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Sample records for reservoir los angeles

  1. Water Control Manual: Sepulveda Dam and Reservoir, Los Angeles River, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    Generally the quality of urban base flow has been so poor that these facilities are 4-7 rarely used. A downstream reach with cobblestone invert near...by the Los Angeles County Drainage Area Review (see table 1-01; Draft: Los Angeles County Drainage Area Review: Part I, Hydrology Report). b. Rubber ...Dam. The City of Los Angeles Department of Water and Power construct a rubber dam approximately 10 miles below Sepulveda Dam for diversion of water into

  2. Shallow Miocene basaltic magma reservoirs in the Bahia de Los Angeles basin, Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Argote, Luis A.; García-Abdeslem, Juan

    1999-01-01

    The basement in the Bahía de Los Angeles basin consists of Paleozoic metamorphic rocks and Cretaceous granitoids. The Neogene stratigraphy overlying the basement is formed, from the base to the top, by andesitic lava flows and plugs, sandstone and conglomeratic horizons, and Miocene pyroclastic flow units and basaltic flows. Basaltic dikes also intrude the whole section. To further define its structure, a detailed gravimetric survey was conducted across the basin about 1 km north of the Sierra Las Flores. In spite of the rough and lineal topography along the foothills of the Sierra La Libertad, we found no evidence for large-scale faulting. Gravity data indicates that the basin has a maximum depth of 120 m in the Valle Las Tinajas and averages 75 m along the gravimetric profile. High density bodies below the northern part of the Sierra Las Flores and Valle Las Tinajas are interpreted to be part of basaltic dikes. The intrusive body located north of the Sierra Las Flores is 2.5 km wide and its top is about 500 m deep. The lava flows of the top of the Sierra Las Flores, together with the distribution of basaltic activity north of this sierra, suggests that this intrusive body continues for 20 km along a NNW-trending strike. Between the sierras Las Flores and Las Animas, a 0.5-km-wide, 300-m-thick intrusive body is interpreted at a depth of about 100 m. This dike could be part of the basaltic activity of the Cerro Las Tinajas and the small mounds along the foothills of western Sierra Las Animas. The observed local normal faulting in the basin is inferred to be mostly associated with the emplacement of the shallow magma reservoirs below Las Flores and Las Tinajas.

  3. The Los Angeles basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rintoul, W.

    1991-01-01

    In the early 1890s, Edward L Doheny, a mining prospector down on his luck, observed residents of Los Angeles gathering brea from the area's tar pits for use as fuel in coal-scarce California. Realizing that this crude tar was petroleum that had congealed upon contact with the open air, Doheny explored the residential neighborhood near Westlake Park, pooled resources with Charles A Canfield, an old mining crony, and purchased a city lot for $400. This paper reports that drilling wells in the Los Angeles City field posed the problem of making oil production compatible with urban living. Residents had to deal with noise, dirt, traffic, odors, and waste disposal. At least one solution to the waste disposal problem proved unique. A homeowner with a rig in his backyard had no place for a sump in which to run waste water and mud. However, his house had a basement, and that's where the mud went

  4. Geomorphological Hazards in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Richard F.

    This is a topical book that deals with the geomorphological and geological engineering problems associated with hillslope processes and sediment transport in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. There are few large cities in the United States where the problems of urban growth include such a distinctive physical environment, as well as the potential hazards of brush fires, earthquakes, and floods that occur in Los Angeles. The research and data used in the book are restricted to Los Angeles County and cover the period 1914-1978. The author has done a commendable job of synthesizing a large mass of data from diverse sources, including federal, state, and local agency reports, plus data from private groups such as professional technical societies and consultants.

  5. Hangar con alas, Los Angeles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1961-04-01

    Full Text Available Formando parte de su programa, la TWA ha construido recientemente un hangar para servicio y reparaciones de su flota aérea de naves ordinarias y de aviones de reacción en el aeropuerto internacional de Los Angeles (Estados Unidos. El proyecto de esta obra se encargó a la empresa constructora Holmes & Narver, Inc.

  6. Palace Revolt in Los Angeles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Antonio Villaraigosa, the mayor of Los Angeles, comes alive when recalling his start in local politics--as a labor organizer agitating for reform inside decrepit and overcrowded schools. In his quest to turn around the schools, the mayor has united working-class Latino parents, civil rights leaders, and big-money Democrats to challenge union…

  7. THE NEGRO IN LOS ANGELES COUNTY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Community Relations Educational Foundation, Los Angeles, CA.

    BASIC PROBLEMS OF POPULATION GROWTH, HOUSING SEGREGATION, SUBSTANDARD HOUSING, DWELLING UNIT POPULATION DENSITY, EDUCATION, EMPLOYMENT, AND THE ATTITUDE OF THE NEGRO ARE PRESENTED. THE INCREASE IN NONWHITE POPULATION IN LOS ANGELES COUNTY BETWEEN 1950 AND 1960 WAS 113.7 PERCENT. MOST NONWHITES, 93.7 PERCENT, LIVE IN THE CENTRAL DISTRICT, THEY LIVE…

  8. Latina Adolescent Childbearing in East Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Pamela I.

    This book is about teenage pregnancy among Latina teenagers in East Los Angeles (California). It focuses on teenage pregnancy and motherhood among economically disadvantaged Latinas aged 17 and under. The young mothers in this study were participants in a series of intervention efforts to prevent repeat pregnancy at a family planning clinic. This…

  9. Coca-Cola Hispanic Education Fund: Los Angeles Program Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca Cola Bottling Co. of Los Angeles, CA.

    The Coca-Cola Hispanic Education Fund was created in response to the high school dropout problem in Los Angeles. The Fund enables the Coca-Cola Bottling Company of Los Angeles to build upon the successful relationship it has developed in the Hispanic community and maximizes the effectiveness of existing student support programs by directing needy…

  10. Battle in Los Angeles: Conflict Escalates as Charter Schools Thrive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmire, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the 1990s and well into the new millennium, the massive Los Angeles Unified School District barely noticed the many charter schools that were springing up around the metropolis. But Los Angeles parents certainly took notice, and started enrolling their children. In 2008, five charter-management organizations announced plans to…

  11. Edificio de archivos en Los Angeles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neutra & Alexander, Arquitectos

    1963-07-01

    Full Text Available The 80th birthday of Richard Neutra coincides with the completion of this building, a special feature of which is that it has 13 half-floor levels, thus saving space and making it easier to reach the documents. Besides housing the Territorial Archives Office, it accommodates the Territorial Testing Dept., Regional Planning Committee and Territorial Library. 40 ms high rotary sun shields are fitted, made of aluminium. They are controlled automatically by electronic devices, motivated by the solar action, and are thus correctly orientated at any time to provide protection against sun glare. They close altogether when the wind speed is such that they might be damaged. On the main facade looking towards Temple Street, the plastic arts organisation has contributed a large mosaic by Joseph Young, showing a map of the district. This archives building in Los Angeles is a fine exponent of what technology can do for man, and it is a characteristic example of contemporary organic architecture at its best.El principio de la octava década de Neutra coincide con la terminación del edificio, cuya sección nos ofrece trece medias plantas, para economizar espacio y facilitar el alcance de los documentos. Aloja, además de la Oficina Territorial de Archivos, otras varias: Departamento Territorial de Pruebas, Comisión de Planificación Regional y Biblioteca Territorial. Unos «brise-soleils» giratorios, de aluminio, de 40 m de altura, que funcionan automáticamente —controlados por un cerebro electrónico— bajo la acción solar, proporcionan la orientación «adecuada» en cada momento y protegen del brillo lateral, cerrándose cuando el viento sopla con una velocidad que puede serles perjudicial. Como aportación de las Artes Plásticas aparece en la fachada principal, que da a la calle Temple, un gran mosaico, de Joseph Young, del mapa del territorio. Este edificio de archivos en Los Angeles constituye un claro exponente en el que la, técnica est

  12. Photo Gallery from the Los Angeles River Watershed (California)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photo gallery of the Los Angeles River Watershed area of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts.

  13. Assessing urban forest effects and values, Los Angeles' urban forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Robert E. III Hoehn; Daniel E. Crane; Lorraine Weller; Antonio. Davila

    2011-01-01

    An analysis of trees in Los Angeles, CA, reveals that this area has about 6 million trees with tree and shrub canopies that cover 24.9 percent of the city. The most common tree species are Italian cypress, scrub oak, laurel sumac, Mexican fan palm, and Indian laurel, Trees in Los Angeles currently store about 1.3 million tons of carbon (4.7 million tons CO2...

  14. Los Angeles Area Permit Holder Estimated Trash Load Reduction, Los Angeles CA, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Los Angeles River has been designated as an impaired waterbody due to the large volume of trash it receives from the watershed. To address this problem a Total...

  15. Professional Identity at Los Angeles College of Chiropractic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Melissa Nagare; Russell, Robb; Scaringe, John

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this article is to describe chiropractic professional identity as espoused by the Los Angeles College of Chiropractic. Professional identity is a construct that begins formation prior to career selection, can be considered the backbone of health care education, and has been linked to career success. Los Angeles College of Chiropractic's professional identity is shaped by a philosophy of health care that is focused on vitalism, holism, naturalism, therapeutic conservatism, critical rationalism, phenomenology, humanism, and interprofessionalism. Other distinguishing aspects include portal-of-entry professionals with broad diagnostic skills; a focus on spine care; promotion of public-health; and delivery of manual treatments. The chiropractic professional identity at the Los Angeles College of Chiropractic focuses on serving the needs of the people who entrust their health to its graduates and will continue to evolve on the basis of many factors, such as politics, social perceptions, and economic conditions.

  16. Predicting Los Angeles abrasion loss of rock aggregates from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    resistance generally tested using the Los Angeles testing machine. The abrasion resistance of aggregates is measured by the LA abrasion test originally developed to provide a quantitative method for evaluating the quality of aggre- gates for use in highway construction. The wear due to attrition between rock particles and ...

  17. Working Smart: The Los Angeles Workplace Literacy Project. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA. Div. of Adult and Occupational Education.

    The Working Smart workplace literacy project was sponsored by a public school district and several profit and nonprofit companies and conducted for the hotel and food industry in the Los Angeles area. Literacy instruction was merged with job requirements of the customer service job classifications. Videodisc courseware was developed, as were…

  18. Los Angeles School Board Race Shatters Spending Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2013-01-01

    The price tag to win a seat in this week's primary election for the Los Angeles school board climbed to unprecedented levels, as a massive influx of outside cash has turned a local campaign into a national showdown pitting the long-standing influence of teachers' unions against the expanding imprint of deep-pocketed education activists. The high…

  19. Los Angeles 1-Million tree canopy cover assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory E. McPherson; James R. Simpson; Qingfu Xiao; Wu Chunxia

    2008-01-01

    The Million Trees LA initiative intends to chart a course for sustainable growth through planting and stewardship of trees. The purpose of this study was to measure Los Angeles's existing tree canopy cover (TCC), determine if space exists for 1 million additional trees, and estimate future benefits from the planting. High resolution QuickBird remote sensing data,...

  20. Maximizing Intelligence Sharing Within the Los Angeles Police Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    member of JIS was to target for violent attack “any enemies of Islam or infidels , including the United States Government, Jewish and non-Jewish...Team, Sexual Assault Team, Burglary Team and so on. The detectives that are assigned to a specific team handled that specific crime. In addition...the same types of crimes Los Angeles does, murders, kidnaps, sexual assaults, prostitution, drugs, gangs, etc. One difference between Israel and Los

  1. The Spatial Politics of Street Vending in Los Angeles

    OpenAIRE

    Sarmiento, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    This brief focuses on the politics of street vending in Los Angeles. The topic is especially salient now as the city expands its investments in design and planning interventions to activate public space, streets and sidewalks, for local economic development, and to encourage public transit and transportation alternatives to the automobile. Driven by the “smart growth” imperatives of increasing density in the urban core and transit-oriented development, “complete streets” initiatives, the Los ...

  2. 40 CFR 81.17 - Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.17 Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region consists of the following territorial area (including the territorial... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality...

  3. Modeling smog along the Los Angeles-Palm Springs trajectory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, S.R.

    1976-01-01

    Observations of smog concentrations and wind patterns during the summer of 1973 in Los Angeles, Pomona, Riverside, Banning, and Palm Springs, California are presented which show that high oxidant concentrations at Banning and Palm Springs are often due to advection of smog from source regions in the more densely populated western part of the Los Angeles basin. At Pomona and Riverside, advection from upwind source regions combines with the effects of local emissions to cause long durations of high oxidant concentrations with peak times in the mid afternoon. An empirical model for the diurnal oxidant variation is suggested which satisfactorily simulates observed concentrations. More complex models which include chemical kinetics systems do not perform very satisfactorily at the rural stations of Banning and Palm Springs, especially at night when observed oxidant concentrations remain high

  4. Implementing municipal tree planting: Los Angeles million tree initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Pincetl

    2010-01-01

    Urban forests are increasingly being seen as an important infrastructure that can help cities remediate their environmental impacts. This work reports on the first steps in implementing a million tree program in Los Angeles and the ways such a biogenic—living—infrastructure has been approached. Numbers of studies have been done to quantify the benefits of urban forests...

  5. Los Angeles Summer Midday Particulate Carbon: Primary and Secondary Aerosol

    OpenAIRE

    Turpin, Barbara J.; Huntzicker, James J.; Larson, Susan M.; Cass, Glen R.

    1991-01-01

    Aerosol sampling during photochemically active times across the Los Angeles Basin has provided evidence of secondary formation of organic aerosol from gas-phase precursors at midday. Ambient organic carbon/elemental carbon ratios exceeded the estimated ratio of organic carbon/elemental carbon in primary source emissions on most sampling days at all sites. The concentration of secondary organic aerosol was calculated by using ambient data and estimates of the organic ca...

  6. The spatial distribution of underage tobacco sales in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Robert; Banerjee, Aniruddha; Levy, David; Manzanilla, Nora; Cochrane, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Underage tobacco sales is considered a serious public health problem in Los Angeles. Anecdotally, rates have been thought to be quite high. In this paper, using spatial statistical techniques, we describe underage tobacco sales, identifying areas with high levels of sales and hot spots controlling for sociodemographic measures. Six hundred eighty-nine tobacco outlets were investigated throughout the city of Los Angeles in 2001. We consider the factors that explain vendor location of illegal sales of tobacco to underage youth and focus on those areas with especially high rates of illegal sales when controlling for other independent measures. Using data from the census, the LA City Attorney's Office, and public records on school locations in Los Angeles, we employ general least-squares (GLS) estimators in order to avoid biased estimates. vendor location of underage tobacco compliance checks, violators, and nonviolators. Underage tobacco sales in Los Angeles were very high (33.5%) for the entire city in 2001. In many zip codes this rate is considerably higher (60%-100%). When conducting spatial modeling, lower income and ethnicity were strongly associated with increases in underage tobacco sales. Hotspot areas of underage tobacco sales also had much lower mean family income and a much higher percentage of foreign born and greater population density. Spatial techniques were used to better identify areas where vendors sell tobacco to underage youth. Lower income areas were much more likely to both have higher rates of underage tobacco sales and to be a hot spot for such sales. Population density is also significantly associated with underage tobacco sales. The study's limitations are noted.

  7. Insurance Stock Prices Following the 1994 Los Angeles Earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas A. Aiuppa; Thomas M. Krueger

    1995-01-01

    This study examines the changes in insurance firm value following the 1994 Los Angeles earthquake. While prior studies found that the 1989 San Francisco earthquake was associated with an increase in earthquake insurers’ firm value, the findings of this study indicate that earthquake firms sustained their value following the 1994 earthquake. These results and their implications provide insight for investors, regulators, and other policymakers as regards future earthquakes.

  8. Interseismic Strain Accumulation Across Metropolitan Los Angeles: Puente Hills Thrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus, D.; Liu, Z.; Heflin, M. B.; Moore, A. W.; Owen, S. E.; Lundgren, P.; Drake, V. G.; Rodriguez, I. I.

    2012-12-01

    Twelve years of observation of the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN) are tightly constraining the distribution of shortening across metropolitan Los Angeles, providing information on strain accumulation across blind thrust faults. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) and water well records are allowing the effects of water and oil management to be distinguished. The Mojave segment of the San Andreas fault is at a 25° angle to Pacific-North America plate motion. GPS shows that NNE-SSW shortening due to this big restraining bend is fastest not immediately south of the San Andreas fault across the San Gabriel mountains, but rather 50 km south of the fault in northern metropolitan Los Angeles. The GPS results we quote next are for a NNE profile through downtown Los Angeles. Just 2 mm/yr of shortening is being taken up across the San Gabriel mountains, 40 km wide (0.05 micro strain/yr); 4 mm/yr of shortening is being taken up between the Sierra Madre fault, at the southern front of the San Gabriel mountains, and South Central Los Angeles, also 40 km wide (0.10 micro strain/yr). We find shortening to be more evenly distributed across metropolitan Los Angeles than we found before [Argus et al. 2005], though within the 95% confidence limits. An elastic models of interseismic strain accumulation is fit to the GPS observations using the Back Slip model of Savage [1983]. Rheology differences between crystalline basement and sedimentary basin rocks are incorporated using the EDGRN/EDCMP algorithm of Wang et al. [2003]. We attempt to place the Back Slip model into the context of the Elastic Subducting Plate Model of Kanda and Simons [2010]. We find, along the NNE profile through downtown, that: (1) The deep Sierra Madre Thrust cannot be slipping faster than 2 mm/yr, and (2) The Puente Hills Thrust and nearby thrust faults (such as the upper Elysian Park Thrust) are slipping at 9 ±2 mm/yr beneath a locking depth of 12 ±5 km (95% confidence limits

  9. Letting Los Angeles Go: Lessons from Feral Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Woodward

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Los Angeles is home to numerous feral landscapes: designed gardens no longer receiving intentional care. These are cultivated gardens, usually composed of plants from myriad global climate types, which have been abandoned or neglected and have adapted to native rainfall or unintentional water sources such as broken irrigation systems. They are found in canyons and ridges swept by fire, along rights-of-way where properties were condemned for freeways, in once-glorious neighbourhoods fallen on hard times, and in places where speculation places properties on hold. They are found in all regions and are particularly vivid in Los Angeles, proclaimed as "Lurch City" by Cuff (2000, where disruptive urban convulsions are frequent. These sites are rich with information pertinent to conceivable futures in which supplemental resources and care may not be reliable. This article portrays selected feral landscapes, briefly describes their responses to pervasive urban forces over time, and extracts design attributes to consider when creating future resilient landscapes. Scrutiny of these landscapes' decline and tenacity reveals a telling view of a region's volatility and global context and reminds us to take into account probable neglect when shaping future landscapes.

  10. "USA Today": Comparative Analysis with Two National and Two Los Angeles Daily Newspapers. Research Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Steve; And Others

    Sections of the newspaper "USA Today" were compared with corresponding sections of four major newspapers--the "New York Times," the "Wall Street Journal," the "Los Angeles Herald Examiner," and the "Los Angeles Times"--to determine what editorial components made "USA Today" different and…

  11. Beyond "Little Taipei": The Development of Taiwanese Immigrant Businesses in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yen-Fen

    1995-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative techniques, including a telephone survey of 310 Taiwanese business owners, were used to study the unique features of Taiwanese immigrant businesses in Los Angeles (California). When provided with entrepreneurial capital, Taiwanese enterprises grow rapidly in the context of Los Angeles's economic restructuring. (SLD)

  12. El Proyecto Sismico "LARSE" - Trabajando Hacia un Futuro con Mas Seguridad para Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henyey, Thomas L.; Fuis, Gary S.; Benthien, Mark L.; Burdette, Thomas R.; Christofferson, Shari A.; Clayton, Robert W.; Criley, Edward E.; Davis, Paul M.; Hendley, James W.; Kohler, Monica D.; Lutter, William J.; McRaney, John K.; Murphy, Janice M.; Okaya, David A.; Ryberg, Trond; Simila, Gerald W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1999-01-01

    La region de Los Angeles contiene una red de fallas activas, incluyendo muchas fallas por empuje que son profundas y no rompen la superficie de la tierra. Estas fallas ocultas incluyen la falla anteriormente desconocida que fue responsable por la devastacion que ocurrio durante el terremoto de Northridge en enero de 1994, el terremoto mas costoso en la historia de los Estados Unidos. El Experimento Sismico en la Region de Los Angeles (Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment, LARSE), esta localizando los peligros ocultos de los terremotos debajo de la region de Los Angeles para mejorar la construccion de las estructuras que pueden apoyar terremotos que son inevitables en el futuro, y que ayudaran a los cientificos determinar donde occurira el sacudimento mas fuerte y poderoso.

  13. Analysis of the Effects of ENSO and Atmospheric Rivers on Precipitation in Los Angeles County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacruz, A.; Lamb, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Winter 2016-2017 season in California was marked by substantial amounts of precipitation; this resulted in critically-low reservoirs filling up and the removal of most of California from drought status. The year prior was characterized by one of the strongest El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, though it did not produce nearly enough precipitation as the 2016-2017 season. The major contributors to the increased rainfall during the 2016-2017 season were climactic phenomenon known as atmospheric rivers (ARs), which transport water vapor through the atmosphere in narrow bands, and are known to produce extreme rain events. Determining the exact timing, landfall areas, and total precipitation amounts of ARs is currently of great interest; a recent study showed that extreme weather events are likely to increase in California in the coming years, which motivates research into how phenomenon such as ENSO and ARs play a role. Using long-term daily rain gauge data provided by the Los Angeles County Department of Public Works, we compute the precipitation volume and storm count for various locations in Los Angeles County and identify anomalies. These data will then be compared with the occurrence and intensity of AR and ENSO events by using NOAA's NOI and ESRL AR data. The results can be used to provide a better grasp of extreme climactic patterns and their effects on the amount of precipitation in the region.

  14. Immigrant incorporation in the garment industry of Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, I; Bernard, R B; Kim, R

    1999-01-01

    This study expands immigrant social network theory and examined employment patterns in the garment industry in Los Angeles, California, among Latino workers employed by Asian immigrant entrepreneurs. The study determined that a large percentage of immigrant employees found their jobs through the immigrant economy. Entrepreneurship increased the supply of local jobs and expanded the economy at destination at no expense to natives. Immigrant entrepreneurs bought firms from nonimmigrant owners or started new ones with an immigrant labor supply. Massey's index is flawed due to its exclusion of the role of entrepreneurs. Migration networks facilitate entrepreneurship, but some ethnic groups have fewer entrepreneurs, such as Mexicans and Central Americans. A 1993 Los Angeles survey identified 3642 garment factories in its county. Mean employment was 27.1 persons. The garment industry was the 4th largest industry in the area in 1996, with 98,700 employees. It represented 6% of all wage and salary employees in the City and 5.5% of the immigrant labor force in the County in 1990. 93% of garment workers in 1990 were immigrants. It is estimated that 51% of garment factory owners were Asians; most employees were Latinos. Census figures on sewing machine operators indicated 47.3% of owners were Whites and 42.45 were Asians. 53.3% of employees were other ethnic groups, 14.5% were Asians, and 32.2% were Whites. It is estimated that 47.2% of total employment was due to the immigration economy. 71.5% of the total employment in the garment industry was in the immigrant sector.

  15. Masculinity and HIV Risk among Homeless Men in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David P.; Brown, Ryan A.; Golinelli, Daniela; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Tucker, Joan S.; Wertheimer, Samuel R.

    2012-01-01

    HIV continues to be a serious public health problem for men who have sex with women (MSW), especially homeless MSW. Although consideration of gender has improved HIV prevention interventions, most of the research and intervention development has targeted how women’s HIV risk is affected by gender roles. The effect of gender roles on MSW has received relatively little attention. Previous studies have shown mixed results when investigating the association between internalization of masculine gender roles and HIV risk. These studies use a variety of scales that measure individual internalization of different aspects of masculinity. However, this ignores the dynamic and culturally constructed nature of gender roles. The current study uses cultural consensus analysis (CCA) to test for the existence of culturally agreed upon masculinity and gender role beliefs among homeless MSW in Los Angeles, as well as the relationship between these beliefs and HIV-related behaviors and attitudes. Interviews included 30 qualitative and 305 structured interviews with homeless MSW in Los Angeles’s Skid Row area. Analysis identified culturally relevant aspects of masculinity not represented by existing masculinity scales, primarily related to barriers to relationships with women. Behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge related to HIV were significantly associated with men’s level of agreement with the group about masculinity. The findings are discussed in light of implications for MSW HIV intervention development. PMID:23730216

  16. Turning Sunshine into Noir and Fantasy into Reality: Los Angeles in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Alvina E.

    1998-01-01

    At the University of Delaware, an interdisciplinary college course called "LA.: City of the Angels" incorporated history, political theory, film studies, and literature. The course aimed to deepen student awareness of diversity by deconstructing Hollywood images of Los Angeles and examining the interconnections between regional…

  17. An historical experiment: Los Angeles smog evolution observed by blimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidy, G M

    2018-02-12

    Observations of smog over the Los Angeles Basin (LAB) links high oxidant mixing ratios with poor visibility, sometimes smog by blimp in a Lagrangian-like format. The experiment on September 6, 1973, demonstrated that a blimp could travel with the wind across the LAB, observing ozone (O 3 ) and precursors, and particles of different size ranges. These included condensation nuclei (CN) concentrations dominated by particles of ≤ 0.1 µm diameter and light scattering coefficient (b sc ) representing mainly particles of 0.1-2.0 µm diameter. The results indicated a pollutant variation similar to that measured at a fixed site. Ozone was produced in an air mass, reaching a maximum of ~400 ppb in the presence of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), then declined. Although the photochemistry was developing, b sc grew with O 3 mixing ratio to a quasi-steady state at ~9-10 × 10 -4  m -1 , decreasing in value much later with decease in O 3 . The light scattering coefficient was found to be positively associated with the O 3 mixing ratio, whereas CN concentrations were negatively proportional to O 3 mixing ratio. The blimp experiment was supported with aircraft vertical profiles and ground-level observations from a mobile laboratory. The blimp flight obtained combined gas and particle changes aloft that could not be obtained by ground or fixed-wing aircraft measurements alone. The experiment was partially successful in achieving a true Lagrangian characterization of smog chemistry in a constrained or defined "open" air mass. The Los Angeles experiment demonstrated the use of a blimp as a platform for measurement of air pollution traveling with an air mass across an urban area. The method added unique data showing the relationship between photochemical smog chemistry and aerosol dynamics in smog. The method offers an alternative to reliance on smog chamber and modeling observations to designing air quality management strategies for reactive

  18. Los Angeles and Its Influence on Professional and Popular Astronomy - A Hollywood Love Story, by Lewis Chilton, Past President, Optical Shop Director and Historian, Los Angeles Astronomical Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, Lew

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to show through visualizations how the Los Angeles, California milieu of the early 20th century benefited the advancement of astronomy and captured the public consciousness through popular press accounts of these advancements and of the scientists who made them. The thesis of this presentation purports that a symbiosis developed between astronomers of Los Angeles-area scientific and educational institutions and a local community of interested laypersons, and was the catalyst that sparked future generations to enter the fields of astronomy, the allied sciences, education and technology. This presentation attempts to highlight the importance of continued public outreach by the professional astronomical community, for the ultimate benefit to itself, in Los Angeles and beyond.

  19. Evaluating Community Partnerships Addressing Community Resilience in Los Angeles, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm V. Williams

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Community resilience has grown in importance in national disaster response and recovery efforts. However, measurement of community resilience, particularly the content and quality of relationships aimed at improving resilience, is lacking. To address this gap, we used a social network survey to measure the number, type, and quality of relationships among organizations participating in 16 coalitions brought together to address community resilience in the Los Angeles Community Disaster Resilience project. These coalitions were randomized to one of two approaches (community resilience or preparedness. Resilience coalitions received training and support to develop these partnerships and implement new activities. Both coalition types received expert facilitation by a public health nurse or community educator. We also measured the activities each coalition engaged in and the extent to which partners participated in these activities at two time points. We found that the community resilience coalitions were initially larger and had lower trust among members than the preparedness communities. Over time, these trust differences dissipated. While both coalitions grew, the resilience community coalitions maintained their size difference throughout the project. We also found differences in the types of activities implemented by the resilience communities; these differences were directly related to the trainings provided. This information is useful to organizations seeking guidance on expanding the network of community-based organizations that participate in community resilience activities.

  20. Los Angeles congestion reduction demonstration (Metro ExpressLanes) program. National evaluation : content analysis test plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    This report presents the Content Analysis Test Plan for the national evaluation of the Los Angeles County Congestion Reduction Demonstration (CRD) under the United States Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) Urban Partnership Agreement (UPA) Progr...

  1. Socio-economic effect of seismic retrofit implemented on bridges in the Los Angeles highway network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    This research studied socio-economic effect of the seismic retrofit implemented on bridges in Los Angeles Area : Freeway Network. Firstly, advanced FE (Finite Element) modeling and nonlinear time history analysis are carried out to : evaluate the sei...

  2. Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority climate change adaptation pilot project report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    This Climate Change Adaptation Pilot Project Report details the project background of the recently-completed Los Angeles County : Metropolitan Transportation Authority (Metro) Transit Climate Change Adaptation Pilot Project as well as the various wor...

  3. Strategic Plan for Sustainable Energy Management and Environmental Stewardship for Los Angeles Unified School District

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, A.; Beattie, D.; Thomas, K.; Davis, K.; Sim, M.; Jhaveri, A.

    2007-11-01

    This Strategic Plan for Sustainable Energy Management and Environmental Stewardship states goals, measures progress toward goals and how actions are monitored to achieve continuous improvement for the Los Angeles Unified School District.

  4. 33 CFR 110.214 - Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Radio communications for port entities governing anchorages are as follows: Los Angeles-Long Beach... Defense charter, and vessels requiring use of the explosives anchorage. c. Bunkering and lightering are...

  5. Teaching case studies on earthquake preparedness efforts in the transportation sector, Los Angeles metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Through the development of a Harvard Kennedy School case study (intended for : use as curriculum in graduate-level and executive education programs), this project : examines earthquake preparedness and planning processes in the Los Angeles : metropol...

  6. Shortening and Thickening of Metropolitan Los Angeles Measured and Inferred Using Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus, D.; Heflin, M.; Donnellan, A.; Webb, F.; Dong, D.; Hurst, K.; Jefferson, D.; Lyzenga, G.; Watkins, M.; Zumberge, J.

    1999-01-01

    Geodetic measurements using the Global Positioning System and other techniques show north-south shortening near Los Angeles to be fastest across the northern part of the metropolitan area, where an ESE-striking, 5- to 40-km-wide belt lying to the south of San Gabriel Mountains and to the north of downtown and West Los Angeles is shortening at 5 mm/yr.

  7. HB D Los Angeles in a Brazilian family Hb D Los Angeles em família brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme G. Leoneli

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Inherited disorders of hemoglobin, the most common monogenic disease, are now well understood at the molecular level, knowledge, which has led to considerable improvements in their control and management. The Brazilian population is multiethnic, and the correct characterization of the Hb D is important, mainly because the method available for detection of abnormal hemoglobins, present a migration in the same zone at alkaline pH, for Hb S, D, and G for example. In this paper we studied a family with an abnormal hemoglobin like S in alkaline electrophoresis, by appropriated methods including HPLC and molecular analysis, characterized as hemoglobin D Los Angeles.As doenças hereditária da hemoglobina são as mais comuns doenças monogênicas e atualmente bem conhecidas do ponto de vista molecular, fato este que propiciou um avanço no seu controle e manuseio. A população brasileira caracteriza-se pela multiplicidade étnica e a caracterização da Hb D torna-se importante por este dado, associado ao fato de que os métodos de detecção das hemoglobinopatias comumente não identificam esta fração anormal que apresenta a peculiaridade de migração eletroforéticia em pH alcalino na mesma zona observada nas Hb S e G. Neste relato é apresentado um estudo familiar no qual é empregada metodologia adequada, o HLPC, que permite a identificação da Hb D.

  8. Analysis of the September 2010 Los Angeles Extreme Heating Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, K. C.; Kaplan, M. L.; Smith, C.; Tilley, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Southern California coastal region has a temperate climate, however, there are days with extreme heating where temperatures may reach above 37°C, stressing the region's power grid, leading to health issues, and creating environments susceptible to fires. These extreme localized heating events occur over a short period, from a few hours to one to two days and may or may not occur in conjunction with high winds. The Santa Ana winds are a well-studied example of this type of phenomena. On September 27, 2010, Los Angeles, CA (LA), reached a record maximum temperature of 45°C during an extreme heating event that was not a Santa Ana event. We analyzed the event using observations, reanalysis data, and mesoscale simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) to understand the mechanisms of extreme heating and provide guidance on forecasting similar events. On 26 September 2010, a large synoptic ridge overturned and broke over the midwestern United States (US), driving momentum and internal energy to the southwest. A large pool of hot air at mid-levels over the four-corners region also shifted west, moving into southern California by 26 September. This hot air resided over the LA basin, just above the surface, by 00 GMT on 27 September. At this time, the pressure gradient at low levels was weak. Based on WRF model and wind profiler/RASS observations, we propose that separate mountain-plains solenoids (MPS) occurred on both 26 and 27 of September. The MPS on 26 September moved the hot air into place just above the surface over the LA basin. Overnight, the hot air is trapped near the surface due to the action of gravity waves in conjunction with orographic density currents and remnant migrating solenoids that form over the mountains surrounding LA. When the MPS forms during the late morning on the 27th, the descending return branch flow plus surface sensible heating creates a mechanism to move the heat to the surface, leading to record temperatures.

  9. Environmental Impact Statement for Proposed Closure of Los Angeles Air Force Base, California and Relocation of Space Systems Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    scheduled airlines provide Santa Maria and the surrounding region with flights to Los Angeles and San Francisco . Currently, Sky West Airlines flies to Los...Angeles International and has a shuttle service to Delta Airlines. West Air flies to Los Angeles and San Francisco and has a shuttle service to United...physiographic province, is characterized by flat to gently sloping topography. Bedrock surface outcrops include the Perris Block, Gavilan Hills, Lakeview

  10. 76 FR 14103 - The Jewelry Stream; Los Angeles, CA, Notice of Negative Determination on Reconsideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-73,145] The Jewelry Stream; Los... workers and former workers of The Jewelry Stream, Los Angeles, California. On November 23, 2010, the... Jewelry Stream are engaged in employment related to the production of jewelry. Pursuant to 29 CFR 90.18(c...

  11. 75 FR 71455 - The Jewelry Stream, Los Angeles, CA; Notice of Affirmation Determination Regarding Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-73,145] The Jewelry Stream, Los... Manufacturing, Inc. and The Jewelry Stream, Los Angeles, California. The termination notice was signed on August... identified in the Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) petition--M&L Manufacturing, Inc. and The Jewelry Stream...

  12. An Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Los Angeles (California USA) Hospitals, Wildfires Highest Priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelaine, Sabrina A; Sato, Mizuki; Jin, Yufang; Godwin, Hilary

    2017-10-01

    Introduction Although many studies have delineated the variety and magnitude of impacts that climate change is likely to have on health, very little is known about how well hospitals are poised to respond to these impacts. Hypothesis/Problem The hypothesis is that most modern hospitals in urban areas in the United States need to augment their current disaster planning to include climate-related impacts. Using Los Angeles County (California USA) as a case study, historical data for emergency department (ED) visits and projections for extreme-heat events were used to determine how much climate change is likely to increase ED visits by mid-century for each hospital. In addition, historical data about the location of wildfires in Los Angeles County and projections for increased frequency of both wildfires and flooding related to sea-level rise were used to identify which area hospitals will have an increased risk of climate-related wildfires or flooding at mid-century. Only a small fraction of the total number of predicted ED visits at mid-century would likely to be due to climate change. By contrast, a significant portion of hospitals in Los Angeles County are in close proximity to very high fire hazard severity zones (VHFHSZs) and would be at greater risk to wildfire impacts as a result of climate change by mid-century. One hospital in Los Angeles County was anticipated to be at greater risk due to flooding by mid-century as a result of climate-related sea-level rise. This analysis suggests that several Los Angeles County hospitals should focus their climate-change-related planning on building resiliency to wildfires. Adelaine SA , Sato M , Jin Y , Godwin H . An assessment of climate change impacts on Los Angeles (California USA) hospitals, wildfires highest priority. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(5):556-562.

  13. Diversity and Educational Challenges in Oslo and Los Angeles - A Metropolitan Perspective nr 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil ÖZERK

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Receiving, accommodation and education of children with immigrant background is one of the challenging issues in almost all the metropolitan areas in many countries. In our study we are exploring the impact of demographic changes on political agendas, legal frames, educational approaches, research findings and student achievement in the field of education of linguistic minorities in Oslo, Norway and Los Angeles, USA. Although there are significant historical and socio economical differences between Los Angeles and Oslo, many of the educational challenges facing the educational policy makers and the linguistic minority students are quite similar.

  14. Mid-Century Warming in the Los Angeles Region - Part I of the “Climate Change in the Los Angeles Region” projec

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Alex; Sun, Fengpeng; Walton, Daniel; Capps, Scott; Qu, Xin; Huang, Hsin-Yuan; Berg, Neil; Jousse, Alexandre; Schwartz, Marla; Nakamura, Mark; Cerezo-Mota, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Using a combination of dynamical and statistical downscaling techniques, we projected mid-21stcentury warming in the Los Angeles region at 2-km (1.2-mile) resolution. To account for uncertainty associated with the trajectory of future greenhouse gas emissions and other factors affecting the planet's energy balance, we examined projections for both "business-as-usual" (RCP8.5) and "mitigation" (RCP2.6) emissions scenarios of the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. To account for the c...

  15. The 2007 los angeles mommy and baby study: a multilevel, population-based study of maternal and infant health in los angeles county.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Shin M; Wakeel, Fathima; Herman, Dena; Higgins, Chandra; Shi, Lu; Chow, Jessica; Sun, Stacy; Lu, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. In order to comprehensively examine the risks and resources associated with racial-ethnic disparities in adverse obstetric outcomes, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health and the University of California, Los Angeles, joined efforts to design and implement the 2007 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB) study. This paper aims to present the conceptual frameworks underlying the study's development, highlight the successful collaboration between a research institution and local health department, describe the distinguishing characteristics of its methodology, and discuss the study's implications for research, programs, and policies. Methods. The LAMB study utilized a multilevel, multistage cluster design with a mixed-mode methodology for data collection. Two samples were ultimately produced: the multilevel sample (n = 4,518) and the augmented final sample (n = 6,264). Results. The LAMB study allowed us to collect multilevel data on the risks and resources associated with racial-ethnic disparities in adverse obstetric outcomes. Both samples were more likely to be Hispanic, aged 20-34 years, completed at least 12 years of schooling, and spoke English. Conclusions. The LAMB study represents the successful collaboration between an academic institution and local health department and is a theoretically based research database and surveillance system that informs effective programmatic and policy interventions to improve outcomes among LAC's varied demographic groups.

  16. The 2007 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby Study: A Multilevel, Population-Based Study of Maternal and Infant Health in Los Angeles County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin M. Chao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. In order to comprehensively examine the risks and resources associated with racial-ethnic disparities in adverse obstetric outcomes, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health and the University of California, Los Angeles, joined efforts to design and implement the 2007 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB study. This paper aims to present the conceptual frameworks underlying the study’s development, highlight the successful collaboration between a research institution and local health department, describe the distinguishing characteristics of its methodology, and discuss the study’s implications for research, programs, and policies. Methods. The LAMB study utilized a multilevel, multistage cluster design with a mixed-mode methodology for data collection. Two samples were ultimately produced: the multilevel sample (n = 4,518 and the augmented final sample (n = 6,264. Results. The LAMB study allowed us to collect multilevel data on the risks and resources associated with racial-ethnic disparities in adverse obstetric outcomes. Both samples were more likely to be Hispanic, aged 20–34 years, completed at least 12 years of schooling, and spoke English. Conclusions. The LAMB study represents the successful collaboration between an academic institution and local health department and is a theoretically based research database and surveillance system that informs effective programmatic and policy interventions to improve outcomes among LAC’s varied demographic groups.

  17. Water quality improvement policies: lessons learned from the implementation of Proposition O in Los Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi-Hyun Park; Michael Stenstrom; Stephanie Pincetl

    2009-01-01

    This article evaluates the implementation of Proposition O, a stormwater cleanup measure, in Los Angeles, California. The measure was intended to create new funding to help the city comply with the Total Maximum Daily Load requirements under the federal Clean Water Act. Funding water quality objectives through a bond measure was necessary because the city had...

  18. The Impact of Proposition 13 on Public Employee Relations: The Case of Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimmer, Gene

    1982-01-01

    The impact of Proposition 13 and subsequent state bailout legislation on public employee relations in the City and County of Los Angeles (California) has been a new collective bargaining environment. The 1979 negotiations, where a countywide strike was narrowly averted, illustrate the hardening of management attitudes and union militancy. (MLF)

  19. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act. RAND Quarterly Report, October 2008. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Terry; Turner, Susan; Ridgeway, Greg

    2009-01-01

    This document is the second quarterly progress report for the evaluation of Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act (JJCPA) programs for the Los Angeles County Probation Department. The report covers the period from July 1, 2008, through September 30, 2008. The intent of the report is to provide Probation and the community-based organizations (CBOs)…

  20. Los Angeles Public Library's TeenS'cape Takes on the "New Callousness."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Anthony

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the Los Angeles Public Library's TeenS'cape, located in the middle of the city's Central Library. This technically sophisticated library space, opened after the 1992 L.A. riots, provides custom furnishings, postmodernist architecture, and equipment and materials specifically catered to the local teens, amid the culture of…

  1. 40 CFR 52.263 - Priority treatment for buses and carpools-Los Angeles Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... preferential treatment on arterial surface streets from Vermont Avenue to the Los Angeles central business... intervals and at each intersection of entry ramps. (3) Bus/carpool lanes must be prominently indicated by distinctive painted, pylon, or physical barriers. (4) Vehicles using a bus/carpool lane shall have the right...

  2. Los Angeles - Long Beach Harbor Complex 2020 Plan Harbor Resonance Analysis: Numerical Model Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    Angel P. Fuertes under the geneora! direction of Mr. Stephen S. Fine , Chief, Coastal Branch and Mr. Alan Alcorn, Chief, Waterways and Harbors Section... motric ) units as follows: Multiply By To Obtain acres 4,046.856 square metres feet 0.3048 metres tons (2,000 pounds, mass) 0.907194 metric tons LOS

  3. Revisiting "Rodriguez v. Los Angeles Unified School District": A Case of Intra-District Inequities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Ruben W.

    2010-01-01

    The educational community and the courts continue to struggle with the challenges of intra-district resource inequality revealed by the California Supreme Court landmark case "Rodriguez v. Los Angeles Unified School District" (1992). Intra-district school resource inequality is one of the remaining bastions of major inequalities in the…

  4. Immigration and the Low-Cost Housing Shortage: The Los Angeles Area's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, John

    Rising housing costs, increased homelessness, and the debate over illegal immigrants residing in publically assisted housing have renewed media and public interest in immigration's contribution to the Los Angeles, California area's problems of scarce low-cost housing, homelessness, and housing code violations. Recent data suggest that immigrants…

  5. Breastfeeding Practices of Japanese Mothers in the South Bay Area of Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, Hiroko

    A study investigated the attitudes of Japanese breastfeeding mothers in the South Bay area in Los Angeles. The sample consisted of 20 Japanese mothers over the age of 18 who were born in Japan, who recently came to the United States, and whose youngest child has been breastfed for at least 6 months. Subjects were interviewed in their native…

  6. A life cycle carbon dioxide inventory of the Million Trees Los Angeles Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson; Alissa Kendall

    2014-01-01

    PurposeThis study seeks to answer the question, “Will the Million Trees LA (Million Trees Los Angeles, MTLA) program be a carbon dioxide (CO2) sink or source?” Because there has never been a full accounting of CO2 emissions, it is unclear if urban tree planting initiatives (TPIs) are likely to be...

  7. Remaining recoverable petroleum in giant oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Donald L.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Using a probabilistic geology-based methodology, a team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists recently assessed the remaining recoverable oil in 10 oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin in southern California. The results of the assessment suggest that between 1.4 and 5.6 billion barrels of additional oil could be recovered from those fields with existing technology.

  8. 75 FR 47536 - Foreign-Trade Zone 202-Los Angeles, CA; Application for Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Docket 47-2010] Foreign-Trade Zone 202--Los Angeles, CA; Application for Expansion An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones Board... submitted pursuant to the provisions of the Foreign-Trade Zones Act, as amended (19 U.S.C. 81a-81u), and the...

  9. 76 FR 53115 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 202; Los Angeles, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Order No. 1779] Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 202; Los Angeles, CA Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as amended (19 U.S.C. 81a-81u), the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) adopts the following Order: Whereas...

  10. 76 FR 86 - Expansion/Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 202, Los Angeles, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Order No. 1732] Expansion/Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 202, Los Angeles, CA Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as amended (19 U.S.C. 81a-81u), the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) adopts the...

  11. Los Angeles OneSource System Youth Participant Customer Satisfaction Survey, 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisley, Deborah D.; Moore, Richard W.; Patch, Robin N.

    2012-01-01

    As part of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998, Los Angeles OneSource Centers offer low-income youth ages 14-21 services aimed at improving educational achievement, enhancing job skills, and preparing for college. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the youths' satisfaction with services received at 14 OneSource Centers throughout…

  12. Conference report from the 2012 AHA scientific sessions in Los Angeles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenbrink, B. Daan; Edwards, Andrew G.; Miyamoto, Shigeki

    The 2012 Scientific Sessions of the American Heart Association was held on November 3 - 7 in Los Angels, California. It covered up-to-date research on both basic- and clinical-cardiovascular science. We describe the highlights of the meeting focusing on basic science and clinical cardiology. More

  13. Los Angeles County Office Survey, Research Study Number 80-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnitsky, Andrea

    A survey of area employers was conducted by Los Angeles City College in Fall 1979 to determine: (1) the skill requirements for entry-level secretarial and clerical workers, (2) the salaries earned by these employees, (3) the word processing equipment commonly used by employers, (4) future employment trends in secretarial/clerical fields, and (5)…

  14. Tiene Arte Valor Afuera Del Barrio: The Murals of East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holscher, Louis M.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the themes of the murals and explores the possible uses that the murals in Los Angeles have for the outsider, the non-Chicano, for those who have only a little understanding or awareness of the Chicano community. (Author/AM)

  15. Automating the Technical Library at Los Angeles' Department of Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Description of the automation of the technical library of the City of Los Angeles Department of Information Services provides background information on the department and its library; lists the automation project goals and objectives; and describes the two software programs--ObjectVision and Paradox Engine--used as applications development tools…

  16. 76 FR 13017 - Environmental Impact Statement: Los Angeles County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Los... to advise the public that a Draft Environmental Impact Statement will be prepared for a proposed... prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement on a proposal for the State Route 710 Gap North Closure...

  17. Remote Sensing of Spatial Distributions of Greenhouse Gases in the Los Angeles Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dejian; Sander, Stanley P.; Pongetti, Thomas J.; Cheung, Ross; Stutz, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    The Los Angeles air basin is a significant anthropogenic source of greenhouse gasses and pollutants including CO2, CH4, N2O, and CO, contributing significantly to regional and global climate change. Recent legislation in California, the California Global Warning Solutions Act (AB32), established a statewide cap for greenhouse gas emissions for 2020 based on 1990 emissions. Verifying the effectiveness of regional greenhouse gas emissions controls requires high-precision, regional-scale measurement methods combined with models that capture the principal anthropogenic and biogenic sources and sinks. We present a novel approach for monitoring the spatial distribution of greenhouse gases in the Los Angeles basin using high resolution remote sensing spectroscopy. We participated in the CalNex 2010 campaign to provide greenhouse gas distributions for comparison between top-down and bottom-up emission estimates.

  18. Seeking solace in West Hollywood: sexual orientation-based hate crimes in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotzer, Rebecca L

    2010-01-01

    Many thriving "gay communities" across the United States report high levels of sexual orientation-based hate crimes every year, raising questions about the level of safety in these gay communities and neighborhoods. This study examines hate crime data from 2002-2006 in Los Angeles County and the relationship those hate crimes have to West Hollywood, the best known gay community of Los Angeles County. Results suggest that although West Hollywood does consistently report high numbers of hate crimes, this does not reflect a greatly increased risk to any one lesbian, gay, or bisexual person. Results suggest that we need to consider other variables as predictors (such as poverty, business density, and population density) in determining safe versus unsafe space, rather than just the percentage of lesbians, gay, and bisexuals in a population.

  19. Designing an Innovative Data Architecture for the Los Angeles Data Resource (LADR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sukrit; Jenders, Robert A; Delta, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    The Los Angeles Data Resource (LADR) is a joint project of major Los Angeles health care provider organizations. The LADR helps clinical investigators to explore the size of potential research study cohorts using operational clinical data across all participating institutions. The Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science (CDU) LADR team sought to develop an innovative data architecture that would aggregate de-identified clinical data from safety-net providers in the community into CDU LADR node. This in turn would be federated with the other nodes of LADR for a shared view in a way that was never available before. This led to a self-service system to assess patients matching study criteria at each medical center and to search patients by demographics, ICD-9 codes, lab results and medications.

  20. Impact of restaurant hygiene grade cards on foodborne-disease hospitalizations in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Paul A; Leslie, Phillip; Run, Grace; Jin, Ginger Zhe; Reporter, Roshan; Aguirre, Arturo; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2005-03-01

    Although health departments routinely inspect restaurants to assess compliance with established hygienic standards, few data are available on the effectiveness of these efforts in preventing foodborne disease. The study reported here assessed the impact on foodborne-disease hospitalizations in Los Angeles County of a restaurant hygiene grading system that utilized publicly posted grade cards. The grading systm was introduced in January 1998. Hospital discharge data on foodborne-disease hospitalizations were analyzed for Los Angeles County and, as a control, for the rest of California during the period 1993-2000. Ordinary least-squares regression analysis was done to measure the effect of the grading progam on these hospitalizations. After baseline temporal and geographic trends were adjusted for, the restaurant hygiene grading program was associated with a 13.1 percent decrease (p restaurant hygiene grading with public posting of results is an effective intervention for reducing the burden of foodborne disease.

  1. Neighborhood Food Environment, Diet, and Obesity Among Los Angeles County Adults, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Nelly; Lightstone, Amy S; Basurto-Davila, Ricardo; Morales, Douglas M; Sturm, Roland

    2015-09-03

    The objective of this study was to examine whether an association exists between the number and type of food outlets in a neighborhood and dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) among adults in Los Angeles County. We also assessed whether this association depends on the geographic size of the food environment. We analyzed data from the 2011 Los Angeles County Health Survey. We created buffers (from 0.25 to 3.0 miles in radius) centered in respondents' residential addresses and counted the number of food outlets by type in each buffer. Dependent variables were weekly intake of fruits and vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages, and fast food; BMI; and being overweight (BMI ≥25.0 kg/m(2)) or obese (BMI ≥30.0 kg/m(2)). Explanatory variables were the number of outlets classified as fast-food outlets, convenience stores, small food stores, grocery stores, and supermarkets. Regressions were estimated for all sets of explanatory variables and buffer size combinations (150 total effects). Only 2 of 150 effects were significant after being adjusted for multiple comparisons. The number of fast-food restaurants in nonwalkable areas (in a 3.0-mile radius) was positively associated with fast-food consumption, and the number of convenience stores in a walkable distance (in a 0.25-mile radius) was negatively associated with obesity. Little evidence was found for associations between proximity of respondents' homes to food outlets and dietary intake or BMI among adults in Los Angeles County. A possible explanation for the null finding is that shopping patterns are weakly related to neighborhoods in Los Angeles County because of motorized transportation.

  2. 2017 Sustainable LA Environmental Report Card for Los Angeles County: Energy & Air Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Federico, Felicia; Rauser, Casandra; Gold, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The 2017 Sustainable LA Environmental Report Card (ERC) for Los Angeles County (LA County) on Energy and Air Quality offers an in-depth look at the region’s sustainability efforts focusing on the energy we use, greenhouse gas emissions, and the air we breathe. The LA County Environmental Report Card is the only comprehensive environmental report card for a megacity in the world. This ERC assesses 21 indicators that fall into five categories: Stationary Energy Use; Transportation; Renewable En...

  3. Public Opinion on Nutrition-Related Policies to Combat Child Obesity, Los Angeles County, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Paul A.; Chiang, Choiyuk; Lightstone, Amy S.; Shih, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    We assessed public opinion on nutrition-related policies to address child obesity: a soda tax, restrictions on advertising unhealthy foods and beverages to children, and restrictions on siting fast food restaurants and convenience stores near schools. We analyzed data from 998 adults (aged ≥18 years) in the 2011 Los Angeles County Health Survey. Support was highest for advertising restrictions (74%), intermediate for a soda tax (60%), and lowest for siting restrictions on fast food restaurant...

  4. Radicalism in the Ethnic Market- The Jewish Bakers Union of Los Angeles in the 1920s

    OpenAIRE

    Luce, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, I will instead show how the Jewish bakers of Los Angeles used their position in the ethnic enclave economy as a source of strength, harnessing the power of their community through consumer-oriented strategies and tactics. Two strategies in particular cultivated connections between the politics of labor and the politics of consumption within the immigrant working-class: union labels and the Cooperative bakery. Both strategies employed food as a medium of social action, “buying u...

  5. Los Angeles Basin airborne organic aerosol characterization during CalNex

    OpenAIRE

    Craven, J. S.; Metcalf, A. R.; Bahreini, R.; Middlebrook, A.; Hayes, P. L.; Duong, H. T.; Sorooshian, A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    We report airborne organic aerosol (OA) measurements over Los Angeles carried out in May 2010 as part of the CalNex field campaign. The principal platform for the airborne data reported here was the CIRPAS Twin Otter (TO); airborne data from NOAA WP-3D aircraft and Pasadena CalNex ground-site data acquired during simultaneous TO flybys are also presented. Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer measurements constitute the main source of data analyzed. The increase in organic aerosol oxidation from...

  6. Any space left? Homeless resistance by place-type in Los Angeles County

    OpenAIRE

    DeVerteuil, Geoffrey; Marr, Matt; Snow, David

    2009-01-01

    This study develops a more nuanced concept of homeless resistance, incorporating a range of resistance behaviors (exit, adaptation, persistence, and voice) that bridge the gap between current frameworks that either romanticize or ignore it. We also consider the possibility that different kinds of space may theoretically allow for different kinds of resistance. To this end, we employ an ecological approach to homeless space by classifying Los Angeles County into three place-types (prime, trans...

  7. Los Angeles congestion reduction demonstration (Metro ExpressLanes) program. National evaluation : surveys, interviews, and workshops test plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This report presents the Surveys, Interviews, and Workshops Test Plan for the national evaluation of the Los Angeles (LA) Congestion Reduction Demonstration (Metro ExpressLanes) under the United States Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) Congesti...

  8. The undergraduate physics tutorial program at CSU Los Angeles assessment of utility and areas of interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetyan, Smbat

    The Physics Education Research (PER) group at the University of Washington have researched traditional teaching methods and found that students in introductory physics are lacking a conceptual understanding of the physics material. The solution they put forth is an interactive tutorial program designed to meet the lack of conceptual understanding. Since the tutorial programs inception at CSU Los Angeles in Fall 2006 no evaluation has been successfully undertaken therefore the effect of the tutorial program in the physics 200 series is deeply obscure to the department. The research has shed light on the tutorial program and brought into context its effectiveness on the overall physics 200 series courses at CSU Los Angeles. The researcher has addressed the following research questions, what overall effect does the tutorial program have on the Physics 200 series curriculum? What is the size and significance of gains attributable to the undergraduate calculus based Physics 200 series tutorial program at CSU Los Angeles? What can we learn from gains about individual weekly lessons from the Physics 200 series tutorial courses? What is the correlation of tutorial gains with student final course grades? Are the gains from the tutorial program different for genders? Is there a difference in gains based on the different students' colleges?

  9. Is crime associated with over-the-counter pharmacy syringe sales? Findings from Los Angeles, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopka, Thomas J; Geraghty, Estella M; Azari, Rahman; Gold, Ellen B; DeRiemer, Kathryn

    2014-03-01

    More than 50,000 new HIV infections occur annually in the United States. Injection drug users represent twelve percent of incident HIV infections each year. Pharmacy sales of over-the-counter (OTC) syringes have helped prevent HIV transmission among injection drug users in many states throughout the United States. However, concerns exist among some law enforcement officials, policymakers, pharmacists, and community members about potential links between OTC syringe sales and crime. We used a geographic information system and novel spatial and longitudinal analyses to determine whether implementation of pharmacy-based OTC syringe sales were associated with reported crime between January 2006 and December 2008 in Los Angeles Police Department Reporting Districts. We assessed reported crime pre- and post-OTC syringe sales initiation as well as longitudinal associations between crime and OTC syringe-selling pharmacies. By December 2008, 9.3% (94/1010) of Los Angeles Police Department Reporting Districts had at least one OTC syringe-selling pharmacy. Overall reported crime counts and reported crime rates decreased between 2006 and 2008 in all 1010 Reporting Districts. Using generalized estimating equations and adjusting for potential confounders, reported crime rates were negatively associated with OTC syringe sales (adjusted rate ratio: 0.89; 95% confidence interval: 0.81, 0.99). Our findings demonstrate that OTC pharmacy syringe sales were not associated with increases in reported crime in local communities in Los Angeles during 2006-2008. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. UCLA's outreach program of science education in the Los Angeles schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio-Cayetano, J; Kanowith-Klein, S; Stevens, R

    1999-04-01

    The UCLA School of Medicine's Interactive Multi-media Exercises (IMMEX) Project began its outreach into pre-college education in the Los Angeles area in 1993. The project provides a model in which software and technology are effectively intertwined with teaching, learning, and assessment (of both students' and teachers' performances) in the classroom. The project has evolved into a special collaboration between the medical school and Los Angeles teachers. UCLA faculty and staff work with science teachers and administrators from elementary, middle, and high schools. The program benefits ethnically and racially diverse groups of students in schools ranging from the inner city to the suburbs. The project's primary goal is to use technology to increase students' achievement and interest in science, including medicine, and thus move more students into the medical school pipeline. Evaluations from outside project evaluators (West Ed) as well as from teachers and IMMEX staff show that the project has already had a significant effect on teachers' professional development, classroom practice, and students' achievement in the Los Angeles area.

  11. Alcohol outlet density and alcohol consumption in Los Angeles county and southern Louisiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schonlau

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between alcohol availability, as measured by the density of off-premise alcohol outlets, and alcohol consumption in Los Angeles county and southern Louisiana, USA. Consumption information was collected through a telephone survey of 2,881 households in Los Angeles county and pre-Katrina southern Louisiana, nested within 220 census tracts. Respondents’ addresses were geo-coded and both neighbourhood (census tracts and buffers of varying sizes and individual (network distance to the closest alcohol outlet estimates of off-sale alcohol outlet density were computed. Alcohol outlet density was not associated with the percentage of people who were drinkers in either site. Alcohol outlet density was associated with the quantity of consumption among drinkers in Louisiana but not in Los Angeles. Outlet density within a one-mile buffer of the respondent’s home was more strongly associated with alcohol consumption than outlet density in the respondent’s census tract. The conclusion is that the relationship between neighbourhood alcohol outlet density and alcohol consumption is complex and may vary due to differences in neighbourhood design and travel patterns.

  12. Chagas Disease Awareness among Latin American Immigrants Living in Los Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Daniel R.; Traina, Mahmoud I.; Hernandez, Salvador; Smer, Aiman M.; Khamag, Haneen; Meymandi, Sheba K.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 300,000 persons have Chagas disease in the United States, although almost all persons acquired the disease in Latin America. We examined awareness of Chagas disease among Latin American immigrants living in Los Angeles, California. We surveyed 2,677 persons (age range = 18–60 years) in Los Angeles who resided in Latin America for at least six months. A total of 62% of the participants recalled seeing triatomines in Latin America, and 27% of the participants reported triatomine bites at least once per year while living abroad. A total of 86% of the participants had never heard of Chagas disease. Of persons who had heard of Chagas disease, 81% believed that it was not serious. More than 95% of those who had heard of Chagas disease would want to be tested and treated. Most Latin American immigrants living in Los Angeles recalled exposure to vectors of Chagas disease. However, they have little knowledge of this disease. Increasing awareness of Chagas disease is needed in this high-risk population. PMID:25200261

  13. Not an 'iron pipeline', but many capillaries: regulating passive transactions in Los Angeles' secondary, illegal gun market

    OpenAIRE

    Chesnut, KY; Barragan, M; Gravel, J; Pifer, NA; Reiter, K; Sherman, N; Tita, GE

    2017-01-01

    California has strict firearm-related laws and is exceptional in its regulation of firearms retailers. Though evidence suggests that these laws can reduce illegal access to guns, high levels of gun violence persist in Los Angeles (LA), California. This research seeks to describe the sources of guns accessed by active offenders in LA, California and reports offenders' motivations for obtaining guns.Los Angeles County Jail (LACJ) system (four facilities).Random sampling from a screened pool of ...

  14. Ultrafine particles and associated pollutants on roadways and in community air of Los Angeles California, Beijing China, and the Los Angeles International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, Frederick Dane

    Particles smaller than 10 microm in diameter are harmful to health. However, the smallest of these particles, ultrafine particles (UFP), equal to or smaller than 100 nm, may be especially harmful. Most are emitted by combustion sources, with transportation sources being a dominant contributor. While these particles have recently been under intense research, little is known regarding UFP concentrations or its components where people live, work, and commute. This dissertation reports on investigations of UFP and other pollutants in transportation-dominated areas. Included are findings from on-road, near-road and community monitoring studies performed in two megacities: Los Angeles, California and Beijing, China. A common feature of these studies was the application of advanced technologies to gather time-resolved measurements. An important finding made in Los Angeles was that real-time pollutant measurements could be made on busy roadways. UFP size distribution measurements made on a freeway with heavy-duty truck traffic demonstrated that UFP were much higher than on other highways or in community air. Nitric oxide (NO) levels were also much higher in these truck-dominated microenvironments. High correlations were found between UFP, black carbon (BC), particle counts, (NO), and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Monitoring at Los Angeles International Airport demonstrated that aircraft are important sources of UFP. Elevated UFP counts were found 900 meters from a runway used for take offs, while smaller values were found 500 meters downwind of a runway used for landings. These measurements showed a persistence of UFP at the community boundary in excess of measurements from roadside studies. A peak UFP measurement of 4.8 million particles cm -3 was made approximately 75 meters from a jet aircraft waiting to takeoff. Measurements made in Beijing demonstrated that heavy-duty diesel truck activity severely impacts community air quality. Black carbon was a

  15. In Situ Carbon Dioxide and Methane Measurements from a Tower Network in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, K. R.; Karion, A.; Kim, J.; Sloop, C.; Salameh, P.; Yadav, V.; Mueller, K.; Pongetti, T.; Newman, S.; Wong, C.; Hopkins, F. M.; Rao, P.; Miller, J. B.; Keeling, R. F.; Weiss, R. F.; Miller, C. E.; Duren, R. M.; Andrews, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    Urbanization has concentrated a significant fraction of the world's anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions into a relatively small fraction of the earth's land surface. Concern about rising GHG levels has motivated many nations to begin regulating and/or mitigating emissions, motivating the need for robust, consistent, traceable GHG observation methods in complex urban domains. The Los Angeles Megacity Carbon Project involves continuous and flask sampling of GHGs, trace gases, and isotopes at surface sites situated throughout the greater Los Angeles (LA) area. There are three signals of interest for utilizing urban GHG measurements in local or regional inverse modeling studies: (1) changes in the measured mole fraction at one location within a 24-hour period, (2) gradients in the measured mole fraction between locations within the surface measurement network, (3) local enhancements, or the difference between a measurement at one location and an inferred local "background" mole fraction. We report CO2 and CH4 measurements collected from eleven wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down analyzers (Picarro, Inc.). All sites use an internally consistent sampling protocol and calibration strategy. We show that the LA observation sites exhibit significant GHG enhancements relative to background, with evidence of systematic diurnal, weekly, and monthly variability. In Los Angeles, the "ideal" background sampling location could vary substantially depending on the time of year and local meteorology. Use of a single site for background determination may not be sufficient for reliable determination of GHG enhancements. We estimate the total uncertainty in the enhancement and examine how the choice of background influences the GHG enhancement signal. Uncertainty in GHG enhancements will ultimately translate into uncertainty in the fluxes derived from inverse modeling studies. In future work, the LA surface observations will be incorporated into an inverse-modeling framework to

  16. Community-Based Health and Exposure Study around Urban Oil Developments in South Los Angeles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavna Shamasunder

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oilfield-adjacent communities often report symptoms such as headaches and/or asthma. Yet, little data exists on health experiences and exposures in urban environments with oil and gas development. In partnership with Promotoras de Salud (community health workers, we gathered household surveys nearby two oil production sites in Los Angeles. We tested the capacity of low-cost sensors for localized exposure estimates. Bilingual surveys of 205 randomly sampled residences were collected within two 1500 ft. buffer areas (West Adams and University Park surrounding oil development sites. We used a one-sample proportion test, comparing overall rates from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS of Service Planning Area 6 (SPA6 and Los Angeles County for variables of interest such as asthma. Field calibrated low-cost sensors recorded methane emissions. Physician diagnosed asthma rates were reported to be higher within both buffers than in SPA6 or LA County. Asthma prevalence in West Adams but not University Park was significantly higher than in Los Angeles County. Respondents with diagnosed asthma reported rates of emergency room visits in the previous 12 months similar to SPA6. 45% of respondents were unaware of oil development; 63% of residents would not know how to contact local regulatory authorities. Residents often seek information about their health and site-related activities. Low-cost sensors may be useful in highlighting differences between sites or recording larger emission events and can provide localized data alongside resident-reported symptoms. Regulatory officials should help clarify information to the community on methods for reporting health symptoms. Our community-based participatory research (CBPR partnership supports efforts to answer community questions as residents seek a safety buffer between sensitive land uses and active oil development.

