calcite along the flow path in the brine results in a drop of pH from 6.2 to a value of 5.2 noticed over the simulated period. The circulation of cooled fluid in the reservoir is predicted to affect the temperature of the reservoir within the first 100 -150m from the injection well. Examination of porosity change in
Molina-Navarro, Eugenio; Martínez-Pérez, Silvia; Sastre-Merlín, Antonio; Bienes-Allas, Ramón
2014-01-01
The SWAT model was applied to the Ompólveda River Basin (Guadalajara, central Spain) to assess the hydrological feasibility of the Pareja Limno-reservoir. A limno-reservoir is a water management infrastructure designed to counteract some negative impacts caused by large reservoirs under Mediterranean climate. Highly detailed inputs were selected to set up the model. Its performance was evaluated by graphical and statistical techniques and compared with the previous knowledge of the basin. An overall good performance was obtained during the calibration and validation periods (monthly and annual NSE values of 0.67 and 0.60, respectively, for calibration and 0.70 and 0.83, respectively, for validation). Total discharge was well simulated, and flow components prediction was acceptable. However, the model is not accurate at predicting evapotranspiration. Once evaluated, the model was used to simulate the water discharge into the Pareja Limno-reservoir during 2008 and 2009, establishing a water balance and assessing its hydrologic feasibility. The water balance predicted the absence of surplus during summer (2008 and 2009) and autumn (2009), matching up with the decrease of water level and demonstrating the usefulness of SWAT as a tool to evaluate the hydrologic feasibility of the Pareja Limno-reservoir. Very low discharges from the Ompólveda River after a sequence of normal and dry years are the main factors responsible of this phenomenon, whereas the effect of the wastewater flow redirection in the Pareja village is negligible. These results question the usefulness of the Pareja Limno-reservoir during summer, the most favorable season for recreational activities. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marotz, Brian; Althen, Craig; Gustafson, Daniel
1996-01-01
Hungry Horse and Libby dams have profoundly affected the aquatic ecosystems in two major tributaries of the Columbia River by altering habitat and water quality, and by imposing barriers to fish migration. In 1980, the U.S. Congress passed the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act, designed in part to balance hydropower development with other natural resources in the Columbia System. The Act formed the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) who developed a program to protect, mitigate and enhance fish and wildlife on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Pursuant to the Council`s Fish and Wildlife Program for the Columbia River System (1987), we constructed computer models to simulate the trophic dynamics of the reservoir biota as related to dam operation. Results were used to develop strategies to minimize impacts and enhance the reservoir and riverine fisheries, following program measures 903(a)(1-4) and 903(b)(1-5). Two FORTRAN simulation models were developed for Hungry Horse and Libby reservoirs located in northwestern Montana. The models were designed to generate accurate, short-term predictions specific to two reservoirs and are not directly applicable to other waters. The modeling strategy, however, is portable to other reservoir systems where sufficient data are available. Reservoir operation guidelines were developed to balance fisheries concerns in the headwaters with anadromous species recovery actions in the lower Columbia (Biological Rule Curves). These BRCs were then integrated with power production and flood control to reduce the economic impact of basin-wide fisheries recovery actions. These Integrated Rule Curves (IRCs) were developed simultaneously in the Columbia Basin System Operation Review (SOR), the Council`s phase IV amendment process and recovery actions associated with endangered Columbia Basin fish species.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmadi, Rouhollah; Khamehchi, Ehsan
2013-01-01
Conditioning stochastic simulations are very important in many geostatistical applications that call for the introduction of nonlinear and multiple-point data in reservoir modeling. Here, a new methodology is proposed for the incorporation of different data types into multiple-point statistics (MPS) simulation frameworks. Unlike the previous techniques that call for an approximate forward model (filter) for integration of secondary data into geologically constructed models, the proposed approach develops an intermediate space where all the primary and secondary data are easily mapped onto. Definition of the intermediate space, as may be achieved via application of artificial intelligence tools like neural networks and fuzzy inference systems, eliminates the need for using filters as in previous techniques. The applicability of the proposed approach in conditioning MPS simulations to static and geologic data is verified by modeling a real example of discrete fracture networks using conventional well-log data. The training patterns are well reproduced in the realizations, while the model is also consistent with the map of secondary data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahmadi, Rouhollah, E-mail: rouhollahahmadi@yahoo.com [Amirkabir University of Technology, PhD Student at Reservoir Engineering, Department of Petroleum Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khamehchi, Ehsan [Amirkabir University of Technology, Faculty of Petroleum Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2013-12-15
Conditioning stochastic simulations are very important in many geostatistical applications that call for the introduction of nonlinear and multiple-point data in reservoir modeling. Here, a new methodology is proposed for the incorporation of different data types into multiple-point statistics (MPS) simulation frameworks. Unlike the previous techniques that call for an approximate forward model (filter) for integration of secondary data into geologically constructed models, the proposed approach develops an intermediate space where all the primary and secondary data are easily mapped onto. Definition of the intermediate space, as may be achieved via application of artificial intelligence tools like neural networks and fuzzy inference systems, eliminates the need for using filters as in previous techniques. The applicability of the proposed approach in conditioning MPS simulations to static and geologic data is verified by modeling a real example of discrete fracture networks using conventional well-log data. The training patterns are well reproduced in the realizations, while the model is also consistent with the map of secondary data.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Refunjol, B.T. [Lagoven, S.A., Pdvsa (Venezuela); Lake, L.W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)
1997-08-01
Quantification of the spatial distribution of properties is important for many reservoir-engineering applications. But, before applying any reservoir-characterization technique, the type of problem to be tackled and the information available should be analyzed. This is important because difficulties arise in reservoirs where production records are the only information for analysis. This paper presents the results of a practical technique to determine preferential flow trends in a reservoir. The technique is a combination of reservoir geology, tracer data, and Spearman rank correlation coefficient analysis. The Spearman analysis, in particular, will prove to be important because it appears to be insightful and uses injection/production data that are prevalent in circumstances where other data are nonexistent. The technique is applied to the North Buck Draw field, Campbell County, Wyoming. This work provides guidelines to assess information about reservoir continuity in interwell regions from widely available measurements of production and injection rates at existing wells. The information gained from the application of this technique can contribute to both the daily reservoir management and the future design, control, and interpretation of subsequent projects in the reservoir, without the need for additional data.
Ray-based stochastic inversion of pre-stack seismic data for improved reservoir characterisation
van der Burg, D.W.
2007-01-01
To estimate rock and pore-fluid properties of oil and gas reservoirs in the subsurface, techniques can be used that invert seismic data. Hereby, the detailed information about the reservoir that is available at well locations, such as the thickness and porosity of individual layers, is extrapolated
Torres, E.; Ayora, C.; Jiménez-Arias, J. L.; García-Robledo, E.; Papaspyrou, S.; Corzo, A.
2014-08-01
Reservoirs are one of the primary water supply sources. Knowledge of the metal fluxes at the water-sediment interfaces of reservoirs is essential for predicting their ecological quality. Redox oscillations in the water column are promoted by stratification; turnover events may significantly alter metal cycling, especially in reservoirs impacted by acid mine drainage (AMD). To study this phenomenon, an experiment was performed under controlled laboratory conditions. Sediment cores from an AMD-affected reservoir were maintained in a tank with reservoir water for approximately two months and subjected to alternating oxic-hypoxic conditions. A detailed metal speciation in solid phases of the sediment was initially performed by sequential extraction, and pore water was analyzed at the end of each redox period. Tank water metals concentrations were systematically monitored throughout the experiment. The experimental results were then used to calibrate a diffusion-reaction model and quantify the reaction rates and sediment-water fluxes. Under oxic conditions, pH, Fe and As concentrations decreased in the tank due to schwertmannite precipitation, whereas the concentrations of Al, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Co increased due to Al(OH)3 and sulfide dissolution. The reverse trends occurred under hypoxic conditions. Under oxic conditions, the fluxes calculated by applying Fick’s first law to experimental concentration gradients contradicted the fluxes expected based on the evolution of the tank water. According to the reactive transport calculations, this discrepancy can be attributed to the coarse resolution of sediment sampling. The one-cm-thick slices failed to capture effectively the notably narrow (1-2 mm) concentration peaks of several elements in the shallow pore water resulting from sulfide and Al(OH)3 dissolution. The diffusion-reaction model, extended to the complete year, computed that between 25% and 50% of the trace metals and less than 10% of the Al that precipitated under
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balashov, Victor N.; Guthrie, George D.; Hakala, J. Alexandra; Lopano, Christina L.; Rimstidt, J. Donald; Brantley, Susan L.