  17. Risk Factors for Dog Relinquishment to a Los Angeles Municipal Animal Shelter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Emily D.; Scotto, Jamie; Slater, Margaret; Weiss, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Low income has been reported to be a risk factor for dog relinquishment to shelters in the U.S. The majority of people with lower incomes, however, do not relinquish. Risk factors for relinquishment in a low socioeconomic region of Los Angeles were examined. Cost was associated with relinquishment, and most people were not aware of available assistance. Those who relinquished reported emotional attachment to the dog and higher perceived stress than a comparison group. The majority of reasons for relinquishment were likely solvable with assistance, highlighting an opportunity to provide community-specific alternatives to relinquishment. Abstract Dog relinquishment is a large component of shelter intake in the United States. Research has shown traits of the dog are associated with relinquishment as well as general characteristics of those relinquishing. Low income is often cited as a risk factor for relinquishment. The majority of people with lower incomes, however, do not relinquish. A group of people accessing a shelter in a low socioeconomic region of Los Angeles to relinquish their dogs was surveyed. This study examined risk factors for relinquishment, controlling for household income, compared to a group utilizing low cost spay/neuter services. A total of 76.9% of those relinquishing noted cost as a reason for relinquishment. Of participants in the relinquishment group, 80.7% reported not being aware of any services available to them. Most notable in the findings was that the odds of relinquishment were generally higher as the amount of perceived stress in the home in the past three months increased. The majority of people in both groups reported being emotionally attached to the dog. In this sample from a South Los Angeles community, the majority of reasons for relinquishment were likely solvable with assistance. These findings highlight an opportunity to assess community needs and provide community specific alternatives to relinquishment. PMID

  18. Community-Based Health and Exposure Study around Urban Oil Developments in South Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamasunder, Bhavna; Collier-Oxandale, Ashley; Blickley, Jessica; Sadd, James; Chan, Marissa; Navarro, Sandy; Hannigan, Michael; Wong, Nicole J

    2018-01-15

    Oilfield-adjacent communities often report symptoms such as headaches and/or asthma. Yet, little data exists on health experiences and exposures in urban environments with oil and gas development. In partnership with Promotoras de Salud (community health workers), we gathered household surveys nearby two oil production sites in Los Angeles. We tested the capacity of low-cost sensors for localized exposure estimates. Bilingual surveys of 205 randomly sampled residences were collected within two 1500 ft. buffer areas (West Adams and University Park) surrounding oil development sites. We used a one-sample proportion test, comparing overall rates from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) of Service Planning Area 6 (SPA6) and Los Angeles County for variables of interest such as asthma. Field calibrated low-cost sensors recorded methane emissions. Physician diagnosed asthma rates were reported to be higher within both buffers than in SPA6 or LA County. Asthma prevalence in West Adams but not University Park was significantly higher than in Los Angeles County. Respondents with diagnosed asthma reported rates of emergency room visits in the previous 12 months similar to SPA6. 45% of respondents were unaware of oil development; 63% of residents would not know how to contact local regulatory authorities. Residents often seek information about their health and site-related activities. Low-cost sensors may be useful in highlighting differences between sites or recording larger emission events and can provide localized data alongside resident-reported symptoms. Regulatory officials should help clarify information to the community on methods for reporting health symptoms. Our community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership supports efforts to answer community questions as residents seek a safety buffer between sensitive land uses and active oil development.

  19. Measurements and predictors of on-road ultrafine particle concentrations and associated pollutants in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruin, S.; Westerdahl, D.; Sax, T.; Sioutas, C.; Fine, P. M.

    Motor vehicles are the dominant source of oxides of nitrogen (NO x), particulate matter (PM), and certain air toxics (e.g., benzene, 1,3-butadiene) in urban areas. On roadways, motor vehicle-related pollutant concentrations are typically many times higher than ambient concentrations. Due to high air exchange rates typical of moving vehicles, this makes time spent in vehicles on roadways a major source of exposure. This paper presents on-road measurements for Los Angeles freeways and arterial roads taken from a zero-emission electric vehicle outfitted with real-time instruments. The objective was to characterize air pollutant concentrations on roadways and identify the factors associated with the highest concentrations. Our analysis demonstrated that on freeways, concentrations of ultrafine particles (UFPs), black carbon, nitric oxide, and PM-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PM-PAH) are generated primarily by diesel-powered vehicles, despite the relatively low fraction (˜6%) of diesel-powered vehicles on Los Angeles freeways. However, UFP concentrations on arterial roads appeared to be driven primarily by proximity to gasoline-powered vehicles undergoing hard accelerations. Concentrations were roughly one-third of those on freeways. By using a multiple regression model for the freeway measurements, we were able to explain 60-70% of the variability in concentrations of UFP, black carbon, nitric oxide, and PM-PAH using measures of diesel truck density and hour of day (as an indicator of wind speed). Freeway concentrations of these pollutants were also well correlated with readily available annual average daily truck counts, potentially allowing improved population exposure estimates for epidemiology studies. Based on these roadway measurements and average driving time, it appears that 33-45% of total UFP exposure for Los Angeles residents occurs due to time spent traveling in vehicles.

  20. Measurements and predictors of on-road ultrafine particle concentrations and associated pollutants in Los Angeles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruin, S.; Sioutas, C.

    2008-01-01

    Motor vehicles are the dominant source of oxides of nitrogen (NO x ), particulate matter(PM), and certain air toxics (e.g., benzene, 1,3-butadiene) in urban areas. On roadways, motor vehicle-related pollutant concentrations are typically many times higher than ambient concentrations. Due to high air exchange rates typical of moving vehicles, this makes time spent in vehicles on roadways a major source of exposure. This paper presents on-road measurements for Los Angeles freeways and arterial roads taken from a zero-emission electric vehicle outfitted with real-time instruments. The objective was to characterize air pollutant concentrations on roadways and identify the factors associated with the highest concentrations. Our analysis demonstrated that on freeways, concentrations of ultrafine particles (UFPs), black carbon, nitric oxide, and PM-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PM-PAH) are generated primarily by diesel-powered vehicles, despite the relatively low fraction (∼6%) of diesel-powered vehicles on Los Angeles freeways. However, UFP concentrations on arterial roads appeared to be driven primarily by proximity to gasoline-powered vehicles undergoing hard accelerations. Concentrations were roughly one-third of those on freeways. By using a multiple regression model for the freeway measurements, we were able to explain 60-70% of the variability in concentrations of UFP, black carbon, nitric oxide, and PM-PAH using measures of diesel truck density and hour of day (as an indicator of wind speed). Freeway concentrations of these pollutants were also well correlated wth readily available annual average daily truck counts, potentially allowing improved population exposure estimates for epidemiology studies. Based on these roadway measurements and average driving time, it appears that 33-45% of total UFP exposure for Los Angeles residents occurs due to time spent traveling in vehicles. (author)

  1. The Legal Needs of Transgender Women Living with HIV: Evaluating Access to Justice in Los Angeles

    OpenAIRE

    Miyashita, Ayako; Hasenbush, Amira; Sears, Brad

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes findings of the Legal Assessment of Needs Study (“LeAN Study”) – an online survey with 387 respondents who identified as people living with HIV/AIDS – for transgender women living with HIV in Los Angeles County. We describe respondents’ legal needs, respondents’ experiences getting assistance for identified legal needs from both legal and non-legal sources, and barriers respondents faced in accessing assistance from both legal and non-legal sources. We describe differen...

  2. Notes from the field: identification of a Taenia tapeworm carrier - Los Angeles County, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croker, Curtis; Soriano, Jan; Civen, Rachel; Larsen, Robert A; Schwartz, Benjamin

    2015-01-30

    Carriers of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, are the sole source of cysticercosis, a parasitic tissue infection. When tapeworm eggs excreted by the carrier are ingested, tapeworm larvae can form cysts. When cysts form in the brain, the condition is called neurocysticercosis and can be especially severe. In Los Angeles County an average of 136 county residents are hospitalized with neurocysticercosis each year. The prevalence of Taenia solium carriage is largely unknown because carriage is asymptomatic, making detection difficult. The identification and treatment of tapeworm carriers is an important public health measure that can prevent additional neurocysticercosis cases.

  3. Defining Moments in MMWR History: The AIDS Epidemic, Pneumocystis Pneumonia --- Los Angeles 1981

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-12-01

    On June 5, 1981, MMWR published a report of Pneumocystis pneumonia in five previously healthy young gay men in Los Angeles, California. This report was later acknowledged as the first published account of what would become known as human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS. It was the first of many MMWR reports that led to a better understanding of this new condition. In this podcast, Dr. Harold Jaffe recalls CDC’s investigation and response to the AIDS Epidemic.  Created: 12/1/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 12/1/2017.

  4. A Gravity data along LARSE (Los Angeles Regional Seismic Experiment) Line II, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooley, R.J.; Langenheim, V.E.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a detailed gravity study along part of the Los Angeles Regional Seismic Experiment (LARSE) transect across the San Fernando Basin and Transverse Ranges to help characterize the structure underlying this area. 249 gravity measurements were collected along the transect and to augment regional coverage near the profile. An isostatic gravity low of 50-60 mGal reflects the San Fernando-East Ventura basin. Another prominent isostatic gravity with an amplitude of 30 mGal marks the Antelope Valley basin. Gravity highs occur over the Santa Monica Mountains and the Transverse Ranges. The highest isostatic gravity values coincide with outcrops of Pelona schist.

  5. Public opinion on nutrition-related policies to combat child obesity, Los Angeles County, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Paul A; Chiang, Choiyuk; Lightstone, Amy S; Shih, Margaret

    2014-06-05

    We assessed public opinion on nutrition-related policies to address child obesity: a soda tax, restrictions on advertising unhealthy foods and beverages to children, and restrictions on siting fast food restaurants and convenience stores near schools. We analyzed data from 998 adults (aged ≥18 years) in the 2011 Los Angeles County Health Survey. Support was highest for advertising restrictions (74%), intermediate for a soda tax (60%), and lowest for siting restrictions on fast food restaurants and convenience stores (44% and 37%, respectively). Support for food and beverage advertising restrictions and soda taxation is promising for future policy efforts to address child obesity.

  6. Fine and Ultrafine Particulate Organic Carbon in the Los Angeles Basin: Trends in Sources and Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Shirmohammadi, Farimah; Hasheminassab, Sina; Saffari, Arian; Schauer, James J.; Delfino, Ralph J.; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2015-01-01

    In this study, PM2.5 and PM0.18 (particles with dp < 2.5μm and dp < 0.18μm, respectively) were collected during 2012-2013 in Central Los Angeles (LA) and 2013-2014 in Anaheim. Samples were chemically analyzed for carbonaceous species (elemental and organic carbon) and individual organic compounds. Concentrations of organic compounds were reported and compared with many previous studies in Central LA to quantify the impact of emissions control measurements that have been implemented for vehicu...

  7. Race and Place: Hollywood’s Vision of Urban Youth in Los Angeles Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika Piday-Warren

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines films about youth of the late 1980s and 1990s in Los Angeles. While focusing on the analytical categories of space and race, the paper underscores the importance of historicizing and contextualizing the genre. Thus, it stresses the significance of successive waves of different ethnic immigration and argues that these created distinct enclaves, many of them internally homogenous in terms of race and class. The distinct enclaves both prepared the ground for the formation of the polynucleated and decentered modern megalopolis and influenced Hollywood’s vision of urban youth.

  8. Avaliação eletroforética, cromatográfica e molecular da Hb D Los Angeles no Brasil Electrophoretical, chromatographic and molecular valuations of Hb D Los Angeles in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R. Chinelato-Fernandes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A variante de hemoglobina (Hb D mais comum, Hb D Los Angeles ou D Punjab, é originada de uma transversão GAA->CAA no códon 121 da globina beta; essa mutação resulta na substituição do ácido glutâmico por glutamina na proteína. É a terceira variante de hemoglobina mais freqüente da população brasileira. Como as hemoglobinas D apresentam migração similar à hemoglobina S em pH alcalino, e com a hemoglobina A em pH ácido, são necessários vários testes para o correto diagnóstico. No presente estudo objetivou-se relacionar os diferentes procedimentos laboratoriais de rotina diagnóstica, além da análise molecular, para estabelecer o perfil de Hb D Los Angeles no Brasil. Foram analisados 47 indivíduos da população brasileira com provável Hb D Los Angeles, por vários procedimentos eletroforéticos em diferentes condições de pH, além da cromatografia líquida de alta pressão, e testes moleculares para confirmação da mutação. Foram encontrados quatro tipos de combinações de hemoglobinas: 42 indivíduos portadores de hemoglobina AD Los Angeles, dois indivíduos com doença de Hb S/D Los Angeles, dois indivíduos com Hb D Los Angeles e talassemia beta e um indivíduo com Hb D Los Angeles e Hb Lepore. Os indivíduos heterozigotos para D Los Angeles são assintomáticos, entretanto, em associação com outras variantes e talassemias podem apresentar graus variáveis de manifestações clínicas. Os resultados apresentados enfatizaram a necessidade da associação de várias metodologias para a identificação da Hb D Los Angeles, além de auxiliar na elucidação de combinações raras.The most common Hb D variant, the Hb D-Los Angeles, also know as Hb D-Punjab, originates through a GAA->CAA change at the 121 codon of the beta globin gene; this mutation results in the replacement of glutamic acid for glutamine in the protein. It is the third most common hemoglobin variant in the Brazilian population. This variant has

  9. Risks for abuse against pregnant Hispanic women: Morelos, Mexico and Los Angeles County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Roberto; Peek-Asa, Corinne; García, Lorena; Ruiz, Agustín; Kraus, Jess F

    2003-11-01

    Although violence against women is gaining international attention as a prevention priority, little is known about how risks differ across countries. A comparative study of violence against pregnant Mexican women in Morelos, Mexico, and Latina women in Los Angeles County, California, United States. In 1998 and 1999, women in prenatal clinics were interviewed about psychological abuse and sexual and physical violence by their partner, during and the 1 year prior to the index pregnancy. The overall response rate for Morelos was 99%, with a sample size of 914; Los Angeles County had a response rate of 96.9%, with a sample size of 219. Women in Morelos reported a higher prevalence of violence compared to women in the California (14.8% v 11.9%, respectively). A partner aged child were more than 25 times more likely to be abused during pregnancy than women not reporting this type of abuse. The identification of factors associated with violence against women, especially as they differ by culture and ethnicity, will help clinicians to better identify victims and to design and implement culturally appropriate prevention programs.

  10. Alcoholism among homeless adults in the inner city of Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koegel, P; Burnam, M A

    1988-11-01

    The prevalence, course, and severity of alcoholism were examined in a probability sample of homeless adults in Los Angeles' inner city and in a household sample (drawn from two communities in Los Angeles), matched to the demographic characteristics of the homeless sample. Both lifetime and current prevalence of alcoholism (as measured by the National Institute of Mental Health's Diagnostic Interview Schedule) was substantially higher among homeless individuals. Moreover, compared with household alcoholics, homeless alcoholics were characterized by (1) a substantially higher prevalence of other psychiatric disorders, particularly the major mental illnesses; (2) more severe patterns of drinking, which spanned longer periods of time; and (3) more profoundly affected levels of social and vocational functioning. Homeless alcoholics were also more likely to have entered treatment programs and to have engaged in problem behaviors as children and adults. Emphasis was placed on the complicated etiologic relationship between alcoholism and homelessness, and on the need for alcohol rehabilitation services that are sensitive to the unique situations in which homeless alcoholics find themselves.

  11. Food access, availability, and affordability in 3 Los Angeles communities, Project CAFE, 2004-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Andrea Misako; Gilliland, Susan; Vallianatos, Mark; Gottlieb, Robert

    2010-03-01

    Racial/ethnic minority communities are at increasingly high risk for chronic diseases related to obesity. Access to stores that sell affordable, nutritious food is a prerequisite for adopting a healthful diet. The objective of this study was to evaluate food access, availability, and affordability in 3 nonoverlapping but similar low-income communities in urban Los Angeles, California. Using a community-based participatory research approach, we trained community members to conduct a food assessment to 1) map the number and type of retail food outlets in a defined area and 2) survey a sample of stores to determine whether they sold selected healthful foods and how much those foods cost. We used descriptive statistics to summarize findings. Of the 1,273 food establishments mapped in the 3 neighborhoods, 1,023 met the criteria of "retail food outlet." The most common types of retail food outlets were fast-food restaurants (30%) and convenience/liquor/corner stores (22%). Supermarkets made up less than 2% of the total. Convenience/liquor/corner stores offered fewer than half of the selected healthful foods and sold healthful foods at higher prices than did supermarkets. Access to stores that sell affordable healthful food is a problem in urban Los Angeles communities. Healthful food strategies should focus on changing food environments to improve overall community health.

  12. Measles outbreak associated with an arriving refugee - Los Angeles County, California, August-September 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Measles is a highly communicable, acute viral illness with potential for severe complications, including death. Although endemic measles was eliminated in the United States in 2000 as a result of widespread vaccination, sporadic measles outbreaks still occur, largely associated with international travel from measles-endemic countries and pockets of unvaccinated persons. On August 26, 2011, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (LACDPH) was notified of suspected measles in a refugee from Burma who had arrived in Los Angeles, California, on August 24, after a flight from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Passengers on the flight included 31 other refugees who then traveled to seven other states, widening the measles investigation and response activities. In California alone, 50 staff members from LACDPH and the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) interviewed and reinterviewed 298 contacts. Measles was diagnosed in three contacts of the index patient (patient A). The three contacts with measles were two passengers on the same flight as patient A and a customs worker; no secondary cases were identified. Delayed diagnosis of measles in patient A and delayed notification of health officials precluded use of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine as an outbreak intervention. This outbreak emphasizes the importance of maintaining a high level of vaccination coverage and continued high vigilance for measles in the United States, particularly among incoming international travelers; clinicians should immediately isolate persons with suspected measles and promptly report them to health authorities.

  13. The Male-female Birth Ratio in California and the 1992 April Riots in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, V

    2015-06-01

    Male live births slightly exceed female live births. This is usually expressed as M/F, the ratio of male to total live births. A multitude of external influences have been shown to reduce this ratio, including stress provoked through witnessing violent events; M/F dips occur three to four months later. The April 1992 Los Angeles riots constituted six days of extreme civil unrest in the city of Los Angeles. This study was carried out in order to ascertain whether M/F dipped in California following this event. Monthly male and female live births for California were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for the State of California for 1992 and for January 1993. This study analysed 649 073 live births; M/F was lowest in August 1992 (0.5085). This was significantly lower than for the period after (September 1992 to January 1993, p = 0.044). The ratio of male to total live births was higher in January to July 1992 than in August 1992, but this difference was not statistically significant. Stress has been shown to reduce M/F through an excess of male fetal loss during gestation and/or from gender-biased conception favouring females. Only the former mechanism is supported by these findings. This is the first time that violent events at state level have been shown to have potentially influenced M/F.

  14. Risk Factors for Dog Relinquishment to a Los Angeles Municipal Animal Shelter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily D. Dolan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dog relinquishment is a large component of shelter intake in the United States. Research has shown traits of the dog are associated with relinquishment as well as general characteristics of those relinquishing. Low income is often cited as a risk factor for relinquishment. The majority of people with lower incomes, however, do not relinquish. A group of people accessing a shelter in a low socioeconomic region of Los Angeles to relinquish their dogs was surveyed. This study examined risk factors for relinquishment, controlling for household income, compared to a group utilizing low cost spay/neuter services. A total of 76.9% of those relinquishing noted cost as a reason for relinquishment. Of participants in the relinquishment group, 80.7% reported not being aware of any services available to them. Most notable in the findings was that the odds of relinquishment were generally higher as the amount of perceived stress in the home in the past three months increased. The majority of people in both groups reported being emotionally attached to the dog. In this sample from a South Los Angeles community, the majority of reasons for relinquishment were likely solvable with assistance. These findings highlight an opportunity to assess community needs and provide community specific alternatives to relinquishment.

  15. Tobacco Attitudes and Behaviors of Vape Shop Retailers in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Unger, Jennifer B; Garcia, Robert; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Sussman, Steve

    2015-11-01

    The growing popularity of e-cigarettes has been accompanied by the proliferation of vape shops in the US. Vape shops are devoted to the sale and use of e-cigarettes, allowing customers to sample flavors and learn about different hardware from retailers. Research on vape shop retailers is lagging behind their popularity. This study documented the attitudes and behaviors regarding e-cigarettes and other tobacco products of retailers located in Los Angeles. Surveys were conducted among retailers at 78 vape shops in 2014. The majority of retailers (76%) believed e-cigarettes are safer than combustible cigarettes, with about one-fourth believing e-cigarettes are completely safe. Retailers believed e-cigarettes are, on average, safer than products (eg, nicotine patch, gum, and inhaler) that have been approved for cessation by the FDA. About 14% of retailers reported dual use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes in the past month. This is the first study to investigate tobacco-related behaviors and attitudes of vape shop retailers located in Los Angeles. Educating vape shop retailers on the benefits and harms of e-cigarettes is important, especially if retailers are to be informed about a product that is only now being considered to receive regulation from the FDA.

  16. The conundrum of police officer-involved homicides: Counter-data in Los Angeles County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Currie

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws from critical data studies and related fields to investigate police officer-involved homicide data for Los Angeles County. We frame police officer-involved homicide data as a rhetorical tool that can reify certain assumptions about the world and extend regimes of power. We highlight the possibility that this type of sensitive civic data can be investigated and employed within local communities through creative practice. Community involvement with data can create a countervailing force to powerful dominant narratives and supplement activist projects that hold local officials accountable for their actions. Our analysis examines four Los Angeles County police officer-involved homicide data sets. First, we provide accounts of the semantics, granularity, scale and transparency of this local data. Then, we describe a “counter data action,” an event that invited members of the community to identify the limits and challenges present in police officer-involved homicide data and to propose new methods for deriving meaning from these indicators and statistics.

  17. Constraining the kinematics of metropolitan Los Angeles faults with a slip-partitioning model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daout, S.; Barbot, S.; Peltzer, G.; Doin, M.-P.; Liu, Z.; Jolivet, R.

    2016-11-01

    Due to the limited resolution at depth of geodetic and other geophysical data, the geometry and the loading rate of the ramp-décollement faults below the metropolitan Los Angeles are poorly understood. Here we complement these data by assuming conservation of motion across the Big Bend of the San Andreas Fault. Using a Bayesian approach, we constrain the geometry of the ramp-décollement system from the Mojave block to Los Angeles and propose a partitioning of the convergence with 25.5 ± 0.5 mm/yr and 3.1 ± 0.6 mm/yr of strike-slip motion along the San Andreas Fault and the Whittier Fault, with 2.7 ± 0.9 mm/yr and 2.5 ± 1.0 mm/yr of updip movement along the Sierra Madre and the Puente Hills thrusts. Incorporating conservation of motion in geodetic models of strain accumulation reduces the number of free parameters and constitutes a useful methodology to estimate the tectonic loading and seismic potential of buried fault networks.

  18. Constraining the kinematics of metropolitan Los Angeles faults with a slip-partitioning model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daout, S; Barbot, S; Peltzer, G; Doin, M-P; Liu, Z; Jolivet, R

    2016-11-16

    Due to the limited resolution at depth of geodetic and other geophysical data, the geometry and the loading rate of the ramp-décollement faults below the metropolitan Los Angeles are poorly understood. Here we complement these data by assuming conservation of motion across the Big Bend of the San Andreas Fault. Using a Bayesian approach, we constrain the geometry of the ramp-décollement system from the Mojave block to Los Angeles and propose a partitioning of the convergence with 25.5 ± 0.5 mm/yr and 3.1 ± 0.6 mm/yr of strike-slip motion along the San Andreas Fault and the Whittier Fault, with 2.7 ± 0.9 mm/yr and 2.5 ± 1.0 mm/yr of updip movement along the Sierra Madre and the Puente Hills thrusts. Incorporating conservation of motion in geodetic models of strain accumulation reduces the number of free parameters and constitutes a useful methodology to estimate the tectonic loading and seismic potential of buried fault networks.

  19. Preventing the repetition: Or, what Los Angeles' experience in water management can teach Atlanta about urban water disputes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, David L.

    2009-04-01

    Southern California's water history is an epic story with larger-than-life characters and ambitions and abundant hubris. Students of water policy might reasonably ask: Does this story, while unique to greater Los Angeles, hold lessons for other metropolises experiencing water conflict caused by explosive growth? We examine this question by considering similarities between the challenges facing Atlanta, Georgia, one of the nation's fastest growing cities in the 21st century, with those of Los Angeles. We focus on junctures where important decisions regarding water were made and how these decisions continue to challenge both cities' futures. Atlanta's financial, cultural, and environmental imprint on its surrounding region share remarkable similarities with Los Angeles' influence trajectory: it is the largest city in the southeast, a principal transportation and business hub, and it is embroiled in water conflict with nearby communities and adjoining states.

  20. State of spirituality-infused mental health services in Los Angeles County wellness and client-run centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Ann-Marie; Subica, Andrew M; Kim, Min Ah; Van Nguyen, Kevin; Lim, Caroline S; Mancuso, Laura L

    2014-11-01

    Spiritual coping is associated with positive mental health outcomes for individuals with serious mental illness, yet spirituality-infused services are seldom offered in public sector mental health agencies. The Los Angeles County Department of Mental Health introduced a policy addressing spirituality in 2012. This study explored the breadth and degree to which spirituality-infused activities were being offered in 53 Los Angeles wellness and recovery centers after the policy was widely disseminated. More than 98 % of the centers offered options for spirituality-infused activities; one-third offered spirituality-focused groups. Los Angeles's progress may guide implementation of spirituality-infused services in other state or local public mental health systems.

  1. Stratigraphic controls on saltwater intrusion in the Dominguez Gap area of coastal Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B.D.; Ehman, K.D.; Ponti, D.J.; Reichard, E.G.; Tinsley, J.C.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Land, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Los Angeles Basin is a densely populated coastal area that significantly depends on groundwater. A part of this groundwater supply is at risk from saltwater intrusion-the impetus for this study. High-resolution seismic-reflection data collected from the Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor Complex have been combined with borehole geophysical and descriptive geological data from four nearby ??400-m-deep continuously cored wells and with borehole geophysical data from adjacent water and oil wells to characterize the Pliocene to Holocene stratigraphy of the Dominguez Gap coastal aquifer system. The new data are shown as a north-south, two- dimensional, sequence-stratigraphic model that is compared to existing lithostratigraphic models of the Los Angeles Basin in an attempt to better understand pathways of saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers. Intrusion of saltwater into the coastal aquifer system generally is attributed to over-pumping that caused the hydraulic gradient to reverse during the mid-1920s. Local water managers have used the existing lithostratigraphic model to site closely spaced injection wells of freshwater (barrier projects) attempting to hydraulically control the saltwater intrusion. Improved understanding of the stratigraphic relationships can guide modifications to barrier design that will allow more efficient operation. Allostratigraphic nomenclature is used to define a new sequence-stratigraphic model for the area because the existing lithostratigraphic correlations that have been used to define aquifer systems are shown not to be time-correlative. The youngest sequence, the Holocene Dominguez sequence, contains the Gaspur aquifer at its base. The Gaspur aquifer is intruded with saltwater and consists of essentially flat-lying gravelly sands deposited by the ancestral Los Angeles River as broad channels that occupied a paleovalley incised into the coastal plain during the last glacio-eustatic highstand. The underlying sequences are deformed into

  2. The Impacts of Urbanization on Meteorology and Air Quality in the Los Angeles Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Zhang, J.; Sailor, D.; Ban-Weiss, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    Urbanization has a profound influence on regional meteorology in mega cities like Los Angeles. This influence is driven by changes in land surface physical properties and urban processes, and their corresponding influence on surface-atmosphere coupling. Changes in meteorology from urbanization in turn influences air quality through weather-dependent chemical reaction, pollutant dispersion, etc. Hence, a real-world representation of the urban land surface properties and urban processes should be accurately resolved in regional climate-chemistry models for better understanding the role of urbanization on changing urban meteorology and associated pollutant dynamics. By incorporating high-resolution land surface data, previous research has improved model-observation comparisons of meteorology in urban areas including the Los Angeles basin, and indicated that historical urbanization has increased urban temperatures and altered wind flows significantly. However, the impact of urban expansion on air quality has been less studied. Thus, in this study, we aim to evaluate the effectiveness of resolving high-resolution heterogeneity in urban land surface properties and processes for regional weather and pollutant concentration predictions. We coupled the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry to the single-layer Urban Canopy Model to simulate a typical summer period in year 2012 for Southern California. Land cover type and urban fraction were determined from National Land Cover Data. MODIS observations were used to determine satellite-derived albedo, green vegetation fraction, and leaf area index. Urban morphology was determined from GIS datasets of 3D building geometries. An urban irrigation scheme was also implemented in the model. Our results show that the improved model captures the diurnal cycle of 2m air temperature (T2) and Ozone (O3) concentrations. However, it tends to overestimate wind speed and underestimate T2, which leads to an underestimation of O

  3. "Weak-Center" Gentrification and the Contradictions of Containment: deconcentrating poverty in downtown Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Ellen; DeVerteuil, Geoffrey; Thach, Leanne

    2010-01-01

    This case study of recent efforts to deconcentrate poverty within the Skid Row area of Los Angeles examines processes of "weak-center" gentrification as it applies to a "service dependent ghetto," thus filling two key gaps in prior scholarship. We document the collaboration between the government, business and development interests, and certain non-profit agencies in this process and identify two key mechanisms of poverty deconcentration: housing/service displacement and the criminalization of low income residents. Following Harvey, we argue that these efforts are driven by pressures to find a "spatial fix" for capital accumulation through Downtown redevelopment. This process has been hotly contested, however, illustrating the strength of counter-pressures to gentrification/poverty deconcentration within "weak-center" urban areas.

  4. HIV transmission in the adult film industry--Los Angeles, California, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-23

    In April 2004, the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services (LACDHS) received reports of work-related exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the heterosexual segment of the adult film industry in California. This report summarizes an investigation by LACDHS into four work-related HIV-transmission cases among adult film industry workers. The investigation was initiated April 20, 2004, and joined by the California Department of Industrial Relations, Division of Occupational Safety and Health (Cal/OSHA) on April 21, 2004, and by CDC on May 18, 2004. This investigation identified important and remediable gaps in the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the adult film industry.

  5. Prohibited Possessors and the Law: How Inmates in Los Angeles Jails Understand Firearm and Ammunition Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Barragan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Using data from 140 interviews with individuals detained in the Los Angeles County Jail system, this article examines what gun offenders know about gun and ammunition regulation in California. Though most respondents had a consistent, albeit general, understanding of the regulations limiting gun acquisition and possession, analysis suggests that their understanding of ammunition restrictions was more limited. Our sample’s awareness of firearms law is especially important to consider given that they are the very population targeted by firearms regulations and prohibitions at the local, state, and federal level. By examining what detained offenders know about firearms laws, we can better theorize about individual gaps in legal knowledge and the realistic expectations for how understanding of the law can affect behavior.

  6. CALGRID Photochemical Modeling of Air Quality Impacts of Alternative Transportation Fuel Use in Los Angeles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, G. E.; Londergan, R. J.; Fernau, M. E.

    1998-11-19

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory has been conducting a comprehensive program to quantify and assess the air quality impacts of the emissions of ozone precursors, air toxins, and greenhouse gases from alternative fuel vehicles. This program includes both an emissions estimation component and a photochemical modeling component to study three fuels: reformulated gasoline, compressed natural gas, and 85% methanol (M85). This report describes the use of the CALGRID model in the Los Angeles modeling domain using the State-Wide Air Pollution Research Center (SAPRC90) chemical mechanism and an early version of the SAPRC93 mechanism. A variety of conclusions can be drawn from the results of this study, including results from chemical mechanism testing; development of meteorological inputs; model evaluation and comparison; and the analyses of the impacts of the emissions scenarios. The report summarizes the study's major findings in these areas.

  7. Community characteristics and violence against homeless women in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslin, Kevin C; Robinson, Paul Langham; Baker, Richard S; Gelberg, Lillian

    2007-02-01

    Research on violence against homeless women has focused mainly on individual rather than community-level risk factors. Using an ecological conceptual framework, we estimated the independent association of community characteristics with sexual and physical assault in a probability sample of 974 homeless women. Participants were interviewed at 66 assistance programs in Los Angeles County, California in 1997. Individual responses were linked to community-level data from land use files and the U.S. Census by the facility ZIP codes. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that women using service providers in closer proximity to Skid Row had higher odds of physical assault (OR=1.48; 95% CI=1.03, 2.14). A number of individual characteristics were also associated with violent victimization. To reduce violence against homeless women, ensuring the safety of locations for shelters and other assistance programs should be a planning priority for local housing authorities.

  8. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL EDUCATION AT CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, LOS ANGELES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blekhman, David

    2011-09-30

    California State University, Los Angeles, has partnered with the Department of Energy in addressing the workforce preparation and public education needs of the fuel cell industry and the US economy through a comprehensive set of curriculum development and training activities: * Developing and offering several courses in fuel cell technologies, hydrogen and alternative fuels production, alternative and renewable energy technologies as means of zero emissions hydrogen economy, and sustainable environment. * Establishing a zero emissions PEM fuel cell and hydrogen laboratory supporting curriculum and graduate students teaching and research experiences. * Providing engaging capstone projects for multi-disciplinary teams of senior undergraduate students. * Fostering partnerships with automotive OEMs and energy providers. * Organizing and participating in synergistic projects and activities that grow the program and assure its sustainability.

  9. Physical education and student activity: evaluating implementation of a new policy in Los Angeles public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafleur, Mariah; Strongin, Seth; Cole, Brian L; Bullock, Sally Lawrence; Banthia, Rajni; Craypo, Lisa; Sivasubramanian, Ramya; Samuels, Sarah; García, Robert

    2013-02-01

    California law has standards for physical education (PE) instruction in K-12 public schools; audits found that the Los Angeles Unified School District did not enforce the standards. In 2009, the district adopted a PE policy to comply with these standards. This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of the PE policy in district schools. PE class observations were conducted using the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time in the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 school years in an income-stratified random sample of 34 elementary, middle, and high schools to assess changes in PE class size, class duration, and time students spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. PE class duration increased in high-income elementary schools. Mean class size decreased in low-income middle schools. There was limited implementation of the PE policy 2 years after passage. Opportunities exist to continue monitoring and improving PE quantity and quality.

  10. Shallow seismic imaging of folds above the Puente Hills blind-thrust fault, Los Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Thomas L.; Shaw, John H.; Dolan, James F.; Christofferson, Shari A.; Williams, Robert A.; Odum, Jack K.; Plesch, Andreas

    2002-05-01

    High-resolution seismic reflection profiles image discrete folds in the shallow subsurface (Puente Hills blind-thrust fault system, Los Angeles basin, California. The profiles demonstrate late Quaternary activity at the fault tip, precisely locate the axial surfaces of folds within the upper 100 m, and constrain the geometry and kinematics of recent folding. The Santa Fe Springs segment of the Puente Hills fault zone shows an upward-narrowing kink band with an active anticlinal axial surface, consistent with fault-bend folding above an active thrust ramp. The Coyote Hills segment shows an active synclinal axial surface that coincides with the base of a 9-m-high scarp, consistent with tip-line folding or the presence of a backthrust. The seismic profiles pinpoint targets for future geologic work to constrain slip rates and ages of past events on this important fault system.

  11. Responses of a tall building in Los Angeles, California as inferred from local and distant earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelebi, Mehmet; Hasan Ulusoy,; Nori Nakata,

    2016-01-01

    Increasing inventory of tall buildings in the United States and elsewhere may be subjected to motions generated by near and far seismic sources that cause long-period effects. Multiple sets of records that exhibited such effects were retrieved from tall buildings in Tokyo and Osaka ~ 350 km and 770 km from the epicenter of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. In California, very few tall buildings have been instrumented. An instrumented 52-story building in downtown Los Angeles recorded seven local and distant earthquakes. Spectral and system identification methods exhibit significant low frequencies of interest (~0.17 Hz, 0.56 Hz and 1.05 Hz). These frequencies compare well with those computed by transfer functions; however, small variations are observed between the significant low frequencies for each of the seven earthquakes. The torsional and translational frequencies are very close and are coupled. Beating effect is observed in at least two of the seven earthquake data.

  12. Los Angeles International Airport Runway Incursion Studies: Phase III--Center-Taxiway Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madson, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    Phase III of the Los Angeles International Airport Runway Incursion Studies was conducted, under an agreement with HNTB Corporation, at the NASA Ames FutureFlight Central (FFC) facility in June 2003. The objective of the study was the evaluation of a new center-taxiway concept at LAX. This study is an extension of the Phase I and Phase II studies previously conducted at FFC. This report presents results from Phase III of the study, in which a center-taxiway concept between runways 25L and 25R was simulated and evaluated. Phase III data were compared objectively against the Baseline data. Subjective evaluations by participating LAX controllers were obtained with regard to workload, efficiency, and safety criteria. To facilitate a valid comparison between Baseline and Phase III data, the same scenarios were used for Phase III that were tested during Phases I and II. This required briefing participating controllers on differences in airport and airline operations between 2001 and today.

  13. Case-control study of intracranial meningiomas in women in Los Angeles County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston-Martin, S.; Paganini-Hill, A.; Henderson, B.E.; Pike, M.C.; Wood, C.

    1980-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted among women in Los Angeles County to investigate possible causes of intracranial meningiomas. Questionnaires sought information from patients and from a neighbor of each one on characteristics and past experiences that might be associated with the development of this disease. Information was obtained on 188 matched patient-neighbor pairs. Three primary factors appeared to be associated with meningioma occurrence: 1) a history of head trauma (odds ratio = 2.0, p = 0.01), 2) consumption of certain cured meats (odds ratio = 2.8, p = less than 0.01), and 3) exposure to medical and dental diagnostic X-rays to the head. For diagnostic X-rays, the strongest association was with early exposure (less than 20 yr old) to full-mouth dental X-ray series

  14. A Health Probe in College Students Living in Los Angeles and in Taiwan: Dietary Pattern, Physical Activity and Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li Hui; Yang, Hsin Ling; Chen, Yin Chang; Davis, Rebecca; Schwartz, Miriam E.; Tam, Chick F.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to examine differences of dietary pattern, physical activity and energy balance in 240 college students with 137 of them enrolled in California State University, Los Angeles (LA) and the other 93 enrolled in China Medical University in Taichung, Taiwan (TW). A three-day dietary record and a 24-hour physical activity journal were…

  15. Body Image of Dancers in Los Angeles: The Cult of Slenderness and Media Influence among Dance Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiland, Teresa L.; Murray, Darrin S.; Edley, Paige P.

    2008-01-01

    Body image and self-esteem are examined through personal stories among Los Angeles college dancers who grew up in the Hollywood culture of the cult of slenderness. The study incorporates a body image survey, eating disorder screen, and an interview process capturing dancers' lived experiences with daily pressures. Dancers reveal their experiences…

  16. A Pilot Survey of Food Frequencies, Meal Frequencies and Meal Patterns of Preschool Children in East Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jane S.; And Others

    The food frequency, meal frequency, and meal patterns of a group of Mexican American children attending Head Start in East Los Angeles and their siblings were studied. Fifty dietary questionnaires in English and in Spanish with written instructions were distributed to parents. Parents were asked to record for a 3 day period the eating time, type…

  17. Immigration and the Challenge of Education: A Social Drama Analysis in South Central Los Angeles. Education, Politics and Public Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Nathalia E.

    2012-01-01

    Part enthnograpy and part testimony, this book analyzes a school setting and community from the standpoint of a group of immigrant mothers (las madres) in South Central Los Angeles who were concerned about the education of their children and the violence in their communities. Written in both the first and third person, in Spanish and English, the…

  18. Making Cultura Count inside and out of the Classroom: Public Art & Critical Pedagogy in South Central Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Luis-Genaro

    2012-01-01

    In this article, artist, educator, and activist Luis-Genaro Garcia describes the development and impact of the "May Day service learning project" on his advanced painting class in a high school in South Los Angeles. The project emerged from students' interests: their ideas, concerns for their community, socio-political consciousness, and…

  19. Toxic School Sites in Los Angeles: Weaknesses in the Site Acquisition Process. Special Report of the Joint Legislative Audit Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Legislature, Sacramento. Joint Legislative Audit Committee.

    A special report of the California Legislature's Joint Legislative Audit Committee addresses the school site acquisition process to attempt to discern how the system has allowed a minimum of nine Los Angeles public schools to be built on toxic lands. The report examines two such sites, the Jefferson Middle School (JMS) and the combined elementary…

  20. Prevalence of Substance Use Among Patients of Community Health Centers in East Los Angeles and Tijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelberg, Lillian; Natera Rey, Guillermina; Andersen, Ronald M; Arroyo, Miriam; Bojorquez-Chapela, Ietza; Rico, Melvin W; Vahidi, Mani; Yacenda-Murphy, Julia; Arangua, Lisa; Serota, Martin

    2017-02-23

    Given the increased use of psychoactive substances on the United States-Mexico border, a binational study (Tijuana, Mexico-Los Angeles, USA) was conducted to identify the prevalence of substance use in primary care settings. To compare the prevalence and characteristics of patients at risk for substance use disorders in Tijuana and East Los Angeles (LA) community clinics with special attention paid to drug use. This was an observational, cross-sectional, analytical study, comparing substance use screening results from patients in Tijuana and LA. The settings were 2 community clinics in LA and 6 in Tijuana. Participants were 2,507 adult patients in LA and 2,890 in Tijuana eligible for WHO Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) screening during March-October 2013. Patients anonymously self-administered the WHO ASSIST on a tablet PC in the clinic waiting rooms. Of eligible patients, 96.4% completed the ASSIST in Tijuana and 88.7% in LA (mean 1.34 minutes and 4.20 minutes, respectively). The prevalence of patients with moderate-to-high substance use was higher in LA than Tijuana for each substance: drugs 19.4% vs. 5.7%, alcohol 15.2% vs. 6.5%, tobacco 20.4% vs. 16.2%. LA patients born in Mexico had 2x the odds and LA patients born in the United States had 6x the odds of being a moderate-to-high drug user compared to Tijuana patients born in Mexico. Moderate-to-high drug use is higher in LA than in Tijuana but rates are sufficiently high in both to suggest that screening for drug use (along with alcohol and tobacco use) should be integrated into routine primary care of community clinics in both cities.

  1. Vista-LA: Mapping methane-emitting infrastructure in the Los Angeles megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Valerie; Rafiq, Talha; Frausto-Vicencio, Isis; Hopkins, Francesca M.; Verhulst, Kristal R.; Rao, Preeti; Duren, Riley M.; Miller, Charles E.

    2018-03-01

    Methane (CH4) is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) and a critical target of climate mitigation efforts. However, actionable emission reduction efforts are complicated by large uncertainties in the methane budget on relevant scales. Here, we present Vista, a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based approach to map potential methane emissions sources in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) that encompasses Los Angeles, an area with a dense, complex mixture of methane sources. The goal of this work is to provide a database that, together with atmospheric observations, improves methane emissions estimates in urban areas with complex infrastructure. We aggregated methane source location information into three sectors (energy, agriculture, and waste) following the frameworks used by the State of California GHG Inventory and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Guidelines for GHG Reporting. Geospatial modeling was applied to publicly available datasets to precisely geolocate facilities and infrastructure comprising major anthropogenic methane source sectors. The final database, Vista-Los Angeles (Vista-LA), is presented as maps of infrastructure known or expected to emit CH4. Vista-LA contains over 33 000 features concentrated on hotspot detection using regional observations. This study represents a first step towards developing an accurate, spatially resolved methane flux estimate for point sources in SoCAB, with the potential to address discrepancies between bottom-up and top-down methane emissions accounting in this region. The Vista-LA datasets and associated metadata are available from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center for Biogeochemical Dynamics (ORNL DAAC; https://doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1525).

  2. Emission of Methane and Heavier Alkanes From the La Brea Tar Pits Seepage Area, Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etiope, G.; Doezema, L. A.; Pacheco, C.

    2017-11-01

    Natural hydrocarbon (oil and gas) seeps are widespread in Los Angeles, California, due to gas migration, along faults, from numerous subsurface petroleum fields. These seeps may represent important natural contributors of methane (CH4) and heavier alkanes (C2-C4) to the atmosphere, in addition to anthropogenic fossil fuel and biogenic sources. We measured the CH4 flux by closed-chamber method from the La Brea Tar Pits park (0.1 km2), one of the largest seepage sites in Los Angeles. The gas seepage occurs throughout the park, not only from visible oil-asphalt seeps but also diffusely from the soil, affecting grass physiology. About 500 kg CH4 d-1 is emitted from the park, especially along a belt of enhanced degassing that corresponds to the 6th Street Fault. Additional emissions are from bubble plumes in the lake within the park (order of 102-103 kg d-1) and at the intersection of Wilshire Boulevard and Curson Avenue (>130 kg d-1), along the same fault. The investigated area has the highest natural gas flux measured thus far for any onshore seepage zone in the USA. Gas migration, oil biodegradation, and secondary methanogenesis altered the molecular composition of the original gas accumulated in the Salt Lake Oil Field (>300 m deep), leading to high C1/C2+ and i-butane/n-butane ratios. These molecular alterations can be important tracers of natural seepage and should be considered in the atmospheric modeling of the relative contribution of fossil fuel (anthropogenic fugitive emission and natural geologic sources) versus biogenic sources of methane, on local and global scales.

  3. Evapotranspiration of urban landscapes in Los Angeles, California at the municipal scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvak, E.; Manago, K. F.; Hogue, T. S.; Pataki, D. E.

    2017-05-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET), an essential process in biosphere-atmosphere interactions, is highly uncertain in cities that maintain cultivated and irrigated landscapes. We estimated ET of irrigated landscapes in Los Angeles by combining empirical models of turfgrass ET and tree transpiration derived from in situ measurements with previously developed remotely sensed estimates of vegetation cover and ground-based vegetation surveys. We modeled irrigated landscapes as a two-component system comprised of trees and turfgrass to assess annual and spatial patterns of ET. Annual ET from vegetated landscapes (ETveg) was 1110 ± 53 mm/yr and ET from the whole city (vegetated and nonvegetated areas, ETland) was three times smaller, reflecting the fractional vegetation cover. With the exception of May and June, monthly ETland was significantly higher than predicted by the North American Land Data Assimilation System. ETveg was close to potential ET, indicating abundant irrigation inputs. Monthly averaged ETveg varied from 1.5 ± 0.1 mm/d (December) to 4.3 ± 0.2 mm/d (June). Turfgrass was responsible for ˜70% of ETveg. For trees, angiosperm species (71% of all trees) contributed over 90% to total tree transpiration, while coniferous and palm species made very small contributions. ETland was linearly correlated with median household income across the city, confirming the importance of social factors in determining spatial distribution of urban vegetation. These estimates have important implications for constraining the municipal water budget of Los Angeles and improving regional-scale hydrologic models, as well as for developing water-saving practices. The methodology used in this study is also transferable to other semiarid regions for quantification of urban landscape ET.

  4. Estimation of Methane Emissions in the Los Angeles Basin using CLARS-FTS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, S.; Zeng, Z. C.; Pongetti, T.; Duren, R. M.; Shia, R. L.; Yung, Y. L.; He, L.; Gurney, K. R.

    2017-12-01

    The Los Angeles Basin (LA Basin), covering almost 10,743 square miles, is home to over 16.8 million people - about half the population of the state of California. It is also the second most populated urban area in the United States and one of the major source of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Using FTIR observations from the California Laboratory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (CLARS) located on Mount Wilson at an altitude of 1673m, we measure the reflected near infrared sunlight from 33 surface targets in the Los Angeles megacity including the direct solar beam which gives the free tropospheric background. We then retrieve the excess slant column abundances of important trace gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in the LA basin. Using atmospheric tracer - tracer correlations for CH4 and CO2 to eliminate the effect of aerosol scattering in the retrieval, we infer methane emissions based on the ratio of XCH4 excess to XCO2 excess. Significant variability is observed in the spatial distributions of excess CH4. Methane emissions in the LA basin show consistent peaks in late summer and winter during the period from Sep 2011 to the present. The strong correlation between natural gas usage data and derived CLARS methane emissions (r2 = 0.5) implies that natural gas leakage during transmission and/or consumption accounts for a significant fraction of the inferred seasonal variability of methane emissions in the LA basin. We will report updated annual trends in CH4 emissions from 2011 to the present. Copyright 2017. All rights reserved.

  5. Vista-LA: Mapping methane-emitting infrastructure in the Los Angeles megacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Carranza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Methane (CH4 is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG and a critical target of climate mitigation efforts. However, actionable emission reduction efforts are complicated by large uncertainties in the methane budget on relevant scales. Here, we present Vista, a Geographic Information System (GIS-based approach to map potential methane emissions sources in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB that encompasses Los Angeles, an area with a dense, complex mixture of methane sources. The goal of this work is to provide a database that, together with atmospheric observations, improves methane emissions estimates in urban areas with complex infrastructure. We aggregated methane source location information into three sectors (energy, agriculture, and waste following the frameworks used by the State of California GHG Inventory and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC Guidelines for GHG Reporting. Geospatial modeling was applied to publicly available datasets to precisely geolocate facilities and infrastructure comprising major anthropogenic methane source sectors. The final database, Vista-Los Angeles (Vista-LA, is presented as maps of infrastructure known or expected to emit CH4. Vista-LA contains over 33 000 features concentrated on  <  1 % of land area in the region. Currently, Vista-LA is used as a planning and analysis tool for atmospheric measurement surveys of methane sources, particularly for airborne remote sensing, and methane hotspot detection using regional observations. This study represents a first step towards developing an accurate, spatially resolved methane flux estimate for point sources in SoCAB, with the potential to address discrepancies between bottom–up and top–down methane emissions accounting in this region. The Vista-LA datasets and associated metadata are available from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center for Biogeochemical Dynamics (ORNL DAAC; https://doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1525.

  6. Evaluating earthquake hazards in the Los Angeles region; an earth-science perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziony, Joseph I.

    1985-01-01

    Potentially destructive earthquakes are inevitable in the Los Angeles region of California, but hazards prediction can provide a basis for reducing damage and loss. This volume identifies the principal geologically controlled earthquake hazards of the region (surface faulting, strong shaking, ground failure, and tsunamis), summarizes methods for characterizing their extent and severity, and suggests opportunities for their reduction. Two systems of active faults generate earthquakes in the Los Angeles region: northwest-trending, chiefly horizontal-slip faults, such as the San Andreas, and west-trending, chiefly vertical-slip faults, such as those of the Transverse Ranges. Faults in these two systems have produced more than 40 damaging earthquakes since 1800. Ninety-five faults have slipped in late Quaternary time (approximately the past 750,000 yr) and are judged capable of generating future moderate to large earthquakes and displacing the ground surface. Average rates of late Quaternary slip or separation along these faults provide an index of their relative activity. The San Andreas and San Jacinto faults have slip rates measured in tens of millimeters per year, but most other faults have rates of about 1 mm/yr or less. Intermediate rates of as much as 6 mm/yr characterize a belt of Transverse Ranges faults that extends from near Santa Barbara to near San Bernardino. The dimensions of late Quaternary faults provide a basis for estimating the maximum sizes of likely future earthquakes in the Los Angeles region: moment magnitude .(M) 8 for the San Andreas, M 7 for the other northwest-trending elements of that fault system, and M 7.5 for the Transverse Ranges faults. Geologic and seismologic evidence along these faults, however, suggests that, for planning and designing noncritical facilities, appropriate sizes would be M 8 for the San Andreas, M 7 for the San Jacinto, M 6.5 for other northwest-trending faults, and M 6.5 to 7 for the Transverse Ranges faults. The

  7. Diet and Obesity in Los Angeles County 2007–2012: Is there a measurable effect of the 2008 “Fast-Food Ban”?

    OpenAIRE

    Sturm, Roland; Hattori, Aiko

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate the impact of “Los Angeles Fast-Food Ban”, a zoning regulation that restricts opening/remodeling of standalone fast-food restaurants in South Los Angeles since 2008. Food retail permits issued after the ban are more often for small food/convenience stores and less often for larger restaurants not part of a chain in South Los Angeles compared to other areas; there are no significant differences in the share of new fast-food chain outlets, other chain restaurants, or large food mark...

  8. Mapping CH4 : CO2 ratios in Los Angeles with CLARS-FTS from Mount Wilson, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, K. W.; Fu, D.; Pongetti, T. J.; Newman, S.; Kort, E. A.; Duren, R.; Hsu, Y.-K.; Miller, C. E.; Yung, Y. L.; Sander, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    The Los Angeles megacity, which is home to more than 40% of the population in California, is the second largest megacity in the United States and an intense source of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs). Quantifying GHG emissions from the megacity and monitoring their spatiotemporal trends are essential to be able to understand the effectiveness of emission control policies. Here we measure carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) across the Los Angeles megacity using a novel approach - ground-based remote sensing from a mountaintop site. A Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) with agile pointing optics, located on Mount Wilson at 1.67 km above sea level, measures reflected near-infrared sunlight from 29 different surface targets on Mount Wilson and in the Los Angeles megacity to retrieve the slant column abundances of CO2, CH4 and other trace gases above and below Mount Wilson. This technique provides persistent space- and time-resolved observations of path-averaged dry-air GHG concentrations, XGHG, in the Los Angeles megacity and simulates observations from a geostationary satellite. In this study, we combined high-sensitivity measurements from the FTS and the panorama from Mount Wilson to characterize anthropogenic CH4 emissions in the megacity using tracer-tracer correlations. During the period between September 2011 and October 2013, the observed XCH4 : XCO2 excess ratio, assigned to anthropogenic activities, varied from 5.4 to 7.3 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)-1, with an average of 6.4 ± 0.5 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)-1 compared to the value of 4.6 ± 0.9 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)-1 expected from the California Air Resources Board (CARB) bottom-up emission inventory. Persistent elevated XCH4 : XCO2 excess ratios were observed in Pasadena and in the eastern Los Angeles megacity. Using the FTS observations on Mount Wilson and the bottom-up CO2 emission inventory, we derived a top-down CH4 emission of 0.39 ± 0.06 Tg CH4 year-1 in the Los Angeles megacity. This is 18-61% larger than the

  9. Quantifying Changes in Los Angeles River Breakout Triggered by Sea Level Rise Using a Hydrodynamic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallakpour, I.; Shakeri Majd, M.; AghaKouchak, A.; Moftakhari, H.; Sadegh, M.; Vahedifard, F.

    2017-12-01

    Sea Level Rise (SLR) has been identified as a global phenomenon that will challenge coastal communities and infrastructures through escalating risk of erosion and subsidence, as well as elevating storm surge heights. Overall, SLR not only increases frequency of future coastal flooding in low-land coastal areas, but also changes flow dynamics in rivers connected to oceans. Changes in flow dynamics (e.g., peaks, flow intensities) can elevate water surface profile locally, leading to river breakout and flooding. Quantifying river breakout provides invaluable information to local authorities when it comes to SLR mitigation and adaptation efforts. Los Angeles River (LAR) which is located in southern part of California is protected with levee systems. The focus of this study is about 18 miles of the river, starting from Pacific Ocean to Downtown Los Angeles, which protects residence and major infrastructures. We use the Hydrologic Engineering Center's River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) to simulate flow and its interactions with coastal water levels. HEC-RAS is capable of simulating flow in one- and two-dimensional systems, resolving Diffusive Wave Equation and Shallow Water Equation, respectively. In this study, the hydraulic model consists of one- and two-dimensional models connected through the LAR's levee system. This approach enables us to identify the onset of river breakout location alongside the LAR. The inflow data incorporated into the model obtained from a gage records and represents a significant event occurred in February 2005. This model utilizes a detail terrain model with 0.3 m LiDAR data. In order to explore effects of SLR associated with future climate changes on LAR and its levee system, two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP of 4.5 and 8.5) are considered. Based on our RCPs, 24 projected SLRs are computed for future years (2030, 2050, and 2100) for three different quantiles. Our simulation results show SLR, which varies from 0.05 to 2.8 m, causes

  10. Does Preconception Health Differ by Nativity?: Findings from the Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Shin M; Wakeel, Fathima; Nazinyan, Yeghishe; Sun, Stacy

    2016-04-01

    To compare certain preconception health (PCH) behaviors and conditions among US-born (USB) and foreign-born (FB) mothers in Los Angeles County (LAC), regardless of race/ethnicity, and to determine if any identified differences vary among Asian/Pacific Islanders (API's) and Hispanics. Data are from the 2012 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby study (n = 6252). PCH behaviors included tobacco use, multivitamin use, unintended pregnancy, and contraception use. PCH conditions comprised being overweight/obese, diabetes, asthma, hypertension, gum disease, and anemia. The relationship between nativity and each PCH behavior/condition was assessed using multivariable logistic regression models. USB women were more likely than FB women to smoke (AOR 2.12, 95 % CI 1.49-3.00), be overweight/obese (AOR 1.57, 95 % CI 1.30-1.90), and have asthma (AOR 2.04, 95 % CI 1.35-3.09) prior to pregnancy. They were less likely than FB women to use contraception before pregnancy (AOR 0.59, 95 % CI 0.49-0.72). USB Hispanics and API's were more likely than their FB counterparts to be overweight/obese (AOR 1.57, 95 % CI 1.23-2.01 and AOR 2.37, 95 % CI 1.58-3.56, respectively) and less likely to use contraception (AOR 0.58, 95 % CI 0.45-0.74 and AOR 0.46, 95 % CI 0.30-0.71, respectively). USB Hispanic mothers were more likely than their FB counterparts to smoke (AOR 2.47, 95 % CI 1.46-4.17), not take multivitamins (AOR 1.30, 95 % CI 1.02-1.66), and have asthma (AOR 2.35, 95 % CI 1.32-4.21) before pregnancy. US nativity is linked to negative PCH among LAC women, with many of these associations persisting among Hispanics and API's. As PCH profoundly impacts maternal and child health across the lifecourse, culturally-appropriate interventions that maintain positive behaviors among FB reproductive-aged women and encourage positive behaviors among USB women should be pursued.

  11. Mechanical Analysis of Fault Interaction in the Puente Hills Region, Los Angeles Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, W. A.; Cooke, M.

    2002-12-01

    A three-dimensional model of the Puente Hills thrust system (PHT) and the Whittier fault has been constructed using published cross sections, surface trace maps [Shaw (1999); Shaw and Suppe (1996); Wright (1991)] and products of the Southern California Earthquake Center. This study utilizes boundary element method models to validate the proposed fault geometry of the Puente Hills region via investigating fault interaction. The interaction between PHT and Whittier faults is evaluated within an elastic half-space under horizontal contraction and evidenced by slip rates on faults, strain energy density (SED), and Navier-Coulomb stress (NC) throughout the host rock. Modeled slip rates are compared to paleoseismic estimates to validate the proposed fault configuration while maps of SED and NC highlight regions of high strain in the host rock and likely faulting. Subsequently, the sensitivity of SED and NC distribution to changes in fault geometry illuminate the nature of fault interaction within this complex system of interacting faults. We explore interaction of faults within the PHT region using two sets of models. The first examines slip rates and SED and NC distribution within a local model of the PHT region while the second set incorporates the PHT faults within the context of the Los Angeles basin. Both sets explore the response of the fault system to systematic addition of faults. Adding faults within regions of high SED and NC does not influence slip on neighboring faults; however the addition of fault surfaces in regions of low/moderate SED and NC reduces slip along adjacent faults. The sensitivity of fault slip rates to direction of remote contraction in the Los Angeles Basin is examined with contraction directions of 036, 017, and 006.5 [Bawden (2001), Argus (1999), and Feigl (1993)]. Furthermore, variations on intersection geometry between the PHT and Whittier fault are explored. Portions of the PHT and Whittier faults show reasonable match to available

  12. Geological, hydrological, and biological issues related to the proposed development of a park at the confluence of the Los Angeles River and the Arroyo Seco, Los Angeles County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Michael; Trenham, Peter C.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Reichard, Eric G.; Tinsley, John C.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Meyer, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    A new park is being considered for the confluence of the Los Angeles River and the Arroyo Seco in Los Angeles County, California. Components of the park development may include creation of a temporary lake on the Los Angeles River, removal of channel lining along part of the Arroyo Seco, restoration of native plants, creation of walking paths, and building of facilities such as a boat ramp and a visitor center. This report, prepared in cooperation with the Mountains Recreation and Conservancy Authority, delineates the geological, hydrological, and biological issues that may have an impact on the park development or result from development at the confluence, and identifies a set a tasks to help address these science issues. Geologic issues of concern relate to surface faulting, earthquake ground motions, liquefaction, landsliding, and induced seismicity. Hydrologic issues of concern relate to the hydraulics and water quality of both surface water and ground water. Biological issues of concern include colonization-extinction dynamics, wildlife corridors, wildlife reintroduction, non-native species, ecotoxicology, and restoration of local habitat and ecology. Potential tasks include (1) basic data collection and follow-up monitoring, and (2) statistical and probabilistic analyses and simulation modeling of the seismic, hydraulic, and ecological processes that may have the greatest impact on the park. The science issues and associated tasks delineated for the proposed confluence park will also have transfer value for river restoration in other urban settings.

  13. Urban Income Inequality and the Great Recession in Sunbelt Form: Disentangling Individual and Neighborhood-Level Change in Los Angeles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Sampson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available New social transformations within and beyond the cities of classic urban studies challenge prevailing accounts of spatial inequality. This paper pivots from the Rust Belt to the Sunbelt accordingly, disentangling persistence and change in neighborhood median income and concentrated income extremes in Los Angeles County. We first examine patterns of change over two decades starting in 1990 for all Los Angeles neighborhoods. We then analyze an original longitudinal study of approximately six hundred Angelenos from 2000 to 2013, assessing the degree to which contextual changes in neighborhood income arise from neighborhood-level mobility or individual residential mobility. Overall we find deep and persistent inequality among both neighborhoods and individuals. Contrary to prior research, we also find that residential mobility does not materially alter neighborhood economic conditions for most race, ethnic, and income groups. Our analyses lay the groundwork for a multilevel theoretical framework capable of explaining spatial inequality across cities and historical eras.

  14. Monthly trends of methane emissions in Los Angeles from 2011 to 2015 inferred by CLARS-FTS observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Wong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of methane emissions from the Los Angeles Basin at monthly timescales across a 4-year time period – from September 2011 to August 2015. Using observations acquired by a ground-based near-infrared remote sensing instrument on Mount Wilson, California, combined with atmospheric CH4–CO2 tracer–tracer correlations, we observed −18 to +22 % monthly variability in CH4 : CO2 from the annual mean in the Los Angeles Basin. Top-down estimates of methane emissions for the basin also exhibit significant monthly variability (−19 to +31 % from annual mean and a maximum month-to-month change of 47 %. During this period, methane emissions consistently peaked in the late summer/early fall and winter. The estimated annual methane emissions did not show a statistically significant trend over the 2011 to 2015 time period.

  15. Elderly homeless veterans in Los Angeles: chronicity and precipitants of homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berk-Clark, Carissa; McGuire, James

    2013-12-01

    We compared the characteristics of chronically homeless and acutely homeless elderly veterans to better understand precipitants of homelessness. We conducted interviews with 33 chronically and 26 acutely homeless veterans aged 65 years and older receiving transitional housing services in Los Angeles, California, between 2003 and 2005. We asked questions regarding their sociodemographic characteristics and other social status measures. Other precipitants of homelessness were acquired via observation and open-ended and structured questions. Both veterans groups were more similar than different, with substantial levels of physical, psychiatric, and social impairment. They differed significantly in homelessness history, with chronically homeless veterans having more homelessness episodes and more total time homeless. They were also less educated and had smaller social networks. In response to open-ended questioning, elderly homeless veterans revealed how health and substance use issues interacted with loss of social support and eviction to exacerbate homelessness. Assessment of a range of factors is needed to address risk factors and events leading to homelessness. Further research with larger samples is needed to confirm the characteristics and needs of the elderly homeless veteran population.