2013-03-01
One idea for mitigating the increase in fossil-fuel generated CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is to inject CO{sub 2} into subsurface saline sandstone reservoirs. To decide whether to try such sequestration at a globally significant scale will require the ability to predict the fate of injected CO{sub 2}. Thus, models are needed to predict the rates and extents of subsurface rock-water-gas interactions. Several reactive transport models for CO{sub 2} sequestration created in the last decade predicted sequestration in sandstone reservoirs of ~17 to ~90 kg CO{sub 2} m{sup -3|. To build confidence in such models, a baseline problem including rock + water chemistry is proposed as the basis for future modeling so that both the models and the parameterizations can be compared systematically. In addition, a reactive diffusion model is used to investigate the fate of injected supercritical CO{sub 2} fluid in the proposed baseline reservoir + brine system. In the baseline problem, injected CO{sub 2} is redistributed from the supercritical (SC) free phase by dissolution into pore brine and by formation of carbonates in the sandstone. The numerical transport model incorporates a full kinetic description of mineral-water reactions under the assumption that transport is by diffusion only. Sensitivity tests were also run to understand which mineral kinetics reactions are important for CO{sub 2} trapping. The diffusion transport model shows that for the first ~20 years after CO{sub 2} diffusion initiates, CO{sub 2} is mostly consumed by dissolution into the brine to form CO{sub 2,aq} (solubility trapping). From 20-200 years, both solubility and mineral trapping are important as calcite precipitation is driven by dissolution of oligoclase. From 200 to 1000 years, mineral trapping is the most important sequestration mechanism, as smectite dissolves and calcite precipitates. Beyond 2000 years, most trapping is due to formation of aqueous HCO{sub 3}{sup -}. Ninety-seven percent of the
Geochemical Interaction of Middle Bakken Reservoir Rock and CO2 during CO2-Based Fracturing
Nicot, J. P.; Lu, J.; Mickler, P. J.; Ribeiro, L. H.; Darvari, R.
2015-12-01
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of geochemical interactions when CO2 is used to create the fractures necessary to produce hydrocarbons from low-permeability Middle Bakken sandstone. The primary objectives are to: (1) identify and understand the geochemical reactions related to CO2-based fracturing, and (2) assess potential changes of reservoir property. Three autoclave experiments were conducted at reservoir conditions exposing middle Bakken core fragments to supercritical CO2 (sc-CO2) only and to CO2-saturated synthetic brine. Ion-milled core samples were examined before and after the reaction experiments using scanning electron microscope, which enabled us to image the reaction surface in extreme details and unambiguously identify mineral dissolution and precipitation. The most significant changes in the reacted rock samples exposed to the CO2-saturated brine is dissolution of the carbonate minerals, particularly calcite which displays severely corrosion. Dolomite grains were corroded to a lesser degree. Quartz and feldspars remained intact and some pyrite framboids underwent slight dissolution. Additionally, small amount of calcite precipitation took place as indicated by numerous small calcite crystals formed at the reaction surface and in the pores. The aqueous solution composition changes confirm these petrographic observations with increase in Ca and Mg and associated minor elements and very slight increase in Fe and sulfate. When exposed to sc-CO2 only, changes observed include etching of calcite grain surface and precipitation of salt crystals (halite and anhydrite) due to evaporation of residual pore water into the sc-CO2 phase. Dolomite and feldspars remained intact and pyrite grains were slightly altered. Mercury intrusion capillary pressure tests on reacted and unreacted samples shows an increase in porosity when an aqueous phase is present but no overall porosity change caused by sc-CO2. It also suggests an increase in permeability
Stone, Mandy L.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Gatotho, Jackline W.
2013-01-01
Cheney Reservoir, located in south-central Kansas, is one of the primary water supplies for the city of Wichita, Kansas. The U.S. Geological Survey has operated a continuous real-time water-quality monitoring station in Cheney Reservoir since 2001; continuously measured physicochemical properties include specific conductance, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, fluorescence (wavelength range 650 to 700 nanometers; estimate of total chlorophyll), and reservoir elevation. Discrete water-quality samples were collected during 2001 through 2009 and analyzed for sediment, nutrients, taste-and-odor compounds, cyanotoxins, phytoplankton community composition, actinomycetes bacteria, and other water-quality measures. Regression models were developed to establish relations between discretely sampled constituent concentrations and continuously measured physicochemical properties to compute concentrations of constituents that are not easily measured in real time. The water-quality information in this report is important to the city of Wichita because it allows quantification and characterization of potential constituents of concern in Cheney Reservoir. This report updates linear regression models published in 2006 that were based on data collected during 2001 through 2003. The update uses discrete and continuous data collected during May 2001 through December 2009. Updated models to compute dissolved solids, sodium, chloride, and suspended solids were similar to previously published models. However, several other updated models changed substantially from previously published models. In addition to updating relations that were previously developed, models also were developed for four new constituents, including magnesium, dissolved phosphorus, actinomycetes bacteria, and the cyanotoxin microcystin. In addition, a conversion factor of 0.74 was established to convert the Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI) model 6026 turbidity sensor measurements to the newer YSI
A coupling model for gas diffusion and seepage in SRV section of shale gas reservoirs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shusheng Gao
2017-03-01
Full Text Available A prerequisite to effective shale gas development is a complicated fracture network generated by extensive and massive fracturing, which is called SRV (stimulated reservoir volume section. Accurate description of gas flow behaviors in such section is fundamental for productivity evaluation and production performance prediction of shale gas wells. The SRV section is composed of bedrocks with varying sizes and fracture networks, which exhibit different flow behaviors – gas diffusion in bedrocks and gas seepage in fractures. According to the porosity and permeability and the adsorption, diffusion and seepage features of bedrocks and fractures in a shale gas reservoir, the material balance equations were built for bedrocks and fractures respectively and the continuity equations of gas diffusion and seepage in the SRV section were derived. For easy calculation, the post-frac bedrock cube was simplified to be a sphere in line with the principle of volume consistency. Under the assumption of quasi-steady flow behavior at the cross section of the sphere, the gas channeling equation was derived based on the Fick's laws of diffusion and the density function of gas in bedrocks and fractures. The continuity equation was coupled with the channeling equation to effectively characterize the complicated gas flow behavior in the SRV section. The study results show that the gas diffusivity in bedrocks and the volume of bedrocks formed by volume fracturing (or the scale of fracturing jointly determines the productivity and stable production period of a shale gas well. As per the actual calculation for the well field A in the Changning–Weiyuan Block in the Sichuan Basin, the matrix has low gas diffusivity – about 10−5 cm2/s and a large volume with an equivalent sphere radius of 6.2 m, hindering the gas channeling from bedrocks to fractures and thereby reducing the productivity of the shale gas well. It is concluded that larger scale of volume fracturing
Chahardowli, M.; Bruining, J.
2013-01-01
In fractured reservoirs, much of the oil is stored in low permeable matrix blocks that are surrounded by a high permeability fracture network. Therefore, production from fractured reservoir depends on the transfer between fracture and matrix, which is critically dependent on their interaction.
Chahardowli, M.; Bruining, J.
2013-01-01
In fractured reservoirs, much of the oil is stored in low permeable matrix blocks that are surrounded by a high permeability fracture network. Therefore, production from fractured reservoir depends on the transfer between fracture and matrix, which is critically dependent on their interaction.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amo Sanz, P.; Diego Pereda, I.; Santalla Prieto, J.
2014-01-01
Decontamination works on Flix reservoir aimed at the removal of accumulated debris in the bed of the river Ebro, as result of historical discharge of pollutants by a chemical complex located there. The Flix reservoir currently retains in his base a lot of cubic meters of sludge from the solid fraction of the discharge of the aforementioned complex that sits on the right bank ( a non-negligible volume of alluvial substrate potentially affected by pollution from the sludge must be considered). The contaminants belong to there main groups: organo chlorines, heavy metals (particularly mercury) and radionuclides. they are in high concentrations, capable of transmitting contamination to the sediments and basement of the reservoir and the water flowing through the river. In the case of water, that transmission occurs in fact, and there is a register of episodes that have exceeded the limits of tolerance of aggressive components contained in the ecosystem. (Author)
Muirhead, R W; Monaghan, R M
2012-04-01
Animal agriculture has been identified as an important source of diffuse faecal microbial pollution of water. Our current understanding of the losses of faecal microbes from grazed pasture systems is however poor. To help synthesise our current knowledge, a simple two reservoir model was constructed to represent the faecal and environmental sources of Escherichia coli found in a grazed pastoral system. The size of the faecal reservoir was modelled on a daily basis with inputs from grazing animals, and losses due to die-off of E. coli and decomposition of the faecal material. Estimates were made of transport coefficients of E. coli losses from the two reservoirs. The concentration of E. coli measured in overland flow and artificial drainage from grazed plots, used for calibration of the model, showed a significant (Ppasture systems. Research is needed to understand the behaviour and impact of this environmental reservoir. Scenario analysis using the model indicated that rather than manipulating the faecal material itself post defecation, mitigation options should focus on manipulating grazing management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Climate variability and sedimentation of a hydropower reservoir
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riedel, M.
2008-01-01
As part of the relicensing of a large Hydroelectric Project in the central Appalachians, large scale watershed and reservoir sedimentation models were developed to forecast potential sedimentation scenarios. The GIS based watershed model was spatially explicit and calibrated to long term observed data. Potential socio/economic development scenarios were used to construct future watershed land cover scenarios. Climatic variability and potential change analysis were used to identify future climate regimes and shifts in precipitation and temperature patterns. Permutations of these development and climate changes were forecasted over 50 years and used to develop sediment yield regimes to the project reservoir. Extensive field work and reservoir survey, including current and wave instrumentation, were used to characterize the project watershed, rivers and reservoir hydrodynamics. A fully 3 dimensional hydrodynamic reservoir sedimentation model was developed for the project and calibrated to observed data. Hydrologic and sedimentation results from watershed forecasting provided boundary conditions for reservoir inputs. The calibrated reservoir model was then used to forecast changes in reservoir sedimentation and storage capacity under different future climate scenarios. Results indicated unique zones of advancing sediment deltas and temporary storage areas. Forecasted changes in reservoir bathymetry and sedimentation patterns were also developed for the various climate change scenarios. The warmer and wetter scenario produced sedimentation impacts similar to extensive development under no climate change. The results of these analyses are being used to develop collaborative watershed and soil conservation partnerships to reduce future soil losses and reservoir sedimentation from projected development. (author)
Launois, L.; Veslot, J.; Irz, P.; Argillier, C.
2010-01-01
1.Fish-based indices of biotic integrity (IBI) have been developed for many lotic systems but remain scarce for lakes. The goal of the present study was to assess the responses of lentic fish assemblages to anthropogenic pressures when environmental variability was controlled for, and to compare them between French natural lakes and reservoirs. 2.Environmental features, catchment-scale anthropogenic descriptors and fish data were collected from 30 natural lakes and 59 reservoirs throughout...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Itissam ABUIZIAH
2014-03-01
Full Text Available When transient conditions (water hammer exist, the life expectancy of the system can be adversely impacted, resulting in pump and valve failures and catastrophic pipe rupture. Hence, transient control has become an essential requirement for ensuring safe operation of water pipeline systems. To protect the pipeline systems from transient effects, an accurate analysis and suitable protection devices should be used. This paper presents the problem of modeling and simulation of transient phenomena in hydraulic systems based on the characteristics method. Also, it provides the influence of using the protection devices to control the adverse effects due to excessive and low pressure occuring in the transient. We applied this model for two main pipeline systems: Valve and pump combined with a simple surge tank connected to reservoir. The results obtained by using this model indicate that the model is an efficient tool for water hammer analysis. Moreover, using a simple surge tank reduces the unfavorable effects of transients by reducing pressure fluctuations.
A Time-Series Water Level Forecasting Model Based on Imputation and Variable Selection Method
Jun-He Yang; Ching-Hsue Cheng; Chia-Pan Chan
2017-01-01
Reservoirs are important for households and impact the national economy. This paper proposed a time-series forecasting model based on estimating a missing value followed by variable selection to forecast the reservoir's water level. This study collected data from the Taiwan Shimen Reservoir as well as daily atmospheric data from 2008 to 2015. The two datasets are concatenated into an integrated dataset based on ordering of the data as a research dataset. The proposed time-series forecasting m...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pruess, K.; Oldenburg, C.; Moridis, G.; Finsterle, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)
1997-12-31
This paper summarizes recent advances in methods for simulating water and tracer injection, and presents illustrative applications to liquid- and vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs. High-resolution simulations of water injection into heterogeneous, vertical fractures in superheated vapor zones were performed. Injected water was found to move in dendritic patterns, and to experience stronger lateral flow effects than predicted from homogeneous medium models. Higher-order differencing methods were applied to modeling water and tracer injection into liquid-dominated systems. Conventional upstream weighting techniques were shown to be adequate for predicting the migration of thermal fronts, while higher-order methods give far better accuracy for tracer transport. A new fluid property module for the TOUGH2 simulator is described which allows a more accurate description of geofluids, and includes mineral dissolution and precipitation effects with associated porosity and permeability change. Comparisons between numerical simulation predictions and data for laboratory and field injection experiments are summarized. Enhanced simulation capabilities include a new linear solver package for TOUGH2, and inverse modeling techniques for automatic history matching and optimization.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paulsen, J.E.; Read, P.A.; Thompson, C.P.; Jelley, C.; Lezeau, P.
1996-01-01
The paper relates to improved oil recovery (IOR) techniques by mathematical modelling. The uncertainty involved in modelling of reservoir souring is discussed. IOR processes are speculated to influence a souring process in a positive direction. Most models do not take into account pH in reservoir fluids, and thus do not account for partitioning behaviour of sulfide. Also, sulfide is antagonistic to bacterial metabolism and impedes to bacterial metabolism and impedes the sulfate reduction rate, this may be an important factor in modelling. Biofilms are thought to play a crucial role in a reservoir souring process. Biofilm in a reservoir matrix is different from biofilm in open systems. This has major impact on microbial impact on microbial transport and behaviour. Studies on microbial activity in reservoir matrices must be carried out with model cores, in order to mimic a realistic situation. Sufficient data do not exist today. The main conclusion is that a model does not reflect a true situation before the nature of these elements is understood. A simplified version of an Norwegian developed biofilm model is discussed. The model incorporates all the important physical phenomena studied in the above references such as bacteria growth limited by nutrients and/or energy sources and hydrogen sulfide adsorption. 18 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paulsen, J.E. [Rogalandsforskning, Stavanger (Norway); Read, P.A.; Thompson, C.P.; Jelley, C.; Lezeau, P.