  16. Air quality impacts of a CicLAvia event in Downtown Los Angeles, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Shi; Batteate, Christina; Cole, Brian; Froines, John; Zhu, Yifang

    2016-01-01

    CicLAvia in Los Angeles, CA is the open streets program that closes streets to motorized vehicles and invites people to walk, run, play or ride their bicycles on these streets, allowing them to experience the city in a new way and get exercise at the same time. Since the events reduce the motorized traffic flow, which is a significant source of air pollution, on the streets, it is reasonable to hypothesize that the CicLAvia events can reduce the concentrations of traffic-emitted air pollutants during the road closure. This study is the first experiment to test this hypothesis. The on-road and community-wide ultrafine particle (UFP) and PM2.5 were measured on the Event-Sunday (October 5th, 2014) and the Pre- and Post- Sundays (September 28(th) and October 12(th), 2014). Data analysis results showed the on-road UFP and PM2.5 reduction was 21% and 49%, respectively, and the community-wide PM2.5 reduction was 12%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Varicella hospitalizations in Los Angeles during the varicella vaccination era, 2003-2011: are they preventable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopian, Anya; Lopez, Adriana; Wilson, Dulmini; Peralta, Vi; El Amin, Alvin Nelson; Bialek, Stephanie

    2014-09-15

    Characteristics of varicella-related hospitalizations in the mature varicella vaccination era, including the proportion vaccinated and the severity of disease, are not well described. We present the vaccination status, severity and reasons for hospitalization of the hospitalized varicella cases reported to the Los Angeles County Health Department from 2003 to 2011, the period which includes the last 4 years of the mature one-dose program and the first 5 years after introduction of the routine two-dose program. A total of 158 hospitalized varicella cases were reported overall, of which 52.5% were potentially preventable and eligible for vaccination, 41.8% were not eligible for vaccination, and 5.7% were vaccinated. Most hospitalizations (72.2%) occurred among healthy persons, 54.4% occurred among persons ≥20 years of age, and 3.8% of hospitalizations resulted in death. Our data suggest that as many as half of the hospitalized varicella cases, including half of the deaths, may have been preventable given that they occurred in persons who were eligible for vaccination. More complete implementation of the routine varicella vaccination program could further reduce the disease burden of severe varicella. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Spatiotemporal Patterns and Socioeconomic Dimensions of Shared Accommodations: the Case of Airbnb in LOS Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, A.; Koohikamali, M.; Pick, J. B.

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, disruptive innovation by peer-to-peer platforms in a variety of industries, notably transportation and hospitality have altered the way individuals consume everyday essential services. With growth in sharing economy platforms such as Uber for ridesharing and Airbnb for short-term accommodations, interest in examining spatiotemporal patterns of participation in the sharing economy by suppliers and consumers is increasing. This research is motivated by key questions: who are the sharing economy workers, where are they located, and does their location influence their participation in the sharing economy? This paper is the first systematic effort to analyze spatiotemporal patterns of participation by hosts in the shared accommodation-based economy. Using three different kinds of shared accommodations listed in a 3-year period in the popular short-term accommodation platform, Airbnb, we examine spatiotemporal dimensions of host participation in a major U.S. market, Los Angeles CA. The paper also develops a conceptual model by positing associations of demographic, socioeconomic, occupational, and social capital attributes of hosts, along with their attitudes toward trust and greener consumption with hosts' participation in a shared accommodation market. Results confirm host participation to be influenced by young dependency ratio, the potential of supplemental income, as well as the sustainability potential of collaborative consumption, along with finance, insurance, and real estate occupation, but not so much by trust for our overall study area. These results add new insights to limited prior knowledge about the sharing economy worker and have policy implications.

  19. Health Hazard Evaluation Report HETA 91-395-2244, Veterans Administration Medical Center, Los Angeles, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, J.E.; Miller, A.

    1992-08-01

    In response to a request from an employee of the Veterans Administration Medical Center (SIC-8062), Los Angeles, California, an investigation was undertaken of exposures to chemicals in the laboratory department, excessive heat and humidity in the kitchen area of the dietetics department, and carbon-monoxide (630080) exposures inside the building. In three of five personal breathing zone samples taken in the histopathology laboratory, formaldehyde (50000) was detected at concentrations up to 0.17 part per million (ppm) and it was also present in all four of the area air samples at concentrations up to 1.1ppm. The predominant symptoms associated with work in the laboratory included occasional headaches and nose/throat irritation. Mild episodes of dermal irritation and rash were also reported. All carbon-monoxide levels were less than 5ppm. In the kitchens, relative humidity levels were below the recommended range. Temperatures were above the range of temperatures recommended for a medium level of work. The authors conclude that a potential carcinogenic risk existed for workers in laboratories which use formaldehyde. The authors recommend specific measures to lower the risk of formaldehyde exposures in the laboratory.

  20. Report of the American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions 2012, Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions were held for the first time in Los Angeles in 2012, with the most up-to-date basic and clinical science in the field presented and heard by physicians, research scientists, students, and paramedical personnel from 100 countries. Japan accounted for the second highest number of submitted abstracts and the Japanese Circulation Society actively contributed to the success of the AHA Scientific Sessions this year. The Late-Breaking Clinical Trial sessions comprised 27 clinical studies presented in the main hall. The FREEDOM study revealed the superiority of using a coronary artery bypass graft for diabetic multivessel coronary artery diseases over percutaneous coronary intervention using a drug-eluting stent. A new peptide hormone, serelaxin, improved dyspnea in heart failure patients and significantly reduced mortality rates according to the RELAX-AHF study. In the basic sciences, primary necrosis in mitochondria was the hot topic, while genetics, including genome-wide association studies, and epigenetics were strong features of the basic and clinical cardiovascular (CV) science. It was also clear that regenerative medicine is now part of mainstream CV research, with several clinical trials underway and many basic research projects ongoing around the world. Induced pluripotent stem cells in particular have the potential to change CV medicine, and will underpin the next era of regenerative medicine and personal therapies for heart diseases.

  1. Source apportionment of VOCs in the Los Angeles area using positive matrix factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven G.; Frankel, Anna; Hafner, Hilary R.

    Eight 3-h speciated hydrocarbon measurements were collected daily by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) as part of the Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) program during the summers of 2001-03 at two sites in the Los Angeles air basin, Azusa and Hawthorne. Over 30 hydrocarbons from over 500 samples at Azusa and 600 samples at Hawthorne were subsequently analyzed using the multivariate receptor model positive matrix factorization (PMF). At Azusa and Hawthorne, five and six factors were identified, respectively, with a good comparison between predicted and measured mass. At Azusa, evaporative emissions (a median of 31% of the total mass), motor vehicle exhaust (22%), liquid/unburned gasoline (27%), coatings (17%), and biogenic emissions (3%) factors were identified. Factors identified at Hawthorne were evaporative emissions (a median of 34% of the total mass), motor vehicle exhaust (24%), industrial process losses (15%), natural gas (13%), liquid/unburned gasoline (13%), and biogenic emissions (1%). Together, the median contribution from mobile source-related factors (exhaust, evaporative emissions, and liquid/unburned gasoline) was 80% and 71% at Azusa and Hawthorne, respectively, similar to previous source apportionment results using the chemical mass balance (CMB) model. There is a difference in the distribution among mobile source factors compared to the CMB work, with an increase in the contribution from evaporative emissions, though the cause (changes in emissions or differences between models) is unknown.

  2. Urban Infestation Patterns of Argentine Ants, Linepithema humile, in Los Angeles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smadar Gilboa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infestations of buildings by Argentine ants, Linepithema humile (Mayr, were monitored on the campus of the University of California, Los Angeles. Foraging ant activity peaked during the hotter months of the year. The mean monthly maximum temperature, but not rainfall, positively correlated with indoor infestation frequency. Neither garden size nor the predominant groundcover vegetation correlated with the number of foraging ants at baits within gardens. Although the number of foraging ants outside a building varied over 40-fold, ant density in gardens did not predict the likelihood of infestation within the building. Also, the type of vegetative groundcover employed did not predict infestation frequency. There was, however, a significant negative relationship between the size of the garden outside of a building and the number of infestations. Given the large foraging area of L. humile workers, buildings next to small gardens may be infested simply because they lie within the “normal” foraging area of a colony. The best predictor of which rooms were infested within buildings was the presence of a water source. Thus providing water for ant colonies outside and away from buildings may be one method of integrated pest management to reduce the proclivity of ants to infest structures.

  3. The Incidence of Acute Rheumatic Fever in a Suburban Area of Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odio, Alberto

    1986-01-01

    The incidence of in-hospital cases of acute rheumatic fever in residents of the San Fernando Valley section of Los Angeles (population 1,096,000) from 1971 through 1980 was 0.21 per 100,000 population for all ages and 0.63 per 100,000 for 5 to 17 year olds, both among the lowest ever reported in the world literature. Nevertheless, minority group patients had five times the risk of a white patient for acute rheumatic fever developing and a greater than 20-fold increase in the risk for the development of acute rheumatic fever with carditis. Unexpectedly, a low 30% of cases (8/27) had carditis either alone or with other major criteria, while a high 59% (16/27) had polyarthritis as the only major manifestation. This suggests the possibility of false-positive cases based on polyarthritis as the only major manifestation, and that an incidence of acute rheumatic fever may have been reached that is so low that “background” cases are a significant proportion of all cases. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:3953087

  4. Climatic consequences of adopting drought tolerant vegetation over Los Angeles as a response to California drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban-Weiss, G. A.; Vahmani, P.

    2016-12-01

    During 2012-2014, drought in California resulted in policies to reduce water consumption. One measure pursued was replacing lawns with landscapes that minimize water consumption, such as drought tolerant vegetation. If implemented at broad scale, this strategy would result in reductions in irrigation, and changes in land surface characteristics. In this study, we employ a modified regional climate model to assess the climatic consequences of adopting drought tolerant vegetation over the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Transforming lawns to drought tolerant vegetation resulted in daytime warming of up to 1.9°C, largely due to decreases in irrigation that shifted surface energy partitioning toward higher sensible and lower latent heat flux. During nighttime, however, adopting drought tolerant vegetation caused mean cooling of about 3°C, due to changes in soil thermodynamic properties and heat exchange dynamics between the surface and ground. Our results show that nocturnal cooling effects, which are larger in magnitude and of great importance for public health during heat events, could counterbalance the daytime warming attributed to the studied water conservation strategy. A more aggressive implementation, assuming all urban vegetation was replaced with drought tolerant vegetation, resulted in an average daytime cooling of 0.2°C, largely due to weakened sea-breeze patterns, highlighting the important role of land surface roughness in this coastal megacity.

  5. Place over traits? Purchasing edibles from medical marijuana dispensaries in Los Angeles, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepple, Nancy Jo; Freisthler, Bridget

    2017-10-01

    To examine discrete purchasing behaviors of marijuana-infused edibles from medical marijuana dispensaries with the aim to identify potential venue- and individual-level targets for prevention. Two-stage, venue-based sampling approach was used to randomly select patrons exiting 16 medical marijuana dispensaries in Los Angeles, California during Spring 2013. Hierarchical generalized linear modeling was used to examine the likelihood of purchasing edibles among 524 patrons reporting a discrete purchase regressed on characteristics of the sampled dispensaries and their patrons. At a venue level, patrons were more likely to purchase edibles from dispensaries located within Census tracts with higher median incomes or in close proximity to a higher number of dispensaries. At an individual level, patrons who identified as Black or Hispanic were associated with a lower likelihood of purchasing edibles when compared to patrons who identified as other non-White, non-Hispanic race/ethnicity. Place-based policies focused on regulating edible sales through dispensaries may be fruitful in influencing access to edibles. Additionally, social marketing campaigns may benefit from targeting both locations where edible purchases are more likely and populations who are more likely to purchase edibles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cost analysis of measles in refugees arriving at Los Angeles International Airport from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Margaret S; Burke, Heather M; Welstead, Bethany L; Mitchell, Tarissa; Taylor, Eboni M; Shapovalov, Dmitry; Maskery, Brian A; Joo, Heesoo; Weinberg, Michelle

    2017-05-04

    Background On August 24, 2011, 31 US-bound refugees from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (KL) arrived in Los Angeles. One of them was diagnosed with measles post-arrival. He exposed others during a flight, and persons in the community while disembarking and seeking medical care. As a result, 9 cases of measles were identified. Methods We estimated costs of response to this outbreak and conducted a comparative cost analysis examining what might have happened had all US-bound refugees been vaccinated before leaving Malaysia. Results State-by-state costs differed and variously included vaccination, hospitalization, medical visits, and contact tracing with costs ranging from $621 to $35,115. The total of domestic and IOM Malaysia reported costs for US-bound refugees were $137,505 [range: $134,531 - $142,777 from a sensitivity analysis]. Had all US-bound refugees been vaccinated while in Malaysia, it would have cost approximately $19,646 and could have prevented 8 measles cases. Conclusion A vaccination program for US-bound refugees, supporting a complete vaccination for US-bound refugees, could improve refugees' health, reduce importations of vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States, and avert measles response activities and costs.

  7. Health status, job stress and work-related injury among Los Angeles taxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pin-Chieh; Delp, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Taxi drivers work long hours for low wages and report hypertension, weight gain, and musculoskeletal pain associated with the sedentary nature of their job, stressful working conditions, and poor dietary habits. They also experience a high work-related fatality rate. The objective of this study is to examine the association of taxi drivers' health status and level of job stress with work-related injury and determine if a potential interaction exists. A survey of 309 Los Angeles taxi drivers provides basic data on health status, job stress, and work-related injuries. We further analyzed the data using a Modified Poisson regression approach with a robust error variance to estimate the relative risk (RR) and the 95% confidence intervals (CI) of work-related injuries. Focus group results supplemented and helped interpret the quantitative data. The joint effect of good health and low job stress was associated with a large reduction in the incidence of injuries, consistent with the hypothesis that health status and stress levels modify each other on the risk of work-related injury. These results suggest that the combination of stress reduction and health management programs together with changes in the stressful conditions of the job may provide targeted avenues to prevent injuries.

  8. Asthma and air pollution in the Los Angeles area. Technical report No. 35

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittemore, A S; Korn, E L

    1980-03-01

    Daily asthma attack diaries of sixteen panels of asthmatics residing in the Los Angeles area were collected by the Environmental Protection Agency for 34 week periods during the years 1972 to 1975. These data are examined here for the relationship between daily attack occurrence and daily levels of photochemical oxidant, total suspended particulates, minimum temperature, relative humidity, and average wind speed. A separate multiple logistic regression is used for each panelist's attack data. Variables representing the presence or absence of attack on the preceding day, as well as day of week and time since the start of the study, are included in the regressions. The most significant predictor of attacks was the presence of an attack on the preceding day. On the average, the panelists tended to have increased attacks on days with high oxidant and particulate pollution, on cool days, and during the first two months of the study. Panelists' attack propensity also differed by day of week; in particular they had more attacks on Saturdays (the last day of the weekly reporting period) than on Sundays. Each panelist's regression coefficients are classified according to his age, sex, hay fever status and self-assessed attack precursors; this classification is used to examine subgroups among the panelists with high coefficients corresponding to the above factors.

  9. Solar envelope zoning: application to the city planning process. Los Angeles case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    Solar envelope zoning represents a promising approach to solar access protection. A solar envelope defines the volume within which a building will not shade adjacent lots or buildings. Other solar access protection techniques, such as privately negotiated easements, continue to be tested and implemented but none offer the degree of comprehensiveness evident in this approach. Here, the City of Los Angeles, through the Mayor's Energy Office, the City Planning Department, and the City Attorney's Office, examine the feasibility of translating the concept of solar envelopes into zoning techniques. They concluded that envelope zoning is a fair and consistent method of guaranteeing solar access, but problems of complexity and uncertainty may limit its usefulness. Envelope zoning may be inappropriate for the development of high density centers and for more restrictive community plans. Aids or tools to administer envelope zoning need to be developed. Finally, some combination of approaches, including publicly recorded easements, subdivision approval and envelope zoning, need to be adopted to encourage solar use in cities. (MHR)

  10. Toward a nitrous oxide budget for a global megacity: Los Angeles, California (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend-Small, A.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrous oxide is a powerful greenhouse gas (nearly 300 times as powerful as carbon dioxide) and one of the major anthropogenic ozone depleting chemicals in the atmosphere. The strong global warming potential makes it a good target for greenhouse gas emissions reductions. But although the major anthropogenic source of nitrous oxide globally is from fertilized agricultural soils, only a very few studies have attempted a regional nitrous oxide budget. Here we present a synthesis of several recent efforts to constrain nitrous oxide emissions from terrestrial soils, wastewater treatment plants, and the coastal ocean in the Los Angeles, California metro area, home to ~13 million residents. Landscaped soils such as lawns and athletic fields emit nitrous oxide at approximately the same rate as agricultural soils in the region, ~ 200 mg N m-2 yr-1. Wastewater recycling to conserve water resources in this arid region emits nitrous oxide at rates about 3 times higher than traditional carbon oxidation of wastewater, making water reclamation the dominant anthropogenic source in the region. However, we also estimated efflux of nitrous oxide from the coastal ocean using surface concentrations and estimates of wind-driven mixing, and we found that marine emissions may be up to 10 times higher than anthropogenic sources. We also measured stable isotopic composition (N-15 and O-18) of nitrous oxide from all of these sources, and we will present the implications of these and our emission rate data for top-down monitoring of regional nitrous oxide sources.

  11. Energy efficiency and the environment: Innovative ways to improve air quality in the Los Angeles Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritschard, R.

    1993-02-01

    This paper focuses on novel, innovative approaches for reducing or delaying the production of photochemical smog in the Los Angeles Basin. These approaches include modifying the surface characteristics of the basin by increasing surface albedo and an extensive tree-planting program. The changes in surface conditions are designed to reduce the basin air temperatures, especially during the summer months, which will result in two possible effects. First, a decrease in temperature would lead to a reduction in energy use with an associated decline in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) and a lowering of evaporative emission of reactive organic gases. Reductions in these smog precursors could improve the air quality of the basin without imposing additional emissions regulations. The second effect is associated with the possible causal relationship between air temperature and smog formation (i.e., lower temperatures and lower incidence of smog). Since this approach to mitigating air emissions is broad, the studies to date have concentrated on how changes in surface characteristics affect the meteorological conditions of the basin and on how these meteorological changes subsequently affect smog production. A geographic information system database of key surface characteristics (i.e., vegetative cover, albedo, moisture availability, and roughness) was compiled, and these characteristics were evaluated using prognostic meteorological models. The results of two- and three-dimensional meteorological simulations will be presented and discussed in this paper.

  12. Energy efficiency and the environment: Innovative ways to improve air quality in the Los Angeles Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritschard, R.

    1993-02-01

    This paper focuses on novel, innovative approaches for reducing or delaying the production of photochemical smog in the Los Angeles Basin. These approaches include modifying the surface characteristics of the basin by increasing surface albedo and an extensive tree-planting program. The changes in surface conditions are designed to reduce the basin air temperatures, especially during the summer months, which will result in two possible effects. First, a decrease in temperature would lead to a reduction in energy use with an associated decline in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and a lowering of evaporative emission of reactive organic gases. Reductions in these smog precursors could improve the air quality of the basin without imposing additional emissions regulations. The second effect is associated with the possible causal relationship between air temperature and smog formation (i.e., lower temperatures and lower incidence of smog). Since this approach to mitigating air emissions is broad, the studies to date have concentrated on how changes in surface characteristics affect the meteorological conditions of the basin and on how these meteorological changes subsequently affect smog production. A geographic information system database of key surface characteristics (i.e., vegetative cover, albedo, moisture availability, and roughness) was compiled, and these characteristics were evaluated using prognostic meteorological models. The results of two- and three-dimensional meteorological simulations will be presented and discussed in this paper.

  13. Measuring and modeling air exchange rates inside taxi cabs in Los Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Shi; Yu, Nu; Wang, Yueyan; Zhu, Yifang

    2015-12-01

    Air exchange rates (AERs) have a direct impact on traffic-related air pollutant (TRAP) levels inside vehicles. Taxi drivers are occupationally exposed to TRAP on a daily basis, yet there is limited measurement of AERs in taxi cabs. To fill this gap, AERs were quantified in 22 representative Los Angeles taxi cabs including 10 Prius, 5 Crown Victoria, 3 Camry, 3 Caravan, and 1 Uplander under realistic driving (RD) conditions. To further study the impacts of window position and ventilation settings on taxi AERs, additional tests were conducted on 14 taxis with windows closed (WC) and on the other 8 taxis with not only windows closed but also medium fan speed (WC-MFS) under outdoor air mode. Under RD conditions, the AERs in all 22 cabs had a mean of 63 h-1 with a median of 38 h-1. Similar AERs were observed under WC condition when compared to those measured under RD condition. Under WC-MFS condition, AERs were significantly increased in all taxi cabs, when compared with those measured under RD condition. A General Estimating Equation (GEE) model was developed and the modeling results showed that vehicle model was a significant factor in determining the AERs in taxi cabs under RD condition. Driving speed and car age were positively associated with AERs but not statistically significant. Overall, AERs measured in taxi cabs were much higher than typical AERs people usually encounter in indoor environments such as homes, offices, and even regular passenger vehicles.

  14. Water quality improvement policies: lessons learned from the implementation of Proposition O in Los Angeles, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi-Hyun; Stenstrom, Michael; Pincetl, Stephanie

    2009-03-01

    This article evaluates the implementation of Proposition O, a stormwater cleanup measure, in Los Angeles, California. The measure was intended to create new funding to help the city comply with the Total Maximum Daily Load requirements under the federal Clean Water Act. Funding water quality objectives through a bond measure was necessary because the city had insufficient revenues to deploy new projects in its budget. The bond initiative required a supermajority vote (two-thirds of the voters), hence the public had to be convinced that such funding both was necessary and would be effective. The bond act language included project solicitation from the public, as well as multiple benefit objectives. Accordingly, nonprofit organizations mobilized to present projects that included creating new parks, using schoolyards for flood control and groundwater recharge, and replacing parking lots with permeable surfaces, among others. Yet few, if any, of these projects were retained for funding, as the city itself also had a list of priorities and higher technical expertise in justifying them as delivering water quality improvements. Our case study of the implementation of Proposition O points to the potentially different priorities for the renovation of urban infrastructure that are held by nonprofit organizations and city agencies and the importance of structuring public processes clearly so that there are no misimpressions about funding and implementation responsibilities that can lead to disillusionment with government, especially under conditions of fiscal constraints.

  15. The HIV risk reduction needs of homeless women in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederbaum, Julie A; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Gilbert, Mary Lou; Chereji, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Substance use, housing instability, and transactional sex all contribute to HIV risk engagement among homeless women. Because of the increased risk of HIV among homeless women, this study sought to understand the context of sexual behaviors and condom use among homeless women and elucidate modifiable factors that can be targeted by interventions. Homeless women (n = 45) participated in focus groups (n = 6) at shelters throughout Los Angeles County. Thematic analyses revealed that similar to other high-risk women, homeless women engage in sex with multiple types of partners (steady, casual, and transactional). Our findings indicate that, similar to use among other high-risk women, condom use by homeless women varied by type of partner. Substance use also contributed to condom non-use. In a departure from previous research, homeless women reported overarching feelings of hopelessness. Participants spoke of hopelessness contributing to risk engagement, specifically the number of ongoing stressors experienced because of homelessness contributing to despair. Without acknowledgement of this unique quality of homelessness, women felt their risk reduction needs would never truly be understood. Interventions involving homeless women should include self-esteem building, acknowledgment and use of inherent resilience qualities gained during homelessness, respect for current knowledge and skills, and an exploration of when women choose to trust their partners and how they make safer sex choices. Copyright © 2013 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of air pollution exposure on glucose metabolism in Los Angeles minority children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Corral, C M; Alderete, T L; Habre, R; Berhane, K; Lurmann, F W; Weigensberg, M J; Goran, M I; Gilliland, F D

    2018-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that ambient (AAP: NO 2 , PM 2.5 and O 3 ) and traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP) contribute to metabolic disease risk in adults; however, few studies have examined these relationships in children. Metabolic profiling was performed in 429 overweight and obese African-American and Latino youth living in urban Los Angeles, California. This cross-sectional study estimated individual residential air pollution exposure and used linear regression to examine relationships between air pollution and metabolic outcomes. AAP and TRAP exposure were associated with adverse effects on glucose metabolism independent of body fat percent. PM 2.5 was associated with 25.0% higher fasting insulin (p air pollution exposure was associated with a metabolic profile that is characteristic of increased risk for type 2 diabetes. These results indicate that increased prior year exposure to air pollution may adversely affect type 2 diabetes-related pathophysiology in overweight and obese minority children. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  17. Understanding Transitions Toward Sustainable Urban Water Management: Miami, Las Vegas, Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M. E.; Manago, K. F.; Treuer, G.; Deslatte, A.; Koebele, E.; Ernst, K.

    2016-12-01

    Cities in the United States face numerous threats to their long-term water supplies including preserving ecosystems, competing uses, and climate change. Yet, it is unclear why only some cities have transitioned toward more sustainable water management. These transitions include strategies such as water conservation, water supply portfolio diversification, long-term planning, and integrated resource management. While the circumstances that motivate or moderate transition may vary greatly across cities' physical and institutional contexts, identifying common factors associated with transition can help resource managers capitalize on windows of opportunity for change. To begin the process of identifying such factors, we ask two questions: 1) what combinations of conditions are associated with water management transitions?, and 2) what are the outcomes of these transitions? We examine three cases of utility-level water management in Miami, Las Vegas, and Los Angeles to create data-driven narratives detailing each city's transition. These narratives systematically synthesize multiple data sources to enable cross-case comparison and provide insights into how and why cities transition. Using the foundational concepts from the exposure-based theory of urban change, we focus our analysis on three broad categories of variables that influence urban water management transition: biophysical, political, and regulatory exposures. First, we compare these factors across time and across cities using metrics that standardize diverse data sources. Next, we incorporate qualitative factors that capture a city's unique conditions by integrating these metrics with salient contextual information. Then, through cross-city comparison, we identify factors associated with transition.

  18. Los Angeles County Department of Public Health's Health Hazard Assessment: putting the "health" into hazard assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Brandon; Bagwell, Dee Ann; Dora, Vinita; Khan, Sinan; Plough, Alonzo

    2013-01-01

    A ll communities, explicitly or implicitly, assess and prepare for the natural and manmade hazards that they know could impact their community. The commonality of hazard-based threats in most all communities does not usually result in standard or evidence-based preparedness practice and outcomes across those communities. Without specific efforts to build a shared perspective and prioritization, "all-hazards" preparedness can result in a random hodgepodge of priorities and preparedness strategies, resulting in diminished emergency response capabilities. Traditional risk assessments, with a focus on physical infrastructure, do not present the potential health and medical impacts of specific hazards and threats. With the implementation of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's capability-based planning, there is broad recognition that a health-focused hazard assessment process--that engages the "Whole of Community"--is needed. Los Angeles County's Health Hazard Assessment and Prioritization tool provides a practical and innovative approach to enhance existing planning capacities. Successful utilization of this tool can provide a way for local and state health agencies and officials to more effectively identify the health consequences related to hazard-specific threats and risk, determine priorities, and develop improved and better coordinated agency planning, including community engagement in prioritization.

  19. Public Health Investment in Team Care: Increasing Access to Clinical Preventive Services in Los Angeles County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Kuo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available As part of federal and local efforts to increase access to high quality, clinical preventive services (CPS in underserved populations, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (DPH partnered with six local health system and community organization partners to promote the use of team care for CPS delivery. Although these partners were at different stages of organizational capacity, post-program review suggests that each organization advanced team care in their clinical or community environments, potentially affecting >250,000 client visits per year. Despite existing infrastructure and DPH’s funding support of CPS integration, partner efforts faced several challenges. They included lack of sustainable funding for prevention services; limited access to community resources that support disease prevention; and difficulties in changing health-care provider behavior. Although team care can serve as a catalyst or vehicle for delivering CPS, downstream sustainability of this model of practice requires further state and national policy changes that prioritize prevention. Public health is well positioned to facilitate these policy discussions and to assist health system and community organizations in strengthening CPS integration.

  20. Loss estimates for a Puente Hills blind-thrust earthquake in Los Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, E.H.; Seligson, H.A.; Gupta, N.; Gupta, V.; Jordan, T.H.; Campbell, K.W.

    2005-01-01

    Based on OpenSHA and HAZUS-MH, we present loss estimates for an earthquake rupture on the recently identified Puente Hills blind-thrust fault beneath Los Angeles. Given a range of possible magnitudes and ground motion models, and presuming a full fault rupture, we estimate the total economic loss to be between $82 and $252 billion. This range is not only considerably higher than a previous estimate of $69 billion, but also implies the event would be the costliest disaster in U.S. history. The analysis has also provided the following predictions: 3,000-18,000 fatalities, 142,000-735,000 displaced households, 42,000-211,000 in need of short-term public shelter, and 30,000-99,000 tons of debris generated. Finally, we show that the choice of ground motion model can be more influential than the earthquake magnitude, and that reducing this epistemic uncertainty (e.g., via model improvement and/or rejection) could reduce the uncertainty of the loss estimates by up to a factor of two. We note that a full Puente Hills fault rupture is a rare event (once every ???3,000 years), and that other seismic sources pose significant risk as well. ?? 2005, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  1. The "sugar pack" health marketing campaign in Los Angeles County, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragan, Noel C; Noller, Ali J; Robles, Brenda; Gase, Lauren N; Leighs, Michael S; Bogert, Suzanne; Simon, Paul A; Kuo, Tony

    2014-03-01

    As part of a comprehensive approach to combating the obesity epidemic, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health launched the "Sugar Pack" health marketing campaign in fall 2011. Carried out in three stages, the campaign sought to educate and motivate the public to reduce excess calorie intake from sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. The primary Sugar Pack creative concepts provided consumers with information about the number of sugar packs contained in sugary drinks. Data from formative market research as well as lessons from previous campaigns in other U.S. jurisdictions informed the development of the materials. These materials were disseminated through a multipronged platform that included paid outdoor media on transit and billboards and messaging using social media (i.e., Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, and sendable e-cards). Initial findings from a postcampaign assessment indicate that the Sugar Pack campaign reached broadly into targeted communities, resulting in more than 515 million impressions. Lessons learned from the campaign suggest that employing health marketing to engage the public can lead to increased knowledge, favorable recognition of health messages, and self-reported intention to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, potentially complementing other obesity prevention strategies in the field.

  2. Black/immigrant competition re-assessed: new evidence from Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldinger, R

    1997-01-01

    Findings are presented from a survey of employers conducted to assess the impact of immigration and employer practices upon the chances of Blacks finding employment in Los Angeles. The highest ranking person involved in the hiring process at each of 44 restaurants, 46 printers, 41 hotels, and 39 furniture manufacturers was interviewed. The hiring of new employees drawn from the network of current employees seems to have the dual function of bringing immigrant communities into the workplace, while detaching vacancies from the open market, thereby reducing the number of employment opportunities for Blacks. Employers also perceived immigrants to be far more desirable employees than Blacks, partly because they believe that immigrants will work more productively. Immigrants are also seen as the more tractable laborers. Any managerial propensity to favor immigrants over Blacks will probably be reinforced by the attitudes of the mainly Latino work force, for placing a Black worker in a mainly Latino work crew may frustrate productivity given the animosity between the two ethnic groups. Blacks also appear to opt out of the low-level labor market in response to rising expectations, on the one hand, and the anticipation of encountering employment difficulties on the other.

  3. SPATIOTEMPORAL PATTERNS AND SOCIOECONOMIC DIMENSIONS OF SHARED ACCOMMODATIONS: THE CASE OF AIRBNB IN LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sarkar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, disruptive innovation by peer-to-peer platforms in a variety of industries, notably transportation and hospitality have altered the way individuals consume everyday essential services. With growth in sharing economy platforms such as Uber for ridesharing and Airbnb for short-term accommodations, interest in examining spatiotemporal patterns of participation in the sharing economy by suppliers and consumers is increasing. This research is motivated by key questions: who are the sharing economy workers, where are they located, and does their location influence their participation in the sharing economy? This paper is the first systematic effort to analyze spatiotemporal patterns of participation by hosts in the shared accommodation-based economy. Using three different kinds of shared accommodations listed in a 3-year period in the popular short-term accommodation platform, Airbnb, we examine spatiotemporal dimensions of host participation in a major U.S. market, Los Angeles CA. The paper also develops a conceptual model by positing associations of demographic, socioeconomic, occupational, and social capital attributes of hosts, along with their attitudes toward trust and greener consumption with hosts’ participation in a shared accommodation market. Results confirm host participation to be influenced by young dependency ratio, the potential of supplemental income, as well as the sustainability potential of collaborative consumption, along with finance, insurance, and real estate occupation, but not so much by trust for our overall study area. These results add new insights to limited prior knowledge about the sharing economy worker and have policy implications.

  4. Nuclear event time histories and computed site transfer functions for locations in the Los Angeles region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A.M.; Covington, P.A.; Park, R.B.; Borcherdt, R.D.; Perkins, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    This report presents a collection of Nevada Test Site (NTS) nuclear explosion recordings obtained at sites in the greater Los Angeles, Calif., region. The report includes ground velocity time histories, as well as, derived site transfer functions. These data have been collected as part of a study to evaluate the validity of using low-level ground motions to predict the frequency-dependent response of a site during an earthquake. For this study 19 nuclear events were recorded at 98 separate locations. Some of these sites have recorded more than one of the nuclear explosions, and, consequently, there are a total of 159, three-component station records. The location of all the recording sites are shown in figures 1–5, the station coordinates and abbreviations are given in table 1. The station addresses are listed in table 2, and the nuclear explosions that were recorded are listed in table 3. The recording sites were chosen on the basis of three criteria: (1) that the underlying geological conditions were representative of conditions over significant areas of the region, (2) that the site was the location of a strong-motion recording of the 1971 San Fernando earthquake, or (3) that more complete geographical coverage was required in that location.

  5. Evaluating the Change in Medical Marijuana Dispensary Locations in Los Angeles Following the Passage of Local Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Crystal; Freisthler, Bridget

    2017-06-01

    In May 2013, Los Angeles voters approved Proposition D, a regulatory measure that set zoning restrictions and capped the number of dispensaries at those that opened before 2007. Specifically, Proposition D stated that only 135 dispensaries were allowed to be in operation and set zoning restrictions prohibiting dispensaries from operating in certain areas. We first assessed whether the legislation changed the physical availability of medical marijuana via dispensaries in Los Angeles. We then used two data points 1 year prior to and 1 year following the implementation of Proposition D to determine if the locations of where the dispensaries are located changed after the enactment of Proposition D. Using a cross-sectional, ecological design, we investigated the change in dispensaries from 2012 to 2014 for Census tracts within the city of Los Angeles (N = 1000). We analyzed data using spatial error regression models that included controls for spatial autocorrelation due to the spatial structure of the data. We found that while the total number of dispensaries in Los Angeles remained largely unchanged, the spatial distribution of dispensaries did change in meaningful ways. Census tracts with more dispensaries in 2014 were significantly and positively associated with the proportion of African American residents and negatively associated with the percent of area that was commercially zoned. In other words, dispensaries opened in areas with a higher proportion of Black residents and closed in Census tract areas that had a higher percentage of commercially zoned land. Findings from this study highlight the importance of continuously regulating dispensary locations. Results suggest that likely as a result of changing regulations, dispensaries may be attempting to conceal their presence and locate in areas that will not advocate against their presence.

  6. Uptake and Repeat Use of Postexposure Prophylaxis in a Community-Based Clinic in Los Angeles, California

    OpenAIRE

    Beymer, Matthew R.; Bolan, Robert K.; Flynn, Risa P.; Kerrone, Dustin R.; Pieribone, David L.; Kulkarni, Sonali P.; Stitt, Jackelyn C.; Mejia, Everardo; Landovitz, Raphael J.

    2014-01-01

    Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) has become an important tool for HIV prevention in the men who have sex with men (MSM) communities within Los Angeles County. However, it is unclear as to whether the most sexually at-risk MSM populations are accessing PEP services. Furthermore, it is unclear what behavioral risk factors differentiate individuals who utilize PEP once (single PEP) versus those who utilize it multiple times (re-PEP). Data were collected between May 2011 and December 2012 on all cl...

  7. The Fossil Fueled Metropolis: Los Angeles and the Emergence of Oil-Based Energy in North America, 1865--1930

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Jason Arthur

    Beginning with coal in the nineteenth century, the mass production and intensive consumption of fossil fuel energy fundamentally changed patterns of urban and industrial development in North America. Focusing on the metropolitan development of Los Angeles, this dissertation examines how the emergence of oil-based capitalism in the first three decades of the twentieth century was sustained and made increasingly resilient through the production of urban and industrial space. In a region where coal was scarce, the development of oil-based energy was predicated on long-term investments into conversion technologies, storage systems and distribution networks that facilitated the efficient and economical flow of liquefied fossil fuel. In this dissertation, I argue that the historical and geographical significance of the Southern California petroleum industry is derived from how its distinctive market expansion in the first three decades of the twentieth century helped establish the dominance of oil-based energy as the primary fuel for transportation in capitalist society. In North America, the origins of oil-based capitalism can be traced to the turn of the twentieth century when California was the largest oil-producing economy in the United States and Los Angeles was the fastest growing metropolitan region. This dissertation traces how Los Angeles became the first city in North America where oil became a formative element of urban and industrial development: not only as fuel for transportation, but also in the infrastructures, landscapes and networks that sustain a critical dependence on oil-based energy. With a distinctive metropolitan geography, decentralized and automobile-dependent, Los Angeles became the first oil-based city in North America and thus provides an ideal case study for examining the regional dynamics of energy transition, establishment and dependence. Interwoven with the production of urban and industrial space, oil remains the primary fuel that

  8. The Geography of Clusters: The Case of the Video Games Clusters in Montreal and in Los Angeles

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvianne Pilon; Diane-Gabrielle Tremblay

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our research was to examine how clusters appear and develop in the video game sector. We thus did a comparative study of the video games cluster in Montreal and Los Angeles. This paper shows that concentration of human creativity in arts and in technology is a significant economic localization factor, but cross-fertilization of sectors and public policy also contributes to the understanding of the emergence of clusters in certain urban regions. Thus, political and industrial facto...

  9. A suburban focus of endemic typhus in Los Angeles County: association with seropositive domestic cats and opossums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorvillo, F J; Gondo, B; Emmons, R; Ryan, P; Waterman, S H; Tilzer, A; Andersen, E M; Murray, R A; Barr, R

    1993-02-01

    Thirty-three cases of locally acquired murine typhus were reported in Los Angeles County residents from May 1984 through February 1988. Only eight cases were reported over the previous 20-year period. Thirty (91%) cases resided within a suburban area encompassing approximately 50 km2 in northcentral Los Angeles or had contact with an animal from this area. Serologic testing (complement fixation and indirect fluorescent antibody) of selected animals in close association with human cases revealed a high prevalence of seropositivity among domestic cats and opossums. Nine (90%) of 10 resident cats tested had demonstrable antibody titers compared with none (0%) of 20 cats from a control area (P commensal rodents, and the classic vector of murine typhus, Xenopsylla cheopis, was not found. Ectoparasite indices form seropositive opossums revealed heavy infestations with the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (mean flea count = 104.7), a species that readily bites humans. These data provide evidence that a suburban focus of murine typhus exists in Los Angeles that differs substantially from the classic transmission cycle, and that cats, opossums and C. felis may play an important role in the occurrence of human cases.

  10. Impact of population density on collision rates in a rapidly developing rural, exurban area of Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Kelly; Sternfeld, Isabelle; Melnick, Douglas Sloan

    2013-04-01

    To determine if the commonly acknowledged relationships between population density and traffic collisions are found at the subcounty level and to describe how collision characteristics may vary substantially at a local level, with a particular emphasis on exurban areas. Los Angeles County collision data were obtained from the California Highway Patrol and the census tract and service planning area (SPA) for each collision were determined. The correlation between population density and collision rates by census tract was calculated within each SPA and for the entire county. Primary collision factors were compared for geographic areas of different population densities within one exurban SPA in Los Angeles County. An inverse relationship was found between collision rates and population density within Los Angeles County. Primary collisions factors were different in areas of the county with different population densities, with driving or biking under the influence particularly common in the most rural area. Subcounty analyses are very important to the study of traffic collisions. Traffic problems in rapidly developing exurban areas may be quite different from those in older, more established areas.

  11. Years off Your Life? The Effects of Homicide on Life Expectancy by Neighborhood and Race/Ethnicity in Los Angeles County

    OpenAIRE

    Redelings, Matthew; Lieb, Loren; Sorvillo, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Homicide is one of the leading causes of death in Los Angeles County and is known to be elevated in low-income urban neighborhoods and in black males. However, because homicide occurs primarily among young adults, mortality rate statistics may underrepresent its importance. We estimated the impact of homicide on life expectancy by demographic group and geographic area in Los Angeles County, 2001?2006. Life expectancy estimates were calculated using mortality records and population estimates f...

  12. Industria cinematografica e turismo nell’immaginario collettivo: Los Angeles tra mito e creatività / Film industry and tourism in collective imagination: Los Angeles between myth and creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franca Miani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Obiettivo del contributo è quello di proporre alcuni spunti di riflessione sul caso della città di celluloide più nota al mondo: Los Angeles. Più in particolare s’intende analizzare la stretta relazione che intercorre tra l’attrattività turistica della metropoli e l’industria cinematografica.  Come ben noto, Los Angeles continua da quasi un secolo a suggestionare l’immaginario collettivo in quanto mecca del cinema e patria di Hollywood, l’industria che ha creato il sogno americano. Tuttavia LA, oggi, è anche una delle prime dieci città mondiali. Rappresenta l’esempio di come l’industria creativa (e il cinema è creatività per definizione sia riuscita a realizzare un sistema economico e d’innovazione tecnologica che funziona come polo di attrazione sia per tutti coloro che intendono sviluppare nuove attività, non possibili in altre parti del mondo, sia per visitatori e turisti attirati da un insieme di fattori emozionali legati alla notorietà dei luoghi del sistema cinematografico e dello spettacolo. Sulla base dell’analisi della letteratura e facendo seguito a esperienze di studio sul campo, il contributo vuole evidenziare la stretta connessione costruita nel corso di più di un secolo tra Hollywood, il luogo, e Hollywood, l’industria, per dimostrare come il luogo di produzione rappresenti una componente unica del prodotto finale, un’autenticazione di qualità soggettive e simboliche in grado di amplificare il valore economico intrinseco e di provocare un’attrazione crescente di attività e persone verso l’area metropolitana di Los Angeles.   This paper discusses Los Angeles as the best-known celluloid city in the world, and focuses particularly on the close relationship between its attractiveness for tourists and the film industry. For almost a century Los Angeles has exerted influence over the collective imagination as the mecca of cinema and home of Hollywood, the industry that created the American dream

  13. Check Yourself: a social marketing campaign to increase syphilis screening in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Aaron; Javanbakht, Marjan; Montoya, Jorge A; Rotblatt, Harlan; O'Leary, Christopher; Kerndt, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health launched Check Yourself, a new social marketing campaign, as part of ongoing efforts to address the persistent syphilis epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the county. The goals of the campaign were to increase syphilis testing and knowledge among MSM. Check Yourself was planned with careful attention to the principles of social marketing, including formative research, market segmentation, and an emphasis on building a strong brand. A cross-sectional survey using a time-location sample was conducted in 2009 for the evaluation. The survey assessed demographics, syphilis knowledge, and recent syphilis testing as well as unaided awareness, aided awareness, and confirmed awareness, meaning that a person had both awareness of the campaign and could correctly identify that the campaign was about syphilis. The total sample size was 306. Unaided awareness for Check Yourself was 20.7%, and aided awareness was 67.5%, bringing total campaign awareness to 88.2%; confirmed awareness was 30.4%. Unaided campaign awareness was associated with syphilis knowledge and important risk behaviors for syphilis, indicating that the campaign reached an appropriate audience. Total awareness was not associated with recent syphilis testing in a multivariate model. However, MSM with confirmed awareness were more than 6 times more likely to have been recently tested. The evaluation of Check Yourself found that the campaign had a very strong brand among MSM. Although total awareness was not associated with syphilis testing, confirmed awareness, a more robust measure, was strongly associated.

  14. Modeling the Spread and Control of the Asian Tiger Mosquito in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, C.; Montecino, D.; Marcantonio, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is among the world's most invasive species. Its spread has been facilitated by rapid global transport of cargo and potentially by the warming of climate, and it is now established on every continent except Antarctica. This species represents a "triple threat" to human health, being a day-biting pest, a competent vector of globally important dengue and chikungunya viruses, and a potential bridge vector of several zoonotic arboviruses. As a result of its importance, the biology of Ae. albopictus is also well-studied, but the fine-scale processes by which it becomes established in a given location are poorly understood. This is because even intensive surveillance systems yield limited information during the early phase of invasions when densities are low, and detection often occurs after populations are relatively widespread. Fine-scale spatial models for mosquito dynamics and movement offer a way forward, marrying our understanding of Ae. albopictus biology with surveillance paradigms and detailed data on the real landscapes where invasions occur. This presentation will consider the impacts of climate on the biology of Ae. albopictus and explore their implications for the ongoing invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus in Los Angeles since 2011. We have used hierarchical modeling to account for heterogeneities in household-level suitability, then we modeled the stochastic dynamics of Ae. albopictus on this landscape using the suitability surface and a temperature-dependent, dynamical model for reproduction and spread. I will discuss the modeling approach and use the model results to answer policy-relevant questions related to our ability to detect and control these highly invasive mosquitoes.

  15. Paleogene strata of the Eastern Los Angeles basin, California: Paleogeography and constraints on neogene structural evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloh, T.H.; Beyer, L.A.; Enrico, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    Post-Paleogene dextral slip of 8-9 km is demonstrated for the southeastern part of the Whittier fault zone in the eastern Los Angeles basin area of southern California. A linear axis of greatest thickness for the combined upper Paleocene and lower to lower-middle Eocene clastic formations intersects the fault zone and is offset by it to give the new measure. Fragmentary evidence hints that the Whittier structural zone may have exerted control on bathymetric-topographic relief and sedimentation even in latest Paleocene (ca. 54 Ma). A clear topographic influence was exerted by 20-17 Ma. Strike-slip and present deformational style is younger than ca. 8 Ma. Our Paleogene isopach map extends as far west as long 117??58'W and is a foundation for companion zonal maps of predominant lithology and depositional environments. Integration of new palynological data with published biostratigraphic results and both new and published lithologic and sedimentological interpretations support the zonal maps. Reconstruction of marine-nonmarine facies and fragmented basin margins yields a model for the northeastern corner of a Paleogene coastal basin. Palinspastic adjustment for the Neogene-Quaternary Whittier fault offset and a reasoned westerly extension of the northern edge of the basin model yield a reconstruction of Paleogene paleogeography-paleoceanography. Our reconstruction is based partly on the absence of both Paleocene and Eocene deposits beneath the unconformable base of the middle Miocene Topanga Group in a region nowhere less than 15 km wide between the Raymond-Sierra Madre-Cucamonga fault zone and the northern edge of the Paleocene basin. Thus, Paleogene strata of the Santa Monica Mountains could not have been offset from the northern extension of the Santa Ana Mountains by sinistral slip on those boundary faults. Structural rearrangements needed to accommodate the clockwise rotation of the western Transverse Ranges from the early Miocene starting position are thereby

  16. Alternative tobacco product use and smoking cessation among homeless youth in los angeles county.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joan S; Shadel, William G; Golinelli, Daniela; Ewing, Brett

    2014-11-01

    Approximately 70% of homeless youth smoke cigarettes, but their use of alternative tobacco products (ATPs) is unknown. This paper reports on ATP use among past-month smokers in Los Angeles County, including whether it differs by demographic characteristics, homelessness severity, past-year quit attempts, and readiness to quit smoking. Given the growing popularity of e-cigarettes, we also report on perceptions of harm and reasons for using this product. We surveyed 292 unaccompanied homeless youth who were randomly sampled from street sites. Participants had smoked at least 100 cigarettes during their lifetime and 1 cigarette during the past month. Seventy-two percent of youth reported past-month ATP use (e-cigarettes = 51%; little cigars/cigarillos = 46%; hookah = 31%; other smokeless tobacco product = 24%; chewing tobacco/moist snuff = 19%). Current ATP use was unrelated to most demographic characteristics or having a past-year quit attempt. However, youth who planned to quit smoking in the next 30 days were significantly less likely to report current use of hookahs, other smokeless tobacco products, or e-cigarettes. Among lifetime e-cigarette users, the most common reasons for use included not having to go outside to smoke (38%) and being able to deal with situations or places where they cannot smoke (36%); it was less common to report using e-cigarettes to quit smoking (17%-18%). Dual use of ATPs among homeless youth smokers is common and is more likely among those who have no immediate plans to quit smoking. Effective and easily disseminable strategies for reducing all forms of tobacco use among homeless youth are urgently needed. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. Geologic map database of the El Mirage Lake area, San Bernardino and Los Angeles Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David M.; Bedford, David R.

    2000-01-01

    This geologic map database for the El Mirage Lake area describes geologic materials for the dry lake, parts of the adjacent Shadow Mountains and Adobe Mountain, and much of the piedmont extending south from the lake upward toward the San Gabriel Mountains. This area lies within the western Mojave Desert of San Bernardino and Los Angeles Counties, southeastern California. The area is traversed by a few paved highways that service the community of El Mirage, and by numerous dirt roads that lead to outlying properties. An off-highway vehicle area established by the Bureau of Land Management encompasses the dry lake and much of the land north and east of the lake. The physiography of the area consists of the dry lake, flanking mud and sand flats and alluvial piedmonts, and a few sharp craggy mountains. This digital geologic map database, intended for use at 1:24,000-scale, describes and portrays the rock units and surficial deposits of the El Mirage Lake area. The map database was prepared to aid in a water-resource assessment of the area by providing surface geologic information with which deepergroundwater-bearing units may be understood. The area mapped covers the Shadow Mountains SE and parts of the Shadow Mountains, Adobe Mountain, and El Mirage 7.5-minute quadrangles. The map includes detailed geology of surface and bedrock deposits, which represent a significant update from previous bedrock geologic maps by Dibblee (1960) and Troxel and Gunderson (1970), and the surficial geologic map of Ponti and Burke (1980); it incorporates a fringe of the detailed bedrock mapping in the Shadow Mountains by Martin (1992). The map data were assembled as a digital database using ARC/INFO to enable wider applications than traditional paper-product geologic maps and to provide for efficient meshing with other digital data bases prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey's Southern California Areal Mapping Project.

  18. Hydrocarbon emissions from twelve urban shade trees of the Los Angeles, California, Air Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corchnoy, Stephanie B.; Arey, Janet; Atkinson, Roger

    The large-scale planting of shade trees in urban areas to counteract heat-island effects and to minimize energy use is currently being discussed. Among the costs to be considered in a cost/benefit analysis of such a program is the potential for additional reactive organic compounds in the atmosphere due to emissions from these trees. In this program, 15 species of potential shade trees for the Los Angeles Air Basin were studied and emission rates were determined for 11 of these trees, with one further tree (Crape myrtle) exhibiting no detectable emissions. The emission rates normalized to dry leaf weight and corrected to 30°C were (in μg g -1 h -1), ranked from lowest to highest emission rate: Crape myrtle, none detected; Camphor, 0.03; Aleppo pine, 0.15; Deodar cedar, 0.29; Italian Stone pine, 0.42; Monterey pine, 0.90; Brazilian pepper, 1.3; Canary Island pine, 1.7; Ginkgo, 3.0; California pepper, 3.7; Liquidambar, 37; Carrotwood, 49. In addition to the emission rates per unit biomass, the biomass per tree must be factored into any assessment of the relative merits of the various trees, since some trees have higher biomass constants than others. The present data shows that there are large differences in emission rates among different tree species and this should be factored into decision-making as to which shade trees to plant. Based solely on the presently determined emission rates, the Crape myrtle and Camphor tree are good choices for large-scale planting, while the Carrotwood tree and Liquidambar are poor choices due to their high isoprene emission rates.

  19. Using DNA barcoding to track seafood mislabeling in Los Angeles restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willette, Demian A; Simmonds, Sara E; Cheng, Samantha H; Esteves, Sofia; Kane, Tonya L; Nuetzel, Hayley; Pilaud, Nicholas; Rachmawati, Rita; Barber, Paul H

    2017-10-01

    Seafood mislabeling is common in both domestic and international markets. Studies on seafood fraud often report high rates of mislabeling (e.g., >70%), but these studies have been limited to a single sampling year, which means it is difficult to assess the impact of stricter governmental truth-in-labeling regulations. We used DNA barcoding to assess seafood labeling in 26 sushi restaurants in Los Angeles over 4 years. Seafood from 3 high-end grocery stores were also sampled (n = 16) in 2014. We ordered 9 common sushi fish from menus, preserved tissue samples in 95% ethanol, extracted the genomic DNA, amplified and sequenced a portion of the mtDNA COI gene, and identified the resulting sequence to known fish sequences from the National Center for Biotechnology Information nucleotide database. We compared DNA results with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) list of acceptable market names and retail names. We considered sushi-sample labels that were inconsistent with FDA names mislabeled. Sushi restaurants had a consistently high percentage of mislabeling (47%; 151 of 323) from 2012 to 2015, yet mislabeling was not homogenous across species. Halibut, red snapper, yellowfin tuna, and yellowtail had consistently high (15%). All sampled sushi restaurants had at least one case of mislabeling. Mislabeling of sushi-grade fish from high-end grocery stores was also identified in red snapper, yellowfin tuna, and yellowtail, but at a slightly lower frequency (42%) than sushi restaurants. Despite increased regulatory measures and media attention, we found seafood mislabeling continues to be prevalent. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Methamphetamine use among women attending sexually transmitted disease clinics in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlman, Shauna; Javanbakht, Marjan; Stirland, Ali; Guerry, Sarah; Gorbach, Pamina M

    2013-08-01

    Methamphetamine (meth) use is a continuing problem in the United States and is associated with increased risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, few studies have examined the meth use/STI risk association among women. We conducted a cross-sectional study of women attending public sexually transmitted disease clinics in Los Angeles County, California, from 2009 to 2010. Routinely collected clinic intake data were used to compare the prevalence of meth use among women with different demographics/sexual behaviors. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of meth use. There were 1.4% (n = 277) women who reported meth use, with a mean age of 29 years. Prevalence was highest among Whites and those reporting both male and female partners. Most women who reported meth use also reported polysubstance use. In a multivariable model controlling for age, race/ethnicity, condom use, having a new sex partner, and other illicit substance use, women who reported sex with an injection drug user were nearly 10 times more likely to report meth use as compared with those who did not (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 9.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.86-16.75). Other factors associated with meth use included sex with a recently incarcerated partner (AOR, 3.24; 95% CI, 2.16-4.86), anonymous partner (AOR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.54-4.04), and transactional sex (AOR, 3.26; 95% CI, 1.69-6.32). Women who tested positive for chlamydia/gonorrhea were 1.48 times more likely to use meth as compared with those who did not. Female meth users have high-risk behaviors that could increase their risk for STIs/HIV.

  1. Spatio-temporal Variations in on-road CO2 Emissions in the Los Angeles Megacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Rao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We quantify hourly on-road fossil fuel carbon dioxide (FFCO2 emissions at the road segment level for the Los Angeles (LA megacity based on observed traffic data, and characterize emission patterns across space and time. This on-road FFCO2 emissions dataset for LA (from Hestia version 1.0, based on actual traffic volume, provides emissions per vehicle kilometer travelled (VKT—an important metric for greenhouse gas (GHG reductions. We further identify emissions hotpots that can help state and local policy makers plan the most effective GHG reduction strategies. On-road vehicle traffic accounts for half of the FFCO2 emissions in LA, of which 41% is from arterials (intermediate road type. Arterials also have the largest C emissions intensity—FFCO2 per VKT—possibly from high traffic congestion and fleet composition. Non-interstate emissions hotspots (> 419 tC lane-km-1 are equally dominated by arterials and collectors (the lowest road type in terms of FFCO2 emissions though collectors have a higher VKT. These hotspots occur in densely populated areas and developed landuse classes, largely in LA (67% and Orange (18% counties, and provide specific targets for emissions reduction efforts. The estimated uncertainties for interstate, arterial and collector emissions per road length are ± 2.1, ± 0.5 and ± 18.0%, respectively. Our overall estimates compare reasonably well with other products, DARTE and FIVE but with substantial differences in spatial distribution. The method for developing this dataset is easily replicable in other urban landscapes, and represents a powerful tool for carbon cycle science and regional policy makers.

  2. Baltimore in The Wire and Los Angeles in The Shield: Urban Landscapes in American Drama Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto N. García

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Shield (FX 2002-08 and The Wire (HBO 2002-08 are two of the most ever critically acclaimed TV-shows and they both can be seen as the finest developed film noir proposals produced in television. The Wire transcends the cop-show genre by offering a multilayered portrait of the whole city of Baltimore: from police work to drug dealing, getting through stevedores’ union corruption, tricks of local politics, problems of the school system and some unethical journalism practices. On the other, The Shield offers a breathtaking cop-show that features in the foreground the moral ambiguity that characterizes the noir genre. Both series display complementary realist strategies (a neorealist aesthetic in The Wire; a cinéma vérité pastiche in The Shield that highlight the importance of city landscape in their narrative. Baltimore and Los Angeles are portrayed not only as a dangerous and ruined physical places, but are also intertwined with moral and political issues in contemporary cities, such as race, class, political corruption, social disintegration, economical disparities, the limitations of the system of justice, the failure of the American dream and so on. The complex and expanded narrative of The Wire and The Shield, as Dimemberg has written for film noir genre, “remains well attuned to the violently fragmented spaces and times of the late-modern world”. Therefore, this article will focus on how The Wire and The Shield (and some of their TV heirs, such as Southland and Justified reflect and renew several topics related to the city in the film noir tradition: the sociopolitical effects of showing the ruins of the centripetal industrial metropolis, the inferences of filming in actual places, the dramatic presence of what Augé coined as “no-places”, the bachelardian opposition between home and city, or the streets as an urban jungle where danger lurks in every corner.

  3. Delayed presentation for care during acute myocardial infarction in a Hispanic population of Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Sean O; Magana, Renee N; Korn, Carrie S; Genna, Tammy; Bretsky, Philip M

    2002-01-01

    Delay in seeking care for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been well described in some populations, but little research has been conducted on delay by minority groups, such as Latinos and Asians. This study sought to determine the degree of delay and mode of access of patients with AMI presenting to an inner-city hospital serving an ethnically diverse population. This study was a retrospective case series of Latino, Asian, African-American and Caucasian patients diagnosed in the emergency department (ED) with chest pain (CP) and AMI, during a 2-year period. Three hundred thirty seven cases were studied, with the average delay in presentation for care being 44.3 hours, with a median of 8.8 hours. Before seeking care for symptoms of AMI, Latinos delayed an average of 41.5 hours (median 9.2 hours); African Americans delayed an average of 30.8 hours (median 3.5 hours); Asians delayed an average of 92 hours (median 12 hours); and Caucasians delayed an average of 31.6 hours (median 3.2 hours). The mode of transportation used by the different groups to travel to the ED was also significantly different, with Latinos and Asians utilizing private transportation the majority of the time (70% and 83%, respectively). There is a significant delay in presentation for care in patients experiencing AMI in Los Angeles County, greatest among the Asian and Latino populations. Once the decision to seek assistance is made, an under-utilization of EMS compounds the problem. Socioeconomic status, language, and cultural practices pose unique barriers to recognizing and addressing symptoms of AMI in this population.

  4. Air quality impacts of a CicLAvia event in Downtown Los Angeles, CA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Shi; Batteate, Christina; Cole, Brian; Froines, John; Zhu, Yifang

    2016-01-01

    CicLAvia in Los Angeles, CA is the open streets program that closes streets to motorized vehicles and invites people to walk, run, play or ride their bicycles on these streets, allowing them to experience the city in a new way and get exercise at the same time. Since the events reduce the motorized traffic flow, which is a significant source of air pollution, on the streets, it is reasonable to hypothesize that the CicLAvia events can reduce the concentrations of traffic-emitted air pollutants during the road closure. This study is the first experiment to test this hypothesis. The on-road and community-wide ultrafine particle (UFP) and PM 2.5 were measured on the Event-Sunday (October 5th, 2014) and the Pre- and Post- Sundays (September 28 th and October 12 th , 2014). Data analysis results showed the on-road UFP and PM 2.5 reduction was 21% and 49%, respectively, and the community-wide PM 2.5 reduction was 12%. - Highlights: • A natural experiment on air quality impacts of one CicLAvia event was conducted. • The CicLAvia event reduced traffic flow from 1,100 vehicles h −1 to zero. • On-road ultrafine particle and PM 2.5 reduction was 21% and 49% respectively. • Community-wide PM 2.5 reduction was 12%. - This study showed the CicLAvia event on October 5th, 2014 had reduced the on-road and community-wide concentrations of ultrafine particles and PM 2.5 .

  5. Multilevel correlates of broadly and narrowly defined intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Hilary A.; Hurley, Emily A.; Liu, Li; Chao, Shin Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies have identified correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy at the individual and neighborhood levels, but have used inconsistent definitions of IPV. We aimed to compare correlates based on two IPV definitions: broad (physical, sexual, or psychological violence) and narrow (physical or sexual violence only). Methods Our analysis included 12,358 women in 2,110 census tracts (weighted to represent 269,671 women) who recently gave birth and responded to the Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB) survey. We linked 2007 and 2010 LAMB data to American Community Survey 2006-2010 census tract data, and conducted separate logistic multilevel analyses to identify correlates of IPV based on each definition. Results Prevalence of IPV during pregnancy was much higher by the broad (18.3%) than the narrow definition (3.9%). No independent neighborhood-level correlates were identified. Some individual-level correlates were associated with both IPV definitions, including substance abuse (OR 3.15, 95%CI 2.47-4.00 for broad definition; OR 3.60, 95%CI 2.30-5.64 for narrow definition) and medical problems (OR for ≥3 vs. 0 medical problems 2.03, 95%CI 1.61-2.55 for broad definition, OR 2.40, 95%CI 1.54-3.74 for narrow definition). Other correlates associated only with the broad definition, such as car accidents (OR 1.44, 95%CI 1.04-2.00) and moving during pregnancy (OR 1.35, 95%CI 1.12-1.62). Conclusions Differences in correlates of IPV during pregnancy for a broad vs. narrow IPV definition may illustrate the situations or mechanisms by which different types of IPV arise. Individual-level characteristics may outweigh neighborhood influences in a diverse population. PMID:25636648

  6. Regional and local meteorology influences high-resolution tropospheric ozone concentration in the Los Angeles Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutzoukis, S.; Jenerette, D.; Chandler, M.; Wang, J.; Ge, C.; Ripplinger, J.

    2017-12-01

    Urban air quality and climate directly affect resident health. The Los Angeles (LA) Basin is a highly populated metropolitan area, with widespread point sources of ozone (O3) precursors (NOx , Volatile Organic Compounds, CO) from fossil fuel combustion. The LA basin exists on a coast-to-mountain gradient, with increasing temperatures towards the Transverse Ranges, which rise to 1700m. Frequently not compliant with 8-hour O3 standards, the LA and South Coast Air Basins are designated as severe and extreme non-attainment areas. Summer weather in the LA basin is characterized by a persistent high pressure system, creating an inversion that traps air pollutants, including O3 precursors, coupled with physical geography that blocks prevailing upper atmosphere air flow. These interactions make neighborhood-level O3 levels more variable than common regional models. Over the summer of 2017, we investigated the importance of local meteorology, wind patterns and air temperature, in transporting and mixing ozone precursors from point sources along the coast-to-mountain gradient. We deployed a network of six EPA federal equivalent method ozone and meteorological sensors in three campaigns in the LA basin along the coast-to-mountain transect. Each campaign, we collaborated with citizen scientists to deploy three sensor stations in two, 4 km2 quadrats, for a total of six high-resolution 4 km2 pixels. O3 concentrations vary greatly along the transect. At the coastal sites, daily O3 ranges from 0ppm to 60ppm and the range increases at the inland sites, to 100ppm. At all sites, there was a positive relationship between wind speed, air temperature, and O3 concentration, with increasing correlation inland. The Pearson correlation coefficient between wind speed and O3 concentration doubles from the coast to inland, and triples between air temperature and O3. The site-specific relationships between O3 and wind direction and temperature vary, suggesting neighborhood-effects from local

  7. Snapshot of Teleretinal Screening for Diabetic Retinopathy at the West Los Angeles Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Irena; Havunjian, Margaret A; Davis, John A; Giaconi, JoAnn A

    2016-10-01

    The West Los Angeles Veterans Affairs Medical Center is a large urban facility with a robust teleretinal screening program in primary care clinic, established in 2006. The purpose of this article is to provide a snapshot of teleretinal screening at this site. Diabetic patients from 2012 were analyzed with a prospective cohort study. Demographic information, results of teleretinal screening, referral to eye clinic, and loss to follow-up (defined as no eye care within 2 years) were collected. Of 516 patients with diabetes screened with teleretinal imaging, 120 patient charts were reviewed for data analysis. Teleretinal imaging diagnosed 15% (18/120) of patients with varying stages of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (DR). Of patients screened, 55.8% (67/120) of the patients were referred to an eye clinic for further ophthalmic evaluation. Nondiabetic retinopathy reasons for eye clinic referral included glaucoma suspect (13.3%, 16/120) and age-related macular degeneration (10.0%, 12/120). Of all patients screened, 37.5% (45/120) of them were lost to follow-up, defined as no teleretinal screening or eye clinic appointment within 2 years. Patients who lived farther away from clinic had a higher risk of loss to follow-up (p = 0.04). We found, although only 15% of patients were diagnosed with DR from teleretinal screening, more than 50% of patients were referred to eye clinic. In addition, of all screened patients, there was a high rate of not returning to the Veterans Affairs (VA) for eye care.

  8. Application of three fault growth criteria to the Puente Hills thrust system, Los Angeles, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Erik L.; Cooke, Michele L.