1996-12-31
The paper relates to improved oil recovery (IOR) techniques by mathematical modelling. The uncertainty involved in modelling of reservoir souring is discussed. IOR processes are speculated to influence a souring process in a positive direction. Most models do not take into account pH in reservoir fluids, and thus do not account for partitioning behaviour of sulfide. Also, sulfide is antagonistic to bacterial metabolism and impedes to bacterial metabolism and impedes the sulfate reduction rate, this may be an important factor in modelling. Biofilms are thought to play a crucial role in a reservoir souring process. Biofilm in a reservoir matrix is different from biofilm in open systems. This has major impact on microbial impact on microbial transport and behaviour. Studies on microbial activity in reservoir matrices must be carried out with model cores, in order to mimic a realistic situation. Sufficient data do not exist today. The main conclusion is that a model does not reflect a true situation before the nature of these elements is understood. A simplified version of an Norwegian developed biofilm model is discussed. The model incorporates all the important physical phenomena studied in the above references such as bacteria growth limited by nutrients and/or energy sources and hydrogen sulfide adsorption. 18 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weiss, W.W.; Buckley, J.S.; Ouenes, A.
1997-05-01
The goal of this three-year project was to provide a quantitative definition of reservoir heterogeneity. This objective was accomplished through the integration of geologic, geophysical, and engineering databases into a multi-disciplinary understanding of reservoir architecture and associated fluid-rock and fluid-fluid interactions. This interdisciplinary effort integrated geological and geophysical data with engineering and petrophysical results through reservoir simulation to quantify reservoir architecture and the dynamics of fluid-rock and fluid-fluid interactions. An improved reservoir description allows greater accuracy and confidence during simulation and modeling as steps toward gaining greater recovery efficiency from existing reservoirs. A field laboratory, the Sulimar Queen Unit, was available for the field research. Several members of the PRRC staff participated in the development of improved reservoir description by integration of the field and laboratory data as well as in the development of quantitative reservoir models to aid performance predictions. Subcontractors from Stanford University and the University of Texas at Austin (UT) collaborated in the research and participated in the design and interpretation of field tests. The three-year project was initiated in September 1993 and led to the development and application of various reservoir description methodologies. A new approach for visualizing production data graphically was developed and implemented on the Internet. Using production data and old gamma rays logs, a black oil reservoir model that honors both primary and secondary performance was developed. The old gamma ray logs were used after applying a resealing technique, which was crucial for the success of the project. In addition to the gamma ray logs, the development of the reservoir model benefitted from an inverse Drill Stem Test (DST) technique which provided initial estimates of the reservoir permeability at different wells.
Reservoir Operating Rule Optimization for California's Sacramento Valley
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Timothy Nelson
2016-03-01
Full Text Available doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss1art6Reservoir operating rules for water resource systems are typically developed by combining intuition, professional discussion, and simulation modeling. This paper describes a joint optimization–simulation approach to develop preliminary economically-based operating rules for major reservoirs in California’s Sacramento Valley, based on optimized results from CALVIN, a hydro-economic optimization model. We infer strategic operating rules from the optimization model results, including storage allocation rules to balance storage among multiple reservoirs, and reservoir release rules to determine monthly release for individual reservoirs. Results show the potential utility of considering previous year type on water availability and various system and sub-system storage conditions, in addition to normal consideration of local reservoir storage, season, and current inflows. We create a simple simulation to further refine and test the derived operating rules. Optimization model results show particular insights for balancing the allocation of water storage among Shasta, Trinity, and Oroville reservoirs over drawdown and refill seasons, as well as some insights for release rules at major reservoirs in the Sacramento Valley. We also discuss the applicability and limitations of developing reservoir operation rules from optimization model results.
Modeling Permeability Alteration in Diatomite Reservoirs During Steam Drive, SUPRI TR-113
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bhat, Suniti Kumar; Kovscek, Anthony R.
1999-08-09
There is an estimated 10 billion barrels of original oil in place (OOIP) in diatomaceous reservoirs in Kern County, California. These reservoirs have low permeability ranging from 0.1 to 10 mD. Injection pressure controlled steam drive has been found to be an effective way to recover oil from these reservoir. However, steam drive in these reservoirs has its own complications. The rock matrix is primarily silica (SiO2). It is a known fact that silica is soluble in hot water and its solubility varies with temperature and pH. Due to this fact, the rock matrix in diatomite may dissolve into the aqueous phase as the temperature at a location increases or it may precipitate from the aqueous phase onto the rock grains as the temperature decreases. Thus, during steam drive silica redistribution will occur in the reservoir along with oil recovery. This silica redistribution causes the permeability and porosity of the reservoir to change. Understanding and quantifying these silica redistribution effects on the reservoir permeability might prove to be a key aspect of designing a steam drive project in these formations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ernest A. Mancini
2002-09-25
The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been reservoir characterization, 3-D modeling and technology transfer. This effort has included six tasks: (1) the study of rockfluid interactions, (2) petrophysical and engineering characterization, (3) data integration, (4) 3-D geologic modeling, (5) 3-D reservoir simulation and (6) technology transfer. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 2. Overall, the project work is on schedule. Geoscientific reservoir characterization is essentially completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions is near completion. Observations regarding the diagenetic processes influencing pore system development and
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frost, Michael; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Stenby, Erling Halfdan
2013-01-01
for critical temperature, pressure and acentric factor.This work presents new phase equilibrium data for binary MEG/reservoir fluid and ternary MEG/water/reservoir fluid systems, where two reservoir fluids from Statoil operated fields are used. The solubility data are reported over a range of temperatures......The complex phase equilibrium between reservoir fluids and associating compounds like water and glycols has become more and more important as the increasing global energy demand pushes the oil industry to use advanced methods to increase oil recovery, such as increasing the use of various chemicals...... to ensure a constant and safe production. The CPA equation of state has been successfully applied in the past to well defined systems and gas condensates, containing associating compounds. It has also been extended to reservoir fluids in presence of water and polar chemicals using modified correlations...
Nagylengyel: an interesting reservoir. [Yugoslovia
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dedinszky, J
1971-04-01
The Nagylengyel oil field, discovered in 1951, has oil-producing formations mostly in the Upper-Triassic dolomites, in the Norian-Ractian transition formations, in the Upper-Cretaceous limestones and shales, and in the Miocene. The formation of the reservoir space occurred in many stages. A porous, cavernous fractured reservoir is developed in the Norian principal dolomite. A cavernous fractured reservoir exists in the Cretaceous limestone and in the Cretaceous shale and porous fractured reservoir is developed in the Miocene. The derivation of the model of the reservoir, and the conservative evaluation of the volume of the reservoir made it possible to use secondary recovery.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1998-03-01
To evaluate geothermal reservoirs in the initial stage of development, to keep stable output in service operation, and to develop a technology effective for extraction from peripheral reservoirs, study was made on a reservoir variation prediction technique, in particular, a modeling support technique. This paper describes the result in fiscal 1997. Underground temperature estimation technique using homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions among core fault system measurement systems was applied to Wasabizawa field. The effect of stretching is important to estimate reservoir temperatures, and use of a minimum homogenization temperature of fluid inclusions in quartz was suitable. Even in the case of no quartz in hydrothermal veins, measured data of quartz (secondary fluid inclusion) in parent rocks adjacent to hydrothermal veins well agreed with measured temperature data. The developmental possibility of a new modeling support technique was confirmed enough through collection of documents and information. Based on the result, measurement equipment suitable for R and D was selected, and a measurement system was established through preliminary experiments. 39 refs., 35 figs., 6 tabs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ackere, A. van; Ruud, Morten; Davidsen, Paal
2005-01-01
This paper describes a modelling process at a Norwegian chemical producer, who owns 20% of a reservoir based hydro-energy plant. While the initial objective was to increase the profitability of the energy plant (in particular by an improved understanding of buying and selling decisions and a reconciliation of the managerial and engineering points of view in the context of a liberalised energy market) the process resulted in the company's decision to refocus on its core-business. The process illustrates how a modelling process can lead to a fundamental re framing of the issue, resulting in major change for the company
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cid, Fabricio D., E-mail: fabricio.cid@gmail.com [Laboratory of Biology ' Prof. E. Caviedes Codelia' , Facultad de Ciencias Humanas, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, San Luis (Argentina); Laboratory of Integrative Biology, Institute for Multidisciplinary Research in Biology (IMIBIO-SL), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, San Luis (Argentina); Department of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, San Luis (Argentina); Anton, Rosa I. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, San Luis (Argentina); Pardo, Rafael; Vega, Marisol [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid (Spain); Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique [Laboratory of Biology ' Prof. E. Caviedes Codelia' , Facultad de Ciencias Humanas, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, San Luis (Argentina); Laboratory of Integrative Biology, Institute for Multidisciplinary Research in Biology (IMIBIO-SL), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, San Luis (Argentina); Department of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, San Luis (Argentina)
2011-10-31
Highlights: {yields} Water quality of an Argentinean reservoir has been investigated by N-way PCA. {yields} PARAFAC mode modelled spatial and seasonal variations of water composition. {yields} Two factors related with organic and lead pollution have been identified. {yields} The most polluted areas of the reservoir were located, and polluting sources identified. - Abstract: Temporal and spatial patterns of water quality of an important artificial water reservoir located in the semiarid Midwest of Argentina were investigated using chemometric techniques. Surface water samples were collected at 38 points of the water reservoir during eleven sampling campaigns between October 1998 and June 2000, covering the warm wet season and the cold dry season, and analyzed for dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity, pH, ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, total dissolved solids (TDS), alkalinity, hardness, bicarbonate, chloride, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, fluoride, sodium, potassium, iron, aluminum, silica, phosphate, sulfide, arsenic, chromium, lead, cadmium, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), viable aerobic bacteria (VAB) and total coliform bacteria (TC). Concentrations of lead, ammonium, nitrite and coliforms were higher than the maximum allowable limits for drinking water in a large proportion of the water samples. To obtain a general representation of the spatial and temporal trends of the water quality parameters at the reservoir, the three-dimensional dataset (sampling sites x parameters x sampling campaigns) has been analyzed by matrix augmentation principal component analysis (MA-PCA) and N-way principal component analysis (N-PCA) using Tucker3 and PARAFAC (Parallel Factor Analysis) models. MA-PCA produced a component accounting for the general behavior of parameters associated with organic pollution. The Tucker3 models were not appropriate for modelling the water quality dataset. The two-factor PARAFAC model provided the best picture to understand the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cid, Fabricio D.; Anton, Rosa I.; Pardo, Rafael; Vega, Marisol; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique
2011-01-01
Highlights: → Water quality of an Argentinean reservoir has been investigated by N-way PCA. → PARAFAC mode modelled spatial and seasonal variations of water composition. → Two factors related with organic and lead pollution have been identified. → The most polluted areas of the reservoir were located, and polluting sources identified. - Abstract: Temporal and spatial patterns of water quality of an important artificial water reservoir located in the semiarid Midwest of Argentina were investigated using chemometric techniques. Surface water samples were collected at 38 points of the water reservoir during eleven sampling campaigns between October 1998 and June 2000, covering the warm wet season and the cold dry season, and analyzed for dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity, pH, ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, total dissolved solids (TDS), alkalinity, hardness, bicarbonate, chloride, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, fluoride, sodium, potassium, iron, aluminum, silica, phosphate, sulfide, arsenic, chromium, lead, cadmium, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), viable aerobic bacteria (VAB) and total coliform bacteria (TC). Concentrations of lead, ammonium, nitrite and coliforms were higher than the maximum allowable limits for drinking water in a large proportion of the water samples. To obtain a general representation of the spatial and temporal trends of the water quality parameters at the reservoir, the three-dimensional dataset (sampling sites x parameters x sampling campaigns) has been analyzed by matrix augmentation principal component analysis (MA-PCA) and N-way principal component analysis (N-PCA) using Tucker3 and PARAFAC (Parallel Factor Analysis) models. MA-PCA produced a component accounting for the general behavior of parameters associated with organic pollution. The Tucker3 models were not appropriate for modelling the water quality dataset. The two-factor PARAFAC model provided the best picture to understand the spatial and
Reservoir Identification: Parameter Characterization or Feature Classification
Cao, J.
2017-12-01
The ultimate goal of oil and gas exploration is to find the oil or gas reservoirs with industrial mining value. Therefore, the core task of modern oil and gas exploration is to identify oil or gas reservoirs on the seismic profiles. Traditionally, the reservoir is identify by seismic inversion of a series of physical parameters such as porosity, saturation, permeability, formation pressure, and so on. Due to the heterogeneity of the geological medium, the approximation of the inversion model and the incompleteness and noisy of the data, the inversion results are highly uncertain and must be calibrated or corrected with well data. In areas where there are few wells or no well, reservoir identification based on seismic inversion is high-risk. Reservoir identification is essentially a classification issue. In the identification process, the underground rocks are divided into reservoirs with industrial mining value and host rocks with non-industrial mining value. In addition to the traditional physical parameters classification, the classification may be achieved using one or a few comprehensive features. By introducing the concept of seismic-print, we have developed a new reservoir identification method based on seismic-print analysis. Furthermore, we explore the possibility to use deep leaning to discover the seismic-print characteristics of oil and gas reservoirs. Preliminary experiments have shown that the deep learning of seismic data could distinguish gas reservoirs from host rocks. The combination of both seismic-print analysis and seismic deep learning is expected to be a more robust reservoir identification method. The work was supported by NSFC under grant No. 41430323 and No. U1562219, and the National Key Research and Development Program under Grant No. 2016YFC0601
A Novel 3D Viscoelastic Acoustic Wave Equation Based Update Method for Reservoir History Matching
Katterbauer, Klemens
2014-01-01
of fluid fronts within the reservoir and determine the displacement caused by the injected fluids. This in turn has led to enhanced production strategies, cost reduction and increased profits. Conventional approaches to incorporate seismic data
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Corcoran, Maureen
2001-01-01
The U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center developed a technical framework for identifying, evaluating, and mitigating impacts to cultural resource sites affected by reservoir operation in the Columbia River System...
Rockslide and Impulse Wave Modelling in the Vajont Reservoir by DEM-CFD Analyses
Zhao, T.; Utili, S.; Crosta, G. B.
2016-06-01
This paper investigates the generation of hydrodynamic water waves due to rockslides plunging into a water reservoir. Quasi-3D DEM analyses in plane strain by a coupled DEM-CFD code are adopted to simulate the rockslide from its onset to the impact with the still water and the subsequent generation of the wave. The employed numerical tools and upscaling of hydraulic properties allow predicting a physical response in broad agreement with the observations notwithstanding the assumptions and characteristics of the adopted methods. The results obtained by the DEM-CFD coupled approach are compared to those published in the literature and those presented by Crosta et al. (Landslide spreading, impulse waves and modelling of the Vajont rockslide. Rock mechanics, 2014) in a companion paper obtained through an ALE-FEM method. Analyses performed along two cross sections are representative of the limit conditions of the eastern and western slope sectors. The max rockslide average velocity and the water wave velocity reach ca. 22 and 20 m/s, respectively. The maximum computed run up amounts to ca. 120 and 170 m for the eastern and western lobe cross sections, respectively. These values are reasonably similar to those recorded during the event (i.e. ca. 130 and 190 m, respectively). Therefore, the overall study lays out a possible DEM-CFD framework for the modelling of the generation of the hydrodynamic wave due to the impact of a rapid moving rockslide or rock-debris avalanche.