    2005-10-01

    Three-dimensional mechanical models are used to evaluate the performance of different fault growth criteria in predicting successive growth of three échelon thrust faults similar to the segments of the Puente Hills thrust system of the Los Angeles basin, California. Four sequential Boundary Element Method models explore the growth of successive échelon faults within the system by simulating snapshots of deformation at different stages of development. These models use three criteria, (1) energy release rate, (2) strain energy density, and (3) Navier-Coulomb stress, to characterize the lateral growth of the fault system. We simulate the growth of an échelon thrust fault system to evaluate the suitability of each of these criteria for assessing fault growth. Each of these three factors predicts a portion of the incipient fault geometry (i.e. location or orientation); however, each provides different information. In each model, energy release rate along the westernmost (leading) tip of the Puente Hills thrust drops with growth of the next neighboring fault; this result supports the overall lateral development of successive échelon segments. Within each model, regions of high strain energy density and Navier-Coulomb stress envelope at least a portion of the next fault to develop, although the strain energy density has stronger correlation than Navier-Coulomb stress to the location of incipient faulting. In each model, one of the two predicted planes of maximum Navier-Coulomb stress ahead of the leading fault tip matches the strike but not the dip of the incipient fault plane recreating part of the fault orientation. The incipient fault dip is best predicted by the orientation of the strain energy density envelopes around the leading fault tip. Furthermore, the energy release rate and pattern of strain energy density can be used to characterize potential soft linkage (overlap) or hard linkage (connection) of échelon faults within the system.

  9. Prevalence, distribution, and correlates of hepatitis C virus infection among homeless adults in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelberg, Lillian; Robertson, Marjorie J; Arangua, Lisa; Leake, Barbara D; Sumner, Gerald; Moe, Ardis; Andersen, Ronald M; Morgenstern, Hal; Nyamathi, Adeline

    2012-01-01

    We documented the prevalence, distribution, and correlates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among urban homeless adults. We sampled a community-based probability sample of 534 homeless adults from 41 shelters and meal programs in the Skid Row area of downtown Los Angeles, California. Participants were interviewed and tested for HCV, hepatitis B, and HIV. Outcomes included prevalence, distribution, and correlates of HCV infection; awareness of HCV positivity; and HCV counseling and treatment history. Overall, 26.7% of the sample tested HCV-positive and 4.0% tested HIV-positive. In logistic regression analysis, independent predictors of HCV infection for the total sample included older age, less education, prison history, and single- and multiple-drug injection. Among lifetime drug injectors, independent predictors of HCV infection included older age, prison history, and no history of intranasal cocaine use. Among reported non-injectors, predictors of HCV infection included older age, less education, use of non-injection drugs, and three or more tattoos. Sexual behaviors and snorting or smoking drugs had no independent relationship with HCV infection. Among HCV-infected adults, nearly half (46.1%) were unaware of their infection. Despite the high prevalence of HCV infection, nearly half of the cases were hidden and few had ever received any HCV-related treatment. While injection drug use was the strongest independent predictor, patterns of injection drug use, non-injection drug use, prison stays, and multiple tattoos were also independent predictors of HCV. Findings suggest that urgent interventions are needed to screen, counsel, and treat urban homeless adults for HCV infection.

  10. Structure, Quaternary history, and general geology of the Corral Canyon area, Los Angeles County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerkes, R.F.; Wentworth, Carl M.

    1965-01-01

    The Corral Canyon nuclear power plant site consists of about 305 acres near the mouth of Corral Canyon in the central Santa Monica Mountains; it is located on an east-trending segment of the Pacific Coast between Point Dume and Malibu Canyon, about 28 miles due west of Los Angeles. The Santa Monica Mountains are the southwesternmost mainland part of the Transverse Ranges province, the east-trending features of which transect the otherwise relatively uniform northwesterly trend of the geomorphic and geologic features of coastal California. The south margin of the Transverse Ranges is marked by the Santa Monica fault system, which extends eastward near the 34th parallel for at least 145 miles from near Santa Cruz Island to the San Andreas fault zone. In the central Santa Monica Mountains area the Santa Monica fault system includes the Malibu Coast fault and Malibu Coast zone of deformation on the north; from the south it includes an inferred fault--the Anacapa fault--considered to follow an east-trending topographic escarpmemt on the sea floor about 5 miles south of the Malibu Coast fault. The low-lying terrain south of the fault system, including the Los Angeles basin and the largely submerged Continental Borderland offshore, are dominated by northwest-trending structural features. The Malibu Coat zone is a wide, east-trending band of asymmetrically folded, sheared, and faulted bedrock that extends for more than 20 miles along the north margin of the Santa Monica fault system west of Santa Monica. Near the north margin of the Malibu Coast zone the north-dipping, east-trending Malibu Coast fault juxtaposes unlike, in part contemporaneous sedimentary rock sections; it is inferred to be the near-surface expression of a major crustal boundary between completely unrelated basement rocks. Comparison of contemporaneous structural features and stratigraphic sections (Late Cretaceous to middle Miocene sedimentary, rocks and middle Miocene volcanic and intrusive igneous rocks

  11. Effect of environmental perchlorate on thyroid function in pregnant women from Córdoba, Argentina, and Los Angeles, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Elizabeth N; Spencer, Carole A; Mestman, Jorge H; Lee, Richard H; Bergoglio, Liliana M; Mereshian, Paula; He, Xuemei; Leung, Angela M; Braverman, Lewis E

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether environmental perchlorate exposure adversely affects thyroid function in women in the first trimester of pregnancy. First-trimester pregnant women were recruited from prenatal clinics in the Los Angeles County Hospital, Los Angeles, California, and in the Hospital Universitario de Maternidad dependent Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina, between 2004 and 2007. Spot urine and blood specimens were obtained during the clinic visit. Urinary perchlorate, iodine, and creatinine were measured, and thyroid function tests were performed. The study included 134 pregnant women from Los Angeles, California (mean gestational age ± SD = 9.1 ± 2.2 weeks), and 107 pregnant women from Córdoba, Argentina (mean gestational age = 10.0 ± 2.0 weeks). Median urinary iodine values were 144 μg/L in California and 130 μg/L in Argentina. Urinary perchlorate levels were detectable in all women (California: median, 7.8 μg/L [range, 0.4-284 μg/L] and Argentina: median, 13.5 μg/L [range, 1.1-676 μg/L]). Serum thyroperoxidase antibodies were detectable in 21 women from California (16%) and in 17 women from Argentina (16%). Using Spearman rank correlation analyses, there was no association between urinary perchlorate concentrations and serum thyrotropin, free thyroxine index, or total triiodothyronine values, including within the subset of women with urinary iodine values less than 100 μg/L. In multivariate analyses using the combined Argentina and California data sets and adjusting for urinary iodine concentrations, urinary creatinine, gestational age, and thyroperoxidase antibody status, urinary perchlorate was not a significant predictor of thyroid function. Low-level perchlorate exposure is ubiquitous, but is not associated with altered thyroid function among women in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  12. Multiple Imputation of Groundwater Data to Evaluate Spatial and Temporal Anthropogenic Influences on Subsurface Water Fluxes in Los Angeles, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manago, K. F.; Hogue, T. S.; Hering, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    In the City of Los Angeles, groundwater accounts for 11% of the total water supply on average, and 30% during drought years. Due to ongoing drought in California, increased reliance on local water supply highlights the need for better understanding of regional groundwater dynamics and estimating sustainable groundwater supply. However, in an urban setting, such as Los Angeles, understanding or modeling groundwater levels is extremely complicated due to various anthropogenic influences such as groundwater pumping, artificial recharge, landscape irrigation, leaking infrastructure, seawater intrusion, and extensive impervious surfaces. This study analyzes anthropogenic effects on groundwater levels using groundwater monitoring well data from the County of Los Angeles Department of Public Works. The groundwater data is irregularly sampled with large gaps between samples, resulting in a sparsely populated dataset. A multiple imputation method is used to fill the missing data, allowing for multiple ensembles and improved error estimates. The filled data is interpolated to create spatial groundwater maps utilizing information from all wells. The groundwater data is evaluated at a monthly time step over the last several decades to analyze the effect of land cover and identify other influencing factors on groundwater levels spatially and temporally. Preliminary results show irrigated parks have the largest influence on groundwater fluctuations, resulting in large seasonal changes, exceeding changes in spreading grounds. It is assumed that these fluctuations are caused by watering practices required to sustain non-native vegetation. Conversely, high intensity urbanized areas resulted in muted groundwater fluctuations and behavior decoupling from climate patterns. Results provides improved understanding of anthropogenic effects on groundwater levels in addition to providing high quality datasets for validation of regional groundwater models.

  13. Misuse of prescription and illicit drugs among high-risk young adults in Los Angeles and New York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen E. Lankenau

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prescription drug misuse among young adults is increasingly viewed as a public health concern, yet most research has focused on student populations and excluded high-risk groups. Furthermore, research on populations who report recent prescription drug misuse is limited. This study examined patterns of prescription drug misuse among high-risk young adults in Los Angeles (LA and New York (NY, which represent different local markets for illicit and prescription drugs. Design and Methods. Between 2009 and 2011, 596 young adults (16 to 25 years old who had misused prescription drugs within the past 90 days were interviewed in Los Angeles and New York. Sampling was stratified to enroll three groups of high-risk young adults: injection drug users (IDUs; homeless persons; and polydrug users. Results. In both sites, lifetime history of receiving a prescription for an opioid, tranquilizer, or stimulant was high and commonly preceded misuse. Moreover, initiation of opioids occurred before heroin and initiation of prescription stimulants happened prior to illicit stimulants. NY participants more frequently misused oxycodone, heroin, and cocaine, and LA participants more frequently misused codeine, marijuana, and methamphetamine. Combining prescription and illicit drugs during drug using events was commonly reported in both sites. Opioids and tranquilizers were used as substitutes for other drugs, e.g., heroin, when these drugs were not available. Conclusion. Patterns of drug use among high-risk young adults in Los Angeles and New York appear to be linked to differences in local markets in each city for illicit drugs and diverted prescription drugs.

  14. Determinants of regular source of care among homeless adults in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, T C; Andersen, R M; Koegel, P; Gelberg, L

    1997-08-01

    The authors explore the determinants of having a regular source of care in a community-based probability sample of homeless adults in Los Angeles. Results from this study should be more representative than those from previous studies of the homeless that are clinic- or shelter-based. In addition to those factors found to be barriers to regular sources of care in the general population, we hypothesized that psychosocial characteristics of the homeless and the homeless lifestyle would negatively impact their likelihood of having a regular source of care. The authors conducted a multiple logistic regression to predict regular source of care among the homeless, using an adaptation of the Behavioral Model of health services utilization as an analytic framework. Fifty-seven percent of the sample reported that they had a regular source of care. Of those with a source of care, 30% reported a hospital outpatient department; 25% reported a community or homeless clinic; 23% reported a hospital emergency room; 14% reported a government clinic; and 9% reported a private physician's office as their source of care. Some factors found to be barriers to having a regular source of care in the general population (male, Hispanic, young age) also were barriers among homeless adults. Additional barriers in this sample included homelessness-related characteristics such as competing needs, long-term homelessness, and social isolation. Chronic mental illness and chronic substance dependence were not related to having a source of care among the homeless. Characteristics that increased the likelihood of having a regular source of care in the general population (poor health status, Medicaid) were not related to having a regular source of care among the homeless. In a context of limited resources, the distribution of regular source of care among the homeless appears to be highly inequitable. Although some of the characteristics identifying those with a regular source of care suggest

  15. Source apportionment of ambient particle number concentrations in central Los Angeles using positive matrix factorization (PMF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowlat, Mohammad Hossein; Hasheminassab, Sina; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model (version 5.0) was used to identify and quantify major sources contributing to particulate matter (PM) number concentrations, using PM number size distributions in the range of 13 nm to 10 µm combined with several auxiliary variables, including black carbon (BC), elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC), PM mass concentrations, gaseous pollutants, meteorological, and traffic counts data, collected for about 9 months between August 2014 and 2015 in central Los Angeles, CA. Several parameters, including particle number and volume size distribution profiles, profiles of auxiliary variables, contributions of different factors in different seasons to the total number concentrations, diurnal variations of each of the resolved factors in the cold and warm phases, weekday/weekend analysis for each of the resolved factors, and correlation between auxiliary variables and the relative contribution of each of the resolved factors, were used to identify PM sources. A six-factor solution was identified as the optimum for the aforementioned input data. The resolved factors comprised nucleation, traffic 1, traffic 2 (with a larger mode diameter than traffic 1 factor), urban background aerosol, secondary aerosol, and soil/road dust. Traffic sources (1 and 2) were the major contributor to PM number concentrations, collectively making up to above 60 % (60.8-68.4 %) of the total number concentrations during the study period. Their contribution was also significantly higher in the cold phase compared to the warm phase. Nucleation was another major factor significantly contributing to the total number concentrations (an overall contribution of 17 %, ranging from 11.7 to 24 %), with a larger contribution during the warm phase than in the cold phase. The other identified factors were urban background aerosol, secondary aerosol, and soil/road dust, with relative contributions of approximately 12 % (7.4-17.1), 2.1 % (1

  16. Putting in Work: Qualitative Research on Substance Use and Other Risk Behaviors Among Gang Youth in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Jackson-Bloom, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Gang youth are notoriously difficult to access for research purposes. Despite this difficulty, qualitative research about substance use among gang youth is important because research indicates that such youth use more substances than their nongang peers. This manuscript discusses how a small sample of gang youth (n = 60) in Los Angeles was accessed and interviewed during a National Institute of Drug Abuse-funded pilot study on substance use and other risk behaviors. Topics discussed include the rationale and operationalization of the research methodology, working with community-based organizations, and the recruitment of different gang youth with varying levels of substance use. PMID:20222782

  17. Status of groundwater quality in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin, 2006-California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrath, Dara; Fram, Miranda S.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 860-square-mile (2,227-square-kilometer) Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit (CLAB) was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study area is located in southern California in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA CLAB study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer system. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2006 by the USGS from 69 wells and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer system was defined by the depth interval of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the CLAB study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. This study assesses the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifer system of the CLAB study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by the health- or aesthetic-based benchmark concentration) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those constituents that have Federal and (or) California regulatory or non-regulatory benchmarks for drinking-water quality. A relative

  18. The PST Project, Willie Herron's Street Mural Asco East of No West (2011 and the Mural Remix Tour: Power Relations on the Los Angeles Art Scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Zetterman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article departs from the huge art-curating project Pacific Standard Time: Art in L.A., 1945-1980, a Getty funded initiative running in Southern California from October 2011 to April 2012 with a collaboration of more than sixty cultural institutions coming together to celebrate the birth of the L.A. art scene. One of the Pacific Standard Time (PST exhibitions was Asco: Elite of the Obscure, A Retrospective, 1972-1987, running from September to December 2011 at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA. This was the first retrospective of a conceptual performance group of Chicanos from East Los Angeles, who from the early 1970s to the mid 1980s acted out critical interventions in the politically contested urban space of Los Angles. In conjunction with the Asco retrospective at LACMA, the Getty Foundation co-sponsored a new street mural by the Chicano artist Willie Herron, paying homage to his years in the performance group Asco. The PST exhibition program also included so-called Mural Remix Tours, taking fine art audiences from LACMA to Herron's place-specific new mural in City Terrace in East Los Angeles. This article analyze the inclusion in the PST project of Herron's site-specific mural in City Terrace and the Mural Remix Tours to East Los Angeles with regard to the power relations of fine art and critical subculture, center and periphery, the mainstream and the marginal. As a physical monument dependent on a heavy sense of the past, Herron's new mural, titled Asco: East of No West, transforms the physical and social environment of City Terrace, changing its public space into an official place of memory. At the same time, as an art historical monument officially added to the civic map of Los Angeles, the mural becomes a permanent reminder of the segregation patterns that still exist in the urban space of Los Angeles.

  19. Estimating spatially and temporally varying recharge and runoff from precipitation and urban irrigation in the Los Angeles Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevesi, Joseph A.; Johnson, Tyler D.

    2016-10-17

    A daily precipitation-runoff model, referred to as the Los Angeles Basin watershed model (LABWM), was used to estimate recharge and runoff for a 5,047 square kilometer study area that included the greater Los Angeles area and all surface-water drainages potentially contributing recharge to a 1,450 square kilometer groundwater-study area underlying the greater Los Angeles area, referred to as the Los Angeles groundwater-study area. The recharge estimates for the Los Angeles groundwater-study area included spatially distributed recharge in response to the infiltration of precipitation, runoff, and urban irrigation, as well as mountain-front recharge from surface-water drainages bordering the groundwater-study area. The recharge and runoff estimates incorporated a new method for estimating urban irrigation, consisting of residential and commercial landscape watering, based on land use and the percentage of pervious land area.The LABWM used a 201.17-meter gridded discretization of the study area to represent spatially distributed climate and watershed characteristics affecting the surface and shallow sub-surface hydrology for the Los Angeles groundwater study area. Climate data from a local network of 201 monitoring sites and published maps of 30-year-average monthly precipitation and maximum and minimum air temperature were used to develop the climate inputs for the LABWM. Published maps of land use, land cover, soils, vegetation, and surficial geology were used to represent the physical characteristics of the LABWM area. The LABWM was calibrated to available streamflow records at six streamflow-gaging stations.Model results for a 100-year target-simulation period, from water years 1915 through 2014, were used to quantify and evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of water-budget components, including evapotranspiration (ET), recharge, and runoff. The largest outflow of water from the LABWM was ET; the 100-year average ET rate of 362 millimeters per year (mm

  20. Advocacy Coalition for Safer Sex in the Adult Film Industry: The Case of Los Angeles County's Measure B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Adam Carl; Tavrow, Paula; McGrath, Mark Roy

    2017-06-01

    Performers in the adult film industry are routinely exposed to bloodborne pathogens. In 2012, public health advocates in Los Angeles County convinced voters to pass a ballot initiative-Measure B-to mandate condom use on adult film sets. This article presents a case study of the advocacy coalition's strategies used to achieve greater workplace safety using the advocacy coalition framework. The authors were given access to all memoranda, market research, and campaign tools used to promote Measure B. To reconstruct adult film industry counterefforts, the authors reviewed trade publications, social media, and blog posts. When legislative efforts failed, advocates engaged in a step-by-step strategy built around voters to achieve passage of a ballot initiative mandating condom use for all adult films produced in Los Angeles County. Although the industry immediately filed a lawsuit after passage of Measure B, its constitutionality has been upheld. Measure B passed because public health advocates were able to assemble scientific evidence, build public support, counter false claims, and maintain consistent messages throughout the campaign. The adult film industry lacked social capital, cohesion, and nimbleness. To bolster regulatory efforts, appealing to voters to favor safe workplaces may be an effective advocacy strategy for other industries.

  1. How Do Communities Use a Participatory Public Health Approach to Build Resilience? The Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Bromley

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Community resilience is a key concept in the National Health Security Strategy that emphasizes development of multi-sector partnerships and equity through community engagement. Here, we describe the advancement of CR principles through community participatory methods in the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience (LACCDR initiative. LACCDR, an initiative led by the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health with academic partners, randomized 16 community coalitions to implement either an Enhanced Standard Preparedness or Community Resilience approach over 24 months. Facilitated by a public health nurse or community educator, coalitions comprised government agencies, community-focused organizations and community members. We used thematic analysis of data from focus groups (n = 5 and interviews (n = 6 coalition members; n = 16 facilitators to compare coalitions’ strategies for operationalizing community resilience levers of change (engagement, partnership, self-sufficiency, education. We find that strategies that included bidirectional learning helped coalitions understand and adopt resilience principles. Strategies that operationalized community resilience levers in mutually reinforcing ways (e.g., disseminating information while strengthening partnerships also secured commitment to resilience principles. We review additional challenges and successes in achieving cross-sector collaboration and engaging at-risk groups in the resilience versus preparedness coalitions. The LACCDR example can inform strategies for uptake and implementation of community resilience and uptake of the resilience concept and methods.

  2. Integrated connection to neighborhood storytelling network, education, and chronic disease knowledge among African Americans and Latinos in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Chan; Moran, Meghan B; Wilkin, Holley A; Ball-Rokeach, Sandra J

    2011-04-01

    Combining key ideas from the knowledge-gap hypothesis and communication infrastructure theory, the present study aimed to explain the relations among individuals' education, access to community-based communication resources, and knowledge of chronic diseases (diabetes, hypertension, breast cancer, and prostate cancer) among African Americans and Latinos in Los Angeles. Rather than explore the effect of isolated communication resources, this study explored the effect of an integrated connection to community-based storytellers on chronic disease knowledge. The authors hypothesized that individuals' access to a community-based communication infrastructure for obtaining and sharing information functions as an intervening step in the process where social inequality factors such as education lead to chronic disease knowledge gaps in a local community context. With random samples of African Americans and Latinos in Los Angeles, the authors found that access to community-based communication resources plays a mediating role in the case of breast cancer and diabetes knowledge, but not in hypertension and prostate cancer knowledge. The authors discussed these findings on the basis of communication infrastructure theory and knowledge-gap hypothesis.

  3. Evaluation of Resistance to Los Angeles Abrasion and Physical Factors with Grindability Properties of Some Aggregate Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sensogut

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the usage of aggregate materials has increased both in Turkey and the entire world. It can be said that the main reason of this rise is the population growth together with the demand towards the more qualitative life. Therefore, the usability of some aggregate materials was investigated in the present paper. The properties of Los Angeles abrasion resistance, freezing-thaw resistance, slake durability strength and frost resistance of basalt and andesite samples obtained from Karaman and Ankara regions were studied at the first stage. In the second order, the grindability performance of these materials was also determined from the discontinuous grinding tests and the obtained results were correlated. Whereas the Los Angeles resistance of the basalt sample was higher than the andesite sample, the mass losses after the freezing-thaw and the frost tests for the andesite sample were superior. Both of the basalt and andesite samples were classified as ‘very high’ for their slake durability strength (Id-2 values. The material percentage of the andesite sample, which is passing through the sub-size ( %90 was greater than the value obtained for the basalt sample during the same grinding time. The resistance to the crushing process was obtained to be maximum at -850+600 µm of feed size for the basalt and the andesite samples.

  4. How Do Communities Use a Participatory Public Health Approach to Build Resilience? The Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Elizabeth; Eisenman, David P.; Magana, Aizita; Williams, Malcolm; Kim, Biblia; McCreary, Michael; Chandra, Anita; Wells, Kenneth B.

    2017-01-01

    Community resilience is a key concept in the National Health Security Strategy that emphasizes development of multi-sector partnerships and equity through community engagement. Here, we describe the advancement of CR principles through community participatory methods in the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience (LACCDR) initiative. LACCDR, an initiative led by the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health with academic partners, randomized 16 community coalitions to implement either an Enhanced Standard Preparedness or Community Resilience approach over 24 months. Facilitated by a public health nurse or community educator, coalitions comprised government agencies, community-focused organizations and community members. We used thematic analysis of data from focus groups (n = 5) and interviews (n = 6 coalition members; n = 16 facilitators) to compare coalitions’ strategies for operationalizing community resilience levers of change (engagement, partnership, self-sufficiency, education). We find that strategies that included bidirectional learning helped coalitions understand and adopt resilience principles. Strategies that operationalized community resilience levers in mutually reinforcing ways (e.g., disseminating information while strengthening partnerships) also secured commitment to resilience principles. We review additional challenges and successes in achieving cross-sector collaboration and engaging at-risk groups in the resilience versus preparedness coalitions. The LACCDR example can inform strategies for uptake and implementation of community resilience and uptake of the resilience concept and methods. PMID:29065491

  5. How Do Communities Use a Participatory Public Health Approach to Build Resilience? The Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Elizabeth; Eisenman, David P; Magana, Aizita; Williams, Malcolm; Kim, Biblia; McCreary, Michael; Chandra, Anita; Wells, Kenneth B

    2017-10-21

    Community resilience is a key concept in the National Health Security Strategy that emphasizes development of multi-sector partnerships and equity through community engagement. Here, we describe the advancement of CR principles through community participatory methods in the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience (LACCDR) initiative. LACCDR, an initiative led by the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health with academic partners, randomized 16 community coalitions to implement either an Enhanced Standard Preparedness or Community Resilience approach over 24 months. Facilitated by a public health nurse or community educator, coalitions comprised government agencies, community-focused organizations and community members. We used thematic analysis of data from focus groups ( n = 5) and interviews ( n = 6 coalition members; n = 16 facilitators) to compare coalitions' strategies for operationalizing community resilience levers of change (engagement, partnership, self-sufficiency, education). We find that strategies that included bidirectional learning helped coalitions understand and adopt resilience principles. Strategies that operationalized community resilience levers in mutually reinforcing ways (e.g., disseminating information while strengthening partnerships) also secured commitment to resilience principles. We review additional challenges and successes in achieving cross-sector collaboration and engaging at-risk groups in the resilience versus preparedness coalitions. The LACCDR example can inform strategies for uptake and implementation of community resilience and uptake of the resilience concept and methods.

  6. Ring-Shaped Seismicity Structures in Southern California: Possible Preparation for Large Earthquake in the Los Angeles Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopnichev, Yu. F.; Sokolova, I. N.

    2017-12-01

    Some characteristics of seismicity in Southern California are studied. It is found that ring-shaped seismicity structures with threshold magnitudes M th of 4.1, 4.1, and 3.8 formed prior to three large ( M w > 7.0) earthquakes in 1992, 1999, and 2010, respectively. The sizes of these structures are several times smaller than for intracontinental strike-slip events with similar magnitudes. Two ring-shaped structures are identified in areas east of the city of Los Angeles, where relatively large earthquakes have not occurred for at least 150 years. The magnitudes of large events which can occur in the areas of these structures are estimated on the basis of the previously obtained correlation dependence of ring sizes on magnitudes of the strike-slip earthquakes. Large events with magnitudes of M w = 6.9 ± 0.2 and M w = 8.6 ± 0.2 can occur in the area to the east of the city of Los Angeles and in the rupture zone of the 1857 great Fort Tejon earthquake, respectively. We believe that ring-structure formation, similarly to the other regions, is connected with deep-seated fluid migration.

  7. Restaurant Owners’ Perspectives on a Voluntary Program to Recognize Restaurants for Offering Reduced-Size Portions, Los Angeles County, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Lauren; Kuo, Tony; Simon, Paul; Fielding, Jonathan E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Reducing the portion size of food and beverages served at restaurants has emerged as a strategy for addressing the obesity epidemic; however, barriers and facilitators to achieving this goal are not well characterized. Methods In fall 2012, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health conducted semistructured interviews with restaurant owners to better understand contextual factors that may impede or facilitate participation in a voluntary program to recognize restaurants for offering reduced-size portions. Results Interviews were completed with 18 restaurant owners (representing nearly 350 restaurants). Analyses of qualitative data revealed 6 themes related to portion size: 1) perceived customer demand is central to menu planning; 2) multiple portion sizes are already being offered for at least some food items; 3) numerous logistical barriers exist for offering reduced-size portions; 4) restaurant owners have concerns about potential revenue losses from offering reduced-size portions; 5) healthful eating is the responsibility of the customer; and 6) a few owners want to be socially responsible industry leaders. Conclusion A program to recognize restaurants for offering reduced-size portions may be a feasible approach in Los Angeles County. These findings may have applications for jurisdictions interested in engaging restaurants as partners in reducing the obesity epidemic. PMID:24650622

  8. Restaurant owners' perspectives on a voluntary program to recognize restaurants for offering reduced-size portions, Los Angeles County, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren; Dunning, Lauren; Kuo, Tony; Simon, Paul; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2014-03-20

    Reducing the portion size of food and beverages served at restaurants has emerged as a strategy for addressing the obesity epidemic; however, barriers and facilitators to achieving this goal are not well characterized. In fall 2012, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health conducted semistructured interviews with restaurant owners to better understand contextual factors that may impede or facilitate participation in a voluntary program to recognize restaurants for offering reduced-size portions. Interviews were completed with 18 restaurant owners (representing nearly 350 restaurants). Analyses of qualitative data revealed 6 themes related to portion size: 1) perceived customer demand is central to menu planning; 2) multiple portion sizes are already being offered for at least some food items; 3) numerous logistical barriers exist for offering reduced-size portions; 4) restaurant owners have concerns about potential revenue losses from offering reduced-size portions; 5) healthful eating is the responsibility of the customer; and 6) a few owners want to be socially responsible industry leaders. A program to recognize restaurants for offering reduced-size portions may be a feasible approach in Los Angeles County. These findings may have applications for jurisdictions interested in engaging restaurants as partners in reducing the obesity epidemic.

  9. Source apportionment of ambient particle number concentrations in central Los Angeles using positive matrix factorization (PMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Sowlat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the positive matrix factorization (PMF receptor model (version 5.0 was used to identify and quantify major sources contributing to particulate matter (PM number concentrations, using PM number size distributions in the range of 13 nm to 10 µm combined with several auxiliary variables, including black carbon (BC, elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC, PM mass concentrations, gaseous pollutants, meteorological, and traffic counts data, collected for about 9 months between August 2014 and 2015 in central Los Angeles, CA. Several parameters, including particle number and volume size distribution profiles, profiles of auxiliary variables, contributions of different factors in different seasons to the total number concentrations, diurnal variations of each of the resolved factors in the cold and warm phases, weekday/weekend analysis for each of the resolved factors, and correlation between auxiliary variables and the relative contribution of each of the resolved factors, were used to identify PM sources. A six-factor solution was identified as the optimum for the aforementioned input data. The resolved factors comprised nucleation, traffic 1, traffic 2 (with a larger mode diameter than traffic 1 factor, urban background aerosol, secondary aerosol, and soil/road dust. Traffic sources (1 and 2 were the major contributor to PM number concentrations, collectively making up to above 60 % (60.8–68.4 % of the total number concentrations during the study period. Their contribution was also significantly higher in the cold phase compared to the warm phase. Nucleation was another major factor significantly contributing to the total number concentrations (an overall contribution of 17 %, ranging from 11.7 to 24 %, with a larger contribution during the warm phase than in the cold phase. The other identified factors were urban background aerosol, secondary aerosol, and soil/road dust, with relative contributions of approximately 12

  10. Continuity of slip rates over various time scales on the Puente Hills Blind-thrust Fault, Los Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Kristian J.; Shaw, John H.; Leon, Lorraine A.; Dolan, James F.; Pratt, Thomas L.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Barrera, Wendy; Rhodes, Edward J.; Murari, Madhav K.; Owen, Lewis A.

    2014-05-01

    Our study seeks to assess the history of slip on the Los Angeles segment of the Puente Hills blind-thrust fault system (PHT) from its inception through the Holocene by integrating a suite of geological and geophysical datasets. The PHT presents one of the largest seismic hazards in the United States, given its location beneath downtown Los Angeles. It is also well suited to slip rate studies, as fold scarps formed by slip on the PHT at depth have been continually buried by flood deposits from the Los Angeles and San Gabriel Rivers, preserving a record of uplift in the form of growth stratigraphy. We determined uplift from the growth stratigraphy by measuring the difference in sediment thickness across the folded layers. At our study site above the western segment of the PHT, the fold structure was imaged by industry seismic reflection data and a pair of high-resolution (100 to 700 m depth) seismic reflection profiles acquired by the authors for this study using weight drop and small vibrator sources. The industry and high-resolution profiles were stacked, migrated and depth converted using a velocity model based on the stacking velocities and the Southern California Earthquake Center Community Velocity Model. The shallowest layers of growth stratigraphy were geometrically constrained by lithological correlations across a series of cone penetration tests and continuously cored boreholes. Age control was provided by radiocarbon dating, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) dating, and sequence-stratigraphic boundaries. Radiocarbon dating was used to constrain individual earthquake event ages in the borehole transect. Using a novel coring procedure, light-protected samples for quartz OSL and feldspar IRSL dating were acquired from a 171-m-deep borehole that we drilled within the growth fold. These samples provided age constraints on growth strata that were tied to prominent seismic reflections and were combined with

  11. Engaging homeless youth in community-based participatory research: a case study from Skid Row, Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Analilia P; Minkler, Meredith; Cardenas, Zelenne; Grills, Cheryl; Porter, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence highlights the benefits to youth of involvement in community-based participatory research. Less attention has been paid, however, to the contributions youth can make to helping change health-promoting policy through such work. We describe a multi-method case study of a policy-focused community-based participatory research project in the Skid Row area of downtown Los Angeles, California, where a small group of homeless youth worked with adult mentors to develop and conduct a survey of 96 homeless youth and used the findings to help secure health-promoting policy change. We review the partnership's work at each stage of the policy-making process; its successes in changing policy regarding recreation, juvenile justice, and education; and the challenges encountered, especially with policy enforcement. We share lessons learned, including the importance of strong adult mentors and of policy environments conducive to sustainable, health-promoting change for marginalized youth.

  12. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin Study Unit, 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 860 square-mile Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit (CLAB) was investigated from June to November of 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Coastal Los Angeles Basin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within CLAB, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 69 wells in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. Fifty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (?grid wells?). Fourteen additional wells were selected to evaluate changes in ground-water chemistry or to gain a greater understanding of the ground-water quality within a specific portion of the Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit ('understanding wells'). Ground-water samples were analyzed for: a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gasoline oxygenates and their degradates, pesticides, polar pesticides, and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicators]; constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)]; inorganic constituents that can occur naturally [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements]; radioactive constituents [gross-alpha and gross-beta radiation, radium isotopes, and radon-222]; and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [stable isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen, and activities of tritium and carbon-14

  13. Challenges and opportunities in detecting Taenia solium tapeworm carriers in Los Angeles County California, 2009–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis Croker

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Carriers of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, are the sole source of neurocysticercosis, a parasitic tissue infection that can be chronic and severe. Identifying T. solium tapeworm carriers is challenging. Many are asymptomatic and go undetected and unreported. In addition, T. solium is difficult to distinguish from other Taenia species of less concern. From 2009 to 2014, 24 taeniasis cases were reported to the Los Angeles County (LAC Department of Public Health. Twenty reports were received solely from our automated electronic laboratory reporting system (ELR, two from health care providers, and two were generated internally from investigation of households with a reported neurocysticercosis case. Further investigation identified one T. solium carrier originally reported by ELR and one identified from a neurocysticercosis case investigation. These results suggest that T. solium tapeworm carriers can be identified from investigation of ELR reports of unspeciated Taenia cases as well as from households of neurocysticercosis cases.

  14. Working Smart. The Los Angeles Unified School District Workplace Literacy Project. Performance Modules. Communication Modules, Manual/Workbook. Computational Modules, Manual/Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA. Div. of Adult and Occupational Education.

    This document consists of performance, computational, and communication modules used by the Working Smart workplace literacy project, a project conducted for the hotel and food industry in the Los Angeles area by a public school district and several profit and nonprofit companies. Literacy instruction was merged with job requirements of the…

  15. New Schools, Overcrowding Relief, and Achievement Gains in Los Angeles--Strong Returns from a $19.5 Billion Investment. Policy Brief 12-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, William; Coghlan, Erin; Fuller, Bruce; Dauter, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Aiming to relieve overcrowded schools operating on multiple tracks, the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) has invested more than $19 billion to build 130 new facilities over the past decade. District leaders asked researchers at Berkeley to estimate the achievement effects of this massive initiative--benefits that may stem from entering…

  16. SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND DIURNAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PARTICLE-BOUND METALS IN SOURCE AND RECEPTOR SITES OF THE LOS ANGELES BASIN. (R827352C006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurement of daily size-fractionated ambient PM10 mass, metals, inorganic ions (nitrate and sulfate) and elemental and organic carbon were conducted at source (Downey) and receptor (Riverside) sites within the Los Angeles Basin. In addition to 24-h concentration m...

  17. THE ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX (MAC) RECOVERED FROM LOS ANGELES POTABLE WATER, A POSSIBLE SOURCE OF INFECTION IN AIDS PATIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los Angeles water was investigated as a possible source of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in patients with AIDS. MAC consists of M.avium (MA), M. intracellulare (MI) and Mycobacterium X (MX)(positive for MAC by DNA probe but not MA or MI). The study included 13 reser...

  18. Diet and obesity in Los Angeles County 2007-2012: Is there a measurable effect of the 2008 "Fast-Food Ban"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Roland; Hattori, Aiko

    2015-05-01

    We evaluate the impact of the "Los Angeles Fast-Food Ban", a zoning regulation that has restricted opening/remodeling of standalone fast-food restaurants in South Los Angeles since 2008. Food retail permits issued after the ban are more often for small food/convenience stores and less often for larger restaurants not part of a chain in South Los Angeles compared to other areas; there are no significant differences in the share of new fast-food chain outlets, other chain restaurants, or large food markets. About 10% of food outlets are new since the regulation, but there is little evidence that the composition has changed differentially across areas. Data from the California Health Interview Survey show that fast-food consumption and overweight/obesity rates have increased from 2007 to 2011/2012 in all areas. The increase in the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity since the ban has been significantly larger in South Los Angeles than elsewhere. A positive development has been a drop in soft drink consumption since 2007, but that drop is of similar magnitude in all areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. PERSONAL, INDOOR, AND OUTDOOR CONCENTRATIONS OF PM2.5, PARTICULATE NITRATE, AND ELEMENTAL CARBON FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH COPD IN LOS ANGELES, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study characterizes the personal, indoor, and outdoor concentrations of PM2.5 and the major components of PM2.5, including nitrate (NO3-), elemental carbon (EC), and the elements for individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) living in Los Angeles, CA. ...

  20. Where Are the Young Men in HIV Prevention Efforts? Comments on HIV Prevention Programs and Research from Young Men Who Sex with Men in Los Angeles County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ian W.; Cederbaum, Julie A.; Ajayi, Antonette; Shoptaw, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Despite increasing rates of HIV infection among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), only a minority participate in formal HIV prevention efforts. Semi-structured mixed-methods interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of YMSM (N = 100, M[subscript age] = 25.0 years) in Los Angeles, California, to identify facilitators and barriers to…

  1. Drug resistant HIV: Behaviors and characteristics among Los Angeles men who have sex with men with new HIV diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamina M Gorbach

    Full Text Available Epidemiology of drug resistant HIV has focused on trends and less attention has been given to identification of factors, especially behaviors including substance use, in acquisition of drug-resistant HIV. From 2009 to 2012 The Metromates Study enrolled and followed for one year men who have sex with men (MSM seeking testing for HIV in a community clinic in Los Angeles assessing those testing positive for acute and recent HIV infection. Behavioral data were collected via Computer-Assisted Self-Interview from 125 classified as newly HIV infected and 91 as chronically infected (newly HIV-diagnosed; specimens were available and viable for resistance testing for 154 of the 216 HIV positives with new diagnoses. In this community clinic we found prevalence of resistance among MSM with new HIV-diagnosis was 19.5% (n = 30/154 with no difference by recency of HIV infection. Sexual partnership characteristics were associated with resistance; those who reported transgendered sex partners had a higher prevalence of resistance as compared to those who did not report transgendered sex partners (40% vs. 17%; p value = 0.04, while those who reported having a main partner had a lower prevalence of drug resistance (12% vs. 24%; p value = 0.07. In multivariable analyses adjusting for HIV recency and antiviral use, reporting a main partner decreased odds [adjusted odds ratio (AOR 0.34; 95% confidence interval (CI 0.13-0.87], reporting a transgendered partnered increased odds (AOR = 3.37; 95% CI 0.95-12.43; and being African American increased odds of drug resistance (AOR = 5.63, 95%CI 1.41-22.38. This suggests African American MSM and TG individuals in Los Angeles represent pockets of exceptional risk that will require special approaches to prevention and care to enhance their own health and reduce their likelihood to support transmission of drug resistance in the US.

  2. An empirical comparison of substance and alcohol dependence patterns in the homeless in Madrid (Spain) and Los Angeles (CA, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Manuel; Koegel, Paul; Vázquez, Carmelo; Sanz, Jesús; Burnam, Audrey

    2002-06-01

    Alcohol and drug use continue to figure heavily in the experience of the contemporary homeless population. The comparison among pattern of use plays a central role in the cross-cultural view of this topic. This article shows the results of comparing the data concerning alcohol and other drug abuse and dependence among the homeless population of Madrid (Spain) and Los Angeles (USA). Data come from two studies carried out independently in each city. Both studies used a comparable methodology which included the same inclusion and diagnostics criteria, representative sampling methods and similar diagnostic structured interviews. In the present study, the data from these two studies are combined in a unique database which allows global and item-to-item comparison between the two studies. The results show different sociodemographic profiles for each city. Once controlled for the sociodemographic differences (age, education, current employment status and marital status), the life and 12-month prevalence rates of alcohol and other drug disorders (DSM-III-R) are also different. There are also significant differences in social, emotional and health problems associated with the consumption of alcohol and other drugs. The Madrid and LA samples also present differences in the time patterns of the beginning of the homelessness situation and the onset of alcohol- and drug-related disorders. The pattern of results is discussed in the light of the differences in both socioeconomic and cultural among Madrid and Los Angeles which might explain, in turn, differences in the homelessness situation as well as in the alcohol and other drug use patterns.

  3. Online biochemical oxygen demand monitoring for wastewater process control--full-scale studies at Los Angeles Glendale wastewater plant, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranpour, Reza; Zermeno, Miguel

    2008-04-01

    The main objective of this investigation is to determine whether or not it would be feasible to use the measured values of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of wastewater obtained by an online instrument at the Los Angeles/Glendale Water Reclamation Plant (California) for controlling its activated sludge process. This investigation is part of a project to develop online BOD monitoring for process control in the City of Los Angeles wastewater treatment plants. Tests studied the Siepmann und Teutscher GmbH (ISCO-STIP Inc., Lincoln, Nebraska) BIOX-1010, which uses a bioreactor containing a culture of microbes from the wastewater to measure soluble BOD in 2 minutes. This rapid approximation to the operation of secondary treatment allows anticipation of system response. Calibration measurements allow the operators to find a conversion factor for the instrument's microprocessor to compute values of BOD that agree well with the standard 5-day BOD (BOD5) measurement, despite the differences in the details of the two testing methods. This instrument has recently been used at other wastewater treatment plants, at a number of airports in Europe and the United States to monitor runway runoff, and is also being used on waste streams at an increasing number of food processing plants. A comparison was made between the plant influent BOD values obtained by the BIOX-1010 online monitor from the end of August, 2000, to late January, 2001, and the individual and average values obtained for the same period using the standard BOD5, 20 degrees C test, to determine the effectiveness of the Biox-1010 to identify shock loads and their duration. Individual BOD estimates and averages over periods of overly high biological loads (shock loads) were compared, and the instrument readings were evaluated for their effectiveness in detecting shock loads. The results were highly satisfactory, so the instrument was used to trigger a shock-load warning alarm since late September, 2000. This allowed flow

  4. Strange little flies in the big city: exotic flower-breeding drosophilidae (Diptera in urban Los Angeles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Grimaldi

    Full Text Available Urban landscapes are commonly considered too mundane and corrupted to be biotically interesting. Recent insect surveys employing 29 Malaise traps throughout Los Angeles, California, however, have uncovered breeding populations of two unexpected species of one of the most studied and familiar groups of organisms, Drosophila "fruit" flies. Unlike most introduced species of drosophilids, which breed in fresh or decaying fruits, these are specialized flower-breeders. A common species in the survey was Drosophila (Drosophila gentica Wheeler and Takada, previously collected only once, in El Salvador. It belongs to the flavopilosa species group, all species of which have been known until now from central Chile, Argentina and Uruguay, to Veracruz, Mexico and the Caribbean, breeding in flowers of Cestrum ("jessamine" and Sessea (Solanaceae. The Los Angeles populations are probably breeding in a native and/or introduced Cestrum; in addition, populations in San Luis Obispo County were visiting ornamental Cestrum. Drosophila gentica occurs as far north as San Francisco, where it was found breeding in Cestrum aurantiacum. D. gentica is redescribed and figured in detail for diagnostic and identification purposes. Specimens from Jamaica previously identified as D. gentica are a distinct species but are not formally described in lieu of complete male specimens. Rare in the Malaise traps was Drosophila (Sophophora flavohirta Malloch, a common species in Australia on the blossoms of native Myrtaceae, found on introduced Eucalyptus in South Africa and both Eucalyptus and Syzygium in Madagascar; adults feed on myrtaceous pollen and nectar, larvae breed in the flowers. It is also redescribed in detail, including its unusual egg. This is the first New World report of this species; DNA sequences confirm it is a morphologically highly aberrant member of the D. melanogaster species group. This study reveals how intensive field sampling can uncover remarkable

  5. Investigating the influence of photocatalytic cool wall adoption on meteorology and air quality in the Los Angeles basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Tang, X.; Levinson, R.; Destaillats, H.; Mohegh, A.; Li, Y.; Tao, W.; Liu, J.; Ban-Weiss, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    Solar reflective "cool materials" can be used to lower urban temperatures, useful for mitigating the urban heat island effect and adapting to the local impacts of climate change. While numerous past studies have investigated the climate impacts of cool surfaces, few studies have investigated their effects on air pollution. Meteorological changes from increases in surface albedo can lead to temperature and transport induced modifications in air pollutant concentrations. In an effort to maintain high albedos in polluted environments, cool surfaces can also be made using photocatalytic "self-cleaning" materials. These photocatalytic materials can also remove NOx from ambient air, with possible consequences on ambient gas and particle phase pollutant concentrations. In this research, we investigate the impact of widespread deployment of cool walls on urban meteorology and air pollutant concentrations in the Los Angeles basin. Both photocatalytic and standard (not photocatalytic) high albedo wall materials are investigated. Simulations using a coupled meteorology-chemistry model (WRF-Chem) show that cool walls could effectively decrease urban temperatures in the Los Angeles basin. Preliminary results indicate that meteorology-induced changes from adopting standard cool walls could lead to ozone concentration reductions of up to 0.5 ppb. NOx removal induced by photocatalytic materials was modeled by modifying the WRF-Chem dry deposition scheme, with deposition rates informed by laboratory measurements of various commercially available materials. Simulation results indicate that increased deposition of NOx by photocatalytic materials could increase ozone concentrations, analogous to the ozone "weekend effect" in which reduced weekend NOx emissions can lead to increases in ozone. The impacts of cool walls on particulate matter concentrations are also discussed. Changes in particulate matter concentrations are found to be driven by albedo-induced changes in air pollutant

  6. A Mixed-Methods Evaluation of the Choose Less, Weigh Less Portion Size Health Marketing Campaign in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren N; Barragan, Noel C; Robles, Brenda; Leighs, Michael; Kuo, Tony

    2015-01-01

    To assess the impact of the Choose Less, Weigh Less portion size health marketing campaign. A mixed-methods, cross-sectional evaluation. A quantitative Internet panel survey was administered through an online sampling vendor and qualitative interviews were conducted by street intercept. The panel survey included 796 participants, weighted to represent Los Angeles County. Street intercept interviews were conducted with 50 other participants. The Choose Less, Weigh Less campaign included print media on transit shelters, bus and rail cars, and billboards; radio and online advertising; and Web site content and social media outreach. The panel survey measured self-reported campaign exposure and outcomes, including knowledge of recommended daily calorie limits, attitudes toward portion sizes, and intent to reduce calories and portion size. Intercept interviews assessed campaign appeal, clarity, and utility. Weighted survey data were analyzed using logistic regression to assess the association between campaign exposure and outcomes. Interview data were analyzed for themes. The campaign reached 19.7% of the Los Angeles County population. Significant differences were seen for 2 of the 10 outcomes assessed. Participants who saw the campaign were more likely than those who did not to report fast-food portion sizes as being too large (adjusted odds ratio [Adj. OR]: 1.89; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16, 3.07) and intention to choose a smaller portion (Adj. OR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.20, 3.31). Qualitative data revealed three themes about appeal, clarity, and utility. Health marketing efforts targeting portion size can have relatively broad reach and limited but positive impacts on consumer attitudes and intent to select smaller portions.

  7. Not an 'iron pipeline', but many capillaries: regulating passive transactions in Los Angeles' secondary, illegal gun market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnut, Kelsie Y; Barragan, Melissa; Gravel, Jason; Pifer, Natalie A; Reiter, Keramet; Sherman, Nicole; Tita, George E

    2017-08-01

    California has strict firearm-related laws and is exceptional in its regulation of firearms retailers. Though evidence suggests that these laws can reduce illegal access to guns, high levels of gun violence persist in Los Angeles (LA), California. This research seeks to describe the sources of guns accessed by active offenders in LA, California and reports offenders' motivations for obtaining guns. Los Angeles County Jail (LACJ) system (four facilities). Random sampling from a screened pool of eligible participants was used to conduct qualitative semistructured interviews with 140 incarcerated gun offenders in one of four (LACJ) facilities. Researchers collected data on firearm acquisition, experiences related to gun violence, and other topics, using a validated survey instrument. Grounded theory guided the collection and analysis of data. Respondents reported possession of 77 specific guns (79.2% handguns) collectively. Social networks facilitate access to illegal guns; the majority of interviewees acquired their illegal guns through a social connection (85.7%) versus an outside broker/unregulated retailer (8.5%). Most guns were obtained through illegal purchase (n=51) or gift (n=15). A quarter of gun purchasers report engaging in a passive transaction, or one initiated by another party. Passive gun buyers were motivated by concerns for personal safety and/or economic opportunity. In LA's illegal gun market, where existing social relationships facilitate access to guns across a diffuse network, individuals, influenced by both fear and economic opportunity, have frequent opportunities to illegally possess firearms through passive transactions. Gun policies should better target and minimise these transactions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Media Outlet and Consumer Reactions to Promotional Activities of the Choose Health LA Restaurants Program in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren N; Montes, Christine; Robles, Brenda; Tyree, Rachel; Kuo, Tony

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to assess promotional activities undertaken to raise public awareness of the Choose Health LA Restaurants program in Los Angeles County, an environmental change strategy that recognizes restaurants for offering reduced-size and healthier menu options. We used multiple methods to assess public awareness of and reactions to the promotional activities, including an assessment of the reach of core promotional activities, a content analysis of earned media, and an Internet panel survey. The study was conducted in Los Angeles County, home to more than 10 million residents. An online survey firm recruited participants for an Internet panel survey; to facilitate generalization of results to the county's population, statistical weights were applied to analyses of the survey data. Promotional activities to raise awareness of the program included community engagement, in-store promotion, and a media campaign. Outcomes included media impressions, the number of people who reported seeing the Choose Health LA Restaurants logo, and a description of the themes present in earned media. Collectively, paid media outlets reported 335 587 229 total impressions. The Internet panel survey showed that 12% of people reported seeing the program logo. Common themes in earned media included the Choose Health LA Restaurants program aims to provide restaurant patrons with more choices, represents a new opportunity for restaurants and public health to work together, will benefit participating restaurants, and will positively impact health. Promotional activities for the Choose Health LA Restaurants program achieved modest reach and positive reactions from media outlets and consumers. The program strategy and lessons learned can help inform present and future efforts to combine environmental and individually focused strategies that target key influences of consumer food selection.

  9. Making a Living in the Streets of Los Angeles: An Ethnographic Study of Day Laborers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Melero Malpica

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina la organización social de migrantes latinos que abiertamente venden su fuerza laboral en los mercados de trabajo de las esquinas del área metropolitana de Los Ángeles. En contraste con la caracterización de los sitios de trabajo de los jornaleros urbanos como competitivos o desestructurados, este estudio demuestra que estos mercados tienen una variedad de formas estructurales que proveen la base organizativa para reunir a empleadores potenciales y a quienes buscan trabajo, los esquineros. Como todos los demás, este mercado de trabajo tiene costumbres y reglas que se aplican cuando los participantes buscan eficiencia en su trato entre ellos y con sus clientes. Estas reglas no están escritas y se basan en gran medida en la práctica y el precedente, pero gobiernan muchos aspectos de las relaciones de trabajo, incluyendo la relación de salario. Este estudio encontró que el mercado de trabajo de los jornaleros urbanos responde menos a la competencia y más a las reglas de trabajo informal y al papel de las relaciones de costumbre.

  10. Black Gold, White Power: Mapping Oil, Real Estate, and Racial Segregation in the Los Angeles Basin, 1900-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G. Cumming

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1923, Southern California produced over twenty percent of the world’s oil. At the epicenter of an oil boom from 1892 to the 1930s, Los Angeles grew into the nation’s fifth largest city. By the end of the rush, it had also become one of the most racially segregated cities in the country. Historians have overlooked the relationship between industrialists drilling for oil and real estate developers codifying a racist housing market, namely through “redlining” maps and mortgage lending. While redlining is typically understood as a problem of horizontal territory, this paper argues that the mapping of the underground—the location and volume of subterranean oil fields, in particular—was a crucial technique in underwriting urban apartheid. Mapping technologies linked oil exploitation with restrictive property rights, constructing oil as a resource and vertically engineering a racialized housing market. By focusing on petro-industrialization interlocked with segregationist housing, this article reveals an unexamined chapter in Los Angeles’s history of resource exploitation and racial capitalism. Moreover, it contributes to a growing literature on the social production of resources, extractive technology and political exclusion, and the technoscientific practices used by states and corporations to mine the underground while constructing metropolitan inequality above ground.

  11. Geohydrology, Geochemistry, and Ground-Water Simulation-Optimization of the Central and West Coast Basins, Los Angeles County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Eric G.; Land, Michael; Crawford, Steven M.; Johnson, Tyler D.; Everett, Rhett; Kulshan, Trayle V.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Halford, Keith L.; Johnson, Theodore A.; Paybins, Katherine S.; Nishikawa, Tracy

    2003-01-01

    Historical ground-water development of the Central and West Coast Basins in Los Angeles County, California through the first half of the 20th century caused large water-level declines and induced seawater intrusion. Because of this, the basins were adjudicated and numerous ground-water management activities were implemented, including increased water spreading, construction of injection barriers, increased delivery of imported water, and increased use of reclaimed water. In order to improve the scientific basis for these water management activities, an extensive data collection program was undertaken, geohydrological and geochemical analyses were conducted, and ground-water flow simulation and optimization models were developed. In this project, extensive hydraulic, geologic, and chemical data were collected from new multiple-well monitoring sites. On the basis of these data and data compiled and collected from existing wells, the regional geohydrologic framework was characterized. For the purposes of modeling, the three-dimensional aquifer system was divided into four aquifer systems?the Recent, Lakewood, Upper San Pedro, and Lower San Pedro aquifer systems. Most pumpage in the two basins is from the Upper San Pedro aquifer system. Assessment of the three-dimensional geochemical data provides insight into the sources of recharge and the movement and age of ground water in the study area. Major-ion data indicate the chemical character of water containing less than 500 mg/L dissolved solids generally grades from calcium-bicarbonate/sulfate to sodium bicarbonate. Sodium-chloride water, high in dissolved solids, is present in wells near the coast. Stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen provide information on sources of recharge to the basin, including imported water and water originating in the San Fernando Valley, San Gabriel Valley, and the coastal plain and surrounding hills. Tritium and carbon-14 data provide information on relative ground-water ages. Water with

  12. Gas geochemistry for the Los Azufres (Michoacán geothermal reservoir, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Segovia

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Gas data of the Los Azufres geothermal field were analyzed using a method based on equilibrium of the Fischer- Tropsch (FT reaction: CH4 + 2H2O = 4H2 +CO2 and on the combined pyrite-hematite-magnetite (HSH2 reactions: 5/4 H2 +3/2 FeS2 +3/4 Fe2O3 + 7/4 H2O = 3 H2S +Fe3O4 in order to estimate reservoir temperature and excess steam. The solution of equilibrium equations produces a grid (FT-HSH2. This method is suitable for reservoirs with relatively high H2S but low H2 and NH3 concentrations in the fluid as is the case of the Los Azufres well discharges. Reservoir temperature and reservoir excess steam values were estimated for initial and present conditions in representative wells of the field to study the evolution of fluids, because of exploitation and waste fluids reinjection. This method was very useful in estimating reservoir temperatures in vapor wells, while in two-phase wells it was found that as the well produces a smaller fraction of water, the reservoir temperature estimation agrees qualitatively with results from cationic or silica geothermometers. For liquid-dominated wells the reservoir temperature estimations agree with temperatures obtained from the well simulator WELFLO. This indicates that FT-HSH2 results provide the temperature of the fluid entering the well where the last equilibrium occurs. Results show a decrease in reservoir temperatures in the southern zone of the field where intensive reinjection takes place. With exploitation, it was also noted that the deep liquid phase in the reservoir is changing to two-phase increasing the reservoir steam fraction and the non-condensable gases in well discharges.

  13. Observation of elevated air pollutant concentrations in a residential neighborhood of Los Angeles California using a mobile platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shishan; Paulson, Suzanne E.; Fruin, Scott; Kozawa, Kathleen; Mara, Steve; Winer, Arthur M.

    2012-05-01

    We observed elevated air pollutant concentrations, especially of ultrafine particles (UFP), black carbon (BC) and NO, across the residential neighborhood of the Boyle Heights Community (BH) of Los Angeles, California. Using an electric vehicle mobile platform equipped with fast response instruments, real-time air pollutant concentrations were measured in BH in spring and summer of 2008. Pollutant concentrations varied significantly in the two seasons, on different days, and by time of day, with an overall average UFP concentration in the residential areas of ∼33 000 cm-3. The averaged UFP, BC, and NO concentrations measured on Soto St, a major surface street in BH, were 57 000 cm-3, 5.1 μg m-3, and 67 ppb, respectively. Concentrations of UFP across the residential areas in BH were nearly uniform spatially, in contrast to other areas in the greater metropolitan area of Los Angeles where UFP concentrations exhibit strong gradients downwind of roadways. We attribute this “UFP cloud” to high traffic volumes, including heavy duty diesel trucks on the freeways which surround and traverse BH, and substantial numbers of high-emitting vehicles (HEVs) on the surface streets traversing BH. Additionally, the high density of stop signs and lights and short block lengths, requiring frequent accelerations of vehicles, may contribute. The data also support a role for photochemical production of UFP in the afternoon. UFP concentration peaks (5 s average) of up to 9 million particles cm-3 were also observed immediately behind HEVs when they accelerated from stop lights in the BH neighborhood and areas immediately adjacent. Although encounters with HEV during mornings accounted for only about 6% and 17% of time spent monitoring residential areas and major surface streets, HEV contributed to about 28% and 53% of total ultrafine particles measured on the route, respectively. The observation of elevated pollutant concentrations across the Boyle Heights community highlights

  14. Molecular characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates obtained from two hospital outbreaks in Los Angeles County, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Wayne A; Kuang, Shan N; Hernandez, Rina; Chong, Melissa C; Ewing, Peter J; Fleischer, Jen; Meng, Jia; Chu, Sheena; Terashita, Dawn; English, L'Tanya; Chen, Wangxue; Xu, H Howard

    2016-05-04

    Antibiotic resistant strains of Acinetobacter baumannii have been responsible for an increasing number of nosocomial infections including bacteremia and ventilator-associated pneumonia. In this study, we analyzed 38 isolates of A. baumannii obtained from two hospital outbreaks in Los Angeles County for the molecular epidemiology, antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance determinants. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis, tri-locus multiplex PCR and multi-locus sequence typing (Pasteur scheme) were used to examine clonal relationships of the outbreak isolates. Broth microdilution method was used to determine antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates. PCR and subsequent DNA sequencing were employed to characterize antibiotic resistance genetic determinants. Trilocus multiplex PCR showed these isolates belong to Global Clones I and II, which were confirmed to ST1 and ST2, respectively, by multi-locus sequence typing. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis analysis identified two clonal clusters, one with 20 isolates (Global Clone I) and the other with nine (Global Clone II), which dominated the two outbreaks. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using 14 antibiotics indicated that all isolates were resistant to antibiotics belonging to four or more categories of antimicrobial agents. In particular, over three fourth of 38 isolates were found to be resistant to both imipenem and meropenem. Additionally, all isolates were found to be resistant to piperacillin, four cephalosporin antibiotics, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. Resistance phenotypes of these strains to fluoroquinolones were correlated with point mutations in gyrA and parC genes that render reduced affinity to target proteins. ISAba1 was detected immediately upstream of the bla OXA-23 gene present in those isolates that were found to be resistant to both carbapenems. Class 1 integron-associated resistance gene cassettes appear to contribute to resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics. The two outbreaks were

  15. Determination of a Holocene Slip Rate on the Puente Hills Blind-Thrust Fault, Los Angeles Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofferson, S. A.; Dolan, J. F.; Shaw, J. H.; Pratt, T. L.

    2001-12-01

    Paleoseismologic observations of slip histories and slip rates of faults that break the surface are available at an ever-increasing rate, but the nature of blind-thrust faults has kept paleoearthquake information on these faults out of reach. The complex network of blind thrust faults beneath the Los Angeles metropolitan region includes the Puente Hills thrust fault (PHT), which extends southeastward for >35 km from beneath downtown Los Angeles into northern Orange County. This thrust is active, as demonstrated by the occurrence of the 1987 Mw 6.0 Whittier Narrows earthquake (Shaw and Shearer 1999). Despite our awareness of the hazard posed by this fault, we do not know its current slip rate or its earthquake history prior to the 1987 event. To determine these critical data, we have begun a two-phase project in which we will acquire high-resolution seismic reflection data and excavate paleoseismologic boreholes and trenches across the zone of active folding associated with major earthquakes on the PHT. We have acquired high-resolution seismic reflection profiles along two transects across the zone of active folding. In our eastern most profile, along Trojan Way in La Mirada, the seismic reflection data show that the locus of active folding extends to 1.5- 2-m-thick reddish-brown argillic horizon. This soil indicates that the geomorphic surface atop the scarp is late Pleistocene in age. The 9 m height of the scarp provides a minimum estimate of total structural relief since stabilization of the ground surface. These observations yield an approximate uplift rate on the order of a few tenths of a mm/yr. Assuming simple hangingwall block translation and given the 19° -22° N dip of the PHT beneath the site, we calculate a minimum average late Pleistocene-Recent dip-slip rate of \\sim 0.2 to 1.1 mm/yr. This slip-rate range is based on our crude age estimates of the late Pleistocene soil. 14C dating of detrital charcoal recovered from the borehole will allow us to

  16. Geohydrology model of the geothermal reservoirs at Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico; Modelo hidrogeologico de los yacimientos geotermicos de los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cedillo Rodriguez, Fidel [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Perote, Veracruz (Mexico)

    1999-12-01

    Petrology, geochemical studies of water and gases, and reservoir engineering studies of geothermal wells at Los Humeros geothermal field confirm the presence of two geothermal reservoirs. This finding is verified by petrological and structural correlation and the study of casing conditions in the production intervals of reworked wells and deviated wells. These confirm the presence of two reservoirs separated by a layer of vitric tuffs (Toba Vitrea Humeros): the upper, formed by units of Augite Andesite, has a neutral pH and is noncorrosive; the lower, formed by basalts and hornblende Andesites has a very high temperatures and acid pH. The large differences in elevations among the potentiometric levels in the wells do not let us infer the flow direction of deep geothermal fluids. Lithology, hydrogeochemical and piezometric results from gradient wells drilled inside Los Humeros caldera showed two shallow aquifers, one relatively cold and another with higher temperatures. Due to the great distances between wells and to the geologic environment, it was not possible to infer the direction of the fluid flow in either the cold or the warm water reservoir. Regional studies of hydrology, geophysics, hydrogeochemistry and structural geology confirm that the shallow groundwater (cold and warm aquifers) has no hydraulic communication or any geochemical or geological relationship with the geothermal wells, water wheels or springs in the areas surrounding Los Humeros caldera. Therefore, the recharge of the cold and warm shallow aquifers must occur inside the closed basin of Los Humeros caldera, which is topographically well defined. These aquifers recharge the geothermal reservoir through faults and fractures inside the limits of Los Humeros collapsed area. Sections of the regional structural geology show that the granitic and argillaceous limestone outcrops located outside the caldera at the same topographic level, at which these rocks are observed in geothermal wells, impede

  17. Epidemiologic study of neural tube defects in Los Angeles County. I. Prevalence at birth based on multiple sources of case ascertainment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sever, L.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA); Sanders, M.; Monsen, R.

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of the neural tube defects (NTDs), anencephalus and spina bifida, have for the most part been based on single sources of case ascertainment in past studies. The present investigation attempts total ascertainment of NTD cases in the newborn population of Los Angeles County residents for the period 1966 to 1972. Design of the study, sources of data, and estimates of prevalence rates based on single and multiple sources of case ascertainment are here discussed. Anencephalus cases totaled 448, spina bifida 442, and encephalocele 72, giving prevalence rates of 0.52, 0.51, and 0.08 per 1000 total births, respectively, for these neural tube defects - rates considered to be low. The Los Angeles County prevalence rates are compared with those of other recent North American studies and support is provided for earlier suggestions of low rates on the West Coast.