Log-based identification of sweet spots for effective fracs in shale reservoirs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hashmy, K.; Barnett, C.; Jonkers, J. [Weatherford (United States); Abueita, S. [Anadarko Petroleum (United States)
2011-07-01
Shale reservoir exploitation requires horizontal hydro-fracturing, often in a multi-stage configuration. Fracture stages are usually evenly spaced along the horizontal well, regardless of reservoir characteristics, even though wireline logs or logging-while-drilling (LWD) methods could be used to determine sweet spots for more cost-effective fracturing locations. This paper aims to show how failure to take into consideration a reservoir's geological properties can lead to less effective exploitation, and then goes on to describe logging techniques, LWD and wireline logs combined, and their usefulness in effectively placing fracturing stages on a reservoir's sweet spots. By studying logs from different LWD and wireline log techniques, such as gamma ray, resistivity, X-ray fluorescence or shockwave sonic measurements for different existing wells, the study shows how sweet spots, where kerogen concentration is higher, with higher porosity, can be determined. These logging techniques, requiring low investments, offer a variety of methods for identifying sweet spots in shale reservoirs, and fracturing only these spots will avoid unnecessary expenditure on frac stages in zones with poor reservoir characteristics.
Geothermal reservoir assessment manual; 1984-1992 nendo chinetsu choryusou hyoka shuhou manual
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1993-02-01
A geothermal reservoir assessment manual was prepared for the promotion of the development of geothermal power generation, based on the results of the 'geothermal reservoir assessment technique development project' implemented during the fiscal 1984-1992 period and on the results of surveys conducted in Japan and abroad. Of the geothermal systems generally classified into the steam dominant type and the hot water dominant type, encounters with the steam dominant type are but seldom reported. This manual therefore covers the hot water dominant type only. In addition to the explanation of the basic concept and the outline of geothermal reservoirs, the manual carries data necessary for reservoir assessment; geological and geophysical data analyses; geochemistry in reservoir assessment; data of underground logging and of fuming; conceptual models; simulators and models for reservoir simulation; natural-state simulation, history-matching simulation, and reservoir behavior predicting simulation; case history (modeling of a geothermal reservoir prior to exploitation), references, and so forth. (NEDO)
Watershed Models for Decision Support for Inflows to Potholes Reservoir, Washington
Mastin, Mark C.
2009-01-01
A set of watershed models for four basins (Crab Creek, Rocky Ford Creek, Rocky Coulee, and Lind Coulee), draining into Potholes Reservoir in east-central Washington, was developed as part of a decision support system to aid the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, in managing water resources in east-central Washington State. The project is part of the U.S. Geological Survey and Bureau of Reclamation collaborative Watershed and River Systems Management Program. A conceptual model of hydrology is outlined for the study area that highlights the significant processes that are important to accurately simulate discharge under a wide range of conditions. The conceptual model identified the following factors as significant for accurate discharge simulations: (1) influence of frozen ground on peak discharge, (2) evaporation and ground-water flow as major pathways in the system, (3) channel losses, and (4) influence of irrigation practices on reducing or increasing discharge. The Modular Modeling System was used to create a watershed model for the four study basins by combining standard Precipitation Runoff Modeling System modules with modified modules from a previous study and newly modified modules. The model proved unreliable in simulating peak-flow discharge because the index used to track frozen ground conditions was not reliable. Mean monthly and mean annual discharges were more reliable when simulated. Data from seven USGS streamflow-gaging stations were used to compare with simulated discharge for model calibration and evaluation. Mean annual differences between simulated and observed discharge varied from 1.2 to 13.8 percent for all stations used in the comparisons except one station on a regional ground-water discharge stream. Two thirds of the mean monthly percent differences between the simulated mean and the observed mean discharge for these six stations were between -20 and 240 percent, or in absolute terms, between -0.8 and 11 cubic feet per
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rong, Libin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Perelson, Alan [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
HIV-1 eradication from infected individuals has not been achieved with the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for a prolonged period of time. The cellular reservoir for HIV-1 in resting memory CD4{sup +} T cells remains a major obstacle to viral elimination. The reservoir does not decay significantly over long periods of time as is able to release replication competent HIV-1 upon cell activation. Residual ongoing viral replication may likely occur in many patients because low levels of virus can be detected in plasma by sensitive assays and transient episodes of viremia, or HIV-1 blips, are often observed in patients even with successful viral suppression for many years. Here we review our current knowledge of the factors contributing to viral persistence, the latent reservoir, and blips, and mathematical models developed to explore them and their relationships. We show how mathematical modeling can help improve our understanding of HIV-1 dynamics in patients on HAART and the quantitative events underlying HIV-1 latency, reservoir stability, low-level viremic persistence, and emergence of intermittent viral blips. We also discuss treatment implications related to these studies.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Caplan, M. L. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Moslow, T. F. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics
1997-12-01
The Peejay Field in northeastern British Columbia was chosen as the site of a detailed study to establish the paleogeography, geological history and genesis of reservoir facies of Middle Triassic strata. A total of 132 cores and well logs from 345 wells were examined to establish the depositional model, to identify the origin of all reservoir facies and to construct an exploration model to improve the prediction of reservoir facies. Results show that the Middle Triassic Halfway Formation of northeastern British Columbia is comprised of at least four west-southwest prograding paleoshorelines. The Lithofacies Succession One quartz-arenites paleoshore faces have less porosity and permeability and are laterally discontinuous. For these reasons shoreface facies have minimal reservoir quality. The tidal inlet fill successions were found to have the greatest observed porosity, permeability and lateral continuity in the Peejay Field. The geometry and orientation of these tidal inlet fill deposits are controlled by tectonic processes. It was suggested that the success of hydrocarbon exploration in this structurally complex area of northeastern British Columbia and west-central Alberta depends on further stratigraphic and sedimentological examination of Middle Triassic strata on a regional scale to obtain a complete understanding of the geological history of the area. 39 refs., 13 refs.
Nowak, Martin; Myrttinen, Anssi; Zimmer, Martin; van Geldern, Robert; Barth, Johannes A. C.
2014-05-01
At the pilot site for CO2 storage in Ketzin, a new well-based leakage-monitoring concept was established, comprising geochemical and hydraulic observations of the aquifer directly above the CO2 reservoir (Wiese et al., 2013, Nowak et al. 2013). Its purpose was to allow early detection of un-trapped CO2. Within this monitoring concept, we established a stable carbon isotope monitoring of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). If baseline isotope values of aquifer DIC (δ13CDIC) and reservoir CO2 (δ13CCO2) are known and distinct from each other, the δ13CDIC has the potential to serve as an an early indicator for an impact of leaked CO2 on the aquifer brine. The observation well of the overlying aquifer was equipped with an U-tube sampling system that allowed sampling of unaltered brine. The high alkaline drilling mud that was used during well drilling masked δ13CDIC values at the beginning of the monitoring campaign. However, subsequent monitoring allowed observing on-going re-equilibration of the brine, indicated by changing δ13CDIC and other geochemical values, until values ranging around -23 ‰ were reached. The latter were close to baseline values before drilling. Baselineδ13CDIC and δ13CCO2 values were used to derive a geochemical and isotope model that predicts evolution of δ13CDIC, if CO2 from the reservoir would leak into the aquifer. The model shows that equilibrium isotope fractionation would have to be considered if CO2 dissolves in the brine. The model suggests that stable carbon isotope monitoring is a suitable tool to assess the impact of injected CO2 in overlying groundwater aquifers. However, more data are required to close gaps of knowledge about fractionation behaviour within the CO2(g) - DIC system under elevated pressures and temperatures. Nowak, M., Myrttinen, A., Zimmer, M., Wiese, B., van Geldern, R., Barth, J.A.C., 2013. Well-based, Geochemical Leakage Monitoring of an Aquifer Immediately Above a CO2 Storage Reservoir by Stable Carbon
Bao, Kai; Yan, Mi; Allen, Rebecca; Salama, Amgad; Lu, Ligang; Jordan, Kirk E.; Sun, Shuyu; Keyes, David E.
2015-01-01
The present work describes a parallel computational framework for carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration simulation by coupling reservoir simulation and molecular dynamics (MD) on massively parallel high-performance-computing (HPC) systems
The internal wave field in Sau reservoir : Observation and modeling of a third vertical mode
Vidal Hurtado, Javier; Casamitjana, Xavier; Colomer, Jordi; Serra Putellas, Teresa
2005-01-01
Water withdrawal from Mediterranean reservoirs in summer is usually very high. Because of this, stratification is often continuous and far from the typical two-layered structure, favoring the excitation of higher vertical modes. The analysis of wind, temperature, and current data from Sau reservoir (Spain) shows that the third vertical mode of the internal seiche (baroclinic mode) dominated the internal wave field at the beginning of September 2003. We used a continuous stratification two-dim...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soto, R; Wu, Ch. H; Bubela, A M
1999-01-01
This work introduces a novel methodology to improve reservoir characterization models. In this methodology we integrated multivariate statistical analyses, and neural network models for forecasting the infill drilling ultimate oil recovery from reservoirs in San Andres and Clearfork carbonate formations in west Texas. Development of the oil recovery forecast models help us to understand the relative importance of dominant reservoir characteristics and operational variables, reproduce recoveries for units included in the database, forecast recoveries for possible new units in similar geological setting, and make operational (infill drilling) decisions. The variety of applications demands the creation of multiple recovery forecast models. We have developed intelligent software (Soto, 1998), oilfield intelligence (01), as an engineering tool to improve the characterization of oil and gas reservoirs. 01 integrates neural networks and multivariate statistical analysis. It is composed of five main subsystems: data input, preprocessing, architecture design, graphic design, and inference engine modules. One of the challenges in this research was to identify the dominant and the optimum number of independent variables. The variables include porosity, permeability, water saturation, depth, area, net thickness, gross thickness, formation volume factor, pressure, viscosity, API gravity, number of wells in initial water flooding, number of wells for primary recovery, number of infill wells over the initial water flooding, PRUR, IWUR, and IDUR. Multivariate principal component analysis is used to identify the dominant and the optimum number of independent variables. We compared the results from neural network models with the non-parametric approach. The advantage of the non-parametric regression is that it is easy to use. The disadvantage is that it retains a large variance of forecast results for a particular data set. We also used neural network concepts to develop recovery
Potential of Cellulose-Based Superabsorbent Hydrogels as Water Reservoir in Agriculture
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Demitri
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The present work deals with the development of a biodegradable superabsorbent hydrogel, based on cellulose derivatives, for the optimization of water resources in agriculture, horticulture and, more in general, for instilling a wiser and savvier approach to water consumption. The sorption capability of the proposed hydrogel was firstly assessed, with specific regard to two variables that might play a key role in the soil environment, that is, ionic strength and pH. Moreover, a preliminary evaluation of the hydrogel potential as water reservoir in agriculture was performed by using the hydrogel in experimental greenhouses, for the cultivation of tomatoes. The soil-water retention curve, in the presence of different hydrogel amounts, was also analysed. The preliminary results showed that the material allowed an efficient storage and sustained release of water to the soil and the plant roots. Although further investigations should be performed to completely characterize the interaction between the hydrogel and the soil, such findings suggest that the envisaged use of the hydrogel on a large scale might have a revolutionary impact on the optimization of water resources management in agriculture.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lei Gui
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Slow moving landslide is a major disaster in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. It is difficult to compare the deformation among different parts of this kind of landslide through GPS measurements when the displacement of different monitoring points is similar in values. So far, studies have been seldom carried out to find out the information hidden behind those GPS monitoring data to solve this problem. Therefore, in this study, three landslides were chosen to perform landslide displacement analysis based on fractal theory. The major advantage of this study is that it has not only considered the values of the displacement of those GPS monitoring points, but also considered the moving traces of them. This allows to reveal more information from GPS measurements and to obtain a broader understanding of the deformation history on different parts of a unique landslide, especially for slow moving landslides. The results proved that using the fractal dimension as an indicator is reliable to estimate the deformation of each landslide and to represent landslide deformation on both spatial and temporal scales. The results of this study could make sense to those working on landslide hazard and risk assessment and land use planning.
Chen, Tao; Niu, Rui-qing; Wang, Yi; Li, Ping-xiang; Zhang, Liang-pei; Du, Bo
2011-08-01
Soil conservation planning often requires estimates of the spatial distribution of soil erosion at a catchment or regional scale. This paper applied the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) to investigate the spatial distribution of annual soil loss over the upper basin of Miyun reservoir in China. Among the soil erosion factors, which are rainfall erosivity (R), soil erodibility (K), slope length (L), slope steepness (S), vegetation cover (C), and support practice factor (P), the vegetative cover or C factor, which represents the effects of vegetation canopy and ground covers in reducing soil loss, has been one of the most difficult to estimate over broad geographic areas. In this paper, the C factor was estimated based on back propagation neural network and the results were compared with the values measured in the field. The correlation coefficient (r) obtained was 0.929. Then the C factor and the other factors were used as the input to RUSLE model. By integrating the six factor maps in geographical information system (GIS) through pixel-based computing, the spatial distribution of soil loss over the upper basin of Miyun reservoir was obtained. The results showed that the annual average soil loss for the upper basin of Miyun reservoir was 9.86 t ha(-1) ya(-1) in 2005, and the area of 46.61 km(2) (0.3%) experiences extremely severe erosion risk, which needs suitable conservation measures to be adopted on a priority basis. The spatial distribution of erosion risk classes was 66.9% very low, 21.89% low, 6.18% moderate, 2.89% severe, and 1.84% very severe. Thus, by using RUSLE in a GIS environment, the spatial distribution of water erosion can be obtained and the regions which susceptible to water erosion and need immediate soil conservation planning and application over the upper watershed of Miyun reservoir in China can be identified.
Yang, Yan; Wang, Guoqiang; Wang, Lijing; Yu, Jingshan; Xu, Zongxue
2014-01-01
Gridded precipitation data are becoming an important source for driving hydrologic models to achieve stable and valid simulation results in different regions. Thus, evaluating different sources of precipitation data is important for improving the applicability of gridded data. In this study, we used three gridded rainfall datasets: 1) National Centers for Environmental Prediction - Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (NCEP-CFSR); 2) Asian Precipitation - Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation (APHRODITE); and 3) China trend - surface reanalysis (trend surface) data. These are compared with monitoring precipitation data for driving the Soil and Water Assessment Tool in two basins upstream of Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in China. The results of one test basin with significant topographic influence indicates that all the gridded data have poor abilities in reproducing hydrologic processes with the topographic influence on precipitation quantity and distribution. However, in a relatively flat test basin, the APHRODITE and trend surface data can give stable and desirable results. The results of this study suggest that precipitation data for future applications should be considered comprehensively in the TGR area, including the influence of data density and topography. PMID:25409467
Yang, Yan; Wang, Guoqiang; Wang, Lijing; Yu, Jingshan; Xu, Zongxue
2014-01-01
Gridded precipitation data are becoming an important source for driving hydrologic models to achieve stable and valid simulation results in different regions. Thus, evaluating different sources of precipitation data is important for improving the applicability of gridded data. In this study, we used three gridded rainfall datasets: 1) National Centers for Environmental Prediction-Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (NCEP-CFSR); 2) Asian Precipitation-Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation (APHRODITE); and 3) China trend-surface reanalysis (trend surface) data. These are compared with monitoring precipitation data for driving the Soil and Water Assessment Tool in two basins upstream of Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in China. The results of one test basin with significant topographic influence indicates that all the gridded data have poor abilities in reproducing hydrologic processes with the topographic influence on precipitation quantity and distribution. However, in a relatively flat test basin, the APHRODITE and trend surface data can give stable and desirable results. The results of this study suggest that precipitation data for future applications should be considered comprehensively in the TGR area, including the influence of data density and topography.