  18. The Impact of Two Los Angeles County Teen Courts on Youth Recidivism: Comparing Two Informal Probation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren N; Kuo, Tony; Lai, Elaine; Stoll, Michael A; Ponce, Ninez

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study sought to examine the impact of two Teen Courts operating in Los Angeles County, a juvenile justice system diversion program in which youth are judged by their peers and given restorative sentences to complete during a period of supervision. Methods A quasi-experimental design was used to compare youth who participated in Teen Court (n=112) to youth who participated in another diversion program administered by the Probation Department (the 654 Contract program) (n=194). Administrative data were abstracted from Probation records for all youth who participated in these programs between January 1, 2012 and June 20, 2014. Logistic and survival models were used to examine differences in recidivism - measured as whether the minor had any subsequent arrest or arrests for which the charge was filed. Results Comparison group participants had higher rates of recidivism than Teen Court participants, after controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and risk level. While the magnitude of the program effects were fairly consistent across model specifications (odd ratios comparing Teen Court [referent] to school-based 654 Contract ranging from 1.95 to 3.07, hazard ratios ranging from 1.62 to 2.27), differences were not statistically significant in all scenarios. Conclusions While this study provides modest support for the positive impact of Teen Court, additional research is needed to better understand how juvenile diversion programs can improve youth outcomes. PMID:27547171

  19. How the 2008 stock market crash and seasons affect total and cardiac deaths in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Bryan Glen; Pezzullo, John Christopher; McDonald, Scott Andrew; Poole, William Kenneth; Kloner, Robert Alan

    2012-05-15

    Various stressors trigger cardiac death. The objective was to investigate a possible relation between a stock market crash and cardiac death in a large population within the United States. We obtained daily stock market data (Dow Jones Industrial Average Index), death certificate data for daily deaths in Los Angeles County (LA), and annual LA population estimates for 2005 through 2008. The 4 years death rate curves (2005 through 2008) were averaged into a single curve to illustrate annual trends. Data were "deseasonalized" by subtracting from the daily observed value the average value for that day of year. There was marked seasonal variation in total and cardiac death rates. Even in the mild LA climate, death rates were higher in winter versus summer including total death (+17%), circulatory death (+24%), coronary heart disease death (+28%), and myocardial infarction death (+38%) rates (p stock market crash in October 2008 did not affect death rates in LA. Death rates remained at or below seasonal averages during the stock market crash. In conclusion, after correcting for seasonal variation, the stock market crash in October 2008 was not associated with an increase in total or cardiac death in LA. Annual coronary heart disease death rates continue to decrease. However, seasonal variation (specifically winter) remains a trigger for death and coronary heart disease death even in LA where winters are mild. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Structural Inequities and Social Networks Impact Hormone Use and Misuse Among Transgender Women in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kirsty; Fletcher, Jesse B; Holloway, Ian W; Reback, Cathy J

    2018-01-08

    In order to reduce gender dysphoria and combat stigma, transgender women often affirm their gender through social and medical transition, which may include cross-sex hormone therapy. This study examined associations between medically monitored hormone use and hormone misuse (non-prescribed hormone use including "fillers"), structural inequities (access to housing, health insurance, and income), and social network dynamics among 271 transgender women in Los Angeles. Hormone use status was coded trichotomously (hormone use, hormone misuse, no hormone use), and robust multinomial logistic regression as well as novel social network analysis was conducted to examine associations. Results demonstrated that younger, African-American/Black transgender women were most likely to engage in hormone misuse compared to transgender women who were older or non-African-American/Black. One-third of the sample reported sex work as a main source of income, and this group was more likely to misuse hormones than those with another primary source of income. Transgender women with access to stable housing and health insurance were most likely to engage in medically monitored hormone use. Social network analysis revealed that transgender women with a greater number of hormone-using network alters were most likely to misuse hormones, but that using the Internet to find transgender friends mitigated this association. Results demonstrate the multifaceted risk profile of transgender women who use and misuse hormones, including that social networks play an important role in hormone usage among transgender women.

  1. Take-off engine particle emission indices for in-service aircraft at Los Angeles International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Richard H.; Shook, Michael A.; Ziemba, Luke D.; Digangi, Joshua P.; Winstead, Edward L.; Rauch, Bastian; Jurkat, Tina; Thornhill, Kenneth L.; Crosbie, Ewan C.; Robinson, Claire; Shingler, Taylor J.; Anderson, Bruce E.

    2017-12-01

    We present ground-based, advected aircraft engine emissions from flights taking off at Los Angeles International Airport. 275 discrete engine take-off plumes were observed on 18 and 25 May 2014 at a distance of 400 m downwind of the runway. CO2 measurements are used to convert the aerosol data into plume-average emissions indices that are suitable for modelling aircraft emissions. Total and non-volatile particle number EIs are of order 1016-1017 kg‑1 and 1014-1016 kg‑1, respectively. Black-carbon-equivalent particle mass EIs vary between 175-941 mg kg‑1 (except for the GE GEnx engines at 46 mg kg‑1). Aircraft tail numbers recorded for each take-off event are used to incorporate aircraft- and engine-specific parameters into the data set. Data acquisition and processing follow standard methods for quality assurance. A unique aspect of the data set is the mapping of aerosol concentration time series to integrated plume EIs, aircraft and engine specifications, and manufacturer-reported engine emissions certifications. The integrated data enable future studies seeking to understand and model aircraft emissions and their impact on air quality.

  2. Acceptable Interventions to Reduce Syphilis Transmission Among High-Risk Men Who Have Sex With Men in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Aaron; Javanbakht, Marjan; Cross, John; Montoya, Jorge A.; Bolan, Robert; Kerndt, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined perceptions of and attitudes toward existing and potential syphilis interventions, including case management and Web-based programs, to increase syphilis testing among high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods. Between October 2010 and June 2011, we conducted in-depth interviews with 19 MSM in Los Angeles, California, with repeat early syphilis infections (primary, secondary, and early latent syphilis) within the previous 5 years. We analyzed the interviews inductively to determine the most acceptable potential interventions. Results. Experiences with health department and community-based standard of care case management were generally positive. The most popular interventions among respondents included a Web site providing information on syphilis and syphilis testing, automated Web reminders to test, being paid to test, free online home testing kits, and preexposure prophylactic medication. Respondents’ beliefs that they would continue to practice high-risk sexual behaviors reinforced their reasons for wanting increased accessibility and convenient testing strategies. Conclusions. Public health officials should consider participant responses to potential interventions for syphilis, which suggest that high-risk MSM would consider testing more often or using other interventions. PMID:25602881

  3. Aerosol Light Absorption and Scattering in Mexico City: Comparison With Las Vegas, NV, and Los Angeles, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes-Miranda, G.; Arnott, W. P.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Campbell, D.; Fujita, E.

    2007-12-01

    Aerosol light scattering and absorption measurements were deployed in and near Mexico City in March 2006 as part of the Megacity Impacts on Regional and Global Environments (MIRAGE). The primary site in Mexico City was an urban site at Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexican Oil Institute, denoted by IMP). Similar campaigns were held in Las Vegas, NV in January-February, 2003; and Los Angeles, CA at numerous sites during all seasons from 2003 through 2007. The IMP site gave in-situ characterization of the Mexico City plume under favorable wind conditions. The photoacoustic instrument (PAS) used at IMP operates at 532 nm, and conveniently allowed for characterization of gaseous absorption at this wavelength as well. Light scattering measurements are accomplished within the PAS by the reciprocal nephelometery method. In Mexico City the aerosol absorption coefficient typically varies between 20 and 180 Mm-1 during the course of the day and significant diurnal variation of the aerosol single scattering albedo was observed probably as a consequence of secondary aerosol formation. We will present the diurnal variation of the scattering and absorption as well as the single scattering albedo and fraction of absorption due to gases at the IMP site and compare with Las Vegas diurnal variation. Mexico City 'breaths' more during the course of the day than Las Vegas, Nevada in part because the latitude of Mexico City resulted in more direct solar radiation. Further insight on the meteorological connections and population dynamics will be discussed.

  4. An exploration of the gateway math and science course relationships in the Los Angeles Community College District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Donald G.

    This study evaluated selected demographic, pre-enrollment, and economic status variables in comparison to college-level performance factors of GPA and course completion ratios for gateway math and science courses. The Transfer and Retention of Urban Community College Students (TRUCCS) project team collected survey and enrollment data for this study in the Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD). The TRUCCS team surveyed over 5,000 students within the nine campus district beginning in the fall of 2000 and spring of 2001 with follow-up data for next several years. This study focused on the math and science courses; established background demographics; evaluated pre-enrollment high school self-reported grades; reviewed high school and college level math courses taken; investigated specific gateway courses of biology, chemistry and physics; and compared them to the overall GPAs and course completion ratios for 4,698 students. This involved the SPSS development of numerous statistical products including the data from frequency distributions, means, cross-tabulations, group statistics t-tests, independent samples t-tests, and one-way ANOVA. Findings revealed demographic and economic relationships of significance for students' performance factors of GPA and course completion ratios. Furthermore, findings revealed significant differences between the gender, age, ethnicity and economic employment relationships. Conclusions and implications for institutions of higher education were documented. Recommendations for dissemination, intervention programs, and future research were also discussed.

  5. Coastal upwelling linked to toxic Pseudo-nitzschia australis blooms in Los Angeles coastal waters, 2005-2007

    KAUST Repository

    Schnetzer, Astrid

    2013-06-10

    Harmful algal blooms dominated by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia spp. have become a perennial but variable event within surface waters near the greater Los Angeles area. Toxic blooms during spring seasons from 2005 to 2007 varied strongly in their overall toxicity and duration. Differences in bloom dynamics were linked to differences in storm-induced river discharge following episodic rain events and coastal upwelling, both major coastal processes that led to the injection of nutrients into coastal surface waters. Heavy river runoff during early 2005, a record-rainfall year, favored a phytoplankton community mainly comprised of algal taxa other than Pseudo-nitzschia. The spring bloom during 2005 was associated with low domoic acid surface concentrations and minor contributions of (mainly) P. delicatissima to the diatom assemblage. In contrast, highly toxic P. australis-dominated blooms during spring seasons of 2006 and 2007 were linked to strong upwelling events. River discharge quotas in 2006 and 2007, in contrast to 2005, fell well below annual averages for the region. Surface toxin levels were linked to colder, more saline (i.e. upwelled) water over the 3-year study, but no such consistent relationship between domoic acid levels and other physiochemical parameters, such as macronutrient concentrations or nutrient ratios, was observed. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  6. The incidence of acute rheumatic fever in a suburban area of Los Angeles. A ten-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odio, A

    1986-02-01

    The incidence of in-hospital cases of acute rheumatic fever in residents of the San Fernando Valley section of Los Angeles (population 1,096,000) from 1971 through 1980 was 0.21 per 100,000 population for all ages and 0.63 per 100,000 for 5 to 17 year olds, both among the lowest ever reported in the world literature. Nevertheless, minority group patients had five times the risk of a white patient for acute rheumatic fever developing and a greater than 20-fold increase in the risk for the development of acute rheumatic fever with carditis. Unexpectedly, a low 30% of cases (8/27) had carditis either alone or with other major criteria, while a high 59% (16/27) had polyarthritis as the only major manifestation. This suggests the possibility of false-positive cases based on polyarthritis as the only major manifestation, and that an incidence of acute rheumatic fever may have been reached that is so low that "background" cases are a significant proportion of all cases.

  7. Climatic consequences of adopting drought-tolerant vegetation over Los Angeles as a response to California drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahmani, P.; Ban-Weiss, G.

    2016-08-01

    During 2012-2014, drought in California resulted in policies to reduce water consumption. One measure pursued was replacing lawns with landscapes that minimize water consumption, such as drought-tolerant vegetation. If implemented at broad scale, this strategy would result in reductions in irrigation and changes in land surface characteristics. In this study, we employ a modified regional climate model to assess the climatic consequences of adopting drought-tolerant vegetation over the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Transforming lawns to drought-tolerant vegetation resulted in daytime warming of up to 1.9°C, largely due to decreases in irrigation that shifted surface energy partitioning toward higher sensible and lower latent heat flux. During nighttime, however, adopting drought-tolerant vegetation caused mean cooling of 3.2°C, due to changes in soil thermodynamic properties and heat exchange dynamics between the surface and subsurface. Our results show that nocturnal cooling effects, which are larger in magnitude and of great importance for public health during heat events, could counterbalance the daytime warming attributed to the studied water conservation strategy. A more aggressive implementation, assuming all urban vegetation was replaced with drought-tolerant vegetation, resulted in an average daytime cooling of 0.2°C, largely due to strengthened sea breeze patterns, highlighting the important role of land surface roughness in this coastal megacity.

  8. 24-hour care: Work and sleep conditions of migrant Filipino live-in caregivers in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Kevin; Nazareno, Jennifer; Malish, Sterling

    2016-12-01

    Live-in formal caregivers spend consecutive days in patients' homes, raising questions about their ability to secure adequate sleep while on duty. Few studies have examined sleeping conditions and outcomes for this growing workforce. We collected weeklong sleep logs and interview data from 32 Filipino caregivers in Los Angeles who provide live-in services at least 3 consecutive days per week. Respondents recorded a total average of 6.4 sleep hours during workdays divided over 2.4 sleep periods. Caregivers rated sleep quality as lower while at work; over 40% indicated excessive daytime sleepiness. Female caregivers reported worse sleep outcomes than their male counterparts. Some variations in sleep outcomes were found by employment arrangements. Live-in caregivers experience frequent sleep interruptions at all hours of the day and night to attend to patients' needs. The resulting impacts on sleep quality pose risks for both work-related injury and errors in patient care. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:1120-1129, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Urban legacies and soil management affect the concentration and speciation of trace metals in Los Angeles community garden soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Lorraine Weller; Jenerette, G. Darrel; Bain, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals in urban soils can compromise human health, especially in urban gardens, where gardeners may ingest contaminated dust or crops. To identify patterns of urban garden metal contamination, we measured concentrations and bioavailability of Pb, As, and Cd in soils associated with twelve community gardens in Los Angeles County, CA. This included sequential extractions to partition metals among exchangeable, reducible, organic, or residual fractions. Proximity to road increased all metal concentrations, suggesting vehicle emissions sources. Reducible Pb increased with neighborhood age, suggesting leaded paint as a likely pollutant source. Exchangeable Cd and As both increased with road proximity. Only cultivated soils showed an increase in exchangeable As with road proximity, potentially due to reducing humic acid interactions while Cd bioavailability was mitigated by organic matter. Understanding the geochemical phases and metal bioavailability allows incorporation of contamination patterns into urban planning. - Highlights: • Road proximity, legacies, and management affect garden soil metal concentrations. • Soil near old houses had high reducible Pb, likely due to lead paint. • Pb, As, and Cd all increased with proximity to road. • As and Cd reacted with organic matter to become more or less bioavailable to crops. - Road proximity, legacies, and management affect garden soil metal concentrations. Soil near old houses had high reducible Pb due to lead paint, while all metals increased near the road

  10. Chemistry of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Los Angeles basin: Nighttime Removal of Alkenes and Determination of Emission Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gouw, J. A.; Gilman, J. B.; Kim, S.-W.; Lerner, B. M.; Isaacman-VanWertz, G.; McDonald, B. C.; Warneke, C.; Kuster, W. C.; Lefer, B. L.; Griffith, S. M.; Dusanter, S.; Stevens, P. S.; Stutz, J.

    2017-11-01

    We reanalyze a data set of hydrocarbons in ambient air obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry at a surface site in Pasadena in the Los Angeles basin during the NOAA California Nexus study in 2010. The number of hydrocarbon compounds quantified from the chromatograms is expanded through the use of new peak-fitting data analysis software. We also reexamine hydrocarbon removal processes. For alkanes, small alkenes, and aromatics, the removal is determined by the reaction with hydroxyl (OH) radicals. For several highly reactive alkenes, the nighttime removal by ozone and nitrate (NO3) radicals is also significant. We discuss how this nighttime removal affects the determination of emission ratios versus carbon monoxide (CO) and show that previous estimates based on nighttime correlations with CO were too low. We analyze model output from the Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry model for hydrocarbons and radicals at the Pasadena location to evaluate our methods for determining emission ratios from the measurements. We find that our methods agree with the modeled emission ratios for the domain centered on Pasadena and that the modeled emission ratios vary by 23% across the wider South Coast basin. We compare the alkene emission ratios with published results from ambient measurements and from tunnel and dynamometer studies of motor vehicle emissions. We find that with few exceptions the composition of alkene emissions determined from the measurements in Pasadena closely resembles that of motor vehicle emissions.

  11. An Innovative Project Breaks Down Barriers to Oral Health Care for Vulnerable Young Children in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crall, James J; Illum, Jackie; Martinez, Ana; Pourat, Nadereh

    2016-06-01

    Despite the high rate of untreated tooth decay, many young children in California under six years of age have never been to a dentist. Numerous and complex barriers to access to oral health care for young children exist, and a multifaceted approach is required to improve receipt of preventive and treatment services that could improve the oral health of this population. This policy brief describes the UCLA-First 5 LA 21st Century Dental Homes Project, which was designed to improve oral health care for young children in 12 Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) clinic sites with co-located dental and primary care services and its accessibility in their service areas throughout Los Angeles County. The project funded infrastructure and staffing, provided technical assistance to improve operations, trained clinical personnel to provide oral health care to young children, implemented a quality improvement learning collaborative, trained parents and child care providers in oral hygiene and healthy habits, and disseminated information to promote effective policies. Early data on the project indicated twofold increases in delivery of both diagnostics and treatment visits for young children, and a threefold increase in preventive services for young children during the program.

  12. Three Cases of West Nile Encephalitis over an Eight-Day Period at a Downtown Los Angeles Community Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Puchalski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction in New York City in 1999, the virus has spread throughout the entire North American continent and continues to spread into Central and Latin America. Our report discusses the signs and symptoms, diagnostics, and treatment of West Nile disease. It is important to recognize the disease quickly and initiate appropriate treatment. We present three cases of West Nile encephalitis at White Memorial Medical Center in East Los Angeles that occurred over the span of eight days. All three patients live within four to six miles from the hospital and do not live or work in an environment favorable to mosquitoes including shallow bodies of standing water, abandoned tires, or mud ruts. All the patients were Hispanic. Physicians and other health care providers should consider West Nile infection in the differential diagnosis of causes of aseptic meningitis and encephalitis, obtain appropriate laboratory studies, and promptly report cases to public health authorities. State governments should establish abatement programs that will eliminate sources that allow for mosquito reproduction and harboring. The public needs to be given resources that educate them on what entails the disease caused by the West Nile virus, what the symptoms are, and, most importantly, what they can do to prevent themselves from becoming infected.

  13. Asian American mothers' perception of their children's weight: a comparison with other racial/ethnic groups in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobari, Tabashir Z; Wang, May-Choo; Whaley, Shannon E

    2015-01-01

    While mother's perception of child's weight is important for the success of early childhood obesity prevention programs, few studies have examined that of Asian Americans. Our study examined their perception and compared it to that of mothers of other racial/ethnic groups. Cross-sectional study of 2,051 randomly selected mothers of children aged 2-5 years living in Los Angeles County who were enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women Infants and Children (WIC). The primary outcome was mother's perception of child's weight. We found that Asian American mothers were 2.12 (95% CI: 1.27-3.54) times as likely as Hispanic mothers to accurately perceive their children's weight, adjusting for child's age, sex and birthweight, and mother's age and education. However, this relationship disappeared after adjusting for mother's BMI. We did not find differences in perception of child's weight among non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic mothers. It appears that Asian American mothers' increased accurate perception of child's weight status can be partially explained by their lower prevalence of obesity. Our findings suggest that early childhood obesity prevention programs should consider the weight status of mothers.

  14. Perceived discrimination as a risk factor for depressive symptoms and substance use among Hispanic adolescents in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basáñez, Tatiana; Unger, Jennifer B; Soto, Daniel; Crano, William; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    Discrimination has been associated with adverse psychological and physical health outcomes, but few studies have examined the effects of discrimination on Hispanic adolescents. This study assessed the relation of perceived discrimination with depressive symptoms and drug use. Covariates included immigrant generation status (GS). A second objective was to examine the potentially moderating effect of neighborhoods' ethnic composition as suggested by Mair et al. Secondary data analyses of a longitudinal survey examined self-reports of Hispanic adolescents in 9th grade (the first year of high school) and 11th grade at seven high schools in Los Angeles. (1) Perceiving discrimination in 9th grade significantly predicted depressive symptoms (β=0.23, pgender, acculturation, and GS in the USA. The third GS group reported significantly higher perceptions of discrimination compared to newer immigrants. (2) Neighborhoods' ethnic composition was included as a moderator of the association between perceived discrimination and the outcomes, but did not moderate the relation. Teaching Hispanic adolescents effective strategies for coping with discrimination, such as increasing their sense of belongingness in the American mainstream, may prove useful in preventing drug use and depressive symptoms.

  15. Exploration of spatial patterns of congenital anomalies in Los Angeles County using the vital statistics birth master file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rible, Radhika; Aguilar, Efren; Chen, Angela; Bader, Joshua L; Goodyear-Moya, Leslie; Singh, Karen Teekadai; Paulson, Suzanne E; Friedman, Julie; Izadpanah, Nilufar; Pregler, Janet

    2018-03-02

    Research has shown linkages between environmental exposures and population health metrics such as low birth weight and incidence of congenital anomalies. While the exact causal relationship between specific environmental teratogens and suspected corresponding congenital anomalies has largely not been established, spatial analysis of anomaly incidence can identify potential locations of increased risk. This study uses the Vital Statistics Birth Master File to map and analyze the rates of congenital anomalies of births from non-smoking mothers 15-35 years old within Los Angeles County. Hot spot analysis shows that the distribution of congenital anomalies is not randomly distributed throughout the county and identified the Antelope Valley and San Gabriel Foothills as two areas with elevated incidence rates. These results are not explained by potential confounders such as maternal age, race, smoking status, or socioeconomic status and seem to correlate well with the concentration of atmospheric ozone. This approach demonstrates the value of using spatial techniques to inform future research efforts and the need to establish and maintain a comprehensive reproductive health surveillance system.

  16. Racial and ethnic disparities in personal capital during pregnancy: findings from the 2007 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeel, Fathima; Witt, Whitney P; Wisk, Lauren E; Lu, Michael C; Chao, Shin M

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if racial and ethnic differences in personal capital during pregnancy exist and to estimate the extent to which any identified racial and ethnic differences in personal capital are related to differences in maternal sociodemographic and acculturation characteristics. Data are from the 2007 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby study (n = 3,716). Personal capital comprised internal resources (self-esteem and mastery) and social resources (partner, social network, and neighborhood support) during pregnancy. The relationships between race/ethnicity and personal capital were assessed using multivariable generalized linear models, examining the impact of sociodemographic and acculturation factors on these relationships. Significant racial and ethnic disparities in personal capital during pregnancy exist. However, socioeconomic status (i.e., income and education) and marital status completely explained Black-White disparities and Hispanic-White disparities in personal capital, whereas acculturation factors, especially nativity and language spoken at home, partially mediated the disparities in personal capital between Asian/Pacific Islander women and White women. Findings suggest that the risks associated with low socioeconomic status, single motherhood, and low acculturation, rather than race or ethnicity, contribute to low personal capital for many pregnant women. As personal capital during pregnancy may influence subsequent maternal and child health outcomes, the development of interventions should consider addressing sociodemographic and acculturation factors in order to reduce racial and ethnic disparities in personal capital and ultimately in poor maternal and child health outcomes.

  17. The grand experiment, a historical account of a museum/school partnership: The Alexander Science Center School of Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heughins, Andrew R.

    This study tells the history of The Alexander Science Center School, a museum/school partnership between the Los Angeles Unified School District and the California Science Center created with the goal of becoming a national model in elementary science education. To provide a background to the development of the school, this study explores the definition of what constitutes a museum school, including the existence of a formal partnership between a school district and a museum and systemic change in the partner institutions leading to a marriage of formal and informal learning styles. In addition, the literature review explores the unique models of museum/school partnerships developed in the United States. The history of the Alexander Science Center School is told in a narrative style using documentation from the schools development and through interviews with individuals who played key roles, from the schools inception through its opening. The study covers the initiation of concept, architectural design, formation of the partnership, and development of the curriculum. The study also identifies the roadblocks encountered in the schools development and makes recommendations for school districts and institutions seeking to create future museum school projects. In addition, a comparison is made other recently studied museum schools to provide a context for the school's historical and programmatic development.

  18. The prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) in waters of the Lower Ballona Creek Watershed, Los Angeles County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawecki, Stephanie; Kuleck, Gary; Dorsey, John H; Leary, Christopher; Lum, Michelle

    2017-06-01

    Screening for the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) was done at the Ballona Creek and Wetlands, an urban-impacted wetland system in Los Angeles, California. The goals were (1) to assess the overall prevalence of ARB, and (2) compare differences in ARB abundance and the types of antibiotic resistance (AR) among the following sample types: lagoon water from Del Rey Lagoon, urban runoff from Ballona Creek, and water from the Ballona Wetlands (tidal water flooding in from the adjacent estuary, and ebbing out from the salt marsh). Antibiotic resistance distributions were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to develop the cumulative frequency of bacteria having resistance of up to eight antibiotics. Distributions from the environmental water samples were compared to unchlorinated secondary effluent from the Hyperion Water Reclamation Plant that was used as comparator samples likely to have an abundance of ARB. As expected, densities of total and ARB were highest in secondary effluent, followed by urban runoff. Samples of water flooding into the wetlands showed similar results to urban runoff; however, a reduction in densities of total and ARB occurred in water ebbing out of the wetlands. During preliminary work to identify ARB species, several bacterial species of relevance to human illness (e.g., Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus hirae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aeromonas veronii, Enterobacter cancerogenus, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas stutzeri, and Staphylococcus intermedius) were isolated from sampled waters. If wetlands are a sink for ARB, construction and restoration of wetlands can help in the mediation of this human and environmental health concern.

  19. Identifying Potential Areas of Human Zika Infection in the City of Los Angeles, California by Use of Remote Sensing Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.

    2017-12-01

    As of April 2017, California is the third most prevalent state on the United States for Zika Infection and Southern California has an ever growing population of Aedes mosquitos. Zika is a disease which poses a significant risk to humans and other mammals due to its effects on pregnancy. This emerging disease is highly contagious due to its spread of infection primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitos. Aedes mosquitos are able to breed in small rain collecting containers which allow the species to persevere in urban and semi urban environments. We hope to identify potential areas with risk of human infection within Los Angeles and its surrounding areas. This study integrates remote sensing, GIS, statistical, and environmental techniques to study favorable habitats for this particular species of mosquitos and their larvae. The study of the geographic and landscape factors which promote the larvae development allow for the disease spread to be analyzed and modeled. There are several goals in the development of this study. These include the coordination of statistical data with local epidemiology departments, identify workflows to improve efficiency, create models which can be utilized for disease prevention, and identify geographic risk factors for the spread of Zika.

  20. Parenting and proximity to social services: Lessons from Los Angeles County in the community context of child neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire-Jack, Kathryn; Klein, Sacha

    2015-07-01

    Using a sample of 438 parents in Los Angeles County, CA, this study examines the role of proximity to social services in child neglect. In an extension of social disorganization theory, it seeks to understand the potential sources of support in neighborhoods for families. It uses ordinary least squares regression to examine driving distance from parents' residences to four types of services (child care, domestic violence, mental health/substance abuse, and poverty). The results show an association between proximity to mental health and substance abuse services and parents' self-reported neglectful behaviors. Additionally, higher levels of socioeconomic disadvantage (poverty, unemployment, and low education), having older children, respondents being male, and respondents being older parents are associated with higher levels of child neglect, while being white is associated with lower levels. Overall, the findings suggest a potentially protective role of geographic access to mental health and substance abuse services in child maltreatment. Additional research on the pathways through which proximity to services influences child neglect is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. House Poor in Los Angeles: Examining Patterns of Housing-Induced Poverty by Race, Nativity, and Legal Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Eileen Diaz

    2012-09-01

    Housing affordability in the United States is generally operationalized using the ratio approach, with those allocating more than thirty percent of income to shelter costs considered to have housing affordability challenges. Alternative standards have been developed that focus on residual income, whether income remaining after housing expenditures is sufficient to meet non-housing needs. This study employs Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey data to consider racial/ethnic, nativity and legal status differences in one residual income standard. Logistic regression analyses of housing-induced poverty focus on whether there are differences among five distinct groups: U.S.born Latinos, Non-Hispanic Whites, and African Americans, authorized Latino immigrants, and unauthorized Latino immigrants. Results suggest that: 1) Latino natives are significantly more likely to be in housing-induced poverty than African Americans and Latino immigrants, and 2) unauthorized Latino immigrants are not more likely to experience the outcome than other groups. The present work extends previous research. First, the results provide additional evidence of the value of operationalizing housing affordability using a residual income standard. Alternatives to the ratio approach deserve more empirical attention from a wider range of scholars and policymakers interested in housing affordability. Second, housing scholarship to date generally differentiates among Latinos by ethnicity, nativity, and citizenship. The present study contributes to emerging research investigating heterogeneity among Latinos by nativity and legal status.

  2. Mobile and Fixed-Site Measurements To Identify Spatial Distributions of Traffic-Related Pollution Sources in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessum, Mei W; Larson, Timothy; Gould, Timothy R; Simpson, Christopher D; Yost, Michael G; Vedal, Sverre

    2018-03-06

    Mobile monitoring and fixed-site monitoring using passive sampling devices (PSD) are popular air pollutant measurement techniques with complementary strengths and weaknesses. This study investigates the utility of combining data from concurrent 2-week mobile monitoring and fixed-site PSD campaigns in Los Angeles in the summer and early spring to identify sources of traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP) and their spatial distributions. There were strong to moderate correlations between mobile and fixed-site PSD measurements of both NO 2 and NO x in the summer and spring (Pearson's r between 0.43 and 0.79), suggesting that the two data sets can be reliably combined for source apportionment. PCA identified the major TRAP sources as light-duty vehicle emissions, diesel exhaust, crankcase vent emissions, and an independent source of combustion-derived ultrafine particle emissions. The component scores of those four sources at each site were significantly correlated across the two seasons (Pearson's r between 0.58 and 0.79). Spatial maps of absolute principal component scores showed all sources to be most prominent near major roadways and the central business district and the ultrafine particle source being, in addition, more prominent near the airport. Mobile monitoring combined with fixed-site PSD sampling can provide high spatial resolution estimates of TRAP and can reveal underlying sources of exposure variability.

  3. The Sexuality Education Initiative: a programme involving teenagers, schools, parents and sexual health services in Los Angeles, CA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Magaly; Ressa, Nicole

    2013-05-01

    In response to abstinence-only programmes in the United States that promote myths and misconceptions about sexuality and sexual behaviour, the comprehensive sexuality education community has been sidetracked from improving the sexuality education available in US schools for almost two decades now. Much work is still needed to move beyond fear-based approaches and the one-way communication of information that many programmes still use. Starting in 2008 Planned Parenthood Los Angeles developed and launched a teen-centred sexuality education programme based on critical thinking, human rights, gender equality, and access to health care that is founded on a theory of change that recognises the complex relationship between the individual and broader environment of cultural norms, socio-economic inequalities, health disparities, legal and institutional factors. The Sexuality Education Initiative is comprised of a 12-session classroom sexuality education curriculum for ninth grade students; workshops for parents; a peer advocacy training programme; and access to sexual health services. This paper describes that experience and presents the rights-based framework that was used, which seeks to improve the learning experience of students, strengthen the capacity of schools, teachers and parents to help teenagers manage their sexuality effectively and understand that they have the right to health care, education, protection, dignity and privacy. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Geography of Clusters: The Case of the Video Games Clusters in Montreal and in Los Angeles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvianne Pilon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our research was to examine how clusters appear and develop in the video game sector. We thus did a comparative study of the video games cluster in Montreal and Los Angeles. This paper shows that concentration of human creativity in arts and in technology is a significant economic localization factor, but cross-fertilization of sectors and public policy also contributes to the understanding of the emergence of clusters in certain urban regions. Thus, political and industrial factors offer an explanation as to why clusters emerge and how they evolve, going beyond the purely geographic or economic factors. In LA as in Montreal, the cross-fertilization with film is important. However, in Montreal, it is the public policy contributing to financing jobs in the Multimedia City and the French language that brought Ubisoft to the city; this contributed to make the city well known in the field, creating a “brand” for the city and thus fuelling the cluster development.

  5. Urban nonpoint source pollution buildup and washoff models for simulating storm runoff quality in the Los Angeles County

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Long; Wei Jiahua; Huang Yuefei; Wang Guangqian; Maqsood, Imran

    2011-01-01

    Many urban nonpoint source pollution models utilize pollutant buildup and washoff functions to simulate storm runoff quality of urban catchments. In this paper, two urban pollutant washoff load models are derived using pollutant buildup and washoff functions. The first model assumes that there is no residual pollutant after a storm event while the second one assumes that there is always residual pollutant after each storm event. The developed models are calibrated and verified with observed data from an urban catchment in the Los Angeles County. The application results show that the developed model with consideration of residual pollutant is more capable of simulating nonpoint source pollution from urban storm runoff than that without consideration of residual pollutant. For the study area, residual pollutant should be considered in pollutant buildup and washoff functions for simulating urban nonpoint source pollution when the total runoff volume is less than 30 mm. - Highlights: → An improved urban NPS model was developed. → It performs well in areas where storm events have great temporal variation. → Threshold of total runoff volume for ignoring residual pollutant was determined. - An improved urban NPS model was developed. Threshold of total runoff volume for ignoring residual pollutant was determined.

  6. Measuring Spatio-temporal Trends in Residential Landscape Irrigation Extent and Rate in Los Angeles, California Using SPOT-5 Satellite Imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, YJ; McFadden, JP; Clarke, KC; Roberts, DA

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Irrigation is a large component of urban water budgets in semi-arid regions and is critical for the management of landscape vegetation and water resources. This is particularly true for Mediterranean climate cities such as Los Angeles, where water availability is limited during dry summers. These interactions were examined by using 10-m resolution satellite imagery and a database of monthly water use records for all residential water customer...

  7. Examining the Perils and Promises of an Informal Niche in a Global City: A Case Study of Mexican Immigrant Gardeners in Los Angeles

    OpenAIRE

    Huerta, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    The domestic household service sector of contract gardening dominated by Mexican immigrants in Los Angeles constitutes an important and under-examined component of the city's informal economy. Mexican immigrant gardeners, like Latina domestic workers and Latino day laborers, represent an important and undervalued labor source in this global city and other U.S. cities and suburbs. While domestic help has historically been a privilege of the affluent, the middle-class, since the World War II er...

  8. Nuevo edificio de la Lincoln Savings, en Los Angeles, California, (U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deasy & Boiling, Arquitectos

    1968-03-01

    Full Text Available The building has eight floor levels devoted to the main functions of the bank, a ninth storey houses various services, and a car park is located in the basement. The ground floor is highly diaphanous and is occupied by those departments that are more intimately related with the outside public. The second floor is devoted to banking and credit operations. There is a museum on the seventh floor, and a dining hall on the eighth, as well as a cafeteria and a social zone for the staff. The remaining floor space has been let for offices to a number of commercial firms. The structure and external aspect are outstanding because of their originality.El edificio consta de ocho plantas en servicio; una novena, que alberga los equipos mecánicos; y un sótano, destinado a aparcamiento. La planta baja, que goza de una gran diafanidad, aloja los servicios que exigen un contacto más frecuente con el público; en la segunda, las secciones en las que se desarrollan las operaciones de crédito y bancarias; en la planta séptima, el museo; y en la octava, el comedor, la cafetería y zona social para empleados. Las restantes plantas han sido alquiladas para oficinas de diversas firmas y empresas comerciales. Son de destacar, la estructura y el tratamiento de fachadas, de indudable gracia y originalidad.

  9. 75 FR 13301 - Los Vaqueros Reservoir Expansion, Contra Costa and Alameda Counties, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ...The Bureau of Reclamation, as the National Environmental Policy Act Federal lead agency, and the Contra Costa Water District, as the California Environmental Quality Act lead agency, have prepared the Los Vaqueros Reservoir Expansion Final EIS/EIR. Los Vaqueros Expansion is a proposed action in the August 2000 CALFED Bay-Delta Program Programmatic Record of Decision. The Final EIS/EIR evaluated two options for expanding Los Vaqueros Reservoir from its existing capacity of 100 thousand acre-feet (TAF). A 175 TAF expansion option would expand the reservoir to 275 TAF. This expansion option would be operated for environmental water management and San Francisco Bay Area water supply reliability. A 60 TAF expansion option would expand the reservoir to 160 TAF. This second option would primarily be operated to improve Contra Costa Water District (CCWD) dry year water supply reliability and water quality. A Notice of Availability of the Draft EIS/EIR was published in the Federal Register on February 20, 2009 (74 FR 7922). The written comment period on the Draft EIS/EIR ended on April 21, 2009. The Final EIS/EIR contains responses to all written comments received during the review period.

  10. Predictors of public support for nutrition-focused policy, systems and environmental change strategies in Los Angeles County, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Brenda; Kuo, Tony

    2017-01-13

    Since 2010, federal and local agencies have invested broadly in a variety of nutrition-focused policy, systems and environmental change (PSE) initiatives in Los Angeles County (LAC). To date, little is known about whether the public supports such efforts. We address this gap in the literature by examining predictors of support for a variety of PSEs. Voters residing in LAC (n=1007) were randomly selected to participate in a cross-sectional telephone survey commissioned by the LAC Department of Public Health. The survey asked questions about attitudes towards the obesity epidemic, nutrition knowledge and behaviours, public opinions about changing business practices/government policies related to nutrition, and sociodemographics. A factor analysis informed outcome variable selection (ie, type of PSEs). Multivariable regression analyses were performed to examine predictors of public support. Predictors in the regression models included (primary regressor) community economic hardship; (control variables) political affiliation, sex, age, race and income; and (independent variables) perceptions about obesity, perceived health and weight status, frequency reading nutrition labels, ease of finding healthy and unhealthy foods, and food consumption behaviours (ie, fruit and vegetables, non-diet soda, fast-food and sit-down restaurant meals). 3 types of PSE outcome variables were identified: promotional/incentivising, limiting/restrictive and business practices. Community economic hardship was not found to be a significant predictor of public support for any of the 3 PSE types. However, Republican party affiliation, being female and perceiving obesity as a serious health problem were. These findings have implications for public health practice and community planning in local health jurisdictions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Validation of the Los Angeles pre-hospital stroke screen (LAPSS in a Chinese urban emergency medical service population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengyun Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Early and accurate diagnosis of stroke by emergency medical service (EMS paramedics is critical for reducing pre-hospital delays. The Los Angeles pre-hospital stroke screen (LAPSS has been widely used as a validated screening tool for early identifying stroke patients by EMS paramedics. However, validation of LAPSS has never been performed in Chinese stroke population. This study is aimed to verify the LAPSS for early identifying stroke patients in a Chinese urban EMS. METHODS: 76 paramedics of five urban first aid stations attached to Beijing 120 EMS were involved. The paramedics were trained by professionals to quickly screen patients based on LAPSS. Potential "target stroke" individuals who met the base LAPSS screen criteria were identified. Sensitivity and specificity analyses of the LAPSS were calculated. RESULTS: From June 10, 2009 to June 10, 2010, paramedics transported a total of 50,220 patients. 1550 patients who met the baseline screen criteria were identified as the potential "target stroke" population. 1130 patients had the completed LAPSS information datasheet and 997 patients were clinically diagnosed with stroke. The average time of completing the LAPSS was 4.3±3.0 minutes (median, 5 minutes. The sensitivity and specificity of the LAPSS in this study was 78.44% and 90.22%, respectively. After adjusting for age factor by excluding patients of >45 years old, the sensitivity was significantly increased to 82.95% with specificity unchanged. CONCLUSION: The paramedics of Beijing 120 EMS could efficiently use LAPSS as a screening tool for early identifying stroke patients. While the sensitivity of LAPSS in Chinese urban patient population was lower than those reported in previous LAPSS validation studies, the specificity was consistent with these studies. After excluded the item of "Age>45 years", the sensitivity was improved.

  12. Validation of the Los Angeles pre-hospital stroke screen (LAPSS) in a Chinese urban emergency medical service population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shengyun; Sun, Haixin; Lei, Yanni; Gao, Ding; Wang, Yan; Wang, Yilong; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Anxin; Wang, Wenzhi; Zhao, Xingquan

    2013-01-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of stroke by emergency medical service (EMS) paramedics is critical for reducing pre-hospital delays. The Los Angeles pre-hospital stroke screen (LAPSS) has been widely used as a validated screening tool for early identifying stroke patients by EMS paramedics. However, validation of LAPSS has never been performed in Chinese stroke population. This study is aimed to verify the LAPSS for early identifying stroke patients in a Chinese urban EMS. 76 paramedics of five urban first aid stations attached to Beijing 120 EMS were involved. The paramedics were trained by professionals to quickly screen patients based on LAPSS. Potential "target stroke" individuals who met the base LAPSS screen criteria were identified. Sensitivity and specificity analyses of the LAPSS were calculated. From June 10, 2009 to June 10, 2010, paramedics transported a total of 50,220 patients. 1550 patients who met the baseline screen criteria were identified as the potential "target stroke" population. 1130 patients had the completed LAPSS information datasheet and 997 patients were clinically diagnosed with stroke. The average time of completing the LAPSS was 4.3±3.0 minutes (median, 5 minutes). The sensitivity and specificity of the LAPSS in this study was 78.44% and 90.22%, respectively. After adjusting for age factor by excluding patients of >45 years old, the sensitivity was significantly increased to 82.95% with specificity unchanged. The paramedics of Beijing 120 EMS could efficiently use LAPSS as a screening tool for early identifying stroke patients. While the sensitivity of LAPSS in Chinese urban patient population was lower than those reported in previous LAPSS validation studies, the specificity was consistent with these studies. After excluded the item of "Age>45 years", the sensitivity was improved.

  13. Pregnancy attitudes, contraceptive service utilization, and other factors associated with Los Angeles homeless youths' use of effective contraception and withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winetrobe, H; Rhoades, H; Barman-Adhikari, A; Cederbaum, J; Rice, E; Milburn, N

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to understand the associations of contraceptive service utilization (ie, accessing condoms or birth control), pregnancy attitudes, and lifetime pregnancy history among male and female homeless youth in relation to use of effective contraception and withdrawal. Between October 2011 and February 2012, homeless youth (14-27 years old) from 2 drop-in centers in Los Angeles (N = 380) were recruited and completed a questionnaire. The data in this paper are restricted to those who reported vaginal sex at last sex (N = 283). Analyses examined history of foster care, sexual abuse, exchange sex, pregnancy, lifetime homelessness duration, current living situation, contraceptive service utilization, and pregnancy attitudes in predicting use of effective contraception and withdrawal at last sex. Over 62% of females and 43% of males report having ever been pregnant or impregnating someone. There are no gender-based differences in pregnancy attitudes; 21% agree they would like to become pregnant within the year. Additionally, there are no gender-based differences in reported contraceptive use at last vaginal sex. In the multivariable model, high school education, contraceptive service utilization (Relative Risk Ratio [RRR]: 4.0), and anti-pregnancy attitudes (RRR: 1.3) are significant positive predictors of using effective contraception; anti-pregnancy attitudes (RRR: 1.2) and gender (RRR: 0.3) are significantly associated with using withdrawal. Health professionals should acknowledge that some homeless youth desire pregnancy; for those that do not, access to effective contraception is important. Programs must continue to promote pregnancy prevention, and include discussions of healthy pregnancy habits for pregnancy-desiring youth. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sources and contents of air pollution affecting term low birth weight in Los Angeles County, California, 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Olivier; Hu, Jianlin; Li, Lianfa; Cockburn, Myles; Escobedo, Loraine; Kleeman, Michael J; Wu, Jun

    2014-10-01

    Low birth weight (LBW, pollution, but it is still unclear which sources or components of air pollution might be in play. The association between ultrafine particles and LBW has never been studied. To study the relationships between LBW in term born infants and exposure to particles by size fraction, source and chemical composition, and complementary components of air pollution in Los Angeles County (California, USA) over the period 2001-2008. Birth certificates (n=960,945) were geocoded to maternal residence. Primary particulate matter (PM) concentrations by source and composition were modeled. Measured fine PM, nitrogen dioxide and ozone concentrations were interpolated using empirical Bayesian kriging. Traffic indices were estimated. Associations between LBW and air pollution metrics were examined using generalized additive models, adjusting for maternal age, parity, race/ethnicity, education, neighborhood income, gestational age and infant sex. Increased LBW risks were associated with the mass of primary fine and ultrafine PM, with several major sources (especially gasoline, wood burning and commercial meat cooking) of primary PM, and chemical species in primary PM (elemental and organic carbon, potassium, iron, chromium, nickel, and titanium but not lead or arsenic). Increased LBW risks were also associated with total fine PM mass, nitrogen dioxide and local traffic indices (especially within 50 m from home), but not with ozone. Stronger associations were observed in infants born to women with low socioeconomic status, chronic hypertension, diabetes and a high body mass index. This study supports previously reported associations between traffic-related pollutants and LBW and suggests other pollution sources and components, including ultrafine particles, as possible risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Epidemiologic investigation of a cluster of workplace HIV infections in the adult film industry: Los Angeles, California, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Melanie M; Rotblatt, Harlan; Brooks, John T; Montoya, Jorge; Aynalem, Getahun; Smith, Lisa; Kenney, Kerry; Laubacher, Lori; Bustamante, Tony; Kim-Farley, Robert; Fielding, Jonathan; Bernard, Bruce; Daar, Eric; Kerndt, Peter R

    2007-01-15

    Adult film production is a legal, multibillion dollar industry in California. In response to reports of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission by an adult film worker, we sought to determine the extent of HIV infection among exposed workers and to identify means of improving worker safety. The Los Angeles County Department of Health Services initiated an outbreak investigation that included interviews of infected workers to elicit information about recent sex partners, review of the testing agency's medical records and laboratory results, molecular analysis of HIV isolates from the 4 infected workers, and a risk assessment of HIV transmission in the adult film industry. Many adult film workers participate in a monthly program of screening for HIV infection by means of polymerase chain reaction-based technology to detect HIV DNA in blood. A male performer tested negative for HIV on 12 February 2004 and 17 March 2004, then tested positive for HIV on 9 April 2004. During the period between the negative test results, he experienced a flulike illness after performing unprotected vaginal and anal intercourse for an adult film produced outside the United States by a US company. After returning to California, he performed unprotected sex acts for adult films with 13 female partners who had all tested negative for HIV in the preceding 30 days; 3 subsequently tested positive for HIV (a 23% attack rate). Contact tracing identified no reasonable sources of infection other than the male index patient. Although current testing methods may shorten the window period to diagnosis of new HIV infection, they fail to prevent occupational acquisition of HIV in this setting. A California Occupational Safety and Health Administration-approved written health and safety program that emphasizes primary prevention is needed for this industry.

  16. The Los Angeles TEAM Study: personal exposures, indoor-outdoor air concentrations, and breath concentrations of 25 volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, L; Nelson, W; Ziegenfus, R; Pellizzari, E; Michael, L; Whitmore, R; Zelon, H; Hartwell, T; Perritt, R; Westerdahl, D

    1991-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the California Air Resources Board studied the exposures of 51 residents of Los Angeles, California, to 25 volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in air and drinking water in 1987. A major goal of the study was to measure personal, indoor, and outdoor air concentrations, and breath concentrations of VOCs in persons living in households that had previously been measured in 1984. Other goals were to confirm the marked day-night and seasonal differences observed in 1984; to determine room-to-room variability within homes; to determine source emission rates by measuring air exchange rates in each home; and to extend the coverage of chemicals by employing additional sampling and analysis methods. A total of 51 homes were visited in February of 1987, and 43 of these were revisited in July of 1987. The results confirmed previous TEAM Study findings of higher personal and indoor air concentrations than outdoor concentrations of all prevalent chemicals (except carbon tetrachloride); higher personal, indoor, and outdoor air concentrations in winter than in summer; and (in winter only) higher outdoor concentrations at night than in the daytime. New findings included the following: (1) room-to-room variability of 12-hour average concentrations was very small, indicating that a single monitor may be adequate for estimating indoor concentrations over this time span; (2) "whole-house" source emission rates were relatively constant during both seasons, with higher rates for odorous chemicals such as p-dichlorobenzene and limonene (often used in room air fresheners) than for other classes of chemicals; (3) breath concentrations measured during morning and evening were similar for most participants, suggesting the suitability of breath measurements for estimating exposure in the home; (4) limited data obtained on two additional chemicals-toluene and methylene chloride-indicated that both were prevalent at fairly high concentrations and that

  17. Widening socio-economic disparities in early childhood obesity in Los Angeles County after the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobari, Tabashir Z; Whaley, Shannon E; Crespi, Catherine M; Prelip, Michael L; Wang, May C

    2018-04-02

    While economic crises can increase socio-economic disparities in health, little is known about the impact of the 2008-09 Great Recession on obesity prevalence among children, especially low-income children. The present study examined whether socio-economic disparities in obesity among children of pre-school age participating in a federal nutrition assistance programme have changed since the recession. A pre-post observational study using administrative data of pre-school-aged programme participants from 2003 to 2014. Logistic regression was used to examine whether the relationship between obesity prevalence (BMI≥95th percentile of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's growth charts) and three measures of socio-economic status (household income, household educational attainment, neighbourhood-level median household income) changed after the recession by examining the interaction between each socio-economic status measure and a 5-year time-period variable (2003-07 v. 2010-14), stratified by child's age and adjusted for child's sociodemographic characteristics. Los Angeles County, California, USA. Children aged 2-4 years (n 1 637 788) participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. The magnitude of the association of household income and household education with obesity increased after 2008-09 among 3- and 4-year-olds and 2- and 3-year-olds, respectively. However, the magnitude of the association of neighbourhood-level median household income with obesity did not change after 2008-09. Disparities in obesity by household-level socio-economic status widened after the recession, while disparities by neighbourhood-level socio-economic status remained the same. The widening household-level socio-economic disparities suggest that obesity prevention efforts should target the most vulnerable low-income children.

  18. Modeling weekday to weekend changes in emissions and ozone in the Los Angeles basin for 1997 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarwood, Greg; Grant, John; Koo, Bonyoung; Dunker, Alan M.

    2008-05-01

    In this study, we used numerical models to investigate weekday to weekend ozone differences in the Los Angeles (LA) basin in 1997 and 2010. We developed relatively complete descriptions of weekday to weekend emission changes for nitrogen oxides (NOx) with 80% of the weekday NOx emissions receiving a weekend adjustment in 1997 and 67% in 2010. Weekend NOx decreases of 34% on Saturday and 45% on Sunday relative to weekdays for 1997 are predicted to become slightly greater by 2010 and are dominated by NOx decreases for on-road vehicles (especially heavy-duty diesel vehicles) and off-road construction equipment. Weekend anthropogenic reactive organic gas (ROG) decreases for 1997 (12% on Saturday and 16% on Sunday) are smaller than for NOx and become even smaller in 2010. However, there is less certainty in the weekend ROG emission changes because only 47% of the weekday ROG emissions received a weekend adjustment in 1997 and only 21% in 2010. The ozone modeling used multiple representations of the meteorology and chemistry in order to identify results that are consistent across these inputs. Weekend ozone increased in central portions of the basin in response to weekend NOx and ROG decreases for both 1997 and 2010, with both the SAPRC99 and CB4 chemical mechanisms, and with all meteorological data sets. Weekend ozone decreased in other portions of the basin in all models. Comparing 2010 to 1997, weekend ozone increases are smaller and confined to smaller portions of the LA basin near the Pacific coast, whereas weekend ozone decreases are larger and more widespread in 2010. For 2010, all models show lower 8-h ozone on Sunday than weekdays in the Riverside/San Bernardino area. First-order sensitivity analysis (via the decoupled direct method) shows that the weekday/weekend ozone changes are mainly due to the NOx emission changes. Also, the weekday/weekend ozone changes for 2010 are sensitive to the choice of initial and boundary concentrations.

  19. Catalyzing Implementation of Evidence-Based Interventions in Safety Net Settings: A Clinical-Community Partnership in South Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payán, Denise D; Sloane, David C; Illum, Jacqueline; Vargas, Roberto B; Lee, Donzella; Galloway-Gilliam, Lark; Lewis, LaVonna B

    2017-07-01

    This study is a process evaluation of a clinical-community partnership that implemented evidence-based interventions in clinical safety net settings. Adoption and implementation of evidence-based interventions in these settings can help reduce health disparities by improving the quality of clinical preventive services in health care settings with underserved populations. A clinical-community partnership model is a possible avenue to catalyze adoption and implementation of interventions amid organizational barriers to change. Three Federally Qualified Health Centers in South Los Angeles participated in a partnership led by a local community-based organization (CBO) to implement hypertension interventions. Qualitative research methods were used to evaluate intervention selection and implementation processes between January 2014 and June 2015. Data collection tools included a key participant interview guide, health care provider interview guide, and protocol for taking meeting minutes. This case study demonstrates how a CBO acted as an external facilitator and employed a collaborative partnership model to catalyze implementation of evidence-based interventions in safety net settings. The study phases observed included initiation, planning, and implementation. Three emergent categories of organizational facilitators and barriers were identified (personnel capacity, professional development capacity, and technological capacity). Key participants and health care providers expressed a high level of satisfaction with the collaborative and the interventions, respectively. The CBO's role as a facilitator and catalyst is a replicable model to promote intervention adoption and implementation in safety net settings. Key lessons learned are provided for researchers and practitioners interested in partnering with Federally Qualified Health Centers to implement health promotion interventions.

  20. Evaluating changes to sodium content in school meals at a large, urban school district in Los Angeles County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Patricia L; Burbage, Lindsey; Wood, Michelle; Butler, Rebecca K; Kuo, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Children consume more than one-third of their daily food intake in schools, suggesting that these environments are ideal places for intervening on poor dietary behaviors. To assess the impact of strategy-focused menu planning on the sodium content of student meals served in the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD). Pre- and post-LAUSD menu change analyses for school years (SY) 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 were performed using nutritional analysis data and food production records. The analyses assessed changes in sodium content by meal categories. 900+ schools, grades K-12, operated by the LAUSD. The LAUSD Food Services Branch, which serves about 650 000 meals per day. A multistage menu planning approach that focused on implementing evidence-based strategies to improve the nutritional content of school breakfast and lunch menus. Engagement and formation of multisectoral partnerships, including public health and parent/student groups, were vital elements of the intervention process. Sodium content changes in the LAUSD menu, SY 2010-2011 versus SY 2011-2012; other measures include documentation of program reach. From SY 2010-2011 to SY 2011-2012, the mean unweighted sodium levels for elementary (K-5) breakfast and for secondary (6-12) breakfast and lunch decreased. These changes met or exceeded the 2014-2015 US Department of Agriculture sodium targets for school meals and for secondary breakfast, the 2022-2023 target(s). These results, however, were not as notable once student food selection patterns (weighted data) and condiments were considered in the analysis. Use of strategy-focused menu planning as a mechanism to reduce sodium in school meals appeared to be promising, demonstrating favorable declines in mean sodium levels for at least 3 of 4 meal categories in the LAUSD. Student food selection patterns and condiments use, however, can affect the strength of the intervention.

  1. Multilevel correlates of broadly- and narrowly-defined intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Hilary A; Hurley, Emily A; Liu, Li; Chao, Shin Margaret

    2015-07-01

    Studies have identified correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy at the individual and neighborhood levels, but have used inconsistent definitions of IPV. We aimed to compare correlates based on two IPV definitions: broad (physical, sexual, or psychological violence) and narrow (physical or sexual violence only). Our analysis included 12,358 women in 2,110 census tracts (weighted to represent 269,671 women) who recently gave birth and responded to the Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB) survey. We linked 2007 and 2010 LAMB data to American Community Survey 2006-2010 census tract data, and conducted separate logistic multilevel analyses to identify correlates of IPV based on each definition. Prevalence of IPV during pregnancy was much higher by the broad (18.3 %) than the narrow definition (3.9 %). No independent neighborhood-level correlates were identified. Some individual-level correlates were associated with both IPV definitions, including substance abuse (OR 3.15, 95 % CI 2.47-4.00 for broad definition; OR 3.60, 95 % CI 2.30-5.64 for narrow definition) and medical problems (OR for ≥3 vs. 0 medical problems 2.03, 95 % CI 1.61-2.55 for broad definition, OR 2.40, 95 % CI 1.54-3.74 for narrow definition). Other correlates associated only with the broad definition, such as car accidents (OR 1.44, 95 % CI 1.04-2.00) and moving during pregnancy (OR 1.35, 95 % CI 1.12-1.62). Differences in correlates of IPV during pregnancy for a broad versus narrow IPV definition may illustrate the situations or mechanisms by which different types of IPV arise. Individual-level characteristics may outweigh neighborhood influences in a diverse population.

  2. Impact of regional transport on the anthropogenic and biogenic secondary organic aerosols in the Los Angeles Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jongbae; de Foy, Benjamin; Olson, Michael R.; Pakbin, Payam; Sioutas, Constantinos; Schauer, James J.

    2015-02-01

    This manuscript explores the role of regional transport on anthropogenic and biogenic secondary organic carbon (SOC) concentrations in ambient fine particulate (PM2.5) organic carbon (OC) in the Los Angeles (LA) Basin. Daily organic molecular markers, water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), OC, and elemental carbon (EC) measurements from May 2009 through April 2010 at a central site in downtown LA, and results from a positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of these data, were used to understand the role of regional transport on SOC concentrations. A backward-trajectory analysis, coupled with the measurements and estimated source contributions, were used to evaluate the origins of SOC aerosols. Anthropogenic and biogenic SOC were identified in central LA over the study period, together contributing 40% of the annual average PM2.5 OC mass. There were distinct seasonal variations, with high contributions of anthropogenic SOC in summer, and high contributions of biogenic SOC in spring. The back-trajectory analysis, coupled with daily source contributions of SOC and organic compounds as indicators, allowed us to identify potential source locations and dominant meteorological conditions contributing to elevated SOC at the measurement site. The results show that air mass movements from the Pacific Ocean are associated with higher contributions of anthropogenic SOC to the PM2.5 OC in downtown LA, suggesting that the combination of local meteorological conditions and local anthropogenic emissions led to an increase in the anthropogenic SOC. In contrast, air masses passing over the Central Valley and forested areas where there are biogenic hydrocarbon emissions are closely associated with higher contributions of biogenic SOC in the region. The study emphasizes that higher anthropogenic SOC contributions are due to the combination of local emissions with humidity air from the ocean, and that higher biogenic SOC contributions are impacted by transport of pollutants from

  3. Abrasion Properties of Steel Fiber Reinforced Silica Fume Concrete According to Los Angeles and Water Abrasion Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsan-Ching CHENG

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study mainly investigated the influence of different tests on the abrasion resistance of concrete mixed with steel fibers and silica fume. The abrasion resistance was assessed at 28, 56 and 91 days on concretes with water-binder ratios of 0.35 and 0.55 where in some mixes silica fume was substituted by 5 % of cement by weight. Steel fibers of 0.5 % and 1.0 % of concrete volume were also added into the test concrete by replacement of coarse and fine aggregates. The results showed that concrete with higher compressive strength in Los Angeles abrasion tests also had better abrasion resistance. The inclusion of steel fibers into test concrete with a water-binder ratio of 0.35 resulted in a significant increase in compressive strength. This concrete also displayed better abrasion resistance and splitting tensile strength than reference concrete; in the test sample with a water-binder ratio of 0.55, the added steel fibers was unable to effectively produce cementation with the concrete. The inclusion of silica fume improved the abrasion resistance of concretes. In water abrasion testing, the abrasion resistance of concrete containing steel fiber was worse than that of concrete without steel fibers. In the water abrasion testing, the surface of steel fiber reinforced concrete was eroded by water and steel balls, and the impact caused the steel fibers to separate from the concrete and led to higher wear loss. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.4.6460

  4. The Break Up: Evaluation of an Anti-Smoking Educational Campaign for Lesbians, Gays, and Bisexuals in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Aaron; Montoya, Jorge A; Tyree, Rachel; Aragon, Linda; Weber, Mark; Le Veque, Matthew; Anderson, Christopher M; Soler, Robin E; Kent, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults in the United States have a higher prevalence of smoking than their heterosexual counterparts. In 2013, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health launched a social marketing and outreach campaign called Break Up to reduce the prevalence of smoking in LGB communities. Break Up was evaluated using cross-sectional, street-intercept surveys before and near the end of campaign. Surveys measured demographics, campaign awareness, and self-reported smoking-related outcomes. Bivariate statistics and logistic regression models were used to identify whether campaign awareness was associated with smoking-related outcomes. Calls by LGB persons to a smokers' helpline were also measured. Among those interviewed at endline, 32.7% reported Break Up awareness. Awareness was associated with thinking of quitting smoking and ever taking steps to quit but not with smoking cessation (defined as not smoking in the past 30 days among those who had smoked in the past 6 months). There was a 0.7% increase in the percentage of weekly calls by LGB persons to the helpline in the year after the campaign. Break Up reached about a third of its intended audience. The campaign was associated with smoking cessation precursors and may have led to an increase in helpline utilization, but there is no evidence it affected quit attempts. This study adds to the limited literature on tobacco programs for LGB persons and, as far as we know, is one of the first to evaluate tobacco-free social marketing in this important yet understudied population.

  5. Thermodynamic evolution of the Los Azufres, Mexico, geothermal reservoir from 1982 to 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arellano, Victor Manuel; Barragan, Rosa Maria [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, 62490 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Torres, Marco Antonio [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia Los Azufres, Campamento Agua Fria, Los Azufres, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2005-10-01

    An investigation has been made of the response of the Los Azufres geothermal reservoir to 20 years of development, beginning in 1982. The simulator WELFLO was used to characterize the thermodynamic conditions of the reservoir fluids. The first response to exploitation consisted of a decrease in pressure and an increase in enthalpy. Small decreases in reservoir pressure associated with large increases in fluid enthalpy characterize the long-term response in the northern production area. In the southern production area, long-term changes include decreases in pressure and mass flow rate, increases in steam production and, in wells affected by injection, increases in both pressure and total mass flow rate. These changes reflect the effects of boiling, cooling and fluid mixing, processes resulting from large-scale fluid production. (author)

  6. Fluids acidity in Los Humeros geothermal reservoir, Puebla, Mexico: Mineralogical evaluation; Acidez de los fluidos del yacimiento geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico: Evaluacion mineralogica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo M, Georgina; Arellano G, Victor Manuel; Portugal M, Enrique; Aragon A, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Martinez, Ignasio [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    The occurrence of the acidity in fluids from Los Humeros geothermal reservoir has been noticeable due to the accelerated corrosion of pipes lines of wells located mainly in the area known as Collapse Central and wells along the East direction of the field. On the base of the evaluation of all available chemical and mineralogical information for Los Humeros geothermal field the main objective of this work was to recognize evidences on the origin of geothermal fluids acidity. Considering the occurrence of HCl in other geothermal systems, no relation to the available information from Los Humeros was found. It is possible that the geothermal fluids acidity would be recent. It could be generated when the deep reservoir was reached by drilling wells. However, the occurrence of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} is evident due to the advance argillic alteration of surface rocks in some areas of the field. It is probable that the model proposed by D' Amore, may be valid for the geothermal field of Los Humeros. Considering that the origin of the vapor phase from the deep reservoir would be a fluid (of very high salinity) that favored the formation of the HCl gas; which moved to the vapor zone when exploitation began being transported in the vapor phase toward the upper reservoir forming aqueous HCl. [Spanish] La presencia de acidez en los fluidos producidos por el yacimiento geotermico de Los Humeros se ha evidenciado por la acelerada corrosion de las tuberias de algunos pozos localizados principalmente en la zona conocida como Colapso central y en direccion Este del campo. Con el objeto de identificar evidencias que permitan establecer el origen de la acidez en los fluidos geotermicos, se llevo a cabo la evaluacion de la informacion quimica y mineralogica existente para el campo geotermico de Los Humeros. Empleando los criterios conocidos sobre la presencia de HCl en otros sistemas geotermicos no se encontro relacion con la informacion evaluada. Por lo que se sugiere que la acidez en

  7. Potential Gains in Life Expectancy from Reductions in Leading Causes of Death, Los Angeles County: a Quantitative Approach to Identify Candidate Diseases for Prevention and Burden Disparities Elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Alex; Hameed, Heena; Lee, Alice W; Shih, Margaret

    2016-09-01

    Despite overall gains in life expectancy at birth among Los Angeles County residents, significant disparities persist across population subgroups. The purpose of this study was to quantify the potential sex- and race/ethnicity-specific gains in life expectancy had we been able to fully or partially eliminate the leading causes of death in Los Angeles County. Complete annual life tables for local residents were generated by applying the same method used for the National Center of Health Statistics US life tables published in 1999. Based on 2010 Los Angeles County mortality records, sex- and race/ethnicity-specific potential gains in life expectancy were calculated using scenarios of 10, 20, 50, and 100 % elimination of 12 major causes of death. Coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death, was found to be most impactful on life expectancy. Its hypothetical full elimination would result in life expectancy gains ranging from 2.2 years among white females to 3.7 years among black males. Gains from complete elimination of lung cancer and stroke ranked second, with almost an additional year of life for each gender. However, marked disparities across racial/ethnic groups were noted from the elimination of several other causes of death, such as homicide, from which the gain among black males exceeded 13 times more than their white counterparts. By differentially targeting specific causes of death in disease prevention, not only can findings of this study aid in efficiently narrowing racial/ethnic disparities, they can also provide a quantitative means to identify and rank priorities in local health policymaking.

  8. Facilitators and barriers to implementing a local policy to reduce sodium consumption in the County of Los Angeles government, California, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren N; Kuo, Tony; Dunet, Diane O; Simon, Paul A

    2011-03-01

    This qualitative study explores facilitators and barriers to a proposed food procurement policy that would require food purchasers, distributors, and vendors of food service in the County of Los Angeles government to meet specified nutrition standards, including limits on sodium content. We conducted 30 key informant interviews. Interviewees represented 18 organizations from the County of Los Angeles government departments that purchased, distributed, or sold food; public and private non-County entities that had previously implemented food procurement policies in their organizations; and large organizations that catered food to the County. Study participants reported 3 key facilitators: their organization's authority to impose nutrition standards, their organization's desire to provide nutritious food, and the opportunity to build on existing nutrition policies. Eight key barriers were identified: 1) unique features among food service settings, 2) costs and unavailability of low-sodium foods, 3) complexity of food service arrangements, 4) lack of consumer demand for low-sodium foods, 5) undesirable taste of low-sodium foods, 6) preference for prepackaged products, 7) lack of knowledge and experience in operationalizing sodium standards, and 8) existing multiyear contracts that are difficult to change. Despite perceived barriers, several participants indicated that their organizations have successfully implemented nutritional standards that include limits on sodium. Developing or changing policies for procuring food represents a potentially feasible strategy for reducing sodium consumption in food service venues controlled by the County of Los Angeles. The facilitators and barriers identified here can inform the formulation, adoption, implementation, and evaluation of sodium reduction policies in other jurisdictions.