Modeling Net Land Occupation of Hydropower Reservoirs in Norway for Use in Life Cycle Assessment.
Dorber, Martin; May, Roel; Verones, Francesca
2018-02-20
Increasing hydropower electricity production constitutes a unique opportunity to mitigate climate change impacts. However, hydropower electricity production also impacts aquatic and terrestrial biodiversity through freshwater habitat alteration, water quality degradation, and land use and land use change (LULUC). Today, no operational model exists that covers any of these cause-effect pathways within life cycle assessment (LCA). This paper contributes to the assessment of LULUC impacts of hydropower electricity production in Norway in LCA. We quantified the inundated land area associated with 107 hydropower reservoirs with remote sensing data and related it to yearly electricity production. Therewith, we calculated an average net land occupation of 0.027 m 2 ·yr/kWh of Norwegian storage hydropower plants for the life cycle inventory. Further, we calculated an adjusted average land occupation of 0.007 m 2 ·yr/kWh, accounting for an underestimation of water area in the performed maximum likelihood classification. The calculated land occupation values are the basis to support the development of methods for assessing the land occupation impacts of hydropower on biodiversity in LCA at a damage level.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Xiaoyang; Liu, Tianyou
2010-01-01
Reflections from a hydrocarbon-saturated zone are generally expected to have a tendency to be low frequency. Previous work has shown the application of seismic spectral decomposition for low-frequency shadow detection. In this paper, we further analyse the characteristics of spectral amplitude in fractured sandstone reservoirs with different fluid saturations using the Wigner–Ville distribution (WVD)-based method. We give a description of the geometric structure of cross-terms due to the bilinear nature of WVD and eliminate cross-terms using smoothed pseudo-WVD (SPWVD) with time- and frequency-independent Gaussian kernels as smoothing windows. SPWVD is finally applied to seismic data from West Sichuan depression. We focus our study on the comparison of SPWVD spectral amplitudes resulting from different fluid contents. It shows that prolific gas reservoirs feature higher peak spectral amplitude at higher peak frequency, which attenuate faster than low-quality gas reservoirs and dry or wet reservoirs. This can be regarded as a spectral attenuation signature for future exploration in the study area
Kim, J.; Sonnenthal, E. L.; Rutqvist, J.
2011-12-01
Rigorous modeling of coupling between fluid, heat, and geomechanics (thermo-poro-mechanics), in fractured porous media is one of the important and difficult topics in geothermal reservoir simulation, because the physics are highly nonlinear and strongly coupled. Coupled fluid/heat flow and geomechanics are investigated using the multiple interacting continua (MINC) method as applied to naturally fractured media. In this study, we generalize constitutive relations for the isothermal elastic dual porosity model proposed by Berryman (2002) to those for the non-isothermal elastic/elastoplastic multiple porosity model, and derive the coupling coefficients of coupled fluid/heat flow and geomechanics and constraints of the coefficients. When the off-diagonal terms of the total compressibility matrix for the flow problem are zero, the upscaled drained bulk modulus for geomechanics becomes the harmonic average of drained bulk moduli of the multiple continua. In this case, the drained elastic/elastoplastic moduli for mechanics are determined by a combination of the drained moduli and volume fractions in multiple porosity materials. We also determine a relation between local strains of all multiple porosity materials in a gridblock and the global strain of the gridblock, from which we can track local and global elastic/plastic variables. For elastoplasticity, the return mapping is performed for all multiple porosity materials in the gridblock. For numerical implementation, we employ and extend the fixed-stress sequential method of the single porosity model to coupled fluid/heat flow and geomechanics in multiple porosity systems, because it provides numerical stability and high accuracy. This sequential scheme can be easily implemented by using a porosity function and its corresponding porosity correction, making use of the existing robust flow and geomechanics simulators. We implemented the proposed modeling and numerical algorithm to the reaction transport simulator
Payne, Dorothy Frances
The Piceance Basin is highly compartmented, and predicting the location and characteristics of producible reservoirs is difficult. Gas generation is an important consideration in quality and size of natural gas reserves, but it also may contribute to fracturing, and hence the creation of the reservoirs in which it is contained. The purpose of this dissertation is to use numerical modeling to study the evolution of these unconventional natural gas reservoirs in the Piceance Basin. In order to characterize the scale and structure of compartmentation in the Piceance Basin, a set of in-situ fluid pressure data were interpolated across the basin and the resulting fluid pressure distribution was analyzed. Results show complex basin- and field-scale compartmentation in the Upper Cretaceous units. There are no simple correlations between compartment location and such factors as stratigraphy, basin structure, or coal thickness and maturity. To account for gas generation in the Piceance Basin, a new chemical kinetic approach to modeling lignin maturation is developed, based primarily on structural transformations of the lignin molecule observed in naturally matured samples. This model calculates mole fractions of all species, functional group fractions, and elemental weight percents. Results show reasonable prediction of maturities at other sites in the Piceance Basin for vitrinite reflectance up to about 1.7 %Ro. The flexible design of the model allows it to be modified to account for compositionally heterogeneous source material. To evaluate the role of gas generation in this dynamical system, one-dimensional simulations have been performed using the CIRFB reaction-transport-mechanical (RTM) simulator. CIRFB accounts for compaction, fracturing, hydrocarbon generation, and multi-phase flow. These results suggest that by contributing to overpressure, gas generation has two important implications: (1) gas saturation in one unit affects fracturing in other units, thereby
Andersen, N. L.; Dufek, J.; Singer, B. S.
2017-12-01
Magma reservoirs in the middle to upper crust are though to accumulate incrementally over 104 -105 years. Coupled crystallization ages and compositions of zircon are a potentially powerful tracer of reservoir growth and magma evolution. However, complex age distributions and disequilibrium trace element partitioning complicate the interpretation of the zircon record in terms of magmatic processes. In order to make quantitative predictions of the effects of magmatic processes that contribute reservoir growth and evolution—such as cooling and crystallization, magma recharge and mixing, and rejuvenation and remelting of cumulate-rich reservoir margins—we develop a model of zircon saturation and growth within a numerical framework of coupled thermal transfer, phase equilibrium, and magma dynamics. We apply this model to the Laguna del Maule volcanic field (LdM), located in central Chile. LdM has erupted at least 40 km3 of rhyolite from 36 vents distributed within a 250 km2 lake basin. Ongoing unrest demonstrates the large, silicic magma system beneath LdM remains active to this day. Zircon from rhyolite erupted between c. 23 and 1.8 ka produce a continuous distribution of 230Th-238U ages ranging from eruption to 40 ka, as well as less common crystal domains up to 165 ka and rare xenocrysts. Zircon trace element compositions fingerprint compositionally distinct reservoirs that grew within the larger magma system. Despite the dominantly continuous distributions of ages, many crystals are characterized by volumetrically substantial, trace element enriched domains consistent with rapid crystal growth. We utilize numerical simulations to assess the magmatic conditions required to catalyze these "blooms" of crystallization