  9. CyberShake-derived ground-motion prediction models for the Los Angeles region with application to earthquake early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Maren; Graves, Robert; Gill, David; Callaghan, Scott; Maechling, Phillip J.

    2014-01-01

    Real-time applications such as earthquake early warning (EEW) typically use empirical ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) along with event magnitude and source-to-site distances to estimate expected shaking levels. In this simplified approach, effects due to finite-fault geometry, directivity and site and basin response are often generalized, which may lead to a significant under- or overestimation of shaking from large earthquakes (M > 6.5) in some locations. For enhanced site-specific ground-motion predictions considering 3-D wave-propagation effects, we develop support vector regression (SVR) models from the SCEC CyberShake low-frequency (415 000 finite-fault rupture scenarios (6.5 ≤ M ≤ 8.5) for southern California defined in UCERF 2.0. We use CyberShake to demonstrate the application of synthetic waveform data to EEW as a ‘proof of concept’, being aware that these simulations are not yet fully validated and might not appropriately sample the range of rupture uncertainty. Our regression models predict the maximum and the temporal evolution of instrumental intensity (MMI) at 71 selected test sites using only the hypocentre, magnitude and rupture ratio, which characterizes uni- and bilateral rupture propagation. Our regression approach is completely data-driven (where here the CyberShake simulations are considered data) and does not enforce pre-defined functional forms or dependencies among input parameters. The models were established from a subset (∼20 per cent) of CyberShake simulations, but can explain MMI values of all >400 k rupture scenarios with a standard deviation of about 0.4 intensity units. We apply our models to determine threshold magnitudes (and warning times) for various active faults in southern California that earthquakes need to exceed to cause at least ‘moderate’, ‘strong’ or ‘very strong’ shaking in the Los Angeles (LA) basin. These thresholds are used to construct a simple and robust EEW algorithm: to

  10. Los Angeles megacity: a high-resolution land–atmosphere modelling system for urban CO2 emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Feng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Megacities are major sources of anthropogenic fossil fuel CO2 (FFCO2 emissions. The spatial extents of these large urban systems cover areas of 10 000 km2 or more with complex topography and changing landscapes. We present a high-resolution land–atmosphere modelling system for urban CO2 emissions over the Los Angeles (LA megacity area. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-Chem model was coupled to a very high-resolution FFCO2 emission product, Hestia-LA, to simulate atmospheric CO2 concentrations across the LA megacity at spatial resolutions as fine as  ∼  1 km. We evaluated multiple WRF configurations, selecting one that minimized errors in wind speed, wind direction, and boundary layer height as evaluated by its performance against meteorological data collected during the CalNex-LA campaign (May–June 2010. Our results show no significant difference between moderate-resolution (4 km and high-resolution (1.3 km simulations when evaluated against surface meteorological data, but the high-resolution configurations better resolved planetary boundary layer heights and vertical gradients in the horizontal mean winds. We coupled our WRF configuration with the Vulcan 2.2 (10 km resolution and Hestia-LA (1.3 km resolution fossil fuel CO2 emission products to evaluate the impact of the spatial resolution of the CO2 emission products and the meteorological transport model on the representation of spatiotemporal variability in simulated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We find that high spatial resolution in the fossil fuel CO2 emissions is more important than in the atmospheric model to capture CO2 concentration variability across the LA megacity. Finally, we present a novel approach that employs simultaneous correlations of the simulated atmospheric CO2 fields to qualitatively evaluate the greenhouse gas measurement network over the LA megacity. Spatial correlations in the atmospheric CO2 fields reflect the coverage of

  11. Modeling spatial effects of PM2.5 on term low birth weight in Los Angeles County

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coker, Eric; Ghosh, Jokay; Jerrett, Michael; Gomez-Rubio, Virgilio; Beckerman, Bernardo; Cockburn, Myles; Liverani, Silvia; Su, Jason; Li, Arthur; Kile, Molly L; Ritz, Beate; Molitor, John

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution epidemiological studies suggest that elevated exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) is associated with higher prevalence of term low birth weight (TLBW). Previous studies have generally assumed the exposure–response of PM 2.5 on TLBW to be the same throughout a large geographical area. Health effects related to PM 2.5 exposures, however, may not be uniformly distributed spatially, creating a need for studies that explicitly investigate the spatial distribution of the exposure–response relationship between individual-level exposure to PM 2.5 and TLBW. Here, we examine the overall and spatially varying exposure–response relationship between PM 2.5 and TLBW throughout urban Los Angeles (LA) County, California. We estimated PM 2.5 from a combination of land use regression (LUR), aerosol optical depth from remote sensing, and atmospheric modeling techniques. Exposures were assigned to LA County individual pregnancies identified from electronic birth certificates between the years 1995-2006 (N=1,359,284) provided by the California Department of Public Health. We used a single pollutant multivariate logistic regression model, with multilevel spatially structured and unstructured random effects set in a Bayesian framework to estimate global and spatially varying pollutant effects on TLBW at the census tract level. Overall, increased PM 2.5 level was associated with higher prevalence of TLBW county-wide. The spatial random effects model, however, demonstrated that the exposure–response for PM 2.5 and TLBW was not uniform across urban LA County. Rather, the magnitude and certainty of the exposure–response estimates for PM 2.5 on log odds of TLBW were greatest in the urban core of Central and Southern LA County census tracts. These results suggest that the effects may be spatially patterned, and that simply estimating global pollutant effects obscures disparities suggested by spatial patterns of effects. Studies that incorporate spatial

  12. The impact of gated Communities on property values: evidence of changes in real estate markets -Los Angeles, 1980-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud Le Goix

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on how gated communities, as private means of providing public infrastructure and security, real estate products and club-economies, produce changes in housing market patterns. Based on an empirical study of Los Angeles (California data, it aims to trace to what extent gates and walls favor property values and if the presence of gated communities produces over time (1980-2000 a deterrent effect on non-gated properties abutting the enclave, or close to it. Resulting from a demand for security, gated communities are a leading offer from the homebuilding industry. But their spread emerges from a partnership between local governments and land developers. Both agree to charge the homebuyer with the cost of urban sprawl (construction and maintenance costs of infrastructure within the gates. Such a structuring of residential space is particularly desirable on the urban edges, where the cost of urban sprawl exceeds the financial assets of local public authorities. New private developments provide local governments with new wealthy taxpayers at almost no cost. As compensation, the homebuyer is granted private and exclusive access to sites and amenities (lakes, beaches, etc.. Such exclusivity favors the location rent, and usually positively affects the property values within the gated enclaves. But it is also assumed that operating cost of private governance are paid for by the increase of property values. Market failure nevertheless occurs when costs rise above sustainable levels compared to property values. Changes produced by gates yield to at least two outcomes. At first sight, residential enclosures produce a price premium, thus being a smart investment. Furthermore, gated communities might well be able to generate enough property value to pay off the price of private governance. But this analysis holds only on a short term basis. In the long term, larger and wealthier gated communities are successful in shielding their property

  13. High temperature annealing of fission tracks in fluorapatite, Santa Fe Springs oil field, Los Angeles Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeser, Nancy D.; Crowley, Kevin D.; McCulloh, Thane H.; Reaves, Chris M.; ,

    1990-01-01

    Annealing of fission tracks is a kinetic process dependent primarily on temperature and to a laser extent on time. Several kinetic models of apatite annealing have been proposed. The predictive capabilities of these models for long-term geologic annealing have been limited to qualitative or semiquantitative at best, because of uncertainties associated with (1) the extrapolation of laboratory observations to geologic conditions, (2) the thermal histories of field samples, and (3) to some extent, the effect of apatite composition on reported annealing temperatures. Thermal history in the Santa Fe Springs oil field, Los Angeles Basin, California, is constrained by an exceptionally well known burial history and present-day temperature gradient. Sediment burial histories are continuous and tightly constrained from about 9 Ma to present, with an important tie at 3.4 Ma. No surface erosion and virtually no uplift were recorded during or since deposition of these sediments, so the burial history is simple and uniquely defined. Temperature gradient (???40??C km-1) is well established from oil-field operations. Fission-track data from the Santa Fe Springs area should thus provide one critical field test of kinetic annealing models for apatite. Fission-track analysis has been performed on apatites from sandstones of Pliocene to Miocene age from a deep drill hole at Santa Fe Springs. Apatite composition, determined by electron microprobe, is fluorapatite [average composition (F1.78Cl0.01OH0.21)] with very low chlorine content [less than Durango apatite; sample means range from 0.0 to 0.04 Cl atoms, calculated on the basis of 26(O, F, Cl, OH)], suggesting that the apatite is not unusually resistant to annealing. Fission tracks are preserved in these apatites at exceptionally high present-day temperatures. Track loss is not complete until temperatures reach the extreme of 167-178??C (at 3795-4090 m depth). The temperature-time annealing relationships indicated by the new data

  14. The impact of visual impairment on self-reported visual functioning in Latinos: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globe, Denise R; Wu, Joanne; Azen, Stanley P; Varma, Rohit

    2004-06-01

    To assess the association between presenting binocular visual acuity (VA) and self-reported visual function as measured by the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25). A population-based, prevalence study of eye disease in Latinos 40 years and older residing in La Puente, California (Los Angeles Latino Eye Study [LALES]). Six thousand three hundred fifty-seven Latinos 40 years and older from 6 census tracts in La Puente. All participants completed a standardized interview, including the NEI-VFQ-25 to measure visual functioning, and a detailed eye examination. Two definitions of visual impairment were used: (1) presenting binocular distance VA of 20/40 or worse and (2) presenting binocular distance VA worse than 20/40. Analysis of variance was used to determine any systematic differences in mean NEI-VFQ-25 scores by visual impairment. Regression analyses were completed (1) to determine the association of age, gender, number of systemic comorbidities, depression, and VA with self-reported visual function and (2) to estimate a visual impairment-related difference for each subscale based on differences in VA. The NEI-VFQ-25 scores in persons with visual impairment. Of the 5287 LALES participants with complete NEI-VFQ-25 data, 6.3% (including 20/40) and 4.2% (excluding 20/40) were visually impaired. In the visually impaired participants, the NEI-VFQ-25 subscale scores ranged from 46.2 (General Health) to 93.8 (Color Vision). In the regression model, only VA, depression, and number of comorbidities were significantly associated with all subscale scores (R(2) ranged from 0.09 for Ocular Pain to 0.33 for the composite score). For 9 of 11 subscales, a 5-point change was equivalent to a 1- or 2-line difference in VA. Relationships were similar regardless of the definition of visual impairment. In this population-based study of Latinos, the NEI-VFQ-25 was sensitive to differences in VA. A 5-point difference on the NEI-VFQ-25 seems to be a

  15. Modeling the efficacy of future BMP implementation to improve water quality in the highly urbanized watersheds of Dominguez Channel and Machado Lake in Los Angeles California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, E. M.; Hogue, T. S.; Gold, M.; Mika, K.

    2016-12-01

    Dominguez Channel and Machado Lake watersheds are located in highly urbanized southern Los Angeles County. The 16 mile long channel that runs through the Dominguez Channel watershed (DCW) captures stormwater from a drainage area of 71 square miles and discharges directly into the Los Angeles Harbor. Machado Lake, located within the Machado Lake watershed (MLW) and directly adjacent to DCW, has a surface area of 40 acres and receives stormwater from 25 square miles. The water quality of receiving streams and waterbodies in DCW and MLW are increasingly polluted from stormwater runoff and highly concentrated areas of industrial activities. The main concern of water impairment within DCW includes copper and zinc while MLW is focused on nutrients, Total Nitrogen and Total Phosphorous. The implementation of Low Impact Developments (LIDs) and stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) within the watershed aim to mitigate the effects of urbanization by reducing pollutant loads, runoff volume, and storm peak flow. We utilize the EPA System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis INtegration (SUSTAIN) model in order to assess the impact of BMPs within the DCW and MLW watersheds by forecasting flow regimes and water quality time series data. Six compliance scenarios are simulated in SUSTAIN to assess pollutant load reduction and cost effectiveness. They each utilize a various suite of the five BMPs selected, which include vegetated swales, bioretention cells, dry ponds, infiltration trenches and porous pavement. Preliminary results show that while the six compliance options reduce pollutant loads by at least 73% in DCW, copper and zinc are only 9% and 50% in compliance, respectively, in terms of the wet weather TMDLs. This study further analyzes these results by comparing DCW to other previously modelled watersheds in Los Angeles, including Ballona Creek watershed and the Los Angeles River watershed. Observed water quality sampling from Machado Lake has shown the mean

  16. The search for meaning: eventfulness in the lives of homeless mentally ill persons in the Skid Row district of Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, A

    2001-09-01

    In the past two decades, the field of psychiatry has seen the once dominant psychoanalytic theories overtaken by biological explanations and approaches to severe mental illness. With this change in perspective, the significance of fantasies and delusions have been reduced to being merely symptoms of psychopathology rather than reflections of human needs and motivations. Using ethnographic evidence from a long-term research project. this paper explores one method by which mentally ill homeless individuals in the Skid Row district of Los Angeles attempted to wrest meaningful lives for themselves out of an environment that featured disaffiliation, violence, boredom, and extreme poverty.

  17. Framing the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident: An international, comparative study of news frames in Der Spiegel, the Japan Times and the Los Angeles Times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannakopoulos, Thanos

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated into the news frames employed in reporting on the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident, explored the maintenance of the radiation reporting standard, and assessed the overall tone for the local government, the Japanese Government, and the IAEA. Based on content from Der Spiegel, the Japan Times and the Los Angeles Times (n=60), it was found that media evoked 'conflict', 'responsibility attribution', and 'human interest' frames, radiation reporting standard was marginally maintained, and the overall tone was neutral (local government, IAEA) or negative (Japanese Government). Variances across countries were observed, but results coincided with the country's nuclear energy policy. (author)

  18. Clinical spectrum and risk factors associated with asymptomatic erosive esophagitis as determined by Los Angeles classification: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasyap, Akhilesh Kumar; Chaudhary, Sitaram

    2018-01-01

    Background Gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic and recurrent disease, and it varies in regions. However, to date, there are no reports available on clinical features and the risk factors for the asymptomatic reflux esophagitis in Nepalese adults. Methods Data were gathered from 142 erosive patients who had undergone endoscopy at Bir Hospital, Kathmandu. Los Angeles classification was used to grade the severity of the disease. Patients were interviewed to find out the presence of various reflux symptoms. Results Based on the Los Angeles classification, the severity of the disease assessed was; grade A 31.8% (31/142), grade B 39.4% (56/142), grade C 33.8% (48/142), and grade D 4.9% (7/142). One hundred and twenty six (88.7%) subjects had reflux symptoms. Prevalence of asymptomatic esophagitis was 16(11.3%). Age was independently linked to asymptomatic esophagitis (P<0.05), and the odd of being asymptomatic appeared lower in younger adults (P<0.05; OR: 0.118; CI: 0.014-.994). Conclusion A low prevalence of asymptomatic reflux esophagitis (RE) was seen. Most subjects experienced mild to moderate RE. Age remained an independent factor associated with reflux esophagitis, and the odds of being asymptomatic was lower in younger age. PMID:29486003

  19. Miocene rifting in the Los Angeles basin: Evidence from the Puente Hills half-graben, volcanic rocks, and P-wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, Tom; Burke, Kevin; Zhou, Hua-Wei; Yeats, Robert S.

    2002-05-01

    Formation of the Puente Hills half-graben in the northeastern Los Angeles basin and eruption of the Glendora and El Modeno Volcanics (16 14 Ma) help to define the timing of extension in the basin. Normal faulting on the proto-Whittier fault ca. 14 Ma established the Puente Hills half-graben, in which sedimentary strata accumulated between ca. 14 and 10 Ma and into which diabase sills intruded. North-South contraction began to invert the Puente Hills half-graben ca. 7 Ma, leading to formation of the Puente Hills anticline and the Whittier fault. Our high-resolution three-dimensional P-wave velocity model shows two anomalous higher velocity (6.63 km/s) bodies at depths between 9 and 18 km, which we attribute to dioritic plutons named here for Whittier Narrows and El Modeno. The stocklike Whittier Narrows pluton could have been a source for the Glendora Volcanics and the diabase sills in the Puente Hills half-graben. The sill-shaped El Modeno pluton was a likely source for the El Modeno Volcanics. The northwesterly alignment of the plutons may mark the location of the northeastern Los Angeles basin rift boundary, which is associated with the clockwise rotation of the western Transverse Ranges. Three active faults, the Elysian Park blind thrust, the Puente Hills blind thrust, and the Whittier fault, converge on the Whittier Narrows pluton, which may have played a role in their location and segmentation.

  20. The unhealthy food environment does not modify the association between obesity and participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, M Pia; Harrison, Gail G; Wang, May C; Seto, Edmund Y W; Pebley, Anne R

    2017-01-14

    Participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) has been linked to an increased risk of obesity, but not much is known about the mechanisms behind this association. The objective of this study was to determine if the neighborhood density of unhealthy food outlets modifies the association between obesity and participation in SNAP. Data comes from the first wave of the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey; included are a subsample of adults (18+ years) who were SNAP participants or eligible non-participants (N = 1,176). We carried out multilevel analyses with obesity (BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m 2 ), SNAP participation, and the neighborhood density of unhealthy food outlets as dependent, independent and modifying variables, respectively, controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, marital status, working status, mental health, and neighborhood poverty. SNAP participants had double the odds of obesity compared to eligible non-participants (OR = 2.02; 95%CI = 1.44-2.83). However, the neighborhood density of unhealthy food outlets did not modify this association. SNAP participation was associated with higher odds of obesity in our primarily Hispanic sample in Los Angeles County, with no effect modification found for the unhealthy portion of the food environment. More research is needed with additional food environment measures to confirm our null findings. Additional research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms linking SNAP participation and obesity as they remain unclear.

  1. Implementation and Evaluation of a Large-Scale Teleretinal Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Program in the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskivich, Lauren P; Vasquez, Carolina; Martinez, Carlos; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Mangione, Carol M

    2017-05-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness in adults of working age in the United States. In the Los Angeles County safety net, a nonvertically integrated system serving underinsured and uninsured patients, the prevalence of DR is approximately 50%, and owing to limited specialty care resources, the average wait times for screening for DR have been 8 months or more. To determine whether a primary care-based teleretinal DR screening (TDRS) program reduces wait times for screening and improves timeliness of needed care in the Los Angeles County safety net. Quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest evaluation of exposure to primary care-based TDRS at 5 of 15 Los Angeles County Department of Health Services safety net clinics from September 1, 2013, to December 31, 2015, with a subgroup analysis of random samples of 600 patients before and after the intervention (1200 total). Primary care clinic-based teleretinal screening for DR. Annual rates of screening for DR before and after implementation of the TDRS program across the 5 clinics, time to screening for DR in a random sample of patients from these clinics, and a description of the larger framework of program implementation. Among the 21 222 patients who underwent the screening (12 790 female, 8084 male, and 348 other gender or not specified; mean [SD] age, 57.4 [9.6] years), the median time to screening for DR decreased from 158 days (interquartile range, 68-324 days) before the intervention to 17 days (interquartile range, 8-50 days) after initiation of the program (P screening rates for DR increased from 5942 of 14 633 patients (40.6%) before implementation to 7470 of 13 133 patients (56.9%) after initiation of the program at all 15 targeted clinics (odds ratio, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.3-2.9; P = .002). Of the 21 222 patients who were screened, 14 595 (68.8%) did not require referral to an eye care professional, 4160 (19.6%) were referred for treatment or monitoring of DR, and 2461 (11

  2. Geologic and preliminary reservoir data on the Los Humeros Geothermal System, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferriz, H.

    1982-01-01

    Exploratory drilling has confirmed the existence of a geothermal system in the Los Humeros volcanic center, located 180 km east of Mexico City. Volcanic activity in the area began with the eruption of andesites, followed by two major caldera-forming pyroclastic eruptions. The younger Los Potreros caldera is nested inside the older Los Humeros caldera. At later stages, basaltic andesite, dacite, and olivine basalt lavas erupted along the ring-fracture zones of both calderas. Geologic interpretation of structural, geophysical, and drilling data suggests that: (1) the water-dominated geothermal reservoir is hosted by the earliest andesitic volcanic pile, is bounded by the ring-fracture zone of the Los Potreros caldera, and is capped by the products of the oldest caldera-forming eruption; (2) permeability within the andesitic pile is provided by faults and fractures related to intracaldera uplift; (3) the geothermal system has potential for a large influx of meteoric water through portions of the ring-fracture zones of both calderas; and (4) volcanic centers with similar magmatic and structural conditions can be found in the eastern Cascades, USA.

  3. Modeling the formation and aging of secondary organic aerosols in Los Angeles during CalNex 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, P. L.; Carlton, A. G.; Baker, K. R.; Ahmadov, R.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Alvarez, S.; Rappengluck, B.; Gilman, J. B.; Kuster, W. C.; de Gouw, J. A.; Zotter, P.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Szidat, S.; Kleindienst, T. E.; Offenberg, J. H.; Ma, P. K.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2015-05-01

    Four different literature parameterizations for the formation and evolution of urban secondary organic aerosol (SOA) frequently used in 3-D models are evaluated using a 0-D box model representing the Los Angeles metropolitan region during the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) 2010 campaign. We constrain the model predictions with measurements from several platforms and compare predictions with particle- and gas-phase observations from the CalNex Pasadena ground site. That site provides a unique opportunity to study aerosol formation close to anthropogenic emission sources with limited recirculation. The model SOA that formed only from the oxidation of VOCs (V-SOA) is insufficient to explain the observed SOA concentrations, even when using SOA parameterizations with multi-generation oxidation that produce much higher yields than have been observed in chamber experiments, or when increasing yields to their upper limit estimates accounting for recently reported losses of vapors to chamber walls. The Community Multiscale Air Quality (WRF-CMAQ) model (version 5.0.1) provides excellent predictions of secondary inorganic particle species but underestimates the observed SOA mass by a factor of 25 when an older VOC-only parameterization is used, which is consistent with many previous model-measurement comparisons for pre-2007 anthropogenic SOA modules in urban areas. Including SOA from primary semi-volatile and intermediate-volatility organic compounds (P-S/IVOCs) following the parameterizations of Robinson et al. (2007), Grieshop et al. (2009), or Pye and Seinfeld (2010) improves model-measurement agreement for mass concentration. The results from the three parameterizations show large differences (e.g., a factor of 3 in SOA mass) and are not well constrained, underscoring the current uncertainties in this area. Our results strongly suggest that other precursors besides VOCs, such as P-S/IVOCs, are needed to explain the observed

  4. Avaliação eletroforética, cromatográfica e molecular da Hb D Los Angeles no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Chinelato-Fernandes Ana R.; Leoneli Guilherme G.; Calderan Patrícia O.; Oliveira Rute Blasi de; Silva Jr. Wilson Araújo da; Hidalgo Claudia Augusta; Bonini- Domingos Claudia Regina

    2003-01-01

    A variante de hemoglobina (Hb) D mais comum, Hb D Los Angeles ou D Punjab, é originada de uma transversão GAA->CAA no códon 121 da globina beta; essa mutação resulta na substituição do ácido glutâmico por glutamina na proteína. É a terceira variante de hemoglobina mais freqüente da população brasileira. Como as hemoglobinas D apresentam migração similar à hemoglobina S em pH alcalino, e com a hemoglobina A em pH ácido, são necessários vários testes para o correto diagnóstico. No presente estu...

  5. Integrated approaches to improve birth outcomes: perinatal periods of risk, infant mortality review, and the Los Angeles Mommy and Baby Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Shin Margaret; Donatoni, Giannina; Bemis, Cathleen; Donovan, Kevin; Harding, Cynthia; Davenport, Deborah; Gilbert, Carol; Kasehagen, Laurin; Peck, Magda G

    2010-11-01

    This article provides an example of how Perinatal Periods of Risk (PPOR) can provide a framework and offer analytic methods that move communities to productive action to address infant mortality. Between 1999 and 2002, the infant mortality rate in the Antelope Valley region of Los Angeles County increased from 5.0 to 10.6 per 1,000 live births. Of particular concern, infant mortality among African Americans in the Antelope Valley rose from 11.0 per 1,000 live births (7 cases) in 1999 to 32.7 per 1,000 live births (27 cases) in 2002. In response, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, Maternal, Child, and Adolescent Health Programs partnered with a community task force to develop an action plan to address the issue. Three stages of the PPOR approach were used: (1) Assuring Readiness; (2) Data and Assessment, which included: (a) Using 2002 vital records to identify areas with the highest excess rates of feto-infant mortality (Phase 1 PPOR), and (b) Implementing Infant Mortality Review (IMR) and the Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB) Project, a population-based study to identify potential factors associated with adverse birth outcomes. (Phase 2 PPOR); and (3) Strategy and Planning, to develop strategic actions for targeted prevention. A description of stakeholders' commitments to improve birth outcomes and monitor infant mortality is also given. The Antelope Valley community was engaged and ready to investigate the local rise in infant mortality. Phase 1 PPOR analysis identified Maternal Health/Prematurity and Infant Health as the most important periods of risk for further investigation and potential intervention. During the Phase 2 PPOR analyses, IMR found a significant proportion of mothers with previous fetal loss (45%) or low birth weight/preterm (LBW/PT) birth, late prenatal care (39%), maternal infections (47%), and infant safety issues (21%). After adjusting for potential confounders (maternal age, race, education level, and marital status), the

  6. Changes of Dietary Pattern, Food Choice, Food Consumption, Nutrient Intake and Body Mass Index of Korean American College Students with Different Length of Residence in the Los Angeles Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam; Tam, Chick F.; Poon, George; Lew, Polong; Kim, Samuel Saychang; Kim, James C.; Kim, Rachel Byungsook

    2010-01-01

    This study was to investigate how dietary pattern, food choice, food consumption, nutrient intake and body mass index (BMI) vary with length of residence for Korean American college students. The respondents were 60 Korean American residents living in the Los Angeles Area. They were divided into two groups based on the length of stay in the U.S.:…

  7. Analysis of urban residential environments using color infrared aerial photography: An examination of socioeconomic variables and physical characteristics of selected areas in the Los Angeles basin, with addendum: An application of the concepts of the Los Angeles residential environment study to the Ontario-Upland region of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullens, R. H., Jr.; Senger, L. W.

    1969-01-01

    Aerial photographs taken with color infrared film were used to differentiate various types of residential areas in the Los Angeles basin, using characteristics of the physical environment which vary from one type of residential area to another. Residential areas of varying quality were classified based on these characteristics. Features of the physical environment, identifiable on CIR aerial photography were examined to determine which of these are the best indicators of quality of residential areas or social areas, as determined by the socioeconomic characteristics of the inhabitants of the selected areas. Association between several physical features and the socioeconomic variables was found to exist.

  8. Application of a New Integrated Decision Support Tool (i-DST) for Urban Water Infrastructure: Analyzing Water Quality Compliance Pathways for Three Los Angeles Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, E. M.; Hogue, T. S.; Bell, C. D.; Spahr, K.; McCray, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    The water quality of receiving streams and waterbodies in urban watersheds are increasingly polluted from stormwater runoff. The implementation of Green Infrastructure (GI), which includes Low Impact Developments (LIDs) and Best Management Practices (BMPs), within a watershed aim to mitigate the effects of urbanization by reducing pollutant loads, runoff volume, and storm peak flow. Stormwater modeling is generally used to assess the impact of GIs implemented within a watershed. These modeling tools are useful for determining the optimal suite of GIs to maximize pollutant load reduction and minimize cost. However, stormwater management for most resource managers and communities also includes the implementation of grey and hybrid stormwater infrastructure. An integrated decision support tool, called i-DST, that allows for the optimization and comprehensive life-cycle cost assessment of grey, green, and hybrid stormwater infrastructure, is currently being developed. The i-DST tool will evaluate optimal stormwater runoff management by taking into account the diverse economic, environmental, and societal needs associated with watersheds across the United States. Three watersheds from southern California will act as a test site and assist in the development and initial application of the i-DST tool. The Ballona Creek, Dominguez Channel, and Los Angeles River Watersheds are located in highly urbanized Los Angeles County. The water quality of the river channels flowing through each are impaired by heavy metals, including copper, lead, and zinc. However, despite being adjacent to one another within the same county, modeling results, using EPA System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis INtegration (SUSTAIN), found that the optimal path to compliance in each watershed differs significantly. The differences include varied costs, suites of BMPs, and ancillary benefits. This research analyzes how the economic, physical, and hydrological differences between the three

  9. VA health service utilization for homeless and low-income Veterans: a spotlight on the VA Supportive Housing (VASH) program in greater Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielian, Sonya; Yuan, Anita H; Andersen, Ronald M; Rubenstein, Lisa V; Gelberg, Lillian

    2014-05-01

    The US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)-VA Supportive Housing (VASH) program-the VA's Housing First effort-is central to efforts to end Veteran homelessness. Yet, little is known about health care utilization patterns associated with achieving HUD-VASH housing. We compare health service utilization at the VA Greater Los Angeles among: (1) formerly homeless Veterans housed through HUD-VASH (HUD-VASH Veterans); (2) currently homeless Veterans; (3) housed, low-income Veterans not in HUD-VASH; and (4) housed, not low-income Veterans. We performed a secondary database analysis of Veterans (n=62,459) who received VA Greater Los Angeles care between October 1, 2010 and September 30, 2011. We described medical/surgical and mental health utilization [inpatient, outpatient, and emergency department (ED)]. We controlled for demographics, need, and primary care use in regression analyses of utilization data by housing and income status. HUD-VASH Veterans had more inpatient, outpatient, and ED use than currently homeless Veterans. Adjusting for demographics and need, HUD-VASH Veterans and the low-income housed Veterans had similar likelihoods of medical/surgical inpatient and outpatient utilization, compared with the housed, not low-income group. Adjusting first for demographics and need (model 1), then also for primary care use (model 2), HUD-VASH Veterans had the greatest decrease in incident rates of specialty medical/surgical, mental health, and ED care from models 1 to 2, becoming similar to the currently homeless, compared with the housed, not low-income group. Our findings suggest that currently homeless Veterans underuse health care relative to housed Veterans. HUD-VASH may address this disparity by providing housing and linkages to primary care.

  10. Characterization of potential transport pathways and implications for groundwater management near an anticline in the Central Basin area, Los Angeles County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Daniel J.; Wagner, Brian J.; Land, Michael; Landon, Matthew K.

    2014-01-01

    The Central Groundwater Basin (Central Basin) of southern Los Angeles County includes ~280 mi2 of the Los Angeles Coastal Plain and serves as the primary source of water for more than two million residents. In the Santa Fe Springs–Whittier–Norwalk area, located in the northeastern part of the basin, several sources of volatile organic compounds have been identified. The volatile organic compunds are thought to have contributed to a large, commingled contaminant plume in groundwater that extends south-southwest downgradient from the Omega Chemical Corporation Superfund Site across folded geologic strata, known as the Santa Fe Springs Anticline. A multifaceted study—that incorporated a three-dimensional sequence-stratigraphic geologic model, two-dimensional groundwater particle-tracking simulations, and new groundwater chemistry data—was conducted to gain insight into the geologic and hydrologic controls on contaminant migration in the study area and to assess the potential for this shallow groundwater contamination to migrate into producing aquifer zones. Conceptual flow models were developed along a flow-parallel cross section based on the modeled stratigraphic architecture, observed geochemistry, and numerical model simulations that generally agree with observed water levels and contaminant distributions. These models predict that contaminants introduced into groundwater at shallow depths near the Omega Chemical Corporation Superfund Site and along the study cross section will likely migrate downgradient to depths intercepted by public supply wells. These conclusions, however, are subject to limitations and simplifications inherent in the modeling approaches used, as well as a significant scarcity of available geologic and hydrogeochemical information at depth and in the downgradient parts of the study area.

  11. Epidemiologic study of neural tube defects in Los Angeles County. II. Etiologic factors in an area with low prevalence at birth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sever, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiologic characteristics of neural tube defect (NTD) births occurring in Los Angeles County, California, residents during the period 1966-1972 are presented. The prevalence at birth was 0.52/1000 births for anencephalus, 0.51/1000 for spina bifida, and 0.08/1000 for encephalocele, rates considered to be low for a predominantly white population. We hypothesized that environmental (nongenetic) factors are of less etiologic importance in a low-prevalence population than in areas or time periods with high prevalence. We tested that hypothesis by examining epidemiologic characteristics of NTDs in Los Angeles County and comparing them with high-prevalence populations. The data did not support a major etiologic role for environmental factors: (1) no significant differences between rates by month of birth or conception; (2) no significant association with maternal age or parity for anencephalus; for spina bifida a significant maternal age effect (P < 0.01) and for encephalocele a parity effect (P < 0.02); and (3) no significant relationship with father's occupational class for either anencephalus or encephalocele but a marginally significant (P < 0.05) inverse association for spina bifida when a statistic based on ordinal relationships was used. Findings supporting the importance of genetic factors in etiology included: (1) a high percentage of males; (2) a higher twin concordance rate than in high-prevalence populations; and (3) an anencephalus rate among blacks comparable with rates for blacks in other United States populations. Our findings in conjunction with those from other areas and times of low prevalence suggest environmental factors play a relatively insignificant role in the etiology of NTDs in such populations.

  12. Unintended births among adult immigrant and U.S.-born Mexican women in the Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB) survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coller, Karen M; Chao, Shin M; Lu, Michael C; Strobino, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Unintended births are especially frequent among minority women. Predictors of unintended births among adult Mexican women living in the United States are poorly characterized. Data are from vital statistics and the 2005 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB) survey, a population-based study of women delivering a live birth in Los Angeles County, California (n = 1,214). Multivariable logistic regression assessed the relation of unintended birth with acculturation variables adjusting for background and psychosocial characteristics. Multinomial models assessed these relations for women with an unintended birth who did and did not use contraception. Forty-one percent of women reported an unintended birth. Being a long-term immigrant and U.S.-born were positively associated with unintended birth compared with shorter term immigrants, but the adjusted relation was significant only for U.S.-born women (odds ratio [OR], 2.01; 95% CI, 1.19-3.39). Women reporting an unintended birth were younger, unmarried, and higher parity. If using contraception, the odds of unintended birth were increased for cohabiting women, those with high education, and those with greater stress during pregnancy. When not using contraception and reporting an unintended birth, women also have no usual place for health care, have depressive symptoms during pregnancy, and are dissatisfied with partner support. Women's background and psychosocial characteristics were central to explaining unintended birth among immigrant women but less so for U.S.-born Mexican mothers. Interventions to improve birth intentions should not only target effective contraception, but also important social determinants. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. All rights reserved.

  13. The Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project — A Community-Level, Public Health Initiative to Build Community Disaster Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Eisenman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Public health officials need evidence-based methods for improving community disaster resilience and strategies for measuring results. This methods paper describes how one public health department is addressing this problem. This paper provides a detailed description of the theoretical rationale, intervention design and novel evaluation of the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project (LACCDR, a public health program for increasing community disaster resilience. The LACCDR Project utilizes a pretest–posttest method with control group design. Sixteen communities in Los Angeles County were selected and randomly assigned to the experimental community resilience group or the comparison group. Community coalitions in the experimental group receive training from a public health nurse trained in community resilience in a toolkit developed for the project. The toolkit is grounded in theory and uses multiple components to address education, community engagement, community and individual self-sufficiency, and partnerships among community organizations and governmental agencies. The comparison communities receive training in traditional disaster preparedness topics of disaster supplies and emergency communication plans. Outcome indicators include longitudinal changes in inter-organizational linkages among community organizations, community member responses in table-top exercises, and changes in household level community resilience behaviors and attitudes. The LACCDR Project is a significant opportunity and effort to operationalize and meaningfully measure factors and strategies to increase community resilience. This paper is intended to provide public health and academic researchers with new tools to conduct their community resilience programs and evaluation research. Results are not yet available and will be presented in future reports.

  14. App-Based Sexual Partner Seeking and Sexually Transmitted Infection Outcomes: A Cross-Sectional Study of HIV-negative MSM Attending an STI Clinic in Los Angeles, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVost, Michelle A; Beymer, Matthew R; Weiss, Robert E; Shover, Chelsea L; Bolan, Robert K

    2017-11-29

    Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) face higher rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) than the general population. The association between venues where sexual partners are met and STI transmission is dynamic and poorly understood, especially among those who use geosocial networking (GSN) apps. This study aimed to determine whether there is a difference in STI incidence between MSM who met their last sexual partner through a GSN app and MSM who met their last partner via other venues. Data were analyzed from HIV-negative MSM attending the Los Angeles LBGT Center between August 2015 and July 2016 (n = 9,499). Logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between STI incidence and whether or not an individual met their last partner through a GSN app. No relationship was detected between STI incidence and whether one's last sexual partner was met via GSN app. However, an association was detected between STI incidence and having used GSN apps to meet sexual partners in the past three months. A dose-response relationship was observed between the number of venues used to meet partners and testing positive for any STI (aOR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.20). The relationship between how people meet sexual partners and STI acquisition is much more nuanced than previously thought. GSN apps do not inherently expose users to high-risk reservoirs of STIs, but further understanding of the complexity of sexual networks and networking methods is warranted, given increasing rates of STIs.

  15. From Civic Association to Political Participation: Mexican Hometown Associations and Mexican Immigrant Political Empowerment in Los Angeles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Zabin

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available De la asociación cívica a la participación política: Asociaciones de migrantes y fortalecimiento político de los inmigrantes mexicanos en Los Ángeles En este artículo analizamos la participación de los inmigrantes mexicanos en Estados Unidos, dentro de las asociaciones de migrantes, activismo que representa el caso más importante de trabajo voluntario entre la primera generación de inmigrantes mexicanos. El estudio se concentró en el área de Los Ángeles, California, región que cuenta con la mayor cantidad de inmigrantes mexicanos y de asociaciones de migrantes en Estados Unidos, para evaluar su participación en la política y movimientos sociales de este país. Nuestra investigación mostró que si bien estas asociaciones constituyen una sólida fuente de apoyo social en Estados Unidos, así como de una notable su labor filantrópica en México, su participación es más bien limitada dentro de la política. A pesar de su reducida participación en este ámbito, estas asociaciones están descubriendo su potencial, lo que eventualmente puede convertirlas en fuentes importantes para el fortalecimiento político de los inmigrantes mexicanos en Estados Unidos.

  16. Diurnal and seasonal trends and source apportionment of redox-active metals in Los Angeles using a novel online metal monitor and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Amirhosein; Sowlat, Mohammad H.; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, we identified the sources of four redox-active metals, including Iron (Fe), Chromium (Cr), Cupper (Cu), and Manganese (Mn) and quantified the contribution of these sources to PM2.5 concentrations in central Los Angeles, California, by employing time-resolved measurements (i.e., a time resolution of 2 h) with a recently developed online metal monitor and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). Size distribution of ambient PM (14 nm-10 μm) was measured using the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and Optical Particle Sizer (OPS). Auxiliary variables were also collected, including elemental (EC) and organic carbon (OC), gaseous pollutants (NO2 and O3), meteorological parameters (including relative humidity (RH) and temperature), and traffic data (for heavy- (HDVs) and light-duty vehicles (LDVs)). A 4-factor solution was found to be optimum for the chemically-speciated dataset, whereas a 5-factor solution appeared to be most plausible for the size distribution data. The factors included fresh traffic, soil/road dust, urban background aerosol, secondary aerosol, and nucleation (only resolved for the size distribution data). Fresh traffic was the major contributor to Fe and Cu concentrations, whereas Cr was mostly found in the urban background aerosol (reflecting a mixture of small local sources as well as aged traffic emissions), and Mn mostly came from both soil/road dust and was to a lesser degree found in urban background aerosol. Secondary aerosol did not contribute to the concentrations of any of these metals, but was associated with very high loading of OC, as expected. Even though the urban background aerosol and secondary aerosol appeared to be characterized by "aged" particles and have a rather homogeneous spatial distribution, the reactions and processes involved in their formation are entirely different. Our results provide insights into the sources of redox-active metals in central Los Angeles. They also underscore the benefits of

  17. Piloting an HIV self-test kit voucher program to raise serostatus awareness of high-risk African Americans, Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlin, Robert W; Young, Sean D; Bristow, Claire C; Wilson, Greg; Rodriguez, Jeffrey; Ortiz, Jose; Mathew, Rhea; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2014-11-26

    Up to half of all new HIV cases in Los Angeles may be caused by the 20-30% of men who have sex with men (MSM) with unrecognized HIV infection. Racial/ethnic minority MSM are at particularly high risk for being sero-unaware and due to stigma and poor healthcare access might benefit from novel private, self-testing methods, such as the recently FDA-approved OraQuick® In-Home HIV Test. From July-November 2013, we undertook a pilot study to examine the feasibility of a voucher program for free OraQuick® tests targeting African American MSM in Los Angeles. We determined feasibility based on: (1) the establishment of a voucher redemption and third-party payment system, (2) the willingness of community-based organizations (CBOs) to disseminate vouchers, and (3) the collection of user demographics, test and linkage-to-care results with an anonymous telephone survey. We partnered with Walgreens® to create a voucher and third-party reimbursement system for free OraQuick® tests. Voucher distribution was divided into two periods. In total, 641 vouchers were supplied to CBOs: 274 (42.7%) went to clients and of those 53 (19.3%) were redeemed. Fifty (18.2%) of the 274 clients were surveyed: 44 (88%) were African American, 39 (78%) reported being likely to repeat voucher use, 44 (88%) reported reviewing pre-test information, and 37 (74%) the post-test information. Three (6%) of 50 survey respondents reported newly testing HIV-positive of whom all (100%) reported seeking medical care. Two withheld their results, both of whom also sought medical care. Developing and partnering with a commercial pharmacy to institute a voucher system to facilitate HIV self-testing with linkage-to-care was feasible. Our findings suggest the voucher program was associated with increasing the identification of new cases of HIV infection with high rates of linkage to care. Expanded research and evaluation of voucher programs for HIV self-test kits among high-risk groups is warranted.

  18. Investigating relationships between the air temperature urban heat island effect and land use characteristics in the Los Angeles basin using high density observations and mobile transects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohegh, M.; Taha, H.; Levinson, R.; Ban-Weiss, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    The urban heat island effect (UHI) is defined as urban areas having higher temperatures than their surrounding rural areas and is caused by variations in land-cover characteristics. Most past research on UHI attribution has focused on using satellite-sensor derived temperatures to detect and define the UHI. However, satellite sensors can detect only surface temperatures and not air temperatures, which requires high-resolution ground-based measurements. In this study, we investigate the contributions of land-cover characteristics on determining neighborhood-scale UHIs during day and night in two parts of the Los Angeles basin. The two regions of focus, the San Fernando Valley (SFV) and downtown Los Angeles (DLA), were selected due to their differing baseline climates and variations in land-cover properties. Two sources of air temperature measurements were used: high-density personal weather stations, and mobile transects. Land use characteristics including impervious fraction, building height, vegetation fraction, land-use type, and albedo, were spatially averaged in surrounding areas of each measurement location. Statistical approaches were then used to determine the influence of the aforementioned land-cover characteristics and the extent of spatial averaging on land-cover - temperature interactions. The results suggest that the driving mechanisms that dictate the neighborhood-scale urban heat islands differ between SFV and DLA. During the day, impervious fraction has positive correlation with air temperature in both regions, likely due to increases in heat capacity causing reductions in the diurnal temperature range (DTR). Increased building heights tended to increase temperatures in SFV but decrease temperatures in DLA. This is likely due to the competition between impacts of building height on shortwave radiative transfer (i.e. shading), longwave radiative transfer escaping the urban canopy, and surface roughness. During night, correlations between air

  19. Increases in the climate change adaption effectiveness and availability of vegetation across a coastal to desert climate gradient in metropolitan Los Angeles, CA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyebi, Amin; Darrel Jenerette, G

    2016-04-01

    Urbanization has increased heat in the urban environment, with many consequences for human health and well-being. Managing climate change in part through increasing vegetation is desired by many cities to mitigate current and future heat related issues. However, little information is available on what influences the current effectiveness and availability of vegetation for local cooling. In this study, we identified the variation in the interacting relationships among vegetation (normalized difference vegetation index), socioeconomic status (neighborhood income), elevation and land surface temperature (LST) to identify how vegetation based surface cooling services change throughout the pronounced coastal to desert climate gradient of the Los Angeles, CA metropolitan region, a megacity of >18 million residents. A key challenge for understanding variation in vegetation as a climate change adaptation tool spanning neighborhood to megacity scales is developing new "big data" analytical tools. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to quantify the interacting relationships among socio-economic status data obtained from government census data, elevation and new LST and vegetation data obtained from an airborne imaging campaign conducted in 2013 for the urban and suburban areas across a series of fifteen climate zones. Vegetation systematically increased in cooling effectiveness from 6.06 to 31.77 degrees with increasing distance from the coast. Vegetation and neighborhood income were positively correlated throughout all climate zones with a peak in the relationship occurring near 25km from the coast. Because of the interaction between these two relationships, we also found that higher income neighborhoods were cooler and that this effect peaked at about 30km from the coast. These results show the availability and effectiveness of vegetation on the local climate varies tremendously throughout the Los Angeles, CA metropolitan area. Further, using the more inland climate

  20. 75 FR 26956 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of Los Angeles Area Lakes Total Maximum Daily Loads...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... proposed TMDLs will be available on EPA Region IX's Web site at http://www.epa.gov/region9/water/tmdl... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9146-6] Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of Los... nutrient, mercury, chlordane, dieldrin, DDT, PCB, and trash impairments pursuant to Clean Water Act Section...

  1. Imagining the Mexican Immigrant Worker: (Inter)Nationalism, Identity, and Insurgency in the Chicano Movement in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Ernesto

    2000-01-01

    Traces the history of two organizations of the 1970s Chicano Movement: the Committee to Free Los Tres and the Centro de Accion Social Autonomo (CASA). Discusses their Marxist ideology, notion of Chicano cultural nationalism, involvement of college students and other youth, campaigns supporting immigrant workers' rights and affirmative action at…

  2. Do Sexually Oriented Massage Parlors Cluster in Specific Neighborhoods? A Spatial Analysis of Indoor Sex Work in Los Angeles and Orange Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Anna J.; Takahashi, Lois; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Social determinants of health may be substantially affected by spatial factors, which together may explain the persistence of health inequities. Clustering of possible sources of negative health and social outcomes points to a spatial focus for future interventions. We analyzed the spatial clustering of sex work businesses in Southern California to examine where and why they cluster. We explored economic and legal factors as possible explanations of clustering. Methods We manually coded data from a website used by paying members to post reviews of female massage parlor workers. We identified clusters of sexually oriented massage parlor businesses using spatial autocorrelation tests. We conducted spatial regression using census tract data to identify predictors of clustering. Results A total of 889 venues were identified. Clusters of tracts having higher-than-expected numbers of sexually oriented massage parlors (“hot spots”) were located outside downtowns. These hot spots were characterized by a higher proportion of adult males, a higher proportion of households below the federal poverty level, and a smaller average household size. Conclusion Sexually oriented massage parlors in Los Angeles and Orange counties cluster in particular neighborhoods. More research is needed to ascertain the causal factors of such clusters and how interventions can be designed to leverage these spatial factors. PMID:26327731

  3. If you provide the test, they will take it: factors associated with HIV/STI Testing in a representative sample of homeless youth in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, Allison J; Martino, Steven C; Ewing, Brett; Tucker, Joan S

    2012-08-01

    Homeless youth are at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STI), yet those at greatest risk may never have been tested for HIV or STI. In a probability sample of sexually active homeless youth in Los Angeles (n = 305), this study identifies factors associated with HIV/STI testing status. Most youth (85%) had ever been tested and 47% had been tested in the past 3 months. Recent testing was significantly more likely among youth who self-identified as gay, were Hispanic, injected drugs, and used drop-in centers, and marginally more likely among youth with more depressive symptoms. Drop-in center use mediated the association of injection drug use with HIV/STI testing. HIV/STI testing was unrelated to sexual risk behavior. Drop-in centers can play an important role in facilitating testing, including among injection drug users, but more outreach is needed to encourage testing in other at-risk subgroups.

  4. Pro-social and problematic social network influences on HIV/AIDS risk behaviours among newly homeless youth in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E.; Milburn, N. G.; Rotheram-Borus, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the social network composition among newly homeless youth over time and assessed how pro-social and problematic peers affected sexual and drug-using HIV/AIDS risk-behaviours among 183 youth in Los Angeles County, California. The percentage of newly homeless youth who reported that ‘most’ or ‘all’ of their friends were attending school, had jobs, and got along with their families was 73%, 24%, and 50% respectively. Logistic regression models indicated that presence of these pro-social peers reduced HIV risk behaviours at two years; odds of HIV-risk were lower with a greater number of peers who attend school, have a job, or have positive family relationships or if networks change over time to include more of these peers. Presence of problematic peers increased the likelihood of HIV risk-taking; odds of HIV risk behaviours increased with a greater number of peers at baseline who steal, have overdosed, have been arrested, or are in a gang, or if networks change to include more of these peers. Interventions should target newly homeless youth in networks that contain problematic peers, but should strive to harness the naturally occurring pro-social peer influences present in these networks. PMID:17505933

  5. A prospective study of risk and protective factors for substance use among impoverished women living in temporary shelter settings in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joan S; D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Golinelli, Daniela; Elliott, Marc N; Williamson, Stephanie

    2005-10-01

    Alcohol and drug use are significant public health problems facing homeless women, but few prospective studies have examined risk and protective factors for substance use in this population. This 6-month prospective study identified psychosocial, behavioral, and economic predictors of drinking to intoxication, crack use, and marijuana use in a probability sample of 402 women living in temporary shelter settings in Los Angeles County with a simple majority of homeless residents (92% of these women had a history of homelessness). Engaging in sexual risk behavior and having depressive symptoms were risk factors for more frequent intoxication, marijuana use, and crack use. Drinking to intoxication was additionally predicted by perceived HIV susceptibility, lower social support, more avoidant and less active coping, and lower self-esteem. Additional predictors of marijuana use included partner alcohol misuse and less social support, whereas more frequent crack use was additionally predicted by partner alcohol misuse, lack of economic resources, and more avoidant and less active coping. These findings suggest that effective substance use programs may need an integrative approach that addresses other types of risk behaviors, assists women in strengthening their support networks and learning effective coping skills, and provides access to basic services (e.g., housing, health care). For women in relationships, there may be a further need to address issues of partner substance use.

  6. “The compass of possibilities”: Re-Mapping the Suburbs of Los Angeles in the Writings of D.J. Waldie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Campbell

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article uses the works of the writer, memoirist, and Lakewood, California public official, D. J. Waldie to deepen our concept of “region” and to re-assess many of the stereotypical discourses associated with the American suburbs. In the fashionable parlance of Mike Davis’ City of Quartz, Los Angeles has become defined by its “suburban badlands”; however, Waldie‘s work takes a different view in which his suburban home in LA is the focus for a more complex, multi-faceted approach to post-war suburbia. Typified by his re-assessment of the suburban grid as a “compass of possibilities,” his writings encourage a more nuanced and layered view of the communities and cultures fostered in such places. His key work Holy Land is an argument about why a disregarded place, an ordinary place like suburbia, can in fact contain qualities of life that are profound and reassuring. Through examining his work in its cultural and theoretical context this article looks below the expected “grid” of suburbia to demonstrate the rich life beyond its apparent anonymity.

  7. A Qualitative Analysis of the Use of Financial Services and Saving Behavior Among Older African Americans and Latinos in the Los Angeles Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa R. Blanco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For this study, we conducted seven focus groups in the Los Angeles area with a total of 70 participants (42 Latinos and 28 African Americans recruited from three senior centers and a church. There was a wide variety of responses in relation to the usage of financial services among participants. We found that although some participants seem to participate more in the formal financial sector and show a higher level of sophistication when managing their finances, other participants’ use of formal financial institutions is minimal. Among African American participants, we found several instances in which individuals feel very comfortable using banks. Lower levels of participation in the formal financial sector were found among the lower income Latino participants. In relation to barriers to participate in the financial sector, supply was not an issue, but demand and behavioral factors seem more important. Overall, no participants saved very much on a regular basis. We also find that participants in general do not want to ask their children for money, and also do not want to save and accumulate wealth to leave to their children.

  8. Proyecto MercadoFRESCO: a multi-level, community-engaged corner store intervention in East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Alexander N; Albert, Stephanie L; Sharif, Mienah Z; Langellier, Brent A; Garcia, Rosa Elena; Glik, Deborah C; Brookmeyer, Ron; Chan-Golston, Alec M; Friedlander, Scott; Prelip, Michael L

    2015-04-01

    Urban food swamps are typically situated in low-income, minority communities and contribute to overweight and obesity. Changing the food landscape in low income and underserved communities is one strategy to combat the negative health consequences associated with the lack of access to healthy food resources and an abundance of unhealthy food venues. In this paper, we describe Proyecto MercadoFRESCO (Fresh Market Project), a corner store intervention project in East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights in California that used a multi-level approach with a broad range of community, business, and academic partners. These are two neighboring, predominantly Latino communities that have high rates of overweight and obesity. Located in these two communities are approximately 150 corner stores. The project used a community-engaged approach to select, recruit, and convert four corner stores, so that they could become healthy community assets in order to improve residents' access to and awareness of fresh and affordable fruits and vegetables in their immediate neighborhoods. We describe the study framework for the multi-level intervention, which includes having multiple stakeholders, expertise in corner store operations, community and youth engagement strategies, and social marketing campaigns. We also describe the evaluation and survey methodology to determine community and patron impact of the intervention. This paper provides a framework useful to a variety of public health stakeholders for implementing a community-engaged corner store conversion, particularly in an urban food swamp.

  9. The prevalence of harmful content on outdoor advertising in Los Angeles: land use, community characteristics, and the spatial inequality of a public health nuisance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Bryce C; Sloane, David C

    2014-04-01

    Our study sought to examine associations between the content of outdoor advertising and neighborhood ethnic/racial and socioeconomic composition to see whether particular communities disproportionately host harmful content. We constructed a spatial database of photographs taken from June 2012 until December 2012 in 7 identically zoned communities in Los Angeles, California, to compare outdoor advertising area and content. We selected communities to contrast by ethnicity/race, income, education, and youth population. At-risk communities and communities of color hosted more outdoor advertising depicting harmful content than other communities. Among included neighborhoods, harmful content and the proportion of outdoor advertising overall were most prevalent in communities of Asian Americans and Latino Americans. In all communities, harmful content represented at least 24% of outdoor advertising space. This study provides evidence of the potential for land-use decisions to result in spatially inequitable health impacts. Although dictating the placement of outdoor advertising through zoning may seem sensible, such a decision might have the unintended consequence of disadvantaging the well-being of local communities. Neighborhood factors require more contextually nuanced public health and land-use policy.

  10. Previous Adverse Infant Outcomes as Predictors of Preconception Care Use: An Analysis of the 2010 and 2012 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB) Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Priya; Higgins, Chandra; Chao, Shin M

    2016-06-01

    Objectives This study aimed to understand the impact of a previous adverse infant outcome (AIO) on use of preconception care prior to a subsequent pregnancy. Methods Responses from the 2010 and 2012 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby Surveys were analyzed. Weighted multivariate logistic regression was employed to identify significant associations between having had a previous AIO (preterm delivery, low birth weight infant, stillbirth, or major birth defect) and receipt of preconception care prior to the most recent pregnancy. Select patient-level covariates were included: chronic disease, age, education level, race/ethnicity, country of birth, insurance status prior to pregnancy and pregnancy intent. Adjustment for missing responses was performed using multiple chained imputation. Results After controlling for covariates, having had a previous AIO was associated with an increased odds of having utilized preconception care in the most recent pregnancy (OR 1.237, p = 0.040). Per the final regression model, a woman reporting a previous AIO and an intended subsequent pregnancy had a 42.4 % likelihood of having used preconception care. Of these women, only 28.8 % reported doing so because of concern regarding a previous birth complication. Discussion Women reporting a previous AIO were more likely to have used preconception care in a subsequent pregnancy. The prevalence of preconception care utilization remained low overall. Pregnancy intent emerged as a strong secondary predictor; any concerted strategy to improve access to preconception care must include initiatives to help ensure that pregnancies are planned.

  11. Association Between Life Event Stressors and Low Birth Weight in African American and White Populations: Findings from the 2007 and 2010 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB) Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuan; Kershaw, Trace; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Higgins, Chandra; Lu, Michael C; Chao, Shin M

    2015-10-01

    We examined the association between life events stressors during pregnancy and low birth weight (LBW) among African Americans and Whites, while systematically controlling for potential confounders including individual characteristics and city-level variations and clustering. We analyzed data from 4970 women with singleton births who participated in the 2007 and 2010 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby Surveys. Multilevel logistic regression was used to assess the association between emotional, financial, spousal and traumatic stressors and LBW among African Americans and Whites. Potential confounders included were: the city-level Economic Hardship Index, maternal demographics, pre-pregnancy conditions, insurance, behavioral risk factors and social support. African Americans were significantly more likely to experience any domain of stressors during their pregnancy, compared to Whites (p < 0.001). Only the association between financial stressors and LBW was significantly different between African Americans and Whites (p for interaction = 0.015). Experience of financial stressors during pregnancy was significantly associated with LBW among African Americans (adjusted odds ratio = 1.49; 95 % confidence interval = 1.01-2.22) but not Whites. Differential impact of financial stressors during pregnancy may contribute to racial disparities in LBW between African Americans and Whites. We showed that financial life event stressors, but not other domains of stressors, were more likely to impact LBW among African Americans than Whites. Initiatives aimed at mitigating the negative impacts of financial stress during pregnancy may contribute to reducing disparities in birth outcomes between African Americans and Whites.

  12. Neighborhood Social Environment and Health Communication at Prepregnancy and Maternal Stages among Caucasian and Asian Women: Findings from the Los Angeles Mommy and Baby Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We study whether the relationship between neighborhood social environment and maternal communication with healthcare providers differs between Asians and Caucasians. Method and Materials. Using the 2007 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB survey, we measure new mother’s neighborhood social environment by four key variables: (1 instrumental/emotional support during pregnancy, (2 neighborhood social cohesion, (3 neighborhood social exchange, and (4 neighborhood services. Logistic regressions were applied for data analysis. Neighborhood social exchange predicts less chance of lacking communication about sensitive issues in preconception visits among Caucasians (logged odds: −0.045; P<0.01 and Asians (L.O.: −0.081; P<0.001 and predicts less chance of lacking communication during preconception visits among Asians (L.O.: −0.092; P<0.05. Neighborhood social cohesion predicts more chance for lacking communication about preparation for pregnancy only among Asians (L.O.: 0.065; P<0.05. Neighborhood services predict less chance of lacking communication about stigmatized issues in the prenatal visit among Asians (L.O.: −0.036; P<0.05. Discussion. Caucasians and Asians with more neighborhood social exchange are more likely to discuss sensitive issues during preconception visits. Neighborhood service significantly predicts maternal discussion of stigmatized issues with health care providers, but only among Asians.

  13. The balance between stress and personal capital during pregnancy and the relationship with adverse obstetric outcomes: findings from the 2007 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeel, Fathima; Wisk, Lauren E; Gee, Rebekah; Chao, Shin M; Witt, Whitney P

    2013-12-01

    Stress during pregnancy is a salient risk factor for adverse obstetric outcomes. Personal capital during pregnancy, defined as internal and social resources that help women cope with or decrease their exposure to stress, may reduce the risk of poor obstetric outcomes. Using data from the 2007 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby study (N = 3,353), we examined the relationships between the balance of stress and personal capital during pregnancy, or the stress-to-capital ratio (SCR), and adverse obstetric outcomes (i.e., pregnancy complications, preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW), and small for gestational age (SGA)). Women with a higher SCR (i.e., greater stress relative to personal capital during pregnancy) were significantly more likely to experience at least one pregnancy complication, PTB, and lower gestational age, but not LBW or SGA. Accounting for pregnancy complications completely mediated the association between the SCR and PTB. Our findings indicate that experiencing greater stress relative to personal capital during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk for pregnancy complications, PTB, and lower gestational age and that pregnancy complications may be a mechanism by which the SCR is related to adverse obstetric outcomes.

  14. Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) Training of High-Risk Teens in the Community of Watts, South Los Angeles, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossey, Shamika; Sylvers, Sharon; Oksuzyan, Sona; Smith, Lisa V; Frye, Douglas; Family, Leila; Scott, Jannah; King, Jan B

    2017-10-01

    The Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) concept was initially developed for adult members of the community to help prepare for disasters and minimize damage when disasters occur. CERTs also served as a tool for building community capacity and self-sufficiency by supporting a diverse group of people working together in dealing with challenges affecting their communities. The novel approach to CERTs described here sought to involve high-risk youth from low-socioeconomic status communities in CERTs and first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training to help them build ties with communities, stay off the streets, and become leaders in the community. It also helped to provide different perspectives on life, while building more resilient communities better prepared to minimize damage when a disaster strikes. After the successful launch of the first high-risk teen CERT cohort in Watts (27 CERT-trained and 14 first aid/CPR-trained), the project was expanded to other community groups and organizations. Seven additional cohorts underwent CERT and first aid/CPR training in 2013 through 2014. This initiative increased CERT visibility within South Los Angeles. New partnerships were developed between governmental, nongovernmental, and community-based organizations and groups. This model can be used to expand CERT programs to other communities and organizations by involving high-risk teens or other high-risk groups in CERT training. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:605-609).

  15. Implementation of a hepatitis A/B vaccination program using an accelerated schedule among high-risk inmates, Los Angeles County Jail, 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costumbrado, John; Stirland, Ali; Cox, Garrett; El-Amin, Alvin Nelson; Miranda, Armidia; Carter, Ann; Malek, Mark

    2012-11-06

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend vaccination for men who have sex with men (MSM) and injection drug users against hepatitis A and B. This study is the first report of a hepatitis vaccination program in a United States jail with a combined vaccine using an accelerated schedule. Los Angeles County has the largest jail system in the nation and Men's Central Jail (MCJ) is the largest facility within that system. MCJ includes a unit for self-identified MSM, where approximately 2700 inmates are housed per year. Starting in August 2007, a combined hepatitis A and B vaccine was offered to all inmates housed in this special unit. Using an accelerated schedule (0-, 7-, 21-30 days, 12-month booster), a total of 3931 doses were administered to 1633 inmates as of June 2010. Of those, 77% received 2 doses, 58% received 3 doses, and 11% received the booster dose. Inmates who screened positive for a sexually transmitted infection in this unit were 1.3 times more likely to be vaccinated (95% CI 1.2-1.4) compared to others in the same housing unit who screened negative. Hepatitis vaccination initiatives can be successfully implemented in an urban jail among an extremely high-risk population using the accelerated, combined hepatitis A/B vaccine. Ours may be a useful model for other programs to vaccinate incarcerated populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Intimate partner violence prevention services and resources in Los Angeles: issues, needs, and challenges for assisting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Chandra L; Slavin, Terra; Hilton, Karin L; Holt, Susan L

    2013-11-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is as prevalent in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) relationships as it is in heterosexual ones; however, the issues, needs, and challenges associated with assisting or advocating on behalf of LGBT persons are poorly understood. Using community-based participatory approaches, we conducted a brief survey of professionals (e.g., shelter staff, domestic violence prevention and intervention programs, law enforcement) affiliated with one or more domestic violence prevention and/or intervention networks in Los Angeles, California. The sample, which included professionals (N = 54) from diverse programs/agencies, was obtained using purposive and snowball sampling. Participants self-administered a 33-item, online questionnaire. Analyses primarily involved descriptive statistics (frequencies, proportions). Most respondents had little or no training in LGBT IPV; nevertheless, nearly 50% of them reported having assisted LGBTs "sometimes" or "often" in the past year. Nearly all (92%) reported that their agencies/programs lack staff with dedicated responsibilities to LGBT IPV. The most frequent requests for assistance respondents reported receiving from LGBTs were for counseling, safe housing, legal assistance, and assistance navigating the medical system. The findings suggest that staff believe their agencies/programs inadequately address LGBT IPV but that many of the inadequacies (e.g., lack of staff training on LGBT IPV) are remediable.

  17. The Balance Between Stress and Personal Capital during Pregnancy and the Relationship with Adverse Obstetric Outcomes: Findings from the 2007 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeel, Fathima; Wisk, Lauren E.; Gee, Rebekah; Chao, Shin M.; Witt, Whitney P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Stress during pregnancy is a salient risk factor for adverse obstetric outcomes. Personal capital during pregnancy, defined as internal and social resources that help women cope with or decrease their exposure to stress, may reduce the risk of poor obstetric outcomes. Methods Using data from the 2007 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB) survey (N=3,353), we examined the relationships between the balance of stress and personal capital during pregnancy, or the Stress-to-Capital Ratio (SCR), and adverse obstetric outcomes ((i.e., pregnancy complications, preterm birth (PTB), low birthweight (LBW), and small-for-gestational-age (SGA)). Results Women with a higher SCR (i.e. greater stress relative to personal capital during pregnancy) were significantly more likely to experience at least one pregnancy complication, PTB, and lower gestational age, but not LBW or SGA. Accounting for pregnancy complications completely mediated the association between the SCR and PTB. Conclusions Our findings indicate that experiencing greater stress relative to personal capital during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk for pregnancy complications, PTB, and lower gestational age and that pregnancy complications may be a mechanism by which the SCR is related to adverse obstetric outcomes. PMID:23812738

  18. Food and drink consumption among 1-5-year-old Los Angeles County children from households receiving dual SNAP and WIC v. only WIC benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jane; Kuo, Tony; Jiang, Lu; Robles, Brenda; Whaley, Shannon E

    2017-10-01

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) are two of the more well-known food assistance programmes in the USA. The current study describes food consumption patterns of children aged 1-5 years living in households dually enrolled in these two programmes v. households enrolled only in WIC. Food consumption and SNAP participation were assessed using data from the 2014 Survey of Los Angeles County (LAC) WIC Participants and the Follow-Up Survey of the same households that were also SNAP beneficiaries. Telephone interviews were conducted with WIC parents regarding each child's (i.e. beneficiary's) food consumption patterns. Follow-up interviews were conducted with those who reported receiving SNAP. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to assess the relationships between food and beverage consumption and dual v. single food assistance programme participation. LAC, California. Children of WIC-enrolled households in LAC during 2014 (n 3248). This included a sub-sample of dual WIC- and SNAP-enrolled households (n 1295). Survey participants were the beneficiaries' parents. Children from dually enrolled households consumed 1·03 (Pfoods 1·04 more times daily (Pconsumption of both healthy foods and foods containing minimal nutritional value. Complementary nutrition education efforts across the two programmes may help beneficiaries maximize healthful food purchases with SNAP dollars.

  19. Teaching, leadership, scholarly productivity, and level of activity in the chiropractic profession: a study of graduates of the Los Angeles College of Chiropractic radiology residency program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kenneth J; Siordia, Lawrence

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to track the graduates of the Los Angeles College of Chiropractic (LACC) radiology residency program, review their scholarly productivity, and report those involved in teaching and leadership positions. Former LACC residents' career information was identified through publicly available electronic documents including Web sites and social media. PubMed and the Index to Chiropractic Literature databases were searched for chiropractic graduate job surveys, and proportional comparisons were made between the career paths of LACC radiology residency graduates and those of non-residency-trained chiropractors. Of 47 former LACC residents, 28 (60%) have or previously had careers in tertiary (chiropractic) education; and 12 (26%) have attained a department chair position or higher at tertiary teaching institutions. Twenty-two (47%) have or previously had private radiology practices, whereas 11 (23%) have or previously had clinical chiropractic practices. Often, residency graduates hold or have held 2 of these positions at once; and one, all 3. Chapters or books were authored by 13 (28%). Radiology residency LACC graduates are professionally active, particularly in education, and demonstrate scholarly productivity.

  20. Comparison of nutrition standards and other recommended procurement practices for improving institutional food offerings in Los Angeles County, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Brenda; Wood, Michelle; Kimmons, Joel; Kuo, Tony

    2013-03-01

    National, state, and local institutions that procure, distribute, sell, and/or serve food to employees, students, and the public are increasingly capitalizing on existing operational infrastructures to create healthier food environments. Integration of healthy nutrition standards and other recommended practices [e.g., energy (kilocalories) postings at point-of-purchase, portion size restrictions, product placement guidelines, and signage] into new or renewing food service and vending contracts codifies an institution's commitment to increasing the availability of healthful food options in their food service venues and vending machines. These procurement requirements, in turn, have the potential to positively influence consumers' food-purchasing behaviors. Although these strategies are becoming increasingly popular, much remains unknown about their context, the processes required to implement them effectively, and the factors that facilitate their sustainability, especially in such broad and diverse settings as schools, county government facilities, and cities. To contribute to this gap in information, we reviewed and compared nutrition standards and other best practices implemented recently in a large school district, in a large county government, and across 10 municipalities in Los Angeles County. We report lessons learned from these efforts.

  1. Sex drugs, peer connections, and HIV: Use and risk among African American, Latino, and Multiracial young men who have sex with men (YMSM) in Los Angeles and New York

    OpenAIRE

    Mutchler, Matt G.; McKay, Tara; Candelario, Norman; Liu, Honghu; Stackhouse, Bill; Bingham, Trista; Ayala, George

    2011-01-01

    African American and Latino young men who have sex with men are at high risk for HIV infection. We administered brief intercept surveys (N=416) at 18 Black and Latino gay pride events in Los Angeles and New York in 2006 and 2007. Ordinal logistic regressions were used to model the effects of substance use during sex, peer connectedness, relationship status, and homelessness on condom use. Alcohol use, crystal use, homelessness, and having a primary relationship partner were negatively associa...

  2. Carbon dioxide and methane measurements from the Los Angeles Megacity Carbon Project – Part 1: calibration, urban enhancements, and uncertainty estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Verhulst

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We report continuous surface observations of carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 from the Los Angeles (LA Megacity Carbon Project during 2015. We devised a calibration strategy, methods for selection of background air masses, calculation of urban enhancements, and a detailed algorithm for estimating uncertainties in urban-scale CO2 and CH4 measurements. These methods are essential for understanding carbon fluxes from the LA megacity and other complex urban environments globally. We estimate background mole fractions entering LA using observations from four extra-urban sites including two marine sites located south of LA in La Jolla (LJO and offshore on San Clemente Island (SCI, one continental site located in Victorville (VIC, in the high desert northeast of LA, and one continental/mid-troposphere site located on Mount Wilson (MWO in the San Gabriel Mountains. We find that a local marine background can be established to within  ∼  1 ppm CO2 and  ∼  10 ppb CH4 using these local measurement sites. Overall, atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane levels are highly variable across Los Angeles. Urban and suburban sites show moderate to large CO2 and CH4 enhancements relative to a marine background estimate. The USC (University of Southern California site near downtown LA exhibits median hourly enhancements of  ∼  20 ppm CO2 and  ∼  150 ppb CH4 during 2015 as well as  ∼  15 ppm CO2 and  ∼  80 ppb CH4 during mid-afternoon hours (12:00–16:00 LT, local time, which is the typical period of focus for flux inversions. The estimated measurement uncertainty is typically better than 0.1 ppm CO2 and 1 ppb CH4 based on the repeated standard gas measurements from the LA sites during the last 2 years, similar to Andrews et al. (2014. The largest component of the measurement uncertainty is due to the single-point calibration method; however, the uncertainty in the background mole fraction is much

  3. Virus fate and transport during recharge using recycled water at a research field site in the Montebello Forebay, Los Angeles County, California, 1997-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Robert; Yanko, William A.; Schroeder, Roy A.; Jackson, James L.

    2004-01-01

    Total and fecal coliform bacteria distributions in subsurface water samples collected at a research field site in Los Angeles County were found to increase from nondetectable levels immediately before artificial recharge using tertiary-treated municipal wastewater (recycled water). This rapid increase indicates that bacteria can move through the soil with the percolating recycled water over intervals of a few days and vertical and horizontal distances of about 3 meters. This conclusion formed the basis for three field-scale experiments using bacterial viruses (bacteriophage) MS2 and PRD1 as surrogates for human enteric viruses and bromide as a conservative tracer to determine the fate and transport of viruses in recycled water during subsurface transport under actual recharge conditions. The research field site consists of a test basin constructed adjacent to a large recharge facility (spreading grounds) located in the Montebello Forebay of Los Angeles County, California. The soil beneath the test basin is predominantly medium to coarse, moderately sorted, grayish-brown sand. The three tracer experiments were conducted during August 1997, August-September 1998, and August 2000. For each experiment, prepared solutions of bacteriophage and bromide were sprayed on the surface of the water in the test basin and injected, using peristaltic pumps, directly into the feed pipe delivering the recycled water to the test basin. Extensive data were obtained for water samples collected from the test basin itself and from depths of 0.3, 0.6, 1.0, 1.5, 3.0, and 7.6 meters below the bottom of the test basin. The rate of bacteriophage inactivation in the recycled water, independent of any processes occurring in the subsurface, was determined from measurements on water samples from the test basin. Regression analysis of the ratios of bacteriophage to bromide was used to determine the attenuation rates for MS2 and PRD1, defined as the logarithmic reduction in the ratio during each

  4. A field studies and modeling approach to develop organochlorine pesticide and PCB total maximum daily load calculations: Case study for Echo Park Lake, Los Angeles, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, V.R., E-mail: vrvasquez@ucla.edu [Environmental Science and Engineering Program, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States); Curren, J., E-mail: janecurren@yahoo.com [Environmental Science and Engineering Program, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States); Lau, S.-L., E-mail: simlin@ucla.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States); Stenstrom, M.K., E-mail: stenstro@seas.ucla.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States); Suffet, I.H., E-mail: msuffet@ucla.edu [Environmental Science and Engineering Program, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Echo Park Lake is a small lake in Los Angeles, CA listed on the USA Clean Water Act Section 303(d) list of impaired water bodies for elevated levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish tissue. A lake water and sediment sampling program was completed to support the development of total maximum daily loads (TMDL) to address the lake impairment. The field data indicated quantifiable levels of OCPs and PCBs in the sediments, but lake water data were all below detection levels. The field sediment data obtained may explain the contaminant levels in fish tissue using appropriate sediment-water partitioning coefficients and bioaccumulation factors. A partition-equilibrium fugacity model of the whole lake system was used to interpret the field data and indicated that half of the total mass of the pollutants in the system are in the sediments and the other half is in soil; therefore, soil erosion could be a significant pollutant transport mode into the lake. Modeling also indicated that developing and quantifying the TMDL depends significantly on the analytical detection level for the pollutants in field samples and on the choice of octanol-water partitioning coefficient and bioaccumulation factors for the model. - Research highlights: {yields} Fugacity model using new OCP and PCB field data supports lake TMDL calculations. {yields} OCP and PCB levels in lake sediment were found above levels for impairment. {yields} Relationship between sediment data and available fish tissue data evaluated. {yields} Model provides approximation of contaminant sources and sinks for a lake system. {yields} Model results were sensitive to analytical detection and quantification levels.

  5. Reduction of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in the Ballona Wetlands saltwater marsh (Los Angeles County, California, USA) with implications for restoration actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, John H; Carter, Patrick M; Bergquist, Sean; Sagarin, Rafe

    2010-08-01

    A benefit of wetland preservation and restoration is the ecosystem service of improving water quality, typically assessed based on bacterial loading. The Ballona Wetlands, a degraded salt marsh of approximately 100 ac located on the southern border of Marina Del Rey (Los Angeles County, California, USA) are currently the focus of publicly funded restoration planning. The wetlands receive tidal water, usually contaminated with fecal indicator bacteria (FIB: total and fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci) from the adjacent Ballona Creek and Estuary. During the summer of 2007, two 24-h studies were conducted to determine FIB tidal dynamics within the wetland. Measurements of water flow and mean FIB concentrations (n = 3) were measured every 1.5 h to determine total FIB load estimates. FIB loading rates (MPN/s) were greatest during flood tides as water entered the wetlands, and then again during spring tide conditions when sediments were resuspended during swifter spring ebb flows. During daylight hours, the wetland acted as a sink for these bacteria as loads diminished, presumably by sunlight and other processes. Conversely, during late afternoon and night, the wetlands shifted to being a source as excess FIB departed on ebb flows. Therefore, the wetlands act as both a source and sink for FIB depending on tidal conditions and exposure to sunlight. Future restoration actions would result in a tradeoff - increased tidal channels offer a greater surface area for FIB inactivation, but also would result in a greater volume of FIB-contaminated resuspended sediments carried out of the wetlands on stronger ebb flows. As levels of FIB in Ballona Creek and Estuary diminish through recently established regulatory actions, the wetlands could shift into a greater sink for FIB. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An assessment of fecal indicator and other bacteria from an urbanized coastal lagoon in the City of Los Angeles, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, John H; Carmona-Galindo, Víctor D; Leary, Christopher; Huh, Julie; Valdez, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    A study was performed in Del Rey Lagoon, City of Los Angeles, to determine if the lagoon was as a source or sink for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB: total coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci) and to screen for the presence of other potentially pathogenic bacteria. The lagoon receives tidal flows from the adjacent Ballona Estuary whose water usually is contaminated with FIB originating from the highly urbanized Ballona Creek Watershed. During 16 sampling events from February 2008 through March 2009, replicate water samples (n = 3) were collected 1 h prior to the high tide and 1 h prior to the following low tide. FIB concentrations were measured by the defined substrate method (IDEXX, Westbrook, Me) followed by culturing of bacterial isolates sampled from positive IDEXX Quanti-Tray wells and were identified using the Vitek 2 Compact (bioMérieux, Durham, NC). Mean concentrations of FIB often differed by an order of magnitude from flood to ebb flow conditions. The lagoon tended to act as a sink for total coliforms based on the ratio of mean flood to ebb densities (R (F/E)) >1.0 during 56 % of the sampling events and during ebb flows, as a source for E. coli and enterococci (R (F/E) <1.69 % of events). Approximately 54 species were identified from 277 isolates cultured from the IDEXX Quanti-Trays. Of these, 54 % were species known to include pathogenic strains that can be naturally occurring, introduced in runoff, or originated from other sources. Diversity and cluster analyses indicated a dynamic assemblage that changes in species composition with day-to-day fluctuations as well as tidal action. The concept of monitoring the lagoon and estuary as a sentinel habitat for pathogenic assemblages is discussed.

  7. Minority stress experiences and psychological well-being: the impact of support from and connection to social networks within the Los Angeles House and Ball communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carolyn F; Schrager, Sheree M; Holloway, Ian W; Meyer, Ilan H; Kipke, Michele D

    2014-02-01

    African American young men who have sex with men (AAYMSM) from the House and Ball communities are at high risk for HIV infection. Because these communities are not only sources of risk but also support for AAYMSM, researchers must also consider the resources these communities possess. This knowledge will assist in the formulation of more effective prevention strategies and intervention approaches. Using minority stress theory as a framework, the current study illustrates the impact minority stress has on the psychological well-being of a sample of MSM from the Los Angeles House and Ball communities and investigates how these factors affect the relationship between minority stress and psychological well-being. Surveys were administered to participants over the course of a year. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate a model of the associations between minority stressors, support, connection to social network, and psychological well-being/distress (N = 233). The results indicated significant associations between different sources of minority stress, including distal minority stress (e.g., racism, homophobia), gay identification, and internalized homophobia. Minority stressors were in turn significantly associated with greater distress. However, greater instrumental support significantly reduced the effects of distal minority stress on distress. Greater connection to social network also significantly reduced stress associated with gay identification on distress. The findings captured the diverse sources of minority stress faced by this population and how these stressors are interrelated to impact mental health. The results also illustrate how support from and connection to social networks can reduce the negative impact of minority stress experiences.

  8. Framing the Local Context and Estimating the Health Impact of CPPW Obesity Prevention Strategies in Los Angeles County, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tony; Robles, Brenda; Trogdon, Justin G; Ferencik, Rachel; Simon, Paul A; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have described the range and health impacts of obesity prevention strategies in local communities supported by the Communities Putting Prevention to Work program. To address this gap, we reviewed implemented strategies in Los Angeles County (LAC) for 3 program focus areas: physical activity-promotion, health marketing, and creation of healthy food environments. Local context and results from an impact simulation are presented. Information on population reach and program milestones was synthesized to describe historical and programmatic progress of the obesity prevention efforts during 2010-2012. To forecast health impacts, the Prevention Impacts Simulation Model (PRISM) was used to simulate population health outcomes, including projected changes in obesity burden and health behaviors 30 years into the future. LAC with more than 9.8 million residents. Low-income adults and youth who were the intended audiences of the Communities Putting Prevention to Work program in LAC. Implemented strategies for the 3 focus areas. Documentation of program reach and PRISM forecasting of obesity rates and health impacts. Implemented strategies in LAC ranged from best practices in healthy food procurement (estimated reach: 600 000 students, 300 000 meals per day) to completed shared-use agreements (10+ agreements across 5 school districts) to a series of strategically designed health marketing campaigns on healthy eating (>515 million impressions). On the basis of PRISM simulations, these highlighted program activities have the potential to reduce by 2040 the number of youth (-29 870) and adults (-94 136) with obesity, youth (-112 453) and adults (-855 855) below recommended levels of physical activity, and youth (-14 544) and adults (-28 835) who consumed excess junk food, as compared with baseline (2010-2011). Program context and PRISM-simulated health impacts showed modest but promising results in LAC, which may lead to further population health improvements in the

  9. Fostering K-12 Inquiry-based Lesson Development on Regional Water Resource Issues in Los Angeles Urban Schools through the NSF UCLA SEE-LA GK-12 program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, T. S.; Burke, M. P.; Thulsirag, V.; Daniel, J.; Moldwin, M.; Nonacs, P.

    2010-12-01

    A National Science Foundation Graduate Teaching Fellows in K- 12 Education program at UCLA (SEE-LA; http://measure.igpp.ucla.edu/GK12-SEE-LA/ ) partners UCLA faculty and graduate students (fellows) with urban middle and high school science teachers and their students to foster programs of science and engineering exploration that bring the environment of Los Angeles into the classroom. UCLA graduate fellows serve as scientists-in-residence at four partner schools to integrate inquiry-based science lessons, facilitate advancements in science content teaching, and ultimately, to improve their own science communication skills. As part of their fellowship, graduate students are required to develop inquiry-based lessons in their partner classroom. During the first two years of the project, the SEE-LA fellows have developed a range of inquiry-based activities, from invertebrate observations in an urban stream system, to water and home energy consumption surveys, to a school biodiversity investigation, to a school-wide alternative energy fair, to engineering the cleanup of environmental disasters, such as the recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Several of the current fellows have dissertation research in water resource related fields and are specifically integrating lessons specific to their research into their partner classrooms, including urban stream water quality, post-fire watershed behavior, beach water quality assessment and E. coli source tracking. This presentation will provide an overview of goals of the SEE-LA GK-12 program, development of inquiry-based water resource lessons and resulting engagement in the partner classrooms. University and local pre-college school partnerships provide an excellent opportunity to support the development of graduate student communication and teaching skills while also contributing significantly to the integration of science education into K-12 curriculum.

  10. Prevention of Filipino Youth Behavioral Health Disparities: Identifying Barriers and Facilitators to Participating in "Incredible Years," an Evidence-Based Parenting Intervention, Los Angeles, California, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Nicole; Supan, Jocelyn; Kreutzer, Cary B; Samson, Allan; Coffey, Dean M; Javier, Joyce R

    2015-10-22

    Evidence-based interventions for training parents are proven to prevent onset and escalation of childhood mental health problems. However, participation in such programs is low, especially among hard-to-reach, underserved populations such as Filipino Americans. Filipinos, the largest Asian subgroup in California, have significant behavioral health disparities compared with non-Hispanic whites and other Asian subgroups. The purpose of this study was to learn about Filipinos' barriers and facilitators to participating in "Incredible Years" (IY), a parenting program. We conducted 4 focus groups in Los Angeles, California, in 2012; the groups consisted of 20 Filipino parents of children aged 6 to 12 years who recently completed the IY parenting program, which was offered as a prevention workshop. Three reviewers, including two co-authors (A.S., J.J.) and a research assistant used content analysis to independently code the interview transcripts and extract subthemes. Grounded theory analytic methods were used to analyze interview transcripts. Parents' perceived benefits of participation in IY were learning more effective parenting techniques, networking with other parents, improved spousal relationships, and improvements in their children's behavior. Parents' most common motivating factor for enrollment in IY was to improve their parenting skills and their relationships with their children. The most common barriers to participation were being uncomfortable sharing problems with others and the fear of being stigmatized by others judging their parenting skills. Participants said that parent testimonials would be the most effective way to promote IY. Many recommended outreach at schools, pediatricians' offices, and churches. Increasing Filipino American parent enrollment in IY in culturally relevant ways will reduce the incidence of mental health disorders among children in this growing population.

  11. Implementation of HPV vaccination guidelines in a diverse population in Los Angeles: Results from an environmental scan of local HPV resources and needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Lienemann, Brianna A; Robles, Marisela; Johnson, Ethel; Sanchez, Kathleen; Singhal, Rita; Steinberg, Jane; Jaque, Jenny M; Pentz, Mary Ann; Gruber, Stephen

    2017-09-05

    Research shows that vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is one of the most effective methods for reducing risk for cervical cancer; it also protects against other HPV-related cancers. Controversies exist regarding HPV vaccination in several communities; which may in part explain why although rates of HPV vaccination are increasing nationwide, Los Angeles County (LAC) data show that many adolescents are still not vaccinated. These adolescents remain at high-risk for infection. Using community-based participatory principles, we conducted an environmental scan that included a literature review, the development of a community advisory board, community feedback from HPV community meetings, and interviews with stakeholders to understand attitudes toward HPV vaccination and their impact in follow through with HPV vaccines. Twenty-eight key stakeholders participated in our coalition comprised of community organizations and clinics with strong ties to the local community. This is the only coalition dedicated exclusively to improving HPV vaccine uptake in LAC. Of these, twenty-one participated in an environmental scan via qualitative interviews about HPV vaccination programs, service delivery priorities, and proposed steps to increase HPV vaccination uptake in LAC. The environmental scan revealed targets for future efforts, barriers to HPV uptake, and next steps for improving local HPV vaccination uptake rates. The environmental scan also identified local HPV vaccination interventions and resources. Although LAC has developed important efforts for vaccination, some interventions are no longer being implemented due to lack of funds; others have not been evaluated with sufficient outcome data. The risk for cervical and other HPV-related cancers could be greatly reduced in LAC if a multilevel, multicultural, and multilingual approach is taken to better understand rates of HPV vaccination uptake, particularly among racial/ethnic minorities and LGBTQ youth

  12. Near-road air pollution impacts of goods movement in communities adjacent to the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozawa, Kathleen H.; Fruin, Scott A.; Winer, Arthur M.

    A mobile platform was outfitted with real-time instruments to spatially characterize pollution concentrations in communities adjacent to the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach, communities heavily impacted by emissions related to dieselized goods movement, with the highest localized air pollution impacts due to heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT). Measurements were conducted in the winter and summer of 2007 on fixed routes driven both morning and afternoon. Diesel-related pollutant concentrations such as black carbon, nitric oxide, ultrafine particles, and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were frequently elevated two to five times within 150 m downwind of freeways (compared to more than 150 m) and up to two times within 150 m downwind of arterial roads with significant amounts of diesel traffic. While wind direction was the dominant factor associated with downwind impacts, steady and consistent wind direction was not required to produce; high impacts were observed when a given area was downwind of a major roadway for any significant fraction of time. This suggests elevated pollution impacts downwind of freeways and of busy arterials are continuously occurring on one side of the road or the other, depending on wind direction. The diesel truck traffic in the area studied was high, with more than 2000 trucks per peak hour on the freeway and two- to six-hundred trucks per hour on the arterial roads studied. These results suggest that similarly-frequent impacts occur throughout urban areas in rough proportion to diesel truck traffic fractions. Thus, persons living or working near and downwind of busy roadways can have several-fold higher exposures to diesel vehicle-related pollution than would be predicted by ambient measurements in non-impacted locations.

  13. SURVEY, LOS ANGELES COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  14. Commercial lubricant use among HIV-negative men who have sex with men in Los Angeles: implications for the development of rectal microbicides for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, Heather A; Gorbach, Pamina M; Reback, Cathy J; Landovitz, Raphael J; Mutchler, Matt G; Mitsuyasu, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    To inform the development and assess potential use of rectal microbicide gels for HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM), we examined the dynamics and contexts of commercial lubricant use during receptive anal intercourse (RAI) within this population. From 2007 to 2010, 168 HIV-negative MSM living in Los Angeles who practice RAI completed computer-assisted self-interviews, which collected information on their last sexual event with ≤3 recent partners, at baseline, three months, and one-year study visits. Logistic generalized linear mixed models were used to identify individual- and sexual event-level characteristics associated with commercial lubricant use during RAI at the last sexual event within 421 partnerships reported by participants over the course of follow-up. During RAI at their last sexual event, 57% of partnerships used a condom and 69% used commercial lubricant. Among partnerships that used commercial lubricant, 56% reported lubricant application by both members of the partnership, 66% first applied lubricant during sex, but before penetration, and 98% applied lubricant at multiple locations. The relationship between substance use and commercial lubricant use varied by condom use (interaction p-value = 0.01). Substance use was positively associated with commercial lubricant use within partnerships that did not use condoms during RAI at their last sexual event (AOR = 4.47, 95% [corrected] [CI]: 1.63-12.28), but no association was observed within partnerships that did use condoms (AOR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.23-1.85). Commercial lubricant use during RAI was also positively associated with reporting more sexual partners (AOR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.05-1.31), while older age (units = 5 years; AOR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.61-0.94), homelessness (past year; AOR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.13-0.76), and having sex with an older (>10 years) partner (AOR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.14-0.95) were negatively associated with commercial lubricant use. These factors should be considered

  15. Toward consistency between trends in bottom-up CO2 emissions and top-down atmospheric measurements in the Los Angeles megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Sally; Xu, Xiaomei; Gurney, Kevin R.; Kuang Hsu, Ying; Li, King Fai; Jiang, Xun; Keeling, Ralph; Feng, Sha; O'Keefe, Darragh; Patarasuk, Risa; Weng Wong, Kam; Rao, Preeti; Fischer, Marc L.; Yung, Yuk L.

    2016-03-01

    Large urban emissions of greenhouse gases result in large atmospheric enhancements relative to background that are easily measured. Using CO2 mole fractions and Δ14C and δ13C values of CO2 in the Los Angeles megacity observed in inland Pasadena (2006-2013) and coastal Palos Verdes peninsula (autumn 2009-2013), we have determined time series for CO2 contributions from fossil fuel combustion (Cff) for both sites and broken those down into contributions from petroleum and/or gasoline and natural gas burning for Pasadena. We find a 10 % reduction in Pasadena Cff during the Great Recession of 2008-2010, which is consistent with the bottom-up inventory determined by the California Air Resources Board. The isotopic variations and total atmospheric CO2 from our observations are used to infer seasonality of natural gas and petroleum combustion. The trend of CO2 contributions to the atmosphere from natural gas combustion is out of phase with the seasonal cycle of total natural gas combustion seasonal patterns in bottom-up inventories but is consistent with the seasonality of natural gas usage by the area's electricity generating power plants. For petroleum, the inferred seasonality of CO2 contributions from burning petroleum is delayed by several months relative to usage indicated by statewide gasoline taxes. Using the high-resolution Hestia-LA data product to compare Cff from parts of the basin sampled by winds at different times of year, we find that variations in observed fossil fuel CO2 reflect seasonal variations in wind direction. The seasonality of the local CO2 excess from fossil fuel combustion along the coast, on Palos Verdes peninsula, is higher in autumn and winter than spring and summer, almost completely out of phase with that from Pasadena, also because of the annual variations of winds in the region. Variations in fossil fuel CO2 signals are consistent with sampling the bottom-up Hestia-LA fossil CO2 emissions product for sub-city source regions in the LA

  16. Toward consistency between bottom-up CO2 emissions trends and top-down atmospheric measurements in the Los Angeles megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S.; Xu, X.; Gurney, K. R.; Hsu, Y.-K.; Li, K.-F.; Jiang, X.; Keeling, R.; Feng, S.; O'Keefe, D.; Patarasuk, R.; Wong, K. W.; Rao, P.; Fischer, M. L.; Yung, Y. L.

    2015-10-01

    Large urban emissions of greenhouse gases result in large atmospheric enhancements relative to background that are easily measured. Using CO2 mole fractions and Δ14C and δ13C values of CO2 in the Los Angeles megacity observed in inland Pasadena (2006-2013) and coastal Palos Verdes peninsula (autumn 2009-2013), we have determined time series for CO2 contributions from fossil fuel combustion for both sites and broken those down into contributions from petroleum/gasoline and natural gas burning for Pasadena. We find a 10 % reduction in Pasadena CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion during the Great Recession of 2008-2010, which is consistent with the bottom-up inventory determined by the California Air Resources Board. The isotopic variations and total atmospheric CO2 from our observations are used to infer seasonality of natural gas and petroleum combustion. For natural gas, inferred emissions are out of phase with the seasonal cycle of total natural gas combustion seasonal patterns in bottom-up inventories but are consistent with the seasonality of natural gas usage by the area's electricity generating power plants. For petroleum, the inferred seasonality of CO2 emissions from burning petroleum is delayed by several months relative to usage indicated by statewide gasoline taxes. Using the high-resolution Hestia-LA data product to compare emissions from parts of the basin sampled by winds at different times of year, we find that variations in observed fossil fuel CO2 reflect seasonal variations in wind direction. The seasonality of the local CO2 excess from fossil fuel combustion along the coast, on Palos Verdes peninsula, is higher in fall and winter than spring and summer, almost completely out of phase with that from Pasadena, also because of the annual variations of winds in the region. Variations in fossil fuel CO2 signals are consistent with sampling the bottom-up Hestia-LA fossil CO2 emissions product for sub-city source regions in the LA megacity domain

  17. Toward consistency between trends in bottom-up CO2 emissions and top-down atmospheric measurements in the Los Angeles megacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Newman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Large urban emissions of greenhouse gases result in large atmospheric enhancements relative to background that are easily measured. Using CO2 mole fractions and Δ14C and δ13C values of CO2 in the Los Angeles megacity observed in inland Pasadena (2006–2013 and coastal Palos Verdes peninsula (autumn 2009–2013, we have determined time series for CO2 contributions from fossil fuel combustion (Cff for both sites and broken those down into contributions from petroleum and/or gasoline and natural gas burning for Pasadena. We find a 10 % reduction in Pasadena Cff during the Great Recession of 2008–2010, which is consistent with the bottom-up inventory determined by the California Air Resources Board. The isotopic variations and total atmospheric CO2 from our observations are used to infer seasonality of natural gas and petroleum combustion. The trend of CO2 contributions to the atmosphere from natural gas combustion is out of phase with the seasonal cycle of total natural gas combustion seasonal patterns in bottom-up inventories but is consistent with the seasonality of natural gas usage by the area's electricity generating power plants. For petroleum, the inferred seasonality of CO2 contributions from burning petroleum is delayed by several months relative to usage indicated by statewide gasoline taxes. Using the high-resolution Hestia-LA data product to compare Cff from parts of the basin sampled by winds at different times of year, we find that variations in observed fossil fuel CO2 reflect seasonal variations in wind direction. The seasonality of the local CO2 excess from fossil fuel combustion along the coast, on Palos Verdes peninsula, is higher in autumn and winter than spring and summer, almost completely out of phase with that from Pasadena, also because of the annual variations of winds in the region. Variations in fossil fuel CO2 signals are consistent with sampling the bottom-up Hestia-LA fossil CO2 emissions product for sub

  18. Concordance between self-reported STI history and biomedical results among men who have sex with men in Los Angeles, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Nicole J; Beymer, Matthew R; Javanbakht, Marjan; Shover, Chelsea L; Bolan, Robert K

    2017-11-01

    HIV studies and risk assessments among men who have sex with men (MSM) frequently use self-reported STI history as a proxy for true STI history. The objective of our study was to assess the validity of self-reported STI history through comparison with laboratory-confirmed biomedical results. Data were analysed for MSM attending the Los Angeles LGBT Center (the Center) from August 2011 to July 2015. We identified 10 529 unique MSM who received testing for chlamydia, gonorrhoea and/or syphilis and had a later visit in which they self-reported their STI history to a clinic counsellor during a risk assessment. MSM who had an STI in the past year self-reported their STI history with 51%-56% accuracy, and MSM who had an STI more than a year ago self-reported their STI history with 65%-72% accuracy. Among MSM with any positive STIs at the Center, black/African-American and Hispanic MSM were more likely to inaccurately self-report their positive results for gonorrhoea (adjusted OR (aOR): 1.48, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.01; aOR: 1.39, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.70). Additionally, HIV-positive MSM were more likely to inaccurately self-report their positive results for gonorrhoea (aOR: 1.63, 95% CI 1.22 to 2.18) and/or syphilis (aOR: 2.19, 95% CI 1.08 to 4.47). This is the first study that attempts to evaluate the validity of self-reported STI history among MSM. We found that self-reported STI history may not be an appropriate proxy for true STI history in certain settings and minority populations. Clinical guidelines and research studies that rely on self-reported STI history will need to modify their recommendations in light of the limited validity of these data. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Modeling the formation and aging of secondary organic aerosols in the Los Angeles metropolitan region during the CalNex 2010 field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, P. L.; Ma, P. K.; Jimenez, J. L.; Zhao, Y.; Robinson, A. L.; Carlton, A. M. G.; Baker, K. R.; Ahmadov, R.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Alvarez, S. L.; Rappenglück, B.; Gilman, J.; Kuster, W.; De Gouw, J. A.; Prevot, A. S.; Zotter, P.; Szidat, S.; Kleindienst, T. E.; Offenberg, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Several different literature parameterizations for the formation and evolution of urban secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are evaluated using a box model representing the Los Angeles Region during CalNex. The model SOA formed only from the oxidation of VOCs (V-SOA) is insufficient to explain the observed SOA concentrations, even when using SOA parameterizations with multi-generation oxidation that produce much higher yields than have been observed in chamber experiments, or when increasing yields to their upper limit estimates accounting for recently reported losses of vapors to chamber walls. Including SOA from primary semi-volatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (P-S/IVOCs) following the parameterizations of Robinson et al. (2007), Grieshop et al. (2009), or Pye and Seinfeld (2010) improves model/measurement agreement for mass concentration at shorter photochemical ages (0.5 days). Our results strongly suggest that other precursors besides VOCs are needed to explain the observed SOA concentrations. In contrast, all of the literature P-S/IVOC parameterizations over-predict urban SOA formation at long photochemical ages (3 days) compared to observations from multiple sites, which can lead to problems in regional and global modeling. Sensitivity studies that reduce the IVOC emissions by one-half in the model improve SOA predictions at these long ages. In addition, when IVOC emissions in the Robinson et al. parameterization are constrained using recently reported measurements of these species model/measurement agreement is achieved. The amounts of SOA mass from diesel vehicles, gasoline vehicles, and cooking emissions are estimated to be 16 - 27%, 35 - 61%, and 19 - 35%, respectively, depending on the parameterization used, which is consistent with the observed fossil fraction of urban SOA, 71(±3)%. The percentage of SOA from diesel vehicle emissions is the same, within the estimated uncertainty, as reported in previous work that analyzed the weekly

  20. Deployment Considerations for Low-cost Air Quality Sensor Networks; Examining Spatial Variability of Gas-Phase Pollutants Around a Building in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier-Oxandale, A. M.; Hannigan, M.; Casey, J. G.; Johnston, J.; Coffey, E.; Thorson, J.

    2017-12-01

    The field of low-cost air quality sensing technologies is growing rapidly through the continual development of new sensors, increased research into sensor performance, and more and more community groups utilizing sensors to investigate local issues. However, as this technology is still in an exploratory phase, there are few `best-practices' available to serve as guidelines for these projects and the standardization of some procedures could benefit the research community as a whole. For example, deployment considerations such as where and how to place a monitor at a given location are often determined by accessibility and safety, power-requirements, and what is an ideal for sampling the target pollutant. Using data from multiple gas-phase sensors, we will examine the importance of siting considerations for low-cost monitoring systems. During a sampling campaign in Los Angeles, a subset of monitors was deployed at one field site to explore the variability in air quality sensor data around a single building. The site is a three story, multi-family housing unit in a primarily residential neighborhood that is near two major roadways and other potential sources of pollution. Five low-cost monitors were co-located prior to and following the field deployment. During the approximately 2.5-month deployment, these monitors were placed at various heights above street level, on different sides of the building, and on the roof. In our analysis, we will examine how monitor placement affects a sensor's ability to detect local verses more regional trends and how this building-scale spatial variability changes over time. Additionally, examining data from VOC sensors (quantified for methane and total non-methane hydrocarbon signals) and O3 sensors will allow us to compare the variability of primary and secondary pollutants. An outcome of this analysis may include guidelines or `best practices' for siting sensors that could aid in ensuring the collection of high quality field data

  1. Mineralogical and micro-thermometric features of the Los Humeros geothermal reservoir, Pue., Mexico; Caracteristicas mineralogicas y microtermometricas del yacimiento geotermico de Los Humeros, Pue., Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, Georgina; Arellano, Victor M; Aragon, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: gim@iie.org.mx

    2008-07-15

    Studies on many topics have been undertaken during the exploratory and exploitation stages of the development of Los Humeros geothermal field. From a geochemical and mineralogical view-including hydrothermal mineralogy and fluid-inclusion micro-thermometry, features have been reported differing from those observed in other geothermal fields. Sometimes this has led to ambiguous conclusions. Studies of fluid-inclusion micro-thermometry have shown low-salinity and high-temperature fluids, suggesting a slight temperature decrease in the deepest portion associated with a boiling process rather than a cooling process. In 1998, Arellano et al. performed a multi-disciplinary study and proposed the existence of at least two, distinct reservoirs at depth. Mineralogical data from wells drilled at the Colapso Central zone tend to support this idea. However wells drilled in the zone known as Corredor Mastaloya seemingly show evidence of a single reservoir. [Spanish] Durante las etapas de exploracion y explotacion del campo geotermico de Los Humeros se han realizado diversos estudios cubriendo distintos topicos. Desde el punto de vista geoquimico y mineralogico (mineralogia hidrotermal y microtermometria de inclusiones fluidas) se han reportado comportamientos diferentes a los observados en otros campos del mundo, los que en ocasiones han llevado a conclusiones imprecisas. La microtermometria de inclusiones fluidas ha mostrado fluidos poco salinos de alta temperatura, asi como una ligera disminucion de temperatura en la parte profunda la cual se asocia a un proceso de ebullicion mas que a un enfriamiento del sistema. En 1998 Arellano et al realizaron un estudio multidisciplinario proponiendo la existencia de al menos dos reservorios. La informacion mineralogica de pozos perforados en la zona del Colapso Central fortalece esta propuesta. Sin embargo, para pozos localizados en la zona conocida como Corredor Mastaloya se tiene evidencia de lo que parece ser un solo yacimiento.

  2. Geological determination of the limits, area and volume of the geothermal reservoir of the Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla, Mexico; Determinacion geologica de los limites, area y volumen del yacimiento geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo Hernandez, Daniel [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    1999-08-01

    A geologic analysis to determine the limits, area and volume of the exploitable reservoir of the Los Humeros Geothermal Field, in Puebla, Mexico was carried out. We defined the structural boundaries, both at surface and at deep that seem to control the distribution of the fluids of high enthalpy and favor or limit the production of steam. With 40 wells drilled to date, an average thickness of the lithological producer Unit of 1 163 m has been estimated. A surface of 12.54 km{sup 2} was calculated, that with the estimated thickness, gives a volume of the reservoir of 14.6 km{sup 3}. We consider that there are two main production sectors in the Geothermal Field: The Central Collapse and The Mastaloya Corridor. [Spanish] Se realizo un analisis geologico para determinar los limites, area y volumen del yacimiento explotable del campo geotermico de Los Humeros en Puebla, Mexico. Se definen las barreras estructurales, tanto superficiales como del subsuelo, que controlan la distribucon de los fluidos de alta entalpia que favorecen o limitan la produccion de vapor. Con los 40 pozos perforados hasta la fecha, se estima un espesor promedio de la unidad productora de 1 163 m. Se calculo una superficie de 12.54 km{sup 2}, la que con el espesor mencionado, da un volumen del yacimiento de 14.6 km{sup 3}. Se plantea que dentro del campo existen dos sectores principales de produccion. El Colapso Central y el Corredor de Mastaloya.

  3. Don't ask, don't tell: patterns of HIV disclosure among HIV positive men who have sex with men with recent STI practising high risk behaviour in Los Angeles and Seattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbach, P M; Galea, J T; Amani, B; Shin, A; Celum, C; Kerndt, P; Golden, M R

    2004-12-01

    A high incidence of HIV continues among men who have sex with men (MSM) in industrialised nations and research indicates many MSM do not disclose their HIV status to sex partners. Themes as to why MSM attending sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in Los Angeles and Seattle do and do not disclose their HIV status are identified. 55 HIV positive MSM (24 in Seattle, 31 in Los Angeles) reporting recent STI or unprotected anal intercourse with a serostatus negative or unknown partner from STI clinics underwent in-depth interviews about their disclosure practices that were tape recorded, transcribed verbatim, coded, and content analysed. HIV disclosure themes fell into a continuum from unlikely to likely. Themes for "unlikely to disclose" were HIV is "nobody's business," being in denial, having a low viral load, fear of rejection, "it's just sex," using drugs, and sex in public places. Themes for "possible disclosure" were type of sex practised and partners asking/disclosing first. Themes for "likely to disclose" were feelings for partner, feeling responsible for partner's health, and fearing arrest. Many reported non-verbal disclosure methods. Some thought partners should ask for HIV status; many assumed if not asked then their partner must be positive. HIV positive MSM's decision to disclose their HIV status to sex partners is complex, and is influenced by a sense of responsibility to partners, acceptance of being HIV positive, the perceived transmission risk, and the context and meaning of sex. Efforts to promote disclosure will need to address these complex issues.

  4. Real-time measurements of secondary organic aerosol formation and aging from ambient air in an oxidation flow reactor in the Los Angeles area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Amber M.; Hayes, Patrick L.; Peng, Zhe; Palm, Brett B.; Hu, Weiwei; Day, Douglas A.; Li, Rui; Cubison, Michael J.; Brune, William H.; Graus, Martin; Warneke, Carsten; Gilman, Jessica B.; Kuster, William C.; de Gouw, Joost; Gutiérrez-Montes, Cándido; Jimenez, Jose L.

    2016-06-01

    Field studies in polluted areas over the last decade have observed large formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) that is often poorly captured by models. The study of SOA formation using ambient data is often confounded by the effects of advection, vertical mixing, emissions, and variable degrees of photochemical aging. An oxidation flow reactor (OFR) was deployed to study SOA formation in real-time during the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) campaign in Pasadena, CA, in 2010. A high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) alternated sampling ambient and reactor-aged air. The reactor produced OH concentrations up to 4 orders of magnitude higher than in ambient air. OH radical concentration was continuously stepped, achieving equivalent atmospheric aging of 0.8 days-6.4 weeks in 3 min of processing every 2 h. Enhancement of organic aerosol (OA) from aging showed a maximum net SOA production between 0.8-6 days of aging with net OA mass loss beyond 2 weeks. Reactor SOA mass peaked at night, in the absence of ambient photochemistry and correlated with trimethylbenzene concentrations. Reactor SOA formation was inversely correlated with ambient SOA and Ox, which along with the short-lived volatile organic compound correlation, indicates the importance of very reactive (τOH ˜ 0.3 day) SOA precursors (most likely semivolatile and intermediate volatility species, S/IVOCs) in the Greater Los Angeles Area. Evolution of the elemental composition in the reactor was similar to trends observed in the atmosphere (O : C vs. H : C slope ˜ -0.65). Oxidation state of carbon (OSc) in reactor SOA increased steeply with age and remained elevated (OSC ˜ 2) at the highest photochemical ages probed. The ratio of OA in the reactor output to excess CO (ΔCO, ambient CO above regional background) vs. photochemical age is similar to previous studies at low to moderate ages and also extends to

  5. Evaluating the impact of new observational constraints on P-S/IVOC emissions, multi-generation oxidation, and chamber wall losses on SOA modeling for Los Angeles, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Prettiny K.; Zhao, Yunliang; Robinson, Allen L.; Worton, David R.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Ortega, Amber M.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Zotter, Peter; Prévôt, André S. H.; Szidat, Sönke; Hayes, Patrick L.

    2017-08-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is an important contributor to fine particulate matter (PM) mass in polluted regions, and its modeling remains poorly constrained. A box model is developed that uses recently published literature parameterizations and data sets to better constrain and evaluate the formation pathways and precursors of urban SOA during the CalNex 2010 campaign in Los Angeles. When using the measurements of intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) reported in Zhao et al. (2014) and of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) reported in Worton et al. (2014) the model is biased high at longer photochemical ages, whereas at shorter photochemical ages it is biased low, if the yields for VOC oxidation are not updated. The parameterizations using an updated version of the yields, which takes into account the effect of gas-phase wall losses in environmental chambers, show model-measurement agreement at longer photochemical ages, even though some low bias at short photochemical ages still remains. Furthermore, the fossil and non-fossil carbon split of urban SOA simulated by the model is consistent with measurements at the Pasadena ground site. Multi-generation oxidation mechanisms are often employed in SOA models to increase the SOA yields derived from environmental chamber experiments in order to obtain better model-measurement agreement. However, there are many uncertainties associated with these aging mechanisms. Thus, SOA formation in the model is compared to data from an oxidation flow reactor (OFR) in order to constrain SOA formation at longer photochemical ages than observed in urban air. The model predicts similar SOA mass at short to moderate photochemical ages when the aging mechanisms or the updated version of the yields for VOC oxidation are implemented. The latter case has SOA formation rates that are more consistent with observations from the OFR though. Aging mechanisms may still play an important role in SOA chemistry, but the

  6. Real-time measurements of secondary organic aerosol formation and aging from ambient air in an oxidation flow reactor in the Los Angeles area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Ortega

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Field studies in polluted areas over the last decade have observed large formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA that is often poorly captured by models. The study of SOA formation using ambient data is often confounded by the effects of advection, vertical mixing, emissions, and variable degrees of photochemical aging. An oxidation flow reactor (OFR was deployed to study SOA formation in real-time during the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex campaign in Pasadena, CA, in 2010. A high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS alternated sampling ambient and reactor-aged air. The reactor produced OH concentrations up to 4 orders of magnitude higher than in ambient air. OH radical concentration was continuously stepped, achieving equivalent atmospheric aging of 0.8 days–6.4 weeks in 3 min of processing every 2 h. Enhancement of organic aerosol (OA from aging showed a maximum net SOA production between 0.8–6 days of aging with net OA mass loss beyond 2 weeks. Reactor SOA mass peaked at night, in the absence of ambient photochemistry and correlated with trimethylbenzene concentrations. Reactor SOA formation was inversely correlated with ambient SOA and Ox, which along with the short-lived volatile organic compound correlation, indicates the importance of very reactive (τOH  ∼  0.3 day SOA precursors (most likely semivolatile and intermediate volatility species, S/IVOCs in the Greater Los Angeles Area. Evolution of the elemental composition in the reactor was similar to trends observed in the atmosphere (O : C vs. H : C slope  ∼  −0.65. Oxidation state of carbon (OSc in reactor SOA increased steeply with age and remained elevated (OSC  ∼  2 at the highest photochemical ages probed. The ratio of OA in the reactor output to excess CO (ΔCO, ambient CO above regional background vs. photochemical age is similar to

  7. Radiocarbon-insights into temporal variations in the sources and concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in the Los Angeles and Salt Lake City Metropolitan Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czimczik, Claudia; Mouteva, Gergana; Simon, Fahrni; Guaciara, Santos; James, Randerson

    2014-05-01

    Increased fossil fuel consumption and biomass burning are contributing to significantly larger emissions of black carbon (BC) aerosols to the atmosphere. Together with organic carbon (OC), BC is a major constituent of fine particulate matter in urban air, contributes to haze and has been linked to a broad array of adverse health effects. Black carbon's high light absorption capacity and role in key (in-)direct climate feedbacks also lead to a range of impacts in the Earth system (e.g. warming, accelerated snow melt, changes in cloud formation). Recent work suggests that regulating BC emissions can play an important role in improving regional air quality and reducing future climate warming. However, BC's atmospheric transport pathways, lifetime and magnitudes of emissions by sector and region, particularly emissions from large urban centers, remain poorly constrained by measurements. Contributions of fossil and modern sources to the carbonaceous aerosol pool (corresponding mainly to traffic/industrial and biomass-burning/biogenic sources, respectively) can be quantified unambiguously by measuring the aerosol radiocarbon (14C) content. However, accurate 14C-based source apportionment requires the physical isolation of BC and OC, and minimal sample contamination with extraneous carbon or from OC charring. Compound class-specific 14C analysis of BC remains challenging due to very small sample sizes (5-15 ug C). Therefore, most studies to date have only analyzed the 14C content of the total organic carbonaceous aerosol fraction. Here, we present time-series 14C data of BC and OC from the Los Angeles (LA) metropolitan area in California - one of two megacities in the United States - and from Salt Lake City (SLC), UT. In the LA area, we analyzed 48h-PM10 samples near the LA port throughout 2007 and 2008 (with the exception of summer). We also collected monthly-PM2.5 samples at the University of California - Irvine, with shorter sampling periods during regional wildfire

  8. Earthquake-by-earthquake fold growth above the Puente Hills blind thrust fault, Los Angeles, California: Implications for fold kinematics and seismic hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Lorraine A.; Christofferson, Shari A.; Dolan, James F.; Shaw, John H.; Pratt, Thomas L.

    2007-03-01

    Boreholes and high-resolution seismic reflection data collected across the forelimb growth triangle above the central segment of the Puente Hills thrust fault (PHT) beneath Los Angeles, California, provide a detailed record of incremental fold growth during large earthquakes on this major blind thrust fault. These data document fold growth within a discrete kink band that narrows upward from ˜460 m at the base of the Quaternary section (200-250 m depth) to 82% at 250 m depth) folding and uplift occur within discrete kink bands, thereby enabling us to develop a paleoseismic history of the underlying blind thrust fault. The borehole data reveal that the youngest part of the growth triangle in the uppermost 20 m comprises three stratigraphically discrete growth intervals marked by southward thickening sedimentary strata that are separated by intervals in which sediments do not change thickness across the site. We interpret the intervals of growth as occurring after the formation of now-buried paleofold scarps during three large PHT earthquakes in the past 8 kyr. The intervening intervals of no growth record periods of structural quiescence and deposition at the regional, near-horizontal stream gradient at the study site. Minimum uplift in each of the scarp-forming events, which occurred at 0.2-2.2 ka (event Y), 3.0-6.3 ka (event X), and 6.6-8.1 ka (event W), ranged from ˜1.1 to ˜1.6 m, indicating minimum thrust displacements of ≥2.5 to 4.5 m. Such large displacements are consistent with the occurrence of large-magnitude earthquakes (Mw > 7). Cumulative, minimum uplift in the past three events was 3.3 to 4.7 m, suggesting cumulative thrust displacement of ≥7 to 10.5 m. These values yield a minimum Holocene slip rate for the PHT of ≥0.9 to 1.6 mm/yr. The borehole and seismic reflection data demonstrate that dip within the kink band is acquired incrementally, such that older strata that have been deformed by more earthquakes dip more steeply than younger strata

  9. Tradução e adaptação cultural do Modified-University of California at Los Angeles Shoulder Rating Scale para a língua portuguesa Translation and cultural adaptation of the Modified-University of California at Los Angeles Shoulder Rating Scale to portuguese language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Oku

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: os objetivos deste estudo foram traduzir a versão original da avaliação funcional de ombro Modified-University of California at Los Angeles Shoulder Rating Scale da língua inglesa para a portuguesa e adaptar culturalmente à população brasileira. MÉTODOS: a escala foi traduzida e adaptada culturalmente para a população brasileira de acordo com a metodologia internacionalmente aceita descrita por Guillemin et al(28. A versão traduzida e revisada pelo comitê foi aplicada em dois grupos (indivíduos leigos com idade entre 45 e 75 anos e profissionais da saúde para avaliação do nível de compreensão das alternativas. Encontrando 15% ou mais de alternativas "não-compreendidas", os termos foram substituídos por palavras equivalentes de modo que não fossem alterados conceito, estrutura e propriedade de base do instrumento, e reaplicadas até que valores menores que 15% fossem alcançados. RESULTADOS: foram necessárias três aplicações. Cada grupo continha 20 indivíduos selecionados consecutivamente, totalizando 120 pessoas. Para obtenção da versão final, foram modificadas cinco alternativas do domínio dor e quatro alternativas do domínio função. Além dessas alterações, foram identificados problemas, por ambos os grupos, quanto à estrutura da escala, sugerindo a continuação do estudo de sua validade e possíveis modificações desta.OBJECTIVES: the aims of this study were to translate into Brazilian-Portuguese the Modified - University of California at Los Angeles Shoulder Rating Scale and to cross-culturally adapt it to the Brazilian environment. METHODS: the scale was translated to Portuguese and back translated into English according to internationally recommended process described by Guillemin et al(28. The translated and revised version was administered to two groups (patients between 45 and 75 years old and health professionals to evaluate the comprehension level of the items. If 15% or more of health

  10. Book received: Alois Riegl, The Origins of Baroque Art in Rome, edited and translated by Andrew Hopkins and Arnold Witte, with essays by Alina Payne, Arnold Witte, and Andrew Hopkins; Los Angeles: Getty Research Institute including contents, acknowledgments and a note on the translation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alois Riegl

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Alois Riegl, The Origins of Baroque Art in Rome, edited and translated by Andrew Hopkins and Arnold Witte, with essays by Alina Payne, Arnold Witte, and Andrew Hopkins; Los Angeles: Getty Research Institute including contents, acknowledgments and a note on the translation.

  11. Description and Evaluation of the Cultural Resources within Brea, Carbon Canyon, Fullerton and San Antonio Reservoirs, Santa Ana River Basin, Orange, Los Angeles, and San Bernardino Counties,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-30

    the mud seeps of La Vida Hot Springs on Carbon Canyon Road (Palou 1966 Butz, 1970). Environmental zones within the project areas include a portion of...5 * " ". ’" -ř" """ . . . 4 17 " September 15, 1977 Ms. Patricia Marts University of California Drylands Institute Archaeological Research Unit 4

  12. Chapter G: Tentative Correlation Between CIPW Normin pl (Total Plagioclase) and Los Angeles Wear in Precambrian Midcontinental Granites-Examples from Missouri and Oklahoma, with Applications and Limitations for Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, George H.

    2004-01-01

    way of simple regression, the Los Angeles wear for granite samples collected in Missouri. The results of this abrasion testing were extended to another granite in Oklahoma where normin pl predicted Los Angeles wear to within 0.6 percent. This relation may also exist for granitic rocks outside the Oklahoma-Missouri region, as well as for other igneous-rock types.

  13. Evaluation of treatment options for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma: assessment of appropriateness, using the validated semi-quantitative RAND corporation/University of California, Los Angeles methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, M E; Bellmunt, J; Eisen, T; Escudier, B; Mickisch, G; Patard, J; Porta, C; Ravaud, A; Schmidinger, M; Schöffski, P; Sternberg, C N; Szczylik, C; De Nigris, E; Wheeler, C; Kirpekar, S

    2012-05-01

    A diverse range of treatment options and interventions are available for the management of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), allowing clinicians to tailor therapy to best meet their patient's needs and situation. However, choosing from the plethora of options can be problematic. RCC treatment guidelines advise on the most efficacious agents based upon specific clinical trial populations, but these do not always take into account all the patient factors that influence the suitability of treatment options for individual patients. This study used the validated RAND/UCLA (RAND corporation/University of California, Los Angeles) 'appropriateness methodology' to integrate clinical efficacy data with expert opinion concerning the use of specific RCC treatment options for particular patient scenarios, in an attempt to facilitate the widespread implementation of patient-focussed treatment choices. Use of the methodology has allowed us to develop treatment algorithms for patients with locally-advanced RCC and for those with metastatic disease post-nephrectomy or with primary tumour in situ. The algorithms take into account patient-specific characteristics such as tumour histology, prior treatment and known risk factors to advise whether a particular treatment intervention is appropriate, not appropriate or of uncertain appropriateness. Use of this methodology aims to develop a formalised process by which expert opinion can be integrated with clinical data and used as an additional source of information that can provide further guidance concerning difficult treatment decisions when data are absent or sparse. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Individual-Level, Partnership-Level, and Sexual Event-Level Predictors of Condom Use During Receptive Anal Intercourse Among HIV-Negative Men Who Have Sex with Men in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, Heather A; Gorbach, Pamina M; Weiss, Robert E; Reback, Cathy J; Landovitz, Raphael J; Mutchler, Matt G; Mitsuyasu, Ronald T

    2016-06-01

    We examined individual-level, partnership-level, and sexual event-level factors associated with condom use during receptive anal intercourse (RAI) among 163 low-income, racially/ethnically diverse, HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in Los Angeles (2007-2010). At baseline, 3-month, and 12-month visits, computer-assisted self-interviews collected information on ≤3 recent male partners and the last sexual event with those partners. Factors associated with condom use during RAI at the last sexual event were identified using logistic generalized linear mixed models. Condom use during RAI was negatively associated with reporting ≥ high school education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.32, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.11-0.96) and methamphetamine use, specifically during RAI events with non-main partners (AOR = 0.20, 95 % CI 0.07-0.53) and those that included lubricant use (AOR = 0.20, 95 % CI 0.08-0.53). Condom use during RAI varies according to individual-level, partnership-level, and sexual event-level factors that should be considered in the development of risk reduction strategies for this population.

  15. Cyber-angel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guglielmi, Michel; Serafin, Stefania

    2004-01-01

    ?It is one of the commonest of mistakes to consider that the limit of our power of perception is also the limit of all there is to perceive? Most of spiritual traditions trough the world are referring to some kind of souls acting as guardian and protector or divine messenger for humans (angels...

  16. Apocryphal Angels in Nun Convents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ávila Vivar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The preponderance of studies about viceregal angelic series, and the widespread belief that the representation of apocryphal angels is a specific peculiarity of viceregal angelology, have created such a close relation between it and the apocryphal angels, that they are even considered as synonymous. However, both the texts and the presence of this angels in the spanish convents of the XVII century, evidence that the apocryphal angels appeared and they were represented in Spain long before that in its american viceregal. Therefore, it is here where their origins and their meaning should be sought.

  17. Prevention of Filipino Youth Behavioral Health Disparities: Identifying Barriers and Facilitators to Participating in “Incredible Years,” an Evidence-Based Parenting Intervention, Los Angeles, California, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Nicole; Supan, Jocelyn; Kreutzer, Cary B.; Samson, Allan; Coffey, Dean M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Evidence-based interventions for training parents are proven to prevent onset and escalation of childhood mental health problems. However, participation in such programs is low, especially among hard-to-reach, underserved populations such as Filipino Americans. Filipinos, the largest Asian subgroup in California, have significant behavioral health disparities compared with non-Hispanic whites and other Asian subgroups. The purpose of this study was to learn about Filipinos’ barriers and facilitators to participating in “Incredible Years” (IY), a parenting program. Methods We conducted 4 focus groups in Los Angeles, California, in 2012; the groups consisted of 20 Filipino parents of children aged 6 to 12 years who recently completed the IY parenting program, which was offered as a prevention workshop. Three reviewers, including two co-authors (A.S., J.J.) and a research assistant used content analysis to independently code the interview transcripts and extract subthemes. Grounded theory analytic methods were used to analyze interview transcripts. Results Parents’ perceived benefits of participation in IY were learning more effective parenting techniques, networking with other parents, improved spousal relationships, and improvements in their children's behavior. Parents’ most common motivating factor for enrollment in IY was to improve their parenting skills and their relationships with their children. The most common barriers to participation were being uncomfortable sharing problems with others and the fear of being stigmatized by others judging their parenting skills. Participants said that parent testimonials would be the most effective way to promote IY. Many recommended outreach at schools, pediatricians’ offices, and churches. Conclusion Increasing Filipino American parent enrollment in IY in culturally relevant ways will reduce the incidence of mental health disorders among children in this growing population. PMID:26491813

  18. BASE MAP DATASET, LOS ANGELES COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  19. Chikungunya fever in Los Angeles, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, Katherine R; Bhatt, Sanjay; Kim, Hyung T; Mallon, William K

    2014-11-01

    We report the case of a 33-year-old woman returning from Haiti, presenting to our emergency department (ED) with fever, rash and arthralgia. Following a broad workup that included laboratory testing for dengue and malaria, our patient was diagnosed with Chikungunya virus, which was then reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for initiation of infection control. This case demonstrates the importance of the ED for infectious disease case identification and initiation of public health measures. This case also addresses public health implications of Chikungunya virus within the United States, and issues related to the potential for local spread and autochthonous cases.

  20. Associations between self-perception of weight, food choice intentions, and consumer response to calorie information: a retrospective investigation of public health center clients in Los Angeles County before the implementation of menu-labeling regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nianogo, Roch A; Kuo, Tony; Smith, Lisa V; Arah, Onyebuchi A

    2016-01-22

    Although obesity continues to rise and remains a great public health concern in the U.S., a number of important levers such as self-perception of weight and calorie postings at point-of-purchase in restaurants are still not well-characterized in the literature, especially for low-income and minority groups in Los Angeles County (LAC). To study this gap, we examined the associations of self-perception of weight (as measured by body weight discrepancy) with food choice intentions and consumer response to calorie information among low-income adults residing in LAC during the pre-menu labeling regulation era. Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the aforementioned associations utilizing data from the 2007-2008 Calorie and Nutrition Information Survey (CNIS). The CNIS was a local health department study of 639 low-income adults recruited from five large, multi-purpose public health centers in LAC. Survey participants who reported that their desired weight was less than their current weight (versus desired weight the same as current weight) had (i) higher odds of intending to select lower-calorie foods under the scenario that calorie information was available at point-of-purchase (aOR = 2.0; 95 % CI: 1.0-3.9); and (ii) had higher odds of reporting that it is "very important" to have these calorie postings on food items in grocery stores (aOR = 3.1; 95 % CI: 0.90-10.7) and in fast-food restaurants (aOR = 3.4; 95 % CI: 1.0-11.4). Self-perception of weight was found to be associated with the intention to select lower-calorie foods under the scenario that calorie information was available at point-of-purchase. Future public health efforts to support menu labeling implementation should consider these and other findings to inform consumer education and communications strategies that can be tailored to assist restaurant patrons with this forthcoming federal law.

  1. Measurements and Interpretation of Surface Mixing Ratios of CH4 and CO and δ 13C and δ D of CH4 in Air from Pacific Ocean Transects Between Auckland, New Zealand and Los Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajie, H. O.; Tyler, S. C.; Gotoh, A. A.; McMillan, A. M.; Rice, A. L.; Lowe, D. C.

    2003-12-01

    We report on measurements of atmospheric CH4 and CO mixing ratios and δ 13C of CH4 from air samples collected every 2.5 to 5° latitude along a transect over the Pacific Ocean using container ships of P&O Nedlloyd (formerly Blue Star) shipping line. Data presented here begins in June 1996 and extends to January 2002. Scientists from the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research in New Zealand and from University of California, Irvine alternate sampling trips so that a transect between Auckland, New Zealand (35° S) and Los Angeles, California (35° N) can be sampled over a period of ˜15 days approximately every four months. Data sets from the two laboratories are intercalibrated through a sample exchange program. The data provide detail on the spatial and seasonal variation of CH4 and CO mixing ratios and stable isotope ratios of CH4 over the Pacific equatorial region, including the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and both northern and southern temperate zones to about 30° latitude, including the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). Data from 18 transect samplings so far clearly show that δ 13C in the mid latitudes of both hemispheres are ˜6 months out of phase. In June, a minimum in δ 13C CH4 in the southern hemisphere (SH) coincides approximately with the maximum in the northern hemisphere (NH) seasonal cycle. Because the NH is less enriched in 13C than the SH this situation results in a remarkably flat gradient between 30° N and 30° S. In November the opposite situation occurs with the SH mid latitude maximum coinciding with the minimum in the NH cycle, leading to a relatively large gradient of ˜0.5‰ between the hemispheres. We discuss how CH4 and CO mixing ratios are related to the changing positions and strengths of the ITCZ and SPCZ and how this data can be used in multi-dimensional models of atmospheric chemistry and transport to better define CH4 sources and sinks both temporally and spatially.

  2. The informal investment context: specific issues concerned with business angels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Hoyos Iruarrizaga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los inversores informales desempeñan un papel fundamental para cubrir las necesidades de financiación de los proyectos de negocio en fase emprendedora. Sin embargo, se trata de un segmento en el que cohabitan distintas tipologías y maneras de afrontar la inversión. Uno de estos perfiles se asocia a la figura conocida como inversor ángel o business angel, cuyo principal rasgo diferenciador reside en su capacidad para aportar un capital inteligente en forma de conocimiento, experiencia y contactos. El objetivo de este trabajo persigue conocer en qué medida el perfil específico de los business angels difiere del resto de inversores informales. Con una muestra de más de 800 inversores informales en España, los resultados empíricos de este trabajo ponen de manifiesto que a mayor nivel de renta, mayores habilidades y formación específica para emprender y menor vínculo familiar con el emprendedor, siendo mayor la probabilidad de pertenecer al segmento business angel de inversión informal.

  3. Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor Areas Regional Cultural History, Los Angeles County, California,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    value because of its Fermin Francisco de Lasuen, "padre historically valuable fittings of museum quality. presidente " of the Franciscan missions. This...them an Englishman working out of Lima, Peru , over the stones upon the visited the San Gabriel Mission "making a beach, we stopped, waiting for

  4. Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor Areas Cultural Resource Survey, Los Angeles County, California,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    de Lasuen, "padre historically valuable fittings of museum quality. presidente " of the Franciscan missions. This vantage point atop the rugged bluffs... Peru , over the stones upon the visited the Sa’ Gabriel Mission "making a beach, we stopped, waiting for contract with Padre Payeras, the prefect of

  5. Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor Areas Prehistory and Early History, Los Angeles County, California,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    that the Spanish called wrote Abel Stearns, the owner, "I wish you cienegas. For instance, Beverly Hills and most would deputize someone to attend the... villae as the largest political unit. Within a According to Kroeber (ref. 6) they had a village were two basic societal divisions that "mythIc-ritual

  6. Angels or demons? You decide!

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The new film Angels & Demons starring Tom Hanks and directed by Ron Howard is being premiered worldwide on 15 May, but you could see it 10 days earlier at a special preview screening as the CERN Press Office has a limited number of tickets to give away. Preview of the new CERN website to be published on 5 May. Opinion is split among CERNois when talking about Dan Brown’s book Angels & Demons. Should he be praised for bringing particle physics into the spotlight or should he be demonised for the ‘creative liberties’ he took - for example, although it would be useful for the international collaborations, CERN doesn’t actually have its own private airport and supersonic jet. But love it or hate it, with the upcoming release of the multi-million dollar Hollywood film adaptation, Angels & Demons will introduce a huge new audience to CERN. "Guess what? – CERN really exists!" said...

  7. Tongues of Men and Angels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGraw, John J.

    2012-01-01

    to utter strings of syllables that some claim to be the ‘language of angels.’ Recent neuroimaging studies have highlighted differences in the brains of subjects performing glossolalia in comparison to those same subjects singing a Church hymn. An investigation of the neural correlates of glossolalia...

  8. LAS DEDUCCIONES AUTONÓMICAS EN EL IRPF PARA INCENTIVAR LA ADQUISICIÓN DE ACCIONES O PARTICIPACIONES EN SOCIEDADES, LOS BUSINESS ANGELS Y EL MERCADO ALTERNATIVO BURSÁTIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilo Piña Garrido

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The autonomous communities common system includes in its system of personalincome tax (IRPF regulatory powers to govern deductions in the contributionfor carrying out “non-company investments”. Catalonia, Madridand Andalusia have made use of this possibility – and Galicia has announcedits intention to do so in the near future. The three autonomous communitiesmentioned above have approved a very similar measure to promote theactivities of business angels in their respective regions, and Catalonia andMadrid have added another to support investments in companies that arefl oated on the Alternative Investment Market. The two incentives consist inreduction in the contribution – 20% of the amount invested – which is recognisedfor physical persons who buy shares or social interests in the capital ofcertain types of organisation, with the aim of encouraging a certain classof investments and companies in the regions of the respective autonomouscommunity. The indirect and ultimate benefi ciaries are therefore the companies.This enables us to question whether this has gone beyond what ispermitted under the laws of tax cession of the State and the autonomouscommunities and if the important rules of Community Law such as thoseregulating freedom of establishment and circulation of capital (art. 49 y 63of the TFUE and the prohibition of State assistance (art. 107 and ss. TFUEhave been respected.

  9. Reservoir management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satter, A.; Varnon, J.E.; Hoang, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    A reservoir's life begins with exploration leading to discovery followed by delineation of the reservoir, development of the field, production by primary, secondary and tertiary means, and finally to abandonment. Sound reservoir management is the key to maximizing economic operation of the reservoir throughout its entire life. Technological advances and rapidly increasing computer power are providing tools to better manage reservoirs and are increasing the gap between good and neutral reservoir management. The modern reservoir management process involves goal setting, planning, implementing, monitoring, evaluating, and revising plans. Setting a reservoir management strategy requires knowledge of the reservoir, availability of technology, and knowledge of the business, political, and environmental climate. Formulating a comprehensive management plan involves depletion and development strategies, data acquisition and analyses, geological and numerical model studies, production and reserves forecasts, facilities requirements, economic optimization, and management approval. This paper provides management, engineers geologists, geophysicists, and field operations staff with a better understanding of the practical approach to reservoir management using a multidisciplinary, integrated team approach

  10. Los campesinos "fabriqueños" de Los Ángeles, Sonora, y su lucha por el agua en un contexto de aridez, 1938-1955 "Fabriqueño" Peasants in Los Angeles, Sonora, and their Fight for Water in an Arid Context, 1938-1955

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Padilla Calderón

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Los campesinos que habitaban el pueblo de Los Ángeles, Sonora, junto a una antigua fábrica textil, en las inmediaciones del río San Miguel, se apropiaron de pequeños espacios del árido territorio material colindante con la manufactura. En 1935 estas fracciones de tierra cultivable quedaron adscritas al ejido de Horcasitas en calidad de "anexo"; a partir de entonces y hasta la primera mitad del siglo XX los "campesinos fabriqueños" se confrontaron con otros actores sociales por el derecho a usar las aguas del río. Este trabajo explora las relaciones de poder y los procesos de confrontación que se producen al apropiarse o defender una territorialidad social. Asimismo y de manera central aborda el tema sobre los factores sociales que constituyen situaciones de escasez de agua.The peasants that lived in the town of Los Ángeles, Sonora, next to an old textile factory near the San Miguel river appropriated small parts of the arid territory related to manufacturing. In 1935, these portions of arable land were attached to the Horcasitas ejido as an "appendix." Since then and until the first half of the 20th century, "fabriqueño" peasants were confronted by other social actors over the right to use the river water. This paper explores power relations and the processes of confrontation that occur when one appropriates or defends social territory. It also deals with the social factors that lead to water shortages.

  11. Italian cross-cultural adaptation and validation of three different scales for the evaluation of shoulder pain and dysfunction after neck dissection: University of California - Los Angeles (UCLA) Shoulder Scale, Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) and Simple Shoulder Test (SST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchese, C; Cristalli, G; Pichi, B; Manciocco, V; Mercante, G; Pellini, R; Marchesi, P; Sperduti, I; Ruscito, P; Spriano, G

    2012-02-01

    Shoulder syndrome after neck dissection is a well known entity, but its incidence and prognostic factors influencing recovery have not been clearly assessed due to the heterogeneity of possible evaluations. The University of California - Los Angeles (UCLA) Shoulder Scale, the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) and the Simple Shoulder Test (SST) are three English-language questionnaires commonly used to test shoulder impairment. An Italian version of these scales is not available. The aim of the present study was to translate, culturally adapt and validate an Italian version of UCLA Shoulder Scale, SPADI and SST. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the SPADI, the UCLA shoulder scale and the SST was performed according to the international guidelines. Sixty-six patients treated with neck dissection for head and neck cancer were called to draw up these scales. Forty patients completed the same questionnaires a second time one week after the first to test the reproducibility of the Italian versions. All the English-speaking Italian patients (n = 11) were asked to complete both the English and the Italian versions of the three questionnaires to validate the scales. No major problems regarding the content or the language were found during the translation of the 3 questionnaires. For all three scales, Cronbach's α was > 0.89. The Pearson correlation coefficient was r > 0.91. With respect to validity, there was a significant correlation between the Italian and the English versions of all three scales. This study shows that the Italian versions of UCLA Shoulder Scale, SPADI and SST are valid instruments for the evaluation of shoulder dysfunction after neck dissection in Italian patients.

  12. Contribución al conocimiento de los reservorios del Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas,1909 en la Provincia de Corrientes, Argentina Contribution to knowledge of reservoirs of Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas, 1909 in Corrientes Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Esther Bar

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de identificar a reservorios del Trypanosoma cruzi se investigaron 60 mamíferos en los Departamentos Capital y San Luis del Palmar. Se examinaron: primates, roedores, marsupiales, carnívoros y edentados; 40 vivían en cautiverio y 20 fueron capturados mediante trampas en una comunidad rural forestal. Los mamíferos fueron analizados por xenodiagnóstico, empleándose ninfas de 3o o 4o estadío de Triatoma infestans ayunadas durante 2 semanas. Las heces de los triatominos fueron observadas al microscopio (400x a los 30, 60 y 90 días post-alimentación. En 2 Saimiri sciureus y en 1 Cebus apella se constató infección por tripanosomas cruziformes. Se concluye que la parasitemia detectada fue baja. La presencia de Didelphis albiventris, reservorio potencial del Trypanosoma cruzi , en una zona de transmisión activa del parásito representa un factor de riesgo, por lo que son necesarias futuras investigaciones epidemiológicas para determinar la real diagnosis de esta parasitosis en la provincia de Corrientes, Argentina.In order to identify Trypanosoma cruzi reservoirs in transmission areas, 60 mammals in Capital and San Luis del Palmar Departments, Corrientes, Argentina were studied. Primates, rodents, carnivores, marsupials and edentates were investigated, 40 of them living in captivity and 20 caught with traps in a rural area. The mammals were examined by xenodiagnosis and third or fourth instars nymphs of Triatoma infestans starved for 2 weeks were used. The feces were microscopically observed (400x for Trypanosoma cruzi infection at 30, 60 and 90 days after feeding. Trypanosoma cruzi-like parasites were identified in 2 Saimiri sciureus and 1 Cebus apella analyzed by xenodiagnosis. It was concluded that parasitemia was low. Howewer, the presence in a forest area of Didelphis albiventris, potential reservoir of the parasite, indicates a risk factor and deserves further epidemiological study for a true diagnosis of this

  13. Auckland--New Zealand's Los Angeles or San Francisco?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogunovich, Dushko

    1995-01-01

    Compares Auckland (New Zealand) with San Francisco (California) in terms of topographical structure, geographic location, and urban development. Both cities contain striking similarities. Maintains that Auckland can become a world-class city renowned for its beauty if developers and government work in tandem. (MJP)

  14. Ambient Air Pollution and Autism in Los Angeles County, California

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becerra, Tracy Ann; Wilhelm, Michelle; Olsen, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of Autistic Disorder (AD), a serious developmental condition, has risen dramatically over the past two decades but high-quality population-based research addressing etiology is limited. Objectives: We studied the influence of exposures to traffic-related air pollution d...... during pregnancy on the development of autism using data from air monitoring stations and a land use regression (LUR) model to estimate exposures....

  15. Making Health Easier: Active Living in Los Angeles, CA

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-05

    Childhood obesity now affects about one in six kids and disproportionately affects low-income and minority populations. This podcast highlights one preschool teacher who teaches kids about active living and is incorporating small, healthy changes that can be made in any classroom—like teaching fun dances and yoga classes.  Created: 3/5/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/5/2013.

  16. Making Health Easier: Healthy Eating in Los Angeles, CA

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-05

    Childhood obesity now affects about one in six kids and disproportionately affects low-income and minority populations. This podcast highlights one preschool teacher who teaches kids about healthy eating and is incorporating small, healthy changes that can be made in any classroom—like planting a classroom garden and eating healthy snacks.  Created: 3/5/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/5/2013.

  17. DCS Terrain Submission for Los Angeles County, CA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  18. Building Schools, Rethinking Quality? Early Lessons from Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Bruce; Dauter, Luke; Hosek, Adrienne; Kirschenbaum, Greta; McKoy, Deborah; Rigby, Jessica; Vincent, Jeffrey M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Newly designed schools for centuries have projected fresh ideals regarding how children should learn and how human settlements should be organized. But under what conditions can forward-looking architects or education reformers trump the institutionalized practices of teachers or the political-economic constraints found within urban…

  19. Million Trees Los Angeles: Carbon dioxide sink or source?

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson; A. Kendall; S. Albers

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to answer the question, 'Will the Million Trees LA (MTLA) programme be a CO2 sink or source?' Using surveys, interviews, field sampling and computer simulation of tree growth and survival over a 40-year period, we developed the first process-based life cycle inventory of CO2 for a large tree...

  20. Scoring Los Angeles Landscapes: Environmental Education in an Urban Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Christopher L.; And Others

    This notebook serves as a guide for learning activities in environmental education. Twelve themes are treated in four groups: (1) sense of place includes history and landscape; (2) the natural environment covers air, water, energy, and landforms; (3) the built environment includes architecture, transportation, and housing; and (4) the social…

  1. DOMINGUEZ CHANNEL AND COMPTON CREEK PAL, LOS ANGELES COUNTY, CA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  2. Predicting Los Angeles abrasion loss of rock aggregates from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    4. Evaluation of results. 4.1 Simple regression analysis. LA abrasion loss and CI values were analysed using the method of least squares regression. Linear, logarithmic, exponential and power curve fitting approximations were tried and the best approximation equation with highest correlation coefficient was determined for ...

  3. Class III Mid-Term Project, "Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2007-03-31

    The overall objective of this project was to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involved improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective has been to transfer technology that can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The first budget period addressed several producibility problems in the Tar II-A and Tar V thermal recovery operations that are common in SBC reservoirs. A few of the advanced technologies developed include a three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic geologic model, a 3-D deterministic thermal reservoir simulation model to aid in reservoir management and subsequent post-steamflood development work, and a detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rocks and fluids. State of the art operational work included drilling and performing a pilot steam injection and production project via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors), implementing a hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steamflood area to improve thermal efficiency, installing a 2400-foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location, testing a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems, and starting on an advanced reservoir management system through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation. The second budget period phase (BP2) continued to implement state-of-the-art operational work to optimize thermal recovery processes, improve well drilling and completion practices, and evaluate the

  4. Los Angeles - Long Beach Harbors, California. Los Angeles Harbor Deepening Project. Final Phase 2. General Design Memorandum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    MAP TAKEN FROM U.S C & G S CHART ji47 MARCH 1974 i \\ * \\ ;3 1180 16, 77-3 1-49 78-72 Q 0 - 0-/..-- : I" :- I \\S HAy GUION IPRUDE9ENT 78-i 71 A-LB...8217LEGEND 0 -’ SURVEY LINE BY RADIO -NAVIGATION SURVEY LINE BY DEAD-RECKONING 7 0 ’~ LOCATION " FIX" POINT - ’ LINE 03 PINGER SURVEY -. LINE 03X BOOMER

  5. Environmental Investigations and Analyses for Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbors, Los Angeles, California, 1973-1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-01

    Determinations of reactive nitrite. StrickV.and and Parsons (1968), no exceptions. 4. Determination of ammonia. ( Solorzano method, 1969). In addition...marine chemistry. Academic Press, New York. 465 pp. Solorzano , L. 1969. Determination of ammonia in natural waters by the phenoihypochorite method

  6. AnGel System for the diagnosis of generators in operation; Sistema AnGeL para el diagnostico de generadores en operacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Torre V, H. Octavio; Ramirez N, J. Tomas; Pascacio de los S, Alberth; Reyes M, Oscar A; Carrillo C, Jaime; Iturbe F, Marlene [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Ponce de Leon V, Eugenio [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The continuous monitoring of the electrical variables of a generator allows the knowing of the operating status of the main components of the equipment, which is helpful at the time of emitting a diagnosis of the same one. System of diagnosis for generators of operation, denominated AnGel System (acronym of Analysis of Generators in Line). The system was developed by the Management of Electrical equipment of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and implemented in the six units of generation of the Manzanillo Thermoelectric Unit. The present article includes a description of the main components and functions. The world-wide tendency in monitoring systems of the fault statistics, were key elements in defining the variable to be monitored: Partial discharges (PD), Shaft current (SC), Neutral current (NC), Tangential Magnetic (TM) flux, Voltages and currents of line (as reference to the operation point). The main processes of deterioration that are intended to be observed with each one of these variables are described with greater thoroughness in the article Sistema AnGel: Aspectos teorico-practicos para el diagnostico de generadores en operacion (AnGel System: Theoretical-practical aspects for the diagnosis of generators in operation), contained in the section of Research Activities in this same issue of the IIE bulletin. [Spanish] La monitorizacion continua de las variables electricas de un generador permite conocer el estado operativo de los principales componentes del equipo, lo que es de ayuda a la hora de emitir un diagnostico del mismo. Sistema de diagnostico para generadores de operacion, denominado Sistema AnGeL (acronimo de Analisis de Generadores en Linea). El sistema fue desarrollado por la Gerencia de Equipos Electricos del IIE e implementado en las seis unidades de generacion del Complejo Termoelectrico Manzanillo. El presente articulo incluye una descripcion de los principales componentes y funciones. La tendencia mundial en sistemas de

  7. Dante o anjeloch (Dante on Angels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Žilinek

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Dante’s eternal Love was Bice Portinari who died in 1290. Dante saw her in Florence in 1274. She was his muse and her death was the reason to write Divine Comedy. We meet her in part of Divine Comedy calledParadise as a guide into Celestial Empire. I have ever been interested in structure of Celestial Empire and mesmerised by Dante. That was the reason to write this paper. I try to re-construct and complete Dante’s interpretation of the hierarchy of Celestial Empire with focusing on angels. Angels are also called Intellects or forms of the Heaven or substances between the Earth and Heaven or blissful Beings. I also try to find out the answer what happened to souls of people who died, especially to souls of innocent children. In memory of Michalka Režnáková (1984-1995.

  8. Tohoku Women's Hurdling Project: Science Angels (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuki, Kotoe; Watanabe, Mayuko

    2009-04-01

    Tohoku University was the first National University to admit three women students in Japan in 1913. To support the university's traditional ``open-door'' policy, various projects have been promoted throughout the university since its foundation. A government plan, the Third-Stage Basic Plan for Science and Technology, aims to increase the women scientist ratio up to 25% nationwide. In order to achieve this goal, the Tohoku Women's Hurdling Project, funded by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), was adopted in 2006. This project is threefold: support for child/family, improvement of facilities, and support for the next generation, which includes our Science Angels program. ``Science Angels'' are women PhD students appointed by the university president, with the mission to form a strong support system among each other and to become role-models to inspire younger students who want to become researchers. Currently, 50 women graduate students of the natural sciences are Science Angels and are encouraged to design and deliver lectures in their areas of specialty at their alma maters. Up to now, 12 lectures have been delivered and science events for children in our community have been held-all with great success.

  9. The Role and Place of Governing Angels in Bible

    OpenAIRE

    Sayyed hesam aldin Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    Angels have allocated a considerable part of Bible's discussions to themselves and since one of the dogmatic principles of the revealed religions is the belief in angels, depiction of the place and attributes of angels can be the indicator of the quality of attitude and worldview and the strength of dogmatic principles of Bible's followers and justify their thought and ideas; For this subject is related with the issues such as: transcendent unity of divine acts and essence and attribu...

  10. Business Angels - A Subspecies of the homo oeconomicus ludens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüsler, Laurenz; Platzer, Erich M

    2014-12-01

    Business Angels invest in start-up companies in their early stage. This type of investor usually has a good knowledge of the start-up's industry sector, and in addition to the funds he invests, his management experience and his network can be useful for start-ups. Business Angel involvement has shown to improve the success rate and the profitability of start-ups. The article depicts the relationship between entrepreneurs and Business Angels in four case examples.

  11. Angel De la Calle, Tina Modotti

    OpenAIRE

    Genevée, Frédérick

    2014-01-01

    La bande dessinée au service de l’histoire. Certains parleront plus volontiers de roman graphique. Angel de la Calle livre une œuvre originale et complexe sur la vie de Tina Modotti (1896-1942). Femme amoureuse, photographe, militante communiste kominternienne, Tina Modotti ne cesse de fasciner notre imaginaire. Italie, États-Unis, Mexique, URSS, Espagne…, elle fut de tous les pays et du monde. Elle croisa Diego Rivera, Vladimir Maïakovski, John Dos Passos, Frida Kahlo, Pablo Neruda… Comment ...

  12. The touch of the efficiency: the case of the tower of the angel; El toque de la eficiencia: el caso de la torre del angel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trillo, Jose Luis [Ingenieria en Aire y Control (Mexico); Frias, Jose Luis [DHIMEX (Mexico)

    2002-09-01

    With the purpose of reducing the heat in the interior of the Tower of the Angel, building of offices located in avenida Paseo de la Reforma of Mexico City, a renovation was carried out that included the installation of an insulating crystal cover in all the building. Also, it was opted for an environmental system of air-cooling to fulfill the functions of the HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning), systems. It is possible to indicate that, in addition to the energy saving, the applied technology allowed to transform an old and uncomfortable construction into a construction of worldwide class, able to compete with new works of the city and harmonize with present environmental and aesthetic requirements. [Spanish] Con objeto de reducir el calor al interior de la Torre del Angel, edificio de oficinas ubicado en la avenida Paseo de la Reforma de la Ciudad de Mexico, se llevo a cabo una renovacion que incluyo la instalacion de una cubierta de cristal aislante en todo el inmueble. Asimismo, se opto por un sistema ambiental de enfriamiento de aire para cumplir con las funciones de los sistemas HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning, por sus siglas en ingles). Cabe senalar que, ademas del ahorro energetico, la tecnologia aplicada permitio transformar una construccion vieja e incomoda en una edificacion de clase mundial, capaz de competir con las nuevas obras de la ciudad y armonizar con los requerimientos ambientales y esteticos actuales.

  13. Reservoir fisheries of Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S.S. De.

    1990-01-01

    At a workshop on reservoir fisheries research, papers were presented on the limnology of reservoirs, the changes that follow impoundment, fisheries management and modelling, and fish culture techniques. Separate abstracts have been prepared for three papers from this workshop

  14. Large reservoirs: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2010-01-01

    Large impoundments, defined as those with surface area of 200 ha or greater, are relatively new aquatic ecosystems in the global landscape. They represent important economic and environmental resources that provide benefits such as flood control, hydropower generation, navigation, water supply, commercial and recreational fisheries, and various other recreational and esthetic values. Construction of large impoundments was initially driven by economic needs, and ecological consequences received little consideration. However, in recent decades environmental issues have come to the forefront. In the closing decades of the 20th century societal values began to shift, especially in the developed world. Society is no longer willing to accept environmental damage as an inevitable consequence of human development, and it is now recognized that continued environmental degradation is unsustainable. Consequently, construction of large reservoirs has virtually stopped in North America. Nevertheless, in other parts of the world construction of large reservoirs continues. The emergence of systematic reservoir management in the early 20th century was guided by concepts developed for natural lakes (Miranda 1996). However, we now recognize that reservoirs are different and that reservoirs are not independent aquatic systems inasmuch as they are connected to upstream rivers and streams, the downstream river, other reservoirs in the basin, and the watershed. Reservoir systems exhibit longitudinal patterns both within and among reservoirs. Reservoirs are typically arranged sequentially as elements of an interacting network, filter water collected throughout their watersheds, and form a mosaic of predictable patterns. Traditional approaches to fisheries management such as stocking, regulating harvest, and in-lake habitat management do not always produce desired effects in reservoirs. As a result, managers may expend resources with little benefit to either fish or fishing. Some locally

  15. Angels as arguments? The rhetorical function of references to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue investigated in this article is the rhetorical function fulfilled by the references to angels in the Main Letters of Paul. For this purpose all the references to angels in Galatians, 1 and 2 Corinthians and Romans are investigated systematically and thoroughly. This study shows that Paul never uses any of the references ...

  16. "Angels & Demons" - Distinguishing truth from fiction

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Dan Brown's best-selling novel "Angels & Demons" was published in French on 2 March. A web page on CERN's public site is dedicated to separating truth from fiction in this novel. After the extraordinary success of Dan Brown's "Da Vinci Code", one of his earlier novels "Angels & Demons", published in 2000, has now become a best seller and has generated a flood of questions about CERN. This detective story is about a secret society, the Illuminati, who wish to destroy the Vatican with an antimatter bomb stolen from - wait for it - CERN! Inevitably, CERN has been bombarded with calls about the technologies described in the novel that are supposed to be under development in the Laboratory. The Press Office has always explained that, even if the novel appears to be very informative, it is in fact a mixture of fact and fiction. For instance, according to the novel CERN is supposed to own a plane that can cover the distance between Massachusetts in the United States and Switzerland in just over an hour! ...

  17. Stream, Lake, and Reservoir Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jingjing; Mei, Ying; Chang, Chein-Chi

    2017-10-01

    This review on stream, lake, and reservoir management covers selected 2016 publications on the focus of the following sections: Stream, lake, and reservoir management • Water quality of stream, lake, and reservoirReservoir operations • Models of stream, lake, and reservoir • Remediation and restoration of stream, lake, and reservoir • Biota of stream, lake, and reservoir • Climate effect of stream, lake, and reservoir.

  18. Status of Wheeler Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of status reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Wheeler Reservoir summarizes reservoir purposes and operation, reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, and water quality and aquatic biological conditions. The information presented here is from the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. If no recent data were available, historical data were summarized. If data were completely lacking, environmental professionals with special knowledge of the resource were interviewed. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Should government support business angel networks? The tale of Danish business angels network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Lindgaard

    2011-01-01

    . This article discusses the possible rationale for governments to support BANs and what criteria to apply when evaluating such networks. The article is based on an in-depth observation study of the whole life cycle of a national BAN – the Danish Business Angel Network (DBAN) – and a comparison with a similar......Policies promoting informal venture capital generally and business angel networks (BANs) in particular have gained increased attention in recent years. As a consequence, BANs are now widespread across Europe. However, there continues to be a debate whether BANs should be supported with public money...... whether to provide continuing support to BANs they should evaluate not only their immediate effectiveness but also whether BANs should be considered a part of the general small business support infrastructure....

  20. The Role and Place of Governing Angels in Bible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed hesam aldin Hosseini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Angels have allocated a considerable part of Bible's discussions to themselves and since one of the dogmatic principles of the revealed religions is the belief in angels, depiction of the place and attributes of angels can be the indicator of the quality of attitude and worldview and the strength of dogmatic principles of Bible's followers and justify their thought and ideas; For this subject is related with the issues such as: transcendent unity of divine acts and essence and attributes and even unity in obedience, how to record the actions and investigate them in Purgatory and Resurrection and believe in the unseen world and how to connect to that world and how to manage the world by God and the definition of the Kingdom of Heaven and how to divide people's sustenance and their reward and punishment which is the indicator and representative of the position of each religion as compared to other religions. Like Muslims, the followers of Bible regard the existence of angels as one of the articles of faith and among the most important elements of the world of being. And whereas the Old Testament has described the revelation of One God using figures who appear in the Eastern mythological stories, it can be seen that in many cases the Kingdom of Heaven has been depicted by metaphors which match the similes used in Quran like angel's march before God (Fajr, 22 as if God is one of the kings from East. The angels are mentioned a lot in the Bible. In Hebrews it has been said that the numbers of angels is countless and in fact, they cannot be enumerated. Angels also do many things including: the report of the Birth of John… the most important task which is assigned to the angels is worshipping God. (1 Enoch, 40 The other significant task undertaken by angels is mediating between God and man. Intercession is another role assigned to angels. (1 Enoch, 2: 4, 4:9 Sometimes man asks the angels beseechingly to convey his/her request to Divinity. The angels

  1. The Role and Place of Governing Angels in Bible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed hesam aldin Hosseini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Angels have allocated a considerable part of Bible's discussions to themselves and since one of the dogmatic principles of the revealed religions is the belief in angels, depiction of the place and attributes of angels can be the indicator of the quality of attitude and worldview and the strength of dogmatic principles of Bible's followers and justify their thought and ideas; For this subject is related with the issues such as: transcendent unity of divine acts and essence and attributes and even unity in obedience, how to record the actions and investigate them in Purgatory and Resurrection and believe in the unseen world and how to connect to that world and how to manage the world by God and the definition of the Kingdom of Heaven and how to divide people's sustenance and their reward and punishment which is the indicator and representative of the position of each religion as compared to other religions. Like Muslims, the followers of Bible regard the existence of angels as one of the articles of faith and among the most important elements of the world of being. And whereas the Old Testament has described the revelation of One God using figures who appear in the Eastern mythological stories, it can be seen that in many cases the Kingdom of Heaven has been depicted by metaphors which match the similes used in Quran like angel's march before God (Fajr, 22 as if God is one of the kings from East. The angels are mentioned a lot in the Bible. In Hebrews it has been said that the numbers of angels is countless and in fact, they cannot be enumerated. Angels also do many things including: the report of the Birth of John… the most important task which is assigned to the angels is worshipping God. (1 Enoch, 40 The other significant task undertaken by angels is mediating between God and man. Intercession is another role assigned to angels. (1 Enoch, 2: 4, 4:9 Sometimes man asks the angels beseechingly to convey his/her request to Divinity. The angels

  2. Port Angeles, Washington Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Port Angeles, Washington Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  3. 75 FR 3981 - National Angel Island Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    .... Some expressed themselves by carving poetry and inscriptions into the walls in their native language--from Chinese, Japanese, and Korean to Russian, German, and Urdu. These etchings remain on Angel Island...

  4. Conceptions of warlike angels in literature of the late Second Temple period

    OpenAIRE

    Michalak, Aleksander Roman

    2011-01-01

    The work begins with a chapter that presents the various traditions concerning "angelic" warriors in the Hebrew Bible. In this context, we have investigated the two main biblical traditions: the council of gods and the Angel of Yahweh. It can be demonstrated that both these traditions were connected with martiality, which might have influenced later speculations about warlike angels. The second chapter deals with the various Second Temple beliefs concerning the principal angels, angelic hiera...

  5. Transport of reservoir fines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Modeling transport of reservoir fines is of great importance for evaluating the damage of production wells and infectivity decline. The conventional methodology accounts for neither the formation heterogeneity around the wells nor the reservoir fines’ heterogeneity. We have developed an integral...

  6. SILTATION IN RESERVOIRS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calls have been made to the government through various media to assist its populace in combating this nagging problem. It was concluded that sediment maximum accumulation is experienced in reservoir during the periods of maximum flow. Keywords: reservoir model, siltation, sediment, catchment, sediment transport. 1.

  7. Dynamic reservoir well interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, W.L.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Wolfswinkel, O. van; Peters, M.C.A.M.; Verhelst, F.J.P.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    In order to develop smart well control systems for unstable oil wells, realistic modeling of the dynamics of the well is essential. Most dynamic well models use a semi-steady state inflow model to describe the inflow of oil and gas from the reservoir. On the other hand, reservoir models use steady

  8. Reservoir Engineering Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.H.; Schwarz, W.J.

    1977-12-14

    The Reservoir Engineering Management Program being conducted at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory includes two major tasks: 1) the continuation of support to geothermal reservoir engineering related work, started under the NSF-RANN program and transferred to ERDA at the time of its formation; 2) the development and subsequent implementation of a broad plan for support of research in topics related to the exploitation of geothermal reservoirs. This plan is now known as the GREMP plan. Both the NSF-RANN legacies and GREMP are in direct support of the DOE/DGE mission in general and the goals of the Resource and Technology/Resource Exploitation and Assessment Branch in particular. These goals are to determine the magnitude and distribution of geothermal resources and reduce risk in their exploitation through improved understanding of generically different reservoir types. These goals are to be accomplished by: 1) the creation of a large data base about geothermal reservoirs, 2) improved tools and methods for gathering data on geothermal reservoirs, and 3) modeling of reservoirs and utilization options. The NSF legacies are more research and training oriented, and the GREMP is geared primarily to the practical development of the geothermal reservoirs. 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  9. Sediment management for reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.

    2005-01-01

    All natural lakes and reservoirs whether on rivers, tributaries or off channel storages are doomed to be sited up. Pakistan has two major reservoirs of Tarbela and Managla and shallow lake created by Chashma Barrage. Tarbela and Mangla Lakes are losing their capacities ever since first impounding, Tarbela since 1974 and Mangla since 1967. Tarbela Reservoir receives average annual flow of about 62 MAF and sediment deposits of 0.11 MAF whereas Mangla gets about 23 MAF of average annual flows and is losing its storage at the rate of average 34,000 MAF annually. The loss of storage is a great concern and studies for Tarbela were carried out by TAMS and Wallingford to sustain its capacity whereas no study has been done for Mangla as yet except as part of study for Raised Mangla, which is only desk work. Delta of Tarbala reservoir has advanced to about 6.59 miles (Pivot Point) from power intakes. In case of liquefaction of delta by tremor as low as 0.12g peak ground acceleration the power tunnels I, 2 and 3 will be blocked. Minimum Pool of reservoir is being raised so as to check the advance of delta. Mangla delta will follow the trend of Tarbela. Tarbela has vast amount of data as reservoir is surveyed every year, whereas Mangla Reservoir survey was done at five-year interval, which has now been proposed .to be reduced to three-year interval. In addition suspended sediment sampling of inflow streams is being done by Surface Water Hydrology Project of WAPDA as also some bed load sampling. The problem of Chasma Reservoir has also been highlighted, as it is being indiscriminately being filled up and drawdown several times a year without regard to its reaction to this treatment. The Sediment Management of these reservoirs is essential and the paper discusses pros and cons of various alternatives. (author)

  10. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian sandstone reservoirs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, M.

    1995-02-01

    This final report summarizes the progress during the three years of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description; (ii) scale-up procedures; (iii) outcrop investigation. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be described in three dimensions. The next step in reservoir description is to scale up reservoir properties for flow simulation. The second section addresses the issue of scale-up of reservoir properties once the spatial descriptions of properties are created. The last section describes the investigation of an outcrop.

  11. The informal investment context: specific issues concerned with business angels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Hoyos Iruarrizaga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Informal investors play a key role to meet the financing needs of business projects in early stages. However, this is a group in which there are different kinds and ways of dealing with investment. One of these profiles is associated with the figure known as business angel, whose main distinguishing feature is its ability to add smart capital in the form of knowledge, experience and contacts. The aim of this paper is to determine to what extent the specific profile of business angels differ from the rest of informal investors. With a sample of over 800 informal investors in Spain, the empirical results of this study show that the higher income, skills and entrepreneurial training and the less family ties to the entrepreneur, the greater the probability of belonging to business angel investment group.

  12. Optimising reservoir operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Long le

    Anvendelse af optimeringsteknik til drift af reservoirer er blevet et væsentligt element i vandressource-planlægning og -forvaltning. Traditionelt har reservoirer været styret af heuristiske procedurer for udtag af vand, suppleret i en vis udstrækning af subjektive beslutninger. Udnyttelse af...... reservoirer involverer en lang række interessenter med meget forskellige formål (f.eks. kunstig vanding, vandkraft, vandforsyning mv.), og optimeringsteknik kan langt bedre lede frem til afbalancerede løsninger af de ofte modstridende interesser. Afhandlingen foreslår en række tiltag, hvormed traditionelle...... driftsstrategier kan erstattes af optimale strategier baseret på den nyeste udvikling indenfor computer-baserede beregninger. Hovedbidraget i afhandlingen er udviklingen af et beregningssystem, hvori en simuleringsmodel er koblet til en model for optimering af nogle udvalgte beslutningsvariable, der i særlig grad...

  13. NOAA Office for Coastal Management Coastal Inundation Digital Elevation Model: Los Angeles/Oxnard (CA) WFO - Los Angeles and Ventura Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This digital elevation model (DEM) is a part of a series of DEMs produced for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office for Coastal Management's Sea...

  14. Geothermal reservoir engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Malcolm Alister

    2011-01-01

    As nations alike struggle to diversify and secure their power portfolios, geothermal energy, the essentially limitless heat emanating from the earth itself, is being harnessed at an unprecedented rate.  For the last 25 years, engineers around the world tasked with taming this raw power have used Geothermal Reservoir Engineering as both a training manual and a professional reference.  This long-awaited second edition of Geothermal Reservoir Engineering is a practical guide to the issues and tasks geothermal engineers encounter in the course of their daily jobs. The bo

  15. Session: Reservoir Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renner, Joel L.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Wannamaker, Philip E.; Horne, Roland N.; Shook, G. Michael

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five papers: ''Reservoir Technology'' by Joel L. Renner; ''LBL Research on the Geysers: Conceptual Models, Simulation and Monitoring Studies'' by Gudmundur S. Bodvarsson; ''Geothermal Geophysical Research in Electrical Methods at UURI'' by Philip E. Wannamaker; ''Optimizing Reinjection Strategy at Palinpinon, Philippines Based on Chloride Data'' by Roland N. Horne; ''TETRAD Reservoir Simulation'' by G. Michael Shook

  16. How does entrepreneurial activity affect the supply of business angels?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burke, A.; Hartog, C.; van Stel, A.; Suddle, K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the prevalence and the determinants of informal entrepreneurial investment activity (i.e. the 3 FFFs -friends, fools and family- and business angels), using a data set of more than 175,000 individuals - including some 4000 informal investors - in a large number of highly

  17. Rikaste klubi hindab Eesti reformikogemust / Angel Gurria ; interv. Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gurria, Angel, 1950-

    2008-01-01

    Majandusliku Koostöö ja Arengu Organisatsiooni (OECD) peasekretär Angel Gurria ütleb intervjuus Äripäevale, et Eesti on oodatud rikaste riikide klubisse eelkõige oma reformikogemuse tõttu, ette heitis ta aga Eesti tööturu jäikust. Kommenteerib välisminister Urmas Paet. Lisa: Taust

  18. Los Neutrinos Los Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Félix

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available From all the proposals to understand the structure of matter, and the way the natural world is conformed, the one about neutrinos is the most enigmatic, abstract, and foreign to immediate experience; however, this is the one that has delved more deeply over the nearly eighty years since it was formulated by Wolfgang Pauli –in 1930- as a radical proposition to understand nucleon decay, and the decay of other particles, without the violation of the principle of conservation of energy and momentum at subatomic level. This proposition has evolved through the years, and from Pauli’s original idea only the basic elements remain.This article contains the tale of the hypothesis of neutrinos, its early history, its evolution up to present day, and the efforts done nowadays to study them. In summary, this is the physics of neutrinos. De todas las propuestas para entender la estructura de la materia, y la conformación del mundo natural, los neutrinos es la más enigmática, abstracta, y ajena a la experiencia inmediata; sin embargo, es la que más hondo ha ido calando a lo largo de los ya casi ochenta años de haber sido formulada por Wolfgang Pauli –en el año 1930- como una medida radical para entender el decaimiento de los nucleones, y otras partículas, sin que se violara el principio de la conservación de la energía y del momento a nivel subatómico. La propuesta ha evolucionado a lo largo de los años, y de la idea original de Pauli ya sólo lo básico permanece. En este artículo está el relato de la hipótesis de los neutrinos, su historia primera, su evolución hasta el presente, los esfuerzos que en la actualidad se realizan para estudiarlos. En breve, ésta es la física de los neutrinos.

  19. unconventional natural gas reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa G, Tomas F; Osorio, Nelson; Restrepo R, Dora P

    2009-01-01

    This work is an exploration about different unconventional gas reservoirs worldwide: coal bed methane, tight gas, shale gas and gas hydrate? describing aspects such as definition, reserves, production methods, environmental issues and economics. The overview also mentioned preliminary studies about these sources in Colombia.

  20. Parallel reservoir simulator computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemanth-Kumar, K.; Young, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    The adaptation of a reservoir simulator for parallel computations is described. The simulator was originally designed for vector processors. It performs approximately 99% of its calculations in vector/parallel mode and relative to scalar calculations it achieves speedups of 65 and 81 for black oil and EOS simulations, respectively on the CRAY C-90

  1. Como se fabricam os anjos?: uma arqueologia do corpo nos manuais escolares de moral e de higiene na França, 1880-1974 Como se fabrican los ángeles?: una arqueología del cuerpo en los manuales escolares de moral y de higiene en Francia, 1880-1974 How do we make Angels?: archeology of body in textbooks of moral and hygiene in France (1880-1974

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Gleyse

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir de um acervo constituído por 342 manuais escolares de moral e de higiene, o artigo analisa como se constitui um biopoder ou um micropoder no âmbito do discurso escolar. O corpo é ali fabricado, a carne é ali trabalhada como o fora por outras formas de livro (em grego Biblos. Vemos, claramente, aparecer através da arqueologia dos manuais escolares de moral e de higiene na França de fins do século XIX até os anos de 1970 que os preceitos judaico-cristãos, católicos, ou, mais largamente, monoteístas estão vivamente presentes nos manuais. Todavia, é importante sublinhar que esses manuais são parte constitutiva da escola republicana, que, na França, é descrita segundo as leis de 1905, como instituição separada da Igreja e, após as leis elaboradas por Jules Ferry (1880-1882, como instituição laica.A partir de una colección de 342 manuales escolares franceses de moral e higiene, el artículo analiza como se constituyó un biopoder, o micropoder, en el ámbito del discurso escolar. El cuerpo es allí fabricado y la carne trabajada al igual que por otros tipos de libros (en griego Biblos. Vemos claramente surgir a través de la arqueología de los manuales escolares de moral e higiene de la Francia de fines del siglo XIX y hasta los años 1970's, que los preceptos judeo-cristianos, católicos, o, mayormente monoteístas, están vivamente presentes. Es importante resaltar que estos manuales son parte constitutiva de la escuela republicana que en Francia es descripta según las leyes de 1905 como institución separada de la iglesia, e incluso después de las leyes elaboradas por Jules Ferry (1880-1882, como institución laica.From an archive composed by 342 French textbooks of moral and hygiene, this paper analyzes how a biopower or a micropower is formed in school discourse. Body is here built, flesh is worked as it has been by other Books (biblos in Greek. We can see clearly how the jewish-christian, catholic or, more

  2. Angel Investors” in Entrepreneurship: An Assessment on Turkey Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayet Tiftik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the subject of angel investors is a new concept for the researches of our country there is little if any in Turkey regarding of scientific research. As well as any quantitative research not exist on the field, the searches carried out are discussed as qualitative and literature study. The concept is ranked among the titles such as business angels, angel capital, angel investment, angel financing in the international literature. The search involves the entrepreneurship concept, the study results hereof in our country, the literature about angel investment and the studies carried out in other countries regarding of the subject matter. In consequences of the searches, the subject discussed from a different point of view and headed by the literature offers a number of suggestions and advices to entrepreneurships, the whole parts mod eled by angel investment and researches.

  3. APPLICATION OF INTEGRATED RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT AND RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Bergeron; Tom Blasingame; Louis Doublet; Mohan Kelkar; George Freeman; Jeff Callard; David Moore; David Davies; Richard Vessell; Brian Pregger; Bill Dixon; Bryce Bezant

    2000-03-01

    Reservoir performance and characterization are vital parameters during the development phase of a project. Infill drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to characterization does not optimize development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, especially carbonate reservoirs. These reservoirs are typically characterized by: (1) large, discontinuous pay intervals; (2) vertical and lateral changes in reservoir properties; (3) low reservoir energy; (4) high residual oil saturation; and (5) low recovery efficiency. The operational problems they encounter in these types of reservoirs include: (1) poor or inadequate completions and stimulations; (2) early water breakthrough; (3) poor reservoir sweep efficiency in contacting oil throughout the reservoir as well as in the nearby well regions; (4) channeling of injected fluids due to preferential fracturing caused by excessive injection rates; and (5) limited data availability and poor data quality. Infill drilling operations only need target areas of the reservoir which will be economically successful. If the most productive areas of a reservoir can be accurately identified by combining the results of geological, petrophysical, reservoir performance, and pressure transient analyses, then this ''integrated'' approach can be used to optimize reservoir performance during secondary and tertiary recovery operations without resorting to ''blanket'' infill drilling methods. New and emerging technologies such as geostatistical modeling, rock typing, and rigorous decline type curve analysis can be used to quantify reservoir quality and the degree of interwell communication. These results can then be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations. The application of reservoir surveillance techniques to identify additional reservoir ''pay'' zones

  4. Work reservoirs in thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacleto, Joaquim

    2010-05-01

    We stress the usefulness of the work reservoir in the formalism of thermodynamics, in particular in the context of the first law. To elucidate its usefulness, the formalism is then applied to the Joule expansion and other peculiar and instructive experimental situations, clarifying the concepts of configuration and dissipative work. The ideas and discussions presented in this study are primarily intended for undergraduate students, but they might also be useful to graduate students, researchers and teachers.

  5. Angelic and Crepuscular in Alexandru Sever’s Drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena IANCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The illustration of a world, apparently drifting, the (demystification of the transcendent and of the act of creation, as idea and textual strategy, seem to Alexandru Sever (1921-2010 a means for another beginning. The impossibility of action in Înger bătrîn/ The Old Angel (1977 and the pact-making in Îngerul slut/ The Miscreated Angel (1982, imply metamorphosis in essence, supported by the dialogue with the great texts of the world, by intertextuality (the biblical text, Shakespeare's texts -Hamlet -Yorick, texts written by Göethe, Beckett, Marlowe, Dostoevsky, J. P. Sartre, Mikhail Bulgakov and others. The projection of Auschwitz, as a Siberia of the spirit, and that of Faustianism, result in a detailed analysis of the human, both as individuality and as community, in an attempt to illustrate the (inintelligible inaction, death involving catharsis in the mundane and the theatre alike.

  6. Advantageous Reservoir Characterization Technology in Extra Low Permeability Oil Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutian Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper took extra low permeability reservoirs in Dagang Liujianfang Oilfield as an example and analyzed different types of microscopic pore structures by SEM, casting thin sections fluorescence microscope, and so on. With adoption of rate-controlled mercury penetration, NMR, and some other advanced techniques, based on evaluation parameters, namely, throat radius, volume percentage of mobile fluid, start-up pressure gradient, and clay content, the classification and assessment method of extra low permeability reservoirs was improved and the parameter boundaries of the advantageous reservoirs were established. The physical properties of reservoirs with different depth are different. Clay mineral variation range is 7.0%, and throat radius variation range is 1.81 μm, and start pressure gradient range is 0.23 MPa/m, and movable fluid percentage change range is 17.4%. The class IV reservoirs account for 9.56%, class II reservoirs account for 12.16%, and class III reservoirs account for 78.29%. According to the comparison of different development methods, class II reservoir is most suitable for waterflooding development, and class IV reservoir is most suitable for gas injection development. Taking into account the gas injection in the upper section of the reservoir, the next section of water injection development will achieve the best results.

  7. Tecidos, linhas e agulhas: uma narrativa para Zuzu Angel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Guilherme Simili

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Na década de 1960, enquanto a moda brasileira seguia os padrões europeus, Zuzu Angel proclamava, entre chitas e rendas, “eu sou a moda brasileira”. O conteúdo do texto versa sobre a identificação das contribuições da produção estética de Zuzu Angel na criação de representações para a moda brasileira e também sobre a apropriação de tecidos pouco nobres, de panos usados para a decoração do lar e de trabalhos manuais de linha e agulha na construção de roupas feitas para a elite, o que se constitui em exemplo de reaproveitamento na moda. A metodologia utiliza as roupas como textos-documentos para a narrativa de sua trajetória. Associados à história da moda, das mulheres e aos conteúdos do filme “Zuzu Angel”, desvendamos aspectos da cultura feminina em suas relações com as domesticidades, a vida pública e política nos conturbados anos 1960 e 1970.  Com tecidos, linha e agulha, Zuzu escreveu uma história na moda e na luta contra a ditadura civil-militar.   Palavras-chave: ANGEL, Zuzu, 1976; Roupas; Moda - Brasil; Política.

  8. Los actos tienen consecuencias. Lógicas del mind-game film en la trilogía de Los Ángeles de David Lynch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, T.

    2013-01-01

    Actions Do Have Consequences. Logics of the Mind-Game Film in David Lynch’s Los Angeles-Trilogy. David Lynch is a director, along with other auteurs, notably Michael Haneke and Lars von Trier, whose authorial identity and creative authority —and the challenges these encounter in the 21st century—

  9. Geothermal reservoir management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, C.R.; Golabi, K.

    1978-02-01

    The optimal management of a hot water geothermal reservoir was considered. The physical system investigated includes a three-dimensional aquifer from which hot water is pumped and circulated through a heat exchanger. Heat removed from the geothermal fluid is transferred to a building complex or other facility for space heating. After passing through the heat exchanger, the (now cooled) geothermal fluid is reinjected into the aquifer. This cools the reservoir at a rate predicted by an expression relating pumping rate, time, and production hole temperature. The economic model proposed in the study maximizes discounted value of energy transferred across the heat exchanger minus the discounted cost of wells, equipment, and pumping energy. The real value of energy is assumed to increase at r percent per year. A major decision variable is the production or pumping rate (which is constant over the project life). Other decision variables in this optimization are production timing, reinjection temperature, and the economic life of the reservoir at the selected pumping rate. Results show that waiting time to production and production life increases as r increases and decreases as the discount rate increases. Production rate decreases as r increases and increases as the discount rate increases. The optimal injection temperature is very close to the temperature of the steam produced on the other side of the heat exchanger, and is virtually independent of r and the discount rate. Sensitivity of the decision variables to geohydrological parameters was also investigated. Initial aquifer temperature and permeability have a major influence on these variables, although aquifer porosity is of less importance. A penalty was considered for production delay after the lease is granted.

  10. Advances in photonic reservoir computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Sande, Guy; Brunner, Daniel; Soriano, Miguel C.

    2017-05-01

    We review a novel paradigm that has emerged in analogue neuromorphic optical computing. The goal is to implement a reservoir computer in optics, where information is encoded in the intensity and phase of the optical field. Reservoir computing is a bio-inspired approach especially suited for processing time-dependent information. The reservoir's complex and high-dimensional transient response to the input signal is capable of universal computation. The reservoir does not need to be trained, which makes it very well suited for optics. As such, much of the promise of photonic reservoirs lies in their minimal hardware requirements, a tremendous advantage over other hardware-intensive neural network models. We review the two main approaches to optical reservoir computing: networks implemented with multiple discrete optical nodes and the continuous system of a single nonlinear device coupled to delayed feedback.

  11. Encapsulated microsensors for reservoir interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Eddie Elmer; Aines, Roger D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.

    2016-03-08

    In one general embodiment, a system includes at least one microsensor configured to detect one or more conditions of a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and a receptacle, wherein the receptacle encapsulates the at least one microsensor. In another general embodiment, a method include injecting the encapsulated at least one microsensor as recited above into a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and detecting one or more conditions of the fluidic medium of the reservoir.

  12. Creating Meanings and Supportive Networks on the Spiritual Internet Forum "The Nest of Angels"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Uibu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the ethnographic study of Estonian spiritual Internet forum The Nest of Angels, the article observes the process of sharing virtual social support and creating-confirming spiritual meanings. The forum, explicitly opposing the consumeristic side of new spirituality, has become popular and demonstrates the nature and various roles of contemporary spiritual angels. The study identifies two main modes in which the Nest and the presence of angels might be useful for users. Firstly, emotional support is shared, either by fellow users directly or by confirmations that angels will definitely help. Secondly, the Nest allows people to acquire knowledge both on spiritual and practical issues. As the Nest is dialogical, users can pose questions and find confirmations for their otherwise deviant experiences. Discussions in the Nest encourage everybody to interpret some situations and objects (like feathers as signs from angels. This interpreting process might change people’s perceptions of the world by adding a layer of positive emotions. The study demonstrates how the angelic presence (or at least endeavour towards the presence helps to establish and keep the tonality of benevolence which functions as the cornerstone of this virtual space. The Nest supports a specific epistemological stance manifested in the angelic, traditional ‘feminine’ values of empathy, softness, and caring. Angels and the idea of angelic presence is the main factor helping to keep the ‘high-vibrational’ and benevolent atmosphere of the forum and empowering the users inside the traditional understanding of ‘feminine softness’.

  13. Experiences in the instrumentation of power generators with the on-line analysis of generators AnGel system, for the internal insulation condition diagnosis; Experiencias en la instrumentacion de generadores de potencia con el sistema de analisis de generadores en linea AnGeL, para el diagnostico del estado del aislamiento interno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrillo C, Jaime; Ramirez N, Jose T. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The instrumentation of power generators with monitoring systems on-line, allows the personnel responsible for its operation to determine the stator and rotor windings insulation condition, as well as to emit an opportune diagnosis of possible anomalies, to implant programs of predictive maintenance, to reduce costs and to increase its reliability. The experiences of the last five years in the commissioning of the AnGel System; the problematic to which these equipment is subjected to, is described within the intrinsic atmosphere of the area where they are installed in the turbo-generators and hydro-generators, and finally, the experiences in the commissioning of the monitoring systems are revised and analyzed. [Spanish] La instrumentacion de los generadores de potencia con sistemas de monitoreo en linea, permite al personal responsable de su operacion determinar el estado del aislamiento de los devanados del estator y rotor, asi como emitir un diagnostico oportuno de posibles anomalias, implantar programas de mantenimiento predictivo, reducir costos e incrementar su confiabilidad. Se presentan las experiencias de los ultimos cinco anos en la puesta en operacion del Sistema AnGeL; se describe la problematica a la que son sometidos estos equipos dentro del ambiente intrinseco del area donde se instalan en los turbogeneradores e hidrogeneradores, y por ultimo, se analizan y discuten las experiencias en la puesta en servicio de los sistemas de monitoreo.

  14. Reservoir Simulations of Low-Temperature Geothermal Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedre, Madhur Ganesh

    The eastern United States generally has lower temperature gradients than the western United States. However, West Virginia, in particular, has higher temperature gradients compared to other eastern states. A recent study at Southern Methodist University by Blackwell et al. has shown the presence of a hot spot in the eastern part of West Virginia with temperatures reaching 150°C at a depth of between 4.5 and 5 km. This thesis work examines similar reservoirs at a depth of around 5 km resembling the geology of West Virginia, USA. The temperature gradients used are in accordance with the SMU study. In order to assess the effects of geothermal reservoir conditions on the lifetime of a low-temperature geothermal system, a sensitivity analysis study was performed on following seven natural and human-controlled parameters within a geothermal reservoir: reservoir temperature, injection fluid temperature, injection flow rate, porosity, rock thermal conductivity, water loss (%) and well spacing. This sensitivity analysis is completed by using ‘One factor at a time method (OFAT)’ and ‘Plackett-Burman design’ methods. The data used for this study was obtained by carrying out the reservoir simulations using TOUGH2 simulator. The second part of this work is to create a database of thermal potential and time-dependant reservoir conditions for low-temperature geothermal reservoirs by studying a number of possible scenarios. Variations in the parameters identified in sensitivity analysis study are used to expand the scope of database. Main results include the thermal potential of reservoir, pressure and temperature profile of the reservoir over its operational life (30 years for this study), the plant capacity and required pumping power. The results of this database will help the supply curves calculations for low-temperature geothermal reservoirs in the United States, which is the long term goal of the work being done by the geothermal research group under Dr. Anderson at

  15. Angels and Demons: The Science Behind the Scenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Does antimatter really exist? How and why do scientists produce and use it? Does CERN exist and is there an underground complex deep beneath the Swiss/French border? Is truth stranger than fiction? Find out at the coming public lecture. On Tuesday, May 12, SLAC physicist Norman Graf will discuss the real science behind Angels and Demons, Dan Brown's blockbuster novel and the basis of an upcoming Tom Hanks movie. Graf's' talk is one in a series of public lectures across the U.S., Canada and Puerto Rico to share the science of antimatter and the Large Hadron Collider, and the excitement of particle physics research.

  16. Giordano da Pisa and the language of angels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Francone

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the issues about the angels considered by the Dominican preacher Giordano da Pisa, this essay studies the problem of their language. The question of the locutio angelica had become quite relevant in the scholastic thought from the XIIIth century and had been widely discussed by Thomas Aquinas and Giles of Rome; the study of this argument in Giordano da Pisa’s sermons shows the transition in the homiletic texts of a highly speculative theme and we can see how the preacher, who combines rather freely the positions of Thomas and Giles, filters the question for his lay public, simplifying the more difficult passages.

  17. 77 FR 43656 - BNSF Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Los Angeles County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... been met. As a condition to this exemption, any employee adversely affected by the abandonment shall be... adequately protects affected employees, a petition for partial revocation under 49 U.S.C. 10502(d) must be... report that addresses the effects, if any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources...

  18. Portland cement based fast-setting concrete demonstration, district 07, Los Angeles County

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    The California Department of Transportation currently uses fast-setting concrete to accommodate short working windows. The current special provision for fast-setting concrete requires that the concrete reach a flexural strength of 2.8 MPa (400 psi) b...

  19. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Buckweed Fire Perimeter, Agua Dulce Quadrangle, Los Angeles County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  20. The Legal Needs of People Living with HIV: Evaluating Access to Justice in Los Angeles

    OpenAIRE

    Miyashita, Ayako; Hasenbush, Amira; Wilson, Bianca DM; Meyer, Ilan; Nezhad, Sheila; Sears, Brad

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes findings of the Legal Assessment of Needs Study (“LeAN Study”) – an online survey with 387 respondents who identified as people living with HIV/AIDS (“PLWH”). We describe respondents’ legal needs, respondents’ experiences getting assistance for identified legal needs from both legal and non-legal sources, and barriers respondents faced in accessing assistance from both legal and non-legal sources. We describe differences and similarities among subpopulations that are tr...

  1. SPATIOTEMPORAL PATTERNS AND SOCIOECONOMIC DIMENSIONS OF SHARED ACCOMMODATIONS: THE CASE OF AIRBNB IN LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA

    OpenAIRE

    A. Sarkar; M. Koohikamali; J. B. Pick

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, disruptive innovation by peer-to-peer platforms in a variety of industries, notably transportation and hospitality have altered the way individuals consume everyday essential services. With growth in sharing economy platforms such as Uber for ridesharing and Airbnb for short-term accommodations, interest in examining spatiotemporal patterns of participation in the sharing economy by suppliers and consumers is increasing. This research is motivated by key questions: who are th...

  2. MEASUREMENT OF FREE RADICALS OH AND HO2 IN LOS ANGELES SMOG. (R823319)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  3. MEASUREMENT OF FREE RADICALS OH AND HO2 IN LOS ANGELES SMOG. (R826176)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  4. Test Review: Roberts, G. E., & Gruber, C. (2005). "Roberts-2." Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Rosemary

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a review of Roberts-2, an individually administered narrative measure published by Western Psychological Services. Roberts-2 is a substantial revision of the earlier version of this measure, the Roberts Apperception Test for Children (RATC; McArthur & Roberts, 1982). Roberts-2 is composed of 16 stimulus cards that direct…

  5. 33 CFR 110.100 - Los Angeles and Long Beach Harbors, Calif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with Fish Harbor mole; thence southerly and southwesterly along the mole to the point of beginning. (c....6″ W.; thence easterly to the beginning point. (d) Area C-1. Long Beach outer harbor between Island... east and west sides of Fish Harbor Entrance Channel described as follows: (1) Part 1. Beginning at a...

  6. 77 FR 39507 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Fowler Museum at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... the Fowler Museum at UCLA's professional staff in consultation with representatives of the Agua... associated funerary objects are two mountain lion phalanges. In 1998, Ginger Ridgeway, Curator, Agua Caliente... territory of the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians of the Agua Caliente Indian Reservation, California...

  7. Fine and ultrafine particulate organic carbon in the Los Angeles basin: Trends in sources and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirmohammadi, Farimah; Hasheminassab, Sina; Saffari, Arian; Schauer, James J; Delfino, Ralph J; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2016-01-15

    In this study, PM2.5 and PM0.18 (particles with dporganic carbons) and individual organic compounds. Concentrations of organic compounds were reported and compared with many previous studies in Central LA to quantify the impact of emissions control measurements that have been implemented for vehicular emissions over the past decades in this area. Moreover, a novel hybrid approach of molecular marker-based chemical mass balance (MM-CMB) analysis was conducted, in which a combination of source profiles that were previously obtained from a Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model in Central LA, were combined with some traditional source profiles. The model estimated the relative contributions from mobile sources (including gasoline, diesel, and smoking vehicles), wood smoke, primary biogenic sources (including emissions from vegetative detritus, food cooking, and re-suspended soil dust), and anthropogenic secondary organic carbon (SOC). Mobile sources contributed to 0.65 ± 0.25 μg/m(3) and 0.32 ± 0.25 μg/m(3) of PM2.5 OC in Central LA and Anaheim, respectively. Primary biogenic and anthropogenic SOC sources were major contributors to OC concentrations in both size fractions and sites. Un-apportioned OC ("other OC") accounted for an average 8.0 and 26% of PM2.5 OC concentration in Central LA and Anaheim, respectively. A comparison with previous studies in Central LA revealed considerable reduction of EC and OC, along with tracers of mobile sources (e.g. PAHs, hopanes and steranes) as a result of implemented regulations on vehicular emissions. Given the significant reduction of the impacts of mobile sources in the past decade in the LA Basin, the impact of SOC and primary biogenic emissions have a larger relative impact and the new hybrid model allows the impact of these sources to be better quantified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Proposed Closure of Los Angeles Air Force Base, California and Relocation of Space Systems Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    1) Surf thistle Cirsium rhothophilum (1) Beach spectable-pod Dithyrea maritima (2) 3 Lompoc yerba santa Eriodictyon capitatum (1) Roderick’s...D. Cassetti Robert A. Martin Matt A. Coleman Ron McCallum Thomas R. Costello Francis X. McCann Gary Cuddeback Mary Ellen McNally Donald L. Dandurand

  9. Optical pattern recognition; Proceedings of the Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, Jan. 17, 18, 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Papers on optical pattern recognition are presented, covering topics such as the estimation of satellite pose and motion parameters using a neural net tracker, associative memory, optical implmentation of programmable neural networks, optoelectronic neural networks, dynamic autoassociative neural memory, heteroassociative memory, bilinear pattern recognition processors, optical processing of optical correlation plane data, and a synthetic discriminant function-based nonlinear optical correlator. Other topics include an interactive optical-digital image processor, geometric transformations for video compression and human teleoperator display, quasiconformal remapping for compensation of human visual field defects, hybrid vision for automated spacecraft landing, advanced symbolic and inference optical correlation filters, and a rotationally invariant holographic tracking system. Additional topics include the detection of rotational and scale-varying objects with a programmable joint transform correlator, a single spatial light modulator binary nonlinear optical correlator, optical joint transform correlation, linear phase coefficient composite filters, and binary phase-only filters.

  10. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act: Fiscal Year 2007-2008 Report. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Terry; Turner, Susan; Ridgeway, Greg

    2010-01-01

    In 2000, the California State Legislature passed the Schiff-Cardenas Crime Prevention Act, which authorized funding for county juvenile-justice programs and designated the Corrections Standards Authority (CSA) (formerly named the Board of Corrections) the administrator of funding. A 2001 California Senate bill extended the funding and changed the…

  11. Frank Lloyd Wright's Hollyhock House: Los Angeles, California, 1919-1921. Instructional Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantozzi, Carla; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Presents four lesson plans designed to teach about Frank Lloyd Wright's "Hollyhock House" to primary, intermediate, and secondary art students. Provides an overview describing the history and design of the house, including its relationship to Mayan architecture. Includes nine photographs and original drawings of the building. (CFR)

  12. Life cycle assessment of carbon dioxide for different arboricultural practices in Los Angeles, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson; Alissa Kendall; Shannon Albers

    2015-01-01

    Although the arboriculture industry plants and maintains trees that remove CO2 from the atmosphere, it uses heavy-duty equipment and vehicles that release more CO2 per year than other similar-sized industries in the service sector. This study used lifecycle assessment to compare CO2 emissions...

  13. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act: Fiscal Year 2005-2006 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Susan; Fain, Terry; Sehgal, Amber

    2007-01-01

    In 2000, the California State Legislature passed the Schiff-Cardenas Crime Prevention Act, which authorized funding for county juvenile justice programs and designated the Corrections Standards Authority (CSA), formerly named the Board of Corrections, the administrator of funding. California counties receiving state funds for Juvenile Justice…

  14. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act: Fiscal Year 2003-2004 Report Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Susan; Fain, Terry; Sehgal, Amber

    2005-01-01

    This document summarizes a report focusing on California counties receiving funds from Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act (JJCPA) programs. This effort was designed to provide a stable funding source to counties for juvenile programs that have been proven effective in curbing crime among at-risk and young offenders. The Board of Corrections…

  15. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act: Fiscal Year 2004-2005. Report Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Susan; Fain, Terry; MacDonald, John; Sehgal, Amber

    2007-01-01

    This document summarizes a report focusing on California counties receiving funds from Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act (JJCPA) programs. These counties are required to report six outcome measures to the California State Legislature on an annual basis to measure the success of the program. These outcome measures are (1) successful completion…

  16. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act: Fiscal Year 2003-2004. Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Susan; Fain, Terry; Sehgal, Amber

    2005-01-01

    In 2000, the California Legislature passed the Schiff-Cardenas Crime Prevention Act, which authorized funding for county juvenile justice programs and designated the Board of Corrections (BOC) as the administrator of funding. A 2001 Senate Bill extended the funding and changed the program's name to the Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act…

  17. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act. Fiscal Year 2009-2010 Report. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Terry; Turner, Susan; Ridgeway, Greg

    2012-01-01

    In 2000, the California State Legislature passed what is now known as the Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act (JJCPA). This effort was designed to provide a stable funding source to counties for juvenile programs that have been proven effective in curbing crime among juvenile probationers and young at-risk offenders. The Corrections Standards…

  18. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act: Fiscal Year 2004-2005 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Susan; Fain, Terry; MacDonald, John; Sehgal, Amber

    2007-01-01

    California counties receiving funds from Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act (JJCPA) programs are required to report six outcome measures to the California State Legislature on an annual basis to measure the success of the program. These outcome measures are (1) successful completion of probation, (2) arrests, (3) probation violations, (4)…

  19. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act. RAND Quarterly Report, October 2008. TR-621-LACPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Terry; Turner, Susan; Ridgeway, Greg

    2008-01-01

    In July 2008, RAND Corporation staff conducted Correctional Program Checklist (CPC) assessments of five home-based programs (Asian Youth Center, Communities in Schools, Inter-Agency Drug Abuse Recovery Programs, Soledad Enrichment Action, and Stars Behavioral Health Group) as part of its ongoing evaluation of Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act…

  20. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act: Fiscal Year 2005-2006. Report Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Susan; Fain, Terry; Sehgal, Amber

    2007-01-01

    This document summarizes a study relating to California counties receiving state funds for Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act (JJCPA) programs. These counties are required to report six outcome measures to the California State Legislature on an annual basis to measure the success of the program. These outcome measures are (1) successful…